Micro acoustic spectrum analyzer
Schubert, W. Kent; Butler, Michael A.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Anderson, Larry F.
2004-11-23
A micro acoustic spectrum analyzer for determining the frequency components of a fluctuating sound signal comprises a microphone to pick up the fluctuating sound signal and produce an alternating current electrical signal; at least one microfabricated resonator, each resonator having a different resonant frequency, that vibrate in response to the alternating current electrical signal; and at least one detector to detect the vibration of the microfabricated resonators. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer can further comprise a mixer to mix a reference signal with the alternating current electrical signal from the microphone to shift the frequency spectrum to a frequency range that is a better matched to the resonant frequencies of the microfabricated resonators. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer can be designed specifically for portability, size, cost, accuracy, speed, power requirements, and use in a harsh environment. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer is particularly suited for applications where size, accessibility, and power requirements are limited, such as the monitoring of industrial equipment and processes, detection of security intrusions, or evaluation of military threats.
Baryon acoustic oscillations in 2D: Modeling redshift-space power spectrum from perturbation theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taruya, Atsushi; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Saito, Shun
2010-09-01
We present an improved prescription for the matter power spectrum in redshift space taking proper account of both nonlinear gravitational clustering and redshift distortion, which are of particular importance for accurately modeling baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs). Contrary to the models of redshift distortion phenomenologically introduced but frequently used in the literature, the new model includes the corrections arising from the nonlinear coupling between the density and velocity fields associated with two competitive effects of redshift distortion, i.e., Kaiser and Finger-of-God effects. Based on the improved treatment of perturbation theory for gravitational clustering, we compare our model predictions with the monopole and quadrupole power spectra of N-body simulations, and an excellent agreement is achieved over the scales of BAOs. Potential impacts on constraining dark energy and modified gravity from the redshift-space power spectrum are also investigated based on the Fisher-matrix formalism, particularly focusing on the measurements of the Hubble parameter, angular diameter distance, and growth rate for structure formation. We find that the existing phenomenological models of redshift distortion produce a systematic error on measurements of the angular diameter distance and Hubble parameter by 1%-2% , and the growth-rate parameter by ˜5%, which would become non-negligible for future galaxy surveys. Correctly modeling redshift distortion is thus essential, and the new prescription for the redshift-space power spectrum including the nonlinear corrections can be used as an accurate theoretical template for anisotropic BAOs.
Baryon acoustic oscillations in 2D: Modeling redshift-space power spectrum from perturbation theory
Taruya, Atsushi; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Saito, Shun
2010-09-15
We present an improved prescription for the matter power spectrum in redshift space taking proper account of both nonlinear gravitational clustering and redshift distortion, which are of particular importance for accurately modeling baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs). Contrary to the models of redshift distortion phenomenologically introduced but frequently used in the literature, the new model includes the corrections arising from the nonlinear coupling between the density and velocity fields associated with two competitive effects of redshift distortion, i.e., Kaiser and Finger-of-God effects. Based on the improved treatment of perturbation theory for gravitational clustering, we compare our model predictions with the monopole and quadrupole power spectra of N-body simulations, and an excellent agreement is achieved over the scales of BAOs. Potential impacts on constraining dark energy and modified gravity from the redshift-space power spectrum are also investigated based on the Fisher-matrix formalism, particularly focusing on the measurements of the Hubble parameter, angular diameter distance, and growth rate for structure formation. We find that the existing phenomenological models of redshift distortion produce a systematic error on measurements of the angular diameter distance and Hubble parameter by 1%-2%, and the growth-rate parameter by {approx}5%, which would become non-negligible for future galaxy surveys. Correctly modeling redshift distortion is thus essential, and the new prescription for the redshift-space power spectrum including the nonlinear corrections can be used as an accurate theoretical template for anisotropic BAOs.
Aghamousa, Amir; Shafieloo, Arman; Arjunwadkar, Mihir; Souradeep, Tarun E-mail: shafieloo@kasi.re.kr E-mail: tarun@iucaa.ernet.in
2015-02-01
Estimation of the angular power spectrum is one of the important steps in Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data analysis. Here, we present a nonparametric estimate of the temperature angular power spectrum for the Planck 2013 CMB data. The method implemented in this work is model-independent, and allows the data, rather than the model, to dictate the fit. Since one of the main targets of our analysis is to test the consistency of the ΛCDM model with Planck 2013 data, we use the nuisance parameters associated with the best-fit ΛCDM angular power spectrum to remove foreground contributions from the data at multipoles ℓ ≥50. We thus obtain a combined angular power spectrum data set together with the full covariance matrix, appropriately weighted over frequency channels. Our subsequent nonparametric analysis resolves six peaks (and five dips) up to ℓ ∼1850 in the temperature angular power spectrum. We present uncertainties in the peak/dip locations and heights at the 95% confidence level. We further show how these reflect the harmonicity of acoustic peaks, and can be used for acoustic scale estimation. Based on this nonparametric formalism, we found the best-fit ΛCDM model to be at 36% confidence distance from the center of the nonparametric confidence set—this is considerably larger than the confidence distance (9%) derived earlier from a similar analysis of the WMAP 7-year data. Another interesting result of our analysis is that at low multipoles, the Planck data do not suggest any upturn, contrary to the expectation based on the integrated Sachs-Wolfe contribution in the best-fit ΛCDM cosmology.
Powered-Lift Aerodynamics and Acoustics. [conferences
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1976-01-01
Powered lift technology is reviewed. Topics covered include: (1) high lift aerodynamics; (2) high speed and cruise aerodynamics; (3) acoustics; (4) propulsion aerodynamics and acoustics; (5) aerodynamic and acoustic loads; and (6) full-scale and flight research.
Distribution of Acoustic Power Spectra for an Isolated Helicopter Fuselage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kusyumov, A. N.; Mikhailov, S. A.; Garipova, L. I.; Batrakov, A. S.; Barakos, G.
2016-03-01
The broadband aerodynamic noise can be studied, assuming isotropic flow, turbulence and decay. Proudman's approach allows practical calculations of noise based on CFD solutions of RANS or URANS equations at the stage of post processing and analysis of the solution. Another aspect is the broadband acoustic spectrum and the distribution of acoustic power over a range of frequencies. The acoustic energy spectrum distribution in isotropic turbulence is non monotonic and has a maximum at a certain value of Strouhal number. In the present work the value of acoustic power peak frequency is determined using a prescribed form of acoustic energy spectrum distribution presented in papers by S. Sarkar and M. Y. Hussaini and by G. M. Lilley. CFD modelling of the flow around isolated helicopter fuselage model was considered using the HMB CFD code and the RANS equations.
Applications of Bayesian spectrum representation in acoustics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Botts, Jonathan M.
This dissertation utilizes a Bayesian inference framework to enhance the solution of inverse problems where the forward model maps to acoustic spectra. A Bayesian solution to filter design inverts a acoustic spectra to pole-zero locations of a discrete-time filter model. Spatial sound field analysis with a spherical microphone array is a data analysis problem that requires inversion of spatio-temporal spectra to directions of arrival. As with many inverse problems, a probabilistic analysis results in richer solutions than can be achieved with ad-hoc methods. In the filter design problem, the Bayesian inversion results in globally optimal coefficient estimates as well as an estimate the most concise filter capable of representing the given spectrum, within a single framework. This approach is demonstrated on synthetic spectra, head-related transfer function spectra, and measured acoustic reflection spectra. The Bayesian model-based analysis of spatial room impulse responses is presented as an analogous problem with equally rich solution. The model selection mechanism provides an estimate of the number of arrivals, which is necessary to properly infer the directions of simultaneous arrivals. Although, spectrum inversion problems are fairly ubiquitous, the scope of this dissertation has been limited to these two and derivative problems. The Bayesian approach to filter design is demonstrated on an artificial spectrum to illustrate the model comparison mechanism and then on measured head-related transfer functions to show the potential range of application. Coupled with sampling methods, the Bayesian approach is shown to outperform least-squares filter design methods commonly used in commercial software, confirming the need for a global search of the parameter space. The resulting designs are shown to be comparable to those that result from global optimization methods, but the Bayesian approach has the added advantage of a filter length estimate within the same unified
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Jung-Ryul; Lee, Seung-Seok; Yoon, Dong-Jin
2008-08-01
This paper introduces the development of a simultaneous multipoint acoustic emission (AE) sensing system using a narrowband tuneable laser with high power and fibre acoustic wave grating sensors (FAWGSs). The demodulation technique is the same as that used in existing methods where the narrowband laser peak is tuned to one mid-reflection point in the main lobe of a fibre Bragg grating (FBG) spectrum. However, the sensor head is changed to an FAWGS for which a FBG is installed in a strain-free configuration so that it can detect AE waves in a structure not directly but in the form of a fibre-guided acoustic wave. Therefore since the structural strain cannot make the Bragg wavelength change, multiple FBGs with identical spectrum can be connected with multiple optical paths realized by equal light intensity dividers. The possible temperature difference between the multiple FAWGSs is passively resolved by using short FBGs which provide a wider operating temperature region. Consequently, we can resolve the problem that the FBG spectrum is easily deviated from the lasing wavelength because of the strain. In addition, the simultaneous multipoint sensing capability based on a single laser improves the cost-performance ratio of the optical system as well as reducing the structural inspection time, and enabling in situ health monitoring of real structures exposed to large and dynamic strains. The feasibility of the system is demonstrated in typical applications of in situ structural health monitoring based on AE techniques.
Indirect measurement of the thermal-acoustic efficiency spectrum of a long turbulent burner
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mahan, J. R.; Jones, J. D.; Blevins, L. R.; Cline, J. G.
1983-01-01
A new method is described for deducing the thermal-acoustic efficiency spectrum (defined as the fraction of combustion heat release converted to acoustic energy at a given frequency) of a long turbulent burner from the sound spectrum measured in the far field. The method, which is based on a one-dimensional model of the unsteady flow in the burner, is applied to a tubular diffusion-flame hydrogen burner whose length is large compared to its diameter. The results for thermal powers ranging from 4.5 to 22.3 kW show that the thermal-acoustic efficiency is relatively insensitive to the burner power level, decreasing from a value of around 0.0001 at 150 Hz with a slope of about 20 dB per decade. Evidence is presented indicating that acoustic agitation of the flame below 500 Hz, especially in the neighborhood of the resonant frequencies of the burner, is a significant acoustic source.
Primordial power spectrum from Planck
Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Shafieloo, Arman; Souradeep, Tarun E-mail: arman@apctp.org
2014-11-01
Using modified Richardson-Lucy algorithm we reconstruct the primordial power spectrum (PPS) from Planck Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature anisotropy data. In our analysis we use different combinations of angular power spectra from Planck to reconstruct the shape of the primordial power spectrum and locate possible features. Performing an extensive error analysis we found the dip near ℓ ∼ 750–850 represents the most prominent feature in the data. Feature near ℓ ∼ 1800–2000 is detectable with high confidence only in 217 GHz spectrum and is apparently consequence of a small systematic as described in the revised Planck 2013 papers. Fixing the background cosmological parameters and the foreground nuisance parameters to their best fit baseline values, we report that the best fit power law primordial power spectrum is consistent with the reconstructed form of the PPS at 2σ C.L. of the estimated errors (apart from the local features mentioned above). As a consistency test, we found the reconstructed primordial power spectrum from Planck temperature data can also substantially improve the fit to WMAP-9 angular power spectrum data (with respect to power-law form of the PPS) allowing an overall amplitude shift of ∼ 2.5%. In this context low-ℓ and 100 GHz spectrum from Planck which have proper overlap in the multipole range with WMAP data found to be completely consistent with WMAP-9 (allowing amplitude shift). As another important result of our analysis we do report the evidence of gravitational lensing through the reconstruction analysis. Finally we present two smooth form of the PPS containing only the important features. These smooth forms of PPS can provide significant improvements in fitting the data (with respect to the power law PPS) and can be helpful to give hints for inflationary model building.
Modelling the TSZ power spectrum
Bhattacharya, Suman; Shaw, Laurie D; Nagai, Daisuke
2010-01-01
The structure formation in university is a hierarchical process. As universe evolves, tiny density fluctuations that existed in the early universe grows under gravitational instability to form massive large scale structures. The galaxy clusters are the massive viralized objects that forms by accreting smaller clumps of mass until they collapse under their self-gravity. As such galaxy clusters are the youngest objects in the universe which makes their abundance as a function of mass and redshift, very sensitive to dark energy. Galaxy clusters can be detected by measuring the richness in optical waveband, by measuring the X-ray flux, and in the microwave sky using Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. The Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect has long been recognized as a powerful tool for detecting clusters and probing the physics of the intra-cluster medium. Ongoing and future experiments like Atacama Cosmology Telescope, the South Pole Telescope and Planck survey are currently surveying the microwave sky to develop large catalogs of galaxy clusters that are uniformly selected by the SZ flux. However one major systematic uncertainties that cluster abundance is prone to is the connection between the cluster mass and the SZ flux. As shown by several simulation studies, the scatter and bias in the SZ flux-mass relation can be a potential source of systematic error to using clusters as a cosmology probe. In this study they take a semi-analytic approach for modeling the intra-cluster medium in order to predict the tSZ power spectrum. The advantage of this approach is, being analytic, one can vary the parameters describing gas physics and cosmology simultaneously. The model can be calibrated against X-ray observations of massive, low-z clusters, and using the SZ power spectrum which is sourced by high-z lower mass galaxy groups. This approach allows us to include the uncertainty in gas physics, as dictated by the current observational uncertainties, while measuring the cosmological
Power cepstrum technique with application to model helicopter acoustic data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, R. M.; Burley, C. L.
1986-01-01
The application of the power cepstrum to measured helicopter-rotor acoustic data is investigated. A previously applied correction to the reconstructed spectrum is shown to be incorrect. For an exact echoed signal, the amplitude of the cepstrum echo spike at the delay time is linearly related to the echo relative amplitude in the time domain. If the measured spectrum is not entirely from the source signal, the cepstrum will not yield the desired echo characteristics and a cepstral aliasing may occur because of the effective sample rate in the frequency domain. The spectral analysis bandwidth must be less than one-half the echo ripple frequency or cepstral aliasing can occur. The power cepstrum editing technique is a useful tool for removing some of the contamination because of acoustic reflections from measured rotor acoustic spectra. The cepstrum editing yields an improved estimate of the free field spectrum, but the correction process is limited by the lack of accurate knowledge of the echo transfer function. An alternate procedure, which does not require cepstral editing, is proposed which allows the complete correction of a contaminated spectrum through use of both the transfer function and delay time of the echo process.
Cosmic string power spectrum, bispectrum, and trispectrum
Regan, D. M.; Shellard, E. P. S.
2010-09-15
We use analytic calculations of the post-recombination gravitational effects of cosmic strings to estimate the resulting CMB power spectrum, bispectrum and trispectrum. We place a particular emphasis on multipole regimes relevant for forthcoming CMB experiments, notably the Planck satellite. These calculations use a flat-sky approximation, generalizing previous work by integrating string contributions from last scattering to the present day, finding the dominant contributions to the correlators for multipoles l>50. We find a well-behaved shape for the string bispectrum (without divergences) which is easily distinguishable from the inflationary bispectra which possess significant acoustic peaks. We estimate that the nonlinearity parameter characterizing the bispectrum is approximately 0 > or approx. f{sub NL} > or approx. -40 (given present string constraints from the CMB power spectrum). We also apply these unequal time correlator methods to calculate the trispectrum for parrallelogram configurations, again valid over a large range of angular scales relevant for WMAP and Planck, as well as on very small angular scales. We find that, unlike the bispectrum which is suppressed by symmetry considerations, the trispectrum for cosmic strings is large. Our current estimate for the trispectrum parameter is {tau}{sub NL{approx}}10{sup 5}, which may provide one of the strongest constraints on the string model in future analysis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siegel, Edward; Nabarro, Frank; Brailsford, Alan; Tatro, Clement
2011-06-01
NON-shock-plasticity/fracture BAE[E.S.:MSE 8,310(71);PSS:(a)5,601/607(71);Xl.-Latt. Defects 5,277(74);Scripta Met.:6,785(72); 8,587/617(74);3rd Tokyo AE Symp.(76);Acta Met. 25,383(77);JMMM 7,312(78)] ``1''/ ω-``noise'' power-spectrum ``pink''-Zipf-(NOT ``red''-Pareto) power-law UNIVERSALITY is manifestly-demonstrated in two distinct ways to be nothing but Newton Law of Motion F = ma REdiscovery!!!(aka ``Bak''(1988)-``SOC'':1687 < < < 1988: 1988-1687=301-years!!! PHYSICS:(1687) cross-multiplied F=ma rewritten as 1/m=a/F=OUTPUT/IN-PUT=EFFECT/CAUSE=inverse-mass mechanical-susceptibility=X(`` ω'') X(`` ω '') ~(F.-D. thm.) ~P(`` ω'') ``noise'' power-spectrum; (``Max & Al show''): E ~ ω , & E ~(or any/all media with upper-limiting-speeds) ~m. Thus: ω ~ E ~m inverting: 1/ ω ~ 1/E ~1/m ~a/F= X(`` ω'') ~ P(`` ω'') thus: F=ma integral-transform(I-T) is ```SOC'''s'' P(ω) ~ 1/ ω !!!; ``PURE''-MATHS: F=ma DOUBLE-integral time-series(T-S) s(t)=[v0t+(1/2)at2] I-T formally defines power-spectrum:
The REFLEX II galaxy cluster survey: power spectrum analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balaguera-Antolínez, A.; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Böhringer, H.; Collins, C.; Guzzo, L.; Phleps, S.
2011-05-01
We present the power spectrum of galaxy clusters measured from the new ROSAT-ESO Flux-Limited X-Ray (REFLEX II) galaxy cluster catalogue. This new sample extends the flux limit of the original REFLEX catalogue to 1.8 × 10-12 erg s-1 cm-2, yielding a total of 911 clusters with ≥94 per cent completeness in redshift follow-up. The analysis of the data is improved by creating a set of 100 REFLEX II-catalogue-like mock galaxy cluster catalogues built from a suite of large-volume Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) N-body simulations (L-BASICC II). The measured power spectrum is in agreement with the predictions from a ΛCDM cosmological model. The measurements show the expected increase in the amplitude of the power spectrum with increasing X-ray luminosity. On large scales, we show that the shape of the measured power spectrum is compatible with a scale-independent bias and provide a model for the amplitude that allows us to connect our measurements with a cosmological model. By implementing a luminosity-dependent power-spectrum estimator, we observe that the power spectrum measured from the REFLEX II sample is weakly affected by flux-selection effects. The shape of the measured power spectrum is compatible with a featureless power spectrum on scales k > 0.01 h Mpc-1 and hence no statistically significant signal of baryonic acoustic oscillations can be detected. We show that the measured REFLEX II power spectrum displays signatures of non-linear evolution.
Arguillat, Blandine; Ricot, Denis; Bailly, Christophe; Robert, Gilles
2010-10-01
Direct measurements of the wavenumber-frequency spectrum of wall pressure fluctuations beneath a turbulent plane channel flow have been performed in an anechoic wind tunnel. A rotative array has been designed that allows the measurement of a complete map, 63×63 measuring points, of cross-power spectral densities over a large area. An original post-processing has been developed to separate the acoustic and the aerodynamic exciting loadings by transforming space-frequency data into wavenumber-frequency spectra. The acoustic part has also been estimated from a simple Corcos-like model including the contribution of a diffuse sound field. The measured acoustic contribution to the surface pressure fluctuations is 5% of the measured aerodynamic surface pressure fluctuations for a velocity and boundary layer thickness relevant for automotive interior noise applications. This shows that for aerodynamically induced car interior noise, both contributions to the surface pressure fluctuations on car windows have to be taken into account.
Acoustic phonon spectrum and thermal transport in nanoporous alumina arrays
Kargar, Fariborz; Ramirez, Sylvester; Debnath, Bishwajit; Malekpour, Hoda; Lake, Roger; Balandin, Alexander A.
2015-10-28
We report results of a combined investigation of thermal conductivity and acoustic phonon spectra in nanoporous alumina membranes with the pore diameter decreasing from D=180 nm to 25 nm. The samples with the hexagonally arranged pores were selected to have the same porosity Ø ≈13%. The Brillouin-Mandelstam spectroscopy measurements revealed bulk-like phonon spectrum in the samples with D = 180 nm pores and spectral features, which were attributed to spatial confinement, in the samples with 25 nm and 40 nm pores. The velocity of the longitudinal acoustic phonons was reduced in the samples with smaller pores. As a result, analysis of the experimental data and calculated phonon dispersion suggests that both phonon-boundary scattering and phonon spatial confinement affect heat conduction in membranes with the feature sizes D < 40 nm.
Acoustic phonon spectrum and thermal transport in nanoporous alumina arrays
Kargar, Fariborz; Ramirez, Sylvester; Debnath, Bishwajit; Malekpour, Hoda; Lake, Roger; Balandin, Alexander A.
2015-10-28
We report results of a combined investigation of thermal conductivity and acoustic phonon spectra in nanoporous alumina membranes with the pore diameter decreasing from D=180 nm to 25 nm. The samples with the hexagonally arranged pores were selected to have the same porosity Ø ≈13%. The Brillouin-Mandelstam spectroscopy measurements revealed bulk-like phonon spectrum in the samples with D=180-nm pores and spectral features, which were attributed to spatial confinement, in the samples with 25-nm and 40-nm pores. The velocity of the longitudinal acoustic phonons was reduced in the samples with smaller pores. As a result, analysis of the experimental data and calculated phonon dispersion suggests that both phonon-boundary scattering and phonon spatial confinement affect heat conduction in membranes with the feature sizes D<40 nm.
Acoustic phonon spectrum and thermal transport in nanoporous alumina arrays
Kargar, Fariborz; Ramirez, Sylvester; Debnath, Bishwajit; Malekpour, Hoda; Lake, Roger; Balandin, Alexander A.
