Acoustic plane wave preferential orientation of metal oxide superconducting materials
Tolt, Thomas L.; Poeppel, Roger B.
1991-01-01
A polycrystalline metal oxide such as YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-X (where 0
Acoustic multipath arrivals in the horizontal plane due to approaching nonlinear internal waves.
Badiey, Mohsen; Katsnelson, Boris G; Lin, Ying-Tsong; Lynch, James F
2011-04-01
Simultaneous measurements of acoustic wave transmissions and a nonlinear internal wave packet approaching an along-shelf acoustic path during the Shallow Water 2006 experiment are reported. The incoming internal wave packet acts as a moving frontal layer reflecting (or refracting) sound in the horizontal plane. Received acoustic signals are filtered into acoustic normal mode arrivals. It is shown that a horizontal multipath interference is produced. This has previously been called a horizontal Lloyd's mirror. The interference between the direct path and the refracted path depends on the mode number and frequency of the acoustic signal. A mechanism for the multipath interference is shown. Preliminary modeling results of this dynamic interaction using vertical modes and horizontal parabolic equation models are in good agreement with the observed data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Shenwei; Qiu, Chunyin; Wang, Mudi; Ke, Manzhu; Liu, Zhengyou
2016-11-01
In this work, we study the acoustically mediated interaction forces among multiple well-separated spherical particles trapped in the same node or antinode plane of a standing wave. An analytical expression of the acoustic interaction force is derived, which is accurate even for the particles beyond the Rayleigh limit. Interestingly, the multi-particle system can be decomposed into a series of independent two-particle systems described by pairwise interactions. Each pairwise interaction is a long-range interaction, as characterized by a soft oscillatory attenuation (at the power exponent of n = -1 or -2). The vector additivity of the acoustic interaction force, which is not well expected considering the nonlinear nature of the acoustic radiation force, is greatly useful for exploring a system consisting of a large number of particles. The capability of self-organizing a big particle cluster can be anticipated through such acoustically controllable long-range interaction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woods, D. C.; Bolton, J. S.; Rhoads, J. F.
2016-09-01
A number of applications, for instance ultrasonic imaging and nondestructive testing, involve the transmission of acoustic energy across fluid-solid interfaces into dissipative solids. However, such transmission is generally hindered by the large impedance mismatch at the interface. In order to address this problem, inhomogeneous plane waves were investigated in this work for the purpose of improving the acoustic energy transmission. To this end, under the assumption of linear hysteretic damping, models for fluid-structure interaction were developed that allow for both homogeneous and inhomogeneous incident waves. For low-loss solids, the results reveal that, at the Rayleigh angle, a unique value of the wave inhomogeneity can be found which minimizes the reflection coefficient, and consequently maximizes the transmission. The results also reveal that with sufficient dissipation levels in the solid material, homogeneous incident waves yield lower reflection values than inhomogeneous waves, due to the large degrees of inhomogeneity inherent in the transmitted waves. Analytical conditions have also been derived which predict the dependence of the optimal incident wave type on the dissipation level and wave speeds in the solid medium. Finally, implications related to the use of acoustic beams of limited spatial extent are discussed.
Acoustic plane waves incident on an oblique clamped panel in a rectangular duct
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Unz, H.; Roskam, J.
1980-01-01
The theory of acoustic plane waves incident on an oblique clamped panel in a rectangular duct was developed from basic theoretical concepts. The coupling theory between the elastic vibrations of the panel (plate) and the oblique incident acoustic plane wave in infinite space was considered in detail, and was used for the oblique clamped panel in the rectangular duct. The partial differential equation which governs the vibrations of the clamped panel (plate) was modified by adding to it stiffness (spring) forces and damping forces. The Transmission Loss coefficient and the Noise Reduction coefficient for oblique incidence were defined and derived in detail. The resonance frequencies excited by the free vibrations of the oblique finite clamped panel (plate) were derived and calculated in detail for the present case.
Mitri, F G
2016-03-01
This work proposes a formal analytical theory using the partial-wave series expansion (PWSE) method in cylindrical coordinates, to calculate the acoustic backscattering form function as well as the radiation force-per-length on an infinitely long elliptical (non-circular) cylinder in plane progressive waves. The major (or minor) semi-axis of the ellipse coincides with the direction of the incident waves. The scattering coefficients for the rigid elliptical cylinder are determined by imposing the Neumann boundary condition for an immovable surface and solving a resulting system of linear equations by matrix inversion. The present method, which utilizes standard cylindrical (Bessel and Hankel) wave functions, presents an advantage over the solution for the scattering that is ordinarily expressed in a basis of elliptical Mathieu functions (which are generally non-orthogonal). Furthermore, an integral equation showing the direct connection of the radiation force function with the square of the scattering form function in the far-field from the scatterer (applicable for plane waves only), is noted and discussed. An important application of this integral equation is the adequate evaluation of the radiation force function from a bistatic measurement (i.e., in the polar plane) of the far-field scattering from any 2D object of arbitrary shape. Numerical predictions are evaluated for the acoustic backscattering form function and the radiation force function, which is the radiation force per unit length, per characteristic energy density, and per unit cross-sectional surface of the ellipse, with particular emphasis on the aspect ratio a/b, where a and b are the semi-axes, as well as the dimensionless size parameter kb, without the restriction to a particular range of frequencies. The results are particularly relevant in acoustic levitation, acousto-fluidics and particle dynamics applications.
Acoustic radiation force on a rigid elliptical cylinder in plane (quasi)standing waves
Mitri, F. G.
2015-12-07
The acoustic radiation force on a 2D elliptical (non-circular) cylinder centered on the axis of wave propagation of plane quasi-standing and standing waves is derived, based on the partial-wave series expansion (PWSE) method in cylindrical coordinates. A non-dimensional acoustic radiation force function, which is the radiation force per unit length, per characteristic energy density and per unit cross-sectional surface of the ellipse, is defined in terms of the scattering coefficients that are determined by applying the Neumann boundary condition for an immovable surface. A system of linear equations involving a single numerical integration procedure is solved by matrix inversion. Numerical simulations showing the transition from the quasi-standing to the (equi-amplitude) standing wave behaviour are performed with particular emphasis on the aspect ratio a/b, where a and b are the ellipse semi-axes, as well as the dimensionless size parameter kb (where k is the wavenumber), without the restriction to a particular range of frequencies. It is found that at high kb values > 1, the radiation force per length with broadside incidence is larger, whereas the opposite situation occurs in the long-wavelength limit (i.e., kb < 1). The results are particularly relevant in acoustic levitation of elliptical cylinders, the acoustic stabilization of liquid columns in a host medium, acousto-fluidics devices, and other particle dynamics applications to name a few. Moreover, the formalism presented here may be effectively applied to compute the acoustic radiation force on other 2D surfaces of arbitrary shape such as super-ellipses, Chebyshev cylindrical particles, or other non-circular geometries.
Two true surface acoustic waves and other acoustic modes in (110) plane of Li2B4O7 substrate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Victor Y.; Lefebvre, J. E.; Gryba, T.
1999-09-01
The surface acoustic waves (SAWs) and other acoustic modes propagating in the (110) plane of Li2B4O7 are investigated by means of the effective surface permittivity (ESP). It is demonstrated that the velocity of all piezoactive SAWs, both true and pseudo, as well as surface skimming bulk waves (SSBWs) can be numerically determined by computing the ESP as a function of acoustic trace slowness. A physical phenomenon not reported has been found for certain propagation directions, namely, simultaneous existence of two true SAWs, both being of the generalized Rayleigh type, together with a pseudo SAW of similar polarization. Propagation velocity, electromechanical coupling coefficient, and decay factor have been verified and confirmed by using two different sets of material constants and two numerical methods. The obtained values and accuracy of SAWs parameters are compared, and the validity conditions discussed. The generalized slowness diagram, plotted for the sagittal plane, enables to determine the total number of SSBW and to interpret the depth penetration properties of SAW. The Nyquist diagram of the ESP is shown to be a more helpful form for identifying a pseudo SAW and for distinguishing it from a SSBW.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hospital-Bravo, Raúl; Sarrate, Josep; Díez, Pedro
2016-05-01
A new 2D numerical model to predict the underwater acoustic propagation is obtained by exploring the potential of the Partition of Unity Method (PUM) enriched with plane waves. The aim of the work is to obtain sound pressure level distributions when multiple operational noise sources are present, in order to assess the acoustic impact over the marine fauna. The model takes advantage of the suitability of the PUM for solving the Helmholtz equation, especially for the practical case of large domains and medium frequencies. The seawater acoustic absorption and the acoustic reflectance of the sea surface and sea bottom are explicitly considered, and perfectly matched layers (PML) are placed at the lateral artificial boundaries to avoid spurious reflexions. The model includes semi-analytical integration rules which are adapted to highly oscillatory integrands with the aim of reducing the computational cost of the integration step. In addition, we develop a novel strategy to mitigate the ill-conditioning of the elemental and global system matrices. Specifically, we compute a low-rank approximation of the local space of solutions, which in turn reduces the number of degrees of freedom, the CPU time and the memory footprint. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the model and to assess its accuracy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Chang-Jun; Chen, Hai-Bo; Chen, Lei-Lei
2013-04-01
This paper presents a novel wideband fast multipole boundary element approach to 3D half-space/plane-symmetric acoustic wave problems. The half-space fundamental solution is employed in the boundary integral equations so that the tree structure required in the fast multipole algorithm is constructed for the boundary elements in the real domain only. Moreover, a set of symmetric relations between the multipole expansion coefficients of the real and image domains are derived, and the half-space fundamental solution is modified for the purpose of applying such relations to avoid calculating, translating and saving the multipole/local expansion coefficients of the image domain. The wideband adaptive multilevel fast multipole algorithm associated with the iterative solver GMRES is employed so that the present method is accurate and efficient for both lowand high-frequency acoustic wave problems. As for exterior acoustic problems, the Burton-Miller method is adopted to tackle the fictitious eigenfrequency problem involved in the conventional boundary integral equation method. Details on the implementation of the present method are described, and numerical examples are given to demonstrate its accuracy and efficiency.
On the scattering of an acoustic plane wave by a soft prolate spheroid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borromeo, Joseph Michael
This thesis solves the scattering problem in which an acoustic plane wave of propagation number K1 is scattered by a soft prolate spheroid. The interior field of the scatterer is characterized by a propagation number K2, while the field radiated by the scatterer is characterized by the propagation number K3. The three fields and their normal derivatives satisfy boundary conditions at the surface of the scatterer. These boundary conditions involve six complex parameters depending on the propagation numbers. The scattered wave also satisfies the Sommerfeld radiation condition at infinity. Through analytical methods, series representations are constructed for the interior field and scattered field for an arbitrary sphere and a prolate spheroid. In addition, results for the reciprocity relations and Energy theorem are derived. Application to detection of whales and submarines are discussed, as well as classification of fish, squid and zoo plankton. In general Ref[ ] is used for reference and the work is done in three dimensions.
On the Propagation of Plane Acoustic Waves in a Duct With Flexible and Impedance Walls
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frendi, Abdelkader; Vu, Bruce
2003-01-01
This Technical Memorandum (TM) discusses the harmonic and random plane acoustic waves propagating from inside a duct to its surroundings. Various duct surfaces are considered, such as rigid, flexible, and impedance. In addition, the effects of a mean flow are studied when the duct alone is considered. Results show a significant reduction in overall sound pressure levels downstream of the impedance wall for both mean flow and no mean flow cases and for a narrow duct. When a wider duct is used, the overall sound pressure level (OSPL) reduction downstream of the impedance wall is much smaller. In the far field, the directivity is such that the overall sound pressure level is reduced by about 5 decibels (dB) on the side of the impedance wall. When a flexible surface is used, the far field directivity becomes asymmetric with an increase in the OSPL on the side of the flexible surface of about 7 dB.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcaninch, G. L.; Myers, M. K.
1980-01-01
The parabolic approximation for the acoustic equations of motion is applied to the study of the sound field generated by a plane wave at or near grazing incidence to a finite impedance boundary. It is shown how this approximation accounts for effects neglected in the usual plane wave reflection analysis which, at grazing incidence, erroneously predicts complete cancellation of the incident field by the reflected field. Examples are presented which illustrate that the solution obtained by the parabolic approximation contains several of the physical phenomena known to occur in wave propagation near an absorbing boundary.
Mitri, F G; Fellah, Z E A
2008-08-01
Acoustic plane progressive waves incident on a sphere immersed in a nonviscous fluid exert a steady force acting along the direction of wave motion. It is shown here that when an elastic gold sphere is coated with a polymer-type (polyethylene) viscoelastic layer, this force becomes a force of attraction in the long wavelength limit. Kinetic, potential and Reynolds stress energy densities are defined and evaluated with and in the absence of absorption in the layer. Without absorption, the mechanical energy density counteracts the Reynolds stress energy density, which causes a repulsive force. However, in the case of absorption, the attractive force is predicted to be a physical consequence of a mutual contribution of both the mechanical and the Reynolds stress energy densities. This condition provides an impetus for further designing acoustic tweezers operating with plane progressive waves as well as fabricating polymer-coated gold particles for specific biophysical and biomedical applications.
Torres, Ana M; Lopez, Jose J; Pueo, Basilio; Cobos, Maximo
2013-04-01
Plane-wave decomposition (PWD) methods using microphone arrays have been shown to be a very useful tool within the applied acoustics community for their multiple applications in room acoustics analysis and synthesis. While many theoretical aspects of PWD have been previously addressed in the literature, the practical advantages of the PWD method to assess the acoustic behavior of real rooms have been barely explored so far. In this paper, the PWD method is employed to analyze the sound field inside a selected set of real rooms having a well-defined purpose. To this end, a circular microphone array is used to capture and process a number of impulse responses at different spatial positions, providing angle-dependent data for both direct and reflected wavefronts. The detection of reflected plane waves is performed by means of image processing techniques applied over the raw array response data and over the PWD data, showing the usefulness of image-processing-based methods for room acoustics analysis.
Strong reduction of the coercivity by a surface acoustic wave in an out-of-plane magnetized epilayer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thevenard, L.; Camara, I. S.; Prieur, J.-Y.; Rovillain, P.; Lemaître, A.; Gourdon, C.; Duquesne, J.-Y.
2016-04-01
Inverse magnetostriction is the effect by which magnetization can be changed upon application of stress/strain. A strain modulation may be created electrically by exciting interdigitated transducers to generate surface acoustic waves (SAWs). Hence SAWs appear as a possible route towards induction-free undulatory magnetic data manipulation. Here we demonstrate experimentally on an out-of-plane magnetostrictive layer a reduction of the coercive field of up to 60 % by a SAW, over millimetric distances. A simple model shows that this spectacular effect can be partly explained by the periodic lowering of the strain-dependent domain nucleation energy by the SAW. This proof of concept was done on (Ga,Mn)(As,P), a magnetic semiconductor in which the out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy can be made very weak by epitaxial growth; it should guide material engineering for all-acoustic magnetization switching.
Guo, Min; Abbott, Derek; Lu, Minhua; Liu, Huafeng
2016-03-01
Shear wave propagation speed has been regarded as an attractive indicator for quantitatively measuring the intrinsic mechanical properties of soft tissues. While most existing techniques use acoustic radiation force (ARF) excitation with focal spot region based on linear array transducers, we try to employ a special ARF with a focal line region and apply it to viscoelastic materials to create shear waves. First, a two-dimensional capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer with 64 × 128 fully controllable elements is realised and simulated to generate this special ARF. Then three-dimensional finite element models are developed to simulate the resulting shear wave propagation through tissue phantom materials. Three different phantoms are explored in our simulation study using: (a) an isotropic viscoelastic medium, (b) within a cylindrical inclusion, and (c) a transverse isotropic viscoelastic medium. For each phantom, the ARF creates a quasi-plane shear wave which has a preferential propagation direction perpendicular to the focal line excitation. The propagation of the quasi-plane shear wave is investigated and then used to reconstruct shear moduli sequentially after the estimation of shear wave speed. In the phantom with a transverse isotropic viscoelastic medium, the anisotropy results in maximum speed parallel to the fiber direction and minimum speed perpendicular to the fiber direction. The simulation results show that the line excitation extends the displacement field to obtain a large imaging field in comparison with spot excitation, and demonstrate its potential usage in measuring the mechanical properties of anisotropic tissues.
Mellow, Tim; Kärkkäinen, Leo
2014-03-01
An acoustic curtain is an array of microphones used for recording sound which is subsequently reproduced through an array of loudspeakers in which each loudspeaker reproduces the signal from its corresponding microphone. Here the sound originates from a point source on the axis of symmetry of the circular array. The Kirchhoff-Helmholtz integral for a plane circular curtain is solved analytically as fast-converging expansions, assuming an ideal continuous array, to speed up computations and provide insight. By reversing the time sequence of the recording (or reversing the direction of propagation of the incident wave so that the point source becomes an "ideal" point sink), the curtain becomes a time reversal mirror and the analytical solution for this is given simultaneously. In the case of an infinite planar array, it is demonstrated that either a monopole or dipole curtain will reproduce the diverging sound field of the point source on the far side. However, although the real part of the sound field of the infinite time-reversal mirror is reproduced, the imaginary part is an approximation due to the missing singularity. It is shown that the approximation may be improved by using the appropriate combination of monopole and dipole sources in the mirror.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Unz, H.; Roskam, J.
1979-01-01
The theory of acoustic plane wave normally incident on a clamped panel in a rectangular duct is developed. The coupling theory between the elastic vibrations of the panel (plate) and the acoustic wave propagation in infinite space and in the rectangular duct is considered. The partial differential equation which governs the vibration of the panel (plate) is modified by adding to its stiffness (spring) forces and damping forces, and the fundamental resonance frequency and the attenuation factor are discussed. The noise reduction expression based on the theory is found to agree well with the corresponding experimental data of a sample aluminum panel in the mass controlled region, the damping controlled region, and the stiffness controlled region. All the frequency positions of the upward and downward resonance spikes in the sample experimental data are identified theoretically as resulting from four cross interacting major resonance phenomena: the cavity resonance, the acoustic resonance, the plate resonance, and the wooden back panel resonance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Jiaxue
Honeycomb structures are widely used in many areas for their material characteristics such as high strength-to-weight ratio, stiffness-to-weight, sound transmission, and other properties. Honeycomb structures are generally constructed from periodically spaced tessellations of unit cells. It can be shown that the effective stiffness and mass properties of honeycomb are controlled by the local geometry and wall thickness of the particular unit cells used. Of particular interest are regular hexagonal (6-sided) honeycomb unit cell geometries which exhibit positive effective Poisson's ratio, and modified 6-sided auxetic honeycomb unit cells with Poisson's ratio which is effectively negative; a property not found in natural materials. One important honeycomb meta-structure is sandwich composites designed with a honeycomb core bonded between two panel layers. By changing the geometry of the repetitive unit cell, and overall depth and material properties of the honeycomb core, sandwich panels with different vibration and acoustic properties can be designed to shift resonant frequencies and improve intensity and Sound Transmission Loss (STL). In the present work, a honeycomb finite element model based on beam elements is programmed in MATLAB and verified with the commercial finite element software ABAQUS for frequency extraction and direct frequency response analysis. The MATLAB program was used to study the vibration and acoustic properties of different kinds of honeycomb sandwich panels undergoing in-plane loading with different incident pressure wave angles and frequency. Results for the root mean square intensity IRMS based on normal velocity on the transmitted side of the panel measure vibration magnitude are reported for frequencies between 0 and 1000 Hz. The relationship between the sound transmission loss computed with ABAQUS and the inverse of the intensity of surface velocity is established. In the present work it is demonstrated that the general trend between the
Plane wave reflection at flow intakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davies, P. O. A. L.
1987-06-01
A treatment is presented for prediction of the acoustic field associated with an open duct termination whose inflow is at a mean Mach number, and requires a quantitative description of both the acoustic and flow conditions in the vicinity of the open end. This problem is presently simplified by restricting the acoustic field within the duct to plane wave motion, with component wave amplitudes p(+) and p(-), where p(+) is incident at the termination. A 'vena contracta' develops in the pipe just downstream of the intake, leading to a significant mean pressure loss.
Marsh, S.P.
1988-03-08
An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 4 figs.
Marsh, Stanley P.
1988-01-01
An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive.
Marsh, S.P.
1987-03-12
An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 3 figs., 3 tabs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitri, F. G.
2016-07-01
This paper presents two key contributions; the first concerns the development of analytical expressions for the axial and transverse acoustic radiation forces exerted on a 2D rigid elliptical cylinder placed in the field of plane progressive, quasi-standing, or standing waves with arbitrary incidence. The second emphasis is on the acoustic radiation torque per length. The rigid elliptical cylinder case is important to be considered as a first-order approximation of the behavior of a cylindrical fluid column trapped in air because of the significant acoustic impedance mismatch at the particle boundary. Based on the rigorous partial-wave series expansion method in cylindrical coordinates, non-dimensional acoustic radiation force and torque functions are derived and defined in terms of the scattering coefficients of the elliptic cylinder. A coupled system of linear equations is obtained after applying the Neumann boundary condition for an immovable surface in a non-viscous fluid and solved numerically by matrix inversion after performing a single numerical integration procedure. Computational results for the non-dimensional force components and torque, showing the transition from the progressive to the (equi-amplitude) standing wave behavior, are performed with particular emphasis on the aspect ratio a/b, where a and b are the semi-axes of the ellipse, the dimensionless size parameter, as well as the angle of incidence ranging from end-on to broadside incidence. The results show that the elliptical geometry has a direct influence on the radiation force and torque, so that the standard theory for circular cylinders (at normal incidence) leads to significant miscalculations when the cylinder cross section becomes non-circular. Moreover, the elliptical cylinder experiences, in addition to the acoustic radiation force, a radiation torque that vanishes for the circular cylinder case. The application of the formalism presented here may be extended to other 2D surfaces of
Reflection and Refraction of Acoustic Waves by a Shock Wave
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brillouin, J.
1957-01-01
The presence of sound waves in one or the other of the fluid regions on either side of a shock wave is made apparent, in the region under superpressure, by acoustic waves (reflected or refracted according to whether the incident waves lie in the region of superpressure or of subpressure) and by thermal waves. The characteristics of these waves are calculated for a plane, progressive, and uniform incident wave. In the case of refraction, the refracted acoustic wave can, according to the incidence, be plane, progressive, and uniform or take the form of an 'accompanying wave' which remains attached to the front of the shock while sliding parallel to it. In all cases, geometrical constructions permit determination of the kinematic characteristics of the reflected or refractive acoustic waves. The dynamic relationships show that the amplitude of the reflected wave is always less than that of the incident wave. The amplitude of the refracted wave, whatever its type, may in certain cases be greater than that of the incident wave.
Quantum positron acoustic waves
Metref, Hassina; Tribeche, Mouloud
2014-12-15
Nonlinear quantum positron-acoustic (QPA) waves are investigated for the first time, within the theoretical framework of the quantum hydrodynamic model. In the small but finite amplitude limit, both deformed Korteweg-de Vries and generalized Korteweg-de Vries equations governing, respectively, the dynamics of QPA solitary waves and double-layers are derived. Moreover, a full finite amplitude analysis is undertaken, and a numerical integration of the obtained highly nonlinear equations is carried out. The results complement our previously published results on this problem.
Guided acoustic wave inspection system
Chinn, Diane J.
2004-10-05
A system for inspecting a conduit for undesirable characteristics. A transducer system induces guided acoustic waves onto said conduit. The transducer system detects the undesirable characteristics of the conduit by receiving guided acoustic waves that contain information about the undesirable characteristics. The conduit has at least two sides and the transducer system utilizes flexural modes of propagation to provide inspection using access from only the one side of the conduit. Cracking is detected with pulse-echo testing using one transducer to both send and receive the guided acoustic waves. Thinning is detected in through-transmission testing where one transducer sends and another transducer receives the guided acoustic waves.
Singularities from colliding plane gravitational waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tipler, Frank J.
1980-12-01
A simple geometrical argument is given which shows that a collision between two plane gravitational waves must result in singularities. The argument suggests that these singularities are a peculiar feature of plane waves, because singularities are also a consequence of a collision between self-gravitating plane waves of other fields with arbitrarily small energy density.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soler, José M.; Williams, Arthur R.
1990-11-01
Results are presented that demonstrate the effectiveness of a calculational method of electronic-structure theory. The method combines the power (tractable basis-set size) and flexibility (transition and first-row elements) of the augmented-plane-wave method with the computational efficiency of the Car-Parrinello method of molecular dynamics and total-energy minimization. Equilibrium geometry and vibrational frequencies in agreement with experiment are presented for Si, to demonstrate agreement with existing methods and for Cu, N2, and H2O to demonstrate the broader applicability of the approach.
Observation of self-excited acoustic vortices in defect-mediated dust acoustic wave turbulence.
Tsai, Ya-Yi; I, Lin
2014-07-01
Using the self-excited dust acoustic wave as a platform, we demonstrate experimental observation of self-excited fluctuating acoustic vortex pairs with ± 1 topological charges through spontaneous waveform undulation in defect-mediated turbulence for three-dimensional traveling nonlinear longitudinal waves. The acoustic vortex pair has helical waveforms with opposite chirality around the low-density hole filament pair in xyt space (the xy plane is the plane normal to the wave propagation direction). It is generated through ruptures of sequential crest surfaces and reconnections with their trailing ruptured crest surfaces. The initial rupture is originated from the amplitude reduction induced by the formation of the kinked wave crest strip with strong stretching through the undulation instability. Increasing rupture causes the separation of the acoustic vortex pair after generation. A similar reverse process is followed for the acoustic vortex annihilating with the opposite-charged acoustic vortex from the same or another pair generation.
1983-01-01
r 2) it is not expected that these issues will pose serious problems. It appears that the %7 grid is of fundamental importance in the Hankel... invesion of pressue field data to obtain the parameters of the bottom. In this contwt it is of interest to geophysiciut and others who wih to...RECEIVER HEIGHT COMPENSATION A(k,) Figure V.1.1 The invesion procedure to estimate the plane wave reflection coefficient from the mul field Senerated
Surface acoustic wave microfluidics.
Ding, Xiaoyun; Li, Peng; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Stratton, Zackary S; Nama, Nitesh; Guo, Feng; Slotcavage, Daniel; Mao, Xiaole; Shi, Jinjie; Costanzo, Francesco; Huang, Tony Jun
2013-09-21
The recent introduction of surface acoustic wave (SAW) technology onto lab-on-a-chip platforms has opened a new frontier in microfluidics. The advantages provided by such SAW microfluidics are numerous: simple fabrication, high biocompatibility, fast fluid actuation, versatility, compact and inexpensive devices and accessories, contact-free particle manipulation, and compatibility with other microfluidic components. We believe that these advantages enable SAW microfluidics to play a significant role in a variety of applications in biology, chemistry, engineering and medicine. In this review article, we discuss the theory underpinning SAWs and their interactions with particles and the contacting fluids in which they are suspended. We then review the SAW-enabled microfluidic devices demonstrated to date, starting with devices that accomplish fluid mixing and transport through the use of travelling SAW; we follow that by reviewing the more recent innovations achieved with standing SAW that enable such actions as particle/cell focusing, sorting and patterning. Finally, we look forward and appraise where the discipline of SAW microfluidics could go next.
Surface acoustic wave microfluidics
Ding, Xiaoyun; Li, Peng; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Stratton, Zackary S.; Nama, Nitesh; Guo, Feng; Slotcavage, Daniel; Mao, Xiaole; Shi, Jinjie; Costanzo, Francesco; Huang, Tony Jun
2014-01-01
The recent introduction of surface acoustic wave (SAW) technology onto lab-on-a-chip platforms has opened a new frontier in microfluidics. The advantages provided by such SAW microfluidics are numerous: simple fabrication, high biocompatibility, fast fluid actuation, versatility, compact and inexpensive devices and accessories, contact-free particle manipulation, and compatibility with other microfluidic components. We believe that these advantages enable SAW microfluidics to play a significant role in a variety of applications in biology, chemistry, engineering, and medicine. In this review article, we discuss the theory underpinning SAWs and their interactions with particles and the contacting fluids in which they are suspended. We then review the SAW-enabled microfluidic devices demonstrated to date, starting with devices that accomplish fluid mixing and transport through the use of travelling SAW; we follow that by reviewing the more recent innovations achieved with standing SAW that enable such actions as particle/cell focusing, sorting, and patterning. Finally, we look forward and appraise where the discipline of SAW microfluidics could go next. PMID:23900527
Canonical Acoustics and Its Application to Surface Acoustic Wave on Acoustic Metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Jian Qi
2016-08-01
In a conventional formalism of acoustics, acoustic pressure p and velocity field u are used for characterizing acoustic waves propagating inside elastic/acoustic materials. We shall treat some fundamental problems relevant to acoustic wave propagation alternatively by using canonical acoustics (a more concise and compact formalism of acoustic dynamics), in which an acoustic scalar potential and an acoustic vector potential (Φ ,V), instead of the conventional acoustic field quantities such as acoustic pressure and velocity field (p,u) for characterizing acoustic waves, have been defined as the fundamental variables. The canonical formalism of the acoustic energy-momentum tensor is derived in terms of the acoustic potentials. Both the acoustic Hamiltonian density and the acoustic Lagrangian density have been defined, and based on this formulation, the acoustic wave quantization in a fluid is also developed. Such a formalism of acoustic potentials is employed to the problem of negative-mass-density assisted surface acoustic wave that is a highly localized surface bound state (an eigenstate of the acoustic wave equations). Since such a surface acoustic wave can be strongly confined to an interface between an acoustic metamaterial (e.g., fluid-solid composite structures with a negative dynamical mass density) and an ordinary material (with a positive mass density), it will give rise to an effect of acoustic field enhancement on the acoustic interface, and would have potential applications in acoustic device design for acoustic wave control.
Extraordinary transmission of gigahertz surface acoustic waves
Mezil, Sylvain; Chonan, Kazuki; Otsuka, Paul H.; Tomoda, Motonobu; Matsuda, Osamu; Lee, Sam H.; Wright, Oliver B.
2016-01-01
Extraordinary transmission of waves, i.e. a transmission superior to the amount predicted by geometrical considerations of the aperture alone, has to date only been studied in the bulk. Here we present a new class of extraordinary transmission for waves confined in two dimensions to a flat surface. By means of acoustic numerical simulations in the gigahertz range, corresponding to acoustic wavelengths λ ~ 3–50 μm, we track the transmission of plane surface acoustic wave fronts between two silicon blocks joined by a deeply subwavelength bridge of variable length with or without an attached cavity. Several resonant modes of the structure, both one- and two-dimensional in nature, lead to extraordinary acoustic transmission, in this case with transmission efficiencies, i.e. intensity enhancements, up to ~23 and ~8 in the two respective cases. We show how the cavity shape and bridge size influence the extraordinary transmission efficiency. Applications include new metamaterials and subwavelength imaging. PMID:27640998
Causal inheritence in plane wave quotients
Hubeny, Veronika E.; Rangamani, Mukund; Ross, Simon F.
2003-11-24
We investigate the appearance of closed timelike curves in quotients of plane waves along spacelike isometries. First we formulate a necessary and sufficient condition for a quotient of a general spacetime to preserve stable causality. We explicitly show that the plane waves are stably causal; in passing, we observe that some pp-waves are not even distinguishing. We then consider the classification of all quotients of the maximally supersymmetric ten-dimensional plane wave under a spacelike isometry, and show that the quotient will lead to closed timelike curves iff the isometry involves a translation along the u direction. The appearance of these closed timelike curves is thus connected to the special properties of the light cones in plane wave spacetimes. We show that all other quotients preserve stable causality.
Ion-acoustic cnoidal waves in a quantum plasma
Mahmood, S.; Haas, F.
2014-10-15
Nonlinear ion-acoustic cnoidal wave structures are studied in an unmagnetized quantum plasma. Using the reductive perturbation method, a Korteweg-de Vries equation is derived for appropriate boundary conditions and nonlinear periodic wave solutions are obtained. The corresponding analytical solution and numerical plots of the ion-acoustic cnoidal waves and solitons in the phase plane are presented using the Sagdeev pseudo-potential approach. The variations in the nonlinear potential of the ion-acoustic cnoidal waves are studied at different values of quantum parameter H{sub e} which is the ratio of electron plasmon energy to electron Fermi energy defined for degenerate electrons. It is found that both compressive and rarefactive ion-acoustic cnoidal wave structures are formed depending on the value of the quantum parameter. The dependence of the wavelength and frequency on nonlinear wave amplitude is also presented.
Multi-reflective acoustic wave device
Andle, Jeffrey C.
2006-02-21
An acoustic wave device, which utilizes multiple localized reflections of acoustic wave for achieving an infinite impulse response while maintaining high tolerance for dampening effects, is disclosed. The device utilized a plurality of electromechanically significant electrodes disposed on most of the active surface. A plurality of sensors utilizing the disclosed acoustic wave mode device are also described.
S-Band Shallow Bulk Acoustic Wave (SBAW) microwave source
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1981-01-01
Techniques necessary to fabricate a high performance S-band microwave single source using state-of-the-art shallow bulk acoustic wave (SBAW) were explored. The bulk wave structures of the AlN/Al 2O3 were investigated for both the R plane and basal plane of sapphire. A 1.072 GHz SBAW delay line and oscillators were developed. A method of selecting and setting oscillator output frequency by selecting substrate orientation angle was also established.
Double plane wave reverse time migration with plane wave Green's function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Z.; Sen, M. K.; Stoffa, P. L.
2015-12-01
Reverse time migration (RTM) is effective in obtaining complex subsurface structures from seismic data. By solving the two-way wave equation, RTM can use entire wavefield for imaging. Although powerful computer are becoming available, the conventional pre-stack shot gather RTM is still computationally expensive. Solving forward and backward wavefield propagation for each source location and shot gather is extremely time consuming, especially for large seismic datasets. We present an efficient, accurate and flexible plane wave RTM in the frequency domain where we utilize a compressed plane wave dataset, known as the double plane wave (DPW) dataset. Provided with densely sampled seismic dataset, shot gathers can be decomposed into source and receiver plane wave components with minimal artifacts. The DPW RTM is derived under the Born approximation and utilizes frequency domain plane wave Green's function for imaging. Time dips in the shot profiles can help to estimate the range of plane wave components present in shot gathers. Therefore, a limited number of plane wave Green's functions are needed for imaging. Plane wave Green's functions can be used for imaging both source and receiver plane waves. Source and receiver reciprocity can be used for imaging plane wave components at no cost and save half of the computation time. As a result, the computational burden for migration is substantially reduced. Plane wave components can be migrated independently to recover specific targets with given dips, and ray parameter common image gathers (CIGs) can be generated after migration directly. The ray parameter CIGs can be used to justify the correctness of velocity models. Subsurface anisotropy effects can also be included in our imaging condition, provided with plane wave Green's functions in the anisotropic media.
Simple Harmonic Motion in Harmonic Plane Waves.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Benumof, Reuben
1980-01-01
Discusses the distribution of kinetic and potential energy in transverse and longitudinal waves and examines the transmission of power and momentum. This discussion is intended to aid in understanding the simple harmonic motion of a particle involved in the propagation of a harmonic mechanical plane wave. (HM)
Coded excitation plane wave imaging for shear wave motion detection.
Song, Pengfei; Urban, Matthew W; Manduca, Armando; Greenleaf, James F; Chen, Shigao
2015-07-01
Plane wave imaging has greatly advanced the field of shear wave elastography thanks to its ultrafast imaging frame rate and the large field-of-view (FOV). However, plane wave imaging also has decreased penetration due to lack of transmit focusing, which makes it challenging to use plane waves for shear wave detection in deep tissues and in obese patients. This study investigated the feasibility of implementing coded excitation in plane wave imaging for shear wave detection, with the hypothesis that coded ultrasound signals can provide superior detection penetration and shear wave SNR compared with conventional ultrasound signals. Both phase encoding (Barker code) and frequency encoding (chirp code) methods were studied. A first phantom experiment showed an approximate penetration gain of 2 to 4 cm for the coded pulses. Two subsequent phantom studies showed that all coded pulses outperformed the conventional short imaging pulse by providing superior sensitivity to small motion and robustness to weak ultrasound signals. Finally, an in vivo liver case study on an obese subject (body mass index = 40) demonstrated the feasibility of using the proposed method for in vivo applications, and showed that all coded pulses could provide higher SNR shear wave signals than the conventional short pulse. These findings indicate that by using coded excitation shear wave detection, one can benefit from the ultrafast imaging frame rate and large FOV provided by plane wave imaging while preserving good penetration and shear wave signal quality, which is essential for obtaining robust shear elasticity measurements of tissue.
Millimeter Waves: Acoustic and Electromagnetic
Ziskin, Marvin C.
2012-01-01
This article is the presentation I gave at the D'Arsonval Award Ceremony on June 14, 2011 at the Bioelectromagnetics Society Annual Meeting in Halifax, Nova Scotia. It summarizes my research activities in acoustic and electromagnetic millimeter waves over the past 47 years. My earliest research involved acoustic millimeter waves, with a special interest in diagnostic ultrasound imaging and its safety. For the last 21 years my research expanded to include electromagnetic millimeter waves, with a special interest in the mechanisms underlying millimeter wave therapy. Millimeter wave therapy has been widely used in the former Soviet Union with great reported success for many diseases, but is virtually unknown to Western physicians. I and the very capable members of my laboratory were able to demonstrate that the local exposure of skin to low intensity millimeter waves caused the release of endogenous opioids, and the transport of these agents by blood flow to all parts of the body resulted in pain relief and other beneficial effects. PMID:22926874
Millimeter waves: acoustic and electromagnetic.
Ziskin, Marvin C
2013-01-01
This article is the presentation I gave at the D'Arsonval Award Ceremony on June 14, 2011 at the Bioelectromagnetics Society Annual Meeting in Halifax, Nova Scotia. It summarizes my research activities in acoustic and electromagnetic millimeter waves over the past 47 years. My earliest research involved acoustic millimeter waves, with a special interest in diagnostic ultrasound imaging and its safety. For the last 21 years my research expanded to include electromagnetic millimeter waves, with a special interest in the mechanisms underlying millimeter wave therapy. Millimeter wave therapy has been widely used in the former Soviet Union with great reported success for many diseases, but is virtually unknown to Western physicians. I and the very capable members of my laboratory were able to demonstrate that the local exposure of skin to low intensity millimeter waves caused the release of endogenous opioids, and the transport of these agents by blood flow to all parts of the body resulted in pain relief and other beneficial effects.
Surface acoustic wave frequency comb
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsko, A. B.; Savchenkov, A. A.; Ilchenko, V. S.; Seidel, D.; Maleki, L.
2012-02-01
We investigate opto-mechanical oscillation (OMO) and subsequent generation of acoustic wave frequency combs in monolithic crystalline whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators. The OMO is observed in resonators made of electro-optic (lithium tantalate), non-electro-optic birefringent (magnesium fluoride), and non-birefringent (calcium fluoride) materials. The phenomenon manifests itself as generation of optical harmonics separated by the eigenfrequency of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) mechanical mode of the same WGM resonator. We show that the light escaping the resonator and demodulated on a fast photodiode produces a spectrally pure radio frequency (RF) signal. For instance, we demonstrate generation of 200 MHz signals with instantaneous linewidth of 0.2 Hz.
Surface acoustic wave oxygen sensor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Collman, James P.; Oglesby, Donald M.; Upchurch, Billy T.; Leighty, Bradley D.; Zhang, Xumu; Herrmann, Paul C.
1994-01-01
A surface acoustic wave (SAW) device that responds to oxygen pressure was developed by coating a 158 MHz quartz surface acoustic wave (SAW) device with an oxygen binding agent. Two types of coatings were used. One type was prepared by dissolving an oxygen binding agent in a toluene solution of a copolymer containing the axial ligand. A second type was prepared with an oxygen binding porphyrin solution containing excess axial ligand without a polymer matrix. In the polymer based coatings, the copolymer served to provide the axial ligand to the oxygen binding agent and as a coating matrix on the surface of the SAW device. The oxygen sensing SAW device has been shown to bind oxygen following a Langmuir isotherm and may be used to measure the equilibrium constant of the oxygen binding compound in the coating matrix.
Twisted electron-acoustic waves in plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aman-ur-Rehman, Ali, S.; Khan, S. A.; Shahzad, K.
2016-08-01
In the paraxial limit, a twisted electron-acoustic (EA) wave is studied in a collisionless unmagnetized plasma, whose constituents are the dynamical cold electrons and Boltzmannian hot electrons in the background of static positive ions. The analytical and numerical solutions of the plasma kinetic equation suggest that EA waves with finite amount of orbital angular momentum exhibit a twist in its behavior. The twisted wave particle resonance is also taken into consideration that has been appeared through the effective wave number qeff accounting for Laguerre-Gaussian mode profiles attributed to helical phase structures. Consequently, the dispersion relation and the damping rate of the EA waves are significantly modified with the twisted parameter η, and for η → ∞, the results coincide with the straight propagating plane EA waves. Numerically, new features of twisted EA waves are identified by considering various regimes of wavelength and the results might be useful for transport and trapping of plasma particles in a two-electron component plasma.
Is dust acoustic wave a new plasma acoustic mode?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dwivedi, C. B.
1997-09-01
In this Brief Communication, the claim of the novelty of the dust acoustic wave in a dusty plasma within the constant dust charge model is questioned. Conceptual lacunas behind the claim have been highlighted and appropriate physical arguments have been forwarded against the claim. It is demonstrated that the so-called dust acoustic wave could better be termed as a general acoustic fluctuation response with a dominant characteristic feature of the acoustic-like mode (ALM) fluctuation response reported by Dwivedi et al. [J. Plasma Phys. 41, 219 (1989)]. It is suggested that both correct and more usable nomenclature of the ALM should be the so-called acoustic mode.
Evidence of Doppler-shifted Bragg scattering in the vertical plane by ocean surface waves.
Lynch, Stephen D; D'Spain, Gerald L
2012-03-01
A set of narrowband tones (280, 370, 535, and 695 Hz) were transmitted by an acoustic source mounted on the ocean floor in 10 m deep water and received by a 64-element hydrophone line array lying on the ocean bottom 1.25 km away. Beamformer output in the vertical plane for the received acoustic tones shows evidence of Doppler-shifted Bragg scattering of the transmitted acoustic signals by the ocean surface waves. The received, scattered signals show dependence on the ocean surface wave frequencies and wavenumber vectors, as well as on acoustic frequencies and acoustic mode wavenumbers. Sidebands in the beamformer output are offset in frequency by amounts corresponding to ocean surface wave frequencies. Deviations in vertical arrival angle from specular reflection agree with those predicted by the Bragg condition through first-order perturbation theory using measured directional surface wave spectra and acoustic modes measured by the horizontal hydrophone array.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riaud, Antoine; Thomas, Jean-Louis; Charron, Eric; Bussonnière, Adrien; Bou Matar, Olivier; Baudoin, Michael
2015-09-01
From radio-electronics signal analysis to biological sample actuation, surface acoustic waves (SAWs) are involved in a multitude of modern devices. However, only the most simple standing or progressive waves such as plane and focused waves have been explored so far. In this paper, we expand the SAW toolbox with a wave family named "swirling surface acoustic waves" which are the 2D anisotropic analogue of bulk acoustic vortices. Similarly to their 3D counterpart, they appear as concentric structures of bright rings with a phase singularity in their center resulting in a central dark spot. After the rigorous mathematical definition of these waves, we synthesize them experimentally through the inverse filtering technique revisited for surface waves. For this purpose, we design a setup combining arrays of interdigitated transducers and a multichannel electronic that enables one to synthesize any prescribed wave field compatible with the anisotropy of the substrate in a region called the "acoustic scene." This work opens prospects for the design of integrated acoustic vortex generators for on-chip selective acoustic tweezing.
Toward loop quantization of plane gravitational waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hinterleitner, Franz; Major, Seth
2012-03-01
The polarized Gowdy model in terms of Ashtekar-Barbero variables is reduced with an additional constraint derived from the Killing equations for plane gravitational waves with parallel rays. The new constraint is formulated in a diffeomorphism invariant manner and, when it is included in the model, the resulting constraint algebra is first class, in contrast to the prior work done in special coordinates. Using an earlier work by Banerjee and Date, the constraints are expressed in terms of classical quantities that have an operator equivalent in loop quantum gravity, making these plane gravitational wave spacetimes accessible to loop quantization techniques.
Acoustic waves in medical imaging and diagnostics.
Sarvazyan, Armen P; Urban, Matthew W; Greenleaf, James F
2013-07-01
Up until about two decades ago acoustic imaging and ultrasound imaging were synonymous. The term ultrasonography, or its abbreviated version sonography, meant an imaging modality based on the use of ultrasonic compressional bulk waves. Beginning in the 1990s, there started to emerge numerous acoustic imaging modalities based on the use of a different mode of acoustic wave: shear waves. Imaging with these waves was shown to provide very useful and very different information about the biological tissue being examined. We discuss the physical basis for the differences between these two basic modes of acoustic waves used in medical imaging and analyze the advantages associated with shear acoustic imaging. A comprehensive analysis of the range of acoustic wavelengths, velocities and frequencies that have been used in different imaging applications is presented. We discuss the potential for future shear wave imaging applications.
Coded Excitation Plane Wave Imaging for Shear Wave Motion Detection
Song, Pengfei; Urban, Matthew W.; Manduca, Armando; Greenleaf, James F.; Chen, Shigao
2015-01-01
Plane wave imaging has greatly advanced the field of shear wave elastography thanks to its ultrafast imaging frame rate and the large field-of-view (FOV). However, plane wave imaging also has decreased penetration due to lack of transmit focusing, which makes it challenging to use plane waves for shear wave detection in deep tissues and in obese patients. This study investigated the feasibility of implementing coded excitation in plane wave imaging for shear wave detection, with the hypothesis that coded ultrasound signals can provide superior detection penetration and shear wave signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) compared to conventional ultrasound signals. Both phase encoding (Barker code) and frequency encoding (chirp code) methods were studied. A first phantom experiment showed an approximate penetration gain of 2-4 cm for the coded pulses. Two subsequent phantom studies showed that all coded pulses outperformed the conventional short imaging pulse by providing superior sensitivity to small motion and robustness to weak ultrasound signals. Finally, an in vivo liver case study on an obese subject (Body Mass Index = 40) demonstrated the feasibility of using the proposed method for in vivo applications, and showed that all coded pulses could provide higher SNR shear wave signals than the conventional short pulse. These findings indicate that by using coded excitation shear wave detection, one can benefit from the ultrafast imaging frame rate and large FOV provided by plane wave imaging while preserving good penetration and shear wave signal quality, which is essential for obtaining robust shear elasticity measurements of tissue. PMID:26168181
Manipulate acoustic waves by impedance matched acoustic metasurfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Ying; Mei, Jun; Aljahdali, Rasha
We design a type of acoustic metasurface, which is composed of carefully designed slits in a rigid thin plate. The effective refractive indices of different slits are different but the impedances are kept the same as that of the host medium. Numerical simulations show that such a metasurface can redirect or reflect a normally incident wave at different frequencies, even though it is impedance matched to the host medium. We show that the underlying mechanisms can be understood by using the generalized Snell's law, and a unified analytic model based on mode-coupling theory. We demonstrate some simple realization of such acoustic metasurface with real materials. The principle is also extended to the design of planar acoustic lens which can focus acoustic waves. Manipulate acoustic waves by impedance matched acoustic metasurfaces.
Antenna arrays for producing plane whistler waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stenzel, Reiner; Urrutia, J. Manuel
2014-10-01
Linear whistler modes with ω ~= 0 . 3ωce <<ωpe are excited in a large laboratory plasma with magnetic loop antennas. A single antenna always produces a spatially bounded wave packet whose propagation cannot be directly compared to plane wave theories. By superimposing the fields from spatially separated antennas, the wavenumber along the antenna array can be nearly eliminated. 2D arrays nearly produce plane waves. The angle θ of wave propagation has been varied by a phase shift along the array. The refractive index surface n (θ) has been measured. The parallel phase and group velocities for Gendrin modes has been demonstrated. The interference between two oblique plane whistlers creates a whistler ``waveguide'' mode, i.e. standing waves for k ⊥B0 and propagation for k | |B0 . It also describes the reflection of oblique whistlers from a sharp discontinuity in the refractive index or conductivity. Radial reflections are also a dominant factor in small plasma columns of helicon devices. These results are of interest to space and laboratory plasmas. Work supported by NSF/DOE.
Anisotropic diffraction of bulk acoustic wave beams in lithium niobate.
Naumenko, Natalya F; Chizhikov, Sergey I; Molchanov, Vladimir Ya; Yushkov, Konstantin B
2015-12-01
The formalism of planar diffraction tensor was applied to the analysis of anisotropy of bulk acoustic wave diffraction and to build a full map of anisotropic diffractional coefficients for three bulk acoustic wave modes propagating in lithium niobate. For arbitrary propagation direction the diffractional coefficients derived allow estimation of ultrasonic beam divergence in far-field. Analysis of obtained data revealed that the maxima of acousto-optic figure of merit for anisotropic diffraction in the YZ plane correspond to moderate diffractional spreading of the beams exceeding isotropic diffraction 2-3 times.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Zhen; Koroleva, I.; Manevitch, L. I.; Bergman, L. A.; Vakakis, A. F.
2016-09-01
We study the dynamics and acoustics of a nonlinear lattice with fixed boundary conditions composed of a finite number of particles coupled by linear springs, undergoing in-plane oscillations. The source of the strongly nonlinearity of this lattice is geometric effects generated by the in-plane stretching of the coupling linear springs. It has been shown that in the limit of low energy the lattice gives rise to a strongly nonlinear acoustic vacuum, which is a medium with zero speed of sound as defined in classical acoustics. The acoustic vacuum possesses strongly nonlocal coupling effects and an orthogonal set of nonlinear standing waves [or nonlinear normal modes (NNMs)] with mode shapes identical to those of the corresponding linear lattice; in contrast to the linear case, however, all NNMs except the one with the highest wavelength are unstable. In addition, the lattice supports two types of waves, namely, nearly linear sound waves (termed "L waves") corresponding to predominantly axial oscillations of the particles and strongly nonlinear localized propagating pulses (termed "N L pulses") corresponding to predominantly transverse oscillating wave packets of the particles with localized envelopes. We show the existence of nonlinear nonreciprocity phenomena in the dynamics and acoustics of the lattice. Two opposite cases are examined in the limit of low energy. The first gives rise to nonreciprocal dynamics and corresponds to collective, spatially extended transverse loading of the lattice leading to the excitation of individual, predominantly transverse NNMs, whereas the second case gives rise to nonreciprocal acoutics by considering the response of the lattice to spatially localized, transverse impulse or displacement excitations. We demonstrate intense and recurring energy exchanges between a directly excited NNM and other NNMs with higher wave numbers, so that nonreciprocal energy exchanges from small-to-large wave numbers are established. Moreover, we show the
Zhang, Zhen; Koroleva, I; Manevitch, L I; Bergman, L A; Vakakis, A F
2016-09-01
We study the dynamics and acoustics of a nonlinear lattice with fixed boundary conditions composed of a finite number of particles coupled by linear springs, undergoing in-plane oscillations. The source of the strongly nonlinearity of this lattice is geometric effects generated by the in-plane stretching of the coupling linear springs. It has been shown that in the limit of low energy the lattice gives rise to a strongly nonlinear acoustic vacuum, which is a medium with zero speed of sound as defined in classical acoustics. The acoustic vacuum possesses strongly nonlocal coupling effects and an orthogonal set of nonlinear standing waves [or nonlinear normal modes (NNMs)] with mode shapes identical to those of the corresponding linear lattice; in contrast to the linear case, however, all NNMs except the one with the highest wavelength are unstable. In addition, the lattice supports two types of waves, namely, nearly linear sound waves (termed "L waves") corresponding to predominantly axial oscillations of the particles and strongly nonlinear localized propagating pulses (termed "NL pulses") corresponding to predominantly transverse oscillating wave packets of the particles with localized envelopes. We show the existence of nonlinear nonreciprocity phenomena in the dynamics and acoustics of the lattice. Two opposite cases are examined in the limit of low energy. The first gives rise to nonreciprocal dynamics and corresponds to collective, spatially extended transverse loading of the lattice leading to the excitation of individual, predominantly transverse NNMs, whereas the second case gives rise to nonreciprocal acoutics by considering the response of the lattice to spatially localized, transverse impulse or displacement excitations. We demonstrate intense and recurring energy exchanges between a directly excited NNM and other NNMs with higher wave numbers, so that nonreciprocal energy exchanges from small-to-large wave numbers are established. Moreover, we show the
Probing Acoustic Nonlinearity by Mixing Surface Acoustic Waves
Hurley, David Howard; Telschow, Kenneth Louis
2000-07-01
Measurement methods aimed at determining material properties through nonlinear wave propagation are sensitive to artifacts caused by background nonlinearities inherent in the ultrasonic generation and detection methods. The focus of this paper is to describe our investigation of nonlinear mixing of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) as a means to decrease sensitivity to background nonlinearity and increase spatial sensitivity to acoustic nonlinearity induced by material microstructure.
Acoustic waves switch based on meta-fluid phononic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Xue-Feng
2012-08-01
The acoustic waves switch based on meta-fluid phononic crystals (MEFL PCs) is theoretically investigated. The MEFL PCs consist of fluid matrix and fluid-like inclusions with extremely anisotropic-density. The dispersion relations are calculated via the plane wave expansion method, which are in good agreement with the transmitted sound pressure level spectra obtained by the finite element method. The results show that the width of absolute band gap in MEFL PCs depends sensitively upon the orientation of the extremely anisotropic-density inclusions and reaches maximum at the rotating angle of 45°, with the gap position nearly unchanged. Also, the inter-mode conversion inside anisotropic-density inclusions can be ignored due to large acoustic mismatch. The study gives a possibility to realize greater flexibility and stronger effects in tuning the acoustic band gaps, which is very significant in the enhanced control over sound waves and has potential applications in ultrasonic imaging and therapy.
Acoustic wave science realized by metamaterials.
Lee, Dongwoo; Nguyen, Duc Minh; Rho, Junsuk
2017-01-01
Artificially structured materials with unit cells at sub-wavelength scale, known as metamaterials, have been widely used to precisely control and manipulate waves thanks to their unconventional properties which cannot be found in nature. In fact, the field of acoustic metamaterials has been much developed over the past 15 years and still keeps developing. Here, we present a topical review of metamaterials in acoustic wave science. Particular attention is given to fundamental principles of acoustic metamaterials for realizing the extraordinary acoustic properties such as negative, near-zero and approaching-infinity parameters. Realization of acoustic cloaking phenomenon which is invisible from incident sound waves is also introduced by various approaches. Finally, acoustic lenses are discussed not only for sub-diffraction imaging but also for applications based on gradient index (GRIN) lens.
Surface acoustic wave stabilized oscillators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parker, T. E.
1978-01-01
A number of 401.2 MHz surface acoustic wave (SAW) controlled oscillators were built and tested. The performance of these oscillators was evaluated for possible use as stable oscillators in communication systems. A short term frequency stability of better than 1 x 10 to the minus 9th power for one second was measured for the SAW oscillators. Long term frequency drift was measured and was found to be dependent on SAW design and packaging. Drift rates ranging from 15 ppm in twenty weeks to 2.5 ppm in twenty weeks were observed. Some further improvement was required. The temperature dependence of the saw oscillators was evaluated and it was concluded that some form of temperature compensation will be necessary to meet the requirements of some communication systems.
Swimming Using Surface Acoustic Waves
Bourquin, Yannyk; Cooper, Jonathan M.
2013-01-01
Microactuation of free standing objects in fluids is currently dominated by the rotary propeller, giving rise to a range of potential applications in the military, aeronautic and biomedical fields. Previously, surface acoustic waves (SAWs) have been shown to be of increasing interest in the field of microfluidics, where the refraction of a SAW into a drop of fluid creates a convective flow, a phenomenon generally known as SAW streaming. We now show how SAWs, generated at microelectronic devices, can be used as an efficient method of propulsion actuated by localised fluid streaming. The direction of the force arising from such streaming is optimal when the devices are maintained at the Rayleigh angle. The technique provides propulsion without any moving parts, and, due to the inherent design of the SAW transducer, enables simple control of the direction of travel. PMID:23431358
Swimming using surface acoustic waves.
