Zhao Degang; Liu Zhengyou; Qiu Chunyin; He Zhaojian; Cai Feiyan; Ke Manzhu
2007-10-01
In this paper, we have demonstrated the existence of surface acoustic waves in two-dimensional phononic crystals with fluid matrix, which is composed of a square array of steel cylinders put in air background. By using the supercell method, we investigate the dispersion relation and the eigenfield distribution of surface modes. Surface waves can be easily excited at the surface of a finite size phononic crystal by line source or Gaussian beam placed in or launched from the background medium, and they propagate along the surface with the form of 'beat.' Taking advantage of these surface modes, we can obtain a highly directional emission wave beam by introducing an appropriate corrugation layer on the surface of a waveguide exit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Degang; Liu, Zhengyou; Qiu, Chunyin; He, Zhaojian; Cai, Feiyan; Ke, Manzhu
2007-10-01
In this paper, we have demonstrated the existence of surface acoustic waves in two-dimensional phononic crystals with fluid matrix, which is composed of a square array of steel cylinders put in air background. By using the supercell method, we investigate the dispersion relation and the eigenfield distribution of surface modes. Surface waves can be easily excited at the surface of a finite size phononic crystal by line source or Gaussian beam placed in or launched from the background medium, and they propagate along the surface with the form of “beat.” Taking advantage of these surface modes, we can obtain a highly directional emission wave beam by introducing an appropriate corrugation layer on the surface of a waveguide exit.
Phononic crystal surface mode coupling and its use in acoustic Doppler velocimetry.
Cicek, Ahmet; Salman, Aysevil; Kaya, Olgun Adem; Ulug, Bulent
2016-02-01
It is numerically shown that surface modes of two-dimensional phononic crystals, which are Bloch modes bound to the interface between the phononic crystal and the surrounding host, can couple back and forth between the surfaces in a length scale determined by the separation of two surfaces and frequency. Supercell band structure computations through the finite-element method reveal that the surface band of an isolated surface splits into two bands which support either symmetric or antisymmetric hybrid modes. When the surface separation is 3.5 times the lattice constant, a coupling length varying between 30 and 48 periods can be obtained which first increases linearly with frequency and, then, decreases rapidly. In the linear regime, variation of coupling length can be used as a means of measuring speeds of objects on the order of 0.1m/s by incorporating the Doppler shift. Speed sensitivity can be improved by increasing surface separation at the cost of larger device sizes. PMID:26565078
Coherent acoustic phonons in nanostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dekorsy, T.; Taubert, R.; Hudert, F.; Bartels, A.; Habenicht, A.; Merkt, F.; Leiderer, P.; Köhler, K.; Schmitz, J.; Wagner, J.
2008-02-01
Phonons are considered as a most important origin of scattering and dissipation for electronic coherence in nanostructures. The generation of coherent acoustic phonons with femtosecond laser pulses opens the possibility to control phonon dynamics in amplitude and phase. We demonstrate a new experimental technique based on two synchronized femtosecond lasers with GHz repetition rate to study the dynamics of coherently generated acoustic phonons in semiconductor heterostructures with high sensitivity. High-speed synchronous optical sampling (ASOPS) enables to scan a time-delay of 1 ns with 100 fs time resolution with a frequency in the kHz range without a moving part in the set-up. We investigate the dynamics of coherent zone-folded acoustic phonons in semiconductor superlattices (GaAs/AlAs and GaSb/InAs) and of coherent vibration of metallic nanostructures of non-spherical shape using ASOPS.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fobes, David; Zaliznyak, Igor; Xu, Zhijun; Gu, Genda; Tranquada, John M.; He, Xu-Gang; Ku, Wei; Garlea, Ovidiu
2014-03-01
We have studied the evolution with temperature of the low-energy inelastic spectra of Fe1+yTe (y < 0 . 12), a parent compound of the iron-chalcogenide superconductor family, revealing an acoustic mode at an unexpected position. Recently, we found evidence for the formation of a bond-order wave leading to ferro-orbital order in the monoclinic phase, in part due to the observation of an elastic structural peak at (100) in the low-temperature monoclinic phase [D. Fobes, et al., arXiv:1307.7162]. In the inelastic spectra we observe a sharp acoustic-phonon-like mode dispersing out of the (100) position in the monoclinic phase. Surprisingly, the mode survives in the tetragonal phase, despite the absence of a Bragg peak at (100); such a peak is forbidden by symmetry. LDA calculations suggest this mode could involve significant magnetic scattering. By assuming in-phase virtual displacement of the Fe atoms from their equilibrium position in a frozen phonon calculation, we have found a small but significant imbalance in the magnetic moments between the two Fe atoms within the unit cell, suggesting magnetic contribution to the mode. Work at BNL supported by Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US DOE, under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886. Research conducted at ORNL Spallation Neutron Source was sponsored by the Scientific User Facilities Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US DOE.
Electrical modulation and switching of transverse acoustic phonons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeong, H.; Jho, Y. D.; Rhim, S. H.; Yee, K. J.; Yoon, S. Y.; Shim, J. P.; Lee, D. S.; Ju, J. W.; Baek, J. H.; Stanton, C. J.
2016-07-01
We report on the electrical manipulation of coherent acoustic phonon waves in GaN-based nanoscale piezoelectric heterostructures which are strained both from the pseudomorphic growth at the interfaces as well as through external electric fields. In such structures, transverse symmetry within the c plane hinders both the generation and detection of the transverse acoustic (TA) modes, and usually only longitudinal acoustic phonons are generated by ultrafast displacive screening of potential gradients. We show that even for c -GaN, the combined application of lateral and vertical electric fields can not only switch on the normally forbidden TA mode, but they can also modulate the amplitudes and frequencies of both modes. By comparing the transient differential reflectivity spectra in structures with and without an asymmetric potential distribution, the role of the electrical controllability of phonons was demonstrated as changes to the propagation velocities, the optical birefringence, the electrically polarized TA waves, and the geometrically varying optical sensitivities of phonons.
Acoustic superfocusing by solid phononic crystals
Zhou, Xiaoming; Assouar, M. Badreddine Oudich, Mourad
2014-12-08
We propose a solid phononic crystal lens capable of acoustic superfocusing beyond the diffraction limit. The unit cell of the crystal is formed by four rigid cylinders in a hosting material with a cavity arranged in the center. Theoretical studies reveal that the solid lens produces both negative refraction to focus propagating waves and surface states to amplify evanescent waves. Numerical analyses of the superfocusing effect of the considered solid phononic lens are presented with a separated source excitation to the lens. In this case, acoustic superfocusing beyond the diffraction limit is evidenced. Compared to the fluid phononic lenses, the solid lens is more suitable for ultrasonic imaging applications.
Temperature Dependence of Brillouin Light Scattering Spectra of Acoustic Phonons in Silicon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Somerville, Kevin; Klimovich, Nikita; An, Kyongmo; Sullivan, Sean; Weathers, Annie; Shi, Li; Li, Xiaoqin
2015-03-01
Thermal management represents an outstanding challenge in many areas of technology. Electrons, optical phonons, and acoustic phonons are often driven out of local equilibrium in electronic devices or during laser-material interaction processes. Interest in non-equilibrium transport processes has motivated the development of Raman spectroscopy as a local temperature sensor of optical phonons and intermediate frequency acoustic phonons, whereas Brillouin light scattering (BLS) has recently been explored as a temperature sensor of low-frequency acoustic phonons. Here, we report temperature dependent BLS spectra of silicon, with Raman spectra taken simultaneously for comparison. The origins of the observed temperature dependence of the BLS peak position, linewidth, and intensity are examined in order to evaluate their potential use as temperature sensors for acoustic phonons. We determine that the integrated BLS intensity can be used measure the temperature of specific acoustic phonon modes. This work is supported by National Science Foundation (NSF) Thermal Transport Processes Program under Grant CBET-1336968.
Finite element analysis of surface modes in phononic crystal waveguides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Yuning; Schubert, Martin; Dekorsy, Thomas
2016-03-01
The study of surface modes in phononic crystal waveguides in the hypersonic regime is a burgeoning field with a large number of possible applications. By using the finite element method, the band structure and the corresponding transmission spectrum of surface acoustic waves in phononic crystal waveguides generated by line defects in a silicon pillar-substrate system were calculated and investigated. The bandgaps are caused by the hybridization effect of band branches induced by local resonances and propagating modes in the substrate. By changing the sizes of selected pillars in the phononic crystal waveguides, the corresponding bands shift and localized modes emerge due to the local resonance effect induced by the pillars. This effect offers further possibilities for tailoring the propagation and filtering of elastic waves. The presented results have implications for the engineering of phonon dynamics in phononic nanostructures.
Theoretical study on ultrafast dynamics of coherent acoustic phonons in semiconductor nanocrystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Tongyun; Han, Peng; Wang, Xinke; Feng, Shengfei; Sun, Wenfeng; Ye, Jiasheng; Zhang, Yan
2016-05-01
We present a theoretical study on the ultrafast dynamics of coherent acoustic phonons in semiconductor quantum dots using continuum model calculations. The excitonic states and the coherent acoustic vibrational modes of semiconductor quantum dots are calculated using the effective mass approximation and continuum elastic medium model, respectively. By solving the Liouville–von Neumann equation and the equation of motion, we obtain the oscillation of coherent acoustic phonon amplitude excited by a pump pulse laser. Owing to the ultrafast excitation of coherent phonons, both the amplitude and the phase of the coherent phonon oscillation are constant with time. This coherent phonon oscillation results in conservation of the coherence of the exciton state, which cannot exist in a system interacting with incoherent phonons. We further study the amplitude and the period of coherent acoustic phonon oscillation as a function of pump pulse energy detuning, quantum dot size, and material.
Extremely Low Loss Phonon-Trapping Cryogenic Acoustic Cavities for Future Physical Experiments
Galliou, Serge; Goryachev, Maxim; Bourquin, Roger; Abbé, Philippe; Aubry, Jean Pierre; Tobar, Michael E.
2013-01-01
Low loss Bulk Acoustic Wave devices are considered from the point of view of the solid state approach as phonon-confining cavities. We demonstrate effective design of such acoustic cavities with phonon-trapping techniques exhibiting extremely high quality factors for trapped longitudinally-polarized phonons of various wavelengths. Quality factors of observed modes exceed 1 billion, with a maximum Q-factor of 8 billion and Q × f product of 1.6 · 1018 at liquid helium temperatures. Such high sensitivities allow analysis of intrinsic material losses in resonant phonon systems. Various mechanisms of phonon losses are discussed and estimated. PMID:23823569
Phonon Emission from Acoustic Black Hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Hengzhong; Zhou, Kaihu; Song, Yuming
2012-08-01
We study the phonon tunneling through the horizon of an acoustic black hole by solving the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. We also make use of the closed-path integral to calculate the tunneling probability, and an improved way to determine the temporal contribution is used. Both the results from the two methods agree with Hawking's initial analysis.
Nanowave devices for terahertz acoustic phonons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lanzillotti-Kimura, N. D.; Fainstein, A.; Lemaître, A.; Jusserand, B.
2006-02-01
The emergence of the area of nanophononics requires the development of terahertz (THz) acoustic devices with tailored properties. We describe nonperiodic planar nanostructures with specific THz phononic response and superior performance. We show that improved devices based on GaAs and AlAs layers can be designed using an optimization Nelder-Mead simplex method, and grown with state-of-the-art molecular beam epitaxy. We also demonstrate that high-resolution Raman scattering provides a powerful tool to characterize these devices. We illustrate the concept with results on acoustic THz edge and color filters.
Electrical manipulation of crystal symmetry for switching transverse acoustic phonons.
Jeong, H; Jho, Y D; Stanton, C J
2015-01-30
We experimentally explore the use of a novel device where lateral electric fields can be applied to break the translational symmetry within the isotropic plane and hence change the selection rules to allow normally forbidden transverse acoustic (TA) phonon generations. The ultrafast screening of the lateral electric field by the photocarriers relieves shear strain in the structure and switches on the propagating TA waves. The amplitude and on-state time of the TA mode can be modulated by the external field strength and size of the laterally biased region. The observed frequency shift with an external bias as well as the strong geometrical dependence confirm the role of the asymmetric potential distribution in electrically manipulating the crystal symmetry to control modal behavior of acoustic phonons. PMID:25679892
Electrical Manipulation of Crystal Symmetry for Switching Transverse Acoustic Phonons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeong, H.; Jho, Y. D.; Stanton, C. J.
2015-01-01
We experimentally explore the use of a novel device where lateral electric fields can be applied to break the translational symmetry within the isotropic plane and hence change the selection rules to allow normally forbidden transverse acoustic (TA) phonon generations. The ultrafast screening of the lateral electric field by the photocarriers relieves shear strain in the structure and switches on the propagating TA waves. The amplitude and on-state time of the TA mode can be modulated by the external field strength and size of the laterally biased region. The observed frequency shift with an external bias as well as the strong geometrical dependence confirm the role of the asymmetric potential distribution in electrically manipulating the crystal symmetry to control modal behavior of acoustic phonons.
Propagation of large-wavevector acoustic phonons new perspectives from phonon imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wolfe, James P.
Within the last decade a number of attempts have been made to observe the ballistic propagation of large wavevector acoustic phonons in crystals at low temperatures. Time-of-flight heat-pulse methods have difficulty in distinguishing between scattered phonons and ballistic phonons which travel dispersively at subsonic velocities. Fortunately, ballistic phonons can be identified by their highly anisotropic flux, which is observed by phonon imaging techniques. In this paper, several types of phonon imaging experiments are described which reveal the dispersive propagation of large-wavevector phonons and expose interesting details of the phonon scattering processes.
Electron - acoustic phonon coupling in colloidal lead sulfide quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cho, Byungmoon; Tiwari, Vivek; Spencer, Austin; Baranov, Dmitry; Park, Samuel; Jonas, David
2014-03-01
Lead chalcogenide quantum dots (QDs) with bandgaps in the shortwave infrared are candidate materials for next generation photovoltaics exceeding the Shockley-Queisser limit. Despite ongoing controversy, multiple exciton generation (MEG) in QDs offers potential for improved photovoltaic efficiency. Hot carriers from high energy photoexcitation dissipate excess energy via coupled phonons; this is detrimental to MEG. The electron-phonon coupling (EPC) magnitude, partitioning among modes and dependence on the size/shape are poorly understood. We performed degenerate femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy to investigate Auger recombination dynamics, a reverse process of MEG. We observe a quantum beat due to coherent acoustic phonons in femtosecond pump-probe signals from oleate capped colloidal lead sulfide QDs in toluene. A 3.4 ps period oscillation decays with 4.6 ps damping constant in 8 nm diameter dots; the amplitude increases linearly with pump energy and modulation is weaker than reported in smaller dots. An elastic continuum model for acoustic phonon frequency vs. dot diameter suggests a not yet understood quantitative discrepancy with prior work. These relaxation processes have important implications for QD photovoltaics.
Localized acoustic surface modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farhat, Mohamed; Chen, Pai-Yen; Bağcı, Hakan
2016-04-01
We introduce the concept of localized acoustic surface modes. We demonstrate that they are induced on a two-dimensional cylindrical rigid surface with subwavelength corrugations under excitation by an incident acoustic plane wave. Our results show that the corrugated rigid surface is acoustically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with uniform mass density that can be represented using a Drude-like model. This, indeed, suggests that plasmonic-like acoustic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including sensing, imaging, and cloaking.
Influence of the optical-acoustic phonon hybridization on phonon scattering and thermal conductivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Wu; Carrete, Jesús; Madsen, Georg K. H.; Mingo, Natalio
2016-05-01
We predict a marked effect of optical-acoustic phonon hybridization on phonon scattering and lattice thermal conductivity (κ ), and illustrate it in the case of Fe2Ge3 . This material presents very low-lying optical phonons with an energy of 1.8 meV at the Brillouin zone center, which show avoided crossings with longitudinal acoustic (LA) phonons, due to optical-acoustic phonon polarization hybridization. Because the optical phonons have nonvanishing scattering rates, even a small amount of hybridization with the optical phonon can increase the scattering rates of LA phonons by much more than one order of magnitude, causing the contribution of these phonons to κ to vanish. At low temperatures, the contributions of all LA phonons are eliminated, and thus the avoided crossing leads to a reduction of thermal conductivity by more than half. The scattering rates are very sensitive to the optical-acoustic phonon hybridization strength, characterized by the gap at the avoided crossing point and varied with the wave-vector direction. Our work presents a different reduction mechanism of κ in systems with optical-acoustic phonon hybridization, which can benefit the search for new thermoelectric materials.
Coherent phonon modulation by nanoscale acoustically mismatched interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Shangjie; Ouyang, Min
2015-03-01
Precise engineering of phonon spectrum by material design is essential for in-depth understanding of fundamental physical phenomena as well as new technology breakthrough. When phonons propagate through two different constituents, their mismatched interface can coherently modulate phonon spectrum. In this talk, we will demonstrate the phonon characteristics can be precisely tailored through nanoscale interfacial coupling by investigating acoustically mismatched core-shell hetero-nanostructures with ultrafast pump-probe technique. Coherent phonon coupling between core and shell through their interface has been experimentally revealed, which agrees well with theoretical simulation. This interfacial phonon coupling also represents a unique fingerprint of complex nanostructures.
Phonon-phonon interactions and phonon damping for the curvature modes in carbon nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Guolong; Ren, Zhongzhou
2016-01-01
We focus on the damping of the lowest-lying gapped modes with integer angular-momentum quantum number |l|=2 in carbon nanotubes (CNTs). These modes, called C modes simply, can be predicted within the framework of the continuum elasticity theory with the curvature term. Based on the phonon-phonon interactions due to the anharmonic effect, we obtain the three-phonon coupling coefficients of different damping processes of C modes. Applying perturbation theory, we calculate relaxation rates τ_C-1 and upper bounds of quality factors for the long-wavelength C modes. In addition, we display the wave vector dependence of τC and show the importance of the C mode damping to thermal conductivity.
Phonon Diodes and Transistors from Magneto-acoustics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sklan, Sophia; Grossman, Jeffrey
2014-03-01
The creation of non-reciprocal phononic systems holds the promise of allowing computers that would process thermal or acoustic (rather than electronic) signals. By sculpting the magnetic field applied to magneto-acoustic materials (which couple phonons to a magnetic field, typically due to effects like magnon-phonon coupling in yttrium iron garnet), phonons can be used for information processing in analogy with photonic computing. Using a combination of analytic and numerical techniques, we demonstrate designs for diodes (isolators) and transistors that are independent of their conventional, electronic formulation. We analyze the experimental feasibility of these systems, including the sensitivity of the circuits to likely systematic and random errors.
Yudistira, D; Boes, A; Djafari-Rouhani, B; Pennec, Y; Yeo, L Y; Mitchell, A; Friend, J R
2014-11-21
We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate the existence of complete surface acoustic wave band gaps in surface phonon-polariton phononic crystals, in a completely monolithic structure formed from a two-dimensional honeycomb array of hexagonal shape domain-inverted inclusions in single crystal piezoelectric Z-cut lithium niobate. The band gaps appear at a frequency of about twice the Bragg band gap at the center of the Brillouin zone, formed through phonon-polariton coupling. The structure is mechanically, electromagnetically, and topographically homogeneous, without any physical alteration of the surface, offering an ideal platform for many acoustic wave applications for photonics, phononics, and microfluidics. PMID:25479504
Jean, Cyril; Belliard, Laurent; Cornelius, Thomas W; Thomas, Olivier; Toimil-Molares, Maria Eugenia; Cassinelli, Marco; Becerra, Loïc; Perrin, Bernard
2014-12-01
We report on gigahertz acoustic phonon waveguiding in free-standing single copper nanowires studied by femtosecond transient reflectivity measurements. The results are discussed on the basis of the semianalytical resolution of the Pochhammer and Chree equation. The spreading of the generated Gaussian wave packet of two different modes is derived analytically and compared with the observed oscillations of the sample reflectivity. These experiments provide a unique way to independently obtain geometrical and material characterization. This direct observation of coherent guided acoustic phonons in a single nano-object is also the first step toward nanolateral size acoustic transducer and comprehensive studies of the thermal properties of nanowires. PMID:26278939
Interface nano-confined acoustic waves in polymeric surface phononic crystals
Travagliati, Marco; Nardi, Damiano; Giannetti, Claudio; Ferrini, Gabriele; Banfi, Francesco; Gusev, Vitalyi; Pingue, Pasqualantonio; Piazza, Vincenzo
2015-01-12
The impulsive acoustic dynamics of soft polymeric surface phononic crystals is investigated here in the hypersonic frequency range by near-IR time-resolved optical diffraction. The acoustic response is analysed by means of wavelet spectral methods and finite element modeling. An unprecedented class of acoustic modes propagating within the polymer surface phononic crystal and confined within 100 nm of the nano-patterned interface is revealed. The present finding opens the path to an alternative paradigm for characterizing the mechanical properties of soft polymers at interfaces and for sensing schemes exploiting polymers as embedding materials.
Hybrid phononic crystal plates for lowering and widening acoustic band gaps.
Badreddine Assouar, M; Sun, Jia-Hong; Lin, Fan-Shun; Hsu, Jin-Chen
2014-12-01
We propose hybrid phononic-crystal plates which are composed of periodic stepped pillars and periodic holes to lower and widen acoustic band gaps. The acoustic waves scattered simultaneously by the pillars and holes in a relevant frequency range can generate low and wide acoustic forbidden bands. We introduce an alternative double-sided arrangement of the periodic stepped pillars for an enlarged pillars' head diameter in the hybrid structure and optimize the hole diameter to further lower and widen the acoustic band gaps. The lowering and widening effects are simultaneously achieved by reducing the frequencies of locally resonant pillar modes and prohibiting suitable frequency bands of propagating plate modes. PMID:24996255
Acoustic phonon spectrum and thermal transport in nanoporous alumina arrays
Kargar, Fariborz; Ramirez, Sylvester; Debnath, Bishwajit; Malekpour, Hoda; Lake, Roger; Balandin, Alexander A.
2015-10-28
We report results of a combined investigation of thermal conductivity and acoustic phonon spectra in nanoporous alumina membranes with the pore diameter decreasing from D=180 nm to 25 nm. The samples with the hexagonally arranged pores were selected to have the same porosity Ø ≈13%. The Brillouin-Mandelstam spectroscopy measurements revealed bulk-like phonon spectrum in the samples with D=180-nm pores and spectral features, which were attributed to spatial confinement, in the samples with 25-nm and 40-nm pores. The velocity of the longitudinal acoustic phonons was reduced in the samples with smaller pores. As a result, analysis of the experimental data and calculated phonon dispersion suggests that both phonon-boundary scattering and phonon spatial confinement affect heat conduction in membranes with the feature sizes D<40 nm.
Acoustic phonon spectrum and thermal transport in nanoporous alumina arrays
Kargar, Fariborz; Ramirez, Sylvester; Debnath, Bishwajit; Malekpour, Hoda; Lake, Roger; Balandin, Alexander A.
2015-10-28
We report results of a combined investigation of thermal conductivity and acoustic phonon spectra in nanoporous alumina membranes with the pore diameter decreasing from D=180 nm to 25 nm. The samples with the hexagonally arranged pores were selected to have the same porosity Ø ≈13%. The Brillouin-Mandelstam spectroscopy measurements revealed bulk-like phonon spectrum in the samples with D=180-nm pores and spectral features, which were attributed to spatial confinement, in the samples with 25-nm and 40-nm pores. The velocity of the longitudinal acoustic phonons was reduced in the samples with smaller pores. As a result, analysis of the experimental data andmore » calculated phonon dispersion suggests that both phonon-boundary scattering and phonon spatial confinement affect heat conduction in membranes with the feature sizes D<40 nm.« less
Selective optical generation of a coherent acoustic nanocavity mode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pascual Winter, M. F.; Rozas, G.; Jusserand, B.; Perrin, B.; Fainstein, A.; Vaccaro, P. O.; Saravanan, S.
2007-04-01
We report the first experimental evidence of selective generation of a confined acoustic mode in a Ga0.85In0.15As nanocavity enclosed by two Ga0.85In0.15As/AlAs phonon Bragg mirrors. Femtosecond pump-probe experiments reveal the generation of a cavity mode within the acoustic mini-gap of the mirrors, in addition to their folded acoustic modes. Selective generation of the confined mode alone is achievable for certain energies below the absorption of the quantum wells in the phonon mirrors. These energies are experimentally identified with the cavity spacer electronic transitions. The amplitude of the acoustic nanocavity mode can be controlled by detuning the excitation from the spacer transitions. The present work finds a direct interest in the seek of monochromatic MHz-THz acoustic sources.
Sub-Poissonian phonon statistics in an acoustical resonator coupled to a pumped two-level emitter
Ceban, V. Macovei, M. A.
2015-11-15
The concept of an acoustical analog of the optical laser has been developed recently in both theoretical and experimental works. We here discuss a model of a coherent phonon generator with a direct signature of the quantum properties of sound vibrations. The considered setup is made of a laser-driven quantum dot embedded in an acoustical nanocavity. The system dynamics is solved for a single phonon mode in the steady-state and in the strong quantum dot—phonon coupling regime beyond the secular approximation. We demonstrate that the phonon statistics exhibits quantum features, i.e., is sub-Poissonian.
The phononic crystals: An unending quest for tailoring acoustics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kushwaha, Manvir S.
2016-07-01
Periodicity (in time or space) is a part and parcel of every living being: one can see, hear and feel it. Everyday examples are locomotion, respiration and heart beat. The reinforced N-dimensional periodicity over two or more crystalline solids results in the so-called phononic band gap crystals. These can have dramatic consequences on the propagation of phonons, vibrations and sound. The fundamental physics of cleverly fabricated phononic crystals can offer a systematic route to realize the Anderson localization of sound and vibrations. As to the applications, the phononic crystals are envisaged to find ways in the architecture, acoustic waveguides, designing transducers, elastic/acoustic filters, noise control, ultrasonics, medical imaging and acoustic cloaking, to mention a few. This review focuses on the brief sketch of the progress made in the field that seems to have prospered even more than was originally imagined in the early nineties.
Acoustic scattering from phononic crystals with complex geometry.
Kulpe, Jason A; Sabra, Karim G; Leamy, Michael J
2016-05-01
This work introduces a formalism for computing external acoustic scattering from phononic crystals (PCs) with arbitrary exterior shape using a Bloch wave expansion technique coupled with the Helmholtz-Kirchhoff integral (HKI). Similar to a Kirchhoff approximation, a geometrically complex PC's surface is broken into a set of facets in which the scattering from each facet is calculated as if it was a semi-infinite plane interface in the short wavelength limit. When excited by incident radiation, these facets introduce wave modes into the interior of the PC. Incorporation of these modes in the HKI, summed over all facets, then determines the externally scattered acoustic field. In particular, for frequencies in a complete bandgap (the usual operating frequency regime of many PC-based devices and the requisite operating regime of the presented theory), no need exists to solve for internal reflections from oppositely facing edges and, thus, the total scattered field can be computed without the need to consider internal multiple scattering. Several numerical examples are provided to verify the presented approach. Both harmonic and transient results are considered for spherical and bean-shaped PCs, each containing over 100 000 inclusions. This facet formalism is validated by comparison to an existing self-consistent scattering technique. PMID:27250192
Coherent Acoustic Phonons in Colloidal Semiconductor Nanocrystal Superlattices.
Poyser, Caroline L; Czerniuk, Thomas; Akimov, Andrey; Diroll, Benjamin T; Gaulding, E Ashley; Salasyuk, Alexey S; Kent, Anthony J; Yakovlev, Dmitri R; Bayer, Manfred; Murray, Christopher B
2016-01-26
The phonon properties of films fabricated from colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals play a major role in thermal conductance and electron scattering, which govern the principles for building colloidal-based electronics and optics including thermoelectric devices with a high ZT factor. The key point in understanding the phonon properties is to obtain the strength of the elastic bonds formed by organic ligands connecting the individual nanocrystallites. In the case of very weak bonding, the ligands become the bottleneck for phonon transport between infinitively rigid nanocrystals. In the opposite case of strong bonding, the colloids cannot be considered as infinitively rigid beads and the distortion of the superlattice caused by phonons includes the distortion of the colloids themselves. We use the picosecond acoustics technique to study the acoustic coherent phonons in superlattices of nanometer crystalline CdSe colloids. We observe the quantization of phonons with frequencies up to 30 GHz. The frequencies of quantized phonons depend on the thickness of the colloidal films and possess linear phonon dispersion. The measured speed of sound and corresponding wave modulus in the colloidal films point on the strong elastic coupling provided by organic ligands between colloidal nanocrystals. PMID:26696021
Material and Phonon Engineering for Next Generation Acoustic Devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuo, Nai-Kuei
This thesis presents the theoretical and experimental work related to micromachining of low intrinsic loss sapphire and phononic crystals for engineering new classes of electroacoustic devices for frequency control applications. For the first time, a low loss sapphire suspended membrane was fabricated and utilized to form the main body of a piezoelectric lateral overtone bulk acoustic resonator (LOBAR). Since the metalized piezoelectric transducer area in a LOBAR is only a small fraction of the overall resonant cavity (made out of sapphire), high quality factor (Q) overtones are attained. The experiment confirms the low intrinsic mechanical loss of the transferred sapphire thin film, and the resonators exhibit the highest Q of 5,440 at 2.8 GHz ( f·Q of 1.53.1013 Hz). This is also the highest f·Q demonstrated for aluminum-nitride-(AIN)-based Lamb wave devices to date. Beyond demonstrating a low loss device, this experimental work has laid the foundation for the future development of new micromechanical devices based on a high Q, high hardness and chemically resilient material. The search for alternative ways to more efficiently perform frequency control functionalities lead to the exploration of Phononic Crystal (PnC) structures in AIN thin films. Four unit cell designs were theoretically and experimentally investigated to explore the behavior of phononic bandgaps (PBGs) in the ultra high frequency (UHF) range: (i) the conventional square lattice with circular air scatterer, (ii) the inverse acoustic bandgap (IABG) structure, (iii) the fractal PnC, and (iv) the X-shaped PnC. Each unit cell has its unique frequency characteristic that was exploited to synthesize either cavity resonators or improve the performance of acoustic delay lines. The PBGs operate in the range of 770 MHz to 1 GHz and exhibit a maximum acoustic rejection of 40 dB. AIN Lamb wave transducers (LWTs) were employed for the experimental demonstration of the PBGs and cavity resonances. Ultra
Single mode acoustic fiber waveguide
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jackson, B. S.; May, R. G.; Claus, R. O.
1984-01-01
The single mode operation of a clad rod acoustic waveguide is described. Unlike conventional clad optical and acoustic waveguiding structures which use modes confined to a central core surrounded by a cladding, this guide supports neither core nor cladding modes but a single interface wave field on the core-cladding boundary. The propagation of this bound field and the potential improved freedom from spurious responses is discussed.
Negative refraction of phonons and acoustic lensing effect of a crystalline slab
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Imamura, K.; Tamura, S.
2004-11-01
We study how good a flat slab of a bulk crystalline solid with a large elastic anisotropy exhibits a lensing action for phonons or sound waves. The slowness and group-velocity surfaces of an ideal elastic solid for a flat phonon lens are analyzed in the geometrical acoustic approximation. These surfaces are compared with the corresponding surfaces of an existing bulk crystal (a zinc crystal) with hexagonal symmetry. To demonstrate the lensing effect we calculate the intensity distribution of phonons emitted from a point source in an isotropic medium (on one side of the lens), propagating through the slab lens and then transmitted into the isotropic medium in the other side. A similar calculation for sound waves with a finite-difference-time-domain method is performed to see the effects neglected in the geometrical acoustic approximation, that is, the effects of finite wavelength, mode conversion, and finite transmission at the interfaces.
Generation mechanism of terahertz coherent acoustic phonons in Fe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henighan, T.; Trigo, M.; Bonetti, S.; Granitzka, P.; Higley, D.; Chen, Z.; Jiang, M. P.; Kukreja, R.; Gray, A.; Reid, A. H.; Jal, E.; Hoffmann, M. C.; Kozina, M.; Song, S.; Chollet, M.; Zhu, D.; Xu, P. F.; Jeong, J.; Carva, K.; Maldonado, P.; Oppeneer, P. M.; Samant, M. G.; Parkin, S. S. P.; Reis, D. A.; Dürr, H. A.
2016-06-01
We use femtosecond time-resolved hard x-ray scattering to detect coherent acoustic phonons generated during ultrafast laser excitation of ferromagnetic bcc Fe films grown on MgO(001). We observe the coherent longitudinal-acoustic phonons as a function of wave vector through analysis of the temporal oscillations in the x-ray scattering signal. The width of the extracted strain wave front associated with this coherent motion is ˜100 fs. An effective electronic Grüneisen parameter is extracted within a two-temperature model. However, ab initio calculations show that the phonons are nonthermal on the time scale of the experiment, which calls into question the validity of extracting physical constants by fitting such a two-temperature model.
Wang, Mingchao; Lin, Shangchao
2015-01-01
The elastic modulus of carbyne, a one-dimensional carbon chain, was recently predicted to be much higher than graphene. Inspired by this discovery and the fundamental correlation between elastic modulus and thermal conductivity, we investigate the intrinsic thermal transport in two carbon allotropes: carbyne and cumulene. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we discover that thermal conductivities of carbyne and cumulene at the quantum-corrected room temperature can exceed 54 and 148 kW/m/K, respectively, much higher than that for graphene. Such conductivity is attributed to high phonon energies and group velocities, as well as reduced scattering from non-overlapped acoustic and optical phonon modes. The prolonged spectral acoustic phonon lifetime of 30–110 ps and mean free path of 0.5–2.5 μm exceed those for graphene, and allow ballistic phonon transport along micron-length carbon chains. Tensile extensions can enhance the thermal conductivity of carbyne due to the increased phonon density of states in the acoustic modes and the increased phonon lifetime from phonon bandgap opening. These findings provide fundamental insights into phonon transport and band structure engineering through tensile deformation in low-dimensional materials, and will inspire studies on carbyne, cumulene, and boron nitride chains for their practical deployments in nano-devices. PMID:26658143
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Mingchao; Lin, Shangchao
2015-12-01
The elastic modulus of carbyne, a one-dimensional carbon chain, was recently predicted to be much higher than graphene. Inspired by this discovery and the fundamental correlation between elastic modulus and thermal conductivity, we investigate the intrinsic thermal transport in two carbon allotropes: carbyne and cumulene. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we discover that thermal conductivities of carbyne and cumulene at the quantum-corrected room temperature can exceed 54 and 148 kW/m/K, respectively, much higher than that for graphene. Such conductivity is attributed to high phonon energies and group velocities, as well as reduced scattering from non-overlapped acoustic and optical phonon modes. The prolonged spectral acoustic phonon lifetime of 30-110 ps and mean free path of 0.5-2.5 μm exceed those for graphene, and allow ballistic phonon transport along micron-length carbon chains. Tensile extensions can enhance the thermal conductivity of carbyne due to the increased phonon density of states in the acoustic modes and the increased phonon lifetime from phonon bandgap opening. These findings provide fundamental insights into phonon transport and band structure engineering through tensile deformation in low-dimensional materials, and will inspire studies on carbyne, cumulene, and boron nitride chains for their practical deployments in nano-devices.
On-chip optical mode conversion based on dynamic grating in photonic-phononic hybrid waveguide
Chen, Guodong; Zhang, Ruiwen; Sun, Junqiang
2015-01-01
We present a scheme for reversible and tunable on-chip optical mode conversion based on dynamic grating in a hybrid photonic-phononic waveguide. The dynamic grating is built up through the acousto-optic effect and the theoretical model of the optical mode conversion is developed by considering the geometrical deformation and refractive index change. Three kinds of mode conversions are able to be realized using the same hybrid waveguide structure in a large bandwidth by only changing the launched acoustic frequency. The complete mode conversion can be achieved by choosing a proper acoustic power under a given waveguide length. PMID:25996236
On-chip optical mode conversion based on dynamic grating in photonic-phononic hybrid waveguide.
Chen, Guodong; Zhang, Ruiwen; Sun, Junqiang
2015-01-01
We present a scheme for reversible and tunable on-chip optical mode conversion based on dynamic grating in a hybrid photonic-phononic waveguide. The dynamic grating is built up through the acousto-optic effect and the theoretical model of the optical mode conversion is developed by considering the geometrical deformation and refractive index change. Three kinds of mode conversions are able to be realized using the same hybrid waveguide structure in a large bandwidth by only changing the launched acoustic frequency. The complete mode conversion can be achieved by choosing a proper acoustic power under a given waveguide length. PMID:25996236
Addouche, Mahmoud Al-Lethawe, Mohammed A. Choujaa, Abdelkrim Khelif, Abdelkrim
2014-07-14
We demonstrate super resolution imaging for surface acoustic waves using a phononic structure displaying negative refractive index. This phononic structure is made of a monolithic square lattice of cylindrical pillars standing on a semi-infinite medium. The pillars act as acoustic resonator and induce a surface propagating wave with unusual dispersion. We found, under specific geometrical parameters, one propagating mode that exhibits negative refraction effect with negative effective index close to −1. Furthermore, a flat lens with finite number of pillars is designed to allow the focusing of an acoustic point source into an image with a resolution of (λ)/3 , overcoming the Rayleigh diffraction limit.
Nonlinear Transport and Noise Properties of Acoustic Phonons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walczak, Kamil
We examine heat transport carried by acoustic phonons in molecular junctions composed of organic molecules coupled to two thermal baths of different temperatures. The phononic heat flux and its dynamical noise properties are analyzed within the scattering (Landauer) formalism with transmission probability function for acoustic phonons calculated within the method of atomistic Green's functions (AGF technique). The perturbative computational scheme is used to determine nonlinear corrections to phononic heat flux and its noise power spectral density with up to the second order terms with respect to temperature difference. Our results show the limited applicability of ballistic Fourier's law and fluctuation-dissipation theorem to heat transport in quantum systems. We also derive several noise-signal relations applicable to nanoscale heat flow carried by phonons, but valid for electrons as well. We also discuss the extension of the perturbative transport theory to higher order terms in order to address a huge variety of problems related to nonlinear thermal effects which may occur at nanoscale and at strongly non-equilibrium conditions with high-intensity heat fluxes. This work was supported by Pace University Start-up Grant.
Sharp bends of phononic crystal surface modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cicek, Ahmet; Salman, Aysevil; Adem Kaya, Olgun; Ulug, Bulent
2015-12-01
Sharp bending of surface waves at the interface of a two-dimensional phononic crystal (PnC) of steel cylinders in air and the method of using a diagonally offset cylindrical scatterer are numerically demonstrated by finite-element method simulations. The radii of the diagonally offset scatterer and the cylinder at the PnC corner, along with the distance between them, are treated as optimization parameters in the genetic algorithm optimization of sharp bends. Surface wave transmittance of at most 5% for the unmodified sharp bend is significantly enhanced to approximately 75% as a result of optimization. A series of transmittance peaks whose maxima increase exponentially, as their widths reduce, with increasing frequency is observed for the optimized sharp bend. The transmittance peaks appear at frequencies corresponding to integer plus half-beat periods, depending on the finite surface length. The optimal parameters are such that the cylinder radius at the PnC corner is not significantly modified, whereas a diagonally offset scatterer having a diameter of almost two periods and a shortest distance of about 0.7 periods between them is required for the strongest transmittance peak. Utilization of PnC surface sharp bends as acoustic ring resonators is demonstrated.
Uniaxial strain-induced Kohn anomaly and electron-phonon coupling in acoustic phonons of graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cifuentes-Quintal, M. E.; de la Peña-Seaman, O.; Heid, R.; de Coss, R.; Bohnen, K.-P.
2016-08-01
Recent advances in strain engineering at the nanoscale have shown the feasibility to modulate the properties of graphene. Although the electron-phonon (e-ph) coupling and Kohn anomalies in graphene define the phonon branches contributing to the resonance Raman scattering and are relevant to the electronic and thermal transport as a scattering source, the evolution of the e-ph coupling as a function of strain has been less studied. In this work, the Kohn anomalies and the e-ph coupling in uniaxially strained graphene along armchair and zigzag directions were studied by means of density functional perturbation theory calculations. In addition to the phonon anomaly at the transversal optical (TO) phonon branch in the K point for pristine graphene, we found that uniaxial strain induces a discontinuity in the frequency derivative of the longitudinal acoustic phonon branch. This behavior corresponds to the emergence of a Kohn anomaly, as a consequence of a strain-enhanced e-ph coupling. Thus, the present results for uniaxially strained graphene contrast with the commonly assumed view that the e-ph coupling around the K point is only present in the TO phonon branch.
Hot electron cooling by acoustic phonons in graphene.
Betz, A C; Vialla, F; Brunel, D; Voisin, C; Picher, M; Cavanna, A; Madouri, A; Fève, G; Berroir, J-M; Plaçais, B; Pallecchi, E
2012-08-01
We have investigated the energy loss of hot electrons in metallic graphene by means of GHz noise thermometry at liquid helium temperature. We observe the electronic temperature T ∝ V at low bias in agreement with the heat diffusion to the leads described by the Wiedemann-Franz law. We report on T ∝ √V behavior at high bias, which corresponds to a T(4) dependence of the cooling power. This is the signature of a 2D acoustic phonon cooling mechanism. From a heat equation analysis of the two regimes we extract accurate values of the electron-acoustic phonon coupling constant Σ in monolayer graphene. Our measurements point to an important effect of lattice disorder in the reduction of Σ, not yet considered by theory. Moreover, our study provides a strong and firm support to the rising field of graphene bolometric detectors. PMID:23006198
Hot Electron Cooling by Acoustic Phonons in Graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Betz, A. C.; Vialla, F.; Brunel, D.; Voisin, C.; Picher, M.; Cavanna, A.; Madouri, A.; Fève, G.; Berroir, J.-M.; Plaçais, B.; Pallecchi, E.
2012-08-01
We have investigated the energy loss of hot electrons in metallic graphene by means of GHz noise thermometry at liquid helium temperature. We observe the electronic temperature T∝V at low bias in agreement with the heat diffusion to the leads described by the Wiedemann-Franz law. We report on T∝V behavior at high bias, which corresponds to a T4 dependence of the cooling power. This is the signature of a 2D acoustic phonon cooling mechanism. From a heat equation analysis of the two regimes we extract accurate values of the electron-acoustic phonon coupling constant Σ in monolayer graphene. Our measurements point to an important effect of lattice disorder in the reduction of Σ, not yet considered by theory. Moreover, our study provides a strong and firm support to the rising field of graphene bolometric detectors.
Nonlinear propagation and control of acoustic waves in phononic superlattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiménez, Noé; Mehrem, Ahmed; Picó, Rubén; García-Raffi, Lluís M.; Sánchez-Morcillo, Víctor J.
2016-05-01
The propagation of intense acoustic waves in a one-dimensional phononic crystal is studied. The medium consists in a structured fluid, formed by a periodic array of fluid layers with alternating linear acoustic properties and quadratic nonlinearity coefficient. The spacing between layers is of the order of the wavelength, therefore Bragg effects such as band gaps appear. We show that the interplay between strong dispersion and nonlinearity leads to new scenarios of wave propagation. The classical waveform distortion process typical of intense acoustic waves in homogeneous media can be strongly altered when nonlinearly generated harmonics lie inside or close to band gaps. This allows the possibility of engineer a medium in order to get a particular waveform. Examples of this include the design of media with effective (e.g., cubic) nonlinearities, or extremely linear media (where distortion can be canceled). The presented ideas open a way towards the control of acoustic wave propagation in nonlinear regime. xml:lang="fr"
Femtosecond optical excitation of coherent acoustic phonons in a piezoelectric p-n junction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, Yu-Chieh; Chern, Gia-Wei; Lin, Kung-Hsuan; Yeh, Jeffrey Jarren; Sun, Chi-Kuang
2011-11-01
We present a theoretical model for the photogeneration of coherent acoustic phonons in a piezoelectric p-n junction. In our model, the transport of photoexcited carriers is governed by the drift-diffusion equation, whereas the dynamics of acoustic phonons obeys a loaded string equation. Among various mechanisms, the piezoelectric coupling is found to dominate the acoustic-phonon generation process. The waveform of the photogenerated acoustic pulse is strongly influenced by the various dynamics of the photoexcited carriers, especially the picosecond hole drifting. Our calculation also confirms the crucial role of the built-in electric field in the formation of coherent acoustic phonons under optical excitations.
High- and low-frequency phonon modes in dipolar quantum gases trapped in deep lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maluckov, Aleksandra; Gligorić, Goran; Hadžievski, Ljupčo; Malomed, Boris A.; Pfau, Tilman
2013-02-01
We study normal modes propagating on top of the stable uniform background in arrays of dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) droplets trapped in a deep optical lattice. Both the on-site mean-field dynamics of the droplets and their displacement due to the repulsive dipole-dipole interactions (DDIs) are taken into account. Dispersion relations for two modes, viz., high- and low- frequency counterparts of optical and acoustic phonon modes in condensed matter, are derived analytically and verified by direct simulations, for both cases of the repulsive and attractive contact interactions. The (counterpart of the) optical-phonon branch does not exist without the DDIs. These results are relevant in the connection to emerging experimental techniques enabling real-time imaging of the condensate dynamics and direct experimental measurement of phonon dispersion relations in BECs.
Second Harmonic Generation and Confined Acoustic Phonons in HighlyExcited Semiconductor Nanocrystals
Son, Dong Hee; Wittenberg, Joshua S.; Banin, Uri; Alivisatos, A.Paul
2006-03-30
The photo-induced enhancement of second harmonic generation, and the effect of nanocrystal shape and pump intensity on confined acoustic phonons in semiconductor nanocrystals, has been investigated with time-resolved scattering and absorption measurements. The second harmonic signal showed a sublinear increase of the second order susceptibility with respect to the pump pulse energy, indicating a reduction of the effective one-electron second-order nonlinearity with increasing electron-hole density in the nanocrystals. The coherent acoustic phonons in spherical and rod-shaped semiconductor nanocrystals were detected in a time-resolved absorption measurement. Both nanocrystal morphologies exhibited oscillatory modulation of the absorption cross section, the frequency of which corresponded to their coherent radial breathing modes. The amplitude of the oscillation also increased with the level of photoexcitation, suggesting an increase in the amplitude of the lattice displacement as well.
Acoustic mode vibrational anharmonicity of hexahelometallate crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jain, Sanjeev Kumar; Goyal, R. P.; Gupta, B. R. K.
1992-11-01
The vibrational anharmonicity and Grüneisen parameters of hexahelometallate A 2MX 6 single crystals have been determined theoretically by making use of phonon lattice theory. The potential model employed to calculate these properties consists of long range coulomb, three body interactions, short range overlap repulsion effective upto the nearest neighbour ions and phonon-lattice interactions. These antifluorite structure compounds contain large MX 2-6- ions and as the interionic spacings are much greater than those of the alkaline-earth fluorite structure halides, their elastic constants are correspondingly smaller. The hydrostatic pressure derivatives of the second order elastic constants (SOEC) calculated for K 2SnCl 6, K 2ReCl 6, (NH 4) 2SnCl 6, (NH 4) 2TeCl 6, (NH 4) 2SnBr 6, and (NH 4) 2TeBr 6, are found to be positive and close to the experimental values. The vibrational anharmonicities of the long-wavelength modes are explained in terms of the acoustic mode Grüneisen parameters.
Dynamical aspects of phonon-phonon coupling in collective mode damping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cataldo, H. M.; Hernández, E. S.; Dorso, C. O.
1987-04-01
We present an extension of the Quantal Brownian Motion (QBM) model of vibration damping that incorporates phonon-phonon or phonon-(two-particle-two-hole) interactions as sources of dissipative evolution of the excited mode. Starting from the Schrödinger-on Neumann equation of motion, a reduction procedure combined with the proper approximations leads to coupled, nonlinear master equations for the density vectors of the separate oscillators. The fermionic heat bath remains equilibrated at temperature T. The evolution of the phonon system is numerically analyzed under different initial conditions that simulate excitation of one or more collective vibrations, for several strengths of mode-mode coupling. It is found that in the majority of cases the system reaches statistical equilibrium with relaxation times that can be extracted from the numerical treatment.
Dispersion of doppleron-phonon modes in strong coupling regime.
Gudkov, V V; Zhevstovskikh, I V
2004-04-01
The dispersion equation for doppleron-phonon modes was constructed and solved analytically in the strong coupling regime. The Fermi surface model proposed previously for calculating the doppleron spectrum in an indium crystal was used. It was shown that in the vicinity of doppleron-phonon resonance, the dispersion curves of coupled modes form a gap qualitatively different from the one observed under helicon-phonon resonance: there is a frequency interval forbidden for existence of waves of definite circular polarization depending upon direction of the external DC magnetic field. The physical reason for it is interaction of the waves which have oppositely directed group velocities. PMID:15047286
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zou, Qiushun; Yu, Tianbao; Liu, Jiangtao; Liu, Nianhua; Wang, Tongbiao; Liao, Qinghua
2015-09-01
We report an acoustic multimode interference effect and self-imaging phenomena in an acoustic multimode waveguide system which consists of M parallel phononic crystal waveguides (M-PnCWs). Results show that the self-imaging principle remains applicable for acoustic waveguides just as it does for optical multimode waveguides. To achieve the dispersions and replicas of the input acoustic waves produced along the propagation direction, we performed the finite element method on M-PnCWs, which support M guided modes within the target frequency range. The simulation results show that single images (including direct and mirrored images) and N-fold images (N is an integer) are identified along the propagation direction with asymmetric and symmetric incidence discussed separately. The simulated positions of the replicas agree well with the calculated values that are theoretically decided by self-imaging conditions based on the guided mode propagation analysis. Moreover, the potential applications based on this self-imaging effect for acoustic wavelength de-multiplexing and beam splitting in the acoustic field are also presented.
Numerical investigation of diffraction of acoustic waves by phononic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moiseyenko, Rayisa P.; Declercq, Nico F.; Laude, Vincent
2012-05-01
Diffraction as well as transmission of acoustic waves by two-dimensional phononic crystals (PCs) composed of steel rods in water are investigated in this paper. The finite element simulations were performed in order to compute pressure fields generated by a line source that are incident on a finite size PC. Such field maps are analyzed based on the complex band structure for the infinite periodic PC. Finite size computations indicate that the exponential decrease of the transmission at deaf frequencies is much stronger than that in Bragg band gaps.
Nardi, Damiano; Travagliati, Marco; Siemens, Mark E; Li, Qing; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C; Ferrini, Gabriele; Parmigiani, Fulvio; Banfi, Francesco
2011-10-12
High-frequency surface acoustic waves can be generated by ultrafast laser excitation of nanoscale patterned surfaces. Here we study this phenomenon in the hypersonic frequency limit. By modeling the thermomechanics from first-principles, we calculate the system's initial heat-driven impulsive response and follow its time evolution. A scheme is introduced to quantitatively access frequencies and lifetimes of the composite system's excited eigenmodes. A spectral decomposition of the calculated response on the eigemodes of the system reveals asymmetric resonances that result from the coupling between surface and bulk acoustic modes. This finding allows evaluation of impulsively excited pseudosurface acoustic wave frequencies and lifetimes and expands our understanding of the scattering of surface waves in mesoscale metamaterials. The model is successfully benchmarked against time-resolved optical diffraction measurements performed on one-dimensional and two-dimensional surface phononic crystals, probed using light at extreme ultraviolet and near-infrared wavelengths. PMID:21910426
2011-01-01
High-frequency surface acoustic waves can be generated by ultrafast laser excitation of nanoscale patterned surfaces. Here we study this phenomenon in the hypersonic frequency limit. By modeling the thermomechanics from first-principles, we calculate the system’s initial heat-driven impulsive response and follow its time evolution. A scheme is introduced to quantitatively access frequencies and lifetimes of the composite system’s excited eigenmodes. A spectral decomposition of the calculated response on the eigemodes of the system reveals asymmetric resonances that result from the coupling between surface and bulk acoustic modes. This finding allows evaluation of impulsively excited pseudosurface acoustic wave frequencies and lifetimes and expands our understanding of the scattering of surface waves in mesoscale metamaterials. The model is successfully benchmarked against time-resolved optical diffraction measurements performed on one-dimensional and two-dimensional surface phononic crystals, probed using light at extreme ultraviolet and near-infrared wavelengths. PMID:21910426
Temperature dependent phonon mode coupling in YBCO_6.95
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stercel, Ferenc; Chung, Jae-Ho; Egami, Takeshi; Mook, Herb; Frost, Chris
2004-03-01
While the majority in the field of high-temperature superconductivity believe in the magnetic mechanism, experimental evidence of phonon involvement is increasing. We carried out inelastic neutron scattering measurements of c-axis phonons with a YBa_2Cu_3O_6.95 single crystal at the MAPS of the ISIS facility. We found distinct temperature dependence of the 63 meV apical oxygen phonon mode, which correlates well with that of the in-plane Cu-O bond-stretching phonon mode observed earlier. The result indicates that the coupling between the two modes changes with temperature, similar to the superconducting order parameter. The coupling is mainly due to the Coulomb repulsion between the in-plane oxygen and the apical oxygen. The phonon-induced hole transfer from oxygen to copper introduces attractive force and offsets this repulsion. The observed effect can be explained by the enhancement of offset due to the off-diagonal transfer of Cooper pairs. Thus this observation constitutes the direct confirmation of involvement of the in-plane Cu-O bond-stretching phonons in the superconductivity of YBCO_6.95.
Temperature dependence of Brillouin light scattering spectra of acoustic phonons in silicon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olsson, Kevin S.; Klimovich, Nikita; An, Kyongmo; Sullivan, Sean; Weathers, Annie; Shi, Li; Li, Xiaoqin
2015-02-01
Electrons, optical phonons, and acoustic phonons are often driven out of local equilibrium in electronic devices or during laser-material interaction processes. The need for a better understanding of such non-equilibrium transport processes has motivated the development of Raman spectroscopy as a local temperature sensor of optical phonons and intermediate frequency acoustic phonons, whereas Brillouin light scattering (BLS) has recently been explored as a temperature sensor of low-frequency acoustic phonons. Here, we report the measured BLS spectra of silicon at different temperatures. The origins of the observed temperature dependence of the BLS peak position, linewidth, and intensity are examined in order to evaluate their potential use as temperature sensors for acoustic phonons.
Temperature dependence of Brillouin light scattering spectra of acoustic phonons in silicon
Olsson, Kevin S.; Klimovich, Nikita; An, Kyongmo; Sullivan, Sean; Weathers, Annie; Shi, Li E-mail: elaineli@physics.utexas.edu; Li, Xiaoqin E-mail: elaineli@physics.utexas.edu
2015-02-02
Electrons, optical phonons, and acoustic phonons are often driven out of local equilibrium in electronic devices or during laser-material interaction processes. The need for a better understanding of such non-equilibrium transport processes has motivated the development of Raman spectroscopy as a local temperature sensor of optical phonons and intermediate frequency acoustic phonons, whereas Brillouin light scattering (BLS) has recently been explored as a temperature sensor of low-frequency acoustic phonons. Here, we report the measured BLS spectra of silicon at different temperatures. The origins of the observed temperature dependence of the BLS peak position, linewidth, and intensity are examined in order to evaluate their potential use as temperature sensors for acoustic phonons.
Optical and acoustic sensing using Fano-like resonances in dual phononic and photonic crystal plate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amoudache, Samira; Moiseyenko, Rayisa; Pennec, Yan; Rouhani, Bahram Djafari; Khater, Antoine; Lucklum, Ralf; Tigrine, Rachid
2016-03-01
We perform a theoretical study based on the transmissions of optical and acoustic waves normally impinging to a periodic perforated silicon plate when the embedded medium is a liquid and show the existence of Fano-like resonances in both cases. The signature of the resonances appears as well-defined asymmetric peaks in the phononic and photonic transmission spectra. We show that the origin of the Fano-like resonances is different with respect to the nature of the wave. In photonic, the origin comes from guided modes in the photonic plate while in phononic we show that it comes from the excitation of standing waves confined inside the cavity coming from the deformation of the water/silicon edges of the cylindrical inclusion. We finally use these features for sensing and show ultra-sensitivity to the light and sound velocities for different concentrations of analytes.
Coherent acoustic phonons in YBa2Cu3O7/La1/3Ca2/3MnO3 superlattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Wei; He, Bin; Zhang, Chunfeng; Liu, Shenghua; Liu, Xiaoran; Middey, S.; Chakhalian, J.; Wang, Xiaoyong; Xiao, Min
2016-03-01
We investigate photo-induced coherent acoustic phonons in complex oxide superlattices consisting of high-Tc superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-x and ferromagnetic manganite La1/3Ca2/3MnO3 epitaxial layers with broadband pump-probe spectroscopy. Two oscillatory components have been observed in time-resolved differential reflectivity spectra. Based on the analysis, the slow oscillation mode with a frequency sensitive to the probe wavelength is ascribed to the stimulated Brillouin scattering due to the photon reflection by propagating train of coherent phonons. The fast oscillation mode with a probe-wavelength-insensitive frequency is attributed to the Bragg oscillations caused by specular phonon reflections at oxide interfaces or the electron-coupling induced modulation due to free carrier absorption in the metallic superlattices. Our findings suggest that oxide superlattice is an ideal system to tailor the coherent behaviors of acoustic phonons and to manipulate the thermal and acoustic properties.
Coupling of Excitons and Discrete Acoustic Phonons in Vibrationally Isolated Quantum Emitters.
Werschler, Florian; Hinz, Christopher; Froning, Florian; Gumbsheimer, Pascal; Haase, Johannes; Negele, Carla; de Roo, Tjaard; Mecking, Stefan; Leitenstorfer, Alfred; Seletskiy, Denis V
2016-09-14
The photoluminescence emission by mesoscopic condensed matter is ultimately dictated by the fine-structure splitting of the fundamental exciton into optically allowed and dipole-forbidden states. In epitaxially grown semiconductor quantum dots, nonradiative equilibration between the fine-structure levels is mediated by bulk acoustic phonons, resulting in asymmetric spectral broadening of the excitonic luminescence. In isolated colloidal quantum dots, spatial confinement of the vibrational motion is expected to give rise to an interplay between the quantized electronic and phononic degrees of freedom. In most cases, however, zero-dimensional colloidal nanocrystals are strongly coupled to the substrate such that the charge relaxation processes are still effectively governed by the bulk properties. Here we show that encapsulation of single colloidal CdSe/CdS nanocrystals into individual organic polymer shells allows for systematic vibrational decoupling of the semiconductor nanospheres from the surroundings. In contrast to epitaxially grown quantum dots, simultaneous quantization of both electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom results in a series of strong and narrow acoustic phonon sidebands observed in the photoluminescence. Furthermore, an individual analysis of more than 200 compound particles reveals that enhancement or suppression of the radiative properties of the fundamental exciton is controlled by the interaction between fine-structure states via the discrete vibrational modes. For the first time, pronounced resonances in the scattering rate between the fine-structure states are directly observed, in good agreement with a quantum mechanical model. The unambiguous assignment of mediating acoustic modes to the observed scattering resonances complements the experimental findings. Thus, our results form an attractive basis for future studies on subterahertz quantum opto-mechanics and efficient laser cooling at the nanoscale. PMID:27550902
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iyer, Srikanth S.; Candler, Robert N.
2016-03-01
In this work, we determine the intrinsic mechanical energy dissipation limit for single-crystal resonators due to anharmonic phonon-phonon scattering in the Akhiezer (Ω τ ≪1 ) regime. The energy loss is derived using perturbation theory and the linearized Boltzmann transport equation for phonons, and includes the direction- and polarization-dependent mode-Grüneisen parameters in order to capture the strain-induced anharmonicity among phonon branches. This expression reveals the fundamental differences among the internal friction limits for different types of bulk-mode elastic waves. For cubic crystals, 2D-extensional modes have increased dissipation compared to width-extensional modes because the biaxial deformation opposes the natural Poisson contraction of the solid. Additionally, we show that shear-mode vibrations, which preserve volume, have significantly reduced energy loss because dissipative phonon-phonon scattering is restricted to pure-shear phonon branches, indicating that Lamé- or wineglass-mode resonators will have the highest upper limit on mechanical efficiency. Finally, we employ key simplifications to evaluate the quality factor limits for common mode shapes in single-crystal silicon devices, explicitly including the correct effective elastic storage moduli for different vibration modes and crystal orientations. Our expression satisfies the pressing need for a reliable analytical model that can predict the phonon-phonon dissipation limits for modern resonant microelectromechanical systems, where precise manufacturing techniques and accurate finite-element methods can be used to select particular vibrational mode shapes and crystal orientations.