2015-10-28
We report results of a combined investigation of thermal conductivity and acoustic phonon spectra in nanoporous alumina membranes with the pore diameter decreasing from D=180 nm to 25 nm. The samples with the hexagonally arranged pores were selected to have the same porosity Ø ≈13%. The Brillouin-Mandelstam spectroscopy measurements revealed bulk-like phonon spectrum in the samples with D = 180 nm pores and spectral features, which were attributed to spatial confinement, in the samples with 25 nm and 40 nm pores. The velocity of the longitudinal acoustic phonons was reduced in the samples with smaller pores. As a result, analysismore » of the experimental data and calculated phonon dispersion suggests that both phonon-boundary scattering and phonon spatial confinement affect heat conduction in membranes with the feature sizes D < 40 nm.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siegel, Edward
2015-06-01
NON-shock plasticity/fracture BAE[E.S.:MSE 8,310(71); PSS:(a)5,601/607(71); Xl.-Latt.Defects 5,277(74); Scripta Met.:6,785(72); 8,587/617(74); 3rd Tokyo AE Symp.(76); Acta Met. 5,383(77); JMMM 7,312(78)] ``1''/ ω-``noise'' power-spectrum ``pink''-Zipf(NOT ``red'' =Pareto) power-law UNIVERSALITY is manifestly-demonstrated in two distinct ways to be nothing but Newton 3rd Law of Motion F = ma REdiscovery!!! (aka ``Bak''(1988)-``SOC'':1687 <<<1988: 1988-1687 =301-years!!! PHYSICS:F =ma cross-multiplied as 1/m =a/F =OUTPUT/INPUT = EFFECT/CAUSE =inverse-mass mechanical-susceptibility = χ (`` ω'') χ(`` ω'') ~(F.-D.thm.) ~P(`` ω'') ``noise'' power-spectrum; (``Max & Al show''): E ~ ω & E ~ (upper-limiting-speeds media) ~m. Thus: ω ~ E ~m Inverting: 1/ ω ~ 1/E ~1/m ~a/F = χ (`` ω'') ~P(`` ω'') Thus: F =ma integral-transform(I-T) is ````SOC'''s'' P(ω) ~ 1/ ω!!! ; ''PURE''-MATHS: F =ma DOUBLE-integral time-series(T-S) s(t) =[v0t +(1/2)at2] I-T formally de?nes power-spectrum(PS): P(ω) ≡ ∫ s(t)e-iωtdt = ∫ [vot +(1/2)at2]e-iωtdt = vo ∫ a(t)e-iωtdt +(1/2)[a ≠a(t)] ∫t2e-iωtdt =vo(∂ / ∂ω) δ(ω) + (1/2)[a ≠a(t)](∂2/ ∂ω2) δ(ω) = vo/ω0 + (1/2)[a ≠a(t)]/ω 1 . 000 ...; uniform-velocity a =0 PS P(ω) = 1/ωo WHITE vs. uniform:-a>0a<0) PS P(ω) = 1/ω 1 . 000 ... pink/flicker/HYPERBOLICITY.
Hierarchical cosmic shear power spectrum inference
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alsing, Justin; Heavens, Alan; Jaffe, Andrew H.; Kiessling, Alina; Wandelt, Benjamin; Hoffmann, Till
2016-02-01
We develop a Bayesian hierarchical modelling approach for cosmic shear power spectrum inference, jointly sampling from the posterior distribution of the cosmic shear field and its (tomographic) power spectra. Inference of the shear power spectrum is a powerful intermediate product for a cosmic shear analysis, since it requires very few model assumptions and can be used to perform inference on a wide range of cosmological models a posteriori without loss of information. We show that joint posterior for the shear map and power spectrum can be sampled effectively by Gibbs sampling, iteratively drawing samples from the map and power spectrum, each conditional on the other. This approach neatly circumvents difficulties associated with complicated survey geometry and masks that plague frequentist power spectrum estimators, since the power spectrum inference provides prior information about the field in masked regions at every sampling step. We demonstrate this approach for inference of tomographic shear E-mode, B-mode and EB-cross power spectra from a simulated galaxy shear catalogue with a number of important features; galaxies distributed on the sky and in redshift with photometric redshift uncertainties, realistic random ellipticity noise for every galaxy and a complicated survey mask. The obtained posterior distributions for the tomographic power spectrum coefficients recover the underlying simulated power spectra for both E- and B-modes.
Stilp, Christian E
2014-03-01
Recent research has demonstrated a strong relationship between information-bearing acoustic changes in the speech signal and speech intelligibility. The availability of information-bearing acoustic changes reliably predicts intelligibility of full-spectrum [Stilp and Kluender (2010). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(27), 12387-12392] and noise-vocoded sentences amid noise interruption [Stilp et al. (2013). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133(2), EL136-EL141]. However, other research reports that proportion of signal duration preserved also predicts intelligibility of noise-interrupted speech. These factors have only ever been investigated independently, obscuring whether one better explains speech perception. The present experiments manipulated both factors to answer this question. A broad range of sentence durations (160-480 ms) containing high or low information-bearing acoustic changes were replaced by speech-shaped noise in noise-vocoded (Experiment 1) and full-spectrum sentences (Experiment 2). Sentence intelligibility worsened with increasing noise replacement, but in both experiments, information-bearing acoustic change was a statistically superior predictor of performance. Perception relied more heavily on information-bearing acoustic changes in poorer listening conditions (in spectrally degraded sentences and amid increasing noise replacement). Highly linear relationships between measures of information and performance suggest that exploiting information-bearing acoustic change is a shared principle underlying perception of acoustically rich and degraded speech. Results demonstrate the explanatory power of information-theoretic approaches for speech perception.
Acoustic monitoring of power-plant valves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allen, J. W.; Hartman, W. F.; Robinson, J. C.
1982-06-01
Advanced surveillance diagnostics were applied to key nuclear power plant valves to improve the availability of the power plant. Two types of valves were monitored: BWR three-stage, pilot-operated safety/relief valves and PWR feedwater control valves. Excessive leakage across the pilot-disc seat in BWR safety/relief valves can cause the second-stage pressure to reach the critical value that activates the valve, even though the set pressure was not exceeded. Acoustic emissions created by the leak noise were monitored and calibrated to indicate incipient activation of the safety/relief valve. Hydrodynamic, vibration, control and process signals from PWR feedwater control valves were monitored by a mini-computer based surveillance system. On-line analysis of these signals coupled with earlier analytic modelling identified: (1) cavitation, (2) changes in steam packaging tightness, (3) valve stem torquing, (4) transducer oscillations, and (5) peak vibration levels during power transients.
Woodwind Tone Hole Acoustics and the Spectrum Transformation Function.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keefe, Douglas Howard
This report describes an investigation of woodwind musical instrument tone holes and their effect on the radiated spectrum, the total dissipation, the stability of oscillation, the psychoacoustical cues important in perception, and the tuning and response of the instrument. Varying tone hole proportions significantly affect the radiative and frictional damping near a single hole, the mutual interactions between holes, the onset of streaming and turbulence near the holes, and the perceived woodwind timbre. The interconnections between related fields are explored through a brief review of sound production in woodwinds plus more extensive reviews of room and psychological acoustics. A theoretical and experimental discussion of the spectrum transformation function from the mouthpiece into the room relates all these fields. Also, considered are differences between cylindrical and conical bore woodwinds, the systematic shifts in saxophone spectra produced by the beating of the reed, the coupling of many closely spaced tone holes to the room excitation, the role of the player, and the results pertaining to computer music synthesis. The complicated acoustical flow inside the main air column near a single tone hole has been examined using a Green function, integral equation approach. A variational formulation allows explicit calculation of the open and closed hole impedance parameters needed in the transmission line description of a woodwind, and experiments have verified the theory in detail. Major acoustical topics considered are listed below. The effective length t(,e) of an open hole, relevant for instrument design and modification, is calculated and measured in terms of the main bore diameter 2a, hole diameter 2b, and the height t of the hole chimney; the effect of a hanging pad is a semi-empirical correction on t(,e). When the fundamental plane-wave mode of the main air column oscillation is at a pressure node, both the open and closed hole series impedances are
Selectively manipulable acoustic-powered microswimmers
Ahmed, Daniel; Lu, Mengqian; Nourhani, Amir; Lammert, Paul E.; Stratton, Zak; Muddana, Hari S.; Crespi, Vincent H.; Huang, Tony Jun
2015-01-01
Selective actuation of a single microswimmer from within a diverse group would be a first step toward collaborative guided action by a group of swimmers. Here we describe a new class of microswimmer that accomplishes this goal. Our swimmer design overcomes the commonly-held design paradigm that microswimmers must use non-reciprocal motion to achieve propulsion; instead, the swimmer is propelled by oscillatory motion of an air bubble trapped within the swimmer's polymer body. This oscillatory motion is driven by the application of a low-power acoustic field, which is biocompatible with biological samples and with the ambient liquid. This acoustically-powered microswimmer accomplishes controllable and rapid translational and rotational motion, even in highly viscous liquids (with viscosity 6,000 times higher than that of water). And by using a group of swimmers each with a unique bubble size (and resulting unique resonance frequencies), selective actuation of a single swimmer from among the group can be readily achieved. PMID:25993314
Low power acoustic harvesting of aerosols
Kaduchak, G.; Sinha, D. N.
2001-01-01
A new acoustic device for levitation and/or concentration of aerosols and sniall liquid/solid samples (up to several millimeters in diameter) in air has been developed. The device is inexpensive, low-power, and, in its simplest embodiment, does not require accurate alignmen1 of a resonant cavity. It is constructed from a cylindrical PZT tube of outside diameter D = 19.0 mm and thickness-to-radius ratio h/a - 0.03. The lowest-order breathing mode of the tube is tuned to match a resonant mode of the interior air-filled cylindrical cavity. A high Q cavity results that can be driven efficiently. An acoustic standing wave is created in the inteirior cavity of the cylindrical shell where particle concrmtration takes place at the nodal planes of the field. It is shown that drops of water in excess of 1 mm in diameter may be levitated against the force of gravity for approxirnately 100 mW of input electrical power. The main objective of the research is to implement this lowpower device to concentrate and harvest aerosols in a flowing system. Several different cavity geonietries iwe presented for efficient collection of 1 he conaartratetl aerosols. Concentraiion factors greater than 40 iue demonstrated for particles of size 0.7 1.1 in a flow volume of 50 L/minute.
Acoustic monitoring of power plant valves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allen, J. W.; Hartman, W. F.; Robinson, J. C.
1982-06-01
Advanced surveillance diagnostics were applied to key nuclear power plant valves to improve the availability of the power plant. Two types of valves were monitored: boiling water reactor (BWR) three-stage, pilot-operated safety/relief valves and pressurized water reactor (PWR) feedwater control valves. Excessive leakage across the pilot-disc seat in BWR safety/relief valves can cause the second-stage pressure to reach the critical value that activates the valve, even though the set pressure was not exceeded. Acoustic emission created by the leak noise were monitored and calibrated to indicate incipient activation of the safety/relief valve. Hydrodynamic, vibration, control and process signals frm PWR feedwater control valves were monitored by a mini-computer based surveillance system.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hozman, Aron D.; Hughes, William O.
2014-01-01
The exposure of a customer's aerospace test-article to a simulated acoustic launch environment is typically performed in a reverberant acoustic test chamber. The acoustic pre-test runs that will ensure that the sound pressure levels of this environment can indeed be met by a test facility are normally performed without a test-article dynamic simulator of representative acoustic absorption and size. If an acoustic test facility's available acoustic power capability becomes maximized with the test-article installed during the actual test then the customer's environment requirement may become compromised. In order to understand the risk of not achieving the customer's in-tolerance spectrum requirement with the test-article installed, an acoustic power margin evaluation as a function of frequency may be performed by the test facility. The method for this evaluation of acoustic power will be discussed in this paper. This method was recently applied at the NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station's Reverberant Acoustic Test Facility for the SpaceX Falcon 9 Payload Fairing acoustic test program.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hozman, Aron D.; Hughes, William O.
2014-01-01
The exposure of a customers aerospace test-article to a simulated acoustic launch environment is typically performed in a reverberant acoustic test chamber. The acoustic pre-test runs that will ensure that the sound pressure levels of this environment can indeed be met by a test facility are normally performed without a test-article dynamic simulator of representative acoustic absorption and size. If an acoustic test facilitys available acoustic power capability becomes maximized with the test-article installed during the actual test then the customers environment requirement may become compromised. In order to understand the risk of not achieving the customers in-tolerance spectrum requirement with the test-article installed, an acoustic power margin evaluation as a function of frequency may be performed by the test facility. The method for this evaluation of acoustic power will be discussed in this paper. This method was recently applied at the NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Stations Reverberant Acoustic Test Facility for the SpaceX Falcon 9 Payload Fairing acoustic test program.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hozman, Aron D.; Hughes, William O.
2014-01-01
It is important to realize that some test-articles may have significant sound absorption that may challenge the acoustic power capabilities of a test facility. Therefore, to mitigate this risk of not being able to meet the customers target spectrum, it is prudent to demonstrate early-on an increased acoustic power capability which compensates for this test-article absorption. This paper describes a concise method to reduce this risk when testing aerospace test-articles which have significant absorption. This method was successfully applied during the SpaceX Falcon 9 Payload Fairing acoustic test program at the NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Stations RATF.
Enhancing the cosmic shear power spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simpson, Fergus; Harnois-Déraps, Joachim; Heymans, Catherine; Jimenez, Raul; Joachimi, Benjamin; Verde, Licia
2016-02-01
Applying a transformation to a non-Gaussian field can enhance the information content of the resulting power spectrum, by reducing the correlations between Fourier modes. In the context of weak gravitational lensing, it has been shown that this gain in information content is significantly compromised by the presence of shape noise. We apply clipping to mock convergence fields, a technique which is known to be robust in the presence of noise and has been successfully applied to galaxy number density fields. When analysed in isolation the resulting convergence power spectrum returns degraded constraints on cosmological parameters. However, substantial gains can be achieved by performing a combined analysis of the power spectra derived from both the original and transformed fields. Even in the presence of realistic levels of shape noise, we demonstrate that this approach is capable of reducing the area of likelihood contours within the Ωm - σ8 plane by more than a factor of 3.
The 90 deg Acoustic Spectrum of a High Speed Air Jet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldstein, Marvin E.
2004-01-01
Tam and Auriault successfully predicted the acoustic spectrum at 90deg to the axis of a high speed air jet by using an acoustic equation derived from ad hoc kinetic theory-type arguments. The present paper shows that similar predictions can be obtained by using a rigorous acoustic analogy approach together with actual measurements of the relevant acoustic source correlations. This puts the result on a firmer basis and enables its extension to new situations and to the prediction of sound at other observation angles.
First Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe(WMAP)Observations: The Angular Power Spectrum
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hinshaw, G.; Spergel, D. N.; Verde, L.; Hill, R. S.; Meyer, S. S.; Barnes, C.; Bennett, C. L.; Halpern, M.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.
2003-01-01
We present the angular power spectrum derived from the first-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) sky maps. We study a variety of power spectrum estimation methods and data combinations and demonstrate that the results are robust. The data are modestly contaminated by diffuse Galactic foreground emission, but we show that a simple Galactic template model is sufficient to remove the signal. Point sources produce a modest contamination in the low frequency data. After masking approximately 700 known bright sources from the maps, we estimate residual sources contribute approximately 3500 mu sq Kappa at 41 GHz, and approximately 130 mu sq Kappa at 94 GHz, to the power spectrum [iota(iota + 1)C(sub iota)/2pi] at iota = 1000. Systematic errors are negligible compared to the (modest) level of foreground emission. Our best estimate of the power spectrum is derived from 28 cross-power spectra of statistically independent channels. The final spectrum is essentially independent of the noise properties of an individual radiometer. The resulting spectrum provides a definitive measurement of the CMB power spectrum, with uncertainties limited by cosmic variance, up to iota approximately 350. The spectrum clearly exhibits a first acoustic peak at iota = 220 and a second acoustic peak at iota approximately 540, and it provides strong support for adiabatic initial conditions. Researchers have analyzed the CT(sup Epsilon) power spectrum, and present evidence for a relatively high optical depth, and an early period of cosmic reionization. Among other things, this implies that the temperature power spectrum has been suppressed by approximately 30% on degree angular scales, due to secondary scattering.
The spectrum of power from wind turbines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Apt, Jay
The power spectral density of the output of wind turbines provides information on the character of fluctuations in turbine output. Here both 1-second and 1-hour samples are used to estimate the power spectrum of several wind farms. The measured output power is found to follow a Kolmogorov spectrum over more than four orders of magnitude, from 30 s to 2.6 days. This result is in sharp contrast to the only previous study covering long time periods, published 50 years ago. The spectrum defines the character of fill-in power that must be provided to compensate for wind's fluctuations when wind is deployed at large scale. Installing enough linear ramp rate generation (such as a gas generator) to fill in fast fluctuations with amplitudes of 1% of the maximum fluctuation would oversize the fill-in generation capacity by a factor of two for slower fluctuations, greatly increasing capital costs. A wind system that incorporates batteries, fuel cells, supercapacitors, or other fast-ramp-rate energy storage systems would match fluctuations much better, and can provide an economic route for deployment of energy storage systems when renewable portfolio standards require large amounts of intermittent renewable generating sources.
Angular-planar CMB power spectrum
Pereira, Thiago S.; Abramo, L. Raul
2009-09-15
Gaussianity and statistical isotropy of the Universe are modern cosmology's minimal set of hypotheses. In this work we introduce a new statistical test to detect observational deviations from this minimal set. By defining the temperature correlation function over the whole celestial sphere, we are able to independently quantify both angular and planar dependence (modulations) of the CMB temperature power spectrum over different slices of this sphere. Given that planar dependence leads to further modulations of the usual angular power spectrum C{sub l}, this test can potentially reveal richer structures in the morphology of the primordial temperature field. We have also constructed an unbiased estimator for this angular-planar power spectrum which naturally generalizes the estimator for the usual C{sub l}'s. With the help of a chi-square analysis, we have used this estimator to search for observational deviations of statistical isotropy in WMAP's 5 year release data set (ILC5), where we found only slight anomalies on the angular scales l=7 and l=8. Since this angular-planar statistic is model-independent, it is ideal to employ in searches of statistical anisotropy (e.g., contaminations from the galactic plane) and to characterize non-Gaussianities.
The minimal power spectrum: Higher order contributions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fry, J. N.
1994-01-01
It has been an accepted belief for some time that gravity induces a minimal tail P(k) approximately k(exp 4) in the power spectrum as k approaches 0 for distributions with no initial power on large scales. In a recent numerical experiment with initial power confined to a restricted range in k, Shandarin and Melott (1990) found a k approaches 0 tail that at early stages of evolution behaves as k(exp 4) and grows with time as a(exp 4)(t), where a(t) is the cosmological expansion factor, and at late times depends on scale as k(exp 3) and grows with time as a(exp 2)(t). I compute analytically several contributions to the power spectrum of higher order than those included in earlier work, and I apply the results to the particular case of initial power restricted to a finite range of k. As expected, in the perturbative regime P(k) approximately a(exp 4)k(exp 4) from the first correction to linear perturbation theory is the dominant term as k approaches 0. Numerical investigations show that the higher order contributions go as k(exp 4) also. However, perturbation theory alone cannot tell whether the P approximately a(exp 2)k(exp 3) result is 'nonperturbative' or a numerical artifact.
Time-instant sampling based encoding of time-varying acoustic spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Neeraj Kumar
2015-12-01
The inner ear has been shown to characterize an acoustic stimuli by transducing fluid motion in the inner ear to mechanical bending of stereocilia on the inner hair cells (IHCs). The excitation motion/energy transferred to an IHC is dependent on the frequency spectrum of the acoustic stimuli, and the spatial location of the IHC along the length of the basilar membrane (BM). Subsequently, the afferent auditory nerve fiber (ANF) bundle samples the encoded waveform in the IHCs by synapsing with them. In this work we focus on sampling of information by afferent ANFs from the IHCs, and show computationally that sampling at specific time instants is sufficient for decoding of time-varying acoustic spectrum embedded in the acoustic stimuli. The approach is based on sampling the signal at its zero-crossings and higher-order derivative zero-crossings. We show results of the approach on time-varying acoustic spectrum estimation from cricket call signal recording. The framework gives a time-domain and non-spatial processing perspective to auditory signal processing. The approach works on the full band signal, and is devoid of modeling any bandpass filtering mimicking the BM action. Instead, we motivate the approach from the perspective of event-triggered sampling by afferent ANFs on the stimuli encoded in the IHCs. Though the approach gives acoustic spectrum estimation but it is shallow on its complete understanding for plausible bio-mechanical replication with current mammalian auditory mechanics insights.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Netterfield, C. B.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Boscaleri, A.; Coble, K.; Contaldi, C. R.; Crill, B. P.; Bernardis, P. de; Farese, P.; Ganga, K.; Giacometti, M.; Hivon, E.; Hristov, V. V.; Iacoangeli, A.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jones, W. C.; Lange, A. E.; Martinis, L.; Masi, S.; Mason, P.; Mauskopf, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Montroy, T.
2001-01-01
This paper presents a measurement of the angular power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background from l = 75 to l = 1025 (10' to 5 degrees) from a combined analysis of four 150 GHz channels in the BOOMERANG experiment. The spectrum contains multiple peaks and minima, as predicted by standard adiabatic-inflationary models in which the primordial plasma undergoes acoustic oscillations.
Feature selection using Haar wavelet power spectrum
Subramani, Prabakaran; Sahu, Rajendra; Verma, Shekhar
2006-01-01
Background Feature selection is an approach to overcome the 'curse of dimensionality' in complex researches like disease classification using microarrays. Statistical methods are utilized more in this domain. Most of them do not fit for a wide range of datasets. The transform oriented signal processing domains are not probed much when other fields like image and video processing utilize them well. Wavelets, one of such techniques, have the potential to be utilized in feature selection method. The aim of this paper is to assess the capability of Haar wavelet power spectrum in the problem of clustering and gene selection based on expression data in the context of disease classification and to propose a method based on Haar wavelet power spectrum. Results Haar wavelet power spectra of genes were analysed and it was observed to be different in different diagnostic categories. This difference in trend and magnitude of the spectrum may be utilized in gene selection. Most of the genes selected by earlier complex methods were selected by the very simple present method. Each earlier works proved only few genes are quite enough to approach the classification problem [1]. Hence the present method may be tried in conjunction with other classification methods. The technique was applied without removing the noise in data to validate the robustness of the method against the noise or outliers in the data. No special softwares or complex implementation is needed. The qualities of the genes selected by the present method were analysed through their gene expression data. Most of them were observed to be related to solve the classification issue since they were dominant in the diagnostic category of the dataset for which they were selected as features. Conclusion In the present paper, the problem of feature selection of microarray gene expression data was considered. We analyzed the wavelet power spectrum of genes and proposed a clustering and feature selection method useful for
Research on power-law acoustic transient signal detection based on wavelet transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Jian-hui; Yang, Ri-jie; Wang, Wei
2007-11-01
Aiming at the characteristics of acoustic transient signal emitted from antisubmarine weapon which is being dropped into water (torpedo, aerial sonobuoy and rocket assisted depth charge etc.), such as short duration, low SNR, abruptness and instability, based on traditional power-law detector, a new method to detect acoustic transient signal is proposed. Firstly wavelet transform is used to de-noise signal, removes random spectrum components and improves SNR. Then Power- Law detector is adopted to detect transient signal. The simulation results show the method can effectively extract envelop characteristic of transient signal on the condition of low SNR. The performance of WT-Power-Law markedly outgoes that of traditional Power-Law detection method.
Acoustical power amplification and damping by temperature gradients.
Biwa, Tetsushi; Komatsu, Ryo; Yazaki, Taichi
2011-01-01
Ceperley proposed a concept of a traveling wave heat engine ["A pistonless Stirling engine-The traveling wave heat engine," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 66, 1508-1513 (1979).] that provided a starting point of thermoacoustics today. This paper verifies experimentally his idea through observation of amplification and strong damping of a plane acoustic traveling wave as it passes through axial temperature gradients. The acoustic power gain is shown to obey a universal curve specified by a dimensionless parameter ωτα; ω is the angular frequency and τα is the relaxation time for the gas to thermally equilibrate with channel walls. As an application of his idea, a three-stage acoustic power amplifier is developed, which attains the gain up to 10 with a moderate temperature ratio of 2.3. PMID:21302995
Acoustical power amplification and damping by temperature gradients.