Bourquin, Yannyk; Cooper, Jonathan M
2013-01-01
Microactuation of free standing objects in fluids is currently dominated by the rotary propeller, giving rise to a range of potential applications in the military, aeronautic and biomedical fields. Previously, surface acoustic waves (SAWs) have been shown to be of increasing interest in the field of microfluidics, where the refraction of a SAW into a drop of fluid creates a convective flow, a phenomenon generally known as SAW streaming. We now show how SAWs, generated at microelectronic devices, can be used as an efficient method of propulsion actuated by localised fluid streaming. The direction of the force arising from such streaming is optimal when the devices are maintained at the Rayleigh angle. The technique provides propulsion without any moving parts, and, due to the inherent design of the SAW transducer, enables simple control of the direction of travel.
Symmetrically converging plane thermonuclear burn waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Charakhch'yan, A. A.; Khishchenko, K. V.
2013-10-01
Five variants of a one-dimensional problem on synchronous bilateral action of two identical drivers on opposite surfaces of a plane layer of DT fuel with the normal or five times greater initial density, where the solution includes two thermonuclear burn waves propagating to meet one another at the symmetry plane, are simulated. A laser pulse with total absorption of energy at the critical density (in two variants) and a proton bunch that provides for a nearly isochoric heating (in three variants) are considered as drivers. A wide-range equation of state for the fuel, electron and ion heat conduction, self-radiation of plasma and plasma heating by α-particles are taken into account. In spite of different ways of ignition, various models of α-particle heat, whether the burn wave remains slow or transforms into the detonation wave, and regardless of way of such a transformation, the final value of the burn-up factor depends essentially on the only parameter Hρ0, where H is the half-thickness of the layer and ρ0 is the initial fuel density. This factor is about 0.35 at Hρ0 ≈ 1 g cm-2 and about 0.7 at Hρ0 ≈ 5 g cm-2. The expansion stage of the flow (after reflecting the burn or detonation wave from the symmetry plane) gives the main contribution in forming the final values of the burn-up factor and the gain at Hρ0 ≈ 1 g cm-2 and increases them approximately two times at Hρ0 ≈ 5 g cm-2. In the case of the proton driver, the final value of the gain is about 200 at Hρ0 ≈ 1 g cm-2 and about 2000 at Hρ0 ≈ 5 g cm-2. In the case of the laser driver, the above values are four times less in conformity with the difference between the driver energies.
Is dust acoustic wave a new plasma acoustic mode?
Dwivedi, C.B.
1997-09-01
In this Brief Communication, the claim of the novelty of the dust acoustic wave in a dusty plasma within the constant dust charge model is questioned. Conceptual lacunas behind the claim have been highlighted and appropriate physical arguments have been forwarded against the claim. It is demonstrated that the so-called dust acoustic wave could better be termed as a general acoustic fluctuation response with a dominant characteristic feature of the acoustic-like mode (ALM) fluctuation response reported by Dwivedi {ital et al.} [J. Plasma Phys. {bold 41}, 219 (1989)]. It is suggested that both correct and more usable nomenclature of the ALM should be the so-called acoustic mode. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
Stolt's f-k migration for plane wave ultrasound imaging.
Garcia, Damien; Le Tarnec, Louis; Muth, Stéphan; Montagnon, Emmanuel; Porée, Jonathan; Cloutier, Guy
2013-09-01
Ultrafast ultrasound is an emerging modality that offers new perspectives and opportunities in medical imaging. Plane wave imaging (PWI) allows one to attain very high frame rates by transmission of planar ultrasound wave-fronts. As a plane wave reaches a given scatterer, the latter becomes a secondary source emitting upward spherical waves and creating a diffraction hyperbola in the received RF signals. To produce an image of the scatterers, all the hyperbolas must be migrated back to their apexes. To perform beamforming of plane wave echo RFs and return high-quality images at high frame rates, we propose a new migration method carried out in the frequency-wavenumber (f-k) domain. The f-k migration for PWI has been adapted from the Stolt migration for seismic imaging. This migration technique is based on the exploding reflector model (ERM), which consists in assuming that all the scatterers explode in concert and become acoustic sources. The classical ERM model, however, is not appropriate for PWI. We showed that the ERM can be made suitable for PWI by a spatial transformation of the hyperbolic traces present in the RF data. In vitro experiments were performed to outline the advantages of PWI with Stolt's f-k migration over the conventional delay-and-sum (DAS) approach. The Stolt's f-k migration was also compared with the Fourier-based method developed by J.-Y. Lu. Our findings show that multi-angle compounded f-k migrated images are of quality similar to those obtained with a stateof- the-art dynamic focusing mode. This remained true even with a very small number of steering angles, thus ensuring a highly competitive frame rate. In addition, the new FFT-based f-k migration provides comparable or better contrast-to-noise ratio and lateral resolution than the Lu's and DAS migration schemes. Matlab codes for the Stolt's f-k migration for PWI are provided.
Inhomogeneous plane waves and cylindrical waves in anisotropic anelastic media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krebes, E. S.; Le, Lawrence H. T.
1994-12-01
In isotropic anelastic media, the phase velocity of an inhomogeneous plane body wave, which is a function of Q and the degree of inhomogeneity gamma, is significantly less than the corresponding homogeneous wave phase velocity typically only if gamma is very large (unless Q is unusually low). Here we investigate inhomogeneous waves in anisotropic anelastic media, where phase velocities are also functions of the direction of phase propagation theta, and find that (1) the low phase velocities can occur at values of gamma which are substantially less than the isotropic values and that they occur over a limited range of oblique directions theta, and (2) for large positive values of gamma, there are ranges of oblique directions theta in which the inhomogeneous waves cannot propagate at all because there is no physically acceptable solution to the dispersion relation. We show examples of how the waves of case 1 can occur in practice and cause a number of anomalous wave propagation effects. The waves of case 2, though, do not arise in practice (they do not correspond to any points on the horizontal slowness plate). We also show that in the decomposition of a cylindrical wave into plane waves, inhomogeneous plane waves occur whose amplitudes grow in the direction of phase propagation and that this direction is away from the receiver to which they are contributing. The energy in these waves does, however, travel toward the receiver, and their amplitudes decay in the direction of energy propagation. We also show that if the commonly used definition for the quality factor in an isotropic medium, Q = -Re(mu)/Im(mu) where mu is a complex modulus, is applied to an anisotropic anelastic medium in order to study absorption anisotropy, a generally unreliable measure of the anelasticity of inhomogeneous wave propagation in a given arbitrary direction is obtained. The more fundamental definition based on energy loss (i.e., 2pi/Q = Delta E/E) should be used in general, and we present
Blackfolds, plane waves and minimal surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Armas, Jay; Blau, Matthias
2015-07-01
Minimal surfaces in Euclidean space provide examples of possible non-compact horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat space-time. On the other hand, the existence of limiting surfaces in the space-time provides a simple mechanism for making these configurations compact. Limiting surfaces appear naturally in a given space-time by making minimal surfaces rotate but they are also inherent to plane wave or de Sitter space-times in which case minimal surfaces can be static and compact. We use the blackfold approach in order to scan for possible black hole horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat, plane wave and de Sitter space-times. In the process we uncover several new configurations, such as black helicoids and catenoids, some of which have an asymptotically flat counterpart. In particular, we find that the ultraspinning regime of singly-spinning Myers-Perry black holes, described in terms of the simplest minimal surface (the plane), can be obtained as a limit of a black helicoid, suggesting that these two families of black holes are connected. We also show that minimal surfaces embedded in spheres rather than Euclidean space can be used to construct static compact horizons in asymptotically de Sitter space-times.
Applications of surface acoustic and shallow bulk acoustic wave devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campbell, Colin K.
1989-10-01
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) device coverage includes delay lines and filters operating at selected frequencies in the range from about 10 MHz to 11 GHz; modeling with single-crystal piezoelectrics and layered structures; resonators and low-loss filters; comb filters and multiplexers; antenna duplexers; harmonic devices; chirp filters for pulse compression; coding with fixed and programmable transversal filters; Barker and quadraphase coding; adaptive filters; acoustic and acoustoelectric convolvers and correlators for radar, spread spectrum, and packet radio; acoustooptic processors for Bragg modulation and spectrum analysis; real-time Fourier-transform and cepstrum processors for radar and sonar; compressive receivers; Nyquist filters for microwave digital radio; clock-recovery filters for fiber communications; fixed-, tunable-, and multimode oscillators and frequency synthesizers; acoustic charge transport; and other SAW devices for signal processing on gallium arsenide. Shallow bulk acoustic wave device applications include gigahertz delay lines, surface-transverse-wave resonators employing energy-trapping gratings, and oscillators with enhanced performance and capability.
Surface acoustic wave dust deposition monitor
Fasching, G.E.; Smith, N.S. Jr.
1988-02-12
A system is disclosed for using the attenuation of surface acoustic waves to monitor real time dust deposition rates on surfaces. The system includes a signal generator, a tone-burst generator/amplifier connected to a transmitting transducer for converting electrical signals into acoustic waves. These waves are transmitted through a path defining means adjacent to a layer of dust and then, in turn, transmitted to a receiving transducer for changing the attenuated acoustic wave to electrical signals. The signals representing the attenuated acoustic waves may be amplified and used in a means for analyzing the output signals to produce an output indicative of the dust deposition rates and/or values of dust in the layer. 8 figs.
Shear waves in acoustic anisotropic media
Grechka, Vladimir; Zhang, Linbin; Rector, James W.
2003-01-02
Acoustic transversely isotropic (TI) media are defined by artificially setting the shear-wave velocity in the direction of symmetry axis, VS0, to zero. Contrary to conventional wisdom that equating VS0 = 0 eliminates shear waves, we demonstrate their presence and examine their properties. Specifically, we show that SV-waves generally have finite nonzero phase and group velocities in acoustic TI media. In fact, these waves have been observed in full waveform modeling, but apparently they were not understood and labeled as numerical artifacts. Acoustic TI media are characterized by extreme, in some sense infinite strength of anisotropy. It makes the following unusual wave phenomena possible: (1) there are propagation directions, where the SV-ray is orthogonal to the corresponding wavefront normal, (2) the SV-wave whose ray propagates along the symmetry axis is polarized parallel to the P-wave propagating in the same direction, (3) P-wave singularities, that is, directions where P- and SV -wave phase velocities coincide might exist in acoustic TI media. We also briefly discuss some aspects of wave propagation in low-symmetry acoustic anisotropic models. Extreme anisotropy in those media creates bizarre phase- and group-velocity surfaces that might bring intellectual delight to an anisotropic guru.
Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device
Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady, Ihab F.; McCormick, Frederick; Fleming, James G.; Fleming, Carol
2010-06-08
A microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device comprises a periodic two-dimensional array of scatterers embedded within the matrix material membrane, wherein the scatterer material has a density and/or elastic constant that is different than the matrix material and wherein the periodicity of the array causes destructive interference of the acoustic wave within an acoustic bandgap. The membrane can be suspended above a substrate by an air or vacuum gap to provide acoustic isolation from the substrate. The device can be fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. Such microfabricated bulk wave phononic bandgap devices are useful for acoustic isolation in the ultrasonic, VHF, or UHF regime (i.e., frequencies of order 1 MHz to 10 GHz and higher, and lattice constants of order 100 .mu.m or less).
Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device
Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady, Ihab F.; McCormick, Frederick; Fleming, James G.; Fleming, legal representative, Carol
2010-11-23
A microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device comprises a periodic two-dimensional array of scatterers embedded within the matrix material membrane, wherein the scatterer material has a density and/or elastic constant that is different than the matrix material and wherein the periodicity of the array causes destructive interference of the acoustic wave within an acoustic bandgap. The membrane can be suspended above a substrate by an air or vacuum gap to provide acoustic isolation from the substrate. The device can be fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. Such microfabricated bulk wave phononic bandgap devices are useful for acoustic isolation in the ultrasonic, VHF, or UHF regime (i.e., frequencies of order 1 MHz to 10 GHz and higher, and lattice constants of order 100 .mu.m or less).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beyer, Robert
1981-01-01
Surveys 50 years of acoustical studies by discussing selected topics including the ear, nonlinear representations, underwater sound, acoustical diagnostics, absorption, electrolytes, phonons, magnetic interaction, and superfluidity and the five sounds. (JN)
Bleustein-Gulyaev-Shimizu surface acoustic waves in two-dimensional piezoelectric phononic crystals.
Hsu, Jin-Chen; Wu, Tsung-Tsong
2006-06-01
In this paper, we present a study on the existence of Bleustein-Gulyaev-Shimizu piezoelectric surface acoustic waves in a two-dimensional piezoelectric phononic crystal (zinc oxide, ZnO, and cadmium-sulfide, CdS) using the plane wave expansion method. In the configuration of ZnO (100)/CdS(100) phononic crystal, the calculated results show that this type of surface waves has higher acoustic wave velocities, high electromechanical coupling coefficients, and larger band gap width than those of the Rayleigh surface waves and pseudosurface waves. In addition, we find that the folded modes of the Bleustein-Gulyaev-Shimizu surface waves have higher coupling coefficients.
Writing magnetic patterns with surface acoustic waves
Li, Weiyang; Buford, Benjamin; Jander, Albrecht; Dhagat, Pallavi
2014-05-07
A novel patterning technique that creates magnetization patterns in a continuous magnetostrictive film with surface acoustic waves is demonstrated. Patterns of 10 μm wide stripes of alternating magnetization and a 3 μm dot of reversed magnetization are written using standing and focusing acoustic waves, respectively. The magnetization pattern is size-tunable, erasable, and rewritable by changing the magnetic field and acoustic power. This versatility, along with its solid-state implementation (no moving parts) and electronic control, renders it as a promising technique for application in magnetic recording, magnonic signal processing, magnetic particle manipulation, and spatial magneto-optical modulation.
Elastic Wave Propagation Mechanisms in Underwater Acoustic Environments
2015-09-30
Elastic wave propagation mechanisms in underwater acoustic environments Scott D. Frank Marist College Department of Mathematics Poughkeepsie...conversion from elastic propagation to acoustic propagation, and intense interface waves on underwater acoustic environments with elastic bottoms... acoustic energy in the water column. Elastic material parameters will be varied for analysis of the dissipation of water column acoustic energy
Tuning of acoustic wave dispersion in ferroelectrics—A theoretical study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Wontae
2017-02-01
Tuning of acoustic wave dispersion in ferroelectrics due to its electrostrictive effect is theoretically investigated. As the acoustic wave is excited electrically in ferroelectrics, the elastic stiffness tensor can be modified by both the linear piezoelectric and nonlinear electrostrictive electromechanical couplings depending on the wave excitation direction of the crystal, where the linear piezoelectric modification has been well characterized and extensively used for the application of piezoelectric-based acoustic wave devices over the past 50 years, but the nonlinear electrostrictive modification, determining the tuning of acoustic wave dispersion in the medium, is still too premature to use the properties in application. For the tuning application, it is essential to know how the electrostrictive strain actually tunes the propagation and displacement of the ferroelectrically active acoustic waves, and this information is currently unavailable. In this paper, the ferroelectrically active acoustic wave propagation and displacement in conjunction with the nonlinear electrostrictive modification are calculated using the plane wave expansion method, and the tunable wave properties associated with the propagation and displacement, are discussed. The electrically excited acoustic wave properties in ferroelectrics are largely modified from the electrostrictive effect, e.g., tuned, excited, vanished, coupled, decoupled, etc., and this should be taken into account in the development of ferroelectric-based acoustic wave devices.
Tunable damper for an acoustic wave guide
Rogers, Samuel C.
1984-01-01
A damper for tunably damping acoustic waves in an ultrasonic waveguide is provided which may be used in a hostile environment such as a nuclear reactor. The area of the waveguide, which may be a selected size metal rod in which acoustic waves are to be damped, is wrapped, or surrounded, by a mass of stainless steel wool. The wool wrapped portion is then sandwiched between tuning plates, which may also be stainless steel, by means of clamping screws which may be adjusted to change the clamping force of the sandwiched assembly along the waveguide section. The plates are preformed along their length in a sinusoidally bent pattern with a period approximately equal to the acoustic wavelength which is to be damped. The bent pattern of the opposing plates are in phase along their length relative to their sinusoidal patterns so that as the clamping screws are tightened a bending stress is applied to the waveguide at 180.degree. intervals along the damping section to oppose the acoustic wave motions in the waveguide and provide good coupling of the wool to the guide. The damper is tuned by selectively tightening the clamping screws while monitoring the amplitude of the acoustic waves launched in the waveguide. It may be selectively tuned to damp particular acoustic wave modes (torsional or extensional, for example) and/or frequencies while allowing others to pass unattenuated.
Tunable damper for an acoustic wave guide
Rogers, S.C.
1982-10-21
A damper for tunably damping acoustic waves in an ultrasonic waveguide is provided which may be used in a hostile environment such as a nuclear reactor. The area of the waveguide, which may be a selected size metal rod in which acoustic waves are to be damped, is wrapped, or surrounded, by a mass of stainless steel wool. The wool wrapped portion is then sandwiched between tuning plates, which may also be stainless steel, by means of clamping screws which may be adjusted to change the clamping force of the sandwiched assembly along the waveguide section. The plates are preformed along their length in a sinusoidally bent pattern with a period approximately equal to the acoustic wavelength which is to be damped. The bent pattern of the opposing plates are in phase along their length relative to their sinusoidal patterns so that as the clamping screws are tightened a bending stress is applied to the waveguide at 180/sup 0/ intervals along the damping section to oppose the acoustic wave motions in the waveguide and provide good coupling of the wool to the guide. The damper is tuned by selectively tightening the clamping screws while monitoring the amplitude of the acoustic waves launched in the waveguide. It may be selectively tuned to damp particular acoustic wave modes (torsional or extensional, for example) and/or frequencies while allowing others to pass unattenuated.
Counterpropagating Rossby waves in confined plane wakes
Biancofiore, L.; Gallaire, F.
2012-01-01
In the present work, we revisit the temporal and the spatio-temporal stability of confined plane wakes under the perspective of the counterpropagating Rossby waves (CRWs). Within the context of broken line velocity profiles, each vorticity discontinuity can be associated to a counterpropagating Rossby wave. In the case of a wake modeled by a broken line profile, the interaction of two CRWs is shown to originate in a shear instability. Following this description, we first recover the stability results obtained by Juniper [J. Fluid Mech. 590, 163–185 (2007)]10.1017/S0022112007007975 and Biancofiore and Gallaire [Phys. Fluids 23, 034103 (2011)]10.1063/1.3554764 by means of the classical normal mode analysis. In this manner, we propose an explanation of the stabilizing influence of the confinement on the temporal stability properties. The CRW description further allows us to propose a new interpretation of the counterintuitive spatio-temporal destabilization in wake flows at moderate confinement noticed by Juniper [J. Fluid Mech. 565, 171–195 (2006)]10.1017/S0022112006001558: it is well predicted by the mean group velocity of the uncoupled CRWs. PMID:22865998
Investigation of Shallow Bulk Acoustic Waves
1981-11-12
with the theoretical calculation using equivalent circuit model. How- ever, the spurious bulk wave level at high frequencies is much lower than that of...effect of a metallic grating on SBAW devices on quartz. 7 A periodic metallic structure will support horizontal shear surface waves if the finger...We have extensively investigated shallow bulk acoustic waves in. terms of material aspects, transducer equivalent circuits and device dev-.iopment
Plane wave gravitons, curvature singularities and string physics
Brooks, R. . Center for Theoretical Physics)
1991-03-21
This paper discusses bounded (compactifying) potentials arising from a conspiracy between plane wave graviton and dilaton condensates. So are string propagation and supersymmetry in spacetimes with curvature singularities.
Imaging of Acoustic Waves in Sand
Deason, Vance Albert; Telschow, Kenneth Louis; Watson, Scott Marshall
2003-08-01
There is considerable interest in detecting objects such as landmines shallowly buried in loose earth or sand. Various techniques involving microwave, acoustic, thermal and magnetic sensors have been used to detect such objects. Acoustic and microwave sensors have shown promise, especially if used together. In most cases, the sensor package is scanned over an area to eventually build up an image or map of anomalies. We are proposing an alternate, acoustic method that directly provides an image of acoustic waves in sand or soil, and their interaction with buried objects. The INEEL Laser Ultrasonic Camera utilizes dynamic holography within photorefractive recording materials. This permits one to image and demodulate acoustic waves on surfaces in real time, without scanning. A video image is produced where intensity is directly and linearly proportional to surface motion. Both specular and diffusely reflecting surfaces can be accomodated and surface motion as small as 0.1 nm can be quantitatively detected. This system was used to directly image acoustic surface waves in sand as well as in solid objects. Waves as frequencies of 16 kHz were generated using modified acoustic speakers. These waves were directed through sand toward partially buried objects. The sand container was not on a vibration isolation table, but sat on the lab floor. Interaction of wavefronts with buried objects showed reflection, diffraction and interference effects that could provide clues to location and characteristics of buried objects. Although results are preliminary, success in this effort suggests that this method could be applied to detection of buried landmines or other near-surface items such as pipes and tanks.
Acoustic and elastic waves in metamaterials for underwater applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Titovich, Alexey S.
Elastic effects in acoustic metamaterials are investigated. Water-based periodic arrays of elastic scatterers, sonic crystals, suffer from low transmission due to the impedance and index mismatch of typical engineering materials with water. A new type of acoustic metamaterial element is proposed that can be tuned to match the acoustic properties of water in the quasi-static regime. The element comprises a hollow elastic cylindrical shell fitted with an optimized internal substructure consisting of a central mass supported by an axisymmetric distribution of elastic stiffeners, which dictate the shell's effective bulk modulus and density. The derived closed form scattering solution for this system shows that the subsonic flexural waves excited in the shell by the attachment of stiffeners are suppressed by including a sufficiently large number of such stiffeners. As an example of refraction-based wave steering, a cylindrical-to-plane wave lens is designed by varying the bulk modulus in the array according to the conformal mapping of a unit circle to a square. Elastic shells provide rich scattering properties, mainly due to their ability to support highly dispersive flexural waves. Analysis of flexural-borne waves on a pair of shells yields an analytical expression for the width of a flexural resonance, which is then used with the theory of multiple scattering to accurately predict the splitting of the resonance frequency. This analysis leads to the discovery of the acoustic Poisson-like effect in a periodic wave medium. This effect redirects an incident acoustic wave by 90° in an otherwise acoustically transparent sonic crystal. An unresponsive "deaf" antisymmetric mode locked to band gap boundaries is unlocked by matching Bragg scattering with a quadrupole flexural resonance of the shell. The dynamic effect causes normal unidirectional wave motion to strongly couple to perpendicular motion, analogous to the quasi-static Poisson effect in solids. The Poisson
Active micromixer using surface acoustic wave streaming
Branch; Darren W. , Meyer; Grant D. , Craighead; Harold G.
2011-05-17
An active micromixer uses a surface acoustic wave, preferably a Rayleigh wave, propagating on a piezoelectric substrate to induce acoustic streaming in a fluid in a microfluidic channel. The surface acoustic wave can be generated by applying an RF excitation signal to at least one interdigital transducer on the piezoelectric substrate. The active micromixer can rapidly mix quiescent fluids or laminar streams in low Reynolds number flows. The active micromixer has no moving parts (other than the SAW transducer) and is, therefore, more reliable, less damaging to sensitive fluids, and less susceptible to fouling and channel clogging than other types of active and passive micromixers. The active micromixer is adaptable to a wide range of geometries, can be easily fabricated, and can be integrated in a microfluidic system, reducing dead volume. Finally, the active micromixer has on-demand on/off mixing capability and can be operated at low power.
Topological charge pump by surface acoustic waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yi, Zheng; Shi-Ping, Feng; Shi-Jie, Yang
2016-06-01
Quantized electron pumping by the surface acoustic wave across barriers created by a sequence of split metal gates is interpreted from the viewpoint of topology. The surface acoustic wave serves as a one-dimensional periodical potential whose energy spectrum possesses the Bloch band structure. The time-dependent phase plays the role of an adiabatic parameter of the Hamiltonian which induces a geometrical phase. The pumping currents are related to the Chern numbers of the filled bands below the Fermi energy. Based on this understanding, we predict a novel effect of quantized but non-monotonous current plateaus simultaneously pumped by two homodromous surface acoustic waves. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11374036) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB821403).
Acoustic Emission, b-values and Foliation Plane Anisotropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sehizadeh, Mahdi; Nasseri, Mohammad H.; Ye, Sheng; Young, R. Paul
2016-04-01
The b-value and D-value are two parameters related to size and distance distribution of earthquakes. There are many different factors affecting b-value such as stress state, thermal gradients, focal mechanism and heterogeneity. For example, the literature shows that the b-value changes systematically with respect to the focal mechanism. In laboratory experiments, foliation planes introduce a weakness in samples and can be considered as a potential for rupture or pre-existing faults, so they may exhibit similar relationships. The D-value defines the degree of clustering of earthquakes and would be expected to have a defined relationship with respect to the anisotropy. Using a unique facility in the Rock Fracture Dynamics laboratory at the University of Toronto, three sets of polyaxial experiments have been performed on cubic samples with foliation planes systematically oriented at different angles to the principal stress direction. During these tests, samples were loaded under controlled true-triaxial stress conditions until they failed or had severe damage and acoustic emission events were recorded using 18 sensors around the samples. The paper describes how the combination of stress state and foliation planes affects the b-value and D-value under laboratory conditions.
Schwab, Hans-Martin; Beckmann, Martin F; Schmitz, Georg
2016-04-01
Photoacoustic imaging aims to visualize light absorption properties of biological tissue by receiving a sound wave that is generated inside the observed object as a result of the photoacoustic effect. In clinical applications, the strong light absorption in human skin is a major problem. When high amplitude photoacoustic waves that originate from skin absorption propagate into the tissue, they are reflected back by acoustical scatterers and the reflections contribute to the received signal. The artifacts associated with these reflected waves are referred to as clutter or skin echo and limit the applicability of photoacoustic imaging for medical applications severely. This study seeks to exploit the acoustic tissue information gained by plane wave ultrasound measurements with a linear array in order to correct for reflections in the photoacoustic image. By deriving a theory for clutter waves in k-space and a matching inversion approach, photoacoustic measurements compensated for clutter are shown to be recovered.
Schwab, Hans-Martin; Beckmann, Martin F.; Schmitz, Georg
2016-01-01
Photoacoustic imaging aims to visualize light absorption properties of biological tissue by receiving a sound wave that is generated inside the observed object as a result of the photoacoustic effect. In clinical applications, the strong light absorption in human skin is a major problem. When high amplitude photoacoustic waves that originate from skin absorption propagate into the tissue, they are reflected back by acoustical scatterers and the reflections contribute to the received signal. The artifacts associated with these reflected waves are referred to as clutter or skin echo and limit the applicability of photoacoustic imaging for medical applications severely. This study seeks to exploit the acoustic tissue information gained by plane wave ultrasound measurements with a linear array in order to correct for reflections in the photoacoustic image. By deriving a theory for clutter waves in k-space and a matching inversion approach, photoacoustic measurements compensated for clutter are shown to be recovered. PMID:27446669
Inverse Scattering Problems for Acoustic Waves in AN Inhomogeneous Medium.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kedzierawski, Andrzej Wladyslaw
1990-01-01
This dissertation considers the inverse scattering problem of determining either the absorption of sound in an inhomogeneous medium or the surface impedance of an obstacle from a knowledge of the far-field patterns of the scattered fields corresponding to many incident time -harmonic plane waves. First, we consider the inverse problem in the case when the scattering object is an inhomogeneous medium with complex refraction index having compact support. Our approach to this problem is the orthogonal projection method of Colton-Monk (cf. The inverse scattering problem for time acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium, Quart. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 41 (1988), 97-125). After that, we prove the analogue of Karp's Theorem for the scattering of acoustic waves through an inhomogeneous medium with compact support. We then generalize some of these results to the case when the inhomogeneous medium is no longer of compact support. If the acoustic wave penetrates the inhomogeneous medium by only a small amount then the inverse medium problem leads to the inverse obstacle problem with an impedance boundary condition. We solve the inverse impedance problem of determining the surface impedance of an obstacle of known shape by using both the methods of Kirsch-Kress and Colton-Monk (cf. R. Kress, Linear Integral Equations, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1989).
25 years of dust acoustic waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merlino, Robert L.; Merlino
2014-12-01
The dust acoustic wave (DAW) was first discussed by P. K. Shukla in May of 1989 at the First Capri Workshop on Dusty Plasmas. In the past 25 years, the subsequent publication of the linear and nonlinear properties of the DAW (Rao, N. N., Shukla, P. K. and Yu, M. Y. 1990 Planet. Space Sci. 38, 543) has generated and sustained a large body of theoretical and experimental research that has clarified the physics of collective effects in dusty plasmas. A unique feature of the DAW is that it can be observed (literally) using laser illumination and high-speed videography, revealing details of wave-particle interactions at an unprecedented single particle level. This paper attempts to review some of the contributions and extensions of dust acoustic wave physics, as well as identify recent findings that illustrate the potential importance of this dust wave in the agglomeration of dust particles.
Acoustic waves superimposed on incompressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hodge, Steve
1990-01-01
The use of incompressible approximations in deriving solutions to the Lighthill wave equation was investigated for problems where an analytical solution could be found. A particular model problem involves the determination of the sound field of a spherical oscillating bubble in an ideal fluid. It is found that use of incompressible boundary conditions leads to good approximations in the important region of high acoustic wave number.
Broadband acoustic cloak for ultrasound waves.
Zhang, Shu; Xia, Chunguang; Fang, Nicholas
2011-01-14
Invisibility devices based on coordinate transformation have opened up a new field of considerable interest. We present here the first practical realization of a low-loss and broadband acoustic cloak for underwater ultrasound. This metamaterial cloak is constructed with a network of acoustic circuit elements, namely, serial inductors and shunt capacitors. Our experiment clearly shows that the acoustic cloak can effectively bend the ultrasound waves around the hidden object, with reduced scattering and shadow. Because of the nonresonant nature of the building elements, this low-loss (∼6 dB/m) cylindrical cloak exhibits invisibility over a broad frequency range from 52 to 64 kHz. Furthermore, our experimental study indicates that this design approach should be scalable to different acoustic frequencies and offers the possibility for a variety of devices based on coordinate transformation.
Gas sensing with surface acoustic wave devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, S. J.; Schweizer, K. S.; Ricco, A. J.; Zipperian, T. E.
1985-03-01
The use of a ZnO-on-Si surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonator as a gas sensor is discussed. In particular, the sensitivity of the device to organic vapors is examined. The planar nature of the SAW device, in which the acoustic energy is confined to within roughly one acoustic wavelength of the surface, makes the device extremely sensitive to surface perturbations. This characteristic has been exploited in the construction of SAW gas sensors in which the surface wave propagation characteristics are altered by species adsorbed from the ambient gas. The porous nature of the sputtered ZnO film, in conjunction with the microbalance capability of the SAW device, gives the sensor the ability to distinguish molecules on the basis of both size and mass.
Wave Phenomena in an Acoustic Resonant Chamber
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, Mary E.; And Others
1974-01-01
Discusses the design and operation of a high Q acoustical resonant chamber which can be used to demonstrate wave phenomena such as three-dimensional normal modes, Q values, densities of states, changes in the speed of sound, Fourier decomposition, damped harmonic oscillations, sound-absorbing properties, and perturbation and scattering problems.…
Marble Ageing Characterization by Acoustic Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boudani, Mohamed El; Wilkie-Chancellier, Nicolas; Martinez, Loïc; Hébert, Ronan; Rolland, Olivier; Forst, Sébastien; Vergès-Belmin, Véronique; Serfaty, Stéphane
In cultural heritage, statue marble characterization by acoustic waves is a well-known non-destructive method. Such investigations through the statues by time of flight method (TOF) point out sound speeds decrease with ageing. However for outdoor stored statues as the ones in the gardens of Chateau de Versailles, ageing affects mainly the surface of the Carrara marble. The present paper proposes an experimental study of the marble acoustic properties variations during accelerated laboratory ageing. The surface degradation of the marble is reproduced in laboratory for 29 mm thick marble samples by using heating/cooling thermal cycles on one face of a marble plate. Acoustic waves are generated by 1 MHz central frequency contact transducers excited by a voltage pulse placed on both sides of the plate. During the ageing and by using ad hoc transducers, the marble samples are characterized in transmission, along their volume by shear, compressional TOF measurements and along their surface by Rayleigh waves measurements. For Rayleigh waves, both TOF by transducers and laser vibrometry methods are used to detect the Rayleigh wave. The transmission measurements point out a deep decrease of the waves speeds in conjunction with a dramatic decrease of the maximum frequency transmitted. The marble acts as a low pass filter whose characteristic frequency cut decreases with ageing. This pattern occurs also for the Rayleigh wave surface measurements. The speed change in conjunction with the bandwidth translation is shown to be correlated to the material de-structuration during ageing. With a similar behavior but reversed in time, the same king of phenomena have been observed trough sol-gel materials during their structuration from liquid to solid state (Martinez, L. et all (2004). "Chirp-Z analysis for sol-gel transition monitoring". Ultrasonics, 42(1), 507-510.). A model is proposed to interpret the acoustical measurements
2005-09-30
approximation in many practical situations. The equation for the average acoustic field in the statistically homogeneous in horizontal plane stratified...using diagrammatic technique similar to the one used in the theory of wave propagation in the homogeneous medium. The mass operator was calculated...perturbations on various eigenrays due to the horizontal refraction induced by internal waves with the Garrett-Munk spectrum: rigorous internal wave model
Measuring Acoustic Nonlinearity by Collinear Mixing Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, M.; Tang, G.; Jacobs, L. J.; Qu, J.
2011-06-01
It is well known that the acoustic nonlinearity parameter β is correlated to fatigue damage in metallic materials. Various methods have been developed to measure β. One of the most often used methods is the harmonic generation technique, in which β is obtained by measuring the magnitude of the second order harmonic waves. An inherent weakness of this method is the difficulty in distinguishing material nonlinearity from the nonlinearity of the measurement system. In this paper, we demonstrate the possibility of using collinear mixing waves to measure β. The wave mixing method is based on the interaction between two incident waves in a nonlinear medium. Under certain conditions, such interactions generate a third wave of different frequency. This generated third wave is also called resonant wave, because its amplitude is unbounded if the medium has no attenuation. Such resonant waves are less sensitive to the nonlinearity of the measurement system, and have the potential to identify the source location of the nonlinearity. In this work, we used a longitudinal wave and a shear wave as the incident waves. The resonant shear wave is measured experimentally on samples made of aluminum and steel, respectively. Numerical simulations of the tests were also performed using a finite difference method.
Cloaking of the momentum in acoustic waves.
Sklan, Sophia
2010-01-01
Through an appropriate change in variables, we find that the three-dimensional acoustic wave equation is subject to the transformation media interpretation. In particular, we determine that this interpretation can be extended beyond the pressure difference to also account for the momentum transported by the wave. The suitability of momentum transport is especially interesting as it is an example where the field of interest is not governed by a wave equation. We examine how both fields behave in the case of cloaking. Explicit consideration of the boundary conditions shows that perfect cloaking is preserved, even when the incoming momentum is nonzero at the surface of the cloak.
Surface acoustic wave propagation in graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thalmeier, Peter; Dóra, Balázs; Ziegler, Klaus
2010-01-01
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation is a powerful method to investigate two-dimensional (2D) electron systems. We show how SAW observables are influenced by coupling to the 2D massless Dirac electrons of graphene and argue that Landau oscillations in SAW propagation can be observed as function of gate voltage for constant field. Contrary to other transport measurements, the zero-field SAW propagation gives the wave-vector dependence of graphene conductivity for small wave numbers. We predict a crossover from Schrödinger to Dirac-like behavior as a function of gate voltage, with no attenuation in the latter for clean samples.
Acoustic Wave Filter Technology - A Review.
Ruppel, Clemens
2017-04-04
Today, acoustic filters are the filter technology to meet the requirements with respect to performance dictated by the cellular phone standards and their form factor. Around 2 billion cellular phones are sold every year, and smart phones are of a very high percentage of approximately two thirds. Smart phones require a very high number of filter functions ranging from the low double-digit range up to almost triple digit numbers in the near future. In the frequency range up to 1 GHz surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters are almost exclusively employed, while in the higher frequency range bulk acoustic wave (BAW) and SAW filters are competing for their shares. Prerequisites for the success of acoustic filters were the availability of high quality substrates, advanced and highly reproducible fabrication technologies, optimum filter techniques, precise simulation software, and advanced design tools that allow the fast and efficient design according to customer specifications. The paper will try to focus on innovations leading to high volume applications of intermediate frequency (IF) and radio frequency (RF) acoustic filters, e.g., TV IF filters, IF filters for cellular phones, and SAW/BAW RF filters for the RF front-end of cellular phones.
Millimeter-Wave Acoustic Transducers
1990-04-01
Phys . Rev. Lett . 54, 1810 ( 1985 ). 28. S.A. Akhmanov, V.V. Fadeev, R.V. Khokhlov, and O.N. Chunaev, Sov . Phys . JETP Lett . 6, 85...Acoust. Soc. Am. 66, 1801 (1979). 41 . F.P. Milliken, K.W. Schwartz and C.W. Smith, Phys . Rev. Lett . 48, 1204 (1982). 42 . T.E. Huber and H.J. Maris... Phys . Lett . 7, 264 (1965). 7. K.H. Yang, P.L. Richards, and Y.R. Shen, J. Appl. Phys . 44, 1417 (1973). 8. H.K. Wong, G.K. Wong and J.B.
Langasite surface acoustic wave gas sensors: modeling and verification
Peng Zheng,; Greve, D. W.; Oppenheim, I. J.
2013-03-01
We report finite element simulations of the effect of conductive sensing layers on the surface wave velocity of langasite substrates. The simulations include both the mechanical and electrical influences of the conducting sensing layer. We show that three-dimensional simulations are necessary because of the out-of-plane displacements of the commonly used (0, 138.5, 26.7) Euler angle. Measurements of the transducer input admittance in reflective delay-line devices yield a value for the electromechanical coupling coefficient that is in good agreement with the three-dimensional simulations on bare langasite substrate. The input admittance measurements also show evidence of excitation of an additional wave mode and excess loss due to the finger resistance. The results of these simulations and measurements will be useful in the design of surface acoustic wave gas sensors.
Acoustic-gravity waves, theory and application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kadri, Usama; Farrell, William E.; Munk, Walter
2015-04-01
Acoustic-gravity waves (AGW) propagate in the ocean under the influence of both the compressibility of sea water and the restoring force of gravity. The gravity dependence vanishes if the wave vector is normal to the ocean surface, but becomes increasingly important as the wave vector acquires a horizontal tilt. They are excited by many sources, including non-linear surface wave interactions, disturbances of the ocean bottom (submarine earthquakes and landslides) and underwater explosions. In this introductory lecture on acoustic-gravity waves, we describe their properties, and their relation to organ pipe modes, to microseisms, and to deep ocean signatures by short surface waves. We discuss the generation of AGW by underwater earthquakes; knowledge of their behaviour with water depth can be applied for the early detection of tsunamis. We also discuss their generation by the non-linear interaction of surface gravity waves, which explains the major role they play in transforming energy from the ocean surface to the crust, as part of the microseisms phenomenon. Finally, they contribute to horizontal water transport at depth, which might affect benthic life.
Colliding plane waves in F(R)=RN gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tahamtan, T.; Halilsoy, M.; Habib Mazharimousavi, S.
2016-10-01
We identify a region of a specific F( R)= R N gravity solution without external sources which is isometric to the spacetime of colliding plane waves (CPW). The analogy renders construction and collision of plane waves in F( R)= R N gravity possible. The geometry of the interaction region is equivalent to the Reissner-Nordström (RN) one, however there is no Einstein-Maxwell (EM) source --this is made possible by using the model of RN gravity and the parameter N>1 creates the source. For N=1, we naturally recover the plane waves (and their collision) in Einstein's theory.
Ring waveguide resonator on surface acoustic waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biryukov, S. V.; Martin, G.; Weihnacht, M.
2007-04-01
A simple regular electrode structure for surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices is proposed. The structure consists of an interdigital transducer in the form of a ring placed on the Z cut of a hexagonal piezoelectric crystal. Finite thickness electrodes produce the known slowing effect for a SAW in comparison with this SAW on a free surface. The closed "slow" electrode region with the "fast" surrounding region forms an open waveguide resonator structure with the acoustic field concentrated in the electrode region. If the radius of the structure is large enough for a given wavelength, an acceptable level of radiation losses can be reached. The electrical admittance of such resonator does not have sidelobes.
Absorption of surface acoustic waves by graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, S. H.; Xu, W.
2011-06-01
We present a theoretical study on interactions of electrons in graphene with surface acoustic waves (SAWs). We find that owing to momentum and energy conservation laws, the electronic transition accompanied by the SAW absorption cannot be achieved via inter-band transition channels in graphene. For graphene, strong absorption of SAWs can be observed in a wide frequency range up to terahertz at room temperature. The intensity of SAW absorption by graphene depends strongly on temperature and can be adjusted by changing the carrier density. This study is relevant to the exploration of the acoustic properties of graphene and to the application of graphene as frequency-tunable SAW devices.
Elastic wave invariants for acoustic emission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pardee, W. J.
1981-07-01
It is shown that there are four conserved properties of an elastic wave in an infinite isotropic plate: the energy, the two components of wave momentum parallel to the surface, and wave angular momentum normal to the surface. All four invariants are volume integrals of quadratic functions of the spatial (Eulerian) coordinates. The canonical energy-momentum density tensor and the orbital, spin, and total angular momentum density tensors are constructed and sufficient conditions for their conservation are demonstrated. A procedure for measuring the wave momentum of a surface wave is proposed. It is argued that these invariants are likely to be particularly useful characterizations of acoustic emission, e.g., from a growing crack. Experimental tests are proposed, and possible applications to practical monitoring problems described.
Acoustic Remote Sensing of Rogue Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parsons, Wade; Kadri, Usama
2016-04-01
We propose an early warning system for approaching rogue waves using the remote sensing of acoustic-gravity waves (AGWs) - progressive sound waves that propagate at the speed of sound in the ocean. It is believed that AGWs are generated during the formation of rogue waves, carrying information on the rogue waves at near the speed of sound, i.e. much faster than the rogue wave. The capability of identifying those special sound waves would enable detecting rogue waves most efficiently. A lot of promising work has been reported on AGWs in the last few years, part of which in the context of remote sensing as an early detection of tsunami. However, to our knowledge none of the work addresses the problem of rogue waves directly. Although there remains some uncertainty as to the proper definition of a rogue wave, there is little doubt that they exist and no one can dispute the potential destructive power of rogue waves. An early warning system for such extreme waves would become a demanding safety technology. A closed form expression was developed for the pressure induced by an impulsive source at the free surface (the Green's function) from which the solution for more general sources can be developed. In particular, we used the model of the Draupner Wave of January 1st, 1995 as a source and calculated the induced AGW signature. In particular we studied the AGW signature associated with a special feature of this wave, and characteristic of rogue waves, of the absence of any local set-down beneath the main crest and the presence of a large local set-up.
The radiation of sound by the instability waves of a compressible plane turbulent shear layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tam, C. K. W.; Morris, P. J.
1980-01-01
The problem of acoustic radiation generated by instability waves of a compressible plane turbulent shear layer is solved. The solution provided is valid up to the acoustic far-field region. It represents a significant improvement over the solution obtained by classical hydrodynamic-stability theory which is essentially a local solution with the acoustic radiation suppressed. The basic instability-wave solution which is valid in the shear layer and the near-field region is constructed in terms of an asymptotic expansion using the method of multiple scales. This solution accounts for the effects of the slightly divergent mean flow. It is shown that the multiple-scales asymptotic expansion is not uniformly valid far from the shear layer. Continuation of this solution into the entire upper half-plane is described. The extended solution enables the near- and far-field pressure fluctuations associated with the instability wave to be determined. Numerical results show that the directivity pattern of acoustic radiation into the stationary medium peaks at 20 degrees to the axis of the shear layer in the downstream direction for supersonic flows. This agrees qualitatively with the observed noise-directivity patterns of supersonic jets.
Modulation of a quantum positron acoustic wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amin, M. R.
2015-09-01
Amplitude modulation of a positron acoustic wave is considered in a four-component electron-positron plasma in the quantum magnetohydrodynamic regime. The important ingredients of this study are the inclusion of the particle exchange-correlation potential, quantum diffraction effects via the Bohm potential, and dissipative effect due to viscosity in the momentum balance equation of the charged carriers. A modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation is derived for the evolution of the slowly varying amplitude of the quantum positron acoustic wave by employing the standard reductive perturbation technique. Detailed analysis of the linear and nonlinear dispersions of the quantum positron acoustic wave is presented. For a typical parameter range, relevant to some dense astrophysical objects, it is found that the quantum positron acoustic wave is modulationally unstable above a certain critical wavenumber. Effects of the exchange-correlation potential and the Bohm potential in the wave dynamics are also studied. It is found that the quantum effect due to the particle exchange-correlation potential is significant in comparison to the effect due to the Bohm potential for smaller values of the carrier wavenumber. However, for comparatively larger values of the carrier wavenumber, the Bohm potential effect overtakes the effect of the exchange-correlation potential. It is found that the critical wavenumber for the modulation instability depends on the ratio of the equilibrium hot electron number density and the cold positron number density and on the ratio of the equilibrium hot positron number density and the cold positron number density. A numerical result on the growth rate of the modulation instability is also presented.
Plane Waves in a Transparent Isotropic Chiral Medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fisanov, V. V.
2015-04-01
A homogeneous isotropic transparent chiral medium supports two normal plane waves with left and right circular polarization and differently valued positive wave numbers. The presence or absence of forward and backward Beltrami waves and their helicity are regulated by the signs of the permittivity and permeability and the strength of the chirality. The ray refractive index is a universal parameter whose sign differentiates the forward and backward waves.
Distorted Plane Waves on Manifolds of Nonpositive Curvature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ingremeau, Maxime
2017-03-01
We will consider the high frequency behaviour of distorted plane waves on manifolds of nonpositive curvature which are Euclidean or hyperbolic near infinity, under the assumption that the curvature is negative close to the trapped set of the geodesic flow and that the topological pressure associated to half the unstable Jacobian is negative. We obtain a precise expression for distorted plane waves in the high frequency limit, similar to the one in Guillarmou and Naud (Am J Math 136:445-479, 2014) in the case of convex co-compact manifolds. In particular, we will show {L_{loc}^∞} bounds on distorted plane waves that are uniform with frequency. We will also show a small-scale equidistribution result for the real part of distorted plane waves, which implies sharp bounds for the volume of their nodal sets.
2005-05-31
Braden Shielding Systems) at the aperture of the antenna . No significant difference can be seen between the two cases. The combination of ferrite tiles...and pyramidal ferrite absorbers that was used provides a broad range of power absorption in the frequency range of the antenna . Therefore, these results...acoustic wave front. 1 2 EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP The guiding wave structure is a TEM half plane antenna , as shown in Figure 1. An electromagnetic wave is
Sum, K S; Pan, J
2007-07-01
Distributions of sound pressure and intensity on the surface of a flat impedance strip flush-mounted on a rigid baffle are studied for a grazing incident plane wave. The distributions are obtained by superimposing the unperturbed wave (the specularly reflected wave as if the strip is rigid plus the incident wave) with the radiated wave from the surface vibration of the strip excited by the unperturbed pressure. The radiated pressure interferes with the unperturbed pressure and distorts the propagating plane wave. When the plane wave propagates in the baffle-strip-baffle direction, it encounters discontinuities in acoustical impedance at the baffle-strip and strip-baffle interfaces. The radiated pressure is highest around the baffle-strip interface, but decreases toward the strip-baffle interface where the plane wave distortion reduces accordingly. As the unperturbed and radiated waves have different magnitudes and superimpose out of phase, the surface pressure and intensity increase across the strip in the plane wave propagation direction. Therefore, the surface absorption of the strip is nonzero and nonuniform. This paper provides an understanding of the surface pressure and intensity behaviors of a finite impedance strip for a grazing incident plane wave, and of how the distributed intensity determines the sound absorption coefficient of the strip.
Surface acoustic wave micromotor with arbitrary axis rotational capability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tjeung, Ricky T.; Hughes, Mark S.; Yeo, Leslie Y.; Friend, James R.
2011-11-01
A surface acoustic wave (SAW) actuated rotary motor is reported here, consisting of a millimeter-sized spherical metal rotor placed on the surface of a lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric substrate upon which the SAW is made to propagate. At the design frequency of 3.2 MHz and with a fixed preload of 41.1 μN, the maximum rotational speed and torque achieved were approximately 1900 rpm and 5.37 μN-mm, respectively, producing a maximum output power of 1.19 μW. The surface vibrations were visualized using laser Doppler vibrometry and indicate that the rotational motion arises due to retrograde elliptical motions of the piezoelectric surface elements. Rotation about orthogonal axes in the plane of the substrate has been obtained by using orthogonally placed interdigital electrodes on the substrate to generate SAW impinging on the rotor, offering a means to generate rotation about an arbitrary axis in the plane of the substrate.
Wireless Multiplexed Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors Project
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Youngquist, Robert C.
2014-01-01
Wireless Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Sensor is a new technology for obtaining multiple, real-time measurements under extreme environmental conditions. This project plans to develop a wireless multiplexed sensor system that uses SAW sensors, with no batteries or semiconductors, that are passive and rugged, can operate down to cryogenic temperatures and up to hundreds of degrees C, and can be used to sense a wide variety of parameters over reasonable distances (meters).
Computation of acoustic waves in a jet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bayliss, A.; Turkel, E.
1978-01-01
A numerical treatment of acoustic waves in a jet is described. The full time dependent Euler equations are used in both linear and nonlinear formulations. The computational region of integration is artificially bounded and boundary conditions are developed to simulate outgoing waves and to enable the computational domain to be substantially restricted. Higher order methods and coordinate transformations are introduced to further reduce the number of grid points as well as to increase the efficiency of the program. Numerical results are presented for time harmonic sources as well as for sources with more complicated time dependence.
Radio wave propagation and acoustic sounding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singal, S. P.
Radio wave propagation of the decimetric and centimetric waves depends to a large extent on the boundary layer meteorological conditions which give rise to severe fadings, very often due to multipath propagation. Sodar is one of the inexpensive remote sensing techniques which can be employed to probe the boundary layer structure. In the paper a historical perspective has been given of the simultaneously conducted studies on radio waves and sodar at various places. The radio meteorological information needed for propagation studies has been clearly spelt out and conditions of a ray path especially in the presence of a ducting layer have been defined as giving rise to fading or signal enhancement conditions. Finally the potential of the sodar studies to obtain information about the boundary layer phenomena has been stressed, clearly spelling out the use of acoustic sounding in radio wave propagation studies.
Nonlinear ion acoustic waves scattered by vortexes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohno, Yuji; Yoshida, Zensho
2016-09-01
The Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) hierarchy is the archetype of infinite-dimensional integrable systems, which describes nonlinear ion acoustic waves in two-dimensional space. This remarkably ordered system resides on a singular submanifold (leaf) embedded in a larger phase space of more general ion acoustic waves (low-frequency electrostatic perturbations). The KP hierarchy is characterized not only by small amplitudes but also by irrotational (zero-vorticity) velocity fields. In fact, the KP equation is derived by eliminating vorticity at every order of the reductive perturbation. Here, we modify the scaling of the velocity field so as to introduce a vortex term. The newly derived system of equations consists of a generalized three-dimensional KP equation and a two-dimensional vortex equation. The former describes 'scattering' of vortex-free waves by ambient vortexes that are determined by the latter. We say that the vortexes are 'ambient' because they do not receive reciprocal reactions from the waves (i.e., the vortex equation is independent of the wave fields). This model describes a minimal departure from the integrable KP system. By the Painlevé test, we delineate how the vorticity term violates integrability, bringing about an essential three-dimensionality to the solutions. By numerical simulation, we show how the solitons are scattered by vortexes and become chaotic.
Laboratory observations of self-excited dust acoustic shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merlino, Robert L.; Heinrich, Jonathon R.; Kim, Su-Hyun
2009-11-01
Dust acoustic waves have been discussed in connection with dust density structures in Saturn's rings and the Earth's mesosphere, and as a possible mechanism for triggering condensation of small grains in dust molecular clouds. Dust acoustic waves are a ubiquitous occurrence in laboratory dusty plasmas formed in glow discharges. We report observations of repeated, self-excited dust acoustic shock waves in a dc glow discharge dusty plasma using high-speed video imaging. Two major observations will be presented: (1) The self-steepening of a nonlinear dust acoustic wave into a saw-tooth wave with sharp gradient in dust density, very similar to those found in numerical solutions [1] of the fully nonlinear fluid equations for nondispersive dust acoustic waves, and (2) the collision and confluence of two dust acoustic shock waves. [4pt] [1] B. Eliasson and P. K. Shukla, Phys. Rev. E 69, 067401 (2004).
An Apparatus for Constructing an Electromagnetic Plane Wave Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kneubil, Fabiana Botelho; Loures, Marcus Vinicius Russo; Amado, William
2015-01-01
In this paper we report on an activity aimed at building an electromagnetic wave. This was part of a class on the concept of mass offered to a group of 20 pre-service Brazilian physics teachers. The activity consisted of building a plane wave using an apparatus in which it is possible to fit some rods representing electric and magnetic fields into…
Exact Steady Azimuthal Internal Waves in the f-Plane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, Hung-Chu
2017-03-01
We present an explicit exact solution of the nonlinear governing equations with Coriolis and centripetal terms in the f-plane approximation for internal geophysical trapped waves with a uniform current near the equator. This solution describes in the Lagrangian framework azimuthal equatorial internal waves propagating westward in a stratified rotational fluid.
Plane wave (curl; Ω) conforming finite elements for Maxwell's equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ledger, P. D.; Morgan, K.; Hassan, O.; Weatherill, N. P.
This paper proposes a discretisation of Maxwell's equations which combines the popular edge elements of Nédélec with expansions of plane waves. The method is applied to simple two dimensional electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering simulations and issues of accuracy and matrix conditioning are investigated.
Exact Nonlinear Internal Equatorial Waves in the f-plane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, Hung-Chu
2016-07-01
We present an explicit exact solution of the nonlinear governing equations for internal geophysical water waves propagating westward above the thermocline in the f-plane approximation near the equator. Moreover, the mass transport velocity induced by this internal equatorial wave is eastward and a westward current occurs in the transition zone between the great depth where the water is still and the thermocline.
Acceleration of solitary ion-acoustic surface waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stenflo, L.; Gradov, O. M.
1991-10-01
We consider the interaction between long-wavelength ion-acoustic and electron-plasma surface waves on a semi-infinite plasma. It then turns out that an ion-acoustic solitary wave can be accelerated when the amplitude of the electron-plasma surface wave varies in time.
Identification of rocket-induced acoustic waves in the ionosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mabie, Justin; Bullett, Terence; Moore, Prentiss; Vieira, Gerald
2016-10-01
Acoustic waves can create plasma disturbances in the ionosphere, but the number of observations is limited. Large-amplitude acoustic waves generated by energetic sources like large earthquakes and tsunamis are more readily observed than acoustic waves generated by weaker sources. New observations of plasma displacements caused by rocket-generated acoustic waves were made using the Vertically Incident Pulsed Ionospheric Radar (VIPIR), an advanced high-frequency radar. Rocket-induced acoustic waves which are characterized by low amplitudes relative to those induced by more energetic sources can be detected in the ionosphere using the phase data from fixed frequency radar observations of a plasma layer. This work is important for increasing the number and quality of observations of acoustic waves in the ionosphere and could help improve the understanding of energy transport from the lower atmosphere to the thermosphere.
Inverse scattering problems for acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kedzierawski, Andrzej Wladyslaw
The inverse scattering problem is considered of determining either the absorption of sound in an inhomogeneous medium or the surface impedance of an obstacle from a knowledge of the far field patterns of the scattered field corresponding to many incident time-harmonic plane waves. First, the inverse problem is studied in the case when the scattering object is an inhomogeneous medium with complex refractive index having compact support. The approach to this problem is the orthogonal projection method of Colton-Monk (1988). After that, the analogue is proven of Karp's Theorem for the scattering of acoustic waves through an inhomogeneous medium with compact support. Some of these results are then generalized to the case when the inhomogeneous medium is no longer of compact support. If the acoustic wave penetrates the inhomogeneous medium by only a small amount then the inverse medium problem leads to the inverse obstacle problem with an impedance boundary condition. The inverse impedance problem is solved of determining the surface impedance of an obstacle of known shape by using both the methods of Kirsch-Kress and Colton-Monk (1989).
Acoustic wave propagation in heterogeneous structures including experimental validation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baumeister, Kenneth J.; Dahl, Milo D.