Anharmonicity and necessity of phonon eigenvectors in the phonon normal mode analysis
Feng, Tianli; Qiu, Bo; Ruan, Xiulin
2015-05-21
It is well known that phonon frequencies can shift from their harmonic values when elevated to a finite temperature due to the anharmonicity of interatomic potential. Here, we show that phonon eigenvectors also have shifts, but only for compound materials in which each atom has at least two types of anharmonic interactions with other atoms. Using PbTe as the model material, we show that the shifts in some phonon modes may reach as much as 50% at 800 K. Phonon eigenvectors are used in normal mode analysis (NMA) to predict phonon relaxation times and thermal conductivity. We show, from both analytical derivations and numerical simulations, that the eigenvectors are unnecessary in frequency-domain NMA, which gives a critical revision of previous knowledge. This simplification makes the calculation in frequency-domain NMA more convenient since no separate lattice dynamics calculations are needed. On the other hand, we expect our finding of anharmonic eigenvectors may make difference in time-domain NMA and other areas, like wave-packet analysis.
Acoustic phonon dynamics in thin-films of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}
Glinka, Yuri D.; Babakiray, Sercan; Johnson, Trent A.; Holcomb, Mikel B.; Lederman, David
2015-04-28
Transient reflectivity traces measured for nanometer-sized films (6–40 nm) of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} revealed GHz-range oscillations driven within the relaxation of hot carriers photoexcited with ultrashort (∼100 fs) laser pulses of 1.51 eV photon energy. These oscillations have been suggested to result from acoustic phonon dynamics, including coherent longitudinal acoustic phonons in the form of standing acoustic waves. An increase of oscillation frequency from ∼35 to ∼70 GHz with decreasing film thickness from 40 to 15 nm was attributed to the interplay between two different regimes employing traveling-acoustic-waves for films thicker than 40 nm and the film bulk acoustic wave resonator (FBAWR) modes for films thinner than 40 nm. The amplitude of oscillations decays rapidly for films below 15 nm thick when the indirect intersurface coupling in Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} films switches the FBAWR regime to that of the Lamb wave excitation. The frequency range of coherent longitudinal acoustic phonons is in good agreement with elastic properties of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}.
Morozovska, Anna N.; Vysochanskii, Yulian M.; Varenyk, Oleksandr V.; Silibin, Maxim V.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Eliseev, Eugene A.
2015-09-29
The impact of the flexoelectric effect on the generalized susceptibility and soft phonon dispersion is not well known in the long-range-ordered phases of ferroics. Within the Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire approach we obtained analytical expressions for the generalized susceptibility and phonon dispersion relations in the ferroelectric phase. The joint action of the static and dynamic flexoelectric effects induces nondiagonal components of the generalized susceptibility, whose amplitude is proportional to the convolution of the spontaneous polarization with the flexocoupling constants. The flexocoupling essentially broadens the k spectrum of the generalized susceptibility and leads to an additional “pushing away” of the optical and acoustic soft mode phonon branches. The degeneracy of the transverse optical and acoustic modes disappears in the ferroelectric phase in comparison with the paraelectric phase due to the joint action of flexoelectric coupling and ferroelectric nonlinearity. Lastly, the results obtained might be mainly important for theoretical analyses of a broad spectrum of experimental data, including neutron and Brillouin scattering.
Morozovska, Anna N.; Vysochanskii, Yulian M.; Varenyk, Oleksandr V.; Silibin, Maxim V.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Eliseev, Eugene A.
2015-09-29
The impact of the flexoelectric effect on the generalized susceptibility and soft phonon dispersion is not well known in the long-range-ordered phases of ferroics. Within the Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire approach we obtained analytical expressions for the generalized susceptibility and phonon dispersion relations in the ferroelectric phase. The joint action of the static and dynamic flexoelectric effects induces nondiagonal components of the generalized susceptibility, whose amplitude is proportional to the convolution of the spontaneous polarization with the flexocoupling constants. The flexocoupling essentially broadens the k spectrum of the generalized susceptibility and leads to an additional “pushing away” of the optical and acoustic softmore » mode phonon branches. The degeneracy of the transverse optical and acoustic modes disappears in the ferroelectric phase in comparison with the paraelectric phase due to the joint action of flexoelectric coupling and ferroelectric nonlinearity. Lastly, the results obtained might be mainly important for theoretical analyses of a broad spectrum of experimental data, including neutron and Brillouin scattering.« less
Phonon transport at interfaces: Determining the correct modes of vibration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gordiz, Kiarash; Henry, Asegun
2016-01-01
For many decades, phonon transport at interfaces has been interpreted in terms of phonons impinging on an interface and subsequently transmitting a certain fraction of their energy into the other material. It has also been largely assumed that when one joins two bulk materials, interfacial phonon transport can be described in terms of the modes that exist in each material separately. However, a new formalism for calculating the modal contributions to thermal interface conductance with full inclusion of anharmonicity has been recently developed, which now offers a means for checking the validity of this assumption. Here, we examine the assumption of using the bulk materials' modes to describe the interfacial transport. The results indicate that when two materials are joined, a new set of vibrational modes are required to correctly describe the transport. As the modes are analyzed, certain classifications emerge and some of the most important modes are localized at the interface and can exhibit large conductance contributions that cannot be explained by the current physical picture based on transmission probability.
Acoustic phonons and strain in core/shell nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kloeffel, Christoph; Trif, Mircea; Loss, Daniel
2014-09-01
We study theoretically the low-energy phonons and the static strain in cylindrical core/shell nanowires (NWs). Assuming pseudomorphic growth, isotropic media, and a force-free wire surface, we derive algebraic expressions for the dispersion relations, the displacement fields, and the stress and strain components from linear elasticity theory. Our results apply to NWs with arbitrary radii and arbitrary elastic constants for both core and shell. The expressions for the static strain are consistent with experiments, simulations, and previous analytical investigations; those for phonons are consistent with known results for homogeneous NWs. Among other things, we show that the dispersion relations of the torsional, longitudinal, and flexural modes change differently with the relative shell thickness, and we identify new terms in the corresponding strain tensors that are absent for uncapped NWs. We illustrate our results via the example of Ge/Si core/shell NWs and demonstrate that shell-induced strain has large effects on the hole spectrum of these systems.
Empirical mode decomposition for analyzing acoustical signals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huang, Norden E. (Inventor)
2005-01-01
The present invention discloses a computer implemented signal analysis method through the Hilbert-Huang Transformation (HHT) for analyzing acoustical signals, which are assumed to be nonlinear and nonstationary. The Empirical Decomposition Method (EMD) and the Hilbert Spectral Analysis (HSA) are used to obtain the HHT. Essentially, the acoustical signal will be decomposed into the Intrinsic Mode Function Components (IMFs). Once the invention decomposes the acoustic signal into its constituting components, all operations such as analyzing, identifying, and removing unwanted signals can be performed on these components. Upon transforming the IMFs into Hilbert spectrum, the acoustical signal may be compared with other acoustical signals.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, T.; Ke, M.; Qiu, C.; Liu, Z.
2016-06-01
We present the design for an acoustic system that can achieve particle trapping and transport using the acoustic force field above a phononic crystal plate. The phononic crystal plate comprised a thin brass plate with periodic slits alternately embedded with two kinds of elastic inclusions. Enhanced acoustic transmission and localized acoustic fields were achieved when the structure was excited by external acoustic waves. Because of the different resonant frequencies of the two elastic inclusions, the acoustic field could be controlled via the working frequency. Particles were transported between adjacent traps under the influence of the adjustable acoustic field. This device provides a new and versatile avenue for particle manipulation that would complement other means of particle manipulation.
Optical phonon modes in rhombohedral boron monosulfide under high pressure
Cherednichenko, Kirill A.; Sokolov, Petr S.; Solozhenko, Vladimir L.; Kalinko, Aleksandr; Le Godec, Yann; Polian, Alain; Itié, Jean-Paul
2015-05-14
Raman spectra of rhombohedral boron monosulfide (r-BS) were measured under pressures up to 34 GPa at room temperature. No pressure-induced structural phase transition was observed, while strong pressure shift of Raman bands towards higher wavenumbers has been revealed. IR spectroscopy as a complementary technique has been used in order to completely describe the phonon modes of r-BS. All experimentally observed bands have been compared with theoretically calculated ones and modes assignment has been performed. r-BS enriched by {sup 10}B isotope was synthesized, and the effect of boron isotopic substitution on Raman spectra was observed and analyzed.
Mante, Pierre-Adrien; Huang, Yu-Ru; Yang, Szu-Chi; Liu, Tzu-Ming; Maznev, Alexei A; Sheu, Jinn-Kong; Sun, Chi-Kuang
2015-02-01
Thanks to ultrafast acoustics, a better understanding of acoustic dynamics on a short time scale has been obtained and new characterization methods at the nanoscale have been developed. Among the materials that were studied during the development of ultrafast acoustics, nitride based heterostructures play a particular role due to their piezoelectric properties and the possibility to generate phonons with over-THz frequency and bandwidth. Here, we review some of the work performed using this type of structure, with a focus on THz phonon spectroscopy and nanoscopy. First, we present a brief description of the theory of coherent acoustic phonon generation by piezoelectric heterostructure. Then the first experimental observation of coherent acoustic phonon generated by the absorption of ultrashort light pulses in piezoelectric heterostructures is presented. From this starting point, we then present some methods developed to realize customizable phonon generation. Finally we review some more recent applications of these structures, including imaging with a nanometer resolution, broadband attenuation measurements with a frequency up to 1THz and phononic bandgap characterization. PMID:25455189
Gravitational wave detection with high frequency phonon trapping acoustic cavities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goryachev, Maxim; Tobar, Michael E.
2014-11-01
There are a number of theoretical predictions for astrophysical and cosmological objects, which emit high frequency (1 06-1 09 Hz ) gravitation waves (GW) or contribute somehow to the stochastic high frequency GW background. Here we propose a new sensitive detector in this frequency band, which is based on existing cryogenic ultrahigh quality factor quartz bulk acoustic wave cavity technology, coupled to near-quantum-limited SQUID amplifiers at 20 mK. We show that spectral strain sensitivities reaching 1 0-22 per √{Hz } per mode is possible, which in principle can cover the frequency range with multiple (>100 ) modes with quality factors varying between 1 06 and 1 010 allowing wide bandwidth detection. Due to its compactness and well-established manufacturing process, the system is easily scalable into arrays and distributed networks that can also impact the overall sensitivity and introduce coincidence analysis to ensure no false detections.
Measurement of the acoustic-to-optical phonon coupling in multicomponent systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caretta, Antonio; Donker, Michiel C.; Perdok, Diederik W.; Abbaszadeh, Davood; Polyakov, Alexey O.; Havenith, Remco W. A.; Palstra, Thomas T. M.; van Loosdrecht, Paul H. M.
2015-02-01
In this paper we investigate the acoustic-to-optical up-conversion phonon processes in a multicomponent system. These processes take place during heat transport and limit the efficiency of heat flow. By combining time-resolved optical and heat capacity experiments we quantify the thermal coupling constant to be g ˜0.4 1017 W/Km3 . The method is based on selective excitation of a part of a multicomponent system, and the measurement of the thermalization dynamics by probing the linear birefringence of the sample with femtosecond resolution. In particular, we study a layered multiferroic organic-inorganic hybrid, in the vicinity of the ferroelectric phase transition. A diverging term of the heat capacity is associated to soft-mode dynamics, in agreement with previous spectroscopy measurements.
Acoustic-phonon-limited mobility and giant phonon-drag thermopower in MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures
Tsaousidou, M.
2013-12-04
We present numerical simulations for the acoustic-phonon-limited mobility, μ{sub ac}, in two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) confined in MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures for temperatures 0.4–20 K. The calculations are based on the semiclassical Boltzmann equation. We examine two 2DEGs with sheet densities 1.4 and 7×10{sup 15} m{sup −2}. Good agreement is found with recent experimental data without any adjustable parameter. We also calculate the contribution to thermopower that arises due to the phonon wind set up by a temperature gradient (the so-called phonon-drag thermopower, S{sup g}). A giant magnitude of S{sup g} is predicted that exceeds 50–100 mV/K at 5 K depending on the sheet density. Our findings suggest that the ZnO based heterostructures could be promising materials for thermoelectric applications at low temperatures.
Rotating Microphone Rake Measures Spinning Acoustic Modes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Konno, Kevin E.; Hausmann, Clifford R.
1996-01-01
Rotating rake of pressure transducers developed for use in experimental studies of sources and propagation of noise generated by subsonic fan engines. Pressure transducers used as microphones to measure acoustic modes generated by, and spin with, fans. Versatility of control software used in rake-drive system enables measurements of acoustic modes on wide range of test-engine configurations. Rake-drive hardware easily adapted to different engines because not mechanically coupled to engine under test.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pop, Eric; Dutton, Robert W.; Goodson, Kenneth E.
2004-11-01
We describe the implementation of a Monte Carlo model for electron transport in silicon. The model uses analytic, nonparabolic electron energy bands, which are computationally efficient and sufficiently accurate for future low-voltage (<1V) nanoscale device applications. The electron-lattice scattering is incorporated using an isotropic, analytic phonon-dispersion model, which distinguishes between the optical/acoustic and the longitudinal/transverse phonon branches. We show that this approach avoids introducing unphysical thresholds in the electron distribution function, and that it has further applications in computing detailed phonon generation spectra from Joule heating. A set of deformation potentials for electron-phonon scattering is introduced and shown to yield accurate transport simulations in bulk silicon across a wide range of electric fields and temperatures. The shear deformation potential is empirically determined at Ξu=6.8eV, and consequently, the isotropically averaged scattering potentials with longitudinal and transverse acoustic phonons are DLA=6.39eV and DTA=3.01eV, respectively, in reasonable agreement with previous studies. The room-temperature electron mobility in strained silicon is also computed and shown to be in better agreement with the most recent phonon-limited data available. As a result, we find that electron coupling with g-type phonons is about 40% lower, and the coupling with f-type phonons is almost twice as strong as previously reported.
Temperature insensitive mass sensing of mode selected phononic crystal cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Peng; Li, Feng; Liu, Yongshun; Shu, Fengfeng; Wu, Junfeng; Wu, Yihui
2015-12-01
Phononic crystal cavities with high quality (Q) factors are attractive in both signal processing and sensing applications. In this paper, 2D phononic crystal point defect cavities are fabricated on silicon slabs by micro electromechanical system (MEMS) technologies. An electrode design method is proposed to enhance displacements of the point defect modes. Then the method is applied to design MEMS resonators with different port numbers, among which Q factor as high as 21 300 is obtained in air. Multiport resonators with transmission measurements are proved to be advantageous over one-port resonators with impedance measurements in frequency resolution. A temperature insensitive resonant mass sensor is designed based on a two-port resonator. Two defect modes with strong responses in the two-port resonator are combined to compensate environmental temperature interference. The temperature compensation experiment reveals that temperature interference is effectively compensated from mass measurement and the mass sensitivity of the sensor is 5.4 Hz ng-1. The conclusion of mode selection or sensing mechanism will help to design resonators or sensors with high performances.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy-Choudhury, Kaushik; Hughes, Stephen
2015-11-01
Electron-phonon coupling in semiconductor quantum dots plays a significant role in determining the optical properties of excited excitons, especially the spectral nature of emitted photons. This paper presents a comprehensive theory and analysis of emission spectra from artificial atoms or quantum dots coupled to structured photon reservoirs and acoustic phonons, when excited with incoherent pump fields. As specific examples of structured reservoirs, we chose a Lorentzian cavity and a slow-light coupled-cavity waveguide, which have both been explored experimentally. For the case of optical cavities, we directly compare and contrast the spectra from three well-known and distinct theoretical approaches to treat electron-phonon coupling, including a Markovian polaron master equation, a non-Markovian phonon correlation expansion technique, and a semiclassical linear susceptibility approach, and we point out the limitations of these models. For the cavity-QED polaron master equation, which treats the cavity-mode operator at the level of a system operator, we give closed form analytical solutions to the phonon-assisted scattering rates in the weak excitation approximation, fully accounting for temperature, cavity-exciton detuning, and cavity-dot coupling. We also show explicitly why the semiclassical linear susceptibility approach fails to correctly account for phonon-mediated cavity feeding. For weakly coupled cavities, we calculate the optical spectra using a more general photon reservoir polaron master-equation approach, and explain its differences from the above approaches in the low-Q limit of a Lorentzian cavity. We subsequently use this general reservoir approach to calculate the emission spectra from quantum dots coupled to slow-light photonic crystal waveguides, which demonstrate a number of striking photon-phonon coupling effects.
Physical mechanisms of coherent acoustic phonons generation by ultrafast laser action.
Ruello, Pascal; Gusev, Vitalyi E
2015-02-01
In this review we address the microscopic mechanisms that are involved in the photogeneration processes of GHz-THz coherent acoustic phonons (CAP) induced by an ultrafast laser pulse. Understanding and describing the underlying physics is necessary indeed for improving the future sources of coherent acoustic phonons useful for the non-destructive testing optoacoustic techniques. Getting more physical insights on these processes also opens new perspectives for the emerging field of the opto-mechanics where lattice motions (surface and/or interfaces ultrafast displacements, nanostructures resonances) are controlled by light. We will then remind the basics of electron-phonon and photon-phonon couplings by discussing the deformation potential mechanism, the thermoelasticity, the inverse piezoelectric effect and the electrostriction in condensed matter. Metals, semiconductors and oxide materials will be discussed. The contribution of all these mechanisms in the photogeneration process of sound will be illustrated over several examples coming from the rich literature. PMID:25038958
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Wen-Chao; Lan, Zhong-Jian; Zhang, Han-Zhuang; Zhang, Han; Jiang, Li
2016-09-01
The properties of phonon-polaritons in Czochralski-grown piezoelectric superlattice (CPSL), are studied theoretically. We propose the phonon-polariton mode of CPSL. The mechanism for polariton coupling is analyzed. We discuss the factors that influence the properties of the phonon-polariton. Some potential applications are also discussed.
On the dispersion of geodesic acoustic modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smolyakov, A. I.; Bashir, M. F.; Elfimov, A. G.; Yagi, M.; Miyato, N.
2016-05-01
The problem of dispersion of geodesic acoustic modes is revisited with two different methods for the solution of the kinetic equation. The dispersive corrections to the mode frequency are calculated by including the m = 2 poloidal harmonics. Our obtained results agree with some earlier results but differ in various ways with other previous works. Limitations and advantages of different approaches are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Chuan; Daniel, Marcus; Grossmann, Martin; Ristow, Oliver; Brick, Delia; Schubert, Martin; Albrecht, Manfred; Dekorsy, Thomas
2014-05-01
Skutterudites are considered as interesting material for thermoelectric applications. Filling foreign atoms into the cagelike structure of a CoSb3 skutterudite is beneficial to its thermoelectric properties by increasing phonon scattering while maintaining the electrical conductivity. In this paper we demonstrate the generation and detection of coherent acoustic phonons in thin films of CoSb3 and partially filled YbxCo4Sb12 skutterudites using femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. By using a pulse-echo method, the longitudinal sound velocity of amorphous and polycrystalline CoSb3 thin films is obtained. For partially filled YbxCo4Sb12 thin films, an obvious decrease of the longitudinal sound velocity is observed at high filling fraction. Concomitantly, the high frequency acoustic phonon modes are strongly damped as the Yb filling fraction increases, which gives direct evidence for acoustic phonon scattering processes. It is shown that the reduction of lattice thermal conductivity after Yb filling is mainly achieved by the strong scattering of acoustic phonons.
Phonon modes in cuprates possibly related to the 10 meV ARPES kink
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merritt, Adrian; Park, Seung-Ryong; Castellan, John-Paul; Gu, Genda; Reznik, Dmitry
One of the possible mechanisms of high Tc superconductivity is Cooper pairing with the help of bosons responsible for kinks in electronic dispersion observed by angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES). Up to now most effort has been devoted to the kinks near 70 meV. More recent ARPES experiments revealed an additional energy scale near 10 meV. Since no magnetic excitations peaked at these energies have been identified, the likeliest candidates appear to be phonons. We recently performed measurements of low-energy phonons in a large single crystal sample of optimally-doped 2212 BSCCO. We measured all phonons below 15 meV. There are many branches, in particular an optic branch disperses from 7 meV from the zone center with an anticrossing with an acoustic branch near h =0.2. In addition, there is evidence for a very low energy branch dispersing through 3-4 meV. I will present these results as well as similar data on LSCO and YBCO. A comparison with recent ultrafast optics experiment detecting lattice modes around 10 meV will also be made. This work was supported by the DOE Basic Energy Sciences Neutron Scattering Program.
Direct measurement of coherent subterahertz acoustic phonons mean free path in GaAs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Legrand, R.; Huynh, A.; Jusserand, B.; Perrin, B.; Lemaître, A.
2016-05-01
The phonon mean free path is generally inferred from the measurement of thermal conductivity and we are still lacking precise information on this quantity. Recent advances in the field of high-frequency phonons transduction using semiconductor superlattices give the opportunity to fill this gap. We present experimental results on the attenuation of longitudinal acoustic phonons in GaAs in the frequency and temperature ranges 0.2-1 THz and 10-80 K respectively. Surprisingly, we observe a plateau in the frequency dependence of the attenuation above 0.7 THz, that we ascribe to a breakdown of Herring processes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Yabin; Fernez, Nicolas; Pennec, Yan; Bonello, Bernard; Moiseyenko, Rayisa P.; Hémon, Stéphanie; Pan, Yongdong; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram
2016-02-01
We investigate the properties of a phononic crystal plate with hollow pillars and introduce the existence of whispering-gallery modes (WGMs). We show that by tuning the inner radius of the hollow pillar, these modes can merge inside both Bragg and low frequency band gaps, deserving phononic crystal and acoustic metamaterial applications. These modes can be used as narrow pass bands for which the quality factor can be greatly enhanced by the introduction of an additional cylinder between the hollow cylinder and the plate. We discuss some functionalities of these confined WGM in both Bragg and low frequency gaps for wavelength division in multiplexer devices using heteroradii pillars introduced into waveguide and cavity structures.
Chen, Guodong; Zhang, Ruiwen; Sun, Junqiang; Xie, Heng; Gao, Ya; Feng, Danqi; Xiong, Huang
2014-12-29
We propose a scheme for on-chip all optical mode conversion based on forward stimulated Brillouin scattering in a hybrid phononic-photonic waveguide. To describe the mode conversion the theoretical model of the FSBS is established by taking into account the radiation pressure and the electrostriction force simultaneously. The numerical simulation is carried out for the mode conversion from the fundamental mode E11x to the higher-order mode E21x. The results indicate that the mode conversion efficiency is affected by the waveguide length and the input pump light power, and the highest efficiency can reach upto 88% by considering the influence of optical and acoustic absorption losses in the hybrid waveguide. Additionally, the conversion bandwidth with approximate 12.5 THz can be achieved in 1550nm communication band. This mode converter on-chip is a promising device in the integrated optical systems, which can effectively increase the capacity of silicon data busses for on-chip optical interconnections. PMID:25607172
Theory of rigid-plane phonon modes in layered crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michel, K. H.; Verberck, B.
2012-03-01
The lattice dynamics of low-frequency rigid-plane modes in metallic (graphene multilayers, GML) and in insulating (hexagonal boron-nitride multilayers, BNML) layered crystals is investigated. The frequencies of shearing and compression (stretching) modes depend on the layer number N and are presented in the form of fan diagrams. The results for GML and BNML are very similar. In both cases, only the interactions (van der Waals and Coulomb) between nearest-neighbor planes are effective, while the interactions between more distant planes are screened. A comparison with recent Raman scattering results on low-frequency shear modes in GML [Tan , Nat. Mater., in press, doi:10.1038/nmat3245, (2012)] is made. Relations with the low-lying rigid-plane phonon dispersions in the bulk materials are established. Master curves, which connect the fan diagram frequencies for any given N, are derived. Static and dynamic thermal correlation functions for rigid-layer shear and compression modes are calculated. The results might be of use for the interpretation of friction force experiments on multilayer crystals.
Energetic Particle-induced Geodesic Acoustic Mode
Fu, G.Y.
2008-09-12
A new energetic particle-induced Geodesic Acoustic Mode (EGAM) is shown to exist. The mode frequency, mode structure, and mode destabilization are determined non-perturbatively by energetic particle kinetic effects. In particular the EGAM frequency is found to be substantially lower than the standard GAM frequency. The radial mode width is determined by the energetic particle drift orbit width and can be fairly large for high energetic particle pressure and large safety factor. These results are consistent with the recent experimental observation of the beam- driven n=0 mode in DIII-D. The new mode is important since it can degrade energetic particle confinement as shown in the DIII-D experiments. The new mode may also affect the thermal plasma confinement via its interaction with plasma micro-turbulence.
Evanescent coupling between surface and linear-defect guided modes in phononic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cicek, Ahmet; Salman, Aysevil; Adem Kaya, Olgun; Ulug, Bulent
2016-01-01
Evanescent coupling between surface and linear-defect waveguide modes in a two-dimensional phononic crystal of steel cylinders in air is numerically demonstrated. When the ratio of scatterer radii to the lattice constant is set to 0.47 in the square phononic crystal, the two types of modes start interacting if there is one-row separation between the surface and waveguide. Supercell band structure computations through the Finite Element Method suggest that the waveguide band is displaced significantly, whereas the surface band remains almost intact when the waveguide and surface are in close proximity. The two resultant hybrid bands are such that the coupling length, which varies between 8 and 22 periods, initially changes linearly with frequency, while a much sharper variation is observed towards the top of the lower hybrid band. Such small values facilitate the design of compact devices based on heterogeneous coupling. Finite-element simulations demonstrate bilateral coupling behaviour, where waves incident from either the surface or waveguide can efficiently couple to the other side. The coupling lengths calculated from simulation results are in agreement with the values predicted from the supercell band structure. The possible utilisation of the coupling scheme in sensing applications, especially in acoustic Doppler velocimetry, is discussed.
Coherent heat transport in 2D phononic crystals with acoustic impedance mismatch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arantes, A.; Anjos, V.
2016-03-01
In this work we have calculated the cumulative thermal conductivities of micro-phononic crystals formed by different combinations of inclusions and matrices at a sub-Kelvin temperature regime. The low-frequency phonon spectra (up to tens of GHz) were obtained by solving the generalized wave equation for inhomogeneous media with the plane wave expansion method. The thermal conductivity was calculated from Boltzmann transport theory highlighting the role of the low-frequency thermal phonons and neglecting phonon-phonon scattering. A purely coherent thermal transport regime was assumed throughout the structures. Our findings show that the cumulative thermal conductivity drops dramatically when compared with their bulk counterpart. Depending on the structural composition this reduction may be attributed to the phonon group velocity due to a flattening of the phonon dispersion relation, the extinction of phonon modes in the density of states or due to the presence of complete band gaps. According to the contrast between the inclusions and the matrices, three types of two dimensional phononic crystals were considered: carbon/epoxy, carbon/polyethylene and tungsten/silicon, which correspond respectively to a moderate, strong and very strong mismatch in the mechanical properties of these materials.
Dexterous acoustic trapping and patterning of particles assisted by phononic crystal plate
Wang, Tian; Ke, Manzhu Xu, Shengjun; Feng, Junheng; Qiu, Chunyin; Liu, Zhengyou
2015-04-20
In this letter, we present experimental demonstration of multi-particles trapping and patterning by the artificially engineered acoustic field of phononic crystal plate. Polystyrene particles are precisely trapped and patterned in two dimensional arrays, for example, the square, triangular, or quasi-periodic arrays, depending on the structures of the phononic crystal plates with varying sub-wavelength holes array. Analysis shows that the enhanced acoustic radiation force, induced by the resonant transmission field highly localized near the sub-wavelength apertures, accounts for the particles self-organizing. It can be envisaged that this kind of simple design of phononic crystal plates would pave an alternative route for self-assembly of particles and may be utilized in the lab-on-a-chip devices.
Design of acoustic beam aperture modifier using gradient-index phononic crystals
Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Tittmann, Bernhard R.; Huang, Tony Jun
2012-01-01
This article reports the design concept of a novel acoustic beam aperture modifier using butt-jointed gradient-index phononic crystals (GRIN PCs) consisting of steel cylinders embedded in a homogeneous epoxy background. By gradually tuning the period of a GRIN PC, the propagating direction of acoustic waves can be continuously bent to follow a sinusoidal trajectory in the structure. The aperture of an acoustic beam can therefore be shrunk or expanded through change of the gradient refractive index profiles of the butt-jointed GRIN PCs. Our computational results elucidate the effectiveness of the proposed acoustic beam aperture modifier. Such an acoustic device can be fabricated through a simple process and will be valuable in applications, such as biomedical imaging and surgery, nondestructive evaluation, communication, and acoustic absorbers. PMID:22807585
Optical phonon modes in ordered core-shell CdSe/CdS nanorod arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giugni, Andrea; Das, Gobind; Alabastri, Alessandro; Zaccaria, Remo Proietti; Zanella, Marco; Franchini, Isabella; di Fabrizio, Enzo; Krahne, Roman
2012-03-01
We investigate the optical phonons in “dot-in-a-rod” core-shell CdSe/CdS nanorods at wavelengths resonant with the optical transitions either in the core or in the shell. At a wavelength above the CdS band gap, only CdS phonon modes were detected. In contrast, at excitation in resonance with the core transitions, we observed phonon modes of both the CdSe core and the CdS shell. In laterally ordered nanorod assemblies, the CdS longitudinal-optical phonon mode manifested a low-energy shoulder that could be related to higher-order longitudinal-optical phonon modes. Furthermore, we report on surface-optical modes that originate from the tracklike superstructure of the nanorod assemblies.
Cerenkov emission of acoustic phonons electrically generated from three-dimensional Dirac semimetals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kubakaddi, S. S.
2016-05-01
Cerenkov acoustic phonon emission is theoretically investigated in a three-dimensional Dirac semimetal (3DDS) when it is driven by a dc electric field E. Numerical calculations are made for Cd3As2 in which mobility and electron concentration are large. We find that Cerenkov emission of acoustic phonons takes place when the electron drift velocity vd is greater than the sound velocity vs. This occurs at small E (˜few V/cm) due to large mobility. Frequency (ωq) and angular (θ) distribution of phonon emission spectrum P(ωq, θ) are studied for different electron drift velocities vd (i.e., different E) and electron concentrations ne. The frequency dependence of P(ωq, θ) shows a maximum Pm(ωq, θ) at about ωm ≈ 1 THz and is found to increase with the increasing vd and ne. The value of ωm shifts to higher region for larger ne. It is found that ωm/ne1/3 and Pm(ωq, θ)/ne2/3 are nearly constants. The latter is in contrast with the Pm(ωq, θ)ne1/2 = constant in conventional bulk semiconductor. Each maximum is followed by a vanishing spectrum at nearly "2kf cutoff," where kf is the Fermi wave vector. Angular dependence of P(ωq, θ) and the intensity P(θ) of the phonon emission shows a maximum at an emission angle 45° and is found to increase with increasing vd. P(θ) is found to increase linearly with ne giving the ratio P(θ)/(nevd) nearly a constant. We suggest that it is possible to have the controlled Cerenkov emission and generation of acoustic phonons with the proper choice of E, θ, and ne. 3DDS with large ne and mobility can be a good source of acoustic phonon generation in ˜THz regime.
The perfect soft mode: giant phonon instability in a ferroelectric.
Mackeviciute, R; Ivanov, M; Banys, J; Novak, Nikola; Kutnjak, Zdravko; Wencka, Magdalena; Scott, J F
2013-05-29
Previous studies of unstable ('soft') optical modes in ferroelectrics have reported minimum frequencies of 1 cm(-1) (30 GHz) for underdamped phonons. In this work we fabricate a cylindrical coaxial specimen and rectangular plate waveguide specimens of tris-sarcosine calcium chloride (TSCC) and follow its soft mode several orders of magnitude lower to 1 GHz. Below 30 GHz the relaxation time is probably characteristic of domain wall motion; the new theory of Pakhomov et al (2013 Ferroelectrics at press) predicts 0.5 THz far from TC and a (T - T(C))/T(C) dependence, in agreement with our experimental values. This discovery has implications for GHz electronics such as phased array radar or other voltage-tunable low-loss components. The mean-field frequency description of the soft mode response f(T) is supported via precision calorimetry on TSCC with and without Br-doping. The ferroelectric-antiferroelectric phase transition, previously suggested from high-pressure data, is confirmed at 45 K at 1 atm. PMID:23636937
Observation of induced longitudinal and shear acoustic phonons by Brillouin scattering.
Yoshida, Taisuke; Matsukawa, Mami; Yanagitani, Takahiko
2011-06-01
To improve the accuracy of velocity measurements in the Brillouin scattering technique using weak thermal phonons, we have used induced coherent phonons, which intensify the scattering. To induce phonons in the gigahertz range, we used a c-axis tilted ZnO film transducer that was developed in our laboratory. This allowed us to induce longitudinal and shear acoustic phonons effectively at hypersonic frequencies. As a result, we obtained scattered light in the silica glass sample that was much more intense than that obtained from the thermal phonons. Because the Brillouin scattering from induced phonons was measured, the shift frequency was that of the electric signal applied to the ZnO transducer. Strong peaks lead to a reduction of the measurement time. This is useful for two-dimensional mapping of thin film elasticity using Brillouin scattering. Additionally, Brillouin scattering enables the simultaneous measurement of longitudinal and shear phonon velocities in the sample plane. This opens up a potential new technique for non-destructive elasticity measurements of various materials. PMID:21693407
Geodesic Acoustic Modes Induced by Energetic Particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Tianchun; Berk, Herbert
2009-11-01
A global geodesic acoustic mode driven by energetic particles (EGAM) has been observed in JET[1, 2] and DIII D[3, 4]. The mode is to be treated fully kinetically. The descriptions of the background electrons and ions are based on standard high and low bounce frequency expansion respectively with respect to the mode frequency. However, the energetic ions must be treated without any expansion of ratio between their bounce frequency and the mode frequency since they are comparable. Under electrostatic perturbation, we construct a quadratic form for the wave amplitude, from which an integro-differential equation is derived. In the limit where the drift orbit width is small comparison with the mode width, a differential equation for perturbed electrostatic field is obtained. Solution is obtained both analytically and numerically. We find that beam counterinjection enhances the instability of the mode. Landau damping due to thermal species is investigated.
Geodesic Acoustic Modes Induced by Energetic Particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Tianchun; Berk, Herbert
2009-05-01
A global geodesic acoustic mode driven by energetic particles (EGAM) has been observed in JET[1, 2] and DIII D[3, 4]. The mode is to be treated fully kinetically. The descriptions of the background electrons and ions are based on standard high and low bounce frequency expansion respectively with respect to the mode frequency. However, the energetic ions must be treated without any expansion of ratio between their bounce frequency and the mode frequency since they are comparable. Under electrostatic perturbation, we construct a quadratic form for the wave amplitude, from which an integro-differential equation is derived. In the limit where the drift orbit width is small comparison with the mode width, a differential equation for perturbed electrostatic field is obtained. Solution is obtained both analytically and numerically. We find that beam counterinjection enhances the instability of the mode
Phononic Molecules Studied by Raman Scattering
Lanzillotti-Kimura, N. D.; Fainstein, A.; Jusserand, B.; Lemaitre, A.
2010-01-04
An acoustic nanocavity can confine phonons in such a way that they act like electrons in an atom. By combining two of these phononic-atoms, it is possible to form a phononic 'molecule', with acoustic modes that are similar to the electronic states in a hydrogen molecule. We report Raman scattering experiments performed in a monolithic structure formed by a phononic molecule embedded in an optical cavity. The acoustic mode splitting becomes evident through both the amplification and change of selection rules induced by the optical cavity confinement. The results are in perfect agreement with photoelastic model simulations.
Raman study of phonon modes in ErVO4 single crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guedes, I.; Hirano, Y.; Grimsditch, M.; Wakabayashi, N.; Loong, C.-K.; Boatner, L. A.
2001-08-01
The phonon modes of a pure ErVO4 crystal were determined at room temperature using Raman scattering methods, and the observed frequencies were assigned according to group theory in terms of the internal modes of the VO43- ions and the external modes of the Er(VO4) lattice. The assignments of the phonon modes match well with the overall phonon systematics of the rare-earth orthovanadate series, and the results presented here reinforce the general trend of bonding strength in the zircon series of RVO4, RAsO4, and RPO4 materials.
Hybrid surface-phonon-plasmon polariton modes in graphene/monolayer h-BN heterostructures.
Brar, Victor W; Jang, Min Seok; Sherrott, Michelle; Kim, Seyoon; Lopez, Josue J; Kim, Laura B; Choi, Mansoo; Atwater, Harry
2014-07-01
Infrared transmission measurements reveal the hybridization of graphene plasmons and the phonons in a monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) sheet. Frequency-wavevector dispersion relations of the electromagnetically coupled graphene plasmon/h-BN phonon modes are derived from measurement of nanoresonators with widths varying from 30 to 300 nm. It is shown that the graphene plasmon mode is split into two distinct optical modes that display an anticrossing behavior near the energy of the h-BN optical phonon at 1370 cm(-1). We explain this behavior as a classical electromagnetic strong-coupling with the highly confined near fields of the graphene plasmons allowing for hybridization with the phonons of the atomically thin h-BN layer to create two clearly separated new surface-phonon-plasmon-polariton (SPPP) modes. PMID:24874205
Resonant raman scattering and dispersion of polar optical and acoustic phonons in hexagonal inn
Davydov, V. Yu. Klochikhin, A. A.; Smirnov, A. N.; Strashkova, I. Yu.; Krylov, A. S.; Lu Hai; Schaff, William J.; Lee, H.-M.; Hong, Y.-L.; Gwo, S.
2010-02-15
It is shown that a study of the dependence of impurity-related resonant first-order Raman scattering on the frequency of excitation light makes it possible to observe the dispersion of polar optical and acoustic branches of vibrational spectrum in hexagonal InN within a wide range of wave vectors. It is established that the wave vectors of excited phonons are uniquely related to the energy of excitation photon. Frequencies of longitudinal optical phonons E{sub 1}(LO) and A{sub 1}(LO) in hexagonal InN were measured in the range of excitation-photon energies from 2.81 to 1.17 eV and the frequencies of longitudinal acoustic phonons were measured in the range 2.81-1.83 eV of excitation-photon energies. The obtained dependences made it possible to extrapolate the dispersion of phonons A{sub 1}(LO) and E{sub 1}(LO) to as far as the point {Gamma} in the Brillouin zone and estimate the center-band energies of these phonons (these energies have not been uniquely determined so far).
Persson, A. I. H.; Andreasson, B. P.; Enquist, H.; Jurgilaitis, A.; Larsson, J.
2015-11-14
The spectrum of laser-generated acoustic phonons in indium antimonide coated with a thin nickel film has been studied using time-resolved x-ray diffraction. Strain pulses that can be considered to be built up from coherent phonons were generated in the nickel film by absorption of short laser pulses. Acoustic reflections at the Ni–InSb interface leads to interference that strongly modifies the resulting phonon spectrum. The study was performed with high momentum transfer resolution together with high time resolution. This was achieved by using a third-generation synchrotron radiation source that provided a high-brightness beam and an ultrafast x-ray streak camera to obtain a temporal resolution of 10 ps. We also carried out simulations, using commercial finite element software packages and on-line dynamic diffraction tools. Using these tools, it is possible to calculate the time-resolved x-ray reflectivity from these complicated strain shapes. The acoustic pulses have a peak strain amplitude close to 1%, and we investigated the possibility to use this device as an x-ray switch. At a bright source optimized for hard x-ray generation, the low reflectivity may be an acceptable trade-off to obtain a pulse duration that is more than an order of magnitude shorter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vardanyan, K. A.; Vartanian, A. L.; Stepanyan, A. G.; Kirakosyan, A. A.
2015-10-01
The spin-relaxation time due to the electron-acoustic phonon scattering in GaAs quantum dots is studied after the exact diagonalization of the electron Hamiltonian with the spin-orbit coupling. It has been shown that in comparison with flexural phonons, the electron coupling with the dilatational phonons causes 3 orders faster spin relaxation. We have found that the relaxation rate of the spin-flip is an order of magnitude smaller than that of the spin- conserving.
Electromagnetic effects on geodesic acoustic modes
Bashir, M. F.; Smolyakov, A. I.; Elfimov, A. G.; Melnikov, A. V.; Murtaza, G.
2014-08-15
By using the full electromagnetic drift kinetic equations for electrons and ions, the general dispersion relation for geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) is derived incorporating the electromagnetic effects. It is shown that m = 1 harmonic of the GAM mode has a finite electromagnetic component. The electromagnetic corrections appear for finite values of the radial wave numbers and modify the GAM frequency. The effects of plasma pressure β{sub e}, the safety factor q, and the temperature ratio τ on GAM dispersion are analyzed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Gang
In this talk, we will discuss different modes of heat conduction in nanostructures. Ballistic transport happens when phonon mean free path is longer than the characteristic size of the structure. We will discuss how we compute phonon mean free path distributions based on first-principles and measure the distributions with optical pump-probe techniques by exploring ballistic phonon transport processes. In superlattice structures, ballistic phonon transport across the whole thickness of the superlattices implies phase coherence. We observed this coherent transport in GaAs/AlAs superlattices with fixed periodic thickness and varying number of periods. Simulations show that although high frequency phonons are scattering by roughness, remaining long wavelength phonons maintain their phase and traverse the superlattices ballistically. Accessing the coherent heat conduction regime opens a new venue for phonon engineering. We show further that phonon heat conduction localization happens in GaAs/AlAs superlattice by placing ErAs nanodots at interfaces. This heat-conduction localization phenomenon is confirmed by nonequilibrium atomic Green's function simulation. These ballistic and localization effects can be exploited to improve thermoelectric energy conversion materials via reducing their thermal conductivity. In another opposite, we will discuss phonon hydrodynamic transport mode in graphene via first-principle simulations. In this mode, phonons drift with an average velocity under a temperature gradient, similar to fluid flow in a pipe. Conditions for observing such phonon hydrodynamic modes will be discussed. Finally, we will talk about the one-dimensional nature of heat conduction in polymer chains. Such 1D nature can lead to divergent thermal conductivity. Inspired by simulation, we have experimentally demonstrated high thermal conductivity in ultra-drawn polyethylene nanofibers and sheets. Work supported by DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number: DE
Long-Lived, Coherent Acoustic Phonon Oscillations in GaN Single Crystals
Wu, S.; Geiser, P.; Jun, J.; Karpinski, J.; Park, J.-R.; Sobolewski, R.
2006-01-31
We report on coherent acoustic phonon (CAP) oscillations studied in high-quality bulk GaN single crystals with a two-color femtosecond optical pump-probe technique. Using a far-above-the-band gap ultraviolet excitation (~270 nm wavelength) and a near-infrared probe beam (~810 nm wavelength), the long-lived, CAP transients were observed within a 10 ns time-delay window between the pump and probe pulses, with a dispersionless (proportional to the probe-beam wave vector) frequency of ~45 GHz. The measured CAP attenuation corresponded directly to the absorption of the probe light in bulk GaN, indicating that the actual (intrinsic) phonon-wave attenuation in our crystals was significantly smaller than the measured 65.8 cm^-1 value. The velocity of the phonon propagation was equal to the velocity of sound in GaN.
Parshall, D.; Pintschovius, L.; Niedziela, Jennifer L.; Castellan, J. -P.; Lamago, D.; Mittal, R.; Wolf, Th.; Reznik, Dmitry
2015-04-27
Pmore » arent compounds of Fe-based superconductors undergo a structural phase transition from a tetragonal to an orthorhombic structure. We investigated the temperature dependence of the frequencies of TA phonons that extrapolate to the shear vibrational mode at the zone center, which corresponds to the orthorhombic deformation of the crystal structure at low temperatures in BaFe2As2 and SrFe2As2. We found that acoustic phonons at small wave vectors soften gradually towards the transition from high temperatures, tracking the increase of the size of slowly fluctuating magnetic domains. On cooling below the transition to base temperature the phonons harden, following the square of the magnetic moment (which we find is proportional to the anisotropy gap). Finally, our results provide evidence for close correlation between magnetic and phonon properties in Fe-based superconductors.« less
Acoustic beam splitting in two-dimensional phononic crystals using self-collimation effect
Li, Jing; Wu, Fugen Zhong, Huilin; Yao, Yuanwei; Zhang, Xin
2015-10-14
We propose two models of self-collimation-based beam splitters in phononic crystals. The finite element method is used to investigate the propagation properties of acoustic waves in two-dimensional phononic crystals. The calculated results show that the efficiency of the beam splitter can be controlled systematically by varying the radius of the rods or by changing the orientation of the square rods in the line defect. The effect of changing the side length of the square rods on acoustic wave propagation is discussed. The results show that the total transmission/reflection range decreases/increases as the side length increases. We also find that the relationship between the orientation of the transflective point and the side length of the square rods is quasi-linear.
Acoustic beam splitting in two-dimensional phononic crystals using self-collimation effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jing; Wu, Fugen; Zhong, Huilin; Yao, Yuanwei; Zhang, Xin
2015-10-01
We propose two models of self-collimation-based beam splitters in phononic crystals. The finite element method is used to investigate the propagation properties of acoustic waves in two-dimensional phononic crystals. The calculated results show that the efficiency of the beam splitter can be controlled systematically by varying the radius of the rods or by changing the orientation of the square rods in the line defect. The effect of changing the side length of the square rods on acoustic wave propagation is discussed. The results show that the total transmission/reflection range decreases/increases as the side length increases. We also find that the relationship between the orientation of the transflective point and the side length of the square rods is quasi-linear.
Electron-acoustic phonon interaction and mobility in stressed rectangular silicon nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Lin-Li
2015-01-01
We investigate the effects of pre-stress and surface tension on the electron-acoustic phonon scattering rate and the mobility of rectangular silicon nanowires. With the elastic theory and the interaction Hamiltonian for the deformation potential, which considers both the surface energy and the acoustoelastic effects, the phonon dispersion relation for a stressed nanowire under spatial confinement is derived. The subsequent analysis indicates that both surface tension and pre-stress can dramatically change the electron-acoustic phonon interaction. Under a negative (positive) surface tension and a tensile (compressive) pre-stress, the electron mobility is reduced (enhanced) due to the decrease (increase) of the phonon energy as well as the deformation-potential scattering rate. This study suggests an alternative approach based on the strain engineering to tune the speed and the drive current of low-dimensional electronic devices. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11472243, 11302189, and 11321202), the Doctoral Fund of Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. 20130101120175), the Zhejiang Provincial Qianjiang Talent Program, China (Grant No. QJD1202012), and the Educational Commission of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. Y201223476).
Goryachev, M.; Creedon, D. L.; Ivanov, E. N.; Tobar, M. E.; Galliou, S.; Bourquin, R.
2014-12-04
We demonstrate that Bulk Acoustic Wave (BAW) quartz resonator cooled down to millikelvin temperatures are excellent building blocks for hybrid quantum systems with extremely long coherence times. Two overtones of the longitudinal mode at frequencies of 15.6 and 65.4 MHz demonstrate a maximum f.Q product of 7.8×10{sup 16} Hz. With this result, the Q-factor in such devices near the quantum ground state can be four orders of magnitude better than previously attained in other mechanical systems. Tested quartz resonators possess the ultra low acoustic losses crucial for electromagnetic cooling to the phonon ground state.
Observation of coherent delocalized phonon-like modes in DNA under physiological conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
González-Jiménez, Mario; Ramakrishnan, Gopakumar; Harwood, Thomas; Lapthorn, Adrian J.; Kelly, Sharon M.; Ellis, Elizabeth M.; Wynne, Klaas
2016-06-01
Underdamped terahertz-frequency delocalized phonon-like modes have long been suggested to play a role in the biological function of DNA. Such phonon modes involve the collective motion of many atoms and are prerequisite to understanding the molecular nature of macroscopic conformational changes and related biochemical phenomena. Initial predictions were based on simple theoretical models of DNA. However, such models do not take into account strong interactions with the surrounding water, which is likely to cause phonon modes to be heavily damped and localized. Here we apply state-of-the-art femtosecond optical Kerr effect spectroscopy, which is currently the only technique capable of taking low-frequency (GHz to THz) vibrational spectra in solution. We are able to demonstrate that phonon modes involving the hydrogen bond network between the strands exist in DNA at physiologically relevant conditions. In addition, the dynamics of the solvating water molecules is slowed down by about a factor of 20 compared with the bulk.
Phonon-Electron Interactions in Piezoelectric Semiconductor Bulk Acoustic Wave Resonators
Gokhale, Vikrant J.; Rais-Zadeh, Mina
2014-01-01
This work presents the first comprehensive investigation of phonon-electron interactions in bulk acoustic standing wave (BAW) resonators made from piezoelectric semiconductor (PS) materials. We show that these interactions constitute a significant energy loss mechanism and can set practical loss limits lower than anharmonic phonon scattering limits or thermoelastic damping limits. Secondly, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that phonon-electron interactions, under appropriate conditions, can result in a significant acoustic gain manifested as an improved quality factor (Q). Measurements on GaN resonators are consistent with the presented interaction model and demonstrate up to 35% dynamic improvement in Q. The strong dependencies of electron-mediated acoustic loss/gain on resonance frequency and material properties are investigated. Piezoelectric semiconductors are an extremely important class of electromechanical materials, and this work provides crucial insights for material choice, material properties, and device design to achieve low-loss PS-BAW resonators along with the unprecedented ability to dynamically tune resonator Q. PMID:25001100
Polarization transport of transverse acoustic waves: Berry phase and spin Hall effect of phonons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bliokh, K. Yu.; Freilikher, V. D.
2006-11-01
We carry out a detailed analysis of the short-wave (semiclassical) approximation for the linear equations of the elasticity in a smoothly inhomogeneous isotropic medium. It is shown that the polarization properties of the transverse waves are completely analogous to those of electromagnetic waves and can be considered as spin properties of optical phonons. In particular, the Hamiltonian of the transverse waves contains an additional term of the phonon spin-orbit interaction arising from the Berry gauge potential in the momentum space. This potential is diagonal in the basis of the circularly polarized waves and corresponds to the field of two “magnetic monopoles” of opposite signs for phonons of opposite helicities. This leads to the appearance of the Berry phase in the equation for the polarization evolution and an additional “anomalous velocity” term in the ray equations. The anomalous velocity has the form of the “Lorentz force” caused by the Berry gauge field in momentum space and gives rise to the transverse transport of waves of opposite helicities in opposite directions. This is a manifestation of the spin Hall effect of optical phonons. The effect directly relates to the conservation of total angular momentum of phonons and also influences reflection from a sharp boundary (acoustic analog of the transverse Ferdorov-Imbert shift).
Dual-mode acoustic wave biosensors microarrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Auner, Gregory W.; Shreve, Gina; Ying, Hao; Newaz, Golam; Hughes, Chantelle; Xu, Jianzeng
2003-04-01
We have develop highly sensitive and selective acoustic wave biosensor arrays with signal analysis systems to provide a fingerprint for the real-time identification and quantification of a wide array of bacterial pathogens and environmental health hazards. We have developed an unique highly sensitive dual mode acoustic wave platform prototype that, when combined with phage based selective detection elements, form a durable bacteria sensor. Arrays of these new real-time biosensors are integrated to form a biosensor array on a chip. This research and development program optimizes advanced piezoelectric aluminum nitride wide bandgap semiconductors, novel micromachining processes, advanced device structures, selective phage displays development and immobilization techniques, and system integration and signal analysis technology to develop the biosensor arrays. The dual sensor platform can be programmed to sense in a gas, vapor or liquid environment by switching between acoustic wave resonate modes. Such a dual mode sensor has tremendous implications for applications involving monitoring of pathogenic microorganisms in the clinical setting due to their ability to detect airborne pathogens. This provides a number of applications including hospital settings such as intensive care or other in-patient wards for the reduction of nosocomial infections and maintenance of sterile environments in surgical suites. Monitoring for airborn pathogen transmission in public transportation areas such as airplanes may be useful for implementation of strategies for redution of airborn transmission routes. The ability to use the same sensor in the liquid sensing mode is important for tracing the source of airborn pathogens to local liquid sources. Sensing of pathogens in saliva will be useful for sensing oral pathogens and support of decision-making strategies regarding prevention of transmission and support of treatment strategies.
An informatics based analysis of the impact of isotope substitution on phonon modes in graphene
Broderick, Scott; Srinivasan, Srikant; Rajan, Krishna; Ray, Upamanyu; Balasubramanian, Ganesh
2014-06-16
It is shown by informatics that the high frequency short ranged modes exert a significant influence in impeding thermal transport through isotope substituted graphene nanoribbons. Using eigenvalue decomposition methods, we have extracted features in the phonon density of states spectra that reveal correlations between isotope substitution and phonon modes. This study also provides a data driven computational framework for the linking of materials chemistry and transport properties in 2D systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrović, A. P.; Lortz, R.; Santi, G.; Decroux, M.; Monnard, H.; Fischer, Ø.; Boeri, L.; Andersen, O. K.; Kortus, J.; Salloum, D.; Gougeon, P.; Potel, M.
2010-12-01
We present electronic-structure calculations, electrical resistivity data, and the first specific-heat measurements in the normal and superconducting states of quasi-one-dimensional M2Mo6Se6 (M=Tl,In,Rb) . Rb2Mo6Se6 undergoes a metal-insulator transition at ˜170K : electronic-structure calculations indicate that this is likely to be driven by the formation of a dynamical charge-density wave. However, Tl2Mo6Se6 and In2Mo6Se6 remain metallic down to low temperature, with superconducting transitions at Tc=4.2K and 2.85 K, respectively. The absence of any metal-insulator transition in these materials is due to a larger in-plane bandwidth, leading to increased interchain hopping which suppresses the density wave instability. Electronic heat-capacity data for the superconducting compounds reveal an exceptionally low density of states DEF=0.055 states eV-1atom-1 , with BCS fits showing 2Δ/kBTc≥5 for Tl2Mo6Se6 and 3.5 for In2Mo6Se6 . Modeling the lattice specific heat with a set of Einstein modes, we obtain the approximate phonon density of states F(ω) . Deconvolving the resistivity for the two superconductors then yields their electron-phonon transport coupling function αtr2F(ω) . In Tl2Mo6Se6 and In2Mo6Se6 , F(ω) is dominated by an optical “guest ion” mode at ˜5meV and a set of acoustic modes from ˜10 to 30 meV. Rb2Mo6Se6 exhibits a similar spectrum; however, the optical phonon has a lower intensity and is shifted to ˜8meV . Electrons in Tl2Mo6Se6 couple strongly to both sets of modes, whereas In2Mo6Se6 only displays significant coupling in the 10-18 meV range. Although pairing is clearly not mediated by the guest ion phonon, we believe it has a beneficial effect on superconductivity in Tl2Mo6Se6 , given its extraordinarily large coupling strength and higher Tc compared to In2Mo6Se6 .
Oscillational instabilities in single mode acoustics levitators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rudnick, J.; Barmatz, Martin
1990-01-01
An extention of standard results for the acoustic force on an object in a single-mode resonant chamber yields predictions for the onset of oscillational instabilities when objects are levitated or positioned in these chambers. The authors' results are consistent with those of experimental investigators. The present approach accounts for the effects of time delays in the response of a cavity to the motion of an object inside of it. Quantitative features of the instabilities are investigated. The experimental conditions required for sample stability, saturation of sample oscillations, hysteretic effects, and the loss of ability to levitate are discussed.
Acoustic microscopy with mixed-mode transducers
Chou, C.H.; Parent, P.; Khuri-Yakub, B.T.
1988-12-31
The new amplitude-phase acoustic microscope is versatile; it operates in a wide frequency range 1--200 MHz, with selection of longitudinal, shear, and mixed modes. This enables it to be used in many NDE applications for different kinds of materials. Besides the application examples presented in this paper (bulk defect imaging of lossy materials or at deep locations; leads of IC chip in epoxy package; amplitude images of surface crack on Si nitride ball bearing; thin Au film on quartz), this system can also be applied for residual stress and anisotropy mapping with high accuracy and good spatial resolution. 7 refs, 6 figs.
Watching surface waves in phononic crystals.
Wright, Oliver B; Matsuda, Osamu
2015-08-28
In this paper, we review results obtained by ultrafast imaging of gigahertz surface acoustic waves in surface phononic crystals with one- and two-dimensional periodicities. By use of quasi-point-source optical excitation, we show how, from a series of images that form a movie of the travelling waves, the dispersion relation of the acoustic modes, their corresponding mode patterns and the position and widths of phonon stop bands can be obtained by temporal and spatio-temporal Fourier analysis. We further demonstrate how one can follow the temporal evolution of phononic eigenstates in k-space using data from phononic-crystal waveguides as an example. PMID:26217053
Zero-frequency and slow elastic modes in phononic monolayer granular membranes.
Zheng, Li-Yang; Pichard, Hélène; Tournat, Vincent; Theocharis, Georgios; Gusev, Vitalyi
2016-07-01
We theoretically study the dispersion properties of elastic waves in hexagonal and honeycomb monolayer granular membranes with either out-of-plane or in-plane particle motion. The particles interact predominantly via normal and transverse contact rigidities. When rotational degrees of freedom are taken into account, the bending and torsional rigidities of the intergrain contacts can control some of the phononic modes. The existence of zero-frequency modes, zero-group-velocity modes and their transformation into slow propagating phononic modes due to weak bending and torsional intergrain interactions are investigated. We also study the formation and manipulation of Dirac cones and multiple degenerated modes. This could motivate variety of potential applications in elastic waves control by manipulating the contact rigidities in granular phononic crystals. PMID:26607105
Oxygen Vacancy Induced Flat Phonon Mode at FeSe /SrTiO3 interface
Xie, Yun; Cao, Hai-Yuan; Zhou, Yang; Chen, Shiyou; Xiang, Hongjun; Gong, Xin-Gao
2015-01-01
A high-frequency optical phonon mode of SrTiO3 (STO) was found to assist the high-temperature superconductivity observed recently at the interface between monolayer FeSe and STO substrate. However, the origin of this mode is not clear. Through first-principles calculations, we find that there is a novel polar phonon mode on the surface layers of the STO substrate, which does not exist in the STO crystals. The oxygen vacancies near the FeSe/STO interface drives the dispersion of this phonon mode to be flat and lowers its energy, whereas the charge transfer between STO substrate and FeSe monolayer further reduces its energy to 81 meV. This energy is in good agreement with the experimental value fitted by Lee et al. for the phonon mode responsible for the observed replica band separations and the increased superconducting gap. The oxygen-vacancy-induced flat and polar phonon mode provides clues for understanding the origin of high Tc superconductivity at the FeSe/STO interface. PMID:26067548
Acoustic phonons in chrysotile asbestos probed by high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering
Mamontov, Eugene; Vakhrushev, S. B.; Kumzerov, Yu. A,; Alatas, A.
2009-01-01
Acoustic phonons in an individual, oriented fiber of chrysotile asbestos (chemical formula Mg{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}) were observed at room temperature in the inelastic x-ray measurement with a very high (meV) resolution. The x-ray scattering vector was aligned along [1 0 0] direction of the reciprocal lattice, nearly parallel to the long axis of the fiber. The latter coincides with [1 0 0] direction of the direct lattice and the axes of the nano-channels. The data were analyzed using a damped harmonic oscillator model. Analysis of the phonon dispersion in the first Brillouin zone yielded the longitudinal sound velocity of (9200 {+-} 600) m/s.
Tunneling times of acoustic phonon packets through a distributed Bragg reflector
2014-01-01
The longwave phenomenological model is used to make simple and precise calculations of various physical quantities such as the vibrational energy density, the vibrational energy, the relative mechanical displacement, and the one-dimensional stress tensor of a porous silicon distributed Bragg reflector. From general principles such as invariance under time reversal, invariance under space reflection, and conservation of energy density flux, the equivalence of the tunneling times for both transmission and reflection is demonstrated. Here, we study the tunneling times of acoustic phonon packets through a distributed Bragg reflector in porous silicon multilayer structures, and we report the possibility that a phenomenon called Hartman effect appears in these structures. PMID:25237288
BLF-SSH polarons coupled to acoustic phonons in the adiabatic limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chandler, Carl J.; Marsiglio, F.
2014-12-01
We survey polaron formation in the Barisić-Labbé-Friedel and Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (BLF-SSH) model using acoustic phonons in the adiabatic limit. Multiple different numerical optimization routines and strong-coupling analytical calculations are used to find a robust ground-state energy for a wide range of coupling strengths. The electronic configuration and accompanying ionic distortions of the polaron were determined, as well as a nonzero critical coupling strength for polaron formation in two and three dimensions.
Tunneling times of acoustic phonon packets through a distributed Bragg reflector.