Biwa, Tetsushi; Komatsu, Ryo; Yazaki, Taichi
2011-01-01
Ceperley proposed a concept of a traveling wave heat engine ["A pistonless Stirling engine-The traveling wave heat engine," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 66, 1508-1513 (1979).] that provided a starting point of thermoacoustics today. This paper verifies experimentally his idea through observation of amplification and strong damping of a plane acoustic traveling wave as it passes through axial temperature gradients. The acoustic power gain is shown to obey a universal curve specified by a dimensionless parameter ωτα; ω is the angular frequency and τα is the relaxation time for the gas to thermally equilibrate with channel walls. As an application of his idea, a three-stage acoustic power amplifier is developed, which attains the gain up to 10 with a moderate temperature ratio of 2.3.
Sound power spectrum and wave drag of a propeller in flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hanson, D. B.
1989-01-01
Theory is presented for the sound power and sound power spectrum of a single rotation propeller in forward flight. Calculations are based on the linear wave equation with sources distributed over helicoidal surfaces to represent effects of blade thickness and steady loading. Sound power is distributed continuously over frequecy, as would be expected from Doppler effects, rather than in discrete harmonics. The theory is applied to study effects of sweep and Mach number in propfans. An acoustic efficiency is defined as the ratio of radiated sound power to shaft input power. This value is the linear estimate of the effect of wave drag due to the supersonic blade section speeds. It is shown that the acoustic efficiency is somewhat less than 1 percent for a well designed propfan.
The Derivation and Quasinormal Mode Spectrum of Acoustic Anti-de Sitter Black Hole Analogues
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babb, James Patrick
Dumb holes (also known as acoustic black holes) are fluid flows which include an "acoustic horizon": a surface, analogous to a gravitational horizon, beyond which sound may pass but never classically return. Soundwaves in these flows will therefore experience "effective geometries" which are identical to black hole spacetimes up to a conformal factor. By adjusting the parameters of the fluid flow, it is possible to create an effective geometry which is conformal to the Anti-de Sitter black hole spacetime---a geometry which has received a great deal of attention in recent years due to its conjectured holographic duality to Conformal Field Theories. While we would not expect an acoustic analogue of the AdS-CFT correspondence to exist, this dumb hole provides a means, at least in principle, of experimentally testing the theoretical properties of the AdS spacetime. In particular, I have calculated the quasinormal mode spectrum of this acoustic geometry.
Power spectrum analysis for defect screening in integrated circuit devices
Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Cole Jr., Edward I.; Stein, David J.
2011-12-01
A device sample is screened for defects using its power spectrum in response to a dynamic stimulus. The device sample receives a time-varying electrical signal. The power spectrum of the device sample is measured at one of the pins of the device sample. A defect in the device sample can be identified based on results of comparing the power spectrum with one or more power spectra of the device that have a known defect status.
BASIC program for power spectrum estimation. Revision
Church, E.L.; Takacs, P.Z.
1994-05-01
A standard data set is presented to be used in testing routines that are developed for evaluating the one-dimensional periodogram spectral estimate of a series of uniformly spaced data points representing measurements of a surface profile. These data were generated using the GWBASIC program ``FFTPSD`` which is included in the Appendix of this report. The original purpose of this data set was to allow us to test and debug our own periodogram estimation routines, written in various programming, languages, against a standard data set. At the request of numerous individuals, we are making it available to others who may wish to do the same. We have also included a summary explanation of periodogram estimators and the various considerations that go into generating computer algorithms for power spectrum estimation.
Constraining the power spectrum using clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borgani, S.; Moscardini, L.; Plionis, M.; Górski, K. M.; Holtzman, J.; Klypin, A.; Primack, J. R.; Smith, C. C.; Stompor, R.
1997-03-01
We analyze an extended redshift sample of Abell/ACO clusters and compare the results with those coming from numerical simulations of the cluster distribution, based on the truncated Zel'dovich approximation (TZA), for a list of eleven dark matter (DM) models. For each model we run several realizations, so that we generate a set of 48 independent mock Abell/ACO cluster samples per model, on which we estimate cosmic variance effects. Other than the standard CDM model, we consider (a) Ω0 = 1 CDM models based on lowering the Hubble parameter and/or on tilting the primordial spectrum; (b) Ω0 = 1 Cold + Hot DM models with 0.1 ≤ Ων ≤0.5; (c) low-density flat ΛCDM models with 0.3 ≤ Ω0 ≤0.5. We compare real and simulated cluster distributions by analysing correlation statistics, the probability density function, and supercluster properties from percolation analysis. We introduce a generalized definition of the spectrum shape parameter Γ in terms of σ25/ σ8, where σ ris the rms fluctuation amplitude within a sphere of radius r. As a general result, we find that the distribution of galaxy clusters provides a constraint only on the shape of the power spectrum, but not on its amplitude: a shape parameter 0.18 ≲ Γ ≲ 0.25 and an effective spectral index at the 20 h-1 Mpc scale -1.1 ≲ neff ≲ -0.9 are required by the Abell/ACO data. In order to obtain complementary constraints on the spectrum amplitude, we consider the cluster abundance as estimated using the Press-Schechter approach, whose reliability is explicitly tested against N-body simulations. By combining results from the analysis of the distribution and the abundance of clusters we conclude that, of the cosmological models considered here, the only viable models are either Cold + Hot DM ones with 0.2 ≲ Ων ≲ 0.3, better if shared between two massive ν species, and ΛCDM ones with 0.3 ≲ Ω0≲0.5.
Geometric biases in power-spectrum measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samushia, L.; Branchini, E.; Percival, W. J.
2015-10-01
The observed distribution of galaxies has local transverse isotropy around the line of sight (LOS) with respect to the observer. The difference in the statistical clustering signal along and across the LOS encodes important information about the geometry of the Universe, its expansion rate and the rate of growth of structure within it. Because the LOS varies across a survey, the standard fast Fourier transform (FFT) based methods of measuring the anisotropic power spectrum (APS) cannot be used for surveys with wide observational footprint, other than to measure the monopole moment. We derive a simple analytic formula to quantify the bias for higher order Legendre moments, and we demonstrate that it is scale independent for a simple survey model, and depends only on the observed area. We derive a similar numerical correction formula for recently proposed alternative estimators of the APS that are based on summing over galaxies rather than using an FFT, and can therefore incorporate a varying LOS. We demonstrate that their bias depends on scale but not on the observed area. For a quadrupole the bias is always less than 1 per cent for k > 0.01 h Mpc^{-1} at z > 0.32. For a hexadecapole the bias is below 5 per cent for k > 0.05 h Mpc^{-1} at z > 0.32.
Wind speed power spectrum analysis for Bushland, Texas
Eggleston, E.D.
1996-12-31
Numerous papers and publications on wind turbulence have referenced the wind speed spectrum presented by Isaac Van der Hoven in his article entitled Power Spectrum of Horizontal Wind Speed Spectrum in the Frequency Range from 0.0007 to 900 Cycles per Hour. Van der Hoven used data measured at different heights between 91 and 125 meters above the ground, and represented the high frequency end of the spectrum with data from the peak hour of hurricane Connie. These facts suggest we should question the use of his power spectrum in the wind industry. During the USDA - Agricultural Research Service`s investigation of wind/diesel system power storage, using the appropriate wind speed power spectrum became a significant issue. We developed a power spectrum from 13 years of hourly average data, 1 year of 5 minute average data, and 2 particularly gusty day`s 1 second average data all collected at a height of 10 meters. While the general shape is similar to the Van der Hoven spectrum, few of his peaks were found in the Bushland spectrum. While higher average wind speeds tend to suggest higher amplitudes in the high frequency end of the spectrum, this is not always true. Also, the high frequency end of the spectrum is not accurately described by simple wind statistics such as standard deviation and turbulence intensity. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.
Spin-electron acoustic waves: The Landau damping and ion contribution in the spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andreev, Pavel A.
2016-06-01
Separated spin-up and spin-down quantum kinetics is derived for more detailed research of the spin-electron acoustic waves (SEAWs). This kinetic theory allows us to obtain the spectrum of the SEAWs including the effects of occupation of quantum states more accurately than the quantum hydrodynamic theory. We derive and apply the quantum kinetic theory to calculate the Landau damping of the SEAWs. We consider the contribution of ions dynamics into the SEAW spectrum. We obtain the contribution of ions in the Landau damping in the temperature regime of classic ions. Kinetic analysis for the ion-acoustic, zero sound, and Langmuir waves at the separated spin-up and spin-down electron dynamics is presented as well.
Estimating the Crustal Power Spectrum From Vector Magsat Data: Crustal Power Spectrum
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lowe, David A. J.; Parker, Robert L.; Purucker, Michael E.; Constable, Catherine G.
2000-01-01
The Earth's magnetic field can be subdivided into core and crustal components and we seek to characterize the crustal part through its spatial power spectrum (R(sub l)). We process vector Magsat data to isolate the crustal field and then invert power spectral densities of flight-local components along-track for R(sub l) following O'Brien et al. [1999]. Our model (LPPC) is accurate up to approximately degree 45 (lambda=900 km) - this is the resolution limit of our data and suggests that global crustal anomaly maps constructed from vector Magsat data should not contain features with wavelengths less than 900 km. We find continental power spectra to be greater than oceanic ones and attribute this to the relative thicknesses of continental and oceanic crust.
Power spectrum analysis of staggered quadriphase-shift-keyed signals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcwhorter, F. L.; Cartier, D. E.
1975-01-01
Mathematical analysis of power spectrum of outputs from high-reliability communication system is used to determine system bandwidth. Analysis provides mathematical relationships of signal power spectrum at output of hard limiter for any type of baseband pulse input subjected only to output parameter constraints.
Power spectrum of the fluctuation of the spectral staircase function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lan, Boon Leong; Aun Ng, Jin; Santhanam, M. S.
2006-12-01
The one-sided power spectrum P(f) of the fluctuation Nfluc (E) and Nfluc(\\varepsilon) of the spectral staircase function, for respectively the original and unfolded spectrum, from its smooth average part is numerically estimated for Poisson spectrum and spectra of three Gaussian-random matrices: real symmetric, complex Hermitian, and quaternion-real Hermitian. We found that the power spectrum of Nfluc (E) and Nfluc (\\varepsilon) is a/f2 (brown) for Poisson spectrum but c/(1+ df^2) (Lorentzian) for all three random matrix spectra. This result and the Berry-Tabor and Bohigas-Giannoni-Schmit conjectures imply the following conjecture: the power spectrum of Nfluc (E) and Nfluc (\\varepsilon) is brown for classically integrable systems but Lorentzian for classically chaotic systems. Numerical evidence in support of this conjecture is presented.
Method of measuring reactive acoustic power density in a fluid
Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert
1985-01-01
A method for determining reactive acoustic power density level and its direction in a fluid using a single sensor is disclosed. In the preferred embodiment, an apparatus for conducting the method, which is termed a thermoacoustic couple, consists of a stack of thin, spaced apart polymeric plates, selected ones of which include multiple bimetallic thermocouple junctions positioned along opposite end edges thereof. The thermocouple junctions are connected in series in the nature of a thermopile, and are arranged so as to be responsive to small temperature differences between the opposite edges of the plates. The magnitude of the temperature difference, as represented by the magnitude of the electrical potential difference generated by the thermopile, is found to be directly related to the level of acoustic power density in the gas.
Method of measuring reactive acoustic power density in a fluid
Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.
1985-09-03
A method for determining reactive acoustic power density level and its direction in a fluid using a single sensor is disclosed. In the preferred embodiment, an apparatus for conducting the method, which is termed a thermoacoustic couple, consists of a stack of thin, spaced apart polymeric plates, selected ones of which include multiple bimetallic thermocouple junctions positioned along opposite end edges thereof. The thermocouple junctions are connected in series in the nature of a thermopile, and are arranged so as to be responsive to small temperature differences between the opposite edges of the plates. The magnitude of the temperature difference, as represented by the magnitude of the electrical potential difference generated by the thermopile, is found to be directly related to the level of acoustic power density in the gas. 5 figs.
Microstructure Imaging Using Frequency Spectrum Spatially Resolved Acoustic Spectroscopy F-Sras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharples, S. D.; Li, W.; Clark, M.; Somekh, M. G.
2010-02-01
Material microstructure can have a profound effect on the mechanical properties of a component, such as strength and resistance to creep and fatigue. SRAS—spatially resolved acoustic spectroscopy—is a laser ultrasonic technique which can image microstructure using highly localized surface acoustic wave (SAW) velocity as a contrast mechanism, as this is sensitive to crystallographic orientation. The technique is noncontact, nondestructive, rapid, can be used on large components, and is highly tolerant of acoustic aberrations. Previously, the SRAS technique has been demonstrated using a fixed frequency excitation laser and a variable grating period (к-vector) to determine the most efficiently generated SAWs, and hence the velocity. Here, we demonstrate an implementation which uses a fixed grating period with a broadband laser excitation source. The velocity is determined by analyzing the measured frequency spectrum. Experimental results using this "frequency spectrum SRAS" (f-SRAS) method are presented. Images of microstructure on an industrially relevant material are compared to those obtained using the previous SRAS method ("k-SRAS"), excellent agreement is observed. Moreover, f-SRAS is much simpler and potentially much more rapid than k-SRAS as the velocity can be determined at each sample point in one single laser shot, rather than scanning the grating period.
The Murchison Widefield Array 21 cm Power Spectrum Analysis Methodology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobs, Daniel C.; Hazelton, B. J.; Trott, C. M.; Dillon, Joshua S.; Pindor, B.; Sullivan, I. S.; Pober, J. C.; Barry, N.; Beardsley, A. P.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, Judd D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Carroll, P.; Corey, B. E.; de Oliveira-Costa, A.; Emrich, D.; Ewall-Wice, A.; Feng, L.; Gaensler, B. M.; Goeke, R.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hewitt, J. N.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Kim, HS; Kratzenberg, E.; Lenc, E.; Line, J.; Loeb, A.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Lynch, M. J.; McKinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Neben, A. R.; Thyagarajan, N.; Oberoi, D.; Offringa, A. R.; Ord, S. M.; Paul, S.; Prabu, T.; Procopio, P.; Riding, J.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Roshi, A.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Sethi, Shiv K.; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Tegmark, M.; Tingay, S. J.; Waterson, M.; Wayth, R. B.; Webster, R. L.; Whitney, A. R.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.; Wu, C.; Wyithe, J. S. B.
2016-07-01
We present the 21 cm power spectrum analysis approach of the Murchison Widefield Array Epoch of Reionization project. In this paper, we compare the outputs of multiple pipelines for the purpose of validating statistical limits cosmological hydrogen at redshifts between 6 and 12. Multiple independent data calibration and reduction pipelines are used to make power spectrum limits on a fiducial night of data. Comparing the outputs of imaging and power spectrum stages highlights differences in calibration, foreground subtraction, and power spectrum calculation. The power spectra found using these different methods span a space defined by the various tradeoffs between speed, accuracy, and systematic control. Lessons learned from comparing the pipelines range from the algorithmic to the prosaically mundane; all demonstrate the many pitfalls of neglecting reproducibility. We briefly discuss the way these different methods attempt to handle the question of evaluating a significant detection in the presence of foregrounds.
Precise measurements of primordial power spectrum with 21 cm fluctuations
Kohri, Kazunori; Oyama, Yoshihiko; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Takahashi, Tomo E-mail: oyamayo@post.kek.jp E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp
2013-10-01
We discuss the issue of how precisely we can measure the primordial power spectrum by using future observations of 21 cm fluctuations and cosmic microwave background (CMB). For this purpose, we investigate projected constraints on the quantities characterizing primordial power spectrum: the spectral index n{sub s}, its running α{sub s} and even its higher order running β{sub s}. We show that future 21 cm observations in combinations with CMB would accurately measure above mentioned observables of primordial power spectrum. We also discuss its implications to some explicit inflationary models.
Chiang, Lung-Yih; Chen, Fei-Fan
2012-05-20
The angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies is one of the most important characteristics in cosmology that can shed light on the properties of the universe such as its geometry and total density. Using flat sky approximation and Fourier analysis, we estimate the angular power spectrum from an ensemble of the least foreground-contaminated square patches from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe W and V frequency band map. This method circumvents the issue of foreground cleaning and that of breaking orthogonality in spherical harmonic analysis because we are able to mask out the bright Galactic plane region, thereby rendering a direct measurement of the angular power spectrum. We test and confirm the Gaussian statistical characteristic of the selected patches, from which the first and second acoustic peaks of the power spectrum are reproduced, and the third peak is clearly visible, albeit with some noise residual at the tail.
Measurement of ultrasonic power using an acoustically absorbing well.
Sutton, Yvonne; Shaw, Adam; Zeqiri, Bajram
2003-10-01
This paper describes a quick and cost-effective method for constructing a radiation force balance for measuring ultrasonic output power. It utilises a target manufactured from a high-quality acoustical absorber material. The target geometry is in the form of a cup or well that is water-filled and placed directly on the pan of a top-loading chemical balance, thus overcoming the need for the traditional gantry arrangement found in the majority of commercially available balances. The face of the transducer is placed directly in the water contained within the well. This simplification reduces time spent in setting up a balance for measurement, and targets can be manufactured to any required geometry and used on any suitable top-loading balance to measure output power. Within this study, the performance of the absorbing well method was evaluated over the frequency range of 1 MHz to 5 MHz, for acoustic power levels up to 1 W. Power measurements on three transducers were compared with measurements made on the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) primary standard radiation force balance and good agreement is demonstrated between the two systems. At a power of 50 mW, using a chemical balance of resolution 0.1 mg, typical type A (random) uncertainties were +/- 2.0% when expressed at the 95% confidence level.
Per-survivor processing for underwater acoustic communications with direct-sequence spread spectrum.
Xu, Xiaoka; Zhou, Shengli; Morozov, Andrey K; Preisig, James C
2013-05-01
This paper proposes a receiver for direct-sequence spread spectrum transmissions in underwater acoustic channels, which combines a per-survivor processing (PSP) structure with sparse channel estimation. Specifically, the PSP structure establishes the trellis on the symbol level to render a small to moderate number of states, thus reducing the computational complexity. Meanwhile, the sparse channel estimation is performed on the chip level, where the orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm is used and a two-dimensional grid of path delay and Doppler scaling factor is incorporated in the dictionary construction. The effective combination of the PSP detection and sparse channel estimation achieves a good tradeoff between performance and complexity. Simulation and experiment results show that the proposed receiver outperforms the conventional RAKE receiver considerably, and most importantly, the proposed PSP receiver with an exact wideband dictionary maintains an excellent performance even for challenging underwater acoustic channels with large Doppler disparities on different paths. PMID:23654382
Klamath Falls: High-Power Acoustic Well Stimulation Technology
Black, Brian
2006-07-24
Acoustic well stimulation (AWS) technology uses high-power sonic waves from specific frequency spectra in an attempt to stimulate production in a damaged or low-production wellbore. AWS technology is one of the most promising technologies in the oil and gas industry, but it has proven difficult for the industry to develop an effective downhole prototype. This collaboration between Klamath Falls Inc. and the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) included a series of tests using high-power ultrasonic tools to stimulate oil and gas production. Phase I testing was designed and implemented to verify tool functionality, power requirements, and capacity of high-power AWS tools. The purpose of Phase II testing was to validate the production response of wells with marginal production rates to AWS stimulation and to capture and identify any changes in the downhole environment after tool deployment. This final report presents methodology and results.
The non-linear power spectrum of the Lyman alpha forest
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arinyo-i-Prats, Andreu; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Viel, Matteo; Cen, Renyue
2015-12-01
The Lyman alpha forest power spectrum has been measured on large scales by the BOSS survey in SDSS-III at z~ 2.3, has been shown to agree well with linear theory predictions, and has provided the first measurement of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations at this redshift. However, the power at small scales, affected by non-linearities, has not been well examined so far. We present results from a variety of hydrodynamic simulations to predict the redshift space non-linear power spectrum of the Lyα transmission for several models, testing the dependence on resolution and box size. A new fitting formula is introduced to facilitate the comparison of our simulation results with observations and other simulations. The non-linear power spectrum has a generic shape determined by a transition scale from linear to non-linear anisotropy, and a Jeans scale below which the power drops rapidly. In addition, we predict the two linear bias factors of the Lyα forest and provide a better physical interpretation of their values and redshift evolution. The dependence of these bias factors and the non-linear power on the amplitude and slope of the primordial fluctuations power spectrum, the temperature-density relation of the intergalactic medium, and the mean Lyα transmission, as well as the redshift evolution, is investigated and discussed in detail. A preliminary comparison to the observations shows that the predicted redshift distortion parameter is in good agreement with the recent determination of Blomqvist et al., but the density bias factor is lower than observed. We make all our results publicly available in the form of tables of the non-linear power spectrum that is directly obtained from all our simulations, and parameters of our fitting formula.
Vyas, Urvi; Christensen, Douglas A
2011-11-01
The angular spectrum method is an accurate and computationally efficient method for modeling acoustic wave propagation. The use of the typical 2D fast Fourier transform algorithm makes this a fast technique but it requires that the source pressure (or velocity) be specified on a plane. Here the angular spectrum method is extended to calculate pressure from a spherical transducer-as used extensively in applications such as magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery-to a plane. The approach, called the Ring-Bessel technique, decomposes the curved source into circular rings of increasing radii, each ring a different distance from the intermediate plane, and calculates the angular spectrum of each ring using a Fourier series. Each angular spectrum is then propagated to the intermediate plane where all the propagated angular spectra are summed to obtain the pressure on the plane; subsequent plane-to-plane propagation can be achieved using the traditional angular spectrum method. Since the Ring-Bessel calculations are carried out in the frequency domain, it reduces calculation times by a factor of approximately 24 compared to the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld method and about 82 compared to the Field II technique, while maintaining accuracies of better than 96% as judged by those methods for cases of both solid and phased-array transducers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chavira, Aldo; Gregson, Victor, Jr.; Green, Sidney; Siegel, Edward
2011-06-01
SHOCKS impulse-jerk(I-J) [apply strain/impulse to get stress/jerk ],{VS. NON-shocks[apply stress to get strain]}, plasticity/fracture BAE[E. S.: MSE 8.,310(71); PSS: (a) 5, 601/607(71); Xl..-Latt. Defects 5, 277(74); Scripta Met.: 6, 785(72); 8, 587/617(74); 3rd Tokyo A.-E. Symp. (76);Acta Met.25,383(77); JMMM 7, 312(78)] NON: ``1''/ ω -``Noise'' Zipf(NON-Pareto); power-law ; universality power-spectrum is manifestly-demonstrated in ONLY ``PURE''-MATHS way to be nothing but d[F(t)=m(t)a(t)=Newton's (3rd) Law of Motion=(I-J)]/dt I-Jderivative d(I-J)/dt=dF(t)/dt=[m(t)da(t)/dt+a(t)dm(t)/dt] REdiscovery!!! A/Siegel NON-shock PHYSICS derivation fails!!!; ''PURE''-MATHS: dF(t)/dt=d2p(t)/dt2=[m(t)da(t)/dt+a(t)dm(t)/dt] TRIPLE-integral [VS. NON -shocks F = ma time-series DOUBLE-integral] Dichotomy: s(t) = [v0+(1/2)a(t)t2+EXTRA-TERM(S)], {VS. s(t) = [v0t+(1/2) at2]}, integral-transform formally defines power-spectrum Dichotomy:
CMB anisotropy power spectrum using linear combinations of WMAP maps
Saha, Rajib; Prunet, Simon; Jain, Pankaj; Souradeep, Tarun
2008-07-15
In recent years the goal of estimating different cosmological parameters precisely has set new challenges in the effort to accurately measure the angular power spectrum of the CMB. This has required removal of foreground contamination as well as detector noise bias with reliability and precision. Recently, a novel, model-independent method for the estimation of the CMB angular power spectrum solely from multifrequency observations has been proposed and implemented on the first year WMAP data by Saha et al. 2006. All previous estimates of the power spectrum of the CMB are based upon foreground templates using data sets from different experiments. However, our methodology demonstrates that the CMB angular spectrum can be reliably estimated with precision from a self-contained analysis of the WMAP data. In this work we provide a detailed description of this method. We also study and identify the biases present in our power spectrum estimate. We apply our methodology to extract the power spectrum from the WMAP data.
