Acoustic phonon modes in asymmetric AlxGa1-xN/GaN/AlyGa1-yN quantum wells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zan, Y. H.; Ban, S. L.; Chai, Y. J.; Qu, Y.
2017-02-01
Using an elastic continuum model, the dispersion relations and phonon modes of propagating, confined, half space and interface acoustic phonons in asymmetric AlxGa1-xN/GaN/Al1-yGayN quantum wells (QWs) have been solved theoretically with the varieties of Al components x and y. Contrary to the previous conclusions, some regulations for the existence of the above different acoustic phonons are revealed as well as the transition conditions among these modes are also discussed. With increase of wave vectors, the dispersion relations split into several groups. Because the classification of these groups is related to the eigen frequencies of bulk materials forming QWs, phonon modes in these groups will be confined or propagating in different layers of QWs. Furthermore, the gradients of the dispersion relations' asymptotes are the velocities of longitudinal and the transverse acoustic phonons propagating in bulk materials in turns. The properties of the dispersion relations and their phonon modes are also analyzed in depth based on the cut-off conditions. By the changing of Al components x and y, the bottom of these groups will be modified to adjust eigen frequencies of AlxGa1-xN or Al1-yGayN layers. But the propagation properties of acoustic phonon modes will remain unchanged in each section.
Phononic crystal surface mode coupling and its use in acoustic Doppler velocimetry.
Cicek, Ahmet; Salman, Aysevil; Kaya, Olgun Adem; Ulug, Bulent
2016-02-01
It is numerically shown that surface modes of two-dimensional phononic crystals, which are Bloch modes bound to the interface between the phononic crystal and the surrounding host, can couple back and forth between the surfaces in a length scale determined by the separation of two surfaces and frequency. Supercell band structure computations through the finite-element method reveal that the surface band of an isolated surface splits into two bands which support either symmetric or antisymmetric hybrid modes. When the surface separation is 3.5 times the lattice constant, a coupling length varying between 30 and 48 periods can be obtained which first increases linearly with frequency and, then, decreases rapidly. In the linear regime, variation of coupling length can be used as a means of measuring speeds of objects on the order of 0.1m/s by incorporating the Doppler shift. Speed sensitivity can be improved by increasing surface separation at the cost of larger device sizes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fobes, David; Zaliznyak, Igor; Xu, Zhijun; Gu, Genda; Tranquada, John M.; He, Xu-Gang; Ku, Wei; Garlea, Ovidiu
2014-03-01
We have studied the evolution with temperature of the low-energy inelastic spectra of Fe1+yTe (y < 0 . 12), a parent compound of the iron-chalcogenide superconductor family, revealing an acoustic mode at an unexpected position. Recently, we found evidence for the formation of a bond-order wave leading to ferro-orbital order in the monoclinic phase, in part due to the observation of an elastic structural peak at (100) in the low-temperature monoclinic phase [D. Fobes, et al., arXiv:1307.7162]. In the inelastic spectra we observe a sharp acoustic-phonon-like mode dispersing out of the (100) position in the monoclinic phase. Surprisingly, the mode survives in the tetragonal phase, despite the absence of a Bragg peak at (100); such a peak is forbidden by symmetry. LDA calculations suggest this mode could involve significant magnetic scattering. By assuming in-phase virtual displacement of the Fe atoms from their equilibrium position in a frozen phonon calculation, we have found a small but significant imbalance in the magnetic moments between the two Fe atoms within the unit cell, suggesting magnetic contribution to the mode. Work at BNL supported by Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US DOE, under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886. Research conducted at ORNL Spallation Neutron Source was sponsored by the Scientific User Facilities Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US DOE.
Probing confined acoustic phonons in free standing small gold nanoparticles
Mankad, Venu; Jha, Prafulla K.; Ravindran, T. R.
2013-02-21
Polarized and depolarized spectra from gold (Au) nanoparticles of different sizes are investigated in the small size range, between 3 and 7 nm, using low frequency Raman spectroscopy. Acoustic vibrations of the free-standing Au nanoparticles are demonstrated with frequencies ranging from 5 to 35 cm{sup -1}, opening the way to the development of the acoustic resonators. A blue shift in the phonon peaks along with the broadening is observed with a decrease in particle size. Comparison of the measured frequencies with vibrational dynamics calculation and an examination as from the transmission electron microscopy results ascertain that the low frequency phonon modes are due to acoustic phonon quantization. Our results show that the observed low frequency Raman scattering originates from the spherical (l = 0) and quadrupolar (l = 2) vibrations of the spheroidal mode due to plasmon mediated acoustic vibrations in Au nanoparticles.
Slow light and slow acoustic phonons in optophononic resonators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Villafañe, V.; Soubelet, P.; Bruchhausen, A. E.; Lanzillotti-Kimura, N. D.; Jusserand, B.; Lemaître, A.; Fainstein, A.
2016-11-01
Slow and confined light have been exploited in optoelectronics to enhance light-matter interactions. Here we describe the GaAs/AlAs semiconductor microcavity as a device that, depending on the excitation conditions, either confines or slows down both light and optically generated acoustic phonons. The localization of photons and phonons in the same place of space amplifies optomechanical processes. Picosecond laser pulses are used to study through time-resolved reflectivity experiments the coupling between photons and both confined and slow acoustic phonons when the laser is tuned either with the cavity (confined) optical mode or with the stop-band edge (slow) optical modes. A model that fully takes into account the modified propagation of the acoustic phonons and light in these resonant structures is used to describe the laser detuning dependence of the coherently generated phonon spectra and amplitude under these different modes of laser excitation. We observe that confined light couples only to confined mechanical vibrations, while slow light can generate both confined and slow coherent vibrations. A strong enhancement of the optomechanical coupling using confined photons and vibrations, and also with properly designed slow photon and phonon modes, is demonstrated. The prospects for the use of these optoelectronic devices in confined and slow optomechanics are addressed.
Acoustic superfocusing by solid phononic crystals
Zhou, Xiaoming; Assouar, M. Badreddine Oudich, Mourad
2014-12-08
We propose a solid phononic crystal lens capable of acoustic superfocusing beyond the diffraction limit. The unit cell of the crystal is formed by four rigid cylinders in a hosting material with a cavity arranged in the center. Theoretical studies reveal that the solid lens produces both negative refraction to focus propagating waves and surface states to amplify evanescent waves. Numerical analyses of the superfocusing effect of the considered solid phononic lens are presented with a separated source excitation to the lens. In this case, acoustic superfocusing beyond the diffraction limit is evidenced. Compared to the fluid phononic lenses, the solid lens is more suitable for ultrasonic imaging applications.
Acoustic superfocusing by solid phononic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Xiaoming; Assouar, M. Badreddine; Oudich, Mourad
2014-12-01
We propose a solid phononic crystal lens capable of acoustic superfocusing beyond the diffraction limit. The unit cell of the crystal is formed by four rigid cylinders in a hosting material with a cavity arranged in the center. Theoretical studies reveal that the solid lens produces both negative refraction to focus propagating waves and surface states to amplify evanescent waves. Numerical analyses of the superfocusing effect of the considered solid phononic lens are presented with a separated source excitation to the lens. In this case, acoustic superfocusing beyond the diffraction limit is evidenced. Compared to the fluid phononic lenses, the solid lens is more suitable for ultrasonic imaging applications.
Temperature Dependence of Brillouin Light Scattering Spectra of Acoustic Phonons in Silicon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Somerville, Kevin; Klimovich, Nikita; An, Kyongmo; Sullivan, Sean; Weathers, Annie; Shi, Li; Li, Xiaoqin
2015-03-01
Thermal management represents an outstanding challenge in many areas of technology. Electrons, optical phonons, and acoustic phonons are often driven out of local equilibrium in electronic devices or during laser-material interaction processes. Interest in non-equilibrium transport processes has motivated the development of Raman spectroscopy as a local temperature sensor of optical phonons and intermediate frequency acoustic phonons, whereas Brillouin light scattering (BLS) has recently been explored as a temperature sensor of low-frequency acoustic phonons. Here, we report temperature dependent BLS spectra of silicon, with Raman spectra taken simultaneously for comparison. The origins of the observed temperature dependence of the BLS peak position, linewidth, and intensity are examined in order to evaluate their potential use as temperature sensors for acoustic phonons. We determine that the integrated BLS intensity can be used measure the temperature of specific acoustic phonon modes. This work is supported by National Science Foundation (NSF) Thermal Transport Processes Program under Grant CBET-1336968.
Depth-Dependent Defect Studies Using Coherent Acoustic Phonons
2014-09-29
12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 coherent acoustic phonons, diamond, silicon, photelastic coefficients , refractive index, graphene, Second...attributed to the cooling of the subsystem of hot optical phonons by optical- acoustic phonon scattering . We observe that at different pump energy and...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Presented is our scientific progress in two areas of research. The first is coherent acoustic phonon (CAP) spectroscopy of
Acoustic waves switch based on meta-fluid phononic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Xue-Feng
2012-08-01
The acoustic waves switch based on meta-fluid phononic crystals (MEFL PCs) is theoretically investigated. The MEFL PCs consist of fluid matrix and fluid-like inclusions with extremely anisotropic-density. The dispersion relations are calculated via the plane wave expansion method, which are in good agreement with the transmitted sound pressure level spectra obtained by the finite element method. The results show that the width of absolute band gap in MEFL PCs depends sensitively upon the orientation of the extremely anisotropic-density inclusions and reaches maximum at the rotating angle of 45°, with the gap position nearly unchanged. Also, the inter-mode conversion inside anisotropic-density inclusions can be ignored due to large acoustic mismatch. The study gives a possibility to realize greater flexibility and stronger effects in tuning the acoustic band gaps, which is very significant in the enhanced control over sound waves and has potential applications in ultrasonic imaging and therapy.
Yudistira, D; Boes, A; Djafari-Rouhani, B; Pennec, Y; Yeo, L Y; Mitchell, A; Friend, J R
2014-11-21
We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate the existence of complete surface acoustic wave band gaps in surface phonon-polariton phononic crystals, in a completely monolithic structure formed from a two-dimensional honeycomb array of hexagonal shape domain-inverted inclusions in single crystal piezoelectric Z-cut lithium niobate. The band gaps appear at a frequency of about twice the Bragg band gap at the center of the Brillouin zone, formed through phonon-polariton coupling. The structure is mechanically, electromagnetically, and topographically homogeneous, without any physical alteration of the surface, offering an ideal platform for many acoustic wave applications for photonics, phononics, and microfluidics.
Phononic glass: a robust acoustic-absorption material.
Jiang, Heng; Wang, Yuren
2012-08-01
In order to achieve strong wide band acoustic absorption under high hydrostatic pressure, an interpenetrating network structure is introduced into the locally resonant phononic crystal to fabricate a type of phononic composite material called "phononic glass." Underwater acoustic absorption coefficient measurements show that the material owns high underwater sound absorption coefficients over 0.9 in 12-30 kHz. Moreover, the quasi-static compressive behavior shows that the phononic glass has a compressive strength over 5 MPa which is crucial for underwater applications.
Interface nano-confined acoustic waves in polymeric surface phononic crystals
Travagliati, Marco; Nardi, Damiano; Giannetti, Claudio; Ferrini, Gabriele; Banfi, Francesco; Gusev, Vitalyi; Pingue, Pasqualantonio; Piazza, Vincenzo
2015-01-12
The impulsive acoustic dynamics of soft polymeric surface phononic crystals is investigated here in the hypersonic frequency range by near-IR time-resolved optical diffraction. The acoustic response is analysed by means of wavelet spectral methods and finite element modeling. An unprecedented class of acoustic modes propagating within the polymer surface phononic crystal and confined within 100 nm of the nano-patterned interface is revealed. The present finding opens the path to an alternative paradigm for characterizing the mechanical properties of soft polymers at interfaces and for sensing schemes exploiting polymers as embedding materials.
Interface nano-confined acoustic waves in polymeric surface phononic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Travagliati, Marco; Nardi, Damiano; Giannetti, Claudio; Gusev, Vitalyi; Pingue, Pasqualantonio; Piazza, Vincenzo; Ferrini, Gabriele; Banfi, Francesco
2015-01-01
The impulsive acoustic dynamics of soft polymeric surface phononic crystals is investigated here in the hypersonic frequency range by near-IR time-resolved optical diffraction. The acoustic response is analysed by means of wavelet spectral methods and finite element modeling. An unprecedented class of acoustic modes propagating within the polymer surface phononic crystal and confined within 100 nm of the nano-patterned interface is revealed. The present finding opens the path to an alternative paradigm for characterizing the mechanical properties of soft polymers at interfaces and for sensing schemes exploiting polymers as embedding materials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Derov, John S.
1987-05-01
The literature was surveyed to determine potential applications of acoustic and plasma phenomena in superlattices. The use of folded zone acoustic phonons and acoustic surface plasmons in 3 to 5 compounds like AlGaAs/GaAs superlattices is addressed. A dielectric phonon filter is presented and an acoustic resonator is considered. Surface plasmons and surface acoustic plasmons are discussed and a transducer, delay line and mixer are proposed as applications. A 500 GHz isolator utilizing surface magnetoplasmons is also presented.
Single Circuit Parallel Computing with Phonons through Magneto-acoustics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sklan, Sophia; Grossman, Jeffrey
2013-03-01
Phononic computing - the use of (typically thermal) vibrations for information processing - is a nascent technology; its capabilities are still being discovered. We analyze an alternative form of phononic computing inspired by optical, rather than electronic, computing. Using the acoustic Faraday effect, we design a phonon gyrator and thereby a means of performing computation through the manipulation of polarization in transverse phonon currents. Moreover, we establish that our gyrators act as generalized transistors and can construct digital logic gates. Exploiting the wave nature of phonons and the similarity of our logic gates, we demonstrate parallel computation within a single circuit, an effect presently unique to phonons. Finally, a generic method of designing these parallel circuits is introduced and used to analyze the feasibility of magneto-acoustic materials in realizing these circuits. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. 1122374.
Acoustic phonon spectrum and thermal transport in nanoporous alumina arrays
Kargar, Fariborz; Ramirez, Sylvester; Debnath, Bishwajit; ...
2015-10-28
We report results of a combined investigation of thermal conductivity and acoustic phonon spectra in nanoporous alumina membranes with the pore diameter decreasing from D=180 nm to 25 nm. The samples with the hexagonally arranged pores were selected to have the same porosity Ø ≈13%. The Brillouin-Mandelstam spectroscopy measurements revealed bulk-like phonon spectrum in the samples with D = 180 nm pores and spectral features, which were attributed to spatial confinement, in the samples with 25 nm and 40 nm pores. The velocity of the longitudinal acoustic phonons was reduced in the samples with smaller pores. As a result, analysismore » of the experimental data and calculated phonon dispersion suggests that both phonon-boundary scattering and phonon spatial confinement affect heat conduction in membranes with the feature sizes D < 40 nm.« less
Acoustic phonon spectrum and thermal transport in nanoporous alumina arrays
Kargar, Fariborz; Ramirez, Sylvester; Debnath, Bishwajit; Malekpour, Hoda; Lake, Roger; Balandin, Alexander A.
2015-10-28
We report results of a combined investigation of thermal conductivity and acoustic phonon spectra in nanoporous alumina membranes with the pore diameter decreasing from D=180 nm to 25 nm. The samples with the hexagonally arranged pores were selected to have the same porosity Ø ≈13%. The Brillouin-Mandelstam spectroscopy measurements revealed bulk-like phonon spectrum in the samples with D = 180 nm pores and spectral features, which were attributed to spatial confinement, in the samples with 25 nm and 40 nm pores. The velocity of the longitudinal acoustic phonons was reduced in the samples with smaller pores. As a result, analysis of the experimental data and calculated phonon dispersion suggests that both phonon-boundary scattering and phonon spatial confinement affect heat conduction in membranes with the feature sizes D < 40 nm.
Acoustic Bloch oscillations in a two-dimensional phononic crystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Zhaojian; Peng, Shasha; Cai, Feiyan; Ke, Manzhu; Liu, Zhengyou
2007-11-01
We report the observation of acoustic Bloch oscillations at megahertz frequency in a two-dimensional phononic crystal. By creating periodically arrayed cavities with a decreasing gradient in width along one direction in the phononic crystal, acoustic Wannier-Stark ladders are created in the frequency domain. The oscillatory motion of an incident Gaussian pulse inside the sample is demonstrated by both simulation and experiment.
Sub-Poissonian phonon statistics in an acoustical resonator coupled to a pumped two-level emitter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ceban, V.; Macovei, M. A.
2015-11-01
The concept of an acoustical analog of the optical laser has been developed recently in both theoretical and experimental works. We here discuss a model of a coherent phonon generator with a direct signature of the quantum properties of sound vibrations. The considered setup is made of a laser-driven quantum dot embedded in an acoustical nanocavity. The system dynamics is solved for a single phonon mode in the steady-state and in the strong quantum dot—phonon coupling regime beyond the secular approximation. We demonstrate that the phonon statistics exhibits quantum features, i.e., is sub-Poissonian.
Sub-Poissonian phonon statistics in an acoustical resonator coupled to a pumped two-level emitter
Ceban, V. Macovei, M. A.
2015-11-15
The concept of an acoustical analog of the optical laser has been developed recently in both theoretical and experimental works. We here discuss a model of a coherent phonon generator with a direct signature of the quantum properties of sound vibrations. The considered setup is made of a laser-driven quantum dot embedded in an acoustical nanocavity. The system dynamics is solved for a single phonon mode in the steady-state and in the strong quantum dot—phonon coupling regime beyond the secular approximation. We demonstrate that the phonon statistics exhibits quantum features, i.e., is sub-Poissonian.
The phononic crystals: An unending quest for tailoring acoustics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kushwaha, Manvir S.
2016-07-01
Periodicity (in time or space) is a part and parcel of every living being: one can see, hear and feel it. Everyday examples are locomotion, respiration and heart beat. The reinforced N-dimensional periodicity over two or more crystalline solids results in the so-called phononic band gap crystals. These can have dramatic consequences on the propagation of phonons, vibrations and sound. The fundamental physics of cleverly fabricated phononic crystals can offer a systematic route to realize the Anderson localization of sound and vibrations. As to the applications, the phononic crystals are envisaged to find ways in the architecture, acoustic waveguides, designing transducers, elastic/acoustic filters, noise control, ultrasonics, medical imaging and acoustic cloaking, to mention a few. This review focuses on the brief sketch of the progress made in the field that seems to have prospered even more than was originally imagined in the early nineties.
Bleustein-Gulyaev-Shimizu surface acoustic waves in two-dimensional piezoelectric phononic crystals.
Hsu, Jin-Chen; Wu, Tsung-Tsong
2006-06-01
In this paper, we present a study on the existence of Bleustein-Gulyaev-Shimizu piezoelectric surface acoustic waves in a two-dimensional piezoelectric phononic crystal (zinc oxide, ZnO, and cadmium-sulfide, CdS) using the plane wave expansion method. In the configuration of ZnO (100)/CdS(100) phononic crystal, the calculated results show that this type of surface waves has higher acoustic wave velocities, high electromechanical coupling coefficients, and larger band gap width than those of the Rayleigh surface waves and pseudosurface waves. In addition, we find that the folded modes of the Bleustein-Gulyaev-Shimizu surface waves have higher coupling coefficients.
Propagation and localization of acoustic waves in Fibonacci phononic circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aynaou, H.; El Boudouti, E. H.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.; Akjouj, A.; Velasco, V. R.
2005-07-01
A theoretical investigation is made of acoustic wave propagation in one-dimensional phononic bandgap structures made of slender tube loops pasted together with slender tubes of finite length according to a Fibonacci sequence. The band structure and transmission spectrum is studied for two particular cases. (i) Symmetric loop structures, which are shown to be equivalent to diameter-modulated slender tubes. In this case, it is found that besides the existence of extended and forbidden modes, some narrow frequency bands appear in the transmission spectra inside the gaps as defect modes. The spatial localization of the modes lying in the middle of the bands and at their edges is examined by means of the local density of states. The dependence of the bandgap structure on the slender tube diameters is presented. An analysis of the transmission phase time enables us to derive the group velocity as well as the density of states in these structures. In particular, the stop bands (localized modes) may give rise to unusual (strong normal) dispersion in the gaps, yielding fast (slow) group velocities above (below) the speed of sound. (ii) Asymmetric tube loop structures, where the loops play the role of resonators that may introduce transmission zeros and hence new gaps unnoticed in the case of simple diameter-modulated slender tubes. The Fibonacci scaling property has been checked for both cases (i) and (ii), and it holds for a periodicity of three or six depending on the nature of the substrates surrounding the structure.
Stimulated emission of phonons in an acoustic cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tilstra, Lieuwe Gijsbert
2001-10-01
This thesis will present experiments on stimulated emission of phonons in dilute ruby following complete population inversion of the Zeeman-split E(2E) Kramers doublet by selective pulsed optical pumping into its upper component. The resulting phonon avalanches are detected by use of the R1 luminescence emanating from the inverted zone, located near the end face where the laser beam enters the crystal. The phonons appear to team up into a highly directional phonon beam. The phonon frequency is tunable from, say, 10-100 GHz via the magnetic field splitting of the doublet. Remarkably, the population of the lower doublet component, which is a measure of the number of phonons generated, evolves with a sequence of distinct steps. The time interval in between these steps equals 2L/v, corresponding to the time the phonons need to return to the inverted zone by reflection at the opposite end face at a distance L. The end faces of the ruby crystal thus form an acoustic cavity. The phonon beam passes the inverted zone repeatedly to be amplified further, in a manner similar to light in an optical laser. In other words, the basic ingredients for a phonon laser have been established.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Srikanthreddy, D.; Glavin, B. A.; Poyser, C. L.; Henini, M.; Lehmann, D.; Jasiukiewicz, Cz.; Akimov, A. V.; Kent, A. J.
2017-02-01
We study the generation of microwave electronic signals by pumping a (311) GaAs Schottky diode with compressive and shear acoustic phonons, generated by the femtosecond optical excitation of an Al film transducer and mode conversion at the Al-GaAs interface. They propagate through the substrate and arrive at the Schottky device on the opposite surface, where they induce a microwave electronic signal. The arrival time, the amplitude, and the polarity of the signals depend on the phonon mode. A theoretical analysis is made of the polarity of the experimental signals. This analysis includes the piezoelectric and deformation potential mechanisms of electron-phonon interaction in a Schottky contact and shows that the piezoelectric mechanism is dominant for both transverse and longitudinal modes with frequencies below 250 and 70 GHz, respectively.
Multi-resonance tunneling of acoustic waves in two-dimensional locally-resonant phononic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Aichao; He, Wei; Zhang, Jitao; Zhu, Liang; Yu, Lingang; Ma, Jian; Zou, Yang; Li, Min; Wu, Yu
2017-03-01
Multi-resonance tunneling of acoustic waves through a two-dimensional phononic crystal (PC) is demonstrated by substituting dual Helmholtz resonators (DHRs) for acoustically-rigid scatterers in the PC. Due to the coupling of the incident waves with the acoustic multi-resonance modes of the DHRs, acoustic waves can tunnel through the PC at specific frequencies which lie inside the band gaps of the PC. This wave tunneling transmission can be further broadened by using the multilayer Helmholtz resonators. Thus, a PC consisting of an array of dual/multilayer Helmholtz resonators can serve as an acoustic band-pass filter, used to pick out acoustic waves with certain frequencies from noise.
Phononic crystal structures for acoustically driven microfluidic manipulations.
Wilson, Rab; Reboud, Julien; Bourquin, Yannyk; Neale, Steven L; Zhang, Yi; Cooper, Jonathan M
2011-01-21
The development of microfluidic systems is often constrained both by difficulties associated with the chip interconnection to other instruments and by limitations imposed by the mechanisms that can enable fluid movement and processing. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices have shown promise in allowing samples to be manipulated, although designing complex fluid operations involves using multiple electrode transducers. We now demonstrate a simple interface between a piezoelectric SAW device and a disposable microfluidic chip, patterned with phononic structures to control the acoustic wave propagation. The surface wave is coupled from the piezoelectric substrate into the disposable chip where it interacts with the phononic lattice. By implementing both a phononic filter and an acoustic waveguide, we illustrate the potential of the technique by demonstrating microcentrifugation for particle and cell concentration in microlitre droplets. We show for the first time that the interaction of the fluid within this metamaterial phononic lattice is dependent upon the frequency of the acoustic wave, providing a route to programme complex fluidic functions into a microchip (in much the same way, by analogy, that a holographic element would change the phase of a light wave in optical tweezers). A practical realisation of this involves the centrifugation of blood on the chip.
Acoustic phonon dynamics in thin-films of the topological insulator Bi2Se3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glinka, Yuri D.; Babakiray, Sercan; Johnson, Trent A.; Holcomb, Mikel B.; Lederman, David
2015-04-01
Transient reflectivity traces measured for nanometer-sized films (6-40 nm) of the topological insulator Bi2Se3 revealed GHz-range oscillations driven within the relaxation of hot carriers photoexcited with ultrashort (˜100 fs) laser pulses of 1.51 eV photon energy. These oscillations have been suggested to result from acoustic phonon dynamics, including coherent longitudinal acoustic phonons in the form of standing acoustic waves. An increase of oscillation frequency from ˜35 to ˜70 GHz with decreasing film thickness from 40 to 15 nm was attributed to the interplay between two different regimes employing traveling-acoustic-waves for films thicker than 40 nm and the film bulk acoustic wave resonator (FBAWR) modes for films thinner than 40 nm. The amplitude of oscillations decays rapidly for films below 15 nm thick when the indirect intersurface coupling in Bi2Se3 films switches the FBAWR regime to that of the Lamb wave excitation. The frequency range of coherent longitudinal acoustic phonons is in good agreement with elastic properties of Bi2Se3.
On-chip optical mode conversion based on dynamic grating in photonic-phononic hybrid waveguide
Chen, Guodong; Zhang, Ruiwen; Sun, Junqiang
2015-01-01
We present a scheme for reversible and tunable on-chip optical mode conversion based on dynamic grating in a hybrid photonic-phononic waveguide. The dynamic grating is built up through the acousto-optic effect and the theoretical model of the optical mode conversion is developed by considering the geometrical deformation and refractive index change. Three kinds of mode conversions are able to be realized using the same hybrid waveguide structure in a large bandwidth by only changing the launched acoustic frequency. The complete mode conversion can be achieved by choosing a proper acoustic power under a given waveguide length. PMID:25996236
Phonon-plasmon coupled modes in GaN
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dyson, A.
2009-04-01
The phonon lifetime in GaN is known to exhibit a dependence on electron density. Recent noise measurements have also shown the lifetime to be temperature dependent. The source of these dependences is the coupling of the phonon and plasmon populations through the dielectric function. The effect of this anharmonicity is illustrated by comparing the frequency and wavevector dependent coupled-mode momentum relaxation rate with the phonon momentum relaxation rate obtained by Callen. A simple model that includes the anharmonic interaction and phonon migration yields phonon lifetimes depending on both electron density and temperature.
Addouche, Mahmoud Al-Lethawe, Mohammed A. Choujaa, Abdelkrim Khelif, Abdelkrim
2014-07-14
We demonstrate super resolution imaging for surface acoustic waves using a phononic structure displaying negative refractive index. This phononic structure is made of a monolithic square lattice of cylindrical pillars standing on a semi-infinite medium. The pillars act as acoustic resonator and induce a surface propagating wave with unusual dispersion. We found, under specific geometrical parameters, one propagating mode that exhibits negative refraction effect with negative effective index close to −1. Furthermore, a flat lens with finite number of pillars is designed to allow the focusing of an acoustic point source into an image with a resolution of (λ)/3 , overcoming the Rayleigh diffraction limit.
Nonlinear Transport and Noise Properties of Acoustic Phonons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walczak, Kamil
We examine heat transport carried by acoustic phonons in molecular junctions composed of organic molecules coupled to two thermal baths of different temperatures. The phononic heat flux and its dynamical noise properties are analyzed within the scattering (Landauer) formalism with transmission probability function for acoustic phonons calculated within the method of atomistic Green's functions (AGF technique). The perturbative computational scheme is used to determine nonlinear corrections to phononic heat flux and its noise power spectral density with up to the second order terms with respect to temperature difference. Our results show the limited applicability of ballistic Fourier's law and fluctuation-dissipation theorem to heat transport in quantum systems. We also derive several noise-signal relations applicable to nanoscale heat flow carried by phonons, but valid for electrons as well. We also discuss the extension of the perturbative transport theory to higher order terms in order to address a huge variety of problems related to nonlinear thermal effects which may occur at nanoscale and at strongly non-equilibrium conditions with high-intensity heat fluxes. This work was supported by Pace University Start-up Grant.
Acoustic phonon lifetimes and thermal transport in free-standing and strained graphene.
Bonini, Nicola; Garg, Jivtesh; Marzari, Nicola
2012-06-13
We use first-principles methods based on density functional perturbation theory to characterize the lifetimes of the acoustic phonon modes and their consequences on the thermal transport properties of graphene. We show that using a standard perturbative approach, the transverse and longitudinal acoustic phonons in free-standing graphene display finite lifetimes in the long-wavelength limit, making them ill-defined as elementary excitations in samples of dimensions larger than ∼1 μm. This behavior is entirely due to the presence of the quadratic dispersions for the out-of-plane phonon (ZA) flexural modes that appear in free-standing low-dimensional systems. Mechanical strain lifts this anomaly, and all phonons remain well-defined at any wavelength. Thermal transport is dominated by ZA modes, and the thermal conductivity is predicted to diverge with system size for any amount of strain. These findings highlight strain and sample size as key parameters in characterizing or engineering heat transport in graphene.
Acoustic phonon transmission spectra in piezoelectric AlN/GaN Fibonacci phononic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sesion, P. D., Jr.; Albuquerque, E. L.; Chesman, C.; Freire, V. N.
2007-08-01
We study the acoustic-phonon transmission spectra in periodic and quasiperiodic (Fibonacci type) superlattices made up from the III-V nitride materials AlN and GaN. The phonon dynamics is described by a coupled elastic and electromagnetic equations within the static field approximation model, stressing the importance of the piezoelectric polarization field in a strained condition. We use a transfer-matrix treatment to simplify the algebra, which would be otherwise quite complicated, allowing a neat analytical expressions for the phonon transmission coefficients. Numerical results, for the normal incidence case, show a strike self-similar pattern for both hexagonal (class 6 mm) and cubic symmetries crystalizations of the nitrides.
Guiding and confinement of interface acoustic waves in solid-fluid pillar-based phononic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Razip Wee, M. F. Mohd; Addouche, Mahmoud; Siow, Kim S.; Zain, A. R. Md; Elayouch, Aliyasin; Chollet, Franck; Khelif, Abdelkrim
2016-12-01
Pillar-based phononic crystals exhibit some unique wave phenomena due to the interaction between surface acoustic modes of the substrate and local resonances supported by pillars. In this paper, we extend the investigations by taking into account the presence of a liquid medium. We particularly demonstrate that local resonances dramatically decrease the phase velocity of Scholte-Stoneley wave, which leads to a slow wave at the solid/fluid interface. Moreover, we show that increasing the height of pillars introduces a new set of branches of interface modes and drastically affects the acoustic energy localization. Indeed, while some modes display a highly confined pressure between pillars, others exponentially decay in the fluid or only propagate in the solid without disturbing the fluid pressure. These theoretical results, performed by finite element method, highlight a new acoustic wave confinement suitable in various applications such as acoustophoresis, lab on chip and microfluidics.
Graczykowski, B. Alzina, F.; Gomis-Bresco, J.; Sotomayor Torres, C. M.
2016-01-14
In this paper, we report a theoretical investigation of surface acoustic waves propagating in one-dimensional phononic crystal. Using finite element method eigenfrequency and frequency response studies, we develop two model geometries suitable to distinguish true and pseudo (or leaky) surface acoustic waves and determine their propagation through finite size phononic crystals, respectively. The novelty of the first model comes from the application of a surface-like criterion and, additionally, functional damping domain. Exemplary calculated band diagrams show sorted branches of true and pseudo surface acoustic waves and their quantified surface confinement. The second model gives a complementary study of transmission, reflection, and surface-to-bulk losses of Rayleigh surface waves in the case of a phononic crystal with a finite number of periods. Here, we demonstrate that a non-zero transmission within non-radiative band gaps can be carried via leaky modes originating from the coupling of local resonances with propagating waves in the substrate. Finally, we show that the transmission, reflection, and surface-to-bulk losses can be effectively optimised by tuning the geometrical properties of a stripe.
Continuum approach for long-wavelength acoustic phonons in quasi-two-dimensional structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Dan; Every, Arthur G.; Tománek, David
2016-10-01
As an alternative to atomistic calculations of long-wavelength acoustic modes of atomically thin layers, which are known to converge very slowly, we propose a quantitatively predictive and physically intuitive approach based on continuum elasticity theory. We describe a layer, independent of its thickness, by a membrane and characterize its elastic behavior by a (3 ×3 ) elastic matrix as well as the flexural rigidity. We present simple quantitative expressions for frequencies of long-wavelength acoustic modes, which we determine using two-dimensional elastic constants calculated by ab initio density functional theory. The calculated spectra accurately reproduce observed and calculated long-wavelength phonon spectra of graphene and phosphorene, the monolayer of black phosphorus. Our approach also correctly describes the observed dependence of the radial breathing mode frequency on the diameters of carbon fullerenes and nanotubes.
Magnetophonon oscillations caused by acoustic phonons in bulk conductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raichev, O. E.
2016-09-01
The interaction of electrons with acoustic phonons under a magnetic field leads to a remarkable kind of magnetophonon oscillation of transport coefficients, recently discovered in two-dimensional electron systems. The present study shows that similar oscillations exist in bulk conductors and provides a theory of this phenomenon for the case of spherical Fermi surfaces. The resonance peaks occur when the product of the Fermi surface diameter by the sound velocity is a multiple of the cyclotron frequency. Theoretical predictions may facilitate the experimental observation of the phenomenon.
Numerical investigation of diffraction of acoustic waves by phononic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moiseyenko, Rayisa P.; Declercq, Nico F.; Laude, Vincent
2012-05-01
Diffraction as well as transmission of acoustic waves by two-dimensional phononic crystals (PCs) composed of steel rods in water are investigated in this paper. The finite element simulations were performed in order to compute pressure fields generated by a line source that are incident on a finite size PC. Such field maps are analyzed based on the complex band structure for the infinite periodic PC. Finite size computations indicate that the exponential decrease of the transmission at deaf frequencies is much stronger than that in Bragg band gaps.
Topological Phonon Modes in a Two-Dimensional Wigner Crystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, Wen-Cheng; Shi, Jun-Ren
2017-03-01
We investigate the spin-orbit coupling effect in a two-dimensional Wigner crystal. We show that sufficiently strong spin-orbit coupling and an appropriate sign of g-factor could transform the Wigner crystal to a topological phonon system. We demonstrate the existence of chiral phonon edge modes in finite size samples, as well as the robustness of the modes in the topological phase. We explore the possibility of realizing the topological phonon system in two-dimensional Wigner crystals confined in semiconductor quantum wells/heterostructure. We find that the spin-orbit coupling is too weak for driving a topological phase transition in these systems. We argue that one may look for the topological phonon system in correlated Wigner crystals with emergent effective spin-orbit coupling.
2011-01-01
High-frequency surface acoustic waves can be generated by ultrafast laser excitation of nanoscale patterned surfaces. Here we study this phenomenon in the hypersonic frequency limit. By modeling the thermomechanics from first-principles, we calculate the system’s initial heat-driven impulsive response and follow its time evolution. A scheme is introduced to quantitatively access frequencies and lifetimes of the composite system’s excited eigenmodes. A spectral decomposition of the calculated response on the eigemodes of the system reveals asymmetric resonances that result from the coupling between surface and bulk acoustic modes. This finding allows evaluation of impulsively excited pseudosurface acoustic wave frequencies and lifetimes and expands our understanding of the scattering of surface waves in mesoscale metamaterials. The model is successfully benchmarked against time-resolved optical diffraction measurements performed on one-dimensional and two-dimensional surface phononic crystals, probed using light at extreme ultraviolet and near-infrared wavelengths. PMID:21910426
Temperature dependence of Brillouin light scattering spectra of acoustic phonons in silicon
Olsson, Kevin S.; Klimovich, Nikita; An, Kyongmo; Sullivan, Sean; Weathers, Annie; Shi, Li E-mail: elaineli@physics.utexas.edu; Li, Xiaoqin E-mail: elaineli@physics.utexas.edu
2015-02-02
Electrons, optical phonons, and acoustic phonons are often driven out of local equilibrium in electronic devices or during laser-material interaction processes. The need for a better understanding of such non-equilibrium transport processes has motivated the development of Raman spectroscopy as a local temperature sensor of optical phonons and intermediate frequency acoustic phonons, whereas Brillouin light scattering (BLS) has recently been explored as a temperature sensor of low-frequency acoustic phonons. Here, we report the measured BLS spectra of silicon at different temperatures. The origins of the observed temperature dependence of the BLS peak position, linewidth, and intensity are examined in order to evaluate their potential use as temperature sensors for acoustic phonons.
Temperature dependence of Brillouin light scattering spectra of acoustic phonons in silicon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olsson, Kevin S.; Klimovich, Nikita; An, Kyongmo; Sullivan, Sean; Weathers, Annie; Shi, Li; Li, Xiaoqin
2015-02-01
Electrons, optical phonons, and acoustic phonons are often driven out of local equilibrium in electronic devices or during laser-material interaction processes. The need for a better understanding of such non-equilibrium transport processes has motivated the development of Raman spectroscopy as a local temperature sensor of optical phonons and intermediate frequency acoustic phonons, whereas Brillouin light scattering (BLS) has recently been explored as a temperature sensor of low-frequency acoustic phonons. Here, we report the measured BLS spectra of silicon at different temperatures. The origins of the observed temperature dependence of the BLS peak position, linewidth, and intensity are examined in order to evaluate their potential use as temperature sensors for acoustic phonons.
Acoustic modes in fluid networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Michalopoulos, C. D.; Clark, Robert W., Jr.; Doiron, Harold H.
1992-01-01
Pressure and flow rate eigenvalue problems for one-dimensional flow of a fluid in a network of pipes are derived from the familiar transmission line equations. These equations are linearized by assuming small velocity and pressure oscillations about mean flow conditions. It is shown that the flow rate eigenvalues are the same as the pressure eigenvalues and the relationship between line pressure modes and flow rate modes is established. A volume at the end of each branch is employed which allows any combination of boundary conditions, from open to closed, to be used. The Jacobi iterative method is used to compute undamped natural frequencies and associated pressure/flow modes. Several numerical examples are presented which include acoustic modes for the Helium Supply System of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Main Propulsion System. It should be noted that the method presented herein can be applied to any one-dimensional acoustic system involving an arbitrary number of branches.
Coherent acoustic phonons in YBa2Cu3O7/La1/3Ca2/3MnO3 superlattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Wei; He, Bin; Zhang, Chunfeng; Liu, Shenghua; Liu, Xiaoran; Middey, S.; Chakhalian, J.; Wang, Xiaoyong; Xiao, Min
2016-03-01
We investigate photo-induced coherent acoustic phonons in complex oxide superlattices consisting of high-Tc superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-x and ferromagnetic manganite La1/3Ca2/3MnO3 epitaxial layers with broadband pump-probe spectroscopy. Two oscillatory components have been observed in time-resolved differential reflectivity spectra. Based on the analysis, the slow oscillation mode with a frequency sensitive to the probe wavelength is ascribed to the stimulated Brillouin scattering due to the photon reflection by propagating train of coherent phonons. The fast oscillation mode with a probe-wavelength-insensitive frequency is attributed to the Bragg oscillations caused by specular phonon reflections at oxide interfaces or the electron-coupling induced modulation due to free carrier absorption in the metallic superlattices. Our findings suggest that oxide superlattice is an ideal system to tailor the coherent behaviors of acoustic phonons and to manipulate the thermal and acoustic properties.
Light scattering from acoustic vibrational modes in confined structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bandhu, Rudra Shyam
The acoustic vibrational modes and their light scattering intensities in confined structures such as supported films, double layer free-standing membrane and sub-micron sized wires on a free-standing membrane have been studied using Brillouin Light Scattering (BLS). Standing wave type acoustic phonons were recently observed in supported thin films of silicon oxy-nitride. We build upon this finding to study the acoustic modes in thin zinc selenide (ZnSe) films on gallium arsenide (GaAs). The surprising behaviour of the Brillouin intensities of the standing wave modes in ZnSe are explained in terms of interference of the elasto-optic scattering amplitudes from the film and substrate. Numerical calculations of the scattering cross-section, which takes into account ripple and elasto-optic scattering mechanism, agrees well with the experimental data. Light scattering studies of standing wave type modes in free-standing polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) layer on Si3N4 were carried out. In these bilayer structures PMMA is much softer than Si3N 4, a property that leads to confinement of low frequency modes associated with the PMMA layer to within its boundaries. In addition, the flexural and the dilatational modes from the Si3N4 layer are observed and are found to hybridize with the standing wave modes from the PMMA layer. Our study of phonon modes in PMMA wires supported on a free-standing Si3N4 membrane extends our work on free-standing double layer membranes. In recent years there is much interest in the study of phonon modes in nano-scale structures such as wires or dots. Although much theoretical work has been carried out in this direction, no experiments exist that explore the dispersion of the phonon modes in such structures. Brillouin Light scattering is ideally suited for studying phonons in such reduced dimensions and our work represents the first effort in this direction. The spectra reveal modes which are quantized both along the width, as well along the thickness
Effect of electron heating on femtosecond laser-induced coherent acoustic phonons in noble metals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jincheng; Guo, Chunlei
2007-05-01
We employ a surface plasmon technique to resolve the dynamics of femtosecond-laser-induced coherent acoustic phonons in noble metals. Clear acoustic oscillations are observed in our experiments. We further study the dependence of the initial phase of the oscillations on pump fluence, and we find that the initial phase decreases linearly with pump fluence. Our model calculations show that hot electrons instantaneously excited by femtosecond pulses contribute to the generation of coherent acoustic phonons in metals.
Acoustic phonon dynamics in thin-films of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}
Glinka, Yuri D.; Babakiray, Sercan; Johnson, Trent A.; Holcomb, Mikel B.; Lederman, David
2015-04-28
Transient reflectivity traces measured for nanometer-sized films (6–40 nm) of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} revealed GHz-range oscillations driven within the relaxation of hot carriers photoexcited with ultrashort (∼100 fs) laser pulses of 1.51 eV photon energy. These oscillations have been suggested to result from acoustic phonon dynamics, including coherent longitudinal acoustic phonons in the form of standing acoustic waves. An increase of oscillation frequency from ∼35 to ∼70 GHz with decreasing film thickness from 40 to 15 nm was attributed to the interplay between two different regimes employing traveling-acoustic-waves for films thicker than 40 nm and the film bulk acoustic wave resonator (FBAWR) modes for films thinner than 40 nm. The amplitude of oscillations decays rapidly for films below 15 nm thick when the indirect intersurface coupling in Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} films switches the FBAWR regime to that of the Lamb wave excitation. The frequency range of coherent longitudinal acoustic phonons is in good agreement with elastic properties of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peelaers, H.; Partoens, B.; Peeters, F. M.
2009-09-01
The phonon spectra of thin freestanding, hydrogen passivated, Ge nanowires are calculated by ab initio techniques. The effect of confinement on the phonon modes as caused by the small diameters of the wires is investigated. Confinement causes a hardening of the optical modes and a softening of the longitudinal acoustic modes. The stability of the nanowires, undoped or doped with B or P atoms, is investigated using the obtained phonon spectra. All considered wires were stable, except for highly doped, very thin nanowires.
Cooling phonons with phonons: Acoustic reservoir engineering with silicon-vacancy centers in diamond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kepesidis, K. V.; Lemonde, M.-A.; Norambuena, A.; Maze, J. R.; Rabl, P.
2016-12-01
We study a setup where a single negatively-charged silicon-vacancy center in diamond is magnetically coupled to a low-frequency mechanical bending mode and via strain to the high-frequency phonon continuum of a semiclamped diamond beam. We show that under appropriate microwave driving conditions, this setup can be used to induce a laser-cooling-like effect for the low-frequency mechanical vibrations, where the high-frequency longitudinal compression modes of the beam serve as an intrinsic low-temperature reservoir. We evaluate the experimental conditions under which cooling close to the quantum ground state can be achieved and describe an extended scheme for the preparation of a stationary entangled state between two mechanical modes. By relying on intrinsic properties of the mechanical beam only, this approach offers an interesting alternative for quantum manipulation schemes of mechanical systems, where otherwise efficient optomechanical interactions are not available.
Orbital angular momentum mode division filtering for photon-phonon coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Zhi-Han; Sheng, Li-Wen; Lv, Zhi-Wei; He, Wei-Ming; Gao, Wei
2017-01-01
Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), a fundamental nonlinear interaction between light and acoustic waves occurring in any transparency material, has been broadly studied for several decades and gained rapid progress in integrated photonics recently. However, the SBS noise arising from the unwanted coupling between photons and spontaneous non-coherent phonons in media is inevitable. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate this obstacle can be overcome via a method called orbital angular momentum mode division filtering. Owing to the introduction of a new distinguishable degree-of-freedom, even extremely weak signals can be discriminated and separated from a strong noise produced in SBS processes. The mechanism demonstrated in this proof-of-principle work provides a practical way for quasi-noise-free photonic-phononic operation, which is still valid in waveguides supporting multi-orthogonal spatial modes, permits more flexibility and robustness for future SBS devices.
Orbital angular momentum mode division filtering for photon-phonon coupling.
Zhu, Zhi-Han; Sheng, Li-Wen; Lv, Zhi-Wei; He, Wei-Ming; Gao, Wei
2017-01-10
Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), a fundamental nonlinear interaction between light and acoustic waves occurring in any transparency material, has been broadly studied for several decades and gained rapid progress in integrated photonics recently. However, the SBS noise arising from the unwanted coupling between photons and spontaneous non-coherent phonons in media is inevitable. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate this obstacle can be overcome via a method called orbital angular momentum mode division filtering. Owing to the introduction of a new distinguishable degree-of-freedom, even extremely weak signals can be discriminated and separated from a strong noise produced in SBS processes. The mechanism demonstrated in this proof-of-principle work provides a practical way for quasi-noise-free photonic-phononic operation, which is still valid in waveguides supporting multi-orthogonal spatial modes, permits more flexibility and robustness for future SBS devices.
Orbital angular momentum mode division filtering for photon-phonon coupling
Zhu, Zhi-Han; Sheng, Li-Wen; Lv, Zhi-Wei; He, Wei-Ming; Gao, Wei
2017-01-01
Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), a fundamental nonlinear interaction between light and acoustic waves occurring in any transparency material, has been broadly studied for several decades and gained rapid progress in integrated photonics recently. However, the SBS noise arising from the unwanted coupling between photons and spontaneous non-coherent phonons in media is inevitable. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate this obstacle can be overcome via a method called orbital angular momentum mode division filtering. Owing to the introduction of a new distinguishable degree-of-freedom, even extremely weak signals can be discriminated and separated from a strong noise produced in SBS processes. The mechanism demonstrated in this proof-of-principle work provides a practical way for quasi-noise-free photonic-phononic operation, which is still valid in waveguides supporting multi-orthogonal spatial modes, permits more flexibility and robustness for future SBS devices. PMID:28071736
Piezoelectric surface acoustical phonon amplification in graphene on a GaAs substrate
Nunes, O. A. C.
2014-06-21
We study the interaction of Dirac Fermions in monolayer graphene on a GaAs substrate in an applied electric field by the combined action of the extrinsic potential of piezoelectric surface acoustical phonons of GaAs (piezoelectric acoustical (PA)) and of the intrinsic deformation potential of acoustical phonons in graphene (deformation acoustical (DA)). We find that provided the dc field exceeds a threshold value, emission of piezoelectric (PA) and deformation (DA) acoustical phonons can be obtained in a wide frequency range up to terahertz at low and high temperatures. We found that the phonon amplification rate R{sup PA,DA} scales with T{sub BG}{sup S−1} (S=PA,DA), T{sub BG}{sup S} being the Block−Gru{sup ¨}neisen temperature. In the high-T Block−Gru{sup ¨}neisen regime, extrinsic PA phonon scattering is suppressed by intrinsic DA phonon scattering, where the ratio R{sup PA}/R{sup DA} scales with ≈1/√(n), n being the carrier concentration. We found that only for carrier concentration n≤10{sup 10}cm{sup −2}, R{sup PA}/R{sup DA}>1. In the low-T Block−Gru{sup ¨}neisen regime, and for n=10{sup 10}cm{sup −2}, the ratio R{sup PA}/R{sup DA} scales with T{sub BG}{sup DA}/T{sub BG}{sup PA}≈7.5 and R{sup PA}/R{sup DA}>1. In this regime, PA phonon dominates the electron scattering and R{sup PA}/R{sup DA}<1 otherwise. This study is relevant to the exploration of the acoustic properties of graphene and to the application of graphene as an acoustical phonon amplifier and a frequency-tunable acoustical phonon device.
Morozovska, Anna N.; Vysochanskii, Yulian M.; Varenyk, Oleksandr V.; Silibin, Maxim V.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Eliseev, Eugene A.
2015-09-29
The impact of the flexoelectric effect on the generalized susceptibility and soft phonon dispersion is not well known in the long-range-ordered phases of ferroics. Within the Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire approach we obtained analytical expressions for the generalized susceptibility and phonon dispersion relations in the ferroelectric phase. The joint action of the static and dynamic flexoelectric effects induces nondiagonal components of the generalized susceptibility, whose amplitude is proportional to the convolution of the spontaneous polarization with the flexocoupling constants. The flexocoupling essentially broadens the k spectrum of the generalized susceptibility and leads to an additional “pushing away” of the optical and acoustic soft mode phonon branches. The degeneracy of the transverse optical and acoustic modes disappears in the ferroelectric phase in comparison with the paraelectric phase due to the joint action of flexoelectric coupling and ferroelectric nonlinearity. Lastly, the results obtained might be mainly important for theoretical analyses of a broad spectrum of experimental data, including neutron and Brillouin scattering.
Morozovska, Anna N.; Vysochanskii, Yulian M.; Varenyk, Oleksandr V.; ...
2015-09-29
The impact of the flexoelectric effect on the generalized susceptibility and soft phonon dispersion is not well known in the long-range-ordered phases of ferroics. Within the Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire approach we obtained analytical expressions for the generalized susceptibility and phonon dispersion relations in the ferroelectric phase. The joint action of the static and dynamic flexoelectric effects induces nondiagonal components of the generalized susceptibility, whose amplitude is proportional to the convolution of the spontaneous polarization with the flexocoupling constants. The flexocoupling essentially broadens the k spectrum of the generalized susceptibility and leads to an additional “pushing away” of the optical and acoustic softmore » mode phonon branches. The degeneracy of the transverse optical and acoustic modes disappears in the ferroelectric phase in comparison with the paraelectric phase due to the joint action of flexoelectric coupling and ferroelectric nonlinearity. Lastly, the results obtained might be mainly important for theoretical analyses of a broad spectrum of experimental data, including neutron and Brillouin scattering.« less
Influence of confined acoustic phonons on the Radioelectric field in a Quantum well
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Long, Do Tuan; Quang Bau, Nguyen
2015-06-01
The influence of confined acoustic phonons on the Radioelectric field in a quantum well has been studied in the presence of a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave and a laser radiation. By using the quantum kinetic equation for electrons with confined electrons - confined acoustic phonons interaction, the analytical expression for the Radio electric field is obtained. The formula of the Radio electric field contains the quantum number m characterizing the phonons confinement and comes back to the case of unconfined phonons when m reaches to zero. The dependence of the Radio electric field on the frequency of the laser radiation, in case of confined acoustic phonons, is also achieved by numerical method for a specific quantum well AlGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs. Results show that the Radio electric field has a peak and reaches saturation as the frequency of the laser radiation increases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Ai-Ling; Chen, Tian-Ning; Wang, Xiao-Peng; Wan, Le-Le
2016-08-01
The waveform distortion happens in most of the unidirectional acoustic transmission (UAT) devices proposed before. In this paper, a novel type of waveform-preserved UAT device composed of an impedance-matched acoustic metasurface (AMS) and a phononic crystal (PC) structure is proposed and numerically investigated. The acoustic pressure field distributions and transmittance are calculated by using the finite element method. The subwavelength AMS that can modulate the wavefront of the transmitted wave at will is designed and the band structure of the PC structure is calculated and analyzed. The sound pressure field distributions demonstrate that the unidirectional acoustic transmission can be realized by the proposed UAT device without changing the waveforms of the output waves, which is the distinctive feature compared with the previous UAT devices. The physical mechanism of the unidirectional acoustic transmission is discussed by analyzing the refraction angle changes and partial band gap map. The calculated transmission spectra show that the UAT device is valid within a relatively broad frequency range. The simulation results agree well with the theoretical predictions. The proposed UAT device provides a good reference for designing waveform-preserved UAT devices and has potential applications in many fields, such as medical ultrasound, acoustic rectifiers, and noise insulation.
Is dust acoustic wave a new plasma acoustic mode?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dwivedi, C. B.
1997-09-01
In this Brief Communication, the claim of the novelty of the dust acoustic wave in a dusty plasma within the constant dust charge model is questioned. Conceptual lacunas behind the claim have been highlighted and appropriate physical arguments have been forwarded against the claim. It is demonstrated that the so-called dust acoustic wave could better be termed as a general acoustic fluctuation response with a dominant characteristic feature of the acoustic-like mode (ALM) fluctuation response reported by Dwivedi et al. [J. Plasma Phys. 41, 219 (1989)]. It is suggested that both correct and more usable nomenclature of the ALM should be the so-called acoustic mode.
Demonstration of acoustic waveguiding and tight bending in phononic crystals
Ghasemi Baboly, M.; Raza, A.; Brady, J.; ...
2016-10-31
The systematic design, fabrication, and characterization of an isolated, single-mode, 90° bend phononic crystal (PnC) waveguide are presented. A PnC consisting of a 2D square array of circular air holes in an aluminum substrate is used, and waveguides are created by introducing a line defect in the PnC lattice. A high transmission coefficient is observed (–1 dB) for the straight sections of the waveguide, and an overall 2.3 dB transmission loss is observed (a transmission coefficient of 76%) for the 90° bend. Further optimization of the structure may yield higher transmission efficiencies. Lastly, this manuscript shows the complete design processmore » for an engineered 90° bend PnC waveguide from inception to experimental demonstration.« less
Demonstration of acoustic waveguiding and tight bending in phononic crystals
Ghasemi Baboly, M.; Raza, A.; Brady, J.; Reinke, C. M.; Leseman, Z. C.; El-Kady, I.
2016-10-31
The systematic design, fabrication, and characterization of an isolated, single-mode, 90° bend phononic crystal (PnC) waveguide are presented. A PnC consisting of a 2D square array of circular air holes in an aluminum substrate is used, and waveguides are created by introducing a line defect in the PnC lattice. A high transmission coefficient is observed (–1 dB) for the straight sections of the waveguide, and an overall 2.3 dB transmission loss is observed (a transmission coefficient of 76%) for the 90° bend. Further optimization of the structure may yield higher transmission efficiencies. Lastly, this manuscript shows the complete design process for an engineered 90° bend PnC waveguide from inception to experimental demonstration.
CO2 Infrared Phonon Modes in Interstellar Ice Mixtures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cooke, Ilsa R.; Fayolle, Edith C.; Öberg, Karin I.
2016-11-01
CO2 ice is an important reservoir of carbon and oxygen in star- and planet-forming regions. Together with water and CO, CO2 sets the physical and chemical characteristics of interstellar icy grain mantles, including desorption and diffusion energies for other ice constituents. A detailed understanding of CO2 ice spectroscopy is a prerequisite to characterize CO2 interactions with other volatiles both in interstellar ices and in laboratory experiments of interstellar ice analogs. We report laboratory spectra of the CO2 longitudinal optical (LO) phonon mode in pure CO2 ice and in CO2 ice mixtures with H2O, CO, and O2 components. We show that the LO phonon mode position is sensitive to the mixing ratio of various ice components of astronomical interest. In the era of the James Webb Space Telescope, this characteristic could be used to constrain interstellar ice compositions and morphologies. More immediately, LO phonon mode spectroscopy provides a sensitive probe of ice mixing in the laboratory and should thus enable diffusion measurements with higher precision than has been previously possible.
Theory of Acoustic Raman Modes in Proteins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
DeWolf, Timothy; Gordon, Reuven
2016-09-01
We present a theoretical analysis that associates the resonances of extraordinary acoustic Raman (EAR) spectroscopy [Wheaton et al., Nat. Photonics 9, 68 (2015)] with the collective modes of proteins. The theory uses the anisotropic elastic network model to find the protein acoustic modes, and calculates Raman intensity by treating the protein as a polarizable ellipsoid. Reasonable agreement is found between EAR spectra and our theory. Protein acoustic modes have been extensively studied theoretically to assess the role they play in protein function; this result suggests EAR spectroscopy as a new experimental tool for studies of protein acoustic modes.
Kargar, Fariborz; Debnath, Bishwajit; Kakko, Joona-Pekko; Säynätjoki, Antti; Lipsanen, Harri; Nika, Denis L.; Lake, Roger K.; Balandin, Alexander A.
2016-01-01
Similar to electron waves, the phonon states in semiconductors can undergo changes induced by external boundaries. However, despite strong scientific and practical importance, conclusive experimental evidence of confined acoustic phonon polarization branches in individual free-standing nanostructures is lacking. Here we report results of Brillouin—Mandelstam light scattering spectroscopy, which reveal multiple (up to ten) confined acoustic phonon polarization branches in GaAs nanowires with a diameter as large as 128 nm, at a length scale that exceeds the grey phonon mean-free path in this material by almost an order-of-magnitude. The dispersion modification and energy scaling with diameter in individual nanowires are in excellent agreement with theory. The phonon confinement effects result in a decrease in the phonon group velocity along the nanowire axis and changes in the phonon density of states. The obtained results can lead to more efficient nanoscale control of acoustic phonons, with benefits for nanoelectronic, thermoelectric and spintronic devices. PMID:27830698
Optical phonon modes in rhombohedral boron monosulfide under high pressure
Cherednichenko, Kirill A.; Sokolov, Petr S.; Solozhenko, Vladimir L.; Kalinko, Aleksandr; Le Godec, Yann; Polian, Alain; Itié, Jean-Paul
2015-05-14
Raman spectra of rhombohedral boron monosulfide (r-BS) were measured under pressures up to 34 GPa at room temperature. No pressure-induced structural phase transition was observed, while strong pressure shift of Raman bands towards higher wavenumbers has been revealed. IR spectroscopy as a complementary technique has been used in order to completely describe the phonon modes of r-BS. All experimentally observed bands have been compared with theoretically calculated ones and modes assignment has been performed. r-BS enriched by {sup 10}B isotope was synthesized, and the effect of boron isotopic substitution on Raman spectra was observed and analyzed.
Acoustic-optical phonon up-conversion and hot-phonon bottleneck in lead-halide perovskites
Yang, Jianfeng; Wen, Xiaoming; Xia, Hongze; Sheng, Rui; Ma, Qingshan; Kim, Jincheol; Tapping, Patrick; Harada, Takaaki; Kee, Tak W.; Huang, Fuzhi; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Green, Martin; Ho-Baillie, Anita; Huang, Shujuan; Shrestha, Santosh; Patterson, Robert; Conibeer, Gavin
2017-01-01
The hot-phonon bottleneck effect in lead-halide perovskites (APbX3) prolongs the cooling period of hot charge carriers, an effect that could be used in the next-generation photovoltaics devices. Using ultrafast optical characterization and first-principle calculations, four kinds of lead-halide perovskites (A=FA+/MA+/Cs+, X=I−/Br−) are compared in this study to reveal the carrier-phonon dynamics within. Here we show a stronger phonon bottleneck effect in hybrid perovskites than in their inorganic counterparts. Compared with the caesium-based system, a 10 times slower carrier-phonon relaxation rate is observed in FAPbI3. The up-conversion of low-energy phonons is proposed to be responsible for the bottleneck effect. The presence of organic cations introduces overlapping phonon branches and facilitates the up-transition of low-energy modes. The blocking of phonon propagation associated with an ultralow thermal conductivity of the material also increases the overall up-conversion efficiency. This result also suggests a new and general method for achieving long-lived hot carriers in materials. PMID:28106061
Acoustic-optical phonon up-conversion and hot-phonon bottleneck in lead-halide perovskites.
Yang, Jianfeng; Wen, Xiaoming; Xia, Hongze; Sheng, Rui; Ma, Qingshan; Kim, Jincheol; Tapping, Patrick; Harada, Takaaki; Kee, Tak W; Huang, Fuzhi; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Green, Martin; Ho-Baillie, Anita; Huang, Shujuan; Shrestha, Santosh; Patterson, Robert; Conibeer, Gavin
2017-01-20
The hot-phonon bottleneck effect in lead-halide perovskites (APbX3) prolongs the cooling period of hot charge carriers, an effect that could be used in the next-generation photovoltaics devices. Using ultrafast optical characterization and first-principle calculations, four kinds of lead-halide perovskites (A=FA(+)/MA(+)/Cs(+), X=I(-)/Br(-)) are compared in this study to reveal the carrier-phonon dynamics within. Here we show a stronger phonon bottleneck effect in hybrid perovskites than in their inorganic counterparts. Compared with the caesium-based system, a 10 times slower carrier-phonon relaxation rate is observed in FAPbI3. The up-conversion of low-energy phonons is proposed to be responsible for the bottleneck effect. The presence of organic cations introduces overlapping phonon branches and facilitates the up-transition of low-energy modes. The blocking of phonon propagation associated with an ultralow thermal conductivity of the material also increases the overall up-conversion efficiency. This result also suggests a new and general method for achieving long-lived hot carriers in materials.