1989-01-01
A finite element model was developed to solve for the acoustic pressure and energy fields in a heterogeneous suppressor. The derivations from the governing equations assumed that the material properties could vary with position resulting in a heterogeneous variable property two-dimensional wave equation. This eliminated the necessity of finding the boundary conditions between different materials. For a two media region consisting of part air and part bulk absorber, a model was used to describe the bulk absorber properties in two directions. Complex metallic structures inside the air duct are simulated by simply changing element properties from air to the structural material in a pattern to describe the desired shapes. To verify the numerical theory, experiments were conducted without flow in a rectangular duct with a single folded cavity mounted above the duct and absorbing material mounted inside a cavity. Changes in a nearly plane wave sound field were measured on the wall opposite the absorbing cavity. Fairly good agreement was found in the standing wave pattern upstream of the absorber and in the decay of pressure level opposite the absorber, as a function of distance along the duct. The finite element model provides a convenient method for evaluating the acoustic properties of bulk absorbers.
Acoustic wave propagation in heterogeneous structures including experimental validation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baumeister, Kenneth J.; Dahl, Milo D.
1989-01-01
A finite element model was developed to solve for the acoustic pressure and energy fields in a heterogeneous suppressor. The derivations from the governing equations assumed that the material properties could vary with position resulting in a heterogeneous variable property two-dimensional wave equation. This eliminated the necessity of finding the boundary conditions between different materials. For a two-media region consisting of part air and part bulk absorber, a model was used to describe the bulk absorber properties in two directions. Complex metallic structures inside the air duct are simulated by simply changing element properties from air to the structural material in a pattern to describe the desired shapes. To verify the numerical theory, experiments were conducted without flow in a rectangular duct with a single folded cavity mounted above the duct and absorbing material mounted inside a cavity. Changes in a nearly plane wave sound field were measured on the wall opposite the absorbing cavity. Fairly good agreement was found in the standing wave pattern upstream of the absorber and in the decay of pressure level opposite the absorber, as a function of distance along the duct. The finite element model provides a convenient method for evaluating the acoustic properties of bulk absorbers.
Ultrasound acoustic wave energy transfer and harvesting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shahab, Shima; Leadenham, Stephen; Guillot, François; Sabra, Karim; Erturk, Alper
2014-04-01
This paper investigates low-power electricity generation from ultrasound acoustic wave energy transfer combined with piezoelectric energy harvesting for wireless applications ranging from medical implants to naval sensor systems. The focus is placed on an underwater system that consists of a pulsating source for spherical wave generation and a harvester connected to an external resistive load for quantifying the electrical power output. An analytical electro-acoustic model is developed to relate the source strength to the electrical power output of the harvester located at a specific distance from the source. The model couples the energy harvester dynamics (piezoelectric device and electrical load) with the source strength through the acoustic-structure interaction at the harvester-fluid interface. Case studies are given for a detailed understanding of the coupled system dynamics under various conditions. Specifically the relationship between the electrical power output and system parameters, such as the distance of the harvester from the source, dimensions of the harvester, level of source strength, and electrical load resistance are explored. Sensitivity of the electrical power output to the excitation frequency in the neighborhood of the harvester's underwater resonance frequency is also reported.
Three-dimensional manipulation of single cells using surface acoustic waves.
Guo, Feng; Mao, Zhangming; Chen, Yuchao; Xie, Zhiwei; Lata, James P; Li, Peng; Ren, Liqiang; Liu, Jiayang; Yang, Jian; Dao, Ming; Suresh, Subra; Huang, Tony Jun
2016-02-09
The ability of surface acoustic waves to trap and manipulate micrometer-scale particles and biological cells has led to many applications involving "acoustic tweezers" in biology, chemistry, engineering, and medicine. Here, we present 3D acoustic tweezers, which use surface acoustic waves to create 3D trapping nodes for the capture and manipulation of microparticles and cells along three mutually orthogonal axes. In this method, we use standing-wave phase shifts to move particles or cells in-plane, whereas the amplitude of acoustic vibrations is used to control particle motion along an orthogonal plane. We demonstrate, through controlled experiments guided by simulations, how acoustic vibrations result in micromanipulations in a microfluidic chamber by invoking physical principles that underlie the formation and regulation of complex, volumetric trapping nodes of particles and biological cells. We further show how 3D acoustic tweezers can be used to pick up, translate, and print single cells and cell assemblies to create 2D and 3D structures in a precise, noninvasive, label-free, and contact-free manner.
Three-dimensional manipulation of single cells using surface acoustic waves
Guo, Feng; Mao, Zhangming; Chen, Yuchao; Xie, Zhiwei; Lata, James P.; Li, Peng; Ren, Liqiang; Liu, Jiayang; Yang, Jian; Dao, Ming; Suresh, Subra; Huang, Tony Jun
2016-01-01
The ability of surface acoustic waves to trap and manipulate micrometer-scale particles and biological cells has led to many applications involving “acoustic tweezers” in biology, chemistry, engineering, and medicine. Here, we present 3D acoustic tweezers, which use surface acoustic waves to create 3D trapping nodes for the capture and manipulation of microparticles and cells along three mutually orthogonal axes. In this method, we use standing-wave phase shifts to move particles or cells in-plane, whereas the amplitude of acoustic vibrations is used to control particle motion along an orthogonal plane. We demonstrate, through controlled experiments guided by simulations, how acoustic vibrations result in micromanipulations in a microfluidic chamber by invoking physical principles that underlie the formation and regulation of complex, volumetric trapping nodes of particles and biological cells. We further show how 3D acoustic tweezers can be used to pick up, translate, and print single cells and cell assemblies to create 2D and 3D structures in a precise, noninvasive, label-free, and contact-free manner. PMID:26811444
Conversion of ionospheric heater HF waves into electron acoustic waves in warm ionospheric plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lehtinen, N. G.; Inan, U. S.; Bunch, N. L.
2012-12-01
The Stanford full-wave method (StanfordFWM) was developed in order to calculate generation and propagation of electromagnetic waves in cold magnetized stratified plasmas. We generalize it by including the effects of electron temperature, by following a procedure analogous to that of [Budden and Jones, 1987, doi:10.1098/rspa.1987.0077]. The advantage of StanfordFWM is that it is intrinsically numerically stable against ``swamping'' by evanescent waves while in the method of Budden and Jones [1987] ``the problem of numerical swamping is severe ...'' The new method is used to calculate mode conversion between electron acoustic (Langmuir) and electromagnetic modes for propagation in a warm ionospheric plasma with a gradient of electron density and an arbitrary direction of the background geomagnetic field, in the vicinity of density corresponding to the plasma resonance. As a numerical check, we demonstrate good agreement with previous calculations of Budden and Jones [1987] obtained by a numerically-unstable full-wave method scheme; Mjolhus [1990, doi:10.1029/RS025i006p01321] obtained by the method of contour integration in the complex n-plane; and Kim et al [2008, doi:10.1063/1.2994719] using a numerical electron fluid simulation code. We demonstrate that under certain conditions the linear conversion of the ordinary HF electromagnetic waves radiated by an ionospheric heater into electron acoustic waves may be very efficient, with implications for the HF heating of the F-region of ionosphere.
A Shock-Refracted Acoustic Wave Model for the Prediction of Screech Amplitude in Supersonic Jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kandula, Max
2007-01-01
A physical model is proposed for the estimation of the screech amplitude in underexpanded supersonic jets. The model is based on the hypothesis that the interaction of a plane acoustic wave with stationary shock waves provides amplification of the transmitted acoustic wave upon traversing the shock. Powell's discrete source model for screech incorporating a stationary array of acoustic monopoles is extended to accommodate variable source strength. The proposed model reveals that the acoustic sources are of increasing strength with downstream distance. It is shown that the screech amplitude increases with the fuiiy expanded jet Mach number. Comparisons of predicted screech amplitude with available test data show satisfactory agreement. The effect of variable source strength on directivity of the fundamental (first harmonic, lowest frequency mode) and the second harmonic (overtone) is found to be unimportant with regard to the principal lobe (main or major lobe) of considerable relative strength, and is appreciable only in the secondary or minor lobes (of relatively weaker strength
A Shock-Refracted Acoustic Wave Model for Screech Amplitude in Supersonic Jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kandula, Max
2007-01-01
A physical model is proposed for the estimation of the screech amplitude in underexpanded supersonic jets. The model is based on the hypothesis that the interaction of a plane acoustic wave with stationary shock waves provides amplification of the transmitted acoustic wave upon traversing the shock. Powell's discrete source model for screech incorporating a stationary array of acoustic monopoles is extended to accommodate variable source strength. The proposed model reveals that the acoustic sources are of increasing strength with downstream distance. It is shown that the screech amplitude increases with the fully expanded jet Mach number. Comparisons of predicted screech amplitude with available test data show satisfactory agreement. The effect of variable source strength on the directivity of the fundamental (first harmonic, lowest frequency mode) and the second harmonic (overtone) is found to be unimportant with regard to the principal lobe (main or major lobe) of considerable relative strength, and is appreciable only in the secondary or minor lobes (of relatively weaker strength).
Acoustic field distribution of sawtooth wave with nonlinear SBE model
Liu, Xiaozhou Zhang, Lue; Wang, Xiangda; Gong, Xiufen
2015-10-28
For precise prediction of the acoustic field distribution of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy with an ellipsoid transducer, the nonlinear spheroidal beam equations (SBE) are employed to model acoustic wave propagation in medium. To solve the SBE model with frequency domain algorithm, boundary conditions are obtained for monochromatic and sawtooth waves based on the phase compensation. In numerical analysis, the influence of sinusoidal wave and sawtooth wave on axial pressure distributions are investigated.
Dual-mode acoustic wave biosensors microarrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Auner, Gregory W.; Shreve, Gina; Ying, Hao; Newaz, Golam; Hughes, Chantelle; Xu, Jianzeng
2003-04-01
We have develop highly sensitive and selective acoustic wave biosensor arrays with signal analysis systems to provide a fingerprint for the real-time identification and quantification of a wide array of bacterial pathogens and environmental health hazards. We have developed an unique highly sensitive dual mode acoustic wave platform prototype that, when combined with phage based selective detection elements, form a durable bacteria sensor. Arrays of these new real-time biosensors are integrated to form a biosensor array on a chip. This research and development program optimizes advanced piezoelectric aluminum nitride wide bandgap semiconductors, novel micromachining processes, advanced device structures, selective phage displays development and immobilization techniques, and system integration and signal analysis technology to develop the biosensor arrays. The dual sensor platform can be programmed to sense in a gas, vapor or liquid environment by switching between acoustic wave resonate modes. Such a dual mode sensor has tremendous implications for applications involving monitoring of pathogenic microorganisms in the clinical setting due to their ability to detect airborne pathogens. This provides a number of applications including hospital settings such as intensive care or other in-patient wards for the reduction of nosocomial infections and maintenance of sterile environments in surgical suites. Monitoring for airborn pathogen transmission in public transportation areas such as airplanes may be useful for implementation of strategies for redution of airborn transmission routes. The ability to use the same sensor in the liquid sensing mode is important for tracing the source of airborn pathogens to local liquid sources. Sensing of pathogens in saliva will be useful for sensing oral pathogens and support of decision-making strategies regarding prevention of transmission and support of treatment strategies.
Simple plane wave implementation for photonic crystal calculations.
Guo, Shangping; Albin, Sacharia
2003-01-27
A simple implementation of plane wave method is presented for modeling photonic crystals with arbitrary shaped 'atoms'. The Fourier transform for a single 'atom' is first calculated either by analytical Fourier transform or numerical FFT, then the shift property is used to obtain the Fourier transform for any arbitrary supercell consisting of a finite number of 'atoms'. To ensure accurate results, generally, two iterating processes including the plane wave iteration and grid resolution iteration must converge. Analysis shows that using analytical Fourier transform when available can improve accuracy and avoid the grid resolution iteration. It converges to the accurate results quickly using a small number of plane waves. Coordinate conversion is used to treat non-orthogonal unit cell with non-regular 'atom' and then is treated by standard numerical FFT. MATLAB source code for the implementation requires about less than 150 statements, and is freely available at http://www.lions.odu.edu/~sguox002.
Surface-Acoustic-Wave Piezoelectric Microbalance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chuan, Raymond L.; Bowers, William D.
1992-01-01
Improved piezoelectric microbalances developed for use in measuring masses of volcanic, aerosol, and other small particles suspended in air. Sensitive microbalance used to analyze airborne particles in real time in environments as diverse as clean rooms or upper atmosphere. Surface-acoustic-wave resonator includes input and output sets of interdigitated electrodes and two passive conductive patterns acting as reflectors. Mechanical energy travels both ways out from middle and reflected back toward middle. Microbalance and associated circuitry fit in small package. Circuit draws only 80 mA at 5 V. Sensitivity more than 400 times that of bulk piezoelectric microbalance.
Surface acoustic wave propagation in graphene film
Roshchupkin, Dmitry Plotitcyna, Olga; Matveev, Viktor; Kononenko, Oleg; Emelin, Evgenii; Irzhak, Dmitry; Ortega, Luc; Zizak, Ivo; Erko, Alexei; Tynyshtykbayev, Kurbangali; Insepov, Zinetula
2015-09-14
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation in a graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals was studied at the BESSY II synchrotron radiation source. Talbot effect enabled the visualization of the SAW propagation on the crystal surface with the graphene film in a real time mode, and high-resolution x-ray diffraction permitted the determination of the SAW amplitude in the graphene/piezoelectric crystal system. The influence of the SAW on the electrical properties of the graphene film was examined. It was shown that the changing of the SAW amplitude enables controlling the magnitude and direction of current in graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals.
Surface acoustic wave propagation in graphene film
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roshchupkin, Dmitry; Ortega, Luc; Zizak, Ivo; Plotitcyna, Olga; Matveev, Viktor; Kononenko, Oleg; Emelin, Evgenii; Erko, Alexei; Tynyshtykbayev, Kurbangali; Irzhak, Dmitry; Insepov, Zinetula
2015-09-01
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation in a graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals was studied at the BESSY II synchrotron radiation source. Talbot effect enabled the visualization of the SAW propagation on the crystal surface with the graphene film in a real time mode, and high-resolution x-ray diffraction permitted the determination of the SAW amplitude in the graphene/piezoelectric crystal system. The influence of the SAW on the electrical properties of the graphene film was examined. It was shown that the changing of the SAW amplitude enables controlling the magnitude and direction of current in graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals.
Surface Acoustic Wave Atomizer and Electrostatic Deposition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamagata, Yutaka
A new methodology for fabricating thin film or micro patters of organic/bio material using surface acoustic wave (SAW) atomizer and electrostatic deposition is proposed and characteristics of atomization techniques are discussed in terms of drop size and atomization speed. Various types of SAW atomizer are compared with electrospray and conventional ultrasonic atomizers. It has been proved that SAW atomizers generate drops as small as electrospray and have very fast atomization speed. This technique is applied to fabrication of micro patterns of proteins. According to the result of immunoassay, the specific activity of immunoglobulin was preserved after deposition process.
Surface acoustic wave atomizer and electrostatic deposition.
Yamagata, Yutaka
2010-01-01
A new methodology for fabricating thin film or micro patters of organic/bio material using surface acoustic wave (SAW) atomizer and electrostatic deposition is proposed and characteristics of atomization techniques are discussed in terms of drop size and atomization speed. Various types of SAW atomizer are compared with electrospray and conventional ultrasonic atomizers. It has been proved that SAW atomizers generate drops as small as electrospray and have very fast atomization speed. This technique is applied to fabrication of micro patterns of proteins. According to the result of immunoassay, the specific activity of immunoglobulin was preserved after deposition process.
Porous silicon bulk acoustic wave resonator with integrated transducer
2012-01-01
We report that porous silicon acoustic Bragg reflectors and AlN-based transducers can be successfully combined and processed in a commercial solidly mounted resonator production line. The resulting device takes advantage of the unique acoustic properties of porous silicon in order to form a monolithically integrated bulk acoustic wave resonator. PMID:22776697
Surface Acoustic Waves to Drive Plant Transpiration
Gomez, Eliot F.; Berggren, Magnus; Simon, Daniel T.
2017-01-01
Emerging fields of research in electronic plants (e-plants) and agro-nanotechnology seek to create more advanced control of plants and their products. Electronic/nanotechnology plant systems strive to seamlessly monitor, harvest, or deliver chemical signals to sense or regulate plant physiology in a controlled manner. Since the plant vascular system (xylem/phloem) is the primary pathway used to transport water, nutrients, and chemical signals—as well as the primary vehicle for current e-plant and phtyo-nanotechnology work—we seek to directly control fluid transport in plants using external energy. Surface acoustic waves generated from piezoelectric substrates were directly coupled into rose leaves, thereby causing water to rapidly evaporate in a highly localized manner only at the site in contact with the actuator. From fluorescent imaging, we find that the technique reliably delivers up to 6x more water/solute to the site actuated by acoustic energy as compared to normal plant transpiration rates and 2x more than heat-assisted evaporation. The technique of increasing natural plant transpiration through acoustic energy could be used to deliver biomolecules, agrochemicals, or future electronic materials at high spatiotemporal resolution to targeted areas in the plant; providing better interaction with plant physiology or to realize more sophisticated cyborg systems. PMID:28361922
Surface Acoustic Waves to Drive Plant Transpiration.
Gomez, Eliot F; Berggren, Magnus; Simon, Daniel T
2017-03-31
Emerging fields of research in electronic plants (e-plants) and agro-nanotechnology seek to create more advanced control of plants and their products. Electronic/nanotechnology plant systems strive to seamlessly monitor, harvest, or deliver chemical signals to sense or regulate plant physiology in a controlled manner. Since the plant vascular system (xylem/phloem) is the primary pathway used to transport water, nutrients, and chemical signals-as well as the primary vehicle for current e-plant and phtyo-nanotechnology work-we seek to directly control fluid transport in plants using external energy. Surface acoustic waves generated from piezoelectric substrates were directly coupled into rose leaves, thereby causing water to rapidly evaporate in a highly localized manner only at the site in contact with the actuator. From fluorescent imaging, we find that the technique reliably delivers up to 6x more water/solute to the site actuated by acoustic energy as compared to normal plant transpiration rates and 2x more than heat-assisted evaporation. The technique of increasing natural plant transpiration through acoustic energy could be used to deliver biomolecules, agrochemicals, or future electronic materials at high spatiotemporal resolution to targeted areas in the plant; providing better interaction with plant physiology or to realize more sophisticated cyborg systems.
Random coupling of acoustic-gravity waves in the atmosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Millet, Christophe; Lott, Francois; Haynes, Christophe
2016-11-01
In numerical modeling of long-range acoustic propagation in the atmosphere, the effect of gravity waves on low-frequency acoustic waves is often ignored. As the sound speed far exceeds the gravity wave phase speed, these two types of waves present different spatial scales and their linear coupling is weak. It is possible, however, to obtain relatively strong couplings via sound speed profile changes with altitude. In the present study, this scenario is analyzed for realistic gravity wave fields and the incident acoustic wave is modeled as a narrow-banded acoustic pulse. The gravity waves are represented as a random field using a stochastic multiwave parameterization of non-orographic gravity waves. The parameterization provides independent monochromatic gravity waves, and the gravity wave field is obtained as the linear superposition of the waves produced. When the random terms are retained, a more generalized wave equation is obtained that both qualitatively and quantitatively agrees with the observations of several highly dispersed stratospheric wavetrains. Here, we show that the cumulative effect of gravity wave breakings makes the sensitivity of ground-based acoustic signals large, in that small changes in the parameterization can create or destroy an acoustic wavetrain.
Interaction of High Frequency Acoustic Waves and Optical Waves Propagating in Single Mode Fibers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Paula, Ramon Perez
This paper develops a frequency dependent model for the acousto-optic interaction with a single mode fiber of acoustic waves having wavelengths comparable to the fiber diameter. This paper also presents optical techniques for experimental observation and measurement of such effects. The acoustic waves are both normally and obliquelly incident on the fiber. The solutions to the elastic problem studied here are constructed using scalar and vector potentials. The principal strains induced by a plane wave propagating in a fluid is calculated through the solution of the wave equation and the associated boundary condition. The optical beam propagation is analyzed starting with Maxwell's, equations and the required solution for single mode (degenerate double mode) propagation is presented. For the perturbed fiber the anisotropic solution is discussed. The optical indicatrix is derived from the electric energy density, with the major axis parallel to the induced principal strains obtained from the solution of the elastic problem. The solution of the optical indicatrix equation (index ellipsoid) yields two independent propagation modes that are linear polarized plane waves with two different propagation velocities. The induced phase shift and birefringence are calculated from the index ellipsoid. The birefringence and phase shift are also measured experimentally using a fiber optic interferometer and a fiber optic polariscope. The experimental apparatus is discussed in detail and the techniques used to make the measurements are presented. The results are separated into two parts: first, the results for ultrasonic waves of normal incidence are presented, theoretical and experimental results are discussed, and the two compared; second, the results for angular incidence are presented in the same format as above, and compared with the results for perpendicular incidence.
Behavior of plane waves propagating through a temperature-inhomogeneous region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bednarik, M.; Cervenka, M.; Lotton, P.; Penelet, G.
2016-02-01
Description and analysis of acoustic waves in ducts with a region containing temperature-inhomogeneous fluid represent a significant problem of scientific and practical interest. This interest is induced by the need of understanding how temperature fields affect acoustic processes which would lead to a more efficient design and control of systems involving thermoacoustic interactions. Most of the works addressing these problems limit themselves to the assumption of weak temperature profile gradients or to temperature profiles which do not connect neighboring temperature-homogeneous regions smoothly. In our work we investigate the behavior of plane acoustic waves that enter a region with an arbitrary temperature gradient. A polynomial character of the used temperature profile ensures smooth connection with constant-temperature regions. The one-dimensional wave equation for ducts with an axial mean temperature gradient is solved analytically. The derived solutions based on Heun functions extend the class of published exact analytical solutions of model wave equations taking into account the medium temperature gradient. Due to the property that our proposed polynomial temperature function has derivatives equal to zero at points which are connected with the surrounding temperature-homogeneous regions we can form more complex smooth temperature profiles for which it is possible to use the transfer matrix method.
Majdak, Piotr; Baumgartner, Robert; Laback, Bernhard
2014-01-01
The ability of sound-source localization in sagittal planes (along the top-down and front-back dimension) varies considerably across listeners. The directional acoustic spectral features, described by head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), also vary considerably across listeners, a consequence of the listener-specific shape of the ears. It is not clear whether the differences in localization ability result from differences in the encoding of directional information provided by the HRTFs, i.e., an acoustic factor, or from differences in auditory processing of those cues (e.g., spectral-shape sensitivity), i.e., non-acoustic factors. We addressed this issue by analyzing the listener-specific localization ability in terms of localization performance. Directional responses to spatially distributed broadband stimuli from 18 listeners were used. A model of sagittal-plane localization was fit individually for each listener by considering the actual localization performance, the listener-specific HRTFs representing the acoustic factor, and an uncertainty parameter representing the non-acoustic factors. The model was configured to simulate the condition of complete calibration of the listener to the tested HRTFs. Listener-specifically calibrated model predictions yielded correlations of, on average, 0.93 with the actual localization performance. Then, the model parameters representing the acoustic and non-acoustic factors were systematically permuted across the listener group. While the permutation of HRTFs affected the localization performance, the permutation of listener-specific uncertainty had a substantially larger impact. Our findings suggest that across-listener variability in sagittal-plane localization ability is only marginally determined by the acoustic factor, i.e., the quality of directional cues found in typical human HRTFs. Rather, the non-acoustic factors, supposed to represent the listeners' efficiency in processing directional cues, appear to be
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcia, D. Vincent Romero
The control of the acoustical properties of the sonic crystals (SC) needs the study of both the distribution of the scatterers in the structure and the intrinsic acoustical properties of the scatterers. In this work an exhaustive analysis of the distribution of the scatterers as well as the improvement of the acoustical properties of the SC made of scatterers with absorbent and/or resonant properties is presented. Both procedures, working together or independently, provide real possibilities to control the propagation of acoustic waves through SC. From the theoretical point of view, the wave propagation through periodic and quasiperiodic structures has been analysed by means of the multiple scattering theory, the plane wave expansion and the finite elements method. A novel extension of the plane wave expansion allowing the complex relation dispersion for SC is presented in this work. This technique complements the provided information using the classical methods and it allows us to analyse the evanescent behaviour of the modes inside of the band gaps as well as the evanescent behaviour of localized modes around the point defects in SC. The necessity of accurate measurements of the acoustical properties of the SC has motivated the development of a novel three-dimensional acquisition system that synchronises the motion of the receiver and acquisition of the temporal signals. A good agreement between the theoretical and experimental data is shown in this work. The joint work between the optimized structures of scatterers and the intrinsic properties of the scatterers themselves is applied to generate devices that present wide ranges of attenuated frequencies. These systems are presented as an alternative to the classic acoustic barrier where the propagation of waves through SC can be controlled. The results help to correctly understand the behaviour of SC for the localization of sound and for the design of both wave guides and acoustic filters.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kearns, James A.
1989-01-01
Phenomena associated with long range propagation of sound over irregular topography motivated this work, which was to analyze the diffraction effects which would occur near the tops of hills and ridges. The diffraction of a high frequency plane wave due to its grazing of a two-dimensional curved surface of finite impedance was also studied. Laboratory scale models were constructed and measurements were made of the field on, above, and behind either of two curved surfaces possessing distinctly different impedances; that is, one was soft while the other was hard. The experimental technique consisted of simultaneously measuring the pressure at a reference point and at a field point due to a transient pulse generated by an electric spark. The pressure waveforms were digitized and processed. The ratio of the discrete Fourier transforms of the two waveforms provided an estimate of the insertion loss between them. The results of the measurements were compared with the predictions of a theory which was derived by Pierce using the method of Matched Asymptotic Expansions (MAE). The predictions relied upon the experimental evaluation of the impedance of each surface at grazing angles of incidence. This evaluation was achieved by a fairly standard technique involving empirical models of various generic types of surfaces. An example was shown of the important role that the structural intricacies of a surface play in the determination of an appropriate model. The comparison between the measurements and predictions indicated that the theory gives an excellent description of the field anywhere near a curved surface. Further, with a simple modification, the theory was also shown to give nearly as good of a description of the field surrounding a curved surface even at distances far behind the surface yet near the line of sight.
Surface acoustic wave biosensors: a review.
Länge, Kerstin; Rapp, Bastian E; Rapp, Michael
2008-07-01
This review presents an overview of 20 years of worldwide development in the field of biosensors based on special types of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices that permit the highly sensitive detection of biorelevant molecules in liquid media (such as water or aqueous buffer solutions). 1987 saw the first approaches, which used either horizontally polarized shear waves (HPSW) in a delay line configuration on lithium tantalate (LiTaO(3)) substrates or SAW resonator structures on quartz or LiTaO(3) with periodic mass gratings. The latter are termed "surface transverse waves" (STW), and they have comparatively low attenuation values when operated in liquids. Later Love wave devices were developed, which used a film resonance effect to significantly reduce attenuation. All of these sensor approaches were accompanied by the development of appropriate sensing films. First attempts used simple layers of adsorbed antibodies. Later approaches used various types of covalently bound layers, for example those utilizing intermediate hydrogel layers. Recent approaches involve SAW biosensor devices inserted into compact systems with integrated fluidics for sample handling. To achieve this, the SAW biosensors can be embedded into micromachined polymer housings. Combining these two features will extend the system to create versatile biosensor arrays for generic lab use or for diagnostic purposes.
Acoustic wave based MEMS devices for biosensing applications.
Voiculescu, Ioana; Nordin, Anis Nurashikin
2012-03-15
This paper presents a review of acoustic-wave based MEMS devices that offer a promising technology platform for the development of sensitive, portable, real-time biosensors. MEMS fabrication of acoustic wave based biosensors enables device miniaturization, power consumption reduction and integration with electronic circuits. For biological applications, the biosensors are integrated in a microfluidic system and the sensing area is coated with a biospecific layer. When a bioanalyte interacts with the sensing layer, mass and viscosity variations of the biospecific layer can be detected by monitoring changes in the acoustic wave properties such as velocity, attenuation, resonant frequency and delay time. Few types of acoustic wave devices could be integrated in microfluidic systems without significant degradation of the quality factor. The acoustic wave based MEMS devices reported in the literature as biosensors and presented in this review are film bulk acoustic wave resonators (FBAR), surface acoustic waves (SAW) resonators and SAW delay lines. Different approaches to the realization of FBARs, SAW resonators and SAW delay lines for various biochemical applications are presented. Methods of integration of the acoustic wave MEMS devices in the microfluidic systems and functionalization strategies will be also discussed.
Acoustic microscope based on magneto-elastic wave phase conjugator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brysev, A.; Krutyansky, L.; Pernod, P.; Preobrazhensky, V.
2000-05-01
Acoustic C-scan imaging (acoustic microscopy) by means of supercritical parametric wave phase conjugation (WPC) is studied experimentally. A phase conjugator based on a magneto-acoustic active material is used for compensating phase distortions introduced by solid and polymer aberration layers covering objects (electronic integrated circuits as examples). Improvement of images is demonstrated on an acoustic microscope, operating at a frequency of 10 MHz.
Metaphysics of colliding self-gravitating plane waves
Matzner, R.A.; Tipler, F.J.
1984-04-15
We discuss certain global features of colliding plane-wave solutions to Einstein's equations. In particular, we show that the apparently local curvature singularities both in the Khan-Penrose solution and in the Bell-Szekeres solution are actually global. These global singularities are associated with the breakdown of nondegenerate planar symmetry in the characteristic initial data sets.
Metaphysics of colliding self-gravitating plane waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matzner, Richard A.; Tipler, Frank J.
1984-04-01
We discuss certain global features of colliding plane-wave solutions to Einstein's equations. In particular, we show that the apparently local curvature singularities both in the Khan-Penrose solution and in the Bell-Szekeres solution are actually global. These global singularities are associated with the breakdown of nondegenerate planar symmetry in the characteristic initial data sets.
D-branes in Type IIB plane wave background
Lee, Bum-Hoon
2007-01-12
We classify and summarize the intersecting supersymmetric D-branes in the type IIB plane wave background, based on the Green-Schwarz superstring formulation. Many new configurations appears if we turn on the electric or magnetic background fields or boost the D-branes. Applications to the phenomelogical models are left for further study.
Wave-wave interactions and deep ocean acoustics.
Guralnik, Z; Bourdelais, J; Zabalgogeazcoa, X; Farrell, W E
2013-10-01
Deep ocean acoustics, in the absence of shipping and wildlife, is driven by surface processes. Best understood is the signal generated by non-linear surface wave interactions, the Longuet-Higgins mechanism, which dominates from 0.1 to 10 Hz, and may be significant for another octave. For this source, the spectral matrix of pressure and vector velocity is derived for points near the bottom of a deep ocean resting on an elastic half-space. In the absence of a bottom, the ratios of matrix elements are universal constants. Bottom effects vitiate the usual "standing wave approximation," but a weaker form of the approximation is shown to hold, and this is used for numerical calculations. In the weak standing wave approximation, the ratios of matrix elements are independent of the surface wave spectrum, but depend on frequency and the propagation environment. Data from the Hawaii-2 Observatory are in excellent accord with the theory for frequencies between 0.1 and 1 Hz, less so at higher frequencies. Insensitivity of the spectral ratios to wind, and presumably waves, is indeed observed in the data.
Far-field image magnification for acoustic waves using anisotropic acoustic metamaterials.
Ao, Xianyu; Chan, C T
2008-02-01
A kind of two-dimensional acoustic metamaterial is designed so that it exhibits strong anisotropy along two orthogonal directions. Based on the rectangular equal frequency contour of this metamaterial, magnifying lenses for acoustic waves, analogous to electromagnetic hyperlenses demonstrated recently in the optical regime, can be realized. Such metamaterial may offer applications in imaging for systems that obey scalar wave equations.
Radiation of Electron in the Field of Plane Light Wave
Zelinsky, A.; Drebot, I.V.; Grigorev, Yu.N.; Zvonareva, O.D.; Tatchyn, R.; /SLAC
2006-02-24
Results of integration of a Lorentz equation for a relativistic electron moving in the field of running, plane, linear polarized electromagnetic wave are presented in the paper. It is shown that electron velocities in the field of the wave are almost periodic functions of time. For calculations of angular spectrum of electron radiation intensity expansion of the electromagnetic field in a wave zone into generalized Fourier series was used. Expressions for the radiation intensity spectrum are presented in the paper. Derived results are illustrated for electron and laser beam parameters of NSC KIPT X-ray generator NESTOR. It is shown that for low intensity of the interacting electromagnetic wave the results of energy and angular spectrum calculations in the frame of classical electrodynamics completely coincide with calculation results produced using quantum electrodynamics. Simultaneously, derived expressions give possibilities to investigate dependence of energy and angular Compton radiation spectrum on phase of interaction and the interacting wave intensity.
Effect of Forcing Function on Nonlinear Acoustic Standing Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Finkheiner, Joshua R.; Li, Xiao-Fan; Raman, Ganesh; Daniels, Chris; Steinetz, Bruce
2003-01-01
Nonlinear acoustic standing waves of high amplitude have been demonstrated by utilizing the effects of resonator shape to prevent the pressure waves from entering saturation. Experimentally, nonlinear acoustic standing waves have been generated by shaking an entire resonating cavity. While this promotes more efficient energy transfer than a piston-driven resonator, it also introduces complicated structural dynamics into the system. Experiments have shown that these dynamics result in resonator forcing functions comprised of a sum of several Fourier modes. However, previous numerical studies of the acoustics generated within the resonator assumed simple sinusoidal waves as the driving force. Using a previously developed numerical code, this paper demonstrates the effects of using a forcing function constructed with a series of harmonic sinusoidal waves on resonating cavities. From these results, a method will be demonstrated which allows the direct numerical analysis of experimentally generated nonlinear acoustic waves in resonators driven by harmonic forcing functions.
Pluta; Schubert; Jahny; Grill
2000-03-01
The decomposition of an acoustic wave into its angular spectrum representation creates an effective base for the calculation of wave propagation effects in anisotropic media. In this method, the distribution of acoustic fields is calculated in arbitrary planes from the superposition of the planar components with proper phase shifts. These phase shifts depend on the ratio of the distance between the planes to the normal component of the phase slowness vector. In anisotropic media, the phase shifts depend additionally on the changes of the slowness with respect to the direction of the propagation vector and the polarization. Those relations are obtained from the Christoffel equation. The method employing the fast Fourier transformation algorithm is especially suited for volume imaging in anisotropic media, based on holographic detection in transmission of acoustic waves generated by a point source. This technique is compared with measurements on crystals performed by phase-sensitive scanning acoustic microscopy.
Acoustic Reflection from a Plane Boundary having Variable Surface Parameters
1991-03-01
1960). Mechanical waveguides. Pergamon Press . 10. Oppenheim, A.V. and Schafer, R.W. (1989). Discrete-time signal processing. Prentice Hall Signal...public release ANNOUNCEMENT Anouncement of this report is unlimited KEYWORDS Anechoic Coatings Surface Admittance Acoustic Reflectance ABSTRACT A
Standing surface acoustic wave based cell coculture.
Li, Sixing; Guo, Feng; Chen, Yuchao; Ding, Xiaoyun; Li, Peng; Wang, Lin; Cameron, Craig E; Huang, Tony Jun
2014-10-07
Precise reconstruction of heterotypic cell-cell interactions in vitro requires the coculture of different cell types in a highly controlled manner. In this article, we report a standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW)-based cell coculture platform. In our approach, different types of cells are patterned sequentially in the SSAW field to form an organized cell coculture. To validate our platform, we demonstrate a coculture of epithelial cancer cells and endothelial cells. Real-time monitoring of cell migration dynamics reveals increased cancer cell mobility when cancer cells are cocultured with endothelial cells. Our SSAW-based cell coculture platform has the advantages of contactless cell manipulation, high biocompatibility, high controllability, simplicity, and minimal interference of the cellular microenvironment. The SSAW technique demonstrated here can be a valuable analytical tool for various biological studies involving heterotypic cell-cell interactions.
Standing Surface Acoustic Wave Based Cell Coculture
2015-01-01
Precise reconstruction of heterotypic cell–cell interactions in vitro requires the coculture of different cell types in a highly controlled manner. In this article, we report a standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW)-based cell coculture platform. In our approach, different types of cells are patterned sequentially in the SSAW field to form an organized cell coculture. To validate our platform, we demonstrate a coculture of epithelial cancer cells and endothelial cells. Real-time monitoring of cell migration dynamics reveals increased cancer cell mobility when cancer cells are cocultured with endothelial cells. Our SSAW-based cell coculture platform has the advantages of contactless cell manipulation, high biocompatibility, high controllability, simplicity, and minimal interference of the cellular microenvironment. The SSAW technique demonstrated here can be a valuable analytical tool for various biological studies involving heterotypic cell–cell interactions. PMID:25232648
Surface acoustic wave microsensors and applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galipeau, David W.; Story, Patrick R.; Vetelino, Kevin A.; Mileham, Russell D.
1997-12-01
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices have been studied for the last twenty years as highly sensitive yet relatively inexpensive microsensors for applications ranging from temperature and stress to gas and biological sensing. This wide range of applications is due to the SAW microsensors' high sensitivity to several physical parameters including mass, temperature, stress, and conductivity. Their low cost results from the use of standard batch microelectronic fabrication techniques for their manufacture. In this paper several chemical sensing applications for SAW devices are described. These include: gas detection; thin-film polymer characterization; dew-point measurements; surface energy measurements; and as a method to measure surface cleanliness. Experimental results are presented along with comparisons to other measurement techniques.
Surface acoustic wave microsensors and applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galipeau, David W.; Story, Patrick R.; Vetelino, Kevin A.; Mileham, R. D.
1997-06-01
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices have been studied for the last twenty years as highly sensitive yet relatively inexpensive microsensors for applications ranging from gas and biological sensing to thin film and surface characterization. This wide range of applications is due to SAW microsensors high sensitivity to several physical parameters including mass, conductivity, permittivity, stress, temperature and electric fields. Their low cost results from the use of standard batch microelectronic fabrication techniques for their manufacture. In this work several SAW sensing applications are described. These include: gas detection; thin film polymer characterization; dew-point measurements; surface energy measurements; and as a method to measure surface cleanliness. Experimental results are presented along with comparisons to other measurement techniques.
Oba, Roger; Finette, Steven
2002-02-01
Results of a computer simulation study are presented for acoustic propagation in a shallow water, anisotropic ocean environment. The water column is characterized by random volume fluctuations in the sound speed field that are induced by internal gravity waves, and this variability is superimposed on a dominant summer thermocline. Both the internal wave field and resulting sound speed perturbations are represented in three-dimensional (3D) space and evolve in time. The isopycnal displacements consist of two components: a spatially diffuse, horizontally isotropic component and a spatially localized contribution from an undular bore (i.e., a solitary wave packet or solibore) that exhibits horizontal (azimuthal) anisotropy. An acoustic field is propagated through this waveguide using a 3D parabolic equation code based on differential operators representing wide-angle coverage in elevation and narrow-angle coverage in azimuth. Transmission loss is evaluated both for fixed time snapshots of the environment and as a function of time over an ordered set of snapshots which represent the time-evolving sound speed distribution. Horizontal acoustic coherence, also known as transverse or cross-range coherence, is estimated for horizontally separated points in the direction normal to the source-receiver orientation. Both transmission loss and spatial coherence are computed at acoustic frequencies 200 and 400 Hz for ranges extending to 10 km, a cross-range of 1 km, and a water depth of 68 m. Azimuthal filtering of the propagated field occurs for this environment, with the strongest variations appearing when propagation is parallel to the solitary wave depressions of the thermocline. A large anisotropic degradation in horizontal coherence occurs under the same conditions. Horizontal refraction of the acoustic wave front is responsible for the degradation, as demonstrated by an energy gradient analysis of in-plane and out-of-plane energy transfer. The solitary wave packet is
Ionospheric acoustic and gravity waves associated with midlatitude thunderstorms
Lay, Erin H.; Shao, Xuan -Min; Kendrick, Alexander K.; Carrano, Charles S.
2015-07-30
Acoustic waves with periods of 2–4 min and gravity waves with periods of 6–16 min have been detected at ionospheric heights (25–350 km) using GPS total electron content measurements. The area disturbed by these waves and the wave amplitudes have been associated with underlying thunderstorm activity. A statistical study comparing Next Generation Weather Radar thunderstorm measurements with ionospheric acoustic and gravity waves in the midlatitude U.S. Great Plains region was performed for the time period of May–July 2005. An increase of ionospheric acoustic wave disturbed area and amplitude is primarily associated with large thunderstorms (mesoscale convective systems). Ionospheric gravity wave disturbed area and amplitude scale with thunderstorm activity, with even small storms (i.e., individual storm cells) producing an increase of gravity waves.
Ionospheric acoustic and gravity waves associated with midlatitude thunderstorms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lay, Erin H.; Shao, Xuan-Min; Kendrick, Alexander K.; Carrano, Charles S.
2015-07-01
Acoustic waves with periods of 2-4 min and gravity waves with periods of 6-16 min have been detected at ionospheric heights (250-350 km) using GPS total electron content measurements. The area disturbed by these waves and the wave amplitudes have been associated with underlying thunderstorm activity. A statistical study comparing Next Generation Weather Radar thunderstorm measurements with ionospheric acoustic and gravity waves in the midlatitude U.S. Great Plains region was performed for the time period of May-July 2005. An increase of ionospheric acoustic wave disturbed area and amplitude is primarily associated with large thunderstorms (mesoscale convective systems). Ionospheric gravity wave disturbed area and amplitude scale with thunderstorm activity, with even small storms (i.e., individual storm cells) producing an increase of gravity waves.
Coupling of acoustic waves to clouds in the jovian troposphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaulme, Patrick; Mosser, Benoît
2005-11-01
Seismology is the best tool for investigating the interior structure of stars and giant planets. This paper deals with a photometric study of jovian global oscillations. The propagation of acoustic waves in the jovian troposphere is revisited in order to estimate their effects on the planetary albedo. According to the standard model of the jovian cloud structure there are three major ice cloud layers (e.g., [Atreya et al., 1999. A comparison of the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn: Deep atmospheric composition, cloud structure, vertical mixing, and origin. Planet Space Sci. 47, 1243-1262]). We consider only the highest layers, composed of ammonia ice, in the region where acoustic waves are trapped in Jupiter's atmosphere. For a vertical wave propagating in a plane parallel atmosphere with an ammonia ice cloud layer, we calculate first the relative variations of the reflected solar flux due to the smooth oscillations at about the ppm level. We then determine the phase transitions induced by the seismic waves in the clouds. These phase changes, linked to ice particle growth, are limited by kinetics. A Mie model [Mishchenko et al., 2002. Scattering, Absorption, and Emission of Light by Small Particles. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, pp. 158-190] coupled with a simple radiation transfer model allows us to estimate that the albedo fluctuations of the cloud perturbed by a seismic wave reach relative variations of 70 ppm for a 3-mHz wave. This albedo fluctuation is amplified by a factor of ˜70 relative to the previously published estimates that exclude the effect of the wave on cloud properties. Our computed amplifications imply that jovian oscillations can be detected with very precise photometry, as proposed by the microsatellite JOVIS project, which is dedicated to photometric seismology [Mosser et al., 2004. JOVIS: A microsatellite dedicated to the seismic analysis of Jupiter. In: Combes, F., Barret, D., Contini, T., Meynadier, F., Pagani, L. (Eds.), SF2A-2004
Strongly driven ion acoustic waves in laser produced plasmas
Baldis, H.A.; Labaune, C.; Renard, N.
1994-09-20
This paper present an experimental study of ion acoustic waves with wavenumbers corresponding to stimulated Brillouin scattering. Time resolved Thomson scattering in frequency and wavenumber space, has permitted to observe the dispersion relation of the waves as a function of the laser intensity. Apart from observing ion acoustic waves associated with a strong second component is observed at laser intensities above 10{sup 13}Wcm{sup {minus}2}.
Ultrafast vascular strain compounding using plane wave transmission.
Hansen, H H G; Saris, A E C M; Vaka, N R; Nillesen, M M; de Korte, C L
2014-03-03
Deformations of the atherosclerotic vascular wall induced by the pulsating blood can be estimated using ultrasound strain imaging. Because these deformations indirectly provide information on mechanical plaque composition, strain imaging is a promising technique for differentiating between stable and vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. This paper first explains 1-D radial strain estimation as applied intravascularly in coronary arteries. Next, recent methods for noninvasive vascular strain estimation in a transverse imaging plane are discussed. Finally, a compounding technique that our group recently developed is explained. This technique combines motion estimates of subsequently acquired focused ultrasound images obtained at various insonification angles. However, because the artery moves and deforms during the multi-angle acquisition, errors are introduced when compounding. Recent advances in computational power have enabled plane wave ultrasound acquisition, which allows 100 times faster image acquisition and thus might resolve the motion artifacts. In this paper the performance of strain imaging using plane wave compounding is investigated using simulations of an artery with a vulnerable plaque and experimental data of a two-layered vessel phantom. The results show that plane wave compounding outperforms 0° focused strain imaging. For the simulations, the root mean squared error reduced by 66% and 50% for radial and circumferential strain, respectively. For the experiments, the elastographic signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratio (SNR(e) and CNR(e)) increased with 2.1 dB and 3.7 dB radially, and 5.6 dB and 16.2dB circumferentially. Because of the high frame rate, the plane wave compounding technique can even be further optimized and extended to 3D in future.
Nonlinear waves and shocks in a rigid acoustical guide.
Fernando, Rasika; Druon, Yann; Coulouvrat, François; Marchiano, Régis
2011-02-01
A model is developed for the propagation of finite amplitude acoustical waves and weak shocks in a straight duct of arbitrary cross section. It generalizes the linear modal solution, assuming mode amplitudes slowly vary along the guide axis under the influence of nonlinearities. Using orthogonality properties, the model finally reduces to a set of ordinary differential equations for each mode at each of the harmonics of the input frequency. The theory is then applied to a two-dimensional waveguide. Dispersion relations indicate that there can be two types of nonlinear interactions either called "resonant" or "non-resonant." Resonant interactions occur dominantly for modes propagating at a rather large angle with respect to the axis and involve mostly modes propagating with the same phase velocity. In this case, guided propagation is similar to nonlinear plane wave propagation, with the progressive steepening up to shock formation of the two waves that constitute the mode and reflect onto the guide walls. Non-resonant interactions can be observed as the input modes propagate at a small angle, in which case, nonlinear interactions involve many adjacent modes having close phase velocities. Grazing propagation can also lead to more complex phenomena such as wavefront curvature and irregular reflection.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kolaini, Ali R.; Doty, Benjamin; Chang, Zensheu
2012-01-01
The aerospace industry has been using two methods of acoustic testing to qualify flight hardware: (1) Reverberant Acoustic Test (RAT), (2) Direct Field Acoustic Test (DFAT). The acoustic field obtained by RAT is generally understood and assumed to be diffuse, expect below Schroeder cut-of frequencies. DFAT method of testing has some distinct advantages over RAT, however the acoustic field characteristics can be strongly affected by test setup such as the speaker layouts, number and location of control microphones and control schemes. In this paper the following are discussed based on DEMO tests performed at APL and JPL: (1) Acoustic wave interference patterns and acoustic standing waves, (2) The structural responses in RAT and DFAT.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lan, Chao-feng; Li, Feng-chen; Chen, Huan; Lu, Di; Yang, De-sen; Zhang, Meng
2015-06-01
Based on the Burgers equation and Manley-Rowe equation, the derivation about nonlinear interaction of the acoustic waves has been done in this paper. After nonlinear interaction among the low-frequency weak waves and the pump wave, the analytical solutions of acoustic waves' amplitude in the field are deduced. The relationship between normalized energy of high-frequency and the change of acoustic energy before and after the nonlinear interaction of the acoustic waves is analyzed. The experimental results about the changes of the acoustic energy are presented. The study shows that new frequencies are generated and the energies of the low-frequency are modulated in a long term by the pump waves, which leads the energies of the low-frequency acoustic waves to change in the pulse trend in the process of the nonlinear interaction of the acoustic waves. The increase and decrease of the energies of the low-frequency are observed under certain typical conditions, which lays a foundation for practical engineering applications.
Spatial selective manipulation of microbubbles by tunable surface acoustic waves
Zhou, Wei; Niu, Lili; Cai, Feiyan; Li, Fei; Wang, Chen; Huang, Xiaowei; Wang, Jingjing; Wu, Junru; Meng, Long; Zheng, Hairong
2016-01-01
A microfluidic device based on a pair of slant-finger interdigital transducers (SFITs) is developed to achieve a selective and flexible manipulation of microbubbles (MBs) by surface acoustic waves (SAWs). The resonance frequency of SAWs generated by the SFITs depends on the location of its parallel pathway; the particles at different locations of the SAWs' pathway can be controlled selectively by choosing the frequency of the excitation signal applied on the SFITs. By adjusting the input signal continuously, MBs can be transported along the acoustic aperture precisely. The displacement of MBs has a linear relationship with the frequency shift. The resolution of transportation is 15.19 ± 2.65 μm when the shift of input signal frequency is at a step of 10 kHz. In addition, the MBs can be controlled in a two-dimensional plane by combining variations of the frequency and the relative phase of the excitation signal applied on the SFITs simultaneously. This technology may open up the possibility of selectively and flexibly manipulating MBs using a simple one-dimensional device. PMID:27462381
Acoustic Propagation and Barrier Diffraction Over an Impedance Plane.
1982-10-13
propagation solution into a barrier model so that ground reflections in addition to edge diffraction could be accounted for. Only the first term in the...model so that ground reflections in addition to edge N diffraction could be accounted for. Only the first term in the asymptotic ground propagation... contemporary research needs-particularly those of underwater acoustics as weil as community and aircraft noise control-a re-evaluation of previous results has
Gravitational scattering of zero-rest-mass plane waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
De Logi, W. K.; Kovacs, S. J., Jr.
1977-01-01
The Feyman-diagram technique is used to calculate the differential cross sections for the scattering of zero-rest-mass plane waves of spin 0, 1, and 2 by linearized Schwarzschild and Kerr geometries in the long-wavelength weak-field limit. It is found that the polarization of right (or left) circularly polarized electromagnetic waves is unaffected by the scattering process (i.e., helicity is conserved) and that the two helicity (polarization) states of the photon are scattered differently by the Kerr geometry. This coupling between the photon helicity and the angular momentum of the scatterer also leads to a partial polarization of unpolarized incident light. For gravitational waves, on the other hand, there is neither helicity conservation nor helicity-dependent scattering; the angular momentum of the scatterer has no polarizing effect on incident unpolarized gravitational waves.
Scattering Matrix for the Interaction between Solar Acoustic Waves and Sunspots. I. Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Ming-Hsu; Chou, Dean-Yi; Zhao, Hui
2017-01-01
Assessing the interaction between solar acoustic waves and sunspots is a scattering problem. The scattering matrix elements are the most commonly used measured quantities to describe scattering problems. We use the wavefunctions of scattered waves of NOAAs 11084 and 11092 measured in the previous study to compute the scattering matrix elements, with plane waves as the basis. The measured scattered wavefunction is from the incident wave of radial order n to the wave of another radial order n‧, for n=0{--}5. For a time-independent sunspot, there is no mode mixing between different frequencies. An incident mode is scattered into various modes with different wavenumbers but the same frequency. Working in the frequency domain, we have the individual incident plane-wave mode, which is scattered into various plane-wave modes with the same frequency. This allows us to compute the scattering matrix element between two plane-wave modes for each frequency. Each scattering matrix element is a complex number, representing the transition from the incident mode to another mode. The amplitudes of diagonal elements are larger than those of the off-diagonal elements. The amplitude and phase of the off-diagonal elements are detectable only for n-1≤slant n\\prime ≤slant n+1 and -3{{Δ }}k≤slant δ {k}x≤slant 3{{Δ }}k, where δ {k}x is the change in the transverse component of the wavenumber and Δk = 0.035 rad Mm‑1.
Zhao, Dan
2011-03-01
Perforated liners with a narrow frequency range are widely used as acoustic dampers to stabilize combustion systems. When the frequency of unstable modes present in the combustion system is within the effective frequency range, the liners can efficiently dissipate acoustic waves. The fraction of the incident waves being absorbed (known as power absorption coefficient) is generally used to characterize the liners damping. To estimate it, plane waves either side of the liners need to be decomposed and characterized. For this, a real-time algorithm is developed. Emphasis is being placed on its ability to online decompose plane waves at multiple mode frequencies. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated first in a numerical model with two unstable modes. It is then experimentally implemented in an acoustically driven pipe system with a lined section attached. The acoustic damping of perforated liners is continuously characterized in real-time. Comparison is then made between the results from the algorithm and those from the short-time fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based techniques, which are typically used in industry. It was found that the real-time algorithm allows faster tracking of the liners damping, even when the forcing frequency was suddenly changed.
Surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) flow sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joshi, Shrinivas G.
1991-03-01
The use of a surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) device to measure the rate of gas flow is described. A SAW oscillator heated to a suitable temperature above ambient is placed in the path of a flowing gas. Convective cooling caused by the gas flow results in a change in the oscillator frequency. A 73-MHz oscillator fabricated on 128 deg rotated Y-cut lithium niobate substrate and heated to 55 C above ambient shows a frequency variation greater than 142 kHz for flow-rate variation from 0 to 1000 cu cm/min. The output of the sensor can be calibrated to provide a measurement of volume flow rate, pressure differential across channel ports, or mass flow rate. High sensitivity, wide dynamic range, and direct digital output are among the attractive features of this sensor. Theoretical expressions for the sensitivity and response time of the sensor are derived. It is shown that by using ultrasonic Lamb waves propagating in thin membranes, a flow sensor with faster response than a SAW sensor can be realized.
Ionospheric acoustic and gravity waves associated with midlatitude thunderstorms
Lay, Erin H.; Shao, Xuan -Min; Kendrick, Alexander K.; ...
2015-07-30
Acoustic waves with periods of 2–4 min and gravity waves with periods of 6–16 min have been detected at ionospheric heights (25–350 km) using GPS total electron content measurements. The area disturbed by these waves and the wave amplitudes have been associated with underlying thunderstorm activity. A statistical study comparing Next Generation Weather Radar thunderstorm measurements with ionospheric acoustic and gravity waves in the midlatitude U.S. Great Plains region was performed for the time period of May–July 2005. An increase of ionospheric acoustic wave disturbed area and amplitude is primarily associated with large thunderstorms (mesoscale convective systems). Ionospheric gravity wavemore » disturbed area and amplitude scale with thunderstorm activity, with even small storms (i.e., individual storm cells) producing an increase of gravity waves.« less
Scattering of Plane Guided Waves Obliquely Incident on Straight Features
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilcox, P. D.; Velichko, A.; Drinkwater, B. W.; Croxford, A. J.; Todd, M. D.
2011-06-01
A semi-analytical finite element model is developed to study the scattering of plane guided waves obliquely incident on a straight geometric feature. The model is first used to investigate the reflection of the S0 mode from a free edge and the results are compared to those of bulk waves reflecting from a free boundary. The model is then used to predict the transmission of the S0 mode past an adhesively-bonded stiffener. The results obtained are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements.
Scattering of plane guided waves obliquely incident on straight features
Wilcox, P. D.; Velichko, A.; Drinkwater, B. W.; Croxford, A. J.; Todd, M. D.
2011-06-23
A semi-analytical finite element model is developed to study the scattering of plane guided waves obliquely incident on a straight geometric feature. The model is first used to investigate the reflection of the S0 mode from a free edge and the results are compared to those of bulk waves reflecting from a free boundary. The model is then used to predict the transmission of the S0 mode past an adhesively-bonded stiffener. The results obtained are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements.
Relationship between dust acoustic waves in two and three dimensions
Piel, A.; Goree, J.
2006-10-15
Low frequency electrostatic waves are investigated for a monolayer suspension of dust particles that are shielded by an ambient plasma of three-dimensional extension. The dispersion of the resulting dust acoustic surface waves is compared with dust acoustic waves in three dimensions and with lattice modes in two dimensions. It is found that the wave dispersion is determined by shielding of electric fields by electrons and ions on either side of the dust monolayer; this differs from previously studied cases of charged sheets in a vacuum. The phase velocity of these surface waves suggests the definition of a proper dust plasma frequency for monolayer systems.