Reversing pathologically increased EEG power by acoustic coordinated reset neuromodulation
Adamchic, Ilya; Toth, Timea; Hauptmann, Christian; Tass, Peter Alexander
2014-01-01
Acoustic Coordinated Reset (CR) neuromodulation is a patterned stimulation with tones adjusted to the patient's dominant tinnitus frequency, which aims at desynchronizing pathological neuronal synchronization. In a recent proof-of-concept study, CR therapy, delivered 4–6 h/day more than 12 weeks, induced a significant clinical improvement along with a significant long-lasting decrease of pathological oscillatory power in the low frequency as well as γ band and an increase of the α power in a network of tinnitus-related brain areas. As yet, it remains unclear whether CR shifts the brain activity toward physiological levels or whether it induces clinically beneficial, but nonetheless abnormal electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns, for example excessively decreased δ and/or γ. Here, we compared the patients' spontaneous EEG data at baseline as well as after 12 weeks of CR therapy with the spontaneous EEG of healthy controls by means of Brain Electrical Source Analysis source montage and standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography techniques. The relationship between changes in EEG power and clinical scores was investigated using a partial least squares approach. In this way, we show that acoustic CR neuromodulation leads to a normalization of the oscillatory power in the tinnitus-related network of brain areas, most prominently in temporal regions. A positive association was found between the changes in tinnitus severity and the normalization of δ and γ power in the temporal, parietal, and cingulate cortical regions. Our findings demonstrate a widespread CR-induced normalization of EEG power, significantly associated with a reduction of tinnitus severity. PMID:23907785
Angular Spectrum Method for the Focused Acoustic Field of a Linear Transducer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belgroune, D.; de Belleval, J. F.; Djelouah, H.
Applications involving non-destructive testing or acoustical imaging are more and more sophisticated. In this context, a model based on the angular spectrum approach is tackled in view to calculate the focused impulse field radiated by a linear transducer through a plane fluid-solid interface. It is well known that electronic focusing, based on a cylindrical delay law, like for the classical cases (lenses, curved transducer), leads to an inaccurate focusing in the solid due to geometric aberrations errors affecting refraction. Generally, there is a significant difference between the acoustic focal distance and the geometrical focal due to refraction. In our work, an optimized delay law, based on the Fermat's principle is established, particularly at an oblique incidence where the geometrical considerations, relatively simple in normal incidence, become quickly laborious. Numerical simulations of impulse field are judiciously carried out. Subsequently, the input parameters are optimally selected in order to achieve good computation accuracy and a high focusing. The overall results, involving compression and shear waves, have highlighted the focusing improvement in the solid when compared to the currently available approaches. Indeed, the acoustic focal distance is very close to geometrical focal distance and then, allows better control of the refracted angular beam profile (refraction angle, focusing depth and focal size).
The wedge bias in reionization 21-cm power spectrum measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jensen, Hannes; Majumdar, Suman; Mellema, Garrelt; Lidz, Adam; Iliev, Ilian T.; Dixon, Keri L.
2016-02-01
A proposed method for dealing with foreground emission in upcoming 21-cm observations from the epoch of reionization is to limit observations to an uncontaminated window in Fourier space. Foreground emission can be avoided in this way, since it is limited to a wedge-shaped region in k∥, k⊥ space. However, the power spectrum is anisotropic owing to redshift-space distortions from peculiar velocities. Consequently, the 21-cm power spectrum measured in the foreground avoidance window - which samples only a limited range of angles close to the line-of-sight direction - differs from the full redshift-space spherically averaged power spectrum which requires an average over all angles. In this paper, we calculate the magnitude of this `wedge bias' for the first time. We find that the bias amplifies the difference between the real-space and redshift-space power spectra. The bias is strongest at high redshifts, where measurements using foreground avoidance will overestimate the redshift-space power spectrum by around 100 per cent, possibly obscuring the distinctive rise and fall signature that is anticipated for the spherically averaged 21-cm power spectrum. In the later stages of reionization, the bias becomes negative, and smaller in magnitude (≲20 per cent).
Magnetic power spectrum of the ocean crust on large scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Brien, Michael S.; Parker, Robert L.; Constable, Catherine G.
1999-12-01
The geomagnetic power spectrum Rl is the squared magnetic field in each spherical harmonic degree averaged over a spherical surface. Satellite measurements have given reliable estimates of the spectrum for the part that originates in the core, but above l = 15, where the geomagnetic field arises primarily from crustal magnetization, there is considerable disagreement between various estimates derived from observation. Furthermore, several theoretical models for the spectrum disagree with each other and the data. We have examined observations from a different source, 5000-km-long Project Magnet aeromagnetic survey lines; we make new estimates of the spectrum which overlap with the wavelength interval accessible to the satellites. The usual way the spectrum is derived from observation is to construct a large spherical harmonic decomposition first, then square, weight, and add the Gauss coefficients in each degree, but this method cannot be applied to isolated flight lines. Instead, we apply a statistical technique based on an idea of McLeod and Coleman which relates the geomagnetic spectrum to the power and cross spectra of magnetic field components measured on the survey lines. Power spectra from the 17 aeromagnetic surveys, all of which were conducted over the oceans, are averaged together to improve geographic coverage and reduce variance, and the average spectra are then inverted for the geomagnetic spectrum Rl. Like most of the theoretical models, our spectrum exhibits a maximum, but at a wavelength of 100 km, about a factor of 2 smaller than the closest theoretical prediction. Our spectrum agrees quite well with the most recent estimates based on satellite observations in the range 20≤l≤50, but above l = 50, our values increase slowly, while all the satellite data suggest a sharply rising curve. In this wavelength range we believe our measurements are more trustworthy. Further work is planned to confirm the accuracy of our spectrum when continental survey
Acoustic noise from tandem wind rotors of intelligent wind power unit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kubo, Koichi; Mihara, Nobuhiko; Enishi, Akira; Kanemoto, Toshiaki
2010-04-01
The authors had invented the unique wind power unit composed of the large-sized front wind rotor, the small-sized rear wind rotor and the peculiar generator with the inner and the outer rotational armatures without the conventional stator. This unit is called "Intelligent Wind Power Unit" by the authors. The front and the rear wind rotors drive the inner and the outer armatures, respectively, while the rotational torque is counter-balanced between both armatures/wind rotors. This paper discusses experimentally the acoustic noise from the front and the rear wind rotors. The acoustic noise, in the counter-rotating operation, is induced mainly from the flow interaction between both rotors, and has the dominant power spectrum density at the frequency of the blade passing interaction. The noise is caused mainly from the turbulent fluctuation due to the flow separation on the blade, when the rear wind rotor stops or rotates in the same direction as the front wind rotor.
Theoretical and experimental study of the acoustic spectrum of a DBD-driven planar KrCl excilamp
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sosnin, Eduard A.; Panarin, Victor A.; Pikulev, Aleksei A.; Tarasenko, Victor F.
2013-01-01
Experiments and theoretical simulation were performed to study the acoustic characteristics of a planar KrCl excilamp driven by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) with a mixture ratio of Kr:Cl2 = 400:1 at a pressure of 20 kPa. The acoustic spectrum of the excilamp bulb was measured and resonances at 4.96, 5.36, 9.92, 10.8, and 21.6 kHz were detected. The natural frequency of the bulb walls and the acoustic frequency of the gas were calculated. The acoustic energy of the gas was determined depending on the vibration frequency of the bulb walls. Comparison of the experimental and simulation data shows that in the frequency range >10 kHz, acoustic peaks occur at natural frequencies of the gas in the excilamp bulb.
Probing the primordial power spectrum with cluster number counts
Chantavat, Teeraparb; Gordon, Christopher; Silk, Joseph
2009-04-15
We investigate how well galaxy cluster number counts can constrain the primordial power spectrum. Measurements of the primary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background may be limited, by the presence of foregrounds from secondary sources, to probing the primordial power spectrum at wave numbers less than about 0.30h Mpc{sup -1}. We break up the primordial power spectrum into a number of nodes and interpolate linearly between each node. This allows us to show that cluster number counts could then extend the constraints on the form of the primordial power spectrum up to wave numbers of about 0.45h Mpc{sup -1}. We estimate combinations of constraints from PLANCK and SPT primary cosmic microwave background and their respective Sunyaev-Zeldovich surveys. We find that their constraining ability is limited by uncertainties in the mass-scaling relations. We also estimate the constraint from clusters detected from a SNAP-like gravitational lensing survey. As there is an unambiguous and simple relationship between the filtered shear of the lensing survey and the cluster mass, it may be possible to obtain much tighter constraints on the primordial power spectrum in this case.
On the information content of the matter power spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carron, J.; Wolk, M.; Szapudi, I.
2015-10-01
We discuss an analytical approximation for the matter power spectrum covariance matrix and its inverse on translinear scales, k ˜ 0.1h - 0.8 h Mpc-1 at z = 0. We proceed to give an analytical expression for the Fisher information matrix of the non-linear density-field spectrum, and derive implications for its cosmological information content. We find that the spectrum information is characterized by a pair of upper bounds, `plateaux', caused by the trispectrum, and a `knee' in the presence of white noise. The effective number of Fourier modes, normally growing as a power law, is bounded from above by these plateaux, explaining naturally earlier findings from N-body simulations. These plateaux limit best possible measurements of the non-linear power at the per cent level in an h-3 Gpc3 volume; the extraction of model parameters from the spectrum is limited explicitly by their degeneracy to the non-linear amplitude. The value of the first, supersurvey (SS) plateau depends on the characteristic survey volume and the large-scale power; the second, intra-survey plateau is set by the small-scale power. While both have simple interpretations within the hierarchical Ansatz, the SS plateau can be predicted and generalized to still smaller scales within Takada and Hu's spectrum response formalism. Finally, the noise knee is naturally set by the density of tracers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lewis, Thomas; Siegel, Edward
2011-06-01
ROTATIONAL-[``spin-up''/``spin-down'']-SHOCK(S)-plasticity/fracture BAE[E.S.:MSE 8,310(71); PSS:(a)5,601 /607(71); Xl..-Latt. Defects 5,277(74);Scripta Met.:6,785(72);8,587/617(74);3rd Tokyo A.-E. Symp.(76);Acta Met. 25,383(77);JMMM 7,312(78)] NON: ``1''/ ω noise'' Zipf-(Pareto); power-law universality power-spectrum; is manifestly-demonstrated in two distinct ways to be nothing but ROTATIONAL(in 2 OR 3-dimensions)ANGULAR-momentum Newton's 3rd Law of Motion T=I α=dJ/dt REdiscovery!!! A/Siegel PHYSICS derivation FAILS!!! ''PURE''-MATHS: dT(t)/dt=(dJ(t)/dt)2=[I(t)d α(t)/dt+ α(t)(t)dI(t)/dt TRIPLE-integral VS. T=I α DOUBLE-integral time-series(T-S) Dichotomy: θ(t)=[ϖ0 t + α(t) t 2 / 2 + EXTRA-TERM(S)] VS. θ(t)=[ϖ0 t + α(t) t 2 / 2 ] integral-transform formally defines power-spectrum Dichotomy: P(ω) =? θ(t)e-iωtdt=?[ϖ0 t + αt2 / 2 ]e-iωtdt=φ0?te-iωtdt+?{[ α ≠ α (t)]/2}t2eiωtdt= φ0 (ω) /d ω+{[a ≠a(t)]/2}d2 δ (ω) /dω2 =φ0 /ω0+{[ α ≠ α (t)]/2}/ω 1 . 000 ...: if α=0, then P(ω) 1/ω0, VS. if α ≠ α (t) ≠0, then P(ω) 1/ ω 1/ω 1 . 000 ...
Peaks in the CMBR Power Spectrum II: Physical Interpretation for any Cosmological Scenario
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
López-Corredoira, Martín
2013-06-01
In a previous paper (part I), the mathematical properties of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) power spectrum which presents oscillations were discussed. Here, we discuss the physical interpretation: a power spectrum with oscillations is a rather normal characteristic expected from any fluid with clouds of overdensities that emit/absorb radiation or interact gravitationally with the photons, and with a finite range of sizes and distances for those clouds. The standard cosmological interpretation of "acoustic" peaks is just a particular case; peaks in the power spectrum might be generated in scenarios within some alternative cosmological model that have nothing to do with oscillations due to gravitational compression in a fluid. We also calculate the angular correlation function of the anisotropies from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP)-7 yr and ACT data, in an attempt to derive the minimum number of parameters a polynomial function should have to fit it: a set of polynomial functions with a total of ≈ 6 free parameters, apart from the amplitude, is enough to reproduce the first two peaks. However, the standard model with six tunable free parameters also reproduces higher-order peaks, giving the standard model a higher confidence. At present, while no simple function with six free parameters is found to give a fit as good as the one given by the standard cosmological model, we may consider the predictive power of the standard model beyond an instrumentalist approach (such as the Ptolemaic astronomy model of the orbits of the planets).
Methods for Bayesian power spectrum inference with galaxy surveys
Jasche, Jens; Wandelt, Benjamin D.
2013-12-10
We derive and implement a full Bayesian large scale structure inference method aiming at precision recovery of the cosmological power spectrum from galaxy redshift surveys. Our approach improves upon previous Bayesian methods by performing a joint inference of the three-dimensional density field, the cosmological power spectrum, luminosity dependent galaxy biases, and corresponding normalizations. We account for all joint and correlated uncertainties between all inferred quantities. Classes of galaxies with different biases are treated as separate subsamples. This method therefore also allows the combined analysis of more than one galaxy survey. In particular, it solves the problem of inferring the power spectrum from galaxy surveys with non-trivial survey geometries by exploring the joint posterior distribution with efficient implementations of multiple block Markov chain and Hybrid Monte Carlo methods. Our Markov sampler achieves high statistical efficiency in low signal-to-noise regimes by using a deterministic reversible jump algorithm. This approach reduces the correlation length of the sampler by several orders of magnitude, turning the otherwise numerically unfeasible problem of joint parameter exploration into a numerically manageable task. We test our method on an artificial mock galaxy survey, emulating characteristic features of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7, such as its survey geometry and luminosity-dependent biases. These tests demonstrate the numerical feasibility of our large scale Bayesian inference frame work when the parameter space has millions of dimensions. This method reveals and correctly treats the anti-correlation between bias amplitudes and power spectrum, which are not taken into account in current approaches to power spectrum estimation, a 20% effect across large ranges in k space. In addition, this method results in constrained realizations of density fields obtained without assuming the power spectrum or bias parameters
Reexamination of the Power Spectrum in De Sitter Inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agulló, Iván; Navarro-Salas, José; Olmo, Gonzalo J.; Parker, Leonard
2008-10-01
We find that the amplitude of quantum fluctuations of the invariant de Sitter vacuum coincides exactly with that of the vacuum of a comoving observer for a massless scalar (inflaton) field. We propose redefining the actual physical power spectrum as the difference between the amplitudes of the above vacua. An inertial particle detector continues to observe the Gibbons-Hawking temperature. However, although the resulting power spectrum is still scale-free, its amplitude can be drastically reduced since now, instead of the Hubble’s scale at the inflationary period, it is determined by the square of the mass of the inflaton fluctuation field.
Saikia, P.
1981-07-01
The spectrum of stimulated Brillouin scattering from an inhomogeneous moving laser plasma is analyzed. The damping of acoustic waves and scattered electromagnetic waves is taken into account. Spectra are derived for various scattering angles and for various radii of the laser beam. For all observation angles the center of the spectral line is at an unshifted frequency. As the observation angle increases, the width of the red wing in the spectrum increases. The intensity of the scattered light is very anisotropic.
Acoustic intensity near a high-powered military jet aircraft.
Stout, Trevor A; Gee, Kent L; Neilsen, Tracianne B; Wall, Alan T; James, Michael M
2015-07-01
The spatial variation in vector acoustic intensity has been calculated between 100 and 3000 Hz near a high-performance military aircraft. With one engine of a tethered F-22A Raptor operating at military power, a tetrahedral intensity probe was moved to 27 locations in the geometric near and mid-fields to obtain the frequency-dependent intensity vector field. The angles of the maximum intensity region rotate from aft to sideline with increasing frequency, becoming less directional above 800 Hz. Between 100 and 400 Hz, which are principal radiation frequencies, the ray-traced dominant source region rapidly contracts and moves upstream, approaching nearly constant behavior by 1000 Hz. PMID:26233049
Acoustic intensity near a high-powered military jet aircraft.
Stout, Trevor A; Gee, Kent L; Neilsen, Tracianne B; Wall, Alan T; James, Michael M
2015-07-01
The spatial variation in vector acoustic intensity has been calculated between 100 and 3000 Hz near a high-performance military aircraft. With one engine of a tethered F-22A Raptor operating at military power, a tetrahedral intensity probe was moved to 27 locations in the geometric near and mid-fields to obtain the frequency-dependent intensity vector field. The angles of the maximum intensity region rotate from aft to sideline with increasing frequency, becoming less directional above 800 Hz. Between 100 and 400 Hz, which are principal radiation frequencies, the ray-traced dominant source region rapidly contracts and moves upstream, approaching nearly constant behavior by 1000 Hz.
Determination of the acoustic source power levels of wind turbines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Debruijn, A.; Stam, W. J.; Dewolf, W. B.
To facilitate Wind Energy Conversin System (WECS) licensing, it is recommended to obtain the immission-relevant sound power from the WECS, since this quantity fits into most recommendations for industrial installations. Measurements on small and medium-scale WECS show that rotor rotation speed is a more important parameter than the wind velocity with regard to the radiated noise. An acoustic telescope was used to identify noise sources on two medium-size wind turbines. The mechanical noise from the nacelle is mostly predominant but the trailing edge aerodynamic noise is not negligible. A prediction model for this type of noise, which leads to good agreement with experimental data was developed. A method to suppress turbulence signals around WECS is a set-up with twin microphones, using correlation techniques on both signals.
The X-ray variability of NGC 6814 - Power spectrum
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Done, C.; Madejski, G. M.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Turner, T. J.; Koyama, K.; Kunieda, H.
1992-01-01
The existence of the periodic component seen in NGC 6814 with Exosat at 12,000 +/- 100 s is confirmed by a power spectrum and folded light curve analysis of unevenly sampled Ginga data. A comparison of the power spectra produced from simulated light curves with that observed enables the intrinsic shape of the power spectrum of the source to be determined despite the distortions introduced by the window function. The best estimate for the period is 12,132 +/- 3 s, where the error is that derived from simulations. An upper limit to the rate of change of period of about 10 exp -9 is inferred if the light curves are truly phase-coherent, but as this is not required by the data, the conservative upper limit is not greater than 5 x 10 exp -7. The large amount of power in the periodic component and its stability both suggest occultation of the source as its origin.
Generalized slow roll approximation for large power spectrum features
Dvorkin, Cora; Hu, Wayne
2010-01-15
We develop a variant of the generalized slow roll approach for calculating the curvature power spectrum that is well suited for order unity deviations in power caused by sharp features in the inflaton potential. As an example, we show that predictions for a step function potential, which has been proposed to explain order unity glitches in the cosmic microwave background temperature power spectrum at multipoles l=20-40, are accurate at the percent level. Our analysis shows that to good approximation there is a single source function that is responsible for observable features and that this function is simply related to the local slope and curvature of the inflaton potential. These properties should make the generalized slow roll approximation useful for inflation-model-independent studies of features, both large and small, in the observable power spectra.
A robust power spectrum split cancellation-based spectrum sensing method for cognitive radio systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qi, Pei-Han; Li, Zan; Si, Jiang-Bo; Gao, Rui
2014-12-01
Spectrum sensing is an essential component to realize the cognitive radio, and the requirement for real-time spectrum sensing in the case of lacking prior information, fading channel, and noise uncertainty, indeed poses a major challenge to the classical spectrum sensing algorithms. Based on the stochastic properties of scalar transformation of power spectral density (PSD), a novel spectrum sensing algorithm, referred to as the power spectral density split cancellation method (PSC), is proposed in this paper. The PSC makes use of a scalar value as a test statistic, which is the ratio of each subband power to the full band power. Besides, by exploiting the asymptotic normality and independence of Fourier transform, the distribution of the ratio and the mathematical expressions for the probabilities of false alarm and detection in different channel models are derived. Further, the exact closed-form expression of decision threshold is calculated in accordance with Neyman—Pearson criterion. Analytical and simulation results show that the PSC is invulnerable to noise uncertainty, and can achive excellent detection performance without prior knowledge in additive white Gaussian noise and flat slow fading channels. In addition, the PSC benefits from a low computational cost, which can be completed in microseconds.
High-Power Piezoelectric Acoustic-Electric Power Feedthru for Metal Walls
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bao, Xiaoqi; Biederman, Will; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Jones, Christopher; Aldrich, Jack; Chang, Zensheu
2008-01-01
Piezoelectric acoustic-electric power feed-through devices transfer electric power wirelessly through a solid wall by using acoustic waves. This approach allows for the removal of holes through structures. The technology is applicable to power supply for electric equipment inside sealed containers, vacuum or pressure vessels, etc where the holes on the wall are prohibitive or result in significant performance degrade or complex designs. In the author's previous work, 100-W electric power was transferred through a metal wall by a small, simple-structure piezoelectric device. To meet requirements of higher power applications, the feasibility to transfer kilowatts level power was investigated. Pre-stressed longitudinal piezoelectric feedthru devices were analyzed by finite element model. An equivalent circuit model was developed to predict the power transfer characteristics to different electric loads. Based on the analysis results, a prototype device was designed, fabricated and a demonstration of the transmission of electric power up to 1-kW was successfully conducted. The methods to minimize the plate wave excitation on the wall were also analyzed. Both model analysis and experimental results are presented in detail in this presentation.
Joint resonant CMB power spectrum and bispectrum estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meerburg, P. Daniel; Münchmeyer, Moritz; Wandelt, Benjamin
2016-02-01
We develop the tools necessary to assess the statistical significance of resonant features in the CMB correlation functions, combining power spectrum and bispectrum measurements. This significance is typically addressed by running a large number of simulations to derive the probability density function (PDF) of the feature-amplitude in the Gaussian case. Although these simulations are tractable for the power spectrum, for the bispectrum they require significant computational resources. We show that, by assuming that the PDF is given by a multivariate Gaussian where the covariance is determined by the Fisher matrix of the sine and cosine terms, we can efficiently produce spectra that are statistically close to those derived from full simulations. By drawing a large number of spectra from this PDF, both for the power spectrum and the bispectrum, we can quickly determine the statistical significance of candidate signatures in the CMB, considering both single frequency and multifrequency estimators. We show that for resonance models, cosmology and foreground parameters have little influence on the estimated amplitude, which allows us to simplify the analysis considerably. A more precise likelihood treatment can then be applied to candidate signatures only. We also discuss a modal expansion approach for the power spectrum, aimed at quickly scanning through large families of oscillating models.