Acoustic-optical phonon up-conversion and hot-phonon bottleneck in lead-halide perovskites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Jianfeng; Wen, Xiaoming; Xia, Hongze; Sheng, Rui; Ma, Qingshan; Kim, Jincheol; Tapping, Patrick; Harada, Takaaki; Kee, Tak W.; Huang, Fuzhi; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Green, Martin; Ho-Baillie, Anita; Huang, Shujuan; Shrestha, Santosh; Patterson, Robert; Conibeer, Gavin
2017-01-01
The hot-phonon bottleneck effect in lead-halide perovskites (APbX3) prolongs the cooling period of hot charge carriers, an effect that could be used in the next-generation photovoltaics devices. Using ultrafast optical characterization and first-principle calculations, four kinds of lead-halide perovskites (A=FA+/MA+/Cs+, X=I-/Br-) are compared in this study to reveal the carrier-phonon dynamics within. Here we show a stronger phonon bottleneck effect in hybrid perovskites than in their inorganic counterparts. Compared with the caesium-based system, a 10 times slower carrier-phonon relaxation rate is observed in FAPbI3. The up-conversion of low-energy phonons is proposed to be responsible for the bottleneck effect. The presence of organic cations introduces overlapping phonon branches and facilitates the up-transition of low-energy modes. The blocking of phonon propagation associated with an ultralow thermal conductivity of the material also increases the overall up-conversion efficiency. This result also suggests a new and general method for achieving long-lived hot carriers in materials.
Linear mode-mixing of phonons with trapped ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marshall, Kevin; James, Daniel F. V.
2017-01-01
We propose a method to manipulate the normal modes in a chain of trapped ions using only two lasers. Linear chains of trapped ions have proven experimentally to be highly controllable quantum systems with a variety of refined techniques for preparation, evolution, and readout; however, typically for quantum information processing applications people have been interested in using the internal levels of the ions as the computational basis. We analyze the case where the motional degrees of freedom of the ions are the quantum system of interest, and where the internal levels are leveraged to facilitate interactions. In particular, we focus on an analysis of mode-mixing of phonons in different normal modes to mimic the quantum optical equivalent of a beam splitter.
Empirical mode decomposition for analyzing acoustical signals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huang, Norden E. (Inventor)
2005-01-01
The present invention discloses a computer implemented signal analysis method through the Hilbert-Huang Transformation (HHT) for analyzing acoustical signals, which are assumed to be nonlinear and nonstationary. The Empirical Decomposition Method (EMD) and the Hilbert Spectral Analysis (HSA) are used to obtain the HHT. Essentially, the acoustical signal will be decomposed into the Intrinsic Mode Function Components (IMFs). Once the invention decomposes the acoustic signal into its constituting components, all operations such as analyzing, identifying, and removing unwanted signals can be performed on these components. Upon transforming the IMFs into Hilbert spectrum, the acoustical signal may be compared with other acoustical signals.
Is dust acoustic wave a new plasma acoustic mode?
Dwivedi, C.B.
1997-09-01
In this Brief Communication, the claim of the novelty of the dust acoustic wave in a dusty plasma within the constant dust charge model is questioned. Conceptual lacunas behind the claim have been highlighted and appropriate physical arguments have been forwarded against the claim. It is demonstrated that the so-called dust acoustic wave could better be termed as a general acoustic fluctuation response with a dominant characteristic feature of the acoustic-like mode (ALM) fluctuation response reported by Dwivedi {ital et al.} [J. Plasma Phys. {bold 41}, 219 (1989)]. It is suggested that both correct and more usable nomenclature of the ALM should be the so-called acoustic mode. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Yabin; Fernez, Nicolas; Pennec, Yan; Bonello, Bernard; Moiseyenko, Rayisa P.; Hémon, Stéphanie; Pan, Yongdong; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram
2016-02-01
We investigate the properties of a phononic crystal plate with hollow pillars and introduce the existence of whispering-gallery modes (WGMs). We show that by tuning the inner radius of the hollow pillar, these modes can merge inside both Bragg and low frequency band gaps, deserving phononic crystal and acoustic metamaterial applications. These modes can be used as narrow pass bands for which the quality factor can be greatly enhanced by the introduction of an additional cylinder between the hollow cylinder and the plate. We discuss some functionalities of these confined WGM in both Bragg and low frequency gaps for wavelength division in multiplexer devices using heteroradii pillars introduced into waveguide and cavity structures.
Investigation of phononic crystals for dispersive surface acoustic wave ozone sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Westafer, Ryan S.
The object of this research was to investigate dispersion in surface phononic crystals (PnCs) for application to a newly developed passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) ozone sensor. Frequency band gaps and slow sound already have been reported for PnC lattice structures. Such engineered structures are often advertised to reduce loss, increase sensitivity, and reduce device size. However, these advances have not yet been realized in the context of surface acoustic wave sensors. In early work, we computed SAW dispersion in patterned surface structures and we confirmed that our finite element computations of SAW dispersion in thin films and in one dimensional surface PnC structures agree with experimental results obtained by laser probe techniques. We analyzed the computations to guide device design in terms of sensitivity and joint spectral operating point. Next we conducted simulations and experiments to determine sensitivity and limit of detection for more conventional dispersive SAW devices and PnC sensors. Finally, we conducted extensive ozone detection trials on passive reflection mode SAW devices, using distinct components of the time dispersed response to compensate for the effect of temperature. The experimental work revealed that the devices may be used for dosimetry applications over periods of several days.
Nonlinear phononics using atomically thin membranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Midtvedt, Daniel; Isacsson, Andreas; Croy, Alexander
2014-09-01
Phononic crystals and acoustic metamaterials are used to tailor phonon and sound propagation properties by utilizing artificial, periodic structures. Analogous to photonic crystals, phononic band gaps can be created, which influence wave propagation and, more generally, allow engineering of the acoustic properties of a system. Beyond that, nonlinear phenomena in periodic structures have been extensively studied in photonic crystals and atomic Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices. However, creating nonlinear phononic crystals or nonlinear acoustic metamaterials remains challenging and only few examples have been demonstrated. Here, we show that atomically thin and periodically pinned membranes support coupled localized modes with nonlinear dynamics. The proposed system provides a platform for investigating nonlinear phononics.
Photo-excited charge carriers suppress sub-terahertz phonon mode in silicon at room temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, Bolin; Maznev, A. A.; Nelson, Keith A.; Chen, Gang
2016-10-01
There is a growing interest in the mode-by-mode understanding of electron and phonon transport for improving energy conversion technologies, such as thermoelectrics and photovoltaics. Whereas remarkable progress has been made in probing phonon-phonon interactions, it has been a challenge to directly measure electron-phonon interactions at the single-mode level, especially their effect on phonon transport above cryogenic temperatures. Here we use three-pulse photoacoustic spectroscopy to investigate the damping of a single sub-terahertz coherent phonon mode by free charge carriers in silicon at room temperature. Building on conventional pump-probe photoacoustic spectroscopy, we introduce an additional laser pulse to optically generate charge carriers, and carefully design temporal sequence of the three pulses to unambiguously quantify the scattering rate of a single-phonon mode due to the electron-phonon interaction. Our results confirm predictions from first-principles simulations and indicate the importance of the often-neglected effect of electron-phonon interaction on phonon transport in doped semiconductors.
Mante, Pierre-Adrien; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Yartsev, Arkady
2017-01-01
Despite the great amount of attention CH3NH3PbI3 has received for its solar cell application, intrinsic properties of this material are still largely unknown. Mobility of charges is a quintessential property in this aspect; however, there is still no clear understanding of electron transport, as reported values span over three orders of magnitude. Here we develop a method to measure the electron and hole deformation potentials using coherent acoustic phonons generated by femtosecond laser pulses. We apply this method to characterize a CH3NH3PbI3 single crystal. We measure the acoustic phonon properties and characterize electron-acoustic phonon scattering. Then, using the deformation potential theory, we calculate the carrier intrinsic mobility and compare it to the reported experimental and theoretical values. Our results reveal high electron and hole mobilities of 2,800 and 9,400 cm2 V−1 s−1, respectively. Comparison with literature values of mobility demonstrates the potential role played by polarons in charge transport in CH3NH3PbI3. PMID:28176755
Mante, Pierre-Adrien; Stoumpos, Constantinos C; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G; Yartsev, Arkady
2017-02-08
Despite the great amount of attention CH3NH3PbI3 has received for its solar cell application, intrinsic properties of this material are still largely unknown. Mobility of charges is a quintessential property in this aspect; however, there is still no clear understanding of electron transport, as reported values span over three orders of magnitude. Here we develop a method to measure the electron and hole deformation potentials using coherent acoustic phonons generated by femtosecond laser pulses. We apply this method to characterize a CH3NH3PbI3 single crystal. We measure the acoustic phonon properties and characterize electron-acoustic phonon scattering. Then, using the deformation potential theory, we calculate the carrier intrinsic mobility and compare it to the reported experimental and theoretical values. Our results reveal high electron and hole mobilities of 2,800 and 9,400 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), respectively. Comparison with literature values of mobility demonstrates the potential role played by polarons in charge transport in CH3NH3PbI3.
Mante, Pierre-Adrien; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; ...
2017-02-08
The intrinsic properties of CH3NH3PbI3 are still largely unknown in spite of the great amount of attention it has received for its solar cell application. Mobility of charges is a quintessential property in this aspect; however, there is still no clear understanding of electron transport, as reported values span over three orders of magnitude. Here we develop a method to measure the electron and hole deformation potentials using coherent acoustic phonons generated by femtosecond laser pulses. Furthermore, we apply this method to characterize a CH3NH3PbI3 single crystal.We measure the acoustic phonon properties and characterize electron-acoustic phonon scattering. Then, using themore » deformation potential theory, we calculate the carrier intrinsic mobility and compare it to the reported experimental and theoretical values. These results reveal high electron and hole mobilities of 2,800 and 9,400 cm2V-1 s -1 , respectively. Comparison with literature values of mobility demonstrates the potential role played by polarons in charge transport in CH3NH3PbI3.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mante, Pierre-Adrien; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Yartsev, Arkady
2017-02-01
Despite the great amount of attention CH3NH3PbI3 has received for its solar cell application, intrinsic properties of this material are still largely unknown. Mobility of charges is a quintessential property in this aspect; however, there is still no clear understanding of electron transport, as reported values span over three orders of magnitude. Here we develop a method to measure the electron and hole deformation potentials using coherent acoustic phonons generated by femtosecond laser pulses. We apply this method to characterize a CH3NH3PbI3 single crystal. We measure the acoustic phonon properties and characterize electron-acoustic phonon scattering. Then, using the deformation potential theory, we calculate the carrier intrinsic mobility and compare it to the reported experimental and theoretical values. Our results reveal high electron and hole mobilities of 2,800 and 9,400 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. Comparison with literature values of mobility demonstrates the potential role played by polarons in charge transport in CH3NH3PbI3.
Acoustic beam splitting at low GHz frequencies in a defect-free phononic crystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Yuning; Brick, Delia; Großmann, Martin; Hettich, Mike; Dekorsy, Thomas
2017-01-01
The directional waveguiding in a 2D phononic crystal is simulated based on the analysis of equifrequency contours. This approach is utilized to investigate acoustic beam splitting in a defect-free nanostructure in the low GHz range. We find relaxed limitations regarding the source parameters compared to similar approaches in the sonic regime. Finally, we discuss the possibility to design an acoustic interferometer device at the nanoscale at GHz frequencies.
Dexterous acoustic trapping and patterning of particles assisted by phononic crystal plate
Wang, Tian; Ke, Manzhu Xu, Shengjun; Feng, Junheng; Qiu, Chunyin; Liu, Zhengyou
2015-04-20
In this letter, we present experimental demonstration of multi-particles trapping and patterning by the artificially engineered acoustic field of phononic crystal plate. Polystyrene particles are precisely trapped and patterned in two dimensional arrays, for example, the square, triangular, or quasi-periodic arrays, depending on the structures of the phononic crystal plates with varying sub-wavelength holes array. Analysis shows that the enhanced acoustic radiation force, induced by the resonant transmission field highly localized near the sub-wavelength apertures, accounts for the particles self-organizing. It can be envisaged that this kind of simple design of phononic crystal plates would pave an alternative route for self-assembly of particles and may be utilized in the lab-on-a-chip devices.
Acoustic phonon dynamics in strained cubic and hexagonal GaN/Al2O3 superlattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sesion, P. D., Jr.; Albuquerque, E. L.; Vasconcelos, M. S.; Mauriz, P. W.; Freire, V. N.
2006-06-01
We study the acoustic-phonon spectra in periodic and quasiperiodic (Fibonacci type) superlattices made up from III V nitride materials (GaN) intercalated by sapphire (Al2O3). Due to the misalignments between the sapphire and the GaN layers that can lead to threading dislocation densities as high as 108-1010 cm-1, and a significant lattice mismatch (~14%), the phonon dynamics is described beyond the continuum elastic model using coupled elastic and electromagnetic equations, stressing the importance of the piezoelectric polarization field in a strained condition. We use a transfer-matrix treatment to simplify the algebra, which would be otherwise quite complicated, allowing a neat analytical expressions for the phonon dispersion relation. Furthermore, a quantitative analysis of the localization and magnitude of the allowed band widths in the phonon's spectra, as well as their scale law and the parametric spectrum of singularities f(α), are presented and discussed.
Observation of induced longitudinal and shear acoustic phonons by Brillouin scattering.
Yoshida, Taisuke; Matsukawa, Mami; Yanagitani, Takahiko
2011-06-01
To improve the accuracy of velocity measurements in the Brillouin scattering technique using weak thermal phonons, we have used induced coherent phonons, which intensify the scattering. To induce phonons in the gigahertz range, we used a c-axis tilted ZnO film transducer that was developed in our laboratory. This allowed us to induce longitudinal and shear acoustic phonons effectively at hypersonic frequencies. As a result, we obtained scattered light in the silica glass sample that was much more intense than that obtained from the thermal phonons. Because the Brillouin scattering from induced phonons was measured, the shift frequency was that of the electric signal applied to the ZnO transducer. Strong peaks lead to a reduction of the measurement time. This is useful for two-dimensional mapping of thin film elasticity using Brillouin scattering. Additionally, Brillouin scattering enables the simultaneous measurement of longitudinal and shear phonon velocities in the sample plane. This opens up a potential new technique for non-destructive elasticity measurements of various materials.
Photo-excited charge carriers suppress sub-terahertz phonon mode in silicon at room temperature
Liao, Bolin; Maznev, A. A.; Nelson, Keith A.; Chen, Gang
2016-01-01
There is a growing interest in the mode-by-mode understanding of electron and phonon transport for improving energy conversion technologies, such as thermoelectrics and photovoltaics. Whereas remarkable progress has been made in probing phonon–phonon interactions, it has been a challenge to directly measure electron–phonon interactions at the single-mode level, especially their effect on phonon transport above cryogenic temperatures. Here we use three-pulse photoacoustic spectroscopy to investigate the damping of a single sub-terahertz coherent phonon mode by free charge carriers in silicon at room temperature. Building on conventional pump–probe photoacoustic spectroscopy, we introduce an additional laser pulse to optically generate charge carriers, and carefully design temporal sequence of the three pulses to unambiguously quantify the scattering rate of a single-phonon mode due to the electron–phonon interaction. Our results confirm predictions from first-principles simulations and indicate the importance of the often-neglected effect of electron–phonon interaction on phonon transport in doped semiconductors. PMID:27731406
Design of acoustic beam aperture modifier using gradient-index phononic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Tittmann, Bernhard R.; Huang, Tony Jun
2012-06-01
This article reports the design concept of a novel acoustic beam aperture modifier using butt-jointed gradient-index phononic crystals (GRIN PCs) consisting of steel cylinders embedded in a homogeneous epoxy background. By gradually tuning the period of a GRIN PC, the propagating direction of acoustic waves can be continuously bent to follow a sinusoidal trajectory in the structure. The aperture of an acoustic beam can therefore be shrunk or expanded through change of the gradient refractive index profiles of the butt-jointed GRIN PCs. Our computational results elucidate the effectiveness of the proposed acoustic beam aperture modifier. Such an acoustic device can be fabricated through a simple process and will be valuable in applications, such as biomedical imaging and surgery, nondestructive evaluation, communication, and acoustic absorbers.
Peculiar transmission property of acoustic waves in a one-dimensional layered phononic crystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Degang; Wang, Wengang; Liu, Zhengyou; Shi, Jing; Wen, Weijia
2007-03-01
In this article, we report both theoretical calculation and experimental observation of acoustic waves abnormally through a one-dimensional layered transmitted phononic crystal at frequencies within the band gap into a material of large acoustic impedance mismatch, with an efficiency as high as unity. The transmission peaks can be interpreted as a result of the interference of acoustic waves reflected from all periodically aligned interfaces. The condition for the appearance of peaks is analyzed in detail and the optimized layer number is given for different configurations.
Role of acoustic phonons in frequency dependent electronic thermal conductivity of graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhalla, Pankaj
2017-03-01
We study the effect of the electron-phonon interaction on the finite frequency dependent electronic thermal conductivity of two dimensional graphene. We calculate it for various acoustic phonons present in graphene and characterized by different dispersion relations using the memory function approach. It is found that the electronic thermal conductivity κe (T) in the zero frequency limit follows different power law for the longitudinal/transverse and the flexural acoustic phonons. For the longitudinal/transverse phonons, κe (T) ∼T-1 at the low temperature and saturates at the high temperature. These signatures qualitatively agree with the results calculated by solving the Boltzmann equation analytically and numerically. Similarly, for the flexural phonons, we find that κe (T) shows T 1 / 2 law at the low temperature and then saturates at the high temperature. In the finite frequency regime, we observe that the real part of the electronic thermal conductivity, Re [κe (ω , T) ] follows ω-2 behavior at the low frequency and becomes frequency independent at the high frequency.
Phonon dispersion in hypersonic two-dimensional phononic crystal membranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Graczykowski, B.; Sledzinska, M.; Alzina, F.; Gomis-Bresco, J.; Reparaz, J. S.; Wagner, M. R.; Sotomayor Torres, C. M.
2015-02-01
We investigate experimentally and theoretically the acoustic phonon propagation in two-dimensional phononic crystal membranes. Solid-air and solid-solid phononic crystals were made of square lattices of holes and Au pillars in and on 250 nm thick single crystalline Si membrane, respectively. The hypersonic phonon dispersion was investigated using Brillouin light scattering. Volume reduction (holes) or mass loading (pillars) accompanied with second-order periodicity and local resonances are shown to significantly modify the propagation of thermally activated GHz phonons. We use numerical modeling based on the finite element method to analyze the experimental results and determine polarization, symmetry, or three-dimensional localization of observed modes.
Observing backfolded and unfolded acoustic phonons by broadband optical light scattering.
Maerten, L; Bojahr, A; Bargheer, M
2015-02-01
We use broadband time domain Brillouin scattering to observe coherently generated phonon modes in bulk and nanolayered samples. We transform the measured transients into a frequency-wavevector diagram and compare the resulting dispersion relations to calculations. The detected oscillation amplitude depends on the occupation of phonon modes induced by the pump pulse. For nanolayered samples with an appropriately large period, the whole wavevector range of the Brillouin zone becomes observable by broadband optical light scattering. The backfolded modes vanish, when the excitation has passed the nanolayers and propagates through the substrate underneath.
Acoustic phonon propagation in ultra-thin Si membranes under biaxial stress field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Graczykowski, B.; Gomis-Bresco, J.; Alzina, F.; Reparaz, J. S.; Shchepetov, A.; Prunnila, M.; Ahopelto, J.; Sotomayor Torres, C. M.
2014-07-01
We report on stress induced changes in the dispersion relations of acoustic phonons propagating in 27 nm thick single crystalline Si membranes. The static tensile stress (up to 0.3 GPa) acting on the Si membranes was achieved using an additional strain compensating silicon nitride frame. Dispersion relations of thermally activated hypersonic phonons were measured by means of Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy. The theory of Lamb wave propagation is developed for anisotropic materials subjected to an external static stress field. The dispersion relations were calculated using the elastic continuum approximation and taking into account the acousto-elastic effect. We find an excellent agreement between the theoretical and the experimental dispersion relations.
Decoupling of multiple coupled phononic crystal waveguides: application to acoustic demultiplexing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zou, Qiushun; Liu, Wenxing; Yu, Tianbao; Liu, Nianhua; Wang, Tongbiao; Liao, Qinghua
2017-03-01
We show that the decoupling of two coupled phononic crystal waveguides (PnCWs) by a proper design can be achieved. And this decoupling property can be extended to the coupling of any number of parallel coupled PnCWs. The acoustic wavelength for decoupling is insensitive to the number of coupled PnCWs. Decoupling induces the extinction of neighbor PnCWs’ power transfer and makes the design of compact acoustic components easier. As a possible application of our work, a new kind of 1-to-2 acoustic demultiplexers are numerically demonstrated by employing the decoupling at the crossing-point frequency in two and three coupled PnCWs. This design concept provides a novel method and compact model for acoustic demultiplexing and can present practical applications in future acoustic wave circuits.
Persson, A. I. H.; Andreasson, B. P.; Enquist, H.; Jurgilaitis, A.; Larsson, J.
2015-11-14
The spectrum of laser-generated acoustic phonons in indium antimonide coated with a thin nickel film has been studied using time-resolved x-ray diffraction. Strain pulses that can be considered to be built up from coherent phonons were generated in the nickel film by absorption of short laser pulses. Acoustic reflections at the Ni–InSb interface leads to interference that strongly modifies the resulting phonon spectrum. The study was performed with high momentum transfer resolution together with high time resolution. This was achieved by using a third-generation synchrotron radiation source that provided a high-brightness beam and an ultrafast x-ray streak camera to obtain a temporal resolution of 10 ps. We also carried out simulations, using commercial finite element software packages and on-line dynamic diffraction tools. Using these tools, it is possible to calculate the time-resolved x-ray reflectivity from these complicated strain shapes. The acoustic pulses have a peak strain amplitude close to 1%, and we investigated the possibility to use this device as an x-ray switch. At a bright source optimized for hard x-ray generation, the low reflectivity may be an acceptable trade-off to obtain a pulse duration that is more than an order of magnitude shorter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Gang
In this talk, we will discuss different modes of heat conduction in nanostructures. Ballistic transport happens when phonon mean free path is longer than the characteristic size of the structure. We will discuss how we compute phonon mean free path distributions based on first-principles and measure the distributions with optical pump-probe techniques by exploring ballistic phonon transport processes. In superlattice structures, ballistic phonon transport across the whole thickness of the superlattices implies phase coherence. We observed this coherent transport in GaAs/AlAs superlattices with fixed periodic thickness and varying number of periods. Simulations show that although high frequency phonons are scattering by roughness, remaining long wavelength phonons maintain their phase and traverse the superlattices ballistically. Accessing the coherent heat conduction regime opens a new venue for phonon engineering. We show further that phonon heat conduction localization happens in GaAs/AlAs superlattice by placing ErAs nanodots at interfaces. This heat-conduction localization phenomenon is confirmed by nonequilibrium atomic Green's function simulation. These ballistic and localization effects can be exploited to improve thermoelectric energy conversion materials via reducing their thermal conductivity. In another opposite, we will discuss phonon hydrodynamic transport mode in graphene via first-principle simulations. In this mode, phonons drift with an average velocity under a temperature gradient, similar to fluid flow in a pipe. Conditions for observing such phonon hydrodynamic modes will be discussed. Finally, we will talk about the one-dimensional nature of heat conduction in polymer chains. Such 1D nature can lead to divergent thermal conductivity. Inspired by simulation, we have experimentally demonstrated high thermal conductivity in ultra-drawn polyethylene nanofibers and sheets. Work supported by DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number: DE
Parshall, D.; Pintschovius, L.; Niedziela, Jennifer L.; ...
2015-04-27
Pmore » arent compounds of Fe-based superconductors undergo a structural phase transition from a tetragonal to an orthorhombic structure. We investigated the temperature dependence of the frequencies of TA phonons that extrapolate to the shear vibrational mode at the zone center, which corresponds to the orthorhombic deformation of the crystal structure at low temperatures in BaFe2As2 and SrFe2As2. We found that acoustic phonons at small wave vectors soften gradually towards the transition from high temperatures, tracking the increase of the size of slowly fluctuating magnetic domains. On cooling below the transition to base temperature the phonons harden, following the square of the magnetic moment (which we find is proportional to the anisotropy gap). Finally, our results provide evidence for close correlation between magnetic and phonon properties in Fe-based superconductors.« less
Long-Lived, Coherent Acoustic Phonon Oscillations in GaN Single Crystals
Wu, S.; Geiser, P.; Jun, J.; Karpinski, J.; Park, J.-R.; Sobolewski, R.
2006-01-31
We report on coherent acoustic phonon (CAP) oscillations studied in high-quality bulk GaN single crystals with a two-color femtosecond optical pump-probe technique. Using a far-above-the-band gap ultraviolet excitation (~270 nm wavelength) and a near-infrared probe beam (~810 nm wavelength), the long-lived, CAP transients were observed within a 10 ns time-delay window between the pump and probe pulses, with a dispersionless (proportional to the probe-beam wave vector) frequency of ~45 GHz. The measured CAP attenuation corresponded directly to the absorption of the probe light in bulk GaN, indicating that the actual (intrinsic) phonon-wave attenuation in our crystals was significantly smaller than the measured 65.8 cm^-1 value. The velocity of the phonon propagation was equal to the velocity of sound in GaN.
Leguy, Aurélien M A; Goñi, Alejandro R; Frost, Jarvist M; Skelton, Jonathan; Brivio, Federico; Rodríguez-Martínez, Xabier; Weber, Oliver J; Pallipurath, Anuradha; Alonso, M Isabel; Campoy-Quiles, Mariano; Weller, Mark T; Nelson, Jenny; Walsh, Aron; Barnes, Piers R F
2016-10-21
We present Raman and terahertz absorbance spectra of methylammonium lead halide single crystals (MAPbX3, X = I, Br, Cl) at temperatures between 80 and 370 K. These results show good agreement with density-functional-theory phonon calculations. Comparison of experimental spectra and calculated vibrational modes enables confident assignment of most of the vibrational features between 50 and 3500 cm(-1). Reorientation of the methylammonium cations, unlocked in their cavities at the orthorhombic-to-tetragonal phase transition, plays a key role in shaping the vibrational spectra of the different compounds. Calculations show that these dynamic effects split Raman peaks and create more structure than predicted from the independent harmonic modes. This explains the presence of extra peaks in the experimental spectra that have been a source of confusion in earlier studies. We discuss singular features, in particular the torsional vibration of the C-N axis, which is the only molecular mode that is strongly influenced by the size of the lattice. From analysis of the spectral linewidths, we find that MAPbI3 shows exceptionally short phonon lifetimes, which can be linked to low lattice thermal conductivity. We show that optical rather than acoustic phonon scattering is likely to prevail at room temperature in these materials.
Acoustic beam splitting in two-dimensional phononic crystals using self-collimation effect
Li, Jing; Wu, Fugen Zhong, Huilin; Yao, Yuanwei; Zhang, Xin
2015-10-14
We propose two models of self-collimation-based beam splitters in phononic crystals. The finite element method is used to investigate the propagation properties of acoustic waves in two-dimensional phononic crystals. The calculated results show that the efficiency of the beam splitter can be controlled systematically by varying the radius of the rods or by changing the orientation of the square rods in the line defect. The effect of changing the side length of the square rods on acoustic wave propagation is discussed. The results show that the total transmission/reflection range decreases/increases as the side length increases. We also find that the relationship between the orientation of the transflective point and the side length of the square rods is quasi-linear.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Hwi Suk; Yoon, Suk Wang; Lee, Kang Il
2017-02-01
In the present study, we experimentally and theoretically demonstrated anomalous negative reflection of acoustic waves obliquely incident upon the boundary of a two-dimensional phononic crystal (PC) consisting of periodic square arrays of stainless-steel cylinders immersed in water. The angular spectrogram showing the frequency as a function of the angle was measured for the reflection from the PC when the incidence angle of the sound beam was fixed to be 20°. To understand the negative reflection from the PC, we considered the boundary of the PC to behave as an acoustic diffraction grating, and we calculated the acoustic pressure fields at specific frequencies of interest by using the finite element method. We found that the grating law could be successfully applied to the boundary of the PC in order to determine the direction of the acoustic waves diffracted in water.
Intrinsic coherent acoustic phonons in the indirect band gap semiconductors Si and GaP
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishioka, Kunie; Rustagi, Avinash; Höfer, Ulrich; Petek, Hrvoje; Stanton, Christopher J.
2017-01-01
We report on the intrinsic optical generation and detection of coherent acoustic phonons at (001)-oriented bulk Si and GaP without metallic phonon transducer structures. Photoexcitation by a 3.1-eV laser pulse generates a normal strain pulse within the ˜100 -nm penetration depth in both semiconductors. The subsequent propagation of the strain pulse into the bulk is detected with a delayed optical probe as a periodic modulation of the optical reflectivity. Our theoretical model explains quantitatively the generation of the acoustic pulse via the deformation potential electron-phonon coupling and detection in terms of the spatially and temporally dependent photoelastic effect for both semiconductors. Comparison with our theoretical model reveals that the experimental strain pulses have finite buildup times of 1.2 and 0.4 ps for GaP and Si, which are comparable with the time required for the photoexcited electrons to transfer to the lowest X valley through intervalley scattering. The deformation potential coupling related to the acoustic pulse generation for GaP is estimated to be twice as strong as that for Si from our experiments, in agreement with a previous theoretical prediction.
An informatics based analysis of the impact of isotope substitution on phonon modes in graphene
Broderick, Scott; Srinivasan, Srikant; Rajan, Krishna; Ray, Upamanyu; Balasubramanian, Ganesh
2014-06-16
It is shown by informatics that the high frequency short ranged modes exert a significant influence in impeding thermal transport through isotope substituted graphene nanoribbons. Using eigenvalue decomposition methods, we have extracted features in the phonon density of states spectra that reveal correlations between isotope substitution and phonon modes. This study also provides a data driven computational framework for the linking of materials chemistry and transport properties in 2D systems.
Wave propagation and acoustic band gaps of two-dimensional liquid crystal/solid phononic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oltulu, Oral; Mamedov, Amirullah M.; Ozbay, Ekmel
2017-01-01
The vast majority of acoustic wave propagation in phononic band studies has been usually carried out by scattering inclusions embedded in a viscoelastic medium, such as air or water. In this study, we present calculated band structure results for the two-dimensional square array geometry of a solid cylindrical scatterer surrounded by a liquid crystal (LC) matrix. Liquid crystals provide a unique combination of liquid-like and crystal-like properties as well as anisotropic properties. The purpose of using LC material is to take advantage of longitudinal acoustic waves propagating parallel (||) and perpendicular (⊥) to the nematic liquid crystal (NLC) director n. The compound used in this study was a room temperature NLC, called 5CB (4-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl). The acoustic band structure of a two-dimensional phononic crystal containing a 5CB NLC and lithium tantalate was investigated by the plane wave expansion method. The theoretical results show that the solid/LC system can be tuned in a favorable configuration for adjusting or shifting acoustic band gaps.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Binci, L.; Tu, C.; Zhu, H.; Lee, J. E.-Y.
2016-11-01
We report the use of planar ring-shaped phononic crystals (PnCs) as anchor boundaries of very-high-frequency band piezoelectric-on-silicon Lamb mode resonators for the purpose of enhancing their quality factor (Q). Here, we exploit the acoustic bandgap associated with the PnC anchoring boundaries to reduce acoustic energy leakage out of the micromechanical resonator. The proposed approach provides greater mechanical robustness (by merit of interlocking the cells in a matrix) and the possibility of electrical routing through the PnC cells. We experimentally show enhancements in Q by a factor of three using the proposed approach of hybridizing planar ring-shaped PnCs with micromechanical resonators. The effect of these PnCs on resonator Q is further corroborated by their effects in suppressing transmission when incorporated into a delay line.
Goryachev, M.; Creedon, D. L.; Ivanov, E. N.; Tobar, M. E.; Galliou, S.; Bourquin, R.
2014-12-04
We demonstrate that Bulk Acoustic Wave (BAW) quartz resonator cooled down to millikelvin temperatures are excellent building blocks for hybrid quantum systems with extremely long coherence times. Two overtones of the longitudinal mode at frequencies of 15.6 and 65.4 MHz demonstrate a maximum f.Q product of 7.8×10{sup 16} Hz. With this result, the Q-factor in such devices near the quantum ground state can be four orders of magnitude better than previously attained in other mechanical systems. Tested quartz resonators possess the ultra low acoustic losses crucial for electromagnetic cooling to the phonon ground state.
Acoustic phonons in chrysotile asbestos probed by high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering
Mamontov, Eugene; Vakhrushev, S. B.; Kumzerov, Yu. A,; Alatas, A.
2009-01-01
Acoustic phonons in an individual, oriented fiber of chrysotile asbestos (chemical formula Mg{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}) were observed at room temperature in the inelastic x-ray measurement with a very high (meV) resolution. The x-ray scattering vector was aligned along [1 0 0] direction of the reciprocal lattice, nearly parallel to the long axis of the fiber. The latter coincides with [1 0 0] direction of the direct lattice and the axes of the nano-channels. The data were analyzed using a damped harmonic oscillator model. Analysis of the phonon dispersion in the first Brillouin zone yielded the longitudinal sound velocity of (9200 {+-} 600) m/s.
Enhanced electron-phonon coupling for a semiconductor charge qubit in a surface phonon cavity
Chen, J. C. H.; Sato, Y.; Kosaka, R.; Hashisaka, M.; Muraki, K.; Fujisawa, T.
2015-01-01
Electron-phonon coupling is a major decoherence mechanism, which often causes scattering and energy dissipation in semiconductor electronic systems. However, this electron-phonon coupling may be used in a positive way for reaching the strong or ultra-strong coupling regime in an acoustic version of the cavity quantum electrodynamic system. Here we propose and demonstrate a phonon cavity for surface acoustic waves, which is made of periodic metal fingers that constitute Bragg reflectors on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. Phonon band gap and cavity phonon modes are identified by frequency, time and spatially resolved measurements of the piezoelectric potential. Tunneling spectroscopy on a double quantum dot indicates the enhancement of phonon assisted transitions in a charge qubit. This encourages studying of acoustic cavity quantum electrodynamics with surface phonons. PMID:26469629
Coherent longitudinal acoustic phonons in three-dimensional supracrystals of cobalt nanocrystals.
Lisiecki, Isabelle; Polli, Dario; Yan, Cong; Soavi, Giancarlo; Duval, Eugène; Cerullo, Giulio; Pileni, Marie-Paule
2013-10-09
We use broadband picosecond acoustics to detect longitudinal acoustic phonons with few-gigahertz frequency in three-dimensional supracrystals (with face-centered cubic lattice) of 7 nm cobalt nanocrystal spheres. In full analogy with atomic crystals, where longitudinal acoustic phonons propagate with the speed of sound through coherent movements of atoms of the lattice out of their equilibrium positions, in these supracrystals atoms are replaced by (uncompressible) nanocrystals and atomic bonds by coating agents (carbon chains) that act like mechanical springs holding together the nanocrystals. By repeating the measurements at different laser angles of incidence it was possible to accurately determine both the index of refraction of the supracrystal (n = 1.26 ± 0.03) and the room-temperature longitudinal speed of sound (v(s)= 1235 ± 12 m/s), which is quite low due to the heavy weight of the spheres (with respect to atoms in a crystal) and the soft carbon chains (with respect to atomic bonds). Interestingly, the speed of sound inside the supracrystal was found to dramatically increase by decreasing the sample temperature due to a change in the stiffness of the dodecanoic acid chains which coat the Co nanocrystals.
The effects of substrate phonon mode scattering on transport in carbon nanotubes.
Perebeinos, Vasili; Rotkin, Slava V; Petrov, Alexey G; Avouris, Phaedon
2009-01-01
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have large intrinsic carrier mobility due to weak acoustic phonon scattering. However, unlike two-dimensional metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs), substrate surface polar phonon (SPP) scattering has a dramatic effect on the CNTFET mobility, due to the reduced vertical dimensions of the latter. We find that for the van der Waals distance between CNT and an SiO2 substrate, the low-field mobility at room temperature is reduced by almost an order of magnitude depending on the tube diameter. We predict additional experimental signatures of the SPP mechanism in dependence of the mobility on density, temperature, tube diameter, and CNT-substrate separation.
Pandya, Ankur; Shinde, Satyam; Jha, Prafulla K.
2015-05-15
In this paper the hot electron transport properties like carrier energy and momentum scattering rates and electron energy loss rates are calculated via interactions of electrons with polar acoustical phonons for Mn doped BN quantum well in BN nanosheets via piezoelectric scattering and deformation potential mechanisms at low temperatures with high electric field. Electron energy loss rate increases with the electric field. It is observed that at low temperatures and for low electric field the phonon absorption is taking place whereas, for sufficient large electric field, phonon emission takes place. Under the piezoelectric (polar acoustical phonon) scattering mechanism, the carrier scattering rate decreases with the reduction of electric field at low temperatures wherein, the scattering rate variation with electric field is limited by a specific temperature beyond which there is no any impact of electric field on such scattering.
Dual-mode acoustic wave biosensors microarrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Auner, Gregory W.; Shreve, Gina; Ying, Hao; Newaz, Golam; Hughes, Chantelle; Xu, Jianzeng
2003-04-01
We have develop highly sensitive and selective acoustic wave biosensor arrays with signal analysis systems to provide a fingerprint for the real-time identification and quantification of a wide array of bacterial pathogens and environmental health hazards. We have developed an unique highly sensitive dual mode acoustic wave platform prototype that, when combined with phage based selective detection elements, form a durable bacteria sensor. Arrays of these new real-time biosensors are integrated to form a biosensor array on a chip. This research and development program optimizes advanced piezoelectric aluminum nitride wide bandgap semiconductors, novel micromachining processes, advanced device structures, selective phage displays development and immobilization techniques, and system integration and signal analysis technology to develop the biosensor arrays. The dual sensor platform can be programmed to sense in a gas, vapor or liquid environment by switching between acoustic wave resonate modes. Such a dual mode sensor has tremendous implications for applications involving monitoring of pathogenic microorganisms in the clinical setting due to their ability to detect airborne pathogens. This provides a number of applications including hospital settings such as intensive care or other in-patient wards for the reduction of nosocomial infections and maintenance of sterile environments in surgical suites. Monitoring for airborn pathogen transmission in public transportation areas such as airplanes may be useful for implementation of strategies for redution of airborn transmission routes. The ability to use the same sensor in the liquid sensing mode is important for tracing the source of airborn pathogens to local liquid sources. Sensing of pathogens in saliva will be useful for sensing oral pathogens and support of decision-making strategies regarding prevention of transmission and support of treatment strategies.
Longitudinal phonon modes in a ZnSe/ZnS(x)Se(1-x) lattice-mismatched superlattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Hua; Jiang, S. S.; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, X. K.; Guan, Z. P.; Fan, X. W.
1994-11-01
Longitudinal acoustic and optical phonon modes of a ZnSe/ZnS(x)Se(1-x) (x approximately equals 0.20) lattice-mismatched superlattice, prepared with atmospheric metal organic chemical vapor deposition method, have been investigated by light scattering measurements. Despite a lattice mismatch as large as 1% between the alternating layers, the measured longitudinal elastic constants are in agreement with the calculated values of an unstrained effective medium model. Furthermore, a correlative study was made by fitting the spectra to a spatial correlation model, which reproduces line shapes of the observed confined longitudinal-optical modes without incorporating the strain effects. The results demonstrate that a combination of Brillouin and Raman spectroscopy provides a good method to determine accurately the elastic constants and strain information of the lattice-mismatched superlattices and heterostructures.
Phonon modes at the 2H-NbSe2 surface observed by grazing incidence inelastic x-ray scattering.
Murphy, B M; Requardt, H; Stettner, J; Serrano, J; Krisch, M; Müller, M; Press, W
2005-12-16
We have determined the dispersion of acoustic and optical surface phonon modes 2H-NbSe2 at the by inelastic x-ray scattering under grazing incidence conditions. Already, at room temperature, an anomaly is observed close to the charge density wave -vector position located at about one-third along the Gamma-M direction of the Brillouin zone. Our results indicate that the anomaly for the surface mode occurs at a lower energy than that measured in bulk sensitive geometry in the same experiment, showing evidence of a modified behavior in the uppermost layers. We demonstrate that inelastic x-ray scattering in grazing incidence conditions provides a unique tool to selectively study either surface or bulk lattice dynamics in a single experiment.
Controlled exciton transfer between quantum dots with acoustic phonons taken into account
Golovinski, P. A.
2015-09-15
A system of excitons in two quantum dots coupled by the dipole–dipole interaction is investigated. The excitation transfer process controlled by the optical Stark effect at nonresonant frequencies is considered and the effect of the interaction between excitons and acoustic phonons in a medium on this process is taken into account. The system evolution is described using quantum Heisenberg equations. A truncated set of equations is obtained and the transfer dynamics is numerically simulated. High-efficiency picosecond switching of the excitation transfer by a laser pulse with a rectangular envelope is demonstrated. The dependence of picosecond switching on the quantum-dot parameters and optical-pulse length is presented.
Tunneling times of acoustic phonon packets through a distributed Bragg reflector
2014-01-01
The longwave phenomenological model is used to make simple and precise calculations of various physical quantities such as the vibrational energy density, the vibrational energy, the relative mechanical displacement, and the one-dimensional stress tensor of a porous silicon distributed Bragg reflector. From general principles such as invariance under time reversal, invariance under space reflection, and conservation of energy density flux, the equivalence of the tunneling times for both transmission and reflection is demonstrated. Here, we study the tunneling times of acoustic phonon packets through a distributed Bragg reflector in porous silicon multilayer structures, and we report the possibility that a phenomenon called Hartman effect appears in these structures. PMID:25237288
Coherent acoustic phonon generation in GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x}
Joshya, R. S.; Kini, R. N.; Ptak, A. J.; France, R.; Mascarenhas, A.
2014-03-03
We have used femtosecond laser pulses to generate coherent acoustic phonons in the dilute Bismide alloy, GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x}. The observed oscillation periods match well with the oscillation periods calculated using the propagating strain pulse model. We attribute the generation process predominantly to electronic stress due to the absorption of the laser pulse at the surface of the GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} layer. Our initial estimates suggest that the incorporation of Bi in GaAs causes an enhancement of the hydrostatic deformation potential because of the resonant state in the valence band due to isolated Bi impurities.
Richardson, M.; Bhethanabotla, V. R.; Sankaranarayanan, S. K. R. S.
2014-06-23
Finite element simulations of a phononic shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor based on ST 90°-X Quartz reveal a dramatic reduction in power consumption. The phononic sensor is realized by artificially structuring the delay path to form an acoustic meta-material comprised of a periodic microcavity array incorporating high-density materials such as tantalum or tungsten. Constructive interference of the scattered and secondary reflected waves at every microcavity interface leads to acoustic energy confinement in the high-density regions translating into reduced power loss. Tantalum filled cavities show the best performance while tungsten inclusions create a phononic bandgap. Based on our simulation results, SAW devices with tantalum filled microcavities were fabricated and shown to significantly decrease insertion loss. Our findings offer encouraging prospects for designing low power, highly sensitive portable biosensors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hielscher, J.; Martinsons, M.; Schmiedeberg, M.; Kapfer, S. C.
2017-03-01
Phasons are additional degrees of freedom which occur in quasicrystals alongside the phonons known from conventional periodic crystals. The rearrangements of particles that are associated with a phason mode are hard to interpret in physical space. We reconstruct the quasicrystal structure by an embedding into extended higher-dimensional space, where phasons correspond to displacements perpendicular to the physical space. In dislocation-free decagonal colloidal quasicrystals annealed with Brownian dynamics simulations, we identify thermal phonon and phason modes. Finite phononic strain is pinned by phasonic excitations even after cooling down to zero temperature. For the phasonic displacements underlying the flip pattern, the reconstruction method gives an approximation within the limits of a multi-mode harmonic ansatz, and points to fundamental limitations of a harmonic picture for phasonic excitations in intrinsic colloidal quasicrystals.
Hielscher, J; Martinsons, M; Schmiedeberg, M; Kapfer, S C
2017-03-08
Phasons are additional degrees of freedom which occur in quasicrystals alongside the phonons known from conventional periodic crystals. The rearrangements of particles that are associated with a phason mode are hard to interpret in physical space. We reconstruct the quasicrystal structure by an embedding into extended higher-dimensional space, where phasons correspond to displacements perpendicular to the physical space. In dislocation-free decagonal colloidal quasicrystals annealed with Brownian dynamics simulations, we identify thermal phonon and phason modes. Finite phononic strain is pinned by phasonic excitations even after cooling down to zero temperature. For the phasonic displacements underlying the flip pattern, the reconstruction method gives an approximation within the limits of a multi-mode harmonic ansatz, and points to fundamental limitations of a harmonic picture for phasonic excitations in intrinsic colloidal quasicrystals.
Dynamic Jahn-Teller viewpoint for generation mechanism of asymmetric modes of coherent phonons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kayanuma, Yosuke; Nakamura, Kazutaka G.
2017-03-01
We propose a dynamic Jahn-Teller approach to elucidate the generation mechanism of asymmetric modes of coherent phonons induced in crystals by irradiation with a short optical pulse in the opaque energy region. This is a natural extension of the impulsive excitation model of symmetric modes to multi dimensions in the configuration coordinate space. We show that the two generation mechanisms of coherent phonons coexist in this case, namely the impulsive absorption (IA) mechanism and impulsive stimulated Raman scattering (ISRS) mechanism. The dependence of the phonon amplitude on the polarization of the pump pulse is exactly the same in IA and ISRS processes and is in agreement with the prediction of the argument based on Raman tensors. The dependence of the excitation efficiency of the coherent phonons on the frequency of the pump pulse is calculated using a simplified model of the optical response function of the crystal. Generally, the IA mechanism predominates in the opaque region, although ISRS makes a comparable contribution to phonon generation in the near-edge opaque region. The initial phase of the coherent phonon is always cosine-like in IA but depends on the excitation frequency in ISRS.
Surface acoustic waves in two dimensional phononic crystal with anisotropic inclusions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ketata, H.; Hédi Ben Ghozlen, M.
2012-06-01
An analysis is given to the band structure of the two dimensional solid phononic crystal considered as a semi infinite medium. The lattice includes an array of elastic anisotropic materials with different shapes embedded in a uniform matrix. For illustration two kinds of phononic materials are assumed. A particular attention is devoted to the computational procedure which is mainly based on the plane wave expansion (PWE) method. It has been adapted to Matlab environment. Numerical calculations of the dispersion curves have been achieved by introducing particular functions which transform motion equations into an Eigen value problem. Significant improvements are obtained by increasing reasonably the number of Fourier components even when a large elastic mismatch is assumed. Such approach can be generalized to different types of symmetry and permit new physical properties as piezoelectricity to be added. The actual semi infinite phononic structure with a free surface has been shown to support surface acoustic waves (SAW). The obtained dispersion curves reveal band gaps in the SAW branches. It has been found that the influence, of the filling factor and anisotropy on their band gaps, is different from that of bulk waves.
Mode-selective phonon excitation in gallium nitride using mid-infrared free-electron laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kagaya, Muneyuki; Yoshida, Kyohei; Zen, Heishun; Hachiya, Kan; Sagawa, Takashi; Ohgaki, Hideaki
2017-02-01
The single-phonon mode was selectively excited in a solid-state sample. A mid-infrared free-electron laser, which was tuned to the target phonon mode, was irradiated onto a crystal cooled to a cryogenic temperature, where modes other than the intended excitation were suppressed. An A 1(LO) vibrational mode excitation on GaN(0001) face was demonstrated. Anti-Stokes Raman scattering was used to observe the excited vibrational mode, and the appearance and disappearance of the scattering band at the target wavenumber were confirmed to correspond to on and off switching of the pump free-electron laser and were fixed to the sample vibrational mode. The sum-frequency generation signals of the pump and probe lasers overlapped the Raman signals and followed the wavenumber shift of the pump laser.
Morvan, B.; Tinel, A.; Sainidou, R.; Rembert, P.; Vasseur, J. O.; Hladky-Hennion, A.-C.; Swinteck, N.; Deymier, P. A.
2014-12-07
Phononic crystals (PC) can be used to control the dispersion properties of acoustic waves, which are essential to direct their propagation. We use a PC-based two-dimensional solid/solid composite to demonstrate experimentally and theoretically the spatial filtering of a monochromatic non-directional wave source and its emission in a surrounding water medium as an ultra-directional beam with narrow angular distribution. The phenomenon relies on square-shaped equifrequency contours (EFC) enabling self-collimation of acoustic waves within the phononic crystal. Additionally, the angular width of collimated beams is controlled via the EFC size-shrinking when increasing frequency.
Acoustic anomalies in Tb2(MoO4)3 and the "missing" A1 optic mode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fleury, P. A.; Lyons, K. B.; Katiyar, R. S.
1982-12-01
Anomalies in both the acoustic- and optic-phonon spectra associated with the ferroelectric and ferroelastic phase transition in terbium molybdate have been quantitatively measured by simultaneous Brillouin and Raman spectroscopy. The most striking singular behavior observed is the divergent damping of both the A1 optic phonon and the C11 acoustic phonon upon approach to T0 from below. T0 was determined to be 159°C for our sample by measurement of the pyroelectric response. The A1-mode frequency determined from the Raman spectrum shows little temperature dependence, while the C11 elastic constant determined from the Brillouin spectra decreases by about 60% between room temperature and T0. There is no evidence of a dynamic central peak. The observed anomalies in the acoustic velocity and damping are incompatible with a model based on bilinear coupling between the acoustic mode and the A1 mode seen in the Raman spectrum. However, a satisfactory account of all the experimental observations (including the anomalies in C~11 and C22) can be obtained by assuming the presence of a second A1 optic phonon with a negligible Raman scattering cross section. We note that the dynamic variables below T0 are not simply related to the distortion, as has often been assumed previously. On the basis of this model we use the acoustic velocities and damping to determine the frequency and damping parameters of this unseen mode. It is emphasized that the singular behavior of the damping of the observed A1 mode has yet to receive adequate theoretical explanation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Nansha; Wu, Jiu Hui; Yu, Lie; Hou, Hong
2016-06-01
This paper investigates ultralow frequency acoustic properties and energy recovery of tetragonal folding beam phononic crystal (TFBPC) and its complementary structure. The dispersion curve relationships, transmission spectra and displacement fields of the eigenmodes are studied with FEA in detail. Compared with the traditional three layer phononic crystal (PC) structure, this structure proposed in this paper not only unfold bandgaps (BGs) in lower frequency range (below 300 Hz), but also has lighter weight because of beam structural cracks. We analyze the relevant physical mechanism behind this phenomenon, and discuss the effects of the tetragonal folding beam geometric parameters on band structure maps. FEM proves that the multi-cell structures with different arrangements have different acoustic BGs when compared with single cell structure. Harmonic frequency response and piezoelectric properties of TFBPC are specifically analyzed. The results confirm that this structure does have the recovery ability for low frequency vibration energy in environment. These conclusions in this paper could be indispensable to PC practical applications such as BG tuning and could be applied in portable devices, wireless sensor, micro-electro mechanical systems which can recycle energy from vibration environment as its own energy supply.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhargavi, K. S.; Kubakaddi, S. S.
2016-09-01
The amplification coefficient α of acoustic phonons is theoretically investigated in a three-dimensional Dirac semimetal (3DDS) driven by a dc electric field E causing the drift of the electrons. It is numerically studied as a function of the frequency ωq, drift velocity vd, electron concentration ne, and temperature T in the Dirac semimetal Cd3As2. We find that the amplification of acoustic phonons (α ˜ hundreds of cm-1) takes place when the electron drift velocity vd is greater than the sound velocity vs. The amplification is found to occur at small E (˜few V/cm) due to large electron mobility. The frequency dependence of α shows amplification in the THz regime with a maximum αm occurring at the same frequency ωqm for different vd. The αm is found to increase with increasing vd. α vs ωq for different ne also shows a maximum, with αm shifting to higher ωq for larger ne. Each maximum is followed by a vanishing α at nearly "2kf cutoff," where kf is the Fermi wave vector. It is found that αm/ne and ωqm/ne1/3 are nearly constant. The αm ˜ ne can be used to identify the 3DDS phase as it differs from αm ˜ ne1/3 dependence in conventional bulk Cd3As2 semiconductor.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vuong, T. Q. P.; Cassabois, G.; Valvin, P.; Jacques, V.; Cuscó, R.; Artús, L.; Gil, B.
2017-01-01
We address the intrinsic optical properties of hexagonal boron nitride in deep ultraviolet. We show that the fine structure of the phonon replicas arises from overtones involving up to six low-energy interlayer shear modes. These lattice vibrations are specific to layered compounds since they correspond to the shear rigid motion between adjacent layers, with a characteristic energy of about 6-7 meV. We obtain a quantitative interpretation of the multiplet observed in each phonon replica under the assumption of a cumulative Gaussian broadening as a function of the overtone index, and with a phenomenological line broadening taken identical for all phonon types. We show from our quantitative interpretation of the full emission spectrum above 5.7 eV that the energy of the involved phonon mode is 6.8 ±0.5 meV, in excellent agreement with temperature-dependent Raman measurements of the low-energy interlayer shear mode in hexagonal boron nitride. We highlight the unusual properties of this material where the optical response is tailored by the phonon group velocities in the middle of the Brillouin zone.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andronikova, D. A.; Bronwald, I. A.; Burkovsky, R. G.; Leontiev, I. N.; Leontiev, N. G.; Bosak, A. A.; Filimonov, A. V.; Vakhrushev, S. B.
2016-11-01
Inelastic X-ray scattering measurements have been done to study the lattice dynamics in lead zirconate titanate solid solution with 0.7% of PbTiO3. The temperature evolution of central peak and low-energy transverse phonon branches has been traced. Temperature dependent in-plane transverse polarized acoustic phonon branch in <1 1 0> direction has been revealed. The central peaks of two types have been found. The central peak at small wave vectors can be attributed to the relaxational-type soft ferroelectric mode, while the latter at Q = (1.5 -0.5 0) could be linked to the formation of M-superstructure in the intermediate ferroelectric phase.
Correlation effects and phonon modes softening with doping in Ba₁-xKxBiO₃.
Korotin, Dm M; Novoselov, D; Anisimov, V I
2014-05-14
The monoclinic crystal structure of the undoped BaBiO₃ can be described as a cubic perovskite which is distorted by the frozen breathing and tilting phonon modes of the BiO₆ octahedra. The phonon mode softening is experimentally observed (Braden et al 1996 Europhys. Lett. 34 531) in Ba₁-xKxBiO₃ through potassium doping followed by a transition into an ideal cubic perovskite structure at x = 0.37, close to the emergence of superconductivity. In our previous paper (Korotin et al 2012 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 24 415603) we demonstrated that it is necessary to take into account correlation effects using the DFT+U method in Wannier functions as a basis to obtain a good agreement between the calculated and experimental values of crystal structure distortion and the energy gap in BaBiO₃. In the present work, using the same method, we calculated the breathing mode phonon frequencies as a function of the potassium doping level in Ba₁-xKxBiO₃. The obtained frequencies are in good agreement with experimental values and the breathing mode softening with doping is reproduced, contrary to calculations made without consideration of correlation effects. We show that the cubic crystal structure becomes stable at x = 0.30 in agreement with the experimental transition to cubic perovskite at x = 0.37. The possible connections between the correlation effects, phonon mode softening and superconductivity in Ba₁-xKxBiO₃ are discussed.
Hot carrier relaxation in CdTe via phonon-plasmon modes.
Zhong, Y; Ostach, D; Scholz, M; Epp, S W; Techert, S; Schlichting, I; Ullrich, J; Krasniqi, F S
2017-03-08
Carrier and lattice dynamics of laser excited CdTe was studied by time-resolved reflectivity for excitation fluences spanning about three orders of magnitude, from 0.064 to 6.14 mJ cm(-2). At fluences below 1 mJ cm(-2) the transient reflectivity is dominated by the dynamics of hybrid phonon-plasmon modes. At fluences above 1 mJ cm(-2) the time-dependent reflectivity curves show a complex interplay between band-gap renormalization, band filling, carrier dynamics and recombination. A framework that accounts for such complex dynamics is presented and used to model the time-dependent reflectivity data. This model suggests that the excess energy of the laser-excited hot carriers is reduced much more efficiently by emitting hybrid phonon-plasmon modes rather than bare longitudinal optical phonons.
Geodesic acoustic modes with poloidal mode couplings ad infinitum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Rameswar; Gürcan, Ö. D.
2017-02-01
Geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) are studied including all poloidal mode (m) couplings within a drift reduced Braginskii framework. An exact analytical formula for GAM frequency is given within the toroidal Hasegawa Mima model with the full finite larmor radius effect and poloidal mode couplings ad infinitum using a scalar continued fraction formulation, which results from reduction of the semi-infinite chain of interactions that is obtained from the nearest neighbor coupling pattern due to geodesic curvature. This pattern can be described by a semi-infinite chain model of the GAM with the mode-mode coupling matrix elements proportional to the radial wave number kr. In the more general case of multi-field description of the GAM, the infinite chain can be reduced to a renormalized bi-nodal chain with a matrix continued fraction formulation. The convergence study of the linear GAM dispersion with respect to kr and the m-spectra confirms that the coupling beyond m = 1 is sustained only when kr ≠ 0 and the higher m couplings become important with increasing kr and increasing ion to electron temperature ratio τi.
Dynamically coupled plasmon-phonon modes in GaP: An indirect-gap polar semiconductor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishioka, Kunie; Brixius, Kristina; Höfer, Ulrich; Rustagi, Avinash; Thatcher, Evan M.; Stanton, Christopher J.; Petek, Hrvoje
2015-11-01
The ultrafast coupling dynamics of coherent optical phonons and the photoexcited electron-hole plasma in the indirect gap semiconductor GaP are investigated by experiment and theory. For below-gap excitation and probing by 800-nm light, only the bare longitudinal optical (LO) phonons are observed. For above-gap excitation with 400-nm light, the photoexcitation creates a high density, nonequilibrium e -h plasma, which introduces an additional, faster decaying oscillation due to an LO phonon-plasmon coupled (LOPC) mode. The LOPC mode frequency exhibits very similar behavior for both n - and p -doped GaP, downshifting from the LO to the transverse optical (TO) phonon frequency limits with increasing photoexcited carrier density. We assign the LOPC mode to the LO phonons coupled with the photoexcited multicomponent plasma. For the 400-nm excitation, the majority of the photoexcited electrons are scattered from the Γ valley into the satellite X valley, while the light and spin-split holes are scattered into the heavy hole band, within 30 fs. The resulting mixed plasma is strongly damped, leading to the LOPC frequency appearing in the reststrahlen gap. Due to the large effective masses of the X electrons and heavy holes, the coupled mode appears most distinctly at carrier densities ≳5 ×1018cm-3 . We perform theoretical calculations of the nuclear motions and the electronic polarizations following an excitation with an ultrashort optical pulse to obtain the transient reflectivity responses of the coupled modes. We find that, while the longitudinal diffusion of photoexcited carriers is insignificant, the lateral inhomogeneity of the photoexcited carriers due to the laser intensity profile should be taken into account to reproduce the major features of the observed coupled mode dynamics.
Infrared dielectric anisotropy and phonon modes of rutile TiO2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schöche, S.; Hofmann, T.; Korlacki, R.; Tiwald, T. E.; Schubert, M.
2013-04-01
Spectroscopic ellipsometry in the mid-infrared and far-infrared spectral range and generalized ellipsometry in the mid-infrared spectral range are used to investigate the anisotropic dielectric response of rutile TiO2. The ordinary and extraordinary dielectric function tensor components and all infrared active phonon mode parameters of single crystalline rutile TiO2 are determined with high accuracy for wavelengths from 3 μm to 83 μm. The data were acquired from samples of (001), (100), and (111) surfaces cut from bulk single crystals. A factorized model dielectric function is employed in order to determine the frequencies and damping parameters of the transverse and longitudinal phonon modes with A2u and Eu symmetries. The bands of total reflection of s- and p-polarized light in dependence of the angle of incidence for highly symmetric sample cuts and orientations are derived. Excellent agreement with phonon modes reported in literature is obtained. Introduction of two additional modes for ordinary as well as extraordinary component of the dielectric function tensor was necessary to most accurately match the experimental data. The spectral position of the additional modes is compared to the calculated phonon density of states. The low-frequency dielectric constants are calculated from the determined phonon mode parameters and the high-frequency dielectric constants by applying the Lyddanne-Sachs-Teller relation. The presented data revise existing infrared optical function data and will be suitable for interpretation of any kind of infrared spectra for bulk TiO2 single crystal substrates, thin films, and TiO2 nanostructures.