Lazcano, Zorayda; Valdés Negrín, Pedro Luis; Villegas, Diosdado; Arriaga, Jesus; Pérez-Álvarez, Rolando
2014-01-01
The longwave phenomenological model is used to make simple and precise calculations of various physical quantities such as the vibrational energy density, the vibrational energy, the relative mechanical displacement, and the one-dimensional stress tensor of a porous silicon distributed Bragg reflector. From general principles such as invariance under time reversal, invariance under space reflection, and conservation of energy density flux, the equivalence of the tunneling times for both transmission and reflection is demonstrated. Here, we study the tunneling times of acoustic phonon packets through a distributed Bragg reflector in porous silicon multilayer structures, and we report the possibility that a phenomenon called Hartman effect appears in these structures. PMID:25237288
Controlled exciton transfer between quantum dots with acoustic phonons taken into account
Golovinski, P. A.
2015-09-15
A system of excitons in two quantum dots coupled by the dipole–dipole interaction is investigated. The excitation transfer process controlled by the optical Stark effect at nonresonant frequencies is considered and the effect of the interaction between excitons and acoustic phonons in a medium on this process is taken into account. The system evolution is described using quantum Heisenberg equations. A truncated set of equations is obtained and the transfer dynamics is numerically simulated. High-efficiency picosecond switching of the excitation transfer by a laser pulse with a rectangular envelope is demonstrated. The dependence of picosecond switching on the quantum-dot parameters and optical-pulse length is presented.
Pandya, Ankur; Shinde, Satyam; Jha, Prafulla K.
2015-05-15
In this paper the hot electron transport properties like carrier energy and momentum scattering rates and electron energy loss rates are calculated via interactions of electrons with polar acoustical phonons for Mn doped BN quantum well in BN nanosheets via piezoelectric scattering and deformation potential mechanisms at low temperatures with high electric field. Electron energy loss rate increases with the electric field. It is observed that at low temperatures and for low electric field the phonon absorption is taking place whereas, for sufficient large electric field, phonon emission takes place. Under the piezoelectric (polar acoustical phonon) scattering mechanism, the carrier scattering rate decreases with the reduction of electric field at low temperatures wherein, the scattering rate variation with electric field is limited by a specific temperature beyond which there is no any impact of electric field on such scattering.
Drift effects on electromagnetic geodesic acoustic modes
Sgalla, R. J. F.
2015-02-15
A two fluid model with parallel viscosity is employed to derive the dispersion relation for electromagnetic geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) in the presence of drift (diamagnetic) effects. Concerning the influence of the electron dynamics on the high frequency GAM, it is shown that the frequency of the electromagnetic GAM is independent of the equilibrium parallel current but, in contrast with purely electrostatic GAMs, significantly depends on the electron temperature gradient. The electromagnetic GAM may explain the discrepancy between the f ∼ 40 kHz oscillation observed in tokamak TCABR [Yu. K. Kuznetsov et al., Nucl. Fusion 52, 063044 (2012)] and the former prediction for the electrostatic GAM frequency. The radial wave length associated with this oscillation, estimated presently from this analytical model, is λ{sub r} ∼ 25 cm, i.e., an order of magnitude higher than the usual value for zonal flows (ZFs)
Drift effects on electromagnetic geodesic acoustic modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sgalla, R. J. F.
2015-02-01
A two fluid model with parallel viscosity is employed to derive the dispersion relation for electromagnetic geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) in the presence of drift (diamagnetic) effects. Concerning the influence of the electron dynamics on the high frequency GAM, it is shown that the frequency of the electromagnetic GAM is independent of the equilibrium parallel current but, in contrast with purely electrostatic GAMs, significantly depends on the electron temperature gradient. The electromagnetic GAM may explain the discrepancy between the f ˜ 40 kHz oscillation observed in tokamak TCABR [Yu. K. Kuznetsov et al., Nucl. Fusion 52, 063044 (2012)] and the former prediction for the electrostatic GAM frequency. The radial wave length associated with this oscillation, estimated presently from this analytical model, is λr ˜ 25 cm, i.e., an order of magnitude higher than the usual value for zonal flows (ZFs).
Perturbation analysis of electromagnetic geodesic acoustic modes
Ren, Haijun
2014-06-15
Lagrangian displacement and magnetic field perturbation response to the geodesic acoustic mode is analyzed by using the ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations in a large-aspect-ratio tokamak. δB{sub θ}, the poloidal component of magnetic field perturbation, has poloidal wave number m = 2 created by the poloidal displacement ξ{sub θ}. The parallel perturbation of magnetic field, δB{sub ∥}, has a poloidally asymmetric structure with m = 1 and is on the same order of magnitude with δB{sub θ} to the leading order. The radial displacement ξ{sub r} is of order O(βϵξ{sub θ}) but plays a significant role in determining δB{sub ∥}, where β is the plasma/magnetic pressure ratio and ϵ is the inverse aspect ratio.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson, T.; Kasper, E.; Oehme, M.; Schulze, J.; Korolev, K.
2014-11-01
We report on the direct excitation of 246 GHz longitudinal acoustic phonons in silicon doping superlattices by the resonant absorption of nanosecond-pulsed far-infrared laser radiation of the same frequency. A longitudinally polarized evanescent laser light field is coupled to the superlattice through a germanium prism providing total internal reflection at the superlattice interface. The ballistic phonon signal is detected by a superconducting aluminum bolometer. The sample is immersed in low-temperature liquid helium.
Enhanced electron-phonon coupling for a semiconductor charge qubit in a surface phonon cavity
Chen, J. C. H.; Sato, Y.; Kosaka, R.; Hashisaka, M.; Muraki, K.; Fujisawa, T.
2015-01-01
Electron-phonon coupling is a major decoherence mechanism, which often causes scattering and energy dissipation in semiconductor electronic systems. However, this electron-phonon coupling may be used in a positive way for reaching the strong or ultra-strong coupling regime in an acoustic version of the cavity quantum electrodynamic system. Here we propose and demonstrate a phonon cavity for surface acoustic waves, which is made of periodic metal fingers that constitute Bragg reflectors on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. Phonon band gap and cavity phonon modes are identified by frequency, time and spatially resolved measurements of the piezoelectric potential. Tunneling spectroscopy on a double quantum dot indicates the enhancement of phonon assisted transitions in a charge qubit. This encourages studying of acoustic cavity quantum electrodynamics with surface phonons. PMID:26469629
Enhanced electron-phonon coupling for a semiconductor charge qubit in a surface phonon cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, J. C. H.; Sato, Y.; Kosaka, R.; Hashisaka, M.; Muraki, K.; Fujisawa, T.
2015-10-01
Electron-phonon coupling is a major decoherence mechanism, which often causes scattering and energy dissipation in semiconductor electronic systems. However, this electron-phonon coupling may be used in a positive way for reaching the strong or ultra-strong coupling regime in an acoustic version of the cavity quantum electrodynamic system. Here we propose and demonstrate a phonon cavity for surface acoustic waves, which is made of periodic metal fingers that constitute Bragg reflectors on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. Phonon band gap and cavity phonon modes are identified by frequency, time and spatially resolved measurements of the piezoelectric potential. Tunneling spectroscopy on a double quantum dot indicates the enhancement of phonon assisted transitions in a charge qubit. This encourages studying of acoustic cavity quantum electrodynamics with surface phonons.
Enhanced electron-phonon coupling for a semiconductor charge qubit in a surface phonon cavity.
Chen, J C H; Sato, Y; Kosaka, R; Hashisaka, M; Muraki, K; Fujisawa, T
2015-01-01
Electron-phonon coupling is a major decoherence mechanism, which often causes scattering and energy dissipation in semiconductor electronic systems. However, this electron-phonon coupling may be used in a positive way for reaching the strong or ultra-strong coupling regime in an acoustic version of the cavity quantum electrodynamic system. Here we propose and demonstrate a phonon cavity for surface acoustic waves, which is made of periodic metal fingers that constitute Bragg reflectors on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. Phonon band gap and cavity phonon modes are identified by frequency, time and spatially resolved measurements of the piezoelectric potential. Tunneling spectroscopy on a double quantum dot indicates the enhancement of phonon assisted transitions in a charge qubit. This encourages studying of acoustic cavity quantum electrodynamics with surface phonons. PMID:26469629
Richardson, M.; Bhethanabotla, V. R.; Sankaranarayanan, S. K. R. S.
2014-06-23
Finite element simulations of a phononic shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor based on ST 90°-X Quartz reveal a dramatic reduction in power consumption. The phononic sensor is realized by artificially structuring the delay path to form an acoustic meta-material comprised of a periodic microcavity array incorporating high-density materials such as tantalum or tungsten. Constructive interference of the scattered and secondary reflected waves at every microcavity interface leads to acoustic energy confinement in the high-density regions translating into reduced power loss. Tantalum filled cavities show the best performance while tungsten inclusions create a phononic bandgap. Based on our simulation results, SAW devices with tantalum filled microcavities were fabricated and shown to significantly decrease insertion loss. Our findings offer encouraging prospects for designing low power, highly sensitive portable biosensors.
Coherent Control of Optically Generated and Detected Picosecond Surface Acoustic Phonons
David H. Hurley
2006-11-01
Coherent control of elementary optical excitations is a key issue in ultrafast materials science. Manipulation of electronic and vibronic excitations in solids as well as chemical and biological systems on ultrafast time scales has attracted a great deal of attention recently. In semiconductors, coherent control of vibronic excitations has been demonstrated for bulk acoustic and optical phonons generated in superlattice structures. The bandwidth of these approaches is typically fully utilized by employing a 1-D geometry where the laser spot size is much larger than the superlattice repeat length. In this presentation we demonstrate coherent control of optically generated picosecond surface acoustic waves using sub-optical wavelength absorption gratings. The generation and detection characteristics of two material systems are investigated (aluminum absorption gratings on Si and GaAs substrates).
Optical phonon modes and infrared dielectric properties of monoclinic CoWO4 microcrystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moreira, Roberto L.; Almeida, Rafael M.; Siqueira, Kisla P. F.; Abreu, Cintia G.; Dias, Anderson
2016-02-01
The phonon characteristics of CoWO4 microcrystals with monoclinic Wolframite structure were investigated by far-infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Near-normal spectra were taken for IR light polarization along the principal b-axis (A u modes) and along several angles within the ac-plane (B u modes). The IR spectra were analyzed with a generalized Drude-Lorentz model, and all predicted polar phonon modes were fully determined, including their symmetries, the dielectric Lorentz parameters and the non-orthogonal phonon polarizations for the B u modes. Anomalous dispersion and negative values for the real and imaginary parts of the off-diagonal components of the dielectric tensor functions were identified and discussed under the light of the varying phonon polarization directions (spread out in the ac-plane). The obtained static and background dielectric tensors gave an average permittivity of 16.1 (at microwave region), refractive indices along the principal dielectric axes of 2.22, 2.33 and 2.44 (at 1 μm), the optical axes, and an estimated value for the biaxial angle of the crystal. Polarized Raman spectra on appropriate scattering configurations revealed the 18 non-polar gerade phonons of CoWO4 crystals, with their correct symmetries attributed.
General properties of the acoustic plate modes at different temperatures.
Anisimkin, V I; Anisimkin, I V; Voronova, N V; Puсhkov, Yu V
2015-09-01
Using acoustic plate modes with SH-polarization and quartz crystal with Euler angles 0°, 132.75°, 90°, as an example, general properties of the acoustic plate modes at different temperatures are studied theoretically and experimentally in the range from -40 to +80°C. It is shown that in addition to well-known parameters responsible for temperature characteristics of acoustic waves the temperature coefficients of the acoustic plate modes depend on the mode order n, plate thickness h/λ, and expansion of the plate in direction of its thickness (h - thickness, λ - acoustic wavelength). These properties permit the mode sensitivity to be increased or decreased without replacing plate material and orientation. PMID:26002698
Contour mode resonators with acoustic reflectors
Olsson, Roy H.; Fleming, James G.; Tuck, Melanie R.
2008-06-10
A microelectromechanical (MEM) resonator is disclosed which has a linear or ring-shaped acoustic resonator suspended above a substrate by an acoustic reflector. The acoustic resonator can be formed with a piezoelectric material (e.g. aluminum nitride, zinc oxide or PZT), or using an electrostatically-actuated material. The acoustic reflector (also termed an acoustic mirror) uses alternating sections of a relatively low acoustic impedance Z.sub.L material and a relatively high acoustic impedance Z.sub.H material to isolate the acoustic resonator from the substrate. The MEM resonator, which can be formed on a silicon substrate with conventional CMOS circuitry, has applications for forming oscillators, rf filters, and acoustic sensors.
Surface acoustic waves in two dimensional phononic crystal with anisotropic inclusions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ketata, H.; Hédi Ben Ghozlen, M.
2012-06-01
An analysis is given to the band structure of the two dimensional solid phononic crystal considered as a semi infinite medium. The lattice includes an array of elastic anisotropic materials with different shapes embedded in a uniform matrix. For illustration two kinds of phononic materials are assumed. A particular attention is devoted to the computational procedure which is mainly based on the plane wave expansion (PWE) method. It has been adapted to Matlab environment. Numerical calculations of the dispersion curves have been achieved by introducing particular functions which transform motion equations into an Eigen value problem. Significant improvements are obtained by increasing reasonably the number of Fourier components even when a large elastic mismatch is assumed. Such approach can be generalized to different types of symmetry and permit new physical properties as piezoelectricity to be added. The actual semi infinite phononic structure with a free surface has been shown to support surface acoustic waves (SAW). The obtained dispersion curves reveal band gaps in the SAW branches. It has been found that the influence, of the filling factor and anisotropy on their band gaps, is different from that of bulk waves.
Morvan, B.; Tinel, A.; Sainidou, R.; Rembert, P.; Vasseur, J. O.; Hladky-Hennion, A.-C.; Swinteck, N.; Deymier, P. A.
2014-12-07
Phononic crystals (PC) can be used to control the dispersion properties of acoustic waves, which are essential to direct their propagation. We use a PC-based two-dimensional solid/solid composite to demonstrate experimentally and theoretically the spatial filtering of a monochromatic non-directional wave source and its emission in a surrounding water medium as an ultra-directional beam with narrow angular distribution. The phenomenon relies on square-shaped equifrequency contours (EFC) enabling self-collimation of acoustic waves within the phononic crystal. Additionally, the angular width of collimated beams is controlled via the EFC size-shrinking when increasing frequency.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Ja-Hon; Shen, Yu-Kai; Liu, Wei-Rein; Lu, Chia-Hui; Chen, Yao-Hui; Chang, Chun-peng; Lee, Wei-Chin; Hong, Minghwei; Kwo, Jueinai-Raynien; Hsu, Chia-Hung; Hsieh, Wen-Feng
2016-08-01
Unlike coherent acoustic phonons (CAPs) generated from heat induced thermal stress by the coated Au film, we demonstrated the oscillation from c-ZnO epitaxial film on oxide buffered Si through a degenerate pump–probe technique. As the excited photon energy was set below the exciton resonance, the electronic stress that resulted from defect resonance was used to induce acoustic wave. The damped oscillation revealed a superposition of a high frequency and long decay CAP signal with a backward propagating acoustic pulse which was generated by the absorption of the penetrated pump beam at the Si surface and selected by the ZnO layer as the acoustic resonator.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Nansha; Wu, Jiu Hui; Yu, Lie; Hou, Hong
2016-06-01
This paper investigates ultralow frequency acoustic properties and energy recovery of tetragonal folding beam phononic crystal (TFBPC) and its complementary structure. The dispersion curve relationships, transmission spectra and displacement fields of the eigenmodes are studied with FEA in detail. Compared with the traditional three layer phononic crystal (PC) structure, this structure proposed in this paper not only unfold bandgaps (BGs) in lower frequency range (below 300 Hz), but also has lighter weight because of beam structural cracks. We analyze the relevant physical mechanism behind this phenomenon, and discuss the effects of the tetragonal folding beam geometric parameters on band structure maps. FEM proves that the multi-cell structures with different arrangements have different acoustic BGs when compared with single cell structure. Harmonic frequency response and piezoelectric properties of TFBPC are specifically analyzed. The results confirm that this structure does have the recovery ability for low frequency vibration energy in environment. These conclusions in this paper could be indispensable to PC practical applications such as BG tuning and could be applied in portable devices, wireless sensor, micro-electro mechanical systems which can recycle energy from vibration environment as its own energy supply.
Heterodyne signal-to-noise ratios in acoustic mode scattering experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cochran, W. R.
1980-01-01
The relation between the signal to noise ratio (SNR) obtained in heterodyne detection of radiation scattered from acoustic modes in crystalline solids and the scattered spectral density function is studied. It is shown that in addition to the information provided by the measured frequency shifts and line widths, measurement of the SNR provides a determination of the absolute elasto-optical (Pockel's) constants. Examples are given for cubic crystals, and acceptable SNR values are obtained for scattering from thermally excited phonons at 10.6 microns, with no external perturbation of the sample necessary. The results indicate the special advantages of the method for the study of semiconductors.
Propagation of spinning acoustic modes in partially choked converging ducts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nayfeh, A. H.; Kelly, J. J.; Watson, L. T.
1982-04-01
A computer model based on the wave-envelope technique is used to study the propagation of spinning acoustic modes in converging hard-walled and lined circular ducts carrying near sonic mean flows. The results show that with increasing spinning mode number the intensification of the acoustic signal at the throat decreases for upstream propagation. The influence of the throat Mach number, frequency, boundary-layer thickness, and liner admittance on the propagation of spinning modes is considered.
Optical phonon modes and crystal structure of NaLaF4 single crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lage, Márcio Martins; Matinaga, Franklin Massami; Gesland, Jean-Yves; Moreira, Roberto Luiz
2006-03-01
Polarized Raman scattering and infrared reflectivity measurements have been used to investigate the crystal structure of Czochralski-grown NaLaF4 single crystals. The phonon symmetries, the simultaneous presence of polar modes in the infrared and Raman spectra, as well as the observation of piezoelectric resonance, helped us to identify the P6 group as the correct one for this crystal. This material belongs to a family of sodium lanthanide tetrafluorides (NaLnF4) crystals, whose photoluminescence efficiency is comparable to LiYF4. Therefore, NaLaF4 crystals may be important in the development of diode pumped up-conversion solid-state lasers. The number and behavior of the observed optical phonon modes were analyzed in terms of group theory predictions for the group symmetry found. A few anomalies in the phonon characteristics are discussed in terms of cationic disorder in the crystal lattice.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Birt, Daniel R.; An, Kyongmo; Weathers, Annie; Shi, Li; Tsoi, Maxim; Li, Xiaoqin
2013-02-01
We demonstrate the use of the micro-Brillouin light scattering (micro-BLS) technique as a local temperature sensor for magnons in a permalloy (Py) thin film and phonons in the glass substrate. When the Py film is uniformly heated, we observe a systematic shift in the frequencies of two thermally excited perpendicular standing spin wave modes. Fitting the temperature dependent magnon spectra allows us to achieve a temperature resolution better than 2.5 K. In addition, we demonstrate that the micro-BLS spectra can be used to measure the local temperature of magnons and the relative temperature shift of phonons across a thermal gradient. Such local temperature sensors are useful for investigating spin caloritronic and thermal transport phenomena in general.
Sparse phonon modes of a limit-periodic structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marcoux, Catherine; Socolar, Joshua E. S.
2016-05-01
Limit-periodic structures are well ordered but nonperiodic, and hence have nontrivial vibrational modes. We study a ball and spring model with a limit-periodic pattern of spring stiffnesses and identify a set of extended modes with arbitrarily low participation ratios, a situation that appears to be unique to limit-periodic systems. The balls that oscillate with large amplitude in these modes live on periodic nets with arbitrarily large lattice constants. By studying periodic approximants to the limit-periodic structure, we present numerical evidence for the existence of such modes, and we give a heuristic explanation of their structure.
Kinetic effect of toroidal rotation on the geodesic acoustic mode
Guo, W. Ye, L.; Zhou, D.; Xiao, X.; Wang, S.
2015-01-15
Kinetic effects of the toroidal rotation on the geodesic acoustic mode are theoretically investigated. It is found that when the toroidal rotation increases, the damping rate increases in the weak rotation regime due to the rotation enhancement of wave-particle interaction, and it decreases in the strong rotation regime due to the reduction of the number of resonant particles. Theoretical results are consistent with the behaviors of the geodesic acoustic mode recently observed in DIII-D and ASDEX-Upgrade. The kinetic damping effect of the rotation on the geodesic acoustic mode may shed light on the regulation of turbulence through the controlling the toroidal rotation.
Observation of coherent delocalized phonon-like modes in DNA under physiological conditions
González-Jiménez, Mario; Ramakrishnan, Gopakumar; Harwood, Thomas; Lapthorn, Adrian J.; Kelly, Sharon M.; Ellis, Elizabeth M.; Wynne, Klaas
2016-01-01
Underdamped terahertz-frequency delocalized phonon-like modes have long been suggested to play a role in the biological function of DNA. Such phonon modes involve the collective motion of many atoms and are prerequisite to understanding the molecular nature of macroscopic conformational changes and related biochemical phenomena. Initial predictions were based on simple theoretical models of DNA. However, such models do not take into account strong interactions with the surrounding water, which is likely to cause phonon modes to be heavily damped and localized. Here we apply state-of-the-art femtosecond optical Kerr effect spectroscopy, which is currently the only technique capable of taking low-frequency (GHz to THz) vibrational spectra in solution. We are able to demonstrate that phonon modes involving the hydrogen bond network between the strands exist in DNA at physiologically relevant conditions. In addition, the dynamics of the solvating water molecules is slowed down by about a factor of 20 compared with the bulk. PMID:27248361
Shao, Cheng; Bao, Hua
2016-01-01
The successful exfoliation of atomically-thin bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) quintuple layer (QL) attracts tremendous research interest in this strongly anharmonic quasi-two-dimensional material. The thermal transport properties of this material are not well understood, especially the mode-wise properties and when it is coupled with a substrate. In this work, we have performed molecular dynamics simulations and normal mode analysis to study the mode-resolved thermal transport in freestanding and supported Bi2Te3 QL. The detailed mode-wise phonon properties are calculated and the accumulated thermal conductivities with respect to phonon mean free path (MFP) are constructed. It is shown that 60% of the thermal transport is contributed by phonons with MFP longer than 20 nm. Coupling with a-SiO2 substrate leads to about 60% reduction of thermal conductivity. Through varying the interfacial coupling strength and the atomic mass of substrate, we also find that phonon in Bi2Te3 QL is more strongly scattered by interfacial potential and its transport process is less affected by the dynamics of substrate. Our study provides an in-depth understanding of heat transport in Bi2Te3 QL and is helpful in further tailoring its thermal property through nanostructuring. PMID:27263656
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shao, Cheng; Bao, Hua
2016-06-01
The successful exfoliation of atomically-thin bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) quintuple layer (QL) attracts tremendous research interest in this strongly anharmonic quasi-two-dimensional material. The thermal transport properties of this material are not well understood, especially the mode-wise properties and when it is coupled with a substrate. In this work, we have performed molecular dynamics simulations and normal mode analysis to study the mode-resolved thermal transport in freestanding and supported Bi2Te3 QL. The detailed mode-wise phonon properties are calculated and the accumulated thermal conductivities with respect to phonon mean free path (MFP) are constructed. It is shown that 60% of the thermal transport is contributed by phonons with MFP longer than 20 nm. Coupling with a-SiO2 substrate leads to about 60% reduction of thermal conductivity. Through varying the interfacial coupling strength and the atomic mass of substrate, we also find that phonon in Bi2Te3 QL is more strongly scattered by interfacial potential and its transport process is less affected by the dynamics of substrate. Our study provides an in-depth understanding of heat transport in Bi2Te3 QL and is helpful in further tailoring its thermal property through nanostructuring.
Spin current generation and magnetic response in carbon nanotubes by the twisting phonon mode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamada, Masato; Yokoyama, Takehito; Murakami, Shuichi
2015-08-01
We theoretically investigate spin current and magnetic response induced by the twisting phonon mode in carbon nanotubes via the spin-rotation coupling. An effective magnetic field due to the twisting mode induces both spin and orbital magnetizations. The induced spin and orbital magnetizations have both radial and axial components. We show that ac pure spin current is generated by the twisting phonon mode. The magnitude of the spin current and orbital magnetization for a (10,10) armchair nanotube is estimated as an example. We find that the ac pure spin current is detectable in magnitude when the frequency of the twisting mode is of the order of GHz, and that the orbital magnetization is found to be larger than the spin magnetization.
Low-energy optical phonon modes in the caged compound LaRu2Zn20
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wakiya, K.; Onimaru, T.; Tsutsui, S.; Hasegawa, T.; Matsumoto, K. T.; Nagasawa, N.; Baron, A. Q. R.; Ogita, N.; Udagawa, M.; Takabatake, T.
2016-02-01
We have investigated atomic dynamics of caged compound LaRu2Zn20 by the measurements of specific heat C and inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS). The lattice part of the specific heat Clat divided by T3,Clat /T3, shows a broad peak at around 15 K, which is reproduced by two Einstein modes with characteristic temperatures of θE 1=35 K and θE 2=82 K, respectively. IXS measurements along the [111] and [110] directions reveal weakly dispersive phonon modes at 3 meV (35 K) and 7 meV (80 K), respectively, whose values agree with the values of θE's. The first-principles calculation has assigned the 3 meV phonon modes as the optical modes of Zn atoms located at the middle of two La atoms, which is likely to lead to the structural instability.
Interface-guided mode of Lamb waves in a two-dimensional phononic crystal plate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Ping-Ping; Yao, Yuan-Wei; Wu, Fu-Gen; Zhang, Xin; Li, Jing; Hu, Ai-Zhen
2015-05-01
We investigate the interface-guided mode of Lamb waves in a phononic crystal heterostructures plate, which is composed of two different semi-infinite phononic crystal (PC) plates. The interface-guided modes of the Lamb wave can be obtained by the lateral lattice slipping or by the interface longitudinal gliding. Significantly, it is observed that the condition to generate the interface-guided modes of the Lamb wave is more demanding than that of the studied fluid-fluid system. The interface-guided modes are strongly affected not only by the relative movement of the two semi-infinite PCs but also by the thickness of the PC plate. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374068 and 11374066), the Science & Technology Star of Zhujiang Foundation of Guangzhou, China (Grant No. 2011J2200013), and the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong, China (Grant No. S2012020010885).
Zhao, J.; Boyko, O.; Bonello, B.
2014-12-15
This work deals with an analytical and numerical study of the focusing of the lowest order anti-symmetric Lamb wave in gradient index phononic crystals. Computing the ray trajectories of the elastic beam allowed us to analyze the lateral dimensions and shape of the focus, either in the inner or behind the phononic crystal-based acoustic lenses, for frequencies within a broad range in the first band. We analyzed and discussed the focusing behaviors inside the acoustic lenses where the focalization at sub-wavelength scale was achieved. The focalization behind the gradient index phononic crystal is shown to be efficient as well: we report on FMHM = 0.63λ at 11MHz.
Acoustic add-drop filters based on phononic crystal ring resonators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rostami-Dogolsara, Babak; Moravvej-Farshi, Mohammad Kazem; Nazari, Fakhroddin
2016-01-01
We report the design procedure for an acoustic add-drop filter (ADF) composed of two line-defect waveguides coupled through a ring resonator cavity (RRC) all based on a phononic crystal (PnC) platform. Using finite difference time domain and plane wave expansion methods, we study the propagation of acoustic waves through the PnC based ADF structures. Numerical results show that the quality factor for the ADF with a quasisquare ring resonator with a frequency band of 95 Hz centered about 75.21 kHz is Q ˜ 800. We show that the addition of an appropriate scatterer at each RRC corner can reduce the scattering loss, enhancing the quality factor and the transmission efficiency. Moreover, it is also shown that by increasing the coupling gaps between the RRC and waveguides the quality factor can be increased by ˜25 times, at the expense of a significant reduction in the transmission efficiency this is attributed to the enhanced selectivity in expense of weakened coupling. Finally, by varying the effective path length of the acoustic wave in the RRC, via selectively varying the inclusions physical and geometrical properties, we show how one can ultra-fine and fine-tune the resonant frequency of the ADF.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baboly, Mohammadhosein Ghasemi; Soliman, Yasser; Su, Mehmet F.; Reinke, Charles M.; Leseman, Zayd C.; El-Kady, Ihab
2014-11-01
Plane wave expansion analyses that use the inverse rule to obtain the Fourier coefficients of the elastic tensor instead of the more conventional Laurent's rule, exhibit faster convergence rates for solid-solid phononic crystals. In this work, the band structure convergence of calculations using the inverse rule is investigated and applied to the case of high acoustic impedance contrast solid-solid phononic crystals, previously known for convergence difficulties. Results are contrasted to those obtained with the conventional plane wave expansion method. The inverse rule is found to converge at a much rate for all ranges of impedance contrast, and the ratio between the computational times needed to obtain a convergent band structure for a high-contrast solid-solid phononic crystal with the conventional plane wave expansion method using 1369 reciprocal lattice vectors is as large as 6800:1. This ratio decreases for material sets with lower impedance contrast; however, the inverse rule is still faster for a given error threshold for even the lowest impedance contrast phononic crystals reported in the literature. This convergence enhancement is a major factor in reconsidering the plane wave expansion method as an important tool in obtaining propagating elastic modes in phononic crystals.
Laser Acoustic Imaging of Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator (FBAR) Lateral Mode Dispersion
Ken L. Telschow
2004-07-01
A laser acoustic imaging microscope has been developed that measures acoustic motion with high spatial resolution without scanning. Images are recorded at normal video frame rates and heterodyne principles are used to allow operation at any frequency from Hz to GHz. Fourier transformation of the acoustic amplitude and phase displacement images provides a direct quantitative determination of excited mode wavenumbers at any frequency. Results are presented at frequencies near the first longitudinal thickness mode (~ 900 MHz) demonstrating simultaneous excitation of lateral modes with nonzero wavenumbers in an electrically driven AlN thin film acoustic resonator. Images combined at several frequencies form a direct visualization of lateral mode dispersion relations for the device under test allowing mode identification and a direct measure of specific lateral mode properties. Discussion and analysis of the results are presented in comparison with plate wave modeling of these devices taking account for material anisotropy and multilayer films.
Rayleigh surface waves, phonon mode conversion, and thermal transport in nanostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maurer, Leon; Knezevic, Irena
We study the effects of phonon mode conversion and Rayleigh (surface) waves on thermal transport in nanostructures. We present a technique to calculate thermal conductivity in the elastic-solid approximation: a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) solution of the elastic or scalar wave equations combined with the Green-Kubo formula. The technique is similar to an equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation, captures phonon wave behavior, and scales well to nanostructures that are too large to simulate with many other techniques. By imposing fixed or free boundary conditions, we can selectively turn off mode conversion and Rayleigh waves to study their effects. In the example case of graphenelike nanoribbons with rough edges, we find that mode conversion among bulk modes has little effect on thermal transport, but that conversion between bulk and Rayleigh waves can significantly reduce thermal conductivity. With increasing surface disorder, Rayleigh waves readily become trapped by the disorder and draw energy away from the propagating bulk modes, which lowers thermal conductivity. We discuss the implications on the accuracy of popular phonon-surface scattering models that stem from scalar wave equations and cannot capture mode conversion to Rayleigh waves.
Dust Acoustic Mode Manifestations in Earth's Dusty Ionosphere
Kopnin, S.I.; Popel, S.I.
2005-10-31
Dust acoustic mode manifestations in the dusty ionosphere are studied. The reason for an appearance of the low-frequency radio noises associated with such meteor fluxes as Perseids, Orionids, Leonids, and Gemenids is determined.
Photoreflectance investigation of exciton-acoustic phonon scattering in GaN grown by MOVPE
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouzidi, M.; Soltani, S.; Halidou, I.; Chine, Z.; El Jani, B.
2016-04-01
In this paper, we report a systematic investigation of the near band edge (NBE) excitonic states in GaN using low temperature photoluminescence (PL) and photoreflectance (PR) measurements. For this purpose, GaN films of different thicknesses have been grown on silicon nitride (SiN) treated c-plane sapphire substrates by atmospheric pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Low temperature PR spectra exhibit well-defined spectral features related to the A, B and C free excitons denoted by FXA FXB and FXC, respectively. In contrast, PL spectra are essentially dominated by the A free and donor bound excitons. By combining PR spectra and Hall measurements a strong correlation between residual electron concentration and exciton linewidths is observed. From the temperature dependence of the excitonic linewidths, the exciton-acoustic phonon coupling constant is determined for FXA, FXB and FXC. We show that this coupling constant is strongly related to the exciton kinetic energy and to the strain level.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Zhong-Xiang; Liu, Jing-Zhong; Yu, Xia; Wang, Hai-Bin; Deng, Yuan-Xiang; Li, Ke-Min; Zhang, Yong
2015-03-01
We investigate acoustic phonon transmission and thermal conductance in three dimensional (3D) quasi-periodically stubbed waveguides according to the Fibonacci sequence. Results show that the transmission coefficient exhibits the periodic oscillation upon varying the length of stub/waveguide at low frequency, and the period of such oscillation is tunably decreased with increasing the Fibonacci number N. Interestingly, there also exist some anti-resonant dips that gradually develop into wide stop-frequency gaps with increasing N. As the temperature goes up, a transition of the thermal conductance from the decrease to the increase occurs in these systems. When N is increased, the thermal conductance is approximately decreased with a linear trend. Moreover, the decreasing degree sensitively depends on the variation of temperature. A brief analysis of these results is given.
Strain enhancement of acoustic phonon limited mobility in monolayer TiS3.
Aierken, Yierpan; Çakır, Deniz; Peeters, Francois M
2016-06-01
Strain engineering is an effective way to tune the intrinsic properties of a material. Here, we show by using first-principles calculations that both uniaxial and biaxial tensile strain applied to monolayer TiS3 are able to significantly modify its intrinsic mobility. From the elastic modulus and the phonon dispersion relation we determine the tensile strain range where structure dynamical stability of the monolayer is guaranteed. Within this region, we find more than one order of enhancement of the acoustic phonon limited mobility at 300 K (100 K), i.e. from 1.71 × 10(4) (5.13 × 10(4)) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) to 5.53 × 10(5) (1.66 × 10(6)) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). The degree of anisotropy in both mobility and effective mass can be tuned by using tensile strain. Furthermore, we can either increase or decrease the band gap of TiS3 monolayer by applying strain along different crystal directions. This property allows us to use TiS3 not only in electronic but also in optical applications. PMID:27171542
Microwave-Field Driven Acoustic Modes in Selected DNA Molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edwards, Glenn Steven
The direct coupling of a microwave field to selected DNA molecules is demonstrated using standard dielectrometry. The absorption is resonant with a typical lifetime of 300 picoseconds. Such a long lifetime is unexpected for DNA in aqueous solution at room temperature and has interesting implications for microscopic considerations in future models of solvent damping. Resonant absorption at fundamental and harmonic frequencies for both supercoiled circular and linear DNA agrees with an acoustic mode model. Our associated acoustic velocities for linear DNA are very close to the acoustic velocity of the longitudinal acoustic mode independently observed on DNA fibers using Brillouin Spectroscopy. The difference in acoustic velocities for supercoiled circular and linear DNA is discussed in terms of a conformation dependent model. *This research has been funded by the Office of Naval Research, the Center for Devices and Radiological Health, and the National Science Foundation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nobile, Concetta; Carbone, Luigi; Kudera, Stefan; Manna, Liberato; Cingolani, Roberto; Krahne, Roman; Fonoberov, Vladimir A.; Balandin, Alexander A.; Chilla, Gerwin; Kipp, Tobias; Heitmann, Detlef
2007-03-01
Nanocrystal rods have emerged as promising nanostructured material for both fundamental studies of nanoscale effects and for optical and electronic device applications. We investigated the optical phonon excitations in laterally aligned CdSe nanocrystal rod arrays using resonant Raman scattering. Electric-field mediated alignment between interdigitated electrodes has been used to prepare the samples. We report Raman experiments that probe the optical lattice vibrations in ordered arrays of CdSe nanorods with respect to the nanorod orientation. The packing of nanorods into dense arrays leads to the suppression of the surface optical phonon modes. In the longitudinal-optical phonon peak we observe a fine structure that depends on the relative orientation of the nanorods with respect to the incident light polarization. Detailed comparison of the experimental data with the first-principle calculations for corresponding nanostructures, which reveal the symmetry of the phonon potentials for the Raman active modes, provides a qualitative explanation of the experimentally observed phonon modes.
Development of an acoustic filter for parametric loudspeaker using phononic crystals.
Ji, Peifeng; Hu, Wenlin; Yang, Jun
2016-04-01
The spurious signal generated as a result of nonlinearity at the receiving system affects the measurement of the difference-frequency sound in the parametric loudspeaker, especially in the nearfield or near the beam axis. In this paper, an acoustic filter is designed using phononic crystals and its theoretical simulations are carried out by quasi-one- and two-dimensional models with Comsol Multiphysics. According to the simulated transmission loss (TL), an acoustic filter is prototyped consisting of 5×7 aluminum alloy cylinders and its performance is verified experimentally. There is good agreement with the simulation result for TL. After applying our proposed filter in the axial measurement of the parametric loudspeaker, a clear frequency dependence from parametric array effect is detected, which exhibits a good match with the well-known theory described by the Gaussian-beam expansion technique. During the directivity measurement for the parametric loudspeaker, the proposed filter has also proved to be effective and is only needed for small angles. PMID:26855254
Kinetic description of an electron--LO-phonon system with finite phonon lifetime
Nguyen, V.T.; Mahler, G. )
1992-02-15
We study the cooling of an electron plasma from a kinetic point of view. For this purpose, a quantum theory of fluctuations is applied to derive the kinetic equations for an electron--LO-phonon system from various model Hamiltonians. A polarization approximation is provided that goes beyond perturbation theory of the electron-phonon interaction. The description of electron-phonon energy exchange is shown to be impossible with the interacting Hamiltonian in Froehlich's one-phonon form unless dissipation of the bare LO phonon is included. For a Hamiltonian including effects of the scattering of LO phonons by acoustic phonons, kinetic equations are derived. The equation for LO phonons is shown to describe the collective excitations with finite lifetime, in the limiting case of weak damping of the plasmon-phonon coupled modes. A reduction of the cooling rate similar to the hot-phonon'' effect is shown to occur for the case of weak coupling without assuming a steady state of the LO phonons. Finally, an electron-phonon interaction Hamiltonian in two-phonon form is considered and it is shown that electron-phonon energy exchange may be described in the polarization approximation without introducing a finite phonon lifetime.
A computational and experimental study of surface acoustic waves in phononic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrus, Joseph Andrew
The unique frequency range and robustness of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices has been a catalyst for their adoption as integral components in a range of consumer and military electronics. Furthermore, the strain and piezoelectric fields associated with SAWs are finding novel applications in nanostructured devices. In this thesis, the interaction of SAWs with periodic elastic structures, such as photonic or phononic crystals (PnCs), is studied both computationally and experimentally. To predict the behaviour of elastic waves in PnCs, a finite-difference time-domain simulator (PnCSim) was developed using C++. PnCSim was designed to calculate band structures and transmission spectra of elastic waves through two-dimensional PnCs. By developing appropriate boundary conditions, bulk waves, surface acoustic waves, and plate waves can be simulated. Results obtained using PnCSim demonstrate good agreement with theoretical data reported in the literature. To experimentally investigate the behaviour of SAWs in PnCs, fabrication procedures were developed to create interdigitated transducers (IDTs) and PnCs. Using lift-off photolithography, IDTs with finger widths as low as 1:8 mum were fabricated on gallium arsenide (GaAs), corresponding to a SAW frequency of 397 MHz. A citric acid and hydrogen peroxide wet-etching solution was used to create shallow air hole PnCs in square and triangular lattice configurations, with lattice constants of 8 mum and 12 mum, respectively. The relative transmission of SAWs through these PnCs as a function of frequency was determined by comparing the insertion losses before and after etching the PnCs. In addition, using a scanning Sagnac interferometer, displacement maps were measured for SAWs incident on square lattice PnCs by Mathew (Creating and Imaging Surface Acoustic Waves on GaAs, Master's Thesis). Reasonable agreement was found between simulations and measurements. Additional simulations indicate that SAW waveguiding should be possible
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Jinfeng; Bonello, Bernard; Boyko, Olga
2016-05-01
We have investigated the focusing of the lowest-order antisymmetric Lamb mode (A0) behind a positive gradient-index (GRIN) acoustic metalens consisting of air holes drilled in a silicon plate with silicon pillars erected on one face of the lens. We have analyzed the focusing in the near field as the result of the coupling between the flexural resonant mode of the pillars and the vibration mode of the air/silicon phononic crystal. We highlight the role played by the polarization coherence between the resonant mode and the vibration of the plate. We demonstrate both numerically and experimentally the focusing behind the lens over a spot less than half a wavelength, paving a way for performance of acoustic lenses beyond the diffraction limit. Our findings can be easily extended to other types of elastic wave.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plemmons, Dayne; Flannigan, David
Coherent collective lattice oscillations known as phonons dictate a broad range of physical observables in condensed matter and act as primary energy carriers across a wide range of material systems. Despite this omnipresence, analysis of phonon dynamics on their ultrashort native spatiotemporal length scale - that is, the combined nanometer (nm), spatial and femtosecond (fs), temporal length-scales - has largely remained experimentally inaccessible. Here, we employ ultrafast electron microscopy (UEM) to directly image discrete acoustic phonons in real-space with combined nm-fs resolution. By directly probing electron scattering in the image plane (as opposed to the diffraction plane), we retain phase information critical for following the evolution, propagation, scattering, and decay of phonons in relation to morphological features of the specimen (i.e. interfaces, grain boundaries, voids, ripples, etc.). We extract a variety of morphologically-specific quantitative information from the UEM videos including phonon frequencies, phase velocities, and decays times. We expect these direct manifestations of local elastic properties in the vicinity of material defects and interfaces will aide in the understanding and application of phonon-mediated phenomena in nanostructures. Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Bhargavi, K. S.; Kubakaddi, S. S.
2014-10-01
We study hot-electron cooling by acoustic and optical phonons in monolayer MoS2. The cooling power P (Pe=P /n ) is investigated as a function of electron temperature Te (0-500 K) and carrier density n (1010-1013 cm-2) taking into account all relevant electron-phonon (el-ph) couplings. We find that the crossover from acoustic phonon dominated cooling at low Te to optical phonon dominated cooling at higher Te takes place at Te˜50 -75 K. The unscreened deformation potential (DP) coupling to the TA phonon is shown to dominate P due to acoustic phonon scattering over the entire temperature and density range considered. The cooling power due to screened DP coupling to the LA phonon and screened piezoelectric (PE) coupling to the TA and LA phonons is orders of magnitude lower. In the Bloch-Grüneisen (BG) regime, P ˜Te4(Te6) is predicted for unscreened (screened) el-ph interaction and P ˜n-1 /2(Pe˜n-3 /2) for both unscreened and screened el-ph interaction. The cooling power due to optical phonons is dominated by zero-order DP couplings and the Fröhlich interaction, and is found to be significantly reduced by the hot-phonon effect when the phonon relaxation time due to phonon-phonon scattering is large compared to the relaxation time due to el-ph scattering. The Te and n dependence of the hot-phonon distribution function is also studied. Our results for monolayer MoS2 are compared with those in conventional two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) as well as monolayer and bilayer graphene.
Non-equilibrium phonon generation and detection in microstructure devices
Hertzberg, Jared B.; Otelaja, Obafemi O.; Yoshida, Naoki J.; Robinson, Richard D.
2011-01-01
We demonstrate a method to excite locally a controllable, non-thermal distribution of acoustic phonon modes ranging from 0 to -200 GHz in a silicon microstructure, by decay of excited quasiparticle states in an attached superconducting tunnel junction (STJ). The phonons transiting the structure ballistically are detected by a second STJ, allowing comparison of direct with indirect transport pathways. This method may be applied to study how different phonon modes contribute to the thermal conductivity of nanostructures.
Perturbations From Ducts on the Modes of Acoustic Thermometers
Gillis, K. A.; Lin, H.; Moldover, M. R.
2009-01-01
We examine the perturbations of the modes of an acoustic thermometer caused by circular ducts used either for gas flow or as acoustic waveguides coupled to remote transducers. We calculate the acoustic admittance of circular ducts using a model based on transmission line theory. The admittance is used to calculate the perturbations to the resonance frequencies and half-widths of the modes of spherical and cylindrical acoustic resonators as functions of the duct’s radius, length, and the locations of the transducers along the duct's length. To verify the model, we measured the complex acoustic admittances of a series of circular tubes as a function of length between 200 Hz and 10 kHz using a three-port acoustic coupler. The absolute magnitude of the specific acoustic admittance is approximately one. For a 1.4 mm inside-diameter, 1.4 m long tube, the root mean square difference between the measured and modeled specific admittances (both real and imaginary parts) over this frequency range was 0.018. We conclude by presenting design considerations for ducts connected to acoustic thermometers.
Acoustic mode in numerical calculations of subsonic combustion
O'Rourke, P.J.
1984-01-01
A review is given of the methods for treating the acoustic mode in numerical calculations of subsonic combustion. In numerical calculations of subsonic combustion, treatment of the acoustic mode has been a problem for many researchers. It is widely believed that Mach number and acoustic wave effects are negligible in many subsonic combustion problems. Yet, the equations that are often solved contain the acoustic mode, and many numerical techniques for solving these equations are inefficient when the Mach number is much smaller than one. This paper reviews two general approaches to ameliorating this problem. In the first approach, equations are solved that ignore acoustic waves and Mach number effects. Section II of this paper gives two such formulations which are called the Elliptic Primitive and the Stream and Potential Function formulations. We tell how these formulations are obtained and give some advantages and disadvantages of solving them numerically. In the second approach to the problem of calculating subsonic combustion, the fully compressible equations are solved by numerical methods that are efficient, but treat the acoustic mode inaccurately, in low Mach number calculations. Section III of this paper introduces two of these numerical methods in the context of an analysis of their stability properties when applied to the acoustic wave equations. These are called the ICE and acoustic subcycling methods. It is shown that even though these methods are more efficient than traditional methods for solving subsonic combustion problems, they still can be inefficient when the Mach number is very small. Finally, a method called Pressure Gradient Scaling is described that, when used in conjunction with either the ICE or acoustic subcycling methods, allows for very efficient numerical solution of subsonic combustion problems. 11 refs.
Coupling of phonon-polariton modes at dielectric-dielectric interfaces by the ATR technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cocoletzi, G. H.; Olvera Hernández, J.; Martínez Montes, G.
1989-08-01
We report the calculated ATR dispersion relation of the interface phonon-polariton modes in the prism-dielectric-dielectric configuration. Comparison of electromagnetic dispersion relations (EMDR) with the ATR dispersion relations are presented for three different interfaces: I) GaAs/GaP, II) CdF2/CaF2 and III) CaF2/GaP in two propagation windows, using the Otto and Kretschmann geometries for p-polarized light. We have studied the three cases using angle and frequency scans for each window and geometry. The results indicate that it is possible to excite and detect phonon-polariton modes at the dielectric-dielectric interface.
Optomechanical characterization of acoustic modes in a mirror
Briant, T.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Heidmann, A.; Pinard, M.
2003-09-01
We present an experimental study of the internal mechanical vibration modes of a mirror. We determine the frequency repartition of acoustic resonances via a spectral analysis of the Brownian motion of the mirror, and the spatial profile of the acoustic modes by monitoring their mechanical response to a resonant radiation pressure force swept across the mirror surface. We have applied this technique to mirrors with cylindrical and plano-convex geometries, and compared the experimental results to theoretical predictions. We have in particular observed the Gaussian modes predicted for plano-convex mirrors.
Unified Description of the Optical Phonon Modes in N-Layer MoTe2.
Froehlicher, Guillaume; Lorchat, Etienne; Fernique, François; Joshi, Chaitanya; Molina-Sánchez, Alejandro; Wirtz, Ludger; Berciaud, Stéphane
2015-10-14
N-layer transition metal dichalcogenides provide a unique platform to investigate the evolution of the physical properties between the bulk (three-dimensional) and monolayer (quasi-two-dimensional) limits. Here, using high-resolution micro-Raman spectroscopy, we report a unified experimental description of the Γ-point optical phonons in N-layer 2H-molybdenum ditelluride (MoTe2). We observe series of N-dependent low-frequency interlayer shear and breathing modes (below 40 cm(-1), denoted LSM and LBM) and well-defined Davydov splittings of the mid-frequency modes (in the range 100-200 cm(-1), denoted iX and oX), which solely involve displacements of the chalcogen atoms. In contrast, the high-frequency modes (in the range 200-300 cm(-1), denoted iMX and oMX), arising from displacements of both the metal and chalcogen atoms, exhibit considerably reduced splittings. The manifold of phonon modes associated with the in-plane and out-of-plane displacements are quantitatively described by a force constant model, including interactions up to the second nearest neighbor and surface effects as fitting parameters. The splittings for the iX and oX modes observed in N-layer crystals are directly correlated to the corresponding bulk Davydov splittings between the E2u/E1g and B1u/A1g modes, respectively, and provide a measurement of the frequencies of the bulk silent E2u and B1u optical phonon modes. Our analysis could readily be generalized to other layered crystals. PMID:26371970
Axial interface optical phonon modes in a double-nanoshell system.
Kanyinda-Malu, C; Clares, F J; de la Cruz, R M
2008-07-16
Within the framework of the dielectric continuum (DC) model, we analyze the axial interface optical phonon modes in a double system of nanoshells. This system is constituted by two identical equidistant nanoshells which are embedded in an insulating medium. To illustrate our results, typical II-VI semiconductors are used as constitutive polar materials of the nanoshells. Resolution of Laplace's equation in bispherical coordinates for the potentials derived from the interface vibration modes is made. By imposing the usual electrostatic boundary conditions at the surfaces of the two-nanoshell system, recursion relations for the coefficients appearing in the potentials are obtained, which entails infinite matrices. The problem of deriving the interface frequencies is reduced to the eigenvalue problem on infinite matrices. A truncating method for these matrices is used to obtain the interface phonon branches. Dependences of the interface frequencies on the ratio of inter-nanoshell separation to core size are obtained for different systems with several values of nanoshell interdistance. Effects due to the change of shell and embedding materials are also investigated in interface phonon modes. PMID:21828747
Phase mixing and nonlinearity in geodesic acoustic modes
Hung, C. P.; Hassam, A. B.
2013-09-15
Phase mixing and nonlinear resonance detuning of geodesic acoustic modes in a tokamak plasma are examined. Geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) are tokamak normal modes with oscillations in poloidal flow constrained to lie within flux surfaces. The mode frequency is sonic, dependent on the local flux surface temperature. Consequently, mode oscillations between flux surfaces get rapidly out of phase, resulting in enhanced damping from the phase mixing. Damping rates are shown to scale as the negative 1/3 power of the large viscous Reynolds number. The effect of convective nonlinearities on the normal modes is also studied. The system of nonlinear GAM equations is shown to resemble the Duffing oscillator, which predicts resonance detuning of the oscillator. Resonant amplification is shown to be suppressed nonlinearly. All analyses are verified by numerical simulation. The findings are applied to a recently proposed GAM excitation experiment on the DIII-D tokamak.
Neutron scattering from coupled phonon-impurity modes in KCl1-c(KCN)c
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nicklow, R. M.; Crummett, W. P.; Mostoller, M.; Wood, R. F.
1980-09-01
The hybridization of host-lattice phonons with the internal-energy states of CN- impurities in KCl has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering as a function of temperature between 10 and 100 K for samples with impurity concentrations in the range c=0.4 to 6 at.%. A temperature- and concentration-dependent coupling between phonons with Eg symmetry and the Eg transitions of CN- ions is observed near a frequency of 0.5 THz, a value which is consistent with the energy-level spacings for CN- in KCl as deduced by Beyeler. However, an expected coupling of phonons and CN- transitions with T2g symmetry near the same frequency was not detected. A simple two-level model for the CN- impurity provides a rather good description of the data for the Eg coupled modes for c<2 at.%, but it deviates significantly for larger concentrations. Quasielastic scattering, which has a strong dependence on impurity concentration, temperature, and phonon wave vector, is also observed.
The hydrogen-bond network of water supports propagating optical phonon-like modes.
Elton, Daniel C; Fernández-Serra, Marivi
2016-01-01
The local structure of liquid water as a function of temperature is a source of intense research. This structure is intimately linked to the dynamics of water molecules, which can be measured using Raman and infrared spectroscopies. The assignment of spectral peaks depends on whether they are collective modes or single-molecule motions. Vibrational modes in liquids are usually considered to be associated to the motions of single molecules or small clusters. Using molecular dynamics simulations, here we find dispersive optical phonon-like modes in the librational and OH-stretching bands. We argue that on subpicosecond time scales these modes propagate through water's hydrogen-bond network over distances of up to 2 nm. In the long wavelength limit these optical modes exhibit longitudinal-transverse splitting, indicating the presence of coherent long-range dipole-dipole interactions, as in ice. Our results indicate the dynamics of liquid water have more similarities to ice than previously thought. PMID:26725363
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Aichao; Li, Ping; Wen, Yumei; Yang, Chao; Wang, Decai; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Jiajia
2015-05-01
A high-Q cross-plate phononic crystal resonator (Cr-PCR) coupled with an electromechanical Helmholtz resonator (EMHR) is proposed to improve acoustic wave localization and energy harvesting. Owing to the strongly directional wave-scattering effect of the cross-plate corners, strong confinement of acoustic waves emerges. Consequently, the proposed Cr-PCR structure exhibits ∼353.5 times higher Q value and ∼6.1 times greater maximum pressure amplification than the phononic crystal resonator (Cy-PCR) (consisting of cylindrical scatterers) of the same size. Furthermore, the harvester using the proposed Cr-PCR and the EMHR has ∼22 times greater maximum output-power volume density than the previous harvester using Cy-PCR and EMHR structures.
Ken Telschow; John D. Larson III
2006-10-01
Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators are useful for many signal processing applications. Detailed knowledge of their operation properties are needed to optimize their design for specific applications. The finite size of these resonators precludes their use in single acoustic modes; rather, multiple wave modes, such as, lateral wave modes are always excited concurrently. In order to determine the contributions of these modes, we have been using a newly developed full-field laser acoustic imaging approach to directly measure their amplitude and phase throughout the resonator. This paper describes new results comparing modeling of both elastic and piezoelectric effects in the active material with imaging measurement of all excited modes. Fourier transformation of the acoustic amplitude and phase displacement images provides a quantitative determination of excited mode amplitude and wavenumber at any frequency. Images combined at several frequencies form a direct visualization of lateral mode excitation and dispersion for the device under test allowing mode identification and comparison with predicted operational properties. Discussion and analysis are presented for modes near the first longitudinal thickness resonance (~900 MHz) in an AlN thin film resonator. Plate wave modeling, taking account of material crystalline orientation, elastic and piezoelectric properties and overlayer metallic films, will be discussed in relation to direct image measurements.
Phonons and hybrid modes in the high and low temperature far infrared dynamics of hexagonal TmMnO3.
Massa, Néstor E; del Campo, Leire; De Sousa Meneses, Domingos; Echegut, Patrick; Martínez-Lope, María Jesús; Alonso, José Antonio
2014-07-01
We report on temperature dependent TmMnO3 far infrared emissivity and reflectivity spectra from 1910 K to 4 K. At the highest temperature the number of infrared bands is lower than that predicted for centrosymmetric P63/mmc (D(4)(6h)) (Z = 2) space group due to high temperature anharmonicity and possible defect induced bitetrahedra misalignments. On cooling, at ~1600 ± 40 K, TmMnO3 goes from non-polar to an antiferroelectric-ferroelectric polar phase reaching the ferroelectric onset at ~700 K. Room temperature reflectivity is fitted using 19 oscillators and this number of phonons is maintained down to 4 K. A weak phonon anomaly in the band profile at 217 cm(-1) (4 K) suggests subtle Rare Earth magneto-electric couplings at ~TN and below. A low energy collective excitation is identified as a THz instability associated with room temperature eg electrons in a d-orbital fluctuating environment. It condenses into two modes that emerge pinned to the E-type antiferromagnetic order hardening simultaneously down to 4 K. They obey power laws with TN as the critical temperature and match known zone center magnons. The one peaking at 26 cm(-1), with critical exponent β=0.42 as for antiferromagnetic order in a hexagonal lattice, is dependent on the Rare Earth ion. The higher frequency companion at ~50 cm(-1), with β=0.25, splits at ~TN into two peaks. The weaker band of the two is assimilated to the upper branch of the gap opening in the transverse acoustical (TA) phonon branch crossing the magnetic dispersion found in YMnO3. (Petit et al 2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 266604). The stronger second band at ~36 cm(-1) corresponds to the lower branch of the TA gap. We assign both excitations as zone center magneto-electric hybrid quasiparticles, concluding that in NdMnO3 perovskite the equivalent picture corresponds to an instability which may be driven by an external field to transform NdMnO3 into a multiferroic compound by perturbation enhancing the TA
Localization of acoustic modes in periodic porous silicon structures
2014-01-01
The propagation of longitudinal acoustic waves in multilayer structures based on porous silicon and the experimental measurement of acoustic transmission for the structures in the gigahertz range are reported and studied theoretically. The considered structures exhibit band gaps in the transmission spectrum and these are localized modes inside the band gap, coming from defect layers introduced in periodic systems. The frequency at which the acoustic resonances appear can be tuned by changing the porosity and/or thickness of the defect layer. PMID:25206317
Coherent phonon spectroscopy of non-fully symmetric modes using resonant terahertz excitation
Huber, T. Huber, L.; Johnson, S. L.; Ranke, M.; Ferrer, A.
2015-08-31
We use intense terahertz (THz) frequency electromagnetic pulses generated via optical rectification in an organic crystal to drive vibrational lattice modes in single crystal Tellurium. The coherent modes are detected by measuring the polarization changes of femtosecond laser pulses reflecting from the sample surface, resulting in a phase-resolved detection of the coherent lattice motion. We compare the data to a model of Lorentz oscillators driven by the near-single-cycle broadband THz pulse. The demonstrated technique of optically probed coherent phonon spectroscopy with THz frequency excitation could prove to be a viable alternative to other time-resolved spectroscopic methods like standard THz time domain spectroscopy.
Planar modes free piezoelectric resonators using a phononic crystal with holes.
Aragón, J L; Quintero-Torres, R; Domínguez-Juárez, J L; Iglesias, E; Ronda, S; Montero de Espinosa, F
2016-09-01
By using the principles behind phononic crystals, a periodic array of circular holes made along the polarization thickness direction of piezoceramic resonators are used to stop the planar resonances around the thickness mode band. In this way, a piezoceramic resonator adequate for operation in the thickness mode with an in phase vibration surface is obtained, independently of its lateral shape. Laser vibrometry, electric impedance tests and finite element models are used to corroborate the performances of different resonators made with this procedure. This method can be useful in power ultrasonic devices, physiotherapy and other external medical power ultrasound applications where piston-like vibration in a narrow band is required. PMID:27387418
Coherent phonon spectroscopy of non-fully symmetric modes using resonant terahertz excitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huber, T.; Ranke, M.; Ferrer, A.; Huber, L.; Johnson, S. L.
2015-08-01
We use intense terahertz (THz) frequency electromagnetic pulses generated via optical rectification in an organic crystal to drive vibrational lattice modes in single crystal Tellurium. The coherent modes are detected by measuring the polarization changes of femtosecond laser pulses reflecting from the sample surface, resulting in a phase-resolved detection of the coherent lattice motion. We compare the data to a model of Lorentz oscillators driven by the near-single-cycle broadband THz pulse. The demonstrated technique of optically probed coherent phonon spectroscopy with THz frequency excitation could prove to be a viable alternative to other time-resolved spectroscopic methods like standard THz time domain spectroscopy.
Spinning mode acoustic radiation from the flight inlet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moss, W. F.
1983-01-01
A mathematical model was developed for spinning mode acoustic radiation from a thick wall duct without flow. This model is based on a series of experiments (with and without flow). A nearly pure azimuthal spinning mode was isolated and then reflection coefficients and far field pressure (amplitude and phase) were measured. In our model the governing boundary value problem for the Helmholtz equation is first converted into an integral equation for the unknown acoustic pressure over a disk, S1, near the mouth of the duct and over the exterior surface, S2, of the duct. Assuming a pure azimuthal mode excitation, the azimuthal dependence is integrated out which yields an integral equation over the generator C1 of S1 and the generator C2 of S2. The sound pressure on C1 was approximated by a truncated modal expansion of the interior acoustic pressure. Piecewise linear spline approximation on C2 was used.