Progress in Acoustic Transmission of Power through Walls
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sherrit,Stewart; Coty, Benjamin; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Chang, Zensheu
2008-01-01
A document presents updated information on implementation of the wireless acoustic-electric feed-through (WAEF) concept, which was reported in Using Piezoelectric Devices To Transmit Power Through Walls (NPO-41157), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 6 (June 2008), page 70. To recapitulate: In a basic WAEF setup, a transmitting piezoelectric transducer on one side of a wall is driven at resonance to excite ultrasonic vibrations in the wall. A receiving piezoelectric transducer on the opposite side of the wall converts the vibrations back to an ultrasonic AC electric signal, which is then detected and otherwise processed in a manner that depends on the modulation (if any) applied to the signal and whether the signal is used to transmit power, data, or both. The present document expands upon the previous information concerning underlying physical principles, advantages, and potential applications of WAEF. It discusses the design and construction of breadboard prototype piezoelectric transducers for WAEF. It goes on to present results of computational simulations of performance and results of laboratory tests of the prototypes. In one notable test, a 100-W light bulb was lit by WAEF to demonstrate the feasibility of powering a realistic load.
A fast spectrum heat pipe cooled thermionic power system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mills, Joseph C.; Determan, William R.; Van Hagan, Thomas H.; Wuchte, Thomas, Captain
1992-01-01
This paper summarizes the design and performance characteristics of a heat pipe cooled thermionic (HPTI) power system being developed by a team headed by Rockwell International and General Atomics (GA). The design utilizes multicell, in-core thermionic fuel elements (TFEs) in a fast spectrum reactor core that is passively cooled by in-core heat pipes. The fast spectrum promotes competitive mass scalability over the power range of interest for future military application of 10 to 100 kWe without changing basic components or technologies. The number of TFEs and companion uranium nitride fuel elements are merely varied to achieve the critical mass requirements for each power level. The redundant in-core heat pipes in conjunction with an internally redundant heat pipe radiator help assure meeting key design goals for no single point failures and high survivability to both natural and hostile threats. These attractive attributes are achieved using already developed or under development technology.
Primordial scalar power spectrum from the Euclidean big bounce
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schander, Susanne; Barrau, Aurélien; Bolliet, Boris; Linsefors, Linda; Mielczarek, Jakub; Grain, Julien
2016-01-01
In effective models of loop quantum cosmology, the holonomy corrections are associated with deformations of space-time symmetries. The most evident manifestation of the deformations is the emergence of a Euclidean phase accompanying the nonsingular bouncing dynamics of the scale factor. In this article, we compute the power spectrum of scalar perturbations generated in this model, with a massive scalar field as the matter content. Instantaneous and adiabatic vacuum-type initial conditions for scalar perturbations are imposed in the contracting phase. The evolution through the Euclidean region is calculated based on the extrapolation of the time direction pointed by the vectors normal to the Cauchy hypersurface in the Lorentzian domains. The obtained power spectrum is characterized by a suppression in the IR regime and oscillations in the intermediate energy range. Furthermore, the speculative extension of the analysis in the UV reveals a specific rise of the power leading to results incompatible with the data.
Neutrino mass limits: Robust information from the power spectrum of galaxy surveys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cuesta, Antonio J.; Niro, Viviana; Verde, Licia
2016-09-01
We present cosmological upper limits on the sum of active neutrino masses using large-scale power spectrum data from the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey and from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey - Data Release 7 (SDSS-DR7) sample of Luminous Red Galaxies (LRG). Combining measurements on the Cosmic Microwave Background temperature and polarisation anisotropies by the Planck satellite together with WiggleZ power spectrum results in a neutrino mass bound of 0.37 eV at 95% C.L., while replacing WiggleZ by the SDSS-DR7 LRG power spectrum, the 95% C.L. bound on the sum of neutrino masses is 0.38 eV. Adding Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) distance scale measurements, the neutrino mass upper limits greatly improve, since BAO data break degeneracies in parameter space. Within a ΛCDM model, we find an upper limit of 0.13 eV (0.14 eV) at 95% C.L., when using SDSS-DR7 LRG (WiggleZ) together with BAO and Planck. The addition of BAO data makes the neutrino mass upper limit robust, showing only a weak dependence on the power spectrum used. We also quantify the dependence of neutrino mass limit reported here on the CMB lensing information. The tighter upper limit (0.13 eV) obtained with SDSS-DR7 LRG is very close to that recently obtained using Lyman-alpha clustering data, yet uses a completely different probe and redshift range, further supporting the robustness of the constraint. This constraint puts under some pressure the inverted mass hierarchy and favours the normal hierarchy.
Multiredshift Limits on the 21 cm Power Spectrum from PAPER
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobs, Daniel C.; Pober, Jonathan C.; Parsons, Aaron R.; Aguirre, James E.; Ali, Zaki S.; Bowman, Judd; Bradley, Richard F.; Carilli, Chris L.; DeBoer, David R.; Dexter, Matthew R.; Gugliucci, Nicole E.; Klima, Pat; Liu, Adrian; MacMahon, David H. E.; Manley, Jason R.; Moore, David F.; Stefan, Irina I.; Walbrugh, William P.
2015-03-01
The epoch of the reionization (EoR) power spectrum is expected to evolve strongly with redshift, and it is this variation with cosmic history that will allow us to begin to place constraints on the physics of reionization. The primary obstacle to the measurement of the EoR power spectrum is bright foreground emission. We present an analysis of observations from the Donald C. Backer Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER) telescope, which place new limits on the H i power spectrum over the redshift range of 7.5\\lt z\\lt 10.5, extending previously published single-redshift results to cover the full range accessible to the instrument. To suppress foregrounds, we use filtering techniques that take advantage of the large instrumental bandwidth to isolate and suppress foreground leakage into the interesting regions of k-space. Our 500 hr integration is the longest such yet recorded and demonstrates this method to a dynamic range of 104. Power spectra at different points across the redshift range reveal the variable efficacy of the foreground isolation. Noise-limited measurements of Δ2 at k = 0.2 hr Mpc-1 and z = 7.55 reach as low as (48 mK)2 (1σ). We demonstrate that the size of the error bars in our power spectrum measurement as generated by a bootstrap method is consistent with the fluctuations due to thermal noise. Relative to this thermal noise, most spectra exhibit an excess of power at a few sigma. The likely sources of this excess include residual foreground leakage, particularly at the highest redshift, unflagged radio frequency interference, and calibration errors. We conclude by discussing data reduction improvements that promise to remove much of this excess.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Das, Sudeep; Marriage, Tobias A.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Aguirre, Paula; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John W.; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Battistelli, Elia A.; Bond, J. Richard; Brown, Ben; Burger, Bryce; Chervenak, Jay; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Doriese, W. Bertrand; Dunkley, Joanna; Duenner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fisher, Ryan P.; Fowler, Joseph W.; Hajian, Amir; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hernandez-Monteagudo, Carlos; Wollack, Ed
2010-01-01
We present measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectrum made by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope at 148 GHz and 218 GHz, as well as the cross-frequency spectrum between the two channels. Our results dearly show the second through the seventh acoustic peaks in the CMB power spectrum. The measurements of these higher-order peaks provide an additional test of the ACDM cosmological model. At l > 3000, we detect power in excess of the primary anisotropy spectrum of the CMB. At lower multipoles 500 < l < 3000, we find evidence for gravitational lensing of the CMB in the power spectrum at the 2.8(sigma) level. We also detect a low level of Galactic dust in our maps, which demonstrates that we can recover known faint, diffuse signals.
Thermal power spectrum in the CFT driven cosmology
Barvinsky, A.O.
2013-10-01
We present an overview of the recently suggested cosmological model driven by conformal field theory (CFT) with the initial conditions in the form of the microcanonical density matrix. In particular, we discuss the origin of inflationary stage in this model and a novel feature — the thermal nature of the primordial power spectrum of the CMB anisotropy. The relevant effect of ''temperature of the relic temperature anisotropy'' can be responsible for a thermal contribution to the red tilt of this spectrum, additional to its conventional vacuum component. The amplification of this effect due to recently established a-theorem in CFT is briefly discussed.
Decomposition of Heart Rate Variability Spectrum into a Power-Law Function and a Residual Spectrum
Kuo, Jane; Kuo, Cheng-Deng
2016-01-01
The power spectral density (PSD) of heart rate variability (HRV) contains a power-law relationship that can be obtained by plotting the logarithm of PSD against the logarithm of frequency. The PSD of HRV can be decomposed mathematically into a power-law function and a residual HRV (rHRV) spectrum. Almost all rHRV measures are significantly smaller than their corresponding HRV measures except the normalized high-frequency power (nrHFP). The power-law function can be characterized by the slope and Y-intercept of linear regression. Almost all HRV measures except the normalized low-frequency power have significant correlations with the Y-intercept, while almost all rHRV measures except the total power [residual total power (rTP)] do not. Though some rHRV measures still correlate significantly with the age of the subjects, the rTP, high-frequency power (rHFP), nrHFP, and low-/high-frequency power ratio (rLHR) do not. In conclusion, the clinical significances of rHRV measures might be different from those of traditional HRV measures. The Y-intercept might be a better HRV measure for clinical use because it is independent of almost all rHRV measures. The rTP, rHFP, nrHFP, and rLHR might be more suitable for the study of age-independent autonomic nervous modulation of the subjects. PMID:27314001
Decomposition of Heart Rate Variability Spectrum into a Power-Law Function and a Residual Spectrum.
Kuo, Jane; Kuo, Cheng-Deng
2016-01-01
The power spectral density (PSD) of heart rate variability (HRV) contains a power-law relationship that can be obtained by plotting the logarithm of PSD against the logarithm of frequency. The PSD of HRV can be decomposed mathematically into a power-law function and a residual HRV (rHRV) spectrum. Almost all rHRV measures are significantly smaller than their corresponding HRV measures except the normalized high-frequency power (nrHFP). The power-law function can be characterized by the slope and Y-intercept of linear regression. Almost all HRV measures except the normalized low-frequency power have significant correlations with the Y-intercept, while almost all rHRV measures except the total power [residual total power (rTP)] do not. Though some rHRV measures still correlate significantly with the age of the subjects, the rTP, high-frequency power (rHFP), nrHFP, and low-/high-frequency power ratio (rLHR) do not. In conclusion, the clinical significances of rHRV measures might be different from those of traditional HRV measures. The Y-intercept might be a better HRV measure for clinical use because it is independent of almost all rHRV measures. The rTP, rHFP, nrHFP, and rLHR might be more suitable for the study of age-independent autonomic nervous modulation of the subjects.
Rejuvenating the Matter Power Spectrum. III. The Cosmology Sensitivity of Gaussianized Power Spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neyrinck, Mark C.
2011-12-01
It was recently shown that applying a Gaussianizing transform, such as a logarithm, to the nonlinear matter density field extends the range of useful applicability of the power spectrum by a factor of a few smaller. Such a transform dramatically reduces nonlinearities in both the covariance and the shape of the power spectrum. Here, analyzing Coyote Universe real-space dark-matter density fields, we investigate the consequences of these transforms for cosmological parameter estimation. The power spectrum of the log-density provides the tightest cosmological parameter error bars (marginalized or not), giving a factor of 2-3 improvement over the conventional power spectrum in all five parameters tested. For the tilt, ns , the improvement reaches a factor of five. Similar constraints are achieved if the log-density power spectrum and conventional power spectrum are analyzed together. Rank-order Gaussianization seems just as useful as a log transform to constrain ns , but not other parameters. Dividing the overdensity by its dispersion in few-Mpc cells, while it diagonalizes the covariance matrix, does not seem to help with parameter constraints. We also provide a code that emulates these power spectra over a range of concordance cosmological models.
REJUVENATING THE MATTER POWER SPECTRUM. III. THE COSMOLOGY SENSITIVITY OF GAUSSIANIZED POWER SPECTRA
Neyrinck, Mark C.
2011-12-01
It was recently shown that applying a Gaussianizing transform, such as a logarithm, to the nonlinear matter density field extends the range of useful applicability of the power spectrum by a factor of a few smaller. Such a transform dramatically reduces nonlinearities in both the covariance and the shape of the power spectrum. Here, analyzing Coyote Universe real-space dark-matter density fields, we investigate the consequences of these transforms for cosmological parameter estimation. The power spectrum of the log-density provides the tightest cosmological parameter error bars (marginalized or not), giving a factor of 2-3 improvement over the conventional power spectrum in all five parameters tested. For the tilt, n{sub s} , the improvement reaches a factor of five. Similar constraints are achieved if the log-density power spectrum and conventional power spectrum are analyzed together. Rank-order Gaussianization seems just as useful as a log transform to constrain n{sub s} , but not other parameters. Dividing the overdensity by its dispersion in few-Mpc cells, while it diagonalizes the covariance matrix, does not seem to help with parameter constraints. We also provide a code that emulates these power spectra over a range of concordance cosmological models.
Acoustic agglomeration of power plant fly ash. Final report
Reethof, G.; McDaniel, O.H.
1982-01-01
The work has shown that acoustic agglomeration at practical acoustic intensities and frequencies is technically and most likely economically viable. The following studies were performed with the listed results: The physics of acoustic agglomeration is complex particularly at the needed high acoustic intensities in the range of 150 to 160 dB and frequencies in the 2500 Hz range. The analytical model which we developed, although not including nonlinear acoustic efforts, agreed with the trends observed. We concentrated our efforts on clarifying the impact of high acoustic intensities on the generation of turbulence. Results from a special set of tests show that although some acoustically generated turbulence of sorts exists in the 150 to 170 dB range with acoustic streaming present, such turbulence will not be a significant factor in acoustic agglomeration compared to the dominant effect of the acoustic velocities at the fundamental frequency and its harmonics. Studies of the robustness of the agglomerated particles using the Anderson Mark III impactor as the source of the shear stresses on the particles show that the agglomerates should be able to withstand the rigors of flow through commercial cyclones without significant break-up. We designed and developed a 700/sup 0/F tubular agglomerator of 8'' internal diameter. The electrically heated system functioned well and provided very encouraging agglomeration results at acoustic levels in the 150 to 160 dB and 2000 to 3000 Hz ranges. We confirmed earlier results that an optimum frequency exists at about 2500 Hz and that larger dust loadings will give better results. Studies of the absorption of acoustic energy by various common gases as a function of temperature and humidity showed the need to pursue such an investigation for flue gas constituents in order to provide necessary data for the design of agglomerators. 65 references, 56 figures, 4 tables.
ACOUSTIC SCALE FROM THE ANGULAR POWER SPECTRA OF SDSS-III DR8 PHOTOMETRIC LUMINOUS GALAXIES
Seo, Hee-Jong; Ho, Shirley; White, Martin; Reid, Beth; Schlegel, David J.; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Ross, Ashley J.; Percival, Will J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Saito, Shun; De Putter, Roland; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Xu Xiaoying; Skibba, Ramin; Schneider, Donald P.; Verde, Licia; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Brinkmann, J.; and others
2012-12-10
We measure the acoustic scale from the angular power spectra of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III) Data Release 8 imaging catalog that includes 872, 921 galaxies over {approx}10,000 deg{sup 2} between 0.45 < z < 0.65. The extensive spectroscopic training set of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey luminous galaxies allows precise estimates of the true redshift distributions of galaxies in our imaging catalog. Utilizing the redshift distribution information, we build templates and fit to the power spectra of the data, which are measured in our companion paper, to derive the location of Baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs) while marginalizing over many free parameters to exclude nearly all of the non-BAO signal. We derive the ratio of the angular diameter distance to the sound horizon scale D{sub A} (z)/r{sub s} = 9.212{sup +0.416}{sub -{sub 0.404}} at z = 0.54, and therefore D{sub A} (z) = 1411 {+-} 65 Mpc at z = 0.54; the result is fairly independent of assumptions on the underlying cosmology. Our measurement of angular diameter distance D{sub A} (z) is 1.4{sigma} higher than what is expected for the concordance {Lambda}CDM, in accordance to the trend of other spectroscopic BAO measurements for z {approx}> 0.35. We report constraints on cosmological parameters from our measurement in combination with the WMAP7 data and the previous spectroscopic BAO measurements of SDSS and WiggleZ. We refer to our companion papers (Ho et al.; de Putter et al.) for investigations on information of the full power spectrum.
Bayesian optimal reconstruction of the primordial power spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bridges, M.; Feroz, F.; Hobson, M. P.; Lasenby, A. N.
2009-12-01
The form of the primordial power spectrum has the potential to differentiate strongly between competing models of perturbation generation in the early universe and so is of considerable importance. The recent release of five years of Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe observations have confirmed the general picture of the primordial power spectrum as deviating slightly from scale invariance with a spectral tilt parameter of ns ~ 0.96. None the less, many attempts have been made to isolate further features such as breaks and cut-offs using a variety of methods, some employing more than ~10 varying parameters. In this paper, we apply the robust technique of the Bayesian model selection to reconstruct the optimal degree of structure in the spectrum. We model the spectrum simply and generically as piecewise linear in lnk between `nodes' in k space whose amplitudes are allowed to vary. The number of nodes and their k-space positions are chosen by the Bayesian evidence so that we can identify both the complexity and location of any detected features. Our optimal reconstruction contains, perhaps, surprisingly few features, the data preferring just three nodes. This reconstruction allows for a degree of scale dependence of the tilt with the `turn-over' scale occurring around k ~ 0.016 Mpc-1. More structure is penalized by the evidence as overfitting the data, so there is currently little point in attempting reconstructions that are more complex.
Electron density power spectrum in the local interstellar medium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Armstrong, J. W.; Rickett, B. J.; Spangler, S. R.
1995-01-01
Interstellar scintillation (ISS), fluctuations in the amplitude and phase of radio waves caused by scattering in the interstellar medium, is important as a diagnostic of interstellar plasma turbulence. ISS is also of interest because it is noise for other radio astronomical observations. The unifying concern is the power spectrum of the interstellar electron density. Here we use ISS observations through the nearby (less than or approximately =1 kpc) (ISM) to estimate the spectrum. From measurements of angular broadening of pulsars and extragalactic sources, decorrelation bandwidth of pulsars, refractive steering of features in pulsar dynamic spectra, dispersion measured fluctuations of pulsars, and refractive scintillation index measurements, we construct a composite structure function that is approximately power law over 2 x 10(exp 6) m less than scale less than 10(exp 13) m. The data are consistent with the structure function having a logarithmic slope versus baseline less than 2; thus there is a meaningful connection between scales in the radiowave fluctuation field and the scales in the electron density field causing the scattering. The data give an upper limit to the inner scale, l(sub o) less than or approximately 10(exp 8) m and are consistent with much smaller values. We construct a composite electron density spectrum that is approximately power law over at least the approximately = 5 decade wavenumber range 10(exp -13)/m less than wavenumber less than 10(exp -8)/m and that may extend to higher wavenumbers. The average spectral index of electron density over this wavenumber range is approximately = 3.7, very close to the value expected for a Kolmogorov process. The outer scale size, L(sub o), must be greater than or approximately = 10(exp 13) m (determined from dispersion measure fluctuations). When the ISS data are combined with measurements of differential Faraday rotation angle, and gradients in the average electron density, constraints can be put on the
Normalized Noise Power Spectrum of Full Field Digital Mammography System
Isa, Norriza Mohd; Wan Hassan, Wan Muhamad Saridan
2010-01-05
A method to measure noise power spectrum of a full field digital mammography system is presented. The effect of X-ray radiation dose, size and configuration of region of interest on normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) was investigated. Flat field images were acquired using RQA-M2 beam quality technique (Mo/Mo anode-filter, 28 kV, 2 mm Al) with different clinical radiation doses. The images were cropped at about 4 cm from the edge of the breast wall and then divided into different size of non-overlapping or overlapping segments. NNPS was determined through detrending, 2-D fast Fourier transformation and normalization. Our measurement shows that high radiation dose gave lower NNPS at a specific beam quality.
Nonisotropy in the CMB power spectrum in single field inflation
Donoghue, John F.; Dutta, Koushik; Ross, Andreas
2009-07-15
Contaldi et al.[C. R. Contaldi, M. Peloso, L. Kofman, and A. Linde, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 07 (2003) 002] have suggested that an initial period of kinetic energy domination in single field inflation may explain the lack of CMB power at large angular scales. We note that in this situation it is natural that there also be a spatial gradient in the initial value of the inflaton field, and that this can provide a spatial asymmetry in the observed CMB power spectrum, manifest at low values of l. We investigate the nature of this asymmetry and comment on its relation to possible anomalies at low l.
Guliy, O I; Zaitsev, B D; Kuznetsova, I E; Shikhabudinov, A M; Dykman, L A; Staroverov, S A; Karavaeva, O A; Pavliy, S A; Ignatov, O V
2015-01-01
The changes in the electro-acoustic parameters of cell suspension due to the interaction of cells with bacteriophages both in a pure. culture and in the presence of extraneous microflora were investigated. It has been found that the specific changes in the electroacoustic parameters of cell suspension under the action of bacteriophage occur only in microbial cells which are sensitive to the bacteriophage studied. It has been established that a sensor unit allows of distinguishing a situation when the bacterial cells are infected with specific bacteriophages of the control experiments and a situation with no introduction of infection. An approximate criterion of the presence of specific interactions of bacteriophages and cells in suspension was developed. In accordance with this criterion the change in electrical impedance of the sensor unit must not be less than - 1%. In control experiments a standard microbiological technique, plating the cells infected with bacteriophages on solid nutrient medium, was used. For the first time the possibility of using the method of electroacoustic analysis for determination of a spectrum of lytic activity of bacteriophages was shown. The results obtained may be used for development of a new express method for determining the sensitivity to bacteriophages of the microbial cells.
Defect-detection algorithm for noncontact acoustic inspection using spectrum entropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sugimoto, Kazuko; Akamatsu, Ryo; Sugimoto, Tsuneyoshi; Utagawa, Noriyuki; Kuroda, Chitose; Katakura, Kageyoshi
2015-07-01
In recent years, the detachment of concrete from bridges or tunnels and the degradation of concrete structures have become serious social problems. The importance of inspection, repair, and updating is recognized in measures against degradation. We have so far studied the noncontact acoustic inspection method using airborne sound and the laser Doppler vibrometer. In this method, depending on the surface state (reflectance, dirt, etc.), the quantity of the light of the returning laser decreases and optical noise resulting from the leakage of light reception arises. Some influencing factors are the stability of the output of the laser Doppler vibrometer, the low reflective characteristic of the measurement surface, the diffused reflection characteristic, measurement distance, and laser irradiation angle. If defect detection depends only on the vibration energy ratio since the frequency characteristic of the optical noise resembles white noise, the detection of optical noise resulting from the leakage of light reception may indicate a defective part. Therefore, in this work, the combination of the vibrational energy ratio and spectrum entropy is used to judge whether a measured point is healthy or defective or an abnormal measurement point. An algorithm that enables more vivid detection of a defective part is proposed. When our technique was applied in an experiment with real concrete structures, the defective part could be extracted more vividly and the validity of our proposed algorithm was confirmed.