Selective coherent phonon-mode generation in single-wall carbon nanotubes.
Nugraha, Ahmad R T; Hasdeo, Eddwi H; Saito, Riichiro
2017-02-08
The pulse-train technique within ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy is theoretically investigated to excite a specific coherent phonon mode while suppressing the other phonon modes generated in single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). In particular, we focus on the selectivity of the radial breathing mode (RBM) and the G-band for a given SWNT. We find that if the repetition period of the pulse train matches with the integer multiple of the RBM phonon period, the RBM amplitude can be maintained while the amplitudes of the other modes are suppressed. As for the G-band, when we apply a repetition period of a half-integer multiple of the RBM period, the RBM can be suppressed because of destructive interference, while the G-band still survives. It is also possible to keep the G-band and suppress the RBM by applying a repetition period that matches with the integer multiple of the G-band phonon period. However, in this case we have to use a large number of laser pulses having a property of "magic ratio" of the G-band and RBM periods.
Selective coherent phonon-mode generation in single-wall carbon nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nugraha, Ahmad R. T.; Hasdeo, Eddwi H.; Saito, Riichiro
2017-02-01
The pulse-train technique within ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy is theoretically investigated to excite a specific coherent phonon mode while suppressing the other phonon modes generated in single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). In particular, we focus on the selectivity of the radial breathing mode (RBM) and the G-band for a given SWNT. We find that if the repetition period of the pulse train matches with the integer multiple of the RBM phonon period, the RBM amplitude can be maintained while the amplitudes of the other modes are suppressed. As for the G-band, when we apply a repetition period of a half-integer multiple of the RBM period, the RBM can be suppressed because of destructive interference, while the G-band still survives. It is also possible to keep the G-band and suppress the RBM by applying a repetition period that matches with the integer multiple of the G-band phonon period. However, in this case we have to use a large number of laser pulses having a property of “magic ratio” of the G-band and RBM periods.
Observation of coherent delocalized phonon-like modes in DNA under physiological conditions
González-Jiménez, Mario; Ramakrishnan, Gopakumar; Harwood, Thomas; Lapthorn, Adrian J.; Kelly, Sharon M.; Ellis, Elizabeth M.; Wynne, Klaas
2016-01-01
Underdamped terahertz-frequency delocalized phonon-like modes have long been suggested to play a role in the biological function of DNA. Such phonon modes involve the collective motion of many atoms and are prerequisite to understanding the molecular nature of macroscopic conformational changes and related biochemical phenomena. Initial predictions were based on simple theoretical models of DNA. However, such models do not take into account strong interactions with the surrounding water, which is likely to cause phonon modes to be heavily damped and localized. Here we apply state-of-the-art femtosecond optical Kerr effect spectroscopy, which is currently the only technique capable of taking low-frequency (GHz to THz) vibrational spectra in solution. We are able to demonstrate that phonon modes involving the hydrogen bond network between the strands exist in DNA at physiologically relevant conditions. In addition, the dynamics of the solvating water molecules is slowed down by about a factor of 20 compared with the bulk. PMID:27248361
Shao, Cheng; Bao, Hua
2016-01-01
The successful exfoliation of atomically-thin bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) quintuple layer (QL) attracts tremendous research interest in this strongly anharmonic quasi-two-dimensional material. The thermal transport properties of this material are not well understood, especially the mode-wise properties and when it is coupled with a substrate. In this work, we have performed molecular dynamics simulations and normal mode analysis to study the mode-resolved thermal transport in freestanding and supported Bi2Te3 QL. The detailed mode-wise phonon properties are calculated and the accumulated thermal conductivities with respect to phonon mean free path (MFP) are constructed. It is shown that 60% of the thermal transport is contributed by phonons with MFP longer than 20 nm. Coupling with a-SiO2 substrate leads to about 60% reduction of thermal conductivity. Through varying the interfacial coupling strength and the atomic mass of substrate, we also find that phonon in Bi2Te3 QL is more strongly scattered by interfacial potential and its transport process is less affected by the dynamics of substrate. Our study provides an in-depth understanding of heat transport in Bi2Te3 QL and is helpful in further tailoring its thermal property through nanostructuring. PMID:27263656
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baboly, Mohammadhosein Ghasemi; Soliman, Yasser; Su, Mehmet F.; Reinke, Charles M.; Leseman, Zayd C.; El-Kady, Ihab
2014-11-01
Plane wave expansion analyses that use the inverse rule to obtain the Fourier coefficients of the elastic tensor instead of the more conventional Laurent's rule, exhibit faster convergence rates for solid-solid phononic crystals. In this work, the band structure convergence of calculations using the inverse rule is investigated and applied to the case of high acoustic impedance contrast solid-solid phononic crystals, previously known for convergence difficulties. Results are contrasted to those obtained with the conventional plane wave expansion method. The inverse rule is found to converge at a much rate for all ranges of impedance contrast, and the ratio between the computational times needed to obtain a convergent band structure for a high-contrast solid-solid phononic crystal with the conventional plane wave expansion method using 1369 reciprocal lattice vectors is as large as 6800:1. This ratio decreases for material sets with lower impedance contrast; however, the inverse rule is still faster for a given error threshold for even the lowest impedance contrast phononic crystals reported in the literature. This convergence enhancement is a major factor in reconsidering the plane wave expansion method as an important tool in obtaining propagating elastic modes in phononic crystals.
Zhao, J.; Boyko, O.; Bonello, B.
2014-12-15
This work deals with an analytical and numerical study of the focusing of the lowest order anti-symmetric Lamb wave in gradient index phononic crystals. Computing the ray trajectories of the elastic beam allowed us to analyze the lateral dimensions and shape of the focus, either in the inner or behind the phononic crystal-based acoustic lenses, for frequencies within a broad range in the first band. We analyzed and discussed the focusing behaviors inside the acoustic lenses where the focalization at sub-wavelength scale was achieved. The focalization behind the gradient index phononic crystal is shown to be efficient as well: we report on FMHM = 0.63λ at 11MHz.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Te-Huan; Zhou, Jiawei; Liao, Bolin; Singh, David J.; Chen, Gang
2017-02-01
We present a first-principles framework to investigate the electron scattering channels and transport properties for polar materials by combining the exact solution of the linearized electron-phonon (e-ph) Boltzmann transport equation in its integral-differential form associated with the e-ph coupling matrices obtained from the polar Wannier interpolation scheme. No ad hoc parameter is required throughout this calculation, and GaAs, a well-studied polar material, is used as an example to demonstrate this method. In this work, the long-range and short-range contributions as well as the intravalley and intervalley transitions in the e-ph interactions (EPIs) have been quantitatively addressed. Promoted by such mode-by-mode analysis, we find that in GaAs, the piezoelectric scattering is comparable to deformation-potential scattering for electron scatterings by acoustic phonons in EPI even at room temperature, and it makes a significant contribution to mobility. Furthermore, we achieved good agreement with experimental data for the mobility, and we identified that electrons with mean free paths between 130 and 210 nm provide the dominant contribution to the electron transport at 300 K. Such information provides a deeper understanding of the electron transport in GaAs, and the presented framework can be readily applied to other polar materials.
Thermal transport and anharmonic phonons in strained monolayer hexagonal boron nitride
Li, Shasha; Chen, Yue
2017-01-01
Thermal transport and phonon-phonon coupling in monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) under equibiaxial strains are investigated from first principles. Phonon spectra at elevated temperatures have been calculated from perturbation theory using the third-order anharmonic force constants. The stiffening of the out-of-plane transverse acoustic mode (ZA) near the Brillouin zone center and the increase of acoustic phonon lifetimes are found to contribute to the dramatic increase of thermal transport in strained h-BN. The transverse optical mode (TO) at the K point, which was predicted to lead to mechanical failure of h-BN, is found to shift to lower frequencies at elevated temperatures under equibiaxial strains. The longitudinal and transverse acoustic modes exhibit broad phonon spectra under large strains in sharp contrast to the ZA mode, indicating strong in-plane phonon-phonon coupling. PMID:28262786
Thermal transport and anharmonic phonons in strained monolayer hexagonal boron nitride.
Li, Shasha; Chen, Yue
2017-03-06
Thermal transport and phonon-phonon coupling in monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) under equibiaxial strains are investigated from first principles. Phonon spectra at elevated temperatures have been calculated from perturbation theory using the third-order anharmonic force constants. The stiffening of the out-of-plane transverse acoustic mode (ZA) near the Brillouin zone center and the increase of acoustic phonon lifetimes are found to contribute to the dramatic increase of thermal transport in strained h-BN. The transverse optical mode (TO) at the K point, which was predicted to lead to mechanical failure of h-BN, is found to shift to lower frequencies at elevated temperatures under equibiaxial strains. The longitudinal and transverse acoustic modes exhibit broad phonon spectra under large strains in sharp contrast to the ZA mode, indicating strong in-plane phonon-phonon coupling.
Thermal transport and anharmonic phonons in strained monolayer hexagonal boron nitride
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Shasha; Chen, Yue
2017-03-01
Thermal transport and phonon-phonon coupling in monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) under equibiaxial strains are investigated from first principles. Phonon spectra at elevated temperatures have been calculated from perturbation theory using the third-order anharmonic force constants. The stiffening of the out-of-plane transverse acoustic mode (ZA) near the Brillouin zone center and the increase of acoustic phonon lifetimes are found to contribute to the dramatic increase of thermal transport in strained h-BN. The transverse optical mode (TO) at the K point, which was predicted to lead to mechanical failure of h-BN, is found to shift to lower frequencies at elevated temperatures under equibiaxial strains. The longitudinal and transverse acoustic modes exhibit broad phonon spectra under large strains in sharp contrast to the ZA mode, indicating strong in-plane phonon-phonon coupling.
Ion Acoustic Modes in Warm Dense Matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartley, Nicholas; Monaco, Guilio; White, Thomas; Gregori, Gianluca; Graham, Peter; Fletcher, Luke; Appel, Karen; Tschentscher, Thomas; Lee, Hae Ja; Nagler, Bob; Galtier, Eric; Granados, Eduardo; Heimann, Philip; Zastrau, Ulf; Doeppner, Tilo; Gericke, Dirk; Lepape, Sebastien; Ma, Tammy; Pak, Art; Schropp, Andreas; Glenzer, Siegfried; Hastings, Jerry
2015-06-01
We present results that, for the first time, show scattering from ion acoustic modes in warm dense matter, representing an unprecedented level of energy resolution in the study of dense plasmas. The experiment was carried out at the LCLS facility in California on an aluminum sample at 7 g/cc and 5 eV. Using an X-ray probe at 8 keV, shifted peaks at +/-150 meV were observed. Although the energy shifts from interactions with the acoustic waves agree with predicted values from DFT-MD models, a central (elastic) peak was also observed, which did not appear in modelled spectra and may be due to the finite timescale of the simulation. Data fitting with a hydrodynamic form has proved able to match the observed spectrum, and provide measurements of some thermodynamic properties of the system, which mostly agree with predicted values. Suggest for further experiments to determine the cause of the disparity are also given.
Drift effects on electromagnetic geodesic acoustic modes
Sgalla, R. J. F.
2015-02-15
A two fluid model with parallel viscosity is employed to derive the dispersion relation for electromagnetic geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) in the presence of drift (diamagnetic) effects. Concerning the influence of the electron dynamics on the high frequency GAM, it is shown that the frequency of the electromagnetic GAM is independent of the equilibrium parallel current but, in contrast with purely electrostatic GAMs, significantly depends on the electron temperature gradient. The electromagnetic GAM may explain the discrepancy between the f ∼ 40 kHz oscillation observed in tokamak TCABR [Yu. K. Kuznetsov et al., Nucl. Fusion 52, 063044 (2012)] and the former prediction for the electrostatic GAM frequency. The radial wave length associated with this oscillation, estimated presently from this analytical model, is λ{sub r} ∼ 25 cm, i.e., an order of magnitude higher than the usual value for zonal flows (ZFs)
Perturbation analysis of electromagnetic geodesic acoustic modes
Ren, Haijun
2014-06-15
Lagrangian displacement and magnetic field perturbation response to the geodesic acoustic mode is analyzed by using the ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations in a large-aspect-ratio tokamak. δB{sub θ}, the poloidal component of magnetic field perturbation, has poloidal wave number m = 2 created by the poloidal displacement ξ{sub θ}. The parallel perturbation of magnetic field, δB{sub ∥}, has a poloidally asymmetric structure with m = 1 and is on the same order of magnitude with δB{sub θ} to the leading order. The radial displacement ξ{sub r} is of order O(βϵξ{sub θ}) but plays a significant role in determining δB{sub ∥}, where β is the plasma/magnetic pressure ratio and ϵ is the inverse aspect ratio.
Collisional damping of the geodesic acoustic mode
Gao Zhe
2013-03-15
The frequency and damping rate of the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) is revisited by using a gyrokinetic model with a number-conserving Krook collision operator. It is found that the damping rate of the GAM is non-monotonic as the collision rate increases. At low ion collision rate, the damping rate increases linearly with the collision rate; while as the ion collision rate is higher than v{sub ti}/R, where v{sub ti} and R are the ion thermal velocity and major radius, the damping rate decays with an increasing collision rate. At the same time, as the collision rate increases, the GAM frequency decreases from the (7/4+{tau})v{sub ti}/R to (1+{tau})v{sub ti}/R, where {tau} is the ratio of electron temperature to ion temperature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Zhong-Xiang; Liu, Jing-Zhong; Yu, Xia; Wang, Hai-Bin; Deng, Yuan-Xiang; Li, Ke-Min; Zhang, Yong
2015-03-01
We investigate acoustic phonon transmission and thermal conductance in three dimensional (3D) quasi-periodically stubbed waveguides according to the Fibonacci sequence. Results show that the transmission coefficient exhibits the periodic oscillation upon varying the length of stub/waveguide at low frequency, and the period of such oscillation is tunably decreased with increasing the Fibonacci number N. Interestingly, there also exist some anti-resonant dips that gradually develop into wide stop-frequency gaps with increasing N. As the temperature goes up, a transition of the thermal conductance from the decrease to the increase occurs in these systems. When N is increased, the thermal conductance is approximately decreased with a linear trend. Moreover, the decreasing degree sensitively depends on the variation of temperature. A brief analysis of these results is given.
Contour mode resonators with acoustic reflectors
Olsson, Roy H.; Fleming, James G.; Tuck, Melanie R.
2008-06-10
A microelectromechanical (MEM) resonator is disclosed which has a linear or ring-shaped acoustic resonator suspended above a substrate by an acoustic reflector. The acoustic resonator can be formed with a piezoelectric material (e.g. aluminum nitride, zinc oxide or PZT), or using an electrostatically-actuated material. The acoustic reflector (also termed an acoustic mirror) uses alternating sections of a relatively low acoustic impedance Z.sub.L material and a relatively high acoustic impedance Z.sub.H material to isolate the acoustic resonator from the substrate. The MEM resonator, which can be formed on a silicon substrate with conventional CMOS circuitry, has applications for forming oscillators, rf filters, and acoustic sensors.
Matching Impedances and Modes in Acoustic Levitation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barmatz, M. B.
1985-01-01
Temperature differences accommodated with tunable coupler. Report discusses schemes for coupling sound efficiently from cool outside atmosphere into hot acoustic-levitation chamber. Theoretical studies have practical implications for material-processing systems that employ acoustic levitation.
Development of an acoustic filter for parametric loudspeaker using phononic crystals.
Ji, Peifeng; Hu, Wenlin; Yang, Jun
2016-04-01
The spurious signal generated as a result of nonlinearity at the receiving system affects the measurement of the difference-frequency sound in the parametric loudspeaker, especially in the nearfield or near the beam axis. In this paper, an acoustic filter is designed using phononic crystals and its theoretical simulations are carried out by quasi-one- and two-dimensional models with Comsol Multiphysics. According to the simulated transmission loss (TL), an acoustic filter is prototyped consisting of 5×7 aluminum alloy cylinders and its performance is verified experimentally. There is good agreement with the simulation result for TL. After applying our proposed filter in the axial measurement of the parametric loudspeaker, a clear frequency dependence from parametric array effect is detected, which exhibits a good match with the well-known theory described by the Gaussian-beam expansion technique. During the directivity measurement for the parametric loudspeaker, the proposed filter has also proved to be effective and is only needed for small angles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pandya, Ankur; Jha, Prafulla K.
2017-04-01
Electron transport parameters such as electron effective mass, Fermi velocity of an electron and electron mobility are calculated for transition metal [manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co)]-doped armchair graphene nanoribbon (aGNR) via polar acoustical phonon [piezoelectric (PZ)] scattering and acoustical deformation potential (ADP) scattering under a high electric field and different doping concentrations. Moreover, the effect of dopant site on these electron transport parameters is also investigated. It is observed that the electron effective mass is reduced significantly in doped aGNR in comparison to pure GNR. It is observed that the net electron mobility contributed by both ADP and PZ mechanisms for Mn-doped aGNR as well as Co-doped aGNR varies in similar fashion as semiconductors wherein the net electron mobility (ADP + PZ) for Mn-doped aGNR is greater than that for the Co-doped graphene nanoribbon. Moreover, it is found that there is no impact of variation in dopant site on the electron transport parameters considered in this study.
Pressure Effect on the Einstein-Like Phonon Mode in Superconducting YB6
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orendáč, Mat.; Gabáni, S.; Gažo, E.; Pristáš, G.; Flachbart, K.; Mori, T.; Wang, X.; Kamenev, K.
2016-12-01
YB6 is known as a conventional type-II BCS superconductor in which the strong coupling superconductivity with 2Δ /kBTc≈ 4.1 is mediated by the Einstein-like phonon mode of Y atoms located at ω E≈ 8 meV. We have investigated the pressure effect on ω E by Raman scattering up to 14 GPa. The received linear pressure increase in this mode dω E/dp≈ 0.21 meV/GPa yields an isothermal Grüneisen coefficient γ T= -partial ln ω E/partial ln V = 3.85 . Moreover, the pressure effect on the electron-phonon interaction λ calculated from the McMillan-Allen-Dynes expression for the superconducting transition temperature was determined to be partial ln λ/partial ln V \\cong 7.2.
Coupling of phonon-polariton modes at dielectric-dielectric interfaces by the ATR technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cocoletzi, G. H.; Olvera Hernández, J.; Martínez Montes, G.
1989-08-01
We report the calculated ATR dispersion relation of the interface phonon-polariton modes in the prism-dielectric-dielectric configuration. Comparison of electromagnetic dispersion relations (EMDR) with the ATR dispersion relations are presented for three different interfaces: I) GaAs/GaP, II) CdF2/CaF2 and III) CaF2/GaP in two propagation windows, using the Otto and Kretschmann geometries for p-polarized light. We have studied the three cases using angle and frequency scans for each window and geometry. The results indicate that it is possible to excite and detect phonon-polariton modes at the dielectric-dielectric interface.
Infra red active modes due to coupling of cyclotron excitation and LO phonons in polar semiconductor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agrawal, Ratna; Dubey, Swati; Ghosh, S.
2013-06-01
Effects of free carrier concentration, external magnetic field and Callen effective charge on infra red active modes in a polar semiconductor have been analytically investigated using simple harmonic oscillator model. Callen effective charge considerably enhances reflectivity and shifts minima towards lower values of energy. Presence of magnetic field leads towards the coupling of collective cyclotron excitations with LO phonon giving rise to maximum reflectivity whereas cyclotron resonance absorption results into minimum reflectivity.
Wide-Stopband Aperiodic Phononic Filters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rostem, Karwan; Chuss, David; Denis, K. L.; Wollack, E. J.
2016-01-01
We demonstrate that a phonon stopband can be synthesized from an aperiodic structure comprising a discrete set of phononic filter stages. Each element of the set has a dispersion relation that defines a complete bandgap when calculated under a Bloch boundary condition. Hence, the effective stopband width in an aperiodic phononic filter (PnF) may readily exceed that of a phononic crystal with a single lattice constant or a coherence scale. With simulations of multi-moded phononic waveguides, we discuss the effects of finite geometry and mode-converting junctions on the phonon transmission in PnFs. The principles described may be utilized to form a wide stopband in acoustic and surface wave media. Relative to the quantum of thermal conductance for a uniform mesoscopic beam, a PnF with a stopband covering 1.6-10.4 GHz is estimated to reduce the thermal conductance by an order of magnitude at 75 mK.
Axial interface optical phonon modes in a double-nanoshell system.
Kanyinda-Malu, C; Clares, F J; de la Cruz, R M
2008-07-16
Within the framework of the dielectric continuum (DC) model, we analyze the axial interface optical phonon modes in a double system of nanoshells. This system is constituted by two identical equidistant nanoshells which are embedded in an insulating medium. To illustrate our results, typical II-VI semiconductors are used as constitutive polar materials of the nanoshells. Resolution of Laplace's equation in bispherical coordinates for the potentials derived from the interface vibration modes is made. By imposing the usual electrostatic boundary conditions at the surfaces of the two-nanoshell system, recursion relations for the coefficients appearing in the potentials are obtained, which entails infinite matrices. The problem of deriving the interface frequencies is reduced to the eigenvalue problem on infinite matrices. A truncating method for these matrices is used to obtain the interface phonon branches. Dependences of the interface frequencies on the ratio of inter-nanoshell separation to core size are obtained for different systems with several values of nanoshell interdistance. Effects due to the change of shell and embedding materials are also investigated in interface phonon modes.
Withers, Ray L. . E-mail: withers@rsc.anu.edu.au; Welberry, T.R.; Pring, Allan; Tenailleau, Cristophe; Liu Yun
2005-03-15
Electron diffraction has been used to carefully investigate the reciprocal lattices of a range of iron-bearing sphalerites looking for evidence of Fe clustering and/or Fe/Zn ordering in the form of either additional satellite reflections or a structured diffuse intensity distribution accompanying the strong Bragg reflections of the underlying sphalerite-type average structure. While a highly structured diffuse intensity distribution in the form of transverse polarized {l_brace}110{r_brace}* sheets of diffuse intensity has been detected and found to be characteristic of all compositions, it does not appear to arise from Fe clustering and/or Fe/Zn ordering. Rather inherently low frequency, and therefore strongly thermally excited, phonon modes propagating along reciprocal space directions perpendicular to each of the six <110> real space directions of the average structure are suggested to be responsible for these {l_brace}110{r_brace}* sheets of diffuse intensity. Monte Carlo simulation (for a range of Zn-S, Zn-Zn and S-S interaction strengths) and subsequent Fourier transformation is used to confirm the existence of these low-frequency phonon modes of distortion as well as to show that they are an intrinsic, predictable property of the corner-connected tetrahedral structure of sphalerite. The low-frequency phonon modes involve coupled (Zn, Fe) and S motion in one-dimensional strings along <110> real space directions.
Soft acoustic mode in ferroelastic BiVO4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benyuan, Gu; Copic, M.; Cummins, H. Z.
1981-10-01
Brillouin scattering spectroscopy of bismuth vanadate has revealed a soft acoustic mode which is characteristic of a proper ferroelastic phase transition. Raman scattering has revealed an optic mode which is doubly degenerate Eg in the paraelastic phase and splits into two Bg modes in the ferroelastic phase. The temperature dependence of the splitting is also consistent with a proper ferroelastic transition.
Tunable evolutions of wave modes and bandgaps in quasi-1D cylindrical phononic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meidani, Mehrashk; Kim, Eunho; Li, Feng; Yang, Jinkyu; Ngo, Duc
2015-01-01
We investigate the tunable characteristics of mechanical waves propagating in quasi-1D phononic crystals composed of horizontally stacked short cylinders at various contact angles and offsets. According to the Hertzian contact theory, elastic compression of laterally-touching cylindrical bodies exhibits a various range of contact stiffness depending on their alignment angles. In this study, we first assemble cylindrical particles in various combinations of inclination angles and systematically examine their forming mechanisms of frequency bandgaps. We also investigate the effect of the rattling motions of cylindrical particles by introducing asymmetric center-of-mass offsets with respect to their contact points. We find that the frequency responses of these quasi-1D phononic crystals evolve into multiple band structures as we employ higher deviations of contact angles and offsets. We calculate the dispersive behavior of propagating waves using a discrete particle model for simple zero-offset cases, while we use a finite element method for simulating the rattling motions of particles under non-zero offsets. We report branching behavior of frequency band structures and the evolution of their vibration modes as we manipulate the contact angles and offsets of the phononic crystals. This study implies that we can leverage the versatile wave filtering characteristics of quasi-1D phononic crystals to construct tunable wave filtering devices for engineering applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toulouse, J.; Iolin, E.; Hennion, B.; Petitgrand, D.; Erwin, R.
2016-12-01
The damping (Γ a ) of the transverse acoustic (TA) phonon in single crystals of the relaxor KT a1 -xN bxO3 with x =0.15 -0.17 was studied by means of high resolution inelastic cold neutron scattering near the (200) Brillouin Zone (BZ) point where diffuse scattering is absent, although it is present near (110). In a wide range of temperatures centered on the phase transition, T =195 K ÷108 K , the TA phonon width (damping) exhibits a step increase around momentum q =0.07 , goes through a shallow maximum at q =0.09 -0.12 , and remains high above and up to the highest momentum studied of q =0.16 . These experimental results are explained in terms of a resonant interaction between the TA phonon and the collective or correlated reorientation through tunneling of the off-center N b+5 ions. The observed TA damping is successfully reproduced in a simple model that includes an interaction between the TA phonon and a dispersionless localized mode (LM) with frequency ωL and damping ΓL(ΓL<ωL) , itself coupled to the transverse optic (TO) mode. Maximum damping of the TA phonon occurs when its frequency is ωa≈ωL . The values of ωL and ΓL are moderately dependent on temperature, but the oscillator strength, M2, of the resonant damping exhibits a strong maximum in the range T ˜120 K ÷150 K in which neutron diffuse scattering near the (110) BZ point is also maximum and the dielectric susceptibility exhibits the relaxor behavior. The maximum value of M appears to be due to the increasing number of polar nanodomains. In support of the proposed model, the observed value of ωL≈0.7 THz is found to be similar to the estimate previously obtained by Girshberg and Yacoby [J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 24, 015901 (2012)], 10.1088/0953-8984/24/1/015901. Alternatively, the TA phonon damping can be successfully fitted in the framework of an empirical Havriliak-Negami (HN) relaxation model that includes a strong resonancelike transient contribution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Aichao; Li, Ping; Wen, Yumei; Yang, Chao; Wang, Decai; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Jiajia
2015-05-01
A high-Q cross-plate phononic crystal resonator (Cr-PCR) coupled with an electromechanical Helmholtz resonator (EMHR) is proposed to improve acoustic wave localization and energy harvesting. Owing to the strongly directional wave-scattering effect of the cross-plate corners, strong confinement of acoustic waves emerges. Consequently, the proposed Cr-PCR structure exhibits ∼353.5 times higher Q value and ∼6.1 times greater maximum pressure amplification than the phononic crystal resonator (Cy-PCR) (consisting of cylindrical scatterers) of the same size. Furthermore, the harvester using the proposed Cr-PCR and the EMHR has ∼22 times greater maximum output-power volume density than the previous harvester using Cy-PCR and EMHR structures.
Dust Acoustic Mode Manifestations in Earth's Dusty Ionosphere
Kopnin, S.I.; Popel, S.I.
2005-10-31
Dust acoustic mode manifestations in the dusty ionosphere are studied. The reason for an appearance of the low-frequency radio noises associated with such meteor fluxes as Perseids, Orionids, Leonids, and Gemenids is determined.
Phonons and hybrid modes in the high and low temperature far infrared dynamics of hexagonal TmMnO3.
Massa, Néstor E; del Campo, Leire; De Sousa Meneses, Domingos; Echegut, Patrick; Martínez-Lope, María Jesús; Alonso, José Antonio
2014-07-09
We report on temperature dependent TmMnO3 far infrared emissivity and reflectivity spectra from 1910 K to 4 K. At the highest temperature the number of infrared bands is lower than that predicted for centrosymmetric P63/mmc (D(4)(6h)) (Z = 2) space group due to high temperature anharmonicity and possible defect induced bitetrahedra misalignments. On cooling, at ~1600 ± 40 K, TmMnO3 goes from non-polar to an antiferroelectric-ferroelectric polar phase reaching the ferroelectric onset at ~700 K. Room temperature reflectivity is fitted using 19 oscillators and this number of phonons is maintained down to 4 K. A weak phonon anomaly in the band profile at 217 cm(-1) (4 K) suggests subtle Rare Earth magneto-electric couplings at ~TN and below. A low energy collective excitation is identified as a THz instability associated with room temperature eg electrons in a d-orbital fluctuating environment. It condenses into two modes that emerge pinned to the E-type antiferromagnetic order hardening simultaneously down to 4 K. They obey power laws with TN as the critical temperature and match known zone center magnons. The one peaking at 26 cm(-1), with critical exponent β=0.42 as for antiferromagnetic order in a hexagonal lattice, is dependent on the Rare Earth ion. The higher frequency companion at ~50 cm(-1), with β=0.25, splits at ~TN into two peaks. The weaker band of the two is assimilated to the upper branch of the gap opening in the transverse acoustical (TA) phonon branch crossing the magnetic dispersion found in YMnO3. (Petit et al 2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 266604). The stronger second band at ~36 cm(-1) corresponds to the lower branch of the TA gap. We assign both excitations as zone center magneto-electric hybrid quasiparticles, concluding that in NdMnO3 perovskite the equivalent picture corresponds to an instability which may be driven by an external field to transform NdMnO3 into a multiferroic compound by perturbation enhancing the TA
Carvalho, Bruno R; Wang, Yuanxi; Mignuzzi, Sandro; Roy, Debdulal; Terrones, Mauricio; Fantini, Cristiano; Crespi, Vincent H; Malard, Leandro M; Pimenta, Marcos A
2017-03-09
Double-resonance Raman scattering is a sensitive probe to study the electron-phonon scattering pathways in crystals. For semiconducting two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides, the double-resonance Raman process involves different valleys and phonons in the Brillouin zone, and it has not yet been fully understood. Here we present a multiple energy excitation Raman study in conjunction with density functional theory calculations that unveil the double-resonance Raman scattering process in monolayer and bulk MoS2. Results show that the frequency of some Raman features shifts when changing the excitation energy, and first-principle simulations confirm that such bands arise from distinct acoustic phonons, connecting different valley states. The double-resonance Raman process is affected by the indirect-to-direct bandgap transition, and a comparison of results in monolayer and bulk allows the assignment of each Raman feature near the M or K points of the Brillouin zone. Our work highlights the underlying physics of intervalley scattering of electrons by acoustic phonons, which is essential for valley depolarization in MoS2.
Carvalho, Bruno R.; Wang, Yuanxi; Mignuzzi, Sandro; Roy, Debdulal; Terrones, Mauricio; Fantini, Cristiano; Crespi, Vincent H.; Malard, Leandro M.; Pimenta, Marcos A.
2017-01-01
Double-resonance Raman scattering is a sensitive probe to study the electron-phonon scattering pathways in crystals. For semiconducting two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides, the double-resonance Raman process involves different valleys and phonons in the Brillouin zone, and it has not yet been fully understood. Here we present a multiple energy excitation Raman study in conjunction with density functional theory calculations that unveil the double-resonance Raman scattering process in monolayer and bulk MoS2. Results show that the frequency of some Raman features shifts when changing the excitation energy, and first-principle simulations confirm that such bands arise from distinct acoustic phonons, connecting different valley states. The double-resonance Raman process is affected by the indirect-to-direct bandgap transition, and a comparison of results in monolayer and bulk allows the assignment of each Raman feature near the M or K points of the Brillouin zone. Our work highlights the underlying physics of intervalley scattering of electrons by acoustic phonons, which is essential for valley depolarization in MoS2. PMID:28276472
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carvalho, Bruno R.; Wang, Yuanxi; Mignuzzi, Sandro; Roy, Debdulal; Terrones, Mauricio; Fantini, Cristiano; Crespi, Vincent H.; Malard, Leandro M.; Pimenta, Marcos A.
2017-03-01
Double-resonance Raman scattering is a sensitive probe to study the electron-phonon scattering pathways in crystals. For semiconducting two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides, the double-resonance Raman process involves different valleys and phonons in the Brillouin zone, and it has not yet been fully understood. Here we present a multiple energy excitation Raman study in conjunction with density functional theory calculations that unveil the double-resonance Raman scattering process in monolayer and bulk MoS2. Results show that the frequency of some Raman features shifts when changing the excitation energy, and first-principle simulations confirm that such bands arise from distinct acoustic phonons, connecting different valley states. The double-resonance Raman process is affected by the indirect-to-direct bandgap transition, and a comparison of results in monolayer and bulk allows the assignment of each Raman feature near the M or K points of the Brillouin zone. Our work highlights the underlying physics of intervalley scattering of electrons by acoustic phonons, which is essential for valley depolarization in MoS2.
Nanocrystalline diamond: Effect of confinement, pressure, and heating on phonon modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lipp, Magnus J.; Baonza, Valentín García; Evans, William J.; Lorenzana, Hector E.
1997-09-01
Micro- and nanocrystalline systems exhibit properties that differ markedly from bulk systems. Diamond, a prototypical system, demonstrates a broadening, shift, and emergence of Raman phonon modes that are believed to originate from finite-size effects. Such information should be useful in constraining confinement models developed to describe the state of these mesoscopic systems. For example, previous investigations have analyzed crystallite size and stresses in scientifically and technologically relevant environments, including chemical-vapor-deposition diamond films and diamond nanocomposites. We have experimentally measured the effect on the diamond Raman phonon modes due to confinement, pressure, and heating effects. At ambient pressure, we present Raman measurements for diamond crystallites ranging from 6 nm to 10 μm, which were synthesized by both static and dynamic techniques. The Raman spectra obtained from the statically synthesized samples exhibit a characteristic strong and narrow diamond band, while those dynamically synthesized exhibit both diamond and graphiticlike features. A redshift of the diamond Raman band is observed for decreasing particle size. However, the pressure dependence of the phonon is about the same as that for the bulk system up to 30 kbar for crystallite sizes between 6 and 10 nm. Our measurements also indicate that heating effects from the incident laser dramatically affect the measured Raman spectra. This result leads us to an explanation for discrepancies among previously published results. We show that crystallite size and stress information cannot be determined without compensating for heating effects. Lastly, the phonon confinement model is able to explain the shifts of the Raman modes with size.
Coherent phonon spectroscopy of non-fully symmetric modes using resonant terahertz excitation
Huber, T. Huber, L.; Johnson, S. L.; Ranke, M.; Ferrer, A.
2015-08-31
We use intense terahertz (THz) frequency electromagnetic pulses generated via optical rectification in an organic crystal to drive vibrational lattice modes in single crystal Tellurium. The coherent modes are detected by measuring the polarization changes of femtosecond laser pulses reflecting from the sample surface, resulting in a phase-resolved detection of the coherent lattice motion. We compare the data to a model of Lorentz oscillators driven by the near-single-cycle broadband THz pulse. The demonstrated technique of optically probed coherent phonon spectroscopy with THz frequency excitation could prove to be a viable alternative to other time-resolved spectroscopic methods like standard THz time domain spectroscopy.
Planar modes free piezoelectric resonators using a phononic crystal with holes.
Aragón, J L; Quintero-Torres, R; Domínguez-Juárez, J L; Iglesias, E; Ronda, S; Montero de Espinosa, F
2016-09-01
By using the principles behind phononic crystals, a periodic array of circular holes made along the polarization thickness direction of piezoceramic resonators are used to stop the planar resonances around the thickness mode band. In this way, a piezoceramic resonator adequate for operation in the thickness mode with an in phase vibration surface is obtained, independently of its lateral shape. Laser vibrometry, electric impedance tests and finite element models are used to corroborate the performances of different resonators made with this procedure. This method can be useful in power ultrasonic devices, physiotherapy and other external medical power ultrasound applications where piston-like vibration in a narrow band is required.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rury, Aaron S.; Sorenson, Shayne; Dawlaty, Jahan M.
2016-03-01
Organic materials that produce coherent lattice phonon excitations in response to external stimuli may provide next generation solutions in a wide range of applications. However, for these materials to lead to functional devices in technology, a full understanding of the possible driving forces of coherent lattice phonon generation must be attained. To facilitate the achievement of this goal, we have undertaken an optical spectroscopic study of an organic charge-transfer material formed from the ubiquitous reduction-oxidation pair hydroquinone and p-benzoquinone. Upon pumping this material, known as quinhydrone, on its intermolecular charge transfer resonance as well as an intramolecular resonance of p-benzoquinone, we find sub-cm-1 oscillations whose dispersion with probe energy resembles that of a coherent acoustic phonon that we argue is coherently excited following changes in the electron density of quinhydrone. Using the dynamical information from these ultrafast pump-probe measurements, we find that the fastest process we can resolve does not change whether we pump quinhydrone at either energy. Electron-phonon coupling from both ultrafast coherent vibrational and steady-state resonance Raman spectroscopies allows us to determine that intramolecular electronic excitation of p-benzoquinone also drives the electron transfer process in quinhydrone. These results demonstrate the wide range of electronic excitations of the parent of molecules found in many functional organic materials that can drive coherent lattice phonon excitations useful for applications in electronics, photonics, and information technology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Jinfeng; Bonello, Bernard; Boyko, Olga
2016-05-01
We have investigated the focusing of the lowest-order antisymmetric Lamb mode (A0) behind a positive gradient-index (GRIN) acoustic metalens consisting of air holes drilled in a silicon plate with silicon pillars erected on one face of the lens. We have analyzed the focusing in the near field as the result of the coupling between the flexural resonant mode of the pillars and the vibration mode of the air/silicon phononic crystal. We highlight the role played by the polarization coherence between the resonant mode and the vibration of the plate. We demonstrate both numerically and experimentally the focusing behind the lens over a spot less than half a wavelength, paving a way for performance of acoustic lenses beyond the diffraction limit. Our findings can be easily extended to other types of elastic wave.
Phonons in twisted bilayer graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cocemasov, Alexandr I.; Nika, Denis L.; Balandin, Alexander A.
2013-07-01
We theoretically investigate phonon dispersion in AA-stacked, AB-stacked, and twisted bilayer graphene with various rotation angles. The calculations are performed using the Born-von Karman model for the intralayer atomic interactions and the Lennard-Jones potential for the interlayer interactions. It is found that the stacking order affects the out-of-plane acoustic phonon modes the most. The difference in the phonon densities of states in the twisted bilayer graphene and in AA- or AB-stacked bilayer graphene appears in the phonon frequency range 90-110 cm-1. Twisting bilayer graphene leads to the emergence of different phonon branches—termed hybrid folded phonons—which originate from the mixing of phonon modes from different high-symmetry directions in the Brillouin zone. The frequencies of the hybrid folded phonons depend strongly on the rotation angle and can be used for noncontact identification of the twist angles in graphene samples. The obtained results and the tabulated frequencies of phonons in twisted bilayer graphene are important for the interpretation of experimental Raman data and in determining the thermal conductivity of these material systems.
Phononic crystal diffraction gratings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moiseyenko, Rayisa P.; Herbison, Sarah; Declercq, Nico F.; Laude, Vincent
2012-02-01
When a phononic crystal is interrogated by an external source of acoustic waves, there is necessarily a phenomenon of diffraction occurring on the external enclosing surfaces. Indeed, these external surfaces are periodic and the resulting acoustic diffraction grating has a periodicity that depends on the orientation of the phononic crystal. This work presents a combined experimental and theoretical study on the diffraction of bulk ultrasonic waves on the external surfaces of a 2D phononic crystal that consists of a triangular lattice of steel rods in a water matrix. The results of transmission experiments are compared with theoretical band structures obtained with the finite-element method. Angular spectrograms (showing frequency as a function of angle) determined from diffraction experiments are then compared with finite-element simulations of diffraction occurring on the surfaces of the crystal. The experimental results show that the diffraction that occurs on its external surfaces is highly frequency-dependent and has a definite relation with the Bloch modes of the phononic crystal. In particular, a strong influence of the presence of bandgaps and deaf bands on the diffraction efficiency is found. This observation opens perspectives for the design of efficient phononic crystal diffraction gratings.
Engineering dissipation with phononic spectral hole burning.
Behunin, R O; Kharel, P; Renninger, W H; Rakich, P T
2017-03-01
Optomechanics, nano-electromechanics, and integrated photonics have brought about a renaissance in phononic device physics and technology. Central to this advance are devices and materials supporting ultra-long-lived photonic and phononic excitations that enable novel regimes of classical and quantum dynamics based on tailorable photon-phonon coupling. Silica-based devices have been at the forefront of such innovations for their ability to support optical excitations persisting for nearly 1 billion cycles, and for their low optical nonlinearity. While acoustic phonon modes can persist for a similar number of cycles in crystalline solids at cryogenic temperatures, it has not been possible to achieve such performance in silica, as silica becomes acoustically opaque at low temperatures. We demonstrate that these intrinsic forms of phonon dissipation are greatly reduced (by >90%) by nonlinear saturation using continuous drive fields of disparate frequencies. The result is a form of steady-state phononic spectral hole burning that produces a wideband transparency window with optically generated phonon fields of modest (nW) powers. We developed a simple model that explains both dissipative and dispersive changes produced by phononic saturation. Our studies, conducted in a microscale device, represent an important step towards engineerable phonon dynamics on demand and the use of glasses as low-loss phononic media.
Engineering dissipation with phononic spectral hole burning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Behunin, R. O.; Kharel, P.; Renninger, W. H.; Rakich, P. T.
2016-12-01
Optomechanics, nano-electromechanics, and integrated photonics have brought about a renaissance in phononic device physics and technology. Central to this advance are devices and materials supporting ultra-long-lived photonic and phononic excitations that enable novel regimes of classical and quantum dynamics based on tailorable photon-phonon coupling. Silica-based devices have been at the forefront of such innovations for their ability to support optical excitations persisting for nearly 1 billion cycles, and for their low optical nonlinearity. While acoustic phonon modes can persist for a similar number of cycles in crystalline solids at cryogenic temperatures, it has not been possible to achieve such performance in silica, as silica becomes acoustically opaque at low temperatures. We demonstrate that these intrinsic forms of phonon dissipation are greatly reduced (by >90%) by nonlinear saturation using continuous drive fields of disparate frequencies. The result is a form of steady-state phononic spectral hole burning that produces a wideband transparency window with optically generated phonon fields of modest (nW) powers. We developed a simple model that explains both dissipative and dispersive changes produced by phononic saturation. Our studies, conducted in a microscale device, represent an important step towards engineerable phonon dynamics on demand and the use of glasses as low-loss phononic media.
Multiple Quantum Wells for P T -Symmetric Phononic Crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poshakinskiy, A. V.; Poddubny, A. N.; Fainstein, A.
2016-11-01
We demonstrate that the parity-time symmetry for sound is realized in laser-pumped multiple-quantum-well structures. Breaking of the parity-time symmetry for the phonons with wave vectors corresponding to the Bragg condition makes the structure a highly selective acoustic wave amplifier. Single-mode distributed feedback phonon lasing is predicted for structures with realistic parameters.
Localization and fractal spectra of optical phonon modes in quasiperiodic structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anselmo, D. H. A. L.; Dantas, A. L.; Medeiros, S. K.; Albuquerque, E. L.; Freire, V. N.
2005-04-01
The dispersion relation and localization profile of confined optical phonon modes in quasiperiodic structures, made up of nitride semiconductor materials, are analyzed through a transfer-matrix approach. The quasiperiodic structures are characterized by the nature of their Fourier spectrum, which can be dense pure point (Fibonacci sequences) or singular continuous (Thue-Morse and Double-period sequences). These substitutional sequences are described in terms of a series of generations that obey peculiar recursion relations and/or inflation rules. We present a quantitative analysis of the localization and magnitude of the allowed band widths in the optical phonons spectra of these quasiperiodic structures, as well as how they scale as a function of the number of generations of the sequences.
Modelling of acoustic waves propagating in nesting Fibonacci super-lattice phononic crystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Min; Qi, Hai-Feng; Xu, Jia-Hui; Xie, Ya-Zhuo; Zhang, Xing-Gan; Gao, Jian
2014-07-01
Herein, we report construction of one kind of nesting-Fibonacci-super-lattice phononic crystal, in which the super-lattice cell is a well-defined Fibonacci generation sequence. We present a comparative study on band-gap structures of acoustic waves propagating in one-dimensional, nesting Fibonacci-periodic structure and simple-periodic structure. We find that there are more band gaps in nesting Fibonacci super-lattice models, and that they present behavior different from the split-up of band gaps with different generation numbers. With the increase of generation number, more band gaps split and occur. Additionally, when generation number becomes larger, Bragg scattering becomes more significant: the characteristic curves become flatter and band gaps become wider. Furthermore, we study the effect of various parameters such as density, thickness and defects on band-gap structures. Our work is significant both for understanding the intrinsic physical properties of nesting Fibonacci sequences and for providing flexible choices to meet real engineering requirements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Dongbo; Zhao, Jinfeng; Bonello, Bernard; Li, Libing; Wei, Jianxin; Pan, Yongdong; Zhong, Zheng
2016-08-01
In this work, we applied a robust and fully air-coupled method to investigate the propagation of the lowest-order antisymmetric Lamb (A0) mode in both a stubbed and an air-drilled phononic-crystal (PC) plate. By measuring simply the radiative acoustic waves of A0 mode close to the plate surface, we observed the band gaps for the stubbed PC plate caused by either the local resonance or the Bragg scattering, in frequency ranges in good agreement with theoretical predictions. We measured then the complete band gap of A0 mode for the air-drilled PC plate, in good agreement with the band structures. Finally, we compared the measurements made using the air-coupled method with those obtained by the laser ultrasonic technique.
Spirkoska, D; Abstreiter, G; Fontcuberta I Morral, A
2008-10-29
Gallium arsenide nanowires were synthesized by gallium-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. By varying the growth time, nanowires with diameters ranging from 30 to 160 nm were obtained. Raman spectra of the nanowire ensembles were measured. The small linewidth of the optical phonon modes agree with an excellent crystalline quality. A surface phonon mode was also revealed, as a shoulder at lower frequencies of the longitudinal optical mode. In agreement with the theory, the surface mode shifts to lower wavenumbers when the diameter of the nanowires is decreased or the environment dielectric constant increased.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schubert, M.; Korlacki, R.; Knight, S.; Hofmann, T.; Schöche, S.; Darakchieva, V.; Janzén, E.; Monemar, B.; Gogova, D.; Thieu, Q.-T.; Togashi, R.; Murakami, H.; Kumagai, Y.; Goto, K.; Kuramata, A.; Yamakoshi, S.; Higashiwaki, M.
2016-03-01
We derive a dielectric function tensor model approach to render the optical response of monoclinic and triclinic symmetry materials with multiple uncoupled infrared and far-infrared active modes. We apply our model approach to monoclinic β -Ga2O3 single-crystal samples. Surfaces cut under different angles from a bulk crystal, (010) and (2 ¯01 ), are investigated by generalized spectroscopic ellipsometry within infrared and far-infrared spectral regions. We determine the frequency dependence of 4 independent β -Ga2O3 Cartesian dielectric function tensor elements by matching large sets of experimental data using a point-by-point data inversion approach. From matching our monoclinic model to the obtained 4 dielectric function tensor components, we determine all infrared and far-infrared active transverse optic phonon modes with Au and Bu symmetry, and their eigenvectors within the monoclinic lattice. We find excellent agreement between our model results and results of density functional theory calculations. We derive and discuss the frequencies of longitudinal optical phonons in β -Ga2O3 . We derive and report density and anisotropic mobility parameters of the free charge carriers within the tin-doped crystals. We discuss the occurrence of longitudinal phonon plasmon coupled modes in β -Ga2O3 and provide their frequencies and eigenvectors. We also discuss and present monoclinic dielectric constants for static electric fields and frequencies above the reststrahlen range, and we provide a generalization of the Lyddane-Sachs-Teller relation for monoclinic lattices with infrared and far-infrared active modes. We find that the generalized Lyddane-Sachs-Teller relation is fulfilled excellently for β -Ga2O3 .
Unambiguous phonon mode assignment in multiferroic BiFeO3 single crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beekman, Christianne; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Burch, Kenneth
2012-02-01
In Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) antiferromagnetic and ferroelectric order parameters coexist at room temperature, making this material an excellent candidate for new functionalities, such as electrical control of magnetism. Despite extensive reports on Raman scattering experiments on single crystals and thin films, controversy still remains in the observation and assignment of the phonon mode symmetries. We present polarized micro-Raman spectroscopy of single crystals ((1 0 0)cubic surface) with uniform ferroelectric polarization. Careful examination of the Raman spectra upon crystal rotation enables us to unambiguously assign the (A1, Ex and Ey) modes. We will show that ambiguity is easily introduced by slight misalignment of the crystal and that the crystal rotation is necessary to reach unambiguous mode assignment. Our method not only results in proper Raman mode assignment, which is necessary to describe the phonons critical for the multiferroic behavior, it also allows study of symmetry breaking and may provide a way to non-invasively check the ferroelectric polarization direction.
Acoustic whispering gallery modes within the theory of elasticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sturman, Boris; Breunig, Ingo
2015-07-01
Investigations of nonlinear phenomena in optical whispering gallery mode (WGM) microresonators are booming because of rich physics and applications. Stimulated Brillouin scattering is one of the strongest processes in these devices. Here, the optical WGMs interact with acoustic counterparts. The acoustic WGMs are well known for resonators based on liquids and gases, where the sound waves are longitudinal. The situation with solid-state resonators is different because of the presence of the longitudinal (l) and transverse (t) sound waves with substantially different velocities v l , t . Moreover, the l- and t-parts of the acoustic displacement are coupled at the resonator surface breaking the separation of modes into longitudinal and transverse. Investigation of the acoustic WGMs is of high priority. Here, analytically and numerically we investigate the resonant frequencies and the eigenfunctions (displacement vector distributions) for acoustic WGMs in microresonators made of isotropic solid-state materials. Cylindrical and spherical resonators are considered. Each mode has the azimuth, radial, and orbital (for sphere) numbers m, q, and ℓ; its properties are controlled also by the ratio v l / v t . All modes are either transverse (t) or hybrid transverse-longitudinal (tl). Pure l-modes, providing the strongest interaction with optical modes in fibers and bulk crystals, are absent. The tl-modes include distorted Rayleigh waves, the modes with q ˜ 1 and dominating t-part, and pseudo-longitudinal modes with q ≫ 1 , closely spaced frequencies, and weakly localized t-part. They have no analogies to the optical WGMs and are of high relevance for Brillouin lasing in optical microresonators. The actual values of ℓ and m are 10 2 - 10 5 , and the lasing thresholds lie in the μW range. Our findings include exact dispersion equations for acoustic WGMs, which can be solved numerically for ℓ , m ≲ 10 4 , asymptotic tools for ℓ , m ≳ 10 3 , and particular
Perturbations From Ducts on the Modes of Acoustic Thermometers
Gillis, K. A.; Lin, H.; Moldover, M. R.
2009-01-01
We examine the perturbations of the modes of an acoustic thermometer caused by circular ducts used either for gas flow or as acoustic waveguides coupled to remote transducers. We calculate the acoustic admittance of circular ducts using a model based on transmission line theory. The admittance is used to calculate the perturbations to the resonance frequencies and half-widths of the modes of spherical and cylindrical acoustic resonators as functions of the duct’s radius, length, and the locations of the transducers along the duct's length. To verify the model, we measured the complex acoustic admittances of a series of circular tubes as a function of length between 200 Hz and 10 kHz using a three-port acoustic coupler. The absolute magnitude of the specific acoustic admittance is approximately one. For a 1.4 mm inside-diameter, 1.4 m long tube, the root mean square difference between the measured and modeled specific admittances (both real and imaginary parts) over this frequency range was 0.018. We conclude by presenting design considerations for ducts connected to acoustic thermometers. PMID:27504227
Phonon-roton modes of liquid 4He beyond the roton in MCM-41
Azuah, Richard T; Omar Diallo, Souleymane; Adams, Mark A.; Kirichek, Oleg; Glyde, Henry R
2013-01-01
We present neutron scattering measurements of the phonon-roton (P-R) mode of superfluid 4He confined in 47 A MCM-41 at T = 0.5 K at wave vectors, Q, beyond the roton wave vector (QR = 1.92 A-1). Measurements beyond the roton require access to high wave vectors (up to Q = 4 A-1) with excellent energy resolution and high statistical precision. The present results show for the first time that at T = 0.5 K the P-R mode in MCM-41 extends out to wave-vector Q 3.6 A-1 with the same energy and zero width (within precision) as observed in bulk superfluid 4He. Layer modes in the roton region are also observed. Specifically, the P-R mode energy, !Q, increases with Q for Q > QR and reaches a plateau at a maximum energy !Q = 2 where is the roton energy, = 0.74 0.01 meV in MCM-41. This upper limit means the P-R mode decays to two rotons when its energy exceeds 2 . It also means that the P-R mode does not decay to two layers modes. If the P-R could decay to two layer modes, !Q would plateau at a lower energy, !Q = 2 L where L = 0.60 meV is the energy of the roton like minimum of the layer mode. The observation of the P-R mode with energy up to 2 shows that the P-R mode and the layer modes are independent modes with apparently little interaction between them.
Yi, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Hye-Jung
2017-02-15
We investigate spectral behavior of phonon spectral functions in an interacting multi-component hot carrier plasma. Spectral analysis of various phonon spectral functions is performed considering carrier-phonon channels of polar and nonpolar optical phonons, acoustic deformation-potential, and piezoelectric Coulomb couplings. Effects of phonon self-energy corrections are examined at finite temperature within a random phase approximation extended to include the effects of dynamic screening, plasmon-phonon coupling, and local-field corrections of the plasma species. We provide numerical data for the case of a photo-generated electron-hole plasma formed in a wurtzite GaN. Our result shows the clear significance of the multiplicity of the plasma species in the phonon spectral functions of a multi-component plasma giving rise to a variety of spectral behaviors of carrier-phonon coupled collective modes. A useful sum rule on the plasma-species-resolved dielectric functions is also found.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yi, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Hye-Jung
2017-02-01
We investigate spectral behavior of phonon spectral functions in an interacting multi-component hot carrier plasma. Spectral analysis of various phonon spectral functions is performed considering carrier-phonon channels of polar and nonpolar optical phonons, acoustic deformation-potential, and piezoelectric Coulomb couplings. Effects of phonon self-energy corrections are examined at finite temperature within a random phase approximation extended to include the effects of dynamic screening, plasmon-phonon coupling, and local-field corrections of the plasma species. We provide numerical data for the case of a photo-generated electron-hole plasma formed in a wurtzite GaN. Our result shows the clear significance of the multiplicity of the plasma species in the phonon spectral functions of a multi-component plasma giving rise to a variety of spectral behaviors of carrier-phonon coupled collective modes. A useful sum rule on the plasma-species-resolved dielectric functions is also found.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shinokita, Keisuke; Reimann, Klaus; Woerner, Michael; Elsaesser, Thomas; Hey, Rudolf; Flytzanis, Christos
2016-02-01
Sound amplification in an electrically biased superlattice (SL) is studied in optical experiments with 100 fs time resolution. Coherent SL phonons with frequencies of 40, 375, and 410 GHz give rise to oscillatory reflectivity changes. With currents from 0.5 to 1.3 A, the Fourier amplitude of the 410 GHz phonon increases by more than a factor of 2 over a 200 ps period. This amplification is due to stimulated Čerenkov phonon emission by electrons undergoing intraminiband transport. The gain coefficient of 8 ×103 cm-1 is reproduced by theoretical calculations and holds potential for novel sub-THz phonon emitters.
Energy loss to intravalley acoustic modes in nano-dimensional wire structures at low temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nag, S.; Das, B.; Basu, A.; Das, J.; Bhattacharya, D. P.; Sarkar, C. K.
2017-03-01
The theory of rate of loss of energy of non-equilibrium electrons due to inelastic interaction with the intravalley acoustic phonons in a nano-dimensional semiconductor wire has been developed under the condition of low lattice temperature, when the approximations of the well known traditional theory are not valid. Numerical results are obtained for narrow-channel GaAs-GaAlAs wires structures. On comparison with other available results it is revealed that the finite energy of the intravalley acoustic phonons and, the use of the full form of the phonon distribution without truncation to the equipartition law, produce significant changes in the energy loss characteristics at low temperatures.
Ken Telschow; John D. Larson III
2006-10-01
Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators are useful for many signal processing applications. Detailed knowledge of their operation properties are needed to optimize their design for specific applications. The finite size of these resonators precludes their use in single acoustic modes; rather, multiple wave modes, such as, lateral wave modes are always excited concurrently. In order to determine the contributions of these modes, we have been using a newly developed full-field laser acoustic imaging approach to directly measure their amplitude and phase throughout the resonator. This paper describes new results comparing modeling of both elastic and piezoelectric effects in the active material with imaging measurement of all excited modes. Fourier transformation of the acoustic amplitude and phase displacement images provides a quantitative determination of excited mode amplitude and wavenumber at any frequency. Images combined at several frequencies form a direct visualization of lateral mode excitation and dispersion for the device under test allowing mode identification and comparison with predicted operational properties. Discussion and analysis are presented for modes near the first longitudinal thickness resonance (~900 MHz) in an AlN thin film resonator. Plate wave modeling, taking account of material crystalline orientation, elastic and piezoelectric properties and overlayer metallic films, will be discussed in relation to direct image measurements.
Localization of acoustic modes in periodic porous silicon structures
2014-01-01
The propagation of longitudinal acoustic waves in multilayer structures based on porous silicon and the experimental measurement of acoustic transmission for the structures in the gigahertz range are reported and studied theoretically. The considered structures exhibit band gaps in the transmission spectrum and these are localized modes inside the band gap, coming from defect layers introduced in periodic systems. The frequency at which the acoustic resonances appear can be tuned by changing the porosity and/or thickness of the defect layer. PMID:25206317
Spinning mode acoustic radiation from the flight inlet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moss, W. F.
1983-01-01
A mathematical model was developed for spinning mode acoustic radiation from a thick wall duct without flow. This model is based on a series of experiments (with and without flow). A nearly pure azimuthal spinning mode was isolated and then reflection coefficients and far field pressure (amplitude and phase) were measured. In our model the governing boundary value problem for the Helmholtz equation is first converted into an integral equation for the unknown acoustic pressure over a disk, S1, near the mouth of the duct and over the exterior surface, S2, of the duct. Assuming a pure azimuthal mode excitation, the azimuthal dependence is integrated out which yields an integral equation over the generator C1 of S1 and the generator C2 of S2. The sound pressure on C1 was approximated by a truncated modal expansion of the interior acoustic pressure. Piecewise linear spline approximation on C2 was used.
Phonon Scattering Dynamics of Thermophoretic Motion in Carbon Nanotube Oscillators.
Prasad, Matukumilli V D; Bhattacharya, Baidurya
2016-04-13
Using phonon wave packet molecular dynamics simulations, we find that anomalous longitudinal acoustic (LA) mode phonon scattering in low to moderate energy ranges is responsible for initiating thermophoretic motion in carbon nanotube oscillators. The repeated scattering of a single mode LA phonon wave packet near the ends of the inner nanotube provides a net unbalanced force that, if large enough, initiates thermophoresis. By applying a coherent phonon pulse on the outer tube, which generalizes the single mode phonon wave packet, we are able to achieve thermophoresis in a carbon nanotube oscillator. We also find the nature of the unbalanced force on end-atoms to be qualitatively similar to that under an imposed thermal gradient. The thermodiffusion coefficient obtained for a range of thermal gradients and core lengths suggest that LA phonon scattering is the dominant mechanism for thermophoresis in longer cores, whereas for shorter cores, it is the highly diffusive mechanism that provides the effective force.
Acoustic-phonon-assisted quantum control of qubit states near the Si/SiO2 interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gou, Bing-Ping; Zhao, Peiji; Kong, Xiao-Jun
2013-10-01
The waiting time between load/initialization and readout of electron spin qubit is related to electron tunneling between the donor and Si/SiO2 interface. Impacts of energy valley interference in silicon, lattice temperature, and screening of metallic gate on the waiting time associated with acoustic-phonon-assisted electron tunneling have been investigated. The results show that interface valley-orbit coupling causes its oscillation with donor depth and the influence of gate screening is significant when the SiO2 thickness is smaller than 10 nm. Moreover, the influences of these factors are strongest at critical electric field.
On Mode Correlation of Solar Acoustic Oscillations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Heon-Young
2009-09-01
In helioseismology it is normally assumed that p-mode oscillations are excited in a statistically independent fashion. Unfortunately, however, this issue is not clearly settled down in that two experiments exist, which apparently look in discrepancy. That is, Appourchaux et al.~(2000) looked at bin-to-bin correlation and found no evidence that the assumption is invalid. On the other hand, Roth (2001) reported that p-mode pairs with nearby frequencies tend to be anti-correlated, possibly by a mode-coupling effect. This work is motivated by an idea that one may test if there exists an excess of anticorrelated power variations of pairs of solar p-modes. We have analyzed a 72-day MDI spherical-harmonic time series to examine temporal variations of p-mode power and their correlation. The power variation is computed by a running-window method after the previous study by Roth (2001), and then distribution function of power correlation between mode pairs is produced. We have confirmed Roth's result that there is an excess of anti-correlated p-mode pairs with nearby frequencies. On the other hand, the amount of excess was somewhat smaller than the previous study. Moreover, the distribution function does not exhibit significant change when we paired modes with non-nearby frequencies, implying that the excess is not due to mode coupling. We conclude that the origin of this excess of anticorrelations may not be a solar physical process, by pointing out the possibility of statistical bias playing the central role in producing the excess.