Plane-wave decomposition by spherical-convolution microphone array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rafaely, Boaz; Park, Munhum
2004-05-01
Reverberant sound fields are widely studied, as they have a significant influence on the acoustic performance of enclosures in a variety of applications. For example, the intelligibility of speech in lecture rooms, the quality of music in auditoria, the noise level in offices, and the production of 3D sound in living rooms are all affected by the enclosed sound field. These sound fields are typically studied through frequency response measurements or statistical measures such as reverberation time, which do not provide detailed spatial information. The aim of the work presented in this seminar is the detailed analysis of reverberant sound fields. A measurement and analysis system based on acoustic theory and signal processing, designed around a spherical microphone array, is presented. Detailed analysis is achieved by decomposition of the sound field into waves, using spherical Fourier transform and spherical convolution. The presentation will include theoretical review, simulation studies, and initial experimental results.
Creating and studying ion acoustic waves in ultracold neutral plasmas
Killian, T. C.; Castro, J.; McQuillen, P.; O'Neil, T. M.
2012-05-15
We excite ion acoustic waves in ultracold neutral plasmas by imprinting density modulations during plasma creation. Laser-induced fluorescence is used to observe the density and velocity perturbations created by the waves. The effect of expansion of the plasma on the evolution of the wave amplitude is described by treating the wave action as an adiabatic invariant. After accounting for this effect, we determine that the waves are weakly damped, but the damping is significantly faster than expected for Landau damping.
Propagation of waves of acoustic frequencies in curved ducts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rostafinski, W.
1973-01-01
The propagation of waves of acoustic frequencies in curved ducts is studied for the first four modes. The analysis makes use of Bessel functions to construct curves of wave number in the duct versus imposed wave number. The results apply to ducts of arbitrary width and arbitrary radii of curvature. The characteristics of motion in a bend are compared with propagation of waves in a straight duct, and important differences in the behavior of waves are noted.
Holography and entropy bounds in the plane wave matrix model
Bousso, Raphael; Mints, Aleksey L.
2006-06-15
As a quantum theory of gravity, matrix theory should provide a realization of the holographic principle, in the sense that a holographic theory should contain one binary degree of freedom per Planck area. We present evidence that Bekenstein's entropy bound, which is related to area differences, is manifest in the plane wave matrix model. If holography is implemented in this way, we predict crossover behavior at strong coupling when the energy exceeds N{sup 2} in units of the mass scale.
Scattering of a CW plane wave by a pulse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trivett, D. H.; Rogers, P. H.
1982-05-01
A procedure similar to the CW crossed-beam calculation of Ingard and Pridmore-Brown (1956) is used to calculate the far field scattered sound pressure of a pulse interacting with a plane wave. The scattered sound is found to be at neither the sum nor the difference frequency. It is suggested that this type of interaction is ideal for investigating the scattering of sound by sound, and a numerical solution is used to discuss the general features of the nearfield waveform.
False Paradoxes of Superposition in Electric and Acoustic Waves.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Levine, Richard C.
1980-01-01
Corrected are several misconceptions concerning the apparently "missing" energy that results when acoustic or electromagnetic waves cancel by destructive interference and the wave impedance reflected to the sources of the wave energy changes so that the input power is reduced. (Author/CS)
Self-focusing of ion-acoustic surface waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stenflo, L.; Gradov, O. M.
1996-06-01
An electrostatic ion-acoustic surface wave propagating along the boundary of a semi-infinite plasma is considered. It is shown that a nonlinear Schrödinger equation can describe the development of the wave amplitude. The self-focusing length of a wave beam is estimated.
Waveform inversion of acoustic waves for explosion yield estimation
Kim, K.; Rodgers, A. J.
2016-07-08
We present a new waveform inversion technique to estimate the energy of near-surface explosions using atmospheric acoustic waves. Conventional methods often employ air blast models based on a homogeneous atmosphere, where the acoustic wave propagation effects (e.g., refraction and diffraction) are not taken into account, and therefore, their accuracy decreases with increasing source-receiver distance. In this study, three-dimensional acoustic simulations are performed with a finite difference method in realistic atmospheres and topography, and the modeled acoustic Green's functions are incorporated into the waveform inversion for the acoustic source time functions. The strength of the acoustic source is related to explosion yield based on a standard air blast model. The technique was applied to local explosions (<10 km) and provided reasonable yield estimates (<~30% error) in the presence of realistic topography and atmospheric structure. In conclusion, the presented method can be extended to explosions recorded at far distance provided proper meteorological specifications.
The excitation and detection of lamb waves with planar coil electromagnetic acoustic transducers.
Wilcox, Paul D; Lowe, Michael J S; Cawley, Peter
2005-12-01
Planar coil electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) are investigated for the excitation and detection of Lamb waves in nonferromagnetic metallic wave-guides. Such EMATs are attractive for certain applications due to their omni-directional sensitivity to wave modes with predominantly in-plane surface displacement, such as the So Lamb wave mode. A model is developed that enables the modal content of the radiated Lamb wave field from a transmitting EMAT to be calculated, and the output voltage from a receiving EMAT to be predicted when a Lamb wave mode is incident on it. The predictions from this model are compared with experimental data obtained from 12 different EMATs tested on a 5-mm thick aluminum plate, and good agreement is obtained. The model then is used to analyze the different effects that contribute to the overall Lamb wave modal sensitivity of an EMAT. The relationship between coil geometry and wavelength is examined.
Ultrafast microfluidics using surface acoustic waves
Yeo, Leslie Y.; Friend, James R.
2009-01-01
We demonstrate that surface acoustic waves (SAWs), nanometer amplitude Rayleigh waves driven at megahertz order frequencies propagating on the surface of a piezoelectric substrate, offer a powerful method for driving a host of extremely fast microfluidic actuation and micro∕bioparticle manipulation schemes. We show that sessile drops can be translated rapidly on planar substrates or fluid can be pumped through microchannels at 1–10 cm∕s velocities, which are typically one to two orders quicker than that afforded by current microfluidic technologies. Through symmetry-breaking, azimuthal recirculation can be induced within the drop to drive strong inertial microcentrifugation for micromixing and particle concentration or separation. Similar micromixing strategies can be induced in the same microchannel in which fluid is pumped with the SAW by merely changing the SAW frequency to rapidly switch the uniform through-flow into a chaotic oscillatory flow by exploiting superpositioning of the irradiated sound waves from the sidewalls of the microchannel. If the flow is sufficiently quiescent, the nodes of the transverse standing wave that arises across the microchannel also allow for particle aggregation, and hence, sorting on nodal lines. In addition, the SAW also facilitates other microfluidic capabilities. For example, capillary waves excited at the free surface of a sessile drop by the SAW underneath it can be exploited for micro∕nanoparticle collection and sorting at nodal points or lines at low powers. At higher powers, the large accelerations off the substrate surface as the SAW propagates across drives rapid destabilization of the drop free surface giving rise to inertial liquid jets that persist over 1–2 cm in length or atomization of the entire drop to produce 1–10 μm monodispersed aerosol droplets, which can be exploited for ink-jet printing, mass spectrometry interfacing, or pulmonary drug delivery. The atomization of polymer∕protein solutions
The propagation and attenuation of complex acoustic waves in treated circular and annular ducts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reethof, G.
1976-01-01
The propagation of plane waves and higher order acoustic modes in a circular multisectioned duct was studied. A unique source array consisting of two concentric rings of sources, providing phase and amplitude control in the radial, as well as circumferential direction, was developed to generate plane waves and both spinning and nonspinning higher order modes. Measurements of attenuation and radial mode shapes were taken with finite length liners between the hard wall sections of an anechoically terminated duct. Materials tested as liners included a glass fiber material and both sintered fiber metals and perforated sheet metals with a honeycomb backing. The fundamental acoustic properties of these materials were studied with emphasis on the attenuation of sound by the liners and the determination of local versus extended reaction behavior for the boundary condition. The experimental results were compared with a mathematical model for the multisectioned duct.
Xie, Weifeng; Fan, Chenglei; Yang, Chunli; Lin, Sanbao
2016-03-01
As a newly developed arc welding method, power ultrasound has been successfully introduced into arc and weld pool during ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding process. The advanced process for molten metals can be realized by utilizing additional ultrasonic field. Under the action of the acoustic wave, the plasma arc as weld heat source is regulated and its characteristics make an obvious change. Compared with the conventional arc, the ultrasonic wave-assisted arc plasma is bound significantly and becomes brighter. To reveal the dependence of the acoustic binding force on acoustic field parameters, a two-dimensional acoustic field model for ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding device is established. The influences of the radiator height, the central pore radius, the radiator radius, and curvature radius or depth of concave radiator surface are discussed using the boundary element method. Then the authors analyze the resonant mode by this relationship curve between acoustic radiation power and radiator height. Furthermore, the best acoustic binding ability is obtained by optimizing the geometric parameters of acoustic radiator. In addition, three concave radiator surfaces including spherical cap surface, paraboloid of revolution, and rotating single curved surface are investigated systematically. Finally, both the calculation and experiment suggest that, to obtain the best acoustic binding ability, the ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding setup should be operated under the first resonant mode using a radiator with a spherical cap surface, a small central pore, a large section radius and an appropriate curvature radius.
Broadband enhanced transmission of acoustic waves through serrated metal gratings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qi, Dong-Xiang; Deng, Yu-Qiang; Xu, Di-Hu; Fan, Ren-Hao; Peng, Ru-Wen; Chen, Ze-Guo; Lu, Ming-Hui; Huang, X. R.; Wang, Mu
2015-01-01
In this letter, we have demonstrated that serrated metal gratings, which introduce gradient coatings, can give rise to broadband transmission enhancement of acoustic waves. Here, we have experimentally and theoretically studied the acoustic transmission properties of metal gratings with or without serrated boundaries. The average transmission is obviously enhanced for serrated metal gratings within a wide frequency range, while the Fabry-Perot resonance is significantly suppressed. An effective medium hypothesis with varying acoustic impedance is proposed to analyze the mechanism, which was verified through comparison with finite-element simulation. The serrated boundary supplies gradient mass distribution and gradient normal acoustic impedance, which could efficiently reduce the boundary reflection. Further, by increasing the region of the serrated boundary, we present a broadband high-transmission grating for wide range of incident angle. Our results may have potential applications to broadband acoustic imaging, acoustic sensing, and acoustic devices.
Scattering of Acoustic Waves from Ocean Boundaries
2014-09-30
derived reflection coefficients as a function of range along the reverberation track (right). RESULTS Analysis of Acoustic Scattering for Layered and... acoustic interaction with the ocean floor, including penetration through and reflection from smooth and rough water/sediment interfaces, scattering ...can account for the all of the physical processes and variability of acoustic propagation and scattering in ocean environments with special emphasis
Wave-particle dynamics of wave breaking in the self-excited dust acoustic wave.
Teng, Lee-Wen; Chang, Mei-Chu; Tseng, Yu-Ping; I, Lin
2009-12-11
The wave-particle microdynamics in the breaking of the self-excited dust acoustic wave growing in a dusty plasma liquid is investigated through directly tracking dust micromotion. It is found that the nonlinear wave growth and steepening stop as the mean oscillating amplitude of dust displacement reaches about 1/k (k is the wave number), where the vertical neighboring dust trajectories start to crossover and the resonant wave heating with uncertain crest trapping onsets. The dephased dust oscillations cause the abrupt dropping and broadening of the wave crest after breaking, accompanied by the transition from the liquid phase with coherent dust oscillation to the gas phase with chaotic dust oscillation. Corkscrew-shaped phase-space distributions measured at the fixed phases of the wave oscillation cycle clearly indicate how dusts move in and constitute the evolving waveform through dust-wave interaction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brunet, Philippe; Baudoin, Michael; Matar, Olivier Bou; Zoueshtiagh, Farzam
2010-11-01
Surface acoustic waves (SAW) are known to be a versatile technique for the actuation of sessile drops. Droplet displacement, internal mixing or drop splitting, are amongst the elementary operations that SAW can achieve, which are useful on lab-on-chip microfluidics benches. On the purpose to understand the underlying physical mechanisms involved during these operations, we study experimentally the droplet dynamics varying different physical parameters. Here in particular, the influence of liquid viscosity and acoustic frequency is investigated: it is indeed predicted that both quantities should play a role in the acoustic-hydrodynamic coupling involved in the dynamics. The key point is to compare the relative magnitude of the attenuation length, i.e. the scale within which the acoustic wave decays in the fluid, and the size of the drop. This relative magnitude governs the relative importance of acoustic streaming and acoustic radiation pressure, which are both involved in the droplet dynamics.
Reflection and Scattering of Acoustical Waves from a Discontinuity in Absorption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, J. P.; Leeman, S.; Nolan, E.; Lee, D.
The reflection and transmission of a plane acoustical wave from a planar boundary at the interface between two homogeneous media of different acoustical properties is a classical problem in acoustics that has served as a basis for many developments in acoustics for over 100 years. This problem, detailed in virtually every textbook on acoustics, provides us with the acoustical analogue to Snell's Law in optics and gives us correspondingly simple results. Classical acoustics predicts that a reflection from a boundary occurs only if the characteristic acoustical impedances of the two media are different. Here we show that a reflection also occurs if the media have the same impedances but different absorption coefficients. Our analysis yields some surprising results. For example, a reflection will occur at a discontinuity in absorption even if the impedance is uniform and continuous across the interface. In addition, a discontinuity in impedance at an interface between two media that have constant and equal, but non-zero absorption, results in a reflection coefficient that is dependent on absorption as well as impedance. In general, reflection coefficients now become frequency dependent. To experimentally test our results, we measured the reflection at the interface between water and castor oil, two liquids with similar impedances but very different absorption coefficients. Measurement of the reflection coefficient between 1 and 50 MHz demonstrated a frequency dependence that was in good agreement with our analysis.
Spectral solution of acoustic wave-propagation problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kopriva, David A.
1990-01-01
The Chebyshev spectral collocation solution of acoustic wave propagation problems is considered. It is shown that the phase errors decay exponentially fast and that the number of points per wavelength is not sufficient to estimate the phase accuracy. Applications include linear propagation of a sinusoidal acoustic wavetrain in two space dimensions, and the interaction of a sound wave with the bow shock formed by placing a cylinder in a uniform Mach 4 supersonic free stream.
Nonlinear Scattering of Acoustic Waves by Vibrating Obstacles.
1983-06-01
AD-A129 282 NONLINEAR SCATTERING OF ACOUSTIC WAVES BY VIBRATING OBSTACLES (U) NAVAL RESEARCH LAR WASHINOTON DC d C PIQUETTE 01 JUN 83 NRL-MR-5077...MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NAIOAL IBtJ[IAU Of S1ANDARD~If A3 NRL Memorandum Report 5077 Nonlinear Scattering of Acoustic Waves by Vibrating Obstacles ... Obstacles continuing problem. S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMMER 7. AUTHOR(s) 6. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMIISER( ) Jean C. Piquette* S. PERFORMING
Thin Superconducting Film Characterization by Surface Acoustic Waves.
2014-09-26
NUMBER 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3 RECIPIENT’S CA ALOG NUMBER ~~AFOSR TR -0 8 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) 5 TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Thin Superconducting ...thin film superconductor surface acoustic waves I SAW electron phonon interaction superconducting energy gap electron mean free path vortex...electrical resistivity and the attenuation of surface ,e J -acoustic waves (SAW) were measured in the superconducting state of a L granular lead film
Estimating propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor
Xu, Wenyuan; Huizinga, John S.
2010-03-16
Techniques are described for estimating the propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor. In particular, techniques which measure and exploit a proper segment of phase frequency response of the surface acoustic wave sensor are described for use as a basis of bacterial detection by the sensor. As described, use of velocity estimation based on a proper segment of phase frequency response has advantages over conventional techniques that use phase shift as the basis for detection.
Nozzleless Spray Cooling Using Surface Acoustic Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ang, Kar Man; Yeo, Leslie; Friend, James; Hung, Yew Mun; Tan, Ming Kwang
2015-11-01
Due to its reliability and portability, surface acoustic wave (SAW) atomization is an attractive approach for the generation of monodispersed microdroplets in microfluidics devices. Here, we present a nozzleless spray cooling technique via SAW atomization with key advantage of downward scalability by simply increasing the excitation frequency. With generation of micron size droplets through surface destabilization using SAW, the clogging issues commonly encountered by spraying nozzle can be neutralized. Using deionised water, cooling is improved when the atomization rate is increased and the position of the device is optimized such that the atomized droplets can be easily seeded into the upstream of the flow circulation. Cooling is further improved with the use of nanofluids; a suspension of nanoparticles in water. By increasing nanoparticle mass concentration from 1% to 3%, cooling is enhanced due to the deposition and formation of nanoparticle clusters on heated surface and eventually increase the surface area. However, further increase the concentration to 10% reduces the cooling efficiency due to drastic increase in viscosity μ that leads to lower atomization rate which scales as ṁ ~μ - 1 / 2 .
Surface acoustic wave devices for sensor applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bo, Liu; Xiao, Chen; Hualin, Cai; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Xiangguang, Tian; Luqi, Tao; Yi, Yang; Tianling, Ren
2016-02-01
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices have been widely used in different fields and will continue to be of great importance in the foreseeable future. These devices are compact, cost efficient, easy to fabricate, and have a high performance, among other advantages. SAW devices can work as filters, signal processing units, sensors and actuators. They can even work without batteries and operate under harsh environments. In this review, the operating principles of SAW sensors, including temperature sensors, pressure sensors, humidity sensors and biosensors, will be discussed. Several examples and related issues will be presented. Technological trends and future developments will also be discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 60936002, 61025021, 61434001, 61574083), the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (No. 2015CB352100), the National Key Project of Science and Technology (No. 2011ZX02403-002) and the Special Fund for Agroscientific Research in the Public Interest of China (No. 201303107). M.A.M is additionally supported by the Postdoctoral Fellowship (PDF) program of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (CPSF).
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) vibration sensors.
Filipiak, Jerzy; Solarz, Lech; Steczko, Grzegorz
2011-01-01
In the paper a feasibility study on the use of surface acoustic wave (SAW) vibration sensors for electronic warning systems is presented. The system is assembled from concatenated SAW vibration sensors based on a SAW delay line manufactured on a surface of a piezoelectric plate. Vibrations of the plate are transformed into electric signals that allow identification of the sensor and localization of a threat. The theoretical study of sensor vibrations leads us to the simple isotropic model with one degree of freedom. This model allowed an explicit description of the sensor plate movement and identification of the vibrating sensor. Analysis of frequency response of the ST-cut quartz sensor plate and a damping speed of its impulse response has been conducted. The analysis above was the basis to determine the ranges of parameters for vibrating plates to be useful in electronic warning systems. Generally, operation of electronic warning systems with SAW vibration sensors is based on the analysis of signal phase changes at the working frequency of delay line after being transmitted via two circuits of concatenated four-terminal networks. Frequencies of phase changes are equal to resonance frequencies of vibrating plates of sensors. The amplitude of these phase changes is proportional to the amplitude of vibrations of a sensor plate. Both pieces of information may be sent and recorded jointly by a simple electrical unit.
Dynamics of the positron acoustic waves in electron-positron-ion magnetoplasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, Rustam; Saha, Asit; Chatterjee, Prasanta
2017-01-01
Dynamics of the positron acoustic waves in electron-positron-ion (e-p-i) magnetoplasmas with κ-distributed hot electrons and positrons is investigated in the frameworks of the Kadomtsev-Petviashili (KP) and modified Kadomtsev-Petviashili (mKP) equations. Employing the reductive perturbation technique, the KP and mKP equations are derived. Using the bifurcation theory of planar dynamical systems, the positron acoustic solitary wave solutions, the kink and anti-kink wave solutions are obtained. Considering an external periodic perturbation in the electron-positron-ion magnetoplasmas, the perturbed KP and mKP equations are studied via some qualitative and quantitative approaches. To corroborate in the fact that the perturbed KP and mKP equations can indeed give rise to the quasiperiodic and chaotic motions, the phase plane plots, time series plots, and the Poincaré section are used. The quasiperiodic and developed chaos can be observed for the perturbed positron acoustic waves. The frequency (ω ) of the external periodic perturbation plays the role of the switching parameter in chaotic motions of the perturbed positron acoustic waves through quasiperiodic route to chaos. This work can be useful to understand the dynamics of nonlinear electromagnetic perturbations in space and laboratory plasmas consisting of κ-distributed hot electrons and positrons.
Nanoliter-droplet acoustic streaming via ultra high frequency surface acoustic waves.
Shilton, Richie J; Travagliati, Marco; Beltram, Fabio; Cecchini, Marco
2014-08-06
The relevant length scales in sub-nanometer amplitude surface acoustic wave-driven acoustic streaming are demonstrated. We demonstrate the absence of any physical limitations preventing the downscaling of SAW-driven internal streaming to nanoliter microreactors and beyond by extending SAW microfluidics up to operating frequencies in the GHz range. This method is applied to nanoliter scale fluid mixing.
Acoustic waves in gases with strong pressure gradients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zorumski, William E.
1989-01-01
The effect of strong pressure gradients on the acoustic modes (standing waves) of a rectangular cavity is investigated analytically. When the cavity response is represented by a sum of modes, each mode is found to have two resonant frequencies. The lower frequency is near the Viaesaela-Brundt frequency, which characterizes the buoyant effect, and the higher frequency is above the ordinary acoustic resonance frequency. This finding shows that the propagation velocity of the acoustic waves is increased due to the pressure gradient effect.
Diffraction of three-colour radiation on an acoustic wave
Kotov, V M
2015-07-31
We study acousto-optic Bragg diffraction of three-colour radiation having wavelengths of 488, 514 and 633 nm on a single acoustic wave propagating in a TeO{sub 2} crystal. A technique is developed that allows one to find diffraction regimes with a proportional change in the intensity of all radiations by varying the acoustic power. According to the technique, radiation with a maximum wavelength has to be in strict Bragg synchronism with the acoustic wave, while other radiations diffract during the synchronism detuning. The results obtained using this technique are experimentally confirmed. (diffraction of light)
Incident Wave Removal for Defect Enhancement in Acoustic Wavefield Imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Master, Zubin M.; Michaels, Thomas E.; Michaels, Jennifer E.
2007-03-01
The method of Acoustic Wavefield Imaging (AWI) offers many advantages over conventional ultrasonic techniques for nondestructive evaluation, and also provides a means of incorporating fixed ultrasonic sensors used for structural health monitoring into subsequent inspections. AWI utilizes these fixed sensors as wave sources and an externally scanned ultrasonic transducer (or laser interferometer) as a receiver to acquire complete waveform data over the surface. When displayed as time-dependent images, these signals show the propagation of acoustic waves through a structure and subsequent interactions of these waves with both defects and structural geometry. Defect areas appear as stationary scattering sources on these images, but such scattered wave energy is often obscured by the stronger incident acoustic wavefield. The objective of the work presented here is to develop multidimensional signal processing algorithms to enhance the appearance of structural defects on wavefield images via removal of the incident wave. Results are presented for analysis of images from aluminum plate and solid laminate composite specimens.
Decoding the matrix: Coincident membranes on the plane wave
Bousso, Raphael; Mints, Aleksey L.
2006-03-15
At the core of nonperturbative theories of quantum gravity lies the holographic encoding of bulk data in large matrices. At present this mapping is poorly understood. The plane wave matrix model provides a laboratory for isolating aspects of this problem in a controlled setting. At large boosts, configurations of concentric membranes become superselection sectors, whose exact spectra are known. From the bulk point of view, one expects product states of individual membranes to be contained within the full spectrum. However, for non-BPS states this inclusion relation is obscured by Gauss law constraints. Its validity rests on nontrivial relations in representation theory, which we identify and verify by explicit computation.
Augmented-plane-wave calculations on small molecules
Serena, P.A.; Baratoff, A. ); Soler, J.M. )
1993-07-15
We have performed [ital ab] [ital initio] calculations on a wide range of small molecules, demonstrating the accuracy and flexibility of an alternative method for calculating the electronic structure of molecules, solids, and surfaces. It is based on the local-density approximation (LDA) for exchange and correlation and the nonlinear augmented-plane-wave method. Very accurate atomic forces are obtained directly. This allows for implementation of Car-Parrinello-like techniques to determine simultaneously the self-consistent electron wave functions and the equilibrium atomic positions within an iterative scheme. We find excellent agreement with the best existing LDA-based calculations and remarkable agreement with experiment for the equilibrium geometries, vibrational frequencies, and dipole moments of a wide variety of molecules, including strongly bound homopolar and polar molecules, hydrogen-bound and electron-deficient molecules, and weakly bound alkali and noble-metal dimers, although binding energies are overestimated.
Plane shock wave structure in a dilute granular gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reddy, M. H. Lakshminarayana; Alam, Meheboob
2016-11-01
We analyse the early time evolution of the Riemann problem of planar shock wave structures for a dilute granular gas by solving Navier-Stokes equations numerically. The one-dimensional reduced Navier-Stokes equations for plane shock wave problem are solved numerically using a relaxation-type numerical scheme. The results on the shock structures in granular gases are presented for different Mach numbers and restitution coefficients. Based on our analysis on early time shock dynamics we conclude that the density and temperature profiles are "asymmetric"; the density maximum and the temperature maximum occur within the shock layer; the absolute magnitudes of longitudinal stress and heat flux which are initially zero at both end states attain maxima in a very short time and thereafter decrease with time.
Ocean-Acoustic Solitary Wave Studies and Predictions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Warn-Varnas, A. C.; Chin-Bing, S. A.; King, D. B.; Hallock, Z.; Hawkins, J. A.
Shallow water internal solitary waves have become a major topic of interest to oceanographers and acousticians. In this paper we review the cross-disciplinary status of joint ocean-acoustic solitary wave studies and predictions. We consider the process of acoustical mode coupling in the presence of solitary waves and the corresponding acoustical intensity loss due to increased coupling with the bottom. A study of the interaction of an acoustical field with a train of solitary waves is undertaken at a range of frequencies. At a resonant frequency the acoustic field can interact with the solitary wave packet which results in mode conversions (acoustic energy is redistributed among the modes, often from lower-order to higher-order modes). Higher signal losses can occur in the higher order modes through increased bottom attenuation and result in an anomalous acoustical intensity loss at the resonant frequency. We present some new results of joint ocean-acoustic research, from a dedicated study in the Strait of Messina, where solitary waves are generated by semidiurnal tidal flow over topographic variations. The University of Hamburg weakly nonhydrostatic two layer model is used for simulating the generation and propagation of solitary waves. In particular, the physical states encountered during an October 1995 cruise in the Strait of Messina (between Italy and Sicily) are simulated. Various parameter space sensitivity studies, about the existing cruise conditions, are performed. The modelled solitary wave trains are compared against conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) chain measurements in terms of amplitudes, wavelengths, phase speeds and correlations with data. Predicted and observed sound speeds are used in acoustical intensity calculations that are conducted with a parabolic equation (PE) model. The differences in the resultant acoustical intensity fields provide a guide for the tuning of the oceanographic model parameters. The tuned oceanographic model shows
Quantum ion-acoustic wave oscillations in metallic nanowires
Moradi, Afshin
2015-05-15
The low-frequency electrostatic waves in metallic nanowires are studied using the quantum hydrodynamic model, in which the electron and ion components of the system are regarded as a two-species quantum plasma system. The Poisson equation as well as appropriate quantum boundary conditions give the analytical expressions of dispersion relations of the surface and bulk quantum ion-acoustic wave oscillations.
Application of surface acoustic wave devices to radio telemetry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Strasilla, U.
1983-01-01
Three experimental Surface Acoustic Wave Resonators (SAWR) are developed and evaluated. A desired center frequency is obtained by correct spacing of the Inter-Digital Transducers (IDT). Transmitting and receiving IDT's must be close for adequate coupling and a sufficient number of reflectors are required to create a high quality standing wave. A review of oscillator theory is given and current technology evaluated.
Propagation of acoustic waves in multifractional polydisperse gas suspension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gubaidullin, D. A.; Teregulova, E. A.
2017-01-01
The propagation of acoustic waves in multifractional polydisperse gas suspension is studied. A mathematical model is presented, the dispersion equation is obtained, dispersion curves are calculated. The influence of the particle size and the parameters of the dispersed phase for multifractional gas mixture with ice particles, aluminum and sand on dissipation and dispersion of sound waves is analyzed.
INTERFERENCE FRINGES OF SOLAR ACOUSTIC WAVES AROUND SUNSPOTS
Chou, Dean-Yi; Zhao Hui; Yang, Ming-Hsu; Liang, Zhi-Chao
2012-10-20
Solar acoustic waves are scattered by a sunspot due to the interaction between the acoustic waves and the sunspot. The sunspot, excited by the incident wave, generates the scattered wave. The scattered wave is added to the incident wave to form the total wave around the sunspot. The interference fringes between the scattered wave and the incident wave are visible in the intensity of the total wave because the coherent time of the incident wave is of the order of a wave period. The strength of the interference fringes anti-correlates with the width of temporal spectra of the incident wave. The separation between neighboring fringes increases with the incident wavelength and the sunspot size. The strength of the fringes increases with the radial order n of the incident wave from n = 0 to n = 2, and then decreases from n = 2 to n = 5. The interference fringes play a role analogous to holograms in optics. This study suggests the feasibility of using the interference fringes to reconstruct the scattered wavefields of the sunspot, although the quality of the reconstructed wavefields is sensitive to the noise and errors in the interference fringes.
Acoustic Gravity Wave Chemistry Model for the RAYTRACE Code.
2014-09-26
AU)-AI56 850 ACOlUSTIC GRAVITY WAVE CHEMISTRY MODEL FOR THE IAYTRACE I/~ CODE(U) MISSION RESEARCH CORP SANTA BARBIARA CA T E OLD Of MAN 84 MC-N-SlS...DNA-TN-S4-127 ONAOOI-BO-C-0022 UNLSSIFIlED F/O 20/14 NL 1-0 2-8 1111 po 312.2 1--I 11111* i •. AD-A 156 850 DNA-TR-84-127 ACOUSTIC GRAVITY WAVE...Hicih Frequency Radio Propaoation Acoustic Gravity Waves 20. ABSTRACT (Continue en reveree mide if tteceeemr and Identify by block number) This
Thermo-acoustic engineering of silicon microresonators via evanescent waves
Tabrizian, R.; Ayazi, F.
2015-06-29
A temperature-compensated silicon micromechanical resonator with a quadratic temperature characteristic is realized by acoustic engineering. Energy-trapped resonance modes are synthesized by acoustic coupling of propagating and evanescent extensional waves in waveguides with rectangular cross section. Highly different temperature sensitivity of propagating and evanescent waves is used to engineer the linear temperature coefficient of frequency. The resulted quadratic temperature characteristic has a well-defined turn-over temperature that can be tailored by relative energy distribution between propagating and evanescent acoustic fields. A 76 MHz prototype is implemented in single crystal silicon. Two high quality factor and closely spaced resonance modes, created from efficient energy trapping of extensional waves, are excited through thin aluminum nitride film. Having different evanescent wave constituents and energy distribution across the device, these modes show different turn over points of 67 °C and 87 °C for their quadratic temperature characteristic.
The implementation of holography in the plane wave matrix model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mints, Aleksey Leonidovich
It is expected that at the core of nonperturbative theories of quantum gravity, such as M-theory, lies the realization of the holographic principle, in the sense that a holographic theory should contain one binary degree of freedom per Planck area. Present understanding of such theories requires the holographic encoding of bulk data in large matrices. Currently this mapping is poorly understood. The plane wave matrix model provides a laboratory for isolating aspects of this problem in a controlled setting. At large boosts, configurations of concentric membranes become superselection sectors, whose exact spectra are known. From the bulk point of view one expects product states of individual membranes to be contained within the full spectrum. However, for non-BPS states this inclusion relation is obscured by Gauss law constraints. Its validity rests on nontrivial relations in representation theory, which we identify and verify by explicit computation. Beyond the decoding and partial identification of selected states in large matrices, one would like to get a better understanding of the holographic state counting of these degrees of freedom, i.e., entropy. Contrary to the naive expectation of holography realized in terms of the covariant entropy bound, we present evidence that it is the Bekenstein entropy bound, which is related to area differences, that is manifest in the plane wave matrix model. If holography is implemented in this way, we predict crossover behavior at strong coupling when the energy exceeds N2 in units of the mass scale.
Broadband enhanced transmission of acoustic waves through serrated metal gratings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qi, Dong-Xiang; Fan, Ren-Hao; Deng, Yu-Qiang; Peng, Ru-Wen; Wang, Mu; Jiangnan University Collaboration
In this talk, we present our studies on broadband properties of acoustic waves through metal gratings. We have demonstrated that serrated metal gratings, which introduce gradient coatings, can give rise to broadband transmission enhancement of acoustic waves. Here, we have experimentally and theoretically studied the acoustic transmission properties of metal gratings with or without serrated boundaries. The average transmission is obviously enhanced for serrated metal gratings within a wide frequency range, while the Fabry-Perot resonance is significantly suppressed. An effective medium hypothesis with varying acoustic impedance is proposed to analyze the mechanism, which was verified through comparison with finite-element simulation. The serrated boundary supplies gradient mass distribution and gradient normal acoustic impedance, which could efficiently reduce the boundary reflection. Further, by increasing the region of the serrated boundary, we present a broadband high-transmission grating for wide range of incident angle. Our results may have potential applications to broadband acoustic imaging, acoustic sensing and new acoustic devices. References: [1] Dong-Xiang Qi, Yu-Qiang Deng, Di-Hu Xu, Ren-Hao Fan, Ru-Wen Peng, Ze-Guo Chen, Ming-Hui Lu, X. R. Huang and Mu Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 011906 (2015); [2] Dong-Xiang Qi, Ren-Hao Fan, Ru-Wen Peng, Xian-Rong Huang, Ming-Hui Lu, Xu Ni, Qing Hu, and Mu Wang, Applied Physics Letters 101, 061912 (2012).
Separation of acoustic waves in isentropic flow perturbations
Henke, Christian
2015-04-15
The present contribution investigates the mechanisms of sound generation and propagation in the case of highly-unsteady flows. Based on the linearisation of the isentropic Navier–Stokes equation around a new pathline-averaged base flow, it is demonstrated for the first time that flow perturbations of a non-uniform flow can be split into acoustic and vorticity modes, with the acoustic modes being independent of the vorticity modes. Therefore, we can propose this acoustic perturbation as a general definition of sound. As a consequence of the splitting result, we conclude that the present acoustic perturbation is propagated by the convective wave equation and fulfils Lighthill’s acoustic analogy. Moreover, we can define the deviations of the Navier–Stokes equation from the convective wave equation as “true” sound sources. In contrast to other authors, no assumptions on a slowly varying or irrotational flow are necessary. Using a symmetry argument for the conservation laws, an energy conservation result and a generalisation of the sound intensity are provided. - Highlights: • First splitting of non-uniform flows in acoustic and non-acoustic components. • These result leads to a generalisation of sound which is compatible with Lighthill’s acoustic analogy. • A closed equation for the generation and propagation of sound is given.
Generalized collar waves in acoustic logging while drilling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xiu-Ming; He, Xiao; Zhang, Xiu-Mei
2016-12-01
Tool waves, also named collar waves, propagating along the drill collars in acoustic logging while drilling (ALWD), strongly interfere with the needed P- and S-waves of a penetrated formation, which is a key issue in picking up formation P- and S-wave velocities. Previous studies on physical insulation for the collar waves designed on the collar between the source and the receiver sections did not bring to a satisfactory solution. In this paper, we investigate the propagation features of collar waves in different models. It is confirmed that there exists an indirect collar wave in the synthetic full waves due to the coupling between the drill collar and the borehole, even there is a perfect isolator between the source and the receiver. The direct collar waves propagating all along the tool and the indirect ones produced by echoes from the borehole wall are summarized as the generalized collar waves. Further analyses show that the indirect collar waves could be relatively strong in the full wave data. This is why the collar waves cannot be eliminated with satisfactory effect in many cases by designing the physical isolators carved on the tool. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11134011 and 11374322) and the Foresight Research Project, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Magneto-acoustic imaging by continuous-wave excitation.
Shunqi, Zhang; Zhou, Xiaoqing; Tao, Yin; Zhipeng, Liu
2017-04-01
The electrical characteristics of tissue yield valuable information for early diagnosis of pathological changes. Magneto-acoustic imaging is a functional approach for imaging of electrical conductivity. This study proposes a continuous-wave magneto-acoustic imaging method. A kHz-range continuous signal with an amplitude range of several volts is used to excite the magneto-acoustic signal and improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The magneto-acoustic signal amplitude and phase are measured to locate the acoustic source via lock-in technology. An optimisation algorithm incorporating nonlinear equations is used to reconstruct the magneto-acoustic source distribution based on the measured amplitude and phase at various frequencies. Validation simulations and experiments were performed in pork samples. The experimental and simulation results agreed well. While the excitation current was reduced to 10 mA, the acoustic signal magnitude increased up to 10(-7) Pa. Experimental reconstruction of the pork tissue showed that the image resolution reached mm levels when the excitation signal was in the kHz range. The signal-to-noise ratio of the detected magneto-acoustic signal was improved by more than 25 dB at 5 kHz when compared to classical 1 MHz pulse excitation. The results reported here will aid further research into magneto-acoustic generation mechanisms and internal tissue conductivity imaging.
Love wave acoustic sensor for testing in liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Haifeng; Zhu, Huizhong; Feng, Guanping
2001-09-01
Love wave is one type of the surface acoustic waves (SAWs). It is guided acoustic mode propagating in ta thin layer deposited on a substrate. Because of its advantages of high mass sensitivity, low noise level and being fit for operating in liquids, Love wave acoustic sensors have become one of the hot spots in the research of biosensor nowadays. In this paper the Love wave devices with the substrate of ST-cut quartz and the guiding layers of PMMA and fused quartz were fabricated successfully. By measuring the transfer function S21 and the insertion loss of the devices, the characteristics of the Rayleigh wave device and the Love wave devices with different guiding layers in gas phase and liquid phase were compared. It was validated that the Love wave sensor is suitable for testing in liquids but the Rayleigh wave sensor is not. What's more, SiO2 is the more proper material for the guiding layer of the Love wave device.
Acoustic tweezers via sub–time-of-flight regime surface acoustic waves
Collins, David J.; Devendran, Citsabehsan; Ma, Zhichao; Ng, Jia Wei; Neild, Adrian; Ai, Ye
2016-01-01
Micrometer-scale acoustic waves are highly useful for refined optomechanical and acoustofluidic manipulation, where these fields are spatially localized along the transducer aperture but not along the acoustic propagation direction. In the case of acoustic tweezers, such a conventional acoustic standing wave results in particle and cell patterning across the entire width of a microfluidic channel, preventing selective trapping. We demonstrate the use of nanosecond-scale pulsed surface acoustic waves (SAWs) with a pulse period that is less than the time of flight between opposing transducers to generate localized time-averaged patterning regions while using conventional electrode structures. These nodal positions can be readily and arbitrarily positioned in two dimensions and within the patterning region itself through the imposition of pulse delays, frequency modulation, and phase shifts. This straightforward concept adds new spatial dimensions to which acoustic fields can be localized in SAW applications in a manner analogous to optical tweezers, including spatially selective acoustic tweezers and optical waveguides. PMID:27453940
Finite difference solutions to shocked acoustic waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walkington, N. J.; Eversman, W.
1983-01-01
The MacCormack, Lambda and split flux finite differencing schemes are used to solve a one dimensional acoustics problem. Two duct configurations were considered, a uniform duct and a converging-diverging nozzle. Asymptotic solutions for these two ducts are compared with the numerical solutions. When the acoustic amplitude and frequency are sufficiently high the acoustic signal shocks. This condition leads to a deterioration of the numerical solutions since viscous terms may be required if the shock is to be resolved. A continuous uniform duct solution is considered to demonstrate how the viscous terms modify the solution. These results are then compared with a shocked solution with and without viscous terms. Generally it is found that the most accurate solutions are those obtained using the minimum possible viscosity coefficients. All of the schemes considered give results accurate enough for acoustic power calculations with no one scheme performing significantly better than the others.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khurana, Aarti; Tomar, S. K.
2008-04-01
Reflection and transmission phenomena of a plane longitudinal displacement wave impinging obliquely at a plane interface between a micropolar elastic solid half-space and a chiral elastic solid half-space are investigated. The incident wave is assumed to be striking at the plane interface after propagating through the micropolar elastic solid half-space. The reflection and transmission coefficients are obtained by utilizing two possible sets of boundary conditions, for a specific model and there values corresponding to two boundary conditions are also compared graphically. The effect of chirality parameter on various reflection and transmission coefficients have been noticed and shown graphically. Results of Lakhtakia et al. [Reflection of elastic plane waves at a planar achiral-chiral interface, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 87 (1990) 2314-2318] and Miklowitz [The Theory of Elastic Waves and Waveguides, North-Holland, New York, 1978] have also been reduced as special cases from the present formulation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yong, Peng; Huang, Jianping; Li, Zhenchun; Liao, Wenyuan; Qu, Luping; Li, Qingyang; Liu, Peijun
2016-12-01
In finite difference (FD) method, numerical dispersion is the dominant factor influencing the accuracy of seismic modeling. Various optimized FD schemes for scalar wave modeling have been proposed to reduce grid dispersion, while the optimized time-space domain FD schemes for elastic wave modeling have not been fully investigated yet. In this paper, an optimized FD scheme with Equivalent Staggered Grid (ESG) for elastic modelling has been developed. We start from the constant P- and S-wave speed elastic wave equations and then deduce analytical plane wave solutions in the wavenumber domain with eigenvalue decomposition method. Based on the elastic plane wave solutions, three new time-space domain dispersion relations of ESG elastic modeling are obtained, which are represented by three equations corresponding to P-, S- and converted wave terms in the elastic equations, respectively. By using these new relations, we can study the dispersion errors of different spatial FD terms independently. The dispersion analysis showed that different spatial FD terms have different errors. It is therefore suggested that different FD coefficients to be used to approximate the three spatial derivative terms. In addition, the relative dispersion error in L2-norm is minimized through optimizing FD coefficients using Newton's method. Synthetic examples have demonstrated that this new optimal FD schemes have superior accuracy for elastic wave modeling compared to Taylor-series expansion and optimized space domain FD schemes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yong, Peng; Huang, Jianping; Li, Zhenchun; Liao, Wenyuan; Qu, Luping; Li, Qingyang; Liu, Peijun
2017-02-01
In finite-difference (FD) method, numerical dispersion is the dominant factor influencing the accuracy of seismic modelling. Various optimized FD schemes for scalar wave modelling have been proposed to reduce grid dispersion, while the optimized time-space domain FD schemes for elastic wave modelling have not been fully investigated yet. In this paper, an optimized FD scheme with Equivalent Staggered Grid (ESG) for elastic modelling has been developed. We start from the constant P- and S-wave speed elastic wave equations and then deduce analytical plane wave solutions in the wavenumber domain with eigenvalue decomposition method. Based on the elastic plane wave solutions, three new time-space domain dispersion relations of ESG elastic modelling are obtained, which are represented by three equations corresponding to P-, S- and converted-wave terms in the elastic equations, respectively. By using these new relations, we can study the dispersion errors of different spatial FD terms independently. The dispersion analysis showed that different spatial FD terms have different errors. It is therefore suggested that different FD coefficients to be used to approximate the three spatial derivative terms. In addition, the relative dispersion error in L2-norm is minimized through optimizing FD coefficients using Newton's method. Synthetic examples have demonstrated that this new optimal FD schemes have superior accuracy for elastic wave modelling compared to Taylor-series expansion and optimized space domain FD schemes.
Modeling Nonlinear Acoustical Blast Waves Outdoors: A Research Summary
1991-09-01
Porous Surfaces. 5 David Gottlieb and Eli Turkel, "Dissipative Two-Four Methods for Time Dependent Problems," Mathematical Comnputation, No. 30 (1976...or structure factor, which Attenborough relates to the tortuosity. The local reaction assumption is inhereptly built into this model of the porous...k Waves in the Atmosphere," Journal of the Acoustical Socidy of America, No. 74 (1983). pp 1514-1517. David T. Blackstone., "Nonlinear Acoustics
Broadband Metamaterial for Nonresonant Matching of Acoustic Waves
2012-03-28
transmission (EOT)5–8. Lately, it has been extended to acoustic waves, as extraordinary acoustic transmission ( EAT )9–11. Usually these phenomena are achieved... EAT limitations. To this goal, we show a way to manipulate the effective constitutive properties (density reff and sound velocity ceff) of an...obtained. Most EAT phenomena rely on resonance effects that are inherently narrow-band, and for which large transmission is usually hindered by
Concepts and Tradeoffs in Velocity Estimation With Plane-Wave Contrast-Enhanced Doppler.
Tremblay-Darveau, Charles; Williams, Ross; Sheeran, Paul S; Milot, Laurent; Bruce, Matthew; Burns, Peter N
2016-11-01
While long Doppler ensembles are, in principle, beneficial for velocity estimates, short acoustic pulses must be used in microbubble contrast-enhanced (CE) Doppler to mitigate microbubble destruction. This introduces inherent tradeoffs in velocity estimates with autocorrelators, which are studied here. A model of the autocorrelation function adapted to the microbubble Doppler signal accounting for transit time, the echo frequency uncertainty, and contrast-agent destruction is derived and validated in vitro. It is further demonstrated that a local measurement of the center frequency of the microbubble echo is essential in order to avoid significant bias in velocity estimates arising from the linear and nonlinear frequency-dependent scattering of microbubbles and compensate for the inherent speckle nature of the received echo frequency. For these reasons, broadband Doppler estimators (2-D autocorrelator and Radon projection) are better suited than simpler narrow-band estimators (1-D autocorrelator and 1-D Fourier transform) for CE flow assessment. A case study of perfusion in a VX-2 carcinoma using CE plane-wave Doppler is also shown. We demonstrate that even when considering all uncertainties associated with microbubble-related decorrelation (destruction, pulse bandwidth, transit time, and flow gradient) and the need for real-time imaging, a coefficient of variation of 4% on the axial velocity is achievable with plane-wave imaging.
Zhang, Xiao-Zheng; Thomas, Jean-Hugh; Bi, Chuan-Xing; Pascal, Jean-Claude
2012-10-01
A time-domain plane wave superposition method is proposed to reconstruct nonstationary sound fields. In this method, the sound field is expressed as a superposition of time convolutions between the estimated time-wavenumber spectrum of the sound pressure on a virtual source plane and the time-domain propagation kernel at each wavenumber. By discretizing the time convolutions directly, the reconstruction can be carried out iteratively in the time domain, thus providing the advantage of continuously reconstructing time-dependent pressure signals. In the reconstruction process, the Tikhonov regularization is introduced at each time step to obtain a relevant estimate of the time-wavenumber spectrum on the virtual source plane. Because the double infinite integral of the two-dimensional spatial Fourier transform is discretized directly in the wavenumber domain in the proposed method, it does not need to perform the two-dimensional spatial fast Fourier transform that is generally used in time domain holography and real-time near-field acoustic holography, and therefore it avoids some errors associated with the two-dimensional spatial fast Fourier transform in theory and makes possible to use an irregular microphone array. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated by numerical simulations and an experiment with two speakers.
Microfluidic particle manipulation using high frequency surface acoustic waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ai, Ye; Collins, David J.
2016-11-01
Precise manipulation of particles and biological cells remains a very active research area in microfluidics. Among various force fields applied for microfluidic manipulations, acoustic waves have superior propagating properties in solids and fluids, which can readily enable non-contact cell manipulation in long operating distances. Exploiting acoustic waves for fluid and cell manipulation in microfluidics has led to a newly emerging research area, acoustofluidics. In this work, I will present particle and cell manipulation in microfluidics using high frequency surface acoustic waves (SAW). In particular, I will discuss a unique design of a focused IDT (FIDT) structure, which is able to generate a highly localized SAW field on the order of 20 µm wide. This highly focused acoustic beam has an effective manipulation area size that is comparable to individual micron-sized particles. Here, I demonstrate the use of this highly localized SAW field for single particle level sorting with sub-millisecond pulses and selective capture of particles. Based on the presented studies on acoustic particle manipulation, I envision that the merging of acoustics and microfluidics could enable various particle and cell manipulations needed in microfluidic applications. We acknowledge the support received from Singapore University of Technology and Design (SUTD)-Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) International Design Center (IDG11300101) and SUTD Startup Research Grant (SREP13053) awarded to Y.A.
Surface acoustic wave devices for harsh environment wireless sensing
Greve, David W.; Chin, Tao -Lun; Zheng, Peng; ...
2013-05-24
In this study, langasite surface acoustic wave devices can be used to implement harsh environment wireless sensing of gas concentration and temperature. This paper reviews prior work on the development of langasite surface acoustic wave devices, followed by a report of recent progress toward the implementation of oxygen gas sensors. Resistive metal oxide films can be used as the oxygen sensing film, although development of an adherent barrier layer will be necessary with the sensing layers studied here to prevent interaction with the langasite substrate. Experimental results are presented for the performance of a langasite surface acoustic wave oxygen sensormore » with tin oxide sensing layer, and these experimental results are correlated with direct measurements of the sensing layer resistivity.« less
Surface acoustic wave devices for harsh environment wireless sensing
Greve, David W.; Chin, Tao -Lun; Zheng, Peng; Ohodnicki, Paul; Baltrus, John; Oppenheim, Irving J.
2013-05-24
In this study, langasite surface acoustic wave devices can be used to implement harsh environment wireless sensing of gas concentration and temperature. This paper reviews prior work on the development of langasite surface acoustic wave devices, followed by a report of recent progress toward the implementation of oxygen gas sensors. Resistive metal oxide films can be used as the oxygen sensing film, although development of an adherent barrier layer will be necessary with the sensing layers studied here to prevent interaction with the langasite substrate. Experimental results are presented for the performance of a langasite surface acoustic wave oxygen sensor with tin oxide sensing layer, and these experimental results are correlated with direct measurements of the sensing layer resistivity.
Broadband metamaterial for nonresonant matching of acoustic waves.
D'Aguanno, G; Le, K Q; Trimm, R; Alù, A; Mattiucci, N; Mathias, A D; Aközbek, N; Bloemer, M J
2012-01-01
Unity transmittance at an interface between bulk media is quite common for polarized electromagnetic waves incident at the Brewster angle, but it is rarely observed for sound waves at any angle of incidence. In the following, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate an acoustic metamaterial possessing a Brewster-like angle that is completely transparent to sound waves over an ultra-broadband frequency range with >100% bandwidth. The metamaterial, consisting of a hard metal with subwavelength apertures, provides a surface impedance matching mechanism that can be arbitrarily tailored to specific media. The nonresonant nature of the impedance matching effectively decouples the front and back surfaces of the metamaterial allowing one to independently tailor the acoustic impedance at each interface. On the contrary, traditional methods for acoustic impedance matching, for example in medical imaging, rely on resonant tunneling through a thin antireflection layer, which is inherently narrowband and angle specific.
Individually Identifiable Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors, Tags and Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hines, Jacqueline H. (Inventor); Solie, Leland P. (Inventor); Tucker, Dana Y. G. (Inventor); Hines, Andrew T. (Inventor)
2017-01-01
A surface-launched acoustic wave sensor tag system for remotely sensing and/or providing identification information using sets of surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor tag devices is characterized by acoustic wave device embodiments that include coding and other diversity techniques to produce groups of sensors that interact minimally, reducing or alleviating code collision problems typical of prior art coded SAW sensors and tags, and specific device embodiments of said coded SAW sensor tags and systems. These sensor/tag devices operate in a system which consists of one or more uniquely identifiable sensor/tag devices and a wireless interrogator. The sensor device incorporates an antenna for receiving incident RF energy and re-radiating the tag identification information and the sensor measured parameter(s). Since there is no power source in or connected to the sensor, it is a passive sensor. The device is wirelessly interrogated by the interrogator.
Surface Acoustic Wave Devices for Harsh Environment Wireless Sensing
Greve, David W.; Chin, Tao-Lun; Zheng, Peng; Ohodnicki, Paul; Baltrus, John; Oppenheim, Irving J.
2013-01-01
Langasite surface acoustic wave devices can be used to implement harsh-environment wireless sensing of gas concentration and temperature. This paper reviews prior work on the development of langasite surface acoustic wave devices, followed by a report of recent progress toward the implementation of oxygen gas sensors. Resistive metal oxide films can be used as the oxygen sensing film, although development of an adherent barrier layer will be necessary with the sensing layers studied here to prevent interaction with the langasite substrate. Experimental results are presented for the performance of a langasite surface acoustic wave oxygen sensor with tin oxide sensing layer, and these experimental results are correlated with direct measurements of the sensing layer resistivity. PMID:23708273
Drops subjected to surface acoustic waves: flow dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brunet, Philippe; Baudoin, Michael; Bou Matar, Olivier; Dynamique Des Systèmes Hors Equilibre Team; Aiman-Films Team
2012-11-01
Ultrasonic acoustic waves of frequency beyond the MHz are known to induce streaming flow in fluids that can be suitable to perform elementary operations in microfluidics systems. One of the currently appealing geometry is that of a sessile drop subjected to surface acoustic waves (SAW). Such Rayleigh waves produce non-trival actuation in the drop leading to internal flow, drop displacement, free-surface oscillations and atomization. We recently carried out experiments and numerical simulations that allowed to better understand the underlying physical mechanisms that couple acoustic propagation and fluid actuation. We varied the frequency and amplitude of actuation, as well as the properties of the fluid, and we measured the effects of these parameters on the dynamics of the flow. We compared these results to finite-elements numerical simulations.
High-frequency shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave sensor
Branch, Darren W
2013-05-07
A Love wave sensor uses a single-phase unidirectional interdigital transducer (IDT) on a piezoelectric substrate for leaky surface acoustic wave generation. The IDT design minimizes propagation losses, bulk wave interferences, provides a highly linear phase response, and eliminates the need for impedance matching. As an example, a high frequency (.about.300-400 MHz) surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducer enables efficient excitation of shear-horizontal waves on 36.degree. Y-cut lithium tantalate (LTO) giving a highly linear phase response (2.8.degree. P-P). The sensor has the ability to detect at the pg/mm.sup.2 level and can perform multi-analyte detection in real-time. The sensor can be used for rapid autonomous detection of pathogenic microorganisms and bioagents by field deployable platforms.
High-frequency shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave sensor
Branch, Darren W
2014-03-11
A Love wave sensor uses a single-phase unidirectional interdigital transducer (IDT) on a piezoelectric substrate for leaky surface acoustic wave generation. The IDT design minimizes propagation losses, bulk wave interferences, provides a highly linear phase response, and eliminates the need for impedance matching. As an example, a high frequency (.about.300-400 MHz) surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducer enables efficient excitation of shear-horizontal waves on 36.degree. Y-cut lithium tantalate (LTO) giving a highly linear phase response (2.8.degree. P-P). The sensor has the ability to detect at the pg/mm.sup.2 level and can perform multi-analyte detection in real-time. The sensor can be used for rapid autonomous detection of pathogenic microorganisms and bioagents by field deployable platforms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilcox, Lucas C.; Stadler, Georg; Burstedde, Carsten; Ghattas, Omar
2010-12-01
We introduce a high-order discontinuous Galerkin (dG) scheme for the numerical solution of three-dimensional (3D) wave propagation problems in coupled elastic-acoustic media. A velocity-strain formulation is used, which allows for the solution of the acoustic and elastic wave equations within the same unified framework. Careful attention is directed at the derivation of a numerical flux that preserves high-order accuracy in the presence of material discontinuities, including elastic-acoustic interfaces. Explicit expressions for the 3D upwind numerical flux, derived as an exact solution for the relevant Riemann problem, are provided. The method supports h-non-conforming meshes, which are particularly effective at allowing local adaptation of the mesh size to resolve strong contrasts in the local wavelength, as well as dynamic adaptivity to track solution features. The use of high-order elements controls numerical dispersion, enabling propagation over many wave periods. We prove consistency and stability of the proposed dG scheme. To study the numerical accuracy and convergence of the proposed method, we compare against analytical solutions for wave propagation problems with interfaces, including Rayleigh, Lamb, Scholte, and Stoneley waves as well as plane waves impinging on an elastic-acoustic interface. Spectral rates of convergence are demonstrated for these problems, which include a non-conforming mesh case. Finally, we present scalability results for a parallel implementation of the proposed high-order dG scheme for large-scale seismic wave propagation in a simplified earth model, demonstrating high parallel efficiency for strong scaling to the full size of the Jaguar Cray XT5 supercomputer.