Perturbation theory, effective field theory, and oscillations in the power spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vlah, Zvonimir; Seljak, Uroš; Yat Chu, Man; Feng, Yu
2016-03-01
We explore the relationship between the nonlinear matter power spectrum and the various Lagrangian and Standard Perturbation Theories (LPT and SPT). We first look at it in the context of one dimensional (1-d) dynamics, where 1LPT is exact at the perturbative level and one can exactly resum the SPT series into the 1LPT power spectrum. Shell crossings lead to non-perturbative effects, and the PT ignorance can be quantified in terms of their ratio, which is also the transfer function squared in the absence of stochasticity. At the order of PT we work, this parametrization is equivalent to the results of effective field theory (EFT), and can thus be expanded in terms of the same parameters. We find that its radius of convergence is larger than the SPT loop expansion. The same EFT parametrization applies to all SPT loop terms and if stochasticity can be ignored, to all N-point correlators. In 3-d, the LPT structure is considerably more complicated, and we find that LPT models with parametrization motivated by the EFT exhibit running with k and that SPT is generally a better choice. Since these transfer function expansions contain free parameters that change with cosmological model their usefulness for broadband power is unclear. For this reason we test the predictions of these models on baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO) and other primordial oscillations, including string monodromy models, for which we ran a series of simulations with and without oscillations. Most models are successful in predicting oscillations beyond their corresponding PT versions, confirming the basic validity of the model. We show that if primordial oscillations are localized to a scale q, the wiggles in power spectrum are approximately suppressed as exp[-k2Σ2(q)/2], where Σ(q) is rms displacement of particles separated by q, which saturates on large scales, and decreases as q is reduced. No oscillatory features survive past k ~ 0.5h/Mpc at z = 0.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cuschieri, J. M.
1992-01-01
The mobility power flow approach that was previously applied in the derivation of expressions for the vibrational power flow between coupled plate substructures forming an L configuration and subjected to mechanical loading is generalized. Using the generalized expressions, both point and distributed mechanical loads on one or both of the plates can be considered. The generalized approach is extended to deal with acoustic excitation of one of the plate substructures. In this case, the forces (acoustic pressures) acting on the structure are dependent on the response of the structure because of the scattered pressure component. The interaction between the plate structure and the acoustic fluid leads to the derivation of a corrected mode shape for the plates' normal surface velocity and also for the structure mobility functions. The determination of the scattered pressure components in the expressions for the power flow represents an additional component in the power flow balance for the source plate and the receiver plate. This component represents the radiated acoustical power from the plate structure. For a number of coupled plate substrates, the acoustic pressure generated by one substructure will interact with the motion of another substructure. That is, in the case of the L-shaped plate, acoustic interaction exists between the two plate substructures due to the generation of the acoustic waves by each of the substructures. An approach to deal with this phenomena is described.
Revising the Halofit Model for the Nonlinear Matter Power Spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, Ryuichi; Sato, Masanori; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Taruya, Atsushi; Oguri, Masamune
2012-12-01
Based on a suite of state-of-the-art high-resolution N-body simulations, we revisit the so-called halofit model as an accurate fitting formula for the nonlinear matter power spectrum. While the halofit model has frequently been used as a standard cosmological tool to predict the nonlinear matter power spectrum in a universe dominated by cold dark matter, its precision has been limited by the low resolution of N-body simulations used to determine the fitting parameters, suggesting the necessity of an improved fitting formula at small scales for future cosmological studies. We run high-resolution N-body simulations for 16 cosmological models around the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe best-fit cosmological parameters (one-, three-, five-, and seven-year results), including dark energy models with a constant equation of state. The simulation results are used to re-calibrate the fitting parameters of the halofit model so as to reproduce small-scale power spectra of the N-body simulations, while keeping the precision at large scales. The revised fitting formula provides an accurate prediction of the nonlinear matter power spectrum in a wide range of wavenumbers (k <= 30 h Mpc-1) at redshifts 0 <= z <= 10, with 5% precision for k <= 1 h Mpc-1 at 0 <= z <= 10 and 10% for 1 <= k <= 10 h Mpc-1 at 0 <= z <= 3. We discuss the impact of the improved halofit model on weak-lensing power spectra and correlation functions, and show that the improved model better reproduces ray-tracing simulation results.
REVISING THE HALOFIT MODEL FOR THE NONLINEAR MATTER POWER SPECTRUM
Takahashi, Ryuichi; Sato, Masanori; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Taruya, Atsushi; Oguri, Masamune
2012-12-20
Based on a suite of state-of-the-art high-resolution N-body simulations, we revisit the so-called halofit model as an accurate fitting formula for the nonlinear matter power spectrum. While the halofit model has frequently been used as a standard cosmological tool to predict the nonlinear matter power spectrum in a universe dominated by cold dark matter, its precision has been limited by the low resolution of N-body simulations used to determine the fitting parameters, suggesting the necessity of an improved fitting formula at small scales for future cosmological studies. We run high-resolution N-body simulations for 16 cosmological models around the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe best-fit cosmological parameters (one-, three-, five-, and seven-year results), including dark energy models with a constant equation of state. The simulation results are used to re-calibrate the fitting parameters of the halofit model so as to reproduce small-scale power spectra of the N-body simulations, while keeping the precision at large scales. The revised fitting formula provides an accurate prediction of the nonlinear matter power spectrum in a wide range of wavenumbers (k {<=} 30 h Mpc{sup -1}) at redshifts 0 {<=} z {<=} 10, with 5% precision for k {<=} 1 h Mpc{sup -1} at 0 {<=} z {<=} 10 and 10% for 1 {<=} k {<=} 10 h Mpc{sup -1} at 0 {<=} z {<=} 3. We discuss the impact of the improved halofit model on weak-lensing power spectra and correlation functions, and show that the improved model better reproduces ray-tracing simulation results.
High-power piezoelectric acoustic-electric power feedthru for metal walls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bao, Xiaoqi; Biederman, Will; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Jones, Christopher; Aldrich, Jack; Chang, Zensheu
2008-03-01
Piezoelectric acoustic-electric power feed-through devices transfer electric power wirelessly through a solid wall using elastic waves. This approach allows for the elimination of the need for holes through structures for cabling or electrical feed-thrus . The technology supplies power to electric equipment inside sealed containers, vacuum or pressure vessels, etc where holes in the wall are prohibitive or may result in significant performance degradation or requires complex designs. In the our previous work, 100-W of electric power was transferred through a metal wall by a small, piezoelectric device with a simple-structure. To meet requirements of higher power applications, the feasibility to transfer kilowatts level power was investigated. Pre-stressed longitudinal piezoelectric feed-thru devices were analyzed by finite element modeling. An equivalent circuit model was developed to predict the characteristics of power transfer to different electric loads. Based on the analytical results, a prototype device was designed, fabricated and successfully demonstrated to transfer electric power at a level of 1-kW. Methods of minimizing plate wave excitation on the wall were also analyzed. Both model analysis and experimental results are presented in detail in this paper.
Acoustic-loads research for powered-lift configurations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schoenster, J. A.; Willis, C. M.; Schroeder, J. C.; Mixson, J. S.
1976-01-01
Data presented from large-scale model tests with jet engines having thrusts of 9 kN (2000 lb) and 36 kN (8000 lb) include acoustic loads for an externally blown wing and flap induced by a TF34 jet engine, an upper surface blown (USB) aircraft model in a wind tunnel, and two USB models in static tests. Comparisons of these results with results from acoustic loads studies on configurations of other sizes are made and the implications of these results on interior noise and acoustic fatigue are discussed.
CHIPS: The Cosmological H i Power Spectrum Estimator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trott, C. M.; Pindor, B.; Procopio, P.; Wayth, R. B.; Mitchell, D. A.; McKinley, B.; Tingay, S. J.; Barry, N.; Beardsley, A. P.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, Judd D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Carroll, P.; de Oliveira-Costa, A.; Dillon, Joshua S.; Ewall-Wice, A.; Feng, L.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hazelton, B. J.; Hewitt, J. N.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Jacobs, Daniel C.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kim, H. S.; Lenc, E.; Line, J.; Loeb, A.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Neben, A. R.; Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Oberoi, D.; Offringa, A. R.; Ord, S. M.; Paul, S.; Pober, J. C.; Prabu, T.; Riding, J.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Sethi, Shiv K.; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Sullivan, I. S.; Tegmark, M.; Webster, R. L.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.; Wu, C.; Wyithe, J. S. B.
2016-02-01
Detection of the cosmological neutral hydrogen signal from the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) and estimation of its basic physical parameters are principal scientific aims of many current low-frequency radio telescopes. Here we describe the Cosmological H i Power Spectrum Estimator (CHIPS), an algorithm developed and implemented with data from the Murchison Widefield Array, to compute the two-dimensional and spherically-averaged power spectrum of brightness temperature fluctuations. The principal motivations for CHIPS are the application of realistic instrumental and foreground models to form the optimal estimator, thereby maximizing the likelihood of unbiased signal estimation, and allowing a full covariant understanding of the outputs. CHIPS employs an inverse-covariance weighting of the data through the maximum likelihood estimator, thereby allowing use of the full parameter space for signal estimation (“foreground suppression”). We describe the motivation for the algorithm, implementation, application to real and simulated data, and early outputs. Upon application to a set of 3 hr of data, we set a 2σ upper limit on the EoR dimensionless power at k=0.05 {{h}} Mpc-1 of {{{Δ }}}k2\\lt 7.6× {10}4 mK2 in the redshift range z = [6.2-6.6], consistent with previous estimates.
Aghamousa, Amir; Arjunwadkar, Mihir; Souradeep, Tarun E-mail: mihir@ncra.tifr.res.in
2012-02-01
Using a nonparametric function estimation methodology, we present a comparative analysis of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) 1-, 3-, 5-, and 7-year data releases for the cosmic microwave background (CMB) angular power spectrum with respect to the following key questions. (1) How well is the power spectrum determined by the data alone? (2) How well is the {Lambda}CDM model supported by a model-independent, data-driven analysis? (3) What are the realistic uncertainties on peak/dip locations and heights? Our results show that the height of the power spectrum is well determined by data alone for multipole l approximately less than 546 (1-year), 667 (3-year), 804 (5-year), and 842 (7-year data). We show that parametric fits based on the {Lambda}CDM model are remarkably close to our nonparametric fits in l-regions where data are sufficiently precise. In contrast, the power spectrum for an H{Lambda}CDM model is progressively pushed away from our nonparametric fit as data quality improves with successive data realizations, suggesting incompatibility of this particular cosmological model with respect to the WMAP data sets. We present uncertainties on peak/dip locations and heights at the 95% (2{sigma}) level of confidence and show how these uncertainties translate into hyperbolic 'bands' on the acoustic scale (l{sub A} ) and peak shift ({phi}{sub m}) parameters. Based on the confidence set for the 7-year data, we argue that the low-l upturn in the CMB power spectrum cannot be ruled out at any confidence level in excess of about 10% ( Almost-Equal-To 0.12{sigma}). Additional outcomes of this work are a numerical formulation for minimization of a noise-weighted risk function subject to monotonicity constraints, a prescription for obtaining nonparametric fits that are closer to cosmological expectations on smoothness, and a method for sampling cosmologically meaningful power spectrum variations from the confidence set of a nonparametric fit.
EEG Power Spectrum Analysis in Children with ADHD
Kamida, Akira; Shimabayashi, Kenta; Oguri, Masayoshi; Takamori, Toshihiro; Ueda, Naoyuki; Koyanagi, Yuki; Sannomiya, Naoko; Nagira, Haruki; Ikunishi, Saeko; Hattori, Yuiko; Sato, Kengo; Fukuda, Chisako; Hirooka, Yasuaki; Maegaki, Yoshihiro
2016-01-01
Background Attention deficit disorder/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pathological condition that is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated electroencephalographic (EEG) power differences between children with ADHD and healthy control children. Methods EEGs were recorded as part of routine medical care received by 80 children with ADHD aged 4–15 years at the Department of Pediatric Neurology in Tottori University Hospital. Additionally, we recorded in 59 control children aged 4–15 years after obtaining informed consent. Specifically, awake EEG signals were recorded from each child using the international 10–20 system, and we used ten 3-s epochs on the EEG power spectrum to calculate the powers of individual EEG frequency bands. Results The powers of different EEG bands were significantly higher in the frontal brain region of those in the ADHD group compared with the control group. In addition, the power of the beta band in the ADHD group was significantly higher in all brain regions, except for the occipital region, compared with control children. With regard to developmental changes, the power of the alpha band in the occipital region showed an age-dependent decrease in both groups, with slightly lower power in the ADHD group. Additionally, the intergroup difference decreased in children aged 11 years or older. As with the alpha band in the occipital region, the beta band in the frontal region showed an age-dependent decrease in both groups. Unlike the alpha band, the power of the beta band was higher in the ADHD group than in the control group for children of all ages. Conclusion The observed intergroup differences in EEG power may provide insight into the brain function of children with ADHD. PMID:27493489
First Results from COPSS: The CO Power Spectrum Survey
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keating, Garrett K.; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Marrone, Daniel P.; DeBoer, David R.; Heiles, Carl; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Carlstrom, John E.; Greer, Christopher H.; Hawkins, David; Lamb, James W.; Leitch, Erik; Miller, Amber D.; Muchovej, Stephen; Woody, David P.
2015-12-01
We present constraints on the abundance of carbon monoxide in the early universe from the CO Power Spectrum Survey. We utilize a data set collected between 2005 and 2008 using the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich Array (SZA), which was previously used to measure arcminute-scale fluctuations of the cosmic microwave background. This data set features observations of 44 fields, covering an effective area of 1.7 square degrees, over a frequency range of 27-35 GHz. Using the technique of intensity mapping, we are able to probe the CO(1-0) transition, with sensitivity to spatial modes between k = 0.5-2 h Mpc-1 over a range in redshift of z = 2.3-3.3, spanning a comoving volume of 3.6 × 106 h-3 Mpc3. We demonstrate our ability to mitigate foregrounds, and present estimates of the impact of continuum sources on our measurement. We constrain the CO power spectrum to PCO < 2.6 × 104 μK2 (h-1 Mpc)3, or Δ2CO(k = 1 h Mpc-1) < 1.3 × 103 μK2, at 95% confidence. This limit resides near optimistic predictions for the CO power spectrum. Under the assumption that CO emission is proportional to halo mass during bursts of active star formation, this corresponds to a limit on the ratio of CO(1-0) luminosity to host halo mass of ACO < 1.2 × 10-5 L⊙ M⊙-1. Further assuming a Milky Way-like conversion factor between CO luminosity and molecular gas mass (αCO = 4.3 M⊙ (K km s-1 pc-2)-1), we constrain the global density of molecular gas to {ρ }z˜ 3({M}{{{H}}2})≤slant 2.8× {10}8 {M}⊙ {{Mpc}}-3.
Matter power spectrum and the challenge of percent accuracy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schneider, Aurel; Teyssier, Romain; Potter, Doug; Stadel, Joachim; Onions, Julian; Reed, Darren S.; Smith, Robert E.; Springel, Volker; Pearce, Frazer R.; Scoccimarro, Roman
2016-04-01
Future galaxy surveys require one percent precision in the theoretical knowledge of the power spectrum over a large range including very nonlinear scales. While this level of accuracy is easily obtained in the linear regime with perturbation theory, it represents a serious challenge for small scales where numerical simulations are required. In this paper we quantify the precision of present-day N-body methods, identifying main potential error sources from the set-up of initial conditions to the measurement of the final power spectrum. We directly compare three widely used N-body codes, Ramses, Pkdgrav3, and Gadget3 which represent three main discretisation techniques: the particle-mesh method, the tree method, and a hybrid combination of the two. For standard run parameters, the codes agree to within one percent at k<=1 h Mpc‑1 and to within three percent at k<=10 h Mpc‑1. We also consider the bispectrum and show that the reduced bispectra agree at the sub-percent level for k<= 2 h Mpc‑1. In a second step, we quantify potential errors due to initial conditions, box size, and resolution using an extended suite of simulations performed with our fastest code Pkdgrav3. We demonstrate that the simulation box size should not be smaller than L=0.5 h‑1Gpc to avoid systematic finite-volume effects (while much larger boxes are required to beat down the statistical sample variance). Furthermore, a maximum particle mass of Mp=109 h‑1Msolar is required to conservatively obtain one percent precision of the matter power spectrum. As a consequence, numerical simulations covering large survey volumes of upcoming missions such as DES, LSST, and Euclid will need more than a trillion particles to reproduce clustering properties at the targeted accuracy.
HMcode: Halo-model matter power spectrum computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mead, Alexander
2015-08-01
HMcode computes the halo-model matter power spectrum. It is written in Fortran90 and has been designed to quickly (~0.5s for 200 k-values across 16 redshifts on a single core) produce matter spectra for a wide range of cosmological models. In testing it was shown to match spectra produced by the 'Coyote Emulator' to an accuracy of 5 per cent for k less than 10h Mpc^-1. However, it can also produce spectra well outside of the parameter space of the emulator.
An optimised gene selection approach using wavelet power spectrum.
Prabakaran, S; Sahu, Rajendra; Verma, Sekhar
2011-01-01
Data mining is a boon to many fields like bioinformatics for processing a vast amount of data. In our previous paper, we proposed a novel feature selection method for microarray data classification using Wavelet Power Spectrum (WPS). In this paper, we present optimisation techniques to improve the quality of the features thus selected and to select 'tight genes' from various cancer microarrays. The results show that 'tight genes' thus selected were more qualitative and could be used for a wide variety of data sets. Also, 'tight genes' thus selected in this mining process could be used with any existing classification approach.
Ultrasonic Inspection With Angular-Power-Spectrum Scanning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Generazio, Edward R.
1994-01-01
Principal advantage of angular-power-spectrum scanning (APSS) is that, unlike x-radiography and prior ultrasonic techniques, it reveals subtle distributions of microstructural features; e.g., variations in densities of micropores or regions in which fibers and matrices are poorly bonded to each other. Potential applications include development and characterization of composite-material components of large structures, such as buildings and bridges; determination of quality and detection of damage in fiberglass hulls, surfboards, ladders, and scaffolds; and development of porous prosthetic skins and complicated "smart" materials. Superposed diffraction patterns give clues to internal structural features of ceramic composites.
Reconstruction of the primordial power spectrum by direct inversion
Nicholson, Gavin; Contaldi, Carlo R.; Paykari, Paniez E-mail: c.contaldi@imperial.ac.uk
2010-01-01
We introduce a new method for reconstructing the primordial power spectrum, P(k), directly from observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). We employ Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) to invert the radiation perturbation transfer function. The degeneracy of the multipole l to wavenumber k linear mapping is thus reduced. This enables the inversion to be carried out at each point along a Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) exploration of the combined P(k) and cosmological parameter space. We present best-fit P(k) obtained with this method along with other cosmological parameters.
Spectrum of power laws for curved hand movements
Huh, Dongsung; Sejnowski, Terrence J.
2015-01-01
In a planar free-hand drawing of an ellipse, the speed of movement is proportional to the −1/3 power of the local curvature, which is widely thought to hold for general curved shapes. We investigated this phenomenon for general curved hand movements by analyzing an optimal control model that maximizes a smoothness cost and exhibits the −1/3 power for ellipses. For the analysis, we introduced a new representation for curved movements based on a moving reference frame and a dimensionless angle coordinate that revealed scale-invariant features of curved movements. The analysis confirmed the power law for drawing ellipses but also predicted a spectrum of power laws with exponents ranging between 0 and −2/3 for simple movements that can be characterized by a single angular frequency. Moreover, it predicted mixtures of power laws for more complex, multifrequency movements that were confirmed with human drawing experiments. The speed profiles of arbitrary doodling movements that exhibit broadband curvature profiles were accurately predicted as well. These findings have implications for motor planning and predict that movements only depend on one radian of angle coordinate in the past and only need to be planned one radian ahead. PMID:26150514
Power Spectrum Density of Stochastic Oscillating Accretion Disk
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Long, G. B.; Ou, J. W.; Zheng, Y. G.
2016-06-01
In this paper, we employ a stochastic oscillating accretion disk model for the power spectral index and variability of BL Lac object S5 0716+714. In the model, we assume that there is a relativistic oscillation of thin accretion disks and it interacts with an external thermal bath through a friction force and a random force. We simulate the light curve and the power spectrum density (PSD) at (i) over-damped, (ii) critically damped and (iii) under-damped cases, respectively. Our results show that the simulated PSD curves depend on the intrinsic property of the accretion disk, and it could be produced in a wide interval ranging from 0.94 to 2.05 by changing the friction coefficient in a stochastic oscillating accretion disk model. We argue that accretion disk stochastic oscillating could be a possible interpretation for observed PSD variability.
Reconstructing the primordial power spectrum from the CMB
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gauthier, Christopher; Bucher, Martin
2012-10-01
We propose a straightforward and model independent methodology for characterizing the sensitivity of CMB and other experiments to wiggles, irregularities, and features in the primordial power spectrum. Assuming that the primordial cosmological perturbations are adiabatic, we present a function space generalization of the usual Fisher matrix formalism applied to a CMB experiment resembling Planck with and without ancillary data. This work is closely related to other work on recovering the inflationary potential and exploring specific models of non-minimal, or perhaps baroque, primordial power spectra. The approach adopted here, however, most directly expresses what the data is really telling us. We explore in detail the structure of the available information and quantify exactly what features can be reconstructed and at what statistical significance.
Testing for new physics: neutrinos and the primordial power spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Canac, Nicolas; Aslanyan, Grigor; Abazajian, Kevork N.; Easther, Richard; Price, Layne C.
2016-09-01
We test the sensitivity of neutrino parameter constraints from combinations of CMB and LSS data sets to the assumed form of the primordial power spectrum (PPS) using Bayesian model selection. Significantly, none of the tested combinations, including recent high-precision local measurements of H0 and cluster abundances, indicate a signal for massive neutrinos or extra relativistic degrees of freedom. For PPS models with a large, but fixed number of degrees of freedom, neutrino parameter constraints do not change significantly if the location of any features in the PPS are allowed to vary, although neutrino constraints are more sensitive to PPS features if they are known a priori to exist at fixed intervals in log k. Although there is no support for a non-standard neutrino sector from constraints on both neutrino mass and relativistic energy density, we see surprisingly strong evidence for features in the PPS when it is constrained with data from Planck 2015, SZ cluster counts, and recent high-precision local measurements of H0. Conversely combining Planck with matter power spectrum and BAO measurements yields a much weaker constraint. Given that this result is sensitive to the choice of data this tension between SZ cluster counts, Planck and H0 measurements is likely an indication of unmodeled systematic bias that mimics PPS features, rather than new physics in the PPS or neutrino sector.
Joint Bayesian Component Separation and CMB Power Spectrum Estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eriksen, H. K.; Jewell, J. B.; Dickinson, C.; Banday, A. J.; Gorski, K. M.; Lawrence, C. R.