Lee, Sooheyong; Williams, G. Jackson; Campana, Maria I.; Walko, Donald A.; Landahl, Eric C.
2016-01-01
Using a strain-rosette, we demonstrate the existence of transverse strain using time-resolved x-ray diffraction from multiple Bragg reflections in laser-excited bulk gallium arsenide. We find that anisotropic strain is responsible for a considerable fraction of the total lattice motion at early times before thermal equilibrium is achieved. Our measurements are described by a new model where the Poisson ratio drives transverse motion, resulting in the creation of shear waves without the need for an indirect process such as mode conversion at an interface. Using the same excitation geometry with the narrow-gap semiconductor indium antimonide, we detected coherent transverse acoustic oscillations at frequencies of several GHz. PMID:26751616
Lee, Sooheyong; Williams, G. Jackson; Campana, Maria I.; Walko, Donald A.; Landahl, Eric C.
2016-01-11
Using a strain-rosette, we demonstrate the existence of transverse strain using time-resolved x-ray diffraction from multiple Bragg reflections in laser-excited bulk gallium arsenide. We find that anisotropic strain is responsible for a considerable fraction of the total lattice motion at early times before thermal equilibrium is achieved. Our measurements are described by a new model where the Poisson ratio drives transverse motion, resulting in the creation of shear waves without the need for an indirect process such as mode conversion at an interface. Finally, using the same excitation geometry with the narrow-gap semiconductor indium antimonide, we detected coherent transverse acoustic oscillations at frequencies of several GHz.
The hydrogen-bond network of water supports propagating optical phonon-like modes
Elton, Daniel C.; Fernández-Serra, Marivi
2016-01-04
The local structure of liquid water as a function of temperature is a source of intense research. This structure is intimately linked to the dynamics of water molecules, which can be measured using Raman and infrared spectroscopies. The assignment of spectral peaks depends on whether they are collective modes or single-molecule motions. Vibrational modes in liquids are usually considered to be associated to the motions of single molecules or small clusters. Using molecular dynamics simulations, here we find dispersive optical phonon-like modes in the librational and OH-stretching bands. We argue that on subpicosecond time scales these modes propagate through water’s hydrogen-bond network over distances of up to 2 nm. In the long wavelength limit these optical modes exhibit longitudinal–transverse splitting, indicating the presence of coherent long-range dipole–dipole interactions, as in ice. Lastly, our results indicate the dynamics of liquid water have more similarities to ice than previously thought.
The hydrogen-bond network of water supports propagating optical phonon-like modes
Elton, Daniel C.; Fernández-Serra, Marivi
2016-01-04
The local structure of liquid water as a function of temperature is a source of intense research. This structure is intimately linked to the dynamics of water molecules, which can be measured using Raman and infrared spectroscopies. The assignment of spectral peaks depends on whether they are collective modes or single-molecule motions. Vibrational modes in liquids are usually considered to be associated to the motions of single molecules or small clusters. Using molecular dynamics simulations, here we find dispersive optical phonon-like modes in the librational and OH-stretching bands. We argue that on subpicosecond time scales these modes propagate through water’smore » hydrogen-bond network over distances of up to 2 nm. In the long wavelength limit these optical modes exhibit longitudinal–transverse splitting, indicating the presence of coherent long-range dipole–dipole interactions, as in ice. Lastly, our results indicate the dynamics of liquid water have more similarities to ice than previously thought.« less
The hydrogen-bond network of water supports propagating optical phonon-like modes
Elton, Daniel C.; Fernández-Serra, Marivi
2016-01-01
The local structure of liquid water as a function of temperature is a source of intense research. This structure is intimately linked to the dynamics of water molecules, which can be measured using Raman and infrared spectroscopies. The assignment of spectral peaks depends on whether they are collective modes or single-molecule motions. Vibrational modes in liquids are usually considered to be associated to the motions of single molecules or small clusters. Using molecular dynamics simulations, here we find dispersive optical phonon-like modes in the librational and OH-stretching bands. We argue that on subpicosecond time scales these modes propagate through water's hydrogen-bond network over distances of up to 2 nm. In the long wavelength limit these optical modes exhibit longitudinal–transverse splitting, indicating the presence of coherent long-range dipole–dipole interactions, as in ice. Our results indicate the dynamics of liquid water have more similarities to ice than previously thought. PMID:26725363
An Acoustic Plate Mode Sensor for Biowarfare Toxins, Phase II
1997-10-01
Biological agents -- such as bacteria , bacterial toxins and viruses -- must be detected rapidly to allow their neutralization or the quick treatment of...Mode Sensor for Biowarfare Toxins PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Douglas J. McAllister, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Biode, Incorporated Bangor, Maine...OF PAGES Acoustic Plate Mode, Biowarfare Toxins 54 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION
Zonal Flow Velocimetry in Spherical Couette Flow using Acoustic Modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adams, Matthew M.; Mautino, Anthony R.; Stone, Douglas R.; Triana, Santiago A.; Lekic, Vedran; Lathrop, Daniel P.
2015-11-01
We present studies of spherical Couette flows using the technique of acoustic mode Doppler velocimetry. This technique uses rotational splittings of acoustic modes to infer the azimuthal velocity profile of a rotating flow, and is of special interest in experiments where direct flow visualization is impractical. The primary experimental system consists of a 60 cm diameter outer spherical shell concentric with a 20 cm diameter sphere, with air or nitrogen gas serving as the working fluid. The geometry of the system approximates that of the Earth's core, making these studies geophysically relevant. A turbulent shear flow is established in the system by rotating the inner sphere and outer shell at different rates. Acoustic modes of the fluid volume are excited using a speaker and measured via microphones, allowingdetermination of rotational splittings. Preliminary results comparing observed splittings with those predicted by theory are presented. While the majority of these studies were performed in the 60 cm diameter device using nitrogen gas, some work has also been done looking at acoustic modes in the 3 m diameter liquid sodium spherical Couette experiment. Prospects for measuring zonal velocity profiles in a wide variety of experiments are discussed.
Microscopic theory of cooperative spin crossover: Interaction of molecular modes with phonons
Palii, Andrew E-mail: klokishner@yahoo.com; Ostrovsky, Serghei; Reu, Oleg; Klokishner, Sophia E-mail: klokishner@yahoo.com; Tsukerblat, Boris; Decurtins, Silvio; Liu, Shi-Xia
2015-08-28
In this article, we present a new microscopic theoretical approach to the description of spin crossover in molecular crystals. The spin crossover crystals under consideration are composed of molecular fragments formed by the spin-crossover metal ion and its nearest ligand surrounding and exhibiting well defined localized (molecular) vibrations. As distinguished from the previous models of this phenomenon, the developed approach takes into account the interaction of spin-crossover ions not only with the phonons but also a strong coupling of the electronic shells with molecular modes. This leads to an effective coupling of the local modes with phonons which is shown to be responsible for the cooperative spin transition accompanied by the structural reorganization. The transition is characterized by the two order parameters representing the mean values of the products of electronic diagonal matrices and the coordinates of the local modes for the high- and low-spin states of the spin crossover complex. Finally, we demonstrate that the approach provides a reasonable explanation of the observed spin transition in the [Fe(ptz){sub 6}](BF{sub 4}){sub 2} crystal. The theory well reproduces the observed abrupt low-spin → high-spin transition and the temperature dependence of the high-spin fraction in a wide temperature range as well as the pronounced hysteresis loop. At the same time within the limiting approximations adopted in the developed model, the evaluated high-spin fraction vs. T shows that the cooperative spin-lattice transition proves to be incomplete in the sense that the high-spin fraction does not reach its maximum value at high temperature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hauber, Anna; Fahy, Stephen
2017-01-01
We present a general treatment of carrier scattering by coupled phonon-plasmon collective modes in polar semiconductors, taking anharmonic phonon decay into account and self-consistently calculating carrier momentum relaxation rates and carrier mobility in a parabolic band model. We iteratively solve the weak-field Boltzmann equations for carriers and collective modes and obtain their nonequilibrium distribution functions. Both the scattering rates and the anharmonic decay of the coupled modes are expressed through the total dielectric function of the semiconductor, consisting of a damped lattice dielectric function, and a temperature dependent random phase approximation dielectric function for the carrier plasma. We show that the decay of the coupled modes has a significant effect on the contribution to the mobility limited by carrier-coupled mode scattering. We also propose a scalar quantity, the phonon dissipation weight factor, with which this effect can be estimated from an analytic expression. We apply this treatment to dynamically screened electron-longitudinal optical phonon scattering in bulk polar semiconductors, and to dynamically screened remote phonon scattering in polar heterostructures where monolayers of MoS2 are sandwiched between various polar dielectrics. We find that a dynamic treatment of the remote phonon scattering yields mobilities up to 75% higher than a static screening approximation does for structures which consist of a monolayer of MoS2 between hafnia and silica. Moreover, we show that accounting for the nonzero thickness of the MoS2 interface layer has an important effect on the calculated mobility in the same structure.
Shinokita, Keisuke; Reimann, Klaus; Woerner, Michael; Elsaesser, Thomas; Hey, Rudolf; Flytzanis, Christos
2016-02-19
Sound amplification in an electrically biased superlattice (SL) is studied in optical experiments with 100 fs time resolution. Coherent SL phonons with frequencies of 40, 375, and 410 GHz give rise to oscillatory reflectivity changes. With currents from 0.5 to 1.3 A, the Fourier amplitude of the 410 GHz phonon increases by more than a factor of 2 over a 200 ps period. This amplification is due to stimulated Čerenkov phonon emission by electrons undergoing intraminiband transport. The gain coefficient of 8×10^{3} cm^{-1} is reproduced by theoretical calculations and holds potential for novel sub-THz phonon emitters.
Geodesic Acoustic Propagation and Ballooning Mode Formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, M. B.; Diamond, P. H.; Young, G. G.; Arakawa, M.
2005-10-01
Relevance of ballooning formalism (BMF) in nonlinear interaction of toroidal electromagnetic drift waves in the presence of zonal flows and Geodesic Acoustic Oscillation (GAO) is critically examined from a physical argument of radial propagation of wave packets. To achieve the quasi-translational invariance of poloidal harmonics which is necessary for the BMF, the geodesic curvature induced transfer [1] of fluctuation energy in radial direction should occur faster than the time scale of physical interest. Of course, this does not happen necessarily in drift-Alfven (DALF) turbulence simulations [2]. This observation casts considerable doubts on the applicability of various codes based on the BMF concept to nonlinear electromagnetic problems. [1] B. Scott, Phys. Letters A 320 (2003) 53. [2] B. Scott, New J. Phys 7 (2005) 92.
Optical absorption in semiconductor quantum dots coupling to dispersive phonons of infinite modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Zhiwen; Wang, Qin; Zheng, Hang
2012-10-01
Optical absorption spectrum of semiconductor quantum dot is investigated by means of an analytical approach based on the Green's function for different forms of coupling strength in an unified method by using the standard model with valence and conduction band levels coupled to dispersive quantum phonons of infinite modes. The analytical expression of the optical absorption coefficient in semiconductor quantum dots is obtained and by this expression the line shape and the peak position of the absorption spectrum are procured. The relation between the properties of absorption spectrum and the forms of coupling strength is clarified, which can be referenced for choosing the proper form of the coupling strength or spectral density to control the features of absorption spectrum of quantum dot. The coupling and confinement induced energy shift and intensity decrease in the absorption spectrum are determined precisely for a wide range of parameters. The results show that the activation energy of the optical absorption is reduced by the effect of exciton-phonon coupling and photons with lower frequencies could also be absorbed in absorption process. With increase of the coupling constant, the line shape of optical absorption spectrum broadens and the peak position moves to lower photon energy with a rapid decrease in intensity at the same time. Both the coupling induced red shift and the confinement induced blue shift conduce to decrease in the intensity of absorption spectrum. Furthermore, this method may have application potential to other confined quantum systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Guoqiang; Zhu, Yao; Merugu, Srinivas; Wang, Nan; Sun, Chengliang; Gu, Yuandong
2016-07-01
This letter reports a spurious mode free GHz aluminum nitride (AlN) lamb wave resonator (LWR) towards high figure of merit (FOM). One dimensional gourd-shape phononic crystal (PnC) tether with large phononic bandgaps is employed to reduce the acoustic energy dissipation into the substrate. The periodic PnC tethers are based on a 1 μm-thick AlN layer with 0.26 μm-thick Mo layer on top. A clean spectrum over a wide frequency range is obtained from the measurement, which indicates a wide-band suppression of spurious modes. Experimental results demonstrate that the fabricated AlN LWR has an insertion loss of 5.2 dB and a loaded quality factor (Q) of 1893 at 1.02 GHz measured in air. An impressive ratio of the resistance at parallel resonance (Rp) to the resistance at series resonance (Rs) of 49.8 dB is obtained, which is an indication of high FOM for LWR. The high Rp to Rs ratio is one of the most important parameters to design a radio frequency filter with steep roll-off.
(Ga,In)P: A standard alloy in the classification of phonon mode behavior
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pagès, O.; Chafi, A.; Fristot, D.; Postnikov, A. V.
2006-04-01
Contrary to a broadly accepted assumption we show that random (Ga,In)P is not an exception with respect to the crude classification of the phonon mode behavior of random mixed crystals in terms of 1-bond→1-mode systems or 2-bond→1-mode systems, as established from the simple criterion derived by Elliott [R. J. Elliott , Rev. Mod. Phys. 46, 465 (1974)]. Consistent understanding of the puzzling Raman/infrared behavior of (Ga,In)P, that has been a subject of controversy, is achieved via a basic version of our 1-bond→2-mode model originally developed for (Zn,Be)-chalcogenides, that exhibit a large contrast in the bond properties, and recently extended under a simplified form to the usual (Ga,In)As alloy. The Raman/infrared features from (Ga,In)P are accordingly re-assigned, with considerable change with respect to the previous approaches. In particular the In impurity mode, previously assigned within (˜390cm-1) the optical band of the host GaP compound (368-403cm-1) , is re-assigned below it (˜350cm-1) . Accordingly the Ga-P and In-P transverse optical branches do not overlap, which reconciles (Ga,In)P with the Elliott’s criterion. Besides, we show that the idea of two bond lengths per species in alloys, supported by our 1-bond→2-phonon picture, opens an attractive area for the discussion of spontaneous ordering in GaInP2 , and mixed crystals in general. Essentially this is because it allows to play with the related competition effects regarding the minimization of the local strain energy due to the bond length mismatch between the parent compounds. In particular the unsuspected issue of intrinsic limit to spontaneous ordering comes out ( η˜0.5 in GaInP2 ). The whole discussion is supported by detailed re-examination of the (Ga,In)P Raman/infrared data in the literature, full contour modeling of the transverse and longitudinal optical Raman lineshapes via our phenomenological 1-bond→2-mode model, and first-principles bond length calculations concerned
Renormalisation of Nonequilibrium Phonons Under Strong Perturbative Influences.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehta, Sushrut Madhukar
Effects of strong perturbative influences, namely the presence of a narrow distribution of acoustic phonons, and the presence of an electron plasma, on the dynamics of nonequilibrium, near zone center, longitudinal optical phonons in GaP have been investigated in two separate experiments. The study of the effects of the interaction between the LO phonons and a heavily populated, narrow distribution of acoustic phonons lead to the observation of a new optically driven nonequilibrium phonon state. Time Resolved Coherent Antistokes Raman Scattering (TR-CARS), with picosecond resolution, was used to investigate the new mode. In order to achieve high occupation numbers in the acoustic branch, the picosecond laser pulses used were amplified up to 1.0 GW/cm^2 peak power per laser beam. An important characteristic property of the new state which differentiates it from the well known LO phonon state is the fact that rather than having the single decay rate observed under thermal equilibrium, the new state has two decay rates. Moreover, these two decay rates depend strongly on the distribution of the acoustic phonon occupation number. The coupling of the LO phonons with an electron plasma, on the other hand, was investigated by measurements of the shape of the Raman scattered line associated with the phonon-plasmon coupled mode. The plasma was generated by thermal excitation of carriers in doped samples. It was possible to study a large variety of plasma excitations by controlling the concentration of the dopant and the ambient temperature. A complete, self consistant model based on standard dielectric response theory is presented, and applied to the measurements of the phonon-plasmon coupled mode. It is possible to recover, via this model, the effective coupled mode damping rate, the plasma damping rate, and the plasma frequency as functions of ambient temperature, or the carrier concentration.
Excitation of geodesic acoustic modes by external fields.
Hallatschek, K; McKee, G R
2012-12-14
It is planned to use external magnetic perturbations at acoustic frequencies at the DIII-D tokamak to attempt to drive geodesic acoustic modes (GAM) to modify the turbulent transport. We show that this might not only be possible--despite the well-known electrostatic nature of the GAMs--but might be a viable and efficient method to generate GAMs in magnetically confined plasmas, by developing an elegant analytic method which allows us to couple numerical dynamic equilibrium calculations with massively parallel non-Boussinesq turbulence code runs and yields practical estimates of the effectivity of the method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nissimagoudar, A. S.; Sankeshwar, N. S.
2014-06-01
Lattice thermal conductivity, κp, of suspended and supported graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) is studied over a wide temperature range, taking into account the dispersive nature of confined acoustic phonon modes. Employing a modified Callaway model, an expression for κp is developed, considering the explicit contributions from in-plane longitudinal, transverse, and torsional acoustic, and out-of-plane flexural acoustic phonon modes. Numerical calculations of κp(T) are presented assuming the confined acoustic phonons to be scattered by sample boundaries, impurities, and other phonons via both normal and umklapp processes. The effect of phonon confinement is to modify the phonon group velocities and the temperature dependence of κp. In a suspended 5-nm-wide GNR at room temperature, a decrease in κp by ˜70% is predicted. Our study brings out the relative importance of the contributing phonon modes and reveals the influence of flexural phonons on κp as a marked shoulder at low temperatures. The role of the various sample-dependent scattering mechanisms is examined. The substrate, in supported GNRs, is shown to curtail the phonon mean free path and suppress the low-temperature κp. Our results are in good agreement with recent experimental data of Bae et al. [M. H. Bae, Z. Li, Z. Aksamija, P. N. Martin, F. Xiong, Z. Y. Ong, I. Knezevic, and E. Pop, Nat. Commun. 4, 1734 (2013), 10.1038/ncomms2755] for supported GNRs.
Ultra-wide acoustic band gaps in pillar-based phononic crystal strips
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coffy, Etienne; Lavergne, Thomas; Addouche, Mahmoud; Euphrasie, Sébastien; Vairac, Pascal; Khelif, Abdelkrim
2015-12-01
An original approach for designing a one dimensional phononic crystal strip with an ultra-wide band gap is presented. The strip consists of periodic pillars erected on a tailored beam, enabling the generation of a band gap that is due to both Bragg scattering and local resonances. The optimized combination of both effects results in the lowering and the widening of the main band gap, ultimately leading to a gap-to-midgap ratio of 138%. The design method used to improve the band gap width is based on the flattening of phononic bands and relies on the study of the modal energy distribution within the unit cell. The computed transmission through a finite number of periods corroborates the dispersion diagram. The strong attenuation, in excess of 150 dB for only five periods, highlights the interest of such ultra-wide band gap phononic crystal strips.
Ultra-wide acoustic band gaps in pillar-based phononic crystal strips
Coffy, Etienne Lavergne, Thomas; Addouche, Mahmoud; Euphrasie, Sébastien; Vairac, Pascal; Khelif, Abdelkrim
2015-12-07
An original approach for designing a one dimensional phononic crystal strip with an ultra-wide band gap is presented. The strip consists of periodic pillars erected on a tailored beam, enabling the generation of a band gap that is due to both Bragg scattering and local resonances. The optimized combination of both effects results in the lowering and the widening of the main band gap, ultimately leading to a gap-to-midgap ratio of 138%. The design method used to improve the band gap width is based on the flattening of phononic bands and relies on the study of the modal energy distribution within the unit cell. The computed transmission through a finite number of periods corroborates the dispersion diagram. The strong attenuation, in excess of 150 dB for only five periods, highlights the interest of such ultra-wide band gap phononic crystal strips.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.; Kosuga, Y.; Lesur, M.; Ido, T.
2016-05-01
An analytic model is developed for understanding the abrupt onset of geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) in the presence of chirping energetic-particle-driven GAM (EGAM). This abrupt excitation phenomenon has been observed on LHD plasma. Threshold conditions for the onset of abrupt growth of GAM are derived, and the period doubling phenomenon is explained. The phase relation between the mother mode (EGAM) and the daughter mode (GAM) is also discussed. This result contributes to the understanding of "trigger problems" of laboratory and nature plasmas.
A violin shell model: vibrational modes and acoustics.
Gough, Colin E
2015-03-01
A generic physical model for the vibro-acoustic modes of the violin is described treating the body shell as a shallow, thin-walled, guitar-shaped, box structure with doubly arched top and back plates. comsol finite element, shell structure, software is used to identify and understand the vibrational modes of a simply modeled violin. This identifies the relationship between the freely supported plate modes when coupled together by the ribs and the modes of the assembled body shell. Such coupling results in a relatively small number of eigenmodes or component shell modes, of which a single volume-changing breathing mode is shown to be responsible for almost all the sound radiated in the monopole signature mode regime below ∼1 kHz for the violin, whether directly or by excitation of the Helmholtz f-hole resonance. The computations describe the influence on such modes of material properties, arching, plate thickness, elastic anisotropy, f-holes cut into the top plate, the bass-bar, coupling to internal air modes, the rigid neck-fingerboard assembly, and, most importantly, the soundpost. Because the shell modes are largely determined by the symmetry of the guitar-shaped body, the model is applicable to all instruments of the violin family.
Dual mode acoustic wave sensor for precise pressure reading
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mu, Xiaojing; Kropelnicki, Piotr; Wang, Yong; Randles, Andrew Benson; Chuan Chai, Kevin Tshun; Cai, Hong; Gu, Yuan Dong
2014-09-01
In this letter, a Microelectromechanical system acoustic wave sensor, which has a dual mode (lateral field exited Lamb wave mode and surface acoustic wave (SAW) mode) behavior, is presented for precious pressure change read out. Comb-like interdigital structured electrodes on top of piezoelectric material aluminium nitride (AlN) are used to generate the wave modes. The sensor membrane consists of single crystalline silicon formed by backside-etching of the bulk material of a silicon on insulator wafer having variable device thickness layer (5 μm-50 μm). With this principle, a pressure sensor has been fabricated and mounted on a pressure test package with pressure applied to the backside of the membrane within a range of 0 psi to 300 psi. The temperature coefficient of frequency was experimentally measured in the temperature range of -50 °C to 300 °C. This idea demonstrates a piezoelectric based sensor having two modes SAW/Lamb wave for direct physical parameter—pressure readout and temperature cancellation which can operate in harsh environment such as oil and gas exploration, automobile and aeronautic applications using the dual mode behavior of the sensor and differential readout at the same time.
Scattering of acoustic duct modes by axial liner splices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tam, Christopher K. W.; Ju, Hongbin; Chien, Eugene W.
2008-03-01
Recent engine test data and results of computational analysis show that the engine inlet acoustic liner splices have a significant impact on aircraft flight noise certification and cabin noise levels. The phenomenon of scattering of acoustic duct modes by axial liner splices is investigated. Previous studies, invariably, follow the frequency-domain approach. The present study, however, uses the time-domain approach. It is demonstrated that time-domain computation yields results that are in close agreement with frequency-domain results. The scattering phenomenon under consideration is very complex. This study concentrates on the effects of four parameters. They are the width of the splices, the frequency of the incident duct mode, the number of splices and the length of splices. Based on the computed results, the conditions under which scattered wave modes would significantly increase the intensity of transmitted waves are identified. It is also found that surface scattering by liner splices has the tendency to distribute energy equally to all the cut-on scattered azimuthal modes. On the other hand, for each scattered azimuthal mode, the high-order cut-on radial mode, generally, has the highest intensity. Moreover, scattering by liner splices is a local phenomenon. It is confined primarily to an area of the duct adjacent to the junction between the hard wall near the fan face and the spliced liner.
Landau damping of geodesic acoustic mode in toroidally rotating tokamaks
Ren, Haijun; Cao, Jintao
2015-06-15
Geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) is analyzed by using modified gyro-kinetic (MGK) equation applicable to low-frequency microinstabilities in a rotating axisymmetric plasma. Dispersion relation of GAM in the presence of arbitrary toroidal Mach number is analytically derived. The effects of toroidal rotation on the GAM frequency and damping rate do not depend on the orientation of equilibrium flow. It is shown that the toroidal Mach number M increases the GAM frequency and dramatically decreases the Landau damping rate.
Acoustic phonon-limited diffusion thermopower in monolayer MoS{sub 2}
Patil, S. B.; Sankeshwar, N. S. Kubakaddi, S. S.
2015-06-24
Diffusion thermopower S{sub d} is investigated, theoretically, as a function of temperature, T and electron concentration, n{sub s} in a n-type monolayer molebdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}). Electron scattering due to unscreened deformation potential (DP) coupling of TA phonons, screened DP coupling of LA phonons, and screened piezoelectric (PE) coupling of LA and TA phonons is considered. Total S{sub d} is dominated by electron scattering by TA phonons via unscreened DP coupling. S{sub d} is found to increase (decrease) with increasing T (n{sub s}). At low T and for high n{sub s}, S{sub d} ∼ T and n{sub s}{sup −1} as found from the Mott formula. At a given T and for given ns, S{sub d} in MoS{sub 2} is much larger than that in GaAs, due to the larger electron effective mass in the former.
Hypersonic phonon propagation in one-dimensional surface phononic crystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Graczykowski, B.; Sledzinska, M.; Kehagias, N.; Alzina, F.; Reparaz, J. S.; Sotomayor Torres, C. M.
2014-03-01
Hypersonic, thermally activated surface acoustic waves propagating in the surface of crystalline silicon patterned with periodic stripes were studied by Brillouin light scattering. Two characteristic directions (normal and parallel to the stripes) of surface acoustic waves propagation were examined exhibiting a distinctive propagation behavior. The measured phononic band structure exhibits diverse features, such as zone folding, band gap opening, and hybridization to local resonance for waves propagating normal to the stripes, and a variety of dispersive modes propagating along the stripes. Experimental results were supported by theoretical calculations performed using finite element method.
Electron collisionless damping of the geodesic acoustic mode in rotating tokamak plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Baoyi; Guo, Wenfeng; Gong, Xueyu; Yu, Jun; Chen, You; Cao, Jinjia
2016-12-01
Collisionless damping of the geodesic acoustic mode due to electron dynamics in rotating tokamak plasmas is investigated. A dispersion relation of the geodesic acoustic mode with a non-adiabatic electron response in a rotating tokamak is derived and solved both analytically and numerically. It is found that the collisionless damping of the geodesic acoustic mode, due to electron dynamics, significantly increases with the increasing toroidal rotation, especially in the large safety factor regime. The rotation-induced frequency up-shift of the geodesic acoustic mode increases the resonant velocity, which enables a larger number of electrons to resonate with the geodesic acoustic mode. The significant increase of the number of the resonant electrons significantly enhances the collisionless damping of the geodesic acoustic mode. The result indicates that in rotating tokamak plasmas a more complete picture of the geodesic acoustic mode should include the electron dynamics.
Lin, Kung-Hsuan; Wang, Kuan-Jen; Chang, Chung-Chieh; Wen, Yu-Chieh; Lv, Bing; Chu, Ching-Wu; Wu, Maw-Kuen
2016-01-01
We have utilized ultrafast optical spectroscopy to study carrier dynamics in slightly underdoped (BaK)Fe2As2 crystals without magnetic transition. The photoelastic signals due to coherent acoustic phonons have been quantitatively investigated. According to our temperature-dependent results, we found that the relaxation component of superconducting quasiparticles persisted from the superconducting state up to at least 70 K in the normal state. Our findings suggest that the pseudogaplike feature in the normal state is possibly the precursor of superconductivity. We also highlight that the pseudogap feature of K-doped BaFe2As2 is different from that of other iron-based superconductors, including Co-doped or P-doped BaFe2As2. PMID:27180873
Pollock, Kevin L; Doan, Hoang Q; Rustagi, Avinash; Stanton, Christopher J; Cuk, Tanja
2017-03-02
A prominent architecture for solar energy conversion layers diverse materials, such as traditional semiconductors (Si, III-V) and transition metal oxides (TMOs), into a monolithic device. The efficiency with which photoexcited carriers cross each layer is critical to device performance and dependent on the electronic properties of a heterojunction. Here, by time-resolved changes in the reflectivity after excitation of an n-GaAs/p-GaAs/TMO (Co3O4, IrO2) device, we detect a photoexcited carrier distribution specific to the p-GaAs/TMO interface through its coupling to phonons in both materials. The photoexcited carriers generate two coherent longitudinal acoustic phonons (CLAPs) traveling in opposite directions, one into the TMO and the other into the p-GaAs. This is the first time a CLAP is reported to originate at a semiconductor/TMO heterojunction. Therefore, these experiments seed future modeling of the built-in electric fields, the internal Fermi level, and the photoexcited carrier density of semiconductor/TMO interfaces within multilayered heterostructures.
Yoshida, Kyohei; Hachiya, Kan; Okumura, Kensuke; Mishima, Kenta; Inukai, Motoharu; Torgasin, Konstantin; Omer, Mohamed; Sonobe, Taro; Zen, Heishun; Negm, Hani; Kii, Toshiteru; Masuda, Kai; Ohgaki, Hideaki
2013-10-28
Mode-selective phonon excitation by a mid-infrared laser (MIR-FEL) is demonstrated via anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements of 6H-silicon carbide (SiC). Irradiation of SiC with MIR-FEL and a Nd-YAG laser at 14 K produced a peak where the Raman shift corresponds to a photon energy of 119 meV (10.4 μm). This phenomenon is induced by mode-selective phonon excitation through the irradiation of MIR-FEL, whose photon energy corresponds to the photon-absorption of a particular phonon mode.
Islam, Syed K.; Lombardi, John R.
2014-02-21
By chemically etching a thin film of crystalline ZnSe with acid, we observe a strong Raman enhancement of the surface phonon modes of ZnSe on adsorption of a molecule (4-mercaptopyridine). The surface is composed of oblate hemi-ellipsoids, which has a large surface-to-bulk ratio. The assignment of the observed modes (at 248 and 492 cm{sup −1}) to a fundamental and first overtone of the surface optical mode is consistent with observations from high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy as well as calculations.
Effect of multiperforated plates on the acoustic modes in combustors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gullaud, Elsa; Mendez, Simon; Sensiau, Claude; Nicoud, Franck; Poinsot, Thierry
2009-06-01
The analytical model derived by Howe assessing the acoustic effect of perforated plates has been implemented in a 3D Helmholtz solver. This solver allows one to compute the acoustic modes of industrial chambers taking into account the multiperforated plates present for the cooling of the walls. An academic test case consisting of two coaxial cylinders, with the inner one being perforated is used to validate the implementation in the general purpose AVSP code. This case is also used to show the effects of the presence of the plates. In particular, the sensitivity of the acoustic damping to the bias flow speed will be studied. A maximum absorption speed is shown, and the behaviour towards an infinite speed will be illustrated by the academic case. Computations are also conducted in the case of an industrial helicopter chamber. The value of the maximum absorption speed is discussed to explain why the modes are in fact not much absorbed by the perforated plates, and that the frequencies are the same as for walls. To cite this article: E. Gullaud et al., C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).
Tunable broadband unidirectional acoustic transmission based on a waveguide with phononic crystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Ailing; Chen, Tianning; Wang, Xiaopeng; Wan, Lele
2016-08-01
In this paper, a tunable broadband unidirectional acoustic transmission (UAT) device composed of a bended tube and a superlattice with square columns is proposed and numerically investigated by using finite element method. The UAT is realized in the proposed UAT device within two wide frequency ranges. And the effectiveness of the UAT device is demonstrated by analyzing the sound pressure distributions when the acoustic waves are incident from different directions. The unidirectional band gaps can be effectively tuned by mechanically rotating the square columns, which is a highlight of this paper. Besides, a bidirectional acoustic isolation (BAI) device is obtained by placing two superlattices in the bended tube, in which the acoustic waves cannot propagate along any directions. The physical mechanisms of the proposed UAT device and BAI device are simply discussed. The proposed models show potential applications in some areas, such as unidirectional sonic barrier or noise insulation.
Phononic Origins of Friction in Carbon Nanotube Oscillators.
Prasad, Matukumilli V D; Bhattacharya, Baidurya
2017-03-01
Phononic coupling can have a significant role in friction between nanoscale surfaces. We find frictional dissipation per atom in carbon nanotube (CNT) oscillators to depend significantly on interface features such as contact area, commensurability, and by end-capping of the inner core. We perform large-scale phonon wavepacket MD simulations to study phonon coupling between a 250 nm long (10,10) outer tube and inner cores of four different geometries. Five different phonon polarizations known to have dominant roles in thermal transport are selected, and transmission coefficient plots for a range of phonon energies along with phonon scattering dynamics at specific energies are obtained. We find that the length of interface affects friction only through LA phonon scattering and has a significant nonlinear effect on total frictional force. Incommensurate contact does not always give rise to superlubricity: the net effect of two competing interaction mechanisms shown by longitudinal and transverse phonons decides the role of commensurability. Capping of the core has no effect on acoustic phonons but destroys the coherence of transverse optical phonons and creates diffusive scattering. In contrast, the twisting and radial breathing phonon modes have perfect transmission at all energies and can be deemed as the enablers of ultralow friction in CNT oscillators. Our work suggests that tuning of interface geometries can give rise to desirable friction properties in nanoscale devices.
Ultrafast optical generation of coherent phonons in CdTe1-xSex quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bragas, A. V.; Aku-Leh, C.; Costantino, S.; Ingale, Alka; Zhao, J.; Merlin, R.
2004-05-01
We report on the impulsive generation of coherent optical phonons in CdTe0.68Se0.32 nanocrystallites embedded in a glass matrix. Pump-probe experiments using femtosecond laser pulses were performed by tuning the laser central energy to resonate with the absorption edge of the nanocrystals. We identify two longitudinal optical phonons, one longitudinal acoustic phonon and a fourth mode of a mixed longitudinal-transverse nature. The amplitude of the optical phonons as a function of the laser central energy exhibits a resonance that is well described by a model based on impulsive stimulated Raman scattering. The phases of the coherent phonons reveal coupling between different modes. At low power density excitations, the frequency of the optical coherent phonons deviates from values obtained from spontaneous Raman scattering. This behavior is ascribed to the presence of electronic impurity states which modify the nanocrystal dielectric function and, thereby, the frequency of the infrared-active phonons.
Phonons in NaO/sub 2/ near the order-disorder transition
Wakabayashi, N.; Alefeld, B.; Buhrer, W.; Smith, H.G.
1982-10-15
The acoustic phonons in cubic NaO/sub 2/ have been studied above and below the order-disorder transition by inelastic neutron scattering. Above the transition the O/sub 2/ /sup -/ ions are disordered and undergoing rapid reorientation about the body diagonals. This reorientation couples with and affects certain acoustic modes in the crystal. The results are described in terms of a phonon-pseudospin coupling theory.
Kumar, Pragati Agarwal, Avinash; Saxena, Nupur; Singh, Fouran; Gupta, Vinay
2014-07-28
The influence of swift heavy ion irradiation (SHII) on surface phonon mode (SPM) and green emission in nanocrystalline CdS thin films grown by chemical bath deposition is studied. The SHII of nanocrystalline CdS thin films is carried out using 70 MeV Ni ions. The micro Raman analysis shows that asymmetry and broadening in fundamental longitudinal optical (LO) phonon mode increases systematically with increasing ion fluence. To analyze the role of phonon confinement, spatial correlation model (SCM) is fitted to the experimental data. The observed deviation of SCM to the experimental data is further investigated by fitting the micro Raman spectra using two Lorentzian line shapes. It is found that two Lorentzian functions (LFs) provide better fitting than SCM fitting and facilitate to identify the contribution of SPM in the observed distortion of LO mode. The behavior of SPM as a function of ion fluence is studied to correlate the observed asymmetry (Γ{sub a}/Γ{sub b}) and full width at half maximum of LO phonon mode and to understand the SHII induced enhancement of SPM. The ion beam induced interstitial and surface state defects in thin films, as observed by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy studies, may be the underlying reason for enhancement in SPM. PL studies also show enhancement in green luminescence with increase in ion fluence. PL analysis reveals that the variation in population density of surface state defects after SHII is similar to that of SPM. The correlation between SPM and luminescence and their dependence on ion irradiation fluence is explained with the help of thermal spike model.
Soft phonon modes driven reduced thermal conductivity in self-compensated Sn1.03Te with Mn doping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Acharya, Somnath; Pandey, Juhi; Soni, Ajay
2016-09-01
The key challenge for superior thermoelectric performance of SnTe is optimization of very high hole concentration (˜1021 cm-3) arising from inherent Sn vacancies. Partial control of charge carriers can be achieved by self-compensation via careful filling of the vacancies using excess Sn, although high thermal conductivity remained a concern. In this context, with deliberate doping, an anharmonicity in phonon dispersion can be generated to obtain a poor thermal conductivity. We report on point defects and soft phonon mode driven poor thermal conductivity in self-compensated Sn1.03Te with Mn doping. The obvious modification in the electronic band structure has been demonstrated by four times enhancement in thermopower for Sn0.93Mn0.1Te from Sn1.03Te, and metallic behavior of temperature dependent resistivity. The observed soft phonon mode and impurity localized mode in Raman spectra have been explained based on the created anharmonicity in Sn1.03Te crystal with Mn doping.
Phononic Frequency Comb via Intrinsic Three-Wave Mixing.
Ganesan, Adarsh; Do, Cuong; Seshia, Ashwin
2017-01-20
Optical frequency combs have resulted in significant advances in optical frequency metrology and found wide applications in precise physical measurements and molecular fingerprinting. A direct analogue of frequency combs in the phononic or acoustic domain has not been reported to date. In this Letter, we report the first clear experimental evidence for a phononic frequency comb. We show that the phononic frequency comb is generated through the intrinsic coupling of a driven phonon mode with an autoparametrically excited subharmonic mode. The experiments depict the comb generation process evidenced by a spectral response consisting of equally spaced discrete and phase coherent comb lines. Through systematic experiments at different drive frequencies and amplitudes, we portray the well-connected process of phononic frequency comb formation and define the attributes to control the features associated with comb formation in such a system. In addition to the demonstration of frequency comb, the interplay between the nonlinear resonances and the well-known Duffing phenomenon is also observed.
Phononic Frequency Comb via Intrinsic Three-Wave Mixing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganesan, Adarsh; Do, Cuong; Seshia, Ashwin
2017-01-01
Optical frequency combs have resulted in significant advances in optical frequency metrology and found wide applications in precise physical measurements and molecular fingerprinting. A direct analogue of frequency combs in the phononic or acoustic domain has not been reported to date. In this Letter, we report the first clear experimental evidence for a phononic frequency comb. We show that the phononic frequency comb is generated through the intrinsic coupling of a driven phonon mode with an autoparametrically excited subharmonic mode. The experiments depict the comb generation process evidenced by a spectral response consisting of equally spaced discrete and phase coherent comb lines. Through systematic experiments at different drive frequencies and amplitudes, we portray the well-connected process of phononic frequency comb formation and define the attributes to control the features associated with comb formation in such a system. In addition to the demonstration of frequency comb, the interplay between the nonlinear resonances and the well-known Duffing phenomenon is also observed.
Fast excitation of geodesic acoustic mode by energetic particle beams
Cao, Jintao; Qiu, Zhiyong; Zonca, Fulvio
2015-12-15
A new mechanism for geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) excitation by a not fully slowed down energetic particle (EP) beam is analyzed to explain experimental observations in Large Helical Device. It is shown that the positive velocity space gradient near the lower-energy end of the EP distribution function can strongly drive the GAM unstable. The new features of this EP-induced GAM (EGAM) are: (1) no instability threshold in the pitch angle; (2) the EGAM frequency can be higher than the local GAM frequency; and (3) the instability growth rate is much larger than that driven by a fully slowed down EP beam.
Optical phonon modes in InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Titus, J.; Nguyen, H. P. T.; Mi, Z.; Perera, A. G. U.
2013-03-01
We report on the studies of optical phonon modes in nearly defect-free GaN nanowires embedded with intrinsic InGaN quantum dots by using oblique angle transmission infrared spectroscopy. These phonon modes are dependent on the nanowire fill-factor, doping densities of the nanowires, and the presence of InGaN dots. These factors can be applied for potential phonon based photodetectors whose spectral responses can be tailored by varying a combination of these three parameters. The optical anisotropy along the growth (c-) axis of the GaN nanowire contributes to the polarization agility of such potential photodetectors.
Rameau, J.D.; Yang, H.-B.; Gu, G. D.; Johnson, P. D.
2009-11-24
Laser-based photoemission with photons of energy 6 eV is used to examine the fine details of the very low-energy electron dispersion and associated dynamics in the nodal region of optimally doped Bi2212. A 'kink' in the dispersion in the immediate vicinity of the Fermi energy is associated with scattering from an optical phonon previously identified in Raman studies. The identification of this phonon as the appropriate mode is confirmed by comparing the scattering rates observed experimentally with the results of calculated scattering rates based on the properties of the phonon mode.
Phonon modes of A(Co 1/2Mn 1/2) O 3 ( A=La, Nd, Dy, Ho, Yb)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, F.; Lewis, R. A.; Wang, X. L.; Dou, S. X.
2001-09-01
Phonon energies in cobaltite/manganites A(Co1/2Mn1/2)O3, where A is a lanthanide, have been determined by far-infrared spectroscopy. The phonon energies systematically shift and split and new modes appear as the mass of the lanthanide is increased through the series A=La, Nd, Dy, Ho, Yb. The behavior of the phonon modes correlates with the magnetic properties of this series of compounds, in particular with the appearance of metamagnetism for the compounds with smaller ions on the A site.
Sound and Noisy Light: Tuning Phonon Modes in Photo-switchable Nanostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sklan, Sophia; Grossman, Jeffrey
2014-03-01
The coupling of light to structural vibrations is well known and results in phenomena like phonon polaritons, acousto-optics (where phonons modulate optical properties), and optomechanics (where light creates or absorbs phonons). Here we consider the question of whether light could also be used to modulate the properties of phonons. We examine photo-isomers (which change their shape under exposure to light), embedded in a nanostructure designed to amplify the effects of photo-switching. To isolate the effects of photo-isomerization (jump photo-switching and shot noise), we apply a combination of analytic and computational techniques to analyze the stochastic dynamics of a toy model of this system. Particular attention is paid to applying this model to explore the potential applications of the photo-switchable nanostructure.
Radial structures and nonlinear excitation of geodesic acoustic modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zonca, F.; Chen, L.
2008-08-01
Geodesic acoustic modes (GAM) are shown to constitute a continuous spectrum due to radial inhomogeneities. The importance and theoretical as well as experimental implications of this fact are discussed in this work. The existence of a singular layer causes GAM to mode convert to short-wavelength kinetic GAM (KGAM) via finite ion Larmor radii; analogous to kinetic Alfvén waves (KAW). Furthermore, it is shown that KGAM can be nonlinearly excited by drift-wave (DW) turbulence via 3-wave parametric interactions, and the resultant driven-dissipative nonlinear system exhibits typical prey-predator self-regulatory dynamics, consistent with recent experimental observations on HL-2A. The degeneracy of GAM/KGAM with beta-induced Alfvén eigenmodes (BAE) is demonstrated and discussed, with emphasis on its important role in the complex self-organized behaviors of burning plasmas.
Radiation of cylindrical duct acoustic modes with flow mismatch
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Savkar, S. D.; Edelfelt, I. H.
1975-01-01
Calculations for the radiation of spinning acoustic modes, with or without a centerbody, and with or without flow temperature and velocity discontinuity, are presented. Solutions to the appropriate convected wave equations devised around Fourier transforms and Wiener-Hopf technique are presented. The decomposition of the asymmetric kernel, resulting from a flow and temperature mismatch, is carried out in part exactly and partially using the so-called Carrier-Koiter approximation procedure. The resulting solutions offer a good approximation to the radiation of both symmetric and asymmetric modes through a flow discontinuity represented as a plug flow jet issuing from a cylindrical duct. Besides the Koiter approximation, the major limitation on the calculation program is the difficulty of calculating the high order Bessel functions with sufficient accuracy.
Yang, T C
2014-02-01
This paper applies the mode coupling equation to calculate the mode-coupling matrix for nonlinear internal waves appearing as a train of solitons. The calculation is applied to an individual soliton up to second order expansion in sound speed perturbation in the Dyson series. The expansion is valid so long as the fractional sound speed change due to a single soliton, integrated over range and depth, times the wavenumber is smaller than unity. Scattering between the solitons are included by coupling the mode coupling matrices between the solitons. Acoustic fields calculated using this mode-coupling matrix formulation are compared with that obtained using a parabolic equation (PE) code. The results agree very well in terms of the depth integrated acoustic energy at the receivers for moving solitary internal waves. The advantages of using the proposed approach are: (1) The effects of mode coupling can be studied as a function of range and time as the solitons travel along the propagation path, and (2) it allows speedy calculations of sound propagation through a packet or packets of solitons saving orders of magnitude computations compared with the PE code. The mode coupling theory is applied to at-sea data to illustrate the underlying physics.
Johansson; Aubry
2000-05-01
We investigate the long-time evolution of weakly perturbed single-site breathers (localized stationary states) in the discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation. The perturbations we consider correspond to time-periodic solutions of the linearized equations around the breather, and can be either (i) spatially localized or (ii) spatially extended. For case (i), which corresponds to the excitation of an internal mode of the breather, we find that the nonlinear interaction between the breather and its internal mode always leads to a slow growth of the breather amplitude and frequency. In case (ii), corresponding to interaction between the breather and a standing-wave phonon, the breather will grow provided that the wave vector of the phonon is such that the generation of radiating higher harmonics at the breather is possible. In other cases, breather decay is observed. This condition yields a limit value for the breather frequency above which no further growth is possible. We also discuss another mechanism for breather growth and destruction which becomes important when the amplitude of the perturbation is non-negligible, and which originates from the oscillatory instabilities of the nonlinear standing-wave phonons.
First-principles prediction of phononic thermal conductivity of silicene: A comparison with graphene
Gu, Xiaokun; Yang, Ronggui
2015-01-14
There has been great interest in two-dimensional materials, beyond graphene, for both fundamental sciences and technological applications. Silicene, a silicon counterpart of graphene, has been shown to possess some better electronic properties than graphene. However, its thermal transport properties have not been fully studied. In this paper, we apply the first-principles-based phonon Boltzmann transport equation to investigate the thermal conductivity of silicene as well as the phonon scattering mechanisms. Although both graphene and silicene are two-dimensional crystals with similar crystal structure, we find that phonon transport in silicene is quite different from that in graphene. The thermal conductivity of silicene shows a logarithmic increase with respect to the sample size due to the small scattering rates of acoustic in-plane phonon modes, while that of graphene is finite. Detailed analysis of phonon scattering channels shows that the linear dispersion of the acoustic out-of-plane (ZA) phonon modes, which is induced by the buckled structure, makes the long-wavelength longitudinal acoustic phonon modes in silicene not as efficiently scattered as that in graphene. Compared with graphene, where most of the heat is carried by the acoustic out-of-plane (ZA) phonon modes, the ZA phonon modes in silicene only have ∼10% contribution to the total thermal conductivity, which can also be attributed to the buckled structure. This systematic comparison of phonon transport and thermal conductivity of silicene and graphene using the first-principle-based calculations shed some light on other two-dimensional materials, such as two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides.
Acoustic mode coupling of two facing, shallow cylindrical cavities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCarthy, Philip; Ekmekci, Alis
2016-11-01
Cavity mode excitation by grazing flows is a well-documented source for noise generation. Similarly to their rectangular equivalents, single cylindrical cavities have been shown to exhibit velocity dependent self-sustaining feedback mechanisms that produce significant tonal noise. The present work investigates the effect of cavity mode coupling on the tonal noise generation for two facing, shallow cylindrical cavities. This geometric arrangement may occur for constrained flows, such as those within ducts, silencers or between aircraft landing gear wheels. For the latter configuration, the present study has observed that the tonal frequency dependence upon the freestream Mach number, associated with the single cavity feedback mechanism, no longer holds true. Instead, two simultaneously present and distinct large amplitude tones that are independent (in frequency) of speed, propagate to the far field. These two, fixed frequency tones are attributable to the first order transverse mode, and the first order transverse and azimuthal modes for the two combined cavities and the volume between them. Altering either the cavity aspect ratio or the inter-cavity spacing thus changes the acoustic resonant volume and translates the centre frequencies of the observed tones correspondingly. The authors would like to thank Bombardier and Messier-Bugatti-Dowty for their continued support.
Phonon dynamics of graphene on metals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taleb, Amjad Al; Farías, Daniel
2016-03-01
The study of surface phonon dispersion curves is motivated by the quest for a detailed understanding of the forces between the atoms at the surface and in the bulk. In the case of graphene, additional motivation comes from the fact that thermal conductivity is dominated by contributions from acoustic phonons, while optical phonon properties are essential to understand Raman spectra. In this article, we review recent progress made in the experimental determination of phonon dispersion curves of graphene grown on several single-crystal metal surfaces. The two main experimental techniques usually employed are high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and inelastic helium atom scattering (HAS). The different dispersion branches provide a detailed insight into the graphene-substrate interaction. Softening of optical modes and signatures of the substrate‧s Rayleigh wave are observed for strong graphene-substrate interactions, while acoustic phonon modes resemble those of free-standing graphene for weakly interacting systems. The latter allows determining the bending rigidity and the graphene-substrate coupling strength. A comparison between theory and experiment is discussed for several illustrative examples. Perspectives for future experiments are discussed.
Strong acoustic coupling to a superconducting qubit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gustafsson, Martin; Aref, Thomas; Frisk Kockum, Anton; Ekström, Maria; Johansson, Göran; Delsing, Per
2014-03-01
Micromechanical resonators can be used to store quantum information, as shown in several recent experiments. These resonators typically have the form of membranes or beams, and phonons are localized to their vibrational eigenmodes. We present a different kind of mechanical quantum device, where propagating phonons serve as carriers for quantum information. At the core of our device is a superconducting qubit, designed to couple to Surface Acoustic Waves (SAW) in the underlying substrate through the piezoelectric effect. This type of coupling can be very strong, and in our case exceeds the coupling to any external electromagnetic modes. The acoustic waves propagate freely on the surface of the substrate, and we use a remote electro-acoustic transducer to address the qubit acoustically and listen to its emission of phonons. This presentation focuses on the basic properties of our acoustic quantum system, and we include experimental data that demonstrate the quantized coupling between the qubit and the propagating acoustic waves.
Modification of the G-phonon mode of graphene by nitrogen doping
Lukashev, Pavel V. Hurley, Noah; Zhao, Liuyan; Pasupathy, Abhay; Paudel, Tula R.; Tsymbal, Evgeny Y.; Schiros, Theanne; Pinczuk, Aron; He, Rui
2016-01-25
The effect of nitrogen doping on the phonon spectra of graphene is analyzed. In particular, we employ first-principles calculations and scanning Raman analysis to investigate the dependence of phonon frequencies in graphene on the concentration of nitrogen dopants. We demonstrate that the G phonon frequency shows oscillatory behavior as a function of nitrogen concentration. We analyze different mechanisms which could potentially be responsible for this behavior, such as Friedel charge oscillations around the localized nitrogen impurity atom, the bond length change between nitrogen impurity and its nearest neighbor carbon atoms, and the long-range interactions of the nitrogen point defects. We show that the bond length change and the long range interaction of point defects are possible mechanisms responsible for the oscillatory behavior of the G frequency as a function of nitrogen concentration. At the same time, Friedel charge oscillations are unlikely to contribute to this behavior.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuleev, I. I.; Bakharev, S. M.; Kuleev, I. G.; Ustinov, V. V.
2017-01-01
Effect of anisotropy of elastic energy on the phonon propagation in single-crystal nanowires made of Fe, Cu, MgO, InSb, and GaAs materials that are used to fabricate spintronics devices in the regime of the Knudsen flow of phonon gas has been studied. A new method of analyzing the focusing of quasi-transverse modes has been suggested, which made it possible to determine the average values of the densities of phonon states in the regions of focusing and defocusing slow and fast quasi-transverse modes. The effect of phonon focusing on the anisotropy of heat conductivity and lengths of the phonon free paths has been analyzed for all acoustic modes that exist in spintronics nanostructures. It has been shown that for all the nanowires investigated the angular dependences of the free paths of fast and slow transverse modes in the {100} and {110} planes correlate with the angular dependences of the densities of phonon states for these modes. Directions of the heat flux that ensure the maximum and minimum phonon heat conductivity in the nanowires have been determined.
Geodesic acoustic mode in anisotropic plasma with heat flux
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Haijun
2015-10-01
Geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) in an anisotropic tokamak plasma is investigated in fluid approximation. The collisionless anisotropic plasma is described within the 16-momentum magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluid closure model, which takes into account not only the pressure anisotropy but also the anisotropic heat flux. It is shown that the GAM frequency agrees better with the kinetic result than the standard Chew-Goldberger-Low (CGL) MHD model. When zeroing the anisotropy, the 16-momentum result is identical with the kinetic one to the order of 1/q2, while the CGL result agrees with the kinetic result only on the leading order. The discrepancies between the results of the CGL fluid model and the kinetic theory are well removed by considering the heat flux effect in the fluid approximation.
Geodesic acoustic mode in toroidally rotating anisotropic tokamaks
Ren, Haijun
2015-07-15
Effects of anisotropy on the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) are analyzed by using gyro-kinetic equations applicable to low-frequency microinstabilities in a toroidally rotating tokamak plasma. Dispersion relation in the presence of arbitrary Mach number M, anisotropy strength σ, and the temperature ration τ is analytically derived. It is shown that when σ is less than 3 + 2τ, the increased electron temperature with fixed ion parallel temperature increases the normalized GAM frequency. When σ is larger than 3 + 2τ, the increasing of electron temperature decreases the GAM frequency. The anisotropy σ always tends to enlarge the GAM frequency. The Landau damping rate is dramatically decreased by the increasing τ or σ.
Geodesic acoustic mode in anisotropic plasma with heat flux
Ren, Haijun
2015-10-15
Geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) in an anisotropic tokamak plasma is investigated in fluid approximation. The collisionless anisotropic plasma is described within the 16-momentum magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluid closure model, which takes into account not only the pressure anisotropy but also the anisotropic heat flux. It is shown that the GAM frequency agrees better with the kinetic result than the standard Chew-Goldberger-Low (CGL) MHD model. When zeroing the anisotropy, the 16-momentum result is identical with the kinetic one to the order of 1/q{sup 2}, while the CGL result agrees with the kinetic result only on the leading order. The discrepancies between the results of the CGL fluid model and the kinetic theory are well removed by considering the heat flux effect in the fluid approximation.
Ignatov, Anatoly A.
2014-08-28
The current (voltage) responsivity of a superlattice-based diode detector has been studied theoretically in the terahertz frequency band that includes the region of the polar-optical phonon frequencies. Within the framework of an equivalent circuit approach, the electro-dynamical model which allows one to analyze the responsivity taking into account the hybridization of the plasma and polar-optical phonon modes both in the substrate and in the cladding layers of the diode has been suggested. It has been shown that the presence of the plasma and polar-optical phonon modes gives rise to strong features in the frequency dependence of the responsivity, i.e., to the resonance dips and peaks at frequencies of hybridized plasmons and polar-optical phonons. It has been suggested that by judicious engineering of the superlattice-based diodes, it would be possible to enhance substantially their responsivity in the terahertz frequency band.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang-wei, SU; Hai-chao, ZHU; Chang-geng, SHUAI; Rong-fu, MAO
2016-09-01
Both structural modes and acoustic radiation modes play important roles in the investigation of structure-borne sound. However, little work has been done for inherent relations between these two kinds of modes. Previous work has mainly dealt with simple and regular structures such as rectangular plates and single-layer cylindrical shells. Therefore, the relationship between structural modes and acoustic radiation modes of complicated structures which has great theory significance and utility value is an important problem that must be studied. This paper presents a numerical method for seeking the relationship between structural modes and acoustic radiation modes of complicated structures. First, a governing equation for relating these two kinds of modes is given based on the characteristics of the modes. Then, substitute the normal structural mode shape matrix and the acoustic radiation mode shape matrix which are obtained by FEM into the governing equation, the modal participating coefficients can be solved, thus we can get the corresponding relations between these two kinds of modes. Using the model of a simply supported truncated conical shell, a numerical example is presented with the numerical method which this paper has proposed. And then, the radiated sound power is calculated to verify the effectiveness of this method and the correctness of this conclusion. The results show that the numerical method proposed in this paper is feasible.
Electron-phonon interaction model and prediction of thermal energy transport in SOI transistor.
Jin, Jae Sik; Lee, Joon Sik
2007-11-01
An electron-phonon interaction model is proposed and applied to thermal transport in semiconductors at micro/nanoscales. The high electron energy induced by the electric field in a transistor is transferred to the phonon system through electron-phonon interaction in the high field region of the transistor. Due to this fact, a hot spot occurs, which is much smaller than the phonon mean free path in the Si-layer. The full phonon dispersion model based on the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) with the relaxation time approximation is applied for the interactions among different phonon branches and different phonon frequencies. The Joule heating by the electron-phonon scattering is modeled through the intervalley and intravalley processes for silicon by introducing average electron energy. The simulation results are compared with those obtained by the full phonon dispersion model which treats the electron-phonon scattering as a volumetric heat source. The comparison shows that the peak temperature in the hot spot region is considerably higher and more localized than the previous results. The thermal characteristics of each phonon mode are useful to explain the above phenomena. The optical mode phonons of negligible group velocity obtain the highest energy density from electrons, and resides in the hot spot region without any contribution to heat transport, which results in a higher temperature in that region. Since the acoustic phonons with low group velocity show the higher energy density after electron-phonon scattering, they induce more localized heating near the hot spot region. The ballistic features are strongly observed when phonon-phonon scattering rates are lower than 4 x 10(10) S(-1).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Byrne, K. P.; Marshall, S. E.
1983-01-01
A procedure for experimentally determining, in terms of the particle motions, the shapes of the low order acoustic modes in enclosures is described. The procedure is based on finding differentiable functions which approximate the shape functions of the low order acoustic modes when these modes are defined in terms of the acoustic pressure. The differentiable approximating functions are formed from polynomials which are fitted by a least squares procedure to experimentally determined values which define the shapes of the low order acoustic modes in terms of the acoustic pressure. These experimentally determined values are found by a conventional technique in which the transfer functions, which relate the acoustic pressures at an array of points in the enclosure to the volume velocity of a fixed point source, are measured. The gradient of the function which approximates the shape of a particular mode in terms of the acoustic pressure is evaluated to give the mode shape in terms of the particle motion. The procedure was tested by using it to experimentally determine the shapes of the low order acoustic modes in a small rectangular enclosure.
Envelope solitons of acoustic plate modes and surface waves.
Mayer, Andreas P; Kovalev, Alexander S
2003-06-01
The problem of the existence of evelope solitons in elastic plates and at solid surfaces covered by an elastic film is revisited with special attention paid to nonlinear long-wave short-wave interactions. Using asymptotic expansions and multiple scales, conditions for the existence of envelope solitons are established and it is shown how their parameters can be expressed in terms of the elastic moduli and mass densities of the materials involved. In addition to homogeneous plates, weak periodic modulation of the plate's material parameters are also considered. In the case of wave propagation in an elastic plate, modulations of weakly nonlinear carrier waves are governed by a coupled system of partial differential equations consisting of evolution equations for the complex amplitude of the carrier wave (the nonlinear Schrödinger equation for envelope solitons and the Mills-Trullinger equations for gap solitons), and the wave equation for long-wavelength acoustic plate modes. In contrast to this situation, envelope solitons of surface acoustic waves in a layered structure are normally described by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation alone. However, at higher orders of the carrier wave amplitude, the envelope soliton is found to be accompanied by a quasistatic long-wavelength strain field, which may be localized at the surface with penetration depth into the substrate of the order of the inverse amplitude or which may radiate energy into the bulk. A new set of modulation equations is derived for the resonant case of the carrier wave's group velocity being equal to the phase velocity of long-wavelength Rayleigh waves of the uncoated substrate.