Wilcox, Lucas C.; Stadler, Georg; Burstedde, Carsten; Ghattas, Omar
2010-12-10
We introduce a high-order discontinuous Galerkin (dG) scheme for the numerical solution of three-dimensional (3D) wave propagation problems in coupled elastic-acoustic media. A velocity-strain formulation is used, which allows for the solution of the acoustic and elastic wave equations within the same unified framework. Careful attention is directed at the derivation of a numerical flux that preserves high-order accuracy in the presence of material discontinuities, including elastic-acoustic interfaces. Explicit expressions for the 3D upwind numerical flux, derived as an exact solution for the relevant Riemann problem, are provided. The method supports h-non-conforming meshes, which are particularly effective at allowing local adaptation of the mesh size to resolve strong contrasts in the local wavelength, as well as dynamic adaptivity to track solution features. The use of high-order elements controls numerical dispersion, enabling propagation over many wave periods. We prove consistency and stability of the proposed dG scheme. To study the numerical accuracy and convergence of the proposed method, we compare against analytical solutions for wave propagation problems with interfaces, including Rayleigh, Lamb, Scholte, and Stoneley waves as well as plane waves impinging on an elastic-acoustic interface. Spectral rates of convergence are demonstrated for these problems, which include a non-conforming mesh case. Finally, we present scalability results for a parallel implementation of the proposed high-order dG scheme for large-scale seismic wave propagation in a simplified earth model, demonstrating high parallel efficiency for strong scaling to the full size of the Jaguar Cray XT5 supercomputer.
Acoustic streaming in the transducer plane in ultrasonic particle manipulation devices.
Lei, Junjun; Glynne-Jones, Peter; Hill, Martyn
2013-06-07
In acoustofluidic manipulation and sorting devices, Rayleigh streaming flows are typically found in addition to the acoustic radiation forces. However, experimental work from various groups has described acoustic streaming that occurs in planar devices in a plane parallel to the transducer face. This is typically a four-quadrant streaming pattern with the circulation parallel to the transducer. Understanding its origins is essential for creating designs that limit or control this phenomenon. The cause of this kind of streaming pattern has not been previously explained as it is different from the well-known classical streaming patterns such as Rayleigh streaming and Eckart streaming, whose circulation planes are generally perpendicular to the face of the acoustic transducer. In order to gain insight into these patterns we present a numerical method based on Nyborg's limiting velocity boundary condition that includes terms ignored in the Rayleigh analysis, and verify its predictions against experimental PIV results in a simple device. The results show that the modelled particle trajectories match those found experimentally. Analysis of the dominant terms in the driving equations shows that the origin of this kind of streaming pattern is related to the circulation of the acoustic intensity.
Wave propagation and acoustic band gaps of two-dimensional liquid crystal/solid phononic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oltulu, Oral; Mamedov, Amirullah M.; Ozbay, Ekmel
2017-01-01
The vast majority of acoustic wave propagation in phononic band studies has been usually carried out by scattering inclusions embedded in a viscoelastic medium, such as air or water. In this study, we present calculated band structure results for the two-dimensional square array geometry of a solid cylindrical scatterer surrounded by a liquid crystal (LC) matrix. Liquid crystals provide a unique combination of liquid-like and crystal-like properties as well as anisotropic properties. The purpose of using LC material is to take advantage of longitudinal acoustic waves propagating parallel (||) and perpendicular (⊥) to the nematic liquid crystal (NLC) director n. The compound used in this study was a room temperature NLC, called 5CB (4-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl). The acoustic band structure of a two-dimensional phononic crystal containing a 5CB NLC and lithium tantalate was investigated by the plane wave expansion method. The theoretical results show that the solid/LC system can be tuned in a favorable configuration for adjusting or shifting acoustic band gaps.
Integrated focal plane arrays for millimeter-wave astronomy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bock, James J.; Goldin, Alexey; Hunt, Cynthia; Lange, Andrew E.; Leduc, Henry G.; Day, Peter K.; Vayonakis, Anastasios; Zmuidzinas, Jonas
2002-02-01
We are developing focal plane arrays of bolometric detectors for sub-millimeter and millimeter-wave astrophysics. We propose a flexible array architecture using arrays of slot antennae coupled via low-loss superconducting Nb transmission line to microstrip filters and antenna-coupled bolometers. By combining imaging and filtering functions with transmission line, we are able to realize unique structures such as a multi-band polarimeter and a planar, dispersive spectrometer. Micro-strip bolometers have significantly smaller active volume than standard detectors with extended absorbers, and can realize higher sensitivity and speed of response. The integrated array has natural immunity to stray radiation or spectral leaks, and minimizes the suspended mass operating at 0.1-0.3 K. We also discuss future space-borne spectroscopy and polarimetry applications. .
Particle-Wave Micro-Dynamics in Nonlinear Self-Excited Dust Acoustic Waves
Tsai, C.-Y.; Teng, L.-W.; Liao, C.-T.; I Lin
2008-09-07
The large amplitude dust acoustic wave can be self-excited in a low-pressure dusty plasma. In the wave, the nonlinear wave-particle interaction determines particle motion, which in turn determines the waveform and wave propagation. In this work, the above behaviors are investigated by directly tracking particle motion through video-microscopy. A Lagrangian picture for the wave dynamics is constructed. The wave particle interaction associated with the transition from ordered to disordered particle oscillation, the wave crest trapping and wave heating are demonstrated and discussed.
Lagrangian-Eulerian micromotion and wave heating in nonlinear self-excited dust-acoustic waves.
Liao, Chen-Ting; Teng, Lee-Wen; Tsai, Chen-Yu; Io, Chong-Wai; I, Lin
2008-05-09
We investigate particle-wave microdynamics in the large amplitude self-excited dust acoustic wave at the discrete level through direct visualization. The wave field induces dust oscillations which in turn sustain wave propagation. In the regular wave with increasing wave amplitude, dust-wave interaction with uncertain temporary crest trapping and dust-dust interaction lead to the transition from cyclic to disordered dust motion associated with the liquid to the gas transition, and anisotropic non-Gaussian heating. In the irregular wave, particle trough-trapping is also observed, and the heating is nearly Gaussian and less anisotropic.
A metasurface carpet cloak for electromagnetic, acoustic and water waves.
Yang, Yihao; Wang, Huaping; Yu, Faxin; Xu, Zhiwei; Chen, Hongsheng
2016-01-29
We propose a single low-profile skin metasurface carpet cloak to hide objects with arbitrary shape and size under three different waves, i.e., electromagnetic (EM) waves, acoustic waves and water waves. We first present a metasurface which can control the local reflection phase of these three waves. By taking advantage of this metasurface, we then design a metasurface carpet cloak which provides an additional phase to compensate the phase distortion introduced by a bump, thus restoring the reflection waves as if the incident waves impinge onto a flat mirror. The finite element simulation results demonstrate that an object can be hidden under these three kinds of waves with a single metasurface cloak.
Acoustic dose and acoustic dose-rate.
Duck, Francis
2009-10-01
Acoustic dose is defined as the energy deposited by absorption of an acoustic wave per unit mass of the medium supporting the wave. Expressions for acoustic dose and acoustic dose-rate are given for plane-wave conditions, including temporal and frequency dependencies of energy deposition. The relationship between the acoustic dose-rate and the resulting temperature increase is explored, as is the relationship between acoustic dose-rate and radiation force. Energy transfer from the wave to the medium by means of acoustic cavitation is considered, and an approach is proposed in principle that could allow cavitation to be included within the proposed definitions of acoustic dose and acoustic dose-rate.
Amplification of acoustic evanescent waves using metamaterial slabs.
Park, Choon Mahn; Park, Jong Jin; Lee, Seung Hwan; Seo, Yong Mun; Kim, Chul Koo; Lee, Sam H
2011-11-04
We amplified acoustic evanescent waves using metamaterial slabs with a negative effective density. For the amplifying effect of the slab to overcome the dissipation, it is necessary that the imaginary part of the effective density is much smaller than the real part, a condition not satisfied so far. We report the construction of membrane-based two-dimensional negative-density metamaterials which exhibited remarkably small dissipation. Using a slab of this metamaterial we realized a 17-fold net amplitude gain at a remote distance from the evanescent wave source. Potential applications include acoustic superlensing.
Surface acoustic wave/silicon monolithic sensor/processor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kowel, S. T.; Kornreich, P. G.; Nouhi, A.; Kilmer, R.; Fathimulla, M. A.; Mehter, E.
1983-01-01
A new technique for sputter deposition of piezoelectric zinc oxide (ZnO) is described. An argon-ion milling system was converted to sputter zinc oxide films in an oxygen atmosphere using a pure zinc oxide target. Piezoelectric films were grown on silicon dioxide and silicon dioxide overlayed with gold. The sputtered films were evaluated using surface acoustic wave measurements, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and resistivity measurements. The effect of the sputtering conditions on the film quality and the result of post-deposition annealing are discussed. The application of these films to the generation of surface acoustic waves is also discussed.
Projection operators for the Rossby and Poincare waves in a beta-plane approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lebedkina, Anastasia; Ivan, Karpov; Sergej, Leble
2013-04-01
. The idea to use the polarization relations for the classification of waves originated in radio physics in the works of A. A. Novikov. In the theory of the electromagnetic field polarization relations is traditionally included in the analysis of wave phenomena. In the theory of acoustic-gravity waves, projection operators were introduced in a works of S. B. Leble. The object of study is a four-dimentional vector (components of the velocity, pressure and temperature). Based on these assumptions, we can construct the projection operators for superposition state on the linear basis, corresponding to the well-known type of waves. In this paper we consider procedure for construction of a projection operators for planetary Rossby and Poincare waves in the Earth's atmosphere in the approximation of the "beta-plane". In a result of work we constructed projection operators in this approximation for Poincare and Rossby waves. The tests for operators shown, that separation of the contribution of corresponding waves from source of the wave field is possible. Estimation accuracy of the operators and results of applying operators to the data TEC presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Haixia; Gao, Jinghuai; Peng, Jigen
2017-01-01
The frequency-dependent seismic anomalies related to hydrocarbon reservoirs have lately attracted wide interest. The diffusive-viscous model was proposed to explain these anomalies. When an incident diffusive-viscous wave strikes a boundary between two different media, it is reflected and transmitted. The equation for the reflection coefficient is quite complex and laborious, so it does not provide an intuitive understanding of how different amplitude relates to the parameters of the media and how variation of a particular parameter affects the reflection coefficient. In this paper, we firstly derive a two-term (intercept-gradient) and three-term (intercept-gradient-curvature) approximation to the reflection coefficient of the plane diffusive-viscous wave without any assumptions. Then, we study the limitations of the obtained approximations by comparing the approximate value of the reflection coefficient with its exact value. Our results show that the two approximations match well with the exact solutions within the incident angle of 35°. Finally, we analyze the effects of diffusive and viscous attenuation parameters, velocity and density in the diffusive-viscous wave equation on the intercept, gradient and curvature terms in the approximations. The results show that the diffusive attenuation parameter has a big impact on them, while the viscous attenuation parameter is insensitive to them; the velocity and density have a significant influence on the normal reflections and they distinctly affect the intercept, gradient and curvature term at lower acoustic impedance.
Quantitative measurement of in-plane acoustic field components using surface-mounted fiber sensors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Claus, Richard O.; Dhawan, Rajat R.; Gunther, Michael F.; Murphy, Kent A.
1993-01-01
Extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors have been used to obtain calibrated, quantitative measurements of the in-plane displacement components associated with the propagation of ultrasonic elastic stress waves on the surfaces of solids. The frequency response of the sensor is determined by the internal spacing between the two reflecting fiber endface surfaces which form the Fabry-Perot cavity, a distance which is easily controlled during fabrication. With knowledge of the material properties of the solid, the out-of-plane displacement component of the wave may also be determined, giving full field data.
Acoustic carrier transportation induced by surface acoustic waves in graphene in solution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okuda, Satoshi; Ikuta, Takashi; Kanai, Yasushi; Ono, Takao; Ogawa, Shinpei; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Shimatani, Masaaki; Inoue, Koichi; Maehashi, Kenzo; Matsumoto, Kazuhiko
2016-04-01
The acoustic charge transportation induced by surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation in graphene in solution was investigated. The sign of acoustic current (I A) was found to switch when crossing the Dirac point because the major carrier was transitioned from holes to electrons by the change in electrolyte-gate voltage. I A also exhibited a peak value under conditions of both hole and electron conduction. These results can be explained on the basis of a change in the type of major carrier in graphene, as well as a change in the carrier mobility of graphene.
Properties of Materials Using Acoustic Waves.
1984-10-01
CLASSiFICATIOO OF THIS PAGIR elM. DMe Eatae" to nonlinear acoustics which should permit us to cast problems with geometric and other complexities into a...on the kinetics of chemical reactions . 5. New theoretical approaches in nonlinear acoustics (R.M. McGowan and Professor B.-T. Chu) We are working to...of water and methanol was compared with the theoretical predictions given by Marston’s theory and the simplified model (Hsu 1983). This set of data
Laboratory modeling of edge wave generation over a plane beach by breaking waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abcha, Nizar; Ezersky, Alexander; Pelinovsky, Efim
2015-04-01
Edge waves play an important role in coastal hydrodynamics: in sediment transport, in formation of coastline structure and coastal bottom topography. Investigation of physical mechanisms leading to the edge waves generation allows us to determine their effect on the characteristics of spatially periodic patterns like crescent submarine bars and cusps observed in the coastal zone. In the present paper we investigate parametric excitation of edge wave with frequency two times less than the frequency of surface wave propagating perpendicular to the beach. Such mechanism of edge wave generation has been studied previously in a large number of papers using the assumption of non-breaking waves. This assumption was used in theoretical calculations and such conditions were created in laboratory experiments. In the natural conditions, the wave breaking is typical when edge waves are generated at sea beach. We study features of such processes in laboratory experiments. Experiments were performed in the wave flume of the Laboratory of Continental and Coast Morphodynamics (M2C), Caen. The flume is equipment with a wave maker controlled by computer. To model a plane beach, a PVC plate is placed at small angle to the horizontal bottom. Several resistive probes were used to measure characteristics of waves: one of them was used to measure free surface displacement near the wave maker and two probes were glued on the inclined plate. These probes allowed us to measure run-up due to parametrically excited edge waves. Run-up height is determined by processing a movie shot by high-speed camera. Sub-harmonic generation of standing edge waves is observed for definite control parameters: edge waves represent themselves a spatial mode with wavelength equal to double width of the flume; the frequency of edge wave is equal to half of surface wave frequency. Appearance of sub-harmonic mode instability is studied using probes and movie processing. The dependence of edge wave exponential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, S. V.; Devanandhan, S.; Lakhina, G. S.; Bharuthram, R.
2016-08-01
A theoretical investigation is carried out to study the obliquely propagating electron acoustic solitary waves having nonthermal hot electrons, cold and beam electrons, and ions in a magnetized plasma. We have employed reductive perturbation theory to derive the Korteweg-de-Vries-Zakharov-Kuznetsov (KdV-ZK) equation describing the nonlinear evolution of these waves. The two-dimensional plane wave solution of KdV-ZK equation is analyzed to study the effects of nonthermal and beam electrons on the characteristics of the solitons. Theoretical results predict negative potential solitary structures. We emphasize that the inclusion of finite temperature effects reduces the soliton amplitudes and the width of the solitons increases by an increase in the obliquity of the wave propagation. The numerical analysis is presented for the parameters corresponding to the observations of "burst a" event by Viking satellite on the auroral field lines.
Acoustic measurements of air entrainment by breaking waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Terrill, Eric James
1998-11-01
Wave breaking at the surface of the ocean plays an important role in air-sea interaction processes. Bubbles entrained by breaking waves not only enhance the transfer of atmospheric gases to the ocean, but also modify the phase speed and attenuation of acoustic waves propagating through the bubbly medium. The development of acoustic instruments to measure bubbles and the results obtained from a number of field and laboratory experiments are presented. The first part of this dissertation addresses sound speed measurements made in the North Atlantic as part of the Acoustic Surface Reverberation Experiment (ASREX). An autonomous buoy system that directly measures the sound speed in the surface wave layer was developed. Data obtained with the instrument spanned several storm cycles with wind speeds and significant wave heights reaching 20 m/s and 8 m, respectively. The use of Wood's relation (1946) allows the calculation of the void fraction of air based on the low-frequency sound speed measurements. The highly variable near-surface sound speed/void fraction field is analyzed with respect to wind and surface wave- breaking parameters. The second part of this dissertation presents the development of a broadband acoustic technique which simultaneously measures the phase speed and attenuation at acoustic frequencies ranging from 4-100 kHz. The acoustic data is inverted for the size distribution of bubbles using algorithms that are based upon the physics of sound propagation through a bubbly mixture. This acoustic technique was evaluated in the large wave channel at the Hydraulics Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, using mechanically generated breaking waves in seawater. Field measurements of bubble concentrations that result from wave breaking were made in both shallow water off Scripps Pier, California and in deep water near Point Conception, California using the broadband technique. Significant variability is observed in the bubble field, characterized by
Efficient counter-propagating wave acoustic micro-particle manipulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grinenko, A.; Ong, C. K.; Courtney, C. R. P.; Wilcox, P. D.; Drinkwater, B. W.
2012-12-01
A simple acoustic system consisting of a pair of parallel singe layered piezoelectric transducers submerged in a fluid used to form standing waves by a superposition of two counter-propagating waves is reported. The nodal positions of the standing wave are controlled by applying a variable phase difference to the transducers. This system was used to manipulate polystyrene micro-beads trapped at the nodal positions of the standing wave. The demonstrated good manipulation capability of the system is based on a lowering of the reflection coefficient in a narrow frequency band near the through-thickness resonance of the transducer plates.
Linear coupling of acoustic and cyclotron waves in plasma flows
Rogava, Andria; Gogoberidze, Grigol
2005-05-15
It is found that in magnetized electrostatic plasma flows the velocity shear couples ion-acoustic waves with ion-cyclotron waves and leads, under favorable conditions, to their efficient reciprocal transformations. It is shown that in a two-dimensional setup this coupling has a remarkable feature: it is governed by equations that are mathematically equal to the ones describing coupling of sound waves with internal gravity waves [Rogava and Mahajan, Phys. Rev. E 55, 1185 (1997)] in neutral fluids. For flows with low shearing rates a fully analytic, quantitative description of the coupling efficiency, based on a noteworthy quantum-mechanical analogy, is given and transformation coefficients are calculated.
Measuring acoustic nonlinearity parameter using collinear wave mixing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Minghe; Tang, Guangxin; Jacobs, Laurence J.; Qu, Jianmin
2012-07-01
This study introduces a new acoustic nonlinearity parameter βT. It is shown that βT is associated with the interaction between a longitudinal wave and a shear wave in isotropic elastic solids with quadratic nonlinearity. Experimental measurements are conducted to demonstrate that the collinear wave mixing technique is capable of measuring βT nondestructively. Further, it is shown that βT is well-correlated with the plastic deformation in Al-6061 alloys. These results indicate that collinear wave mixing is a promising method for nondestructive assessment of plastic deformation, and possibly, fatigue damage in metallic materials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rakhmanov, Malik
2014-04-01
Fermi-normal (FN) coordinates provide a standardized way to describe the effects of gravitation from the point of view of an inertial observer. These coordinates have always been introduced via perturbation expansions and were usually limited to distances much less than the characteristic length scale set by the curvature of spacetime. For a plane gravitational wave this scale is given by its wavelength which defines the domain of validity for these coordinates known as the long-wavelength regime. The symmetry of this spacetime, however, allows us to extend FN coordinates far beyond the long-wavelength regime. Here we present an explicit construction for this long-range FN coordinate system based on the unique solution of the boundary-value problem for spacelike geodesics. The resulting formulae amount to summation of the infinite series for FN coordinates previously obtained with perturbation expansions. We also consider two closely related normal-coordinate systems: optical coordinates which are built from null geodesics and wave-synchronous coordinates which are built from spacelike geodesics locked in phase with the propagating gravitational wave. The wave-synchronous coordinates yield the exact solution of Peres and Ehlers-Kundt which is globally defined. In this case, the limitation of the long-wavelength regime is completely overcome, and the system of wave-synchronous coordinates becomes valid for arbitrarily large distances. Comparison of the different coordinate systems is done by considering the motion of an inertial test mass in the field of a plane gravitational wave.
Chromospheric extents predicted by time-dependent acoustic wave models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cuntz, Manfred
1990-01-01
Theoretical models for chromospheric structures of late-type giant stars are computed, including the time-dependent propagation of acoustic waves. Models with short-period monochromatic shock waves as well as a spectrum of acoustic waves are discussed, and the method is applied to the stars Arcturus, Aldebaran, and Betelgeuse. Chromospheric extent, defined as the monotonic decrease with height of the time-averaged electron densities, are found to be 1.12, 1.13, and 1.22 stellar radii for the three stars, respectively; this corresponds to a time-averaged electron density of 10 to the 7th/cu cm. Predictions of the extended chromospheric obtained using a simple scaling law agree well with those obtained by the time-dependent wave models; thus, the chromospheres of all stars for which the scaling law is valid consist of the same number of pressure scale heights.
Chromospheric extents predicted by time-dependent acoustic wave models
Cuntz, M. Heidelberg Universitaet )
1990-01-01
Theoretical models for chromospheric structures of late-type giant stars are computed, including the time-dependent propagation of acoustic waves. Models with short-period monochromatic shock waves as well as a spectrum of acoustic waves are discussed, and the method is applied to the stars Arcturus, Aldebaran, and Betelgeuse. Chromospheric extent, defined as the monotonic decrease with height of the time-averaged electron densities, are found to be 1.12, 1.13, and 1.22 stellar radii for the three stars, respectively; this corresponds to a time-averaged electron density of 10 to the 7th/cu cm. Predictions of the extended chromospheric obtained using a simple scaling law agree well with those obtained by the time-dependent wave models; thus, the chromospheres of all stars for which the scaling law is valid consist of the same number of pressure scale heights. 74 refs.
Waveform inversion of acoustic waves for explosion yield estimation
Kim, K.; Rodgers, A. J.
2016-07-08
We present a new waveform inversion technique to estimate the energy of near-surface explosions using atmospheric acoustic waves. Conventional methods often employ air blast models based on a homogeneous atmosphere, where the acoustic wave propagation effects (e.g., refraction and diffraction) are not taken into account, and therefore, their accuracy decreases with increasing source-receiver distance. In this study, three-dimensional acoustic simulations are performed with a finite difference method in realistic atmospheres and topography, and the modeled acoustic Green's functions are incorporated into the waveform inversion for the acoustic source time functions. The strength of the acoustic source is related to explosionmore » yield based on a standard air blast model. The technique was applied to local explosions (<10 km) and provided reasonable yield estimates (<~30% error) in the presence of realistic topography and atmospheric structure. In conclusion, the presented method can be extended to explosions recorded at far distance provided proper meteorological specifications.« less
Asymptotic permanent profile of the ion acoustic wave driven by the Langmuir wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaup, D. J.; Latifi, A.; Leon, J.
1992-08-01
We study the evolution of Langmuir waves coupled to the ion acoustic wave by means of the ponderomotive force in the Karpman limit (caviton equation). Using the spectral transform with singular dispersion relation, it is shown that the background noise (fluctuations in the ion density) is amplified and its time asymptotic behavior will be a static solution which is totally reflective for the Langmuir wave. Moreover, if the initial ion density contains a local depression, the asymptotic profile will contain a number of permanent localized density depressions (cavitons), static in the rest frame of the acoustic wave and entrained in its wake.
Dispersion, dissipation and refraction of shock waves in acoustically treated turbofan inlets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prasad, Dilip; Li, Ding; A. Topol, David
2015-09-01
This paper describes a numerical investigation of the effects of the inlet duct liner on the acoustics of a high-bypass ratio turbofan rotor operating at supersonic tip relative flow conditions. The near field of the blade row is then composed of periodic shocks that evolve spatially both because of the varying mean flow and because of the presence of acoustic treatment. The evolution of this shock system is studied using a Computational Fluid Dynamics-based method incorporating a wall impedance boundary condition. The configuration examined is representative of a fan operating near the takeoff condition. The behavior of the acoustic power and the associated waveforms reveal that significant dispersion occurs to the extent that there are no shocks in the perturbation field leaving the entrance plane of the duct. The effect of wave refraction due to the high degree of shear in the mean flow near the entrance plane of the inlet is examined, and numerical experiments are conducted to show that the incorporation of liners in this region can be highly beneficial. The implications of these results for the design of aircraft engine acoustic liners are discussed.
Ion-Acoustic Waves in Self-Gravitaing Dusty Plasma
Kumar, Nagendra; Kumar, Vinod; Kumar, Anil
2008-09-07
The propagation and damping of low frequency ion-acoustic waves in steady state, unmagnetised, self-gravitating dusty plasma are studied taking into account two important damping mechanisms creation damping and Tromso damping. It is found that imaginary part of wave number is independent of frequency in case of creation damping. But when we consider the case of creation and Tromso damping together, an additional contribution to damping appears with the increase in frequency attributed to Tromso effect.
Estimation of Sea Surface Wave Spectra Using Acoustic Tomography.
1987-09-01
develops a new technique for estimating quasi- homogeneous and quasi-stationary sea surface wave frequency-direction spectra using acoustic tomog...problems for the homogeneous and quasi- homogeneous frequency-direction spectrum are introduced. The theory is ap- plied tosynthetic data which simulate...thesis introduces a technique that estimates the quasi-stationary and quasi- homogeneous sea surface wave frequency-direction spectrum from the spectra of
Dust acoustic shock waves in two temperatures charged dusty grains
El-Shewy, E. K.; Abdelwahed, H. G.; Elmessary, M. A.
2011-11-15
The reductive perturbation method has been used to derive the Korteweg-de Vries-Burger equation and modified Korteweg-de Vries-Burger for dust acoustic shock waves in a homogeneous unmagnetized plasma having electrons, singly charged ions, hot and cold dust species with Boltzmann distributions for electrons and ions in the presence of the cold (hot) dust viscosity coefficients. The behavior of the shock waves in the dusty plasma has been investigated.
Active control of fan-generated plane wave noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerhold, Carl H.; Nuckolls, William E.; Santamaria, Odillyn L.; Martinson, Scott D.
1993-08-01
Subsonic propulsion systems for future aircraft may incorporate ultra-high bypass ratio ducted fan engines whose dominant noise source is the fan with blade passage frequency less than 1000 Hz. This low frequency combines with the requirement of a short nacelle to diminish the effectiveness of passive duct liners. Active noise control is seen as a viable method to augment the conventional passive treatments. An experiment to control ducted fan noise using a time domain active adaptive system is reported. The control sound source consists of loudspeakers arrayed around the fan duct. The error sensor location is in the fan duct. The purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate that the in-duct error sensor reduces the mode spillover in the far field, thereby increasing the efficiency of the control system. In this first series of tests, the fan is configured so that predominantly zero order circumferential waves are generated. The control system is found to reduce the blade passage frequency tone significantly in the acoustic far field when the mode orders of the noise source and of the control source are the same. The noise reduction is not as great when the mode orders are not the same even though the noise source modes are evanescent, but the control system converges stably and global noise reduction is demonstrated in the far field. Further experimentation is planned in which the performance of the system will be evaluated when higher order radial and spinning modes are generated.
Active control of fan-generated plane wave noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gerhold, Carl H.; Nuckolls, William E.; Santamaria, Odillyn L.; Martinson, Scott D.
1993-01-01
Subsonic propulsion systems for future aircraft may incorporate ultra-high bypass ratio ducted fan engines whose dominant noise source is the fan with blade passage frequency less than 1000 Hz. This low frequency combines with the requirement of a short nacelle to diminish the effectiveness of passive duct liners. Active noise control is seen as a viable method to augment the conventional passive treatments. An experiment to control ducted fan noise using a time domain active adaptive system is reported. The control sound source consists of loudspeakers arrayed around the fan duct. The error sensor location is in the fan duct. The purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate that the in-duct error sensor reduces the mode spillover in the far field, thereby increasing the efficiency of the control system. In this first series of tests, the fan is configured so that predominantly zero order circumferential waves are generated. The control system is found to reduce the blade passage frequency tone significantly in the acoustic far field when the mode orders of the noise source and of the control source are the same. The noise reduction is not as great when the mode orders are not the same even though the noise source modes are evanescent, but the control system converges stably and global noise reduction is demonstrated in the far field. Further experimentation is planned in which the performance of the system will be evaluated when higher order radial and spinning modes are generated.
Interaction of acoustic waves generated by coupled plate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cuschieri, J. M.
1990-01-01
When two substructures are coupled, the acoustic field generated by the motion of each of the substructures will interact with the motion of the other substructure. This would be the case of a structure enclosing an acoustic cavity. A technique to model the interaction of the generated sound fields from the two components of a coupled structure, and the influence of this interaction on the vibration of the structural components is presented. Using a mobility power flow approach, each element of the substructure is treated independently both when developing the structural response and when determining the acoustic field generated by this component. The presence of the other substructural components is introduced by assuming these components to be rigid baffles. The excitation of one of the substructures is assumed to be by an incident acoustic wave which is dependent of the motion of the substructure. The sound field generated by the motion of the substructure is included in the solution of the response.
Standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW)-based cell washing
Li, Sixing; Ding, Xiaoyun; Mao, Zhangming; Chen, Yuchao; Nama, Nitesh; Guo, Feng; Li, Peng; Wang, Lin; Cameron, Craig E.; Huang, Tony Jun
2014-01-01
Cell/bead washing is an indispensable sample preparation procedure used in various cell studies and analytical processes. In this article, we report a standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW)-based microfluidic device for cell and bead washing in a continuous flow. In our approach, the acoustic radiation force generated in a SSAW field is utilized to actively extract cells or beads from their original medium. A unique configuration of tilted-angle standing surface acoustic wave (taSSAW) is employed in our device, enabling us to wash beads with >98% recovery rate and >97% washing efficiency. We also demonstrate the functionality of our device by preparing high-purity (>97%) white blood cells from lysed blood samples through cell washing. Our SSAW-based cell/bead washing device has the advantages of label-free manipulation, simplicity, high biocompatibility, high recovery rate, and high washing efficiency. It can be useful for many lab-on-a-chip applications. PMID:25372273
Gasoline identifier based on SH0 plate acoustic waves.
Kuznetsova, Iren E; Zaitsev, Boris D; Seleznev, Eugenii P; Verona, Enrico
2016-08-01
The present paper is devoted to the development of gasoline identifier based on zero order shear-horizontal (SH0) acoustic wave propagating in piezoelectric plate. It has been found that the permittivity of gasoline is increased when its octane number rises. The development of such identifier is experimentally demonstrated to be possible.
Corrigendum and addendum. Modeling weakly nonlinear acoustic wave propagation
Christov, Ivan; Christov, C. I.; Jordan, P. M.
2014-12-18
This article presents errors, corrections, and additions to the research outlined in the following citation: Christov, I., Christov, C. I., & Jordan, P. M. (2007). Modeling weakly nonlinear acoustic wave propagation. The Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics, 60(4), 473-495.
Acoustic wave propagation in high-pressure system.
Foldyna, Josef; Sitek, Libor; Habán, Vladimír
2006-12-22
Recently, substantial attention is paid to the development of methods of generation of pulsations in high-pressure systems to produce pulsating high-speed water jets. The reason is that the introduction of pulsations into the water jets enables to increase their cutting efficiency due to the fact that the impact pressure (so-called water-hammer pressure) generated by an impact of slug of water on the target material is considerably higher than the stagnation pressure generated by corresponding continuous jet. Special method of pulsating jet generation was developed and tested extensively under the laboratory conditions at the Institute of Geonics in Ostrava. The method is based on the action of acoustic transducer on the pressure liquid and transmission of generated acoustic waves via pressure system to the nozzle. The purpose of the paper is to present results obtained during the research oriented at the determination of acoustic wave propagation in high-pressure system. The final objective of the research is to solve the problem of transmission of acoustic waves through high-pressure water to generate pulsating jet effectively even at larger distances from the acoustic source. In order to be able to simulate numerically acoustic wave propagation in the system, it is necessary among others to determine dependence of the sound speed and second kinematical viscosity on operating pressure. Method of determination of the second kinematical viscosity and speed of sound in liquid using modal analysis of response of the tube filled with liquid to the impact was developed. The response was measured by pressure sensors placed at both ends of the tube. Results obtained and presented in the paper indicate good agreement between experimental data and values of speed of sound calculated from so-called "UNESCO equation". They also show that the value of the second kinematical viscosity of water depends on the pressure.
Scattering of Acoustic Waves from Ocean Boundaries
2015-09-30
of buried mines and improve SONAR performance in shallow water. OBJECTIVES 1) Determination of the correct physical model of acoustic propagation...Measurements for Range Dependent Geoacoustic Parameters: Bottom loss data from 5 – 30 kHz were collected as part of the Target and Reverberation Experiment...2013 (TREX13). These data were analyzed and range dependent geoacoustic parameters were derived for the TREX reverberation site including bottom loss
Zhou, Xiaoming; Badreddine Assouar, M. Oudich, Mourad
2014-11-21
We present analytical and numerical analyses of a yet unseen lensing paradigm that is based on a solid metamaterial slab in which the wave excitation source is attached. We propose and demonstrate sub-diffraction-limited acoustic focusing induced by surface resonant states in doubly negative metamaterials. The enhancement of evanescent waves across the metamaterial slab produced by their resonant coupling to surface waves is evidenced and quantitatively determined. The effect of metamaterial parameters on surface states, transmission, and wavenumber bandwidth is clearly identified. Based on this concept consisting of a wave source attached on the metamaterial, a high resolution of λ/28.4 is obtained with the optimum effective physical parameters, opening then an exciting way to design acoustic metamaterials for ultrasonic focused imaging.
Skigin, Diana C; Depine, Ricardo A
2008-05-01
We show that the problem of scattering of an obliquely incident plane wave by a general-shaped groove engraved on a perfectly conducting plane, which was recently studied by Basha et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A24, 1647 (2007)], was solved 11 years ago using the same formulation. This method was further extended to deal with a finite number of grooves and also with complex apertures including several nonlossy and lossy dielectrics, as well as real metals.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kolaini, Ali R.; Doty, Benjamin; Chang, Zensheu
2012-01-01
Loudspeakers have been used for acoustic qualification of spacecraft, reflectors, solar panels, and other acoustically responsive structures for more than a decade. Limited measurements from some of the recent speaker tests used to qualify flight hardware have indicated significant spatial variation of the acoustic field within the test volume. Also structural responses have been reported to differ when similar tests were performed using reverberant chambers. To address the impact of non-uniform acoustic field on structural responses, a series of acoustic tests were performed using a flat panel and a 3-ft cylinder exposed to the field controlled by speakers and repeated in a reverberant chamber. The speaker testing was performed using multi-input-single-output (MISO) and multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) control schemes with and without the test articles. In this paper the spatial variation of the acoustic field due to acoustic standing waves and their impacts on the structural responses in RAT and DFAT (both using MISO and MIMO controls for DFAT) are discussed in some detail.
Ai, Ye; Sanders, Claire K; Marrone, Babetta L
2013-10-01
A microfluidic device was developed to separate heterogeneous particle or cell mixtures in a continuous flow using acoustophoresis. In this device, two identical surface acoustic waves (SAWs) generated by interdigital transducers (IDTs) propagated toward a microchannel, which accordingly built up a standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW) field across the channel. A numerical model, coupling a piezoelectric effect in the solid substrate and acoustic pressure in the fluid, was developed to provide a better understanding of SSAW-based particle manipulation. It was found that the pressure nodes across the channel were individual planes perpendicular to the solid substrate. In the separation experiments, two side sheath flows hydrodynamically focused the injected particle or cell mixtures into a very narrow stream along the centerline. Particles flowing through the SSAW field experienced an acoustic radiation force that highly depends on the particle properties. As a result, dissimilar particles or cells were laterally attracted toward the pressure nodes at different magnitudes, and were eventually switched to different outlets. Two types of fluorescent microspheres with different sizes were successfully separated using the developed device. In addition, Escherichia coli bacteria premixed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were also efficiently isolated using the SSAW-base separation technique. Flow cytometric analysis on the collected samples found that the purity of separated E. coli bacteria was 95.65%.
Opportunities for shear energy scaling in bulk acoustic wave resonators.
Jose, Sumy; Hueting, Raymond J E
2014-10-01
An important energy loss contribution in bulk acoustic wave resonators is formed by so-called shear waves, which are transversal waves that propagate vertically through the devices with a horizontal motion. In this work, we report for the first time scaling of the shear-confined spots, i.e., spots containing a high concentration of shear wave displacement, controlled by the frame region width at the edge of the resonator. We also demonstrate a novel methodology to arrive at an optimum frame region width for spurious mode suppression and shear wave confinement. This methodology makes use of dispersion curves obtained from finite-element method (FEM) eigenfrequency simulations for arriving at an optimum frame region width. The frame region optimization is demonstrated for solidly mounted resonators employing several shear wave optimized reflector stacks. Finally, the FEM simulation results are compared with measurements for resonators with Ta2O5/ SiO2 stacks showing suppression of the spurious modes.
Travagliati, Marco; Shilton, Richie; Beltram, Fabio; Cecchini, Marco
2013-01-01
Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) can be used to drive liquids in portable microfluidic chips via the acoustic counterflow phenomenon. In this video we present the fabrication protocol for a multilayered SAW acoustic counterflow device. The device is fabricated starting from a lithium niobate (LN) substrate onto which two interdigital transducers (IDTs) and appropriate markers are patterned. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel cast on an SU8 master mold is finally bonded on the patterned substrate. Following the fabrication procedure, we show the techniques that allow the characterization and operation of the acoustic counterflow device in order to pump fluids through the PDMS channel grid. We finally present the procedure to visualize liquid flow in the channels. The protocol is used to show on-chip fluid pumping under different flow regimes such as laminar flow and more complicated dynamics characterized by vortices and particle accumulation domains. PMID:24022515
Surface wave acoustics of granular packing under gravity
Clement, Eric; Andreotti, Bruno; Bonneau, Lenaic
2009-06-18
Due to the non-linearity of Hertzian contacts, the speed of sound in granular matter increases with pressure. For a packing under gravity and in the presence of a free surface, bulk acoustic waves cannot propagate due to the inherent refraction toward the surface (the mirage effect). Thus, only modes corresponding to surface waves (Raleigh-Hertz modes) are able to propagate the acoustic signal. First, based on a non-linear elasticity model, we describe the main features associated to these surface waves. We show that under gravity, a granular packing is from the acoustic propagation point of view an index gradient waveguide that selects modes of two distinct families i.e. the sagittal and transverse waves localized in the vicinity of the free surface. A striking feature of these surface waves is the multi-modal propagation: for both transverse and sagittal waves, we show the existence of a infinite but discrete series of propagating modes. In each case, we determine the mode shape and and the corresponding dispersion relation. In the case of a finite size system, a geometric waveguide is superimposed to the index gradient wave guide. In this later case, the dispersion relations are modified by the appearance of a cut-off frequency that scales with depth. The second part is devoted to an experimental study of surface waves propagating in a granular packing confined in a long channel. This set-up allows to tune a monomodal emission by taking advantage of the geometric waveguide features combined with properly designed emitters. For both sagittal and transverses waves, we were able to isolate a single mode (the fundamental one) and to plot the dispersion relation. This measurements agree well with the Hertzian scaling law as predicted by meanfield models. Furthermore, it allows us to determine quantitatively relations on the elastic moduli. However, we observe that our data yield a shear modulus abnormally weak when compared to several meanfield predictions.
Synchronization of self-excited dust acoustic waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suranga Ruhunusiri, W. D.; Goree, John
2012-10-01
Synchronization is a nonlinear phenomenon where a self-excited oscillation, like a wave in a plasma, interacts with an external driving, resulting in an adjustment of the oscillation frequency. Dust acoustic wave synchronization has been experimentally studied previously in laboratory and in microgravity conditions, e.g. [Pilch PoP 2009] and [Menzel PRL 2010]. We perform a laboratory experiment to study synchronization of self-excited dust acoustic waves. An rf glow discharge argon plasma is formed by applying a low power radio frequency voltage to a lower electrode. A 3D dust cloud is formed by levitating 4.83 micron microspheres inside a glass box placed on the lower electrode. Dust acoustic waves are self-excited with a natural frequency of 22 Hz due to an ion streaming instability. A cross section of the dust cloud is illuminated by a vertical laser sheet and imaged from the side with a digital camera. To synchronize the waves, we sinusoidally modulate the overall ion density. Differently from previous experiments, we use a driving electrode that is separate from the electrode that sustains the plasma, and we characterize synchronization by varying both driving amplitude and frequency.
Single crystal metal wedges for surface acoustic wave propagation
Fisher, E.S.
1980-05-09
An ultrasonic testing device has been developed to evaluate flaws and inhomogeneities in the near-surface region of a test material. A metal single crystal wedge is used to generate high frequency Rayleigh surface waves in the test material surface by conversion of a slow velocity, bulk acoustic mode in the wedge into a Rayleigh wave at the metal-wedge test material interface. Particular classes of metals have been found to provide the bulk acoustic modes necessary for production of a surface wave with extremely high frequency and angular collimation. The high frequency allows flaws and inhomogeneities to be examined with greater resolution. The high degree of angular collimation for the outgoing ultrasonic beam permits precision angular location of flaws and inhomogeneities in the test material surface.
Langasite Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors: Fabrication and Testing
Zheng, Peng; Greve, David W.; Oppenheim, Irving J.; Chin, Tao-Lun; Malone, Vanessa
2012-02-01
We report on the development of harsh-environment surface acoustic wave sensors for wired and wireless operation. Surface acoustic wave devices with an interdigitated transducer emitter and multiple reflectors were fabricated on langasite substrates. Both wired and wireless temperature sensing was demonstrated using radar-mode (pulse) detection. Temperature resolution of better than ±0.5°C was achieved between 200°C and 600°C. Oxygen sensing was achieved by depositing a layer of ZnO on the propagation path. Although the ZnO layer caused additional attenuation of the surface wave, oxygen sensing was accomplished at temperatures up to 700°C. The results indicate that langasite SAW devices are a potential solution for harsh-environment gas and temperature sensing.
Analytical description of nonlinear acoustic waves in the solar chromosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Litvinenko, Yuri E.; Chae, Jongchul
2017-02-01
Aims: Vertical propagation of acoustic waves of finite amplitude in an isothermal, gravitationally stratified atmosphere is considered. Methods: Methods of nonlinear acoustics are used to derive a dispersive solution, which is valid in a long-wavelength limit, and a non-dispersive solution, which is valid in a short-wavelength limit. The influence of the gravitational field on wave-front breaking and shock formation is described. The generation of a second harmonic at twice the driving wave frequency, previously detected in numerical simulations, is demonstrated analytically. Results: Application of the results to three-minute chromospheric oscillations, driven by velocity perturbations at the base of the solar atmosphere, is discussed. Numerical estimates suggest that the second harmonic signal should be detectable in an upper chromosphere by an instrument such as the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph installed at the 1.6-m New Solar Telescope of the Big Bear Observatory.
Single crystal metal wedges for surface acoustic wave propagation
Fisher, Edward S.
1982-01-01
An ultrasonic testing device has been developed to evaluate flaws and inhomogeneities in the near-surface region of a test material. A metal single crystal wedge is used to generate high frequency Rayleigh surface waves in the test material surface by conversion of a slow velocity, bulk acoustic mode in the wedge into a Rayleigh wave at the metal-wedge test material interface. Particular classes of metals have been found to provide the bulk acoustic modes necessary for production of a surface wave with extremely high frequency and angular collimation. The high frequency allows flaws and inhomogeneities to be examined with greater resolution. The high degree of angular collimation for the outgoing ultrasonic beam permits precision angular location of flaws and inhomogeneities in the test material surface.
Image reconstruction with acoustic radiation force induced shear waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McAleavey, Stephen A.; Nightingale, Kathryn R.; Stutz, Deborah L.; Hsu, Stephen J.; Trahey, Gregg E.
2003-05-01
Acoustic radiation force may be used to induce localized displacements within tissue. This phenomenon is used in Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging (ARFI), where short bursts of ultrasound deliver an impulsive force to a small region. The application of this transient force launches shear waves which propagate normally to the ultrasound beam axis. Measurements of the displacements induced by the propagating shear wave allow reconstruction of the local shear modulus, by wave tracking and inversion techniques. Here we present in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo measurements and images of shear modulus. Data were obtained with a single transducer, a conventional ultrasound scanner and specialized pulse sequences. Young's modulus values of 4 kPa, 13 kPa and 14 kPa were observed for fat, breast fibroadenoma, and skin. Shear modulus anisotropy in beef muscle was observed.
Homomorphic processing of the tube wave generated during acoustic logging
Ellefsen, K.J. ); Cheng, C.H. . Dept. of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences); Burns, D.R.
1993-10-01
The authors have developed a new method to process the tube wave, which is generated during acoustic logging, to obtain estimates for its wavenumber, attenuation coefficient, amplitude, and phase at every frequency. To improve the accuracy of the estimates, the method can use data from multiple sources and data collected at successive depths in the borehole. This new method has several advantages over other methods that are currently used to process acoustic logging data: the new method can obtain accurate estimates of the wavenumber and amplitude from only a few receivers; the receivers can be irregularly spaced; and no spurious estimates are generated. Nonetheless, this new method has one disadvantage compared to others: it can only estimate the parameters for one, high-amplitude wave like the tube wave. Also, like all other existing methods, the new method obtains only reasonable estimates for the attenuation coefficient when data from many receivers are processed.
Improved equivalent circuits for acoustic plate wave devices.
Zaitsev, B D; Kuznetsova, I E; Joshi, S G
2002-05-01
This paper presents improved equivalent circuits for the analysis and design of acoustic plate wave devices. The method uses a mixed equivalent circuit for the interdigital transducer consisting of both active and passive sections placed on the surface of a piezoelectric plate. The values of the various circuit elements are obtained by carrying out a best fit between theoretical and experimental frequency dependence of the real and imaginary parts of transducer input impedance. Knowledge of the equivalent circuit parameters allows one to optimize design of the devices. The method has been successfully employed for the design of one-port shear-horizontal wave resonators on Y-X lithium niobate plates. The proposed method can also be utilized for determining acoustic wave velocity with high accuracy.
Multiple-frequency surface acoustic wave devices as sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ricco, Antonio J.; Martin, Stephen J.
We have designed, fabricated, and tested a multiple-frequency acoustic wave (MUFAW) device on ST-cut quartz with nominal surface acoustic wave (SAW) center frequencies of 16, 40, 100, and 250 MHz. The four frequencies are obtained by patterning four sets of input and output interdigital transducers of differing periodicities on a single substrate. Such a device allows the frequency dependence of AW sensor perturbations to be examined, aiding in the elucidation of the operative interaction mechanism(s). Initial measurements of the SAW response to the vacuum deposition of a thin nickel film show the expected frequency dependence of mass sensitivity in addition to the expected frequency independence of the magnitude of the acoustoelectric effect. By measuring changes in both wave velocity and attenuation at multiple frequencies, extrinsic perturbations such as temperature and pressure changes are readily differentiated from one another and from changes in surface mass.
NMR Shielding in Metals Using the Augmented Plane Wave Method
2015-01-01
We present calculations of solid state NMR magnetic shielding in metals, which includes both the orbital and the complete spin response of the system in a consistent way. The latter contains an induced spin-polarization of the core states and needs an all-electron self-consistent treatment. In particular, for transition metals, the spin hyperfine field originates not only from the polarization of the valence s-electrons, but the induced magnetic moment of the d-electrons polarizes the core s-states in opposite direction. The method is based on DFT and the augmented plane wave approach as implemented in the WIEN2k code. A comparison between calculated and measured NMR shifts indicates that first-principle calculations can obtain converged results and are more reliable than initially concluded based on previous publications. Nevertheless large k-meshes (up to 2 000 000 k-points in the full Brillouin-zone) and some Fermi-broadening are necessary. Our results show that, in general, both spin and orbital components of the NMR shielding must be evaluated in order to reproduce experimental shifts, because the orbital part cancels the shift of the usually highly ionic reference compound only for simple sp-elements but not for transition metals. This development paves the way for routine NMR calculations of metallic systems. PMID:26322148
The plain truth about forming a plane wave of neutrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wagh, Apoorva G.; Abbas, Sohrab; Treimer, Wolfgang
2011-04-01
We have attained the first sub-arcsecond collimation of a monochromatic neutron beam by diffracting neutrons from a Bragg prism, viz. a single crystal prism operating in the vicinity of Bragg incidence. Analytical as well numerical computations based on the dynamical diffraction theory, led to the optimised collimator configuration of a silicon {1 1 1} Bragg prism for 5.26 Å neutrons. We fabricated a Bragg prism to these specifications, tested and operated it at the double diffractometer setup in Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin to produce a 0.58 arcsec wide monochromatic neutron beam. With a similarly optimised Bragg prism analyser of opposite asymmetry, we recorded a 0.62 arcsec wide virgin rocking curve for this ultra-parallel beam. With this nearly plane-wave neutron beam, we have recorded the first ever USANS spectrum in Q˜10-6 Å-1 range with a hydroxyapatite casein protein sample and demonstrated the instrument capability to characterise agglomerates up to 150 μm in size. The super-collimated monochromatic beam has also enabled us to record the first neutron diffraction pattern from a macroscopic grating of 200 μm period. The transverse coherence length of 175 μm (FWHM) of the ultra-parallel beam derived from the analysis of this pattern, is the greatest achieved to date for Å wavelength neutrons.
Wave-growth associated with turbulent spot in plane Poiseuille flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Henningson, D. S.; Landahl, M. T.; Kim, J.
1987-01-01
A kinematic wave theory is used to investigate the cause of the rapid growth of waves observed at the wingtip of turbulent spot in plane Poiseuille flow. It is found that the qualitative behavior of the wave motions is well described by Landahl's breakdown criterion as the wave selection procedure. The predicted wave number, wave angle, and phase velocity are in agreement with those values obtained in a direct simulation.
Excitation of Ion Acoustic Waves by Electron Beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sydorenko, Dmytro; Tokluoglu, Erinc; Kaganovich, Igor; Startsev, Edward; Davidson, Ronald
2012-10-01
The interaction of electron beams with plasmas is of considerable importance particularly for hybrid DC/RF coupled plasma sources used in plasma processing [1]. An electron beam is formed by emission from one surface, is accelerated through a dc bias electric field and enters the bulk plasma. Emitted electrons excite electron plasma (Langmuir) waves through the two-stream instability. Due to the high localized plasmon pressure, ion acoustic waves are excited parametrically. The plasma waves saturate by non-linear wave trapping. Eventually coupling between electron plasma waves and ion acoustic waves deteriorates the Langmuir waves, which leads to a bursting behavior. The two-stream instability and the consequent ion fluctuations are studied over a wide range of system parameters using the particle-in-cell codes EDIPIC and LSP. The influenceof these instabilities on collisionless electron heating are presented for a hybrid RF-DC plasma source.[4pt] [1] Lin Xu, et al, Appl. Phys. Lett., 93, 261502 (2008).
Effects of dissipation on propagation of surface electromagnetic and acoustic waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagaraj, Nagaraj
With the recent emergence of the field of metamaterials, the study of subwavelength propagation of plane waves and the dissipation of their energy either in the form of Joule losses in the case of electomagnetic waves or in the form of viscous dissipation in the case of acoustic waves in different interfaced media assumes great importance. With this motivation, I have worked on problems in two different areas, viz., plasmonics and surface acoustics. The first part (chapters 2 & 3) of the dissertation deals with the emerging field of plasmonics. Researchers have come up with various designs in an effort to fabricate efficient plasmonic waveguides capable of guiding plasmonic signals. However, the inherent dissipation in the form of Joule losses limits efficient usage of surface plasmon signal. A dielectric-metal-dielectric planar structure is one of the most practical plasmonic structures that can serve as an efficient waveguide to guide electromagnetic waves along the metal-dielectric boundary. I present here a theoretical study of propagation of surface plasmons along a symmetric dielectric-metal-dielectric structure and show how proper orientation of the optical axis of the anisotropic substrate enhances the propagation length. An equation for propagation length is derived in a wide range of frequencies. I also show how the frequency of coupled surface plasmons can be modulated by changing the thickness of the metal film. I propose a Kronig-Penny model for the plasmonic crystal, which in the long wavelength limit, may serve as a homogeneous dielectric substrate with high anisotropy which do not exist for natural optical crystals. In the second part (chapters 4 & 5) of the dissertation, I discuss an interesting effect of extraordinary absorption of acoustic energy due to resonant excitation of Rayleigh waves in a narrow water channel clad between two metal plates. Starting from the elastic properties of the metal plates, I derive a dispersion equation that gives
A surface-acoustic-wave-based cantilever bio-sensor.
De Simoni, Giorgio; Signore, Giovanni; Agostini, Matteo; Beltram, Fabio; Piazza, Vincenzo
2015-06-15
A scalable surface-acoustic-wave- (SAW-) based cantilevered device for portable bio-chemical sensing applications is presented. Even in the current, proof-of-principle implementation this architecture is shown to outperform commercial quartz-crystal microbalances in terms of sensitivity. Adhesion of analytes on a functionalized surface of the cantilever shifts the resonant frequency of a SAW-generating transducer due to the stress-induced variation of the speed of surface acoustic modes. We discuss the relevance of this approach for diagnostics applications based on miniaturized devices.
Synchronized photonic modulators driven by surface acoustic waves.
Crespo-Poveda, A; Hey, R; Biermann, K; Tahraoui, A; Santos, P V; Gargallo, B; Muñoz, P; Cantarero, A; de Lima, M M
2013-09-09
Photonic modulators are one of the most important elements of integrated photonics. We have designed, fabricated, and characterized a tunable photonic modulator consisting of two 180°-dephased output waveguide channels, driven by a surface acoustic wave in the GHz frequency range built on (Al,Ga)As. Odd multiples of the fundamental driven frequency are enabled by adjusting the applied acoustic power. A good agreement between theory and experimental results is achieved. The device can be used as a building block for more complex integrated functionalities and can be implemented in several material platforms.
Coupling between ion-acoustic waves and neutrino oscillations.
Haas, Fernando; Pascoal, Kellen Alves; Mendonça, José Tito
2017-01-01
The work investigates the coupling between ion-acoustic waves and neutrino flavor oscillations in a nonrelativistic electron-ion plasma under the influence of a mixed neutrino beam. Neutrino oscillations are mediated by the flavor polarization vector dynamics in a material medium. The linear dispersion relation around homogeneous static equilibria is developed. When resonant with the ion-acoustic mode, the neutrino flavor oscillations can transfer energy to the plasma exciting a new fast unstable mode in extreme astrophysical scenarios. The growth rate and the unstable wavelengths are determined in typical type II supernova parameters. The predictions can be useful for a new indirect probe on neutrino oscillations in nature.
Coupling between ion-acoustic waves and neutrino oscillations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haas, Fernando; Pascoal, Kellen Alves; Mendonça, José Tito
2017-01-01
The work investigates the coupling between ion-acoustic waves and neutrino flavor oscillations in a nonrelativistic electron-ion plasma under the influence of a mixed neutrino beam. Neutrino oscillations are mediated by the flavor polarization vector dynamics in a material medium. The linear dispersion relation around homogeneous static equilibria is developed. When resonant with the ion-acoustic mode, the neutrino flavor oscillations can transfer energy to the plasma exciting a new fast unstable mode in extreme astrophysical scenarios. The growth rate and the unstable wavelengths are determined in typical type II supernova parameters. The predictions can be useful for a new indirect probe on neutrino oscillations in nature.
Effects of Non-Elevation-Focalized Linear Array Transducer on Ultrasound Plane-Wave Imaging
Wang, Congzhi; Xiao, Yang; Xia, Jingjing; Qiu, Weibao; Zheng, Hairong
2016-01-01
Plane-wave ultrasound imaging (PWUS) has become an important method of ultrasound imaging in recent years as its frame rate has exceeded 10,000 frames per second, allowing ultrasound to be used for two-dimensional shear wave detection and functional brain imaging. However, compared to the traditional focusing and scanning method, PWUS images always suffer from a degradation of lateral resolution and contrast. To improve the image quality of PWUS, many different beamforming algorithms have been proposed and verified. Yet the influence of transducer structure is rarely studied. For this paper, the influence of using an acoustic lens for PWUS was evaluated. Two linear array transducers were fabricated. One was not self-focalized in the elevation direction (non-elevation-focalized transducer, NEFT); the other one was a traditional elevation-focalized transducer (EFT). An initial simulation was conducted to show the influence of elevation focusing. Then the images obtained with NEFT on a standard ultrasound imaging phantom were compared with those obtained with EFT. It was demonstrated that, in a relatively deep region, the contrast of an NEFT image is better than that of an EFT image. These results indicate that a more sophisticated design of ultrasound transducer would further improve the image quality of PWUS. PMID:27845751
Ishikawa, I; Katakura, K; Ogura, Y
1999-01-01
With a fixed gate width under the condition where the focus of an acoustic lens was set inside the sample, we varied signal taking-in time. Discrimination was made between differences in time required for an ultrasonic signal reflected from the sample to reach the acoustic lens. This process also enabled three types of images to be obtained separately: the surface reflection wave image, a combination of images based on the interference of the surface reflection wave with surface acoustic waves, and the surface acoustic wave image. Thus it was presumed that this process also would reveal the causes of image contrast and allow an easy interpretation of images. Furthermore, the image resolution was improved, because the surface acoustic wave image was drawn by an ultrasonic beam produced by full-circular surface acoustic wave excitation propagating toward the center converging concentrically; the theoretical resolution was 0.4 times the value of the surface acoustic wave wavelength lambda(R) and independent of the defocus value of the acoustic lens. Several kinds of samples were observed with this method. The results showed that the new method permitted observation of the internal structures of samples while offering new knowledge through the data reflecting the ultrasonic wave damping and scatter drawn on the display.