Rotational modes in a phononic crystal with fermion-like behavior
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deymier, P. A.; Runge, K.; Swinteck, N.; Muralidharan, K.
2014-04-01
The calculated band structure of a two-dimensional phononic crystal composed of stiff polymer inclusions in a soft elastomer matrix is shown to support rotational modes. Numerical calculations of the displacement vector field demonstrate the existence of modes whereby the inclusions and the matrix regions between inclusions exhibit out of phase rotations but also in phase rotations. The observation of the in-phase rotational mode at low frequency is made possible by the very low transverse speed of sound of the elastomer matrix. A one-dimensional block-spring model is used to provide a physical interpretation of the rotational modes and of the origin of the rotational modes in the band structure. This model is analyzed within Dirac formalism. Solutions of the Dirac-like wave equation possess a spinor part and a spatio-temporal part. The spinor part of the wave function results from a coupling between the senses (positive or negative) of propagation of the wave. The wave-number dependent spinor-part of the wave function for two superposed waves can impose constraints on the integral of the spatio-temporal part that are reflected in a fermion-like lifting of degeneracy in the phonon band structure associated with in-phase rotations.
Rury, Aaron S; Sorenson, Shayne; Dawlaty, Jahan M
2016-03-14
Organic materials that produce coherent lattice phonon excitations in response to external stimuli may provide next generation solutions in a wide range of applications. However, for these materials to lead to functional devices in technology, a full understanding of the possible driving forces of coherent lattice phonon generation must be attained. To facilitate the achievement of this goal, we have undertaken an optical spectroscopic study of an organic charge-transfer material formed from the ubiquitous reduction-oxidation pair hydroquinone and p-benzoquinone. Upon pumping this material, known as quinhydrone, on its intermolecular charge transfer resonance as well as an intramolecular resonance of p-benzoquinone, we find sub-cm(-1) oscillations whose dispersion with probe energy resembles that of a coherent acoustic phonon that we argue is coherently excited following changes in the electron density of quinhydrone. Using the dynamical information from these ultrafast pump-probe measurements, we find that the fastest process we can resolve does not change whether we pump quinhydrone at either energy. Electron-phonon coupling from both ultrafast coherent vibrational and steady-state resonance Raman spectroscopies allows us to determine that intramolecular electronic excitation of p-benzoquinone also drives the electron transfer process in quinhydrone. These results demonstrate the wide range of electronic excitations of the parent of molecules found in many functional organic materials that can drive coherent lattice phonon excitations useful for applications in electronics, photonics, and information technology. PMID:26979698
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rury, Aaron S.; Sorenson, Shayne; Dawlaty, Jahan M.
2016-03-01
Organic materials that produce coherent lattice phonon excitations in response to external stimuli may provide next generation solutions in a wide range of applications. However, for these materials to lead to functional devices in technology, a full understanding of the possible driving forces of coherent lattice phonon generation must be attained. To facilitate the achievement of this goal, we have undertaken an optical spectroscopic study of an organic charge-transfer material formed from the ubiquitous reduction-oxidation pair hydroquinone and p-benzoquinone. Upon pumping this material, known as quinhydrone, on its intermolecular charge transfer resonance as well as an intramolecular resonance of p-benzoquinone, we find sub-cm-1 oscillations whose dispersion with probe energy resembles that of a coherent acoustic phonon that we argue is coherently excited following changes in the electron density of quinhydrone. Using the dynamical information from these ultrafast pump-probe measurements, we find that the fastest process we can resolve does not change whether we pump quinhydrone at either energy. Electron-phonon coupling from both ultrafast coherent vibrational and steady-state resonance Raman spectroscopies allows us to determine that intramolecular electronic excitation of p-benzoquinone also drives the electron transfer process in quinhydrone. These results demonstrate the wide range of electronic excitations of the parent of molecules found in many functional organic materials that can drive coherent lattice phonon excitations useful for applications in electronics, photonics, and information technology.
Wide-Stopband Aperiodic Phononic Filters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rostem, Karwan; Chuss, David; Denis, K. L.; Wollack, E. J.
2016-01-01
We demonstrate that a phonon stopband can be synthesized from an aperiodic structure comprising a discrete set of phononic filter stages. Each element of the set has a dispersion relation that defines a complete bandgap when calculated under a Bloch boundary condition. Hence, the effective stopband width in an aperiodic phononic filter (PnF) may readily exceed that of a phononic crystal with a single lattice constant or a coherence scale. With simulations of multi-moded phononic waveguides, we discuss the effects of finite geometry and mode-converting junctions on the phonon transmission in PnFs. The principles described may be utilized to form a wide stopband in acoustic and surface wave media. Relative to the quantum of thermal conductance for a uniform mesoscopic beam, a PnF with a stopband covering 1.6-10.4 GHz is estimated to reduce the thermal conductance by an order of magnitude at 75 mK.
Wide-stopband aperiodic phononic filters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rostem, K.; Chuss, D. T.; Denis, K. L.; Wollack, E. J.
2016-06-01
We demonstrate that a phonon stopband can be synthesized from an aperiodic structure comprising a discrete set of phononic filter stages. Each element of the set has a dispersion relation that defines a complete bandgap when calculated under a Bloch boundary condition. Hence, the effective stopband width in an aperiodic phononic filter (PnF) may readily exceed that of a phononic crystal with a single lattice constant or a coherence scale. With simulations of multi-moded phononic waveguides, we discuss the effects of finite geometry and mode-converting junctions on the phonon transmission in PnFs. The principles described may be utilized to form a wide stopband in acoustic and surface wave media. Relative to the quantum of thermal conductance for a uniform mesoscopic beam, a PnF with a stopband covering 1.6–10.4 GHz is estimated to reduce the thermal conductance by an order of magnitude at 75 mK.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schubert, M.; Korlacki, R.; Knight, S.; Hofmann, T.; Schöche, S.; Darakchieva, V.; Janzén, E.; Monemar, B.; Gogova, D.; Thieu, Q.-T.; Togashi, R.; Murakami, H.; Kumagai, Y.; Goto, K.; Kuramata, A.; Yamakoshi, S.; Higashiwaki, M.
2016-03-01
We derive a dielectric function tensor model approach to render the optical response of monoclinic and triclinic symmetry materials with multiple uncoupled infrared and far-infrared active modes. We apply our model approach to monoclinic β -Ga2O3 single-crystal samples. Surfaces cut under different angles from a bulk crystal, (010) and (2 ¯01 ), are investigated by generalized spectroscopic ellipsometry within infrared and far-infrared spectral regions. We determine the frequency dependence of 4 independent β -Ga2O3 Cartesian dielectric function tensor elements by matching large sets of experimental data using a point-by-point data inversion approach. From matching our monoclinic model to the obtained 4 dielectric function tensor components, we determine all infrared and far-infrared active transverse optic phonon modes with Au and Bu symmetry, and their eigenvectors within the monoclinic lattice. We find excellent agreement between our model results and results of density functional theory calculations. We derive and discuss the frequencies of longitudinal optical phonons in β -Ga2O3 . We derive and report density and anisotropic mobility parameters of the free charge carriers within the tin-doped crystals. We discuss the occurrence of longitudinal phonon plasmon coupled modes in β -Ga2O3 and provide their frequencies and eigenvectors. We also discuss and present monoclinic dielectric constants for static electric fields and frequencies above the reststrahlen range, and we provide a generalization of the Lyddane-Sachs-Teller relation for monoclinic lattices with infrared and far-infrared active modes. We find that the generalized Lyddane-Sachs-Teller relation is fulfilled excellently for β -Ga2O3 .
Geodesic Acoustic Mode Induced by Toroidal Rotation in Tokamaks
Wahlberg, C.
2008-09-12
The effect of toroidal rotation on the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) in a tokamak is studied. It is shown that, in addition to a small frequency upshift of the ordinary GAM, another GAM, with much lower frequency, is induced by the rotation. The new GAM appears as a consequence of the nonuniform plasma density and pressure created by the centrifugal force on the magnetic surfaces. Both GAMs in a rotating plasma are shown to exist both as continuum modes with finite mode numbers m and n at the rational surfaces q=m/n as well as in the form of axisymmetric modes with m=n=0.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mizoguchi, K.; Hino, T.; Nakayama, M.; Dekorsy, T.; Bartels, A.; Kurz, H.; Nakashima, S.
2004-03-01
Coherent folded longitudinal acoustic phonons in a GaAs/AlAs long-period superlattice (SL) have been investigated by using a reflection-type two-color pump-probe technique under the condition that the wave vector of the probe pulse in the sample exceeds the mini-Brillouin zone. The coherent oscillations observed in the time-domain signals indicate the propagation of the phonon wave packet through the whole SL layer. The Fourier transform spectrum of the time-domain signals is compared with the dispersion relation of the folded longitudinal acoustic phonons in the long-period SL calculated using a transfer matrix method on the bases of an elastic continuum model. This comparison indicates that the folded longitudinal acoustic phonons in the long-period SL are observed through the umklapp process.
Refraction of acoustic duct waveguide modes by exhaust jets.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mani, R.
1973-01-01
The refraction of acoustic duct waveguide modes emitted from the open end of a semiinfinite rectangular duct by a jet-like exhaust flow is studied theoretically. The problem is formulated as a Wiener-Hopf problem and is ultimately solved by an approximate method due to Carrier and Koiter. Continuity of transverse acoustic particle displacement and of acoustic pressure is assumed at the jet/still-air interface. The solution exhibits several features of the acoustics of moving media such as a source convection effect, zones of relative silence, and simple refraction. Plots of far-field directivity patterns are presented for several cases and show refraction effects to be important even at modest exhaust Mach numbers of order 0.3. Only subsonic exhaust Mach numbers are considered.
Phononic crystal diffraction gratings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moiseyenko, Rayisa P.; Herbison, Sarah; Declercq, Nico F.; Laude, Vincent
2012-02-01
When a phononic crystal is interrogated by an external source of acoustic waves, there is necessarily a phenomenon of diffraction occurring on the external enclosing surfaces. Indeed, these external surfaces are periodic and the resulting acoustic diffraction grating has a periodicity that depends on the orientation of the phononic crystal. This work presents a combined experimental and theoretical study on the diffraction of bulk ultrasonic waves on the external surfaces of a 2D phononic crystal that consists of a triangular lattice of steel rods in a water matrix. The results of transmission experiments are compared with theoretical band structures obtained with the finite-element method. Angular spectrograms (showing frequency as a function of angle) determined from diffraction experiments are then compared with finite-element simulations of diffraction occurring on the surfaces of the crystal. The experimental results show that the diffraction that occurs on its external surfaces is highly frequency-dependent and has a definite relation with the Bloch modes of the phononic crystal. In particular, a strong influence of the presence of bandgaps and deaf bands on the diffraction efficiency is found. This observation opens perspectives for the design of efficient phononic crystal diffraction gratings.
Phonon-roton modes of liquid 4He beyond the roton in MCM-41
Azuah, Richard T; Omar Diallo, Souleymane; Adams, Mark A.; Kirichek, Oleg; Glyde, Henry R
2013-01-01
We present neutron scattering measurements of the phonon-roton (P-R) mode of superfluid 4He confined in 47 A MCM-41 at T = 0.5 K at wave vectors, Q, beyond the roton wave vector (QR = 1.92 A-1). Measurements beyond the roton require access to high wave vectors (up to Q = 4 A-1) with excellent energy resolution and high statistical precision. The present results show for the first time that at T = 0.5 K the P-R mode in MCM-41 extends out to wave-vector Q 3.6 A-1 with the same energy and zero width (within precision) as observed in bulk superfluid 4He. Layer modes in the roton region are also observed. Specifically, the P-R mode energy, !Q, increases with Q for Q > QR and reaches a plateau at a maximum energy !Q = 2 where is the roton energy, = 0.74 0.01 meV in MCM-41. This upper limit means the P-R mode decays to two rotons when its energy exceeds 2 . It also means that the P-R mode does not decay to two layers modes. If the P-R could decay to two layer modes, !Q would plateau at a lower energy, !Q = 2 L where L = 0.60 meV is the energy of the roton like minimum of the layer mode. The observation of the P-R mode with energy up to 2 shows that the P-R mode and the layer modes are independent modes with apparently little interaction between them.
Zonal Flow Velocimetry in Spherical Couette Flow using Acoustic Modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adams, Matthew M.; Mautino, Anthony R.; Stone, Douglas R.; Triana, Santiago A.; Lekic, Vedran; Lathrop, Daniel P.
2015-11-01
We present studies of spherical Couette flows using the technique of acoustic mode Doppler velocimetry. This technique uses rotational splittings of acoustic modes to infer the azimuthal velocity profile of a rotating flow, and is of special interest in experiments where direct flow visualization is impractical. The primary experimental system consists of a 60 cm diameter outer spherical shell concentric with a 20 cm diameter sphere, with air or nitrogen gas serving as the working fluid. The geometry of the system approximates that of the Earth's core, making these studies geophysically relevant. A turbulent shear flow is established in the system by rotating the inner sphere and outer shell at different rates. Acoustic modes of the fluid volume are excited using a speaker and measured via microphones, allowingdetermination of rotational splittings. Preliminary results comparing observed splittings with those predicted by theory are presented. While the majority of these studies were performed in the 60 cm diameter device using nitrogen gas, some work has also been done looking at acoustic modes in the 3 m diameter liquid sodium spherical Couette experiment. Prospects for measuring zonal velocity profiles in a wide variety of experiments are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Kang Il; Kang, Hwi Suk; Yoon, Suk Wang
2016-04-01
The present work reports a combined experimental and theoretical study on the acoustic band gaps in a two-dimensional (2D) phononic crystal (PC) consisting of periodic square arrays of stainless-steel cylinders with diameters of 1.0 mm and a lattice constant of 1.5 mm in water. The theoretical band structure of the 2D PC was calculated along the ΓX direction of the first Brillouin zone. The transmission and the reflection coefficients were obtained both experimentally and theoretically along the ΓX direction of the 2D PC. The 2D PC exhibited 5 band gaps at frequencies below 2.0 MHz, with the first Bragg gap being around a frequency of 0.5 MHz. To understand the band gaps in the 2D PC, we calculated the acoustic pressure fields at specific frequencies of interest for normal incidence, and we explained them from the perspective of acoustic diffraction gratings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boukhicha, Mohamed; Calandra, Matteo; Measson, Marie-Aude; Lancry, Ophelie; Shukla, Abhay
2013-05-01
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is a promising material for making two-dimensional crystals and flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices at the nanoscale. MoS2 flakes can show high mobilities and have even been integrated in nanocircuits. A fundamental requirement for such use is efficient thermal transport. Electronic transport generates heat which needs to be evacuated, more crucially so in nanostructures. Anharmonic phonon-phonon scattering is the dominant intrinsic limitation to thermal transport in insulators. Here, using appropriate samples, ultralow energy Raman spectroscopy and first-principles calculations, we provide a full experimental and theoretical description of compression and shear modes of few-layer (FL) MoS2. We demonstrate that the compression modes are strongly anharmonic with a marked enhancement of phonon-phonon scattering as the number of layers is reduced, most likely a general feature of nanolayered materials with weak interlayer coupling.
Plasmon and coupled plasmon-phonon modes in graphene in the presence of a driving electric field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, C. X.; Xu, W.; Dong, H. M.; Peeters, F. M.
2014-05-01
We present a theoretical study of the plasmon and coupled plasmon-phonon modes induced by intraband electron-electron interaction in graphene in the presence of driving dc electric field. We find that the electric field dependence of these collective excitation modes in graphene differs significantly from that in a conventional two-dimensional electron gas with a parabolic energy spectrum. This is due mainly to the fact that graphene has a linear energy spectrum and the Fermi velocity of electrons in graphene is much larger than the drift velocity of electrons. The obtained results demonstrate that the plasmon and coupled plasmon-phonon modes in graphene can be tuned by applying not only the gate voltage but also the source-to-drain field. The manipulation of plasmon and coupled plasmon-phonon modes by source-to-drain voltage can let graphene be more conveniently applied as an advanced plasmonic material.
Acoustic emission signatures of damage modes in concrete
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aggelis, D. G.; Mpalaskas, A. C.; Matikas, T. E.; Van Hemelrijck, D.
2014-03-01
The characterization of the dominant fracture mode may assist in the prediction of the remaining life of a concrete structure due to the sequence between successive tensile and shear mechanisms. Acoustic emission sensors record the elastic responses after any fracture event converting them into electric waveforms. The characteristics of the waveforms vary according to the movement of the crack tips, enabling characterization of the original mode. In this study fracture experiments on concrete beams are conducted. The aim is to examine the typical acoustic signals emitted by different fracture modes (namely tension due to bending and shear) in a concrete matrix. This is an advancement of a recent study focusing on smaller scale mortar and marble specimens. The dominant stress field and ultimate fracture mode is controlled by modification of the four-point bending setup while acoustic emission is monitored by six sensors at fixed locations. Conclusions about how to distinguish the sources based on waveform parameters of time domain (duration, rise time) and frequency are drawn. Specifically, emissions during the shear loading exhibit lower frequencies and longer duration than tensile. Results show that, combination of AE features may help to characterize the shift between dominant fracture modes and contribute to the structural health monitoring of concrete. This offers the basis for in-situ application provided that the distortion of the signal due to heterogeneous wave path is accounted for.
Dispersion correction and identification of ocean acoustic normal modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poplawski, James Edward
1998-08-01
The average temperature of the ocean can be determined by measuring the traveltimes of acoustic signals from a source to a receiver. In the temperate deep ocean, a narrow acoustic pulse transmitted from a source results in a reception at long ranges consisting of many (possibly overlapping) arrivals. One of the mathematical structures used to describe and interpret acoustic propagation in the ocean is normal mode theory. The identification of individual normal mode arrivals in a reception is difficult because modal arrivals are spread in time by geometric dispersion causing them to overlap and interfere with each other. Current signal processing methods aimed at identifying individual normal mode arrivals require the use of vertical arrays of receivers which are rare because they are very expensive to build and deploy. A new signal processing method using phase-only filters to compensate for the geometric dispersion of normal mode arrivals is presented. This compensation increases the peak signal to noise ratio of the individual modal arrivals while simultaneously compressing them in time, helping to isolate them and their arrival times from overlapping neighbors. The properties of the phase-only filters and their ability to help isolate and identify modal arrivals is investigated through the processing of computer simulated receptions. By processing a reception with a bank of phase-only filters characterized by different amounts of dispersion compensation, a plot dubbed the Dispersion Diagnostic (DD) Display is generated. The use of phase-only filters does not require vertical arrays of receivers because modal phase is constant across depth. DD Displays generated for a reception from a receiver at a single depth show compressed modes which are isolated from their neighbors and for which traveltimes can be determined. Thus, the dispersion processing opens up the use of horizontal arrays or single hydrophones in mode identification, broadening the capabilities of
Fernée, Mark J; Sinito, Chiara; Louyer, Yann; Potzner, Christian; Nguyen, Tich-Lam; Mulvaney, Paul; Tamarat, Philippe; Lounis, Brahim
2012-01-01
Charged quantum dots provide an important platform for a range of emerging quantum technologies. Colloidal quantum dots in particular offer unique advantages for such applications (facile synthesis, manipulation and compatibility with a wide range of environments), especially if stable charged states can be harnessed in these materials. Here we engineer the CdSe nanocrystal core and shell structure to efficiently ionize at cryogenic temperatures, resulting in trion emission with a single sharp zero-phonon line and a mono exponential decay. Magneto-optical spectroscopy enables direct determination of electron and hole g-factors. Spin relaxation is observed in high fields, enabling unambiguous identification of the trion charge. Importantly, we show that spin flips are completely inhibited for Zeeman splittings below the low-energy bound for confined acoustic phonons. This reveals a characteristic unique to colloidal quantum dots that will promote the use of these versatile materials in challenging quantum technological applications. PMID:23250417
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernée, Mark J.; Sinito, Chiara; Louyer, Yann; Potzner, Christian; Nguyen, Tich-Lam; Mulvaney, Paul; Tamarat, Philippe; Lounis, Brahim
2012-12-01
Charged quantum dots provide an important platform for a range of emerging quantum technologies. Colloidal quantum dots in particular offer unique advantages for such applications (facile synthesis, manipulation and compatibility with a wide range of environments), especially if stable charged states can be harnessed in these materials. Here we engineer the CdSe nanocrystal core and shell structure to efficiently ionize at cryogenic temperatures, resulting in trion emission with a single sharp zero-phonon line and a mono exponential decay. Magneto-optical spectroscopy enables direct determination of electron and hole g-factors. Spin relaxation is observed in high fields, enabling unambiguous identification of the trion charge. Importantly, we show that spin flips are completely inhibited for Zeeman splittings below the low-energy bound for confined acoustic phonons. This reveals a characteristic unique to colloidal quantum dots that will promote the use of these versatile materials in challenging quantum technological applications.
Delocalization of phonon-plasmon modes in GaAs/AlAs superlattices with tunnel-thin AlAs barriers
Volodin, V. A. Efremov, M. D.; Sachkov, V. A.
2006-10-15
The technique of Raman spectroscopy has been used to investigate doped (n-type) and undoped GaAs/AlAs superlattices with AlAs barrier thicknesses from 17 to 1 monolayers. The peak corresponding to the scattering by a two-dimensional plasmon was found in the Raman spectrum of a doped superlattice with relatively thick barriers. The position of the experimental peak corresponded to the value calculated in the model of plasma oscillations in periodic planes of a two-dimensional electron gas. The electron tunneling effects played an increasingly prominent role as the AlAs barrier thickness decreased. The peaks corresponding to the scattering by coupled phonons with three-dimensional plasmons were found in the Raman spectra for a superlattice with an AlAs thickness of 2 monolayers; i.e., the delocalization of coupled modes was observed. In this case, the folding of acoustic phonons was observed in the superlattice under consideration, indicative of its good periodicity, while the localization of optical phonons in GaAs layers was observed in undoped superlattices with an AlAs thickness of 2 monolayers.
Collisional damping of the geodesic acoustic mode with toroidal rotation. I. Viscous damping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gong, Xueyu; Xie, Baoyi; Guo, Wenfeng; Chen, You; Yu, Jiangmei; Yu, Jun
2016-03-01
With the dispersion relation derived for the geodesic acoustic mode in toroidally rotating tokamak plasmas using the fluid model, the effect of the toroidal rotation on the collisional viscous damping of the geodesic acoustic mode is investigated. It is found that the collisional viscous damping of the geodesic acoustic mode has weak increase with respect to the toroidal Mach number.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.; Kosuga, Y.; Lesur, M.; Ido, T.
2016-05-01
An analytic model is developed for understanding the abrupt onset of geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) in the presence of chirping energetic-particle-driven GAM (EGAM). This abrupt excitation phenomenon has been observed on LHD plasma. Threshold conditions for the onset of abrupt growth of GAM are derived, and the period doubling phenomenon is explained. The phase relation between the mother mode (EGAM) and the daughter mode (GAM) is also discussed. This result contributes to the understanding of "trigger problems" of laboratory and nature plasmas.
Lee, Sooheyong; Williams, G. Jackson; Campana, Maria I.; Walko, Donald A.; Landahl, Eric C.
2016-01-01
Using a strain-rosette, we demonstrate the existence of transverse strain using time-resolved x-ray diffraction from multiple Bragg reflections in laser-excited bulk gallium arsenide. We find that anisotropic strain is responsible for a considerable fraction of the total lattice motion at early times before thermal equilibrium is achieved. Our measurements are described by a new model where the Poisson ratio drives transverse motion, resulting in the creation of shear waves without the need for an indirect process such as mode conversion at an interface. Using the same excitation geometry with the narrow-gap semiconductor indium antimonide, we detected coherent transverse acoustic oscillations at frequencies of several GHz. PMID:26751616
A violin shell model: vibrational modes and acoustics.
Gough, Colin E
2015-03-01
A generic physical model for the vibro-acoustic modes of the violin is described treating the body shell as a shallow, thin-walled, guitar-shaped, box structure with doubly arched top and back plates. comsol finite element, shell structure, software is used to identify and understand the vibrational modes of a simply modeled violin. This identifies the relationship between the freely supported plate modes when coupled together by the ribs and the modes of the assembled body shell. Such coupling results in a relatively small number of eigenmodes or component shell modes, of which a single volume-changing breathing mode is shown to be responsible for almost all the sound radiated in the monopole signature mode regime below ∼1 kHz for the violin, whether directly or by excitation of the Helmholtz f-hole resonance. The computations describe the influence on such modes of material properties, arching, plate thickness, elastic anisotropy, f-holes cut into the top plate, the bass-bar, coupling to internal air modes, the rigid neck-fingerboard assembly, and, most importantly, the soundpost. Because the shell modes are largely determined by the symmetry of the guitar-shaped body, the model is applicable to all instruments of the violin family. PMID:25786935
Dual mode acoustic wave sensor for precise pressure reading
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mu, Xiaojing; Kropelnicki, Piotr; Wang, Yong; Randles, Andrew Benson; Chuan Chai, Kevin Tshun; Cai, Hong; Gu, Yuan Dong
2014-09-01
In this letter, a Microelectromechanical system acoustic wave sensor, which has a dual mode (lateral field exited Lamb wave mode and surface acoustic wave (SAW) mode) behavior, is presented for precious pressure change read out. Comb-like interdigital structured electrodes on top of piezoelectric material aluminium nitride (AlN) are used to generate the wave modes. The sensor membrane consists of single crystalline silicon formed by backside-etching of the bulk material of a silicon on insulator wafer having variable device thickness layer (5 μm-50 μm). With this principle, a pressure sensor has been fabricated and mounted on a pressure test package with pressure applied to the backside of the membrane within a range of 0 psi to 300 psi. The temperature coefficient of frequency was experimentally measured in the temperature range of -50 °C to 300 °C. This idea demonstrates a piezoelectric based sensor having two modes SAW/Lamb wave for direct physical parameter—pressure readout and temperature cancellation which can operate in harsh environment such as oil and gas exploration, automobile and aeronautic applications using the dual mode behavior of the sensor and differential readout at the same time.
The hydrogen-bond network of water supports propagating optical phonon-like modes
Elton, Daniel C.; Fernández-Serra, Marivi
2016-01-04
The local structure of liquid water as a function of temperature is a source of intense research. This structure is intimately linked to the dynamics of water molecules, which can be measured using Raman and infrared spectroscopies. The assignment of spectral peaks depends on whether they are collective modes or single-molecule motions. Vibrational modes in liquids are usually considered to be associated to the motions of single molecules or small clusters. Using molecular dynamics simulations, here we find dispersive optical phonon-like modes in the librational and OH-stretching bands. We argue that on subpicosecond time scales these modes propagate through water’smore » hydrogen-bond network over distances of up to 2 nm. In the long wavelength limit these optical modes exhibit longitudinal–transverse splitting, indicating the presence of coherent long-range dipole–dipole interactions, as in ice. Lastly, our results indicate the dynamics of liquid water have more similarities to ice than previously thought.« less
The hydrogen-bond network of water supports propagating optical phonon-like modes
Elton, Daniel C.; Fernández-Serra, Marivi
2016-01-01
The local structure of liquid water as a function of temperature is a source of intense research. This structure is intimately linked to the dynamics of water molecules, which can be measured using Raman and infrared spectroscopies. The assignment of spectral peaks depends on whether they are collective modes or single-molecule motions. Vibrational modes in liquids are usually considered to be associated to the motions of single molecules or small clusters. Using molecular dynamics simulations, here we find dispersive optical phonon-like modes in the librational and OH-stretching bands. We argue that on subpicosecond time scales these modes propagate through water's hydrogen-bond network over distances of up to 2 nm. In the long wavelength limit these optical modes exhibit longitudinal–transverse splitting, indicating the presence of coherent long-range dipole–dipole interactions, as in ice. Our results indicate the dynamics of liquid water have more similarities to ice than previously thought. PMID:26725363
Phonon populations and electrical power dissipation in carbon nanotube transistors.
Steiner, Mathias; Freitag, Marcus; Perebeinos, Vasili; Tsang, James C; Small, Joshua P; Kinoshita, Megumi; Yuan, Dongning; Liu, Jie; Avouris, Phaedon
2009-05-01
Carbon nanotubes and graphene are candidate materials for nanoscale electronic devices. Both materials show weak acoustic phonon scattering and long mean free paths for low-energy charge carriers. However, high-energy carriers couple strongly to optical phonons, which leads to current saturation and the generation of hot phonons. A non-equilibrium phonon distribution has been invoked to explain the negative differential conductance observed in suspended metallic nanotubes, while Raman studies have shown the electrical generation of hot G-phonons in metallic nanotubes. Here, we present a complete picture of the phonon distribution in a functioning nanotube transistor including the G and the radial breathing modes, the Raman-inactive zone boundary K mode and the intermediate-frequency mode populated by anharmonic decay. The effective temperatures of the high- and intermediate-frequency phonons are considerably higher than those of acoustic phonons, indicating a phonon-decay bottleneck. Most importantly, inclusion of scattering by substrate polar phonons is needed to fully account for the observed electronic transport behaviour. PMID:19421219
Woźny, M. Cebulski, J.; Sheregii, E. M.; Marcelli, A.; Piccinini, M.
2015-01-14
We present an experimental investigation of the temperature dependence of the TO-phonon mode frequencies for the HgTe-based II-VI semiconductor solid solutions. In the case of the ternary Hg{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 0.1}Te solid solution was shown a discontinuity in the temperature dependence of the HgTe-like T{sub 0}-mode and of the ZnTe-like T{sub 1}-mode, similar to the Hg{sub 0.85}Cd{sub 0.15}Te system [Sheregii et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 045504 (2009)]. A generalization of the theoretical temperature shift of the phonon mode frequency as analytic equation is derived that includes both the anharmonic contribution and the electron-phonon e-p interaction which in this case is returnable—the electron subsystem effect on the phonon one. Data show that our equation satisfactorily describes the temperature shift of both Hg{sub 0.85}Cd{sub 0.15}Te and Hg{sub 0.90}Zn{sub 0.10}Te containing Dirac point (E{sub g} ≡ Γ{sub 6} – Γ{sub 8} = 0) although one of the two constants describing the anharmonic shift of the HgTe-like mode should be positive what is abnormal too. In the case of the Hg{sub 0.80}Cd{sub 0.20}Te and Hg{sub 0.763}Zn{sub 0.237}Te solid solution, the role of the returnable e-p contribution is negligible but a positive temperature shift for the HgTe-like modes occurs. This result does not allow to explain the positive temperature shift of these modes merely by the contribution of the (e-p) interaction. Indeed, the relativistic contribution to the chemical bonds induces an abnormal temperature shift of the electron states in Hg-based semiconductors—the effect is expected since the Hg d spin-orbit split contribution to chemical bonds may lead to an abnormal temperature shift of the HgTe-like modes.
Landau damping of geodesic acoustic mode in toroidally rotating tokamaks
Ren, Haijun; Cao, Jintao
2015-06-15
Geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) is analyzed by using modified gyro-kinetic (MGK) equation applicable to low-frequency microinstabilities in a rotating axisymmetric plasma. Dispersion relation of GAM in the presence of arbitrary toroidal Mach number is analytically derived. The effects of toroidal rotation on the GAM frequency and damping rate do not depend on the orientation of equilibrium flow. It is shown that the toroidal Mach number M increases the GAM frequency and dramatically decreases the Landau damping rate.
Acoustic Faraday rotation in Weyl semimetals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Donghao; Shi, Junren
We investigate the phonon problems in Weyl semimetals, from which both the phonon Berry curvature and the phonon Damping could be obtained. We show that even without a magnetic field, the degenerate transverse acoustic modes could also be split due to the adiabatic curvature. In three dimensional case, acoustic Faraday rotation shows up. And furthermore, since the attenuation procedure could distinguish the polarized mode, single circularly polarized acoustic wave could be realized. We study the mechanism in the novel time reversal symmetry broken Weyl semimetal. New effects rise because of the linear dispersion, which give enlightenment in the measurement of this new kind of three-dimensional material.
Reciprocity in the scattering coefficients of acoustic waveguide modes.
Tong, Yuhui; Pan, Jie
2013-09-01
In this Letter, a proof is provided for the reciprocity between modal scattering coefficients of the acoustic waveguides connected by a junction enclosure. The result holds for all waveguide modes and for junction enclosures with locally reactive boundary conditions away from the interfaces between the junction and waveguides. Also provided is a physical interpretation of the reciprocity of the modal scattering coefficients. The scattering of two-dimensional waveguide modes by a right-angled bend in a rectangular duct is used as an illustrating example. PMID:23967907
Microscopic theory of cooperative spin crossover: Interaction of molecular modes with phonons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palii, Andrew; Ostrovsky, Serghei; Reu, Oleg; Tsukerblat, Boris; Decurtins, Silvio; Liu, Shi-Xia; Klokishner, Sophia
2015-08-01
In this article, we present a new microscopic theoretical approach to the description of spin crossover in molecular crystals. The spin crossover crystals under consideration are composed of molecular fragments formed by the spin-crossover metal ion and its nearest ligand surrounding and exhibiting well defined localized (molecular) vibrations. As distinguished from the previous models of this phenomenon, the developed approach takes into account the interaction of spin-crossover ions not only with the phonons but also a strong coupling of the electronic shells with molecular modes. This leads to an effective coupling of the local modes with phonons which is shown to be responsible for the cooperative spin transition accompanied by the structural reorganization. The transition is characterized by the two order parameters representing the mean values of the products of electronic diagonal matrices and the coordinates of the local modes for the high- and low-spin states of the spin crossover complex. Finally, we demonstrate that the approach provides a reasonable explanation of the observed spin transition in the [Fe(ptz)6](BF4)2 crystal. The theory well reproduces the observed abrupt low-spin → high-spin transition and the temperature dependence of the high-spin fraction in a wide temperature range as well as the pronounced hysteresis loop. At the same time within the limiting approximations adopted in the developed model, the evaluated high-spin fraction vs. T shows that the cooperative spin-lattice transition proves to be incomplete in the sense that the high-spin fraction does not reach its maximum value at high temperature.
Microscopic theory of cooperative spin crossover: Interaction of molecular modes with phonons
Palii, Andrew E-mail: klokishner@yahoo.com; Ostrovsky, Serghei; Reu, Oleg; Klokishner, Sophia E-mail: klokishner@yahoo.com; Tsukerblat, Boris; Decurtins, Silvio; Liu, Shi-Xia
2015-08-28
In this article, we present a new microscopic theoretical approach to the description of spin crossover in molecular crystals. The spin crossover crystals under consideration are composed of molecular fragments formed by the spin-crossover metal ion and its nearest ligand surrounding and exhibiting well defined localized (molecular) vibrations. As distinguished from the previous models of this phenomenon, the developed approach takes into account the interaction of spin-crossover ions not only with the phonons but also a strong coupling of the electronic shells with molecular modes. This leads to an effective coupling of the local modes with phonons which is shown to be responsible for the cooperative spin transition accompanied by the structural reorganization. The transition is characterized by the two order parameters representing the mean values of the products of electronic diagonal matrices and the coordinates of the local modes for the high- and low-spin states of the spin crossover complex. Finally, we demonstrate that the approach provides a reasonable explanation of the observed spin transition in the [Fe(ptz){sub 6}](BF{sub 4}){sub 2} crystal. The theory well reproduces the observed abrupt low-spin → high-spin transition and the temperature dependence of the high-spin fraction in a wide temperature range as well as the pronounced hysteresis loop. At the same time within the limiting approximations adopted in the developed model, the evaluated high-spin fraction vs. T shows that the cooperative spin-lattice transition proves to be incomplete in the sense that the high-spin fraction does not reach its maximum value at high temperature.
Phonon Scattering Dynamics of Thermophoretic Motion in Carbon Nanotube Oscillators.
Prasad, Matukumilli V D; Bhattacharya, Baidurya
2016-04-13
Using phonon wave packet molecular dynamics simulations, we find that anomalous longitudinal acoustic (LA) mode phonon scattering in low to moderate energy ranges is responsible for initiating thermophoretic motion in carbon nanotube oscillators. The repeated scattering of a single mode LA phonon wave packet near the ends of the inner nanotube provides a net unbalanced force that, if large enough, initiates thermophoresis. By applying a coherent phonon pulse on the outer tube, which generalizes the single mode phonon wave packet, we are able to achieve thermophoresis in a carbon nanotube oscillator. We also find the nature of the unbalanced force on end-atoms to be qualitatively similar to that under an imposed thermal gradient. The thermodiffusion coefficient obtained for a range of thermal gradients and core lengths suggest that LA phonon scattering is the dominant mechanism for thermophoresis in longer cores, whereas for shorter cores, it is the highly diffusive mechanism that provides the effective force. PMID:26965789
Shinokita, Keisuke; Reimann, Klaus; Woerner, Michael; Elsaesser, Thomas; Hey, Rudolf; Flytzanis, Christos
2016-02-19
Sound amplification in an electrically biased superlattice (SL) is studied in optical experiments with 100 fs time resolution. Coherent SL phonons with frequencies of 40, 375, and 410 GHz give rise to oscillatory reflectivity changes. With currents from 0.5 to 1.3 A, the Fourier amplitude of the 410 GHz phonon increases by more than a factor of 2 over a 200 ps period. This amplification is due to stimulated Čerenkov phonon emission by electrons undergoing intraminiband transport. The gain coefficient of 8×10^{3} cm^{-1} is reproduced by theoretical calculations and holds potential for novel sub-THz phonon emitters. PMID:26943546
Pseudospin lifetime in relaxed-shape armchair graphene nanoribbons due to in-plane phonon modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prabhakar, Sanjay; Melnik, Roderick; Bonilla, Luis
2016-03-01
We study the influence of ripple waves on the band structures of strained armchair graphene nanoribbons. We argue that the Zeeman pseudospin (p-spin) splitting energy induced by ripple waves might not be neglected for smaller widths of armchair graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). We show that the p-spin splitting energy breaks the symmetry of degeneracy due to the ripple-induced Zeeman effect in GNRs, originating from electromechanical coupling. We estimate the p-spin lifetime in strained armchair GNRs caused by in-plane phonon modes for possible applications in straintronics and quantum information processing. By considering higher order terms in the strain tensor expansion, we also demonstrate that highly asymmetric band structures of GNRs induce asymmetric phonon-mediated p-spin relaxation. Such asymmetric p-spin relaxation is not possible for unstrained armchair and zigzag GNRs. In particular, we report that the p-spin transition rate decreases like B05 (as a function of p-magnetic fields), L-9 (as a function of GNR width) and τe-1, where τe is the externally applied tensile edge stress.
The hydrogen bond network of water supports propagating optical phonon-like modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elton, Daniel; Fernadez-Serra, Marivi
The local structure of liquid water as a function of temperature is a source of intense research. This structure is intimately linked to the dynamics of water molecules, which can be measured using Raman and infrared spectroscopies. Vibrational modes in liquids are usually considered to be associated to the motions of single molecules or small clusters. Previously, the librational Raman peaks of water were assigned to the librational motions of single molecules. By comparing experimental Raman and IR spectra we show these assignments are problematic. Using molecular dynamics simulations we study the k-dependent dielectric susceptibility of water. We find dispersive optical phonon-like modes in water's librational and OH stretching bands. We argue that on subpicosecond time scales these modes propagate through water's hydrogen bond network over distances of up to two nanometers. In the long wavelength limit these optical modes exhibit longitudinal-transverse splitting, indicating the presence of coherent long range dipole-dipole interactions. Studying how LO-TO splitting evolves with temperature may yield insight into how local structure changes. Our results indicate the dynamics of liquid water have more similarities to ice than previously thought. Reference: arXiv:1507.06363 This work was partially supported by DOE Award No. DE-FG02-09ER16052 (D.C.E.) and by DOE Early Career Award No. DE-SC0003871 (M.V.F.S.).
Optimal Masks for Low-Degree Solar Acoustic Modes.
Toutain; Kosovichev
2000-05-10
We suggest a solution to an important problem in observational helioseismology of the separation of lines of solar acoustic (p) modes of low angular degree in oscillation power spectra by constructing optimal masks for Doppler images of the Sun. Accurate measurements of oscillation frequencies of low-degree modes are essential for the determination of the structure and rotation of the solar core. However, these measurements for a particular mode are often affected by leakage of other p-modes arising when the Doppler images are projected on to spherical harmonic masks. The leakage results in overlapping peaks corresponding to different oscillation modes in the power spectra. In this Letter, we present a method for calculating optimal masks for a given (target) mode by minimizing the signals of other modes appearing in its vicinity. We apply this method to time series of 2 yr obtained from the Michelson Doppler Imager instrument on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory space mission and demonstrate its ability to reduce efficiently the mode leakage. PMID:10813685
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Guoqiang; Zhu, Yao; Merugu, Srinivas; Wang, Nan; Sun, Chengliang; Gu, Yuandong
2016-07-01
This letter reports a spurious mode free GHz aluminum nitride (AlN) lamb wave resonator (LWR) towards high figure of merit (FOM). One dimensional gourd-shape phononic crystal (PnC) tether with large phononic bandgaps is employed to reduce the acoustic energy dissipation into the substrate. The periodic PnC tethers are based on a 1 μm-thick AlN layer with 0.26 μm-thick Mo layer on top. A clean spectrum over a wide frequency range is obtained from the measurement, which indicates a wide-band suppression of spurious modes. Experimental results demonstrate that the fabricated AlN LWR has an insertion loss of 5.2 dB and a loaded quality factor (Q) of 1893 at 1.02 GHz measured in air. An impressive ratio of the resistance at parallel resonance (Rp) to the resistance at series resonance (Rs) of 49.8 dB is obtained, which is an indication of high FOM for LWR. The high Rp to Rs ratio is one of the most important parameters to design a radio frequency filter with steep roll-off.
Spoor, P.S.; Swift, G.W. )
1999-09-01
Vibration induced in engine hardware by a working fluid can be very significant in high-power, high-amplitude acoustic heat engines, and is a serious impediment to their practical use. This vibration can cause fatigue and destruction of engine components as well as fuel lines, cooling lines, and sensor wires. The forces involved make anchoring such an engine to an [open quotes]immovable[close quotes] object impractical. Rigidly attaching two such engines together, and acoustically coupling them with a duct of such a length and diameter that the two engines mode-lock in antiphase (thus canceling the longitudinal vibration) appears to be an inexpensive, viable solution. This paper describes in detail experiments demonstrating the feasibility of this idea, and the underlying theory. [copyright] [ital 1999 Acoustical Society of America.] < --[HEB] -->
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Jun-Jie; Chu, Xing-Li; Goldys, E. M.
2004-09-01
The equation of motion for the p -polarization field in an arbitrary wurtzite multilayer heterostructure is solved for the propagating optical-phonon (POP) modes in the framework of the dielectric-continuum model and Loudon’s uniaxial crystal model. The polarization eigenvector, the dispersion relation, and the electron-propagating-phonon (EPP) interaction Fröhlich-like Hamiltonian are derived. The analytical formulas can be directly applied to single heterojunctions, single and multiple quantum wells (QW’s), and superlattices. The dispersion relations of the POP modes and the EPP coupling functions are investigated for a given GaN/Al0.15Ga0.85N single QW with full account of the strains of QW structures and the anisotropy effects of wurtzite crystals. We find that there are infinite POP branches, which can be denoted by a quantum number n(n=1,2,…) , with definite symmetry with respect to the center of symmetry of the QW structure. The dispersion of the POP modes with smaller n is more obvious than for larger n . Moreover, the modes with smaller n are much more important for the EPP interactions than the modes with larger n . In most cases, it is enough to consider the modes with n=1,2,…,10 for the EPP interactions in a single QW. The long-wavelength POP modes are much more important for the EPP interactions. Furthermore, the strain effects of the QW structures have a strong influence on the dispersion of the POP modes. The strength of the EPP interactions is markedly increased due to the strains of the QW structures.
The evolution of interface phonon polariton modes in a finite superlattice with a structural defect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Meng-Dong; Wang, Ling-Ling; Huang, Wei-Qing; Wang, Xin-Jun; Zou, Bing-Suo
2006-12-01
Using a transfer matrix method, we derive the dispersion equation for interface phonon-polariton modes (IPPMs) in a finite superlattice (SL) with a structural defect. The numerical results show that, in the nonradiative regime, there exist localized IPPMs (including retardation) inside or outside the Reststrahlen regions defined by the interval [ωTO, ωLO]. The localized IPPMs lie either in the minigaps or below and above the bulk bands, and their transversal electric field amplitudes are located in the vicinity of the defect layer or surface layers. The evolution of the IPPMs localized in the vicinity of a different interface can clearly be tracked. In addition, a brief analysis that radiative IPPMs evolve into nonradiative IPPMs is given.
Effect of multiperforated plates on the acoustic modes in combustors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gullaud, Elsa; Mendez, Simon; Sensiau, Claude; Nicoud, Franck; Poinsot, Thierry
2009-06-01
The analytical model derived by Howe assessing the acoustic effect of perforated plates has been implemented in a 3D Helmholtz solver. This solver allows one to compute the acoustic modes of industrial chambers taking into account the multiperforated plates present for the cooling of the walls. An academic test case consisting of two coaxial cylinders, with the inner one being perforated is used to validate the implementation in the general purpose AVSP code. This case is also used to show the effects of the presence of the plates. In particular, the sensitivity of the acoustic damping to the bias flow speed will be studied. A maximum absorption speed is shown, and the behaviour towards an infinite speed will be illustrated by the academic case. Computations are also conducted in the case of an industrial helicopter chamber. The value of the maximum absorption speed is discussed to explain why the modes are in fact not much absorbed by the perforated plates, and that the frequencies are the same as for walls. To cite this article: E. Gullaud et al., C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).
Ultra-wide acoustic band gaps in pillar-based phononic crystal strips
Coffy, Etienne Lavergne, Thomas; Addouche, Mahmoud; Euphrasie, Sébastien; Vairac, Pascal; Khelif, Abdelkrim
2015-12-07
An original approach for designing a one dimensional phononic crystal strip with an ultra-wide band gap is presented. The strip consists of periodic pillars erected on a tailored beam, enabling the generation of a band gap that is due to both Bragg scattering and local resonances. The optimized combination of both effects results in the lowering and the widening of the main band gap, ultimately leading to a gap-to-midgap ratio of 138%. The design method used to improve the band gap width is based on the flattening of phononic bands and relies on the study of the modal energy distribution within the unit cell. The computed transmission through a finite number of periods corroborates the dispersion diagram. The strong attenuation, in excess of 150 dB for only five periods, highlights the interest of such ultra-wide band gap phononic crystal strips.
Ultra-wide acoustic band gaps in pillar-based phononic crystal strips
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coffy, Etienne; Lavergne, Thomas; Addouche, Mahmoud; Euphrasie, Sébastien; Vairac, Pascal; Khelif, Abdelkrim
2015-12-01
An original approach for designing a one dimensional phononic crystal strip with an ultra-wide band gap is presented. The strip consists of periodic pillars erected on a tailored beam, enabling the generation of a band gap that is due to both Bragg scattering and local resonances. The optimized combination of both effects results in the lowering and the widening of the main band gap, ultimately leading to a gap-to-midgap ratio of 138%. The design method used to improve the band gap width is based on the flattening of phononic bands and relies on the study of the modal energy distribution within the unit cell. The computed transmission through a finite number of periods corroborates the dispersion diagram. The strong attenuation, in excess of 150 dB for only five periods, highlights the interest of such ultra-wide band gap phononic crystal strips.
Phonon bandgap engineering of strained monolayer MoS2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Jin-Wu
2014-06-01
The phonon band structure of monolayer MoS2 is characteristic of a large energy gap between acoustic and optical branches, which protects the vibration of acoustic modes from being scattered by optical phonon modes. Therefore, the phonon bandgap engineering is of practical significance for the manipulation of phonon-related mechanical or thermal properties in monolayer MoS2. We perform both phonon analysis and molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the tension effect on the phonon bandgap and the compression induced instability of the monolayer MoS2. Our key finding is that the phonon bandgap can be narrowed by the uniaxial tension, and is completely closed at ε = 0.145; while the biaxial tension only has a limited effect on the phonon bandgap. We also demonstrate the compression induced buckling for the monolayer MoS2. The critical strain for buckling is extracted from the band structure analysis of the flexure mode in the monolayer MoS2 and is further verified by molecular dynamics simulations and the Euler buckling theory. Our study illustrates the uniaxial tension as an efficient method for manipulating the phonon bandgap of the monolayer MoS2, while the biaxial compression as a powerful tool to intrigue buckling in the monolayer MoS2.
Phonon bandgap engineering of strained monolayer MoS₂.
Jiang, Jin-Wu
2014-07-21
The phonon band structure of monolayer MoS₂ is characteristic of a large energy gap between acoustic and optical branches, which protects the vibration of acoustic modes from being scattered by optical phonon modes. Therefore, the phonon bandgap engineering is of practical significance for the manipulation of phonon-related mechanical or thermal properties in monolayer MoS₂. We perform both phonon analysis and molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the tension effect on the phonon bandgap and the compression induced instability of the monolayer MoS₂. Our key finding is that the phonon bandgap can be narrowed by the uniaxial tension, and is completely closed at ε = 0.145; while the biaxial tension only has a limited effect on the phonon bandgap. We also demonstrate the compression induced buckling for the monolayer MoS₂. The critical strain for buckling is extracted from the band structure analysis of the flexure mode in the monolayer MoS₂ and is further verified by molecular dynamics simulations and the Euler buckling theory. Our study illustrates the uniaxial tension as an efficient method for manipulating the phonon bandgap of the monolayer MoS₂, while the biaxial compression as a powerful tool to intrigue buckling in the monolayer MoS₂. PMID:24932612
Phonon anharmonicity in bulk Td-MoTe2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joshi, Jaydeep; Stone, Iris R.; Beams, Ryan; Krylyuk, Sergiy; Kalish, Irina; Davydov, Albert V.; Vora, Patrick M.
2016-07-01
We examine anharmonic contributions to the optical phonon modes in bulk Td-MoTe2 through temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy. At temperatures ranging from 100 K to 200 K, we find that all modes redshift linearly with temperature in agreement with the Grüneisen model. However, below 100 K, we observe nonlinear temperature-dependent frequency shifts in some modes. We demonstrate that this anharmonic behavior is consistent with the decay of an optical phonon into multiple acoustic phonons. Furthermore, the highest frequency Raman modes show large changes in intensity and linewidth near T ≈ 250 K that correlate well with the T d → 1 T ' structural phase transition. These results suggest that phonon-phonon interactions can dominate anharmonic contributions at low temperatures in bulk Td-MoTe2, an experimental regime that is currently receiving attention in efforts to understand Weyl semimetals.
Prufer Transformations for the Normal Modes in Ocean Acoustics
Baggeroer, Arthur B.
2010-09-06
In 1926 Prufer introduced a method of transforming the second order Sturm-Liouville (SL) equation into two nonlinear first order differential equations for the phase oe and ''magnitude'', |oe{sup 2}+oe{sup 2}| for a Poincare phase space representation, (oe,oe). The useful property is the phase equation decouples from the magnitude one which leads to a nonlinear, two point boundary value problem for the eigenvalues, or SL numbers. The transformation has been used both theoretically, e.g. Atkinson, [1960] to prove certain properties of SL equations as well as numerically e.g Bailey [1978]. This paper examines the utility of the Prufer transformation in the context of numerical solutions for modes of the ocean acoustic wave equation. (Its use is certainly not well known in the ocean acoustics community.) Equations for the phase, oe, and natural logarithm of the ''magnitude'', ln(|oe{sup 2}+oe{sup 2}|) lead to same decoupling and a fast and efficient numerical solution with the SL eigenvalues mapping to the horizontal wavenubers. The Prufer transformation has stabilty problems for low order modes at high frequecies, so a numerically stable method of integrating the phase equation is derived. This seems to be the first time the these stability issues have been highlighted to provide a robust algorthim for the modes.
Prufer Transformations for the Normal Modes in Ocean Acoustics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baggeroer, Arthur B.
2010-09-01
In 1926 Prufer introduced a method of transforming the second order Sturm-Liouville (SL) equation into two nonlinear first order differential equations for the phase o/ and "magnitude", |o/2+o/2| for a Poincare phase space representation, (o/,o/). The useful property is the phase equation decouples from the magnitude one which leads to a nonlinear, two point boundary value problem for the eigenvalues, or SL numbers. The transformation has been used both theoretically, e.g. Atkinson, [1960] to prove certain properties of SL equations as well as numerically e.g Bailey [1978]. This paper examines the utility of the Prufer transformation in the context of numerical solutions for modes of the ocean acoustic wave equation. (Its use is certainly not well known in the ocean acoustics community.) Equations for the phase, o/, and natural logarithm of the "magnitude", ln(|o/2+o/2|) lead to same decoupling and a fast and efficient numerical solution with the SL eigenvalues mapping to the horizontal wavenubers. The Prufer transformation has stabilty problems for low order modes at high frequecies, so a numerically stable method of integrating the phase equation is derived. This seems to be the first time the these stability issues have been highlighted to provide a robust algorthim for the modes.
On fast radial propagation of parametrically excited geodesic acoustic mode
Qiu, Z.; Chen, L.; Zonca, F.
2015-04-15
The spatial and temporal evolution of parametrically excited geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) initial pulse is investigated both analytically and numerically. Our results show that the nonlinearly excited GAM propagates at a group velocity which is, typically, much larger than that due to finite ion Larmor radius as predicted by the linear theory. The nonlinear dispersion relation of GAM driven by a finite amplitude drift wave pump is also derived, showing a nonlinear frequency increment of GAM. Further implications of these findings for interpreting experimental observations are also discussed.
Oscillational instabilities in single-mode acoustic levitators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rudnick, Joseph; Barmatz, M.
1990-01-01
An extension of standard results for the acoustic force on an object in a single-mode resonant chamber yields predictions for the onset of oscillational instabilities when objects are levitated or positioned in these chambers. The results are consistent with experimental investigations. The present approach accounts for the effect of time delays on the response of a cavity to the motion of an object inside it. Quantitative features of the instabilities are investigated. The experimental conditions required for sample stability, saturation of sample oscillations, hysteretic effects, and the loss of the ability to levitate are discussed.
Fast excitation of geodesic acoustic mode by energetic particle beams
Cao, Jintao; Qiu, Zhiyong; Zonca, Fulvio
2015-12-15
A new mechanism for geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) excitation by a not fully slowed down energetic particle (EP) beam is analyzed to explain experimental observations in Large Helical Device. It is shown that the positive velocity space gradient near the lower-energy end of the EP distribution function can strongly drive the GAM unstable. The new features of this EP-induced GAM (EGAM) are: (1) no instability threshold in the pitch angle; (2) the EGAM frequency can be higher than the local GAM frequency; and (3) the instability growth rate is much larger than that driven by a fully slowed down EP beam.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukasawa, Ryoichi; Okubo, Yusei; Abe, Osamu; Ohta, Kimihiro
1992-03-01
We report the Raman scattering spectra of the folded longitudinal acoustic phonon of AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs superlattices for various aluminium (Al) mole fractions. The effect of Al mole fraction increases on the Raman intensities and the frequencies was studied.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thatcher, Evan; Stanton, Christopher; Ishioka, Kunie; Basak, Amlan; Petek, Hrvoje
2015-03-01
We present results from a joint experimental and theoretical study exploring the excitation of coupled plasmon-phonon modes in GaAs. In contrast to previous coherent phonon studies in GaAs where electrons were generated primarily in the Γ valley (E0 gap), we use a pump-probe technique with a 10 fs pulse width and a shorter 400 nm laser wavelength to photoexcite electrons predominately in the L valley (E1 gap). As a result: i) damping of the electron-hole plasma is faster and ii) diffusion of the carriers from the surface becomes important owing to the shorter absorption length. The probe pulses measure the time-dependent changes to the reflectivity due to the coupled plasmon-phonon modes created by the ultrafast photoexcitation and the subsequent depletion field screening. To model this, we solve for the time and density dependent coupled-mode frequencies allowing for ambipolar diffusion. Simulation of the coupled plasmon-phonon dynamics allows for comparison with, and a better understanding of experiments. Supported by the NSF through Grants CHE-0650756, DMR-1311845, and DMR-1311849.
Acoustic phonon-limited diffusion thermopower in monolayer MoS{sub 2}
Patil, S. B.; Sankeshwar, N. S. Kubakaddi, S. S.
2015-06-24
Diffusion thermopower S{sub d} is investigated, theoretically, as a function of temperature, T and electron concentration, n{sub s} in a n-type monolayer molebdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}). Electron scattering due to unscreened deformation potential (DP) coupling of TA phonons, screened DP coupling of LA phonons, and screened piezoelectric (PE) coupling of LA and TA phonons is considered. Total S{sub d} is dominated by electron scattering by TA phonons via unscreened DP coupling. S{sub d} is found to increase (decrease) with increasing T (n{sub s}). At low T and for high n{sub s}, S{sub d} ∼ T and n{sub s}{sup −1} as found from the Mott formula. At a given T and for given ns, S{sub d} in MoS{sub 2} is much larger than that in GaAs, due to the larger electron effective mass in the former.
Relation between energetic and standard geodesic acoustic modes
Girardo, Jean-Baptiste; Dumont, Rémi; Garbet, Xavier; Sarazin, Yanick; Zarzoso, David; Sharapov, Sergei
2014-09-15
Geodesic Acoustic Modes (GAMs) are electrostatic, axisymmetric modes which are non-linearly excited by turbulence. They can also be excited linearly by fast-particles; they are then called Energetic-particle-driven GAMs (EGAMs). Do GAMs and EGAMs belong to the same mode branch? Through a linear, analytical model, in which the fast particles are represented by a Maxwellian bump-on-tail distribution function, we find that the answer depends on several parameters. For low values of the safety factor q and for high values of the fast ion energy, the EGAM originates from the GAM. On the contrary, for high values of q and for low values of the fast ion energy, the GAM is not the mode which becomes unstable when fast particles are added: the EGAM then originates from a distinct mode, which is strongly damped in the absence of fast particles. The impact of other parameters is further explored: ratio of the ion temperature to the electron temperature, width of the fast particle distribution, mass and charge of the fast ions. The ratio between the EGAM and the GAM frequencies was found in experiments (DIII-D) and in non-linear numerical simulations (code GYSELA) to be close to 1/2: the present analytical study allows one to recover this ratio.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nissimagoudar, A. S.; Sankeshwar, N. S.
2014-06-01
Lattice thermal conductivity, κp, of suspended and supported graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) is studied over a wide temperature range, taking into account the dispersive nature of confined acoustic phonon modes. Employing a modified Callaway model, an expression for κp is developed, considering the explicit contributions from in-plane longitudinal, transverse, and torsional acoustic, and out-of-plane flexural acoustic phonon modes. Numerical calculations of κp(T) are presented assuming the confined acoustic phonons to be scattered by sample boundaries, impurities, and other phonons via both normal and umklapp processes. The effect of phonon confinement is to modify the phonon group velocities and the temperature dependence of κp. In a suspended 5-nm-wide GNR at room temperature, a decrease in κp by ˜70% is predicted. Our study brings out the relative importance of the contributing phonon modes and reveals the influence of flexural phonons on κp as a marked shoulder at low temperatures. The role of the various sample-dependent scattering mechanisms is examined. The substrate, in supported GNRs, is shown to curtail the phonon mean free path and suppress the low-temperature κp. Our results are in good agreement with recent experimental data of Bae et al. [M. H. Bae, Z. Li, Z. Aksamija, P. N. Martin, F. Xiong, Z. Y. Ong, I. Knezevic, and E. Pop, Nat. Commun. 4, 1734 (2013), 10.1038/ncomms2755] for supported GNRs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Kung-Hsuan; Wang, Kuan-Jen; Chang, Chung-Chieh; Wen, Yu-Chieh; Lv, Bing; Chu, Ching-Wu; Wu, Maw-Kuen
2016-05-01
We have utilized ultrafast optical spectroscopy to study carrier dynamics in slightly underdoped (BaK)Fe2As2 crystals without magnetic transition. The photoelastic signals due to coherent acoustic phonons have been quantitatively investigated. According to our temperature-dependent results, we found that the relaxation component of superconducting quasiparticles persisted from the superconducting state up to at least 70 K in the normal state. Our findings suggest that the pseudogaplike feature in the normal state is possibly the precursor of superconductivity. We also highlight that the pseudogap feature of K-doped BaFe2As2 is different from that of other iron-based superconductors, including Co-doped or P-doped BaFe2As2.