Molecular Detection and Phonon Filtering in Heat-Transfer Spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walczak, Kamil; Yerkes, Kirk
2014-03-01
We examine heat transport carried by acoustic phonons in the systems composed of nanoscale chains of masses coupled to two thermal baths of different temperatures. Thermal conductance is obtained by using linearized Landauer formula for heat flux with phonon transmission probability calculated within atomistic Green's functions (AGF) method. AGF formalism is extended onto dissipative chains of masses with harmonic coupling beyond nearest-neighbor approximation, while atomistic description of heat reservoirs is also included into computational scheme. The resonant structure of phonon transmission spectrum is analyzed with respect to reservoir-dimensionality effects, molecular damping, and mass-to-mass harmonic coupling. Analysis of transmission zeros (antiresonances) and their accompanied Fano-shape resonances are discussed as a result of interference effects between different vibrational modes. Specifically, we show that the heat-transfer-based characterization method may be used to identify individual molecules or filter out specific phonon modes from the whole frequency spectrum. This work is supported by AFOSR grant.
Temperature induced phonon behaviour in germanium selenide thin films probed by Raman spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taube, A.; Łapińska, A.; Judek, J.; Wochtman, N.; Zdrojek, M.
2016-08-01
Here we report a detailed study of temperature-dependent phonon properties of exfoliated germanium selenide thin films (several tens of nanometers thick) probed by Raman spectroscopy in the 70-350 K temperature range. The temperature-dependent behavior of the positions and widths of the Raman modes was nonlinear. We concluded that the observed effects arise from anharmonic phonon-phonon interactions and are explained by the phenomenon of optical phonon decay into acoustic phonons. At temperatures above 200 K, the position of the Raman modes tended to be linearly dependent, and the first order temperature coefficients χ were -0.0277, -0.0197 and -0.031 cm-1 K-1 for B 3g , A g(1) and A g(2) modes, respectively.
Inelastic x-ray scattering measurements of phonon dynamics in URu2Si2
Gardner, D. R.; Bonnoit, C. J.; Chisnell, R.; ...
2016-02-11
In this paper, we study high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering measurements of the acoustic phonons of URu2Si2. At all temperatures, the longitudinal acoustic phonon linewidths are anomalously broad at small wave vectors revealing a previously unknown anharmonicity. The phonon modes do not change significantly upon cooling into the hidden order phase. In addition, our data suggest that the increase in thermal conductivity in the hidden order phase cannot be driven by a change in phonon dispersions or lifetimes. Hence, the phonon contribution to the thermal conductivity is likely much less significant compared to that of the magnetic excitations in the lowmore » temperature phase.« less
Lee, Sooheyong; Williams, G. Jackson; Campana, Maria I.; ...
2016-01-11
Using a strain-rosette, we demonstrate the existence of transverse strain using time-resolved x-ray diffraction from multiple Bragg reflections in laser-excited bulk gallium arsenide. We find that anisotropic strain is responsible for a considerable fraction of the total lattice motion at early times before thermal equilibrium is achieved. Our measurements are described by a new model where the Poisson ratio drives transverse motion, resulting in the creation of shear waves without the need for an indirect process such as mode conversion at an interface. Finally, using the same excitation geometry with the narrow-gap semiconductor indium antimonide, we detected coherent transverse acousticmore » oscillations at frequencies of several GHz.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eliassen, Simen N. H.; Katre, Ankita; Madsen, Georg K. H.; Persson, Clas; Løvvik, Ole Martin; Berland, Kristian
2017-01-01
In spite of their relatively high lattice thermal conductivity κℓ, the X NiSn (X =Ti , Zr, or Hf) half-Heusler compounds are good thermoelectric materials. Previous studies have shown that κℓ can be reduced by sublattice alloying on the X site. To cast light on how the alloy composition affects κℓ, we study this system using the phonon Boltzmann-transport equation within the relaxation time approximation in conjunction with density functional theory. The effect of alloying through mass-disorder scattering is explored using the virtual crystal approximation to screen the entire ternary TixZryHf1 -x -yNiSn phase diagram. The lowest lattice thermal conductivity is found for the TixHf1 -xNiSn compositions; in particular, there is a shallow minimum centered at Ti0.5Hf0.5NiSn with κℓ taking values between 3.2 and 4.1 W/mK when the Ti content varies between 20% and 80%. Interestingly, the overall behavior of mass-disorder scattering in this system can only be understood from a combination of the nature of the phonon modes and the magnitude of the mass variance. Mass-disorder scattering is not effective at scattering acoustic phonons of low energy. By using a simple model of grain boundary scattering, we find that nanostructuring these compounds can scatter such phonons effectively and thus further reduce the lattice thermal conductivity; for instance, Ti0.5Hf0.5NiSn with a grain size of L =100 nm experiences a 42% reduction of κℓ compared to that of the single crystal.
Biswas, Tutul; Ghosh, Tarun Kanti
2013-01-23
We study the interaction between electron and acoustic phonons in a Rashba spin-orbit coupled two-dimensional electron gas using Boltzmann transport theory. Both the deformation potential and piezoelectric scattering mechanisms are considered in the Bloch-Grüneisen (BG) regime as well as in the equipartition (EP) regime. The effect of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction on the temperature dependence of the resistivity in the BG and EP regimes is discussed. We find that the effective exponent of the temperature dependence of the resistivity in the BG regime decreases due to spin-orbit coupling.
Bond-stretching phonon mode in stripe ordered orthorhombic Nd1.67Sr0.33NiO4.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hücker, M.; Fukuda, T.; Gu, G. D.; Tranquada, J. M.; Baron, A. Q. R.; Hill, J. P.
2007-03-01
Inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) experiments on Nd1.67Sr0.33NiO4 have been performed to study electron-phonon interactions in this charge stripe ordered nickelate. Resurgent interest in such phenomena has been triggered by recent results on the high temperature superconductors, where a kink in the electron dispersion as well as striking anomalies in high- energy optical phonon modes have been observed. A significant softening of the bond-stretching-phonon mode for Q||[100] was also observed in the tetragonal nickelate La1.69Sr0.31NiO4 with inelastic neutron scattering. Moreover, this compound shows an apparent splitting of the bond-stretching mode along the [110] direction. Here we present first IXS results for Q||[110] on the orthorhombic compound Nd1.67Sr0.33NiO4, which is characterized by domains with unidirectional stripe order. By probing different spots on the sample with different domain distribution, a weak contrast between the phonon spectra has been observed. We discuss these differences in terms of phonons propagating parallel and perpendicular to the stripe direction, as well as the anisotropic, i.e. orthorhombic, lattice structure.
Optical Generation and Detection of Local Nonequilibrium Phonons in Suspended Graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sullivan, Sean; Vallabhaneni, Ajit; Kholmanov, Iskandar; Ruan, Xiulin; Murthy, Jayathi; Shi, Li
2017-03-01
The measured frequencies and intensities of different first- and second- order Raman peaks of suspended graphene are used to show that optical phonons and different acoustic phonon polarizations are driven out of local equilibrium inside a sub-micron laser spot. The experimental results are correlated with a first principles-based multiple temperature model to suggest a considerably lower equivalent local temperature of the flexural phonons than those of other phonon polarizations. The finding reveals weak coupling between the flexural modes with hot electrons and optical phonons. Since the ultrahigh intrinsic thermal conductivity of graphene has been largely attributed to contributions from the flexural phonons, the observed local non-equilibrium phenomena have important implications for understanding energy dissipation processes in graphene-based electronic and optoelectronic devices, as well as in Raman measurements of thermal transport in graphene and other two-dimensional materials.
``Forbidden'' phonon in the iron chalcogenide series
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fobes, David M.; Zaliznyak, Igor A.; Xu, Zhijun; Gu, Genda; Tranquada, John M.
2015-03-01
Recently, we uncovered evidence for the formation of a bond-order wave (BOW) leading to ferro-orbital order at low temperature, acting to stabilize the bicollinear AFM order, in the iron-rich parent compound, Fe1+yTe. Investigating the inelastic spectra centered near (100) in Fe1+yTe, a signature peak for the BOW formation in the monoclinic phase, we observed an acoustic phonon dispersion in both tetragonal and monoclinic phases. While a structural Bragg peak accompanies the mode in the monoclinic phase, in the tetragonal phase Bragg scattering at this Q is forbidden by symmetry, and we observed no elastic peak. This phonon mode was also observed in superconducting FeTe0.6Se0.4, where structural and magnetic transitions are suppressed. LDA frozen phonon calculations suggested that this mode could result from a spin imbalance between neighboring Fe atoms, but polarized neutron measurements revealed no additional magnetic scattering. We propose that this ``forbidden'' phonon mode may originate from dynamically broken symmetry, perhaps related to the strong dynamic spin correlations in these materials. Work at BNL was supported by BES, US DOE, under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886. Research at ORNL's HFIR and SNS sponsored by Scientific User Facilities Division, BES, US DOE. We acknowledge the support of NIST, in providing neutron research facilities.
Mode resolved modeling of phonon-structure interactions in semiconductor nanocomposites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feser, Joseph
Introducing nanoscale inhomogeneities into semiconductor alloys is a known route to enhance the scattering of long wavelength phonons and to subsequently reduce thermal conductivity. For key applications such as thermoelectric energy conversion materials, this must be done efficiently to avoid harming electronic functionality. Thus, key questions arise such as what type (i.e. contrast mechanisms), shape, size, and number density of particles should be used. This talk presents two new theoretical developments in this area from our group: (1) The use of continuum mechanics to analytically calculate exact phonon scattering cross sections of cylindrical and spherical shaped elastic discontinuities across the Mie regime, and their subsequent use in Boltzmann transport models of thermal transport and (2) the development of a new frequency-domain atomistic approach to simulate the scattering cross section of nanoparticles of arbitrary complexity for wavevectors spanning the entire Brillouin zone, and which can accommodate very large atomistic systems. Its advantages compared to Atomistic Green's functions and molecular dynamics will be discussed.
Multi-band asymmetric acoustic transmission in a bended waveguide with multiple mechanisms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yu-lei; Sun, Hong-xiang; Xia, Jian-ping; Yuan, Shou-qi; Ding, Xin-lei
2016-07-01
We report the realization of a multi-band device of the asymmetric acoustic transmission by placing a phononic crystal inside a bended waveguide immersed in water, as determined both experimentally and numerically. The asymmetric acoustic transmission exists in three frequency bands below 500 kHz induced by multiple mechanisms. Besides the band gap of the phononic crystal, we also introduce the deaf mode and interaction between the phononic crystal and waveguide. More importantly, this asymmetric transmission can be systematically controlled by mechanically rotating the square rods of the phononic crystal. The device has the advantages of multiple band, broader bandwidth, and adjustable property, showing promising applications in ultrasonic devices.
Acoustic mode driven by fast electrons in TJ-II Electron Cyclotron Resonance plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, B. J.; Ochando, M. A.; López-Bruna, D.
2016-08-01
Intense harmonic oscillations in radiation signals (δ I/I∼ 5{%}) are commonly observed during Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) heating in TJ-II stellarator plasmas at low line-averaged electron density, 0.15 < \\bar{n}e < 0.6 ×1019 \\text{m}-3 . The frequency agrees with acoustic modes. The poloidal modal structure is compatible with Geodesic Acoustic Modes (GAM) but an n \
Phonon Transport at Crystalline Si/Ge Interfaces: The Role of Interfacial Modes of Vibration
Gordiz, Kiarash; Henry, Asegun
2016-01-01
We studied the modal contributions to heat conduction at crystalline Si and crystalline Ge interfaces and found that more than 15% of the interface conductance arises from less than 0.1% of the modes in the structure. Using the recently developed interface conductance modal analysis (ICMA) method along with a new complimentary methodology, we mapped the correlations between modes, which revealed that a small group of interfacial modes, which exist between 12–13 THz, exhibit extremely strong correlation with other modes in the system. It is found that these interfacial modes (e.g., modes with large eigen vectors for interfacial atoms) are enabled by the degree of anharmonicity near the interface, which is higher than in the bulk, and therefore allows this small group of modes to couple to all others. The analysis sheds light on the nature of localized vibrations at interfaces and can be enlightening for other investigations of localization. PMID:26979787
Margolis, S.B. . Combustion Research Facility)
1994-12-01
Acoustic oscillations in practical combustion devices such as pulse combustors and rocket motors, whether desirable or not, are properly interpreted as combustion instabilities. A nonlinear stability analysis of the corresponding fluid motions than shows that the nonsteady behavior is governed by infinitely coupled systems of nonlinear evolution equations for the amplitudes of the classical acoustic modes. However, under certain conditions, it has been conjectured that relatively low-order truncations can give qualitatively correct physical results. In the present work, one particular model of a pulse combustor is considered, and a parameter regime in the neighborhood of a primary acoustic bifurcation where either one or a pair of purely longitudinal acoustic modes achieves a positive linear growth rate is focused upon. In the first case, it is formally shown that a decoupling occurs such that a two-mode approximation consisting of the linearly unstable mode and its first resonant harmonic completely determines the dynamics of the oscillation. In the later case, it is again demonstrated that a decoupling occurs, and although mode interactions require the retention of additional modes besides the two linearly unstable modes and their first resonant harmonics, a relatively low-order dynamical system still governs the bifurcation behavior. The presence of two linearly unstable modes is then shown to lead to more complicated dynamics, including the stable secondary bifurcation of a multiperiodic acoustic oscillation from one of the single-period primary branches.
Separation of acoustic modes in the Florida Straits using noise interferometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sergeev, S. N.; Shurup, A. S.; Godin, O. A.; Vedenev, A. I.; Goncharov, V. V.; Mukhanov, P. Yu.; Zabotin, N. A.; Brown, M. G.
2017-01-01
We consider separation of acoustic modes in an experiment carried out in the Florida Straits. The features of the approach are separation of modes using data from single hydrophones, not vertical mode arrays, and a passive scheme of noise interferometry in which the source consists of ocean noise. Processing made it possible to reliably separate the first four modes of the acoustic field. The results allow a conclusion on the possible use of this method for shallow-water monitoring under complex hydrological conditions.
Numerical study of acoustic modes in ducted shear flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vilenski, Gregory G.; Rienstra, Sjoerd W.
2007-11-01
The propagation of small-amplitude modes in an inviscid but sheared mean flow inside a duct is studied numerically. For isentropic flow in a circular duct with zero swirl and constant mean flow density the pressure modes are described in terms of the eigenvalue problem for the Pridmore-Brown equation. Since for sufficiently high Helmholtz and wavenumbers, which are of great interest for applications, the field equation is inherently stiff, special care is taken to insure the stability of the numerical algorithm designed to tackle this problem. The accuracy of the method is checked against the well-known analytical solution for uniform flow. The numerical method is shown to be consistent with the analytical predictions at least for Helmholtz numbers up to 100 and circumferential wavenumbers as large as 50, typical Mach numbers being up to 0.65. In order to gain further insight into the possible structure of the modal solutions and to obtain an independent verification of the robustness of the numerical scheme, comparison to the asymptotic solution of the problem based on the WKB method is performed. The asymptotic solution is also used as a benchmark for computations with high Helmholtz numbers, where numerical solutions of other authors are not available. The bulk of the analysis concentrates on the influence of the wall lining. The proposed numerical procedure is adapted in order to include Ingard-Myers boundary conditions. In parallel with this, the WKB solution is used to check the numerical predictions of the typical behaviour of the axial wavenumber in the complex plane, when the wall impedance varies in the complex plane. Numerical analysis of the problem with zero mean flow at the wall and acoustic lining shows that the use of Ingard-Myers condition in combination with an appropriate slip-stream approximation instead of the actual no-slip mean flow profile gives valid results in the limit of vanishing boundary-layer thickness, although the boundary layer
Temperature dependence of phonon-defect interactions: phonon scattering vs. phonon trapping
Bebek, M. B.; Stanley, C. M.; Gibbons, T. M.; Estreicher, S. K.
2016-01-01
The interactions between thermal phonons and defects are conventionally described as scattering processes, an idea proposed almost a century ago. In this contribution, ab-initio molecular-dynamics simulations provide atomic-level insight into the nature of these interactions. The defect is the Si|X interface in a nanowire containing a δ-layer (X is C or Ge). The phonon-defect interactions are temperature dependent and involve the trapping of phonons for meaningful lengths of time in defect-related, localized, vibrational modes. No phonon scattering occurs and the momentum of the phonons released by the defect is unrelated to the momentum of the phonons that generated the excitation. The results are extended to the interactions involving only bulk phonons and to phonon-defect interactions at high temperatures. These do resemble scattering since phonon trapping occurs for a length of time short enough for the momentum of the incoming phonon to be conserved. PMID:27535463
Modulations of thermal properties of graphene by strain-induced phonon engineering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tada, Kento; Funatani, Takashi; Konabe, Satoru; Sasaoka, Kenji; Ogawa, Matsuto; Souma, Satofumi; Yamamoto, Takahiro
2017-02-01
Modulation of the thermal properties of graphene due to strain-induced phononic band engineering was theoretically investigated by first-principles calculations based on the density functional theory. The high-energy phonon modes are found to exhibit softening owing to the strain, whereas a low-energy acoustic mode (out-of-plane mode) exhibits hardening. Moreover, the dispersion relation of the out-of-plane mode associated with the strain essentially changes from quadratic (∝ k 2) to linear (∝ k). Accordingly, the temperature dependence of the low-temperature specific heat also changes from linear (∝ T) to quadratic (∝ T 2).
Topological phononic states of underwater sound based on coupled ring resonators
He, Cheng; Li, Zheng; Ni, Xu; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Yu, Si-Yuan; Lu, Ming-Hui Liu, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Yan-Feng
2016-01-18
We report a design of topological phononic states for underwater sound using arrays of acoustic coupled ring resonators. In each individual ring resonator, two degenerate acoustic modes, corresponding to clockwise and counter-clockwise propagation, are treated as opposite pseudospins. The gapless edge states arise in the bandgap resulting in protected pseudospin-dependent sound transportation, which is a phononic analogue of the quantum spin Hall effect. We also investigate the robustness of the topological sound state, suggesting that the observed pseudospin-dependent sound transportation remains unless the introduced defects facilitate coupling between the clockwise and counter-clockwise modes (in other words, the original mode degeneracy is broken). The topological engineering of sound transportation will certainly promise unique design for next generation of acoustic devices in sound guiding and switching, especially for underwater acoustic devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lan, Guoqiang; Ouyang, Bin; Xu, Yushuai; Song, Jun; Jiang, Yong
2016-06-01
Rare-earth (RE) pyrochlores are considered as promising candidate materials for the thermal barrier coating. In this study, we performed first-principles calculations, augmented by quasi-harmonic phonon calculations, to investigate the thermal expansion behaviors of several RE2Zr2O7 (RE = La, Nd, Sm, Gd) pyrochlores. Our findings show that RE2Zr2O7 pyrochlores exhibit low-lying optical phonon frequencies that correspond to RE-cation rattling vibrational modes. These frequencies become imaginary upon volume expansion, preventing correct determination of the free energy versus volume relation and thereby quantification of thermal expansion using QH phonon calculations. To address this challenge, we proposed a QH approximation approach based on stable phonon modes where the RE-cation rattling modes were systematically eliminated. This approach is shown to provide accurate predictions of the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) of RE2Zr2O7 pyrochlores, in good agreement with experimental measurements and data from first-principles molecular dynamics simulations. In addition, we showed that the QH Debye model considerably overestimates the magnitudes and wrongly predicts the trend for the CTEs of RE2Zr2O7 pyrochlores.
Inelastic x-ray scattering measurements of phonon dynamics in URu_{2}Si_{2}
Gardner, D. R.; Bonnoit, C. J.; Chisnell, R.; Said, A. H.; Leu, B. M.; Williams, Travis J.; Luke, G. M.; Lee, Y. S.
2016-02-11
In this paper, we study high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering measurements of the acoustic phonons of URu_{2}Si_{2}. At all temperatures, the longitudinal acoustic phonon linewidths are anomalously broad at small wave vectors revealing a previously unknown anharmonicity. The phonon modes do not change significantly upon cooling into the hidden order phase. In addition, our data suggest that the increase in thermal conductivity in the hidden order phase cannot be driven by a change in phonon dispersions or lifetimes. Hence, the phonon contribution to the thermal conductivity is likely much less significant compared to that of the magnetic excitations in the low temperature phase.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Z.; Ban, S. L.; Jiang, D. D.; Qu, Y.
2017-01-01
The two-mode property of bulk transverse optical (TO) phonons in ternary mixed crystals of wurtzite AlxGa1-xN has been investigated by introducing impurity modes in a modified random-element isodisplacement model. Based on the dielectric continuous model, the uniaxial model, and the Lei-Ting balance equation, the effects of the two-mode property on electrostatic potentials of interface optical and confined optical phonons in AlGaN/GaN quantum wells, as well as their influences on the electronic mobility (EM), are discussed by a component-dependent weight model. Our results indicate that the total EM decreases to a minimum at first and then increases slowly with x under the influences of the competitions from the eight branches of phonons. The further calculation shows that the total EM decreases with the increment of temperature in the range of 200 K < T < 400 K and reduction of well width d. As a comparison, the EM is calculated for an Al0.58Ga0.42N/GaN quantum well at room temperature, and our result is 1263.0 cm2/Vs, which is 1.44 times of the experiment value. Our result is expected since the difference between our theory and the experiment is mainly due to the neglect of interface-roughness and other secondary scattering mechanisms. Consequently, the two-mode property of bulk TO phonons in ternary mixed crystals does affect obviously on the electron transport in the quantum wells. And our component-dependent weight model could be extended to study the electric properties influenced by optical phonons in other related heterostructures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Deng
2016-10-01
The dispersion relation of geodesic acoustic modes with a magnetic perturbation in the tokamak plasma with an equilibrium radial electric field was derived. The dispersion relation was analyzed for very low field strength. The mode frequency decreases with increasing field strength, which is different from the electrostatic geodesic acoustic mode. There exists an m = 1 magnetic component that is very low when the radial electric field is absent. The ratio between the m = 1 and m = 2 magnetic components increases with strength of the radial electric field for low Mach numbers.
Edge waves and resonances in two-dimensional phononic crystal plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, Jin-Chen; Hsu, Chih-Hsun
2015-05-01
We present a numerical study on phononic band gaps and resonances occurring at the edge of a semi-infinite two-dimensional (2D) phononic crystal plate. The edge supports localized edge waves coupling to evanescent phononic plate modes that decay exponentially into the semi-infinite phononic crystal plate. The band-gap range and the number of edge-wave eigenmodes can be tailored by tuning the distance between the edge and the semi-infinite 2D phononic lattice. As a result, a phononic band gap for simultaneous edge waves and plate waves is created, and phononic cavities beside the edge can be built to support high-frequency edge resonances. We design an L3 edge cavity and analyze its resonance characteristics. Based on the band gap, high quality factor and strong confinement of resonant edge modes are achieved. The results enable enhanced control over acoustic energy flow in phononic crystal plates, which can be used in designing micro and nanoscale resonant devices and coupling of edge resonances to other types of phononic or photonic crystal cavities.
Softening of Roton and Phonon Modes in a Bose-Einstein Condensate with Spin-Orbit Coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, Si-Cong; Zhang, Long; Xu, Xiao-Tian; Wu, Zhan; Deng, Youjin; Chen, Shuai; Pan, Jian-Wei
2015-03-01
Roton-type excitations usually emerge from strong correlations or long-range interactions, as in superfluid helium or dipolar ultracold atoms. However, in a weakly short-range interacting quantum gas, the recently synthesized spin-orbit (SO) coupling can lead to various unconventional phases of superfluidity and give rise to an excitation spectrum of roton-maxon character. Using Bragg spectroscopy, we study a SO-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate of 87Rb atoms and show that the excitation spectrum in a "magnetized" phase clearly possesses a two-branch and roton-maxon structure. As Raman coupling strength Ω is decreased, a roton-mode softening is observed, as a precursor of the phase transition to a stripe phase that spontaneously breaks spatially translational symmetry. The measured roton gaps agree well with theoretical calculations. Furthermore, we determine sound velocities both in the magnetized and in the nonmagnetized phases, and a phonon-mode softening is observed around the phase transition in between. The validity of the f -sum rule is examined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Gaige; Xu, Linhua; Zou, Xiujuan; Liu, Yuzhu
2017-02-01
We demonstrate the excitation of surface phonon polaritons (SPhPs) in the mid-infrared (mid-IR) Reststrahlen band (10.288 μm-12.563 μm) on patterned surfaces with silicon carbide (SiC) substrate and gold (Au) gratings. The very large negative permittivity of Au limits its applications in the mid-IR range, and to couple incident light to SPhPs modes, their momentum mismatch can be compensated by patterning Au grating onto the surface of SiC substrate. Samples were fabricated and characterized experimentally by Fourier transform infrared reflection (FTIR) spectroscopy. The optical properties were also simulated by the rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) method. Reflection dips are observed for light polarized vertical to the grating lines (TM-polarized), which are attributed to the coupling of electromagnetic (EM) waves into the SPhP modes. In addition, we present small-volume index sensing with analyte specificity based on mid-IR SPhPs in the fabricated configuration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Tianli; Ruan, Xiulin; Ye, Zhenqiang; Cao, Bingyang
2015-06-01
The spectral phonon properties in defected graphene have been unclear due to the lack of advanced techniques for predicting the phonon-defect scattering rate without fitting parameters. Taking advantage of the extended phonon normal mode analysis, we obtained the spectral phonon relaxation time and mean free path (MFP) in defected graphene and studied the impacts of three common types of defects: Stone-Thrower-Wales (STW) defect, double vacancy (DV), and monovacancy (MV). The phonon-STW defect scattering rate is found to have no significant frequency dependence, and as a result, the relative contribution of long-wavelength phonons sharply decreases. In contrast, the phonon scattering by DVs or MVs exhibits a frequency dependence of τp-d -1˜ω1.1 -1.3 except for a few long-wavelength phonons, revisiting the traditionally used ˜ω4 dependence. We note that although MV-defected graphene has the lowest thermal conductivity as compared to the other two defected graphene samples at the same defect concentration, it has a portion of phonons with the longest MFP. The contribution from the long-MFP and long-wavelength phonons does not decrease much as the vacancy concentration increases. STW defect and MV block more out-of-plane modes than in-plane modes, while DV has less bias for which mode to block. As the MV concentration increases from 0 to 1.1%, the relative contribution from out-of-plane modes decreases from 30% to 18%, while that of the transverse acoustic mode remains at around 30%. These findings of spectral phonon properties can provide more insight than the effective properties and benefit the prospective phononic engineering.
Nakayama, Masaaki Ohno, Tatsuya; Furukawa, Yoshiaki
2015-04-07
We have systematically investigated the photoluminescence (PL) dynamics of free excitons in GaAs/Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As single quantum wells, focusing on the energy relaxation process due to exciton–acoustic-phonon scattering under non-resonant and weak excitation conditions as a function of GaAs-layer thickness from 3.6 to 12.0 nm and temperature from 30 to 50 K. The free exciton characteristics were confirmed by observation that the PL decay time has a linear dependence with temperature. We found that the free exciton PL rise rate, which is the reciprocal of the rise time, is inversely linear with the GaAs-layer thickness and linear with temperature. This is consistent with a reported theoretical study of the exciton–acoustic-phonon scattering rate in the energy relaxation process in quantum wells. Consequently, it is conclusively verified that the PL rise rate is dominated by the exciton–acoustic-phonon scattering rate. In addition, from quantitative analysis of the GaAs-layer thickness and temperature dependences, we suggest that the PL rise rate reflects the number of exciton–acoustic-phonon scattering events.
La-o-Vorakiat, Chan; Xia, Huanxin; Kadro, Jeannette; Salim, Teddy; Zhao, Daming; Ahmed, Towfiq; Lam, Yeng Ming; Zhu, Jian-Xin; Marcus, Rudolph A; Michel-Beyerle, Maria-Elisabeth; Chia, Elbert E M
2016-01-07
We study the temperature-dependent phonon modes of the organometallic lead iodide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 thin film across the terahertz (0.5-3 THz) and temperature (20-300 K) ranges. These modes are related to the vibration of the Pb-I bonds. We found that two phonon modes in the tetragonal phase at room temperature split into four modes in the low-temperature orthorhombic phase. By use of the Lorentz model fitting, we analyze the critical behavior of this phase transition. The carrier mobility values calculated from the low-temperature phonon mode frequencies, via two theoretical approaches, are found to agree reasonably with the experimental value (∼2000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) from a previous time-resolved THz spectroscopy work. Thus, we have established a possible link between terahertz phonon modes and the transport properties of perovskite-based solar cells.
Electron-phonon interactions and the intrinsic electrical resistivity of graphene.
Park, Cheol-Hwan; Bonini, Nicola; Sohier, Thibault; Samsonidze, Georgy; Kozinsky, Boris; Calandra, Matteo; Mauri, Francesco; Marzari, Nicola
2014-03-12
We present a first-principles study of the temperature- and density-dependent intrinsic electrical resistivity of graphene. We use density-functional theory and density-functional perturbation theory together with very accurate Wannier interpolations to compute all electronic and vibrational properties and electron-phonon coupling matrix elements; the phonon-limited resistivity is then calculated within a Boltzmann-transport approach. An effective tight-binding model, validated against first-principles results, is also used to study the role of electron-electron interactions at the level of many-body perturbation theory. The results found are in excellent agreement with recent experimental data on graphene samples at high carrier densities and elucidate the role of the different phonon modes in limiting electron mobility. Moreover, we find that the resistivity arising from scattering with transverse acoustic phonons is 2.5 times higher than that from longitudinal acoustic phonons. Last, high-energy, optical, and zone-boundary phonons contribute as much as acoustic phonons to the intrinsic electrical resistivity even at room temperature and become dominant at higher temperatures.
Phonon symmetries in hexagonal boron nitride probed by incoherent light emission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vuong, T. Q. P.; Cassabois, G.; Valvin, P.; Jacques, V.; Van Der Lee, A.; Zobelli, A.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Gil, B.
2017-03-01
Layered compounds are stacks of weakly bound two-dimensional atomic crystals, with a prototypal hexagonal structure in graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and boron nitride. This crystalline anisotropy results in vibrational modes with specific symmetries depending on the in-plane or out-of-plane atomic displacements. We show that polarization-resolved photoluminescence measurements in hexagonal boron nitride reflect the phonon symmetries in this layered semiconductor. Experiments performed with a detection on the sample edge, perpendicular to the c-axis, reveal the strong polarization-dependence of the emission lines corresponding to the recombination assisted by the three acoustic phonon modes. We elucidate the dipole orientation of the fundamental indirect exciton. We demonstrate evidence of the so-far missing phonon replica due to the optical out-of-plane phonon mode.
High sensitivity of p-modes near the acoustic cutoff frequency to solar model parameters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guenther, D. B.
1991-01-01
The p-mode frequencies of low l have been calculated for solar models with initial helium mass fraction varying from Y = 0.2753-0.2875. The differences in frequency of the p-modes in the frequency range, 2500-4500 microHz, do not exceed 1-5 microHz among the models. But in the vicinity of the acoustic cutoff frequency, near 5000 microHz the p-mode frequency differences are enhanced by a factor of 4. The enhanced sensitivity of p-modes near the acoustic cutoff frequency was further tested by calculating and comparing p-mode frequencies of low l for two solar models one incorporating the Eddington T-tau relation and the other the Krishna Swamy T-tau relation. Again, it is found that p-modes with frequencies near the acoustic cutoff frequency show a significant increase in sensitivity to the different T-tau relations, compared to lower frequency p-modes. It is noted that frequencies above the acoustic cutoff frequency are complex, hence, cannot be modeled by the adiabatic pulsation code (assumes real eigenfrequencies) used in these calculations.
Mehl, James B.
2007-01-01
The boundary-shape formalism of Morse and Ingard is applied to the acoustic modes of a deformed spherical resonator (quasisphere) with rigid boundaries. For boundary shapes described by r = a [1 − ε ℱ(θ, ϕ)], where ε is a small scale parameter and ℱ is a function of order unity, the frequency perturbation is calculated to order ε2. The formal results apply to acoustic modes whose angular dependence is designated by the indices ℓ and m. Specific examples are worked out for the radial (ℓ = 0) and triplet (ℓ = 1) modes, for prolate and oblate spheroids, and for triaxial ellipsoids. The exact eigenvalues for the spheroids, and eigenvalue determined with finite-element calculations, are shown to agree with perturbation theory through terms of order ε2. This work is an extension of the author’s previous papers on the acoustic eigenfrequencies of deformed spherical resonators, which were limited to the second-order perturbation for radial modes [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 71, 1109-1113 (1982)] and the first order-perturbation for arbitrary modes [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 79, 278–285 (1986)]. PMID:27110463
Mehl, James B
2007-01-01
The boundary-shape formalism of Morse and Ingard is applied to the acoustic modes of a deformed spherical resonator (quasisphere) with rigid boundaries. For boundary shapes described by r = a [1 - ε ℱ(θ, ϕ)], where ε is a small scale parameter and ℱ is a function of order unity, the frequency perturbation is calculated to order ε (2). The formal results apply to acoustic modes whose angular dependence is designated by the indices ℓ and m. Specific examples are worked out for the radial (ℓ = 0) and triplet (ℓ = 1) modes, for prolate and oblate spheroids, and for triaxial ellipsoids. The exact eigenvalues for the spheroids, and eigenvalue determined with finite-element calculations, are shown to agree with perturbation theory through terms of order ε (2). This work is an extension of the author's previous papers on the acoustic eigenfrequencies of deformed spherical resonators, which were limited to the second-order perturbation for radial modes [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 71, 1109-1113 (1982)] and the first order-perturbation for arbitrary modes [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 79, 278-285 (1986)].
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Hosuk; So, Hyeon Seob; Lee, Hosun; Shin, Hae-Young; Yoon, Seokhyun; Ahn, Hyung-Woo; Kim, Su-Dong; Lee, Suyoun; Jeong, Doo-Seok; Cheong, Byung-ki
2014-06-01
We investigated the optical properties of Ge1- x Se x and Ge1- x- y Se x As y amorphous films by using spectroscopic ellipsometry and Raman spectroscopy. The dielectric functions and absorption coefficients ( α) of the amorphous films were determined from the measured ellipsometric angles (Ψ,Δ). We obtained the optical gap energies and the Urbach energies from the absorption coefficients and found a strong bowing effect in the optical gap energy of Ge1- x- y Se x As y , where the endpoint binaries were Ge0.50Se0.50 and Ge0.31As0.69. Based on the correlation between the optical gap energies and the Urbach energies, we attributed the large bowing parameter to electronic disorder. Using Raman spectroscopy, we measured the phonon modes and discussed the composition dependence of the phonon peak frequencies and lineshapes in terms of structural units. Based on the composition dependence of the phonons in Ge1- x- y Se x As y , we identified the phonon modes of Ge0.31As0.69. A resonant Raman phenomenon was observed in Ge0.40Se0.60 at a laser excitation of 514 nm (2.41 eV). We verified that this laser energy corresponded to the transition energy of Ge0.40Se0.60 by using the second derivative of the dielectric function of Ge0.40Se0.60.
Phononic crystal plate with hollow pillars connected by thin bars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Yabin; Pennec, Yan; Pan, Yongdong; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram
2017-01-01
A new type of phononic crystal plate consisting of hollow pillars on a bar-connected plate is proposed. With respect to usual pillar based phononic crystal plates, the Bragg band gap can be tuned to be much wider and extended to a sub-wavelength region, and the low frequency gap can be moved to an extremely low frequency range. Such a structure can generate quadrapolar, hexapolar and octopolar whispering-gallery modes (WGMs) inside the band gaps with very high confinement and quality factors. By filling the hollow pillars with a liquid, these WGMs, together with additional localized compressional and solid-liquid coupling modes, can be tuned either by varying the inner radius of the pillars or controlling the height of the liquid. We discuss some possible functionalities of these phononic crystals for the purpose of sensing the acoustic properties of liquids, multiplexer and wireless communication.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gusev, Vitalyi E.
2015-02-01
Physical principles for the creation of meta-interfaces between two elastic media supporting transmission of only mode-converted acoustic waves by use of arrays of resonant mechanical elements that transfer shear and compression/dilatation forces are revealed. Analytical modelling of mechanical structural vibrations according to a lumped-element approximation for mechanical elements oriented obliquely to the interface shows that such meta-interfaces can be applied to the directional transmission of the acoustic waves between solids and liquids. Applications include the acoustic isolation of solid objects in a liquid environment and the reduction of the detection efficiency of solid-object vibrations.
The source of solar high-frequency acoustic modes - Theoretical expectations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, Timothy M.
1991-01-01
The source exciting the solar p-modes is likely to be acoustic noise generated in the top part of the sun's convection zone. If so, then simple arguments suggest that most of the emitted energy may come from rare localized events that are well separated from one another in space and time. This note describes the acoustic emission that would be expected from such events, based on a ray-theory analysis. Most of the acoustic energy is found to emerge very close to the source, so that observations to identify emission events will require high spatial resolution.
Kirschner, Matthew S.; Lethiec, Clotilde M.; Lin, Xiao-Min; Schatz, George C.; Chen, Lin X.; Schaller, Richard D.
2016-05-18
Localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) arising from metallic nanoparticles offer an array of prospective applications that range from chemical sensing to biotherapies. Bipyramidal particles exhibit particularly narrow ensemble LSPR resonances that reflect small dispersity of size and shape but until recently were only synthetically accessible over a limited range of sizes with corresponding aspect ratios. Narrow size dispersion offers the opportunity to examine ensemble dynamical phenomena such as coherent phonons that induce periodic oscillations of the LSPR energy. Here, we characterize transient optical behavior of a large range of gold bipyramid sizes, as well as higher aspect ratio nanojavelin ensembles with specific attention to the lowest-order acoustic phonon mode of these nanoparticles. We report coherent phonon-driven oscillations of the LSPR position for particles with resonances spanning 670 to 1330 nm. Nanojavelins were shown to behave similarly to bipyramids but offer the prospect of separate control over LSPR energy and coherent phonon oscillation period. We develop a new methodology for quantitatively measuring mechanical expansion caused by photogenerated coherent phonons. Using this method, we find an elongation of approximately 1% per photon absorbed per unit cell and that particle expansion along the lowest frequency acoustic phonon mode is linearly proportional to excitation fluence for the fluence range studied. These characterizations provide insight regarding means to manipulate phonon period and transient mechanical deformation.
Bhargavi, K. S.; Patil, Sukanya; Kubakaddi, S. S.
2015-07-28
The theory of free-carrier absorption (FCA) is given for monolayers of transition-metal dichalcogenides, particularly for molybdenum disulphide (MoS{sub 2}), when carriers are scattered by phonons. Explicit expressions for the absorption coefficient α are obtained and discussed for acoustic phonon scattering via screened deformation potential and piezoelectric coupling taking polarization of the radiation in the plane of the layer. It is found that α monotonously decreases with the increasing photon frequency Ω, increases with the increasing temperature T, and linearly depends on two-dimensional electron concentration n{sub s}. Effect of screening, which is ignored in all the earlier FCA studies, is found to reduce α significantly, attributing to the larger effective mass of the electrons. Results are also obtained in the classical and quantum limit giving the power laws α ∼ Ω{sup −2} and T. Comparison of the results is made with those in bulk semiconductors and semiconductor quantum wells.
Incompressible Modes Excited by Supersonic Shear in Boundary Layers: Acoustic CFS Instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belyaev, Mikhail A.
2017-02-01
We present an instability for exciting incompressible modes (e.g., gravity or Rossby modes) at the surface of a star accreting through a boundary layer. The instability excites a stellar mode by sourcing an acoustic wave in the disk at the boundary layer, which carries a flux of energy and angular momentum with the opposite sign as the energy and angular momentum density of the stellar mode. We call this instability the acoustic Chandrasekhar–Friedman–Schutz (CFS) instability, because of the direct analogy to the CFS instability for exciting modes on a rotating star by emission of energy in the form of gravitational waves. However, the acoustic CFS instability differs from its gravitational wave counterpart in that the fluid medium in which the acoustic wave propagates (i.e., the accretion disk) typically rotates faster than the star in which the incompressible mode is sourced. For this reason, the instability can operate even for a non-rotating star in the presence of an accretion disk. We discuss applications of our results to high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations in accreting black hole and neutron star systems and dwarf nova oscillations in cataclysmic variables.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baumeister, K. J.
1981-01-01
The time-dependent governing acoustic-difference equations and boundary conditions are developed and solved for sound propagation in an axisymmetric (cylindrical) hard-wall duct without flow and with spinning acoustic modes. The analysis begins with a harmonic sound source radiating into a quiescent duct. This explicit iteration method then calculates stepwise in real time to obtain the steady solutions of the acoustic field. The transient method did not converge to the steady-state solution for cutoff acoustic duct modes. This has implications as to its use in a variable-area duct, where modes may become cutoff in the smal-area portion of the duct. For single cutoff mode propagation the steady-state impedance boundary condition produced acoustic reflections during the initial transient that caused finite instabilities in the numerical calculations. The stability problem is resolved by reformulating the exit boundary condition. Example calculations show good agreement with exact analytical and numerical results for forcing frequencies above, below, and nearly at the cutoff frequency.
Strain induced modification in phonon dispersion curves of monolayer boron pnictides
Jha, Prafulla K. E-mail: prafullaj@yahoo.com; Soni, Himadri R.
2014-01-14
In the frame work of density functional theory, the biaxial strain induced phonon dispersion curves of monolayer boron pnictides (BX, X = N, P, As, and Sb) have been investigated. The electron-ion interactions have been modelled using ultrasoft pseudopotentials while exchange-correlation energies have been approximated by the method of local density approximation in the parameterization of Perdew-Zunger. The longitudinal and transverse acoustic phonon modes of boron pnictide sheets show linear dependency on wave vector k{sup →} while out of plane mode varies as k{sup 2}. The in-plane longitudinal and out of plane transverse optical modes in boron nitride displaying significant dispersion similar to graphene. We have analyzed the biaxial strain dependent behaviour of out of plane acoustic phonon mode which is linked to ripple for four BX sheets using a model equation with shell elasticity theory. The strain induces the hardening of this mode with tendency to become more linear with increase in strain percentage. The strain induced hardening of out of plane acoustic phonon mode indicates the absence of rippling in these compounds. Our band structure calculations for both unstrained and strained 2D h-BX are consistent with previous calculations.
Phonon-lifetimes in demixing systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davaasambuu, J.; Güthoff, F.; Petri, M.; Hradil, K.; Schober, H.; Ollivier, J.; Eckold, G.
2012-06-01
The dynamics of silver-alkali halide mixed single crystals (AgxNa1-xBr, x = 0.23, 0.35, 0.40 and 0.70) were studied by inelastic neutron scattering during the process of spinodal decomposition. Using the thermal three-axes spectrometer PUMA as well as the time-of-flight spectrometer IN5, the time evolution of phonons was observed in time-resolved, stroboscopic measurements. Complementary to the study of long wavelength acoustic phonons, as studied previously, we extended these investigations to Brillouin-zone boundary modes that are particularly sensitive to variations of the local structure. Starting from the homogeneous mixed phase the behaviour of these modes during demixing is observed in real-time. A simple dynamical model based on local structure variants helps to interpret the results. It is shown that the phonon lifetimes vary strongly during the phase separation and increase drastically during the coarsening process. Up to a critical size of precipitates of about 10 nm, zone-boundary modes are found to be strongly damped, while beyond the line widths are reduced to the experimental resolution. This finding leads to the conclusion that the typical mean free path of these modes is of the order of 10 nm, which corresponds to 20 unit cells.
Lan, Tian; Li, Chen W.; Hellman, O.; ...
2015-08-11
Although the rutile structure of TiO2 is stable at high temperatures, the conventional quasiharmonic approximation predicts that several acoustic phonons decrease anomalously to zero frequency with thermal expansion, incorrectly predicting a structural collapse at temperatures well below 1000 K. In this paper, inelastic neutron scattering was used to measure the temperature dependence of the phonon density of states (DOS) of rutile TiO2 from 300 to 1373 K. Surprisingly, these anomalous acoustic phonons were found to increase in frequency with temperature. First-principles calculations showed that with lattice expansion, the potentials for the anomalous acoustic phonons transform from quadratic to quartic, stabilizingmore » the rutile phase at high temperatures. In these modes, the vibrational displacements of adjacent Ti and O atoms cause variations in hybridization of 3d electrons of Ti and 2p electrons of O atoms. Finally, with thermal expansion, the energy variation in this “phonon-tracked hybridization” flattens the bottom of the interatomic potential well between Ti and O atoms, and induces a quarticity in the phonon potential.« less
Optical detection of folded mini-zone-edge coherent acoustic modes in a doped GaAs/AlAs superlattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beardsley, R.; Akimov, A. V.; Glavin, B. A.; Maryam, W.; Henini, M.; Kent, A. J.
2010-07-01
A coherent phonon mode with frequency corresponding to the first mini Brillouin-zone edge stop gap is observed in ultrafast pump-probe measurements on a doped semiconductor superlattice structure. It is proposed that the optical detection of the mode is facilitated by interactions with the free carriers present in the superlattice.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horsch, P.; Khaliullin, G.; Oudovenko, V.
The density fluctuation spectrum N( k, ω) is calculated for the t- J model in the low-doping regime using a slave-fermion method for the constrained fermions. The obtained results for N( k, ω) are in good agreement with diagonalization results. The density response is characterized by incoherent, momentum dependent spectral functions reaching up to energies ∼ 8 t and a low-energy structure at energy ∼ J due to transitions in the quasiparticle band. N( k, ω) is shown to lead to a strong renormalization of planar bond-streching and breathing phonon modes with a large phonon linewidth at intermediate momenta caused by the low-energy response. Our results are consistent with recent neutron scattering data, showing the peculiar behavior of these modes.
Suppression of fatigue inducing cavity acoustic modes on turbo fan engines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benner, R. H.
1990-10-01
This paper discusses several methods of suppressing shear layer excitation of cavity acoustic modes on turbofan engines. The methods include the use of a Helmholtz resonator, reducing the cavity impingement length with vane-like dividers, and drawing the shear layer into the cavity. Empirical data and closed-form solutions were used to design baseline structures employed in each method. Full scale turbofan engine tests were used to measure their effectiveness. Each method significantly reduced the level to which cavity acoustic modes were excited by shear layer flow.
Chivukula, Venkata; Shur, Michael; Ciplys, Daumantas; Jain, Rakesh; Yang Jinwei; Gaska, Remis
2011-02-28
AlN overlay featuring periodic columnar structure fabricated by epitaxial lateral overgrowth technique leads to excitation of acoustic plate modes (APMs) not observed in overlays without such periodic structure. The measured velocities of acoustic plate modes propagating in AlN-on-sapphire structure were verified by numerical simulation. The APM velocity is strongly modulated by UV illumination at wavelengths from 240 to 365 nm, and the corresponding phase response is sensitive to both the UV power and the wavelength with maximum sensitivity of 3.0 ppm/({mu}W/cm{sup 2}) at 240 nm.
Geodesic acoustic modes in tokamak plasmas with a radial equilibrium electric field
Zhou, Deng
2015-09-15
The dispersion relation of geodesic acoustic modes in the tokamak plasma with an equilibrium radial electric field is derived and analyzed. Multiple branches of eigenmodes have been found, similar to the result given by the fluid model with a poloidal mass flow. Frequencies and damping rates of both the geodesic acoustic mode and the sound wave increase with respect to the strength of radial electric field, while the frequency and the damping rate of the lower frequency branch slightly decrease. Possible connection to the experimental observation is discussed.
Poisson's ratio from polarization of acoustic zero-group velocity Lamb mode.
Baggens, Oskar; Ryden, Nils
2015-07-01
Poisson's ratio of an isotropic and free elastic plate is estimated from the polarization of the first symmetric acoustic zero-group velocity Lamb mode. This polarization is interpreted as the ratio of the absolute amplitudes of the surface normal and surface in-plane components of the acoustic mode. Results from the evaluation of simulated datasets indicate that the presented relation, which links the polarization and Poisson's ratio, can be extended to incorporate plates with material damping. Furthermore, the proposed application of the polarization is demonstrated in a practical field case, where an increased accuracy of estimated nominal thickness is obtained.
Zhernenkov, Mikhail; Bolmatov, Dima; Soloviov, Dmitry; ...
2016-05-12
We report the high resolution inelastic x-ray study of the in-plane phonon excitations in dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) above and below main transition temperature. In the Lβ' gel phase, we observe high frequency longitudinal phonon mode previously predicted by the molecular dynamics simulations and for the first time, we reveal low frequency weakly dispersive transverse acoustic mode which softens and exhibits a low-frequency phonon gap when the DPPC lipid transitions into the Lα fluid phase. The phonon softening of the high frequency longitudinal excitations and the transformation of the transverse excitations upon the phase transition from the Lβ' to Lα phasemore » is explained within the framework of the phonon theory of liquids. These findings illustrate the importance of the collective dynamics of biomembranes and reveal that hydrocarbon tails can act as an efficient mediator in controlling the passive transport across the bilayer plane.« less
Neutron inelastic scattering measurements of low-energy phonons in the multiferroic BiFeO_{3}
Schneeloch, John A.; Xu, Zhijun; Wen, Jinsheng; Gehring, P. M.; Stock, C.; Matsuda, Masaaki; Winn, Barry L.; Gu, Genda; Shapiro, Stephen M.; Birgeneau, R. J.; Ushiyama, T.; Yanagisawa, Y.; Tomioka, Y.; Ito, T.; Xu, Guangyong
2015-02-10
In this study, we present neutron inelastic scattering measurements of the low-energy phonons in single crystal BiFeO_{3}. The dispersions of the three acoustic phonon modes (LA along [100], TA_{1} along [010], and TA_{2} along [110]) and two low-energy optic phonon modes (LO and TO_{1}) have been mapped out between 300 and 700 K. Elastic constants are extracted from the phonon measurements. The energy linewidths of both TA phonons at the zone boundary clearly broaden when the system is warmed toward the magnetic ordering temperature T_{N}=640 K. In conclusion, this suggests that the magnetic order and low-energy lattice dynamics in this multiferroic material are coupled.
Neutron inelastic scattering measurements of low-energy phonons in the multiferroic BiFeO3
Schneeloch, John A.; Xu, Zhijun; Wen, Jinsheng; ...
2015-02-10
In this study, we present neutron inelastic scattering measurements of the low-energy phonons in single crystal BiFeO3. The dispersions of the three acoustic phonon modes (LA along [100], TA1 along [010], and TA2 along [110]) and two low-energy optic phonon modes (LO and TO1) have been mapped out between 300 and 700 K. Elastic constants are extracted from the phonon measurements. The energy linewidths of both TA phonons at the zone boundary clearly broaden when the system is warmed toward the magnetic ordering temperature TN=640 K. In conclusion, this suggests that the magnetic order and low-energy lattice dynamics in thismore » multiferroic material are coupled.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tangi, Malleswararao; Mishra, Pawan; Janjua, Bilal; Ng, Tien Khee; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Prabaswara, Aditya; Yang, Yang; Albadri, Abdulrahman M.; Alyamani, Ahmed Y.; El-Desouki, Munir M.; Ooi, Boon S.
2016-07-01
The dislocation free InxAl1-xN nanowires (NWs) are grown on Si(111) by nitrogen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy in the temperature regime of 490 °C-610 °C yielding In composition ranges over 0.50 ≤ x ≤ 0.17. We study the optical properties of these NWs by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopies since they possesses minimal strain with reduced defects comparative to the planar films. The optical bandgap measurements of InxAl1-xN NWs are demonstrated by SE where the absorption edges of the NW samples are evaluated irrespective of substrate transparency. A systematic Stoke shift of 0.04-0.27 eV with increasing x was observed when comparing the micro-photoluminescence spectra with the Tauc plot derived from SE. The micro-Raman spectra in the NWs with x = 0.5 showed two-mode behavior for A1(LO) phonons and single mode behavior for E2H phonons. As for x = 0.17, i.e., high Al content, we observed a peculiar E2H phonon mode splitting. Further, we observe composition dependent frequency shifts. The 77 to 600 K micro-Raman spectroscopy measurements show that both AlN- and InN-like modes of A1(LO) and E2H phonons in InxAl1-xN NWs are redshifted with increasing temperature, similar to that of the binary III group nitride semiconductors. These studies of the optical properties of the technologically important InxAl1-xN nanowires will path the way towards lasers and light-emitting diodes in the wavelength of the ultra-violet and visible range.
Parshall, D.; Pintschovius, L.; Niedziela, Jennifer L.; Castellan, J. -P.; Lamago, D.; Mittal, R.; Wolf, Th.; Reznik, Dmitry
2015-04-27
Parent compounds of Fe-based superconductors undergo a structural phase transition from a tetragonal to an orthorhombic structure. We investigated the temperature dependence of the frequencies of TA phonons that extrapolate to the shear vibrational mode at the zone center, which corresponds to the orthorhombic deformation of the crystal structure at low temperatures in ${\mathrm{BaFe}}_{2}{\mathrm{As}}_{2}$ and ${\mathrm{SrFe}}_{2}{\mathrm{As}}_{2}$. We found that acoustic phonons at small wave vectors soften gradually towards the transition from high temperatures, tracking the increase of the size of slowly fluctuating magnetic domains. On cooling below the transition to base temperature the phonons harden, following the square of the magnetic moment (which we find is proportional to the anisotropy gap). Finally, our results provide evidence for close correlation between magnetic and phonon properties in Fe-based superconductors.
Composition dependence of the in-plane Cu-O bond-stretching LO phonon mode in YBa2Cu3O6+x
Stercil, F.; Egami, T.; Mook Jr, Herbert A; Yethiraj, Mohana; Chung, J.-H.; Arai, M.; Frost, C.; Dogan, F.
2008-01-01
An inelastic pulsed neutron scattering study was performed on the dependence of the dispersion and spectral intensity of the in-plane Cu-O bond-stretching LO phonon mode on doped charge density. The measurements were made in the time-of-flight mode with the multiangle position sensitive spectrometer of the ISIS facility on single crystals of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x} (x=0.15, 0.35, 0.6, 0.7, and 0.95). The focus of the study is the in-plane Cu-O bond-stretching LO phonon mode, which is known for strong electron-phonon coupling and unusual dependence on composition and temperature. It is shown that the dispersions for the samples with x=0.35, 0.6, and 0.7 are similar to the superposition of those for x=0.15 and 0.95 samples, and cannot be explained in terms of the structural anisotropy. It is suggested that the results are consistent with the model of nanoscale electronic phase separation, with the fraction of the phases being dependent on the doped charge density.
An improved method for the calculation of Near-Field Acoustic Radiation Modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zu-Bin; Maury, Cédric
2016-02-01
Sensing and controlling Acoustic Radiation Modes (ARMs) in the near-field of vibrating structures is of great interest for broadband noise reduction or enhancement, as ARMs are velocity distributions defined over a vibrating surface, that independently and optimally contribute to the acoustic power in the acoustic field. But present methods only provide far-field ARMs (FFARMs) that are inadequate for the acoustic near-field problem. The Near-Field Acoustic Radiation Modes (NFARMs) are firstly studied with an improved numerical method, the Pressure-Velocity method, which rely on the eigen decomposition of the acoustic transfers between the vibrating source and a conformal observation surface, including sound pressure and velocity transfer matrices. The active and reactive parts of the sound power are separated and lead to the active and reactive ARMs. NFARMs are studied for a 2D baffled beam and for a 3D baffled plate, and so as differences between the NFARMS and the classical FFARMs. Comparisons of the NFARMs are analyzed when varying frequency and observation distance to the source. It is found that the efficiencies and shapes of the optimal active ARMs are independent on the distance while that of the reactive ones are distinctly related on.
Estreicher, S. K. Gibbons, T. M.; Kang, By.; Bebek, M. B.
2014-01-07
Defects in semiconductors introduce vibrational modes that are distinct from bulk modes because they are spatially localized in the vicinity of the defect. Light impurities produce high-frequency modes often visible by Fourier-transform infrared absorption or Raman spectroscopy. Their vibrational lifetimes vary by orders of magnitude and sometimes exhibit unexpectedly large isotope effects. Heavy impurities introduce low-frequency modes sometimes visible as phonon replicas in photoluminescence bands. But other defects such as surfaces or interfaces exhibit spatially localized modes (SLMs) as well. All of them can trap phonons, which ultimately decay into lower-frequency bulk phonons. When heat flows through a material containing defects, phonon trapping at localized modes followed by their decay into bulk phonons is usually described in terms of phonon scattering: defects are assumed to be static scattering centers and the properties of the defect-related SLMs modes are ignored. These dynamic properties of defects are important. In this paper, we quantify the concepts of vibrational localization and phonon trapping, distinguish between normal and anomalous decay of localized excitations, discuss the meaning of phonon scattering in real space at the atomic level, and illustrate the importance of phonon trapping in the case of heat flow at Si/Ge and Si/C interfaces.
The acoustic emission of a distributed mode loudspeaker near a porous layer.
Prokofieva, E Yu; Horoshenkov, Kirill V; Harris, N
2002-06-01
Experimental and theoretical modeling of the vibro-acoustic performance of a distributed mode loudspeaker (DML) suggest that their acoustic emission can be significantly affected by the presence of a porous layer. The amplitude of the surface velocity of the panel and the acoustic pressure on the porous surface are reduced largely in the vicinity of structural resonances due to the additional radiation damping and visco-thermal absorption phenomenon in the porous layer. The experimental results suggest that a porous layer between a rigid base and a DML panel can considerably alter its acoustic emission in the near field and in the far field. This is illustrated by a reduction in the level of fluctuations in the emitted acoustic pressure spectra. These fluctuations are normally associated with the interference between the sound emitted by the front surface of the speaker and that emitted from the back. Another contribution comes from the pronounced structural resonances in the surface velocity spectrum. The results of this work suggest that the acoustic boundary conditions near a DML can be modified by the porous layer so that a desired acoustic output can be attained.
The Derivation and Quasinormal Mode Spectrum of Acoustic Anti-de Sitter Black Hole Analogues
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babb, James Patrick
Dumb holes (also known as acoustic black holes) are fluid flows which include an "acoustic horizon": a surface, analogous to a gravitational horizon, beyond which sound may pass but never classically return. Soundwaves in these flows will therefore experience "effective geometries" which are identical to black hole spacetimes up to a conformal factor. By adjusting the parameters of the fluid flow, it is possible to create an effective geometry which is conformal to the Anti-de Sitter black hole spacetime---a geometry which has received a great deal of attention in recent years due to its conjectured holographic duality to Conformal Field Theories. While we would not expect an acoustic analogue of the AdS-CFT correspondence to exist, this dumb hole provides a means, at least in principle, of experimentally testing the theoretical properties of the AdS spacetime. In particular, I have calculated the quasinormal mode spectrum of this acoustic geometry.
Three-dimensional coupled mode analysis of internal-wave acoustic ducts.
Shmelev, Alexey A; Lynch, James F; Lin, Ying-Tsong; Schmidt, Henrik
2014-05-01
A fully three-dimensional coupled mode approach is used in this paper to describe the physics of low frequency acoustic signals propagating through a train of internal waves at an arbitrary azimuth. A three layer model of the shallow water waveguide is employed for studying the properties of normal modes and their coupled interaction due to the presence of nonlinear internal waves. Using a robust wave number integration technique for Fourier transform computation and a direct global matrix approach, an accurate three-dimensional coupled mode full field solution is obtained for the tonal signal propagation through straight and parallel internal waves. This approach provides accurate results for arbitrary azimuth and includes the effects of backscattering. This enables one to provide an azimuthal analysis of acoustic propagation and separate the effects of mode coupled transparent resonance, horizontal reflection and refraction, the horizontal Lloyd's mirror, horizontal ducting and anti-ducting, and horizontal tunneling and secondary ducting.
Computational Simulation of Acoustic Modes in Rocket Combustors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harper, Brent (Technical Monitor); Merkle, C. L.; Sankaran, V.; Ellis, M.
2004-01-01
A combination of computational fluid dynamic analysis and analytical solutions is being used to characterize the dominant modes in liquid rocket engines in conjunction with laboratory experiments. The analytical solutions are based on simplified geometries and flow conditions and are used for careful validation of the numerical formulation. The validated computational model is then extended to realistic geometries and flow conditions to test the effects of various parameters on chamber modes, to guide and interpret companion laboratory experiments in simplified combustors, and to scale the measurements to engine operating conditions. In turn, the experiments are used to validate and improve the model. The present paper gives an overview of the numerical and analytical techniques along with comparisons illustrating the accuracy of the computations as a function of grid resolution. A representative parametric study of the effect of combustor mean flow Mach number and combustor aspect ratio on the chamber modes is then presented for both transverse and longitudinal modes. The results show that higher mean flow Mach numbers drive the modes to lower frequencies. Estimates of transverse wave mechanics in a high aspect ratio combustor are then contrasted with longitudinal modes in a long and narrow combustor to provide understanding of potential experimental simulations.
Acoustic wave device using plate modes with surface-parallel displacement
Martin, S.J.; Ricco, A.J.
1988-04-29
Solid-state acoustic sensors for monitoring conditions at a surface immersed in a liquid and for monitoring concentrations of species in a liquid and for monitoring electrical properties of a liquid are formed by placing interdigital input and output transducers on a piezoelectric substrate and propagating acoustic plate modes therebetween. The deposition or removal of material on or from, respectively, a thin film in contact with the surface, or changes in the mechanical properties of a thin film in contact with the surface, or changes in the electrical characteristics of the solution, create perturbations in the velocity and attenuation of the acoustic plate modes as a function of these properties or changes in them. 6 figs.