Making structured metals transparent for ultrabroadband electromagnetic waves and acoustic waves
Fan, Ren-Hao; Peng, Ru-Wen; Huang, Xian-Rong; Wang, Mu
2015-07-15
In this review, we present our recent work on making structured metals transparent for broadband electromagnetic waves and acoustic waves via excitation of surface waves. First, we theoretically show that one-dimensional metallic gratings can become transparent and completely antireflective for extremely broadband electromagnetic waves by relying on surface plasmons or spoof surface plasmons. Second, we experimentally demonstrate that metallic gratings with narrow slits are highly transparent for broadband terahertz waves at oblique incidence and high transmission efficiency is insensitive to the metal thickness. Further, we significantly develop oblique metal gratings transparent for broadband electromagnetic waves (including optical waves and terahertz ones) under normal incidence. In the third, we find the principles of broadband transparency for structured metals can be extended from one-dimensional metallic gratings to two-dimensional cases. Moreover, similar phenomena are found in sonic artificially metallic structures, which present the transparency for broadband acoustic waves. These investigations provide guidelines to develop many novel materials and devices, such as transparent conducting panels, antireflective solar cells, and other broadband metamaterials and stealth technologies. - Highlights: • Making structured metals transparent for ultrabroadband electromagnetic waves. • Non-resonant excitation of surface plasmons or spoof surface plasmons. • Sonic artificially metallic structures transparent for broadband acoustic waves.
Tailored complex 3D vortex lattice structures by perturbed multiples of three-plane waves.
Xavier, Jolly; Vyas, Sunil; Senthilkumaran, Paramasivam; Joseph, Joby
2012-04-20
As three-plane waves are the minimum number required for the formation of vortex-embedded lattice structures by plane wave interference, we present our experimental investigation on the formation of complex 3D photonic vortex lattice structures by a designed superposition of multiples of phase-engineered three-plane waves. The unfolding of the generated complex photonic lattice structures with higher order helical phase is realized by perturbing the superposition of a relatively phase-encoded, axially equidistant multiple of three noncoplanar plane waves. Through a programmable spatial light modulator assisted single step fabrication approach, the unfolded 3D vortex lattice structures are experimentally realized, well matched to our computer simulations. The formation of higher order intertwined helices embedded in these 3D spiraling vortex lattice structures by the superposition of the multiples of phase-engineered three-plane waves interference is also studied.
A three-microphone acoustic reflection technique using transmitted acoustic waves in the airway.
Fujimoto, Yuki; Huang, Jyongsu; Fukunaga, Toshiharu; Kato, Ryo; Higashino, Mari; Shinomiya, Shohei; Kitadate, Shoko; Takahara, Yutaka; Yamaya, Atsuyo; Saito, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Makoto; Kojima, Koji; Oikawa, Taku; Nakagawa, Ken; Tsuchihara, Katsuma; Iguchi, Masaharu; Takahashi, Masakatsu; Mizuno, Shiro; Osanai, Kazuhiro; Toga, Hirohisa
2013-10-15
The acoustic reflection technique noninvasively measures airway cross-sectional area vs. distance functions and uses a wave tube with a constant cross-sectional area to separate incidental and reflected waves introduced into the mouth or nostril. The accuracy of estimated cross-sectional areas gets worse in the deeper distances due to the nature of marching algorithms, i.e., errors of the estimated areas in the closer distances accumulate to those in the further distances. Here we present a new technique of acoustic reflection from measuring transmitted acoustic waves in the airway with three microphones and without employing a wave tube. Using miniaturized microphones mounted on a catheter, we estimated reflection coefficients among the microphones and separated incidental and reflected waves. A model study showed that the estimated cross-sectional area vs. distance function was coincident with the conventional two-microphone method, and it did not change with altered cross-sectional areas at the microphone position, although the estimated cross-sectional areas are relative values to that at the microphone position. The pharyngeal cross-sectional areas including retropalatal and retroglossal regions and the closing site during sleep was visualized in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. The method can be applicable to larger or smaller bronchi to evaluate the airspace and function in these localized airways.
Diffraction of dust acoustic waves by a circular cylinder
Kim, S.-H.; Heinrich, J. R.; Merlino, R. L.
2008-09-15
The diffraction of dust acoustic (DA) waves around a long dielectric rod is observed using video imaging methods. The DA waves are spontaneously excited in a dusty plasma produced in a direct current glow discharge plasma. The rod acquires a negative charge that produces a coaxial dust void around it. The diameter of the void is the effective size of the 'obstacle' encountered by the waves. The wavelength of the DA waves is approximately the size of the void. The observations are considered in relation to the classical problem of the diffraction of sound waves from a circular cylinder, a problem first analyzed by Lord Rayleigh [Theory of Sound, 2nd ed. (MacMillan, London, 1896)].
Nonlinear electron acoustic waves in presence of shear magnetic field
Dutta, Manjistha; Khan, Manoranjan; Ghosh, Samiran; Chakrabarti, Nikhil
2013-12-15
Nonlinear electron acoustic waves are studied in a quasineutral plasma in the presence of a variable magnetic field. The fluid model is used to describe the dynamics of two temperature electron species in a stationary positively charged ion background. Linear analysis of the governing equations manifests dispersion relation of electron magneto sonic wave. Whereas, nonlinear wave dynamics is being investigated by introducing Lagrangian variable method in long wavelength limit. It is shown from finite amplitude analysis that the nonlinear wave characteristics are well depicted by KdV equation. The wave dispersion arising in quasineutral plasma is induced by transverse magnetic field component. The results are discussed in the context of plasma of Earth's magnetosphere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Péronne, Emmanuel; Chuecos, Nicolas; Thevenard, Laura; Perrin, Bernard
2017-02-01
Solitons are self-preserving traveling waves of great interest in nonlinear physics but hard to observe experimentally. In this report an experimental setup is designed to observe and characterize acoustic solitons in a GaAs(001) substrate. It is based on careful temperature control of the sample and an interferometric detection scheme. Ultrashort acoustic solitons, such as the one predicted by the Korteweg-de Vries equation, are observed and fully characterized. Their particlelike nature is clearly evidenced and their unique properties are thoroughly checked. The spatial averaging of the soliton wave front is shown to account for the differences between the theoretical and experimental soliton profile. It appears that ultrafast acoustic experiments provide a precise measurement of the soliton velocity. It allows for absolute calibration of the setup as well as the response function analysis of the detection layer. Moreover, the temporal distribution of the solitons is also analyzed with the help of the inverse scattering method. It shows how the initial acoustic pulse profile which gives birth to solitons after nonlinear propagation can be retrieved. Such investigations provide a new tool to probe transient properties of highly excited matter through the study of the emitted acoustic pulse after laser excitation.
A frequency selective acoustic transducer for directional Lamb wave sensing.
Senesi, Matteo; Ruzzene, Massimo
2011-10-01
A frequency selective acoustic transducer (FSAT) is proposed for directional sensing of guided waves. The considered FSAT design is characterized by a spiral configuration in wavenumber domain, which leads to a spatial arrangement of the sensing material producing output signals whose dominant frequency component is uniquely associated with the direction of incoming waves. The resulting spiral FSAT can be employed both for directional sensing and generation of guided waves, without relying on phasing and control of a large number of channels. The analytical expression of the shape of the spiral FSAT is obtained through the theoretical formulation for continuously distributed active material as part of a shaped piezoelectric device. Testing is performed by forming a discrete array through the points of the measurement grid of a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer. The discrete array approximates the continuous spiral FSAT geometry, and provides the flexibility to test several configurations. The experimental results demonstrate the strong frequency dependent directionality of the spiral FSAT and suggest its application for frequency selective acoustic sensors, to be employed for the localization of broadband acoustic events, or for the directional generation of Lamb waves for active interrogation of structural health.
Envelope solitons of acoustic plate modes and surface waves.
Mayer, Andreas P; Kovalev, Alexander S
2003-06-01
The problem of the existence of evelope solitons in elastic plates and at solid surfaces covered by an elastic film is revisited with special attention paid to nonlinear long-wave short-wave interactions. Using asymptotic expansions and multiple scales, conditions for the existence of envelope solitons are established and it is shown how their parameters can be expressed in terms of the elastic moduli and mass densities of the materials involved. In addition to homogeneous plates, weak periodic modulation of the plate's material parameters are also considered. In the case of wave propagation in an elastic plate, modulations of weakly nonlinear carrier waves are governed by a coupled system of partial differential equations consisting of evolution equations for the complex amplitude of the carrier wave (the nonlinear Schrödinger equation for envelope solitons and the Mills-Trullinger equations for gap solitons), and the wave equation for long-wavelength acoustic plate modes. In contrast to this situation, envelope solitons of surface acoustic waves in a layered structure are normally described by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation alone. However, at higher orders of the carrier wave amplitude, the envelope soliton is found to be accompanied by a quasistatic long-wavelength strain field, which may be localized at the surface with penetration depth into the substrate of the order of the inverse amplitude or which may radiate energy into the bulk. A new set of modulation equations is derived for the resonant case of the carrier wave's group velocity being equal to the phase velocity of long-wavelength Rayleigh waves of the uncoated substrate.
Standing wave acoustic levitation on an annular plate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kandemir, Mehmet Hakan; Çalışkan, Mehmet
2016-11-01
In standing wave acoustic levitation technique, a standing wave is formed between a source and a reflector. Particles can be attracted towards pressure nodes in standing waves owing to a spring action through which particles can be suspended in air. This operation can be performed on continuous structures as well as in several numbers of axes. In this study an annular acoustic levitation arrangement is introduced. Design features of the arrangement are discussed in detail. Bending modes of the annular plate, known as the most efficient sound generation mechanism in such structures, are focused on. Several types of bending modes of the plate are simulated and evaluated by computer simulations. Waveguides are designed to amplify waves coming from sources of excitation, that are, transducers. With the right positioning of the reflector plate, standing waves are formed in the space between the annular vibrating plate and the reflector plate. Radiation forces are also predicted. It is demonstrated that small particles can be suspended in air at pressure nodes of the standing wave corresponding to a particular bending mode.
An Investigation of Wave Impact Duration in High-Speed Planing Craft in Rough Water
2014-04-01
Engineering Department Technical Report AN INVESTIGATION OF WAVE IMPACT DURATION IN HIGH-SPEED PLANING CRAFT IN ROUGH WATER by Michael R. Riley, The...DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE AN INVESTIGATION OF WAVE IMPACT DURATION IN HIGH-SPEED PLANING CRAFT IN ROUGH WATER 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...The original document contains color images. 14. ABSTRACT This report summarizes the investigation of wave impact duration. Example data plots are
Dust acoustic waves in strongly coupled dissipative plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, B. S.; Yu, M. Y.
2000-12-01
The theory of dust acoustic waves is revisited in the frame of the generalized viscoelastic hydrodynamic theory for highly correlated dusts. Physical processes relevant to many experiments on dusts in plasmas, such as ionization and recombination, dust-charge variation, elastic electron and ion collisions with neutral and charged dust particles, as well as relaxation due to strong dust coupling, are taken into account. These processes can be on similar time scales and are thus important for the conservation of particles and momenta in a self-consistent description of the system. It is shown that the dispersion properties of the dust acoustic waves are determined by a sensitive balance of the effects of strong dust coupling and collisional relaxation. The predictions of the present theory applicable to typical parameters in laboratory strongly coupled dusty plasmas are given and compared with the experiment results. Some possible implications and discrepanies between theory and experiment are also discussed.
High-Temperature Piezoelectric Crystals for Acoustic Wave Sensor Applications.
Zu, Hongfei; Wu, Huiyan; Wang, Qing-Ming
2016-03-01
In this review paper, nine different types of high-temperature piezoelectric crystals and their sensor applications are overviewed. The important materials' properties of these piezoelectric crystals including dielectric constant, elastic coefficients, piezoelectric coefficients, electromechanical coupling coefficients, and mechanical quality factor are discussed in detail. The determination methods of these physical properties are also presented. Moreover, the growth methods, structures, and properties of these piezoelectric crystals are summarized and compared. Of particular interest are langasite and oxyborate crystals, which exhibit no phase transitions prior to their melting points ∼ 1500 °C and possess high electrical resistivity, piezoelectric coefficients, and mechanical quality factor at ultrahigh temperature ( ∼ 1000 °C). Finally, some research results on surface acoustic wave (SAW) and bulk acoustic wave (BAW) sensors developed using this high-temperature piezoelectric crystals are discussed.
HF Doppler observations of acoustic waves excited by the earthquake
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ichinose, T.; Takagi, K.; Tanaka, T.; Okuzawa, T.; Shibata, T.; Sato, Y.; Nagasawa, C.; Ogawa, T.
1985-01-01
Ionospheric disturbances caused by the earthquake of a relatively small and large epicentral distance have been detected by a network of HF-Doppler sounders in central Japan and Kyoto station, respectively. The HF-Doppler data of a small epicentral distance, together with the seismic data, have been used to formulate a mechanism whereby ionospheric disturbances are produced by the Urakawa-Oki earthquake in Japan. Comparison of the dynamic spectra of these data has revealed experimentally that the atmosphere acts as a low-pass filter for upward-propagating acoustic waves. By surveying the earthquakes for which the magnitude M is larger than 6.0, researchers found the ionospheric effect in 16 cases of 82 seismic events. As almost all these effects have occurred in the daytime, it is considered that it may result from the filtering effect of the upward-propagating acoustic waves.
Scanning Michelson interferometer for imaging surface acoustic wave fields.
Knuuttila, J V; Tikka, P T; Salomaa, M M
2000-05-01
A scanning homodyne Michelson interferometer is constructed for two-dimensional imaging of high-frequency surface acoustic wave (SAW) fields in SAW devices. The interferometer possesses a sensitivity of ~10(-5)nm/ radicalHz , and it is capable of directly measuring SAW's with frequencies ranging from 0.5 MHz up to 1 GHz. The fast scheme used for locating the optimum operation point of the interferometer facilitates high measuring speeds, up to 50,000 points/h. The measured field image has a lateral resolution of better than 1 mu;m . The fully optical noninvasive scanning system can be applied to SAW device development and research, providing information on acoustic wave distribution that cannot be obtained by merely electrical measurements.
Reflection and transmission of acoustic waves from a moving layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Steinmetz, G. G.; Singh, J. J.
1972-01-01
The refraction of acoustic waves by a moving medium layer is theoretically treated and the expressions for reflection and transmission coefficients are determined. The moving medium layer velocity is assumed to have a space dependence in one direction. A partitioning of the moving medium layer into constant-velocity sublayers is introduced and the number of sublayers is allowed to increase until the reflection and transmission coefficients converage to their respective values. Numerical results for several sublayer approximations of Poiseuille's flow are presented as functions of the moving layer velocity for several angles of incidence of the acoustic wave. The degenerate case of single constant-velocity layer is also treated, both theoretically and by a numerical analysis.
Laser-generated acoustic wave studies on tattoo pigment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paterson, Lorna M.; Dickinson, Mark R.; King, Terence A.
1996-01-01
A Q-switched alexandrite laser (180 ns at 755 nm) was used to irradiate samples of agar embedded with red, black and green tattoo dyes. The acoustic waves generated in the samples were detected using a PVDF membrane hydrophone and compared to theoretical expectations. The laser pulses were found to generate acoustic waves in the black and green samples but not in the red pigment. Pressures of up to 1.4 MPa were produced with irradiances of up to 96 MWcm-2 which is comparable to the irradiances used to clear pigment embedded in skin. The pressure gradient generated across pigment particles was approximately 1.09 X 1010 Pam-1 giving a pressure difference of 1.09 +/- 0.17 MPa over a particle with mean diameter 100 micrometers . This is not sufficient to permanently damage skin which has a tensile strength of 7.4 MPa.
Comparison of Transmission Line Methods for Surface Acoustic Wave Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, William; Atkinson, Gary
2009-01-01
Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) technology is low cost, rugged, lightweight, extremely low power and can be used to develop passive wireless sensors. For these reasons, NASA is investigating the use of SAW technology for Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace structures. To facilitate rapid prototyping of passive SAW sensors for aerospace applications, SAW models have been developed. This paper reports on the comparison of three methods of modeling SAWs. The three models are the Impulse Response Method (a first order model), and two second order matrix methods; the conventional matrix approach, and a modified matrix approach that is extended to include internal finger reflections. The second order models are based upon matrices that were originally developed for analyzing microwave circuits using transmission line theory. Results from the models are presented with measured data from devices. Keywords: Surface Acoustic Wave, SAW, transmission line models, Impulse Response Method.
On-line surveillance of lubricants in bearings by means of surface acoustic waves.
Lindner, Gerhard; Schmitt, Martin; Schubert, Josephine; Krempel, Sandro; Faustmann, Hendrik
2010-01-01
The acoustic wave propagation in bearings filled with lubricants and driven by pulsed excitation of surface acoustic waves has been investigated with respect to the presence and the distribution of different lubricants. Experimental setups, which are based on the mode conversion between surface acoustic waves and compression waves at the interface between a solid substrate of the bearing and a lubricant are described. The results of preliminary measurements at linear friction bearings, rotation ball bearings and axial cylinder roller bearings are presented.
Noncontact excitation of guided waves (A0 mode) using an electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fromme, Paul
2016-02-01
Fatigue damage can develop in aircraft structures at locations of stress concentration, such as fasteners, and has to be detected before reaching a critical size to ensure safe aircraft operation. Guided ultrasonic waves offer an efficient method for the detection and characterization of such defects in large aerospace structures. Electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMAT) for the noncontact excitation of guided ultrasonic waves were developed. The transducer development for the specific excitation of the A0 Lamb wave mode with an out-of-plane Lorentz force is explained. The achieved radial and angular dependency of the excited guided wave pulses were measured using a noncontact laser interferometer. Based on the induced eddy currents in the plate a theoretical model was developed. The application of the developed transducers for defect detection in aluminum components using fully noncontact guided wave measurements was demonstrated. Excitation of the A0 Lamb wave mode was achieved using the developed EMAT transducer and the guided wave propagation and scattering was measured using a noncontact laser interferometer.
Acoustic field of a ballistic shock wave therapy device.
Cleveland, Robin O; Chitnis, Parag V; McClure, Scott R
2007-08-01
Shock wave therapy (SWT) refers to the use of focused shock waves for treatment of musculoskeletal indications including plantar fascitis and dystrophic mineralization of tendons and joint capsules. Measurements were made of a SWT device that uses a ballistic source. The ballistic source consists of a handpiece within which compressed air (1-4 bar) is used to fire a projectile that strikes a metal applicator placed on the skin. The projectile generates stress waves in the applicator that transmit as pressure waves into tissue. The acoustic fields from two applicators were measured: one applicator was 15 mm in diameter and the surface slightly convex and the second was 12 mm in diameter the surface was concave. Measurements were made in a water tank and both applicators generated a similar pressure pulse consisting of a rectangular positive phase (4 micros duration and up to 8 MPa peak pressure) followed by a predominantly negative tail (duration of 20 micros and peak negative pressure of -6 MPa), with many oscillations. The rise times of the waveforms were around 1 micros and were shown to be too long for the pulses to be considered shock waves. Measurements of the field indicated that region of high pressure was restricted to the near-field (20-40 mm) of the source and was consistent with the Rayleigh distance. The measured acoustic field did not display focusing supported by calculations, which demonstrated that the radius of curvature of the concave surface was too large to effect a focusing gain. Other SWT devices use electrohydraulic, electromagnetic and piezoelectric sources that do result in focused shock waves. This difference in the acoustic fields means there is potentially a significant mechanistic difference between a ballistic source and other SWT devices.
High-Temperature Surface-Acoustic-Wave Transducer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhao, Xiaoliang; Tittmann, Bernhard R.
2010-01-01
Aircraft-engine rotating equipment usually operates at high temperature and stress. Non-invasive inspection of microcracks in those components poses a challenge for the non-destructive evaluation community. A low-profile ultrasonic guided wave sensor can detect cracks in situ. The key feature of the sensor is that it should withstand high temperatures and excite strong surface wave energy to inspect surface/subsurface cracks. As far as the innovators know at the time of this reporting, there is no existing sensor that is mounted to the rotor disks for crack inspection; the most often used technology includes fluorescent penetrant inspection or eddy-current probes for disassembled part inspection. An efficient, high-temperature, low-profile surface acoustic wave transducer design has been identified and tested for nondestructive evaluation of structures or materials. The development is a Sol-Gel bismuth titanate-based surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) sensor that can generate efficient surface acoustic waves for crack inspection. The produced sensor is very thin (submillimeter), and can generate surface waves up to 540 C. Finite element analysis of the SAW transducer design was performed to predict the sensor behavior, and experimental studies confirmed the results. One major uniqueness of the Sol-Gel bismuth titanate SAW sensor is that it is easy to implement to structures of various shapes. With a spray coating process, the sensor can be applied to surfaces of large curvatures. Second, the sensor is very thin (as a coating) and has very minimal effect on airflow or rotating equipment imbalance. Third, it can withstand temperatures up to 530 C, which is very useful for engine applications where high temperature is an issue.
Microfluidic integrated acoustic waving for manipulation of cells and molecules.
Barani, Alireza; Paktinat, Hossein; Janmaleki, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Aminollah; Mosaddegh, Peiman; Fadaei-Tehrani, Alireza; Sanati-Nezhad, Amir
2016-11-15
Acoustophoresis with its simple and low-cost fabrication, rapid and localized fluid actuation, compatibility with microfluidic components, and biocompatibility for cellular studies, has been extensively integrated into microfluidics to provide on-chip microdevices for a variety of applications in biology, bioengineering and chemistry. Among different applications, noninvasive manipulation of cells and biomolecules are significantly important, which are addressed by acoustic-based microfluidics. Here in this paper, we briefly explain the principles and different configurations of acoustic wave and acoustic streaming for the manipulation of cells and molecules and overview its applications for single cell isolation, cell focusing and sorting, cell washing and patterning, cell-cell fusion and communication, and tissue engineering. We further discuss the application of acoustic-based microfluidic systems for the mixing and transport of liquids, manipulation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules, followed by explanation on the present challenges of acoustic-based microfluidics for the handling of cells and molecules, and highlighting the future directions.
Impact of Acoustic Standing Waves on Structural Responses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kolaini, Ali R.
2014-01-01
For several decades large reverberant chambers and most recently direct field acoustic testing have been used in the aerospace industry to test larger structures with low surface densities such as solar arrays and reflectors to qualify them and to detect faults in the design and fabrication. It has been reported that in reverberant chamber and direct acoustic testing, standing acoustic modes may strongly couple with the fundamental structural modes of the test hardware (Reference 1). In this paper results from a recent reverberant chamber acoustic test of a composite reflector are discussed. These results provide further convincing evidence of the acoustic standing wave and structural modes coupling phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to alert test organizations to this phenomenon so that they can account for the potential increase in structural responses and ensure that flight hardware undergoes safe testing. An understanding of the coupling phenomenon may also help minimize the over and/or under testing that could pose un-anticipated structural and flight qualification issues.
Light scattering by surface acoustic waves on corrugated metal surfaces
Robertson, W.M.; Grimsditch, M. ); Moretti, A.L.; Kaufman, R.G.; Hulse, G.R. ); Fullerton, E.; Schuller, I.K. )
1990-03-15
We report the results of a Brillouin-scattering study of corrugated Ag surfaces. The corrugation plays a dramatic role in the wave-vector--selection rules governing coupling to surface phonons, and this effect is substantially different when the effective wave vector of the surface corrugation is collinear or perpendicular to the scattering plane. In processes that involve the grating wave vector, we show that the coupling mechanism between light and phonons is governed by surface plasmons which introduce a new scattering interaction with unusual polarization features in the Brillouin-scattering process.
Surface acoustic wave probe implant for predicting epileptic seizures
Gopalsami, Nachappa [Naperville, IL; Kulikov, Stanislav [Sarov, RU; Osorio, Ivan [Leawood, KS; Raptis, Apostolos C [Downers Grove, IL
2012-04-24
A system and method for predicting and avoiding a seizure in a patient. The system and method includes use of an implanted surface acoustic wave probe and coupled RF antenna to monitor temperature of the patient's brain, critical changes in the temperature characteristic of a precursor to the seizure. The system can activate an implanted cooling unit which can avoid or minimize a seizure in the patient.
Monolithic GaAs surface acoustic wave chemical microsensor array
HIETALA,VINCENT M.; CASALNUOVO,STEPHEN A.; HELLER,EDWIN J.; WENDT,JOEL R.; FRYE-MASON,GREGORY CHARLES; BACA,ALBERT G.
2000-03-09
A four-channel surface acoustic wave (SAW) chemical sensor array with associated RF electronics is monolithically integrated onto one GaAs IC. The sensor operates at 690 MHz from an on-chip SAW based oscillator and provides simple DC voltage outputs by using integrated phase detectors. This sensor array represents a significant advance in microsensor technology offering miniaturization, increased chemical selectivity, simplified system assembly, improved sensitivity, and inherent temperature compensation.
Optimum contact conditions for miniaturized surface acoustic wave linear motor
Takasaki; Kurosawa; Higuchi
2000-03-01
This paper reports the successful operation of a 70 MHz driving surface acoustic wave (SAW) linear motor with a miniaturized stator transducer. This paper also deals with an investigation into an optimized slider design for the miniaturized SAW linear motor. The performance of three silicon type sliders, with different projection size, was compared. Output forces of the three sliders were measured with change of pre-load. It was found that the slider with smaller projection tended to produce greater output force.
Optimizing surface acoustic wave sensors for trace chemical detection
Frye, G.C.; Kottenstette, R.J.; Heller, E.J.
1997-06-01
This paper describes several recent advances for fabricating coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors for applications requiring trace chemical detection. Specifically, we have demonstrated that high surface area microporous oxides can provide 100-fold improvements in SAW sensor responses compared with more typical polymeric coatings. In addition, we fabricated GaAs SAW devices with frequencies up to 500 MHz to provide greater sensitivity and an ideal substrate for integration with high-frequency electronics.
Application of guided acoustic waves to delamination detection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sun, Keun J.
1992-01-01
Guided plate waves are able to interact with structural flaws such as delaminations and cracks due to their propagation properties highly sensitive to the thickness change in materials. A technique which employs an acoustic damper to probe the results of this interaction and then to locate flaws in a relatively short period of time is developed. With its technical advantages, this technique shows its potential application to large area structural integrity assessment.
Space manufacturing of surface acoustic wave devices, appendix D
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sardella, G.
1973-01-01
Space manufacturing of transducers in a vibration free environment is discussed. Fabrication of the masks, and possible manufacturing of the surface acoustic wave components aboard a space laboratory would avoid the inherent ground vibrations and the frequency limitation imposed by a seismic isolator pad. The manufacturing vibration requirements are identified. The concepts of space manufacturing are analyzed. A development program for manufacturing transducers is recommended.
R&D 100 Winner 2010: Acoustic Wave Biosensors
Larson, Richard; Branch, Darren; Edwards, Thayne
2016-06-07
The acoustic wave biosensor is innovative device that is a handheld, battery-powered, portable detection system capable of multiplex identification of a wide range of medically relevant pathogens and their biomolecular signatures — viruses, bacteria, proteins, and DNA — at clinically relevant levels. This detection occurs within minutes — not hours — at the point of care, whether that care is in a physician's office, a hospital bed, or at the scene of a biodefense or biomedical emergency.
Oblique ion acoustic shock waves in a magnetized plasma
Shahmansouri, M.; Mamun, A. A.
2013-08-15
Ion acoustic (IA) shock waves are studied in a magnetized plasma consisting of a cold viscous ion fluid and Maxwellian electrons. The Korteweg–de Vries–Burgers equation is derived by using the reductive perturbation method. It is shown that the combined effects of external magnetic field and obliqueness significantly modify the basic properties (viz., amplitude, width, speed, etc.) of the IA shock waves. It is observed that the ion-viscosity is a source of dissipation, and is responsible for the formation of IA shock structures. The implications of our results in some space and laboratory plasma situations are discussed.
Acoustic charge transport induced by the surface acoustic wave in chemical doped graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Shijun; Zhang, Hao; Feng, Zhihong; Yu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Rui; Sun, Chongling; Liu, Jing; Duan, Xuexin; Pang, Wei; Zhang, Daihua
2016-10-01
A graphene/LiNbO3 hybrid device is used to investigate the acoustic induced charge transport in chemical doped graphene. The chemical doping of graphene via its physisorption of gas molecules affects the surface acoustic wave (SAW) charge carrier transport in a manner different from electric field drift. That transport induces doping dependent macroscopic acoustoelectric current. The chemical doping can manipulate majority carriers and induces unique acoustoelectric features. The observation is explained by a classical relaxation model. Eventually the device based on acoustoelectric current is proved to outperform the common chemiresistor for chemicals. Our finding provides insight into acoustic charge carrier transport during chemical doping. The doping affects interaction of carriers with SAW phonon and facilitates the understanding of nanoscale acoustoelectric effect. The exploration inspires potential acoustoelectric application for chemical detection involving emerging 2D nanomaterials.
Surface Acoustic Waves Enhance Neutrophil Killing of Bacteria
Loike, John D.; Plitt, Anna; Kothari, Komal; Zumeris, Jona; Budhu, Sadna; Kavalus, Kaitlyn; Ray, Yonatan; Jacob, Harold
2013-01-01
Biofilms are structured communities of bacteria that play a major role in the pathogenicity of bacteria and are the leading cause of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections on indwelling catheters and medical prosthetic devices. Failure to resolve these biofilm infections may necessitate the surgical removal of the prosthetic device which can be debilitating and costly. Recent studies have shown that application of surface acoustic waves to catheter surfaces can reduce the incidence of infections by a mechanism that has not yet been clarified. We report here the effects of surface acoustic waves (SAW) on the capacity of human neutrophils to eradicate S. epidermidis bacteria in a planktonic state and within biofilms. Utilizing a novel fibrin gel system that mimics a tissue-like environment, we show that SAW, at an intensity of 0.3 mW/cm2, significantly enhances human neutrophil killing of S. epidermidis in a planktonic state and within biofilms by enhancing human neutrophil chemotaxis in response to chemoattractants. In addition, we show that the integrin CD18 plays a significant role in the killing enhancement observed in applying SAW. We propose from out data that this integrin may serve as mechanoreceptor for surface acoustic waves enhancing neutrophil chemotaxis and killing of bacteria. PMID:23936303
Surface acoustic wave gas sensor based on film conductivity changes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ricco, A. J.; Martin, S. J.; Zipperian, T. E.
1985-12-01
The first surfce acoustic wave (SAW) sensor that functions via changes in conductivity of a thin surface film is reported. A lead phthalocyanine (PbPc) thin film is deposted on the acoustic progagation path of a LiNbO3 SAW delay line, which serves as the feedback element of an oscillator circuit. Reaction with strongly oxidizing gases, in particular NO2, increases the conductivity of the PbPc film. Acoustoelectric coupling of the traveling electric potential wave associated with the SAW-to-charge carriers in the PbPc film slows the acoustic wave velocity, altering the oscillation frequency of the circuit. This sensor is about 1000 times more sensitive, in terms of the number of NO2 molecules that can be detected (10 to the 16th molecules/cu cm of PbPc film), than an identical SAW sensor functioning via mass loading would be. Sensitivity to a few ppm of NO2 in N2 has been demonstrated.
Surface acoustic wave gas sensor based on film conductivity changes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ricco, A. J.; Martin, S. J.; Zipperian, T. E.
The first surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor that functions via changes in conductivity of a thin surface film is reported. A lead phthalocyanine (PbPc) thin film is deposited on the acoustic propagation path of a LiNbO3 SAW delay line, which serves as the feedback element of an oscillator circuit. Reaction with strongly oxidizing gases, in particular NO2, increases the conductivity of the PbPc film. Acoustoelectic coupling of the traveling electric potential wave associated with the SAW-to-charge carriers in the PbPc film slows the acoustic wave velocity, altering the oscillation frequency of the circuit. This sensor is about 1000 times more sensitive, in terms of the number of NO2 molecules that can be detected (10 to the 16th molecules/cu cm of PbPc film), than an identical SAW sensor functioning via mass loading would be. Sensitivity to a few ppm of NO2 in Ne was demonstrated.
Dual mode acoustic wave sensor for precise pressure reading
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mu, Xiaojing; Kropelnicki, Piotr; Wang, Yong; Randles, Andrew Benson; Chuan Chai, Kevin Tshun; Cai, Hong; Gu, Yuan Dong
2014-09-01
In this letter, a Microelectromechanical system acoustic wave sensor, which has a dual mode (lateral field exited Lamb wave mode and surface acoustic wave (SAW) mode) behavior, is presented for precious pressure change read out. Comb-like interdigital structured electrodes on top of piezoelectric material aluminium nitride (AlN) are used to generate the wave modes. The sensor membrane consists of single crystalline silicon formed by backside-etching of the bulk material of a silicon on insulator wafer having variable device thickness layer (5 μm-50 μm). With this principle, a pressure sensor has been fabricated and mounted on a pressure test package with pressure applied to the backside of the membrane within a range of 0 psi to 300 psi. The temperature coefficient of frequency was experimentally measured in the temperature range of -50 °C to 300 °C. This idea demonstrates a piezoelectric based sensor having two modes SAW/Lamb wave for direct physical parameter—pressure readout and temperature cancellation which can operate in harsh environment such as oil and gas exploration, automobile and aeronautic applications using the dual mode behavior of the sensor and differential readout at the same time.
Ion acoustic shock wave in collisional equal mass plasma
Adak, Ashish; Ghosh, Samiran; Chakrabarti, Nikhil
2015-10-15
The effect of ion-ion collision on the dynamics of nonlinear ion acoustic wave in an unmagnetized pair-ion plasma has been investigated. The two-fluid model has been used to describe the dynamics of both positive and negative ions with equal masses. It is well known that in the dynamics of the weakly nonlinear wave, the viscosity mediates wave dissipation in presence of weak nonlinearity and dispersion. This dissipation is responsible for the shock structures in pair-ion plasma. Here, it has been shown that the ion-ion collision in presence of collective phenomena mediated by the plasma current is the source of dissipation that causes the Burgers' term which is responsible for the shock structures in equal mass pair-ion plasma. The dynamics of the weakly nonlinear wave is governed by the Korteweg-de Vries Burgers equation. The analytical and numerical investigations revealed that the ion acoustic wave exhibits both oscillatory and monotonic shock structures depending on the frequency of ion-ion collision parameter. The results have been discussed in the context of the fullerene pair-ion plasma experiments.
Dust-acoustic rogue waves in a nonextensive plasma
Moslem, W. M.; Shukla, P. K.; Sabry, R.; El-Labany, S. K.
2011-12-15
We present an investigation for the generation of a dust-acoustic rogue wave in a dusty plasma composed of negatively charged dust grains, as well as nonextensive electrons and ions. For this purpose, the reductive perturbation technique is used to obtain a nonlinear Schroedinger equation. The critical wave-number threshold k{sub c}, which indicates where the modulational instability sets in, has been determined precisely for various regimes. Two different behaviors of k{sub c} against the nonextensive parameter q are found. For small k{sub c}, it is found that increasing q would lead to an increase of k{sub c} until q approaches a certain value q{sub c}, then further increase of q beyond q{sub c} decreases the value of k{sub c}. For large k{sub c}, the critical wave-number threshold k{sub c} is always increasing with q. Within the modulational instability region, a random perturbation of the amplitude grows and thus creates dust-acoustic rogue waves. In order to show that the characteristics of the rogue waves are influenced by the plasma parameters, the relevant numerical analysis of the appropriate nonlinear solution is presented. The nonlinear structure, as reported here, could be useful for controlling and maximizing highly energetic pulses in dusty plasmas.
Dust-acoustic rogue waves in a nonextensive plasma.
Moslem, W M; Sabry, R; El-Labany, S K; Shukla, P K
2011-12-01
We present an investigation for the generation of a dust-acoustic rogue wave in a dusty plasma composed of negatively charged dust grains, as well as nonextensive electrons and ions. For this purpose, the reductive perturbation technique is used to obtain a nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The critical wave-number threshold k(c), which indicates where the modulational instability sets in, has been determined precisely for various regimes. Two different behaviors of k(c) against the nonextensive parameter q are found. For small k(c), it is found that increasing q would lead to an increase of k(c) until q approaches a certain value q(c), then further increase of q beyond q(c) decreases the value of k(c). For large k(c), the critical wave-number threshold k(c) is always increasing with q. Within the modulational instability region, a random perturbation of the amplitude grows and thus creates dust-acoustic rogue waves. In order to show that the characteristics of the rogue waves are influenced by the plasma parameters, the relevant numerical analysis of the appropriate nonlinear solution is presented. The nonlinear structure, as reported here, could be useful for controlling and maximizing highly energetic pulses in dusty plasmas.
Characteristics of acoustic gravity waves obtained from Dynasonde data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Negrea, Cǎtǎlin; Zabotin, Nikolay; Bullett, Terrence; Fuller-Rowell, Tim; Fang, Tzu-Wei; Codrescu, Mihail
2016-04-01
Traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) are ubiquitous in the thermosphere-ionosphere and are often assumed to be caused by acoustic gravity waves (AGWs). This study performs an analysis of the TID and AGW activity above Wallops Island, VA, during October 2013. The variations in electron density and ionospheric tilts obtained with the Dynasonde technique are used as primary indicators of wave activity. The temporal and spectral characteristics of the data are discussed in detail, using also results of the Whole Atmosphere Model (WAM) and the Global Ionosphere Plasmasphere Model (GIP). The full set of propagation parameters (frequency, and the vertical, zonal and meridional wave vector components) of the TIDs is determined over the 160-220 km height range. A test of the self-consistency of these results within the confines of the theoretical AGW dispersion relation is devised. This is applied to a sample data set of 24 October 2013. A remarkable agreement has been achieved for wave periods between 52 and 21 min, for which we can rigorously claim the TIDs are caused by underlying acoustic gravity waves. The Wallops Island Dynasonde can operate for extended periods at a 2 min cadence, allowing determination of the statistical distributions of propagation parameters. A dominant population of TIDs is identified in the frequency band below 1 mHz, and for it, the distributions of the horizontal wavelengths, vertical wavelengths, and horizontal phase speeds are obtained.
Acoustic and Cavitation Fields of Shock Wave Therapy Devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chitnis, Parag V.; Cleveland, Robin O.
2006-05-01
Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is considered a viable treatment modality for orthopedic ailments. Despite increasing clinical use, the mechanisms by which ESWT devices generate a therapeutic effect are not yet understood. The mechanistic differences in various devices and their efficacies might be dependent on their acoustic and cavitation outputs. We report acoustic and cavitation measurements of a number of different shock wave therapy devices. Two devices were electrohydraulic: one had a large reflector (HMT Ossatron) and the other was a hand-held source (HMT Evotron); the other device was a pneumatically driven device (EMS Swiss DolorClast Vet). Acoustic measurements were made using a fiber-optic probe hydrophone and a PVDF hydrophone. A dual passive cavitation detection system was used to monitor cavitation activity. Qualitative differences between these devices were also highlighted using a high-speed camera. We found that the Ossatron generated focused shock waves with a peak positive pressure around 40 MPa. The Evotron produced peak positive pressure around 20 MPa, however, its acoustic output appeared to be independent of the power setting of the device. The peak positive pressure from the DolorClast was about 5 MPa without a clear shock front. The DolorClast did not generate a focused acoustic field. Shadowgraph images show that the wave propagating from the DolorClast is planar and not focused in the vicinity of the hand-piece. All three devices produced measurable cavitation with a characteristic time (cavitation inception to bubble collapse) that varied between 95 and 209 μs for the Ossatron, between 59 and 283 μs for the Evotron, and between 195 and 431 μs for the DolorClast. The high-speed camera images show that the cavitation activity for the DolorClast is primarily restricted to the contact surface of the hand-piece. These data indicate that the devices studied here vary in acoustic and cavitation output, which may imply that the
Attenuation of acoustic waves in glacial ice and salt domes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Price, P. B.
2006-02-01
Two classes of natural solid media, glacial ice and salt domes, are under consideration as media in which to deploy instruments for detection of neutrinos with energy ≥1018 eV. Though insensitive to 1011 to 1016 eV neutrinos for which observatories (e.g., AMANDA and IceCube) that utilize optical Cherenkov radiation detectors are designed, radio and acoustic methods are suited for searches for the very low fluxes of neutrinos with energies >1017 eV. This is because owing to the very long attenuation lengths of radio and acoustic waves produced by interactions of such neutrinos in ice and salt, detection modules can be spaced at horizontal distances ˜1 km, in contrast to the 0.12 km distances between strings of IceCube modules. In this paper, I calculate the absorption and scattering coefficients as a function of frequency and grain size for acoustic waves in glacial ice and salt domes and show that experimental measurements on laboratory samples and in glacial ice and salt domes are consistent with theory. For South Pole ice with grain size ˜0.2 cm at depths ≤600 m, scattering lengths are calculated to be 2000 and 25 km at frequencies 10 and 30 kHz, respectively; for grain size ˜0.4 cm at 1500 m (the maximum depth to be instrumented acoustically), scattering lengths are calculated to be 250 and 3 km. These are within the range of frequencies where most of the energy of the acoustic wave is concentrated. The absorption length is calculated to be 9 ± 3 km at all frequencies above ˜100 Hz. For NaCl (rock salt) with grain size 0.75 cm, scattering lengths are calculated to be 120 and 1.4 km at 10 and 30 kHz, and absorption lengths are calculated to be 3 × 104 and 3300 km at 10 and 30 kHz. Existing measurements are consistent with theory. For ice, absorption is the limiting factor; for salt, scattering is the limiting factor. Both media would be suitable for detection of acoustic waves from ultrahigh-energy neutrino interactions.
Acoustic Wave Stimulated Enhanced Oil Recovery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reichmann, Sven; Giese, Rüdiger; Amro, Mohammed
2013-04-01
High demand and the finite oil deposits will be a problem in the future. To temper the impact of a shortage in crude oil, a lot of research in the field of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is worldwide ongoing. Using seismic waves to stimulate recovery of oil is known as seismic-EOR. The development of a stimulation procedure using seismic sources and the evaluation of the obtained data in a real oil field is the aim of the project WAVE.O.R. The project is funded by the German scientific society for oil, gas and coal (DGMK). The Technical University of Freiberg (TUBAF) and the German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ) in Potsdam developed a flooding cell connected with magnetostrictive actuators as sources for seismic energy. This device is eligible to survey the impact of different seismic stimulation parameter like frequency, alignment, amplitude and rock characteristics on oil recovery. The obtained laboratory data of flooding experiments using seismic waves were analyzed for key features like water breakthrough point, oil recovery and oil fraction. New approach has been developed, which consists of the connection of a principal component analysis with a clustering algorithm. This new technique allows us a better understanding and thus prediction of the recovery behavior of oil bearing sediments. The experiments show promising possibilities to enhance oil recovery with seismic stimulation. Especially the combination of different frequencies between 100 Hz and 4000 Hz had a positive impact on oil recovery. The responsible mechanisms were identified and discussed. Data obtained with the laboratory device will be applied in a field test using a borehole device developed by the GFZ in the project "Seismic Prediction While Drilling" (SPWD). For this purpose experiments are conducted to obtain the radiation pattern of the seismic sources used by the SPWD device in a borehole. In addition, the development of a control setup for the 1-D actuator array is an aim of the
Ion acoustic and dust acoustic waves at finite size of plasma particles
Andreev, Pavel A. Kuz'menkov, L. S.
2015-03-15
We consider the influence of the finite size of ions on the properties of classic plasmas. We focus our attention at the ion acoustic waves for electron-ion plasmas. We also consider the dusty plasmas where we account the finite size of ions and particles of dust and consider the dispersion of dust acoustic waves. The finite size of particles is a classical effect as well as the Coulomb interaction. The finite size of particles considerably contributes to the properties of the dense plasmas in the small wavelength limit. Low temperature dense plasmas, revealing the quantum effects, are also affected by the finite size of plasma particles. Consequently, it is important to consider the finite size of ions in the quantum plasmas as well.
Guided wave opto-acoustic device
Jarecki, Jr., Robert L.; Rakich, Peter Thomas; Camacho, Ryan; Shin, Heedeuk; Cox, Jonathan Albert; Qiu, Wenjun; Wang, Zheng
2016-02-23
The various technologies presented herein relate to various hybrid phononic-photonic waveguide structures that can exhibit nonlinear behavior associated with traveling-wave forward stimulated Brillouin scattering (forward-SBS). The various structures can simultaneously guide photons and phonons in a suspended membrane. By utilizing a suspended membrane, a substrate pathway can be eliminated for loss of phonons that suppresses SBS in conventional silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides. Consequently, forward-SBS nonlinear susceptibilities are achievable at about 3000 times greater than achievable with a conventional waveguide system. Owing to the strong phonon-photon coupling achievable with the various embodiments, potential application for the various embodiments presented herein cover a range of radiofrequency (RF) and photonic signal processing applications. Further, the various embodiments presented herein are applicable to applications operating over a wide bandwidth, e.g. 100 MHz to 50 GHz or more.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karabutov, Aleksander A.
1985-11-01
Studies in thermo-optic excitation of surface acoustic waves are reviewed. The excitation of periodic and pulse signals is discussed, using nonmoving and moving beams. Most attention is paid to application of this effect for purposes of opto-acoustic spectroscopy of a solid. The possibilities and promises of using opto-acoustic spectroscopy (OAS) employing surface acoustic waves (SAW) are analyzed
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rostafinski, W.
1975-01-01
The analysis of waves in bends in acoustical ducting of rectangular cross section was extended to the study of motion near discontinuities. This included determination of the characteristics of the tangential and radial components of the nonpropagating modes. It is established that attenuation of the nonpropagating modes strongly depends on frequency and that, in general, the sharper the bend, the less attenuation may be expected. Evaluation of a bend's impedance and of impedance-generated reflections is also presented in detail.
Switchable and Tunable Ferroelectric Bulk Acoustic Wave Resonators and Filters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saddik, George Nabih
Ferroelectric materials such as barium titanate (BaTiO 3 or BTO), strontium titanate (SrTiO3 or STO), and their solid solution barium strontium titanate (BaxSr1-xTiO 3 or BST) have been under investigation for over 50 years. BTO, STO, and BST are high-k dielectric materials, with a field dependent permittivity and a perovskite crystal structure. At room temperature BTO is a ferroelectric with a ferroelectric to paraelectric transition temperature of about 116°C (Curie temperature), while STO has no ferroelectric phase. The formation of a solid solution between BTO and STO allows for the engineering of the Curie temperature; the Curie temperature decreses as the mole ratio of barium decreases. Extensive research went into understanding the properties of BST and developing RF circuits such as tunable capacitors, tunable matching networks, tunable filters, phase shifters and harmonic generators. BST tunable capacitors have always had anomalous resonances in the one port scattering parameter measurements, although they are very small they degrade the quality factor of the device, and research went into reducing these resonances as much as possible. The goal of this thesis is to investigate these anomalous resonances and exploit them into RF devices and circuits. Careful investigation showed that these resonances were field induced piezoelectric resonance. Piezoelectric materials such as AlN, ZnO, and PZT are used in many applications, such as resonators, and filters. Thin film bulk acoustic wave resonators (FBAR) have been in use by research and industry since the early 1980s, and in high volume production for cell phone duplexers since early 2000s. FBAR filters and duplexers have several advantages over surface acoustic wave (SAW) and ceramic devices such as high quality factors necessary for sharp filter skirts, small size, high performance, and ease of integration. There are two approaches to designing bulk acoustic wave resonators. The first is an FBAR where a
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, C. Y.; Lesselier, D.; Zhong, Y.
2015-07-01
The present work aims at building up a full-wave computational model of electromagnetic nondestructive testing of composite materials produced by stacking up dielectric slabs one over the other. In each such dielectric slab, a periodic array of infinite cylindrical fibers is embedded. Electromagnetic scattering of such a multilayered, fiber-based periodic composite is investigated here for an obliquely incident plane wave, the plane of incidence of which differs from the plane orthogonal to the fibers' axes. Full-wave field representations are given first by multipole and plane wave expansions. Mode matching at boundaries between layers then yields the propagating matrices, which are applied to connect reflection and transmission coefficients of the longitudinal field components. Power reflection and transmission coefficients are obtained from time-averaged Poynting vectors. Numerical experiments with comparisons with known results illustrate the accuracy of the model proposed.
Flow velocity measurement with the nonlinear acoustic wave scattering
Didenkulov, Igor; Pronchatov-Rubtsov, Nikolay
2015-10-28
A problem of noninvasive measurement of liquid flow velocity arises in many practical applications. To this end the most often approach is the use of the linear Doppler technique. The Doppler frequency shift of signal scattered from the inhomogeneities distributed in a liquid relatively to the emitted frequency is proportional to the sound frequency and velocities of inhomogeneities. In the case of very slow flow one needs to use very high frequency sound. This approach fails in media with strong sound attenuation because acoustic wave attenuation increases with frequency and there is limit in increasing sound intensity, i.e. the cavitation threshold. Another approach which is considered in this paper is based on the method using the difference frequency Doppler Effect for flows with bubbles. This method is based on simultaneous action of two high-frequency primary acoustic waves with closed frequencies on bubbles and registration of the scattered by bubbles acoustic field at the difference frequency. The use of this method is interesting since the scattered difference frequency wave has much lower attenuation in a liquid. The theoretical consideration of the method is given in the paper. The experimental examples confirming the theoretical equations, as well as the ability of the method to be applied in medical diagnostics and in technical applications on measurement of flow velocities in liquids with strong sound attenuation is described. It is shown that the Doppler spectrum form depends on bubble concentration velocity distribution in the primary acoustic beams crossing zone that allows one to measure the flow velocity distribution.
Determination of hydrocarbon levels in water via laser-induced acoustics wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bidin, Noriah; Hossenian, Raheleh; Duralim, Maisarah; Krishnan, Ganesan; Marsin, Faridah Mohd; Nughro, Waskito; Zainal, Jasman
2016-04-01
Hydrocarbon contamination in water is a major environmental concern in terms of foreseen collapse of the natural ecosystem. Hydrocarbon level in water was determined by generating acoustic wave via an innovative laser-induced breakdown in conjunction with high-speed photographic coupling with piezoelectric transducer to trace acoustic wave propagation. A Q-switched Nd:YAG (40 mJ) was focused in cuvette-filled hydrocarbon solution at various concentrations (0-2000 ppm) to induce optical breakdown, shock wave generation and later acoustic wave propagation. A nitro-dye (ND) laser (10 mJ) was used as a flash to illuminate and frozen the acoustic wave propagation. Lasers were synchronised using a digital delay generator. The image of acoustic waves was grabbed and recorded via charged couple device (CCD) video camera at the speed of 30 frames/second with the aid of Matrox software version 9. The optical delay (0.8-10.0 μs) between the acoustic wave formation and its frozen time is recorded through photodetectors. A piezo-electric transducer (PZT) was used to trace the acoustic wave (sound signal), which cascades to a digital oscilloscope. The acoustic speed is calculated from the ratio of acoustic wave radius (1-8 mm) and optical time delay. Acoustic wave speed is found to linearly increase with hydrocarbon concentrations. The acoustic signal generation at higher hydrocarbon levels in water is attributed to supplementary mass transfer and impact on the probe. Integrated high-speed photography with transducer detection system authenticated that the signals indeed emerged from the laser-induced acoustic wave instead of photothermal processes. It is established that the acoustic wave speed in water is used as a fingerprint to detect the hydrocarbon levels.
Sensitivity of surface acoustic wave devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filipiak, Jerzy; Zubko, Konrad
2001-08-01
The SAW devices are widely used as filters, delay lines, resonators and gas sensors. It is possible to use it as mechanical force. The paper describes sensitivity of acceleration sensor based on SAW using the Rayleigh wave propagation. Since characteristic of acceleration SAW sensors are largely determined by piezoelectric materials, it is very important to select substrate with required characteristics. Researches and numerical modeling based on simply sensor model include piezoelectric beam with unilateral free end. An aggregated mass is connected to the one. The dimension and aggregated mass are various. In this case a buckling stress and sensitivity are changed. Sensitivity in main and perpendicular axis are compare for three sensor based on SiO2, LiNbO3, Li2B4O7. Influences of phase velocity, electro-mechanical coupling constant and density on sensitivity are investigated. Some mechanical parameters of the substrates in dynamic work mode are researched using sensor model and Rayleigh model of vibrations without vibration damping. The model is useful because it simply determines dependencies between sensor parameters and substrate parameters. Differences between measured and evaluated quantities are less than 5 percent. Researches based on sensor modes, which fulfilled mechanical specifications similarly to aircraft navigation.
Diffraction correction for precision surface acoustic wave velocity measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruiz M., Alberto; Nagy, Peter B.
2002-09-01
Surface wave dispersion measurements can be used to nondestructively characterize shot-peened, laser shock-peened, burnished, and otherwise surface-treated specimens. In recent years, there have been numerous efforts to separate the contribution of surface roughness from those of near-surface material variations, such as residual stress, texture, and increased dislocation density. As the accuracy of the dispersion measurements was gradually increased using state-of-the-art laser-ultrasonic scanning and sophisticated digital signal processing methods, it was recognized that a perceivable dispersive effect, similar to the one found on rough shot-peened specimens, is exhibited by untreated smooth surfaces as well. This dispersion effect is on the order of 0.1%, that is significantly higher than the experimental error associated with the measurements and comparable to the expected velocity change produced by near-surface compressive residual stresses in metals below their yield point. This paper demonstrates that the cause of this apparent dispersion is the diffraction of the surface acoustic wave (SAW) as it travels over the surface of the specimen. The results suggest that a diffraction correction may be introduced to increase the accuracy of surface wave dispersion measurements. A simple diffraction correction model was developed for surface waves and this correction was subsequently validated by laser-interferometric velocity measurements on aluminum specimens. copyright 2002 Acoustical Society of America.
Synchronization of the dust acoustic wave under microgravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruhunusiri, W. D. Suranga; Goree, J.
2013-10-01
Synchronization is a nonlinear phenomenon where a self-excited oscillation, like a wave in a plasma, interacts with an external driving, resulting in an adjustment of the oscillation frequency. To prepare for experiments under microgravity conditions using the PK-4 facility on the International Space Station, we perform a laboratory experiment to observe synchronization of the self-excited dust acoustic wave. An rf glow discharge argon plasma is formed by applying a low power radio frequency voltage to a lower electrode. A 3D dust cloud is formed by levitating 4.83 micron microspheres inside a glass box placed on the lower electrode. The dust acoustic wave is self-excited with a natural frequency of 22 Hz due to an ion streaming instability. A cross section of the dust cloud is illuminated by a vertical laser sheet and imaged from the side with a digital camera. To synchronize the wave, we sinusoidally modulate the overall ion density. Differently from previous experiments, we use a driving electrode that is separate from the electrode that sustains the plasma, and we characterize synchronization by varying both driving amplitude and frequency. Supported by NASA's Physical Science Research Program.
Performance bounds for passive sensor arrays operating in a turbulent medium: Plane-wave analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Collier, S. L.; Wilson, D. K.
2003-05-01
The performance bounds of a passive acoustic array operating in a turbulent medium with fluctuations described by a von Kármán spectrum are investigated. This treatment considers a single, monochromatic, plane-wave source at near-normal incidence. A line-of-sight propagation path is assumed. The primary interests are in calculating the Cramer-Rao lower bounds of the azimuthal and elevational angles of arrival and in observing how these bounds change with the introduction of additional unknowns, such as the propagation distance, turbulence parameters, and signal-to-noise ratio. In both two and three dimensions, it is found that for large values of the index-of-refraction variance, the Cramer-Rao lower bounds of the angles of arrival increase significantly at large values of the normalized propagation distance. For small values of the index-of-refraction variance and normalized propagation distance, the signal-to-noise ratio is found to be the limiting factor. In the two-dimensional treatment, it is found that the estimate of the angle of arrival will decouple from the estimates of the other parameters with the appropriate choice of array geometry. In three dimensions, again with an appropriate choice of array geometry, the estimates of the azimuth and elevation will decouple from the estimates of the other parameters, but due to the constraints of the model, will remain coupled to one another.