Lin, Kung-Hsuan; Wang, Kuan-Jen; Chang, Chung-Chieh; Wen, Yu-Chieh; Lv, Bing; Chu, Ching-Wu; Wu, Maw-Kuen
2016-01-01
We have utilized ultrafast optical spectroscopy to study carrier dynamics in slightly underdoped (BaK)Fe2As2 crystals without magnetic transition. The photoelastic signals due to coherent acoustic phonons have been quantitatively investigated. According to our temperature-dependent results, we found that the relaxation component of superconducting quasiparticles persisted from the superconducting state up to at least 70 K in the normal state. Our findings suggest that the pseudogaplike feature in the normal state is possibly the precursor of superconductivity. We also highlight that the pseudogap feature of K-doped BaFe2As2 is different from that of other iron-based superconductors, including Co-doped or P-doped BaFe2As2. PMID:27180873
Lin, Kung-Hsuan; Wang, Kuan-Jen; Chang, Chung-Chieh; Wen, Yu-Chieh; Lv, Bing; Chu, Ching-Wu; Wu, Maw-Kuen
2016-01-01
We have utilized ultrafast optical spectroscopy to study carrier dynamics in slightly underdoped (BaK)Fe2As2 crystals without magnetic transition. The photoelastic signals due to coherent acoustic phonons have been quantitatively investigated. According to our temperature-dependent results, we found that the relaxation component of superconducting quasiparticles persisted from the superconducting state up to at least 70 K in the normal state. Our findings suggest that the pseudogaplike feature in the normal state is possibly the precursor of superconductivity. We also highlight that the pseudogap feature of K-doped BaFe2As2 is different from that of other iron-based superconductors, including Co-doped or P-doped BaFe2As2. PMID:27180873
Islam, Syed K.; Lombardi, John R.
2014-02-21
By chemically etching a thin film of crystalline ZnSe with acid, we observe a strong Raman enhancement of the surface phonon modes of ZnSe on adsorption of a molecule (4-mercaptopyridine). The surface is composed of oblate hemi-ellipsoids, which has a large surface-to-bulk ratio. The assignment of the observed modes (at 248 and 492 cm{sup −1}) to a fundamental and first overtone of the surface optical mode is consistent with observations from high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy as well as calculations.
Tunable broadband unidirectional acoustic transmission based on a waveguide with phononic crystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Ailing; Chen, Tianning; Wang, Xiaopeng; Wan, Lele
2016-08-01
In this paper, a tunable broadband unidirectional acoustic transmission (UAT) device composed of a bended tube and a superlattice with square columns is proposed and numerically investigated by using finite element method. The UAT is realized in the proposed UAT device within two wide frequency ranges. And the effectiveness of the UAT device is demonstrated by analyzing the sound pressure distributions when the acoustic waves are incident from different directions. The unidirectional band gaps can be effectively tuned by mechanically rotating the square columns, which is a highlight of this paper. Besides, a bidirectional acoustic isolation (BAI) device is obtained by placing two superlattices in the bended tube, in which the acoustic waves cannot propagate along any directions. The physical mechanisms of the proposed UAT device and BAI device are simply discussed. The proposed models show potential applications in some areas, such as unidirectional sonic barrier or noise insulation.
Yoshida, Kyohei; Hachiya, Kan; Okumura, Kensuke; Mishima, Kenta; Inukai, Motoharu; Torgasin, Konstantin; Omer, Mohamed; Sonobe, Taro; Zen, Heishun; Negm, Hani; Kii, Toshiteru; Masuda, Kai; Ohgaki, Hideaki
2013-10-28
Mode-selective phonon excitation by a mid-infrared laser (MIR-FEL) is demonstrated via anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements of 6H-silicon carbide (SiC). Irradiation of SiC with MIR-FEL and a Nd-YAG laser at 14 K produced a peak where the Raman shift corresponds to a photon energy of 119 meV (10.4 μm). This phenomenon is induced by mode-selective phonon excitation through the irradiation of MIR-FEL, whose photon energy corresponds to the photon-absorption of a particular phonon mode.
Phonon-induced polariton superlattices.
de Lima, M M; van der Poel, M; Santos, P V; Hvam, J M
2006-07-28
We show that the coherent interaction between microcavity polaritons and externally stimulated acoustic phonons forms a tunable polariton superlattice with a folded energy dispersion determined by the phonon population and wavelength. Under high phonon concentration, the strong confinement of the optical and excitonic polariton components in the phonon potential creates weakly coupled polariton wires with a virtually flat energy dispersion. PMID:16907587
Anharmonicity in the High-Temperature Cmcm Phase of SnSe: Soft Modes and Three-Phonon Interactions.
Skelton, Jonathan M; Burton, Lee A; Parker, Stephen C; Walsh, Aron; Kim, Chang-Eun; Soon, Aloysius; Buckeridge, John; Sokol, Alexey A; Catlow, C Richard A; Togo, Atsushi; Tanaka, Isao
2016-08-12
The layered semiconductor SnSe is one of the highest-performing thermoelectric materials known. We demonstrate, through a first-principles lattice-dynamics study, that the high-temperature Cmcm phase is a dynamic average over lower-symmetry minima separated by very small energetic barriers. Compared to the low-temperature Pnma phase, the Cmcm phase displays a phonon softening and enhanced three-phonon scattering, leading to an anharmonic damping of the low-frequency modes and hence the thermal transport. We develop a renormalization scheme to quantify the effect of the soft modes on the calculated properties, and confirm that the anharmonicity is an inherent feature of the Cmcm phase. These results suggest a design concept for thermal insulators and thermoelectric materials, based on displacive instabilities, and highlight the power of lattice-dynamics calculations for materials characterization. PMID:27563974
Kumar, Pragati Agarwal, Avinash; Saxena, Nupur; Singh, Fouran; Gupta, Vinay
2014-07-28
The influence of swift heavy ion irradiation (SHII) on surface phonon mode (SPM) and green emission in nanocrystalline CdS thin films grown by chemical bath deposition is studied. The SHII of nanocrystalline CdS thin films is carried out using 70 MeV Ni ions. The micro Raman analysis shows that asymmetry and broadening in fundamental longitudinal optical (LO) phonon mode increases systematically with increasing ion fluence. To analyze the role of phonon confinement, spatial correlation model (SCM) is fitted to the experimental data. The observed deviation of SCM to the experimental data is further investigated by fitting the micro Raman spectra using two Lorentzian line shapes. It is found that two Lorentzian functions (LFs) provide better fitting than SCM fitting and facilitate to identify the contribution of SPM in the observed distortion of LO mode. The behavior of SPM as a function of ion fluence is studied to correlate the observed asymmetry (Γ{sub a}/Γ{sub b}) and full width at half maximum of LO phonon mode and to understand the SHII induced enhancement of SPM. The ion beam induced interstitial and surface state defects in thin films, as observed by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy studies, may be the underlying reason for enhancement in SPM. PL studies also show enhancement in green luminescence with increase in ion fluence. PL analysis reveals that the variation in population density of surface state defects after SHII is similar to that of SPM. The correlation between SPM and luminescence and their dependence on ion irradiation fluence is explained with the help of thermal spike model.
Geodesic acoustic mode in toroidally rotating anisotropic tokamaks
Ren, Haijun
2015-07-15
Effects of anisotropy on the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) are analyzed by using gyro-kinetic equations applicable to low-frequency microinstabilities in a toroidally rotating tokamak plasma. Dispersion relation in the presence of arbitrary Mach number M, anisotropy strength σ, and the temperature ration τ is analytically derived. It is shown that when σ is less than 3 + 2τ, the increased electron temperature with fixed ion parallel temperature increases the normalized GAM frequency. When σ is larger than 3 + 2τ, the increasing of electron temperature decreases the GAM frequency. The anisotropy σ always tends to enlarge the GAM frequency. The Landau damping rate is dramatically decreased by the increasing τ or σ.
Geodesic acoustic mode in anisotropic plasma with heat flux
Ren, Haijun
2015-10-15
Geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) in an anisotropic tokamak plasma is investigated in fluid approximation. The collisionless anisotropic plasma is described within the 16-momentum magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluid closure model, which takes into account not only the pressure anisotropy but also the anisotropic heat flux. It is shown that the GAM frequency agrees better with the kinetic result than the standard Chew-Goldberger-Low (CGL) MHD model. When zeroing the anisotropy, the 16-momentum result is identical with the kinetic one to the order of 1/q{sup 2}, while the CGL result agrees with the kinetic result only on the leading order. The discrepancies between the results of the CGL fluid model and the kinetic theory are well removed by considering the heat flux effect in the fluid approximation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishikawa, Makoto; Wada, Noriyuki; Miyakawa, Takahiko; Matsukawa, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Masaru; Sasaki, Naruo; Miura, Kouji
2016-05-01
We report phonon dispersion curves obtained at a Mo S2(0001 ) surface in the friction process with a load and shear. An atomic force microscope tip used to apply stresses generated lattice strain on an oscillating Mo S2(0001 ) surface, which dissipated via acoustic phonons. The dissipation energy of the phonons strongly depended on the size of the lattice strain. The motion of the acoustic phonons consisted of a longitudinal mode and a transverse mode, but the occurrence of their phonon modes depended on the crystallographic direction, which reflects the atomic arrangement of the Mo S2(0001 ) surface. Thus, we can control the energy dissipation and friction by using the phonon dissipation curves in the friction process with a load and shear.
Neutron scattering from coupled phonon-impurity modes in KCl/sub 1-c/(KCN)/sub c/
Nicklow, R.M.; Crummett, W.P.; Mostoller, M.; Wood, R.F.
1980-09-15
The hybridization of host-lattice phonons with the internal-energy states of CN/sup -/ impurities in KCl has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering as a function of temperature between 10 and 100 K for samples with impurity concentrations in the range c=0.4 to 6 at. %. A temperature- and concentration-dependent coupling between phonons with E/sub g/ symmetry and the E/sub g/ transitions of CN/sup -/ ions is observed near a frequency of 0.5 THz, a value which is consistent with the energy-level spacings for CN/sup -/ in KCl as deduced by Beyeler. However, an expected coupling of phonons and CN/sup -/ transitions with T/sub 2g/ symmetry near the same frequency was not detected. A simple two-level model for the CN/sup -/ impurity provides a rather good description of the data for the E/sub g/ coupled modes for c<2 at. %, but it deviates significantly for larger concentrations. Quasielastic scattering, which has a strong dependence on impurity concentration, temperature, and phonon wave vector, is also observed.
Acoustic wave flow sensor using quartz thickness shear mode resonator.
Qin, Lifeng; Zeng, Zijing; Cheng, Hongbin; Wang, Qing-Ming
2009-09-01
A quartz thickness shear mode (TSM) bulk acoustic wave resonator was used for in situ and real-time detection of liquid flow rate in this study. A special flow chamber made of 2 parallel acrylic plates was designed for flow measurement. The flow chamber has a rectangular flow channel, 2 flow reservoirs for stabilizing the fluid flow, a sensor mounting port for resonator holding, one inlet port, and one outlet port for pipe connection. A 5-MHz TSM quartz resonator was edge-bonded to the sensor mounting port with one side exposed to the flowing liquid and other side exposed to air. The electrical impedance spectra of the quartz resonator at different volumetric flow rate conditions were measured by an impedance analyzer for the extraction of the resonant frequency through a data-fitting method. The fundamental, 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 9th resonant frequency shifts were found to be around 920, 3572, 5947, 8228, and 10,300 Hz for flow rate variation from 0 to 3000 mL/min, which had a corresponding Reynolds number change from 0 to 822. The resonant frequency shifts of different modes are found to be quadratic with flow rate, which is attributed to the nonlinear effect of quartz resonator due to the effective normal pressure imposing on the resonator sensor by the flowing fluid. The results indicate that quartz TSM resonators can be used for flow sensors with characteristics of simplicity, fast response, and good repeatability. PMID:19811997
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Byrne, K. P.; Marshall, S. E.
1983-01-01
A procedure for experimentally determining, in terms of the particle motions, the shapes of the low order acoustic modes in enclosures is described. The procedure is based on finding differentiable functions which approximate the shape functions of the low order acoustic modes when these modes are defined in terms of the acoustic pressure. The differentiable approximating functions are formed from polynomials which are fitted by a least squares procedure to experimentally determined values which define the shapes of the low order acoustic modes in terms of the acoustic pressure. These experimentally determined values are found by a conventional technique in which the transfer functions, which relate the acoustic pressures at an array of points in the enclosure to the volume velocity of a fixed point source, are measured. The gradient of the function which approximates the shape of a particular mode in terms of the acoustic pressure is evaluated to give the mode shape in terms of the particle motion. The procedure was tested by using it to experimentally determine the shapes of the low order acoustic modes in a small rectangular enclosure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Chunlong; Jin, Feng
2016-05-01
Point defect modes in a 2D phononic crystal with giant magnetostrictive material tuned by a magnetic field and compressive stress are investigated theoretically in this study. The 3D magnetostrictive constitutive model proposed by Liu and Zheng (2005 Acta Mech. Sin. 21 278-85) is adopted to develop effective elastic, piezomagnetic, and magnetic permeability constants. The finite element method, in combination with a supercell technique, is then applied to obtain the band structures and transmission spectra of the point defect modes in a 2D phononic crystal composed of Terfenol-D rods of circular cross section embedded in a polymethyl methacrylate matrix with a square lattice. The magnetic field not only enlarges the first band gap (FBG) but also opens up a new band gap of XY modes. New point defect modes are simultaneously trapped in the band gaps. The width of the FBG and the frequencies of the point defects of the Z mode decrease as the magnetic field increases.
Observation of coherent acoustic phonon in titanyl phthalocyanine thin solid films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahn, Hyeyoung; Su, Shiu-Ho
2015-08-01
Ultrafast exciton dynamics is investigated in titanyl phthalocyanine (TiOPc) micrograin films in this study. Exponential exciton relaxation and oscillatory responses are observed in transient reflectivity measurements of the films. Laser-induced coherent acoustic waves (LCAW) are proposed to be responsible for this oscillation. Despite their fast attenuation with the increase in temperature, LCAWs are successfully detected at room temperature through probing at a large oblique angle near the low-energy absorption edge of the Q-Band. From the oscillation period of the LCAW, the sound velocity is estimated to be ∼3.1 × 103 m/s, and an acoustic echo arising from the boundary between the films and substrate is also observed.
Identification of Raman-active phonon modes in oriented platelets of InN and polycrystalline InN
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dyck, J. S.; Kim, K.; Limpijumnong, S.; Lambrecht, W. R. L.; Kash, K.; Angus, J. C.
2000-04-01
We report on micro-Raman studies on both randomly oriented polycrystals and groups of oriented, faceted platelets of indium nitride grown from the melt at subatmospheric pressures. Phonon modes were assigned as A1TO=445, E1TO=472, E2(2)=488, and A1LO=588 cm-1. The FWHM of the E2(2) peak of 2.5 cm -1 is the narrowest reported to date for InN. The measured TO phonon frequencies were compared to those calculated from first principles and excellent agreement was found. The results are discussed in the context of previously reported Raman experiments on heteroepitaxial, and hence strained, layers of InN.
Studies of transverse phonon modes in premartensitic indium-thallium alloys
Finlayson, T.R.; Donovan, D.; Larese, J.Z.; Smith, H.G.
1987-01-01
The measured phonon dispersion relations along the high symmetry directions for a face-centered In-Tl alloy have been reasonably well fitted using a general Born-von Karman force constant model. However, for the (zeta zeta 0)(zeta anti zeta 0) branch at low zeta, there is poor agreement between the neutron measurements and the extrapolation of the line of initial slope determined from an ultrasonic velocity measurements. Phonon frequencies have been measured for wave vectors to within q = 0.033 (..sqrt..2 2..pi../a) of the zone centre, and, contrary to the phonon softening with decreasing temperature, which might be expected from the known decrease in (C/sub 11/ - C/sub 12/)/2, phonon frequencies showed the normal trend of frequency increasing (hardening) as temperature was decreased in the premartensitic regime. To reconcile the disagreement between the extrapolation of the ultrasonic data and the measured (zeta zeta0)(zeta anti zeta 0) phonon frequencies, there must exist a positive curvature in the dispersion relation at q < 0.03 (..sqrt..2 2..pi../a). This is consistent with one recent theory for martensite nucleation. 10 refs., 2 figs.
Zhang, Feng; Wang, Houng-Wei; Tominaga, Keisuke; Hayashi, Michitoshi
2016-03-01
THz absorption spectra of two polymorphs of diflunisal, form I and form III, exhibit distinct features due to the influence of packing conformations on the frequency distributions and IR activities of gamma point phonon modes within the 100 cm(-1) region. In order to understand the origins of these THz modes, we perform a detailed mode analysis. The result shows that although the spectral features are different, these low-frequency phonon modes of the two molecular polymorphs have similar vibrational characteristics in terms of harmonic couplings of intermolecular and intramolecular vibrations. PMID:26808927
First-principles prediction of phononic thermal conductivity of silicene: A comparison with graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Xiaokun; Yang, Ronggui
2015-01-01
There has been great interest in two-dimensional materials, beyond graphene, for both fundamental sciences and technological applications. Silicene, a silicon counterpart of graphene, has been shown to possess some better electronic properties than graphene. However, its thermal transport properties have not been fully studied. In this paper, we apply the first-principles-based phonon Boltzmann transport equation to investigate the thermal conductivity of silicene as well as the phonon scattering mechanisms. Although both graphene and silicene are two-dimensional crystals with similar crystal structure, we find that phonon transport in silicene is quite different from that in graphene. The thermal conductivity of silicene shows a logarithmic increase with respect to the sample size due to the small scattering rates of acoustic in-plane phonon modes, while that of graphene is finite. Detailed analysis of phonon scattering channels shows that the linear dispersion of the acoustic out-of-plane (ZA) phonon modes, which is induced by the buckled structure, makes the long-wavelength longitudinal acoustic phonon modes in silicene not as efficiently scattered as that in graphene. Compared with graphene, where most of the heat is carried by the acoustic out-of-plane (ZA) phonon modes, the ZA phonon modes in silicene only have ˜10% contribution to the total thermal conductivity, which can also be attributed to the buckled structure. This systematic comparison of phonon transport and thermal conductivity of silicene and graphene using the first-principle-based calculations shed some light on other two-dimensional materials, such as two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides.
First-principles prediction of phononic thermal conductivity of silicene: A comparison with graphene
Gu, Xiaokun; Yang, Ronggui
2015-01-14
There has been great interest in two-dimensional materials, beyond graphene, for both fundamental sciences and technological applications. Silicene, a silicon counterpart of graphene, has been shown to possess some better electronic properties than graphene. However, its thermal transport properties have not been fully studied. In this paper, we apply the first-principles-based phonon Boltzmann transport equation to investigate the thermal conductivity of silicene as well as the phonon scattering mechanisms. Although both graphene and silicene are two-dimensional crystals with similar crystal structure, we find that phonon transport in silicene is quite different from that in graphene. The thermal conductivity of silicene shows a logarithmic increase with respect to the sample size due to the small scattering rates of acoustic in-plane phonon modes, while that of graphene is finite. Detailed analysis of phonon scattering channels shows that the linear dispersion of the acoustic out-of-plane (ZA) phonon modes, which is induced by the buckled structure, makes the long-wavelength longitudinal acoustic phonon modes in silicene not as efficiently scattered as that in graphene. Compared with graphene, where most of the heat is carried by the acoustic out-of-plane (ZA) phonon modes, the ZA phonon modes in silicene only have ∼10% contribution to the total thermal conductivity, which can also be attributed to the buckled structure. This systematic comparison of phonon transport and thermal conductivity of silicene and graphene using the first-principle-based calculations shed some light on other two-dimensional materials, such as two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raeliarijaona, Aldo; Fu, Huaxiang
2015-09-01
Ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy revealed the existence of an unusual large-frequency shift occurring to a nonsoft mode of E (TO4 ) when BaTiO3 is strained to a SrTiO3 substrate [D. Tenne et al., Science 313, 1614 (2006), 10.1126/science.1130306]. It raised two interesting questions: (i) whether there are other nonsoft modes that possess similar or even larger strain-induced frequency shifts and (ii) how the mode sequence is altered by these shifts in frequency. Note that mode sequence is also pivotal in correctly indexing and assigning the spectroscopy peaks observed in all Raman experiments. By mapping out the evolutions of individual phonon modes as a function of strain using first-principles density functional perturbation calculations, we determine the mode sequence and strain-induced phonon frequency shifts in prototypical BaTiO3. Our study reveals that the mode sequence is drastically different when BaTiO3 is strained to SrTiO3 compared to that in the unstrained structure, caused by multiple mode crossings. Furthermore, we predict that three other nonsoft modes, A1(TO2), E (LO4 ), and A1(TO3), display even larger strain-induced frequency shifts than E (TO4 ). The strain responses of individual modes are found to be highly mode specific, and a mechanism that regulates the magnitude of the frequency shift is provided. As another key outcome of this study, we tackle a long-standing problem of LO-TO splitting in ferroelectrics. A rigorous definition for the LO-TO splitting is formulated, which allows this critical quantity to be calculated quantitatively. The definition immediately reveals a new finding; that is, a large LO-TO splitting not only exists for E (LO4 ), which is previously known and originates from a soft mode, it also occurs for a nonsoft A1(LO3) mode. The LO-TO splitting is shown to decrease drastically with compressive strain, and this decrease cannot be explained by the Born effective charges and high-frequency dielectric constants.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herrmann, Harald; Rust, Ulrich; Schafer, Klaus
1995-03-01
Weighted coupling for strong sidelobe suppression of integrated acoustooptical mode converters in LiNbO3 using acoustical directional couplers has been studied theoretically and experimentally. A parameter free model for the propagation of surface acoustic waves in guiding structures has been developed based on a step-like variation of the acoustic velocity. Comparisons of theoretical results with experimental ones for acoustic waveguides and directional coupler structures confirm the applicability of the model. A coupled mode description of the acousto-optical polarization conversion in converters with acoustical directional couplers has been developed and applied to several tapered acoustical directional couplers. The model reveals that the conversion characteristics are usually strongly asymmetric. If the directional coupler is appropriately designed, a sidelobe suppression of about 30 dB can be achieved. First experimental results with tapered directional couplers confirm within some limits the theoretical predictions.
Phonon dynamics of graphene on metals.
Al Taleb, Amjad; Farías, Daniel
2016-03-16
The study of surface phonon dispersion curves is motivated by the quest for a detailed understanding of the forces between the atoms at the surface and in the bulk. In the case of graphene, additional motivation comes from the fact that thermal conductivity is dominated by contributions from acoustic phonons, while optical phonon properties are essential to understand Raman spectra. In this article, we review recent progress made in the experimental determination of phonon dispersion curves of graphene grown on several single-crystal metal surfaces. The two main experimental techniques usually employed are high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and inelastic helium atom scattering (HAS). The different dispersion branches provide a detailed insight into the graphene-substrate interaction. Softening of optical modes and signatures of the substrate's Rayleigh wave are observed for strong graphene-substrate interactions, while acoustic phonon modes resemble those of free-standing graphene for weakly interacting systems. The latter allows determining the bending rigidity and the graphene-substrate coupling strength. A comparison between theory and experiment is discussed for several illustrative examples. Perspectives for future experiments are discussed. PMID:26886508
Phonon dynamics of graphene on metals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taleb, Amjad Al; Farías, Daniel
2016-03-01
The study of surface phonon dispersion curves is motivated by the quest for a detailed understanding of the forces between the atoms at the surface and in the bulk. In the case of graphene, additional motivation comes from the fact that thermal conductivity is dominated by contributions from acoustic phonons, while optical phonon properties are essential to understand Raman spectra. In this article, we review recent progress made in the experimental determination of phonon dispersion curves of graphene grown on several single-crystal metal surfaces. The two main experimental techniques usually employed are high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and inelastic helium atom scattering (HAS). The different dispersion branches provide a detailed insight into the graphene-substrate interaction. Softening of optical modes and signatures of the substrate‧s Rayleigh wave are observed for strong graphene-substrate interactions, while acoustic phonon modes resemble those of free-standing graphene for weakly interacting systems. The latter allows determining the bending rigidity and the graphene-substrate coupling strength. A comparison between theory and experiment is discussed for several illustrative examples. Perspectives for future experiments are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marchal, R.; Boyko, O.; Bonello, B.; Zhao, J.; Belliard, L.; Oudich, M.; Pennec, Y.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.
2012-12-01
The confinement of elastic waves within a single defect in a phononic crystal slab is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The structure is formed by a honeycomb lattice of air holes in a silicon plate with one hole missing in its center. The frequencies and polarizations of the localized modes in the first band gap are computed with a finite element method. A noncontact laser ultrasonic technique is used both to excite flexural Lamb waves and to monitor in situ the displacement field within the cavity. We report on the time evolution of confinement, which is distinct according to the symmetry of the eigenmode.
Ignatov, Anatoly A.
2014-08-28
The current (voltage) responsivity of a superlattice-based diode detector has been studied theoretically in the terahertz frequency band that includes the region of the polar-optical phonon frequencies. Within the framework of an equivalent circuit approach, the electro-dynamical model which allows one to analyze the responsivity taking into account the hybridization of the plasma and polar-optical phonon modes both in the substrate and in the cladding layers of the diode has been suggested. It has been shown that the presence of the plasma and polar-optical phonon modes gives rise to strong features in the frequency dependence of the responsivity, i.e., to the resonance dips and peaks at frequencies of hybridized plasmons and polar-optical phonons. It has been suggested that by judicious engineering of the superlattice-based diodes, it would be possible to enhance substantially their responsivity in the terahertz frequency band.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sohier, Thibault; Calandra, Matteo; Park, Cheol-Hwan; Bonini, Nicola; Marzari, Nicola; Mauri, Francesco
2014-09-01
We use first-principles calculations, at the density-functional-theory (DFT) and GW levels, to study both the electron-phonon interaction for acoustic phonons and the "synthetic" vector potential induced by a strain deformation (responsible for an effective magnetic field in case of a nonuniform strain). In particular, the interactions between electrons and acoustic phonon modes, the so-called gauge-field and deformation potential, are calculated at the DFT level in the framework of linear response. The zero-momentum limit of acoustic phonons is interpreted as a strain of the crystal unit cell, allowing the calculation of the acoustic gauge-field parameter (synthetic vector potential) within the GW approximation as well. We find that using an accurate model for the polarizations of the acoustic phonon modes is crucial to obtain correct numerical results. Similarly, in the presence of a strain deformation, the relaxation of atomic internal coordinates cannot be neglected. The role of electronic screening on the electron-phonon matrix elements is carefully investigated. We then solve the Boltzmann equation semianalytically in graphene, including both acoustic and optical phonon scattering. We show that, in the Bloch-Grüneisen and equipartition regimes, the electronic transport is mainly ruled by the unscreened acoustic gauge field, while the contribution due to the deformation potential is negligible and strongly screened. We show that the contribution of acoustic phonons to resistivity is doping and substrate independent, in agreement with experimental observations. The first-principles calculations, even at the GW level, underestimate this contribution to resistivity by ≈30%. At high temperature (T >270 K), the calculated resistivity underestimates the experimental one more severely, the underestimation being larger at lower doping. We show that, besides remote phonon scattering, a possible explanation for this disagreement is the electron-electron interaction
Comparison of collision operators for the geodesic acoustic mode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yang; Gao, Zhe
2015-04-01
The collisional damping rate and real frequency of the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) are solved from a drift kinetic model with different collision operators. As the ion collision rate increases, the damping rate increases at low collision rate but decays at high ion collision rate. Different collision operators do not change the overall trend but influence the magnitude of the damping rate. The collision damping is much overestimated with the number-conserving-only Krook operator; on the other hand, using the Lorentz operator with a constant collision rate, the damping is overestimated at low collision rate but underestimated at high collision rate. The results from the Krook operator with both number and energy conservation terms, the Lorentz operator with an energy-dependent collision rate and the full Hirshman-Sigmar-Clarke collision operator are very close. Meanwhile, as the ion collision rate increases, the GAM frequency decreases from the collisionless value, \\sqrt {7/4+τ} {vti}/R , to \\sqrt {1+τ} {vti}/R for the number-conserving-only Krook operator, but to \\sqrt {5/3+τ} {vti}/R for the other four operators, which conserve both number and energy, where τ, vti and R are the ratio of electron temperature to ion temperature, the ion thermal velocity and the major radius, respectively. The results imply that the property of energy conservation of the collision operator is important to the dynamics of the GAM as well as that of number conservation, which may provide guidance in choosing collision operators in further study of the zonal flow (ZF) dynamics, such as the nonlinear simulation of the ZF-turbulence system.
Direct measurement of coherent thermal phonons in Bi2Te3/Sb2Te3 superlattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Feng; Wu, Wenzhi; Wang, Yaguo
2016-08-01
Coherent thermal phonons (CTPs) play an important role in thermal transport in superlattice (SL) structures. To have a profound understanding of CTP transport in SL, direct measurement of CTP properties is necessary. In this study, coherent phonon spectroscopy has been utilized to generate and detect CTP in Bi2Te3/Sb2Te3 SL. Phonon lifetimes have been extracted from experimental data, with which mode-wise thermal conductivities have been calculated. Comparing with bulk Bi2Te3, the estimated mode-wise thermal conductivity of longitudinal acoustic phonons shifts to higher frequencies, due to constructive coherent phonon interference. Our results suggest that it is possible to use SL structure to manipulate coherent phonon propagation and to tailor thermal conductivity.
Yang, Chengliang; Wu, Qiang; Xu, Jingjun; Nelson, Keith A; Werley, Christopher A
2010-12-01
Femtosecond optical pulses were used to generate THz-frequency phonon polariton waves in a 50 micrometer lithium niobate slab, which acts as a subwavelength, anisotropic planar waveguide. The spatial and temporal electric field profiles of the THz waves were recorded for different propagation directions using a polarization gating imaging system, and experimental dispersion curves were determined via a two-dimensional Fourier transform. Dispersion relations for an anisotropic slab waveguide were derived via analytical analysis and found to be in excellent agreement with all observed experimental modes. From the dispersion relations, we analyze the propagation-direction-dependent behavior, effective refractive index values, and generation efficiencies for THz-frequency modes in the subwavelength, anisotropic slab waveguide. PMID:21164986
Kinetic instability of ion acoustic mode in permeating plasmas
Vranjes, J.; Poedts, S.; Ehsan, Zahida
2009-07-15
In plasmas with electron drift (current) relative to static ions, the ion acoustic wave is subject to the kinetic instability which takes place if the directed electron speed exceeds the ion acoustic speed. The instability threshold becomes different in the case of one quasineutral electron-ion plasma propagating through another static quasineutral (target) plasma. The threshold velocity of the propagating plasma may be well below the ion acoustic speed of the static plasma. Such a currentless instability may frequently be expected in space and astrophysical plasmas.
Lee, Sooheyong; Williams, G. Jackson; Campana, Maria I.; Walko, Donald A.; Landahl, Eric C.
2016-01-11
Using a strain-rosette, we demonstrate the existence of transverse strain using time-resolved x-ray diffraction from multiple Bragg reflections in laser-excited bulk gallium arsenide. We find that anisotropic strain is responsible for a considerable fraction of the total lattice motion at early times before thermal equilibrium is achieved. Our measurements are described by a new model where the Poisson ratio drives transverse motion, resulting in the creation of shear waves without the need for an indirect process such as mode conversion at an interface. Finally, using the same excitation geometry with the narrow-gap semiconductor indium antimonide, we detected coherent transverse acousticmore » oscillations at frequencies of several GHz.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vallabhaneni, Ajit K.; Singh, Dhruv; Bao, Hua; Murthy, Jayathi; Ruan, Xiulin
2016-03-01
Raman spectroscopy has been widely used to measure thermal conductivity (κ ) of two-dimensional (2D) materials such as graphene. This method is based on a well-accepted assumption that different phonon polarizations are in near thermal equilibrium. However, in this paper, we show that, in laser-irradiated single-layer graphene, different phonon polarizations are in strong nonequilibrium, using predictive simulations based on first principles density functional perturbation theory and a multitemperature model. We first calculate the electron cooling rate due to phonon scattering as a function of the electron and phonon temperatures, and the results clearly illustrate that optical phonons dominate the hot electron relaxation process. We then use these results in conjunction with the phonon scattering rates computed using perturbation theory to develop a multitemperature model and resolve the spatial temperature distributions of the energy carriers in graphene under steady-state laser irradiation. Our results show that electrons, optical phonons, and acoustic phonons are in strong nonequilibrium, with the flexural acoustic (ZA) phonons showing the largest nonequilibrium to other phonon modes, mainly due to their weak coupling to other carriers in suspended graphene. Since ZA phonons are the main heat carriers in graphene, we estimate that neglecting this nonequilibrium leads to underestimation of thermal conductivity in experiments at room temperature by a factor of 1.35 to 2.6, depending on experimental conditions and assumptions used. Underestimation is also expected in Raman measurements of other 2D materials when the optical-acoustic phonon coupling is weak.
Anharmonic phonon decay in cubic GaN
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cuscó, R.; Domènech-Amador, N.; Novikov, S.; Foxon, C. T.; Artús, L.
2015-08-01
We present a Raman-scattering study of optical phonons in zinc-blende (cubic) GaN for temperatures ranging from 80 to 750 K. The experiments were performed on high-quality, cubic GaN films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on GaAs (001) substrates. The observed temperature dependence of the optical phonon frequencies and linewidths is analyzed in the framework of anharmonic decay theory, and possible decay channels are discussed in the light of density-functional-theory calculations. The longitudinal-optical (LO) mode relaxation is found to occur via asymmetric decay into acoustic phonons, with an appreciable contribution of higher-order processes. The transverse-optical mode linewidth shows a weak temperature dependence and its frequency downshift is primarily determined by the lattice thermal expansion. The LO phonon lifetime is derived from the observed Raman linewidth and an excellent agreement with previous theoretical predictions is found.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ido, T.; Itoh, K.; Osakabe, M.; Lesur, M.; Shimizu, A.; Ogawa, K.; Toi, K.; Nishiura, M.; Kato, S.; Sasaki, M.; Ida, K.; Inagaki, S.; Itoh, S.-I.
2016-01-01
Abrupt and strong excitation of a mode has been observed when the frequency of a chirping energetic-particle driven geodesic acoustic mode (EGAM) reaches twice the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) frequency. The frequency of the secondary mode is the GAM frequency, which is a half-frequency of the primary EGAM. Based on the analysis of spatial structures, the secondary mode is identified as a GAM. The phase relation between the secondary mode and the primary EGAM is locked, and the evolution of the growth rate of the secondary mode indicates nonlinear excitation. The results suggest that the primary mode (EGAM) contributes to nonlinear destabilization of a subcritical mode.
Inelastic x-ray scattering measurements of phonon dynamics in URu2Si2
Gardner, D. R.; Bonnoit, C. J.; Chisnell, R.; Said, A. H.; Leu, B. M.; Williams, Travis J.; Luke, G. M.; Lee, Y. S.
2016-02-11
In this paper, we study high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering measurements of the acoustic phonons of URu2Si2. At all temperatures, the longitudinal acoustic phonon linewidths are anomalously broad at small wave vectors revealing a previously unknown anharmonicity. The phonon modes do not change significantly upon cooling into the hidden order phase. In addition, our data suggest that the increase in thermal conductivity in the hidden order phase cannot be driven by a change in phonon dispersions or lifetimes. Hence, the phonon contribution to the thermal conductivity is likely much less significant compared to that of the magnetic excitations in the lowmore » temperature phase.« less
Phononic crystals of spherical particles: A tight binding approach
Mattarelli, M.; Secchi, M.; Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Trento ; Montagna, M.
2013-11-07
The vibrational dynamics of a fcc phononic crystal of spheres is studied and compared with that of a single free sphere, modelled either by a continuous homogeneous medium or by a finite cluster of atoms. For weak interaction among the spheres, the vibrational dynamics of the phononic crystal is described by shallow bands, with low degree of dispersion, corresponding to the acoustic spheroidal and torsional modes of the single sphere. The phonon displacements are therefore related to the vibrations of a sphere, as the electron wave functions in a crystal are related to the atomic wave functions in a tight binding model. Important dispersion is found for the two lowest phonon bands, which correspond to zero frequency free translation and rotation of a free sphere. Brillouin scattering spectra are calculated at some values of the exchanged wavevectors of the light, and compared with those of a single sphere. With weak interaction between particles, given the high acoustic impedance mismatch in dry systems, the density of phonon states consist of sharp bands separated by large gaps, which can be well accounted for by a single particle model. Based on the width of the frequency gaps, tunable with the particle size, and on the small number of dispersive acoustic phonons, such systems may provide excellent materials for application as sound or heat filters.
Phonon Transport at Crystalline Si/Ge Interfaces: The Role of Interfacial Modes of Vibration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gordiz, Kiarash; Henry, Asegun
2016-03-01
We studied the modal contributions to heat conduction at crystalline Si and crystalline Ge interfaces and found that more than 15% of the interface conductance arises from less than 0.1% of the modes in the structure. Using the recently developed interface conductance modal analysis (ICMA) method along with a new complimentary methodology, we mapped the correlations between modes, which revealed that a small group of interfacial modes, which exist between 12–13 THz, exhibit extremely strong correlation with other modes in the system. It is found that these interfacial modes (e.g., modes with large eigen vectors for interfacial atoms) are enabled by the degree of anharmonicity near the interface, which is higher than in the bulk, and therefore allows this small group of modes to couple to all others. The analysis sheds light on the nature of localized vibrations at interfaces and can be enlightening for other investigations of localization.
Phonon Transport at Crystalline Si/Ge Interfaces: The Role of Interfacial Modes of Vibration
Gordiz, Kiarash; Henry, Asegun
2016-01-01
We studied the modal contributions to heat conduction at crystalline Si and crystalline Ge interfaces and found that more than 15% of the interface conductance arises from less than 0.1% of the modes in the structure. Using the recently developed interface conductance modal analysis (ICMA) method along with a new complimentary methodology, we mapped the correlations between modes, which revealed that a small group of interfacial modes, which exist between 12–13 THz, exhibit extremely strong correlation with other modes in the system. It is found that these interfacial modes (e.g., modes with large eigen vectors for interfacial atoms) are enabled by the degree of anharmonicity near the interface, which is higher than in the bulk, and therefore allows this small group of modes to couple to all others. The analysis sheds light on the nature of localized vibrations at interfaces and can be enlightening for other investigations of localization. PMID:26979787
Phonon Transport at Crystalline Si/Ge Interfaces: The Role of Interfacial Modes of Vibration.
Gordiz, Kiarash; Henry, Asegun
2016-01-01
We studied the modal contributions to heat conduction at crystalline Si and crystalline Ge interfaces and found that more than 15% of the interface conductance arises from less than 0.1% of the modes in the structure. Using the recently developed interface conductance modal analysis (ICMA) method along with a new complimentary methodology, we mapped the correlations between modes, which revealed that a small group of interfacial modes, which exist between 12-13 THz, exhibit extremely strong correlation with other modes in the system. It is found that these interfacial modes (e.g., modes with large eigen vectors for interfacial atoms) are enabled by the degree of anharmonicity near the interface, which is higher than in the bulk, and therefore allows this small group of modes to couple to all others. The analysis sheds light on the nature of localized vibrations at interfaces and can be enlightening for other investigations of localization. PMID:26979787
Mehl, James B.
2007-01-01
The boundary-shape formalism of Morse and Ingard is applied to the acoustic modes of a deformed spherical resonator (quasisphere) with rigid boundaries. For boundary shapes described by r = a [1 − ε ℱ(θ, ϕ)], where ε is a small scale parameter and ℱ is a function of order unity, the frequency perturbation is calculated to order ε2. The formal results apply to acoustic modes whose angular dependence is designated by the indices ℓ and m. Specific examples are worked out for the radial (ℓ = 0) and triplet (ℓ = 1) modes, for prolate and oblate spheroids, and for triaxial ellipsoids. The exact eigenvalues for the spheroids, and eigenvalue determined with finite-element calculations, are shown to agree with perturbation theory through terms of order ε2. This work is an extension of the author’s previous papers on the acoustic eigenfrequencies of deformed spherical resonators, which were limited to the second-order perturbation for radial modes [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 71, 1109-1113 (1982)] and the first order-perturbation for arbitrary modes [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 79, 278–285 (1986)]. PMID:27110463
Multi-band asymmetric acoustic transmission in a bended waveguide with multiple mechanisms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yu-lei; Sun, Hong-xiang; Xia, Jian-ping; Yuan, Shou-qi; Ding, Xin-lei
2016-07-01
We report the realization of a multi-band device of the asymmetric acoustic transmission by placing a phononic crystal inside a bended waveguide immersed in water, as determined both experimentally and numerically. The asymmetric acoustic transmission exists in three frequency bands below 500 kHz induced by multiple mechanisms. Besides the band gap of the phononic crystal, we also introduce the deaf mode and interaction between the phononic crystal and waveguide. More importantly, this asymmetric transmission can be systematically controlled by mechanically rotating the square rods of the phononic crystal. The device has the advantages of multiple band, broader bandwidth, and adjustable property, showing promising applications in ultrasonic devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosenstein, Baruch; Shapiro, B. Ya.; Shapiro, I.; Li, Dingping
2016-07-01
Pairing in one-atomic-layer-thick two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) by a single flat band of high-energy longitudinal optical phonons is considered. The polar dielectric SrTiO3 (STO) exhibits such an energetic phonon mode and the 2DEG is created both when one unit cell FeSe layer is grown on its (100 ) surface and on the interface with another dielectric like LaAlO3 (LAO). We obtain a quantitative description of both systems solving the gap equation for Tc for arbitrary Fermi energy ɛF, electron-phonon coupling λ , and the phonon frequency Ω , and direct (random-phase approximation) electron-electron repulsion strength α . The focus is on the intermediate region between the adiabatic, ɛF>>Ω , and the nonadiabatic, ɛF<<Ω , regimes. The high-temperature superconductivity in single-unit-cell FeSe/STO is possible due to a combination of three factors: high-longitudinal-optical phonon frequency, large electron-phonon coupling λ ˜0.5 , and huge dielectric constant of the substrate suppression the Coulomb repulsion. It is shown that very low density electron gas in the interfaces is still capable of generating superconductivity of the order of 0.1 K in LAO/STO.
Manipulation of thermal phonons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, Chung-Hao
Developing materials that can conduct electricity easily, but block the motion of phonons is necessary in the applications of thermoelectric devices, which can generate electricity from temperature differences. In converse, a key requirement as chips get faster is to obtain better ways to dissipate heat. Controlling heat transfer in these crystalline materials devices --- such as silicon --- is important. The heat is actually the motion or vibration of atoms known as phonons. Finding ways to manipulate the behavior of phonons is crucial for both energy applications and the cooling of integrated circuits. A novel class of artificially periodic structured materials --- phononic crystals --- might make manipulation of thermal phonons possible. In many fields of physical sciences and engineering, acoustic wave propagation in solids attracts many researchers. Wave propagation phenomena can be analyzed by mathematically solving the acoustic wave equation. However, wave propagation in inhomogeneous media with various geometric structures is too complex to find an exact solution. Hence, the Finite Difference Time Domain method is developed to investigate these complicated problems. In this work, the Finite-Difference Time-Domain formula is derived from acoustic wave equations based on the Taylor's expansion. The numerical dispersion and stability problems are analyzed. In addition, the convergence conditions of numerical acoustic wave are stated. Based on the periodicity of phononic crystal, the Bloch's theorem is applied to fulfill the periodic boundary condition of the FDTD method. Then a wide-band input signal is used to excite various acoustic waves with different frequencies. In the beginning of the calculation process, the wave vector is chosen and fixed. By means of recording the displacement field and taking the Fourier transformation, we can obtain the eigenmodes from the resonance peaks of the spectrum and draw the dispersion relation curve of acoustic waves
The source of solar high-frequency acoustic modes - Theoretical expectations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, Timothy M.
1991-01-01
The source exciting the solar p-modes is likely to be acoustic noise generated in the top part of the sun's convection zone. If so, then simple arguments suggest that most of the emitted energy may come from rare localized events that are well separated from one another in space and time. This note describes the acoustic emission that would be expected from such events, based on a ray-theory analysis. Most of the acoustic energy is found to emerge very close to the source, so that observations to identify emission events will require high spatial resolution.
``Forbidden'' phonon in the iron chalcogenide series
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fobes, David M.; Zaliznyak, Igor A.; Xu, Zhijun; Gu, Genda; Tranquada, John M.
2015-03-01
Recently, we uncovered evidence for the formation of a bond-order wave (BOW) leading to ferro-orbital order at low temperature, acting to stabilize the bicollinear AFM order, in the iron-rich parent compound, Fe1+yTe. Investigating the inelastic spectra centered near (100) in Fe1+yTe, a signature peak for the BOW formation in the monoclinic phase, we observed an acoustic phonon dispersion in both tetragonal and monoclinic phases. While a structural Bragg peak accompanies the mode in the monoclinic phase, in the tetragonal phase Bragg scattering at this Q is forbidden by symmetry, and we observed no elastic peak. This phonon mode was also observed in superconducting FeTe0.6Se0.4, where structural and magnetic transitions are suppressed. LDA frozen phonon calculations suggested that this mode could result from a spin imbalance between neighboring Fe atoms, but polarized neutron measurements revealed no additional magnetic scattering. We propose that this ``forbidden'' phonon mode may originate from dynamically broken symmetry, perhaps related to the strong dynamic spin correlations in these materials. Work at BNL was supported by BES, US DOE, under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886. Research at ORNL's HFIR and SNS sponsored by Scientific User Facilities Division, BES, US DOE. We acknowledge the support of NIST, in providing neutron research facilities.
Coupling of dust acoustic and shear mode through velocity shear in a strongly coupled dusty plasma
Garai, S. Janaki, M. S.; Chakrabarti, N.
2015-07-15
In the strongly coupled limit, the generalized hydrodynamic model shows that a dusty plasma, acquiring significant rigidity, is able to support a “shear” like mode. It is being demonstrated here that in presence of velocity shear gradient, this shear like mode gets coupled with the dust acoustic mode which is generated by the compressibility effect of the dust fluid due to the finite temperatures of the dust, electron, and ion fluids. In the local analysis, the dispersion relation shows that velocity shear gradient not only couples the two modes but is also responsible for the instabilities of that coupled mode which is confirmed by nonlocal analysis with numerical techniques.
Mode tomography using signals from the Long Range Ocean Acoustic Propagation EXperiment (LOAPEX)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chandrayadula, Tarun K.
Ocean acoustic tomography uses acoustic signals to infer the environmental properties of the ocean. The procedure for tomography consists of low frequency acoustic transmissions at mid-water depths to receivers located at hundreds of kilometer ranges. The arrival times of the signal at the receiver are then inverted for the sound speed of the background environment. Using this principle, experiments such as the 2004 Long Range Ocean Acoustic Propagation EXperiment have used acoustic signals recorded across Vertical Line Arrays (VLAs) to infer the Sound Speed Profile (SSP) across depth. The acoustic signals across the VLAs can be represented in terms of orthonormal basis functions called modes. The lower modes of the basis set concentrated around mid-water propagate longer distances and can be inverted for mesoscale effects such as currents and eddies. In spite of these advantages, mode tomography has received less attention. One of the important reasons for this is that internal waves in the ocean cause significant amplitude and travel time fluctuations in the modes. The amplitude and travel time fluctuations cause errors in travel time estimates. The absence of a statistical model and the lack of signal processing techniques for internal wave effects have precluded the modes from being used in tomographic inversions. This thesis estimates a statistical model for modes affected by internal waves and then uses the estimated model to design appropriate signal processing methods to obtain tomographic observables for the low modes. In order to estimate a statistical model, this thesis uses both the LOAPEX signals and also numerical simulations. The statistical model describes the amplitude and phase coherence across different frequencies for modes at different ranges. The model suggests that Matched Subspace Detectors (MSDs) based on the amplitude statistics of the modes are the optimum detectors to make travel time estimates for modes up to 250 km. The mean of the
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baumeister, K. J.
1981-01-01
The time-dependent governing acoustic-difference equations and boundary conditions are developed and solved for sound propagation in an axisymmetric (cylindrical) hard-wall duct without flow and with spinning acoustic modes. The analysis begins with a harmonic sound source radiating into a quiescent duct. This explicit iteration method then calculates stepwise in real time to obtain the steady solutions of the acoustic field. The transient method did not converge to the steady-state solution for cutoff acoustic duct modes. This has implications as to its use in a variable-area duct, where modes may become cutoff in the smal-area portion of the duct. For single cutoff mode propagation the steady-state impedance boundary condition produced acoustic reflections during the initial transient that caused finite instabilities in the numerical calculations. The stability problem is resolved by reformulating the exit boundary condition. Example calculations show good agreement with exact analytical and numerical results for forcing frequencies above, below, and nearly at the cutoff frequency.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Um, Y. J.; Subedi, A.; Toulemonde, P.; Ganin, A. Y.; Boeri, L.; Rahlenbeck, M.; Liu, Y.; Lin, C. T.; Carlsson, S. J. E.; Sulpice, A.; Rosseinsky, M. J.; Keimer, B.; Le Tacon, M.
2012-02-01
We report on an investigation of the lattice dynamical properties in a range of Fe1+yTe1-xSex compounds, with special emphasis on the c-axis polarized vibration of Fe with B1g symmetry, a Raman active mode common to all families of Fe-based superconductors. We have carried out a systematic study of the temperature dependence of this phonon mode as a function of Se x and excess Fe y concentrations. In parent compound Fe1+yTe, we observe an unconventional broadening of the phonon between room temperature and magnetic ordering temperature TN. The situation smoothly evolves toward a regular anharmonic behavior as Te is substituted for Se and long-range magnetic order is replaced by superconductivity. Irrespective to Se contents, excess Fe is shown to provide an additional damping channel for the B1g phonon at low temperatures. We performed density functional theory ab initio calculations within the local density approximation to calculate the phonon frequencies, including magnetic polarization and Fe nonstoichiometry in the virtual crystal approximation. We obtained a good agreement with the measured phonon frequencies in the Fe-deficient samples, while the effects of Fe excess are poorly reproduced. This may be due to excess Fe-induced local magnetism and low-energy magnetic fluctuations that cannot be treated accurately within these approaches. As recently revealed by neutron scattering and muon spin rotation studies, these phenomena occur in the temperature range where anomalous decay of the B1g phonon is observed and suggests a peculiar coupling of this mode with local moments and spin fluctuations in Fe1+yTe1-xSex.
Geodesic acoustic modes in tokamak plasmas with a radial equilibrium electric field
Zhou, Deng
2015-09-15
The dispersion relation of geodesic acoustic modes in the tokamak plasma with an equilibrium radial electric field is derived and analyzed. Multiple branches of eigenmodes have been found, similar to the result given by the fluid model with a poloidal mass flow. Frequencies and damping rates of both the geodesic acoustic mode and the sound wave increase with respect to the strength of radial electric field, while the frequency and the damping rate of the lower frequency branch slightly decrease. Possible connection to the experimental observation is discussed.
Tunable Topological Phononic Crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Ze-Guo; Wu, Ying
2016-05-01
Topological insulators first observed in electronic systems have inspired many analogues in photonic and phononic crystals in which remarkable one-way propagation edge states are supported by topologically nontrivial band gaps. Such band gaps can be achieved by breaking the time-reversal symmetry to lift the degeneracy associated with Dirac cones at the corners of the Brillouin zone. Here, we report on our construction of a phononic crystal exhibiting a Dirac-like cone in the Brillouin zone center. We demonstrate that simultaneously breaking the time-reversal symmetry and altering the geometric size of the unit cell result in a topological transition that we verify by the Chern number calculation and edge-mode analysis. We develop a complete model based on the tight binding to uncover the physical mechanisms of the topological transition. Both the model and numerical simulations show that the topology of the band gap is tunable by varying both the velocity field and the geometric size; such tunability may dramatically enrich the design and use of acoustic topological insulators.
Topological phononic states of underwater sound based on coupled ring resonators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Cheng; Li, Zheng; Ni, Xu; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Yu, Si-Yuan; Lu, Ming-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Yan-Feng
2016-01-01
We report a design of topological phononic states for underwater sound using arrays of acoustic coupled ring resonators. In each individual ring resonator, two degenerate acoustic modes, corresponding to clockwise and counter-clockwise propagation, are treated as opposite pseudospins. The gapless edge states arise in the bandgap resulting in protected pseudospin-dependent sound transportation, which is a phononic analogue of the quantum spin Hall effect. We also investigate the robustness of the topological sound state, suggesting that the observed pseudospin-dependent sound transportation remains unless the introduced defects facilitate coupling between the clockwise and counter-clockwise modes (in other words, the original mode degeneracy is broken). The topological engineering of sound transportation will certainly promise unique design for next generation of acoustic devices in sound guiding and switching, especially for underwater acoustic devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lan, Guoqiang; Ouyang, Bin; Xu, Yushuai; Song, Jun; Jiang, Yong
2016-06-01
Rare-earth (RE) pyrochlores are considered as promising candidate materials for the thermal barrier coating. In this study, we performed first-principles calculations, augmented by quasi-harmonic phonon calculations, to investigate the thermal expansion behaviors of several RE2Zr2O7 (RE = La, Nd, Sm, Gd) pyrochlores. Our findings show that RE2Zr2O7 pyrochlores exhibit low-lying optical phonon frequencies that correspond to RE-cation rattling vibrational modes. These frequencies become imaginary upon volume expansion, preventing correct determination of the free energy versus volume relation and thereby quantification of thermal expansion using QH phonon calculations. To address this challenge, we proposed a QH approximation approach based on stable phonon modes where the RE-cation rattling modes were systematically eliminated. This approach is shown to provide accurate predictions of the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) of RE2Zr2O7 pyrochlores, in good agreement with experimental measurements and data from first-principles molecular dynamics simulations. In addition, we showed that the QH Debye model considerably overestimates the magnitudes and wrongly predicts the trend for the CTEs of RE2Zr2O7 pyrochlores.
Softening of Roton and Phonon Modes in a Bose-Einstein Condensate with Spin-Orbit Coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, Si-Cong; Zhang, Long; Xu, Xiao-Tian; Wu, Zhan; Deng, Youjin; Chen, Shuai; Pan, Jian-Wei
2015-03-01
Roton-type excitations usually emerge from strong correlations or long-range interactions, as in superfluid helium or dipolar ultracold atoms. However, in a weakly short-range interacting quantum gas, the recently synthesized spin-orbit (SO) coupling can lead to various unconventional phases of superfluidity and give rise to an excitation spectrum of roton-maxon character. Using Bragg spectroscopy, we study a SO-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate of 87Rb atoms and show that the excitation spectrum in a "magnetized" phase clearly possesses a two-branch and roton-maxon structure. As Raman coupling strength Ω is decreased, a roton-mode softening is observed, as a precursor of the phase transition to a stripe phase that spontaneously breaks spatially translational symmetry. The measured roton gaps agree well with theoretical calculations. Furthermore, we determine sound velocities both in the magnetized and in the nonmagnetized phases, and a phonon-mode softening is observed around the phase transition in between. The validity of the f -sum rule is examined.
Softening of roton and phonon modes in a Bose-Einstein condensate with spin-orbit coupling.
Ji, Si-Cong; Zhang, Long; Xu, Xiao-Tian; Wu, Zhan; Deng, Youjin; Chen, Shuai; Pan, Jian-Wei
2015-03-13
Roton-type excitations usually emerge from strong correlations or long-range interactions, as in superfluid helium or dipolar ultracold atoms. However, in a weakly short-range interacting quantum gas, the recently synthesized spin-orbit (SO) coupling can lead to various unconventional phases of superfluidity and give rise to an excitation spectrum of roton-maxon character. Using Bragg spectroscopy, we study a SO-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate of ^{87}Rb atoms and show that the excitation spectrum in a "magnetized" phase clearly possesses a two-branch and roton-maxon structure. As Raman coupling strength Ω is decreased, a roton-mode softening is observed, as a precursor of the phase transition to a stripe phase that spontaneously breaks spatially translational symmetry. The measured roton gaps agree well with theoretical calculations. Furthermore, we determine sound velocities both in the magnetized and in the nonmagnetized phases, and a phonon-mode softening is observed around the phase transition in between. The validity of the f-sum rule is examined. PMID:25815940
Anisotropy-induced coupling in borehole acoustic modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Norris, Andrew N.; Sinha, Bikash K.
1996-07-01
The guided wave modes of a circular borehole in a weakly anisotropic formation are composed of linear superpositions of the associated modes for an isotropic formation. At moderate frequencies the major modes of concern are the quasi-Stoneley and quasi-flexural modes. These guided modes in anisotropic formations can be estimated from a perturbation analysis in terms of the unperturbed solutions for an isotropic formation. When the formation anisotropy is of monoclinic or lower symmetry, the normal and shear stresses become functions of both normal and shear strains through some additional anisotropic constants that are not present in materials with orthorhombic or higher symmetry. These additional elastic constants cause a coupling between the Stoneley and flexural modes. Under these circumstances, an on-axis monopole or dipole source excites both modes. Coupling coefficients account for the excitation of quasi-flexural motion by a monopole source, and of the quasi-Stoneley mode by a dipole. A transversely isotropic (TI) formation with its symmetry axis obliquely inclined with the borehole exhibits monoclinic symmetry in its rotated constants referred to the borehole axis. The monoclinic symmetry of the surrounding formation in such cases causes a coupling between the Stoneley and flexural modes. Computational results show that a borehole inclined at an angle of 60° from the symmetry axis of Austin chalk, a slow TI medium, exhibits coupling between the Stoneley and qSV-polarized flexural mode acceleration amplitudes of the order of 20 dB or less in the frequency range of interest. A similar obliquely inclined borehole in Bakken shale, a fast TI formation, exhibits a far weaker coupling between the Stoneley and qSV-polarized flexural modes. The stronger coupling in the case of Austin chalk is a result of relatively large anisotropic constants together with close proximity of the Stoneley and qSV-polarized flexural dispersions. On the other hand, weaker coupling in
An improved method for the calculation of Near-Field Acoustic Radiation Modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zu-Bin; Maury, Cédric
2016-02-01
Sensing and controlling Acoustic Radiation Modes (ARMs) in the near-field of vibrating structures is of great interest for broadband noise reduction or enhancement, as ARMs are velocity distributions defined over a vibrating surface, that independently and optimally contribute to the acoustic power in the acoustic field. But present methods only provide far-field ARMs (FFARMs) that are inadequate for the acoustic near-field problem. The Near-Field Acoustic Radiation Modes (NFARMs) are firstly studied with an improved numerical method, the Pressure-Velocity method, which rely on the eigen decomposition of the acoustic transfers between the vibrating source and a conformal observation surface, including sound pressure and velocity transfer matrices. The active and reactive parts of the sound power are separated and lead to the active and reactive ARMs. NFARMs are studied for a 2D baffled beam and for a 3D baffled plate, and so as differences between the NFARMS and the classical FFARMs. Comparisons of the NFARMs are analyzed when varying frequency and observation distance to the source. It is found that the efficiencies and shapes of the optimal active ARMs are independent on the distance while that of the reactive ones are distinctly related on.
Computational Simulation of Acoustic Modes in Rocket Combustors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harper, Brent (Technical Monitor); Merkle, C. L.; Sankaran, V.; Ellis, M.
2004-01-01
A combination of computational fluid dynamic analysis and analytical solutions is being used to characterize the dominant modes in liquid rocket engines in conjunction with laboratory experiments. The analytical solutions are based on simplified geometries and flow conditions and are used for careful validation of the numerical formulation. The validated computational model is then extended to realistic geometries and flow conditions to test the effects of various parameters on chamber modes, to guide and interpret companion laboratory experiments in simplified combustors, and to scale the measurements to engine operating conditions. In turn, the experiments are used to validate and improve the model. The present paper gives an overview of the numerical and analytical techniques along with comparisons illustrating the accuracy of the computations as a function of grid resolution. A representative parametric study of the effect of combustor mean flow Mach number and combustor aspect ratio on the chamber modes is then presented for both transverse and longitudinal modes. The results show that higher mean flow Mach numbers drive the modes to lower frequencies. Estimates of transverse wave mechanics in a high aspect ratio combustor are then contrasted with longitudinal modes in a long and narrow combustor to provide understanding of potential experimental simulations.
Optical detection of folded mini-zone-edge coherent acoustic modes in a doped GaAs/AlAs superlattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beardsley, R.; Akimov, A. V.; Glavin, B. A.; Maryam, W.; Henini, M.; Kent, A. J.
2010-07-01
A coherent phonon mode with frequency corresponding to the first mini Brillouin-zone edge stop gap is observed in ultrafast pump-probe measurements on a doped semiconductor superlattice structure. It is proposed that the optical detection of the mode is facilitated by interactions with the free carriers present in the superlattice.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Onuma, T.; Saito, S.; Sasaki, K.; Goto, K.; Masui, T.; Yamaguchi, T.; Honda, T.; Kuramata, A.; Higashiwaki, M.