2008-01-01
We describe and implement an exact, flexible, and computationally efficient algorithm for joint component separation and CMB power spectrum estimation, building on a Gibbs sampling framework. Two essential new features are (1) conditional sampling of foreground spectral parameters and (2) joint sampling of all amplitude-type degrees of freedom (e.g., CMB, foreground pixel amplitudes, and global template amplitudes) given spectral parameters. Given a parametric model of the foreground signals, we estimate efficiently and accurately the exact joint foreground- CMB posterior distribution and, therefore, all marginal distributions such as the CMB power spectrum or foreground spectral index posteriors. The main limitation of the current implementation is the requirement of identical beam responses at all frequencies, which restricts the analysis to the lowest resolution of a given experiment. We outline a future generalization to multiresolution observations. To verify the method, we analyze simple models and compare the results to analytical predictions. We then analyze a realistic simulation with properties similar to the 3 yr WMAP data, downgraded to a common resolution of 3 deg FWHM. The results from the actual 3 yr WMAP temperature analysis are presented in a companion Letter.
Towards optimal estimation of the galaxy power spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Robert E.; Marian, Laura
2015-12-01
The galaxy power spectrum encodes a wealth of information about cosmology and the matter fluctuations. Its unbiased and optimal estimation is therefore of great importance. In this paper, we generalize the framework of Feldman et al. (1994) to take into account the fact that galaxies are not simply a Poisson sampling of the underlying dark matter distribution. Besides finite survey-volume effects and flux limits, our optimal estimation scheme incorporates several of the key tenets of galaxy formation: galaxies form and reside exclusively in dark matter haloes; a given dark matter halo may host several galaxies of various luminosities; galaxies inherit part of their large-scale bias from their host halo. Under these broad assumptions, we prove that the optimal weights do not explicitly depend on galaxy luminosity, other than through defining the maximum survey volume and effective galaxy density at a given position. Instead, they depend on the bias associated with the host halo; the first and second factorial moments of the halo occupation distribution; a selection function, which gives the fraction of galaxies that can be observed in a halo of mass M at position {r} in the survey; and an effective number density of galaxies. If one wishes to reconstruct the matter power spectrum, then, provided the model is correct, this scheme provides the only unbiased estimator. The practical challenges with implementing this approach are also discussed.
Unbiased contaminant removal for 3D galaxy power spectrum measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalus, B.; Percival, W. J.; Bacon, D. J.; Samushia, L.
2016-11-01
We assess and develop techniques to remove contaminants when calculating the 3D galaxy power spectrum. We separate the process into three separate stages: (i) removing the contaminant signal, (ii) estimating the uncontaminated cosmological power spectrum and (iii) debiasing the resulting estimates. For (i), we show that removing the best-fitting contaminant (mode subtraction) and setting the contaminated components of the covariance to be infinite (mode deprojection) are mathematically equivalent. For (ii), performing a quadratic maximum likelihood (QML) estimate after mode deprojection gives an optimal unbiased solution, although it requires the manipulation of large N_mode^2 matrices (Nmode being the total number of modes), which is unfeasible for recent 3D galaxy surveys. Measuring a binned average of the modes for (ii) as proposed by Feldman, Kaiser & Peacock (FKP) is faster and simpler, but is sub-optimal and gives rise to a biased solution. We present a method to debias the resulting FKP measurements that does not require any large matrix calculations. We argue that the sub-optimality of the FKP estimator compared with the QML estimator, caused by contaminants, is less severe than that commonly ignored due to the survey window.
BAYESIAN ANGULAR POWER SPECTRUM ANALYSIS OF INTERFEROMETRIC DATA
Sutter, P. M.; Wandelt, Benjamin D.; Malu, Siddarth S.
2012-09-15
We present a Bayesian angular power spectrum and signal map inference engine which can be adapted to interferometric observations of anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), 21 cm emission line mapping of galactic brightness fluctuations, or 21 cm absorption line mapping of neutral hydrogen in the dark ages. The method uses Gibbs sampling to generate a sampled representation of the angular power spectrum posterior and the posterior of signal maps given a set of measured visibilities in the uv-plane. We use a mock interferometric CMB observation to demonstrate the validity of this method in the flat-sky approximation when adapted to take into account arbitrary coverage of the uv-plane, mode-mode correlations due to observations on a finite patch, and heteroschedastic visibility errors. The computational requirements scale as O(n{sub p} log n{sub p}) where n{sub p} measures the ratio of the size of the detector array to the inter-detector spacing, meaning that Gibbs sampling is a promising technique for meeting the data analysis requirements of future cosmology missions.
Unbiased contaminant removal for 3D galaxy power spectrum measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalus, B.; Percival, W. J.; Bacon, D. J.; Samushia, L.
2016-08-01
We assess and develop techniques to remove contaminants when calculating the 3D galaxy power spectrum. We separate the process into three separate stages: (i) removing the contaminant signal, (ii) estimating the uncontaminated cosmological power spectrum, (iii) debiasing the resulting estimates. For (i), we show that removing the best-fit contaminant (mode subtraction), and setting the contaminated components of the covariance to be infinite (mode deprojection) are mathematically equivalent. For (ii), performing a Quadratic Maximum Likelihood (QML) estimate after mode deprojection gives an optimal unbiased solution, although it requires the manipulation of large N_mode^2 matrices (Nmode being the total number of modes), which is unfeasible for recent 3D galaxy surveys. Measuring a binned average of the modes for (ii) as proposed by Feldman, Kaiser & Peacock (1994, FKP) is faster and simpler, but is sub-optimal and gives rise to a biased solution. We present a method to debias the resulting FKP measurements that does not require any large matrix calculations. We argue that the sub-optimality of the FKP estimator compared with the QML estimator, caused by contaminants is less severe than that commonly ignored due to the survey window.
Power spectrum and non-Gaussianities in anisotropic inflation
Dey, Anindya; Kovetz, Ely D.; Paban, Sonia E-mail: elykovetz@gmail.com
2014-06-01
We study the planar regime of curvature perturbations for single field inflationary models in an axially symmetric Bianchi I background. In a theory with standard scalar field action, the power spectrum for such modes has a pole as the planarity parameter goes to zero. We show that constraints from back reaction lead to a strong lower bound on the planarity parameter for high-momentum planar modes and use this bound to calculate the signal-to-noise ratio of the anisotropic power spectrum in the CMB, which in turn places an upper bound on the Hubble scale during inflation allowed in our model. We find that non-Gaussianities for these planar modes are enhanced for the flattened triangle and the squeezed triangle configurations, but show that the estimated values of the f{sub NL} parameters remain well below the experimental bounds from the CMB for generic planar modes (other, more promising signatures are also discussed). For a standard action, f{sub NL} from the squeezed configuration turns out to be larger compared to that from the flattened triangle configuration in the planar regime. However, in a theory with higher derivative operators, non-Gaussianities from the flattened triangle can become larger than the squeezed configuration in a certain limit of the planarity parameter.
Power spectrum for inflation models with quantum and thermal noises
Ramos, Rudnei O.; Silva, L.A. da E-mail: las.leandro@gmail.com
2013-03-01
We determine the power spectrum for inflation models covering all regimes from cold (isentropic) to warm (nonisentropic) inflation. We work in the context of the stochastic inflation approach, which can nicely describe both types of inflationary regimes concomitantly. A throughout analysis is carried out to determine the allowed parameter space for simple single field polynomial chaotic inflation models that is consistent with the most recent cosmological data from the nine-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and in conjunction with other observational cosmological sources. We present the results for both the amplitude of the power spectrum, the spectral index and for the tensor to scalar curvature perturbation amplitude ratio. We briefly discuss cases when running is present. Despite single field polynomial-type inflaton potential models be strongly disfavored, or even be already ruled out in their simplest versions in the case of cold inflation, this is not the case for nonisentropic inflation models in general (warm inflation in particular), though higher order polynomial potentials (higher than quartic order) tend to become less favorable also in this case, presenting a much smaller region of parameter space compatible with the recent observational cosmological data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goodman, Jerry R.; Grosveld, Ferdinand
2007-01-01
The acoustics environment in space operations is important to maintain at manageable levels so that the crewperson can remain safe, functional, effective, and reasonably comfortable. High acoustic levels can produce temporary or permanent hearing loss, or cause other physiological symptoms such as auditory pain, headaches, discomfort, strain in the vocal cords, or fatigue. Noise is defined as undesirable sound. Excessive noise may result in psychological effects such as irritability, inability to concentrate, decrease in productivity, annoyance, errors in judgment, and distraction. A noisy environment can also result in the inability to sleep, or sleep well. Elevated noise levels can affect the ability to communicate, understand what is being said, hear what is going on in the environment, degrade crew performance and operations, and create habitability concerns. Superfluous noise emissions can also create the inability to hear alarms or other important auditory cues such as an equipment malfunctioning. Recent space flight experience, evaluations of the requirements in crew habitable areas, and lessons learned (Goodman 2003; Allen and Goodman 2003; Pilkinton 2003; Grosveld et al. 2003) show the importance of maintaining an acceptable acoustics environment. This is best accomplished by having a high-quality set of limits/requirements early in the program, the "designing in" of acoustics in the development of hardware and systems, and by monitoring, testing and verifying the levels to ensure that they are acceptable.
Just enough inflation: power spectrum modifications at large scales
Cicoli, Michele; Downes, Sean; Dutta, Bhaskar; Pedro, Francisco G.; Westphal, Alexander E-mail: ssdownes@phys.ntu.edu.tw E-mail: francisco.pedro@desy.de
2014-12-01
We show that models of 'just enough' inflation, where the slow-roll evolution lasted only 50- 60 e-foldings, feature modifications of the CMB power spectrum at large angular scales. We perform a systematic analytic analysis in the limit of a sudden transition between any possible non-slow-roll background evolution and the final stage of slow-roll inflation. We find a high degree of universality since most common backgrounds like fast-roll evolution, matter or radiation-dominance give rise to a power loss at large angular scales and a peak together with an oscillatory behaviour at scales around the value of the Hubble parameter at the beginning of slow-roll inflation. Depending on the value of the equation of state parameter, different pre-inflationary epochs lead instead to an enhancement of power at low ℓ, and so seem disfavoured by recent observational hints for a lack of CMB power at ℓ∼< 40. We also comment on the importance of initial conditions and the possibility to have multiple pre-inflationary stages.
Stabilized Acoustic Levitation of Dense Materials Using a High-Powered Siren
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gammell, P. M.; Croonquist, A.; Wang, T. G.
1982-01-01
Stabilized acoustic levitation and manipulation of dense (e.g., steel) objects of 1 cm diameter, using a high powered siren, was demonstrated in trials that investigated the harmonic content and spatial distribution of the acoustic field, as well as the effect of sample position and reflector geometries on the acoustic field. Although further optimization is possible, the most stable operation achieved is expected to be adequate for most containerless processing applications. Best stability was obtained with an open reflector system, using a flat lower reflector and a slightly concave upper one. Operation slightly below resonance enhances stability as this minimizes the second harmonic, which is suspected of being a particularly destabilizing influence.
The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Cosmological Parameters from the 2008 Power Spectrum
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dunkley, J.; Hlozek, R.; Sievers, J.; Acquaviva, V.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aguirre, P.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J. W.; Barrientos, L. F.; Battistelli, E. S.; Bond, J. R.; Brown, B.; Burger, B.; Chervenak, J.; Das, S.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S. R.; Bertrand Doriese, W.; Dunner, R.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Fisher, R. P.; Fowler, J. W.; Hajian, A.; Moseley, H.; Wollack, E.
2011-01-01
We present cosmological parameters derived from the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation observed at 148 GHz and 218 GHz over 296 deg(exp 2) with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) during its 2008 season. ACT measures fluctuations at scales 500 < l < 10,000. We fit a model for the lensed CMB, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ), and foreground contribution to the 148 GHz and 218 GHz power spectra, including thermal and kinetic SZ, Poisson power from radio and infrared point sources, and clustered power from infrared point sources. At l = 3000, about half the power at 148 GHz comes from primary CMB after masking bright radio sources. The power from thermal and kinetic SZ is estimated to be Beta(sub 3000) is identical to 6.8 +/- 2.9 mu K (exp 2), where Beta (sub l) is identical to l(l + 1) C(sub l)/2pi. The IR Poisson power at 148 GHz is Bewta(sub 3000) 7.8 +/- 0.7 muK(exp 2) (C(sub l) = 5.5 +/- 0.5 nK(exp 2)), and a clustered IR component is required with Beta (sub 3000) = 4.6 +/- 0.9 muK(exp 2), assuming an analytic model for its power spectrum shape. At 218 GHz only about 15% of the power, approximately 27 mu K(exp 2), is CMB anisotropy at l = 3000. The remaining 85% is attributed to IR sources (approximately 50% Poisson and 35% clustered), with spectral index alpha = 3.69 +/- 0.14 for flux scaling as S(nu) varies as nu(sup alpha). We estimate primary cosmological parameters from the less contaminated 148 GHz spectrum, marginalizing over SZ and source power. The ACDM cosmological model is a good fit to the data (chi square/dof = 29/46), and ACDM parameters estimated from ACT+Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) are consistent with the seven-year WMAP limits, with scale invariant n(sub s) = 1 excluded at 99.7% confidence level (CL) (3 sigma). A model with no CMB lensing is disfavored at 2.8 sigma. By measuring the third to seventh acoustic peaks, and probing the Silk damping regime, the ACT data improve limits on cosmological
THE ATACAMA COSMOLOGY TELESCOPE: COSMOLOGICAL PARAMETERS FROM THE 2008 POWER SPECTRUM
Dunkley, J.; Hlozek, R.; Sievers, J.; Bond, J. R.; Acquaviva, V.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aguirre, P.; Barrientos, L. F.; Duenner, R.; Amiri, M.; Battistelli, E. S.; Burger, B.; Appel, J. W.; Das, S.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Brown, B.; Chervenak, J.; Doriese, W. Bertrand
2011-09-20
We present cosmological parameters derived from the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation observed at 148 GHz and 218 GHz over 296 deg{sup 2} with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) during its 2008 season. ACT measures fluctuations at scales 500 < l < 10, 000. We fit a model for the lensed CMB, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ), and foreground contribution to the 148 GHz and 218 GHz power spectra, including thermal and kinetic SZ, Poisson power from radio and infrared point sources, and clustered power from infrared point sources. At l = 3000, about half the power at 148 GHz comes from primary CMB after masking bright radio sources. The power from thermal and kinetic SZ is estimated to be B{sub 3000} = 6.8 {+-} 2.9 {mu}K{sup 2}, where B{sub l}{identical_to}l(l + 1)C{sub l}/2{pi}. The IR Poisson power at 148 GHz is B{sub 3000} = 7.8 {+-} 0.7 {mu}K{sup 2} (C{sub l} = 5.5 {+-} 0.5 nK{sup 2}), and a clustered IR component is required with B{sub 3000} = 4.6 {+-} 0.9 {mu}K{sup 2}, assuming an analytic model for its power spectrum shape. At 218 GHz only about 15% of the power, approximately 27 {mu}K{sup 2}, is CMB anisotropy at l = 3000. The remaining 85% is attributed to IR sources (approximately 50% Poisson and 35% clustered), with spectral index {alpha} = 3.69 {+-} 0.14 for flux scaling as S({nu}){proportional_to}{nu}{sup {alpha}}. We estimate primary cosmological parameters from the less contaminated 148 GHz spectrum, marginalizing over SZ and source power. The {Lambda}CDM cosmological model is a good fit to the data ({chi}{sup 2}/dof = 29/46), and {Lambda}CDM parameters estimated from ACT+Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) are consistent with the seven-year WMAP limits, with scale invariant n{sub s} = 1 excluded at 99.7% confidence level (CL) (3{sigma}). A model with no CMB lensing is disfavored at 2.8{sigma}. By measuring the third to seventh acoustic peaks, and probing the Silk damping regime, the ACT data improve limits on
Mobility power flow analysis of an L-shaped plate structure subjected to acoustic excitation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cuschieri, J. M.
1989-01-01
An analytical investigation based on the Mobility Power Flow method is presented for the determination of the vibrational response and power flow for two coupled flat plate structures in an L-shaped configuration, subjected to acoustical excitation. The principle of the mobility power flow method consists of dividing the global structure into a series of subsystems coupled together using mobility functions. Each separate subsystem is analyzed independently to determine the structural mobility functions for the junction and excitation locations. The mobility functions, together with the characteristics of the junction between the subsystems, are then used to determine the response of the global structure and the power flow. In the coupled plate structure considered here, mobility power flow expressions are derived for excitation by an incident acoustic plane wave. In this case, the forces (acoustic pressures) acting on the structure are dependent on the response of the structure because of the scattered pressure component. The interaction between the structure and the fluid leads to the derivation of a corrected mode shape for the plates' normal surface velocity and also for the structure mobility functions. The determination of the scattered pressure components in the expressions for the power flow represents an additional component in the power flow balance for the source plate and the receiver plate. This component represents the radiated acoustical power from the plate structure.
Acoustic power measurement of high-intensity focused ultrasound transducer using a pressure sensor.
Zhou, Yufeng
2015-03-01
The acoustic power of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is an important parameter that should be measured prior to each treatment to guarantee effective and safe outcomes. A new calibration technique was developed that involves estimating the pressure distribution, calculating the acoustic power using an underwater pressure blast sensor, and compensating the contribution of harmonics to the acoustic power. The output of a clinical extracorporeal HIFU system (center frequency of ~1 MHz, p+ = 2.5-57.2 MPa, p(-) = -1.8 to -13.9 MPa, I(SPPA) = 513-22,940 W/cm(2), -6 dB size of 1.6 × 10 mm: lateral × axial) was measured using this approach and then compared with that obtained using a radiation force balance. Similarities were found between each method at acoustic power ranging from 18.2 W to 912 W with an electrical-to-acoustic conversion efficiency of ~42%. The proposed method has advantages of low weight, smaller size, high sensitivity, quick response, high signal-to-noise ratio (especially at low power output), robust performance, and easy operation of HIFU exposimetry measurement.
Acoustic power measurement of high-intensity focused ultrasound transducer using a pressure sensor.
Zhou, Yufeng
2015-03-01
The acoustic power of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is an important parameter that should be measured prior to each treatment to guarantee effective and safe outcomes. A new calibration technique was developed that involves estimating the pressure distribution, calculating the acoustic power using an underwater pressure blast sensor, and compensating the contribution of harmonics to the acoustic power. The output of a clinical extracorporeal HIFU system (center frequency of ~1 MHz, p+ = 2.5-57.2 MPa, p(-) = -1.8 to -13.9 MPa, I(SPPA) = 513-22,940 W/cm(2), -6 dB size of 1.6 × 10 mm: lateral × axial) was measured using this approach and then compared with that obtained using a radiation force balance. Similarities were found between each method at acoustic power ranging from 18.2 W to 912 W with an electrical-to-acoustic conversion efficiency of ~42%. The proposed method has advantages of low weight, smaller size, high sensitivity, quick response, high signal-to-noise ratio (especially at low power output), robust performance, and easy operation of HIFU exposimetry measurement. PMID:25659300
Aeroacoustics of volcanic jets: Acoustic power estimation and jet velocity dependence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matoza, Robin S.; Fee, David; Neilsen, Tracianne B.; Gee, Kent L.; Ogden, Darcy E.
2013-12-01
A fundamental goal of volcano acoustics is to relate observed infrasonic signals to the eruptive processes generating them. A link between acoustic power Π
Araujo, D.; Dumoulin, R. N.; Newburgh, L. B.; Zwart, J. T. L.; Bischoff, C.; Brizius, A.; Buder, I.; Kusaka, A.; Chinone, Y.; Cleary, K.; Reeves, R.; Naess, S. K.; Eriksen, H. K.; Wehus, I. K.; Bronfman, L.; Church, S. E.; Dickinson, C.; Gaier, T.; Collaboration: QUIET Collaboration; and others
2012-12-01
The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) has observed the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at 43 and 95 GHz. The 43 GHz results have been published in a previous paper, and here we report the measurement of CMB polarization power spectra using the 95 GHz data. This data set comprises 5337 hr of observations recorded by an array of 84 polarized coherent receivers with a total array sensitivity of 87 {mu}K{radical}s. Four low-foreground fields were observed, covering a total of {approx}1000 deg{sup 2} with an effective angular resolution of 12.'8, allowing for constraints on primordial gravitational waves and high signal-to-noise measurements of the E-modes across three acoustic peaks. The data reduction was performed using two independent analysis pipelines, one based on a pseudo-C {sub l} (PCL) cross-correlation approach, and the other on a maximum-likelihood (ML) approach. All data selection criteria and filters were modified until a predefined set of null tests had been satisfied before inspecting any non-null power spectrum. The results derived by the two pipelines are in good agreement. We characterize the EE, EB, and BB power spectra between l = 25 and 975 and find that the EE spectrum is consistent with {Lambda}CDM, while the BB power spectrum is consistent with zero. Based on these measurements, we constrain the tensor-to-scalar ratio to r = 1.1{sup +0.9} {sub -0.8} (r < 2.8 at 95% C.L.) as derived by the ML pipeline, and r = 1.2{sup +0.9} {sub -0.8} (r < 2.7 at 95% C.L.) as derived by the PCL pipeline. In one of the fields, we find a correlation with the dust component of the Planck Sky Model, though the corresponding excess power is small compared to statistical errors. Finally, we derive limits on all known systematic errors, and demonstrate that these correspond to a tensor-to-scalar ratio smaller than r = 0.01, the lowest level yet reported in the literature.
Second Season QUIET Observations: Measurements of the CMB Polarization Power Spectrum at 95 GHz
Araujo, D.; Bischoff, C.; Brizius, A.; Buder, I.; Chinone, Y.; Cleary, K.; Dumoulin, R.N.; Kusaka, A.; Monsalve, R.; ss, S.K.N\\ae; Newburgh, L.B.; /Columbia U., CBA /Princeton U. /Caltech
2012-07-01
The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) has observed the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at 43 and 95GHz. The 43-GHz results have been published in QUIET Collaboration et al. (2011), and here we report the measurement of CMB polarization power spectra using the 95-GHz data. This data set comprises 5337 hours of observations recorded by an array of 84 polarized coherent receivers with a total array sensitivity of 87 {mu}K{radical}s. Four low-foreground fields were observed, covering a total of {approx} 1000 square degrees with an effective angular resolution of 12'.8, allowing for constraints on primordial gravitational waves and high-signal-to-noise measurements of the E-modes across three acoustic peaks. The data reduction was performed using two independent analysis pipelines, one based on a pseudo-C{ell} (PCL) cross-correlation approach, and the other on a maximum-likelihood (ML) approach. All data selection criteria and filters were modified until a predefined set of null tests had been satisfied before inspecting any non-null power spectrum. The results derived by the two pipelines are in good agreement. We characterize the EE, EB and BB power spectra between {ell} = 25 and 975 and find that the EE spectrum is consistent with {Lambda}CDM, while the BB power spectrum is consistent with zero. Based on these measurements, we constrain the tensor-to-scalar ratio to r = 1.1{sup +0.9}{sub -0.8} (r < 2.8 at 95% C.L.) as derived by the ML pipeline, and r = {sup +0.9}{sub -0.8} (r < 2.7 at 95% C.L.) as derived by the PCL pipeline. In one of the fields, we find a correlation with the dust component of the Planck Sky Model, though the corresponding excess power is small compared to statistical errors. Finally, we derive limits on all known systematic errors, and demonstrate that these correspond to a tensor-to-scalar ratio smaller than r = 0.01, the lowest level yet reported in the literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
QUIET Collaboration; Araujo, D.; Bischoff, C.; Brizius, A.; Buder, I.; Chinone, Y.; Cleary, K.; Dumoulin, R. N.; Kusaka, A.; Monsalve, R.; Næss, S. K.; Newburgh, L. B.; Reeves, R.; Wehus, I. K.; Zwart, J. T. L.; Bronfman, L.; Bustos, R.; Church, S. E.; Dickinson, C.; Eriksen, H. K.; Gaier, T.; Gundersen, J. O.; Hasegawa, M.; Hazumi, M.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Ishidoshiro, K.; Jones, M. E.; Kangaslahti, P.; Kapner, D. J.; Kubik, D.; Lawrence, C. R.; Limon, M.; McMahon, J. J.; Miller, A. D.; Nagai, M.; Nguyen, H.; Nixon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Piccirillo, L.; Radford, S. J. E.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Richards, J. L.; Samtleben, D.; Seiffert, M.; Shepherd, M. C.; Smith, K. M.; Staggs, S. T.; Tajima, O.; Thompson, K. L.; Vanderlinde, K.; Williamson, R.