Method and apparatus for acoustic plate mode liquid-solid phase transition detection
Blair, Dianna S.; Freye, Gregory C.; Hughes, Robert C.; Martin, Stephen J.; Ricco, Antonio J.
1993-01-01
A method and apparatus for sensing a liquid-solid phase transition event is provided which comprises an acoustic plate mode detecting element placed in contact with a liquid or solid material which generates a high-frequency acoustic wave that is attenuated to an extent based on the physical state of the material is contact with the detecting element. The attenuation caused by the material in contact with the acoustic plate mode detecting element is used to determine the physical state of the material being detected. The method and device are particularly suited for detecting conditions such as the icing and deicing of wings of an aircraft. In another aspect of the present invention, a method is provided wherein the adhesion of a solid material to the detecting element can be measured using the apparatus of the invention.
Acoustic wave device using plate modes with surface-parallel displacement
Martin, Stephen J.; Ricco, Antonio J.
1992-01-01
Solid-state acoustic sensors for monitoring conditions at a surface immersed in a liquid and for monitoring concentrations of species in a liquid and for monitoring electrical properties of a liquid are formed by placing interdigital input and output transducers on a piezoelectric substrate and propagating acoustic plate modes therebetween. The deposition or removal of material on or from, respectively, a thin film in contact with the surface, or changes in the mechanical properties of a thin film in contact with the surface, or changes in the electrical characteristics of the solution, create perturbations in the velocity and attenuation of the acoustic plate modes as a function of these properties or changes in them.
Method and apparatus for acoustic plate mode liquid-solid phase transition detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blair, D. S.; Frye, G. C.; Hughes, R. C.; Martin, S. J.; Ricco, A. J.
1990-05-01
A method and apparatus for sensing a liquid-solid phase transition event is provided which comprises an acoustic plate mode detecting element placed in contact with a liquid or solid material which generates a high-frequency acoustic wave that is attenuated to an extent based on the physical state of the material in contact with the detecting element. The attenuation caused by the material in contact with the acoustic plate mode detecting element is used to determine the physical state of the material being detected. The method and device are particularly suited for detecting conditions such as the icing and deicing of wings of an aircraft. In another aspect of the present invention, a method is provided wherein the adhesion of a solid material to the detecting element can be measured using the apparatus of the invention.
Acoustic wave device using plate modes with surface-parallel displacement
Martin, S.J.; Ricco, A.J.
1992-05-26
Solid-state acoustic sensors for monitoring conditions at a surface immersed in a liquid and for monitoring concentrations of species in a liquid and for monitoring electrical properties of a liquid are formed by placing interdigital input and output transducers on a piezoelectric substrate and propagating acoustic plate modes there between. The deposition or removal of material on or from, respectively, a thin film in contact with the surface, or changes in the mechanical properties of a thin film in contact with the surface, or changes in the electrical characteristics of the solution, create perturbations in the velocity and attenuation of the acoustic plate modes as a function of these properties or changes in them. 6 figs.
Time-Resolved Studies of the Acoustic Vibrational Modes of Metal and Semiconductor Nano-objects.
Major, Todd A; Lo, Shun Shang; Yu, Kuai; Hartland, Gregory V
2014-03-06
Over the past decade, there have been a number of transient absorption studies of the acoustic vibrational modes of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles. This Perspective provides an overview of this work. The way that the frequencies of the observed modes depend on the size and shape of the particles is described, along with their damping. Future research directions are also discussed, especially how these measurements provide information about the way nano-objects interact with their environment.
Effect of toroidal rotation on the geodesic acoustic mode in magnetohydrodynamics
Ren Haijun
2012-09-15
Theoretical research on the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) induced by equilibrium toroidal rotation flow in the tokamak plasmas is approached by using ideal magnetohydrodynamic model. The dispersion relation of the GAM is presented by taking into account magnetic field perturbations. It is shown that {beta} can decrease the frequency of the GAM.
Zonal Flow Velocimetry using Acoustic Modes in Experimental Models of a Planetary Core
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adams, M. M.; Mautino, A. R.; Stone, D.; Triana, S. A.; Lekic, V.; Lathrop, D. P.
2015-12-01
Rotating hydromagnetic experiments can serve as models of planetary cores, matching some of the dimensionless parameters relevant to planets. One challenge with such experiments is determining the flows present. The opacity of the fluids used in these experiments (e.g. liquid sodium) prevents direct flow visualization techniques from being employed. One method allowing determination of zonal flows in such experiments is acoustic mode velocimetry. In this technique, the rotational splittings of acoustic mode spectra are used to infer the azimuthal velocity profile of the flow. Here we present the use of this technique to study flows in experimental models of the Earth's core. Most of these results were obtained in a 60 cm diameter spherical Couette device, with a 20 cm diameter inner sphere, and using nitrogen gas as the working fluid. Turbulent flow is driven in the system via differential rotation of the outer shell and inner sphere. Acoustic modes are excited in the fluid volume using a speaker, and microphones are used to measure the frequencies and rotational splittings of the modes. We compare the observed splittings with those predicted by theory as a way of validating the method, and infer mean flows from these observations. We also present some preliminary results of acoustic studies in the 3 m diameter liquid sodium spherical Couette experiment. Finally, we discuss future prospects for this experimental technique.
Electron and Phonon Dynamics in Hexagonal Pd Nanosheets and Ag/Pd/Ag Sandwich Nanoplates.
Wang, Li; Sagaguchi, Takuya; Okuhata, Tomoki; Tsuboi, Motohiro; Tamai, Naoto
2017-02-28
Pd and its hybrid nanostructures have attracted considerable attention over the past decade, with both catalytic and plasmonic properties. The electron and phonon properties directly govern conversion efficiencies in applications such as energy collectors and photocatalysts. We report the dynamic processes of electron-phonon coupling and coherent acoustic phonon vibration in hexagonal Pd nanosheets and Ag/Pd/Ag sandwich nanoplates using transient absorption spectroscopy. The electron-phonon coupling constant of Pd nanosheets, GPd-nanosheet (8.7 × 10(17) W/(m(3)·K)) is larger than that of the bulk GPd (5.0 × 10(17) W/(m(3)·K)). The effective coupling constant Geff of Ag/Pd/Ag nanoplates decreases with increasing Ag shell thickness, finally approaching the bulk GAg. The variation of Geff is explained in terms of reduced density of states near Fermi level of Pd nanosheets with 1.8 nm ultrathin thickness. Coherent acoustic phonon vibration in Pd nanosheets is assigned to a fundamental breathing mode, similar to the vibration of benzene. The period increases with increasing Ag shell thickness. For Ag/Pd/Ag nanoplates with 20 nm thick Ag shells, the vibrational mode is ascribed to a quasi-extensional mode. The results show that the modes of the coherent acoustic phonon vibration transform with the geometric variation of Pd nanosheets and Ag/Pd/Ag nanoplates. Our results represent an understanding of quantum-confinement related electron dynamics and bulk-like phonon kinetics in the ultrathin Pd nanosheets and their hybrid nanostructures.
Non-equilibrium optical phonon dynamics in bulk and low-dimensional semiconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Srivastava, G. P.
2007-02-01
We present theoretical investigations of the intrinsic dynamics of long-wavelength non-equilibrium optical phonons in bulk and low-dimensional semiconductors. The theory is based on the application of Fermi's golden rule formula, with phonon dispersion relations as well as crystal anharmonicity considered in the framework of isotropic continuum model. Contributions to the decay rates of the phonon modes are discussed in terms of four possible channels: Klemens channel (into two acoustic daughter modes), generalised Ridley channel (into one acoustic and one optical mode), generalised Vallee-Bogani channel (into a lower mode of the same branch and an acoustic mode), and Barman-Srivastava channel (into two lower-branch optical modes). The role of crystal structure and cation/anion mass ratio in determining the lifetime of such modes in bulk semiconductors is highlighted. Estimates of lifetimes of such modes in silicon nanowires and carbon nanotubes will also be presented. The results support and explain available experimental data, and make predictions in some cases.
Inelastic ultraviolet scattering from high frequency acoustic modes in glasses.
Masciovecchio, C; Gessini, A; Di Fonzo, S; Comez, L; Santucci, S C; Fioretto, D
2004-06-18
The dynamic structure factor of vitreous silica and glycerol has been measured as a function of temperature and of the momentum transfer up to Q=0.105 nm(-1) using a novel experimental technique, the inelastic ultraviolet scattering. As in the case of Brillouin light scattering and ultrasonic measurements, the temperature dependence of the acoustic attenuation shows a plateau below the glass transition whose amplitude scales as Q2. Moreover, a slight temperature dependence of attenuation has been found in vitreous silica at about 130 K, which seems to be reminiscent of the peak measured at lower Qs. These two findings strongly support the idea that anharmonicity is responsible for sound attenuation at ultrasonic and hypersonic frequencies. Finally, we demonstrate that the attenuation mechanism should show a change of regime between 0.105 and 1 nm(-1).
Einstein Modes in the Phonon Density of States of the Single-filled Skutterudite Yb0.2Co4Sb12
Dimitrov, I.; Li, Q.; Manley, M.E.; Shapiro, S.M.; Yang, J.; Zhang, W.; Chen, L.D.; Jie, Q.; Ehlers, G.; Podlesnyak, A.; Camacho, J.
2010-11-10
Measurements of the phonon density of states by inelastic neutron time-of-flight scattering and specific-heat measurements along with first-principles calculations, provide compelling evidence for the existence of an Einstein oscillator (rattler) at {omega}{sub E1} {approx} 5.0 meV in the filled skutterudite Yb{sub 0.2}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12}. Multiple dispersionless modes in the measured density of states of Yb{sub 0.2}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} at intermediate transfer energies (14 {le} {omega} {le} 20 meV) are exhibited in both the experimental and theoretical density of states of the Yb-filled specimen. A peak at 12.4 meV is shown to coincide with a second Einstein mode at {omega}{sub E2} {approx} 12.8 meV obtained from heat-capacity data. The local modes at intermediate transfer energies are attributed to altered properties of the host CoSb{sub 3} cage as a result of Yb filling. It is suggested that these modes are owed to a complementary mechanism for the scattering of heat-carrying phonons in addition to the mode observed at {omega}{sub E1} {approx} 5.0 meV. Our observations offer a plausible explanation for the significantly higher dimensionless figures of merit of filled skutterudites, compared to their parent compounds.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yiran; Tian, Zhilin; Luo, Yixiu; Wang, Jiemin; Sun, Luchao; Zheng, Liya; Wang, Jingyang
2017-02-01
Lattice thermal conductivities of β -M g2A l4S i5O18 were predicted at various hydrostatic pressures based on some theoretical models. An abnormal decrement on lattice thermal conductivity is observed for compressed crystal structure. A rigorous analysis of structural stability, bonding characteristics, vibration modes, group velocities, and mode Grüneisen parameters helps us to recognize the origin of this anomalous behavior. We attribute the negative dependent trend to the softening of low frequency phonons and strengthening of anharmonicity at elevated pressure, both of which arise from the specific corner-linked tetrahedral framework in the crystal structure. To validate theoretical calculations, we synthesized pure and dense β -M g2A l4S i5O18 ceramic by using a two-step processing method and determined its intrinsic lattice thermal conductivity by successfully eliminating the phonon scattering from defects and high-temperature thermal radiation. The experimental intrinsic values agreed quite well with the theoretical predictions. This paper reports an anomalous pressure-induced reduction of lattice thermal conductivity and also provides a key insight into the interesting phonon modification mechanism through tailoring the crystal structure of complex compounds.
Electron–phonon coupling in hybrid lead halide perovskites
Wright, Adam D.; Verdi, Carla; Milot, Rebecca L.; Eperon, Giles E.; Pérez-Osorio, Miguel A.; Snaith, Henry J.; Giustino, Feliciano; Johnston, Michael B.; Herz, Laura M.
2016-01-01
Phonon scattering limits charge-carrier mobilities and governs emission line broadening in hybrid metal halide perovskites. Establishing how charge carriers interact with phonons in these materials is therefore essential for the development of high-efficiency perovskite photovoltaics and low-cost lasers. Here we investigate the temperature dependence of emission line broadening in the four commonly studied formamidinium and methylammonium perovskites, HC(NH2)2PbI3, HC(NH2)2PbBr3, CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3PbBr3, and discover that scattering from longitudinal optical phonons via the Fröhlich interaction is the dominant source of electron–phonon coupling near room temperature, with scattering off acoustic phonons negligible. We determine energies for the interacting longitudinal optical phonon modes to be 11.5 and 15.3 meV, and Fröhlich coupling constants of ∼40 and 60 meV for the lead iodide and bromide perovskites, respectively. Our findings correlate well with first-principles calculations based on many-body perturbation theory, which underlines the suitability of an electronic band-structure picture for describing charge carriers in hybrid perovskites. PMID:27225329
Electron-phonon coupling in hybrid lead halide perovskites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wright, Adam D.; Verdi, Carla; Milot, Rebecca L.; Eperon, Giles E.; Pérez-Osorio, Miguel A.; Snaith, Henry J.; Giustino, Feliciano; Johnston, Michael B.; Herz, Laura M.
2016-05-01
Phonon scattering limits charge-carrier mobilities and governs emission line broadening in hybrid metal halide perovskites. Establishing how charge carriers interact with phonons in these materials is therefore essential for the development of high-efficiency perovskite photovoltaics and low-cost lasers. Here we investigate the temperature dependence of emission line broadening in the four commonly studied formamidinium and methylammonium perovskites, HC(NH2)2PbI3, HC(NH2)2PbBr3, CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3PbBr3, and discover that scattering from longitudinal optical phonons via the Fröhlich interaction is the dominant source of electron-phonon coupling near room temperature, with scattering off acoustic phonons negligible. We determine energies for the interacting longitudinal optical phonon modes to be 11.5 and 15.3 meV, and Fröhlich coupling constants of ~40 and 60 meV for the lead iodide and bromide perovskites, respectively. Our findings correlate well with first-principles calculations based on many-body perturbation theory, which underlines the suitability of an electronic band-structure picture for describing charge carriers in hybrid perovskites.
Electron-phonon coupling in hybrid lead halide perovskites.
Wright, Adam D; Verdi, Carla; Milot, Rebecca L; Eperon, Giles E; Pérez-Osorio, Miguel A; Snaith, Henry J; Giustino, Feliciano; Johnston, Michael B; Herz, Laura M
2016-05-26
Phonon scattering limits charge-carrier mobilities and governs emission line broadening in hybrid metal halide perovskites. Establishing how charge carriers interact with phonons in these materials is therefore essential for the development of high-efficiency perovskite photovoltaics and low-cost lasers. Here we investigate the temperature dependence of emission line broadening in the four commonly studied formamidinium and methylammonium perovskites, HC(NH2)2PbI3, HC(NH2)2PbBr3, CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3PbBr3, and discover that scattering from longitudinal optical phonons via the Fröhlich interaction is the dominant source of electron-phonon coupling near room temperature, with scattering off acoustic phonons negligible. We determine energies for the interacting longitudinal optical phonon modes to be 11.5 and 15.3 meV, and Fröhlich coupling constants of ∼40 and 60 meV for the lead iodide and bromide perovskites, respectively. Our findings correlate well with first-principles calculations based on many-body perturbation theory, which underlines the suitability of an electronic band-structure picture for describing charge carriers in hybrid perovskites.
Additional and canonical phonon modes in Hg1-xCdxTe(0.06≤x≤0.7)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Polit, J.; Sheregii, E. M.; Cebulski, J.; Kisiel, A.; Robouch, B. V.; Marcelli, A.; Mycielski, A.
2010-07-01
In this experimental work a conception of the phonon spectra of the Hg1-xCdxTe(x=0.06-0.7) solid solution is presented which explains the presence of additional lines in the region 100-115cm-1 . Data of the optical reflectivity measurements obtained in far and middle infrared regions for eleven compositions of these alloys in the temperature range from 20 to 293 K using the synchrotron radiation ( DAΦNE -LIGHT in LNF, Italy) as source are analyzed. Analyses were performed on samples of different types ( n and p type) of conductivity as well as the temperature dependences of the line intensity under consideration in the region from 70 to 118cm-1 . The model of two valley potential of the mercury atom in the Hg1-xCdxTe lattice is used for interpretation of the additional phonon modes.
Splash, pop, sizzle: Information processing with phononic computing
Sklan, Sophia R.
2015-05-15
Phonons, the quanta of mechanical vibration, are important to the transport of heat and sound in solid materials. Recent advances in the fundamental control of phonons (phononics) have brought into prominence the potential role of phonons in information processing. In this review, the many directions of realizing phononic computing and information processing are examined. Given the relative similarity of vibrational transport at different length scales, the related fields of acoustic, phononic, and thermal information processing are all included, as are quantum and classical computer implementations. Connections are made between the fundamental questions in phonon transport and phononic control and the device level approach to diodes, transistors, memory, and logic. .
Hannah, Daniel C; Brown, Kristen E; Young, Ryan M; Wasielewski, Michael R; Schatz, George C; Co, Dick T; Schaller, Richard D
2013-09-06
We report femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy measurements of lattice dynamics in semiconductor nanocrystals and characterize longitudinal optical (LO) phonon production during confinement-enhanced, ultrafast intraband relaxation. Stimulated Raman signals from unexcited CdSe nanocrystals produce a spectral shape similar to spontaneous Raman signals. Upon photoexcitation, stimulated Raman amplitude decreases owing to experimentally resolved ultrafast phonon generation rates within the lattice. We find a ∼600 fs, particle-size-independent depletion time attributed to hole cooling, evidence of LO-to-acoustic down-conversion, and LO phonon mode softening.
Acoustic Mode Measurements in the Inlet of a Model Turbofan Using a Continuously Rotating Rake
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heidelberg, Laurence J.; Hall, David G.
1992-01-01
Comprehensive measurements of the spinning acoustic mode structure in the inlet of the Advanced Ducted Propeller (ADP) have been completed. These measurements were taken using a unique and previously untried method which was first proposed by T.G. Sofrin. A continuously rotating microphone system was employed. The ADP model was designed and built by Pratt & Whitney and tested in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot Anechoic Wind Tunnel. Three inlet configurations were tested with cut-on and cutoff stator vane sets. The cutoff stator was designed to suppress all modes at the blade passing frequency. Rotating rake measurements indicate that several extraneous circumferential modes were active. The mode orders suggest that their source was an interaction between the rotor and small interruptions in the casing tip treatment. The cut-on stator produced the expected circumferential modes plus higher levels of the unexpected modes seen with the cutoff stator.
Acoustic mode measurements in the inlet of a model turbofan using a continuously rotating rake
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heidelberg, Laurence J.; Hall, David G.
1993-01-01
Comprehensive measurements of the spinning acoustic mode structure in the inlet of the Advanced Ducted Propeller (ADP) have been completed. These measurements were taken using a unique and previously untried method which was first proposed by T.G. Sofrin. A continuously rotating microphone system was employed. The ADP model was designed and built by Pratt & Whitney and tested in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot Anechoic Wind Tunnel. Three inlet configurations were tested with cut-on and cutoff stator vane sets. The cutoff stator was designed to suppress all modes at the blade passing frequency. Rotating rake measurements indicate that several extraneous circumferential modes were active. The mode orders suggest that their source was an interaction between the rotor and small interruptions in the casing tip treatment. The cut-on stator produced the expected circumferential modes plus higher levels of the unexpected modes seen with the cutoff stator.
Two true surface acoustic waves and other acoustic modes in (110) plane of Li2B4O7 substrate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Victor Y.; Lefebvre, J. E.; Gryba, T.
1999-09-01
The surface acoustic waves (SAWs) and other acoustic modes propagating in the (110) plane of Li2B4O7 are investigated by means of the effective surface permittivity (ESP). It is demonstrated that the velocity of all piezoactive SAWs, both true and pseudo, as well as surface skimming bulk waves (SSBWs) can be numerically determined by computing the ESP as a function of acoustic trace slowness. A physical phenomenon not reported has been found for certain propagation directions, namely, simultaneous existence of two true SAWs, both being of the generalized Rayleigh type, together with a pseudo SAW of similar polarization. Propagation velocity, electromechanical coupling coefficient, and decay factor have been verified and confirmed by using two different sets of material constants and two numerical methods. The obtained values and accuracy of SAWs parameters are compared, and the validity conditions discussed. The generalized slowness diagram, plotted for the sagittal plane, enables to determine the total number of SSBW and to interpret the depth penetration properties of SAW. The Nyquist diagram of the ESP is shown to be a more helpful form for identifying a pseudo SAW and for distinguishing it from a SSBW.
Acoustical modes in lined ducts with flexible walls - A variational approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Astley, R. J.
A unified variational scheme is set forth for calculating axial wavenumbers, attenuations, and pressure distributions for acoustical modes propagating in flexible lined ducts. The technique accounts for the effects of bulk liners, flexible walls, and mean flow in the airway by describing a variational statement of the dispersion relationship for the propagation of fundamental modes. The variational statement can be applied as a Rayleigh-Ritz finite-element scheme to compute the eigenmodes for these ducts. The approach therefore unifies the computation of the fundamental dispersion relationships and the more complex modes described with high-resolution meshes. The approach is used to describe an experimental test duct without flow, and the Rayleigh-Ritz solution provides results that are similar to those of the full numerical solution. The present treatment is of practical interest to the design and fabrication of silencers and acoustically lined moving ductwork.
A new method to determine the asymptotic eigenfrequency equation of low-degree acoustic modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopes, Ilídio P.
2001-03-01
The high accuracy of the observed solar spectra obtained from the space experiments GOLF and VIRGO has motivated us to develop a more precise asymptotic analysis of low-degree acoustic modes. Therefore we present a phase method to build an asymptotic solution to the equation of motion of acoustic oscillations. The principle consists of describing the oscillatory motion by a system of two first-order non-linear differential equations for the phase and amplitude. The equations are coupled only in the amplitude equation, leaving a single phase equation to determine the eigenfrequencies. We illustrate also the deficiency in the accuracy of standard asymptotic methods to determine the eigenfrequency, and highlight the advantages of this new method. The strength of this new technique is based on an accurate description of the phase dependence on the background state rather than on the wavefunction, as is done in standard asymptotic methods. This allows us to obtain a new asymptotic eigenvalue equation for low-degree acoustic modes, which is more accurate than the usual ones. In this case, the eigenfrequency equation is obtained without making the so-called Cowling approximation, i.e., by neglecting the Eulerian perturbation of the gravitational field. This allows us to obtain a new expression for the small separation, valid for the global acoustic modes of high and low radial orders.
Nealy, Jennifer L; Collis, Jon M; Frank, Scott D
2016-04-01
Normal mode solutions to range-independent seismo-acoustic problems are benchmarked against elastic parabolic equation solutions and then used to benchmark the shear elastic parabolic equation self-starter [Frank, Odom, and Collis, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133, 1358-1367 (2013)]. The Pekeris waveguide with an elastic seafloor is considered for a point source located in the ocean emitting compressional waves, or in the seafloor, emitting both compressional and shear waves. Accurate solutions are obtained when the source is in the seafloor, and when the source is at the interface between the fluid and elastic layers.
Vector Brillouin optical time-domain analyzer for high-order acoustic modes.
Dossou, Michel; Bacquet, Denis; Szriftgiser, Pascal
2010-11-15
Thanks to a double-frequency phase modulation scheme, we report a vector Brillouin optical time-domain analyzer (BOTDA). This BOTDA has a high immunity level to noise, and it features a phase spectrogram capability. It is well suited for complex situations involving several acoustic resonances, such as high-order longitudinal modes. It has notably been used to characterize a dispersion-shifted fiber, allowing us to report spectrograms with multiple acoustic resonances. A very high 57 dB dynamic range is also reported for 100-ns-long pulses simultaneously with a 16 cm numerical resolution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salman, Aysevil; Adem Kaya, Olgun; Cicek, Ahmet; Ulug, Bulent
2015-06-01
Mach-Zehnder interferometer formed by liquid-filled linear defect waveguides in a two-dimensional phononic crystal is numerically realized for sensing low concentrations of an analyte. The waveguides in the square phononic crystal of void cylinders in steel, as well as their T branches and sharp bends are utilized to construct interferometer arms. Sensing low concentrations of ethanol on the order of 0.1% in a binary mixture with water is achieved by replacing the contents of a number of waveguide core cells on one arm of the interferometer with the analyte. Computations are carried out through the finite-element method in an approach that takes the solid-liquid interaction at the waveguide core cells into account. Band analyses reveal linear variation of the central frequency of the transmission band within a band gap for ethanol concentrations up to 3.0%. Phase difference due to the imbalance of the sample and reference arms of the interferometer also varies linearly with ethanol concentration, leading in turn to a cosine variation of the Fourier component of the temporal interferometer response at the central input-pulse frequency. The induced phase difference in the investigated configuration becomes a -0.78π and -0.65π per percent increase of ethanol concentration as calculated from the band-structure and transient data, respectively. This is confirmed by transient finite-element simulations where totally destructive interference occurs for a concentration of approximately 1.5%. The proposed scheme, which can easily be adopted to other binary mixtures, offers a compact implementation requiring small amounts of analyte.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeong, Eue-Jin
A multichannel detection high resolution electron analyzer has been constructed and tested. The capabilities of achieving out-of-plane scattering geometry, high resolution and high sensitivity has made it possible to detect for the first time the odd-symmetry surface phonon modes on Ni(100) and Ag(100) surfaces. Initial tests were performed to verify the performance of the spectrometer. The best instrumental resolution obtained was 3.5 meV and analyzer count rate could be maintained at 1000 Hz in large angle scattering geometry. This represents an improvement in performance of a factor of at least 50 compared to the existing conventional single channel spectrometers. Odd symmetry surface phonon modes found on Ag(100) surfaces have been measured to be 3.2 meV which agrees closely with available calculations. An additional interesting feature found to be interesting is that the background width of odd symmetry modes appear to be narrower than that of the even symmetry mode scattering data. This effect has not been predicted or explained by theory. As it stands now, the large angle high-resolution electron energy loss cross sections are not completely characterized by theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
WenQin, Han; Ying, Luo; AiJun, Gu; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo
2016-04-01
Discrimination of acoustic emission (AE) signals related to different damage modes is of great importance in carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite materials. To gain a deeper understanding of the initiation, growth and evolution of the different types of damage, four types of specimens for different lay-ups and orientations and three types of specimens for interlaminar toughness tests are subjected to tensile test along with acoustic emission monitoring. AE signals have been collected and post-processed, the statistical results show that the peak frequency of AE signal can distinguish various damage modes effectively. After a AE signal were decomposed by Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method, it may separate and extract all damage modes included in this AE signal apart from damage mode corresponding to the peak frequency. Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) of AE signals can clearly illustrate the frequency distribution of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) components in time-scale in different damage stages, and can calculate accurate instantaneous frequency for damage modes recognition to help understanding the damage process.
Anomalous phonon characteristics of unconventional novel III-N superlattices
Talwar, Devki N.
2014-03-31
Comprehensive results of atomic vibrations are reported in the unconventional short-period zb BN/GaN superlatices (SLs) by exploiting a rigid-ion-model and taking into account both the short- and long-range Coulomb interactions. Besides anisotropic mode behavior of optical phonons, our study provided evidence of acoustic-mode anti-crossing, mini-gap formation, confinement as well as BN-like modes falling within the gap that separates optical phonon bands of the two materials. A bond-polarizability scheme is employed within the second-nearest-neighbor linear-chain model to simulate the Raman intensity profiles of BN/GaN SLs revealing major expected trends of the vibrational characteristics observed experimentally in many conventional superlattice systems while eliciting some interesting contrasts.
Radial structures and nonlinear excitation of Geodesic Acoustic Modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Liu; Zonca, Fulvio
2007-11-01
In this paper, we show that GAMs constitute a continuous spectrum due to radial inhomogeneities. The existence of singular layer, thus, suggests linear mode conversion to short-wavelength kinetic GAM (KGAM) via finite ion Larmor radii. This result is demonstrated by derivations of the GAM mode structure and dispersion relation in the singular layer. At the lowest order in krρi, with kr the radial wave vector and ρi the ion Larmor radius, the well known kinetic dispersion relation of GAM is recovered. At the next relevant order, O(kr^2ρi^2), we show that KGAM propagates in the low-temperature and/or high safety-factor domain; i.e., typically, radially outward, and a corresponding damping rate is derived. In this work, we also show that, while KGAM is linearly stable due to ion Landau damping, it can be nonlinearly excited by finite-amplitude DW turbulence via 3-wave parametric interactions. The resultant 3-wave system exhibits the typical prey-predator self-regulatory dynamics.
Anomalous Infrared Spectra of Hybridized Phonons in Type-I Clathrate Ba8Ga16Ge30
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iwamoto, Kei; Kushibiki, Shunsuke; Honda, Hironori; Kajitani, Shuhei; Mori, Tatsuya; Matsumoto, Hideki; Toyota, Naoki; Suekuni, Koichiro; Avila, Marcos A.; Takabatake, Toshiro
2013-02-01
The optical conductivity spectra of the rattling phonons in the clathrate Ba8Ga16Ge30 are investigated in detail by use of the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. The experiment has revealed that the lowest-lying vibrational mode of Ba(2)2+ ions consist of a sharp Lorentzian peak at 1.2 THz superimposed on a broad tail weighted in the lower frequency regime around 1.0 THz. With decreasing temperature, an unexpected linewidth broadening of the phonon peak is observed, together with monotonic softening of the phonon peak and enhancement of the tail structure. These observed anomalies are discussed in terms of impurity scattering effects on the hybridized phonon system of rattling and acoustic phonons.
Lattice parameters and Raman-active phonon modes of β-(Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}){sub 2}O{sub 3}
Kranert, Christian Jenderka, Marcus; Lenzner, Jörg; Lorenz, Michael; Wenckstern, Holger von; Schmidt-Grund, Rüdiger; Grundmann, Marius
2015-03-28
We present X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy investigations of a (100)-oriented (Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1–x}){sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film on MgO (100) and bulk-like ceramics in dependence on their composition. The thin film grown by pulsed laser deposition has a continuous lateral composition spread allowing to determine precisely the dependence of the phonon mode properties and lattice parameters on the chemical composition. For x < 0.4, we observe the single-phase β-modification. Its lattice parameters and phonon energies depend linearly on the composition. We determined the slopes of these dependencies for the individual lattice parameters and for nine Raman lines, respectively. While the lattice parameters of the ceramics follow Vegard's rule, deviations are observed for the thin film. This deviation has only a small effect on the phonon energies, which show a reasonably good agreement between thin film and ceramics.
Li, Wenwu; Jiang, Kai; Zhang, Jinzhong; Chen, Xiangui; Hu, Zhigao; Chen, Shiyou; Sun, Lin; Chu, Junhao
2012-07-28
The quaternary semiconductor Cu(2)ZnSnS(4) (CZTS) has attracted a lot of attention as a possible absorber material for solar cells due to its direct bandgap and high absorption coefficient. In this study, photovoltaic CZTS nanocrystalline film with a grain size of about 10 nm has been grown on a c-plane sapphire substrate by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. With increasing the temperature from 86 to 323 K, the A(1) phonon mode shows a red shift of about 9 cm(-1) due to the combined effects of thermal expansion and the anharmonic coupling to the other phonons. Optical and electronic properties of the CZTS film have been investigated by transmittance spectra in the temperature range of 8-300 K. Near-infrared-ultraviolet dielectric functions have been extracted with the Tauc-Lorentz dispersion model. The fundamental band gap E(0), and higher-energy critical points E(1) and E(2) are located at 1.5, 3.6, and 4.2 eV, respectively. Owing to the influences of electron-phonon interaction and the lattice expansion, the three interband transitions present a red shift trend with increasing temperature. It was found that the absorption coefficient in the visible region increases due to the modifications of electronic band structures. The detailed study of the optical properties of CZTS film can provide an experimental basis for CZTS-based solar cell applications.
Makse, Hernan A.; Johnson, David L.
2014-09-03
This is the final report describing the results of DOE Grant # DE-FG02-03ER15458 with original termination date of April 31, 2013, which has been extended to April 31, 2014. The goal of this project is to develop a theoretical and experimental understanding of sound propagation, elasticity and dissipation in granular materials. The topic is relevant for the efficient production of hydrocarbon and for identifying and characterizing the underground formation for storage of either CO_{2} or nuclear waste material. Furthermore, understanding the basic properties of acoustic propagation in granular media is of importance not only to the energy industry, but also to the pharmaceutical, chemical and agricultural industries. We employ a set of experimental, theoretical and computational tools to develop a study of acoustics and dissipation in granular media. These include the concept effective mass of granular media, normal modes analysis, statistical mechanics frameworks and numerical simulations based on Discrete Element Methods. Effective mass measurements allow us to study the mechanisms of the elastic response and attenuation of acoustic modes in granular media. We perform experiments and simulations under varying conditions, including humidity and vacuum, and different interparticle force-laws to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of damping and acoustic propagation in granular media. A theoretical statistical approach studies the necessary phase space of configurations in pressure, volume fraction to classify granular materials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Heng; Yu, SiYuan; Liu, FuKang; Wang, Zhen; Lu, MingHui; Hu, XiaoBo; Chen, YanFeng; Xu, XianGang
2017-04-01
The propagation of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) in two-dimensional phononic crystals (PnCs) with and without coupling-enhancement slabs was theoretically investigated using a three-dimensional finite element method. Different piezoelectric substrates, for example, lithium niobate (LiNbO3), gallium nitride (GaN), and aluminium nitride (AlN), were taken into account. Compared to the PnCs without coupling-enhancement slabs, the coupling between each pillar and its nearest neighbor was largely enhanced in the presence of slabs. The bandwidth of the first directional band gap increased markedly compared with its initial value for the PnCs without a slab (within square symmetry). In addition, with increasing thicknesses of the slabs bonded between neighboring pillars, the first directional band-gap and second directional band gap of the PnCs tend to merge. Therefore, the structure with coupling-enhancement slabs can be used as an excellent electrical band elimination filter for most electro-SAW devices, offering a new strategy to realize chip-scale applications in electroacoustic signal processing, optoacoustic modulation, and even SAW microfluidic devices.
Parsons, L. C. Andrews, G. T.
2014-07-21
Brillouin light scattering experiments and optical reflectance measurements were performed on a pair of porous silicon-based optical Bragg mirrors which had constituent layer porosity ratios close to unity. For off-axis propagation, the phononic and photonic band structures of the samples were modeled as a series of intersecting linear dispersion curves. Zone-folding was observed for the longitudinal bulk acoustic phonon and the frequency of the probed zone-folded longitudinal phonon was shown to be dependent on the propagation direction as well as the folding order of the mode branch. There was no conclusive evidence of coupling between the transverse and the folded longitudinal modes. Two additional observed Brillouin peaks were attributed to the Rayleigh surface mode and a possible pseudo-surface mode. Both of these modes were dispersive, with the velocity increasing as the wavevector decreased.
Multi-enhanced-phonon scattering modes in Ln-Me-A sites co-substituted LnMeA11O19 ceramics.
Lu, Haoran; Wang, Chang-An; Huang, Yong; Xie, Huimin
2014-10-29
Authors reported an effective path to decrease the thermal conductivity while to increase the coefficient of thermal expansion, thus enhancing the thermo-physical properties of the LnMeA11O19-type magnetoplumbite LaMgAl11O19 by simultaneously substituting La(3+), Mg(2+) and Al(3+) ions with large ionic radius Ba(2+), Zn(2+) and Ti(4+), respectively. The mechanism behind the lowered thermal conductivity was mainly due to the multi-enhanced-phonon scattering modes in Ln-Me-A sites co-substituted LnMeA11O19 ceramics. These modes involve the following four aspects, namely, point defect mechanism, the intrinsic scattering in the complex crystal cell and materials with stepped surface to localize phonon vibrational modes, as well as nano-platelet-like structure to incorporate additional grain boundary scattering. This study provides novel thoughts for promising candidate materials of even lower thermal conductivity for the next generation thermal barrier coatings.
Multi-Enhanced-Phonon Scattering Modes in Ln-Me-A Sites co-substituted LnMeA11O19 Ceramics
Lu, Haoran; Wang, Chang-An; Huang, Yong; Xie, Huimin
2014-01-01
Authors reported an effective path to decrease the thermal conductivity while to increase the coefficient of thermal expansion, thus enhancing the thermo-physical properties of the LnMeA11O19-type magnetoplumbite LaMgAl11O19 by simultaneously substituting La3+, Mg2+ and Al3+ ions with large ionic radius Ba2+, Zn2+ and Ti4+, respectively. The mechanism behind the lowered thermal conductivity was mainly due to the multi-enhanced-phonon scattering modes in Ln-Me-A sites co-substituted LnMeA11O19 ceramics. These modes involve the following four aspects, namely, point defect mechanism, the intrinsic scattering in the complex crystal cell and materials with stepped surface to localize phonon vibrational modes, as well as nano-platelet-like structure to incorporate additional grain boundary scattering. This study provides novel thoughts for promising candidate materials of even lower thermal conductivity for the next generation thermal barrier coatings. PMID:25351166
Multi-Enhanced-Phonon Scattering Modes in Ln-Me-A Sites co-substituted LnMeA11O19 Ceramics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Haoran; Wang, Chang-An; Huang, Yong; Xie, Huimin
2014-10-01
Authors reported an effective path to decrease the thermal conductivity while to increase the coefficient of thermal expansion, thus enhancing the thermo-physical properties of the LnMeA11O19-type magnetoplumbite LaMgAl11O19 by simultaneously substituting La3+, Mg2+ and Al3+ ions with large ionic radius Ba2+, Zn2+ and Ti4+, respectively. The mechanism behind the lowered thermal conductivity was mainly due to the multi-enhanced-phonon scattering modes in Ln-Me-A sites co-substituted LnMeA11O19 ceramics. These modes involve the following four aspects, namely, point defect mechanism, the intrinsic scattering in the complex crystal cell and materials with stepped surface to localize phonon vibrational modes, as well as nano-platelet-like structure to incorporate additional grain boundary scattering. This study provides novel thoughts for promising candidate materials of even lower thermal conductivity for the next generation thermal barrier coatings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agyare, Benjamin; Riseborough, Peter
2017-01-01
Intrinsically Localized Modes (ILMs) have purportedly been observed in NaI but only for wave-vectors, q at the corner of the 3-D Brillouin Zone. It has been suggested that, for high-symmetry q vectors, several van Hove singularities may converge at one frequency producing a large peak in the two-phonon density of state and giving rise to ILMs with these q values. We fit the experimentally determined acoustic and the optic phonon modes using a nearest neighbor and a next-nearest neighbor force constant. We find that the two-phonon density of states, for fixed q exhibits non-divergent van Hove singularities. The frequencies of these features are found to vary as q is varied. We intend to search for q values at which the two-phonon density of states is enhanced and then examine whether the anharmonic interactions can bind the two-phonon excitations to produce a quantized ILM.
Dib, E.; Carrillo-Nuñez, H.; Cavassilas, N.; Bescond, M.
2016-01-28
Junctionless transistors are being considered as one of the alternatives to conventional metal-oxide field-effect transistors. In this work, it is then presented a simulation study of silicon double-gated p-type junctionless transistors compared with its inversion-mode counterpart. The quantum transport problem is solved within the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, whereas hole-phonon interactions are tackled by means of the self-consistent Born approximation. Our findings show that junctionless transistors should perform as good as a conventional transistor only for ultra-thin channels, with the disadvantage of requiring higher supply voltages in thicker channel configurations.
Cavity-type hypersonic phononic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sato, A.; Pennec, Y.; Yanagishita, T.; Masuda, H.; Knoll, W.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.; Fytas, G.
2012-11-01
We report on the engineering of the phonon dispersion diagram in monodomain anodic porous alumina (APA) films through the porosity and physical state of the material residing in the nanopores. Lattice symmetry and inclusion materials are theoretically identified to be the main factors which control the hypersonic acoustic wave propagation. This involves the interaction between the longitudinal and the transverse modes in the effective medium and a flat band characteristic of the material residing in the cavities. Air and filled nanopores, therefore, display markedly different dispersion relations and the inclusion materials lead to a locally resonant structural behavior uniquely determining their properties under confinement. APA films emerge as a new platform to investigate the rich acoustic phenomena of structured composite matter.
Resonant transmission and mode modulation of acoustic waves in H-shaped metallic gratings
Deng, Yu-Qiang; Fan, Ren-Hao; Zhang, Kun; Peng, Ru-Wen E-mail: dongxiang87@gmail.com; Qi, Dong-Xiang E-mail: dongxiang87@gmail.com
2015-04-15
In this work, we demonstrate that resonant full transmission of acoustic waves exists in subwavelength H-shaped metallic gratings, and transmission peaks can be efficiently tuned by adjusting the grating geometry. We investigate this phenomenon through both numerical simulations and theoretical calculations based on rigorous-coupled wave analysis. The transmission peaks are originated from Fabry-Perot resonances together with the couplings between the diffractive wave on the surface and the multiple guided modes in the slits. Moreover, the transmission modes can be efficiently tuned by adjusting the cavity geometry, without changing the grating thickness. The mechanism is analyzed based on an equivalent circuit model and verified by both the theoretical calculations and the numerical simulations. This research has potential application in acoustic-device miniaturization over a wide range of wavelengths.
Geodesic acoustic mode in anisotropic plasmas using double adiabatic model and gyro-kinetic equation
Ren, Haijun; Cao, Jintao
2014-12-15
Geodesic acoustic mode in anisotropic tokamak plasmas is theoretically analyzed by using double adiabatic model and gyro-kinetic equation. The bi-Maxwellian distribution function for guiding-center ions is assumed to obtain a self-consistent form, yielding pressures satisfying the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) anisotropic equilibrium condition. The double adiabatic model gives the dispersion relation of geodesic acoustic mode (GAM), which agrees well with the one derived from gyro-kinetic equation. The GAM frequency increases with the ratio of pressures, p{sub ⊥}/p{sub ∥}, and the Landau damping rate is dramatically decreased by p{sub ⊥}/p{sub ∥}. MHD result shows a low-frequency zonal flow existing for all p{sub ⊥}/p{sub ∥}, while according to the kinetic dispersion relation, no low-frequency branch exists for p{sub ⊥}/p{sub ∥}≳ 2.
Effect of wind tunnel acoustic modes on linear oscillating cascade aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buffum, D. H.; Fleeter, S.
1994-01-01
The aerodynamics of a biconvex airfoil cascade oscillating in torsion is investigated using the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. For subsonic flow and reduced frequencies as large as 0.9, airfoil surface unsteady pressures resulting from oscillation of one of the airfoils are measured using flush-mounted high-frequency-response pressure transducers. The influence coefficient data are examined in detail and then used to predict the unsteady aerodynamics of a cascade oscillating at various interblade phase angles. These results are correlated with experimental data obtained in the traveling-wave mode of oscillation and linearized analysis predictions. It is found that the unsteady pressure disturbances created by an oscillating airfoil excite wind tunnel acoustic modes, which have detrimental effects on the experimental results. Acoustic treatment is proposed to rectify this problem.
Effect of wind tunnel acoustic modes on linear oscillating cascade aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buffum, Daniel H.; Fleeter, Sanford
1993-01-01
The aerodynamics of a biconvex airfoil cascade oscillating in torsion is investigated using the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. For subsonic flow and reduced frequencies as large as 0.9, airfoil surface unsteady pressures resulting from oscillation of one of the airfoils are measured using flush-mounted high-frequency-response pressure transducers. The influence coefficient data are examined in detail and then used to predict the unsteady aerodynamics of a cascade oscillating at various interblade phase angles. These results are correlated with experimental data obtained in the traveling-wave mode of oscillation and linearized analysis predictions. It is found that the unsteady pressure disturbances created by an oscillating airfoil excite wind tunnel acoustic modes which have detrimental effects on the experimental data. Acoustic treatment is proposed to rectify this problem.
Heavy-impurity resonance, hybridization, and phonon spectral functions in Fe1-xMxSi, M=Ir,Os
Delaire, O.; Al-Qasir, Iyad I.; May, Andrew F.; ...
2015-03-31
The vibrational behavior of heavy substitutional impurities (M=Ir,Os) in Fe1-xMxSi (x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.1) was investigated with a combination of inelastic neutron scattering (INS), transport measurements, and first-principles simulations. In this paper, our INS measurements on single-crystals mapped the four-dimensional dynamical structure factor, S(Q;E), for several compositions and temperatures. Our results show that both Ir and Os impurities lead to the formation of a weakly dispersive resonance vibrational mode, in the energy range of the acoustic phonon dispersions of the FeSi host. We also show that Ir doping, which introduces free carriers and increases electron-phonon coupling, leads tomore » softened interatomic force-constants compared to doping with Os, which is isoelectronic to Fe. We analyze the phonon S(Q,E) from INS through a Green's function model incorporating the phonon self-energy based on first-principles density functional theory (DFT) simulations. Calculations of the quasiparticle spectral functions in the doped system reveal the hybridization between the resonance and the acoustic phonon modes. Finally, our results demonstrate a strong interaction of the host acoustic dispersions with the resonance mode, likely leading to the large observed suppression in lattice thermal conductivity.« less
Sound and heat revolutions in phononics.
Maldovan, Martin
2013-11-14
The phonon is the physical particle representing mechanical vibration and is responsible for the transmission of everyday sound and heat. Understanding and controlling the phononic properties of materials provides opportunities to thermally insulate buildings, reduce environmental noise, transform waste heat into electricity and develop earthquake protection. Here I review recent progress and the development of new ideas and devices that make use of phononic properties to control both sound and heat. Advances in sonic and thermal diodes, optomechanical crystals, acoustic and thermal cloaking, hypersonic phononic crystals, thermoelectrics, and thermocrystals herald the next technological revolution in phononics.
Low-energy phonons and superconductivity in Sn0.8In0.2Te
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Zhijun; Schneeloch, J. A.; Zhong, R. D.; Rodriguez-Rivera, J. A.; Harriger, L. W.; Birgeneau, R. J.; Gu, G. D.; Tranquada, J. M.; Xu, Guangyong
2015-02-01
We present neutron scattering measurements on low-energy phonons from a superconducting (Tc=2.7 K ) Sn0.8In0.2Te single-crystal sample. The longitudinal acoustic phonon mode and one transverse acoustic branch have been mapped out around the (002) Bragg peak for temperatures of 1.7 and 4.2 K. We observe a substantial energy width of the transverse phonons at energies comparable to twice the superconducting gap; however, there is no change in this width between the superconducting and normal states, and the precise origin of this energy width anomaly is not entirely clear. We also confirm that the compound is well ordered, with no indications of structural instability.
Coupling of nitrogen vacancy centres in nanodiamonds by means of phonons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albrecht, A.; Retzker, A.; Jelezko, F.; Plenio, M. B.
2013-08-01
Realizing controlled quantum dynamics via the magnetic interactions between colour centres in diamond remains a challenge despite recent demonstrations for nanometre separated pairs. Here we propose to use the intrinsic acoustical phonons in diamond as a data bus for accomplishing this task. We show that for nanodiamonds the electron-phonon coupling can take significant values that together with mode frequencies in the THz range can serve as a resource for conditional gate operations. Based on these results, we analyse how to use this phonon-induced interaction for constructing quantum gates among the electron-spin triplet ground states, introducing the phonon dependence via Raman transitions. Combined with decoupling pulses this offers the possibility for creating entangled states within nanodiamonds on the scale of several tens of nanometres, a promising prerequisite for quantum sensing applications.
A generalized hydrodynamic model for acoustic mode stability in viscoelastic plasma fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borah, B.; Haloi, A.; Karmakar, P. K.
2016-05-01
In this paper a generalized hydrodynamic (GH) model to investigate acoustic-mode excitation and stability in simplified strongly coupled bi-component plasma is proposed. The goal is centered in seeing the viscoelasticity-influences on the instability properties. The dispersive and nondispersive features are methodologically explored followed by numerical illustrations. It is seen that, unlike usual plasma acoustic mode, here the mode stability is drastically modified due to the considered viscoelastic effects contributed from both the electronic and ionic fluids. For example, it is found that there exists an excitation threshold value on angular wavenumber, K ≈3 in the K-space on the Debye scale, beyond which only dispersive characteristic features prevail. Further, it is demonstrated that the viscoelastic relaxation time plays a stabilizing influential role on the wave dynamics. In contrast, it is just opposite for the effective viscoelastic relaxation effect. Consistency with the usual viscoelasticity-free situations, with and without plasma approximation taken into account, is also established and explained. It is identified and conjectured that the plasma fluid viscoelasticity acts as unavoidable dispersive agency in attributing several new characteristics to acoustic wave excitation and propagation. The analysis is also exploited to derive a quantitative glimpse on the various basic properties and dimensionless numbers of the viscoelastic plasma. Finally, extended implications of our results tentative to different cosmic, space and astrophysical situations, amid the entailed facts and faults, are highlighted together with indicated future directions.
Rotating rake design for unique measurement of fan-generated spinning acoustic modes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Konno, Kevin E.; Hausmann, Clifford R.
1993-01-01
In light of the current emphasis on noise reduction in subsonic aircraft design, NASA has been actively studying the source of and propagation of noise generated by subsonic fan engines. NASA/LeRC has developed and tested a unique method of accurately measuring these spinning acoustic modes generated by an experimental fan. This mode measuring method is based on the use of a rotating microphone rake. Testing was conducted in the 9 x 15 Low-speed Wind Tunnel. The rotating rake was tested with the Advanced Ducted Propeller (ADP) model. This memorandum discusses the design and performance of the motor/drive system for the fan-synchronized rotating acoustic rake. This novel motor/drive design approach is now being adapted for additional acoustic mode studies in new test rigs as baseline data for the future design of active noise control for subsonic fan engines. Included in this memorandum are the research requirements, motor/drive specifications, test performance results, and a description of the controls and software involved.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baumeister, K. J.
1981-01-01
The cutoff mode instability problem associated with a transient finite difference solution to the wave equation is explained. The steady-state impedance boundary condition is found to produce acoustic reflections during the initial transient, which cause finite instabilities in the cutoff modes. The stability problem is resolved by extending the duct length to prevent transient reflections. Numerical calculations are presented at forcing frequencies above, below, and nearly at the cutoff frequency, and exit impedance models are presented for use in the practical design of turbofan inlets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perrin, Bernard
2007-06-01
The conference PHONONS 2007 was held 15-20 July 2007 in the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers (CNAM) Paris, France. CNAM is a college of higher technology for training students in the application of science to industry, founded by Henri Grégoire in 1794. This was the 12th International Conference on Phonon Scattering in Condensed Matter. This international conference series, held every 3 years, started in France at Sainte-Maxime in 1972. It was then followed by meetings at Nottingham (1975), Providence (1979), Stuttgart (1983), Urbana-Champaign (1986), Heidelberg (1989), Ithaca (1992), Sapporo (1995), Lancaster (1998), Dartmouth (2001) and St Petersburg (2004). PHONONS 2007 was attended by 346 delegates from 37 different countries as follows: France 120, Japan 45, Germany 25, USA 25, Russia 21, Italy 13, Poland 9, UK 9, Canada 7, The Netherlands 7, Finland 6, Spain 6, Taiwan 6, Greece 4, India 4, Israel 4, Ukraine 4, Serbia 3, South Africa 3, Argentina 2, Belgium 2, China 2, Iran 2, Korea 2, Romania 2, Switzerland 2, and one each from Belarus, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Egypt, Estonia, Mexico, Moldova, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Turkey. There were 5 plenary lectures, 14 invited talks and 84 oral contributions; 225 posters were presented during three poster sessions. The first plenary lecture was given by H J Maris who presented fascinating movies featuring the motion of a single electron in liquid helium. Robert Blick gave us a review on the new possibilities afforded by nanotechnology to design nano-electomechanical systems (NEMS) and the way to use them to study elementary and fundamental processes. The growing interest for phonon transport studies in nanostructured materials was demonstrated by Arun Majumdar. Andrey Akimov described how ultrafast acoustic solitons can monitor the optical properties of quantum wells. Finally, Maurice Chapellier told us how
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belyaev, Mikhail A.; Rafikov, Roman R.; Stone, James M.
2012-11-01
Disk accretion onto a weakly magnetized central object, e.g., a star, is inevitably accompanied by the formation of a boundary layer near the surface, in which matter slows down from the highly supersonic orbital velocity of the disk to the rotational velocity of the star. We perform high-resolution two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations in the equatorial plane of an astrophysical boundary layer with the goal of exploring the dynamics of non-axisymmetric structures that form there. We generically find that the supersonic shear in the boundary layer excites non-axisymmetric quasi-stationary acoustic modes that are trapped between the surface of the star and a Lindblad resonance in the disk. These modes rotate in a prograde fashion, are stable for hundreds of orbital periods, and have a pattern speed that is less than and of the order of the rotational velocity at the inner edge of the disk. The origin of these intrinsically global modes is intimately related to the operation of a corotation amplifier in the system. Dissipation of acoustic modes in weak shocks provides a universal mechanism for angular momentum and mass transport even in purely hydrodynamic (i.e., non-magnetized) boundary layers. We discuss the possible implications of these trapped modes for explaining the variability seen in accreting compact objects.
Belyaev, Mikhail A.; Stone, James M.; Rafikov, Roman R.
2012-11-20
Disk accretion onto a weakly magnetized central object, e.g., a star, is inevitably accompanied by the formation of a boundary layer near the surface, in which matter slows down from the highly supersonic orbital velocity of the disk to the rotational velocity of the star. We perform high-resolution two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations in the equatorial plane of an astrophysical boundary layer with the goal of exploring the dynamics of non-axisymmetric structures that form there. We generically find that the supersonic shear in the boundary layer excites non-axisymmetric quasi-stationary acoustic modes that are trapped between the surface of the star and a Lindblad resonance in the disk. These modes rotate in a prograde fashion, are stable for hundreds of orbital periods, and have a pattern speed that is less than and of the order of the rotational velocity at the inner edge of the disk. The origin of these intrinsically global modes is intimately related to the operation of a corotation amplifier in the system. Dissipation of acoustic modes in weak shocks provides a universal mechanism for angular momentum and mass transport even in purely hydrodynamic (i.e., non-magnetized) boundary layers. We discuss the possible implications of these trapped modes for explaining the variability seen in accreting compact objects.
Influence of material parameters on acoustic wave propagation modes in ZnO/Si bi-layered structures.
Gao, Hui-dong; Zhang, Shu-Yi; Qi, Xue; Wasa, Kiyotaka; Wu, Hao-Dong
2005-12-01
The influences of material properties on acoustic wave propagation modes in ZnO/Si bi-layered structures are studied. The transfer matrix method is used to calculate dispersion relations, wave field distributions, and electromechanical coupling coefficients of acoustic wave propagation modes in ZnO/Si bi-layered systems, in which the thickness of the substrate is of the same order of magnitude as the wavelength of the propagating wave modes. The influences of the thin film parameters on the acoustic wave propagation modes and their electromechanical coupling coefficients of the wave modes also are obtained. In addition, some experimental results for characterizing the wave propagation modes and their frequencies have also been obtained, which agree well with the theoretical predictions.
Phonon analog of topological nodal semimetals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Po, Hoi Chun; Bahri, Yasaman; Vishwanath, Ashvin
2016-05-01
Topological band structures in electronic systems like topological insulators and semimetals give rise to highly unusual physical properties. Analogous topological effects have also been discussed in bosonic systems, but the novel phenomena typically occur only when the system is excited by finite-frequency probes. A mapping recently proposed by C. L. Kane and T. C. Lubensky [Nat. Phys. 10, 39 (2014), 10.1038/nphys2835], however, establishes a closer correspondence. It relates the zero-frequency excitations of mechanical systems to topological zero modes of fermions that appear at the edges of an otherwise gapped system. Here we generalize the mapping to systems with an intrinsically gapless bulk. In particular, we construct mechanical counterparts of topological semimetals. The resulting gapless bulk modes are physically distinct from the usual acoustic Goldstone phonons and appear even in the absence of continuous translation invariance. Moreover, the zero-frequency phonon modes feature adjustable momenta and are topologically protected as long as the lattice coordination is unchanged. Such protected soft modes with tunable wave vector may be useful in designing mechanical structures with fault-tolerant properties.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lorenz, U.; Saalfrank, P.
2017-01-01
We present a rigorous method to set up a system-bath Hamiltonian for the coupling of adsorbate vibrations (the system) to surface phonons (the bath). The Hamiltonian is straightforward to derive and exact up to second order in the environment coordinates, thus capable of treating one- and two-phonon contributions to vibration-phonon coupling. The construction of the Hamiltonian uses orthogonal coordinates for system and bath modes, is based on an embedded cluster approach, and generalizes previous Hamiltonians of a similar type, but avoids several (additional) approximations. While the parametrization of the full Hamiltonian is in principle feasible by a first principles quantum mechanical treatment, here we adopt in the spirit of a QM/MM model a combination of density functional theory ("QM", for the system) and a semiempirical forcefield ("MM", for the bath). We apply the Hamiltonian to a fully H-covered Si(100)-(2 × 1) surface, using Fermi's Golden Rule to obtain vibrational relaxation rates of various H-Si bending modes of this system. As in earlier work it is found that the relaxation is dominated by two-phonon contributions because of an energy gap between the Si-H bending modes and the Si phonon bands. We obtain vibrational lifetimes (of the first excited state) on the order of 2 ps at T = 0 K. The lifetimes depend only little on the type of bending mode (symmetric vs. antisymmetric, parallel vs. perpendicular to the Si2H2 dimers). They decrease by a factor of about two when heating the surface to 300 K. We also study isotope effects by replacing adsorbed H atoms by deuterium, D. The Si-D bending modes are shifted into the Si phonon band of the solid, opening up one-phonon decay channels and reducing the lifetimes to few hundred fs.
Inelastic x-ray scattering measurements of phonon dispersion and lifetimes in PbTe1-x Se x alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Zhiting; Li, Mingda; Ren, Zhensong; Ma, Hao; Alatas, Ahmet; Wilson, Stephen D.; Li, Ju
2015-09-01
PbTe1-x Se x alloys are of special interest to thermoelectric applications. Inelastic x-ray scattering determination of phonon dispersion and lifetimes along the high symmetry directions for PbTe1-x Se x alloys are presented. By comparing with calculated results based on the virtual crystal model calculations combined with ab initio density functional theory, the validity of virtual crystal model is evaluated. The results indicate that the virtual crystal model is overall a good assumption for phonon frequencies and group velocities despite the softening of transverse acoustic phonon modes along [1 1 1] direction, while the treatment of lifetimes warrants caution. In addition, phonons remain a good description of vibrational modes in PbTe1-x Se x alloys.
Inelastic x-ray scattering measurements of phonon dispersion and lifetimes in PbTe1-x Se x alloys.
Tian, Zhiting; Li, Mingda; Ren, Zhensong; Ma, Hao; Alatas, Ahmet; Wilson, Stephen D; Li, Ju
2015-09-23
PbTe1-x Se x alloys are of special interest to thermoelectric applications. Inelastic x-ray scattering determination of phonon dispersion and lifetimes along the high symmetry directions for PbTe1-x Se x alloys are presented. By comparing with calculated results based on the virtual crystal model calculations combined with ab initio density functional theory, the validity of virtual crystal model is evaluated. The results indicate that the virtual crystal model is overall a good assumption for phonon frequencies and group velocities despite the softening of transverse acoustic phonon modes along [1 1 1] direction, while the treatment of lifetimes warrants caution. In addition, phonons remain a good description of vibrational modes in PbTe1-x Se x alloys.
ZUDOV,M.A.; PONOMAREV,I.V.; EFROS,A.L.; DU,R.R.; SIMMONS,JERRY A.; RENO,JOHN L.
2000-05-11
The authors report a new type of oscillations in magnetoresistance observed in high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG), in GaAs-AIGaAs heterostructures. Being periodic in 1/B these oscillations appear in weak magnetic field (B < 0.3 T) and only in a narrow temperature range (3 K < T < 7 K). Remarkably, these oscillations can be understood in terms of magneto-phonon resonance originating from the interaction of 2DEG and leaky interface-acoustic phonon modes. The existence of such modes on the GaAs:AIGaAs interface is demonstrated theoretically and their velocities are calculated. It is shown that the electron-phonon scattering matrix element exhibits a peak for the phonons carrying momentum q = 2k{sub F} (k{sub F} is the Fermi wave-vector of 2DEG).
Shalini, A.; Liu, Y.; Srivastava, G. P.; Hicken, R. J.; Katmis, F.; Braun, W.
2015-01-14
Femtosecond optical pump-probe measurements have been made upon epitaxial, polycrystalline, and amorphous thin films of Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (GST). A dominant coherent optical phonon mode of 3.4 THz frequency is observed in time-resolved anisotropic reflectance (AR) measurements of epitaxial films, and is inferred to have 3-dimensional T{sub 2}-like character based upon the dependence of its amplitude and phase on pump and probe polarization. In contrast, the polycrystalline and amorphous phases exhibit a comparatively weak mode of about 4.5 THz frequency in both reflectivity (R) and AR measurements. Raman microscope measurements confirm the presence of the modes observed in pump-probe measurements, and reveal additional modes. While the Raman spectra are qualitatively similar for all three phases of GST, the mode frequencies are found to be different within experimental error, ranging from 3.2 to 3.6 THz and 4.3 to 4.7 THz, indicating that the detailed crystallographic structure has a significant effect upon the phonon frequency. While the lower frequency (3.6 THz) mode of amorphous GST is most likely associated with GeTe{sub 4} tetrahedra, modes in epitaxial (3.4 THz) and polycrystalline (3.2 THz) GST could be associated with either GeTe{sub 6} octahedra or Sb-Te bonds within defective octahedra. The more polarizable Sb-Te bonds are the most likely origin of the higher frequency (4.3–4.7 THz) mode, although the influence of Te-Te bonds cannot be excluded. The effect of high pump fluence, which leads to irreversible structural changes, has been explored. New modes with frequency of 3.5/3.6 THz in polycrystalline/amorphous GST may be associated with Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} or GeTe{sub 4} tetrahedra, while a 4.2 THz mode observed in epitaxial GST may be related to segregation of Sb.