2016-03-01
Temperature-dependent exciton resonance energies Eexciton in β-Ga2O3 single crystals are studied by using polarized reflectance measurement. The Eexciton values exhibit large energy changes in the range of 179-268 meV from 5 to 300 K. The IR-active Au and Bu optical phonon modes are selectively observed in the IR spectroscopic ellipsometry spectra by reflecting the polarization selection rules. The longitudinal optical (LO) phonon energies can be divided into three ranges: ℏωLO = 35-48, 70-73, and 88-99 meV. The broadening parameters, which are obtained from the reflectance measurements, correspond to the lower two ranges of ℏωLO at low temperature and 75 meV above 150 K. The large Eexciton changes with temperature in β-Ga2O3 are found to be originated from the exciton-LO-phonon interaction.
Temperature dependence of phonon-defect interactions: phonon scattering vs. phonon trapping
Bebek, M. B.; Stanley, C. M.; Gibbons, T. M.; Estreicher, S. K.
2016-01-01
The interactions between thermal phonons and defects are conventionally described as scattering processes, an idea proposed almost a century ago. In this contribution, ab-initio molecular-dynamics simulations provide atomic-level insight into the nature of these interactions. The defect is the Si|X interface in a nanowire containing a δ-layer (X is C or Ge). The phonon-defect interactions are temperature dependent and involve the trapping of phonons for meaningful lengths of time in defect-related, localized, vibrational modes. No phonon scattering occurs and the momentum of the phonons released by the defect is unrelated to the momentum of the phonons that generated the excitation. The results are extended to the interactions involving only bulk phonons and to phonon-defect interactions at high temperatures. These do resemble scattering since phonon trapping occurs for a length of time short enough for the momentum of the incoming phonon to be conserved. PMID:27535463
Temperature dependence of phonon-defect interactions: phonon scattering vs. phonon trapping.
Bebek, M B; Stanley, C M; Gibbons, T M; Estreicher, S K
2016-01-01
The interactions between thermal phonons and defects are conventionally described as scattering processes, an idea proposed almost a century ago. In this contribution, ab-initio molecular-dynamics simulations provide atomic-level insight into the nature of these interactions. The defect is the Si|X interface in a nanowire containing a δ-layer (X is C or Ge). The phonon-defect interactions are temperature dependent and involve the trapping of phonons for meaningful lengths of time in defect-related, localized, vibrational modes. No phonon scattering occurs and the momentum of the phonons released by the defect is unrelated to the momentum of the phonons that generated the excitation. The results are extended to the interactions involving only bulk phonons and to phonon-defect interactions at high temperatures. These do resemble scattering since phonon trapping occurs for a length of time short enough for the momentum of the incoming phonon to be conserved. PMID:27535463
Acoustic mode coupling due to subaqueous sand dunes in the South China Sea.
Chiu, Linus Y S; Reeder, D Benjamin
2013-08-01
The large subaqueous sand dunes on the upper continental slope of the South China Sea are expected to couple acoustic propagating normal modes. In this letter, the criterion of adiabatic invariance is extended to the case of a waveguide possessing bedforms. Using the extended criterion to examine mode propagation over the bedforms observed in the sand dune field in 2012, results demonstrate that bedforms increase mode coupling strength such that the criterion for adiabatic propagation is exceeded for waveguides with small bedform amplitude to water depth ratios; increasing bedform amplitude enhances mode coupling. Numerical simulations confirm the extended criterion parameterization. PMID:23927225
Global Geodesic Acoustic Modes Driven by Energetic Particles in the DIII-D Tokamak
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nazikian, R.; Fu, G. Y.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Kramer, G. J.; Austin, M. E.; Berk, H. L.; Heidbrink, W. W.; McKee, G. R.; Shafer, M. W.; Strait, E. J.; van Zeeland, M. A.
2009-11-01
Intense axisymmetric oscillations driven by suprathermal passing ions injected in the direction counter to the toroidal plasma current are observed in the DIII-D tokamak. Strong bursting and frequency chirping coincide with large (10-15%) drops in the neutron emission, suggesting that the mode is very effective in displacing beam ions from the plasma core. BES measurements of density fluctuations indicate an outward propagating mode of large radial extent. The large density to temperature ratio of the mode confirms a dominant compressional contribution to the pressure perturbation, indicative of the Geodesic Acoustic Mode (GAM).
Birefringent phononic structures
Psarobas, I. E. Exarchos, D. A.; Matikas, T. E.
2014-12-15
Within the framework of elastic anisotropy, caused in a phononic crystal due to low crystallographic symmetry, we adopt a model structure, already introduced in the case of photonic metamaterials, and by analogy, we study the effect of birefringence and acoustical activity in a phononic crystal. In particular, we investigate its low-frequency behavior and comment on the factors which determine chirality by reference to this model.
Three-dimensional coupled mode analysis of internal-wave acoustic ducts.
Shmelev, Alexey A; Lynch, James F; Lin, Ying-Tsong; Schmidt, Henrik
2014-05-01
A fully three-dimensional coupled mode approach is used in this paper to describe the physics of low frequency acoustic signals propagating through a train of internal waves at an arbitrary azimuth. A three layer model of the shallow water waveguide is employed for studying the properties of normal modes and their coupled interaction due to the presence of nonlinear internal waves. Using a robust wave number integration technique for Fourier transform computation and a direct global matrix approach, an accurate three-dimensional coupled mode full field solution is obtained for the tonal signal propagation through straight and parallel internal waves. This approach provides accurate results for arbitrary azimuth and includes the effects of backscattering. This enables one to provide an azimuthal analysis of acoustic propagation and separate the effects of mode coupled transparent resonance, horizontal reflection and refraction, the horizontal Lloyd's mirror, horizontal ducting and anti-ducting, and horizontal tunneling and secondary ducting. PMID:24815234
The Derivation and Quasinormal Mode Spectrum of Acoustic Anti-de Sitter Black Hole Analogues
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babb, James Patrick
Dumb holes (also known as acoustic black holes) are fluid flows which include an "acoustic horizon": a surface, analogous to a gravitational horizon, beyond which sound may pass but never classically return. Soundwaves in these flows will therefore experience "effective geometries" which are identical to black hole spacetimes up to a conformal factor. By adjusting the parameters of the fluid flow, it is possible to create an effective geometry which is conformal to the Anti-de Sitter black hole spacetime---a geometry which has received a great deal of attention in recent years due to its conjectured holographic duality to Conformal Field Theories. While we would not expect an acoustic analogue of the AdS-CFT correspondence to exist, this dumb hole provides a means, at least in principle, of experimentally testing the theoretical properties of the AdS spacetime. In particular, I have calculated the quasinormal mode spectrum of this acoustic geometry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramu, Ashok T.; Ma, Yanbao
2014-09-01
An enhanced Fourier law that we term the unified nondiffusive-diffusive (UND) phonon transport model is proposed in order to account for the effect of low-frequency phonon modes of long mean-free path that propagate concomitantly to the dominant high-frequency modes. The theory is based on spherical harmonic expansions of the phonon distribution functions, wherein the high-frequency mode distribution function is truncated at the first order in the expansion, while the low-frequency mode distribution function, which is farther out of thermal equilibrium, is truncated at the second order. As an illustrative application, the predictions of the proposed model are compared with data from a recent experiment that utilized the transient gratings method to investigate the deviation of thermal transport in a silicon membrane from the predictions of the Fourier law. The good fit of the experimental effective thermal conductivity (ETC) with the analytical solution derived in this work yields quantitative information about the mean-free path of the dominant low-frequency heat-transfer mode in silicon.
Correlated anomalous phase diffusion of coupled phononic modes in a sideband-driven resonator.
Sun, F; Dong, X; Zou, J; Dykman, M I; Chan, H B
2016-01-01
The dynamical backaction from a periodically driven optical cavity can reduce the damping of a mechanical resonator, leading to parametric instability accompanied by self-sustained oscillations. Here we study experimentally and theoretically new aspects of the backaction and the discrete time-translation symmetry of a driven system using a micromechanical resonator with two nonlinearly coupled vibrational modes with strongly differing frequencies and decay rates. We find self-sustained oscillations in both the low- and high-frequency modes. Their frequencies and amplitudes are determined by the nonlinearity, which also leads to bistability and hysteresis. The phase fluctuations of the two modes show near-perfect anti-correlation, a consequence of the discrete time-translation symmetry. Concurrently, the phase of each mode undergoes anomalous diffusion. The phase variance follows a power law time dependence, with an exponent determined by the 1/f-type resonator frequency noise. Our findings enable compensating for the fluctuations using a feedback scheme to achieve stable frequency downconversion. PMID:27576597
Nakayama, Masaaki Ohno, Tatsuya; Furukawa, Yoshiaki
2015-04-07
We have systematically investigated the photoluminescence (PL) dynamics of free excitons in GaAs/Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As single quantum wells, focusing on the energy relaxation process due to exciton–acoustic-phonon scattering under non-resonant and weak excitation conditions as a function of GaAs-layer thickness from 3.6 to 12.0 nm and temperature from 30 to 50 K. The free exciton characteristics were confirmed by observation that the PL decay time has a linear dependence with temperature. We found that the free exciton PL rise rate, which is the reciprocal of the rise time, is inversely linear with the GaAs-layer thickness and linear with temperature. This is consistent with a reported theoretical study of the exciton–acoustic-phonon scattering rate in the energy relaxation process in quantum wells. Consequently, it is conclusively verified that the PL rise rate is dominated by the exciton–acoustic-phonon scattering rate. In addition, from quantitative analysis of the GaAs-layer thickness and temperature dependences, we suggest that the PL rise rate reflects the number of exciton–acoustic-phonon scattering events.
Acoustic wave device using plate modes with surface-parallel displacement
Martin, Stephen J.; Ricco, Antonio J.
1992-01-01
Solid-state acoustic sensors for monitoring conditions at a surface immersed in a liquid and for monitoring concentrations of species in a liquid and for monitoring electrical properties of a liquid are formed by placing interdigital input and output transducers on a piezoelectric substrate and propagating acoustic plate modes therebetween. The deposition or removal of material on or from, respectively, a thin film in contact with the surface, or changes in the mechanical properties of a thin film in contact with the surface, or changes in the electrical characteristics of the solution, create perturbations in the velocity and attenuation of the acoustic plate modes as a function of these properties or changes in them.
Method and apparatus for acoustic plate mode liquid-solid phase transition detection
Blair, Dianna S.; Freye, Gregory C.; Hughes, Robert C.; Martin, Stephen J.; Ricco, Antonio J.
1993-01-01
A method and apparatus for sensing a liquid-solid phase transition event is provided which comprises an acoustic plate mode detecting element placed in contact with a liquid or solid material which generates a high-frequency acoustic wave that is attenuated to an extent based on the physical state of the material is contact with the detecting element. The attenuation caused by the material in contact with the acoustic plate mode detecting element is used to determine the physical state of the material being detected. The method and device are particularly suited for detecting conditions such as the icing and deicing of wings of an aircraft. In another aspect of the present invention, a method is provided wherein the adhesion of a solid material to the detecting element can be measured using the apparatus of the invention.
Acoustic wave device using plate modes with surface-parallel displacement
Martin, S.J.; Ricco, A.J.
1988-04-29
Solid-state acoustic sensors for monitoring conditions at a surface immersed in a liquid and for monitoring concentrations of species in a liquid and for monitoring electrical properties of a liquid are formed by placing interdigital input and output transducers on a piezoelectric substrate and propagating acoustic plate modes therebetween. The deposition or removal of material on or from, respectively, a thin film in contact with the surface, or changes in the mechanical properties of a thin film in contact with the surface, or changes in the electrical characteristics of the solution, create perturbations in the velocity and attenuation of the acoustic plate modes as a function of these properties or changes in them. 6 figs.
Acoustic wave device using plate modes with surface-parallel displacement
Martin, S.J.; Ricco, A.J.
1992-05-26
Solid-state acoustic sensors for monitoring conditions at a surface immersed in a liquid and for monitoring concentrations of species in a liquid and for monitoring electrical properties of a liquid are formed by placing interdigital input and output transducers on a piezoelectric substrate and propagating acoustic plate modes there between. The deposition or removal of material on or from, respectively, a thin film in contact with the surface, or changes in the mechanical properties of a thin film in contact with the surface, or changes in the electrical characteristics of the solution, create perturbations in the velocity and attenuation of the acoustic plate modes as a function of these properties or changes in them. 6 figs.
Opto-acoustic phenomena in whispering gallery mode resonators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Guoping; Chembo, Yanne K.
2016-01-01
Optical whispering gallery mode resonators are important platforms to enhance and study various nonlinear frequency conversion processes. Stimulated Brillouin scattering is one of the strongest nonlinear effects, and can be successfully investigated using these platforms. In this article, we study the phenomenon of stimulated Brillouin scattering using a crystalline disk resonator. A fast scanning ringdown spectroscopy technique is used to characterize the optical modes featuring quality factors of the order of one billion at telecom wavelengths. The mW scale threshold power in a centimeter disk resonator is observed and found to be strongly dependent on the gap between the resonator and the prism coupler.
Zonal Flow Velocimetry using Acoustic Modes in Experimental Models of a Planetary Core
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adams, M. M.; Mautino, A. R.; Stone, D.; Triana, S. A.; Lekic, V.; Lathrop, D. P.
2015-12-01
Rotating hydromagnetic experiments can serve as models of planetary cores, matching some of the dimensionless parameters relevant to planets. One challenge with such experiments is determining the flows present. The opacity of the fluids used in these experiments (e.g. liquid sodium) prevents direct flow visualization techniques from being employed. One method allowing determination of zonal flows in such experiments is acoustic mode velocimetry. In this technique, the rotational splittings of acoustic mode spectra are used to infer the azimuthal velocity profile of the flow. Here we present the use of this technique to study flows in experimental models of the Earth's core. Most of these results were obtained in a 60 cm diameter spherical Couette device, with a 20 cm diameter inner sphere, and using nitrogen gas as the working fluid. Turbulent flow is driven in the system via differential rotation of the outer shell and inner sphere. Acoustic modes are excited in the fluid volume using a speaker, and microphones are used to measure the frequencies and rotational splittings of the modes. We compare the observed splittings with those predicted by theory as a way of validating the method, and infer mean flows from these observations. We also present some preliminary results of acoustic studies in the 3 m diameter liquid sodium spherical Couette experiment. Finally, we discuss future prospects for this experimental technique.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Hosuk; So, Hyeon Seob; Lee, Hosun; Shin, Hae-Young; Yoon, Seokhyun; Ahn, Hyung-Woo; Kim, Su-Dong; Lee, Suyoun; Jeong, Doo-Seok; Cheong, Byung-ki
2014-06-01
We investigated the optical properties of Ge1- x Se x and Ge1- x- y Se x As y amorphous films by using spectroscopic ellipsometry and Raman spectroscopy. The dielectric functions and absorption coefficients ( α) of the amorphous films were determined from the measured ellipsometric angles (Ψ,Δ). We obtained the optical gap energies and the Urbach energies from the absorption coefficients and found a strong bowing effect in the optical gap energy of Ge1- x- y Se x As y , where the endpoint binaries were Ge0.50Se0.50 and Ge0.31As0.69. Based on the correlation between the optical gap energies and the Urbach energies, we attributed the large bowing parameter to electronic disorder. Using Raman spectroscopy, we measured the phonon modes and discussed the composition dependence of the phonon peak frequencies and lineshapes in terms of structural units. Based on the composition dependence of the phonons in Ge1- x- y Se x As y , we identified the phonon modes of Ge0.31As0.69. A resonant Raman phenomenon was observed in Ge0.40Se0.60 at a laser excitation of 514 nm (2.41 eV). We verified that this laser energy corresponded to the transition energy of Ge0.40Se0.60 by using the second derivative of the dielectric function of Ge0.40Se0.60.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baydin, Andrey; Krzyzanowska, Halina; Dhanunjaya, Munthala; Nageswara Rao, S. V. S.; Davidson, Jimmy L.; Feldman, Leonard C.; Tolk, Norman H.
2016-06-01
Silicon carbide (SiC) is a promising material for new generation electronics including high power/high temperature devices and advanced optical applications such as room temperature spintronics and quantum computing. Both types of applications require the control of defects particularly those created by ion bombardment. In this work, modification of optical constants of 4H-SiC due to hydrogen implantation at 180 keV and at fluences ranging from 1014 to 1016 cm-2 is reported. The depth dependence of the modified optical constants was extracted from coherent acoustic phonon spectra. Implanted spectra show a strong dependence of the 4H-SiC complex refractive index depth profile on H+ fluence. These studies provide basic insight into the dependence of optical properties of 4H silicon carbide on defect densities created by ion implantation, which is of relevance to the fabrication of SiC-based photonic and optoelectronic devices.
Yarotski, Dmitry; Yan Li; Jia Quanxi; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Fu Engang; Wang Yongqiang; Uberuaga, Blas P.
2012-06-18
We apply ultrafast coherent acoustic phonon interferometry to characterize the distribution of the radiation damage near the TiO{sub 2}/SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces. We show that the optical and mechanical properties of anatase TiO{sub 2} remain unaffected by the radiation dosages in the 0.1 Division-Sign 5 dpa (displacements per atom) range, while the degraded optical response indicates a significant defect accumulation in the interfacial region of SrTiO{sub 3} at 0.1 dpa and subsequent amorphization at 3 dpa. Comparison between the theoretical simulations and the experimental results reveals an almost threefold reduction of the sound velocity in the irradiated SrTiO{sub 3} layer with peak damage levels of 3 and 5 dpa.
Edge waves and resonances in two-dimensional phononic crystal plates
Hsu, Jin-Chen Hsu, Chih-Hsun
2015-05-07
We present a numerical study on phononic band gaps and resonances occurring at the edge of a semi-infinite two-dimensional (2D) phononic crystal plate. The edge supports localized edge waves coupling to evanescent phononic plate modes that decay exponentially into the semi-infinite phononic crystal plate. The band-gap range and the number of edge-wave eigenmodes can be tailored by tuning the distance between the edge and the semi-infinite 2D phononic lattice. As a result, a phononic band gap for simultaneous edge waves and plate waves is created, and phononic cavities beside the edge can be built to support high-frequency edge resonances. We design an L3 edge cavity and analyze its resonance characteristics. Based on the band gap, high quality factor and strong confinement of resonant edge modes are achieved. The results enable enhanced control over acoustic energy flow in phononic crystal plates, which can be used in designing micro and nanoscale resonant devices and coupling of edge resonances to other types of phononic or photonic crystal cavities.
Bhargavi, K. S.; Patil, Sukanya; Kubakaddi, S. S.
2015-07-28
The theory of free-carrier absorption (FCA) is given for monolayers of transition-metal dichalcogenides, particularly for molybdenum disulphide (MoS{sub 2}), when carriers are scattered by phonons. Explicit expressions for the absorption coefficient α are obtained and discussed for acoustic phonon scattering via screened deformation potential and piezoelectric coupling taking polarization of the radiation in the plane of the layer. It is found that α monotonously decreases with the increasing photon frequency Ω, increases with the increasing temperature T, and linearly depends on two-dimensional electron concentration n{sub s}. Effect of screening, which is ignored in all the earlier FCA studies, is found to reduce α significantly, attributing to the larger effective mass of the electrons. Results are also obtained in the classical and quantum limit giving the power laws α ∼ Ω{sup −2} and T. Comparison of the results is made with those in bulk semiconductors and semiconductor quantum wells.
Temperature induced phonon behaviour in germanium selenide thin films probed by Raman spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taube, A.; Łapińska, A.; Judek, J.; Wochtman, N.; Zdrojek, M.
2016-08-01
Here we report a detailed study of temperature-dependent phonon properties of exfoliated germanium selenide thin films (several tens of nanometers thick) probed by Raman spectroscopy in the 70–350 K temperature range. The temperature-dependent behavior of the positions and widths of the Raman modes was nonlinear. We concluded that the observed effects arise from anharmonic phonon–phonon interactions and are explained by the phenomenon of optical phonon decay into acoustic phonons. At temperatures above 200 K, the position of the Raman modes tended to be linearly dependent, and the first order temperature coefficients χ were ‑0.0277, ‑0.0197 and ‑0.031 cm‑1 K‑1 for B 3g , A g(1) and A g(2) modes, respectively.
Size-Dependent Infrared Phonon Modes and Ferroelectric Phase Transition in BiFe03 Nanoparticles
Chen, P.; Wong, S.; Xu, X.; Koenigsmann, C.; Santulli, A.C.; Musfeldt, J.L.
2010-11-01
One emergent property of ferroelectric nanoparticles is the sized-induced structural distortion to a high-symmetry paraelectric phase at small particle sizes. Finite length scale effects can thus be advantageously employed to elucidate ferroelectric transition mechanisms. In this work, we combine infrared spectroscopy with group theory and lattice dynamics calculations to reveal the displacive nature of the ferroelectric transition in BiFeO{sub 3}, a room temperature multiferroic. Systematic intensity and frequency trends in selected vibrational modes show that the paraelectric phase is Pm{sub 3}m and the lowest frequency A{sub 1} feature is the soft mode that drives the first order transition. Finite length scale effects are also evident in the electronic structure with a red-shifted band gap in nanoscale BiFeO{sub 3} compared with that of the rhombohedral film, a result that can impact the development of ferroelectric photovoltaics and oxide-based electronics. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the foundational importance of size effects for enhancing the rich functionality and broad utility of transition metal oxides.
Nealy, Jennifer L; Collis, Jon M; Frank, Scott D
2016-04-01
Normal mode solutions to range-independent seismo-acoustic problems are benchmarked against elastic parabolic equation solutions and then used to benchmark the shear elastic parabolic equation self-starter [Frank, Odom, and Collis, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133, 1358-1367 (2013)]. The Pekeris waveguide with an elastic seafloor is considered for a point source located in the ocean emitting compressional waves, or in the seafloor, emitting both compressional and shear waves. Accurate solutions are obtained when the source is in the seafloor, and when the source is at the interface between the fluid and elastic layers. PMID:27106346
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qi, Zeming; Cheng, Xuerui; Zhang, Guobin; Li, Tingting; Wang, Yuyin; Shao, Tao; Li, Chengxiang; He, Bo
2012-03-01
The local structure and dielectric properties of crystalline and amorphous La2Hf2O7 (LHO) thin film were studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy. The basic infrared phonon modes with most contributions to the static dielectric constant of crystal LHO are preserved, which causes the considerable value of the static dielectric constant in the amorphous thin film. The preservation of the main infrared phonon modes in the amorphous thin film is because it has similar the nearest local structures around Hf and La atoms as the crystal LHO. This inheritance of the local structural and vibrational features of the crystal phase is the origin of the dielectric constant of the LHO thin film.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skelton, Jonathan M.; Burton, Lee A.; Parker, Stephen C.; Walsh, Aron; Kim, Chang-Eun; Soon, Aloysius; Buckeridge, John; Sokol, Alexey A.; Catlow, C. Richard A.; Togo, Atsushi; Tanaka, Isao
2016-08-01
The layered semiconductor SnSe is one of the highest-performing thermoelectric materials known. We demonstrate, through a first-principles lattice-dynamics study, that the high-temperature C m c m phase is a dynamic average over lower-symmetry minima separated by very small energetic barriers. Compared to the low-temperature P n m a phase, the C m c m phase displays a phonon softening and enhanced three-phonon scattering, leading to an anharmonic damping of the low-frequency modes and hence the thermal transport. We develop a renormalization scheme to quantify the effect of the soft modes on the calculated properties, and confirm that the anharmonicity is an inherent feature of the C m c m phase. These results suggest a design concept for thermal insulators and thermoelectric materials, based on displacive instabilities, and highlight the power of lattice-dynamics calculations for materials characterization.
Lattice parameters and Raman-active phonon modes of (In{sub x}Ga{sub 1–x})₂O₃ for x<0.4
Kranert, Christian Lenzner, Jörg; Jenderka, Marcus; Lorenz, Michael; Wenckstern, Holger von; Schmidt-Grund, Rüdiger; Grundmann, Marius
2014-07-07
We present X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy investigations of (In{sub x}Ga{sub 1–x})₂O₃ thin films and bulk-like ceramics in dependence of their composition. The thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition have a continuous lateral composition spread allowing the determination of phonon mode properties and lattice parameters with high sensitivity to the composition from a single 2-in. wafer. In the regime of low indium concentration, the phonon energies depend linearly on the composition and show a good agreement between both sample types. We determined the slopes of these dependencies for eight different Raman modes. While the lattice parameters of the ceramics follow Vegard's rule, deviations are observed for the thin films. Further, we found indications of the high-pressure phase InGaO₃ II in the thin films above a critical indium concentration, its value depending on the type of substrate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoffmann, S. K.; Goslar, J.
2015-07-01
The results of X-band electron spin resonance (ESR) and electron spin echo (ESE) measurements for free radicals generated in Cd(HCOO)2·2H2O single crystal are presented. From ESR spectra analysis the radicals were identified as \\text{CO}2- after x-ray irradiation and as HOCO after γ-ray irradiation. The room temperature g-factors are: g|| = 1.9969 and g⊥ = 2.0024 for \\text{CO}2- and g1 = 2.0087, g2 = 2.0029 and g3 = 1.9960 for HOCO. Axial g-tensor symmetry for \\text{CO}2- is due to fast reorientation of the radical molecule around the g||-axis. Assignment of HOCO is confirmed by hyperfine splitting (Amax = 0.4 mT) from a single distant proton. Spin lattice relaxation rate was determined from ESE measurements in temperature range 4-250 K. Both radicals relax via local resonance mode lying within acoustic phonon branch. The existing theories of electron spin-lattice relaxation via local resonance mode are critically reviewed and compared with experimental data. A new approximation is proposed giving local mode energy \\hbar {ωR} = 56 cm-1 for \\text{CO}2- and \\hbar {ωR} = 44 cm-1 for the HOCO-radical.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
WenQin, Han; Ying, Luo; AiJun, Gu; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo
2016-04-01
Discrimination of acoustic emission (AE) signals related to different damage modes is of great importance in carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite materials. To gain a deeper understanding of the initiation, growth and evolution of the different types of damage, four types of specimens for different lay-ups and orientations and three types of specimens for interlaminar toughness tests are subjected to tensile test along with acoustic emission monitoring. AE signals have been collected and post-processed, the statistical results show that the peak frequency of AE signal can distinguish various damage modes effectively. After a AE signal were decomposed by Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method, it may separate and extract all damage modes included in this AE signal apart from damage mode corresponding to the peak frequency. Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) of AE signals can clearly illustrate the frequency distribution of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) components in time-scale in different damage stages, and can calculate accurate instantaneous frequency for damage modes recognition to help understanding the damage process.
Vibration modes and acoustic noise in a 4-phase switched reluctance motor
Colby, R.S.; Mottier, F.; Miller, T.J.E.
1995-12-31
Acoustic noise in the switched reluctance motor is caused primarily by the deformation of the stator lamination stack. Acoustic noise is most severe when the periodic excitation of the SRM phases excites a natural vibration mode of the stack. The natural vibration modes and frequencies of a 4-phase, 8/6 switched reluctance motor are examined. Structural finite element analysis is used to compute the natural modes and frequencies. Impulse tests on the stator stack verify the calculations and show which modes are excited. Heuristic arguments are developed to predict the operating conditions that will excite the natural modes. Measurement of vibration while the machine is under load shows which operating conditions excite the natural modes and verifies the predictions. An approximate formula is derived to predict the frequency of the fundamental vibration mode in terms of lamination dimensions and material properties. The formula is validated by comparison with finite element calculations for several laminations, and hence is shown to be useful in design trade-off studies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tangi, Malleswararao; Mishra, Pawan; Janjua, Bilal; Ng, Tien Khee; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Prabaswara, Aditya; Yang, Yang; Albadri, Abdulrahman M.; Alyamani, Ahmed Y.; El-Desouki, Munir M.; Ooi, Boon S.
2016-07-01
The dislocation free InxAl1-xN nanowires (NWs) are grown on Si(111) by nitrogen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy in the temperature regime of 490 °C-610 °C yielding In composition ranges over 0.50 ≤ x ≤ 0.17. We study the optical properties of these NWs by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopies since they possesses minimal strain with reduced defects comparative to the planar films. The optical bandgap measurements of InxAl1-xN NWs are demonstrated by SE where the absorption edges of the NW samples are evaluated irrespective of substrate transparency. A systematic Stoke shift of 0.04-0.27 eV with increasing x was observed when comparing the micro-photoluminescence spectra with the Tauc plot derived from SE. The micro-Raman spectra in the NWs with x = 0.5 showed two-mode behavior for A1(LO) phonons and single mode behavior for E2H phonons. As for x = 0.17, i.e., high Al content, we observed a peculiar E2H phonon mode splitting. Further, we observe composition dependent frequency shifts. The 77 to 600 K micro-Raman spectroscopy measurements show that both AlN- and InN-like modes of A1(LO) and E2H phonons in InxAl1-xN NWs are redshifted with increasing temperature, similar to that of the binary III group nitride semiconductors. These studies of the optical properties of the technologically important InxAl1-xN nanowires will path the way towards lasers and light-emitting diodes in the wavelength of the ultra-violet and visible range.
Strain induced modification in phonon dispersion curves of monolayer boron pnictides
Jha, Prafulla K. E-mail: prafullaj@yahoo.com; Soni, Himadri R.
2014-01-14
In the frame work of density functional theory, the biaxial strain induced phonon dispersion curves of monolayer boron pnictides (BX, X = N, P, As, and Sb) have been investigated. The electron-ion interactions have been modelled using ultrasoft pseudopotentials while exchange-correlation energies have been approximated by the method of local density approximation in the parameterization of Perdew-Zunger. The longitudinal and transverse acoustic phonon modes of boron pnictide sheets show linear dependency on wave vector k{sup →} while out of plane mode varies as k{sup 2}. The in-plane longitudinal and out of plane transverse optical modes in boron nitride displaying significant dispersion similar to graphene. We have analyzed the biaxial strain dependent behaviour of out of plane acoustic phonon mode which is linked to ripple for four BX sheets using a model equation with shell elasticity theory. The strain induces the hardening of this mode with tendency to become more linear with increase in strain percentage. The strain induced hardening of out of plane acoustic phonon mode indicates the absence of rippling in these compounds. Our band structure calculations for both unstrained and strained 2D h-BX are consistent with previous calculations.
Composition dependence of the in-plane Cu-O bond-stretching LO phonon mode in YBa2Cu3O6+x
Stercil, F.; Egami, T.; Mook Jr, Herbert A; Yethiraj, Mohana; Chung, J.-H.; Arai, M.; Frost, C.; Dogan, F.
2008-01-01
An inelastic pulsed neutron scattering study was performed on the dependence of the dispersion and spectral intensity of the in-plane Cu-O bond-stretching LO phonon mode on doped charge density. The measurements were made in the time-of-flight mode with the multiangle position sensitive spectrometer of the ISIS facility on single crystals of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x} (x=0.15, 0.35, 0.6, 0.7, and 0.95). The focus of the study is the in-plane Cu-O bond-stretching LO phonon mode, which is known for strong electron-phonon coupling and unusual dependence on composition and temperature. It is shown that the dispersions for the samples with x=0.35, 0.6, and 0.7 are similar to the superposition of those for x=0.15 and 0.95 samples, and cannot be explained in terms of the structural anisotropy. It is suggested that the results are consistent with the model of nanoscale electronic phase separation, with the fraction of the phases being dependent on the doped charge density.
Decomposition model for phonon thermal conductivity of a monatomic lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evteev, Alexander V.; Momenzadeh, Leila; Levchenko, Elena V.; Belova, Irina V.; Murch, Graeme E.
2014-12-01
An analytical treatment of decomposition of the phonon thermal conductivity of a crystal with a monatomic unit cell is developed on the basis of a two-stage decay of the heat current autocorrelation function observed in molecular dynamics simulations. It is demonstrated that the contributions from the acoustic short- and long-range phonon modes to the total phonon thermal conductivity can be presented in the form of simple kinetic formulas, consisting of products of the heat capacity and the average relaxation time of the considered phonon modes as well as the square of the average phonon velocity. On the basis of molecular dynamics calculations of the heat current autocorrelation function, this treatment allows for a self-consistent numerical evaluation of the aforementioned variables. In addition, the presented analysis allows, within the Debye approximation, for the identification of the temperature range where classical molecular dynamics simulations can be employed for the prediction of phonon thermal transport properties. As a case example, Cu is considered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manciu, Felicia Speranta
The prospects for realizing efficient nanoparticle light emitters in the visible/near IR for communications and bio-medical applications have benefited from progress in chemical fabrication of nanoparticles. III-V semiconductor nanopaticles such as GaP and InP are promising materials for the development of "blue" and "green" emitters, respectively, due to their large effective bandgaps. Enhanced emission efficiency has been achieved for core-shell nanoparticles, since inorganic shell materials increase electronic tunability and may decrease surface defects that often occur for nanoparticles capped with organic molecules. Also, the emission wavelength of InP nanoparticle cores can be tuned from green to red by changing the shell material in InP/II-VI core-shell nanoparticles. Investigations of phonon modes in nanocrystals are of both fundamental and applied interest. In the former case the optical phonon modes, such as surface/interface modes, are dependent on the nanoparticle dimensions, and also can provide information about dynamical properties of the nanoparticles and test the validity of various theoretical approaches. In the latter case the vibronic properties of nanoparticle emitters are controlled by confined phonons and modifications of the electron-phonon interaction by the confinement. Thus, the objective of the present thesis is the detailed study of the phonon modes of III-V nanoparticles (GaP and InP) and InP/II-VI core-shell nanoparticles by IR absorption and Raman scattering spectroscopies, and an elucidation of their complex vibrational properties. With the exception of three samples (two GaP and one InP), all samples were synthesized by a novel colloidal chemistry method, which does not requires added surfactant, but rather treatment of the corresponding precursors in octadecene noncoordinative solvent. Sample quality was characterized by ED, TEM and X-ray diffraction. Based on a comparison with a dielectric continuum model, the observed features
Parshall, D.; Pintschovius, L.; Niedziela, Jennifer L.; Castellan, J. -P.; Lamago, D.; Mittal, R.; Wolf, Th.; Reznik, Dmitry
2015-04-27
Parent compounds of Fe-based superconductors undergo a structural phase transition from a tetragonal to an orthorhombic structure. We investigated the temperature dependence of the frequencies of TA phonons that extrapolate to the shear vibrational mode at the zone center, which corresponds to the orthorhombic deformation of the crystal structure at low temperatures in ${\mathrm{BaFe}}_{2}{\mathrm{As}}_{2}$ and ${\mathrm{SrFe}}_{2}{\mathrm{As}}_{2}$. We found that acoustic phonons at small wave vectors soften gradually towards the transition from high temperatures, tracking the increase of the size of slowly fluctuating magnetic domains. On cooling below the transition to base temperature the phonons harden, following the square of the magnetic moment (which we find is proportional to the anisotropy gap). Finally, our results provide evidence for close correlation between magnetic and phonon properties in Fe-based superconductors.
Phonon-lifetimes in demixing systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davaasambuu, J.; Güthoff, F.; Petri, M.; Hradil, K.; Schober, H.; Ollivier, J.; Eckold, G.
2012-06-01
The dynamics of silver-alkali halide mixed single crystals (AgxNa1-xBr, x = 0.23, 0.35, 0.40 and 0.70) were studied by inelastic neutron scattering during the process of spinodal decomposition. Using the thermal three-axes spectrometer PUMA as well as the time-of-flight spectrometer IN5, the time evolution of phonons was observed in time-resolved, stroboscopic measurements. Complementary to the study of long wavelength acoustic phonons, as studied previously, we extended these investigations to Brillouin-zone boundary modes that are particularly sensitive to variations of the local structure. Starting from the homogeneous mixed phase the behaviour of these modes during demixing is observed in real-time. A simple dynamical model based on local structure variants helps to interpret the results. It is shown that the phonon lifetimes vary strongly during the phase separation and increase drastically during the coarsening process. Up to a critical size of precipitates of about 10 nm, zone-boundary modes are found to be strongly damped, while beyond the line widths are reduced to the experimental resolution. This finding leads to the conclusion that the typical mean free path of these modes is of the order of 10 nm, which corresponds to 20 unit cells.
Yu Wen; Zhao, Jinggeng; Jin, Changqing
2005-12-01
Cu{sub 3}N band structures and phonon dispersion curves under pressure are calculated using first-principles density functional theory and density functional perturbation theory with the local density approximation by the plane-wave pseudopotential method. The band structures are similar to other full-potential calculations. The indirect band gap is about 0.13 eV and decreases with increasing pressure. Simultaneous softening of the M{sub 3} and R{sub 25} zone boundary phonon modes was found and the possible associated successive structural phase transitions were discussed. The mode Grueneisen parameters for optic modes were obtained and the frequency versus pressure relationship was well fitted to second-order polynomials. The quadric relationship between the soft-mode frequency and pressure was also well reproduced for the M{sub 3} and R{sub 25} soft modes. The large difference of the soft-mode-driven transition pressures for the first high-pressure phases of ReO{sub 3} and Cu{sub 3}N were also discussed.
Lan, Tian; Li, Chen W.; Hellman, O.; Kim, D. S.; Muñoz, Jorge A.; Smith, Hillary; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Fultz, B.
2015-08-11
Although the rutile structure of TiO2 is stable at high temperatures, the conventional quasiharmonic approximation predicts that several acoustic phonons decrease anomalously to zero frequency with thermal expansion, incorrectly predicting a structural collapse at temperatures well below 1000 K. In this paper, inelastic neutron scattering was used to measure the temperature dependence of the phonon density of states (DOS) of rutile TiO2 from 300 to 1373 K. Surprisingly, these anomalous acoustic phonons were found to increase in frequency with temperature. First-principles calculations showed that with lattice expansion, the potentials for the anomalous acoustic phonons transform from quadratic to quartic, stabilizingmore » the rutile phase at high temperatures. In these modes, the vibrational displacements of adjacent Ti and O atoms cause variations in hybridization of 3d electrons of Ti and 2p electrons of O atoms. Finally, with thermal expansion, the energy variation in this “phonon-tracked hybridization” flattens the bottom of the interatomic potential well between Ti and O atoms, and induces a quarticity in the phonon potential.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lan, Tian; Li, C. W.; Hellman, O.; Kim, D. S.; Muñoz, J. A.; Smith, H.; Abernathy, D. L.; Fultz, B.
2015-08-01
Although the rutile structure of TiO2 is stable at high temperatures, the conventional quasiharmonic approximation predicts that several acoustic phonons decrease anomalously to zero frequency with thermal expansion, incorrectly predicting a structural collapse at temperatures well below 1000 K. Inelastic neutron scattering was used to measure the temperature dependence of the phonon density of states (DOS) of rutile TiO2 from 300 to 1373 K. Surprisingly, these anomalous acoustic phonons were found to increase in frequency with temperature. First-principles calculations showed that with lattice expansion, the potentials for the anomalous acoustic phonons transform from quadratic to quartic, stabilizing the rutile phase at high temperatures. In these modes, the vibrational displacements of adjacent Ti and O atoms cause variations in hybridization of 3 d electrons of Ti and 2 p electrons of O atoms. With thermal expansion, the energy variation in this "phonon-tracked hybridization" flattens the bottom of the interatomic potential well between Ti and O atoms, and induces a quarticity in the phonon potential.
Multi-diagnostic approach to geodesic acoustic mode study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yashin, A. Y.; Bulanin, V. V.; Petrov, A. V.; Petrov, M. A.; Gusev, V. K.; Khromov, N. A.; Kurskiev, G. S.; Patrov, M. I.; Petrov, Y. V.; Tolstyakov, S. Y.; Prisyazhnyuk, D. V.
2015-10-01
Multi-diagnostic approach developed for the GAM research in the spherical tokamak Globus M is described. Doppler backscattering (DBS) method as the tool for the GAM study, together with the diagnostics of plasma density and magnetic field GAM oscillations, were simultaneously used in experiments. The version of the DBS diagnostics with two cut-offs positioned at different poloidal angles of the minor cross-section was employed in Globus-M. For the GAM plasma density oscillation study, the Dα emission was observed at different angles to restore the spatial mode structure of the GAM plasma density oscillations. At the same time, the array of Mirnov coils was used for the GAM-like magnetic oscillation study, and that made it possible to restore the magnetic field perturbation spatial structure. The coherent and cross-bicoherence analyzes were employed to identify the interaction between the GAM velocity oscillation and plasma turbulent fluctuations. A shorter version of this contribution is due to be published in PoS at: 1st EPS conference on Plasma Diagnostics
The first radial-mode Lorentzian Landau damping of dust acoustic space-charge waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae
2016-05-01
The dispersion properties and the first radial-mode Lorentzian Landau damping of a dust acoustic space-charge wave propagating in a cylindrical waveguide dusty plasma which contains nonthermal electrons and ions are investigated by employing the normal mode analysis and the method of separation of variables. It is found that the frequency of dust acoustic space-charge wave increases as the wave number increases as well as the radius of cylindrical plasma does. However, the nonthermal property of the Lorentzian plasma is found to suppress the wave frequency of the dust acoustic space-charge wave. The Landau damping rate of the dust acoustic space-charge wave is derived in a cylindrical waveguide dusty plasma. The damping of the space-charge wave is found to be enhanced as the radius of cylindrical plasma and the nonthermal property increase. The maximum Lorentzian Landau damping rate is also found in a cylindrical waveguide dusty plasma. The variation of the wave frequency and the Landau damping rate due to the nonthermal character and geometric effects are also discussed.
Phonons in slow motion: dispersion relations in ultrathin Si membranes.
Cuffe, John; Chávez, Emigdio; Shchepetov, Andrey; Chapuis, Pierre-Olivier; El Boudouti, El Houssaine; Alzina, Francesc; Kehoe, Timothy; Gomis-Bresco, Jordi; Dudek, Damian; Pennec, Yan; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram; Prunnila, Mika; Ahopelto, Jouni; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M
2012-07-11
We report the changes in dispersion relations of hypersonic acoustic phonons in free-standing silicon membranes as thin as ∼8 nm. We observe a reduction of the phase and group velocities of the fundamental flexural mode by more than 1 order of magnitude compared to bulk values. The modification of the dispersion relation in nanostructures has important consequences for noise control in nano- and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) as well as opto-mechanical devices. PMID:22650605
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shalini, A.; Liu, Y.; Katmis, F.; Braun, W.; Srivastava, G. P.; Hicken, R. J.
2015-01-01
Femtosecond optical pump-probe measurements have been made upon epitaxial, polycrystalline, and amorphous thin films of Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST). A dominant coherent optical phonon mode of 3.4 THz frequency is observed in time-resolved anisotropic reflectance (AR) measurements of epitaxial films, and is inferred to have 3-dimensional T2-like character based upon the dependence of its amplitude and phase on pump and probe polarization. In contrast, the polycrystalline and amorphous phases exhibit a comparatively weak mode of about 4.5 THz frequency in both reflectivity (R) and AR measurements. Raman microscope measurements confirm the presence of the modes observed in pump-probe measurements, and reveal additional modes. While the Raman spectra are qualitatively similar for all three phases of GST, the mode frequencies are found to be different within experimental error, ranging from 3.2 to 3.6 THz and 4.3 to 4.7 THz, indicating that the detailed crystallographic structure has a significant effect upon the phonon frequency. While the lower frequency (3.6 THz) mode of amorphous GST is most likely associated with GeTe4 tetrahedra, modes in epitaxial (3.4 THz) and polycrystalline (3.2 THz) GST could be associated with either GeTe6 octahedra or Sb-Te bonds within defective octahedra. The more polarizable Sb-Te bonds are the most likely origin of the higher frequency (4.3-4.7 THz) mode, although the influence of Te-Te bonds cannot be excluded. The effect of high pump fluence, which leads to irreversible structural changes, has been explored. New modes with frequency of 3.5/3.6 THz in polycrystalline/amorphous GST may be associated with Sb2Te3 or GeTe4 tetrahedra, while a 4.2 THz mode observed in epitaxial GST may be related to segregation of Sb.
Neutron inelastic scattering measurements of low-energy phonons in the multiferroic BiFeO_{3}
Schneeloch, John A.; Xu, Zhijun; Wen, Jinsheng; Gehring, P. M.; Stock, C.; Matsuda, Masaaki; Winn, Barry L.; Gu, Genda; Shapiro, Stephen M.; Birgeneau, R. J.; Ushiyama, T.; Yanagisawa, Y.; Tomioka, Y.; Ito, T.; Xu, Guangyong
2015-02-10
In this study, we present neutron inelastic scattering measurements of the low-energy phonons in single crystal BiFeO_{3}. The dispersions of the three acoustic phonon modes (LA along [100], TA_{1} along [010], and TA_{2} along [110]) and two low-energy optic phonon modes (LO and TO_{1}) have been mapped out between 300 and 700 K. Elastic constants are extracted from the phonon measurements. The energy linewidths of both TA phonons at the zone boundary clearly broaden when the system is warmed toward the magnetic ordering temperature T_{N}=640 K. In conclusion, this suggests that the magnetic order and low-energy lattice dynamics in this multiferroic material are coupled.
Neutron inelastic scattering measurements of low-energy phonons in the multiferroic BiFeO3
Schneeloch, John A.; Xu, Zhijun; Wen, Jinsheng; Gehring, P. M.; Stock, C.; Matsuda, Masaaki; Winn, Barry L.; Gu, Genda; Shapiro, Stephen M.; Birgeneau, R. J.; et al
2015-02-10
In this study, we present neutron inelastic scattering measurements of the low-energy phonons in single crystal BiFeO3. The dispersions of the three acoustic phonon modes (LA along [100], TA1 along [010], and TA2 along [110]) and two low-energy optic phonon modes (LO and TO1) have been mapped out between 300 and 700 K. Elastic constants are extracted from the phonon measurements. The energy linewidths of both TA phonons at the zone boundary clearly broaden when the system is warmed toward the magnetic ordering temperature TN=640 K. In conclusion, this suggests that the magnetic order and low-energy lattice dynamics in thismore » multiferroic material are coupled.« less
Geodesic acoustic mode in anisotropic plasmas using double adiabatic model and gyro-kinetic equation
Ren, Haijun; Cao, Jintao
2014-12-15
Geodesic acoustic mode in anisotropic tokamak plasmas is theoretically analyzed by using double adiabatic model and gyro-kinetic equation. The bi-Maxwellian distribution function for guiding-center ions is assumed to obtain a self-consistent form, yielding pressures satisfying the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) anisotropic equilibrium condition. The double adiabatic model gives the dispersion relation of geodesic acoustic mode (GAM), which agrees well with the one derived from gyro-kinetic equation. The GAM frequency increases with the ratio of pressures, p{sub ⊥}/p{sub ∥}, and the Landau damping rate is dramatically decreased by p{sub ⊥}/p{sub ∥}. MHD result shows a low-frequency zonal flow existing for all p{sub ⊥}/p{sub ∥}, while according to the kinetic dispersion relation, no low-frequency branch exists for p{sub ⊥}/p{sub ∥}≳ 2.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ayub, M.; Tiwana, M. H.; Mann, A. B.
2010-03-01
In this study, we analyzed the diffraction of the acoustic dominant mode in a parallel-plate trifurcated waveguide with normal impedance boundary conditions in the case where surface impedances of the upper and lower infinite plates are different from each other. The acoustic dominant mode is incident in a soft/hard semi-infinite duct located symmetrically in the infinite lined duct. The solution of the boundary value problem using Fourier transform leads to two simultaneous modified Wiener-Hopf equations that are uncoupled using the pole removal technique. Two infinite sets of unknown coefficients are involved in the solution, which satisfy two infinite systems of linear algebraic equations. These systems are solved numerically. The new kernel functions are factorized. Some graphical results showing the influence of sundry parameters of interest on the reflection coefficient are presented.
Resonant transmission and mode modulation of acoustic waves in H-shaped metallic gratings
Deng, Yu-Qiang; Fan, Ren-Hao; Zhang, Kun; Peng, Ru-Wen E-mail: dongxiang87@gmail.com; Qi, Dong-Xiang E-mail: dongxiang87@gmail.com
2015-04-15
In this work, we demonstrate that resonant full transmission of acoustic waves exists in subwavelength H-shaped metallic gratings, and transmission peaks can be efficiently tuned by adjusting the grating geometry. We investigate this phenomenon through both numerical simulations and theoretical calculations based on rigorous-coupled wave analysis. The transmission peaks are originated from Fabry-Perot resonances together with the couplings between the diffractive wave on the surface and the multiple guided modes in the slits. Moreover, the transmission modes can be efficiently tuned by adjusting the cavity geometry, without changing the grating thickness. The mechanism is analyzed based on an equivalent circuit model and verified by both the theoretical calculations and the numerical simulations. This research has potential application in acoustic-device miniaturization over a wide range of wavelengths.
Effect of wind tunnel acoustic modes on linear oscillating cascade aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buffum, Daniel H.; Fleeter, Sanford
1993-01-01
The aerodynamics of a biconvex airfoil cascade oscillating in torsion is investigated using the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. For subsonic flow and reduced frequencies as large as 0.9, airfoil surface unsteady pressures resulting from oscillation of one of the airfoils are measured using flush-mounted high-frequency-response pressure transducers. The influence coefficient data are examined in detail and then used to predict the unsteady aerodynamics of a cascade oscillating at various interblade phase angles. These results are correlated with experimental data obtained in the traveling-wave mode of oscillation and linearized analysis predictions. It is found that the unsteady pressure disturbances created by an oscillating airfoil excite wind tunnel acoustic modes which have detrimental effects on the experimental data. Acoustic treatment is proposed to rectify this problem.
Effect of wind tunnel acoustic modes on linear oscillating cascade aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buffum, D. H.; Fleeter, S.
1994-01-01
The aerodynamics of a biconvex airfoil cascade oscillating in torsion is investigated using the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. For subsonic flow and reduced frequencies as large as 0.9, airfoil surface unsteady pressures resulting from oscillation of one of the airfoils are measured using flush-mounted high-frequency-response pressure transducers. The influence coefficient data are examined in detail and then used to predict the unsteady aerodynamics of a cascade oscillating at various interblade phase angles. These results are correlated with experimental data obtained in the traveling-wave mode of oscillation and linearized analysis predictions. It is found that the unsteady pressure disturbances created by an oscillating airfoil excite wind tunnel acoustic modes, which have detrimental effects on the experimental results. Acoustic treatment is proposed to rectify this problem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsatsoulis, T.; Illg, C.; Haag, M.; Mueller, B. Y.; Zhang, L.; Fähnle, M.
2016-04-01
During ultrafast demagnetization after the excitation of ferromagnetic films with femtosecond laser pulses, the angular momentum of the electronic system is transferred to the lattice via electron-phonon scatterings. The actual amount of transfer is calculated for Ni and Fe by considering spin-phonon eigenmodes, which have a sharp angular momentum. Because the considered Hamiltonian is not isotropic, the total angular momentum is not conserved.
Collisionless damping of geodesic acoustic mode in plasma with nonextensive distribution
Qiu, Hui-Bin; Song, Hai-Ying; Liu, Shi-Bing
2014-06-15
Geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) in collisionless toroidal plasmas with a constant electrostatic potential around a magnetic surface is investigated based on the linear gyrokinetic theory in context of nonextensive statistics mechanics. The damping rate of GAM is shown to be dependent on the nonextensive parameters of ions, and in the extensive limit, the result in Maxwellian distribution plasma is recovered. The damping rate is found to be enhanced as the nonextensive parameter of ion decreases.
Anharmonic effects in the optical and acoustic bending modes of graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramírez, R.; Chacón, E.; Herrero, C. P.
2016-06-01
The out-of-plane fluctuations of carbon atoms in a graphene sheet have been studied by means of classical molecular dynamic simulations with an empirical force field as a function of temperature. The Fourier analysis of the out-of-plane fluctuations often applied to characterize the acoustic bending mode of graphene is extended to the optical branch, whose polarization vector is perpendicular to the graphene layer. This observable is inaccessible in a continuous elastic model of graphene but it is readily obtained by the atomistic treatment. Our results suggest that the long-wavelength limit of the acoustic out-of-plane fluctuations of a free layer without stress is qualitatively similar to that predicted by a harmonic model under a tensile stress. This conclusion is a consequence of the anharmonicity of both in-plane and out-of-plane vibrational modes of the lattice. The most striking anharmonic effect is the presence of a linear term, ωA=vAk , in the dispersion relation of the acoustic bending band of graphene at long wavelengths (k →0 ). This term implies a strong reduction of the amplitude of out-of-plane oscillations in comparison to a flexural mode with a k2 dependence in the long-wavelength limit. Our simulations show an increase of the sound velocity associated to the bending mode, as well as an increase of its bending constant, κ , as the temperature increases. Moreover, the frequency of the optical bending mode, ωO(Γ ), also increases with the temperature. Our results are in agreement with recent analytical studies of the bending modes of graphene using either perturbation theory or an adiabatic approximation in the framework of continuous layer models.
A generalized hydrodynamic model for acoustic mode stability in viscoelastic plasma fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borah, B.; Haloi, A.; Karmakar, P. K.
2016-05-01
In this paper a generalized hydrodynamic (GH) model to investigate acoustic-mode excitation and stability in simplified strongly coupled bi-component plasma is proposed. The goal is centered in seeing the viscoelasticity-influences on the instability properties. The dispersive and nondispersive features are methodologically explored followed by numerical illustrations. It is seen that, unlike usual plasma acoustic mode, here the mode stability is drastically modified due to the considered viscoelastic effects contributed from both the electronic and ionic fluids. For example, it is found that there exists an excitation threshold value on angular wavenumber, K ≈3 in the K-space on the Debye scale, beyond which only dispersive characteristic features prevail. Further, it is demonstrated that the viscoelastic relaxation time plays a stabilizing influential role on the wave dynamics. In contrast, it is just opposite for the effective viscoelastic relaxation effect. Consistency with the usual viscoelasticity-free situations, with and without plasma approximation taken into account, is also established and explained. It is identified and conjectured that the plasma fluid viscoelasticity acts as unavoidable dispersive agency in attributing several new characteristics to acoustic wave excitation and propagation. The analysis is also exploited to derive a quantitative glimpse on the various basic properties and dimensionless numbers of the viscoelastic plasma. Finally, extended implications of our results tentative to different cosmic, space and astrophysical situations, amid the entailed facts and faults, are highlighted together with indicated future directions.
Acoustic signatures of different damage modes in plain and repaired granite specimens
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mpalaskas, A. C.; Matikas, T. E.; Van Hemelrijck, D.; Iliopoulos, S.; Papakitsos, G. S.; Aggelis, D. G.
2015-03-01
In construction sector marble and granite are widespread because of their unique properties through the centuries. The issue of repair in these materials is crucial in structural integrity and maintenance of the monuments through the world, as well as in modern buildings. In this study fracture experiments on granite specimens are conducted. The goal is to compare the typical acoustic emission (AE) signals from different modes (namely bending and shear) in plain granite and marble specimens as well as repaired in the crack surface with polyester adhesive. The distinct signature of the cracking modes is reflected on acoustic waveform parameters like the amplitude, rise time and frequency. Conclusions about how the repair affects the mechanical properties as well as the acoustic waveform parameters are drawn. Results show that AE helps to characterize the shift between dominant fracture modes using a simple analysis of AE descriptors as well as the integrity of the specimen (plain or repaired). This offers the potential for in-situ application mainly in the maintenance of the monuments where the need for continuous and nondestructive monitoring is imperative, but always care should be taken for the distortion of the signal, which increases with the propagation distance and can seriously mask the results in an actual case.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sayadi, Taraneh; Schmid, Peter; Richecoeur, Franck; Durox, Daniel
2014-11-01
Thermo-acoustic systems belong to a class of dynamical systems that are governed by multiple parameters. Changing these parameters alters the response of the dynamical system and causes it to bifurcate. Due to their many applications and potential impact on a variety of combustion systems, there is great interest in devising control strategies to weaken or suppress thermo-acoustic instabilities. However, the system dynamics have to be available in reduced-order form to allow the design of such controllers and their operation in real-time. As the dominant modes and their respective frequencies change with varying the system parameters, the dynamical system needs to be analyzed separately for a set of fixed parameter values, before the dynamics can be linked in parameter-space. This two-step process is not only cumbersome, but also ambiguous when applied to systems operating close to a bifurcation point. Here we propose a parametrized decomposition algorithm which is capable of analyzing dynamical systems as they go through a bifurcation, extracting the dominant modes of the pre- and post-bifurcation regime. The algorithm is applied to a thermo-acoustically oscillating flame and to pressure signals from experiments. A few selected mode are capable of reproducing the dynamics.
Rotating rake design for unique measurement of fan-generated spinning acoustic modes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Konno, Kevin E.; Hausmann, Clifford R.
1993-01-01
In light of the current emphasis on noise reduction in subsonic aircraft design, NASA has been actively studying the source of and propagation of noise generated by subsonic fan engines. NASA/LeRC has developed and tested a unique method of accurately measuring these spinning acoustic modes generated by an experimental fan. This mode measuring method is based on the use of a rotating microphone rake. Testing was conducted in the 9 x 15 Low-speed Wind Tunnel. The rotating rake was tested with the Advanced Ducted Propeller (ADP) model. This memorandum discusses the design and performance of the motor/drive system for the fan-synchronized rotating acoustic rake. This novel motor/drive design approach is now being adapted for additional acoustic mode studies in new test rigs as baseline data for the future design of active noise control for subsonic fan engines. Included in this memorandum are the research requirements, motor/drive specifications, test performance results, and a description of the controls and software involved.
Two-fluid Analysis of the Geodesic Acoustic Mode in Tokamaks
Hirose, Akira; Weiland, Jan
2011-10-03
In most analysis reported so far on the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) in tokamaks, the current along the magnetic field has been assumed to vanish, J{sub ||} = 0. The parallel electron current associated with low frequency modes in tokamaks is large even in electrostatic limit and tends to short-circuit the cross-field electric field. The collisionless electrostatic GAM as predicted in the original work (Winsor, et al.) does not exist. The GAM only modifies the Alfven frequency. The finding in this study suggests that electrostatic GAM should be confined at the edge where the electron collision frequency is high.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baumeister, K. J.
1981-01-01
The cutoff mode instability problem associated with a transient finite difference solution to the wave equation is explained. The steady-state impedance boundary condition is found to produce acoustic reflections during the initial transient, which cause finite instabilities in the cutoff modes. The stability problem is resolved by extending the duct length to prevent transient reflections. Numerical calculations are presented at forcing frequencies above, below, and nearly at the cutoff frequency, and exit impedance models are presented for use in the practical design of turbofan inlets.
Decay of electrostatic hydrogen cyclotron waves into ion acoustic modes in auroral field lines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergmann, R.; Hudson, M. K.
1987-03-01
The coherent three-wave decay of a linearly unstable electrostatic hydrogen cyclotron (EHC) wave into stable EHC and ion acoustic modes is considered. The general problem of the three weakly interacting electrostatic normal modes in a Maxwellian plasma is discussed. EHC is examined in a fluid description, and the results are used to guide a similar study in a Vlasov plasma system intended to model the aurora acceleration region parameters. The time dependence of the decay in a simple three-wave interaction is presented in order to show how wave saturation can arise.
Transition from near-field thermal radiation to phonon heat conduction at sub-nanometre gaps.
Chiloyan, Vazrik; Garg, Jivtesh; Esfarjani, Keivan; Chen, Gang
2015-01-01
When the separation of two surfaces approaches sub-nanometre scale, the boundary between the two most fundamental heat transfer modes, heat conduction by phonons and radiation by photons, is blurred. Here we develop an atomistic framework based on microscopic Maxwell's equations and lattice dynamics to describe the convergence of these heat transfer modes and the transition from one to the other. For gaps >1 nm, the predicted conductance values are in excellent agreement with the continuum theory of fluctuating electrodynamics. However, for sub-nanometre gaps we find the conductance is enhanced up to four times compared with the continuum approach, while avoiding its prediction of divergent conductance at contact. Furthermore, low-frequency acoustic phonons tunnel through the vacuum gap by coupling to evanescent electric fields, providing additional channels for energy transfer and leading to the observed enhancement. When the two surfaces are in or near contact, acoustic phonons become dominant heat carriers. PMID:25849305
Sutter, E.; Schafer-Nolte, E.O.; Stoica T.; Gotschke, T.; Limbach, F.A.; Sutter, P.; Grutzmacher, D.; Calarco, R.