Underwater acoustic wave generation by filamentation of terawatt ultrashort laser pulses.
Jukna, Vytautas; Jarnac, Amélie; Milián, Carles; Brelet, Yohann; Carbonnel, Jérôme; André, Yves-Bernard; Guillermin, Régine; Sessarego, Jean-Pierre; Fattaccioli, Dominique; Mysyrowicz, André; Couairon, Arnaud; Houard, Aurélien
2016-06-01
Acoustic signals generated by filamentation of ultrashort terawatt laser pulses in water are characterized experimentally. Measurements reveal a strong influence of input pulse duration on the shape and intensity of the acoustic wave. Numerical simulations of the laser pulse nonlinear propagation and the subsequent water hydrodynamics and acoustic wave generation show that the strong acoustic emission is related to the mechanism of superfilamention in water. The elongated shape of the plasma volume where energy is deposited drives the far-field profile of the acoustic signal, which takes the form of a radially directed pressure wave with a single oscillation and a very broad spectrum.
Analysis of a photonic nanojet assuming a focused incident beam instead of a plane wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Aotuo; Su, Chin
2014-12-01
The analysis of a photonic nanojet formed by dielectric spheres almost always assumes that the incident field is a plane wave. In this work, using vector spherical harmonics representations, we analyze the case of a more realistic incident field consisting of a focused beam formed by a microscope objective. Also included is the situation in which the sphere is not at the focal plane of the focus beam. We find that the dimension of the nanojet beam waist is less sensitive with respect to the azimuthal angle when compared with the plane wave case. Also, by shifting the particle away from the focal plane, the nanojet beam waist can be positioned outside the particle which otherwise would be inside or at the particle surface. Inherently, no such adjustment is possible with an incident plane wave assumption.
Perez, Camilo; Chen, Hong; Matula, Thomas J.; Karzova, Maria; Khokhlova, Vera A.
2013-01-01
Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) uses acoustic pulses to treat certain musculoskeletal disorders. In this paper the acoustic field of a clinical portable ESWT device (Duolith SD1) was characterized. Field mapping was performed in water for two different standoffs of the electromagnetic head (15 or 30 mm) using a fiber optic probe hydrophone. Peak positive pressures at the focus ranged from 2 to 45 MPa, while peak negative pressures ranged from −2 to −11 MPa. Pulse rise times ranged from 8 to 500 ns; shock formation did not occur for any machine settings. The maximum standard deviation in peak pressure at the focus was 1.2%, indicating that the Duolith SD1 generates stable pulses. The results compare qualitatively, but not quantitatively with manufacturer specifications. Simulations were carried out for the short standoff by matching a Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetzov equation to the measured field at a plane near the source, and then propagating the wave outward. The results of modeling agree well with experimental data. The model was used to analyze the spatial structure of the peak pressures. Predictions from the model suggest that a true shock wave could be obtained in water if the initial pressure output of the device were doubled. PMID:23927207
Nonlinear standing waves in 2-D acoustic resonators.
Cervenka, Milan; Bednarik, Michal
2006-12-22
This paper deals with 2-D simulation of finite-amplitude standing waves behavior in rectangular acoustic resonators. Set of three partial differential equations in third approximation formulated in conservative form is derived from fundamental equations of gas dynamics. These equations form a closed set for two components of acoustic velocity vector and density, the equations account for external driving force, gas dynamic nonlinearities and thermoviscous dissipation. Pressure is obtained from solution of the set by means of an analytical formula. The equations are formulated in the Cartesian coordinate system. The model equations set is solved numerically in time domain using a central semi-discrete difference scheme developed for integration of sets of convection-diffusion equations with two or more spatial coordinates. Numerical results show various patterns of acoustic field in resonators driven using vibrating piston with spatial distribution of velocity. Excitation of lateral shock-wave mode is observed when resonant conditions are fulfilled for longitudinal as well as for transversal direction along the resonator cavity.
Longitudinal elastic wave propagation characteristics of inertant acoustic metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulkarni, Prateek P.; Manimala, James M.
2016-06-01
Longitudinal elastic wave propagation characteristics of acoustic metamaterials with various inerter configurations are investigated using their representative one-dimensional discrete element lattice models. Inerters are dynamic mass-amplifying mechanical elements that are activated by a difference in acceleration across them. They have a small device mass but can provide a relatively large dynamic mass presence depending on accelerations in systems that employ them. The effect of introducing inerters both in local attachments and in the lattice was examined vis-à-vis the propagation characteristics of locally resonant acoustic metamaterials. A simple effective model based on mass, stiffness, or their combined equivalent was used to establish dispersion behavior and quantify attenuation within bandgaps. Depending on inerter configurations in local attachments or in the lattice, both up-shift and down-shift in the bandgap frequency range and their extent are shown to be possible while retaining static mass addition to the host structure to a minimum. Further, frequency-dependent negative and even extreme effective-stiffness regimes are encountered. The feasibility of employing tuned combinations of such mass-delimited inertant configurations to engineer acoustic metamaterials that act as high-pass filters without the use of grounded elements or even as complete longitudinal wave inhibitors is shown. Potential device implications and strategies for practical applications are also discussed.
A fractional calculus model of anomalous dispersion of acoustic waves.
Wharmby, Andrew W
2016-09-01
An empirical formula based on viscoelastic analysis techniques that employs concepts from the fractional calculus that was used to model the dielectric behavior of materials exposed to oscillating electromagnetic fields in the radiofrequency, terahertz, and infrared bands. This work adapts and applies the formula to model viscoelastic behavior of materials that show an apparent increase of phase velocity of vibration with an increase in frequency, otherwise known as anomalous dispersion. A fractional order wave equation is derived through the application of the classic elastic-viscoelastic correspondence principle whose analytical solution is used to describe absorption and dispersion of acoustic waves in the viscoelastic material displaying anomalous dispersion in a specific frequency range. A brief discussion and comparison of an alternative fractional order wave equation recently formulated is also included.
Asymmetric wave transmission in a diatomic acoustic/elastic metamaterial
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Bing; Tan, K. T.
2016-08-01
Asymmetric acoustic/elastic wave transmission has recently been realized using nonlinearity, wave diffraction, or bias effects, but always at the cost of frequency distortion, direction shift, large volumes, or external energy. Based on the self-coupling of dual resonators, we propose a linear diatomic metamaterial, consisting of several small-sized unit cells, to realize large asymmetric wave transmission in low frequency domain (below 1 kHz). The asymmetric transmission mechanism is theoretically investigated, and numerically verified by both mass-spring and continuum models. This passive system does not require any frequency conversion or external energy, and the asymmetric transmission band can be theoretically predicted and mathematically controlled, which extends the design concept of unidirectional transmission devices.
New Biosensor Using Shear Horizontal Surface Acoustic Wave Device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kondoh, Jun; Matsui, Yoshikazu; Shiokawa, Showko
1993-05-01
This paper describes a new biosensor to detect an enzyme reaction in liquid using surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices fabricated on 36°-rotated Y-cut, X-propagating LiTaO3. The sensing wave on the substrate is a predominantly shear-horizontal-mode SAW (SH-SAW) and is affected by a strong acoustoelectric interaction between the piezoelectric potential and electrical properties of the materials in the adjacent liquid. As an example of an electrical property, pH change associated with an enzyme reaction leads to measurable perturbation in the wave-propagation characteristic. Taking advantage of this phenomenon we realized a SAW biosensor which consists of an immobilized urease membrane on the surface. Also, highly sensitive detection for the urea solution was obtained in our preliminary experiments.
Determination of particle size distributions from acoustic wave propagation measurements
Spelt, P.D.; Norato, M.A.; Sangani, A.S.; Tavlarides, L.L.
1999-05-01
The wave equations for the interior and exterior of the particles are ensemble averaged and combined with an analysis by Allegra and Hawley [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. {bold 51}, 1545 (1972)] for the interaction of a single particle with the incident wave to determine the phase speed and attenuation of sound waves propagating through dilute slurries. The theory is shown to compare very well with the measured attenuation. The inverse problem, i.e., the problem of determining the particle size distribution given the attenuation as a function of frequency, is examined using regularization techniques that have been successful for bubbly liquids. It is shown that, unlike the bubbly liquids, the success of solving the inverse problem is limited since it depends strongly on the nature of particles and the frequency range used in inverse calculations. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}
Attenuation of 7 GHz surface acoustic waves on silicon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Dongyao; Cahill, David G.
2016-09-01
We measured the attenuation of GHz frequency surface acoustic waves (SAWs) on the Si (001) surface using an optical pump-probe technique at temperatures between 300 and 600 K. SAWs are generated and detected by a 700 nm Al grating fabricated by nanoimprint lithography. The grating for SAW generation is separated from the grating for SAW detection by ≈150 μ m . The amplitude of SAWs is attenuated by coupling to bulk waves created by the Al grating, diffraction due to the finite size of the source, and the intrinsic relaxational Akhiezer damping of elastic waves in Si. Thermal phonon relaxation time and Grüneisen parameters are fitted using temperature-dependent measurement. The f Q product of a hypothetical micromechanical oscillator limited by Akhiezer damping at this frequency is ˜3 ×1013 Hz.
Nonextensive dust acoustic waves in a charge varying dusty plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bacha, Mustapha; Tribeche, Mouloud
2012-01-01
Our recent analysis on nonlinear nonextensive dust-acoustic waves (DA) [Amour and Tribeche in Phys. Plasmas 17:063702, 2010] is extended to include self-consistent nonadiabatic grain charge fluctuation. The appropriate nonextensive electron charging current is rederived based on the orbit-limited motion theory. Our results reveal that the amplitude, strength and nature of the nonlinear DA waves (solitons and shocks) are extremely sensitive to the degree of ion nonextensivity. Stronger is the electron correlation, more important is the charge variation induced nonlinear wave damping. The anomalous dissipation effects may prevail over that dispersion as the electrons evolve far away from their Maxwellian equilibrium. Our investigation may be of wide relevance to astronomers and space scientists working on interstellar dusty plasmas where nonthermal distributions are turning out to be a very common and characteristic feature.
Matrix basis for plane and modal waves in a Timoshenko beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Claeyssen, Julio Cesar Ruiz; Tolfo, Daniela de Rosso; Tonetto, Leticia
2016-11-01
Plane waves and modal waves of the Timoshenko beam model are characterized in closed form by introducing robust matrix basis that behave according to the nature of frequency and wave or modal numbers. These new characterizations are given in terms of a finite number of coupling matrices and closed form generating scalar functions. Through Liouville's technique, these latter are well behaved at critical or static situations. Eigenanalysis is formulated for exponential and modal waves. Modal waves are superposition of four plane waves, but there are plane waves that cannot be modal waves. Reflected and transmitted waves at an interface point are formulated in matrix terms, regardless of having a conservative or a dissipative situation. The matrix representation of modal waves is used in a crack problem for determining the reflected and transmitted matrices. Their euclidean norms are seen to be dominated by certain components at low and high frequencies. The matrix basis technique is also used with a non-local Timoshenko model and with the wave interaction with a boundary. The matrix basis allows to characterize reflected and transmitted waves in spectral and non-spectral form.
Matrix basis for plane and modal waves in a Timoshenko beam
Tolfo, Daniela de Rosso; Tonetto, Leticia
2016-01-01
Plane waves and modal waves of the Timoshenko beam model are characterized in closed form by introducing robust matrix basis that behave according to the nature of frequency and wave or modal numbers. These new characterizations are given in terms of a finite number of coupling matrices and closed form generating scalar functions. Through Liouville’s technique, these latter are well behaved at critical or static situations. Eigenanalysis is formulated for exponential and modal waves. Modal waves are superposition of four plane waves, but there are plane waves that cannot be modal waves. Reflected and transmitted waves at an interface point are formulated in matrix terms, regardless of having a conservative or a dissipative situation. The matrix representation of modal waves is used in a crack problem for determining the reflected and transmitted matrices. Their euclidean norms are seen to be dominated by certain components at low and high frequencies. The matrix basis technique is also used with a non-local Timoshenko model and with the wave interaction with a boundary. The matrix basis allows to characterize reflected and transmitted waves in spectral and non-spectral form. PMID:28018668
Matrix basis for plane and modal waves in a Timoshenko beam.
Claeyssen, Julio Cesar Ruiz; Tolfo, Daniela de Rosso; Tonetto, Leticia
2016-11-01
Plane waves and modal waves of the Timoshenko beam model are characterized in closed form by introducing robust matrix basis that behave according to the nature of frequency and wave or modal numbers. These new characterizations are given in terms of a finite number of coupling matrices and closed form generating scalar functions. Through Liouville's technique, these latter are well behaved at critical or static situations. Eigenanalysis is formulated for exponential and modal waves. Modal waves are superposition of four plane waves, but there are plane waves that cannot be modal waves. Reflected and transmitted waves at an interface point are formulated in matrix terms, regardless of having a conservative or a dissipative situation. The matrix representation of modal waves is used in a crack problem for determining the reflected and transmitted matrices. Their euclidean norms are seen to be dominated by certain components at low and high frequencies. The matrix basis technique is also used with a non-local Timoshenko model and with the wave interaction with a boundary. The matrix basis allows to characterize reflected and transmitted waves in spectral and non-spectral form.
Fraunhofer diffraction of the plane wave by a multilevel (quantized) spiral phase plate.
Kotlyar, Victor V; Kovalev, Alexey A
2008-01-15
We obtain an analytical expression in the form of a finite sum of plane waves that describes the paraxial scalar Fraunhofer diffraction of a limited plane wave by a multilevel (quantized) spiral phase plate (SPP) bounded by a polygonal aperture. For several topological charges of the SPP we numerically obtain the minimal number of SPP sectors for which the RMS between the Fraunhofer diffraction patterns for multilevel and continuous SPP does not exceed 2%.
On some features of plane waves of thermonuclear burn
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khishchenko, K. V.; Charakhch'yan, A. A.
2015-01-01
The behavior of a slow burn wave propagating over a precompressed thermonuclear fuel heated by several shock waves generated by a laser pulse is studied. It is shown that such a burn wave can rapidly increase the fuel density ahead of the wave front and transform to a pair of detonation waves moving in the opposite directions. Hydrodynamic equations with a linear velocity profile are solved. It is found that the proton beam intensity necessary for ignition increases with the initial fuel density in accordance with the known formula generalizing results of two-dimensional simulations. A possibility of using results of one-dimensional simulations for determining the energy of ignition of a cylindrical target is discussed.
Surface acoustic wave unidirectional transducers for quantum applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ekström, Maria K.; Aref, Thomas; Runeson, Johan; Björck, Johan; Boström, Isac; Delsing, Per
2017-02-01
The conversion efficiency of electric microwave signals into surface acoustic waves in different types of superconducting transducers is studied with the aim of quantum applications. We compare delay lines containing either conventional symmetric transducers (IDTs) or unidirectional transducers (UDTs) at 2.3 GHz and 10 mK. The UDT delay lines improve the insertion loss with 4.7 dB and a directivity of 22 dB is found for each UDT, indicating that 99.4% of the acoustic power goes in the desired direction. The power lost in the undesired direction accounts for more than 90% of the total loss in IDT delay lines, but only ˜3% of the total loss in the floating electrode unidirectional transducer delay lines.
Absorption of surface acoustic waves by topological insulator thin films
Li, L. L.; Xu, W.
2014-08-11
We present a theoretical study on the absorption of the surface acoustic waves (SAWs) by Dirac electrons in topological insulator (TI) thin films (TITFs). We find that due to momentum and energy conservation laws, the absorption of the SAWs in TITFs can only be achieved via intra-band electronic transitions. The strong absorption can be observed up to sub-terahertz frequencies. With increasing temperature, the absorption intensity increases significantly and the cut-off frequency is blue-shifted. More interestingly, we find that the absorption of the SAWs by the TITFs can be markedly enhanced by the tunable subgap in the Dirac energy spectrum of the TI surface states. Such a subgap is absent in conventional two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) and in the gapless Dirac 2DEG such as graphene. This study is pertinent to the exploration of the acoustic properties of TIs and to potential application of TIs as tunable SAW devices working at hypersonic frequencies.
Visualization of Surface Acoustic Waves in Thin Liquid Films
Rambach, R. W.; Taiber, J.; Scheck, C. M. L.; Meyer, C.; Reboud, J.; Cooper, J. M.; Franke, T.
2016-01-01
We demonstrate that the propagation path of a surface acoustic wave (SAW), excited with an interdigitated transducer (IDT), can be visualized using a thin liquid film dispensed onto a lithium niobate (LiNbO3) substrate. The practical advantages of this visualization method are its rapid and simple implementation, with many potential applications including in characterising acoustic pumping within microfluidic channels. It also enables low-cost characterisation of IDT designs thereby allowing the determination of anisotropy and orientation of the piezoelectric substrate without the requirement for sophisticated and expensive equipment. Here, we show that the optical visibility of the sound path critically depends on the physical properties of the liquid film and identify heptane and methanol as most contrast rich solvents for visualization of SAW. We also provide a detailed theoretical description of this effect. PMID:26917490
Absorption of surface acoustic waves by topological insulator thin films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, L. L.; Xu, W.
2014-08-01
We present a theoretical study on the absorption of the surface acoustic waves (SAWs) by Dirac electrons in topological insulator (TI) thin films (TITFs). We find that due to momentum and energy conservation laws, the absorption of the SAWs in TITFs can only be achieved via intra-band electronic transitions. The strong absorption can be observed up to sub-terahertz frequencies. With increasing temperature, the absorption intensity increases significantly and the cut-off frequency is blue-shifted. More interestingly, we find that the absorption of the SAWs by the TITFs can be markedly enhanced by the tunable subgap in the Dirac energy spectrum of the TI surface states. Such a subgap is absent in conventional two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) and in the gapless Dirac 2DEG such as graphene. This study is pertinent to the exploration of the acoustic properties of TIs and to potential application of TIs as tunable SAW devices working at hypersonic frequencies.
System and method for sonic wave measurements using an acoustic beam source
Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian
2015-08-11
A method and system for investigating structure near a borehole are described herein. The method includes generating an acoustic beam by an acoustic source; directing at one or more azimuthal angles the acoustic beam towards a selected location in a vicinity of a borehole; receiving at one or more receivers an acoustic signal, the acoustic signal originating from a reflection or a refraction of the acoustic wave by a material at the selected location; and analyzing the received acoustic signal to characterize features of the material around the borehole.
Chang, Mei-Chu; Tsai, Ya-Yi; I, Lin
2013-08-15
We experimentally demonstrate the direct observation of defect mediated wave turbulence with fluctuating defects and low amplitude hole filaments, from a 3D self-excited plane dust acoustic wave in a dusty plasma by reducing dissipation. The waveform undulation is found to be the origin for the amplitude and the phase modulations of the local dust density oscillation, the broadening of the sharp peaks in the frequency spectrum, and the fluctuating defects. The corrugated wave crest surface also causes the observed high and low density patches in the transverse (xy) plane. Low oscillation amplitude spots (holes) share the same positions with the defects. Their trajectories in the xyt space appear in the form of chaotic filaments without long term predictability, through uncertain pair generation, propagation, and pair annihilation.
Molding acoustic, electromagnetic and water waves with a single cloak
Xu, Jun; Jiang, Xu; Fang, Nicholas; Georget, Elodie; Abdeddaim, Redha; Geffrin, Jean-Michel; Farhat, Mohamed; Sabouroux, Pierre; Enoch, Stefan; Guenneau, Sébastien
2015-01-01
We describe two experiments demonstrating that a cylindrical cloak formerly introduced for linear surface liquid waves works equally well for sound and electromagnetic waves. This structured cloak behaves like an acoustic cloak with an effective anisotropic density and an electromagnetic cloak with an effective anisotropic permittivity, respectively. Measured forward scattering for pressure and magnetic fields are in good agreement and provide first evidence of broadband cloaking. Microwave experiments and 3D electromagnetic wave simulations further confirm reduced forward and backscattering when a rectangular metallic obstacle is surrounded by the structured cloak for cloaking frequencies between 2.6 and 7.0 GHz. This suggests, as supported by 2D finite element simulations, sound waves are cloaked between 3 and 8 KHz and linear surface liquid waves between 5 and 16 Hz. Moreover, microwave experiments show the field is reduced by 10 to 30 dB inside the invisibility region, which suggests the multi-wave cloak could be used as a protection against water, sonic or microwaves. PMID:26057934
Evaluation of the resolution of a metamaterial acoustic leaky wave antenna.
Naify, Christina J; Rogers, Jeffery S; Guild, Matthew D; Rohde, Charles A; Orris, Gregory J
2016-06-01
Acoustic antennas have long been utilized to directionally steer acoustic waves in both air and water. Typically, these antennas are comprised of arrays of active acoustic elements, which are electronically phased to steer the acoustic profile in the desired direction. A new technology, known as an acoustic leaky wave antenna (LWA), has recently been shown to achieve directional steering of acoustic waves using a single active transducer coupled to a transmission line passive aperture. The LWA steers acoustic energy by preferential coupling to an input frequency and can be designed to steer from backfire to endfire, including broadside. This paper provides an analysis of resolution as a function of both input frequency and antenna length. Additionally, the resolution is compared to that achieved using an array of active acoustic elements.
The Effects of Internal Waves on Acoustic Normal Modes.
1984-12-01
of eigenrays . Now turn on the fluctuations. In the unsaturated region, - each of these equilibrium rays is still dominant although each of these rays...in the horizontal plane -- but nonstationary in depth so that homogeneity cannot be invoked to reduce the dimensionality of the problems. Also, the...wave number space. Here, a difficulty arises in describing the spectrum since the medium is not depth homogeneous . Nevertheless, the quantity can be
Numerical and experimental study of Lamb wave propagation in a two-dimensional acoustic black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Shiling; Lomonosov, Alexey M.; Shen, Zhonghua
2016-06-01
The propagation of laser-generated Lamb waves in a two-dimensional acoustic black-hole structure was studied numerically and experimentally. The geometrical acoustic theory has been applied to calculate the beam trajectories in the region of the acoustic black hole. The finite element method was also used to study the time evolution of propagating waves. An optical system based on the laser-Doppler vibration method was assembled. The effect of the focusing wave and the reduction in wave speed of the acoustic black hole has been validated.
Mass sensitivity of layered shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave devices for sensing applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh; Trinchi, Adrian; Wlodarski, Wojtek; Holland, Anthony; Galatsis, Kosmas
2001-11-01
Layered Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices that allow the propagation of Love mode acoustic waves will be studied in this paper. In these devices, the substrate allows the propagation of Surface Skimming Bulks Waves (SSBWs). By depositing layers, that the speed of Shear Horizontal (SH) acoustic wave propagation is less than that of the substrate, the propagation mode transforms to Love mode. Love mode devices which will be studied in this paper, have SiO2 and ZnO acoustic guiding layers. As Love mode of propagation has no movement of particles component normal to the active sensor surface, they can be employed for the sensing applications in the liquid media.
Experimental quiescent drifting dusty plasmas and temporal dust acoustic wave growth
Heinrich, J. R.; Kim, S.-H.; Meyer, J. K.; Merlino, R. L.
2011-11-15
We report on dust acoustic wave growth rate measurements taken in a dc (anode glow) discharge plasma device. By introducing a mesh with a variable bias 12-17 cm from the anode, we developed a technique to produce a drifting dusty plasma. A secondary dust cloud, free of dust acoustic waves, was trapped adjacent to the anode side of the mesh. When the mesh was returned to its floating potential, the secondary cloud was released and streamed towards the anode and primary dust cloud, spontaneously exciting dust acoustic waves. The amplitude growth of the excited dust acoustic waves was measured directly along with the wavelength and Doppler shifted frequency. These measurements were compared to fluid and kinetic dust acoustic wave theories. As the wave growth saturated a transition from linear to nonlinear waves was observed. The merging of the secondary and primary dust clouds was also observed.
The evaluation and control of acoustical standing waves1
Krasnegor, Norman A.; Hodos, William
1974-01-01
Calibration of a standard pigeon box subsequently modified for use as an acoustical chamber in a frequency discrimination experiment revealed that the enclosure was not acoustically “flat”. Standing waves were detected at each of the six frequencies measured. To ascertain whether the maximum standing waves recorded (3.0 dB) could serve as an added or alternative cue for pigeons tested in the chamber on a frequency discrimination problem, pure-tone intensity difference thresholds were determined for two pigeons at 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 KHz. The results of the experiment indicated that the smallest intensity difference detectable was 10.0 dB, a value that was 7.0 dB above the maximum standing wave measured in the box. These data suggest that the modified pigeon chamber is suitable to test pure-tone frequency discriminations in pigeons in the range of 1.0 to 3.0 KHz. PMID:16811783
High frequency acoustic wave scattering from turbulent premixed flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narra, Venkateswarlu
This thesis describes an experimental investigation of high frequency acoustic wave scattering from turbulent premixed flames. The objective of this work was to characterize the scattered incoherent acoustic field and determine its parametric dependence on frequency, flame brush thickness, incident and measurement angles, mean velocity and flame speed. The experimental facility consists of a slot burner with a flat flame sheet that is approximately 15 cm wide and 12 cm tall. The baseline cold flow characteristics and flame sheet statistics were extensively characterized. Studies were performed over a wide range of frequencies (1-24 kHz) in order to characterize the role of the incident acoustic wave length. The spectrum of the scattered acoustic field showed distinct incoherent spectral sidebands on either side of the driving frequency. The scattered incoherent field was characterized in terms of the incoherent field strength and spectral bandwidth and related to the theoretical predictions. The role of the flame front wrinkling scale, i.e., flame brush thickness, was also studied. Flame brush thickness was varied independent of the mean velocity and flame speed by using a variable turbulence generator. Results are reported for five flame brush thickness cases, ranging from 1.2 mm to 5.2 mm. Some dependence of scattered field characteristics on flame brush thickness was observed, but the magnitude of the effect was much smaller than expected from theoretical considerations. The spatial dependence of the scattered field was investigated by measuring the scattered field at four measurement angles and exciting the flame at four incident angles. Theory predicts that these variations influence the spatial scale of the acoustic wave normal to the flame, a result confirmed by the measurements. Measurements were performed for multiple combinations of mean velocities and flame speeds. The scattered field was observed to depend strongly on the flame speed. Further analysis
Dust-acoustic waves modulational instability and rogue waves in a polarized dusty plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouzit, Omar; Tribeche, Mouloud
2015-10-01
The polarization force-induced changes in the dust-acoustic waves (DAWs) modulational instability (MI) are examined. Using the reductive perturbation method, the nonlinear Schrödinger equation that governs the MI of the DAWs is obtained. It is found that the effect of the polarization term R is to narrow the wave number domain for the onset of instability. The amplitude of the wave envelope decreases as R increases, meaning that the polarization force effects render weaker the associated DA rogue waves. The latter may therefore completely damp in the vicinity of R ˜ 1, i.e., as the polarization force becomes close to the electrostatic one (the net force acting on the dust particles becomes vanishingly small). The DA rogue wave profile is very sensitive to any change in the restoring force acting on the dust particles. It turns out that the polarization effects may completely smear out the DA rogue waves.
Dust-acoustic waves modulational instability and rogue waves in a polarized dusty plasma
Bouzit, Omar; Tribeche, Mouloud
2015-10-15
The polarization force-induced changes in the dust-acoustic waves (DAWs) modulational instability (MI) are examined. Using the reductive perturbation method, the nonlinear Schrödinger equation that governs the MI of the DAWs is obtained. It is found that the effect of the polarization term R is to narrow the wave number domain for the onset of instability. The amplitude of the wave envelope decreases as R increases, meaning that the polarization force effects render weaker the associated DA rogue waves. The latter may therefore completely damp in the vicinity of R ∼ 1, i.e., as the polarization force becomes close to the electrostatic one (the net force acting on the dust particles becomes vanishingly small). The DA rogue wave profile is very sensitive to any change in the restoring force acting on the dust particles. It turns out that the polarization effects may completely smear out the DA rogue waves.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herbold, G.; Ulmschneider, P.; Spruit, H. C.; Rosner, R.
1985-01-01
For solar magnetic flux tubes three types of waves are compared: longitudinal MHD tube waves, acoustic tube waves propagating in the same tube geometry but with rigid walls and ordinary acoustic waves in plane geometry. It is found that the effect of the distensibility of the tube is small and that longitudinal waves are essentially acoustic tube waves. Due to the tube geometry there is considerable difference between longitudinal waves or acoustic tube waves and ordinary acoustic waves. Longitudinal waves as well as acoustic tube waves show a smaller amplitude growth, larger shock formation heights, smaller mean chromospheric temperature but a steeper dependence of the temperature gradient on wave period.
Structural configuration study for an acoustic wave sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Biaobiao
A continuous structure has several response characteristics that make it a candidate for a sensor used to locate an acoustic source. Primary goals in developing such a sensor structure are to ensure that the response is rich enough to provide information about the impinging acoustic wave and to detect the direction of travel without being too sensitive to background noise. As such, there are several factors that must be examined with regard to sensor configuration and measurement requirements. This dissertation describes a set of studies that examine various configuration requirements for such a sensor. Some of the parameters of interest include the size, or aperture of the structure, boundary conditions, material properties, and thickness. The response of the structure to transient sinusoidal wave excitations will be examined analytically. The time-domain response of an Euler-Bernoulli beam excited by a traveling sinusoidal excitation is obtained based on modal superposition and verified by using a finite element method. Then, an approach using simple basis functions will be applied to achieve the goal of more efficient response and force identification. The moving force is identified in the time domain by extending previous inverse approaches. The Tikhonov regularization technique provides bounds to the ill-conditioned results in the identification problem. Both simulated displacement and velocity are considered for use in the inverse. To evaluate the method and examine various configurations, simulations with different numbers of sinusoidal half-cycles exciting the sensor structure are studied. Various levels of random noise are also added to the simulated displacements and velocities responses in order to study the effect of noise in moving wave load identification. Such a new approach in acoustic sensing has applications in the areas of security and disaster recovery.
Semiconductor Characterization with Acoustic and Thermal waves on Picosecond Timescales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wright, Oliver B.
1997-03-01
Ultrafast optical techniques for semiconductor characterization can probe the dynamics of photoexcited carriers, leading to applications in, for example, in-line monitoring of semiconductor processing and optimization of materials for sub-picosecond electronic switches or for nanoscale electronic devices.(Semiconductors Probed by Ultrafast Laser Spectroscopy, edited by R. R. Alfano (Academic, New York, 1984).) Picosecond or femtosecond optical pulses excite electrons to higher electronic bands, producing a nonequilibrium electron-hole distribution. Various physical effects result from the relaxation of this distribution. Luminescence or photoelectron emission are examples. In the present study the focus is on acoustic and thermal effects. The change in electron and hole occupation probabilities induces an electronic stress distributed throughout the carrier penetration depth. A temperature change of the lattice and an associated thermal stress are also produced. The combined stress distribution launches a strain pulse that propagates into the sample as a longitudinally polarized acoustic wave in the present experiments. Its reflection from sub-surface boundaries, interfaces or defects can be detected at the surface by another, weaker optical probe pulse. During this time the temperature distribution in the semiconductor also changes due to thermal wave propagation,(Photoacoustic and Thermal Wave Phenomena in Semiconductors, edited by Andreas Mandelis (North Holland, New York, 1987).) and this simultaneously influences the optical probe pulse. Both reflectance modulation and beam deflection methods for probing were used to investigate crystalline and amorphous silicon samples.(O. B. Wright, U. Zammit, M. Marinelli, and V. Gusev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 553 (1996).) (O. B. Wright and V. E. Gusev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1190 (1995).) (O. B. Wright and K. Kawashima, Phonon Scattering in Condensed Matter VII, edited by R. O. Pohl and M. Meissner, Springer Verlag, Berlin
An analysis of beam parameters on proton-acoustic waves through an analytic approach.
Aytac Kipergil, Esra; Erkol, Hakan; Kaya, Serhat; Gulsen, Gultekin; Unlu, Mehmet
2017-03-02
It has been reported that acoustic waves are generated when a high energy pulsed proton beam is deposited in a small volume within tissue. One possible application of the proton induced acoustics is to get a real-time feedback for intratreatment adjustments by monitoring such acoustic waves. High spatial resolution in ultrasound imaging may reduce proton range uncertainty. Thus, it is crucial to understand the dependence of the acoustic waves on the proton beam characteristics. In this manuscript, firstly, an analytic solution to the proton induced acoustic wave is presented to reveal the dependence of signal on beam parameters, and then combined with an analytic approximation of the Bragg curve. The influence of the beam energy, pulse duration, and beam diameter variation on the acoustic waveform are investigated. Further analysis is performed regarding the Fourier decomposition of proton-acoustic signals. Our results show that smaller spill time of proton beam upsurges the amplitude of acoustic wave for constant number of protons, and hence beneficial for dose monitoring. The increase in the energy of each individual proton in the beam leads to spatial broadening of the Bragg curve, which also yields acoustic waves of greater amplitude. The pulse duration and the beam width of the proton beam do not affect the central frequency of the acoustic wave, but they change the amplitude of the spectral components.
Nonlinear Cylindrical Waves on a Plane Plasma Surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gradov, O. M.
2004-01-01
By means of the cold electron plasma equations, it is shown that surface soliton solutions can exist in the azimuthally symmetric case at the boundary of semi-infinite plasmas for both standing and running waves.
Multi-resonance tunneling of acoustic waves in two-dimensional locally-resonant phononic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Aichao; He, Wei; Zhang, Jitao; Zhu, Liang; Yu, Lingang; Ma, Jian; Zou, Yang; Li, Min; Wu, Yu
2017-03-01
Multi-resonance tunneling of acoustic waves through a two-dimensional phononic crystal (PC) is demonstrated by substituting dual Helmholtz resonators (DHRs) for acoustically-rigid scatterers in the PC. Due to the coupling of the incident waves with the acoustic multi-resonance modes of the DHRs, acoustic waves can tunnel through the PC at specific frequencies which lie inside the band gaps of the PC. This wave tunneling transmission can be further broadened by using the multilayer Helmholtz resonators. Thus, a PC consisting of an array of dual/multilayer Helmholtz resonators can serve as an acoustic band-pass filter, used to pick out acoustic waves with certain frequencies from noise.
GPS-Acoustic Seafloor Geodesy using a Wave Glider
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chadwell, C. D.
2013-12-01
The conventional approach to implement the GPS-Acoustic technique uses a ship or buoy for the interface between GPS and Acoustics. The high cost and limited availability of ships restricts occupations to infrequent campaign-style measurements. A new approach to address this problem uses a remote controlled, wave-powered sea surface vehicle, the Wave Glider. The Wave Glider uses sea-surface wave action for forward propulsion with both upward and downward motions producing forward thrust. It uses solar energy for power with solar panels charging the onboard 660 W-h battery for near continuous operation. It uses Iridium for communication providing command and control from shore plus status and user data via the satellite link. Given both the sea-surface wave action and solar energy are renewable, the vehicle can operate for extended periods (months) remotely. The vehicle can be launched from a small boat and can travel at ~ 1 kt to locations offshore. We have adapted a Wave Glider for seafloor geodesy by adding a dual frequency GPS receiver embedded in an Inertial Navigation Unit, a second GPS antenna/receiver to align the INU, and a high precision acoustic ranging system. We will report results of initial testing of the system conducted at SIO. In 2014, the new approach will be used for seafloor geodetic measurements of plate motion in the Cascadia Subduction Zone. The project is for a three-year effort to measure plate motion at three sites along an East-West profile at latitude 44.6 N, offshore Newport Oregon. One site will be located on the incoming plate to measure the present day convergence between the Juan de Fuca and North American plates and two additional sites will be located on the continental slope of NA to measure the elastic deformation due to stick-slip behavior on the mega-thrust fault. These new seafloor data will constrain existing models of slip behavior that presently are poorly constrained by land geodetic data 100 km from the deformation front.
Response of a Doppler canceling system to plane gravitational waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Caporali, A.
1982-01-01
This paper discusses the interaction of long periodic gravitational waves with a three-link microwave system known as the Doppler canceling system. This system, which was developed for a gravitational red-shift experiment, uses one-way and two-way Doppler information to construct the beat signal of two reference oscillators moving with respect to each other. The geometric-optics approximation is used to derive the frequency shift produced on a light signal propagating in a gravitational-wave space-time. The signature left on the Doppler-cancelled beat by bursts and continuous gravitational waves is analyzed. A comparison is made between the response to gravitational waves of the Doppler canceling system and that of a (NASA) Doppler tracking system which employs two-way, round-trip radio waves. A threefold repetition of the gravitational wave form is found to be a common feature of the response functions of both systems. These two functions otherwise exhibit interesting differences.
Modeling of a Surface Acoustic Wave Strain Sensor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, W. C.; Atkinson, Gary M.
2010-01-01
NASA Langley Research Center is investigating Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensor technology for harsh environments aimed at aerospace applications. To aid in development of sensors a model of a SAW strain sensor has been developed. The new model extends the modified matrix method to include the response of Orthogonal Frequency Coded (OFC) reflectors and the response of SAW devices to strain. These results show that the model accurately captures the strain response of a SAW sensor on a Langasite substrate. The results of the model of a SAW Strain Sensor on Langasite are presented
The study of surface acoustic wave charge transfer device
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Papanicolaou, N.; Lin, H. C.
1978-01-01
A surface acoustic wave-charge transfer device, consisting of an n-type silicon substrate, a thermally grown silicon dioxide layer, and a sputtered film of piezoelectric zinc oxide is proposed as a means of circumventing problems associated with charge-coupled device (CCD) applications in memory, signal processing, and imaging. The proposed device creates traveling longitudinal electric fields in the silicon and replaces the multiphase clocks in CCD's. The traveling electric fields create potential wells which carry along charges stored there. These charges may be injected into the wells by light or by using a p-n junction as in conventional CCD's.
R&D 100 Winner 2010: Acoustic Wave Biosensors
Larson, Richard; Branch, Darren; Edwards, Thayne
2016-07-12
The acoustic wave biosensor is innovative device that is a handheld, battery-powered, portable detection system capable of multiplex identification of a wide range of medically relevant pathogens and their biomolecular signatures â viruses, bacteria, proteins, and DNA â at clinically relevant levels. This detection occurs within minutes â not hours â at the point of care, whether that care is in a physician's office, a hospital bed, or at the scene of a biodefense or biomedical emergency.
Dual output acoustic wave sensor for molecular identification
Frye, Gregory C.; Martin, Stephen J.
1991-01-01
A method of identification and quantification of absorbed chemical species by measuring changes in both the velocity and the attenuation of an acoustic wave traveling through a thin film into which the chemical species is sorbed. The dual output response provides two independent sensor responses from a single sensing device thereby providing twice as much information as a single output sensor. This dual output technique and analysis allows a single sensor to provide both the concentration and the identity of a chemical species or permits the number of sensors required for mixtures to be reduced by a factor of two.
Surface Acoustic Wave Microwave Oscillator and Frequency Synthesizer.
1980-06-01
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The integrated extinction for broadband scattering of acoustic waves.
Sohl, Christian; Gustafsson, Mats; Kristensson, Gerhard
2007-12-01
In this paper, physical bounds on scattering of acoustic waves over a frequency interval are discussed based on the holomorphic properties of the scattering amplitude in the forward direction. The result is given by a dispersion relation for the extinction cross section which yields an upper bound on the product of the extinction cross section and the associated bandwidth of any frequency interval. The upper bound is shown to depend only on the geometry and the material properties of the scatterer in the static or low-frequency limit. The results are exemplified by permeable and impermeable scatterers with homogeneous and isotropic material properties.
Surface acoustic wave vapor sensors based on resonator devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grate, Jay W.; Klusty, Mark
1991-05-01
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices fabricated in the resonator configuration have been used as organic vapor sensors and compared with delay line devices more commonly used. The experimentally determined mass sensitivities of 200, 300, and 400 MHz resonators and 158 MHz delay lines coated with Langmuir-Blodgett films of poly(vinyl tetradecanal) are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. The response of LB- and spray-coated sensors to various organic vapors were determined, and scaling laws for mass sensitivities, vapor sensitivities, and detection limits are discussed. The 200 MHz resonators provide the lowest noise levels and detection limits of all the devices examined.
Surface acoustic wave devices including Langmuir-Blodgett films (Review)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plesskii, V. P.
1991-06-01
Recent theoretical and experimental research related to the use of Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films in surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices is reviewed. The sensitivity of the different cuts of quartz and lithium niobate to inertial loading is investigated, and it is shown that some cuts in lithium niobate are twice as sensitive to mass loading than the commonly used YZ-cut. The large variety of organic compounds suitable for the production of LB films makes it possible to create SAW sensors reacting selectively to certain substances. The existing SAW sensors based on LB films are characterized by high sensitivity and fast response.
Numerical investigation of diffraction of acoustic waves by phononic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moiseyenko, Rayisa P.; Declercq, Nico F.; Laude, Vincent
2012-05-01
Diffraction as well as transmission of acoustic waves by two-dimensional phononic crystals (PCs) composed of steel rods in water are investigated in this paper. The finite element simulations were performed in order to compute pressure fields generated by a line source that are incident on a finite size PC. Such field maps are analyzed based on the complex band structure for the infinite periodic PC. Finite size computations indicate that the exponential decrease of the transmission at deaf frequencies is much stronger than that in Bragg band gaps.
Torrent, Daniel; Sánchez-Dehesa, José
2009-08-07
We demonstrate that metamaterials with anisotropic properties can be used to develop a new class of periodic structures that has been named radial wave crystals. They can be sonic or photonic, and wave propagation along the radial directions is obtained through Bloch states like in usual sonic or photonic crystals. The band structure of the proposed structures can be tailored in a large amount to get exciting novel wave phenomena. For example, it is shown that acoustical cavities based on radial sonic crystals can be employed as passive devices for beam forming or dynamically orientated antennas for sound localization.
Sensing the characteristic acoustic impedance of a fluid utilizing acoustic pressure waves
Antlinger, Hannes; Clara, Stefan; Beigelbeck, Roman; Cerimovic, Samir; Keplinger, Franz; Jakoby, Bernhard
2012-01-01
Ultrasonic sensors can be used to determine physical fluid parameters like viscosity, density, and speed of sound. In this contribution, we present the concept for an integrated sensor utilizing pressure waves to sense the characteristic acoustic impedance of a fluid. We note that the basic setup generally allows to determine the longitudinal viscosity and the speed of sound if it is operated in a resonant mode as will be discussed elsewhere. In this contribution, we particularly focus on a modified setup where interferences are suppressed by introducing a wedge reflector. This enables sensing of the liquid's characteristic acoustic impedance, which can serve as parameter in condition monitoring applications. We present a device model, experimental results and their evaluation. PMID:23565036
McCollom, Brittany A; Collis, Jon M
2014-09-01
A normal mode solution to the ocean acoustic problem of the Pekeris waveguide with an elastic bottom using a Green's function formulation for a compressional wave point source is considered. Analytic solutions to these types of waveguide propagation problems are strongly dependent on the eigenvalues of the problem; these eigenvalues represent horizontal wavenumbers, corresponding to propagating modes of energy. The eigenvalues arise as singularities in the inverse Hankel transform integral and are specified by roots to a characteristic equation. These roots manifest themselves as poles in the inverse transform integral and can be both subtle and difficult to determine. Following methods previously developed [S. Ivansson et al., J. Sound Vib. 161 (1993)], a root finding routine has been implemented using the argument principle. Using the roots to the characteristic equation in the Green's function formulation, full-field solutions are calculated for scenarios where an acoustic source lies in either the water column or elastic half space. Solutions are benchmarked against laboratory data and existing numerical solutions.
Solar wind implication on dust ion acoustic rogue waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdelghany, A. M.; Abd El-Razek, H. N.; Moslem, W. M.; El-Labany, S. K.
2016-06-01
The relevance of the solar wind with the magnetosphere of Jupiter that contains positively charged dust grains is investigated. The perturbation/excitation caused by streaming ions and electron beams from the solar wind could form different nonlinear structures such as rogue waves, depending on the dominant role of the plasma parameters. Using the reductive perturbation method, the basic set of fluid equations is reduced to modified Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and further modified (KdV) equation. Assuming that the frequency of the carrier wave is much smaller than the ion plasma frequency, these equations are transformed into nonlinear Schrödinger equations with appropriate coefficients. Rational solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation shows that rogue wave envelopes are supported by the present plasma model. It is found that the existence region of rogue waves depends on the dust-acoustic speed and the streaming temperatures for both the ions and electrons. The dependence of the maximum rogue wave envelope amplitude on the system parameters has been investigated.
Selective generation of ultrasonic Lamb waves by electromagnetic acoustic transducers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ming-Liang; Deng, Ming-Xi; Gao, Guang-Jian
2016-12-01
In this paper, we describe a modal expansion approach for the analysis of the selective generation of ultrasonic Lamb waves by electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs). With the modal expansion approach for waveguide excitation, an analytical expression of the Lamb wave’s mode expansion coefficient is deduced, which is related to the driving frequency and the geometrical parameters of the EMAT’s meander coil, and lays a theoretical foundation for exactly analyzing the selective generation of Lamb waves with EMATs. The influences of the driving frequency on the mode expansion coefficient of ultrasonic Lamb waves are analyzed when the EMAT’s geometrical parameters are given. The numerical simulations and experimental examinations show that the ultrasonic Lamb wave modes can be effectively regulated (strengthened or restrained) by choosing an appropriate driving frequency of EMAT, with the geometrical parameters given. This result provides a theoretical and experimental basis for selectively generating a single and pure Lamb wave mode with EMATs. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474361 and 11274388).
Nonlinear Electron Acoustic Waves in Dissipative Plasma with Superthermal Electrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El-Hanbaly, A. M.; El-Shewy, E. K.; Kassem, A. I.; Darweesh, H. F.
2016-01-01
The nonlinear properties of small amplitude electron-acoustic ( EA) solitary and shock waves in a homogeneous system of unmagnetized collisionless plasma consisted of a cold electron fluid and superthermal hot electrons obeying superthermal distribution, and stationary ions have been investigated. A reductive perturbation method was employed to obtain the Kadomstev-Petviashvili-Burgers (KP-Brugers) equation. Some solutions of physical interest are obtained. These solutions are related to soliton, monotonic and oscillatory shock waves and their behaviour are shown graphically. The formation of these solutions depends crucially on the value of the Burgers term and the plasma parameters as well. By using the tangent hyperbolic (tanh) method, another interesting type of solution which is a combination between shock and soliton waves is obtained. The topology of phase portrait and potential diagram of the KP-Brugers equation is investigated.The advantage of using this method is that one can predict different classes of the travelling wave solutions according to different phase orbits. The obtained results may be helpful in better understanding of waves propagation in various space plasma environments as well as in inertial confinement fusion laboratory plasmas.
An Exact Solution for Geophysical Edge Waves in the {β}-Plane Approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ionescu-Kruse, Delia
2015-12-01
By taking into account the {β}-plane effects, we provide an exact nonlinear solution to the geophysical edge-wave problem within the Lagrangian framework. This solution describes trapped waves propagating eastward or westward along a sloping beach with the shoreline parallel to the Equator.
The Relativistic Transformation for an Electromagnetic Plane Wave with General Time Dependence
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, Glenn S.
2012-01-01
In special relativity, the transformation between inertial frames for an electromagnetic plane wave is usually derived for the time-harmonic case (the field is a sinusoid of infinite duration), even though all practical waves are of finite duration and may not even contain a dominant sinusoid. This paper presents an alternative derivation in which…
Travelling wave modes of a plane layered anelastic earth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Odom, Robert I.
2016-08-01
Incorporation of attenuation into the normal mode sum representations of seismic signals is commonly effected by applying perturbation theory. This is fine for weak attenuation, but problematic for stronger attenuation. In this work, modes of the anelastic medium are represented as complex superpositions of elastic eigenfunctions. For the P-SV system, a generalized eigenvalue equation for the complex eigenwavenumbers and complex coefficients used to construct the anelastic eigenfunctions is derived. The generalized eigenvalue problem for the P-SV problem is exactly linear in the eigenwavenumber at the expense of doubling the dimension. The SH problem is exactly linear in the square of the eigenwavenumber. This is in contrast to a similar standing wave problem for the earth free oscillations. Attenuation is commonly incorporated into synthetic seismogram calculations by introduction of complex frequency-dependent elastic moduli. The moduli depend nonlinearly on the frequency. The independent variable in the standing wave free oscillation problem is the frequency, which makes the eigenvalue problem nonlinear. The choice of the wavenumber as the independent variable for the travelling wave problem leads to a linear problem. The Earth model may be transversely isotropic. Compressional waves and both polarizations of shear waves (SV, SH) are treated.
Precise rainbow trapping for low-frequency acoustic waves with micro Mie resonance-based structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Chen; Yuan, Baoguo; Cheng, Ying; Liu, Xiaojun
2016-02-01
We have realized the acoustic rainbow trapping in the low frequency region (200-500 Hz) through micro Mie resonance-based structures. The structure has eight channels with a high refractive index obtained by coiling space, that can excite strong interactions with incident waves and support various orders of multipoles due to the Mie resonances of the microstructure. By utilizing the structure, the precise spatial modulation of the acoustic wave is demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally. The effect of trapping broadband acoustic waves and spatially separating different frequency components are ascribed to the monopolar Mie resonances of the structures. The trapping frequency is derived and the trapping positions can be tuned arbitrarily. With enhanced wave-structure interactions and tailored frequency responses, such micro structures show precise spectral-spatial control of acoustic waves and open a diverse venue for high performance acoustic wave detection, sensing, filtering, and a nondestructive test.
Arbitrary electron acoustic waves in degenerate dense plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahman, Ata-ur; Mushtaq, A.; Qamar, A.; Neelam, S.
2016-12-01
A theoretical investigation is carried out of the nonlinear dynamics of electron-acoustic waves in a collisionless and unmagnetized plasma whose constituents are non-degenerate cold electrons, ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons, and stationary ions. A dispersion relation is derived for linear EAWs. An energy integral equation involving the Sagdeev potential is derived, and basic properties of the large amplitude solitary structures are investigated in such a degenerate dense plasma. It is shown that only negative large amplitude EA solitary waves can exist in such a plasma system. The present analysis may be important to understand the collective interactions in degenerate dense plasmas, occurring in dense astrophysical environments as well as in laser-solid density plasma interaction experiments.
Weakly dissipative dust-ion acoustic wave modulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alinejad, H.; Mahdavi, M.; Shahmansouri, M.
2016-02-01
The modulational instability of dust-ion acoustic (DIA) waves in an unmagnetized dusty plasma is investigated in the presence of weak dissipations arising due to the low rates (compared to the ion oscillation frequency) of ionization recombination and ion loss. Based on the multiple space and time scales perturbation, a new modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation governing the evolution of modulated DIA waves is derived with a linear damping term. It is shown that the combined action of all dissipative mechanisms due to collisions between particles reveals the permitted maximum time for the occurrence of the modulational instability. The influence on the modulational instability regions of relevant physical parameters such as ion temperature, dust concentration, ionization, recombination and ion loss is numerically examined. It is also found that the recombination frequency controls the instability growth rate, whereas recombination and ion loss make the instability regions wider.
Anomalous refraction of guided waves via embedded acoustic metasurfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Hongfei; Semperlotti, Fabio
2016-04-01
We illustrate the design of acoustic metasurfaces based on geometric tapers and embedded in thin-plate structures. The metasurface is an engineered discontinuity that enables anomalous refraction of guided wave modes according to the Generalized Snell's Law. Locally-resonant geometric torus-like tapers are designed in order to achieve metasurfaces having discrete phase-shift profiles that enable a high level of control of refraction of the wavefronts. Results of numerical simulations show that anomalous refraction can be achieved on transmitted anti-symmetric modes (A0) either when using a symmetric (S0) or anti-symmetric (A0) incident wave, where the former case clearly involves mode conversion mechanisms.
Surface Acoustic Wave Vibration Sensors for Measuring Aircraft Flutter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, William C.; Moore, Jason P.; Juarez, Peter D.
2016-01-01
Under NASA's Advanced Air Vehicles Program the Advanced Air Transport Technology (AATT) Project is investigating flutter effects on aeroelastic wings. To support that work a new method for measuring vibrations due to flutter has been developed. The method employs low power Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors. To demonstrate the ability of the SAW sensor to detect flutter vibrations the sensors were attached to a Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite panel which was vibrated at six frequencies from 1Hz to 50Hz. The SAW data was compared to accelerometer data and was found to resemble sine waves and match each other closely. The SAW module design and results from the tests are presented here.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Golubev, Vladimir; Mankbadi, Reda R.; Dahl, Milo D.; Kiraly, L. James (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This paper provides preliminary results of the study of the acoustic radiation from the source model representing spatially-growing instability waves in a round jet at high speeds. The source model is briefly discussed first followed by the analysis of the produced acoustic directivity pattern. Two integral surface techniques are discussed and compared for prediction of the jet acoustic radiation field.
Acoustic wave filter based on periodically poled lithium niobate.
Courjon, Emilie; Bassignot, Florent; Ulliac, Gwenn; Benchabane, Sarah; Ballandras, Sylvain
2012-09-01
Solutions for the development of compact RF passive transducers as an alternative to standard surface or bulk acoustic wave devices are receiving increasing interest. This article presents results on the development of an acoustic band-pass filter based on periodically poled ferroelectric domains in lithium niobate. The fabrication of periodically poled transducers (PPTs) operating in the range of 20 to 650 MHz has been achieved on 3-in (76.2-mm) 500-μm-thick wafers. This kind of transducer is able to excite elliptical as well as longitudinal modes, yielding phase velocities of about 3800 and 6500 ms(-1), respectively. A new type of acoustic band-pass filter is proposed, based on the use of PPTs instead of the SAWs excited by classical interdigital transducers. The design and the fabrication of such a filter are presented, as well as experimental measurements of its electrical response and transfer function. The feasibility of such a PPT-based filter is thereby demonstrated and the limitations of this method are discussed.
Reducing extrinsic damping of surface acoustic waves at gigahertz frequencies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gelda, Dhruv; Sadhu, Jyothi; Ghossoub, Marc G.; Ertekin, Elif; Sinha, Sanjiv
2016-04-01
High-frequency surface acoustic waves (SAWs) in the gigahertz range can be generated using absorption from an ultrafast laser in a patterned metallic grating on a substrate. Reducing the attenuation at these frequencies can yield better sensors as well as enable them to better probe phonon and electron-phonon interactions near surfaces. It is not clear from existing experiments which mechanisms dominate damping at high frequencies. We calculate damping times of SAWs due to various mechanisms in the 1-100 GHz range to find that mechanical loading of the grating on the substrate dominates dissipation by radiating energy from the surface into the bulk. To overcome this and enable future measurements to probe intrinsic damping, we propose incorporating distributed acoustic Bragg reflectors in the experimental structure. Layers of alternating materials with contrasting acoustic impedances embedded a wavelength away from the surface serve to reflect energy back to the surface. Using numerical simulations, we show that a single Bragg reflector is sufficient to increase the energy density at the surface by more than five times. We quantify the resulting damping time to find that it is longer than the intrinsic damping time. The proposed structure can enable future measurements of intrinsic damping in SAWs at ˜100 GHz.
Helioseismology and asteroseismology: looking for gravitational waves in acoustic oscillations
Lopes, Ilídio; Silk, Joseph E-mail: ilopes@uevora.pt
2014-10-10
Current helioseismology observations allow the determination of the frequencies and surface velocity amplitudes of solar acoustic modes with exceptionally high precision. In some cases, the frequency accuracy is better than one part in a million. We show that there is a distinct possibility that quadrupole acoustic modes of low order could be excited by gravitational waves (GWs), if the GWs have a strain amplitude in the range 10{sup –20} h {sub –20} with h {sub –20} ∼ 1 or h {sub –20} ∼ 10{sup 3}, as predicted by several types of GW sources, such as galactic ultracompact binaries or extreme mass ratio inspirals and coalescence of black holes. If the damping rate at low order is 10{sup –3}η {sub N} μHz, with η {sub N} ∼ 10{sup –3}-1, as inferred from the theory of stellar pulsations, then GW radiation will lead to a maximum rms surface velocity amplitude of quadrupole modes of the order of h{sub −20}η{sub N}{sup −1}∼ 10{sup –9}-10{sup –3} cm s{sup –1}, on the verge of what is currently detectable via helioseismology. The frequency and sensitivity range probed by helioseismological acoustic modes overlap with, and complement, the capabilities of eLISA for the brightest resolved ultracompact galactic binaries.