Lan, Tian; Li, Chen W.; Hellman, O.; Kim, D. S.; Muñoz, Jorge A.; Smith, Hillary; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Fultz, B.
2015-08-11
Although the rutile structure of TiO_{2} is stable at high temperatures, the conventional quasiharmonic approximation predicts that several acoustic phonons decrease anomalously to zero frequency with thermal expansion, incorrectly predicting a structural collapse at temperatures well below 1000 K. In this paper, inelastic neutron scattering was used to measure the temperature dependence of the phonon density of states (DOS) of rutile TiO_{2} from 300 to 1373 K. Surprisingly, these anomalous acoustic phonons were found to increase in frequency with temperature. First-principles calculations showed that with lattice expansion, the potentials for the anomalous acoustic phonons transform from quadratic to quartic, stabilizing the rutile phase at high temperatures. In these modes, the vibrational displacements of adjacent Ti and O atoms cause variations in hybridization of 3d electrons of Ti and 2p electrons of O atoms. Finally, with thermal expansion, the energy variation in this “phonon-tracked hybridization” flattens the bottom of the interatomic potential well between Ti and O atoms, and induces a quarticity in the phonon potential.
Coherent Phonon Rabi Oscillations with a High-Frequency Carbon Nanotube Phonon Cavity.
Zhu, Dong; Wang, Xin-He; Kong, Wei-Cheng; Deng, Guang-Wei; Wang, Jiang-Tao; Li, Hai-Ou; Cao, Gang; Xiao, Ming; Jiang, Kai-Li; Dai, Xing-Can; Guo, Guang-Can; Nori, Franco; Guo, Guo-Ping
2017-02-08
Phonon-cavity electromechanics allows the manipulation of mechanical oscillations similar to photon-cavity systems. Many advances on this subject have been achieved in various materials. In addition, the coherent phonon transfer (phonon Rabi oscillations) between the phonon cavity mode and another oscillation mode has attracted many interest in nanoscience. Here, we demonstrate coherent phonon transfer in a carbon nanotube phonon-cavity system with two mechanical modes exhibiting strong dynamical coupling. The gate-tunable phonon oscillation modes are manipulated and detected by extending the red-detuned pump idea of photonic cavity electromechanics. The first- and second-order coherent phonon transfers are observed with Rabi frequencies 591 and 125 kHz, respectively. The frequency quality factor product fQm ∼ 2 × 10(12) Hz achieved here is larger than kBTbase/h, which may enable the future realization of Rabi oscillations in the quantum regime.
Giant Anharmonic Phonon Scattering in PbTe
Delaire, Olivier A; Ma, Jie; Marty, Karol J; May, Andrew F; McGuire, Michael A; Singh, David J; Lumsden, Mark D; Sales, Brian C; Du, Mao-Hua; Ehlers, Georg; Podlesnyak, Andrey A
2011-01-01
Understanding the microscopic processes affecting the bulk thermal conductivity is crucial to develop more efficient thermoelectric materials. PbTe is currently one of the leading thermoelectric materials, largely thanks to its low thermal conductivity. However, the origin of this low thermal conductivity in a simple rocksalt structure has so far been elusive. Using a combination of inelastic neutron scattering measurements and first-principles computations of the phonons, we identify a strong anharmonic coupling between the ferroelectric transverse optic (TO) mode and the longitudinal acoustic (LA) modes in PbTe. This interaction extends over a large portion of reciprocal space, and directly affects the heat-carrying LA phonons. The LA-TO anharmonic coupling is likely to play a central role in explaining the low thermal conductivity of PbTe. The present results provide a microscopic picture of why many good thermoelectric materials are found near a lattice instability of the ferroelectric type.
Structural And Phonon Modes Of Multiferroic Bi0.9Ca0.1Fe0.9Co0.1O3 Nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varshney, Dinesh; Das, Geeta; Kumar, Ashwini
2011-07-01
Multiferroic Bi0.9Ca0.1Fe0.9Co0.1O3 [BCFCO] nanoparticles of 23 nm were successfully prepared by chemical co-precipitation method. The x-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the formation of single-phase perovskite structure. Rietveld-refinement of crystal structure parameters revealed the existence of rhombohedral R3c symmetry. Raman spectrum identifies the five active optical phonon modes (A1-2, E-2, A1-4, E-8, E-9). The BCFCO nanomaterials sample shows the lower frequency shift in Raman modes as compared to pure BiFeO3 and is attributed to the structural distortion at Fe site.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pathak, Binita; Basu, Saptarshi
2016-03-01
Controlled breakup of droplets using heat or acoustics is pivotal in applications such as pharmaceutics, nanoparticle production, and combustion. In the current work we have identified distinct thermal acoustics-induced deformation regimes (ligaments and bubbles) and breakup dynamics in externally heated acoustically levitated bicomponent (benzene-dodecane) droplets with a wide variation in volatility of the two components (benzene is significantly more volatile than dodecane). We showcase the physical mechanism and universal behavior of droplet surface caving in leading to the inception and growth of ligaments. The caving of the top surface is governed by a balance between the acoustic pressure field and the restrictive surface tension of the droplet. The universal collapse of caving profiles for different benzene concentration (<70 % by volume) is shown by using an appropriate time scale obtained from force balance. Continuous caving leads to the formation of a liquid membrane-type structure which undergoes radial extension due to inertia gained during the precursor phase. The membrane subsequently closes at the rim and the kinetic energy leads to ligament formation and growth. Subsequent ligament breakup is primarily Rayleigh-Plateau type. The breakup mode shifts to diffusional entrapment-induced boiling with an increase in concentration of the volatile component (benzene >70 % by volume). The findings are portable to any similar bicomponent systems with differential volatility.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perelli, Alessandro; De Marchi, Luca; Marzani, Alessandro; Speciale, Nicolò
2012-02-01
A strategy for the localization of acoustic emissions (AE) in plates with dispersion and reverberation is proposed. The procedure exploits signals received in passive mode by sparse conventional piezoelectric transducers and a three-step processing framework. The first step consists in a signal dispersion compensation procedure, which is achieved by means of the warped frequency transform. The second step concerns the estimation of the differences in arrival time (TDOA) of the acoustic emission at the sensors. Complexities related to reflections and plate resonances are overcome via a wavelet decomposition of cross-correlating signals where the mother function is designed by a synthetic warped cross-signal. The magnitude of the wavelet coefficients in the warped distance-frequency domain, in fact, precisely reveals the TDOA of an acoustic emission at two sensors. Finally, in the last step the TDOA data are exploited to locate the acoustic emission source through hyperbolic positioning. The proposed procedure is tested with a passive network of three/four piezo-sensors located symmetrically and asymmetrically with respect to the plate edges. The experimentally estimated AE locations are close to those theoretically predicted by the Cramèr-Rao lower bound.
Double adiabatic theory of driven collisionless geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) in toroids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hassam, Adil; Kleva, Robert
2011-10-01
The GAM is an axisymmetric oscillation of a toroidal magnetically confined plasma, resulting from an interplay between poloidal plasma rotation and perpendicular flux tube compression from the B field gradient. The frequency is super-parallel-sonic, ie, omega ~ (ion thermal speed)/R, greater than the parallel acoustic mode which is lower by a factor of q. Consequently, collisionless geodesic acoustic modes in tokamaks can be described by the Chew-Goldberger-Low double-adiabatic fluid closures. This allows a simpler nonlinear formulation. We use these equations to study driven, collisionless GAMs in tokamaks. The motivation for this study is a proposal by Hallatschek and McKee to drive GAMs on the D3D tokamak at resonance. The drivers in the CGL theory include external magnetic forces to effect flux surface displacements as well as sources to provide modulated non-axisymmetric ion heating. We show that the linear mode frequency from CGL theory agrees with previous kinetic results. Comparisons will be made between different approaches to resonate the mode. Nonlinear effects will be evaluated. A 2D toroidal numerical simulation of driven GAMs is in progress. Work supported by US-DOE.
Double adiabatic theory of driven collisionless geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) in toroids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hassam, Adil; Kleva, Robert; Sengupta, Wrick
2012-03-01
The GAM is an axisymmetric oscillation of a toroidal magnetically confined plasma, resulting from an interplay between poloidal plasma rotation and perpendicular flux tube compression from the B field gradient. The frequency is super-parallel-sonic, ie, φ ˜ (ion thermal speed)/R, greater than the parallel acoustic mode which is lower by a factor of q. Consequently, collisionless geodesic acoustic modes in tokamaks can be described by the Chew-Goldberger-Low double-adiabatic fluid closures. This allows a simpler nonlinear formulation. We use these equations to study driven, collisionless GAMs in tokamaks. The motivation for this study is a proposal by Hallatschek and McKee to drive GAMs on the D3D tokamak at resonance. The drivers in the CGL theory include external magnetic forces to effect flux surface displacements as well as sources to provide modulated non-axisymmetric ion heating. We show that the linear mode frequency from CGL theory agrees with previous kinetic results. Comparisons will be made between different approaches to resonate the mode. Nonlinear effects will be evaluated. Results of a 2D toroidal numerical simulation of driven GAMs are described
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
London, Yosef; Diamandi, Hilel Hagai; Zadok, Avi
2017-04-01
An opto-electronic radio-frequency oscillator that is based on forward scattering by the guided acoustic modes of a standard single-mode optical fiber is proposed and demonstrated. An optical pump wave is used to stimulate narrowband, resonant guided acoustic modes, which introduce phase modulation to a co-propagating optical probe wave. The phase modulation is converted to an intensity signal at the output of a Sagnac interferometer loop. The intensity waveform is detected, amplified, and driven back to modulate the optical pump. Oscillations are achieved at a frequency of 319 MHz, which matches the resonance of the acoustic mode that provides the largest phase modulation of the probe wave. Oscillations at the frequencies of competing acoustic modes are suppressed by at least 40 dB. The linewidth of the acoustic resonance is sufficiently narrow to provide oscillations at a single longitudinal mode of the hybrid cavity. Competing longitudinal modes are suppressed by at least 38 dB as well. Unlike other opto-electronic oscillators, no radio-frequency filtering is required within the hybrid cavity. The frequency of oscillations is entirely determined by the fiber opto-mechanics.
Xu, Yuehua; Dai, Jun; Zeng, Xiao Cheng
2016-01-21
The intrinsic acoustic-phonon-limited carrier mobility (μ) of Al2C monolayer sheet and nanoribbons are investigated using ab initio computation and deformation potential theory. It is found that the polarity of the room-temperature carrier mobility of the Al2C monolayer is direction-dependent, with μ of electron (e) and hole (h) being 2348 and 40.77 cm(2)/V/s, respectively, in the armchair direction and 59.95 (e) and 705.8 (h) in the zigzag direction. More interestingly, one-dimensional Al2C nanoribbons not only can retain the direction-dependent polarity but also may entail even higher mobility, in contrast to either the graphene nanoribbons which tend to exhibit lower μ compared to the two-dimensional graphene or the MoS2 nanoribbons which have reversed polarity compared to the MoS2 sheet. As an example, the Al-terminated zigzag nanoribbon with a width of 4.1 nm exhibits μ of 212.6 (e) and 2087 (h) cm(2)/V/s, while the C-terminated armchair nanoribbon with a width 2.6 nm exhibits μ of 1090 (e) and 673.9 (h) cm(2)/V/s; the C-terminated zigzag nanoribbon with a width 3.7 nm exhibits μ of 177.6 (e) and 1889 (h) cm(2)/V/s, and the Al-terminated armchair nanoribbon with a width 2.4 nm exhibits μ of 6695 (e) and 518.4 (h) cm(2)/V/s. The high carrier mobility, μ, coupled with polarity and direction dependence endows the Al2C sheet and nanoribbons with unique transport properties that can be exploited for special applications in nanoelectronics.
Properties of acoustic plate modes in YZ LiNbO₃.
Soluch, Waldemar; Lysakowska, Magdalena
2013-01-01
Properties of acoustic plate modes (APMs) in YZ LiNbO₃ were calculated and measured. It was found that these modes have a dominant longitudinal component of mechanical motion concentrated near both surfaces of a plate. A delay line with double-electrode interdigital transducers (IDTs) was used for the measurements. Because of good matching to the load, strong triple-transit signals (TTS) were generated and insertion loss of about 7 dB was achieved at a frequency of about 131.4 MHz. Using water and glycerin solutions, insertion loss changes against viscosity were measured for this mode. In a viscosity range from about 1 mPa·s to 1000 mPa·s, an insertion loss change of about 16 dB was obtained. High sensitivity of viscosity measurement over a wide range makes the APMs in YZ LiNbO₃ attractive for application in viscosity sensors.
The dependence of acoustic properties of a crack on the resonance mode and geometry
Kumagai, H.; Chouet, B.A.
2001-01-01
We examine the dependence of the acoustic properties of a crack containing magmatic or hydrothermal fluids on the resonance mode and geometry to quantify the source properties of long-period (LP) events observed in volcanic areas. Our results, based on spectral analyses of synthetic waveforms generated with a fluid-driven crack model, indicate that the basic features of the dimensionless frequency (??) and quality factor (Qr) for a crack containing various types of fluids are not strongly affected by the choice of mode, although the actual ranges of Q?? and ?? both depend on the mode. The dimensionless complex frequency systematically varies with changes in the crack geometry, showing increases in both Qr and ?? as the crack length to aperture ratio decreases. The present results may be useful for the interpretation of spatial and temporal variations in the observed complex frequencies of LP events.
Microfabricated phononic crystal devices and applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olsson, R. H., III; El-Kady, I.
2009-01-01
Phononic crystals are the acoustic wave analogue of photonic crystals. Here a periodic array of scattering inclusions located in a homogeneous host material forbids certain ranges of acoustic frequencies from existence within the crystal, thus creating what are known as acoustic bandgaps. The majority of previously reported phononic crystal devices have been constructed by hand, assembling scattering inclusions in a viscoelastic medium, predominantly air, water or epoxy, resulting in large structures limited to frequencies below 1 MHz. Recently, phononic crystals and devices have been scaled to VHF (30-300 MHz) frequencies and beyond by utilizing microfabrication and micromachining technologies. This paper reviews recent developments in the area of micro-phononic crystals including design techniques, material considerations, microfabrication processes, characterization methods and reported device structures. Micro-phononic crystal devices realized in low-loss solid materials are emphasized along with their potential application in radio frequency communications and acoustic imaging for medical ultrasound and nondestructive testing. The reported advances in batch micro-phononic crystal fabrication and simplified testing promise not only the deployment of phononic crystals in a number of commercial applications but also greater experimentation on a wide variety of phononic crystal structures.
Generalized concept of shear horizontal acoustic plate mode and Love wave sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McHale, Glen
2003-11-01
An approach to mass and liquid sensitivity for both the phase velocity and insertion loss of shear mode acoustic wave sensors based on the dispersion equations for layered systems is outlined. The approach is sufficiently general to allow for viscoelastic guiding layers. An equation for the phase velocity and insertion loss sensitivities is given which depends on the slope of the complex phase velocity dispersion curves. This equation contains the equivalent of the Sauerbrey and Kanazawa equations for loading of a quartz crystal microbalance by rigid mass and Newtonian liquids, respectively, and also describes surface loading by viscoelastic layers. The theoretical approach can be applied to a four-layer system, with any of the four layers being viscoelastic, so that mass deposition from a liquid can also be modelled. The theoretical dispersion equation based approach to layer-guided shear horizontal acoustic wave modes on finite substrates presented in this work provides a unified view of Love wave and shear horizontal acoustic plate mode (SH-APM) devices, which have been generally regarded as distinct in sensor research. It is argued that SH-APMs with guiding layers possessing shear acoustic speeds lower than that of the substrate and Love waves are two branches of solution of the same dispersion equation. The layer guided SH-APMs have a phase velocity higher than that of the substrate and the Love waves a phase velocity lower than that of the substrate. Higher-order Love wave modes are continuations of the layer-guided SH-APMs. The generalized concept of SH-APMs and Love waves provides a basis for understanding the change in sensitivity with higher-frequency operation and the relationship between multiple modes in Love wave sensors. It also explains why a relatively thick layer of a high-loss polymer can be used as a waveguide layer and so extends the range of materials that can be considered experimentally. Moreover, it is predicted that a new type of sensor, a
Vasin, A. S.; Vikhrova, O. V.; Vasilevskiy, M. I.
2014-04-14
Confinement and alloy disorder effects on the lattice dynamics and Raman scattering in Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} nanocrystals (NCs) are investigated numerically employing two different empirical inter-atomic potentials. Relaxed NCs of different compositions (x) were built using the Molecular Dynamics method and applying rigid boundary conditions mimicking the effect of surrounding matrix. The resulting variation of bond lengths with x was checked against Vegard's law and the NC phonon modes were calculated using the same inter-atomic potential. The localization of the principal Raman-active (Si-Si, Si-Ge, and Ge-Ge) modes is investigated by analysing representative eigenvectors and their inverse participation ratio. The dependence of the position and intensity of these modes upon x and NC size is presented and compared to previous calculated results and available experimental data. In particular, it is argued that the composition dependence of the intensity of the Si-Ge and Ge-Ge modes does not follow the fraction of the corresponding nearest-neighbour bonds as it was suggested by some authors. Possible effects of alloy segregation are considered by comparing the calculated properties of random and clustered Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1−x} NCs. It is found that the Si-Si mode and Ge-Ge mode are enhanced and blue-shifted (by several cm{sup −1}for the Si-Si mode), while the intensity of the Si-Ge Raman mode is strongly suppressed by clustering.
Slow light and broadband coherent phonon generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zheng; Rakich, Peter; Reinke, Charles; Camacho, Ryan; Davids, Paul
2012-03-01
Recent advance in controlling optical forces using nanostructures suggests that nanoscale optical waveguides are capable of generating coherent acoustic phonons efficiently through a combination of radiation pressure and electrostriction. We discuss the critical roles of group velocity in such processes. This photon-phonon coupling would allow an acoustic intermediary to perform on-chip optical delay with a capacity 105 greater than photonic delay lines of the same size.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hill, Samuel; Dixon, Steve; Sri Harsha Reddy, K.; Rajagopal, Prabhu; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan
2017-02-01
Guided waves inspection is a well-established method for the long-range ultrasonic inspection of pipes. Guided waves, used in a pulse-echo arrangement, can inspect a large range of the pipe from a single point as the pipe structure carries the waves over a large distance due to the relatively low attenuation of the wave modes. However, the complexity of the dispersion characteristics of these pipe guided wave modes are well known, and can lead to diffculty interpreting the obtained results. The torsional family of guided wave modes are generally considered to have much simpler dispersion characteristics; especially the fundamental T(0,1) mode, which is nominally non-dispersive, making it particularly useful for guided wave inspection. Torsional waves have been generated by a circumferential ring of transducers to approximate an axi-symmetric load to excite this T(0, 1) mode. Presented here is a new design of Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT) that can generate a T(0, 1) as a single transducer, rather than a circumferential array of transducers that all need to be excited in order to generate an axisymmetric force. The EMAT consists of a periodic permanent magnet array and a single meander coil, meaning that the excitation of the torsional mode is greatly simplified. The design parameters of this new EMAT are explored, and the ability to detect notch defects on a pipe is demonstrated.
Fast scanning mode and its realization in a scanning acoustic microscope
Ju Bingfeng; Bai Xiaolong; Chen Jian
2012-03-15
The scanning speed of the two-dimensional stage dominates the efficiency of mechanical scanning measurement systems. This paper focused on a detailed scanning time analysis of conventional raster and spiral scan modes and then proposed two fast alternative scanning modes. Performed on a self-developed scanning acoustic microscope (SAM), the measured images obtained by using the conventional scan mode and fast scan modes are compared. The total scanning time is reduced by 29% of the two proposed fast scan modes. It will offer a better solution for high speed scanning without sacrificing the system stability, and will not introduce additional difficulties to the configuration of scanning measurement systems. They can be easily applied to the mechanical scanning measuring systems with different driving actuators such as piezoelectric, linear motor, dc motor, and so on. The proposed fast raster and square spiral scan modes are realized in SAM, but not specially designed for it. Therefore, they have universal adaptability and can be applied to other scanning measurement systems with two-dimensional mechanical scanning stages, such as atomic force microscope or scanning tunneling microscope.
Fast scanning mode and its realization in a scanning acoustic microscope.
Ju, Bing-Feng; Bai, Xiaolong; Chen, Jian
2012-03-01
The scanning speed of the two-dimensional stage dominates the efficiency of mechanical scanning measurement systems. This paper focused on a detailed scanning time analysis of conventional raster and spiral scan modes and then proposed two fast alternative scanning modes. Performed on a self-developed scanning acoustic microscope (SAM), the measured images obtained by using the conventional scan mode and fast scan modes are compared. The total scanning time is reduced by 29% of the two proposed fast scan modes. It will offer a better solution for high speed scanning without sacrificing the system stability, and will not introduce additional difficulties to the configuration of scanning measurement systems. They can be easily applied to the mechanical scanning measuring systems with different driving actuators such as piezoelectric, linear motor, dc motor, and so on. The proposed fast raster and square spiral scan modes are realized in SAM, but not specially designed for it. Therefore, they have universal adaptability and can be applied to other scanning measurement systems with two-dimensional mechanical scanning stages, such as atomic force microscope or scanning tunneling microscope.
Investigation into mass loading sensitivity of sezawa wave mode-based surface acoustic wave sensors.
Mohanan, Ajay Achath; Islam, Md Shabiul; Ali, Sawal Hamid; Parthiban, R; Ramakrishnan, N
2013-02-06
In this work mass loading sensitivity of a Sezawa wave mode based surface acoustic wave (SAW) device is investigated through finite element method (FEM) simulation and the prospects of these devices to function as highly sensitive SAW sensors is reported. A ZnO/Si layered SAW resonator is considered for the simulation study. Initially the occurrence of Sezawa wave mode and displacement amplitude of the Rayleigh and Sezawa wave mode is studied for lower ZnO film thickness. Further, a thin film made of an arbitrary material is coated over the ZnO surface and the resonance frequency shift caused by mass loading of the film is estimated. It was observed that Sezawa wave mode shows significant sensitivity to change in mass loading and has higher sensitivity (eight times higher) than Rayleigh wave mode for the same device configuration. Further, the mass loading sensitivity was observed to be greater for a low ZnO film thickness to wavelength ratio. Accordingly, highly sensitive SAW sensors can be developed by coating a sensing medium over a layered SAW device and operating at Sezawa mode resonance frequency. The sensitivity can be increased by tuning the ZnO film thickness to wavelength ratio.
Particle velocity gradient based acoustic mode beamforming for short linear vector sensor arrays.
Gur, Berke
2014-06-01
In this paper, a subtractive beamforming algorithm for short linear arrays of two-dimensional particle velocity sensors is described. The proposed method extracts the highly directional acoustic modes from the spatial gradients of the particle velocity field measured at closely spaced sensors along the array. The number of sensors in the array limits the highest order of modes that can be extracted. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations indicate that the acoustic mode beamformer achieves directivity comparable to the maximum directivity that can be obtained with differential microphone arrays of equivalent aperture. When compared to conventional delay-and-sum beamformers for pressure sensor arrays, the proposed method achieves comparable directivity with 70%-85% shorter apertures. Moreover, the proposed method has additional capabilities such as high front-back (port-starboard) discrimination, frequency and steer direction independent response, and robustness to correlated ambient noise. Small inter-sensor spacing that results in very compact apertures makes the proposed beamformer suitable for space constrained applications such as hearing aids and short towed arrays for autonomous underwater platforms.
Belyaev, Mikhail A.; Rafikov, Roman R.; Stone, James M.
2013-06-10
The nature of angular momentum transport in the boundary layers of accretion disks has been one of the central and long-standing issues of accretion disk theory. In this work we demonstrate that acoustic waves excited by supersonic shear in the boundary layer serve as an efficient mechanism of mass, momentum, and energy transport at the interface between the disk and the accreting object. We develop the theory of angular momentum transport by acoustic modes in the boundary layer, and support our findings with three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations, using an isothermal equation of state. Our first major result is the identification of three types of global modes in the boundary layer. We derive dispersion relations for each of these modes that accurately capture the pattern speeds observed in simulations to within a few percent. Second, we show that angular momentum transport in the boundary layer is intrinsically nonlocal, and is driven by radiation of angular momentum away from the boundary layer into both the star and the disk. The picture of angular momentum transport in the boundary layer by waves that can travel large distances before dissipating and redistributing angular momentum and energy to the disk and star is incompatible with the conventional notion of local transport by turbulent stresses. Our results have important implications for semianalytical models that describe the spectral emission from boundary layers.
Simulation study of high-frequency energetic particle driven geodesic acoustic mode
Wang, Hao Ido, Takeshi; Osakabe, Masaki; Todo, Yasushi
2015-09-15
High-frequency energetic particle driven geodesic acoustic modes (EGAM) observed in the large helical device plasmas are investigated using a hybrid simulation code for energetic particles and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Energetic particle inertia is incorporated in the MHD momentum equation for the simulation where the beam ion density is comparable to the bulk plasma density. Bump-on-tail type beam ion velocity distribution created by slowing down and charge exchange is considered. It is demonstrated that EGAMs have frequencies higher than the geodesic acoustic modes and the dependence on bulk plasma temperature is weak if (1) energetic particle density is comparable to the bulk plasma density and (2) charge exchange time (τ{sub cx}) is sufficiently shorter than the slowing down time (τ{sub s}) to create a bump-on-tail type distribution. The frequency of high-frequency EGAM rises as the energetic particle pressure increases under the condition of high energetic particle pressure. The frequency also increases as the energetic particle pitch angle distribution shifts to higher transit frequency. It is found that there are two kinds of particles resonant with EGAM: (1) trapped particles and (2) passing particles with transit frequency close to the mode frequency. The EGAMs investigated in this work are destabilized primarily by the passing particles whose transit frequencies are close to the EGAM frequency.
Coherent phonon optics in a chip with an electrically controlled active device.
Poyser, Caroline L; Akimov, Andrey V; Campion, Richard P; Kent, Anthony J
2015-02-05
Phonon optics concerns operations with high-frequency acoustic waves in solid media in a similar way to how traditional optics operates with the light beams (i.e. photons). Phonon optics experiments with coherent terahertz and sub-terahertz phonons promise a revolution in various technical applications related to high-frequency acoustics, imaging, and heat transport. Previously, phonon optics used passive methods for manipulations with propagating phonon beams that did not enable their external control. Here we fabricate a phononic chip, which includes a generator of coherent monochromatic phonons with frequency 378 GHz, a sensitive coherent phonon detector, and an active layer: a doped semiconductor superlattice, with electrical contacts, inserted into the phonon propagation path. In the experiments, we demonstrate the modulation of the coherent phonon flux by an external electrical bias applied to the active layer. Phonon optics using external control broadens the spectrum of prospective applications of phononics on the nanometer scale.
Coherent phonon optics in a chip with an electrically controlled active device
Poyser, Caroline L.; Akimov, Andrey V.; Campion, Richard P.; Kent, Anthony J.
2015-01-01
Phonon optics concerns operations with high-frequency acoustic waves in solid media in a similar way to how traditional optics operates with the light beams (i.e. photons). Phonon optics experiments with coherent terahertz and sub-terahertz phonons promise a revolution in various technical applications related to high-frequency acoustics, imaging, and heat transport. Previously, phonon optics used passive methods for manipulations with propagating phonon beams that did not enable their external control. Here we fabricate a phononic chip, which includes a generator of coherent monochromatic phonons with frequency 378 GHz, a sensitive coherent phonon detector, and an active layer: a doped semiconductor superlattice, with electrical contacts, inserted into the phonon propagation path. In the experiments, we demonstrate the modulation of the coherent phonon flux by an external electrical bias applied to the active layer. Phonon optics using external control broadens the spectrum of prospective applications of phononics on the nanometer scale. PMID:25652241
Chiu, Linus Y S; Reeder, D Benjamin; Chang, Yuan-Ying; Chen, Chi-Fang; Chiu, Ching-Sang; Lynch, James F
2013-03-01
Internal waves and bathymetric variation create time- and space-dependent alterations in the ocean acoustic waveguide, and cause subsequent coupling of acoustic energy between propagating normal modes. In this paper, the criterion for adiabatic invariance is extended to the case of an internal solitary wave (ISW) encountering a sloping bathymetry (i.e., continental shelfbreak). Predictions based on the extended criterion for adiabatic invariance are compared to experimental observations from the Asian Seas International Acoustics Experiment. Using a mode 1 starter field, results demonstrate time-dependent coupling of mode 1 energy to higher adjacent modes, followed by abrupt coupling of mode 5-7 energy to nonadjacent modes 8-20, produces enhanced mode coupling and higher received levels downrange of the oceanographic and bathymetric features. Numerical simulations demonstrate that increasing ISW amplitude and seafloor slope enhance the coupling of energy to adjacent and nonadjacent modes. This enhanced coupling is the direct result of the simultaneous influence of the ISW and its proximity to the shelfbreak, and, compared to the individual effect of the ISW or shelfbreak, has the capacity to scatter 2-4 times the amount of acoustic energy from below the thermocline into the upper water column beyond the shelfbreak in realistic environments.
TEMPEST Simulations of Collisionless Damping of Geodesic-Acoustic Mode in Edge Plasma Pedestal
Xu, X; Xiong, Z; Nevins, W; McKee, G
2007-05-31
The fully nonlinear 4D TEMPEST gyrokinetic continuum code produces frequency, collisionless damping of geodesic-acoustic mode (GAM) and zonal flow with fully nonlinear Boltzmann electrons for the inverse aspect ratio {epsilon}-scan and the tokamak safety factor q-scan in homogeneous plasmas. The TEMPEST simulation shows that GAM exists in edge plasma pedestal for steep density and temperature gradients, and an initial GAM relaxes to the standard neoclassical residual, rather than Rosenbluth-Hinton residual due to the presence of ion-ion collisions. The enhanced GAM damping explains experimental BES measurements on the edge q scaling of the GAM amplitude.
Experimental investigation of geodesic acoustic modes on JET using Doppler backscattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silva, C.; Hillesheim, J. C.; Hidalgo, C.; Belonohy, E.; Delabie, E.; Gil, L.; Maggi, C. F.; Meneses, L.; Solano, E.; Tsalas, M.; Contributors, JET
2016-10-01
Geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) have been investigated in JET ohmic discharges using mainly Doppler backscattering. Characteristics and scaling properties of the GAM are studied. Time and spatial resolved measurements of the perpendicular velocity indicate that GAMs are located in a narrow layer at the edge density gradient region with amplitude corresponding to about 50% of the mean local perpendicular velocity. GAMs on JET appear to be regulated by the turbulence drive rather than by their damping rate. It is also shown that the GAM amplitude is ~20% larger in deuterium than in hydrogen plasmas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Madrid, Angeline; Kim, Hyeon-Deuk; Habenicht, Bradley; Prezhdo, Oleg
2010-03-01
Phonon-induced dephasing processes that govern optical line widths, multiple exciton (ME) generation (MEG), and ME fission (MEF) in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are investigated by ab initio molecular dynamics simulation. Using Si QDs as an example, we propose that MEF occurs by phonon-induced dephasing and, for the first time, estimate its time scale to be 100 fs. In contrast, luminescence and MEG dephasing times are all sub-10 fs. Generally, dephasing is faster for higher-energy and higher-order excitons and increased temperatures. MEF is slow because it is facilitated only by low-frequency acoustic modes. Luminescence and MEG couple to both acoustic and optical modes of the QD, as well as ligand vibrations. The detailed atomistic simulation of the dephasing processes advances understanding of exciton dynamics in QDs and other nanoscale materials.
Investigation of a mercurous chloride acousto-optic cell based on longitudinal acoustic mode.
Gupta, Neelam
2009-03-01
A number of spectral imagers using acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs) operating from the UV to the longwave infrared (LWIR) using KDP, MgF(2), TeO(2), and Tl(3)AsSe(3) crystals to cover different spectral regions have been developed. In the LWIR there is a lack of high quality acousto-optic (AO) materials. Mercurous halide (Hg(2)Cl(2) and Hg(2)Br(2)) crystals are highly anisotropic with a high AO figure of merit due to slow acoustic velocities and high photoelastic constants and are transparent over a wide spectral region from 0.35 to 20 mum for Hg(2)Cl(2) and from 0.4 to 30 mum for Hg(2)Br(2). AO modulators, deflectors, and AOTFs based on these crystals can operate over a wide spectral range. Single crystals of these materials are being grown and some prototype devices have been fabricated. Results are presented from device characterization for an AO cell fabricated in Hg(2)Cl(2) based on longitudinal acoustic mode propagation. This device was very useful in demonstrating the AO interaction as well as soundness of the transducer bonding technique. Acoustic phase velocity is calculated and measured, diffraction efficiency is obtained from experiments, and the AO figure of merit of the sample is evaluated.
Protein-modified shear mode film bulk acoustic resonator for bio-sensing applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jingjing; Liu, Weihui; Xu, Yan; Chen, Da; Li, Dehua; Zhang, Luyin
2014-09-01
In this paper, we present a shear mode film bulk acoustic biosensor based on micro-electromechanical technology. The film bulk acoustic biosensor is a diaphragmatic structure consisting of a lateral field excited ZnO piezoelectric film piezoelectric stack built on an Si3N4 membrane. The device works at near 1.6 GHz with Q factors of 579 in water and 428 in glycerol. A frequency shift of 5.4 MHz and a small decline in the amplitude are found for the measurements in glycerol compared with those in water because of the viscous damping derived from the adjacent glycerol. For bio-sensing demonstration, the resonator was modified with biotin molecule to detect protein-ligand interactions in real-time and in situ. The resonant frequency of the biotin-modified device drops rapidly and gradually reaches equilibrium when exposed to the streptavidin solution due to the biotin-streptavidin interaction. The proposed film bulk acoustic biosensor shows promising applications for disease diagnostics, prognosis, and drug discovery.
Acoustic performance of inlet suppressors on an engine generating a single mode
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heidelberg, L. J.; Rice, E. J.; Homyak, L.
1981-01-01
Three single degree of freedom liners with different open area ratio face sheets were designed for a single spinning mode in order to evaluate an inlet suppressor design method based on mode cutoff ratio. This mode was generated by placing 41 rods in front of the 28 blade fan of a JT15D turbofan engine. At the liner design this near cutoff mode has a theoretical maximum attenuation of nearly 200 dB per L/D. The data show even higher attenuations at the design condition than predicted by the theory for dissipation of a single mode within the liner. This additional attenuation is large for high open area ratios and should be accounted for in the theory. The data show the additional attenuation to be inversely proportional to acoustic resistance. It was thought that the additional attenuation could be caused by reflection and modal scattering at the hard to soft wall interface. A reflection model was developed, and then modified to fit the data. This model was checked against independent (multiple pure tone) data with good agreement.
Properties of shear horizontal acoustic plate modes in BT-cut quartz.
Soluch, Waldemar; Lysakowska, Magdalena
2011-10-01
Properties of shear horizontal acoustic plate modes (SHAPMs) in BT-cut quartz were calculated and measured. A delay line with a long interdigital transducer, deposited on -50.5°YX90°-oriented quartz plate, was used for the measurements. For one of the SHAPMs, at a frequency of about 100.4 MHz, insertion loss, turnover temperature, and quadratic temperature coefficient of frequency of about 10 dB, 15°C, and -30 ppb/(°C)(2) in air, respectively, were obtained. Using water and glycerin solutions, insertion loss changes against dynamic viscosity were measured for this mode. In a viscosity range from about 1 mPa·s to 1000 mPa·s, an insertion loss change of about 14 dB was obtained.
A branch of energetic-particle driven geodesic acoustic modes due to magnetic drift resonance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sasaki, M.; Kasuya, N.; Itoh, K.; Hallatschek, K.; Lesur, M.; Kosuga, Y.; Itoh, S.-I.
2016-10-01
Eigenmode analysis of geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) driven by fast ions is performed, based on a set of gyrokinetic equations. Resonance to the magnetic drift of the fast ions can destabilize GAMs. A new branch is found in the family of GAMs, whose frequency is close to the magnetic drift frequency of the fast ions. The poloidal eigenfunction of this branch has bump structures in the poloidal direction where the resonance of the magnetic drift with the mode is strong. The ion heating rate by the GAMs is evaluated in the framework of quasi-linear theory. The heating is localized poloidally around the resonance locations. Owing to the bumps in the eigenfunction, the magnitude of the heating is much larger than that estimated without the magnetic drift resonance.
Frequency Response of the Sample Vibration Mode in Scanning Probe Acoustic Microscope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Ya-Jun; Cheng, Qian; Qian, Meng-Lu
2010-05-01
Based on the interaction mechanism between tip and sample in the contact mode of a scanning probe acoustic microscope (SPAM), an active mass of the sample is introduced in the mass-spring model. The tip motion and frequency response of the sample vibration mode in the SPAM are calculated by the Lagrange equation with dissipation function. For the silicon tip and glass assemblage in the SPAM the frequency response is simulated and it is in agreement with the experimental result. The living myoblast cells on the glass slide are imaged at resonance frequencies of the SPAM system, which are 20kHz, 30kHz and 120kHz. It is shown that good contrast of SPAM images could be obtained when the system is operated at the resonance frequencies of the system in high and low-frequency regions.
Synchronization of Geodesic Acoustic Modes and Magnetic Fluctuations in Toroidal Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, K. J.; Nagashima, Y.; Diamond, P. H.; Dong, J. Q.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.; Yan, L. W.; Cheng, J.; Fujisawa, A.; Inagaki, S.; Kosuga, Y.; Sasaki, M.; Wang, Z. X.; Wei, L.; Huang, Z. H.; Yu, D. L.; Hong, W. Y.; Li, Q.; Ji, X. Q.; Song, X. M.; Huang, Y.; Liu, Yi.; Yang, Q. W.; Ding, X. T.; Duan, X. R.
2016-09-01
The synchronization of geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) and magnetic fluctuations is identified in the edge plasmas of the HL-2A tokamak. Mesoscale electric fluctuations (MSEFs) having components of a dominant GAM, and m /n =6 /2 potential fluctuations are found at the same frequency as that of the magnetic fluctuations of m /n =6 /2 (m and n are poloidal and toroidal mode numbers, respectively). The temporal evolutions of the MSEFs and the magnetic fluctuations clearly show the frequency entrainment and the phase lock between the GAM and the m /n =6 /2 magnetic fluctuations. The results indicate that GAMs and magnetic fluctuations can transfer energy through nonlinear synchronization. Such nonlinear synchronization may also contribute to low-frequency zonal flow formation, reduction of turbulence level, and thus confinement regime transitions.
VizieR Online Data Catalog: Solar acoustic modes in period 1996-2014 (Salabert+, 2015)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salabert, D.; Garcia, R. A.; Turck-Chieze, S.
2015-03-01
The central frequencies of the l = 0, 1, 2, and 3 acoustic modes of oscillations of the Sun between 1500{micro}Hz and 4000{micro}Hz and their associated formal 1σ uncertainties extracted from 365-day subseries of 18 years of the space-based, Sun-as-a-star GOLF/SoHO observations between 1996 April 11, and 2014 March 5 are presented. As a four-time overlap of 91.25 days was used, a total of 69 frequency tables are provided. We note that one of every four frequency tables contains frequencies extracted from independent subseries. Quality criteria were defined based on the fitted mode parameters and their associated uncertainties in order to remove outliers. An info file containing the associated starting date and duty cycle of each 365-day subseries is also provided. The corresponding mean 10.7cm radio flux is also given in the info file. (2 data files).
Second Harmonic Generation of Nanoscale Phonon Wave Packets.
Bojahr, A; Gohlke, M; Leitenberger, W; Pudell, J; Reinhardt, M; von Reppert, A; Roessle, M; Sander, M; Gaal, P; Bargheer, M
2015-11-06
Phonons are often regarded as delocalized quasiparticles with certain energy and momentum. The anharmonic interaction of phonons determines macroscopic properties of the solid, such as thermal expansion or thermal conductivity, and a detailed understanding becomes increasingly important for functional nanostructures. Although phonon-phonon scattering processes depicted in simple wave-vector diagrams are the basis of theories describing these macroscopic phenomena, experiments directly accessing these coupling channels are scarce. We synthesize monochromatic acoustic phonon wave packets with only a few cycles to introduce nonlinear phononics as the acoustic counterpart to nonlinear optics. Control of the wave vector, bandwidth, and consequently spatial extent of the phonon wave packets allows us to observe nonlinear phonon interaction, in particular, second harmonic generation, in real time by wave-vector-sensitive Brillouin scattering with x-rays and optical photons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hedayatrasa, Saeid; Abhary, Kazem; Uddin, Mohammad; Ng, Ching-Tai
2016-04-01
This paper presents a topology optimization of single material phononic crystal plate (PhP) to be produced by perforation of a uniform background plate. The primary objective of this optimization study is to explore widest exclusive bandgaps of fundamental (first order) symmetric or asymmetric guided wave modes as well as widest complete bandgap of mixed wave modes (symmetric and asymmetric). However, in the case of single material porous phononic crystals the bandgap width essentially depends on the resultant structural integration introduced by achieved unitcell topology. Thinner connections of scattering segments (i.e. lower effective stiffness) generally lead to (i) wider bandgap due to enhanced interfacial reflections, and (ii) lower bandgap frequency range due to lower wave speed. In other words higher relative bandgap width (RBW) is produced by topology with lower effective stiffness. Hence in order to study the bandgap efficiency of PhP unitcell with respect to its structural worthiness, the in-plane stiffness is incorporated in optimization algorithm as an opposing objective to be maximized. Thick and relatively thin Polysilicon PhP unitcells with square symmetry are studied. Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm NSGA-II is employed for this multi-objective optimization problem and modal band analysis of individual topologies is performed through finite element method. Specialized topology initiation, evaluation and filtering are applied to achieve refined feasible topologies without penalizing the randomness of genetic algorithm (GA) and diversity of search space. Selected Pareto topologies are presented and gradient of RBW and elastic properties in between the two Pareto front extremes are investigated. Chosen intermediate Pareto topology, even not extreme topology with widest bandgap, show superior bandgap efficiency compared with the results reported in other works on widest bandgap topology of asymmetric guided waves, available in the literature
Interaction of High Frequency Acoustic Waves and Optical Waves Propagating in Single Mode Fibers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Paula, Ramon Perez
This paper develops a frequency dependent model for the acousto-optic interaction with a single mode fiber of acoustic waves having wavelengths comparable to the fiber diameter. This paper also presents optical techniques for experimental observation and measurement of such effects. The acoustic waves are both normally and obliquelly incident on the fiber. The solutions to the elastic problem studied here are constructed using scalar and vector potentials. The principal strains induced by a plane wave propagating in a fluid is calculated through the solution of the wave equation and the associated boundary condition. The optical beam propagation is analyzed starting with Maxwell's, equations and the required solution for single mode (degenerate double mode) propagation is presented. For the perturbed fiber the anisotropic solution is discussed. The optical indicatrix is derived from the electric energy density, with the major axis parallel to the induced principal strains obtained from the solution of the elastic problem. The solution of the optical indicatrix equation (index ellipsoid) yields two independent propagation modes that are linear polarized plane waves with two different propagation velocities. The induced phase shift and birefringence are calculated from the index ellipsoid. The birefringence and phase shift are also measured experimentally using a fiber optic interferometer and a fiber optic polariscope. The experimental apparatus is discussed in detail and the techniques used to make the measurements are presented. The results are separated into two parts: first, the results for ultrasonic waves of normal incidence are presented, theoretical and experimental results are discussed, and the two compared; second, the results for angular incidence are presented in the same format as above, and compared with the results for perpendicular incidence.
Heavy-impurity resonance, hybridization, and phonon spectral functions in Fe_{1-x}M_{x}Si, M=Ir,Os
Delaire, O.; Al-Qasir, Iyad I.; May, Andrew F.; Sales, Brian C.; Niedziela, Jennifer L.; Ma, Jie; Matsuda, Masaaki; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Berlijn, Tom
2015-03-31
The vibrational behavior of heavy substitutional impurities (M=Ir,Os) in Fe_{1-x}M_{x}Si (x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.1) was investigated with a combination of inelastic neutron scattering (INS), transport measurements, and first-principles simulations. In this paper, our INS measurements on single-crystals mapped the four-dimensional dynamical structure factor, S(Q;E), for several compositions and temperatures. Our results show that both Ir and Os impurities lead to the formation of a weakly dispersive resonance vibrational mode, in the energy range of the acoustic phonon dispersions of the FeSi host. We also show that Ir doping, which introduces free carriers and increases electron-phonon coupling, leads to softened interatomic force-constants compared to doping with Os, which is isoelectronic to Fe. We analyze the phonon S(Q,E) from INS through a Green's function model incorporating the phonon self-energy based on first-principles density functional theory (DFT) simulations. Calculations of the quasiparticle spectral functions in the doped system reveal the hybridization between the resonance and the acoustic phonon modes. Finally, our results demonstrate a strong interaction of the host acoustic dispersions with the resonance mode, likely leading to the large observed suppression in lattice thermal conductivity.
Heavy-impurity resonance, hybridization, and phonon spectral functions in Fe1-xMxSi (M =Ir , Os )
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delaire, O.; Al-Qasir, I. I.; May, A. F.; Li, C. W.; Sales, B. C.; Niedziela, J. L.; Ma, J.; Matsuda, M.; Abernathy, D. L.; Berlijn, T.
2015-03-01
The vibrational behavior of heavy substitutional impurities (M = Ir,Os) in Fe1-xMxSi (x =0 ,0.02 ,0.04 ,0.1 ) was investigated with a combination of inelastic neutron scattering (INS), transport measurements, and first-principles simulations. Our INS measurements on single crystals mapped the four-dimensional dynamical structure factor, S (Q ,E ) , for several compositions and temperatures. Our results show that both Ir and Os impurities lead to the formation of a weakly dispersive resonance vibrational mode, in the energy range of the acoustic phonon dispersions of the FeSi host. We also show that Ir doping, which introduces free carriers, leads to softened interatomic force constants compared to doping with Os, which is isoelectronic to Fe. We analyze the phonon S (Q ,E ) from INS through a Green's-function model incorporating the phonon self-energy based on first-principles density functional theory simulations, and we study the disorder-induced lifetimes on large supercells. Calculations of the quasiparticle spectral functions in the doped system reveal the hybridization between the resonance and the acoustic phonon modes. Our results demonstrate a strong interaction of the host acoustic dispersions with the resonance mode, likely leading to the large observed suppression in lattice thermal conductivity.
The effect of energetic particle induced geodesic acoustic modes on microturbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schneller, Mirjam; Fu, Guoyong; Wang, Weixing; Chavdarovski, Ilija; Lauber, Philipp
2016-10-01
The control of turbulent transport reveals essential to achieve a successful fusion reactor. Together with turbulence, energetic particles are ubiquitous in present and future tokamaks due to heating systems and fusion reactions. Anisotropy in the distribution function of the energetic particle population is able to excite oscillations from the continuous spectrum of geodesic acoustic modes, which cannot be driven by plasma pressure gradients due to their toroidally and nearly poloidally symmetric structures. These oscillations are known as energetic particle-induced geodesic acoustic modes (EGAMs) [G.Y.Fu'08] and have been observed in recent experiments [R.Nazikian'08]. EGAMs are particularly attractive in the framework of turbulence regulation, since they lead to an oscillatory radial electric shear which can potentially saturate the turbulence. In recent years, numerical simulations have shown however, that turbulent transport could also be enhanced in the presence of EGAMs [D.Zarzoso'13]. For the presented work, the nonlinear gyrokinetic, electrostatic, particle-in-cell code GTS [W.X.Wang'06] has been extended to include an energetic particle population. With this new tool, the interaction of EGAMs with microturbulence is investigated in more detail. NERSC computing time is greatfully acknowledged.
Local phonon mode in thermoelectric Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 2}Se from charge neutral antisites
Tian, Yao; Osterhoudt, Gavin B.; Burch, Kenneth S.; Jia, Shuang; Cava, R. J.
2016-01-25
Local modes caused by defects play a significant role in the thermal transport properties of thermoelectrics. Of particular interest are charge-neutral defects that suppress thermal conductivity, without significantly reducing electrical transport. Here, we report a temperature dependent Raman study that identifies such a mode in a standard thermoelectric material, Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 2}Se. One of the modes observed, whose origin has been debated for decades, was shown most likely to be an antisite defect induced local mode. The anomalous temperature independent broadening of the local mode is ascribed to the random arrangement of Se atoms. The temperature renormalization of all modes is well explained by an anharmonic model–Klemens's model.
Cuscó, R; Alarcón-Lladó, E; Ibáñez, J; Yamaguchi, T; Nanishi, Y; Artús, L
2009-10-14
We use a hydrodynamical approach to analyse the long-wavelength LO-phonon-plasmon coupled modes observed in a set of high-quality MBE-grown InN epilayers with electron densities varying over one order of magnitude, from ∼2 × 10(18) to ∼2 × 10(19) cm(-3). The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and Hall measurements. The correlation observed between the E(2)(high) mode frequency, and hence residual strain, and the electron density measured in the layers indicates that the differences in background electron density may be associated with threading dislocations. Owing to the low Raman signal, only the L(-) branch of the coupled modes can be unambiguously observed. The frequency of the L(-) Raman peak is, however, sensitive enough to the free electron density to allow its determination from lineshape fits to the spectra. These were carried out using an extended hydrodynamical model. Given the small bandgap energy and large conduction band nonparabolicity of InN, suitable expressions for the optical effective mass and mean square velocity that enter the hydrodynamical model were derived. Electron density values extracted from L(-) lineshape fits agree reasonably well with Hall determinations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chia, Elbert E. M.; La-O-Vorakiat, Chan; Kadro, Jeannette; Salim, Teddy; Zhao, Daming; Ahmed, Towfiq; Lam, Yeng Ming; Zhu, Jian-Xin; Marcus, Rudolph; Michel-Beyerle, Maria-Elisabeth
Using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS), we study the temperature-dependent phonon modes of the organometallic lead iodide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 thin film across the terahertz (0.5-3 THz) and temperature (20-300 K) ranges. These modes are related to the vibration of the Pb-I bonds. We found that two phonon modes in the tetragonal phase at room temperature split into four modes in the low-temperature orthorhombic phase. By use of the Lorentz model fitting, we analyze the critical behavior of this phase transition. King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi (Grant No. SCI58-003), Singapore MOE Tier 1 (RG13/12, RG123/14), ONR, ARO, NTU Biophysics Center, LANL LDRD, LANL CINT.
Wang, G.; Peebles, W. A.; Rhodes, T. L.; Doyle, E. J.; Hillesheim, J. C.; Schmitz, L.; Zeng, L.; Austin, M. E.; Yan, Z.; McKee, G. R.; La Haye, R. J.; Burrell, K. H.; Lanctot, M. J.; Petty, C. C.; Smith, S.; Strait, E. J.; Van Zeeland, M.; Nazikian, R.
2013-09-15
The geodesic acoustic mode (GAM), a coherent form of the zonal flow, plays a critical role in turbulence regulation and cross-magnetic-field transport. In the DIII-D tokamak, unique information on multi-field characteristics and radial structure of eigenmode GAMs has been measured. Two simultaneous and distinct, radially overlapping eigenmode GAMs (i.e., constant frequency vs. radius) have been observed in the poloidal E×B flow in L-mode plasmas. As the plasma transitions from an L-mode to an Ohmic regime, one of these eigenmode GAMs becomes a continuum GAM (frequency responds to local parameters), while the second decays below the noise level. The eigenmode GAMs occupy a radial range of ρ = 0.6–0.8 and 0.75–0.95, respectively. In addition, oscillations at the GAM frequency are observed for the first time in multiple plasma parameters, including n{sub e}, T{sub e}, and B{sub θ}. The magnitude of T(tilde sign){sub e}/T{sub e} at the GAM frequency (the magnitude is similar to that of ñ{sub e}/n{sub e}) and measured n{sub e}–T{sub e} cross-phase (∼140° at the GAM frequency) together indicate that the GAM pressure perturbation is not determined solely by ñ{sub e}. The magnetic GAM behavior, a feature only rarely reported, is significantly stronger (×18) on the high-field side of the tokamak, suggesting an anti-ballooning nature. Finally, the GAM is also observed to directly modify intermediate-wavenumber ñ{sub e} levels (kρ{sub s} ∼ 1.1). The simultaneous temperature, density, flow fluctuations, density-temperature cross-phase, and magnetic behavior present a new perspective on the underlying physics of the GAM.
On the acoustic radiation modes of compact regular polyhedral arrays of independent loudspeakers.
Pasqual, Alexander Mattioli; Martin, Vincent
2011-09-01
Compact spherical loudspeaker arrays can be used to provide control over their directivity pattern. Usually, this is made by adjusting the gains of preprogrammed spatial filters corresponding to a finite set of spherical harmonics, or to the acoustic radiation modes of the loudspeaker array. Unlike the former, the latter are closely related to the radiation efficiency of the source and span the subspace of the directivities it can produce. However, the radiation modes depend on frequency for arbitrary distributions of transducers on the sphere, which yields complex directivity filters. This work focuses on the most common loudspeaker array configurations, those following the regular shape of the Platonic solids. It is shown that the radiation modes of these sources are frequency independent, and simple algebraic expressions are derived for their radiation efficiencies. In addition, since such modes are vibration patterns driven by electrical signals, the transduction mechanism of compact multichannel sources is also investigated, which is an important issue, especially if the transducers interact inside a shared cabinet. For Platonic solid loudspeakers, it is shown that the common enclosure does not lead to directivity filters that depend on frequency.
Yan, Zhequan; Chen, Liang; Yoon, Mina; Kumar, Satish
2016-02-21
Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is a promising substrate for graphene based nano-electronic devices. We investigate the ballistic phonon transport at the interface of vertically stacked graphene and h-BN heterostructures using first principles density functional theory and atomistic Green's function simulations considering the influence of lattice stacking. We compute the frequency and wave-vector dependent transmission function and observe distinct stacking-dependent phonon transmission features for the h-BN/graphene/h-BN sandwiched systems. We find that the in-plane acoustic modes have the dominant contributions to the phonon transmission and thermal boundary conductance (TBC) for the interfaces with the carbon atom located directly on top of the boron atom (C-B matched) because of low interfacial spacing. The low interfacial spacing is a consequence of the differences in the effective atomic volume of N and B and the difference in the local electron density around N and B. For the structures with the carbon atom directly on top of the nitrogen atom (C-N matched), the spatial distance increases and the contribution of in-plane modes to the TBC decreases leading to higher contributions by out-of-plane acoustic modes. We find that the C-B matched interfaces have stronger phonon-phonon coupling than the C-N matched interfaces, which results in significantly higher TBC (more than 50%) in the C-B matched interface. The findings in this study will provide insights to understand the mechanism of phonon transport at h-BN/graphene/h-BN interfaces, to better explain the experimental observations and to engineer these interfaces to enhance heat dissipation in graphene based electronic devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Zhequan; Chen, Liang; Yoon, Mina; Kumar, Satish
2016-02-01
Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is a promising substrate for graphene based nano-electronic devices. We investigate the ballistic phonon transport at the interface of vertically stacked graphene and h-BN heterostructures using first principles density functional theory and atomistic Green's function simulations considering the influence of lattice stacking. We compute the frequency and wave-vector dependent transmission function and observe distinct stacking-dependent phonon transmission features for the h-BN/graphene/h-BN sandwiched systems. We find that the in-plane acoustic modes have the dominant contributions to the phonon transmission and thermal boundary conductance (TBC) for the interfaces with the carbon atom located directly on top of the boron atom (C-B matched) because of low interfacial spacing. The low interfacial spacing is a consequence of the differences in the effective atomic volume of N and B and the difference in the local electron density around N and B. For the structures with the carbon atom directly on top of the nitrogen atom (C-N matched), the spatial distance increases and the contribution of in-plane modes to the TBC decreases leading to higher contributions by out-of-plane acoustic modes. We find that the C-B matched interfaces have stronger phonon-phonon coupling than the C-N matched interfaces, which results in significantly higher TBC (more than 50%) in the C-B matched interface. The findings in this study will provide insights to understand the mechanism of phonon transport at h-BN/graphene/h-BN interfaces, to better explain the experimental observations and to engineer these interfaces to enhance heat dissipation in graphene based electronic devices.
Fesenyuk, O. P.; Kolesnichenko, Ya. I.; Yakovenko, Yu. V.
2013-12-15
This work generalizes recent results [O. P. Fesenyuk et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 085014 (2012)] to plasmas with elongated cross section. It suggests new expressions for the frequencies of the geodesic acoustic mode and Alfvén gap modes in tokamaks, with a large ratio of the plasma pressure to the magnetic field pressure and a large safety factor (q≫1, which takes place in discharges with reversed-shear configuration and, especially, in hollow-current discharges)
Kang, M S; Joly, N Y; Russell, P St J
2013-02-15
We report the experimental demonstration of a passively mode-locked Er-doped fiber ring laser operating at the 337th harmonic (1.80 GHz) of the cavity. The laser makes use of highly efficient Raman-like optoacoustic interactions between the guided light and gigahertz acoustic resonances trapped in the micron-sized solid glass core of a photonic crystal fiber. At sufficient pump power levels the laser output locks to a repetition rate corresponding to the acoustic frequency. A stable optical pulse train with a side-mode suppression ratio higher than 45 dB was obtained at low pump powers (~60 mW).
Balram, Krishna C; Davanço, Marcelo I; Song, Jin Dong; Srinivasan, Kartik
2016-05-01
Optomechanical cavities have been studied for applications ranging from sensing to quantum information science. Here, we develop a platform for nanoscale cavity optomechanical circuits in which optomechanical cavities supporting co-localized 1550 nm photons and 2.4 GHz phonons are combined with photonic and phononic waveguides. Working in GaAs facilitates manipulation of the localized mechanical mode either with a radio frequency (RF) field through the piezo-electric effect, which produces acoustic waves that are routed and coupled to the optomechanical cavity by phononic crystal waveguides, or optically through the strong photoelastic effect. Along with mechanical state preparation and sensitive readout, we use this to demonstrate an acoustic wave interference effect, similar to atomic coherent population trapping, in which RF-driven coherent mechanical motion is cancelled by optically-driven motion. Manipulating cavity optomechanical systems with equal facility through both photonic and phononic channels enables new architectures for signal transduction between the optical, electrical, and mechanical domains.
Escalante, Jose M. Martínez, Alejandro; Laude, Vincent
2014-02-14
We present the design of two waveguides (ladder and slot-ladder waveguides) implemented in a silicon honeycomb photonic-phononic crystal slab, which can support slow electromagnetic and elastic guided modes simultaneously. Interestingly, the photonic bandgap extends along the first Brillouin zone; so with an appropriate design, we can suppress propagation losses that arise coupling to radiative modes. From the phononic point of view, we explain the slow elastic wave effect by considering the waveguide as a chain of coupled acoustic resonators (coupled resonant acoustic waveguide), which provides the mechanism for slow elastic wave propagation. The ladder waveguide moreover supports guided phononic modes outside the phononic bandgap, similar to photonic slab modes, resulting in highly confined phononic modes propagating with low losses. Such waveguides could find important applications to the observation of optomechanical and electrostriction effects, as well as to enhanced stimulated Brillouin scattering and other opto-acoustical effects in nanoscale silicon structures. We also suggest that they can be the basis for a “perfect” photonic-phononic cavity in which damping by coupling to the surroundings is completely forbidden.
Walczak, Kamil; Yerkes, Kirk L.
2014-05-07
We examine heat transport carried by acoustic phonons in the systems composed of nanoscale chains of masses coupled to two thermal baths of different temperatures. Thermal conductance is obtained by using linearized Landauer-type formula for heat flux with phonon transmission probability calculated within atomistic Green's functions (AGF) method. AGF formalism is extended onto dissipative chains of masses with harmonic coupling beyond nearest-neighbor approximation, while atomistic description of heat reservoirs is also included into computational scheme. In particular, the phonon lifetimes and the phonon frequency shifts are discussed for harmonic lattices of different dimensions. Further, resonant structure of phonon transmission spectrum is analyzed with respect to reservoir-induced effects, molecular damping, and mass-to-mass harmonic coupling. Analysis of transmission zeros (antiresonances) and their accompanied Fano-shape resonances are discussed as a result of interference effects between different vibrational modes. Finally, we also predict subdiffusive transport regime for low-frequency ballistic phonons propagated along a linear chain of harmonically coupled masses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walczak, Kamil; Yerkes, Kirk L.