2010-08-06
In the literature, there are controversies on the interpretation of the appearance in InN Raman spectra of a strong scattering peak in the energy region of the unscreened longitudinal optical (LO) phonons, although a shift caused by the phonon-plasmon interaction is expected for the high conductance observed in this material. Most measurements on light scattering are performed on ensembles of InN nanowires (NWs). However, it is important to investigate the behavior of individual nanowires and here we report on micro-Raman measurements on single nanowires. When changing the polarization direction of the incident light from parallel to perpendicular to the wire, the expected reduction of the Raman scattering was observed for transversal optical (TO) and E2 phonon scattering modes, while a strong symmetry-forbidden LO mode was observed independently on the laser polarization direction. Single Mg- and Si-doped crystalline InN nanowires were also investigated. Magnesium doping results in a sharpening of the Raman peaks, while silicon doping leads to an asymmetric broadening of the LO peak. The results can be explained based on the influence of the high electron concentration with a strong contribution of the surface accumulation layer and the associated internal electric field.
Belyaev, Mikhail A.; Stone, James M.; Rafikov, Roman R.
2012-11-20
Disk accretion onto a weakly magnetized central object, e.g., a star, is inevitably accompanied by the formation of a boundary layer near the surface, in which matter slows down from the highly supersonic orbital velocity of the disk to the rotational velocity of the star. We perform high-resolution two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations in the equatorial plane of an astrophysical boundary layer with the goal of exploring the dynamics of non-axisymmetric structures that form there. We generically find that the supersonic shear in the boundary layer excites non-axisymmetric quasi-stationary acoustic modes that are trapped between the surface of the star and a Lindblad resonance in the disk. These modes rotate in a prograde fashion, are stable for hundreds of orbital periods, and have a pattern speed that is less than and of the order of the rotational velocity at the inner edge of the disk. The origin of these intrinsically global modes is intimately related to the operation of a corotation amplifier in the system. Dissipation of acoustic modes in weak shocks provides a universal mechanism for angular momentum and mass transport even in purely hydrodynamic (i.e., non-magnetized) boundary layers. We discuss the possible implications of these trapped modes for explaining the variability seen in accreting compact objects.
Energetic Geodesic Acoustic Modes Associated with Two-Stream-like Instabilities in Tokamak Plasmas.
Qu, Z S; Hole, M J; Fitzgerald, M
2016-03-01
An unstable branch of the energetic geodesic acoustic mode (EGAM) is found using fluid theory with fast ions characterized by their narrow width in energy distribution and collective transit along field lines. This mode, with a frequency much lower than the thermal GAM frequency ω_{GAM}, is now confirmed as a new type of unstable EGAM: a reactive instability similar to the two-stream instability. The mode can have a very small fast ion density threshold when the fast ion transit frequency is smaller than ω_{GAM}, consistent with the onset of the mode right after the turn-on of the beam in DIII-D experiments. The transition of this reactive EGAM to the velocity gradient driven EGAM is also discussed. PMID:26991183
Estreicher, S. K. Gibbons, T. M.; Kang, By.; Bebek, M. B.
2014-01-07
Defects in semiconductors introduce vibrational modes that are distinct from bulk modes because they are spatially localized in the vicinity of the defect. Light impurities produce high-frequency modes often visible by Fourier-transform infrared absorption or Raman spectroscopy. Their vibrational lifetimes vary by orders of magnitude and sometimes exhibit unexpectedly large isotope effects. Heavy impurities introduce low-frequency modes sometimes visible as phonon replicas in photoluminescence bands. But other defects such as surfaces or interfaces exhibit spatially localized modes (SLMs) as well. All of them can trap phonons, which ultimately decay into lower-frequency bulk phonons. When heat flows through a material containing defects, phonon trapping at localized modes followed by their decay into bulk phonons is usually described in terms of phonon scattering: defects are assumed to be static scattering centers and the properties of the defect-related SLMs modes are ignored. These dynamic properties of defects are important. In this paper, we quantify the concepts of vibrational localization and phonon trapping, distinguish between normal and anomalous decay of localized excitations, discuss the meaning of phonon scattering in real space at the atomic level, and illustrate the importance of phonon trapping in the case of heat flow at Si/Ge and Si/C interfaces.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Y. Y.; Zhou, T. F.; Zheng, S. N.; Liu, X. H.; Zhao, J. J.; Su, X. J.; Huang, J.; Qiu, Y. X.; Zhang, J. C.; Xu, K.
2016-05-01
In this study, we present a microspectroscopic investigation on the quasi-transverse optical phonon modes Q(TO) in some self-generated aluminum nitride (AlN) grains grown on sapphire using hydride vapor phase epitaxy. Using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope, these grains were confirmed to be embedded in (0001)-AlN (c-AlN) epitaxial matrix with an appearance plane of (10 1 ¯ 1 ) (s-plane). Two beam bright field images further showed that the AlN grains were free of dislocation. In-plane phonon anisotropy of the AlN grains was discussed in detail using angular-dependent polarized Raman spectroscopy. The dependence of pure Raman phonons intensity on rotation angle agrees well with the calculation. The Q(TO) phonon intensity exhibited similar behavior to that of A1(TO) phonon, which can be explained by Loudon's formula. However, the observed frequency fluctuation for the Q(TO) phonon differs from that of the pure phonon modes, which cannot be directly understood from the classic Loudon's formula. A modified Loudon's formula appropriate to non-normal incidence was presented to explain the observed Q(TO) phonon frequency fluctuation. Combining with the angular-dependent Raman spectra, we proposed that a small inclination of s-plane along with the various in-plane orientations in c-AlN matrix lead to the frequency fluctuation of Q(TO) in these embedded semipolar AlN grains.
Additional and canonical phonon modes in Hg1-xCdxTe(0.06≤x≤0.7)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Polit, J.; Sheregii, E. M.; Cebulski, J.; Kisiel, A.; Robouch, B. V.; Marcelli, A.; Mycielski, A.
2010-07-01
In this experimental work a conception of the phonon spectra of the Hg1-xCdxTe(x=0.06-0.7) solid solution is presented which explains the presence of additional lines in the region 100-115cm-1 . Data of the optical reflectivity measurements obtained in far and middle infrared regions for eleven compositions of these alloys in the temperature range from 20 to 293 K using the synchrotron radiation ( DAΦNE -LIGHT in LNF, Italy) as source are analyzed. Analyses were performed on samples of different types ( n and p type) of conductivity as well as the temperature dependences of the line intensity under consideration in the region from 70 to 118cm-1 . The model of two valley potential of the mercury atom in the Hg1-xCdxTe lattice is used for interpretation of the additional phonon modes.
Electron-Phonon Couplings of the Interfacial Mode in FeSe Thin Films on SrTiO3 and BaTiO3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yan; Berlijn, Tom; Rademaker, Louk; Johnston, Steve
Monolayers FeSe on SrTiO3 or BaTiO3 substrates possess highest superconducting transition temperatures in Fe-based superconductors with Tc ~ 70 K measured by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and other experiments. Furthermore, the high Tc's concur with exact replica bands in ARPES spectra. A forward scattering mechanism with small momentum transfer through the electron-phonon interaction has been proposed to explain the high Tc's and the replica bands. We apply ab initio techniques to study such coupling in monolayer and bilayer FeSe thin films on SrTiO3, BaTiO3, and oxygen-vacant SrTiO3 substrates. Our results confirm the forward scattering nature of electron-phonon coupling of the oxygen polar mode whose energy coincides with the off-set energy of the replica bands.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wakiya, K.; Onimaru, T.; Tsutsui, S.; Matsumoto, K. T.; Nagasawa, N.; Baron, A. Q. R.; Hasegawa, T.; Ogita, N.; Udagawa, M.; Takabatake, T.
2015-03-01
Atomic dynamics of PrT2Zn20 for T=Ru with a structural transition at Ts=138 K and T=Ir without such a transition have been studied by inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) measurements. The IXS spectra for T=Ru reveal an optical phonon excitation at 3 meV. We assign it to low-energy vibration of the Zn atom at the 16c site by taking account of the first principles calculation [Hasegawa et al. 2012 J. Phys.: Conf. Proc. 391 012016]. For T=Ir, on the other hand, the optical excitation at 3 meV was not observed. The contrasting results indicate that the low-energy optical phonon mode has a role in the structural transition in PrRu2Zn20 and isostructural La counterparts.
Goldstone-Mode Phonon Dynamics in the Pyrochlore Cd_{2}Re_{2}O_{7}
Kendziora, C. A.; Sergienko, I. A.; Jin, Rongying; He, Jian; Keppens, Veerle; Sales, Brian C; Mandrus, David
2005-01-01
We have measured the polarized Raman scattering spectra of Cd{sub 2}Re{sub 2}O{sub 7}, the first superconducting pyrochlore, as a function of temperature. For temperatures below the cubic-to-tetragonal structural phase transition (SPT) at 200 K, a peak with B{sub 1} symmetry develops at zero frequency with divergent intensity. We identify this peak as the first observation of the Goldstone phonon in a crystalline solid. The Goldstone phonon is a collective excitation that exists due to the breaking of the continuous symmetry with the SPT. Its emergence coincides with that of a Raman-active soft mode. The order parameter for both features derives from an unstable doubly degenerate vibration (with E{sub u} symmetry) of the O1 atoms which drives the SPT.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salman, Aysevil; Adem Kaya, Olgun; Cicek, Ahmet; Ulug, Bulent
2015-06-01
Mach-Zehnder interferometer formed by liquid-filled linear defect waveguides in a two-dimensional phononic crystal is numerically realized for sensing low concentrations of an analyte. The waveguides in the square phononic crystal of void cylinders in steel, as well as their T branches and sharp bends are utilized to construct interferometer arms. Sensing low concentrations of ethanol on the order of 0.1% in a binary mixture with water is achieved by replacing the contents of a number of waveguide core cells on one arm of the interferometer with the analyte. Computations are carried out through the finite-element method in an approach that takes the solid-liquid interaction at the waveguide core cells into account. Band analyses reveal linear variation of the central frequency of the transmission band within a band gap for ethanol concentrations up to 3.0%. Phase difference due to the imbalance of the sample and reference arms of the interferometer also varies linearly with ethanol concentration, leading in turn to a cosine variation of the Fourier component of the temporal interferometer response at the central input-pulse frequency. The induced phase difference in the investigated configuration becomes a -0.78π and -0.65π per percent increase of ethanol concentration as calculated from the band-structure and transient data, respectively. This is confirmed by transient finite-element simulations where totally destructive interference occurs for a concentration of approximately 1.5%. The proposed scheme, which can easily be adopted to other binary mixtures, offers a compact implementation requiring small amounts of analyte.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pathak, Binita; Basu, Saptarshi
2016-03-01
Controlled breakup of droplets using heat or acoustics is pivotal in applications such as pharmaceutics, nanoparticle production, and combustion. In the current work we have identified distinct thermal acoustics-induced deformation regimes (ligaments and bubbles) and breakup dynamics in externally heated acoustically levitated bicomponent (benzene-dodecane) droplets with a wide variation in volatility of the two components (benzene is significantly more volatile than dodecane). We showcase the physical mechanism and universal behavior of droplet surface caving in leading to the inception and growth of ligaments. The caving of the top surface is governed by a balance between the acoustic pressure field and the restrictive surface tension of the droplet. The universal collapse of caving profiles for different benzene concentration (<70 % by volume) is shown by using an appropriate time scale obtained from force balance. Continuous caving leads to the formation of a liquid membrane-type structure which undergoes radial extension due to inertia gained during the precursor phase. The membrane subsequently closes at the rim and the kinetic energy leads to ligament formation and growth. Subsequent ligament breakup is primarily Rayleigh-Plateau type. The breakup mode shifts to diffusional entrapment-induced boiling with an increase in concentration of the volatile component (benzene >70 % by volume). The findings are portable to any similar bicomponent systems with differential volatility.
Finding the bare band: Electron coupling to two phonon modes in potassium-doped graphene on Ir(111)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pletikosić, I.; Kralj, M.; Milun, M.; Pervan, P.
2012-04-01
We analyze renormalization of the π* band of n-doped epitaxial graphene on Ir(111) induced by electron-phonon coupling. Our procedure of extracting the bare band relies on recursive self-consistent refining of the functional form of the bare band until the convergence. We demonstrate that the components of the self-energy, as well as the spectral intensity obtained from angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, show that the renormalization is due to the coupling to two distinct phonon excitations. From the velocity renormalization and an increase of the imaginary part of the self-energy we find the electron-phonon coupling constant to be ˜0.2, which is in fair agreement with a previous study of the same system, despite the notable difference in the width of spectroscopic curves. Our experimental results also suggest that potassium intercalated between graphene and Ir(111) does not introduce any additional increase of the quasiparticle scattering rate.
Phonon dispersion in uranium measured using inelastic x-ray scattering.
Manley, M. E.; Lander, G. H.; Sinn, H.; Alatas, A.; Hults, W. L.; McQueeney, R. J.; Smith, J. L.; Wilt, J.; XFD
2003-02-01
Phonon-dispersion curves were obtained from inelastic x-ray scattering measurements on high-purity uranium single crystals at room temperature. Modes displacing atoms along [00{zeta}] and propagating in all three high-symmetry directions were measured. Whereas the acoustic modes agree with the neutron measurements, the longitudinal-optic branch is about 10% higher in energy, but consistent with higher cutoff energies observed in phonon density-of-states measurements on polycrystals. The application of this x-ray technique, which requires only very small samples, opens possibilities in actinide science.
Electron-phonon coupling in hybrid lead halide perovskites.
Wright, Adam D; Verdi, Carla; Milot, Rebecca L; Eperon, Giles E; Pérez-Osorio, Miguel A; Snaith, Henry J; Giustino, Feliciano; Johnston, Michael B; Herz, Laura M
2016-01-01
Phonon scattering limits charge-carrier mobilities and governs emission line broadening in hybrid metal halide perovskites. Establishing how charge carriers interact with phonons in these materials is therefore essential for the development of high-efficiency perovskite photovoltaics and low-cost lasers. Here we investigate the temperature dependence of emission line broadening in the four commonly studied formamidinium and methylammonium perovskites, HC(NH2)2PbI3, HC(NH2)2PbBr3, CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3PbBr3, and discover that scattering from longitudinal optical phonons via the Fröhlich interaction is the dominant source of electron-phonon coupling near room temperature, with scattering off acoustic phonons negligible. We determine energies for the interacting longitudinal optical phonon modes to be 11.5 and 15.3 meV, and Fröhlich coupling constants of ∼40 and 60 meV for the lead iodide and bromide perovskites, respectively. Our findings correlate well with first-principles calculations based on many-body perturbation theory, which underlines the suitability of an electronic band-structure picture for describing charge carriers in hybrid perovskites. PMID:27225329
Electron–phonon coupling in hybrid lead halide perovskites
Wright, Adam D.; Verdi, Carla; Milot, Rebecca L.; Eperon, Giles E.; Pérez-Osorio, Miguel A.; Snaith, Henry J.; Giustino, Feliciano; Johnston, Michael B.; Herz, Laura M.
2016-01-01
Phonon scattering limits charge-carrier mobilities and governs emission line broadening in hybrid metal halide perovskites. Establishing how charge carriers interact with phonons in these materials is therefore essential for the development of high-efficiency perovskite photovoltaics and low-cost lasers. Here we investigate the temperature dependence of emission line broadening in the four commonly studied formamidinium and methylammonium perovskites, HC(NH2)2PbI3, HC(NH2)2PbBr3, CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3PbBr3, and discover that scattering from longitudinal optical phonons via the Fröhlich interaction is the dominant source of electron–phonon coupling near room temperature, with scattering off acoustic phonons negligible. We determine energies for the interacting longitudinal optical phonon modes to be 11.5 and 15.3 meV, and Fröhlich coupling constants of ∼40 and 60 meV for the lead iodide and bromide perovskites, respectively. Our findings correlate well with first-principles calculations based on many-body perturbation theory, which underlines the suitability of an electronic band-structure picture for describing charge carriers in hybrid perovskites. PMID:27225329
Dynamical stabilization by phonon-phonon interaction exemplified in cubic zirconia
Souvatsos,; Rudin, Sven P
2008-01-01
Cubic zirconia exhibits a soft phonon mode (X{sup -}{sub 2}), which becomes dynamically unstable at low temperatures. Previous ab initio invest.igations into the temperature-induced stabilization of the soft mode treated it as an independent anharmonic oscillator. Calculations presented here, using the self consistent ab initio lattice dynamical (SCAILD) method to evaluate the phonons at 2570 K, show that the soft mode should not be treated independently of other phonon modes. Phonon-phonon interactions stabilize the X{sup -}{sub 2} mode. Furthermore, the effective potential experienced by the mode takes on a quadratic form.
Brunel, D; Berthou, S; Parret, R; Vialla, F; Morfin, P; Wilmart, Q; Fève, G; Berroir, J-M; Roussignol, P; Voisin, C; Plaçais, B
2015-04-29
We report on electron cooling power measurements in few-layer graphene excited by Joule heating by means of a new setup combining electrical and optical probes of the electron and phonon baths temperatures. At low bias, noise thermometry allows us to retrieve the well known acoustic phonon cooling regimes below and above the Bloch-Grüneisen temperature, with additional control over the phonon bath temperature. At high electrical bias, we show the relevance of direct optical investigation of the electronic temperature by means of black-body radiation measurements. In this regime, the onset of new efficient relaxation pathways involving optical modes is observed. PMID:25835486
Hannah, Daniel C; Brown, Kristen E; Young, Ryan M; Wasielewski, Michael R; Schatz, George C; Co, Dick T; Schaller, Richard D
2013-09-01
We report femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy measurements of lattice dynamics in semiconductor nanocrystals and characterize longitudinal optical (LO) phonon production during confinement-enhanced, ultrafast intraband relaxation. Stimulated Raman signals from unexcited CdSe nanocrystals produce a spectral shape similar to spontaneous Raman signals. Upon photoexcitation, stimulated Raman amplitude decreases owing to experimentally resolved ultrafast phonon generation rates within the lattice. We find a ∼600 fs, particle-size-independent depletion time attributed to hole cooling, evidence of LO-to-acoustic down-conversion, and LO phonon mode softening. PMID:25166708
Thin plate model for transverse mode analysis of surface acoustic wave devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Gongbin; Han, Tao; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Benfeng; Omori, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Ken-ya
2016-07-01
In this paper, we propose a physical model for the analysis of transverse modes in surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices. It is mostly equivalent to the scalar potential (SP) theory, but sufficiently flexible to include various effects such as anisotropy, coupling between multiple modes, etc. First, fundamentals of the proposed model are established and procedures for determining the model parameters are given in detailed. Then the model is implemented in the partial differential equation mode of the commercial finite element analysis software COMSOL. The analysis is carried out for an infinitely long interdigital transducer on the 128°YX-LiNbO3 substrate. As a demonstration, it is shown how the energy leakage changes with the frequency and the device design.
The dependence of acoustic properties of a crack on the resonance mode and geometry
Kumagai, H.; Chouet, B.A.
2001-01-01
We examine the dependence of the acoustic properties of a crack containing magmatic or hydrothermal fluids on the resonance mode and geometry to quantify the source properties of long-period (LP) events observed in volcanic areas. Our results, based on spectral analyses of synthetic waveforms generated with a fluid-driven crack model, indicate that the basic features of the dimensionless frequency (??) and quality factor (Qr) for a crack containing various types of fluids are not strongly affected by the choice of mode, although the actual ranges of Q?? and ?? both depend on the mode. The dimensionless complex frequency systematically varies with changes in the crack geometry, showing increases in both Qr and ?? as the crack length to aperture ratio decreases. The present results may be useful for the interpretation of spatial and temporal variations in the observed complex frequencies of LP events.
Tuning the acoustic frequency of a gold nanodisk through its adhesion layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Wei-Shun; Wen, Fangfang; Chakraborty, Debadi; Su, Man-Nung; Zhang, Yue; Shuang, Bo; Nordlander, Peter; Sader, John E.; Halas, Naomi J.; Link, Stephan
2015-05-01
To fabricate robust metallic nanostructures with top-down patterning methods such as electron-beam lithography, an initial nanometer-scale layer of a second metal is deposited to promote adhesion of the metal of interest. However, how this nanoscale layer affects the mechanical properties of the nanostructure and how adhesion layer thickness controls the binding strength to the substrate are still open questions. Here we use ultrafast laser pulses to impulsively launch acoustic phonons in single gold nanodisks with variable titanium layer thicknesses, and observe an increase in phonon frequencies as a thicker adhesion layer facilitates stronger binding to the glass substrate. In addition to an all-optical interrogation of nanoscale mechanical properties, our results show that the adhesion layer can be used to controllably modify the acoustic phonon modes of a gold nanodisk. This direct coupling between optically excited plasmon modes and phonon modes can be exploited for a variety of emerging optomechanical applications.
Lattice parameters and Raman-active phonon modes of β-(Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}){sub 2}O{sub 3}
Kranert, Christian Jenderka, Marcus; Lenzner, Jörg; Lorenz, Michael; Wenckstern, Holger von; Schmidt-Grund, Rüdiger; Grundmann, Marius
2015-03-28
We present X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy investigations of a (100)-oriented (Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1–x}){sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film on MgO (100) and bulk-like ceramics in dependence on their composition. The thin film grown by pulsed laser deposition has a continuous lateral composition spread allowing to determine precisely the dependence of the phonon mode properties and lattice parameters on the chemical composition. For x < 0.4, we observe the single-phase β-modification. Its lattice parameters and phonon energies depend linearly on the composition. We determined the slopes of these dependencies for the individual lattice parameters and for nine Raman lines, respectively. While the lattice parameters of the ceramics follow Vegard's rule, deviations are observed for the thin film. This deviation has only a small effect on the phonon energies, which show a reasonably good agreement between thin film and ceramics.
Li, Wenwu; Jiang, Kai; Zhang, Jinzhong; Chen, Xiangui; Hu, Zhigao; Chen, Shiyou; Sun, Lin; Chu, Junhao
2012-07-28
The quaternary semiconductor Cu(2)ZnSnS(4) (CZTS) has attracted a lot of attention as a possible absorber material for solar cells due to its direct bandgap and high absorption coefficient. In this study, photovoltaic CZTS nanocrystalline film with a grain size of about 10 nm has been grown on a c-plane sapphire substrate by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. With increasing the temperature from 86 to 323 K, the A(1) phonon mode shows a red shift of about 9 cm(-1) due to the combined effects of thermal expansion and the anharmonic coupling to the other phonons. Optical and electronic properties of the CZTS film have been investigated by transmittance spectra in the temperature range of 8-300 K. Near-infrared-ultraviolet dielectric functions have been extracted with the Tauc-Lorentz dispersion model. The fundamental band gap E(0), and higher-energy critical points E(1) and E(2) are located at 1.5, 3.6, and 4.2 eV, respectively. Owing to the influences of electron-phonon interaction and the lattice expansion, the three interband transitions present a red shift trend with increasing temperature. It was found that the absorption coefficient in the visible region increases due to the modifications of electronic band structures. The detailed study of the optical properties of CZTS film can provide an experimental basis for CZTS-based solar cell applications. PMID:22710652
Splash, pop, sizzle: Information processing with phononic computing
Sklan, Sophia R.
2015-05-15
Phonons, the quanta of mechanical vibration, are important to the transport of heat and sound in solid materials. Recent advances in the fundamental control of phonons (phononics) have brought into prominence the potential role of phonons in information processing. In this review, the many directions of realizing phononic computing and information processing are examined. Given the relative similarity of vibrational transport at different length scales, the related fields of acoustic, phononic, and thermal information processing are all included, as are quantum and classical computer implementations. Connections are made between the fundamental questions in phonon transport and phononic control and the device level approach to diodes, transistors, memory, and logic. .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baydin, Andrey; Krzyzanowska, Halina; Dhanunjaya, M.; Rao, S. V. S. Nageswara; Davidson, Jimmy L.; Feldman, Leonard C.; Tolk, Norman H.
Silicon carbide (SiC) is an ideal material for new electronics, such as high power/high temperature devices, and a candidate for advanced optical applications such as room temperature spintronics and quantum computing. Both types of applications may require the control of defects created by ion bombardment. In this work, we examine depth dependent modification of optical constants of 4H-SiC due to hydrogen implantation at 180keV and low doses ranging from 1014 to 1016 cm-2probed by coherent acoustic phonon (CAP) spectroscopy. For our studies, we used Si-face 10 μm epilayers of n-type 4H-SiC grown by CVD on 4H-SiC substrate. A comprehensive analysis of the reference and implanted spectra shows a strong dependence of 4H-SiC complex refractive index shape versus depth on the H+ fluence. We extract the complex refractive index as a function of depth and ion beam dose. Our results demonstrate that the implantation-modified refractive index is distributed over a greater depth range than Monte Carlo calculation predictions of the implantation induced structural damage. These studies provide insight into the application of hydrogen ion implantation to the fabrication of SiC-based photonic and optoelectronic devices. Work is supported by ARO under Contract No. W911NF-14-1-0290.
Anomalous phonon characteristics of unconventional novel III-N superlattices
Talwar, Devki N.
2014-03-31
Comprehensive results of atomic vibrations are reported in the unconventional short-period zb BN/GaN superlatices (SLs) by exploiting a rigid-ion-model and taking into account both the short- and long-range Coulomb interactions. Besides anisotropic mode behavior of optical phonons, our study provided evidence of acoustic-mode anti-crossing, mini-gap formation, confinement as well as BN-like modes falling within the gap that separates optical phonon bands of the two materials. A bond-polarizability scheme is employed within the second-nearest-neighbor linear-chain model to simulate the Raman intensity profiles of BN/GaN SLs revealing major expected trends of the vibrational characteristics observed experimentally in many conventional superlattice systems while eliciting some interesting contrasts.
Multi-Enhanced-Phonon Scattering Modes in Ln-Me-A Sites co-substituted LnMeA11O19 Ceramics
Lu, Haoran; Wang, Chang-An; Huang, Yong; Xie, Huimin
2014-01-01
Authors reported an effective path to decrease the thermal conductivity while to increase the coefficient of thermal expansion, thus enhancing the thermo-physical properties of the LnMeA11O19-type magnetoplumbite LaMgAl11O19 by simultaneously substituting La3+, Mg2+ and Al3+ ions with large ionic radius Ba2+, Zn2+ and Ti4+, respectively. The mechanism behind the lowered thermal conductivity was mainly due to the multi-enhanced-phonon scattering modes in Ln-Me-A sites co-substituted LnMeA11O19 ceramics. These modes involve the following four aspects, namely, point defect mechanism, the intrinsic scattering in the complex crystal cell and materials with stepped surface to localize phonon vibrational modes, as well as nano-platelet-like structure to incorporate additional grain boundary scattering. This study provides novel thoughts for promising candidate materials of even lower thermal conductivity for the next generation thermal barrier coatings. PMID:25351166
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dib, E.; Carrillo-Nuñez, H.; Cavassilas, N.; Bescond, M.
2016-01-01
Junctionless transistors are being considered as one of the alternatives to conventional metal-oxide field-effect transistors. In this work, it is then presented a simulation study of silicon double-gated p-type junctionless transistors compared with its inversion-mode counterpart. The quantum transport problem is solved within the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, whereas hole-phonon interactions are tackled by means of the self-consistent Born approximation. Our findings show that junctionless transistors should perform as good as a conventional transistor only for ultra-thin channels, with the disadvantage of requiring higher supply voltages in thicker channel configurations.
Fast scanning mode and its realization in a scanning acoustic microscope.
Ju, Bing-Feng; Bai, Xiaolong; Chen, Jian
2012-03-01
The scanning speed of the two-dimensional stage dominates the efficiency of mechanical scanning measurement systems. This paper focused on a detailed scanning time analysis of conventional raster and spiral scan modes and then proposed two fast alternative scanning modes. Performed on a self-developed scanning acoustic microscope (SAM), the measured images obtained by using the conventional scan mode and fast scan modes are compared. The total scanning time is reduced by 29% of the two proposed fast scan modes. It will offer a better solution for high speed scanning without sacrificing the system stability, and will not introduce additional difficulties to the configuration of scanning measurement systems. They can be easily applied to the mechanical scanning measuring systems with different driving actuators such as piezoelectric, linear motor, dc motor, and so on. The proposed fast raster and square spiral scan modes are realized in SAM, but not specially designed for it. Therefore, they have universal adaptability and can be applied to other scanning measurement systems with two-dimensional mechanical scanning stages, such as atomic force microscope or scanning tunneling microscope. PMID:22462966
Fast scanning mode and its realization in a scanning acoustic microscope
Ju Bingfeng; Bai Xiaolong; Chen Jian
2012-03-15
The scanning speed of the two-dimensional stage dominates the efficiency of mechanical scanning measurement systems. This paper focused on a detailed scanning time analysis of conventional raster and spiral scan modes and then proposed two fast alternative scanning modes. Performed on a self-developed scanning acoustic microscope (SAM), the measured images obtained by using the conventional scan mode and fast scan modes are compared. The total scanning time is reduced by 29% of the two proposed fast scan modes. It will offer a better solution for high speed scanning without sacrificing the system stability, and will not introduce additional difficulties to the configuration of scanning measurement systems. They can be easily applied to the mechanical scanning measuring systems with different driving actuators such as piezoelectric, linear motor, dc motor, and so on. The proposed fast raster and square spiral scan modes are realized in SAM, but not specially designed for it. Therefore, they have universal adaptability and can be applied to other scanning measurement systems with two-dimensional mechanical scanning stages, such as atomic force microscope or scanning tunneling microscope.
Belyaev, Mikhail A.; Rafikov, Roman R.; Stone, James M.
2013-06-10
The nature of angular momentum transport in the boundary layers of accretion disks has been one of the central and long-standing issues of accretion disk theory. In this work we demonstrate that acoustic waves excited by supersonic shear in the boundary layer serve as an efficient mechanism of mass, momentum, and energy transport at the interface between the disk and the accreting object. We develop the theory of angular momentum transport by acoustic modes in the boundary layer, and support our findings with three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations, using an isothermal equation of state. Our first major result is the identification of three types of global modes in the boundary layer. We derive dispersion relations for each of these modes that accurately capture the pattern speeds observed in simulations to within a few percent. Second, we show that angular momentum transport in the boundary layer is intrinsically nonlocal, and is driven by radiation of angular momentum away from the boundary layer into both the star and the disk. The picture of angular momentum transport in the boundary layer by waves that can travel large distances before dissipating and redistributing angular momentum and energy to the disk and star is incompatible with the conventional notion of local transport by turbulent stresses. Our results have important implications for semianalytical models that describe the spectral emission from boundary layers.
Particle velocity gradient based acoustic mode beamforming for short linear vector sensor arrays.
Gur, Berke
2014-06-01
In this paper, a subtractive beamforming algorithm for short linear arrays of two-dimensional particle velocity sensors is described. The proposed method extracts the highly directional acoustic modes from the spatial gradients of the particle velocity field measured at closely spaced sensors along the array. The number of sensors in the array limits the highest order of modes that can be extracted. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations indicate that the acoustic mode beamformer achieves directivity comparable to the maximum directivity that can be obtained with differential microphone arrays of equivalent aperture. When compared to conventional delay-and-sum beamformers for pressure sensor arrays, the proposed method achieves comparable directivity with 70%-85% shorter apertures. Moreover, the proposed method has additional capabilities such as high front-back (port-starboard) discrimination, frequency and steer direction independent response, and robustness to correlated ambient noise. Small inter-sensor spacing that results in very compact apertures makes the proposed beamformer suitable for space constrained applications such as hearing aids and short towed arrays for autonomous underwater platforms. PMID:24907810
Simulation study of high-frequency energetic particle driven geodesic acoustic mode
Wang, Hao Ido, Takeshi; Osakabe, Masaki; Todo, Yasushi
2015-09-15
High-frequency energetic particle driven geodesic acoustic modes (EGAM) observed in the large helical device plasmas are investigated using a hybrid simulation code for energetic particles and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Energetic particle inertia is incorporated in the MHD momentum equation for the simulation where the beam ion density is comparable to the bulk plasma density. Bump-on-tail type beam ion velocity distribution created by slowing down and charge exchange is considered. It is demonstrated that EGAMs have frequencies higher than the geodesic acoustic modes and the dependence on bulk plasma temperature is weak if (1) energetic particle density is comparable to the bulk plasma density and (2) charge exchange time (τ{sub cx}) is sufficiently shorter than the slowing down time (τ{sub s}) to create a bump-on-tail type distribution. The frequency of high-frequency EGAM rises as the energetic particle pressure increases under the condition of high energetic particle pressure. The frequency also increases as the energetic particle pitch angle distribution shifts to higher transit frequency. It is found that there are two kinds of particles resonant with EGAM: (1) trapped particles and (2) passing particles with transit frequency close to the mode frequency. The EGAMs investigated in this work are destabilized primarily by the passing particles whose transit frequencies are close to the EGAM frequency.
Ultrahigh Q Bulk Acoustic Wave Cavities at the Quantum Limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tobar, Michael; Goryachev, Maxim; Ivanov, Eugene; van Kann, Frank; Galliou, Serge
2015-03-01
A Fabry-Perot cavity is an optical resonator, which can store photons for milliseconds and enhance interaction between light and matter. The acoustics analogue (phonon trapping), is the Bulk Acoustic Wave device (in thin film or crystal lattice). Measurements provide the ultimate material loss regimes, minimizing clamping losses and achieving record high Q.f products, allowing observation of various loss mechanisms such as Landau-Rumer, phonon-phonon dissipation and Rayleigh phonon scattering, as well as previously non-observed non-linear effects. This presentation will summarize our recent work towards cooling such modes to the ground state and operating the device at the Quantum Limit. This includes the first measurements of the Nyquist noise near at 4K, as well as details on using such devices to test fundamental physics. Funded by ARC Grant No. CE110001013.
Numerical simulation of geodesic acoustic modes in a multi-ion system
Ye, Lei; Guo, Wenfeng; Xiao, Xiaotao; Wang, Shaojie
2013-07-15
Based on the semi-Lagrangian method, a δf drift kinetic continuum code incorporating magnetic flux coordinate was developed and applied to investigate the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) oscillation in a multi-ion plasma system. This work proves clearly that the effective ion mass number affects the GAM in a multi-ion system. In this simulation, GAM frequency and damping rate are seen to vary with the proportion of impurity ions. The numerical result is consistent with the theoretical prediction in terms of both frequency and damping rate.
TEMPEST Simulations of Collisionless Damping of Geodesic-Acoustic Mode in Edge Plasma Pedestal
Xu, X; Xiong, Z; Nevins, W; McKee, G
2007-05-31
The fully nonlinear 4D TEMPEST gyrokinetic continuum code produces frequency, collisionless damping of geodesic-acoustic mode (GAM) and zonal flow with fully nonlinear Boltzmann electrons for the inverse aspect ratio {epsilon}-scan and the tokamak safety factor q-scan in homogeneous plasmas. The TEMPEST simulation shows that GAM exists in edge plasma pedestal for steep density and temperature gradients, and an initial GAM relaxes to the standard neoclassical residual, rather than Rosenbluth-Hinton residual due to the presence of ion-ion collisions. The enhanced GAM damping explains experimental BES measurements on the edge q scaling of the GAM amplitude.
Tempest Simulations of Collisionless Damping of the Geodesic-Acoustic Mode in Edge-Plasma Pedestals
Xu, X. Q.; Xiong, Z.; Nevins, W. M.; Gao, Z.; McKee, G. R.
2008-05-30
The fully nonlinear (full-f) four-dimensional TEMPEST gyrokinetic continuum code correctly produces the frequency and collisionless damping of geodesic-acoustic modes (GAMs) and zonal flow, with fully nonlinear Boltzmann electrons for the inverse aspect ratio {epsilon} scan and the tokamak safety factor q scan in homogeneous plasmas. TEMPEST simulations show that the GAMs exist in the edge pedestal for steep density and temperature gradients in the form of outgoing waves. The enhanced GAM damping may explain experimental beam emission spectroscopy measurements on the edge q scaling of the GAM amplitude.
Tempest Simulations of Collisionless Damping of the Geodesic-Acoustic Mode in Edge-Plasma Pedestals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, X. Q.; Xiong, Z.; Gao, Z.; Nevins, W. M.; McKee, G. R.
2008-05-01
The fully nonlinear (full-f) four-dimensional TEMPEST gyrokinetic continuum code correctly produces the frequency and collisionless damping of geodesic-acoustic modes (GAMs) and zonal flow, with fully nonlinear Boltzmann electrons for the inverse aspect ratio γ scan and the tokamak safety factor q scan in homogeneous plasmas. TEMPEST simulations show that the GAMs exist in the edge pedestal for steep density and temperature gradients in the form of outgoing waves. The enhanced GAM damping may explain experimental beam emission spectroscopy measurements on the edge q scaling of the GAM amplitude.
Parsons, L. C. Andrews, G. T.
2014-07-21
Brillouin light scattering experiments and optical reflectance measurements were performed on a pair of porous silicon-based optical Bragg mirrors which had constituent layer porosity ratios close to unity. For off-axis propagation, the phononic and photonic band structures of the samples were modeled as a series of intersecting linear dispersion curves. Zone-folding was observed for the longitudinal bulk acoustic phonon and the frequency of the probed zone-folded longitudinal phonon was shown to be dependent on the propagation direction as well as the folding order of the mode branch. There was no conclusive evidence of coupling between the transverse and the folded longitudinal modes. Two additional observed Brillouin peaks were attributed to the Rayleigh surface mode and a possible pseudo-surface mode. Both of these modes were dispersive, with the velocity increasing as the wavevector decreased.
Backward propagating acoustic waves in single gold nanobeams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jean, Cyril; Belliard, Laurent; Becerra, Loïc; Perrin, Bernard
2015-11-01
Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy has been carried out on suspended gold nanostructures with a rectangular cross section lithographed on a silicon substrate. With a thickness fixed to 110 nm and a width ranging from 200 nm to 800 nm , size dependent measurements are used to distinguish which confined acoustic modes are detected. Furthermore, in order to avoid any ambiguity due to the measurement uncertainties on both the frequency and size, pump and probe beams are also spatially shifted to detect guided acoustic phonons. This leads us to the observation of backward propagating acoustic phonons in the gigahertz range ( ˜3 GHz ) in such nanostructures. While backward wave propagation in elastic waveguides has been predicted and already observed at the macroscale, very few studies have been done at the nanoscale. Here, we show that these backward waves can be used as the unique signature of the width dilatational acoustic mode.
Cavity-type hypersonic phononic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sato, A.; Pennec, Y.; Yanagishita, T.; Masuda, H.; Knoll, W.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.; Fytas, G.
2012-11-01
We report on the engineering of the phonon dispersion diagram in monodomain anodic porous alumina (APA) films through the porosity and physical state of the material residing in the nanopores. Lattice symmetry and inclusion materials are theoretically identified to be the main factors which control the hypersonic acoustic wave propagation. This involves the interaction between the longitudinal and the transverse modes in the effective medium and a flat band characteristic of the material residing in the cavities. Air and filled nanopores, therefore, display markedly different dispersion relations and the inclusion materials lead to a locally resonant structural behavior uniquely determining their properties under confinement. APA films emerge as a new platform to investigate the rich acoustic phenomena of structured composite matter.
Shalini, A.; Liu, Y.; Srivastava, G. P.; Hicken, R. J.; Katmis, F.; Braun, W.
2015-01-14
Femtosecond optical pump-probe measurements have been made upon epitaxial, polycrystalline, and amorphous thin films of Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (GST). A dominant coherent optical phonon mode of 3.4 THz frequency is observed in time-resolved anisotropic reflectance (AR) measurements of epitaxial films, and is inferred to have 3-dimensional T{sub 2}-like character based upon the dependence of its amplitude and phase on pump and probe polarization. In contrast, the polycrystalline and amorphous phases exhibit a comparatively weak mode of about 4.5 THz frequency in both reflectivity (R) and AR measurements. Raman microscope measurements confirm the presence of the modes observed in pump-probe measurements, and reveal additional modes. While the Raman spectra are qualitatively similar for all three phases of GST, the mode frequencies are found to be different within experimental error, ranging from 3.2 to 3.6 THz and 4.3 to 4.7 THz, indicating that the detailed crystallographic structure has a significant effect upon the phonon frequency. While the lower frequency (3.6 THz) mode of amorphous GST is most likely associated with GeTe{sub 4} tetrahedra, modes in epitaxial (3.4 THz) and polycrystalline (3.2 THz) GST could be associated with either GeTe{sub 6} octahedra or Sb-Te bonds within defective octahedra. The more polarizable Sb-Te bonds are the most likely origin of the higher frequency (4.3–4.7 THz) mode, although the influence of Te-Te bonds cannot be excluded. The effect of high pump fluence, which leads to irreversible structural changes, has been explored. New modes with frequency of 3.5/3.6 THz in polycrystalline/amorphous GST may be associated with Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} or GeTe{sub 4} tetrahedra, while a 4.2 THz mode observed in epitaxial GST may be related to segregation of Sb.
Investigation of a mercurous chloride acousto-optic cell based on longitudinal acoustic mode.
Gupta, Neelam
2009-03-01
A number of spectral imagers using acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs) operating from the UV to the longwave infrared (LWIR) using KDP, MgF(2), TeO(2), and Tl(3)AsSe(3) crystals to cover different spectral regions have been developed. In the LWIR there is a lack of high quality acousto-optic (AO) materials. Mercurous halide (Hg(2)Cl(2) and Hg(2)Br(2)) crystals are highly anisotropic with a high AO figure of merit due to slow acoustic velocities and high photoelastic constants and are transparent over a wide spectral region from 0.35 to 20 mum for Hg(2)Cl(2) and from 0.4 to 30 mum for Hg(2)Br(2). AO modulators, deflectors, and AOTFs based on these crystals can operate over a wide spectral range. Single crystals of these materials are being grown and some prototype devices have been fabricated. Results are presented from device characterization for an AO cell fabricated in Hg(2)Cl(2) based on longitudinal acoustic mode propagation. This device was very useful in demonstrating the AO interaction as well as soundness of the transducer bonding technique. Acoustic phase velocity is calculated and measured, diffraction efficiency is obtained from experiments, and the AO figure of merit of the sample is evaluated. PMID:19252608
Protein-modified shear mode film bulk acoustic resonator for bio-sensing applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jingjing; Liu, Weihui; Xu, Yan; Chen, Da; Li, Dehua; Zhang, Luyin
2014-09-01
In this paper, we present a shear mode film bulk acoustic biosensor based on micro-electromechanical technology. The film bulk acoustic biosensor is a diaphragmatic structure consisting of a lateral field excited ZnO piezoelectric film piezoelectric stack built on an Si3N4 membrane. The device works at near 1.6 GHz with Q factors of 579 in water and 428 in glycerol. A frequency shift of 5.4 MHz and a small decline in the amplitude are found for the measurements in glycerol compared with those in water because of the viscous damping derived from the adjacent glycerol. For bio-sensing demonstration, the resonator was modified with biotin molecule to detect protein-ligand interactions in real-time and in situ. The resonant frequency of the biotin-modified device drops rapidly and gradually reaches equilibrium when exposed to the streptavidin solution due to the biotin-streptavidin interaction. The proposed film bulk acoustic biosensor shows promising applications for disease diagnostics, prognosis, and drug discovery.
On the contribution of sunspots to the observed frequency shifts of solar acoustic modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santos, A. R. G.; Cunha, M. S.; Avelino, P. P.; Chaplin, W. J.; Campante, T. L.
2016-06-01
Activity-related variations in the solar oscillation properties have been known for 30 years. However, the relative importance of the different contributions to the observed variations is not yet fully understood. Our goal is to estimate the relative contribution from sunspots to the observed activity-related variations in the frequencies of the acoustic modes. We use a variational principle to relate the phase differences induced by sunspots on the acoustic waves to the corresponding changes in the frequencies of the global acoustic oscillations. From the sunspot properties (area and latitude as a function of time), we are able to estimate the spot-induced frequency shifts. These are then combined with a smooth frequency shift component, associated with long-term solar-cycle variations, and the results compared with the frequency shifts derived from the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) data. The result of this comparison is consistent with a sunspot contribution to the observed frequency shifts of roughly 30%, with the remaining 70% resulting mostly from a global, non-stochastic variation, possibly related to the changes in the overall magnetic field. Moreover, analysis of the residuals obtained after the subtraction of the model frequency shifts from the observations indicates the presence of a 1.5-yr periodicity in the data in phase with the quasi-biennial variations reported in the literature.
On the contribution of sunspots to the observed frequency shifts of solar acoustic modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santos, A. R. G.; Cunha, M. S.; Avelino, P. P.; Chaplin, W. J.; Campante, T. L.
2016-09-01
Activity-related variations in the solar oscillation properties have been known for 30 years. However, the relative importance of the different contributions to the observed variations is not yet fully understood. Our goal is to estimate the relative contribution from sunspots to the observed activity-related variations in the frequencies of the acoustic modes. We use a variational principle to relate the phase differences induced by sunspots on the acoustic waves to the corresponding changes in the frequencies of the global acoustic oscillations. From the sunspot properties (area and latitude as a function of time), we are able to estimate the spot-induced frequency shifts. These are then combined with a smooth frequency shift component, associated with long-term solar-cycle variations, and the results compared with the frequency shifts derived from the Global Oscillation Network Group data. The result of this comparison is consistent with a sunspot contribution to the observed frequency shifts of roughly 30 per cent, with the remaining 70 per cent resulting mostly from a global, non-stochastic variation, possibly related to the changes in the overall magnetic field. Moreover, analysis of the residuals obtained after the subtraction of the model frequency shifts from the observations indicates the presence of a 1.5-yr periodicity in the data in phase with the quasi-biennial variations reported in the literature.
Acoustic performance of inlet suppressors on an engine generating a single mode
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heidelberg, L. J.; Rice, E. J.; Homyak, L.
1981-01-01
Three single degree of freedom liners with different open area ratio face sheets were designed for a single spinning mode in order to evaluate an inlet suppressor design method based on mode cutoff ratio. This mode was generated by placing 41 rods in front of the 28 blade fan of a JT15D turbofan engine. At the liner design this near cutoff mode has a theoretical maximum attenuation of nearly 200 dB per L/D. The data show even higher attenuations at the design condition than predicted by the theory for dissipation of a single mode within the liner. This additional attenuation is large for high open area ratios and should be accounted for in the theory. The data show the additional attenuation to be inversely proportional to acoustic resistance. It was thought that the additional attenuation could be caused by reflection and modal scattering at the hard to soft wall interface. A reflection model was developed, and then modified to fit the data. This model was checked against independent (multiple pure tone) data with good agreement.
Heavy-impurity resonance, hybridization, and phonon spectral functions in Fe1-xMxSi, M=Ir,Os
Delaire, O.; Al-Qasir, Iyad I.; May, Andrew F.; Sales, Brian C.; Niedziela, Jennifer L.; Ma, Jie; Matsuda, Masaaki; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Berlijn, Tom
2015-03-31
The vibrational behavior of heavy substitutional impurities (M=Ir,Os) in Fe1-xMxSi (x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.1) was investigated with a combination of inelastic neutron scattering (INS), transport measurements, and first-principles simulations. In this paper, our INS measurements on single-crystals mapped the four-dimensional dynamical structure factor, S(Q;E), for several compositions and temperatures. Our results show that both Ir and Os impurities lead to the formation of a weakly dispersive resonance vibrational mode, in the energy range of the acoustic phonon dispersions of the FeSi host. We also show that Ir doping, which introduces free carriers and increases electron-phonon coupling, leads tomore » softened interatomic force-constants compared to doping with Os, which is isoelectronic to Fe. We analyze the phonon S(Q,E) from INS through a Green's function model incorporating the phonon self-energy based on first-principles density functional theory (DFT) simulations. Calculations of the quasiparticle spectral functions in the doped system reveal the hybridization between the resonance and the acoustic phonon modes. Finally, our results demonstrate a strong interaction of the host acoustic dispersions with the resonance mode, likely leading to the large observed suppression in lattice thermal conductivity.« less
Heavy-impurity resonance, hybridization, and phonon spectral functions in Fe 1 x M x Si (M= Ir, Os)
Delaire, O.; Al-Qasir, Iyad I.; May, Andrew F.; Sales, Brian C.; Niedziela, Jennifer L.; Ma, Jie; Matsuda, Masaaki; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Berlijn, Tom
2015-03-31
The vibrational behavior of heavy substitutional impurities (M=Ir,Os) in Fe1xMxSi (x = 0; 0:02; 0:04; 0:1) was investigated with a combination of inelastic neutron scattering (INS), transport measurements, and rst-principles simulations. Our INS measurements on single-crystals mapped the four-dimensional dynamical structure factor, S(Q;E), for several compositions and temperatures. Our results show that both Ir and Os impurities lead to the formation of a weakly dispersive resonance vibrational mode, in the energy range of the acoustic phonon dispersions of the FeSi host. We also show that Ir doping, which introduces free carriers and increases electron-phonon coupling, leads to softened interatomic force-constantsmore » compared to doping with Os, which is isoelectronic to Fe. We analyze the phonon S(Q;E) from INS through a Green's function model incorporating the phonon self-energy based on rst-principles density functional theory (DFT) simulations. Calculations of the quasiparticle spectral functions in the doped system reveal the hybridization between the resonance and the acoustic phonon modes. Our results demonstrate a strong interaction of the host acoustic dispersions with the resonance mode, likely leading to the large observed suppression in lattice thermal conductivity.« less
Frequency Response of the Sample Vibration Mode in Scanning Probe Acoustic Microscope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Ya-Jun; Cheng, Qian; Qian, Meng-Lu
2010-05-01
Based on the interaction mechanism between tip and sample in the contact mode of a scanning probe acoustic microscope (SPAM), an active mass of the sample is introduced in the mass-spring model. The tip motion and frequency response of the sample vibration mode in the SPAM are calculated by the Lagrange equation with dissipation function. For the silicon tip and glass assemblage in the SPAM the frequency response is simulated and it is in agreement with the experimental result. The living myoblast cells on the glass slide are imaged at resonance frequencies of the SPAM system, which are 20kHz, 30kHz and 120kHz. It is shown that good contrast of SPAM images could be obtained when the system is operated at the resonance frequencies of the system in high and low-frequency regions.
Spinning mode sound propagation in ducts with acoustic treatment and sheared flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rice, E. J.
1975-01-01
The propagation of spinning mode sound was considered for a cylindrical duct with sheared steady flow. Calculations concentrated on the determination of the wall optimum acoustic impedance and the maximum possible attenuation. Both the least attenuated and higher radial modes for spinning lobe patterns were considered. A parametric study was conducted over a wide range of Mach numbers, spinning lobe numbers, sound frequency, and boundary layer thickness. A correlation equation was developed from theoretical considerations starting with the thin boundary layer approximation of Eversman. This correlation agrees well with the more exact calculations for inlets and provides a single boundary layer refraction parameter which determines the change in optimum wall impedance due to refraction effects.
Acoustic properties of multiple cavity resonance liner for absorbing higher-order duct modes.
Zhou, Di; Wang, Xiaoyu; Jing, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiaofeng
2016-08-01
This paper describes analytical and experimental studies conducted to investigate the acoustic properties of axially non-uniform multiple cavity resonance liner for absorbing higher-order duct modes. A three-dimensional analytical model is proposed based upon transfer element method. The model is assessed by making a comparison with results of a liner performance experiment concerning higher-order modes propagation, and the agreement is good. According to the present results, it is found that the performance of multiple cavity resonance liner is related to the incident sound waves. Moreover, an analysis of the corresponding response of liner perforated panel-cavity system is performed, in which the features of resonance frequency and dissipation of the system under grazing or oblique incidence condition are revealed. The conclusions can be extended to typical non-locally reacting liners with single large back-cavity, and it would be beneficial for future non-locally reacting liner design to some extent. PMID:27586753
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prasad, C. B.; Mei, Chuh
1987-01-01
Multiple-mode nonlinear analysis is carried out for beams subjected to acoustic excitation. Effects of both nonlinear damping and large-deflection are included in the analysis in an attempt to explain the experimental phenomena of aircraft panels excited at high sound pressure levels; that is the broadening of the strain response peaks and the increase of modal frequency. An amplitude dependent nonlinear damping model is used in the anlaysis to study the effects and interactions of multiple modes, nonlinear stiffness and nonlinear damping on the random response of beams. Mean square maximum deflection, mean square maximum strain, and spectral density function of maximum strain for simple supported and clamped beams are obtained. It is shown analytically that nonlinear damping contributes significantly to the broadening of the response peak and to the mean square deflection and strain.
Integrated high-temperature piezoelectric plate acoustic wave transducers using mode conversion.
Wu, Kuo-Ting; Kobayashi, Makiko; Jen, Cheng-Kuei
2009-06-01
Piezoelectric thick (>66 microm) films have been directly coated onto aluminum (Al) substrates using a sol-gel spray technique. With top electrode, these films serve as integrated ultrasonic transducers (IUT), which normally operate as thickness longitudinal wave transducers. When such IUT are located at the edges of the metallic plates, they can excite and detect symmetrical, antisymmetric and shear horizontal types of plate acoustic waves (PAW) using mode conversion methods. In 2 mm thick Al plates, 2 line defects of 1 mm width and 1 mm depth were clearly detected at temperatures up to 150 degrees C in pulse-echo mode. Results indicated that, for 2 mm thick aluminum plates, shear horizontal PAW were the best for the line defect detection. Also, the experimental results agree well with those obtained by a finite-difference-based method. PMID:19574129
Spontaneous excitation of geodesic acoustic mode by toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiu, Zhiyong; Chen, Liu; Zonca, Fulvio
2013-02-01
Spontaneous nonlinear excitation of geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) by toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAE) is studied within the framework of gyrokinetic theory. The dispersion relation for the parametric decays of a pump TAE mode into a TAE lower sideband and a GAM is derived. It is shown that, in the ideal MHD first stability region, the condition for spontaneous excitation of GAM by TAEs is ω20 > V2A/(4q2R20), in which, ω0 is the pump TAE real frequency, V A is the Alfvén speed, q is the safety factor and R0 is the torus major radius. The corresponding threshold condition is also derived and suggests the decay process as an effective saturation mechanism for TAE.
VizieR Online Data Catalog: Solar acoustic modes in period 1996-2014 (Salabert+, 2015)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salabert, D.; Garcia, R. A.; Turck-Chieze, S.
2015-03-01
The central frequencies of the l = 0, 1, 2, and 3 acoustic modes of oscillations of the Sun between 1500{micro}Hz and 4000{micro}Hz and their associated formal 1σ uncertainties extracted from 365-day subseries of 18 years of the space-based, Sun-as-a-star GOLF/SoHO observations between 1996 April 11, and 2014 March 5 are presented. As a four-time overlap of 91.25 days was used, a total of 69 frequency tables are provided. We note that one of every four frequency tables contains frequencies extracted from independent subseries. Quality criteria were defined based on the fitted mode parameters and their associated uncertainties in order to remove outliers. An info file containing the associated starting date and duty cycle of each 365-day subseries is also provided. The corresponding mean 10.7cm radio flux is also given in the info file. (2 data files).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Principi, Alessandro; Carrega, Matteo; Lundeberg, Mark B.; Woessner, Achim; Koppens, Frank H. L.; Vignale, Giovanni; Polini, Marco
2014-10-01
Graphene sheets encapsulated between hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) slabs display superb electronic properties due to very limited scattering from extrinsic disorder sources such as Coulomb impurities and corrugations. Such samples are therefore expected to be ideal platforms for highly tunable low-loss plasmonics in a wide spectral range. In this article we present a theory of collective electron density oscillations in a graphene sheet encapsulated between two hBN semi-infinite slabs (hBN/G/hBN). Graphene plasmons hybridize with hBN optical phonons forming hybrid plasmon-phonon modes. We focus on scattering of these modes against graphene's acoustic phonons and hBN optical phonons, two sources of scattering that are expected to play a key role in hBN/G/hBN stacks. We find that at room temperature the scattering against graphene's acoustic phonons is the dominant limiting factor for hBN/G/hBN stacks, yielding theoretical inverse damping ratios of hybrid plasmon-phonon modes of the order of 50-60, with a weak dependence on carrier density and a strong dependence on illumination frequency. We confirm that the plasmon lifetime is not directly correlated with the mobility: In fact, it can be anticorrelated.
Hybridized Mode of Phonon and Spin-Cluster Excitation in Quasi-One-Dimensional Magnet CoNb 2O 6
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kunimoto, Takashi; Sato, Masayuki; Nagasaka, Keigo; Kohn, Kay
1999-04-01
Transmission measurements of far-infrared (FIR) polarized radiation have been performed in CoNb2O6 single crystal. We have observed an absorption line at 9.7 cm-1 with a broad band from 9 to 25 cm-1 which should be attributed to the phonon of the lowest frequency below 30 cm-1 from the lattice dynamical analysis. As the temperature is decreased below 20 K and also as the magnetic field is applied up to 6 T, the absorption line with the band was intensively studied in magnetic fields as well as the various temperatures by using polarized FIR radiation field E parallel to the b- and c-axis. From the study, the band is attributed to the spin-cluster excitation (SCE) in the Ising-like chain. On the other hand, the absorption line also exhibits the variation as similar as SCE in magnetic fields. It concludes that the absorption line at 9.7 cm-1 is the hybridized mode of the B 3u mode of the phonon of the lowest frequency and SCE.
Temperature Dependence of Band Gaps in Semiconductors: Electron-Phonon Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhosale, J. S.; Ramdas, A. K.; Burger, A.; Muñoz, A.; Romero, A. H.; Cardona, M.; Lauck, R.; Kremer, R. K.
2013-03-01
A theoretical investigation with ab initio techniques of the electron-phonon interaction of semiconductors with chalcopyrite structure and its comparison with modulated reflectivity experiments yield a striking difference between those with (AgGaS2) and without (ZnSnAs2) d electrons in their valence bands. The former exhibit a non-monotonic temperature dependence of the band gaps whose origin is not yet fully understood. The analysis of this temperature dependence with the Bose-Einstein oscillator model[1] involving two oscillator terms having weights of opposite signs, provides an excellent agreement with the experimental data and correlates well with the characteristic peaks in the phonon density of states associated with the acoustical phonon modes. This work underscores the need for theoretical understanding of the electron-phonon interaction involving d electrons, particularly in ab initio investigations.
Sound and heat revolutions in phononics.
Maldovan, Martin
2013-11-14
The phonon is the physical particle representing mechanical vibration and is responsible for the transmission of everyday sound and heat. Understanding and controlling the phononic properties of materials provides opportunities to thermally insulate buildings, reduce environmental noise, transform waste heat into electricity and develop earthquake protection. Here I review recent progress and the development of new ideas and devices that make use of phononic properties to control both sound and heat. Advances in sonic and thermal diodes, optomechanical crystals, acoustic and thermal cloaking, hypersonic phononic crystals, thermoelectrics, and thermocrystals herald the next technological revolution in phononics. PMID:24226887
Sound and heat revolutions in phononics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maldovan, Martin
2013-11-01
The phonon is the physical particle representing mechanical vibration and is responsible for the transmission of everyday sound and heat. Understanding and controlling the phononic properties of materials provides opportunities to thermally insulate buildings, reduce environmental noise, transform waste heat into electricity and develop earthquake protection. Here I review recent progress and the development of new ideas and devices that make use of phononic properties to control both sound and heat. Advances in sonic and thermal diodes, optomechanical crystals, acoustic and thermal cloaking, hypersonic phononic crystals, thermoelectrics, and thermocrystals herald the next technological revolution in phononics.
Phonon analog of topological nodal semimetals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Po, Hoi Chun; Bahri, Yasaman; Vishwanath, Ashvin
2016-05-01
Topological band structures in electronic systems like topological insulators and semimetals give rise to highly unusual physical properties. Analogous topological effects have also been discussed in bosonic systems, but the novel phenomena typically occur only when the system is excited by finite-frequency probes. A mapping recently proposed by C. L. Kane and T. C. Lubensky [Nat. Phys. 10, 39 (2014), 10.1038/nphys2835], however, establishes a closer correspondence. It relates the zero-frequency excitations of mechanical systems to topological zero modes of fermions that appear at the edges of an otherwise gapped system. Here we generalize the mapping to systems with an intrinsically gapless bulk. In particular, we construct mechanical counterparts of topological semimetals. The resulting gapless bulk modes are physically distinct from the usual acoustic Goldstone phonons and appear even in the absence of continuous translation invariance. Moreover, the zero-frequency phonon modes feature adjustable momenta and are topologically protected as long as the lattice coordination is unchanged. Such protected soft modes with tunable wave vector may be useful in designing mechanical structures with fault-tolerant properties.
Wang, G.; Peebles, W. A.; Rhodes, T. L.; Doyle, E. J.; Hillesheim, J. C.; Schmitz, L.; Zeng, L.; Austin, M. E.; Yan, Z.; McKee, G. R.; La Haye, R. J.; Burrell, K. H.; Lanctot, M. J.; Petty, C. C.; Smith, S.; Strait, E. J.; Van Zeeland, M.; Nazikian, R.