Nonlinear vibration and radiation from a panel with transition to chaos induced by acoustic waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maestrello, Lucio; Frendi, Abdelkader; Brown, Donald E.
1992-01-01
The dynamic response of an aircraft panel forced at resonance and off-resonance by plane acoustic waves at normal incidence is investigated experimentally and numerically. Linear, nonlinear (period doubling) and chaotic responses are obtained by increasing the sound pressure level of the excitation. The response time history is sensitive to the input level and to the frequency of excitation. The change in response behavior is due to a change in input conditions, triggered either naturally or by modulation of the bandwidth of the incident waves. Off-resonance, bifurcation is diffused and difficult to maintain, thus the panel response drifts into a linear behavior. The acoustic pressure emanated by the panel is either linear or nonlinear as is the vibration response. The nonlinear effects accumulate during the propagation with distance. Results are also obtained on the control of the panel response using damping tape on aluminum panel and using a graphite epoxy panel having the same size and weight. Good agreement is obtained between the experimental and numerical results.
Anti-plane transverse waves propagation in nanoscale periodic layered piezoelectric structures.
Chen, A-Li; Yan, Dong-Jia; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Zhang, Chuanzeng
2016-02-01
In this paper, anti-plane transverse wave propagation in nanoscale periodic layered piezoelectric structures is studied. The localization factor is introduced to characterize the wave propagation behavior. The transfer matrix method based on the nonlocal piezoelectricity continuum theory is used to calculate the localization factor. Additionally, the stiffness matrix method is applied to compute the wave transmission spectra. A cut-off frequency is found, beyond which the elastic waves cannot propagate through the periodic structure. The size effect or the influence of the ratio of the internal to external characteristic lengths on the cut-off frequency and the wave propagation behavior are investigated and discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gauthier, Robert C.; Alzahrani, Mohammed A.; Jafari, Seyed Hamed
2015-02-01
The plane wave expansion (PWM) technique applied to Maxwell's wave equations provides researchers with a supply of information regarding the optical properties of dielectric structures. The technique is well suited for structures that display a linear periodicity. When the focus is directed towards optical resonators and structures that lack linear periodicity the eigen-process can easily exceed computational resources and time constraints. In the case of dielectric structures which display cylindrical or spherical symmetry, a coordinate system specific set of basis functions have been employed to cast Maxwell's wave equations into an eigen-matrix formulation from which the resonator states associated with the dielectric profile can be obtained. As for PWM, the inverse of the dielectric and field components are expanded in the basis functions (Fourier-Fourier-Bessel, FFB, in cylindrical and Fourier- Bessel-Legendre, BLF, in spherical) and orthogonality is employed to form the matrix expressions. The theoretical development details will be presented indicating how certain mathematical complications in the process have been overcome and how the eigen-matrix can be tuned to a specific mode type. The similarities and differences in PWM, FFB and BLF are presented. In the case of structures possessing axial cylindrical symmetry, the inclusion of the z axis component of propagation constant makes the technique applicable to photonic crystal fibers and other waveguide structures. Computational results will be presented for a number of different dielectric geometries including Bragg ring resonators, cylindrical space slot channel waveguides and bottle resonators. Steps to further enhance the computation process will be reported.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bains, A. S.; Tribeche, Mouloud; Saini, N. S.; Gill, T. S.
2017-01-01
A theoretical investigation is made to study envelope excitations and rogue wave structures of the newly predicted positron-acoustic waves (PAWs) in a plasma with nonextensive electrons and nonextensive hot positrons. The reductive perturbation technique (RPT) is used to derive a nonlinear Schrödinger equation-like (NLSE) which governs the modulational instability (MI) of the PAWs. The NLSE admits localized envelope solitary wave solutions of bright and dark type. These envelope solutions depend upon the intrinsic plasma parameters. It is found that the MI of the PAWs is significantly affected by nonextensivity and other plasma parameters. Further, the analysis is extended for the rogue wave structures of the PAWs. The findings of the present investigation should be useful in understanding the acceleration mechanism of stable electrostatic wave packets in four components nonextensive plasmas.
Ferroelectric film bulk acoustic wave resonators for liquid viscosity sensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vorobiev, A.; Gevorgian, S.
2013-08-01
A concept of accurate liquid viscosity sensing, using bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonators, is proposed. The proposed BAW resonators use thin ferroelectric films with the dc field induced piezoelectric effect allowing for generation of pure longitudinal acoustic waves in the thickness excitation mode. This makes it possible to utilize exclusively shear liquid particle displacement at the resonator side walls and, therefore, accurate viscosity evaluation. The BAW resonators with the dc field induced piezoelectric effect in 0.67BiFeO3-0.33BaTiO3 ferroelectric films are fabricated and their liquid viscosity sensing properties are characterized. The resonator response is analyzed using simple model of a harmonic oscillator damped by a viscous force. It is shown that the resonator Q-factor is inversely proportional to the square root of the viscosity-density product. The viscosity measurement resolution is estimated to be as high as 0.005 mPa.s, which is 0.5% of the water viscosity.
Guided wave acoustic monitoring of corrosion in recovery boiler tubing
Quarry, M J; Chinn, D J
2004-02-19
Corrosion of tubing used in black-liquor recovery boilers is a major concern in all pulp and paper mills. Extensive corrosion in recovery boiler tubes can result in a significant safety and environmental hazard. Considerable plant resources are expended to inspect recovery boiler tubing. Currently, visual and ultrasonic inspections are primarily used during the annual maintenance shutdown to monitor corrosion rates and cracking of tubing. This Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies project is developing guided acoustic waves for use on recovery boiler tubing. The feature of this acoustic technique is its cost-effectiveness in inspecting long lengths of tubes from a single inspection point. A piezoelectric or electromagnetic transducer induces guided waves into the tubes. The transducer detects fireside defects from the coldside or fireside of the tube. Cracking and thinning on recovery boiler tubes have been detected with this technique in both laboratory and field applications. This technique appears very promising for recovery boiler tube application, potentially expediting annual inspection of tube integrity.
Tunable nanowire patterning using standing surface acoustic waves.
Chen, Yuchao; Ding, Xiaoyun; Steven Lin, Sz-Chin; Yang, Shikuan; Huang, Po-Hsun; Nama, Nitesh; Zhao, Yanhui; Nawaz, Ahmad Ahsan; Guo, Feng; Wang, Wei; Gu, Yeyi; Mallouk, Thomas E; Huang, Tony Jun
2013-04-23
Patterning of nanowires in a controllable, tunable manner is important for the fabrication of functional nanodevices. Here we present a simple approach for tunable nanowire patterning using standing surface acoustic waves (SSAW). This technique allows for the construction of large-scale nanowire arrays with well-controlled patterning geometry and spacing within 5 s. In this approach, SSAWs were generated by interdigital transducers, which induced a periodic alternating current (ac) electric field on the piezoelectric substrate and consequently patterned metallic nanowires in suspension. The patterns could be deposited onto the substrate after the liquid evaporated. By controlling the distribution of the SSAW field, metallic nanowires were assembled into different patterns including parallel and perpendicular arrays. The spacing of the nanowire arrays could be tuned by controlling the frequency of the surface acoustic waves. Additionally, we observed 3D spark-shaped nanowire patterns in the SSAW field. The SSAW-based nanowire-patterning technique presented here possesses several advantages over alternative patterning approaches, including high versatility, tunability, and efficiency, making it promising for device applications.
Standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW)-based microfluidic cytometer
Chen, Yuchao; Nawaz, Ahmad Ahsan; Zhao, Yanhui; Huang, Po-Hsun; McCoy, J. Phillip; Levine, Stewart; Wang, Lin; Huang, Tony Jun
2014-01-01
The development of microfluidic chip-based cytometers has become an important area due to their advantages of compact size and low cost. Herein, we demonstrate a sheathless microfluidic cytometer which integrates a standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW)-based microdevice capable of 3D particle/cell focusing with a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection system. Using SSAW, our microfluidic cytometer was able to continuously focus microparticles/cells at the pressure node inside a microchannel. Flow cytometry was successfully demonstrated using this system with a coefficient of variation (CV) of less than 10% at a throughput of ~1000 events/s when calibration beads were used. We also demonstrated that fluorescently labeled human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) could be effectively focused and detected with our SSAW-based system. This SSAW-based microfluidic cytometer did not require any sheath flows or complex structures, and it allowed for simple operation over a wide range of sample flow rates. Moreover, with the gentle, bio-compatible nature of low-power surface acoustic waves, this technique is expected to be able to preserve the integrity of cells and other bioparticles. PMID:24406848
Sensitivity comparisons of layered Rayleigh wave and Love wave acoustic devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pedrick, Michael K.; Tittmann, Bernhard R.
2007-04-01
Due to their high sensitivity, layered Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices are ideal for various film characterization and sensor applications. Two prominent wave types realized in these devices are Rayleigh waves consisting of coupled Shear Vertical and Longitudinal displacements and Love waves consisting of Shear Horizontal displacements. Theoretical calculations of sensitivity of SAW devices to pertubations in wave propagation are limited to idealized scenarios. Derivations of sensitivity to mass change in an overlayer are often based on the effect of rigid body motion of the overlayer on the propagation of one of the aforementioned wave types. These devices often utilize polymer overlayers for enhanced sensitivity. The low moduli of such overlayers are not sufficiently stiff to accommodate the rigid body motion assumption. This work presents device modeling based on the Finite Element Method. A coupled-field model allows for a complete description of device operation including displacement profiles, frequency, wave velocity, and insertion loss through the inclusion of transmitting and receiving IDTs. Geometric rotations and coordinate transformations allow for the modeling of different crystal orientations in piezoelectric substrates. The generation of Rayleigh and Love Wave propagation was realized with this model by examining propagation in ST Quartz both normal to and in the direction of the X axis known to support Love Waves and Rayleigh Waves, respectively. Sensitivities of layered SAW devices to pertubations in mass, layer thickness, and mechanical property changes of a Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and SU-8 overlayers were characterized and compared. Experimental validation of these models is presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Daehwan; Cheong, Cheolung; Jeong, Weui Bong
2010-05-01
In the present study, a hybrid method is proposed for predicting the acoustic performance of a silencer for a nonlinear wave. This method is developed by combining two models: (i) a frequency-domain model for the computation of sound attenuation due to a silencer in a linear regime and (ii) a wavenumber space model for the prediction of the nonlinear time-evolution of finite amplitudes of the acoustic wave in a uniform duct of the same length as the silencer. The present method is proposed under the observation that the physical process of the nonlinear sound attenuation phenomenon of a silencer may be decoupled into two distinct mechanisms: (a) a linear acoustic energy loss that owes to the mismatch in the acoustic impedance between reactive elements and/or the sound absorption of acoustic liners in a silencer; (b) a nonlinear acoustic energy loss that is due to the energy-cascade phenomenon that arises from the nonlinear interaction between components of different frequencies. To establish the validity of the present model for predicting the acoustic performance of silencers, two model problems are considered. First, the performance of simple expansion mufflers with nonlinear incident waves has been predicted. Second, proposed method is applied for computing nonlinear acoustic wave propagation in the NASA Langley impedance duct configuration with ceramic tubular liner (CT57). Both results obtained from the hybrid models are compared with those from computational aero-acoustic techniques in a time-space domain that utilize a high-order finite-difference method. Through these comparisons, it is shown that there are good agreements between the two predictions. The main advantage of the present method is that it can effectively compute the nonlinear acoustic performance of silencers in nonlinear regimes without time-space domain calculations that generally entail a greater computational burden.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naify, Christina J.; Layman, Christopher N.; Martin, Theodore P.; Nicholas, Michael; Calvo, David C.; Orris, Gregory J.
2013-05-01
Development and experimental realization of an acoustic leaky wave antenna are presented. The antenna uses a one-dimensional composite right/left hand transmission line approach to tune radiation angle continually from backfire-to-endfire, including broadside, as a function of input frequency. An array of acoustically loaded membranes and open channels form a structure with negative, zero, or positive refractive index, depending on excitation frequency. The fast-wave radiation band of the antenna is determined using acoustic circuit analysis. Based on the designs specified by circuit and finite element analysis, an acoustic leaky wave antenna was fabricated, and the radiation direction measured at discrete frequencies.
Ion acoustic wave collapse via two-ion wave decay: 2D Vlasov simulation and theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chapman, Thomas; Berger, Richard; Banks, Jeffrey; Brunner, Stephan
2015-11-01
The decay of ion acoustic waves (IAWs) via two-ion wave decay may transfer energy from the electric field of the IAWs to the particles, resulting in a significant heating of resonant particles. This process has previously been shown in numerical simulations to decrease the plasma reflectivity due to stimulated Brillouin scattering. Two-ion wave decay is a fundamental property of ion acoustic waves that occurs over most if not all of the parameter space of relevance to inertial confinement fusion experiments, and can lead to a sudden collapse of IAWs. The treatment of all species kinetically, and in particular the electrons, is required to describe the decay process correctly. We present fully kinetic 2D+2V Vlasov simulations of IAWs undergoing decay to a highly nonlinear turbulent state using the code LOKI. The scaling of the decay rate with characteristic plasma parameters and wave amplitude is shown. A new theory describing two-ion wave decay in 2D, that incorporates key kinetic properties of the electrons, is presented and used to explain quantitatively for the first time the observed decay of IAWs. Work performed under auspices of U.S. DoE by LLNL, Contract DE-AC52-07NA2734. Funded by LDRD 15-ERD-038 and supported by LLNL Grand Challenge allocation.
Acoustic measurements of a liquefied cohesive sediment bed under waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mosquera, R.; Groposo, V.; Pedocchi, F.
2014-04-01
In this article the response of a cohesive sediment deposit under the action of water waves is studied with the help of laboratory experiments and an analytical model. Under the same regular wave condition three different bed responses were observed depending on the degree of consolidation of the deposit: no bed motion, bed motion of the upper layer after the action of the first waves, and massive bed motion after several waves. The kinematic of the upper 3 cm of the deposit were measured with an ultrasound acoustic profiler, while the pore-water pressure inside the bed was simultaneously measured using several pore pressure sensors. A poro-elastic model was developed to interpret the experimental observations. The model showed that the amplitude of the shear stress increased down into the bed. Then it is possible that the lower layers of the deposit experience plastic deformations, while the upper layers present just elastic deformations. Since plastic deformations in the lower layers are necessary for pore pressure build-up, the analytical model was used to interpret the experimental results and to state that liquefaction of a self consolidated cohesive sediment bed would only occur if the bed yield stress falls within the range defined by the amplitude of the shear stress inside the bed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marston, Philip L.; Zhang, Likun
2016-11-01
When evaluating radiation forces on spheres in soundfields (with or without orbital-angular momentum) the interpretation of analytical results is greatly simplified by retaining the use of s-function notation for partial-wave coefficients imported into acoustics from quantum scattering theory in the 1970s. This facilitates easy interpretation of various efficiency factors. For situations in which dissipation is negligible, each partial-wave s-function becomes characterized by a single parameter: a phase shift allowing for all possible situations. These phase shifts are associated with scattering by plane traveling waves and the incident wavefield of interest is separately parameterized. (When considering outcomes, the method of fabricating symmetric objects having a desirable set of phase shifts becomes a separate issue.) The existence of negative radiation force "islands" for beams reported in 2006 by Marston is manifested. This approach and consideration of conservation theorems illustrate the unphysical nature of various claims made by other researchers. This approach is also directly relevant to objects in standing waves. Supported by ONR.
Haider, M. M.; Mamun, A. A.
2012-10-15
A rigorous theoretical investigation has been made on Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation of ion-acoustic (IA) solitary waves (SWs) and their multi-dimensional instability in a magnetized degenerate plasma which consists of inertialess electrons, inertial ions, negatively, and positively charged stationary heavy ions. The ZK equation is derived by the reductive perturbation method, and multi-dimensional instability of these solitary structures is also studied by the small-k (long wave-length plane wave) perturbation expansion technique. The effects of the external magnetic field are found to significantly modify the basic properties of small but finite-amplitude IA SWs. The external magnetic field and the propagation directions of both the nonlinear waves and their perturbation modes are found to play a very important role in changing the instability criterion and the growth rate of the unstable IA SWs. The basic features (viz., amplitude, width, instability, etc.) and the underlying physics of the IA SWs, which are relevant to space and laboratory plasma situations, are briefly discussed.
Modified ion-acoustic solitary waves in plasmas with field-aligned shear flows
Saleem, H.; Haque, Q.
2015-08-15
The nonlinear dynamics of ion-acoustic waves is investigated in a plasma having field-aligned shear flow. A Korteweg-deVries-type nonlinear equation for a modified ion-acoustic wave is obtained which admits a single pulse soliton solution. The theoretical result has been applied to solar wind plasma at 1 AU for illustration.
Acoustic-wave sensor for ambient monitoring of a photoresist-stripping agent
Pfeifer, K.B.; Hoyt, A.E.; Frye, G.C.
1998-08-18
The acoustic-wave sensor is disclosed. The acoustic-wave sensor is designed for ambient or vapor-phase monitoring of a photoresist-stripping agent such as N-methylpyrrolidinone (NMP), ethoxyethylpropionate (EEP) or the like. The acoustic-wave sensor comprises an acoustic-wave device such as a surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) device, a flexural-plate-wave (FPW) device, an acoustic-plate-mode (APM) device, or a thickness-shear-mode (TSM) device (also termed a quartz crystal microbalance or QCM) having a sensing region on a surface thereof. The sensing region includes a sensing film for sorbing a quantity of the photoresist-stripping agent, thereby altering or shifting a frequency of oscillation of an acoustic wave propagating through the sensing region for indicating an ambient concentration of the agent. According to preferred embodiments of the invention, the acoustic-wave device is a SAW device; and the sensing film comprises poly(vinylacetate), poly(N-vinylpyrrolidinone), or poly(vinylphenol). 3 figs.
Acoustic-wave sensor for ambient monitoring of a photoresist-stripping agent
Pfeifer, Kent B.; Hoyt, Andrea E.; Frye, Gregory C.
1998-01-01
The acoustic-wave sensor. The acoustic-wave sensor is designed for ambient or vapor-phase monitoring of a photoresist-stripping agent such as N-methylpyrrolidinone (NMP), ethoxyethylpropionate (EEP) or the like. The acoustic-wave sensor comprises an acoustic-wave device such as a surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) device, a flexural-plate-wave (FPW) device, an acoustic-plate-mode (APM) device, or a thickness-shear-mode (TSM) device (also termed a quartz crystal microbalance or QCM) having a sensing region on a surface thereof. The sensing region includes a sensing film for sorbing a quantity of the photoresist-stripping agent, thereby altering or shifting a frequency of oscillation of an acoustic wave propagating through the sensing region for indicating an ambient concentration of the agent. According to preferred embodiments of the invention, the acoustic-wave device is a SAW device; and the sensing film comprises poly(vinylacetate), poly(N-vinylpyrrolidinone), or poly(vinylphenol).
Dynamic acoustics for the STAR-100. [computer algorithms for time dependent sound waves in jet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bayliss, A.; Turkel, E.
1979-01-01
An algorithm is described to compute time dependent acoustic waves in a jet. The method differs from previous methods in that no harmonic time dependence is assumed, thus permitting the study of nonharmonic acoustical behavior. Large grids are required to resolve the acoustic waves. Since the problem is nonstiff, explicit high order schemes can be used. These have been adapted to the STAR-100 with great efficiencies and permitted the efficient solution of problems which would not be feasible on a scalar machine.
Tunnelling effects for acoustic waves in slowly varying axisymmetric flow ducts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nielsen, R. B.; Peake, N.
2016-10-01
The multiple-scales Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation is used to model the propagation of acoustic waves in an axisymmetric duct with a constriction in the presence of mean flow. An analysis of the reflection/transmission process of modes tunnelling through the constriction is conducted, and the key mathematical feature is the presence of two turning points, located at either real axial locations or in the complex plane. The resulting asymptotic solution consists of WKB solutions in regions away from the constriction and an inner solution valid in the near vicinity of the constriction. A solution which is uniformly valid throughout the duct is also derived. A range of test cases are considered, and the importance of accounting for the inner region, even in cases in which the turning points lie away from the real axis, is demonstrated.
Finite Difference Modeling of Wave Progpagation in Acoustic TiltedTI Media
Zhang, Linbin; Rector III, James W.; Hoversten, G. Michael
2005-03-21
Based on an acoustic assumption (shear wave velocity is zero) and a dispersion relation, we derive an acoustic wave equation for P-waves in tilted transversely isotropic (TTI) media (transversely isotropic media with a tilted symmetry axis). This equation has fewer parameters than an elastic wave equation in TTI media and yields an accurate description of P-wave traveltimes and spreading-related attenuation. Our TTI acoustic wave equation is a fourth-order equation in time and space. We demonstrate that the acoustic approximation allows the presence of shear waves in the solution. The substantial differences in traveltime and amplitude between data created using VTI and TTI assumptions is illustrated in examples.
Well-posedness and generalized plane waves simulations of a 2D mode conversion model
Imbert-Gérard, Lise-Marie
2015-12-15
Certain types of electro-magnetic waves propagating in a plasma can undergo a mode conversion process. In magnetic confinement fusion, this phenomenon is very useful to heat the plasma, since it permits to transfer the heat at or near the plasma center. This work focuses on a mathematical model of wave propagation around the mode conversion region, from both theoretical and numerical points of view. It aims at developing, for a well-posed equation, specific basis functions to study a wave mode conversion process. These basis functions, called generalized plane waves, are intrinsically based on variable coefficients. As such, they are particularly adapted to the mode conversion problem. The design of generalized plane waves for the proposed model is described in detail. Their implementation within a discontinuous Galerkin method then provides numerical simulations of the process. These first 2D simulations for this model agree with qualitative aspects studied in previous works.
Peralta, J.; López-Valverde, M. A.; Imamura, T.; Read, P. L.; Luz, D.; Piccialli, A.
2014-07-01
This paper is the first of a two-part study devoted to developing tools for a systematic classification of the wide variety of atmospheric waves expected on slowly rotating planets with atmospheric superrotation. Starting with the primitive equations for a cyclostrophic regime, we have deduced the analytical solution for the possible waves, simultaneously including the effect of the metric terms for the centrifugal force and the meridional shear of the background wind. In those cases when the conditions for the method of the multiple scales in height are met, these wave solutions are also valid when vertical shear of the background wind is present. A total of six types of waves have been found and their properties were characterized in terms of the corresponding dispersion relations and wave structures. In this first part, only waves that are direct solutions of the generic dispersion relation are studied—acoustic and inertia-gravity waves. Concerning inertia-gravity waves, we found that in the cases of short horizontal wavelengths, null background wind, or propagation in the equatorial region, only pure gravity waves are possible, while for the limit of large horizontal wavelengths and/or null static stability, the waves are inertial. The correspondence between classical atmospheric approximations and wave filtering has been examined too, and we carried out a classification of the mesoscale waves found in the clouds of Venus at different vertical levels of its atmosphere. Finally, the classification of waves in exoplanets is discussed and we provide a list of possible candidates with cyclostrophic regimes.
Santarossa, Gianluca; Vargas, Angelo; Iannuzzi, Marcella; Pignedoli, Carlo A; Passerone, Daniele; Baiker, Alfons
2008-12-21
We present a study on structural and electronic properties of bulk platinum and the two surfaces (111) and (100) comparing the Gaussian and plane wave method to standard plane wave schemes, normally employed for density functional theory calculations on metallic systems. The aim of this investigation is the assessment of methods based on the expansion of the Kohn-Sham orbitals into localized basis sets and on the supercell approach, in the description of the metallicity of Pt. Electronic structure calculations performed at Gamma-point only on supercells of different sizes, from 108 up to 864 atoms, are compared to the results obtained for the unit cell of four Pt atoms where the k-point expansion of the wave function over Monkhorst-Pack grids up to (10x10x10) has been employed. The evaluation of the two approaches with respect to bulk properties is done through the calculation of the equilibrium lattice constant, the bulk modulus, and the total and the d-projected density of states. For the Pt(111) and Pt(100) surfaces, we consider the relaxation of the first layers, the surface energies, the work function, the total density of states, as well as the center and filling of the d bands. Our results confirm that the accuracy of two approaches in the description of electronic and structural properties of Pt is equivalent, providing that consistent supercells and k-point meshes are used. Moreover, we estimate the supercell size that can be safely adopted in the Gaussian and plane wave method in order to obtain the same reliability of previous theoretical studies based on well converged plane wave calculations available in literature. The latter studies, in turn, set the level of agreement with experimental data. In particular, we obtain excellent agreement in the evaluation of the density of states for either bulk and surface systems, and our data are also in good agreement with previous works on Pt reported in literature. We conclude that Gaussian and plane wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chernousov, A. D.; Malakhov, D. V.; Skvortsova, N. N.
2014-03-01
Currently acute problem of developing new technologies by reducing the noise of aircraft engines, including the directional impact on the noise on the basis of the interaction of plasma disturbances and sound generation pulsations. One of the devices built on this principle being developed in GPI RAS. They are plasma actuators (group of related to each other gaps, built on the perimeter of the nozzle) of various shapes and forms. In this paper an algorithm was developed which allows to separate impulses from the received experimental data, acquired during the work of plasma actuator flush-mounted in the model plane nozzle. The algorithm can be adjusted manually under a variety of situations (work of actuator in a nozzle with or without airflow, adjustment to different frequencies and pulse duration of the actuator). And program complex is developed on the basis of MatLab software, designed for building sustainable robust spectral and autocovariation functions of acoustic signals recorded during the experiments with the model of a nozzle with working actuator.
Stability analysis for acoustic wave propagation in tilted TI media by finite differences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakker, Peter M.; Duveneck, Eric
2011-05-01
Several papers in recent years have reported instabilities in P-wave modelling, based on an acoustic approximation, for inhomogeneous transversely isotropic media with tilted symmetry axis (TTI media). In particular, instabilities tend to occur if the axis of symmetry varies rapidly in combination with strong contrasts of medium parameters, which is typically the case at the foot of a steeply dipping salt flank. In a recent paper, we have proposed and demonstrated a P-wave modelling approach for TTI media, based on rotated stress and strain tensors, in which the wave equations reduce to a coupled set of two second-order partial differential equations for two scalar stress components: a normal component along the variable axis of symmetry and a lateral component of stress in the plane perpendicular to that axis. Spatially constant density is assumed in this approach. A numerical discretization scheme was proposed which uses discrete second-derivative operators for the non-mixed second-order derivatives in the wave equations, and combined first-derivative operators for the mixed second-order derivatives. This paper provides a complete and rigorous stability analysis, assuming a uniformly sampled grid. Although the spatial discretization operator for the TTI acoustic wave equation is not self-adjoint, this operator still defines a complete basis of eigenfunctions of the solution space, provided that the solution space is somewhat restricted at locations where the medium is elliptically anisotropic. First, a stability analysis is given for a discretization scheme, which is purely based on first-derivative operators. It is shown that the coefficients of the central difference operators should satisfy certain conditions. In view of numerical artefacts, such a discretization scheme is not attractive, and the non-mixed second-order derivatives of the wave equation are discretized directly by second-derivative operators. It is shown that this modification preserves
Transverse spin and transverse momentum in scattering of plane waves.
Saha, Sudipta; Singh, Ankit K; Ray, Subir K; Banerjee, Ayan; Gupta, Subhasish Dutta; Ghosh, Nirmalya
2016-10-01
We study the near field to the far field evolution of spin angular momentum (SAM) density and the Poynting vector of the scattered waves from spherical scatterers. The results show that at the near field, the SAM density and the Poynting vector are dominated by their transverse components. While the former (transverse SAM) is independent of the helicity of the incident circular polarization state, the latter (transverse Poynting vector) depends upon the polarization state. It is further demonstrated that the interference of the transverse electric and transverse magnetic scattering modes enhances both the magnitudes and the spatial extent of the transverse SAM and the transverse momentum components.
An Investigation of Acoustic Wave Propagation in Mach 2 Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nieberding, Zachary J.
Hypersonic technology is the next advancement to enter the aerospace community; it is defined as the study of flight at speeds Mach 5 and higher where intense aerodynamic heating is prevalent. Hypersonic flight is achieved through use of scramjet engines, which intake air and compress it by means of shock waves and geometry design. The airflow is then directed through an isolator where it is further compressed, it is then delivered to the combustor at supersonic speeds. The combusted airflow and fuel mixture is then accelerated through a nozzle to achieve the hypersonic speeds. Unfortunately, scramjet engines can experience a phenomenon known as an inlet unstart, where the combustor produces pressures large enough to force the incoming airflow out of the inlet of the engine, resulting in a loss of acceleration and power. There have been several government-funded programs that look to prove the concept of the scramjet engine and also tackle this inlet unstart issue. The research conducted in this thesis is a fundamental approach towards controlling the unstart problem: it looks at the basic concept of sending a signal upstream through the boundary layer of a supersonic flow and being able to detect a characterizeable signal. Since conditions within and near the combustor are very harsh, hardware is unable to be installed in that area, so this testing will determine if a signal can be sent and if so, how far upstream can the signal be detected. This experimental approach utilizes several acoustic and mass injection sources to be evaluated over three test series in a Mach 2 continuous flow wind tunnel that will determine the success of the objective. The test series vary in that the conditions of the flow and the test objectives change. The research shows that a characterizeable signal can be transmitted upstream roughly 12 inches through the subsonic boundary layer of a supersonic cross flow. It is also shown that the signal attenuates as the distance between the
Enhanced sensitive love wave surface acoustic wave sensor designed for immunoassay formats.
Puiu, Mihaela; Gurban, Ana-Maria; Rotariu, Lucian; Brajnicov, Simona; Viespe, Cristian; Bala, Camelia
2015-05-05
We report a Love wave surface acoustic wave (LW-SAW) immunosensor designed for the detection of high molecular weight targets in liquid samples, amenable also for low molecular targets in surface competition assays. We implemented a label-free interaction protocol similar to other surface plasmon resonance bioassays having the advantage of requiring reduced time analysis. The fabricated LW-SAW sensor supports the detection of the target in the nanomolar range, and can be ultimately incorporated in portable devices, suitable for point-of-care testing (POCT) applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El-Tantawy, S. A.
2017-02-01
Progress is reported on the modulational instability (MI) of ion-acoustic waves (IAWs) and dissipative rogue waves (RWs) in ultracold neutral plasmas (UNPs). The UNPs consist of inertial ions fluid and Maxwellian inertialess hot electrons, and the presence of an ion kinematic viscosity is allowed. For this purpose, a modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) is derived and then solved analytically to show the occurrence of MI. It is found that the (in)stability regions of the wavepacks are dependent on time due to of the existence of the dissipative term. The existing regions of the MI of the IAWs are inventoried precisely. After that, we use a suitable transformation to convert the modified NLSE into the normal NLSE whose analytical solutions for rogue waves are known. The rogue wave propagation condition and its behavior are discussed. The impact of the relevant physical parameters on the profile of the RWs is examined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baboly, Mohammadhosein Ghasemi; Soliman, Yasser; Su, Mehmet F.; Reinke, Charles M.; Leseman, Zayd C.; El-Kady, Ihab
2014-11-01
Plane wave expansion analyses that use the inverse rule to obtain the Fourier coefficients of the elastic tensor instead of the more conventional Laurent's rule, exhibit faster convergence rates for solid-solid phononic crystals. In this work, the band structure convergence of calculations using the inverse rule is investigated and applied to the case of high acoustic impedance contrast solid-solid phononic crystals, previously known for convergence difficulties. Results are contrasted to those obtained with the conventional plane wave expansion method. The inverse rule is found to converge at a much rate for all ranges of impedance contrast, and the ratio between the computational times needed to obtain a convergent band structure for a high-contrast solid-solid phononic crystal with the conventional plane wave expansion method using 1369 reciprocal lattice vectors is as large as 6800:1. This ratio decreases for material sets with lower impedance contrast; however, the inverse rule is still faster for a given error threshold for even the lowest impedance contrast phononic crystals reported in the literature. This convergence enhancement is a major factor in reconsidering the plane wave expansion method as an important tool in obtaining propagating elastic modes in phononic crystals.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sparrow, Victor Ward
1990-01-01
This study has concerned the propagation of finite amplitude, i.e. weakly non-linear, acoustical blast waves from explosions over hard and porous media models of outdoor ground surfaces. The nonlinear acoustic propagation effects require a numerical solution in the time domain. To model a porous ground surface, which in the frequency domain exhibits a finite impedance, the linear phenomenological porous model of Morse and Ingard was used. The phenomenological equations are solved in the time domain for coupling with the time domain propagation solution in the air. The numerical solution is found through the method of finite differences. The second-order in time and fourth -order in space MacCormack method was used in the air, and the second-order in time and space MacCormack method was used in the porous medium modeling the ground. Two kinds of numerical absorbing boundary conditions were developed for the air propagation equations to truncate the physical domain for solution on a computer. Radiation conditions first were used on those sides of the domain where there were outgoing waves. Characteristic boundary conditions secondly are employed near the acoustic source. The numerical model agreed well with the Pestorius algorithm for the propagation of electric spark pulses in the free field, and with a result of Pfriem for normal plane reflection off a hard surface. In addition, curves of pressure amplification versus incident angle for waves obliquely incident on the hard and porous surfaces were produced which are similar to those in the literature. The model predicted that near grazing finite amplitude acoustic blast waves decay with distance over hard surfaces as r to the power -1.2. This result is consistent with the work of Reed. For propagation over the porous ground surface, the model predicted that this surface decreased the decay rate with distance for the larger blasts compared to the rate expected in the linear acoustics limit.
Acoustic Wave Treatment For Cellulite—A New Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Russe-Wilflingseder, Katharina; Russe, Elisabeth
2010-05-01
Background and Objectives: Cellulite is a biological caused modification of the female connective tissue. In extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) pulses are penetrating into the tissue without causing a thermal effect or micro lesions, but leading to a stimulation of tissue metabolism and blood circulation, inducing a natural repair process with cell activation and stem cells proliferation. Recently ESWT treatment showed evidence of remodelling collagen within the dermis and of stimulating microcirculation in fatty tissue. Study Design and Methods: The study was designed to assess acoustic wave treatment for cellulite by comparison treated vs. untreated side (upper-leg and buttock). Each individual served as its own control. 11 females with a BMI less then 30 and an age over 18 years were included. 6 treatments were given weekly with radial acoustic waves. Documentation was done before and 1, 4, 12 weeks after last treatment by standardized photo documentation, relaxed and with muscle contraction, measurement of body weight and circumference of the thigh, pinch test, and evaluation of hormonal status and lifestyle. The efficacy of AWT/EPAT was evaluated before and 1, 4, 12 weeks after last treatment. Patients rated the improvement of cellulite, overall satisfaction and acceptance. The therapist assessed improvement of cellulite, side effects and photo documentation treated vs. untreated side, before vs. after treatment. The blinded investigator evaluated the results using photo documentation right vs. left leg, before vs. after treatment in a frontal, lateral and dorsal view, relaxed and with muscle contraction. Results: The improvement of cellulite at the treated side was rated by patients with 27,3% at week 4 and 12, by the therapist with 34,1% at week 4 and 31,2% at week 12 after the last treatment The blinded investigator could verify an improvement of cellulite in an increasing number of patients with increasing time interval after treatment. No side
X-ray plane-wave diffraction effects in a crystal with third-order nonlinearity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balyan, M. K.
2016-12-01
The two-wave dynamical diffraction in the Laue geometry has been theoretically considered for a plane X-ray wave in a crystal with a third-order nonlinear response to the external field. An analytical solution to the problem stated is found for certain diffraction conditions. A nonlinear pendulum effect is analyzed. The nonlinear extinction length is found to depend on the incident-wave intensity. A pendulum effect of a new type is revealed: the intensities of the transmitted and diffracted waves periodically depend on the incidentwave intensity at a fixed crystal thickness. The rocking curves and Borrmann nonlinear effect are numerically calculated.
Seismic wave detection system based on fully distributed acoustic sensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Yue; Xu, Tuanwei; Feng, Shengwen; Huang, Jianfen; Yang, Yang; Guo, Gaoran; Li, Fang
2016-11-01
This paper presents a seismic wave detection system based on fully distributed acoustic sensing. Combined with Φ- OTDR and PGC demodulation technology, the system can detect and acquire seismic wave in real time. The system has a frequency response of 3.05 dB from 5 Hz to 1 kHz, whose sampling interval of each channel of 1 meter on total sensing distance up to 10 km. By comparing with the geophone in laboratory, the data show that in the time domain and frequency domain, two waveforms coincide consistently, and the correlation coefficient could be larger than 0.98. Through the analysis of the data of the array experiment and the oil well experiment, DAS system shows a consistent time domain and frequency domain response and a clearer trail of seismic wave signal as well as a higher signal-noise rate which indicate that the system we proposed is expected to become the next generation of seismic exploration equipment.
A Schamel equation for ion acoustic waves in superthermal plasmas
Williams, G. Kourakis, I.; Verheest, F.; Hellberg, M. A.; Anowar, M. G. M.
2014-09-15
An investigation of the propagation of ion acoustic waves in nonthermal plasmas in the presence of trapped electrons has been undertaken. This has been motivated by space and laboratory plasma observations of plasmas containing energetic particles, resulting in long-tailed distributions, in combination with trapped particles, whereby some of the plasma particles are confined to a finite region of phase space. An unmagnetized collisionless electron-ion plasma is considered, featuring a non-Maxwellian-trapped electron distribution, which is modelled by a kappa distribution function combined with a Schamel distribution. The effect of particle trapping has been considered, resulting in an expression for the electron density. Reductive perturbation theory has been used to construct a KdV-like Schamel equation, and examine its behaviour. The relevant configurational parameters in our study include the superthermality index κ and the characteristic trapping parameter β. A pulse-shaped family of solutions is proposed, also depending on the weak soliton speed increment u{sub 0}. The main modification due to an increase in particle trapping is an increase in the amplitude of solitary waves, yet leaving their spatial width practically unaffected. With enhanced superthermality, there is a decrease in both amplitude and width of solitary waves, for any given values of the trapping parameter and of the incremental soliton speed. Only positive polarity excitations were observed in our parametric investigation.
Application of the Parareal Algorithm for Acoustic Wave Propagation
Mercerat, Diego; Guillot, Laurent; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre
2009-09-09
We present an application of the parareal algorithm to solve wave propagation problems in the time domain. The parareal algorithm is based on a decomposition of the integration time interval in time slices. It involves a serial prediction step based on a coarse approximation, and a correction step (computed in parallel) based on a fine approximation within each time slice. In our case, the spatial discretization is based on a spectral element approximation which allows flexible and accurate wave simulations in complex geological media. Fully explicit time advancing schemes are classically used for both coarse and fine solvers.In a first stage, we solve the 1D acoustic wave equation in an homogeneous medium in order to test stability and convergence properties of the parareal algorithm. We confirmed the stability problems outlined by Bal and Farhat et al. for hyperbolic problems. These stability issues are mitigated by a time-discontinuous Galerkin discretization of the coarse solver. It may also involve a coarser spatial discretization (hp-refinement) which helps to preserve stability and allows more significant computer savings. Besides, we explore the contribution of elastodynamic homogenization to build consistent coarse grid solvers. Extension to 2D/3D realistic geological media is an ongoing work.
Source extension of chorus waves in the equatorial plane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayosh, M.; Santolik, O.; Parrot, M.
2009-04-01
We use measurements of the Cluster spacecraft and a ray tracing simulation to estimate the location and size of the global source of whistler-mode chorus emissions. In this study we use the data provided simultaneously by the STAFF-SA instruments on the four Cluster spacecraft on 19 August, 2003. To determine the direction of propagation of chorus we calculate Poynting vector whereas a ray-tracing method is used to estimate the chorus source extension. For the first time this analysis has been made along whole particular Cluster orbit in both hemispheres. Our study shows that minimum size of the global chorus source region in the equatorial plane is between 1-3 Earth's radii. The resulting location of the chorus source region is at radial distances between 3 and 8 Earth radii. This result is in agreement with previous analysis of Cluster data by Parrot et al., 2003, 2004 and with the study of Santolik et al., 2005 who analyzed data from the Double Star TC-1 spacecraft.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Swearingen, Michelle Elaine
2003-10-01
This thesis is a presentation of an analytic model, developed in cylindrical coordinates, for the scattering of a spherical wave off a semi infinite right cylinder placed normal to a ground surface. The model is developed to simulate a single tree and is developed as a first piece to creating a model for estimating attenuation in a forest based on scattering from individual tree trunks. Comparisons are made to the plane wave case, the transparent cylinder case, and the rigid and soft ground cases as a method of theoretically verifying the model. Agreement is excellent for these benchmark cases. Model sensitivity to five parameters is determined, which aids in error analysis, particularly when comparing the model results to experimental data, and offers insight into the inner workings of the model. An experiment was performed to collect real-world data on scattering from a cylinder normal to a ground surface. The data from the experiment is analyzed with a transfer function method into frequency and impulse responses. The model results are compared to the experimental data.
Resonant excitation of intense acoustic waves in crystals
Alshits, V. I. Bessonov, D. A.; Lyubimov, V. N.
2013-06-15
The resonant excitation of an intense elastic wave through nonspecular reflection of a special pump wave in a crystal is described. The choice of the plane and angle of incidence is dictated by the requirement that the excited reflected wave be close to the bulk eigenmode with its energy flow along a free boundary. The resonance parameters have been found for a medium with an arbitrary anisotropy. General relations are concretized for monoclinic, rhombic, and hexagonal systems. A criterion is formulated for an optimal selection of crystals in which the resonant reflection is close to the conversion one, when almost all of the energy from the incident beam of the pump wave falls into the near-surface narrow high-intensity reflected beam. Estimates and illustrations are given for such crystals as an example. The intensity of the reflected beam increases with its narrowing, but its diffraction divergence also increases with this narrowing. Nevertheless, the intensity of the beam can be increased by a factor of 5-10 at sufficiently high frequencies while keeping its divergence at an acceptable level. Amplification by two orders of magnitude can be achieved by compressing the beam in two dimensions through its double reflection.
Statistical Analysis of Acoustic Wave Parameters Near Solar Active Regions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rabello-Soares, M. Cristina; Bogart, Richard S.; Scherrer, Philip H.
2016-08-01
In order to quantify the influence of magnetic fields on acoustic mode parameters and flows in and around active regions, we analyze the differences in the parameters in magnetically quiet regions nearby an active region (which we call “nearby regions”), compared with those of quiet regions at the same disk locations for which there are no neighboring active regions. We also compare the mode parameters in active regions with those in comparably located quiet regions. Our analysis is based on ring-diagram analysis of all active regions observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) during almost five years. We find that the frequency at which the mode amplitude changes from attenuation to amplification in the quiet nearby regions is around 4.2 mHz, in contrast to the active regions, for which it is about 5.1 mHz. This amplitude enhacement (the “acoustic halo effect”) is as large as that observed in the active regions, and has a very weak dependence on the wave propagation direction. The mode energy difference in nearby regions also changes from a deficit to an excess at around 4.2 mHz, but averages to zero over all modes. The frequency difference in nearby regions increases with increasing frequency until a point at which the frequency shifts turn over sharply, as in active regions. However, this turnover occurs around 4.9 mHz, which is significantly below the acoustic cutoff frequency. Inverting the horizontal flow parameters in the direction of the neigboring active regions, we find flows that are consistent with a model of the thermal energy flow being blocked directly below the active region.
[INVITED] Laser generation and detection of ultrafast shear acoustic waves in solids and liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pezeril, Thomas
2016-09-01
The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the up-to-date findings related to ultrafast shear acoustic waves. Recent progress obtained for the laser generation and detection of picosecond shear acoustic waves in solids and liquids is reviewed. Examples in which the transverse isotropic symmetry of the sample structure is broken in order to permit shear acoustic wave generation through sudden laser heating are described in detail. Alternative photo-induced mechanisms for ultrafast shear acoustic generation in metals, semiconductors, insulators, magnetostrictive, piezoelectric and electrostrictive materials are reviewed as well. With reference to key experiments, an all-optical technique employed to probe longitudinal and shear structural dynamics in the GHz frequency range in ultra-thin liquid films is described. This technique, based on specific ultrafast shear acoustic transducers, has opened new perspectives that will be discussed for ultrafast shear acoustic probing of viscoelastic liquids at the nanometer scale.
Solid explosive plane-wave lenses pressed-to-shape with dies
Olinger, B.
2007-11-01
Solid-explosive plane-wave lenses 1", 2" and 4¼" in diameter have been mass-produced from components pressed-to-shape with aluminum dies. The method used to calculate the contour between the solid plane-wave lens components pressed-to-shape with the dies is explained. The steps taken to press, machine, and assemble the lenses are described. The method of testing the lenses, the results of those tests, and the corrections to the dies are reviewed. The work on the ½", 8", and 12" diameter lenses is also discussed.
Probing the smearing effect by a pointlike graviton in the plane-wave matrix model
Lee, Bum-Hoon; Nam, Siyoung; Shin, Hyeonjoon
2010-08-15
We investigate the interaction between a flat membrane and pointlike graviton in the plane-wave matrix model. The one-loop effective potential in the large-distance limit is computed and is shown to be of r{sup -3} type where r is the distance between two objects. This type of interaction has been interpreted as the one incorporating the smearing effect due to the configuration of a flat membrane in a plane-wave background. Our results support this interpretation and provide more evidence about it.
Frequency-Dependent Spherical-Wave Reflection in Acoustic Media: Analysis and Inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jingnan; Wang, Shangxu; Wang, Jingbo; Dong, Chunhui; Yuan, Sanyi
2017-02-01
Spherical-wave reflectivity (SWR), which describes the seismic wave reflection in real subsurface media more accurately than plane-wave reflectivity (PWR), recently, again attracts geophysicists' attention. The recent studies mainly focus on the amplitude variation with offset/angle (AVO/AVA) attributes of SWR. For a full understanding of the reflection mechanism of spherical wave, this paper systematically investigates the frequency-dependent characteristics of SWR in a two-layer acoustic medium model with a planar interface. Two methods are used to obtain SWR. The first method is through the calculation of classical Sommerfeld integral. The other is by 3D wave equation numerical modeling. To enhance computation efficiency, we propose to perform wave equation simulation in cylindrical coordinates, wherein we for the first time implement unsplit convolutional perfectly matched layer as the absorbing boundary. Both methods yield the same results, which demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the computation. From both the numerical tests and the theoretical demonstration, we find that the necessary condition when frequency dependence of SWR occurs is that the upper and lower media have different velocities. At the precritical small angle, the SWR exhibits complicated frequency-dependent characteristics for varying medium parameters. Especially when the impedance of upper medium equals that of lower one, the PWR is zero according to geometric seismics. Whereas the SWR is nonzero: the magnitude of SWR decreases with growing frequency, and approaches that of the corresponding PWR at high frequency; the phase of SWR increases with growing frequency, but approaches 90° or -90° at high frequency. At near- and post-critical angles, large difference exists between SWR and PWR, and the difference is particularly great at low frequencies. Finally, we propose a nonlinear inversion method to estimate physical parameters and interface depth of media by utilizing the frequency
Statistics of nodal points of in-plane random waves in elastic media.
Maksimov, Dmitrii N; Sadreev, Almas F
2008-05-01
We consider the nodal points (NPs) u=0 and v=0 of the in-plane vectorial displacements u=(u,v) which obey the Navier-Cauchy equation. Similar to the Berry conjecture of quantum chaos, we present the in-plane eigenstates of chaotic billiards as the real part of the superposition of longitudinal and transverse plane waves with random phases. By an average over random phases we derive the mean density and correlation function of NPs. Consequently we consider the distribution of the nearest distances between NPs.
Flow induced dust acoustic shock waves in a complex plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaiswal, Surabhi; Bandyopadhyay, Pintu; Sen, Abhijit
2015-11-01
We report on experimental observations of particle flow induced large amplitude shock waves in a dusty plasma. These dust acoustic shocks (DAS) are observed for strongly supersonic flows and have been studied in a U-shaped Dusty Plasma Experimental (DPEx) device for charged kaolin dust in a background of Argon plasma. The strong flow of the dust fluid is induced by adjusting the pumping speed and neutral gas flow into the device. An isolated copper wire mounted on the cathode acts as a potential barrier to the flow of dust particles. A sudden change of the dust density near the potential hill is used to trigger the onset of high velocity dust acoustic shocks. The dynamics of the shocks are captured by fast video pictures of the structures that are illuminated by a laser sheet beam. The physical characteristics of the shock are delineated from a parametric scan of their dynamical properties over a range of plasma parameters and flow speeds. Details of these observations and a physical explanation based on model calculations will be presented.
A Comparison of Surface Acoustic Wave Modeling Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, W. c.; Atkinson, G. M.
2009-01-01
Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) technology is low cost, rugged, lightweight, extremely low power and can be used to develop passive wireless sensors. For these reasons, NASA is investigating the use of SAW technology for Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace structures. To facilitate rapid prototyping of passive SAW sensors for aerospace applications, SAW models have been developed. This paper reports on the comparison of three methods of modeling SAWs. The three models are the Impulse Response Method a first order model, and two second order matrix methods; the conventional matrix approach, and a modified matrix approach that is extended to include internal finger reflections. The second order models are based upon matrices that were originally developed for analyzing microwave circuits using transmission line theory. Results from the models are presented with measured data from devices.
Multilayer-graphene-based amplifier of surface acoustic waves
Yurchenko, Stanislav O. Komarov, Kirill A.; Pustovoit, Vladislav I.
2015-05-15
The amplification of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) by a multilayer graphene (MLG)-based amplifier is studied. The conductivity of massless carriers (electrons or holes) in graphene in an external drift electric field is calculated using Boltzmann’s equation. At some carrier drift velocities, the real part of the variable conductivity becomes negative and MLG can be employed in SAW amplifiers. Amplification of Blustein’s and Rayleigh’s SAWs in CdS, a piezoelectric hexagonal crystal of the symmetry group C{sub 6v}, is considered. The corresponding equations for SAW propagation in the device are derived and can be applied to other substrate crystals of the same symmetry. The results of the paper indicate that MLG can be considered as a perspective material for SAW amplification and related applications.
Application of acoustic surface wave technology to shuttle radar
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1975-01-01
The application of surface acoustic wave (SAW) signal processing devices in the space shuttle was explored. In order to demonstrate the functions which a SAW device might perform, a breadboard pulse compression filter (PCF) module was assembled. The PCF permits a pulse radar to operate with a large duty cycle and low peak power, a regime favorable to the use of solid state RF sources. The transducer design, strong coupling compensation, circuit model analysis, fabrication limitations, and performance evaluation of a PCF are described. The nominal value of the compression ratio is 100:1 with 10-MHz bandwidth centered at 60 MHz and 10-microsecond dispersive delay. The PCF incorporates dispersive interdigital transducers and a piezoelectric lithium niobate substrate.
Transport Powder and Liquid Samples by Surface Acoustic Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Louyeh, Sahar
2009-01-01
Sample transport is an important requirement for In-situ analysis of samples in NASA planetary exploration missions. Tests have shown that powders or liquid drops on a surface can be transported by surface acoustic waves (SAW) that are generated on the surface using interdigital transducers. The phenomena were investigated experimentally and to generate SAWs interdigital electrodes were deposited on wafers of 128 deg rotated Y-cut LiNbO?. Transporting capability of the SAW device was tested using particles of various sizes and drops of various viscosities liquids. Because of different interaction mechanisms with the SAWs, the powders and the liquid drops were observed to move in opposite directions. In the preliminary tests, a speed of 180 mm/s was achieved for powder transportation. The detailed experimental setup and results are presented in this paper. The transporting mechanism can potentially be applied to miniaturize sample analysis system or " lab-on-chip" devices.
Surface Acoustic Wave Tag-Based Coherence Multiplexing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Malocha, Donald (Inventor); Saldanha, Nancy (Inventor)
2016-01-01
A surface acoustic wave (SAW)-based coherence multiplexing system includes SAW tags each including a SAW transducer, a first SAW reflector positioned a first distance from the SAW transducer and a second SAW reflector positioned a second distance from the SAW transducer. A transceiver including a wireless transmitter has a signal source providing a source signal and circuitry for transmitting interrogation pulses including a first and a second interrogation pulse toward the SAW tags, and a wireless receiver for receiving and processing response signals from the SAW tags. The receiver receives scrambled signals including a convolution of the wideband interrogation pulses with response signals from the SAW tags and includes a computing device which implements an algorithm that correlates the interrogation pulses or the source signal before transmitting against the scrambled signals to generate tag responses for each of the SAW tags.
Surface acoustic wave sensing of VOCs in harsh chemical environments
Pfeifer, K.B.; Martin, S.J.; Ricco, A.J.
1993-06-01
The measurement of VOC concentrations in harsh chemical and physical environments is a formidable task. A surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor has been designed for this purpose and its construction and testing are described in this paper. Included is a detailed description of the design elements specific to operation in 300{degree}C steam and HCl environments including temperature control, gas handling, and signal processing component descriptions. In addition, laboratory temperature stability was studied and a minimum detection limit was defined for operation in industrial environments. Finally, a description of field tests performed on steam reforming equipment at Synthetica Technologies Inc. of Richmond, CA is given including a report on destruction efficiency of CCl{sub 4} in the Synthetica moving bed evaporator. Design improvements based on the field tests are proposed.
Surface acoustic wave coding for orthogonal frequency coded devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Malocha, Donald (Inventor); Kozlovski, Nikolai (Inventor)
2011-01-01
Methods and systems for coding SAW OFC devices to mitigate code collisions in a wireless multi-tag system. Each device producing plural stepped frequencies as an OFC signal with a chip offset delay to increase code diversity. A method for assigning a different OCF to each device includes using a matrix based on the number of OFCs needed and the number chips per code, populating each matrix cell with OFC chip, and assigning the codes from the matrix to the devices. The asynchronous passive multi-tag system includes plural surface acoustic wave devices each producing a different OFC signal having the same number of chips and including a chip offset time delay, an algorithm for assigning OFCs to each device, and a transceiver to transmit an interrogation signal and receive OFC signals in response with minimal code collisions during transmission.
Cyclodextrin-based surface acoustic wave chemical microsensors
Li, D.Q.; Shi, J.X.; Springer, K.; Swanson, B.I.
1996-07-01
Cyclodextrin thin films were fabricated using either self-assembled monolayer (SAM) or solgel techniques. The resulting host receptor thin films on the substrates of surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators were studied as method of tracking organic toxins in vapor phase. The mass loading of surface-attached host monolayers on SAW resonators gave frequency shifts corresponding to typical monolayer surface coverages for SAM methods and ``multilayer`` coverages for sol-gel techniques. Subsequent exposure of the coated SAW resonators to organic vapors at various concentrations, typically 5,000 parts per millions (ppm) down to 100 parts per billions (ppb) by mole, gave responses indicating middle-ppb-sensitivity ({approximately}50 ppb) for those sensor-host-receptors and organic-toxin pairs with optimum mutual matching of polarity, size, and structural properties.
Subharmonic phased array for crack evaluation using surface acoustic wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ouchi, Akihiro; Sugawara, Azusa; Ohara, Yoshikazu; Yamanaka, Kazushi
2015-07-01
To accurately measure closed crack length, we proposed an imaging method using a subharmonic phased array for crack evaluation using surface acoustic waves (SAW SPACE) with water immersion. We applied SAW SPACE to the hole specimen in a fundamental array (FA) image. The hole was imaged with high resolution. Subsequently, SAW SPACE was applied to fatigue crack and stress corrosion crack (SCC) specimens. A fatigue crack was imaged in FA and subharmonic array (SA) images, and the length of this particular fatigue crack measured in the images was almost the same as that measured by optical observation. The SCC was imaged and its length was accurately measured in the SA image, whereas it was underestimated in the FA image and by optical observation. Thus, we demonstrated that SAW SPACE with water immersion is useful for the accurate measurement of closed crack length and for imaging the distribution of open and closed parts of cracks with high resolution.
Multilayer-graphene-based amplifier of surface acoustic waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yurchenko, Stanislav O.; Komarov, Kirill A.; Pustovoit, Vladislav I.
2015-05-01
The amplification of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) by a multilayer graphene (MLG)-based amplifier is studied. The conductivity of massless carriers (electrons or holes) in graphene in an external drift electric field is calculated using Boltzmann's equation. At some carrier drift velocities, the real part of the variable conductivity becomes negative and MLG can be employed in SAW amplifiers. Amplification of Blustein's and Rayleigh's SAWs in CdS, a piezoelectric hexagonal crystal of the symmetry group C6v, is considered. The corresponding equations for SAW propagation in the device are derived and can be applied to other substrate crystals of the same symmetry. The results of the paper indicate that MLG can be considered as a perspective material for SAW amplification and related applications.