2014-05-01
We examine heat transport carried by acoustic phonons in the systems composed of nanoscale chains of masses coupled to two thermal baths of different temperatures. Thermal conductance is obtained by using linearized Landauer-type formula for heat flux with phonon transmission probability calculated within atomistic Green's functions (AGF) method. AGF formalism is extended onto dissipative chains of masses with harmonic coupling beyond nearest-neighbor approximation, while atomistic description of heat reservoirs is also included into computational scheme. In particular, the phonon lifetimes and the phonon frequency shifts are discussed for harmonic lattices of different dimensions. Further, resonant structure of phonon transmission spectrum is analyzed with respect to reservoir-induced effects, molecular damping, and mass-to-mass harmonic coupling. Analysis of transmission zeros (antiresonances) and their accompanied Fano-shape resonances are discussed as a result of interference effects between different vibrational modes. Finally, we also predict subdiffusive transport regime for low-frequency ballistic phonons propagated along a linear chain of harmonically coupled masses.
MODE CONVERSION BETWEEN DIFFERENT RADIAL ORDERS FOR SOLAR ACOUSTIC WAVES SCATTERED BY SUNSPOTS
Zhao, Hui; Chou, Dean-Yi
2013-11-20
We study the mode conversion between different radial orders for solar acoustic waves interacting with sunspots. Solar acoustic waves are modified in the presence of sunspots. The modification in the wave can be viewed as that the sunspot, excited by the incident wave, generates the scattered wave, and the scattered wave is added to the incident wave to form the total wave inside and around the sunspot. The wavefunction of the acoustic wave on the solar surface is computed from the cross-correlation function. The wavefunction of the scattered wave is obtained by subtracting the wavefunction of the incident wave from that of the total wave. We use the incident waves of radial order n = 0-5 to measure the scattered wavefunctions from n to another radial order n' for NOAAs 11084 and 11092. The strength of scattered waves decreases rapidly with |Δn|, where Δn ≡ n' – n. The scattered waves of Δn = ±1 are visible for n ≤ 1, and significant for n ≥ 2. For the scattered wave of Δn = ±2, only few cases are visible. None of the scattered waves of Δn = ±3 are visible. The properties of scattered waves for Δn = 0 and Δn ≠ 0 are different. The scattered wave amplitude relative to the incident wave amplitude decreases with n for Δn = 0, while it increases with n for Δn ≠ 0. The scattered wave amplitudes of Δn = 0 are greater for the larger sunspot, while those of Δn ≠ 0 are insensitive to the sunspot size.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beyer, Robert
1981-01-01
Surveys 50 years of acoustical studies by discussing selected topics including the ear, nonlinear representations, underwater sound, acoustical diagnostics, absorption, electrolytes, phonons, magnetic interaction, and superfluidity and the five sounds. (JN)
Cong, Ming; Wu, Xinjun; Qian, Chunqiao
2016-01-01
A new electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) design, employing a special structure of the permanent magnet chain, is proposed to generate and receive longitudinal guided waves for pipe inspection based on the magnetostriction mechanism. Firstly, a quantitative analysis of the excitation forces shows the influence of the radial component can be ignored. Furthermore, as the axial component of the static magnetic field is dominant, a method of solenoid testing coils connected in series is adopted to increase the signal amplitude. Then, two EMAT configurations are developed to generate and receive the L(0,2) guided wave mode. The experimental results show the circumferential notch can be identified and located successfully. Finally, a detailed investigation of the performance of the proposed EMATs is given. Compared to the conventional EMAT configuration, the proposed configurations have the advantages of small volume, light weight, easy installation and portability, which is helpful to improve inspection efficiency. PMID:27213400
Storelli, A. Vermare, L.; Hennequin, P.; Gürcan, Ö. D.; Singh, Rameswar; Morel, P.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Sarazin, Y.; Garbet, X.; Grandgirard, V.; Ghendrih, P.; Görler, T.
2015-06-15
In a dedicated collisionality scan in Tore Supra, the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) is detected and identified with the Doppler backscattering technique. Observations are compared to the results of a simulation with the gyrokinetic code GYSELA. We found that the GAM frequency in experiments is lower than predicted by simulation and theory. Moreover, the disagreement is higher in the low collisionality scenario. Bursts of non harmonic GAM oscillations have been characterized with filtering techniques, such as the Hilbert-Huang transform. When comparing this dynamical behaviour between experiments and simulation, the probability density function of GAM amplitude and the burst autocorrelation time are found to be remarkably similar. In the simulation, where the radial profile of GAM frequency is continuous, we observed a phenomenon of radial phase mixing of the GAM oscillations, which could influence the burst autocorrelation time.
Kinetic effects on geodesic acoustic mode from combined collisions and impurities
Yang, Shangchuan; Xie, Jinlin Liu, Wandong
2015-04-15
The dispersion relation for geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) is derived by applying a gyrokinetic model that accounts for the effects from both collisions and impurities. Based on the dispersion relation, an analysis is performed for the non-monotonic behavior of GAM damping versus the characteristic collision rate at various impurity levels. As the effective charge increases, the maximum damping rate is found to shift towards lower collision rates, nearer to the parameter range of a typical tokamak edge plasma. The relative strengths of ion-ion and impurity-induced collision effects, which are illustrated by numerical calculations, are found to be comparable. Impurity-induced collisions help decrease the frequency of GAM, while their effects on the damping rate are non-monotonic, resulting in a weaker total damping in the high collision regime. The results presented suggest considering collision effects as well as impurity effects in GAM analysis.
On Nonlinear Self-interaction of Geodesic Acoustic Mode Driven By Energetic Particles
G.Y. Fu
2010-10-01
It is shown that nonlinear self-interaction of energetic particle-driven Geodesic Acoustic Mode does not generate a second harmonic in radial electric field using the fluid model. However, kinetic effects of energetic particles can induce a second harmonic in the radial electric field. A formula for the second order plasma density perturbation is derived. It is shown that a second harmonic of plasma density perturbation is generated by the convective nonlinearity of both thermal plasma and energetic particles. Near the midplane of a tokamak, the second order plasma density perturbation (the sum of second harmonic and zero frequency sideband) is negative on the low field side with its size comparable to the main harmonic at low fluctuation level. These analytic predictions are consistent with the recent experimental observation in DIII-D.
On Nonlinear Self-interaction of Geodesic Acoustic Mode Driven by Energetic Particles
G. Y. Fu
2010-06-04
It is shown that nonlinear self-interaction of energetic particle-driven Geodesic Acoustic Mode does not generate a second harmonic in radial electric field using the fluid model. However, kinetic effects of energetic particles can induce a second harmonic in the radial electric field. A formula for the second order plasma density perturbation is derived. It is shown that a second harmonic of plasma density perturbation is generated by the convective nonlinearity of both thermal plasma and energetic particles. Near the midplane of a tokamak, the second order plasma density perturbation (the sum of second harmonic and zero frequency sideband) is negative on the low field side with its size comparable to the main harmonic at low uctuation level. These analytic predictions are consistent with the recent experimental observation in DIII-D.
Excitation of kinetic geodesic acoustic modes by drift waves in nonuniform plasmas
Qiu, Z.; Chen, L.; Zonca, F.
2014-02-15
Effects of system nonuniformities and kinetic dispersiveness on the spontaneous excitation of Geodesic Acoustic Mode (GAM) by Drift Wave (DW) turbulence are investigated based on nonlinear gyrokinetic theory. The coupled nonlinear equations describing parametric decay of DW into GAM and DW lower sideband are derived and then solved both analytically and numerically to investigate the effects on the parametric decay process due to system nonuniformities, such as nonuniform diamagnetic frequency, finite radial envelope of DW pump, and kinetic dispersiveness. It is found that the parametric decay process is a convective instability for typical tokamak parameters when finite group velocities of DW and GAM associated with kinetic dispersiveness and finite radial envelope are taken into account. When, however, nonuniformity of diamagnetic frequency is taken into account, the parametric decay process becomes, time asymptotically, a quasi-exponentially growing absolute instability.
Intermittent Transport Associated with the Geodesic Acoustic Mode near the Critical Gradient Regime
Miki, K.; Kishimoto, Y.; Li, J. Q.; Miyato, N.
2007-10-05
Turbulent transport near the critical gradient in toroidal plasmas is studied based on global Landau-fluid simulations and an extended predator-prey theoretical model of ion temperature gradient turbulence. A new type of intermittent transport associated with the emission and propagation of a geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) is found near the critical gradient regime, which is referred to as GAM intermittency. The intermittency is characterized by new time scales of trigger, damping, and recursion due to GAM damping. During the recursion of intermittent bursts, stationary zonal flow increases with a slow time scale due to the accumulation of undamped residues and eventually quenches the turbulence, suggesting that a nonlinear upshift of the critical gradient, i.e., Dimits shift, is established through such a dynamical process.
Quasi longitudinal Lamb acoustic modes along ZnO/Si/ZnO structures.
Verona, E; Anisimkin, V I; Osipenko, V A; Voronova, N V
2017-04-01
A novel structure consisting of a Si plate sandwiched between two ZnO layers is suggested as propagation medium for Quasi Longitudinal (QL) acoustic Lamb waves. Considering a low-dispersive quasi-longitudinal mode as an example, the phase velocity v, electromechanical coupling constant k(2) and mechanical displacements U1, U3 versus plate and ZnO layers thicknesses have been calculated starting from uncoated plate through the same plate with one layer to the plate with two layers onto opposite faces. A remarkable increase in the electromechanical coupling, together with an essential decrease in the vertical displacement U3, at the ZnO surface, have been theoretically demonstrated and experimentally verified for definite combinations of the films/plate thicknesses. This property of the structure is attractive for applications to microwave liquid sensors.
Toroidal momentum channeling of geodesic acoustic modes driven by fast ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sasaki, M.; Kasuya, N.; Itoh, K.; Kosuga, Y.; Lesur, M.; Hallatschek, K.; Itoh, S.-I.
2017-03-01
Toroidal momentum channeling by fast ion-driven geodesic acoustic mode (EGAM) is proposed based on a quasi-linear analysis. We focus on a branch due to the magnetic drift resonance. Without the magnetic drift resonance, the eigenfunction of the EGAM has up–down anti-symmetric property in the poloidal direction, and the toroidal momentum flux by the EGAM is zero. If the magnetic drift resonance is considered, the up–down anti-symmetry in the poloidal eigenfunction is violated, and, as a result, the toroidal momentum flux becomes finite. Comparing its magnitude to the other processes such as external momentum input, and the turbulent residual stress, the momentum flux induced by the EGAM is found to be significant in the total momentum balance. This suggests that EGAMs can be used as a control knob for the toroidal rotation.
Modeling and experimental study on near-field acoustic levitation by flexural mode.
Liu, Pinkuan; Li, Jin; Ding, Han; Cao, Wenwu
2009-12-01
Near-field acoustic levitation (NFAL) has been used in noncontact handling and transportation of small objects to avoid contamination. We have performed a theoretical analysis based on nonuniform vibrating surface to quantify the levitation force produced by the air film and also conducted experimental tests to verify our model. Modal analysis was performed using ANSYS on the flexural plate radiator to obtain its natural frequency of desired mode, which is used to design the measurement system. Then, the levitation force was calculated as a function of levitation distance based on squeeze gas film theory using measured amplitude and phase distributions on the vibrator surface. Compared with previous fluid-structural analyses using a uniform piston motion, our model based on the nonuniform radiating surface of the vibrator is more realistic and fits better with experimentally measured levitation force.
Acoustic Plate Mode sensing in liquids based on free and electrically shorted plate surfaces.
Anisimkin, V I; Caliendo, C; Verona, E
2016-05-01
The sensing behavior to liquids for Acoustic Plate Modes (APMs) propagating along 64°Y, 90°X LiNbO3 plate was investigated vs. two electric boundary conditions. The changes in the APMs phase velocity and attenuation were measured upon exposure to different liquids wetting one of the surfaces of the plate, either free or electrically shorted by a thin conductive Al layer. The experimental data confirm that the presence of a metallic layer covering one of the plate surfaces affects the viscosity and temperature sensitivity of the device. The differences between the sensor response for various liquids, with free or metalized faces, are interpreted in terms of the APM polarization.
Lin, Tzy-Rong; Lin, Chiang-Hsin; Hsu, Jin-Chen
2015-09-08
We propose dynamic modulation of a hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanocavity using monochromatic coherent acoustic phonons formed by ultrahigh-frequency surface acoustic waves (SAWs) to achieve strong optomechanical interaction. The crystal nanocavity used in this study consisted of a defective photonic crystal beam coupled to a metal surface with a nanoscale air gap in between and provided hybridization of a highly confined plasmonic-photonic mode with a high quality factor and deep subwavelength mode volume. Efficient photon-phonon interaction occurs in the air gap through the SAW perturbation of the metal surface, strongly coupling the optical and acoustic frequencies. As a result, a large modulation bandwidth and optical resonance wavelength shift for the crystal nanocavity are demonstrated at telecommunication wavelengths. The proposed SAW-based modulation within the hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanocavities beyond the diffraction limit provides opportunities for various applications in enhanced sound-light interaction and fast coherent acoustic control of optomechanical devices.
Lin, Tzy-Rong; Lin, Chiang-Hsin; Hsu, Jin-Chen
2015-01-01
We propose dynamic modulation of a hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanocavity using monochromatic coherent acoustic phonons formed by ultrahigh-frequency surface acoustic waves (SAWs) to achieve strong optomechanical interaction. The crystal nanocavity used in this study consisted of a defective photonic crystal beam coupled to a metal surface with a nanoscale air gap in between and provided hybridization of a highly confined plasmonic-photonic mode with a high quality factor and deep subwavelength mode volume. Efficient photon-phonon interaction occurs in the air gap through the SAW perturbation of the metal surface, strongly coupling the optical and acoustic frequencies. As a result, a large modulation bandwidth and optical resonance wavelength shift for the crystal nanocavity are demonstrated at telecommunication wavelengths. The proposed SAW-based modulation within the hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanocavities beyond the diffraction limit provides opportunities for various applications in enhanced sound-light interaction and fast coherent acoustic control of optomechanical devices. PMID:26346448
Measuring phonons in protein crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niessen, Katherine A.; Snell, Edward; Markelz, A. G.
2013-03-01
Using Terahertz near field microscopy we find orientation dependent narrow band absorption features for lysozyme crystals. Here we discuss identification of protein collective modes associated with the observed features. Using normal mode calculations we find good agreement with several of the measured features, suggesting that the modes arise from internal molecular motions and not crystal phonons. Such internal modes have been associated with protein function.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Si-Yuan; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Ni, Xu; Wang, Qing; Yan, Xue-Jun; He, Cheng; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Feng, Liang; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng
2016-12-01
Strategic manipulation of wave and particle transport in various media is the key driving force for modern information processing and communication. In a strongly scattering medium, waves and particles exhibit versatile transport characteristics such as localization, tunnelling with exponential decay, ballistic, and diffusion behaviours due to dynamical multiple scattering from strong scatters or impurities. Recent investigations of graphene have offered a unique approach, from a quantum point of view, to design the dispersion of electrons on demand, enabling relativistic massless Dirac quasiparticles, and thus inducing low-loss transport either ballistically or diffusively. Here, we report an experimental demonstration of an artificial phononic graphene tailored for surface phonons on a LiNbO3 integrated platform. The system exhibits Dirac quasiparticle-like transport, that is, pseudo-diffusion at the Dirac point, which gives rise to a thickness-independent temporal beating for transmitted pulses, an analogue of Zitterbewegung effects. The demonstrated fully integrated artificial phononic graphene platform here constitutes a step towards on-chip quantum simulators of graphene and unique monolithic electro-acoustic integrated circuits.
Yu, Si-Yuan; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Ni, Xu; Wang, Qing; Yan, Xue-Jun; He, Cheng; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Feng, Liang; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng
2016-12-01
Strategic manipulation of wave and particle transport in various media is the key driving force for modern information processing and communication. In a strongly scattering medium, waves and particles exhibit versatile transport characteristics such as localization, tunnelling with exponential decay, ballistic, and diffusion behaviours due to dynamical multiple scattering from strong scatters or impurities. Recent investigations of graphene have offered a unique approach, from a quantum point of view, to design the dispersion of electrons on demand, enabling relativistic massless Dirac quasiparticles, and thus inducing low-loss transport either ballistically or diffusively. Here, we report an experimental demonstration of an artificial phononic graphene tailored for surface phonons on a LiNbO3 integrated platform. The system exhibits Dirac quasiparticle-like transport, that is, pseudo-diffusion at the Dirac point, which gives rise to a thickness-independent temporal beating for transmitted pulses, an analogue of Zitterbewegung effects. The demonstrated fully integrated artificial phononic graphene platform here constitutes a step towards on-chip quantum simulators of graphene and unique monolithic electro-acoustic integrated circuits.
García-Gancedo, L; Pedrós, J; Zhao, X B; Ashley, G M; Flewitt, A J; Milne, W I; Ford, C J B; Lu, J R; Luo, J K
2012-01-01
Thin film bulk acoustic wave resonator (FBAR) devices supporting simultaneously multiple resonance modes have been designed for gravimetric sensing. The mechanism for dual-mode generation within a single device has been discussed, and theoretical calculations based on finite element analysis allowed the fabrication of FBARs whose resonance modes have opposite reactions to temperature changes; one of the modes exhibiting a positive frequency shift for a rise of temperature whilst the other mode exhibits a negative shift. Both modes exhibit negative frequency shift for a mass load and hence by monitoring simultaneously both modes it is possible to distinguish whether a change in the resonance frequency is due to a mass load or temperature variation (or a combination of both), avoiding false positive/negative responses in gravimetric sensing without the need of additional reference devices or complex electronics.
Near-Field Acoustical Imaging using Lateral Bending Mode of Atomic Force Microscope Cantilevers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caron, A.; Rabe, U.; Rödel, J.; Arnold, W.
Scanning probe microscopy techniques enable one to investigate surface properties such as contact stiffness and friction between the probe tip and a sample with nm resolution. So far the bending and the torsional eigenmodes of an atomic force microscope cantilever have been used to image variations of elasticity and shear elasticity, respectively. Such images are near-field images with the resolution given by the contact radius typically between 10 nm and 50 nm. We show that the flexural modes of a cantilever oscillating in the width direction and parallel to the sample surface can also be used for imaging. Additional to the dominant in-plane component of the oscillation, the lateral modes exhibit a vertical component as well, provided there is an asymmetry in the cross-section of the cantilever or in its suspension. The out-of-plane deflection renders the lateral modes detectable by the optical position sensors used in atomic force microscopes. We studied cracks which were generated by Vickers indents, in submicro- and nanocrystalline ZrO2. Images of the lateral contact stiffness were obtained by vibrating the cantilever close to a contact-resonance frequency. A change in contact stiffness causes a shift of the resonant frequency and hence a change of the cantilever vibration amplitude. The lateral contact-stiffness images close to the crack faces display a contrast that we attribute to altered elastic properties indicating a process zone. This could be caused by a stress-induced phase transformation during crack propagation. Using the contact mode of an atomic force microscope, we measured the crack-opening displacement as a function of distance from the crack tip, and we determined the crack-tip toughness Ktip. Furthermore, K1c was inferred from the length of radial cracks of Vickers indents that were measured using classical scanning acoustic microscopy
Band structures in two-dimensional phononic crystals with periodic Jerusalem cross slot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yinggang; Chen, Tianning; Wang, Xiaopeng; Yu, Kunpeng; Song, Ruifang
2015-01-01
In this paper, a novel two-dimensional phononic crystal composed of periodic Jerusalem cross slot in air matrix with a square lattice is presented. The dispersion relations and the transmission coefficient spectra are calculated by using the finite element method based on the Bloch theorem. The formation mechanisms of the band gaps are analyzed based on the acoustic mode analysis. Numerical results show that the proposed phononic crystal structure can yield large band gaps in the low-frequency range. The formation mechanism of opening the acoustic band gaps is mainly attributed to the resonance modes of the cavities inside the Jerusalem cross slot structure. Furthermore, the effects of the geometrical parameters on the band gaps are further explored numerically. Results show that the band gaps can be modulated in an extremely large frequency range by the geometry parameters such as the slot length and width. These properties of acoustic waves in the proposed phononic crystals can potentially be applied to optimize band gaps and generate low-frequency filters and waveguides.
Electrons and Phonons in Semiconductor Multilayers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ridley, B. K.
2014-08-01
Introduction; 1. Simple models of the electron-phonon interaction; 2. Quantum confinement of carriers; 3. Quasicontinuum theory of lattice vibrations; 4. Bulk vibratory modes in an isotropic continuum; 5. Optical modes in a quantum well; 6. Superlattice modes; 7. Optical modes in various structures; 8. Electron-phonon interaction in a quantum well; 9. Other scattering mechanisms; 10. Quantum screening; 11. The electron distribution function; 12. Spin relaxation; 13. Electrons and phonons in the Wurtzite lattice; 14. Nitride heterostructures; 15. Terahertz sources; References; Index.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Hao; Li, Chen; Tang, Shixiong; Yan, Jiaqiang; Alatas, Ahmet; Lindsay, Lucas; Sales, Brian C.; Tian, Zhiting
2016-12-01
Cubic boron arsenide (BAs) was predicted to have an exceptionally high thermal conductivity (k ) ˜2000 W m-1K-1 at room temperature, comparable to that of diamond, based on first-principles calculations. Subsequent experimental measurements, however, only obtained a k of ˜200 W m-1K-1 . To gain insight into this discrepancy, we measured phonon dispersion of single-crystal BAs along high symmetry directions using inelastic x-ray scattering and compared these with first-principles calculations. Based on the measured phonon dispersion, we have validated the theoretical prediction of a large frequency gap between acoustic and optical modes and bunching of acoustic branches, which were considered the main reasons for the predicted ultrahigh k . This supports its potential to be a super thermal conductor if very-high-quality single-crystal samples can be synthesized.
Ma, Hao; Li, Chen; Tang, Shixiong; ...
2016-12-14
Cubic boron arsenide (BAs) was predicted to have an exceptionally high thermal conductivity (k) ~2000 Wm-1K-1 at room temperature, comparable to that of diamond, based on first-principles calculations. Subsequent experimental measurements, however, only obtained a k of ~200 Wm-1K-1. To gain insight into this discrepancy, we measured phonon dispersion of single crystal BAs along high symmetry directions using inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) and compared these with first-principles calculations. Based on the measured phonon dispersion, we have validated the theoretical prediction of a large frequency gap between acoustic and optical modes and bunching of acoustic branches, which were considered the mainmore » reasons for the predicted ultrahigh k. This supports its potential to be a super thermal conductor if very high-quality single crystal samples can be synthesized.« less
Ma, Hao; Li, Chen; Tang, Shixiong; Yan, Jiaqiang; Alatas, Ahmet; Lindsay, Lucas; Sales, Brian C.; Tian, Zhiting
2016-12-14
Cubic boron arsenide (BAs) was predicted to have an exceptionally high thermal conductivity (k) ~2000 Wm^{-1}K^{-1} at room temperature, comparable to that of diamond, based on first-principles calculations. Subsequent experimental measurements, however, only obtained a k of ~200 Wm-1K-1. To gain insight into this discrepancy, we measured phonon dispersion of single crystal BAs along high symmetry directions using inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) and compared these with first-principles calculations. Based on the measured phonon dispersion, we have validated the theoretical prediction of a large frequency gap between acoustic and optical modes and bunching of acoustic branches, which were considered the main reasons for the predicted ultrahigh k. This supports its potential to be a super thermal conductor if very high-quality single crystal samples can be synthesized.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goodman, Jerry R.; Grosveld, Ferdinand
2007-01-01
The acoustics environment in space operations is important to maintain at manageable levels so that the crewperson can remain safe, functional, effective, and reasonably comfortable. High acoustic levels can produce temporary or permanent hearing loss, or cause other physiological symptoms such as auditory pain, headaches, discomfort, strain in the vocal cords, or fatigue. Noise is defined as undesirable sound. Excessive noise may result in psychological effects such as irritability, inability to concentrate, decrease in productivity, annoyance, errors in judgment, and distraction. A noisy environment can also result in the inability to sleep, or sleep well. Elevated noise levels can affect the ability to communicate, understand what is being said, hear what is going on in the environment, degrade crew performance and operations, and create habitability concerns. Superfluous noise emissions can also create the inability to hear alarms or other important auditory cues such as an equipment malfunctioning. Recent space flight experience, evaluations of the requirements in crew habitable areas, and lessons learned (Goodman 2003; Allen and Goodman 2003; Pilkinton 2003; Grosveld et al. 2003) show the importance of maintaining an acceptable acoustics environment. This is best accomplished by having a high-quality set of limits/requirements early in the program, the "designing in" of acoustics in the development of hardware and systems, and by monitoring, testing and verifying the levels to ensure that they are acceptable.
Acoustic Efficiency of Azimuthal Modes in Jet Noise Using Chevron Nozzles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, Clifford A.; Bridges, James
2006-01-01
The link between azimuthal modes in jet turbulence and in the acoustic sound field has been examined in cold, round jets. Chevron nozzles, however, impart an azimuthal structure on the jet with a shape dependent on the number, length and penetration angle of the chevrons. Two particular chevron nozzles, with 3 and 4 primary chevrons respectively, and a round baseline nozzle are compared at both cold and hot jet conditions to determine how chevrons impact the modal structure of the flow and how that change relates to the sound field. The results show that, although the chevrons have a large impact on the azimuthal shape of the mean axial velocity, the impact of chevrons on the azimuthal structure of the fluctuating axial velocity is small at the cold jet condition and smaller still at the hot jet condition. This is supported by results in the azimuthal structure of the sound field, which also shows little difference in between the two chevron nozzles and the baseline nozzle in the distribution of energy across the azimuthal modes measured.
Numerical modelling of geodesic acoustic mode relaxation in a tokamak edge
Dorf, M. A.; Cohen, R. H.; Dorr, M.; ...
2013-05-08
Here, the edge of a tokamak in a high confinement (H mode) regime is characterized by steep density gradients and a large radial electric field. Recent analytical studies demonstrated that the presence of a strong radial electric field consistent with a subsonic pedestal equilibrium modifies the conventional results of the neoclassical formalism developed for the core region. In the present work we make use of the recently developed gyrokinetic code COGENT to numerically investigate neoclassical transport in a tokamak edge including the effects of a strong radial electric field. The results of numerical simulations are found to be in goodmore » qualitative agreement with the theoretical predictions and the quantitative discrepancy is discussed. In addition, the present work investigates the effects of a strong radial electric field on the relaxation of geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) in a tokamak edge. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the presence of a strong radial electric field characteristic of a tokamak pedestal can enhance the GAM decay rate, and heuristic arguments elucidating this finding are provided.« less
Numerical modelling of geodesic acoustic mode relaxation in a tokamak edge
Dorf, M. A.; Cohen, R. H.; Dorr, M.; Rognlien, T.; Hittinger, J.; Compton, J.; Colella, P.; Martin, D.; McCorquodale, P.
2013-05-08
Here, the edge of a tokamak in a high confinement (H mode) regime is characterized by steep density gradients and a large radial electric field. Recent analytical studies demonstrated that the presence of a strong radial electric field consistent with a subsonic pedestal equilibrium modifies the conventional results of the neoclassical formalism developed for the core region. In the present work we make use of the recently developed gyrokinetic code COGENT to numerically investigate neoclassical transport in a tokamak edge including the effects of a strong radial electric field. The results of numerical simulations are found to be in good qualitative agreement with the theoretical predictions and the quantitative discrepancy is discussed. In addition, the present work investigates the effects of a strong radial electric field on the relaxation of geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) in a tokamak edge. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the presence of a strong radial electric field characteristic of a tokamak pedestal can enhance the GAM decay rate, and heuristic arguments elucidating this finding are provided.
The measurement of geodesic acoustic mode magnetic field oscillations in J-TEXT tokamak
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lan, T.; Wu, J.; Shen, H. G.; Deng, T. J.; Liu, A. D.; Xie, J. L.; Li, H.; Liu, W. D.; Yu, C. X.; Sun, Y.; Liu, H.; Chen, Z. P.; Zhuang, G.
2014-10-01
Geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) magnetic field oscillations have been investigated using three-dimension magnetic probe and Langmuir probe arrays in the edge of J-TEXT tokamak. The probe arrays are placed on the two top windows of tokamak, separated toroidally. Inside the LCFS, GAM shows apparent oscillations in floating potential. In contrast, GAM magnetic field oscillations are not significant in raw magnetic fields signals. Using toroidal correlation technique, the GAM magnetic field oscillations are distinguished from ambient magnetic field. The amplitudes of three dimension GAM magnetic field fluctuations, as well as the dependence with local plasma parameters such as safety factor and plasma beta, are coincident with theoretical predictions. And its toroidal symmetry mode structure, i.e. n = 0, is identified. Furthermore, the GAM current sheet, in which GAM oscillates, is firstly verified with magnetic probes arrays in different radial positions, which may help us to understand the radial structure of GAM. Supported by NNSFC (Nos. 10990210, 10990211, 10335060, 10905057 and 11375188), CPSF (No. 20080440104), YIF (No. WK2030040019) and KIPCAS (No. kjcx-yw-n28).
Noncontact excitation of guided waves (A0 mode) using an electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fromme, Paul
2016-02-01
Fatigue damage can develop in aircraft structures at locations of stress concentration, such as fasteners, and has to be detected before reaching a critical size to ensure safe aircraft operation. Guided ultrasonic waves offer an efficient method for the detection and characterization of such defects in large aerospace structures. Electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMAT) for the noncontact excitation of guided ultrasonic waves were developed. The transducer development for the specific excitation of the A0 Lamb wave mode with an out-of-plane Lorentz force is explained. The achieved radial and angular dependency of the excited guided wave pulses were measured using a noncontact laser interferometer. Based on the induced eddy currents in the plate a theoretical model was developed. The application of the developed transducers for defect detection in aluminum components using fully noncontact guided wave measurements was demonstrated. Excitation of the A0 Lamb wave mode was achieved using the developed EMAT transducer and the guided wave propagation and scattering was measured using a noncontact laser interferometer.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hanson, Donald B.
1999-01-01
A reduced order modeling scheme has been developed for the unsteady acoustic and vortical coupling between blade rows of a turbomachine. The essential behavior of the system is governed by modal scattering coefficients (i.e., reflection and transmission coefficients) of the rotor, stator, inlet and nozzle, which are calculated as if they were connected to non-reflecting ducts. The objective of this report is to identify fundamental behavior of these scattering coefficients for a better understanding of the role of blade row reflection and transmission in noise generation. A 2D flat plate unsteady cascade model is used for the analysis with the expectation that the general behavior presented herein will carry over to models that include more realistic flow and geometry. It is shown that stators scatter input waves into many modes at the same frequency whereas rotors scatter on frequency, or harmonic order. Important cases are shown here the rotor reflection coefficient is greater than unity; a mode at blade passing frequency (BPF) traveling from the stator with unit sound power is reflected by the rotor with more than unit power at 2xBPF and 3xBPE Analysis is presented to explain this unexpected phenomenon. Scattering curves are presented in a format chosen for design use and for physical interpretation. To aid in interpretation of the curves, formulas are derived for special condition where waveforms are parallel to perpendicular to the rotor.
Three material and four material one-dimensional phononic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kriegel, Ilka; Scotognella, Francesco
2017-01-01
In this work, we studied one-dimensional phononic structures for selective acoustic filtering. The structures are composed of three and four materials which have different elastic properties. We have observed that the phononic band gaps split in two and three transmission valleys for the three-material and the four-material based phononic structures, respectively. Furthermore, the number of transmission peaks between the split gaps is directly related to the number of unit cells composing the phononic structures. The observations of this work can be useful for the fabrication of acoustic filters with the possibility to select the transmission of particular frequencies.
Engineering interactions between superconducting qubits and phononic nanostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arrangoiz-Arriola, Patricio; Safavi-Naeini, Amir H.
2016-12-01
Nanomechanical systems can support highly coherent microwave-frequency excitations at cryogenic temperatures. However, generating sufficient coupling between these devices and superconducting quantum circuits is challenging due to the vastly different length scales of acoustic and electromagnetic excitations. Here we demonstrate a general method for calculating piezoelectric interactions between quantum circuits and arbitrary phononic nanostructures. We illustrate our technique by studying the coupling between a transmon qubit and bulk acoustic-wave, Lamb-wave, and phononic crystal resonators, and show that very large coupling rates are possible in all three cases. Our results suggest a route to phononic circuits and systems that are nonlinear at the single-phonon level.
Phonons in active microfluidic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsang, Alan Cheng Hou; Kanso, Eva
2016-11-01
One-dimensional crystals of driven particles confined in quasi two-dimensional microfluidic channels have been shown to exhibit propagating sound waves in the form of 'phonons', including both transverse and longitudinal normal modes. Here, we focus on one-dimensional crystals of motile particles in uniform external flows. We study the propagation of phonons in the context of an idealized model that accounts for hydrodynamic interactions among the motile particles. We obtain a closed-form analytical expression for the dispersion relation of the phonons. In the moving frame of reference of the crystals, the traveling directions of the phonons depend on the intensity of the external flow, and are exactly opposite for the transverse and longitudinal modes. We further investigate the stability of the phonons and show that the longitudinal mode is linearly stable, whereas the transverse mode is subject to an instability arising from the activity and orientation dynamics of the motile particles. These findings are important for understanding the propagation of disturbances and instabilities in confined motile particles, and could generate practical insights into the transport of motile cells in microfluidic devices.
Abernathy, Douglas L.; Ma, Jie; Yan, Jiaqiang; Delaire, Olivier A.; Chen, Xi; Weathers, Annie; Mukhopadhyay, Saikat; Shi, Li
2015-04-15
A variety of crystals contain quasi-one-dimensional substructures, which yield distinctive electronic, spintronic, optical and thermoelectric properties. There is a lack of understanding of the lattice dynamics that influences the properties of such complex crystals. Here we employ inelastic neutron scatting measurements and density functional theory calculations to show that numerous low-energy optical vibrational modes exist in higher manganese silicides, an example of such crystals. These optical modes, including unusually low-frequency twisting motions of the Si ladders inside the Mn chimneys, provide a large phase space for scattering acoustic phonons. A hybrid phonon and diffuson model is proposed to explain the low and anisotropic thermal conductivity of higher manganese silicides and to evaluate nanostructuring as an approach to further suppress the thermal conductivity and enhance the thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency. This discovery offers new insights into the structure-property relationships of a broad class of materials with quasi-one-dimensional substructures for various applications.
Temperature Dependence of Phonons in Pyrolitic Graphite
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Brockhouse, B. N.; Shirane, G.
1977-01-01
Dispersion curves for longitudinal and transverse phonons propagating along and near the c-axis in pyrolitic graphite at temperatures between 4°K and 1500°C have been measured by neutron spectroscopy. The observed frequencies decrease markedly with increasing temperature (except for the transverse optical ''rippling'' modes in the hexagonal planes). The neutron groups show interesting asymmetrical broadening ascribed to interference between one phonon and many phonon processes.
Mapping vibrational surface and bulk modes in a single nanocube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lagos, Maureen J.; Trügler, Andreas; Hohenester, Ulrich; Batson, Philip E.
2017-03-01
Imaging of vibrational excitations in and near nanostructures is essential for developing low-loss infrared nanophotonics, controlling heat transport in thermal nanodevices, inventing new thermoelectric materials and understanding nanoscale energy transport. Spatially resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy has previously been used to image plasmonic behaviour in nanostructures in an electron microscope, but hitherto it has not been possible to map vibrational modes directly in a single nanostructure, limiting our understanding of phonon coupling with photons and plasmons. Here we present spatial mapping of optical and acoustic, bulk and surface vibrational modes in magnesium oxide nanocubes using an atom-wide electron beam. We find that the energy and the symmetry of the surface polariton phonon modes depend on the size of the nanocubes, and that they are localized to the surfaces of the nanocube. We also observe a limiting of bulk phonon scattering in the presence of surface phonon modes. Most phonon spectroscopies are selectively sensitive to either surface or bulk excitations; therefore, by demonstrating the excitation of both bulk and surface vibrational modes using a single probe, our work represents advances in the detection and visualization of spatially confined surface and bulk phonons in nanostructures.
Mapping vibrational surface and bulk modes in a single nanocube.
Lagos, Maureen J; Trügler, Andreas; Hohenester, Ulrich; Batson, Philip E
2017-03-22
Imaging of vibrational excitations in and near nanostructures is essential for developing low-loss infrared nanophotonics, controlling heat transport in thermal nanodevices, inventing new thermoelectric materials and understanding nanoscale energy transport. Spatially resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy has previously been used to image plasmonic behaviour in nanostructures in an electron microscope, but hitherto it has not been possible to map vibrational modes directly in a single nanostructure, limiting our understanding of phonon coupling with photons and plasmons. Here we present spatial mapping of optical and acoustic, bulk and surface vibrational modes in magnesium oxide nanocubes using an atom-wide electron beam. We find that the energy and the symmetry of the surface polariton phonon modes depend on the size of the nanocubes, and that they are localized to the surfaces of the nanocube. We also observe a limiting of bulk phonon scattering in the presence of surface phonon modes. Most phonon spectroscopies are selectively sensitive to either surface or bulk excitations; therefore, by demonstrating the excitation of both bulk and surface vibrational modes using a single probe, our work represents advances in the detection and visualization of spatially confined surface and bulk phonons in nanostructures.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, David G.; Heidelberg, Laurence; Konno, Kevin
1993-01-01
The rotating microphone measurement technique and data analysis procedures are documented which are used to determine circumferential and radial acoustic mode content in the inlet of the Advanced Ducted Propeller (ADP) model. Circumferential acoustic mode levels were measured at a series of radial locations using the Doppler frequency shift produced by a rotating inlet microphone probe. Radial mode content was then computed using a least squares curve fit with the measured radial distribution for each circumferential mode. The rotating microphone technique is superior to fixed-probe techniques because it results in minimal interference with the acoustic modes generated by rotor-stator interaction. This effort represents the first experimental implementation of a measuring technique developed by T. G. Sofrin. Testing was performed in the NASA Lewis Low Speed Anechoic Wind Tunnel at a simulated takeoff condition of Mach 0.2. The design is included of the data analysis software and the performance of the rotating rake apparatus. The effect of experiment errors is also discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, David G.; Heidelberg, Laurence; Konno, Kevin
1993-01-01
The rotating microphone measurement technique and data analysis procedures are documented which are used to determine circumferential and radial acoustic mode content in the inlet of the Advanced Ducted Propeller (ADP) model. Circumferential acoustic mode levels were measured at a series of radial locations using the Doppler frequency shift produced by a rotating inlet microphone probe. Radial mode content was then computed using a least squares curve fit with the measured radial distribution for each circumferential mode. The rotating microphone technique is superior to fixed-probe techniques because it results in minimal interference with the acoustic modes generated by rotor-stator interaction. This effort represents the first experimental implementation of a measuring technique developed by T. G. Sofrin. Testing was performed in the NASA Lewis Low Speed Anechoic Wind Tunnel at a simulated takeoff condition of Mach 0.2. The design is included of the data analysis software and the performance of the rotating rake apparatus. The effect of experiment errors is also discussed.
Caliendo, Cinzia
2015-01-23
The propagation of the fundamental symmetric Lamb mode S0 along wz-BN/AlN thin composite plates suitable for telecommunication and sensing applications is studied. The investigation of the acoustic field profile across the plate thickness revealed the presence of modes having longitudinal polarization, the Anisimkin Jr. plate modes (AMs), travelling at a phase velocity close to that of the wz-BN longitudinal bulk acoustic wave propagating in the same direction. The study of the S0 mode phase velocity and coupling coefficient (K2) dispersion curves, for different electrical boundary conditions, has shown that eight different coupling configurations are allowable that exhibit a K2 as high as about 4% and very high phase velocity (up to about 16,700 m/s). The effect of the thickness and material type of the metal floating electrode on the K2 dispersion curves has also been investigated, specifically addressing the design of an enhanced coupling device. The gravimetric sensitivity of the BN/AlN-based acoustic waveguides was then calculated for both the AMs and elliptically polarized S0 modes; the AM-based sensor velocity and attenuation shifts due to the viscosity of a surrounding liquid was theoretically predicted. The performed investigation suggests that wz-BN/AlN is a very promising substrate material suitable for developing GHz band devices with enhanced electroacoustic coupling efficiency and suitable for application in telecommunications and sensing fields.
Caliendo, Cinzia
2015-01-01
The propagation of the fundamental symmetric Lamb mode S0 along wz-BN/AlN thin composite plates suitable for telecommunication and sensing applications is studied. The investigation of the acoustic field profile across the plate thickness revealed the presence of modes having longitudinal polarization, the Anisimkin Jr. plate modes (AMs), travelling at a phase velocity close to that of the wz-BN longitudinal bulk acoustic wave propagating in the same direction. The study of the S0 mode phase velocity and coupling coefficient (K2) dispersion curves, for different electrical boundary conditions, has shown that eight different coupling configurations are allowable that exhibit a K2 as high as about 4% and very high phase velocity (up to about 16,700 m/s). The effect of the thickness and material type of the metal floating electrode on the K2 dispersion curves has also been investigated, specifically addressing the design of an enhanced coupling device. The gravimetric sensitivity of the BN/AlN-based acoustic waveguides was then calculated for both the AMs and elliptically polarized S0 modes; the AM-based sensor velocity and attenuation shifts due to the viscosity of a surrounding liquid was theoretically predicted. The performed investigation suggests that wz-BN/AlN is a very promising substrate material suitable for developing GHz band devices with enhanced electroacoustic coupling efficiency and suitable for application in telecommunications and sensing fields. PMID:25625904
Ardhuin, Fabrice; Lavanant, Thibaut; Obrebski, Mathias; Marié, Louis; Royer, Jean-Yves; d'Eu, Jean-François; Howe, Bruce M; Lukas, Roger; Aucan, Jerome
2013-10-01
The generation of ultra-low frequency acoustic noise (0.1 to 1 Hz) by the nonlinear interaction of ocean surface gravity waves is well established. More controversial are the quantitative theories that attempt to predict the recorded noise levels and their variability. Here a single theoretical framework is used to predict the noise level associated with propagating pseudo-Rayleigh modes and evanescent acoustic-gravity modes. The latter are dominant only within 200 m from the sea surface, in shallow or deep water. At depths larger than 500 m, the comparison of a numerical noise model with hydrophone records from two open-ocean sites near Hawaii and the Kerguelen islands reveal: (a) Deep ocean acoustic noise at frequencies 0.1 to 1 Hz is consistent with the Rayleigh wave theory, in which the presence of the ocean bottom amplifies the noise by 10 to 20 dB; (b) in agreement with previous results, the local maxima in the noise spectrum support the theoretical prediction for the vertical structure of acoustic modes; and (c) noise level and variability are well predicted for frequencies up to 0.4 Hz. Above 0.6 Hz, the model results are less accurate, probably due to the poor estimation of the directional properties of wind-waves with frequencies higher than 0.3 Hz.
Strain coupling, microstructure dynamics, and acoustic mode softening in germanium telluride
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, D.; Chatterji, T.; Schiemer, J. A.; Carpenter, M. A.
2016-04-01
GeTe is a material of intense topical interest due to its potential in the context of phase-change and nanowire memory devices, as a base for thermoelectric materials, and as a ferroelectric. The combination of a soft optic mode and a Peierls distortion contributes large strains at the cubic-rhombohedral phase transition near 625 K and the role of these has been investigated through their influence on elastic and anelastic properties by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy. The underlying physics is revealed by softening of the elastic constants by ˜30%-45%, due to strong coupling of shear and volume strains with the driving order parameter and consistent with an improper ferroelastic transition which is weakly first order. The magnitude of the softening is permissive of the transition mechanism involving a significant order/disorder component. A Debye loss peak in the vicinity of 180 K is attributed to freezing of the motion of ferroelastic twin walls and the activation energy of ˜0.07 eV is attributed to control by switching of the configuration of long and short Ge-Te bonds in the first coordination sphere around Ge. Precursor softening as the transition is approached from above can be described with a Vogel-Fulcher expression with a similar activation energy, which is attributed to coupling of acoustic modes with an unseen central mode that arises from dynamical clusters with local ordering of the Peierls distortion. The strain relaxation and ferroelastic behavior of GeTe depend on both displacive and order/disorder effects but the dynamics of switching will be determined by changes in the configuration of distorted GeT e6 octahedra, with a rather small activation energy barrier.
Temperature dependence of coherent phonons in TbVO4 crystal probed by ultrafast optical spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Z.; Ma, H.; Li, D.; Wang, L.; Ma, G.; Guo, F.; Chen, J.
2011-07-01
Coherent optical phonons in terbium vanadate (TbVO4) are investigated by using femtosecond time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy at temperatures from 20 to 300 K. Combined with the Raman spectrum, the coherent phonon mode is attributed to an optical phonon mode of B1g symmetry. The main generation mechanism of the coherent optical phonons is revealed to be the impulsive stimulated Raman scattering. The temperature dependence of the dephasing time reveals that the main mechanism of the coherent phonon population decay is anharmonic phonon-phonon coupling, which causes a redshift of the coherent phonon frequency with increasing temperature.
Yan, Zhequan; Chen, Liang; Yoon, Mina; ...
2016-01-12
Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is a substrate for graphene based nano-electronic devices. We investigate the ballistic phonon transport at the interface of vertically stacked graphene and h-BN heterostructures using first principles density functional theory and atomistic Green's function simulations considering the influence of lattice stacking. We compute the frequency and wave-vector dependent transmission function and observe distinct stacking-dependent phonon transmission features for the h-BN/graphene/h-BN sandwiched systems. We find that the in-plane acoustic modes have the dominant contributions to the phonon transmission and thermal boundary conductance (TBC) for the interfaces with the carbon atom located directly on top of the boronmore » atom (C–B matched) because of low interfacial spacing. The low interfacial spacing is a consequence of the differences in the effective atomic volume of N and B and the difference in the local electron density around N and B. For the structures with the carbon atom directly on top of the nitrogen atom (C–N matched), the spatial distance increases and the contribution of in-plane modes to the TBC decreases leading to higher contributions by out-of-plane acoustic modes. We find that the C–B matched interfaces have stronger phonon–phonon coupling than the C–N matched interfaces, which results in significantly higher TBC (more than 50%) in the C–B matched interface. The findings in this study will provide insights to understand the mechanism of phonon transport at h-BN/graphene/h-BN interfaces, to better explain the experimental observations and to engineer these interfaces to enhance heat dissipation in graphene based electronic devices.« less
Yan, Zhequan; Chen, Liang; Yoon, Mina; Kumar, Satish
2016-01-12
Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is a substrate for graphene based nano-electronic devices. We investigate the ballistic phonon transport at the interface of vertically stacked graphene and h-BN heterostructures using first principles density functional theory and atomistic Green's function simulations considering the influence of lattice stacking. We compute the frequency and wave-vector dependent transmission function and observe distinct stacking-dependent phonon transmission features for the h-BN/graphene/h-BN sandwiched systems. We find that the in-plane acoustic modes have the dominant contributions to the phonon transmission and thermal boundary conductance (TBC) for the interfaces with the carbon atom located directly on top of the boron atom (C–B matched) because of low interfacial spacing. The low interfacial spacing is a consequence of the differences in the effective atomic volume of N and B and the difference in the local electron density around N and B. For the structures with the carbon atom directly on top of the nitrogen atom (C–N matched), the spatial distance increases and the contribution of in-plane modes to the TBC decreases leading to higher contributions by out-of-plane acoustic modes. We find that the C–B matched interfaces have stronger phonon–phonon coupling than the C–N matched interfaces, which results in significantly higher TBC (more than 50%) in the C–B matched interface. The findings in this study will provide insights to understand the mechanism of phonon transport at h-BN/graphene/h-BN interfaces, to better explain the experimental observations and to engineer these interfaces to enhance heat dissipation in graphene based electronic devices.
Phonon manipulation with phononic crystals.
Kim Bongsang; Hopkins, Patrick Edward; Leseman, Zayd C.; Goettler, Drew F.; Su, Mehmet F.; El-Kady, Ihab Fathy; Reinke, Charles M.; Olsson, Roy H., III
2012-01-01
In this work, we demonstrated engineered modification of propagation of thermal phonons, i.e. at THz frequencies, using phononic crystals. This work combined theoretical work at Sandia National Laboratories, the University of New Mexico, the University of Colorado Boulder, and Carnegie Mellon University; the MESA fabrication facilities at Sandia; and the microfabrication facilities at UNM to produce world-leading control of phonon propagation in silicon at frequencies up to 3 THz. These efforts culminated in a dramatic reduction in the thermal conductivity of silicon using phononic crystals by a factor of almost 30 as compared with the bulk value, and about 6 as compared with an unpatterned slab of the same thickness. This work represents a revolutionary advance in the engineering of thermoelectric materials for optimal, high-ZT performance. We have demonstrated the significant reduction of the thermal conductivity of silicon using phononic crystal structuring using MEMS-compatible fabrication techniques and in a planar platform that is amenable to integration with typical microelectronic systems. The measured reduction in thermal conductivity as compared to bulk silicon was about a factor of 20 in the cross-plane direction [26], and a factor of 6 in the in-plane direction. Since the electrical conductivity was only reduced by a corresponding factor of about 3 due to the removal of conductive material (i.e., porosity), and the Seebeck coefficient should remain constant as an intrinsic material property, this corresponds to an effective enhancement in ZT by a factor of 2. Given the number of papers in literature devoted to only a small, incremental change in ZT, the ability to boost the ZT of a material by a factor of 2 simply by reducing thermal conductivity is groundbreaking. The results in this work were obtained using silicon, a material that has benefitted from enormous interest in the microelectronics industry and that has a fairly large thermoelectric power
Phonon Cooling by an Optomechanical Heat Pump.
Dong, Ying; Bariani, F; Meystre, P
2015-11-27
We propose and analyze theoretically a cavity optomechanical analog of a heat pump that uses a polariton fluid to cool mechanical modes coupled to a single precooled phonon mode via external modulation of the substrate of the mechanical resonator. This approach permits us to cool phonon modes of arbitrary frequencies not limited by the cavity-optical field detuning deep into the quantum regime from room temperature.
Acoustic far-field of shroud-lip-scattered instability modes of supersonic co-flowing jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samanta, Arnab; Freund, Jonathan B.
2013-11-01
We consider the acoustic radiation of instability modes in dual-stream jets, with the inner nozzle buried within the outer shroud, particularly the upstream scattering into acoustic modes that occurs at the shroud lip. For supersonic core jets, several families of instability waves are possible, beyond the regular Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) mode, with very different modal shapes and propagation characteristics, which are candidates for changing the sound character of very high-speed jets. The co-axial shear layers are modeled as vortex sheets, with the Wiener-Hopf method used to compute these modes coupled with an asymptotic solution for the far-field radiation. A broadband mode spectra as well as single propagating modes are considered as incident and scattered waves. The resulting far-field directivity patterns are quantified, to show the efficiency of some of these radiation mechanisms, particularly in the upstream direction, which is not directly affected by the Mach-wave-like sound that is radiated from these modes irrespective of any scattering surface. A full Kutta condition, which provides the usual boundary condition at the shroud lip, is altered to examine how vortex shedding, perhaps controllable at the lip, affects the radiated sound.
Mallesham, B.; Ranjith, R.; Viswanath, B.
2016-01-15
Pb(Fe{sub 0.5-x}Sc{sub x}Nb{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} [(PFSN) (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5)] multiferroic relaxors were synthesized and the temperature dependence of phonon modes across ferroelectric to paraelectric transition was studied. With varying Sc content from x = 0 to 0.25 the structure remains monoclinic and with further addition (x = 0.3 - 0.5) the structure transforms into rhombohedral symmetry. Structural refinement studies showed that the change in crystal structure from monoclinic to rhombohedral symmetry involves a volume increment of 34-36%. Associated changes in the tolerance factor (1.024 ≤ t ≤ 0.976) and bond angles were observed. Structure assisted B′-B″ cation ordering was confirmed through the superlattice reflections in selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern of Pb(Sc{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} (x = 0.5). Cation ordering is also evident from the evolution of Pb-O phonon mode in Raman spectra of compositions with rhombohedral symmetry (x ≥ 0.3). The high temperature Raman scattering studies show that the B-localized mode [F{sub 1u}, ∼250 cm{sup −1}] and BO{sub 6} octahedral rotational mode [F{sub 1g}, ∼200 cm{sup −1}], both originating from polar nano regions (PNRs) behave like coupled phonon modes in rhombohedral symmetry. However, in monoclinic symmetry they behave independently across the transition. Softening of B localized mode across the transition followed by the hardening for all compositions confirms the diffusive nature of the ferroelectric transformation. The presence of correlation between the B localized and BO{sub 6} rotational modes introduces a weak relaxor feature for systems with rhombohedral symmetry in PFSN ceramics, which was confirmed from the macroscopic dielectric studies.
Phononic crystals and elastodynamics: Some relevant points
Aravantinos-Zafiris, N.; Sigalas, M. M.; Kafesaki, M.; Economou, E. N.
2014-12-15
In the present paper we review briefly some of the first works on wave propagation in phononic crystals emphasizing the conditions for the creation of acoustic band-gaps and the role of resonances to the band-gap creation. We show that useful conclusions in the analysis of phononic band gap structures can be drawn by considering the mathematical similarities of the basic classical wave equation (Helmholtz equation) with Schrödinger equation and by employing basic solid state physics concepts and conclusions regarding electronic waves. In the second part of the paper we demonstrate the potential of phononic systems to be used as elastic metamaterials. This is done by demonstrating negative refraction in phononic crystals and subwavelength waveguiding in a linear chain of elastic inclusions, and by proposing a novel structure with close to pentamode behavior. Finally the potential of phononic structures to be used in liquid sensor applications is discussed and demonstrated.
Phononic crystals and elastodynamics: Some relevant points
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aravantinos-Zafiris, N.; Sigalas, M. M.; Kafesaki, M.; Economou, E. N.
2014-12-01
In the present paper we review briefly some of the first works on wave propagation in phononic crystals emphasizing the conditions for the creation of acoustic band-gaps and the role of resonances to the band-gap creation. We show that useful conclusions in the analysis of phononic band gap structures can be drawn by considering the mathematical similarities of the basic classical wave equation (Helmholtz equation) with Schrödinger equation and by employing basic solid state physics concepts and conclusions regarding electronic waves. In the second part of the paper we demonstrate the potential of phononic systems to be used as elastic metamaterials. This is done by demonstrating negative refraction in phononic crystals and subwavelength waveguiding in a linear chain of elastic inclusions, and by proposing a novel structure with close to pentamode behavior. Finally the potential of phononic structures to be used in liquid sensor applications is discussed and demonstrated.
Three-mode coupling interference patterns in the dynamic structure factor of a relaxor ferroelectric
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manley, M. E.; Abernathy, D. L.; Sahul, R.; Stonaha, P. J.; Budai, J. D.
2016-09-01
A longstanding controversy for relaxor ferroelectrics has been the origin of the "waterfall" effect in the phonon dispersion curves, in which low-energy transverse phonons cascade into vertical columns. Originally interpreted as phonons interacting with polar nanoregions (PNRs), it was later explained as an interference effect of coupling damped optic and acoustic phonons. In light of a recently discovered PNR vibrational mode near the "waterfall" wave vector [M. E. Manley, J. W. Lynn, D. L. Abernathy, E. D. Specht, O. Delaire, A. R. Bishop, R. Sahul, and J. D. Budai, Nat. Commun. 5, 3683 (2014), 10.1038/ncomms4683], we have reexamined this feature using neutron scattering on [100]-poled PMN-30%PT [0.6 Pb (M g1 /3N b2 /3 ) O3-0.3 PbTi O3] . We find that the PNR mode couples to both optic and acoustic phonons and that this results in complex patterns in the dynamic structure factor, including intensity pockets and peaks localized in momentum-energy space. These features are fully explained by extending the mode-coupling model to include three coupled damped harmonic oscillators representing the transverse optic, acoustic, and PNR modes.
Three-mode coupling interference patterns in the dynamic structure factor of a relaxor ferroelectric
Manley, M. E.; Abernathy, D. L.; Sahul, R.; ...
2016-09-22
A long-standing controversy for relaxor ferroelectrics has been the origin of the waterfall effect in the phonon dispersion curves, in which low-energy transverse phonons cascade into vertical columns. Originally interpreted as phonons interacting with polar nanoregions (PNRs), it was later explained as an interference effect of coupling damped optic and acoustic phonons. In light of a recently discovered PNR vibrational mode near the waterfall wavevector [M. E. Manley, J. W. Lynn, D. L. Abernathy, E. D. Specht, O. Delaire, A. R. Bishop, R. Sahul, and J. D. Budai, Nat. Commun. 5, 3683 (2014)] we have reexamined this feature using neutronmore » scattering on [100]-poled PMN-30%PT (0.6Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 0.3PbTiO3). In addition, we find that the PNR mode couples to both optic and acoustic phonons, and that this results in complex patterns in the dynamic structure factor, including intensity pockets and peaks localized in momentum-energy space. These features are fully explained by extending the mode-coupling model to include three coupled damped harmonic oscillators representing the transverse optic, acoustic, and PNR modes.« less
Three-mode coupling interference patterns in the dynamic structure factor of a relaxor ferroelectric
Manley, M. E.; Abernathy, D. L.; Sahul, R.; Stonaha, P. J.; Budai, J. D.
2016-09-22
A long-standing controversy for relaxor ferroelectrics has been the origin of the waterfall effect in the phonon dispersion curves, in which low-energy transverse phonons cascade into vertical columns. Originally interpreted as phonons interacting with polar nanoregions (PNRs), it was later explained as an interference effect of coupling damped optic and acoustic phonons. In light of a recently discovered PNR vibrational mode near the waterfall wavevector [M. E. Manley, J. W. Lynn, D. L. Abernathy, E. D. Specht, O. Delaire, A. R. Bishop, R. Sahul, and J. D. Budai, Nat. Commun. 5, 3683 (2014)] we have reexamined this feature using neutron scattering on [100]-poled PMN-30%PT (0.6Pb(Mg_{1/3}Nb_{2/3})O_{3} 0.3PbTiO_{3}). In addition, we find that the PNR mode couples to both optic and acoustic phonons, and that this results in complex patterns in the dynamic structure factor, including intensity pockets and peaks localized in momentum-energy space. These features are fully explained by extending the mode-coupling model to include three coupled damped harmonic oscillators representing the transverse optic, acoustic, and PNR modes.
Use of multiple acoustic wave modes for assessment of long bones: Model study
Tatarinov, Alexey; Sarvazyan, Noune; Sarvazyan, Armen
2010-01-01
Multiple acoustic wave mode method has been proposed as a new modality in axial bone QUS. The new method is based on measurement of ultrasound velocity at different ratio of wavelength to the bone thickness, and taking into account both bulk and guided waves. It allows assessment of changes in both the material properties related to porosity and mineralization as well as the cortical thickness influenced by resorption from inner layers, which are equally important in diagnostics of osteoporosis and other bone osteopenia. Developed method was validated in model studies using a dual-frequency (100 and 500 kHz) ultrasound device. Three types of bone phantoms for long bones were developed and tested: (1) tubular specimens from polymer materials to model combined changes of material stiffness and cortical wall thickness; (2) layered specimens to model porosity in compact bone progressing from endosteum towards periosteum; (3) animal bone specimens with both cortical and trabecular components. Observed changes of the ultrasound velocity of guided waves at 100 kHz followed gradual changes in the thickness of the intact cortical layer. On the other hand, the bulk velocity at 500 kHz remained nearly constant at the different cortical layer thickness but was affected by the material stiffness. Similar trends were observed in phantoms and in fragments of animal bones. PMID:15982472
Three dimensional measurements of Geodesic Acoustic Mode with correlation Doppler reflectometers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, W. L.; Shi, Z. B.; Xu, Y.; Zou, X. L.; Duan, X. R.; Chen, W.; Jiang, M.; Yang, Z. C.; Zhang, B. Y.; Shi, P. W.; Liu, Z. T.; Xu, M.; Song, X. M.; Cheng, J.; Ke, R.; Nie, L.; Cui, Z. Y.; Fu, B. Z.; Ding, X. T.; Dong, J. Q.; Liu, Yi.; Yan, L. W.; Yang, Q. W.; Liu, Yong; the HL-2A Team
2015-10-01
Correlation Doppler reflectometers have been newly developed in the HL-2A Tokamak. Owing to the flexibility of the diagnostic arrangements, the multi-channel systems allow us to study, simultaneously, the radial properties of edge turbulence and its long-range correlation in both the poloidal and toroidal direction. With these reflectometers, three-dimensional spatial structure of Geodesic Acoustic Mode (GAM) is surveyed, including the symmetric feature of Er fluctuations in both poloidal and toroidal directions, and the radial propagation of GAMs. The bi-coherence analysis for the Er fluctuations suggests that the three-wave nonlinear interaction could be the mechanism for the generation of GAM. The temporal evolution of GAM during the plasma density modulation experiments has been studied. The results show that the collisional damping plays a role in suppressing the GAM magnitudes, and hence, weakening the regulating effects of GAM on ambient turbulence. Three dimensional correlation Doppler measurements of GAM activity demonstrate that the newly developed correlation Doppler reflectometers in HL-2A are powerful tools for edge turbulence studies with high reliability. A shorter version of this contribution is due to be published in PoS at: ``1st EPS conference on Plasma Diagnostics''.