2013-09-15
The geodesic acoustic mode (GAM), a coherent form of the zonal flow, plays a critical role in turbulence regulation and cross-magnetic-field transport. In the DIII-D tokamak, unique information on multi-field characteristics and radial structure of eigenmode GAMs has been measured. Two simultaneous and distinct, radially overlapping eigenmode GAMs (i.e., constant frequency vs. radius) have been observed in the poloidal E×B flow in L-mode plasmas. As the plasma transitions from an L-mode to an Ohmic regime, one of these eigenmode GAMs becomes a continuum GAM (frequency responds to local parameters), while the second decays below the noise level. The eigenmode GAMs occupy a radial range of ρ = 0.6–0.8 and 0.75–0.95, respectively. In addition, oscillations at the GAM frequency are observed for the first time in multiple plasma parameters, including n{sub e}, T{sub e}, and B{sub θ}. The magnitude of T(tilde sign){sub e}/T{sub e} at the GAM frequency (the magnitude is similar to that of ñ{sub e}/n{sub e}) and measured n{sub e}–T{sub e} cross-phase (∼140° at the GAM frequency) together indicate that the GAM pressure perturbation is not determined solely by ñ{sub e}. The magnetic GAM behavior, a feature only rarely reported, is significantly stronger (×18) on the high-field side of the tokamak, suggesting an anti-ballooning nature. Finally, the GAM is also observed to directly modify intermediate-wavenumber ñ{sub e} levels (kρ{sub s} ∼ 1.1). The simultaneous temperature, density, flow fluctuations, density-temperature cross-phase, and magnetic behavior present a new perspective on the underlying physics of the GAM.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perrin, Bernard
2007-06-01
The conference PHONONS 2007 was held 15-20 July 2007 in the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers (CNAM) Paris, France. CNAM is a college of higher technology for training students in the application of science to industry, founded by Henri Grégoire in 1794. This was the 12th International Conference on Phonon Scattering in Condensed Matter. This international conference series, held every 3 years, started in France at Sainte-Maxime in 1972. It was then followed by meetings at Nottingham (1975), Providence (1979), Stuttgart (1983), Urbana-Champaign (1986), Heidelberg (1989), Ithaca (1992), Sapporo (1995), Lancaster (1998), Dartmouth (2001) and St Petersburg (2004). PHONONS 2007 was attended by 346 delegates from 37 different countries as follows: France 120, Japan 45, Germany 25, USA 25, Russia 21, Italy 13, Poland 9, UK 9, Canada 7, The Netherlands 7, Finland 6, Spain 6, Taiwan 6, Greece 4, India 4, Israel 4, Ukraine 4, Serbia 3, South Africa 3, Argentina 2, Belgium 2, China 2, Iran 2, Korea 2, Romania 2, Switzerland 2, and one each from Belarus, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Egypt, Estonia, Mexico, Moldova, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Turkey. There were 5 plenary lectures, 14 invited talks and 84 oral contributions; 225 posters were presented during three poster sessions. The first plenary lecture was given by H J Maris who presented fascinating movies featuring the motion of a single electron in liquid helium. Robert Blick gave us a review on the new possibilities afforded by nanotechnology to design nano-electomechanical systems (NEMS) and the way to use them to study elementary and fundamental processes. The growing interest for phonon transport studies in nanostructured materials was demonstrated by Arun Majumdar. Andrey Akimov described how ultrafast acoustic solitons can monitor the optical properties of quantum wells. Finally, Maurice Chapellier told us how
ZUDOV,M.A.; PONOMAREV,I.V.; EFROS,A.L.; DU,R.R.; SIMMONS,JERRY A.; RENO,JOHN L.
2000-05-11
The authors report a new type of oscillations in magnetoresistance observed in high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG), in GaAs-AIGaAs heterostructures. Being periodic in 1/B these oscillations appear in weak magnetic field (B < 0.3 T) and only in a narrow temperature range (3 K < T < 7 K). Remarkably, these oscillations can be understood in terms of magneto-phonon resonance originating from the interaction of 2DEG and leaky interface-acoustic phonon modes. The existence of such modes on the GaAs:AIGaAs interface is demonstrated theoretically and their velocities are calculated. It is shown that the electron-phonon scattering matrix element exhibits a peak for the phonons carrying momentum q = 2k{sub F} (k{sub F} is the Fermi wave-vector of 2DEG).
Inelastic x-ray scattering measurements of phonon dispersion and lifetimes in PbTe1-x Se x alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Zhiting; Li, Mingda; Ren, Zhensong; Ma, Hao; Alatas, Ahmet; Wilson, Stephen D.; Li, Ju
2015-09-01
PbTe1-x Se x alloys are of special interest to thermoelectric applications. Inelastic x-ray scattering determination of phonon dispersion and lifetimes along the high symmetry directions for PbTe1-x Se x alloys are presented. By comparing with calculated results based on the virtual crystal model calculations combined with ab initio density functional theory, the validity of virtual crystal model is evaluated. The results indicate that the virtual crystal model is overall a good assumption for phonon frequencies and group velocities despite the softening of transverse acoustic phonon modes along [1 1 1] direction, while the treatment of lifetimes warrants caution. In addition, phonons remain a good description of vibrational modes in PbTe1-x Se x alloys.
Energy trapping of thickness-extensional modes in thin film bulk acoustic wave filters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Zinan; Qian, Zhenghua; Wang, Bin
2016-01-01
This paper presents the thickness-extensional vibration of a rectangular piezoelectric thin film bulk acoustic wave filter with two pairs of electrodes symmetrically deposited on the center of the zinc oxide film. The two-dimensional scalar differential equations which were first derived to describe in-plane vibration distribution by Tiersten and Stevens are employed. The Ritz method with trigonometric functions as basis functions is used based on a variational formulation developed in our previous paper. Free vibration resonant frequencies and corresponding modes are obtained. The modes may separate into symmetric and antisymmetric ones for such a structurally symmetric filter. Trapped modes with vibrations mainly under the driving electrodes are exhibited. The six corner-type regions of the filter neglected by Tiersten and Stevens for an approximation are taken into account in our analysis. Results show that their approximation can lead to an inaccuracy on the order of dozens of ppm for the fundamental mode, which is quite significant in filter operation and application.
Xu, Yuehua; Dai, Jun; Zeng, Xiao Cheng
2016-01-21
The intrinsic acoustic-phonon-limited carrier mobility (μ) of Al2C monolayer sheet and nanoribbons are investigated using ab initio computation and deformation potential theory. It is found that the polarity of the room-temperature carrier mobility of the Al2C monolayer is direction-dependent, with μ of electron (e) and hole (h) being 2348 and 40.77 cm(2)/V/s, respectively, in the armchair direction and 59.95 (e) and 705.8 (h) in the zigzag direction. More interestingly, one-dimensional Al2C nanoribbons not only can retain the direction-dependent polarity but also may entail even higher mobility, in contrast to either the graphene nanoribbons which tend to exhibit lower μ compared to the two-dimensional graphene or the MoS2 nanoribbons which have reversed polarity compared to the MoS2 sheet. As an example, the Al-terminated zigzag nanoribbon with a width of 4.1 nm exhibits μ of 212.6 (e) and 2087 (h) cm(2)/V/s, while the C-terminated armchair nanoribbon with a width 2.6 nm exhibits μ of 1090 (e) and 673.9 (h) cm(2)/V/s; the C-terminated zigzag nanoribbon with a width 3.7 nm exhibits μ of 177.6 (e) and 1889 (h) cm(2)/V/s, and the Al-terminated armchair nanoribbon with a width 2.4 nm exhibits μ of 6695 (e) and 518.4 (h) cm(2)/V/s. The high carrier mobility, μ, coupled with polarity and direction dependence endows the Al2C sheet and nanoribbons with unique transport properties that can be exploited for special applications in nanoelectronics. PMID:26722716
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hardi, J. S.; Oschwald, M.
2016-07-01
The intact length of the dense oxygen core from an oxygen-hydrogen shear coaxial rocket injector was measured. The measurements were made in a rectangular rocket combustor with optical access and acoustic forcing. The combustor was operated at chamber pressures of 40 and 60 bar, with either ambient temperature or cryogenic hydrogen. The multielement injection spray is subjected to forced transverse gas oscillations of two different acoustic resonance modes; the first transverse (1T) mode at 4200 Hz and the first combined longitudinal-transverse (1L1T) at 5500 Hz. Intact core length is measured from high-speed shadowgraph imaging. The dependence of intact core length with increasing acoustic amplitude is compared for the two modes of excitation.
Lan, Tian; Li, Chen W.; Hellman, O.; Kim, D. S.; Muñoz, Jorge A.; Smith, Hillary; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Fultz, B.
2015-08-11
Although the rutile structure of TiO_{2} is stable at high temperatures, the conventional quasiharmonic approximation predicts that several acoustic phonons decrease anomalously to zero frequency with thermal expansion, incorrectly predicting a structural collapse at temperatures well below 1000 K. In this paper, inelastic neutron scattering was used to measure the temperature dependence of the phonon density of states (DOS) of rutile TiO_{2} from 300 to 1373 K. Surprisingly, these anomalous acoustic phonons were found to increase in frequency with temperature. First-principles calculations showed that with lattice expansion, the potentials for the anomalous acoustic phonons transform from quadratic to quartic, stabilizing the rutile phase at high temperatures. In these modes, the vibrational displacements of adjacent Ti and O atoms cause variations in hybridization of 3d electrons of Ti and 2p electrons of O atoms. Finally, with thermal expansion, the energy variation in this “phonon-tracked hybridization” flattens the bottom of the interatomic potential well between Ti and O atoms, and induces a quarticity in the phonon potential.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huewe, Florian; Steeger, Alexander; Bauer, Irene; Doerrich, Steffen; Strohriegl, Peter; Pflaum, Jens
2015-10-01
We present a dynamical study on the nonlinear conduction behavior in the commensurate charge-density-wave phase of the quasi-one-dimensional conductor DCNQI2Cu below 75 K. We can accurately simulate magnitude and time dependence of the measured conductivity in response to large voltage pulses by accounting for the energy exchange between the phononic and electronic subsystems by means of an electrothermal model. Our simulations reveal a distinct nonequilibrium population of optical phonon states with an average energy of Eph¯=19 meV, being half the activation energy of about Δ Ea=39 meV observed in dc resistivity measurements. By inelastic scattering, this hot optical phonon bath generates additional charge-carrying excitations, thus providing a multiplication effect while energy transferred to the acoustic phonons is dissipated out of the system via heat conduction. Therefore, in high electric fields a preferred interaction of charge-carrying excitations with optical phonons compared to acoustic phonon modes is considered to be responsible for the nonlinear conduction effects observed in DCNQI2Cu .
Conde, L.
2006-03-15
The large wavenumber suppression of unstable modes by space charge effects of the ionization instability in a weakly ionized and unmagnetized dusty plasma is investigated. The charge losses in the initial equilibrium state are balanced by electron impact ionizations originated by both the thermal electron populations and an additional monoenergetic electron beam. The multifluid dimensionless equations are deduced by using the time and length scales for elastic collisions between ions and neutral atoms and the Poisson equation relates the plasma potential fluctuations with charged particle densities instead of the quasineutral approximation. A general dimensionless dispersion relation is obtained from the linearized transport equations, where the ratios between the characteristic velocities, as the dust ion acoustic (IA), dust acoustic (DA), ion sound, and thermal speeds permits us to evaluate the weight of the different terms. In the long wavelength limit the results obtained using the quasineutral approximation are recovered. The differences found between roots of both dispersion equations are discussed, as well as those of previous models. The unstable mode of the linear ionization instability is originated by the imbalance between ion and electron densities in the rest state caused by the negative charging of dust grains. Contrary to dust free plasmas, the unstable mode exists, even in the absence of the ionizing electron beam. The numerical calculations of the roots of the full dispersion equation present a maximum unstable wavenumber not predicted by the quasineutral approximation, which is related with the minimum allowed length for space charge fluctuations within a fluid model. This upper limit of unstable wave numbers hinders the predicted resonant coupling in the long wavenumber regime between the DA and DIA waves.
Vasin, A. S.; Vikhrova, O. V.; Vasilevskiy, M. I.
2014-04-14
Confinement and alloy disorder effects on the lattice dynamics and Raman scattering in Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} nanocrystals (NCs) are investigated numerically employing two different empirical inter-atomic potentials. Relaxed NCs of different compositions (x) were built using the Molecular Dynamics method and applying rigid boundary conditions mimicking the effect of surrounding matrix. The resulting variation of bond lengths with x was checked against Vegard's law and the NC phonon modes were calculated using the same inter-atomic potential. The localization of the principal Raman-active (Si-Si, Si-Ge, and Ge-Ge) modes is investigated by analysing representative eigenvectors and their inverse participation ratio. The dependence of the position and intensity of these modes upon x and NC size is presented and compared to previous calculated results and available experimental data. In particular, it is argued that the composition dependence of the intensity of the Si-Ge and Ge-Ge modes does not follow the fraction of the corresponding nearest-neighbour bonds as it was suggested by some authors. Possible effects of alloy segregation are considered by comparing the calculated properties of random and clustered Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1−x} NCs. It is found that the Si-Si mode and Ge-Ge mode are enhanced and blue-shifted (by several cm{sup −1}for the Si-Si mode), while the intensity of the Si-Ge Raman mode is strongly suppressed by clustering.
Fesenyuk, O. P.; Kolesnichenko, Ya. I.; Yakovenko, Yu. V.; National University of Kyiv Mohyla Academy, Vul. Skovorody 2, Kyiv 04070
2013-12-15
This work generalizes recent results [O. P. Fesenyuk et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 085014 (2012)] to plasmas with elongated cross section. It suggests new expressions for the frequencies of the geodesic acoustic mode and Alfvén gap modes in tokamaks, with a large ratio of the plasma pressure to the magnetic field pressure and a large safety factor (q≫1, which takes place in discharges with reversed-shear configuration and, especially, in hollow-current discharges)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
The acoustics research activities of the DLR fluid-mechanics department (Forschungsbereich Stroemungsmechanik) during 1988 are surveyed and illustrated with extensive diagrams, drawings, graphs, and photographs. Particular attention is given to studies of helicopter rotor noise (high-speed impulsive noise, blade/vortex interaction noise, and main/tail-rotor interaction noise), propeller noise (temperature, angle-of-attack, and nonuniform-flow effects), noise certification, and industrial acoustics (road-vehicle flow noise and airport noise-control installations).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yankin, S.; Talbi, A.; Du, Y.; Gerbedoen, J.-C.; Preobrazhensky, V.; Pernod, P.; Bou Matar, O.
2014-06-01
We study both theoretically and experimentally the interaction of surface elastic waves with 2D surface phononic crystal (PnC) on a piezoelectric substrate. A rigorous analysis based on 3D finite element method is conducted to calculate the band structure of the PnC and to analyze the transmission spectrum (module and phase). Interdigital transducers (IDTs) are considered for electrical excitation and detection, and absorbing boundary conditions are used to suppress wave's reflection from the edges. The PnCs are composed of an array of 20 Nickel cylindrical pillars arranged in a square lattice symmetry, and deposited on a LiNbO3 substrate (128°Y cut-X propagating) between two dispersive IDTs. We investigate by means of band diagrams and transmission spectrum the opening band-gaps originating from pillars resonant modes and from Bragg band-gap. The physical parameters that influence and determine their appearance are also discussed. Experimental validation is achieved through electrical measurement of the transmission characteristics, including amplitude and phase.
Ultrasonic and hypersonic phononic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khelif, A.; Hsiao, F.-L.; Benchabane, S.; Choujaa, A.; Aoubiza, B.; Laude, V.
2008-02-01
We report on the experimental and theoretical investigation two kinds of acoustic waves in two dimensional phononic crystal: bulk acoustic waves and surface acoustic waves. For bulk acoustic waves, the work focuses on the experimental observation of full acoustic band gaps in a two-dimensional lattice of steel cylinders immersed in water as well as deaf bands that cause strong attenuation in the transmission for honeycomb and triangular lattices. For surface acoustic waves, complete acoustic band gaps found experimentally in a two-dimensional square-lattice piezoelectric phononic crystal etched in lithium niobate will be presented. Propagation in the phononic crystal is studied by direct generation and detection of surface waves using interdigital transducers. The complete band gap extends from 203 to 226 MHz, in good agreement with theoretical predictions. Near the upper edge of the complete band gap, it is observed that radiation to the bulk of the substrate dominates. This observation is explained by introducing the concept of sound line.
Zhang, Wending; Huang, Ligang; Wei, Keyan; Li, Peng; Jiang, Biqiang; Mao, Dong; Gao, Feng; Mei, Ting; Zhang, Guoquan; Zhao, Jianlin
2016-05-16
Theoretical analysis and experimental demonstration are presented for the generation of cylindrical vector beams (CVBs) via mode conversion in fiber from HE_{11} mode to TM_{01} and TE_{01} modes, which have radial and azimuthal polarizations, respectively. Intermodal coupling is caused by an acoustic flexural wave applied on the fiber, whereas polarization control is necessary for the mode conversion, i.e. HE11x→TM_{01} and HE11y→TE_{01} for acoustic vibration along the x-axis. The frequency of the RF driving signal for actuating the acoustic wave is determined by the phase matching condition that the period of acoustic wave equals the beatlength of two coupled modes. With phase matching condition tunability, this approach can be used to generate different types of CVBs at the same wavelength over a broadband. Experimental demonstration was done in the visible and communication bands. PMID:27409861
Kabuss, Julia; Carmele, Alexander; Brandes, Tobias; Knorr, Andreas
2012-08-01
We present a microscopically based scheme for the generation of coherent cavity phonons (phonon laser) by an optically driven semiconductor quantum dot coupled to a THz acoustic nanocavity. External laser pump light on an anti-Stokes resonance creates an effective Lambda system within a two-level dot that leads to coherent phonon statistics. We use an inductive equation of motion method to estimate a realistic parameter range for an experimental realization of such phonon lasers. This scheme for the creation of nonequilibrium phonons is robust with respect to radiative and phononic damping and only requires optical Rabi frequencies of the order of the electron-phonon coupling strength. PMID:23006175
MODE CONVERSION BETWEEN DIFFERENT RADIAL ORDERS FOR SOLAR ACOUSTIC WAVES SCATTERED BY SUNSPOTS
Zhao, Hui; Chou, Dean-Yi
2013-11-20
We study the mode conversion between different radial orders for solar acoustic waves interacting with sunspots. Solar acoustic waves are modified in the presence of sunspots. The modification in the wave can be viewed as that the sunspot, excited by the incident wave, generates the scattered wave, and the scattered wave is added to the incident wave to form the total wave inside and around the sunspot. The wavefunction of the acoustic wave on the solar surface is computed from the cross-correlation function. The wavefunction of the scattered wave is obtained by subtracting the wavefunction of the incident wave from that of the total wave. We use the incident waves of radial order n = 0-5 to measure the scattered wavefunctions from n to another radial order n' for NOAAs 11084 and 11092. The strength of scattered waves decreases rapidly with |Δn|, where Δn ≡ n' – n. The scattered waves of Δn = ±1 are visible for n ≤ 1, and significant for n ≥ 2. For the scattered wave of Δn = ±2, only few cases are visible. None of the scattered waves of Δn = ±3 are visible. The properties of scattered waves for Δn = 0 and Δn ≠ 0 are different. The scattered wave amplitude relative to the incident wave amplitude decreases with n for Δn = 0, while it increases with n for Δn ≠ 0. The scattered wave amplitudes of Δn = 0 are greater for the larger sunspot, while those of Δn ≠ 0 are insensitive to the sunspot size.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajabi, Majid; Behzad, Mehdi
2014-10-01
A body insonified by a constant (time-varying) intensity sound field is known to experience a steady (oscillatory) force that is called the steady-state (dynamic) acoustic radiation force. Using the classical resonance scattering theorem (RST) which suggests the scattered field as a superposition of a resonance field and a background (non-resonance) component, we show that the radiation force acting on a cylindrical shell may be synthesized as a composition of three components: background part, resonance part and their interaction. The background component reveals the pure geometrical reflection effects and illustrates a regular behavior with respect to frequency, while the others demonstrate a singular behavior near the resonance frequencies. The results illustrate that the resonance effects associated to partial waves can be isolated by the subtraction of the background component from the total (steady-state or dynamic) radiation force function (i.e., residue component). In the case of steady-state radiation force, the components are exerted on the body as static forces. For the case of oscillatory amplitude excitation, the components are exerted at the modulation frequency with frequency-dependant phase shifts. The results demonstrate the dominant contribution of the non-resonance component of dynamic radiation force at high frequencies with respect to the residue component, which offers the potential application of ultrasound stimulated vibro-acoustic spectroscopy technique in low frequency resonance spectroscopy purposes. Furthermore, the proposed formulation may be useful essentially due to its intrinsic value in physical acoustics. In addition, it may unveil the contribution of resonance modes in the dynamic radiation force experienced by the cylindrical objects and its underlying physics.
Design of quasi-one-dimensional phononic crystal cavity for efficient photoelastic modulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Ingi; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko
2016-08-01
We propose and design a phononic crystal (PnC) cavity for efficient photoelastic modulation. A strongly confined acoustic field in the cavity enhances light-sound interaction, which results in efficient phase modulation of light. As one of the possible configurations, an acoustic cavity formed in a quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) PnC was investigated. By carefully tuning geometrical parameters, we successfully designed a high-Q cavity mode for a longitudinal wave within a complete phononic band gap. The acoustic Q was calculated to be as high as 9.5 × 104. This enables efficient optical modulation by a factor of 2.5 compared with a bar-type structure without PnCs.
Combined action of phase-mixing and Landau damping causing strong decay of geodesic acoustic modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palermo, F.; Biancalani, A.; Angioni, C.; Zonca, F.; Bottino, A.
2016-07-01
We report evidence of a new mechanism able to damp very efficiently geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) in the presence of a nonuniform temperature profile in a toroidally confined plasma. This represents a particular case of a general mechanism that we have found and that can be observed whenever the phase-mixing acts in the presence of a damping effect that depends on the wave number k r . Here, in particular, the combined effect of the Landau and continuum damping is found to quickly redistribute the GAM energy in phase-space, due to the synergy of the finite orbit width of the passing ions and the cascade in wave number given by the phase-mixing. This damping mechanism is investigated analytically and numerically by means of global gyrokinetic simulations. When realistic parameter values of plasmas at the edge of a tokamak are used, damping rates up to 2 orders of magnitude higher than the Landau damping alone are obtained. We find in particular that, for temperature and density profiles characteristic of the high confinement mode, the so-called H-mode, the GAM decay time becomes comparable to or lower than the nonlinear drive time, consistently with experimental observations (Conway G. D. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 106 (2011) 065001).
The leaking mode problem in atmospheric acoustic-gravity wave propagation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kinney, W. A.; Pierce, A. D.
1976-01-01
The problem of predicting the transient acoustic pressure pulse at long horizontal distances from large explosions in the atmosphere is examined. Account is taken of poles off the real axis and of branch line integrals in the general integral governing the transient waveform. Perturbation techniques are described for the computation of the imaginary ordinate of the poles and numerical studies are described for a model atmosphere terminated by a halfspace with c = 478 m/sec above 125 km. For frequencies less than 0.0125 rad/sec, the GR sub 1 mode, for example, is found to have a frequency dependent amplitude decay of the order of 0.0001 nepers/km. Examples of numerically synthesized transient waveforms are exhibited with and without the inclusion of leaking modes. The inclusion of leaking modes results in waveforms with a more marked beginning rather than a low frequency oscillating precursor of gradually increasing amplitude. Also, the revised computations indicate that waveforms invariably begin with a pressure rise, a result supported by other theoretical considerations and by experimental data.
Storelli, A. Vermare, L.; Hennequin, P.; Gürcan, Ö. D.; Singh, Rameswar; Morel, P.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Sarazin, Y.; Garbet, X.; Grandgirard, V.; Ghendrih, P.; Görler, T.
2015-06-15
In a dedicated collisionality scan in Tore Supra, the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) is detected and identified with the Doppler backscattering technique. Observations are compared to the results of a simulation with the gyrokinetic code GYSELA. We found that the GAM frequency in experiments is lower than predicted by simulation and theory. Moreover, the disagreement is higher in the low collisionality scenario. Bursts of non harmonic GAM oscillations have been characterized with filtering techniques, such as the Hilbert-Huang transform. When comparing this dynamical behaviour between experiments and simulation, the probability density function of GAM amplitude and the burst autocorrelation time are found to be remarkably similar. In the simulation, where the radial profile of GAM frequency is continuous, we observed a phenomenon of radial phase mixing of the GAM oscillations, which could influence the burst autocorrelation time.
Cong, Ming; Wu, Xinjun; Qian, Chunqiao
2016-01-01
A new electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) design, employing a special structure of the permanent magnet chain, is proposed to generate and receive longitudinal guided waves for pipe inspection based on the magnetostriction mechanism. Firstly, a quantitative analysis of the excitation forces shows the influence of the radial component can be ignored. Furthermore, as the axial component of the static magnetic field is dominant, a method of solenoid testing coils connected in series is adopted to increase the signal amplitude. Then, two EMAT configurations are developed to generate and receive the L(0,2) guided wave mode. The experimental results show the circumferential notch can be identified and located successfully. Finally, a detailed investigation of the performance of the proposed EMATs is given. Compared to the conventional EMAT configuration, the proposed configurations have the advantages of small volume, light weight, easy installation and portability, which is helpful to improve inspection efficiency. PMID:27213400
Kinetic effects on geodesic acoustic mode from combined collisions and impurities
Yang, Shangchuan; Xie, Jinlin Liu, Wandong
2015-04-15
The dispersion relation for geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) is derived by applying a gyrokinetic model that accounts for the effects from both collisions and impurities. Based on the dispersion relation, an analysis is performed for the non-monotonic behavior of GAM damping versus the characteristic collision rate at various impurity levels. As the effective charge increases, the maximum damping rate is found to shift towards lower collision rates, nearer to the parameter range of a typical tokamak edge plasma. The relative strengths of ion-ion and impurity-induced collision effects, which are illustrated by numerical calculations, are found to be comparable. Impurity-induced collisions help decrease the frequency of GAM, while their effects on the damping rate are non-monotonic, resulting in a weaker total damping in the high collision regime. The results presented suggest considering collision effects as well as impurity effects in GAM analysis.
On Nonlinear Self-interaction of Geodesic Acoustic Mode Driven by Energetic Particles
G. Y. Fu
2010-06-04
It is shown that nonlinear self-interaction of energetic particle-driven Geodesic Acoustic Mode does not generate a second harmonic in radial electric field using the fluid model. However, kinetic effects of energetic particles can induce a second harmonic in the radial electric field. A formula for the second order plasma density perturbation is derived. It is shown that a second harmonic of plasma density perturbation is generated by the convective nonlinearity of both thermal plasma and energetic particles. Near the midplane of a tokamak, the second order plasma density perturbation (the sum of second harmonic and zero frequency sideband) is negative on the low field side with its size comparable to the main harmonic at low uctuation level. These analytic predictions are consistent with the recent experimental observation in DIII-D.
On Nonlinear Self-interaction of Geodesic Acoustic Mode Driven By Energetic Particles
G.Y. Fu
2010-10-01
It is shown that nonlinear self-interaction of energetic particle-driven Geodesic Acoustic Mode does not generate a second harmonic in radial electric field using the fluid model. However, kinetic effects of energetic particles can induce a second harmonic in the radial electric field. A formula for the second order plasma density perturbation is derived. It is shown that a second harmonic of plasma density perturbation is generated by the convective nonlinearity of both thermal plasma and energetic particles. Near the midplane of a tokamak, the second order plasma density perturbation (the sum of second harmonic and zero frequency sideband) is negative on the low field side with its size comparable to the main harmonic at low fluctuation level. These analytic predictions are consistent with the recent experimental observation in DIII-D.
Cong, Ming; Wu, Xinjun; Qian, Chunqiao
2016-01-01
A new electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) design, employing a special structure of the permanent magnet chain, is proposed to generate and receive longitudinal guided waves for pipe inspection based on the magnetostriction mechanism. Firstly, a quantitative analysis of the excitation forces shows the influence of the radial component can be ignored. Furthermore, as the axial component of the static magnetic field is dominant, a method of solenoid testing coils connected in series is adopted to increase the signal amplitude. Then, two EMAT configurations are developed to generate and receive the L(0,2) guided wave mode. The experimental results show the circumferential notch can be identified and located successfully. Finally, a detailed investigation of the performance of the proposed EMATs is given. Compared to the conventional EMAT configuration, the proposed configurations have the advantages of small volume, light weight, easy installation and portability, which is helpful to improve inspection efficiency. PMID:27213400
Acoustic Plate Mode sensing in liquids based on free and electrically shorted plate surfaces.
Anisimkin, V I; Caliendo, C; Verona, E
2016-05-01
The sensing behavior to liquids for Acoustic Plate Modes (APMs) propagating along 64°Y, 90°X LiNbO3 plate was investigated vs. two electric boundary conditions. The changes in the APMs phase velocity and attenuation were measured upon exposure to different liquids wetting one of the surfaces of the plate, either free or electrically shorted by a thin conductive Al layer. The experimental data confirm that the presence of a metallic layer covering one of the plate surfaces affects the viscosity and temperature sensitivity of the device. The differences between the sensor response for various liquids, with free or metalized faces, are interpreted in terms of the APM polarization. PMID:26901669
Excitation of kinetic geodesic acoustic modes by drift waves in nonuniform plasmas
Qiu, Z.; Chen, L.; Zonca, F.
2014-02-15
Effects of system nonuniformities and kinetic dispersiveness on the spontaneous excitation of Geodesic Acoustic Mode (GAM) by Drift Wave (DW) turbulence are investigated based on nonlinear gyrokinetic theory. The coupled nonlinear equations describing parametric decay of DW into GAM and DW lower sideband are derived and then solved both analytically and numerically to investigate the effects on the parametric decay process due to system nonuniformities, such as nonuniform diamagnetic frequency, finite radial envelope of DW pump, and kinetic dispersiveness. It is found that the parametric decay process is a convective instability for typical tokamak parameters when finite group velocities of DW and GAM associated with kinetic dispersiveness and finite radial envelope are taken into account. When, however, nonuniformity of diamagnetic frequency is taken into account, the parametric decay process becomes, time asymptotically, a quasi-exponentially growing absolute instability.
Modeling and experimental study on near-field acoustic levitation by flexural mode.
Liu, Pinkuan; Li, Jin; Ding, Han; Cao, Wenwu
2009-12-01
Near-field acoustic levitation (NFAL) has been used in noncontact handling and transportation of small objects to avoid contamination. We have performed a theoretical analysis based on nonuniform vibrating surface to quantify the levitation force produced by the air film and also conducted experimental tests to verify our model. Modal analysis was performed using ANSYS on the flexural plate radiator to obtain its natural frequency of desired mode, which is used to design the measurement system. Then, the levitation force was calculated as a function of levitation distance based on squeeze gas film theory using measured amplitude and phase distributions on the vibrator surface. Compared with previous fluid-structural analyses using a uniform piston motion, our model based on the nonuniform radiating surface of the vibrator is more realistic and fits better with experimentally measured levitation force. PMID:20040404
Wave packet simulations of phonon boundary scattering at graphene edges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Zhiyong; Chen, Yunfei; Dames, Chris
2012-07-01
Wave packet dynamics is used to investigate the scattering of longitudinal (LA), transverse (TA), and bending-mode (ZA) phonons at the zigzag and armchair edges of suspended graphene. The interatomic forces are calculated using a linearized Tersoff potential. The strength of a boundary scattering event at impeding energy flow is described by a forward scattering coefficient, similar in spirit to a specularity parameter. For armchair boundaries, this scattering coefficient is found to depend strongly on the magnitude, direction, and polarization of the incident wavevector, while for zigzag boundaries, the forward scattering coefficient is found to always be unity regardless of wavevector and polarization. Wave packet splitting is observed for ZA phonons incident on armchair boundaries, while both splitting and mode conversion are observed for LA and TA phonons incident on both zigzag and armchair boundaries. These simulation results show that armchair boundaries impede the forward propagation of acoustic phonon energy much more strongly than zigzag boundaries do, suggesting that graphene nanoribbons will have substantially lower thermal conductivity in armchair rather than zigzag orientation.
Vranjes, J.; Poedts, S.
2010-08-15
A purely kinetic instability of the dust acoustic mode in inhomogeneous plasmas is discussed. In the presence of a magnetic field, electrons and ions may be magnetized while at the same time dust grains may remain unmagnetized. Although the dynamics of the light species is strongly affected by the magnetic field, the dust acoustic mode may still propagate in practically any direction. The inhomogeneity implies a source of free energy for an instability that develops through the diamagnetic drift effects of the magnetized species. It is shown that this may be a powerful mechanism for the excitation of dust acoustic waves. The analysis presented in the work is also directly applicable to plasmas containing both positive and negative ions and electrons, provided that at least one of the two ion species is unmagnetized.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hedayatrasa, Saeid; Abhary, Kazem; Uddin, Mohammad; Ng, Ching-Tai
2016-04-01
This paper presents a topology optimization of single material phononic crystal plate (PhP) to be produced by perforation of a uniform background plate. The primary objective of this optimization study is to explore widest exclusive bandgaps of fundamental (first order) symmetric or asymmetric guided wave modes as well as widest complete bandgap of mixed wave modes (symmetric and asymmetric). However, in the case of single material porous phononic crystals the bandgap width essentially depends on the resultant structural integration introduced by achieved unitcell topology. Thinner connections of scattering segments (i.e. lower effective stiffness) generally lead to (i) wider bandgap due to enhanced interfacial reflections, and (ii) lower bandgap frequency range due to lower wave speed. In other words higher relative bandgap width (RBW) is produced by topology with lower effective stiffness. Hence in order to study the bandgap efficiency of PhP unitcell with respect to its structural worthiness, the in-plane stiffness is incorporated in optimization algorithm as an opposing objective to be maximized. Thick and relatively thin Polysilicon PhP unitcells with square symmetry are studied. Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm NSGA-II is employed for this multi-objective optimization problem and modal band analysis of individual topologies is performed through finite element method. Specialized topology initiation, evaluation and filtering are applied to achieve refined feasible topologies without penalizing the randomness of genetic algorithm (GA) and diversity of search space. Selected Pareto topologies are presented and gradient of RBW and elastic properties in between the two Pareto front extremes are investigated. Chosen intermediate Pareto topology, even not extreme topology with widest bandgap, show superior bandgap efficiency compared with the results reported in other works on widest bandgap topology of asymmetric guided waves, available in the literature
Energetic-particle-induced electromagnetic geodesic acoustic mode in tokamak plasmas
Wang, Lingfeng He, Zhixiong; He, Hongda; Shen, Y.; Dong, J. Q.
2014-07-15
Energetic-particle-induced kinetic electromagnetic geodesic acoustic modes (EKEGAMs) are numerically studied in low β (=plasma pressure/magnetic pressure) tokamak plasmas. The parallel component of the perturbed vector potential is considered along with the electrostatic potential perturbation. The effects of finite Larmor radius and finite orbit width of the bulk and energetic ions as well as electron parallel dynamics are all taken into account in the dispersion relation. Systematic harmonic and ordering analysis are performed for frequency and growth rate spectra of the EKEGAMs, assuming (kρ{sub i})∼q{sup −3}∼β≪1, where q, k, and ρ{sub i} are the safety factor, radial component of the EKEGAMs wave vector, and the Larmor radius of the ions, respectively. It is found that there exist critical β{sub h}/β{sub i} values, which depend, in particular, on pitch angle of energetic ions and safety factor, for the mode to be driven unstable. The EKEGAMs may also be unstable for pitch angle λ{sub 0}B<0.4 in certain parameter regions. Finite β effect of the bulk ions is shown to have damping effect on the EKEGAMs. Modes with higher radial wave vectors have higher growth rates. The damping from electron dynamics is found decreasing with decrease of the temperature ratio T{sub e}/T{sub i}. The modes are easily to be driven unstable in low safety factor q region and high temperature ratio T{sub h}/T{sub i} region. The harmonic features of the EKEGAMs are discussed as well.
Manifestations of the geodesic acoustic mode driven by energetic ions in tokamaks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolesnichenko, Ya I.; Lutsenko, V. V.; Yakovenko, Yu V.; Lepiavko, B. S.; Grierson, B.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Nazikian, R.
2016-04-01
Effects of the energetic-ion-driven Geodesic Acoustic modes (GAM and E-GAM) on the toroidally passing energetic ions and the concomitant change of the neutron yield of beam-plasma fusion reactions in tokamaks are considered. It is shown that due to large perturbations of the plasma density, the resonant energetic ions driving the instability can be considerably slowed down for a few tens of the particle transit periods, which is much less than the collisional slowing down time. The time of the collisionless slowing down is actually determined by the period of the particle motion within the resonance island arising because of the GAM / E-GAM. Being trapped in the island, the resonant particles can not only lose their energy but also gain it. One more effect of GAMs is the flattening on the distribution function of the resonant particles. Due to conservation of the canonical angular momentum during a GAM / E-GAM instability, the change of the particle energy is accompanied by a radial displacement of the resonant particle for a distance up to the poloidal Larmor radius of energetic ions. The particles are displaced inwards or outwards, depending on the direction of their motion along the magnetic field. Expressions describing the change of the neutron yield due to GAM modes are derived. It is found that the distortion of the velocity distribution of the resonant particles can lead to a considerable drop of the neutron emission even when effects of the particle radial displacement are small. The developed theory is applied to an E-GAM experiment on the DIII-D tokamak. Relations for the period of the motion within the resonance island of passing (both well passing and marginally passing) particles and the width of the resonance of the energetic particles with GAM modes and low-frequency Alfvén modes are derived.
Coherent phonon optics in a chip with an electrically controlled active device
Poyser, Caroline L.; Akimov, Andrey V.; Campion, Richard P.; Kent, Anthony J.
2015-01-01
Phonon optics concerns operations with high-frequency acoustic waves in solid media in a similar way to how traditional optics operates with the light beams (i.e. photons). Phonon optics experiments with coherent terahertz and sub-terahertz phonons promise a revolution in various technical applications related to high-frequency acoustics, imaging, and heat transport. Previously, phonon optics used passive methods for manipulations with propagating phonon beams that did not enable their external control. Here we fabricate a phononic chip, which includes a generator of coherent monochromatic phonons with frequency 378 GHz, a sensitive coherent phonon detector, and an active layer: a doped semiconductor superlattice, with electrical contacts, inserted into the phonon propagation path. In the experiments, we demonstrate the modulation of the coherent phonon flux by an external electrical bias applied to the active layer. Phonon optics using external control broadens the spectrum of prospective applications of phononics on the nanometer scale. PMID:25652241
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fainstein, A.; Lanzillotti-Kimura, N. D.; Jusserand, B.; Perrin, B.
2013-01-01
We show that distributed Bragg reflector GaAs/AlAs vertical cavities designed to confine photons are automatically optimal to confine phonons of the same wavelength, strongly enhancing their interaction. We study the impulsive generation of intense coherent and monochromatic acoustic phonons by following the time evolution of the elastic strain in picosecond-laser experiments. Efficient optical detection is assured by the strong phonon backaction on the high-Q optical cavity mode. Large optomechanical factors are reported (˜THz/nm range). Pillar cavities based in these structures are predicted to display picogram effective masses, almost perfect sound extraction, and threshold powers for the stimulated emission of phonons in the range μW-mW, opening the way for the demonstration of phonon “lasing” by parametric instability in these devices.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goodman, Jerry R.; Grosveld, Ferdinand
2007-01-01
The acoustics environment in space operations is important to maintain at manageable levels so that the crewperson can remain safe, functional, effective, and reasonably comfortable. High acoustic levels can produce temporary or permanent hearing loss, or cause other physiological symptoms such as auditory pain, headaches, discomfort, strain in the vocal cords, or fatigue. Noise is defined as undesirable sound. Excessive noise may result in psychological effects such as irritability, inability to concentrate, decrease in productivity, annoyance, errors in judgment, and distraction. A noisy environment can also result in the inability to sleep, or sleep well. Elevated noise levels can affect the ability to communicate, understand what is being said, hear what is going on in the environment, degrade crew performance and operations, and create habitability concerns. Superfluous noise emissions can also create the inability to hear alarms or other important auditory cues such as an equipment malfunctioning. Recent space flight experience, evaluations of the requirements in crew habitable areas, and lessons learned (Goodman 2003; Allen and Goodman 2003; Pilkinton 2003; Grosveld et al. 2003) show the importance of maintaining an acceptable acoustics environment. This is best accomplished by having a high-quality set of limits/requirements early in the program, the "designing in" of acoustics in the development of hardware and systems, and by monitoring, testing and verifying the levels to ensure that they are acceptable.
Numerical modelling of geodesic acoustic mode relaxation in a tokamak edge
Dorf, M. A.; Cohen, R. H.; Dorr, M.; Rognlien, T.; Hittinger, J.; Compton, J.; Colella, P.; Martin, D.; McCorquodale, P.
2013-05-08
Here, the edge of a tokamak in a high confinement (H mode) regime is characterized by steep density gradients and a large radial electric field. Recent analytical studies demonstrated that the presence of a strong radial electric field consistent with a subsonic pedestal equilibrium modifies the conventional results of the neoclassical formalism developed for the core region. In the present work we make use of the recently developed gyrokinetic code COGENT to numerically investigate neoclassical transport in a tokamak edge including the effects of a strong radial electric field. The results of numerical simulations are found to be in goodmore » qualitative agreement with the theoretical predictions and the quantitative discrepancy is discussed. In addition, the present work investigates the effects of a strong radial electric field on the relaxation of geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) in a tokamak edge. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the presence of a strong radial electric field characteristic of a tokamak pedestal can enhance the GAM decay rate, and heuristic arguments elucidating this finding are provided.« less
Noncontact excitation of guided waves (A0 mode) using an electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fromme, Paul
2016-02-01
Fatigue damage can develop in aircraft structures at locations of stress concentration, such as fasteners, and has to be detected before reaching a critical size to ensure safe aircraft operation. Guided ultrasonic waves offer an efficient method for the detection and characterization of such defects in large aerospace structures. Electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMAT) for the noncontact excitation of guided ultrasonic waves were developed. The transducer development for the specific excitation of the A0 Lamb wave mode with an out-of-plane Lorentz force is explained. The achieved radial and angular dependency of the excited guided wave pulses were measured using a noncontact laser interferometer. Based on the induced eddy currents in the plate a theoretical model was developed. The application of the developed transducers for defect detection in aluminum components using fully noncontact guided wave measurements was demonstrated. Excitation of the A0 Lamb wave mode was achieved using the developed EMAT transducer and the guided wave propagation and scattering was measured using a noncontact laser interferometer.
Numerical modelling of geodesic acoustic mode relaxation in a tokamak edge
Dorf, M. A.; Cohen, R. H.; Dorr, M.; Rognlien, T.; Hittinger, J.; Compton, J.; Colella, P.; Martin, D.; McCorquodale, P.
2013-05-08
Here, the edge of a tokamak in a high confinement (H mode) regime is characterized by steep density gradients and a large radial electric field. Recent analytical studies demonstrated that the presence of a strong radial electric field consistent with a subsonic pedestal equilibrium modifies the conventional results of the neoclassical formalism developed for the core region. In the present work we make use of the recently developed gyrokinetic code COGENT to numerically investigate neoclassical transport in a tokamak edge including the effects of a strong radial electric field. The results of numerical simulations are found to be in good qualitative agreement with the theoretical predictions and the quantitative discrepancy is discussed. In addition, the present work investigates the effects of a strong radial electric field on the relaxation of geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) in a tokamak edge. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the presence of a strong radial electric field characteristic of a tokamak pedestal can enhance the GAM decay rate, and heuristic arguments elucidating this finding are provided.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hanson, Donald B.
1999-01-01
A reduced order modeling scheme has been developed for the unsteady acoustic and vortical coupling between blade rows of a turbomachine. The essential behavior of the system is governed by modal scattering coefficients (i.e., reflection and transmission coefficients) of the rotor, stator, inlet and nozzle, which are calculated as if they were connected to non-reflecting ducts. The objective of this report is to identify fundamental behavior of these scattering coefficients for a better understanding of the role of blade row reflection and transmission in noise generation. A 2D flat plate unsteady cascade model is used for the analysis with the expectation that the general behavior presented herein will carry over to models that include more realistic flow and geometry. It is shown that stators scatter input waves into many modes at the same frequency whereas rotors scatter on frequency, or harmonic order. Important cases are shown here the rotor reflection coefficient is greater than unity; a mode at blade passing frequency (BPF) traveling from the stator with unit sound power is reflected by the rotor with more than unit power at 2xBPF and 3xBPE Analysis is presented to explain this unexpected phenomenon. Scattering curves are presented in a format chosen for design use and for physical interpretation. To aid in interpretation of the curves, formulas are derived for special condition where waveforms are parallel to perpendicular to the rotor.
Acoustic Efficiency of Azimuthal Modes in Jet Noise Using Chevron Nozzles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, Clifford A.; Bridges, James
2006-01-01
The link between azimuthal modes in jet turbulence and in the acoustic sound field has been examined in cold, round jets. Chevron nozzles, however, impart an azimuthal structure on the jet with a shape dependent on the number, length and penetration angle of the chevrons. Two particular chevron nozzles, with 3 and 4 primary chevrons respectively, and a round baseline nozzle are compared at both cold and hot jet conditions to determine how chevrons impact the modal structure of the flow and how that change relates to the sound field. The results show that, although the chevrons have a large impact on the azimuthal shape of the mean axial velocity, the impact of chevrons on the azimuthal structure of the fluctuating axial velocity is small at the cold jet condition and smaller still at the hot jet condition. This is supported by results in the azimuthal structure of the sound field, which also shows little difference in between the two chevron nozzles and the baseline nozzle in the distribution of energy across the azimuthal modes measured.
Rotational Splittings of Acoustic Modes in an Experimental Model of a Planetary Core
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adams, M. M.; Stone, D.; Lathrop, D. P.
2014-12-01
Planetary zonal flows can be probed in principle using the tools of helioseismology. We explore this technique using laboratory experiments where the measurement of zonal flows is also of geophysical relevance. The experiments are carried out in a device with a geometry similar to that of Earth's core. It consists of a 60 cm diameter outer spherical shell concentric with a 20 cm diameter inner sphere. Air between the inner sphere and outer shell is used as the working fluid. A turbulent shear flow is driven in the air by independently rotating the inner sphere and outer shell. Acoustic modes are excited in the vessel with a speaker, and microphones are used to measure the rotational splittings of these modes. The radial profile of azimuthal velocities is inferred from these splittings, in an approach analogous to that used in helioseismology to determine solar velocity profiles. By varying the inner and outer rotation rates, different turbulent states can be investigated. Comparison is made to previous experimental investigations of turbulent spherical Couette flow. These experiments also serve as a test of this diagnostic, which may be used in the future in liquid sodium experiments, providing information on zonal flows in hydromagnetic experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chia, Elbert E. M.; La-O-Vorakiat, Chan; Kadro, Jeannette; Salim, Teddy; Zhao, Daming; Ahmed, Towfiq; Lam, Yeng Ming; Zhu, Jian-Xin; Marcus, Rudolph; Michel-Beyerle, Maria-Elisabeth
Using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS), we study the temperature-dependent phonon modes of the organometallic lead iodide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 thin film across the terahertz (0.5-3 THz) and temperature (20-300 K) ranges. These modes are related to the vibration of the Pb-I bonds. We found that two phonon modes in the tetragonal phase at room temperature split into four modes in the low-temperature orthorhombic phase. By use of the Lorentz model fitting, we analyze the critical behavior of this phase transition. King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi (Grant No. SCI58-003), Singapore MOE Tier 1 (RG13/12, RG123/14), ONR, ARO, NTU Biophysics Center, LANL LDRD, LANL CINT.
Heavy-impurity resonance, hybridization, and phonon spectral functions in Fe_{1-x}M_{x}Si, M=Ir,Os
Delaire, O.; Al-Qasir, Iyad I.; May, Andrew F.; Sales, Brian C.; Niedziela, Jennifer L.; Ma, Jie; Matsuda, Masaaki; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Berlijn, Tom
2015-03-31
The vibrational behavior of heavy substitutional impurities (M=Ir,Os) in Fe_{1-x}M_{x}Si (x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.1) was investigated with a combination of inelastic neutron scattering (INS), transport measurements, and first-principles simulations. In this paper, our INS measurements on single-crystals mapped the four-dimensional dynamical structure factor, S(Q;E), for several compositions and temperatures. Our results show that both Ir and Os impurities lead to the formation of a weakly dispersive resonance vibrational mode, in the energy range of the acoustic phonon dispersions of the FeSi host. We also show that Ir doping, which introduces free carriers and increases electron-phonon coupling, leads to softened interatomic force-constants compared to doping with Os, which is isoelectronic to Fe. We analyze the phonon S(Q,E) from INS through a Green's function model incorporating the phonon self-energy based on first-principles density functional theory (DFT) simulations. Calculations of the quasiparticle spectral functions in the doped system reveal the hybridization between the resonance and the acoustic phonon modes. Finally, our results demonstrate a strong interaction of the host acoustic dispersions with the resonance mode, likely leading to the large observed suppression in lattice thermal conductivity.
Heavy-impurity resonance, hybridization, and phonon spectral functions in Fe1-xMxSi (M =Ir , Os )
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delaire, O.; Al-Qasir, I. I.; May, A. F.; Li, C. W.; Sales, B. C.; Niedziela, J. L.; Ma, J.; Matsuda, M.; Abernathy, D. L.; Berlijn, T.
2015-03-01
The vibrational behavior of heavy substitutional impurities (M = Ir,Os) in Fe1-xMxSi (x =0 ,0.02 ,0.04 ,0.1 ) was investigated with a combination of inelastic neutron scattering (INS), transport measurements, and first-principles simulations. Our INS measurements on single crystals mapped the four-dimensional dynamical structure factor, S (Q ,E ) , for several compositions and temperatures. Our results show that both Ir and Os impurities lead to the formation of a weakly dispersive resonance vibrational mode, in the energy range of the acoustic phonon dispersions of the FeSi host. We also show that Ir doping, which introduces free carriers, leads to softened interatomic force constants compared to doping with Os, which is isoelectronic to Fe. We analyze the phonon S (Q ,E ) from INS through a Green's-function model incorporating the phonon self-energy based on first-principles density functional theory simulations, and we study the disorder-induced lifetimes on large supercells. Calculations of the quasiparticle spectral functions in the doped system reveal the hybridization between the resonance and the acoustic phonon modes. Our results demonstrate a strong interaction of the host acoustic dispersions with the resonance mode, likely leading to the large observed suppression in lattice thermal conductivity.
Phonons with orbital angular momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ayub, M. K.; Ali, S.; Mendonca, J. T.
2011-10-01
Ion accoustic waves or phonon modes are studied with orbital angular momentum (OAM) in an unmagnetized collissionless uniform plasma, whose constituents are the Boltzmann electrons and inertial ions. For this purpose, we have employed the fluid equations to obtain a paraxial equation in terms of ion density perturbations and discussed its Gaussian beam and Laguerre-Gauss (LG) beam solutions. Furthermore, an approximate solution for the electrostatic potential problem is presented, allowing to express the components of the electric field in terms of LG potential perturbations. The energy flux due to phonons is also calculated and the corresponding OAM is derived. Numerically, it is shown that the parameters such as azimuthal angle, radial and angular mode numbers, and beam waist, strongly modify the profiles of the phonon LG potential. The present results should be helpful in understanding the phonon mode excitations produced by Brillouin backscattering of laser beams in a uniform plasma.
Phonons with orbital angular momentum
Ayub, M. K.; Ali, S.; Mendonca, J. T.
2011-10-15
Ion accoustic waves or phonon modes are studied with orbital angular momentum (OAM) in an unmagnetized collissionless uniform plasma, whose constituents are the Boltzmann electrons and inertial ions. For this purpose, we have employed the fluid equations to obtain a paraxial equation in terms of ion density perturbations and discussed its Gaussian beam and Laguerre-Gauss (LG) beam solutions. Furthermore, an approximate solution for the electrostatic potential problem is presented, allowing to express the components of the electric field in terms of LG potential perturbations. The energy flux due to phonons is also calculated and the corresponding OAM is derived. Numerically, it is shown that the parameters such as azimuthal angle, radial and angular mode numbers, and beam waist, strongly modify the profiles of the phonon LG potential. The present results should be helpful in understanding the phonon mode excitations produced by Brillouin backscattering of laser beams in a uniform plasma.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae
2016-03-01
The dispersion relation for the dust ion-acoustic surface waves propagating at the interface of semi-bounded Lorentzian dusty plasma with supersonic ion flow has been kinetically derived to investigate the nonthermal property and the ion wake field effect. We found that the supersonic ion flow creates the upper and the lower modes. The increase in the nonthermal particles decreases the wave frequency for the upper mode whereas it increases the frequency for the lower mode. The increase in the supersonic ion flow velocity is found to enhance the wave frequency for both modes. We also found that the increase in nonthermal plasmas is found to enhance the group velocity of the upper mode. However, the nonthermal particles suppress the lower mode group velocity. The nonthermal effects on the group velocity will be reduced in the limit of small or large wavelength limit.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, David G.; Heidelberg, Laurence; Konno, Kevin
1993-01-01
The rotating microphone measurement technique and data analysis procedures are documented which are used to determine circumferential and radial acoustic mode content in the inlet of the Advanced Ducted Propeller (ADP) model. Circumferential acoustic mode levels were measured at a series of radial locations using the Doppler frequency shift produced by a rotating inlet microphone probe. Radial mode content was then computed using a least squares curve fit with the measured radial distribution for each circumferential mode. The rotating microphone technique is superior to fixed-probe techniques because it results in minimal interference with the acoustic modes generated by rotor-stator interaction. This effort represents the first experimental implementation of a measuring technique developed by T. G. Sofrin. Testing was performed in the NASA Lewis Low Speed Anechoic Wind Tunnel at a simulated takeoff condition of Mach 0.2. The design is included of the data analysis software and the performance of the rotating rake apparatus. The effect of experiment errors is also discussed.
Caliendo, Cinzia
2015-01-01
The propagation of the fundamental symmetric Lamb mode S0 along wz-BN/AlN thin composite plates suitable for telecommunication and sensing applications is studied. The investigation of the acoustic field profile across the plate thickness revealed the presence of modes having longitudinal polarization, the Anisimkin Jr. plate modes (AMs), travelling at a phase velocity close to that of the wz-BN longitudinal bulk acoustic wave propagating in the same direction. The study of the S0 mode phase velocity and coupling coefficient (K2) dispersion curves, for different electrical boundary conditions, has shown that eight different coupling configurations are allowable that exhibit a K2 as high as about 4% and very high phase velocity (up to about 16,700 m/s). The effect of the thickness and material type of the metal floating electrode on the K2 dispersion curves has also been investigated, specifically addressing the design of an enhanced coupling device. The gravimetric sensitivity of the BN/AlN-based acoustic waveguides was then calculated for both the AMs and elliptically polarized S0 modes; the AM-based sensor velocity and attenuation shifts due to the viscosity of a surrounding liquid was theoretically predicted. The performed investigation suggests that wz-BN/AlN is a very promising substrate material suitable for developing GHz band devices with enhanced electroacoustic coupling efficiency and suitable for application in telecommunications and sensing fields. PMID:25625904
Strain coupling, microstructure dynamics, and acoustic mode softening in germanium telluride
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, D.; Chatterji, T.; Schiemer, J. A.; Carpenter, M. A.
2016-04-01
GeTe is a material of intense topical interest due to its potential in the context of phase-change and nanowire memory devices, as a base for thermoelectric materials, and as a ferroelectric. The combination of a soft optic mode and a Peierls distortion contributes large strains at the cubic-rhombohedral phase transition near 625 K and the role of these has been investigated through their influence on elastic and anelastic properties by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy. The underlying physics is revealed by softening of the elastic constants by ˜30%-45%, due to strong coupling of shear and volume strains with the driving order parameter and consistent with an improper ferroelastic transition which is weakly first order. The magnitude of the softening is permissive of the transition mechanism involving a significant order/disorder component. A Debye loss peak in the vicinity of 180 K is attributed to freezing of the motion of ferroelastic twin walls and the activation energy of ˜0.07 eV is attributed to control by switching of the configuration of long and short Ge-Te bonds in the first coordination sphere around Ge. Precursor softening as the transition is approached from above can be described with a Vogel-Fulcher expression with a similar activation energy, which is attributed to coupling of acoustic modes with an unseen central mode that arises from dynamical clusters with local ordering of the Peierls distortion. The strain relaxation and ferroelastic behavior of GeTe depend on both displacive and order/disorder effects but the dynamics of switching will be determined by changes in the configuration of distorted GeT e6 octahedra, with a rather small activation energy barrier.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korman, Murray S.; Alberts, W. C. K., II; Sabatier, James M.
2004-09-01
In nonlinear acoustic detection experiments involving a buried inert VS 2.2 anti-tank landmine, airborne sound at two closely spaced primary frequencies f1 and f2 couple into the ground and interact nonlinearly with the soil-top pressure plate interface. Scattering generates soil vibration at the surface at the combination frequencies | m f1 +- n f2 | , where m and n are integers. The normal component of the particle velocity at the soil surface has been measured with a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) and with a geophone by Sabatier et. al. [SPIE Proceedings Vol. 4742, (695-700), 2002; Vol. 5089, (476-486), 2003] at the gravel lane test site. Spatial profiles of the particle velocity measured for both primary components and for various combination frequencies indicate that the modal structure of the mine is playing an important role. Here, an experimental modal analysis is performed on a VS 1.6 inert anti-tank mine that is resting on sand but is not buried. Five top-plate mode shapes are described. The mine is then buried in dry finely sifted natural loess soil and excited at f1 = 120 Hz and f2 = 130 Hz. Spatial profiles at the primary components and the nonlinearly generated f1 - (f2 - f1) component are characterized by a single peak. For the 2f1+f2 and 2f2 + f1 components, the doubly peaked profiles can be attributed to the familiar mode shape of a timpani drum (that is shifted lower in frequency due to soil mass loading). Other nonlinear profiles appear to be due to a mixture of modes. This material is based upon work supported by the U. S. Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate under Contract DAAB15-02-C-0024.
Baik, Kyungmin; Jiang, Jian; Leighton, Timothy G
2013-03-01
Equations for the nonaxisymmetric modes that are axially and circumferentially propagating in a liquid-filled tube with elastic walls surrounded by air/vacuum are presented using exact elasticity theory. Dispersion curves for the axially propagating modes are obtained and verified through comparison with measurements. The resulting theory is applied to the circumferential modes, and the pressures and the stresses in the liquid-filled pipe are calculated under external forced oscillation by an acoustic source. This provides the theoretical foundation for the narrow band acoustic bubble detector that was subsequently deployed at the Target Test Facility (TTF) of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), TN. PMID:23463995
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beyer, Robert
1981-01-01
Surveys 50 years of acoustical studies by discussing selected topics including the ear, nonlinear representations, underwater sound, acoustical diagnostics, absorption, electrolytes, phonons, magnetic interaction, and superfluidity and the five sounds. (JN)
Ardhuin, Fabrice; Lavanant, Thibaut; Obrebski, Mathias; Marié, Louis; Royer, Jean-Yves; d'Eu, Jean-François; Howe, Bruce M; Lukas, Roger; Aucan, Jerome
2013-10-01
The generation of ultra-low frequency acoustic noise (0.1 to 1 Hz) by the nonlinear interaction of ocean surface gravity waves is well established. More controversial are the quantitative theories that attempt to predict the recorded noise levels and their variability. Here a single theoretical framework is used to predict the noise level associated with propagating pseudo-Rayleigh modes and evanescent acoustic-gravity modes. The latter are dominant only within 200 m from the sea surface, in shallow or deep water. At depths larger than 500 m, the comparison of a numerical noise model with hydrophone records from two open-ocean sites near Hawaii and the Kerguelen islands reveal: (a) Deep ocean acoustic noise at frequencies 0.1 to 1 Hz is consistent with the Rayleigh wave theory, in which the presence of the ocean bottom amplifies the noise by 10 to 20 dB; (b) in agreement with previous results, the local maxima in the noise spectrum support the theoretical prediction for the vertical structure of acoustic modes; and (c) noise level and variability are well predicted for frequencies up to 0.4 Hz. Above 0.6 Hz, the model results are less accurate, probably due to the poor estimation of the directional properties of wind-waves with frequencies higher than 0.3 Hz. PMID:24116520