2012-12-01
The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) has observed the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at 43 and 95 GHz. The 43 GHz results have been published in a previous paper, and here we report the measurement of CMB polarization power spectra using the 95 GHz data. This data set comprises 5337 hr of observations recorded by an array of 84 polarized coherent receivers with a total array sensitivity of 87 μK\\sqrt{s}. Four low-foreground fields were observed, covering a total of ~1000 deg2 with an effective angular resolution of 12farcm8, allowing for constraints on primordial gravitational waves and high signal-to-noise measurements of the E-modes across three acoustic peaks. The data reduction was performed using two independent analysis pipelines, one based on a pseudo-C l (PCL) cross-correlation approach, and the other on a maximum-likelihood (ML) approach. All data selection criteria and filters were modified until a predefined set of null tests had been satisfied before inspecting any non-null power spectrum. The results derived by the two pipelines are in good agreement. We characterize the EE, EB, and BB power spectra between l = 25 and 975 and find that the EE spectrum is consistent with ΛCDM, while the BB power spectrum is consistent with zero. Based on these measurements, we constrain the tensor-to-scalar ratio to r = 1.1+0.9 - 0.8 (r < 2.8 at 95% C.L.) as derived by the ML pipeline, and r = 1.2+0.9 - 0.8 (r < 2.7 at 95% C.L.) as derived by the PCL pipeline. In one of the fields, we find a correlation with the dust component of the Planck Sky Model, though the corresponding excess power is small compared to statistical errors. Finally, we derive limits on all known systematic errors, and demonstrate that these correspond to a tensor-to-scalar ratio smaller than r = 0.01, the lowest level yet reported in the literature.
Fermi-bounce cosmology and scale-invariant power spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alexander, Stephon; Bambi, Cosimo; Marcianò, Antonino; Modesto, Leonardo
2014-12-01
We develop a nonsingular bouncing cosmology using a nontrivial coupling of general relativity to fermionic fields. The usual big bang singularity is avoided thanks to a negative energy density contribution from the fermions. Our theory is ghost free since the fermionic operator that generates the bounce is equivalent to torsion, which has no kinetic terms. The physical system consists of standard general relativity plus a topological sector for gravity and fermionic matter described by Dirac fields with a nonminimal coupling. We show that a scale-invariant power spectrum generated in the contracting phase can be recovered by suitable choices of fermion number density and bare mass, thus providing a possible alternative to the inflationary scenario.
Measuring the VIPERS galaxy power spectrum at z∼1
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rota, Stefano; Bel, Julien; Granett, Ben; Guzzo, Luigi
2016-10-01
The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey [VIPERS, Guzzo et al. 2014] is using the VIMOS spectrograph at the ESO VLT to measure redshifts for ~ 100,000 galaxies with IAB < 22.5 and 0.5 < z < 1.2, over an area of 24 deg2 (split over the W1 and W4 fields of CFHTLS). VIPERS currently provides, at such redshifts, the best compromise between volume, number of galaxies and dense spatial sampling. We present here the first estimate of the power spectrum of the galaxy distribution, P(k), at redshifts z ~ 0.75 and z ~ 1, obtained from the ~ 55,000 redshifts of the PDR-1 data release. We discuss first constraints on cosmological quantities, as the matter density and the baryonic fraction, obtained for the first time at an epoch when the Universe was about half its current age.
Power Spectrum Density of Long-Term MAXI Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sugimoto, Juri; Mihara, Tatehiro; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Serino, Motoko; Kitamoto, Shunji; Sato, Ryousuke; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Ueno, Shiro
Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) on the International Space Station has been observing the X-ray sky since 2009 August 15. It has accumulated the X-ray data for about four years, so far. X-ray objects are usually variable and their variability can be studied by the power spectrum density (PSD) of the X-ray light curves. We applied our method to calculate PSDs of several kinds of objects observed with MAXI. We obtained significant PSDs from 16 Seyfert galaxies. For blackhole binary Cygnus X-1 there was a difference in the shape of PSD between the hard state and the soft state. For high mass X-ray binaries, Cen X-3, SMC X-1, and LMC X-4, there were several peaks in the PSD corresponding to the orbital period and the superorbital period.
On Removing Interloper Contamination from Intensity Mapping Power Spectrum Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lidz, Adam; Taylor, Jessie
2016-07-01
Line intensity mapping experiments seek to trace large-scale structures by measuring the spatial fluctuations in the combined emission, in some convenient spectral line, from individually unresolved galaxies. An important systematic concern for these surveys is line confusion from foreground or background galaxies emitting in other lines that happen to lie at the same observed frequency as the “target” emission line of interest. We develop an approach to separate this “interloper” emission at the power spectrum level. If one adopts the redshift of the target emission line in mapping from observed frequency and angle on the sky to co-moving units, the interloper emission is mapped to the wrong co-moving coordinates. Because the mapping is different in the line of sight and transverse directions, the interloper contribution to the power spectrum becomes anisotropic, especially if the interloper and target emission are at widely separated redshifts. This distortion is analogous to the Alcock–Paczynski test, but here the warping arises from assuming the wrong redshift rather than an incorrect cosmological model. We apply this to the case of a hypothetical [C ii] emission survey at z˜ 7 and find that the distinctive interloper anisotropy can, in principle, be used to separate strong foreground CO emission fluctuations. In our models, however, a significantly more sensitive instrument than currently planned is required, although there are large uncertainties in forecasting the high-redshift [C ii] emission signal. With upcoming surveys, it may nevertheless be useful to apply this approach after first masking pixels suspected of containing strong interloper contamination.
On Removing Interloper Contamination from Intensity Mapping Power Spectrum Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lidz, Adam; Taylor, Jessie
2016-07-01
Line intensity mapping experiments seek to trace large-scale structures by measuring the spatial fluctuations in the combined emission, in some convenient spectral line, from individually unresolved galaxies. An important systematic concern for these surveys is line confusion from foreground or background galaxies emitting in other lines that happen to lie at the same observed frequency as the “target” emission line of interest. We develop an approach to separate this “interloper” emission at the power spectrum level. If one adopts the redshift of the target emission line in mapping from observed frequency and angle on the sky to co-moving units, the interloper emission is mapped to the wrong co-moving coordinates. Because the mapping is different in the line of sight and transverse directions, the interloper contribution to the power spectrum becomes anisotropic, especially if the interloper and target emission are at widely separated redshifts. This distortion is analogous to the Alcock-Paczynski test, but here the warping arises from assuming the wrong redshift rather than an incorrect cosmological model. We apply this to the case of a hypothetical [C ii] emission survey at z˜ 7 and find that the distinctive interloper anisotropy can, in principle, be used to separate strong foreground CO emission fluctuations. In our models, however, a significantly more sensitive instrument than currently planned is required, although there are large uncertainties in forecasting the high-redshift [C ii] emission signal. With upcoming surveys, it may nevertheless be useful to apply this approach after first masking pixels suspected of containing strong interloper contamination.
Properties of acoustic sources in the Sun
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kumar, Pawan
1994-01-01
The power spectrum of solar acoustic oscillations shows peaks extending out to frequencies much greater than the acoustic cutoff frequency of approximately 5.3 mHz, where waves are no longer trapped. Kumar & Lu (1991) proposed that these peaks arise from the interference of traveling waves which are generated by turbulent convection. According to this model, the frequencies of the peaks in the power spectrum depend on the static structure of the Sun as well as the radial location of the sources. Kumar & Lu used this idea to determine the depth of the acoustic sources. However, they ignored dissipative effects and found that the theoretically computed power spectrum was falling off much more rapidly than the observed spectrum. In this paper, we include the interaction of radiation with acoustic waves in the computation of the power spectrum. We find that the theoretically calculated power spectra, when radiative damping is included are in excellent agreement with the observed power spectra over the entire observed frequency range of 5.3 to 7.5 mHz above the acoustic cutoff frequency. Moreover, by matching the peak frequencies in the observed and theoretical spectra we find the mean depth of acoustic sources to be 140 +/- 60 km below the photosphere. We show that the spectrum of solar turbulence near the top of the solar convection zone is consistent with the Kolmogorov spectrum, and that the observed high frequency power spectrum provides strong evidence that the acoustic sources in the Sun are quadrupolar. The data, in fact, rules out dipole sources as significant contributors to acoustic wave generation in the Sun. The radial extent of the sources is poorly determined and is estimated to be less than about 550 km.
Unscreening Modified Gravity in the Matter Power Spectrum.
Lombriser, Lucas; Simpson, Fergus; Mead, Alexander
2015-06-26
Viable modifications of gravity that may produce cosmic acceleration need to be screened in high-density regions such as the Solar System, where general relativity is well tested. Screening mechanisms also prevent strong anomalies in the large-scale structure and limit the constraints that can be inferred on these gravity models from cosmology. We find that by suppressing the contribution of the screened high-density regions in the matter power spectrum, allowing a greater contribution of unscreened low densities, modified gravity models can be more readily discriminated from the concordance cosmology. Moreover, by variation of density thresholds, degeneracies with other effects may be dealt with more adequately. Specializing to chameleon gravity as a worked example for screening in modified gravity, employing N-body simulations of f(R) models and the halo model of chameleon theories, we demonstrate the effectiveness of this method. We find that a percent-level measurement of the clipped power at k<0.3h/Mpc can yield constraints on chameleon models that are more stringent than what is inferred from Solar System tests or distance indicators in unscreened dwarf galaxies. Finally, we verify that our method is also applicable to the Vainshtein mechanism. PMID:26197114
Unscreening Modified Gravity in the Matter Power Spectrum.
Lombriser, Lucas; Simpson, Fergus; Mead, Alexander
2015-06-26
Viable modifications of gravity that may produce cosmic acceleration need to be screened in high-density regions such as the Solar System, where general relativity is well tested. Screening mechanisms also prevent strong anomalies in the large-scale structure and limit the constraints that can be inferred on these gravity models from cosmology. We find that by suppressing the contribution of the screened high-density regions in the matter power spectrum, allowing a greater contribution of unscreened low densities, modified gravity models can be more readily discriminated from the concordance cosmology. Moreover, by variation of density thresholds, degeneracies with other effects may be dealt with more adequately. Specializing to chameleon gravity as a worked example for screening in modified gravity, employing N-body simulations of f(R) models and the halo model of chameleon theories, we demonstrate the effectiveness of this method. We find that a percent-level measurement of the clipped power at k<0.3h/Mpc can yield constraints on chameleon models that are more stringent than what is inferred from Solar System tests or distance indicators in unscreened dwarf galaxies. Finally, we verify that our method is also applicable to the Vainshtein mechanism.
Tissue type characterization using photoacoustic power spectrum, a feasibility study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tavakoli, Behnoosh; Goldstein, Seth D.; Kang, Jin U.; Choti, Michaal; Boctor, Emad M.
2015-03-01
The development of technologies capable of non-invasive characterization of tissue has the potential to significantly improve diagnostic and therapeutic medical interventions. In this study we investigated the feasibility of a noninvasive photoacoustic (PA) approach for characterizing biological tissues. The measurement was performed in the transmission mode with a wideband hydrophone while a tunable Q-switched Nd:YAG pulsed laser was used for illumination. The power spectrum of photoacoustic signal induced by a pulsed laser light from tissue was analyzed and features were extracted to study their correlation with tissue biomechanical properties. For a controlled study, tissue mimicking gelatin phantoms with different densities and equivalent optical absorptions were used as targets. The correlation between gelatin concentration of such phantoms and their mechanical properties were validated independently with a dynamic mechanical analyzer capable of calculating complex loss and storage moduli between two compression plates. It was shown that PA spectrums were shifted towards higher frequencies by increasing gelatin concentration. In order to quantify this effect, signal energy in two intervals of low and high frequency ranges were calculated. Gelatin concentration was correlated with PA energy in high frequency range with R2=0.94. Subsequently, PA signals generated from freshly resected human thyroid specimens were measured and analyzed in a similar fashion. We found that in aggregate, malignant thyroid tissue contains approximately 1.6 times lower energy in the high frequency range in comparison to normal thyroid tissue (p<0.01). This ratio increased with increasing illumination wavelength from 700 nm to 900nm. In summary, this study demonstrated the feasibility of using photoacoustic technique for characterizing tissue on the basis of viscoelastic properties of the tissue.
Jiang, Liang; Liu, Fengbing; Chen, Haosheng; Wang, Jiadao; Chen, Darong
2012-03-01
The dynamics and acoustic emission of two interacting cavitation bubbles exposed to strong acoustic fields with a frequency of 515 KHz are investigated numerically in this paper. After comparing the dynamics of a single bubble excited by the given pressure waves, bubbles with ambient radii of 2 and 5 μm were chosen to be studied to discuss the influence of the mutual bubble-bubble interaction on the dynamic behaviors and acoustic emission of the bubbles. The results show that, aside from the external driving pressure waves, the interaction between the bubbles imposes an extra nonlinear effect on the oscillations of the bubbles and that the dynamics of the smaller bubble could be suppressed gradually with the enhancement of this mutual interaction by decreasing the distance between the bubbles. Moreover, the improvement in the oscillation nonlinearity of the bubbles due to the change in the ambient circumstance could readily be observed from the frequency spectra of the bubbles' acoustic emission, which interprets the change by exhibiting an appropriate development of the subharmonics, the ultraharmonics, and the broadband component.
Roundoff noise analysis for digital signal power processors using Welch's power spectrum estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chi, Chong-Yung; Long, David; Li, Fuk-Kwok
1987-01-01
The noise due to finite-word-length effects is analyzed for digital-signal power processors using Welch's power-spectrum estimation technique to measure the power of Gaussian random signals over a frequency band of interest. The input of the digital signal processor contains a finite-length time interval in which the true Gaussian signal is contaminated by Gaussian noise. The roundoff noise-to-signal ratio in the measurement of the signal power is derived, and computer simulations which validate the analytical results are presented. These results can be used in tradeoff studies of hardware design, such as the number of bits required at each processing stage. The results presented in this paper are currently being used in the design of a digital Doppler processor (Chi et al., 1986) for a radar scatterometer.
Combining power spectrum and bispectrum measurements to detect oscillatory features
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fergusson, J. R.; Gruetjen, H. F.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Liguori, M.
2015-01-01
The simplest inflationary models present us with few observable parameters to discriminate between them. A detection of features in the spectra of primordial density perturbations could provide valuable insights and lead to stringent tests of models of the early Universe. So far, searches for oscillatory features have not produced statistically significant results. In this work we consider a combined search for features in the power spectrum and bispectrum. We show that possible dependencies between the estimates of feature model amplitudes based on the two- and three-point correlators are largely statistically independent under the assumption of the null hypothesis of a nearly Gaussian featureless cosmic microwave background. Building on this conclusion we propose an optimal amplitude estimator for a combined search and study the look-elsewhere effect in feature model surveys. In particular we construct analytic models for the distribution of amplitude estimates that allow for a reliable assessment of the significance of potential findings. We also propose a well-behaved integrated statistic that is designed to detect evidence for models exhibiting features at multiple frequencies.
Matter density perturbation and power spectrum in running vacuum model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geng, Chao-Qiang; Lee, Chung-Chi
2016-10-01
We investigate the matter density perturbation δm and power spectrum P(k) in the running vacuum model (RVM) with the cosmological constant being a function of the Hubble parameter, given by Λ = Λ0 + 6σHH0 + 3νH2, in which the linear and quadratic terms of H would originate from the QCD vacuum condensation and cosmological renormalization group, respectively. Taking the dark energy perturbation into consideration, we derive the evolution equation for δm and find a specific scale dcr = 2π/kcr, which divides the evolution of the universe into the sub and super-interaction regimes, corresponding to k ≪ kcr and k ≫ kcr, respectively. For the former, the evolution of δm has the same behavior as that in the ΛCDM model, while for the latter, the growth of δm is frozen (greatly enhanced) when ν + σ > ( < )0 due to the couplings between radiation, matter and dark energy. It is clear that the observational data rule out the cases with ν < 0 and ν + σ < 0, while the allowed window for the model parameters is extremely narrow with ν , |σ | ≲ {O}(10^{-7}).
On minimally parametric primordial power spectrum reconstruction and the evidence for a red tilt
Verde, Licia; Peiris, Hiranya E-mail: lverde@astro.princeton.edu
2008-07-15
The latest cosmological data seem to indicate a significant deviation from scale invariance of the primordial power spectrum when parameterized either by a power law or by a spectral index with non-zero 'running'. This deviation, by itself, serves as a powerful tool for discriminating among theories for the origin of cosmological structures such as inflationary models. Here, we use a minimally parametric smoothing spline technique to reconstruct the shape of the primordial power spectrum. This technique is well suited to searching for smooth features in the primordial power spectrum such as deviations from scale invariance or a running spectral index, although it would recover sharp features of high statistical significance. We use the WMAP three-year results in combination with data from a suite of higher resolution cosmic microwave background experiments (including the latest ACBAR 2008 release), as well as large-scale structure data from SDSS and 2dFGRS. We employ cross-validation to assess, using the data themselves, the optimal amount of smoothness in the primordial power spectrum consistent with the data. This minimally parametric reconstruction supports the evidence for a power law primordial power spectrum with a red tilt, but not for deviations from a power law power spectrum. Smooth variations in the primordial power spectrum are not significantly degenerate with the other cosmological parameters.
The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: A Measurement of the Primordial Power Spectrum
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hlozek, Renee; Dunkley, Joanna; Addison, Graeme; Appel, John William; Bond, J. Richard; Carvalho, C. Sofia; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.; Duenner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joseph W.; Gallardo, Patricio; Hajian, Amir; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam D.; Hughes, John P.; Irwin, Kent D.; Klein, Jeff; Kosowsky, Arthur; Marriage, Tobias A.; Marsden, Danica; Menanteau, Felipe; Wollack, Ed
2011-01-01
We present constraints on the primordial power spectrum of adiabatic fluctuations using data from the 2008 Southern Survey of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). The angular resolution of ACT provides sensitivity to scales beyond l = 1000 for resolution of multiple peaks in the primordial temperature power spectrum, which enables us to probe the primordial power spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations with wavenumbers up to k approx. = 0.2 Mp/c. We find no evidence for deviation from power-law fluctuations over two decades in scale. Matter fluctuations inferred from the primordial temperature power spectrum evolve over cosmic time and can be used to predict the matter power spectrum at late times; we illustrate the overlap of the matter power inferred from CMB measurements (which probe the power spectrum in thc linear regime) with existing probes of galaxy clustering, cluster abundances and weak lensing constraints on the primordial power. This highlights the range of scales probed by current measurement.s of the matter power spectrum.
THE ATACAMA COSMOLOGY TELESCOPE: A MEASUREMENT OF THE PRIMORDIAL POWER SPECTRUM
Hlozek, Renee; Dunkley, Joanna; Addison, Graeme; Appel, John William; Das, Sudeep; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joseph W.; Hajian, Amir; Hincks, Adam D.; Bond, J. Richard; Carvalho, C. Sofia; Devlin, Mark J.; Klein, Jeff; Duenner, Rolando; Gallardo, Patricio; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hilton, Matt; Hughes, John P.; Irwin, Kent D.; and others
2012-04-10
We present constraints on the primordial power spectrum of adiabatic fluctuations using data from the 2008 Southern Survey of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) in combination with measurements from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and a prior on the Hubble constant. The angular resolution of ACT provides sensitivity to scales beyond l = 1000 for resolution of multiple peaks in the primordial temperature power spectrum, which enables us to probe the primordial power spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations with wavenumbers up to k {approx_equal} 0.2 Mpc{sup -1}. We find no evidence for deviation from power-law fluctuations over two decades in scale. Matter fluctuations inferred from the primordial temperature power spectrum evolve over cosmic time and can be used to predict the matter power spectrum at late times; we illustrate the overlap of the matter power inferred from cosmic microwave background measurements (which probe the power spectrum in the linear regime) with existing probes of galaxy clustering, cluster abundances, and weak-lensing constraints on the primordial power. This highlights the range of scales probed by current measurements of the matter power spectrum.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moskaletz, O. D.; Paraskun, A. S.; Vaganov, M. A.
2016-08-01
The problem of receiving of an energy spectrum estimation of optical radiations in the new analyzer of optical signals is considered. It is the parallel resonant optical spectrum analyzer (SPECTRUM ANALYZER). Its resolving system is a set of narrow-band optical resonators in the form of interference filters. Each optical resonator is equivalent to a system with lumped parameters. This allows us to consider only oscillations of an optical field in the form of a scalar functions and adopt as a model of analyzed signal harmonized scalar random process. The photodetector operation and average of photocurrent using an integrator and integrating circuit is considered too. On the basis of the application prolate entire spheroidal wave function theory energy spectrum estimation by the integral of photocurrent is obtained. This energy spectrum estimation is consistent and asymptotically unbiased.
Comparison of Comet Enflow and VA One Acoustic-to-Structure Power Flow Predictions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Schiller, Noah H.; Cabell, Randolph H.
2010-01-01
Comet Enflow is a commercially available, high frequency vibroacoustic analysis software based on the Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA). In this method the same finite element mesh used for structural and acoustic analysis can be employed for the high frequency solutions. Comet Enflow is being validated for a floor-equipped composite cylinder by comparing the EFEA vibroacoustic response predictions with Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) results from the commercial software program VA One from ESI Group. Early in this program a number of discrepancies became apparent in the Enflow predicted response for the power flow from an acoustic space to a structural subsystem. The power flow anomalies were studied for a simple cubic, a rectangular and a cylindrical structural model connected to an acoustic cavity. The current investigation focuses on three specific discrepancies between the Comet Enflow and the VA One predictions: the Enflow power transmission coefficient relative to the VA One coupling loss factor; the importance of the accuracy of the acoustic modal density formulation used within Enflow; and the recommended use of fast solvers in Comet Enflow. The frequency region of interest for this study covers the one-third octave bands with center frequencies from 16 Hz to 4000 Hz.
Frequency-Preserved Acoustic Diode Model with High Forward-Power-Transmission Rate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Chang; Du, Zongliang; Sun, Zhi; Gao, Huajian; Guo, Xu
2015-06-01
The acoustic diode (AD) can provide brighter and clearer ultrasound images by eliminating acoustic disturbances caused by sound waves traveling in two directions at the same time and interfering with each other. Such an AD could give designers new flexibility in making ultrasonic sources like those used in medical imaging or nondestructive testing. However, current AD designs, based on nonlinear effects, only partially fill this role by converting sound to a new frequency and blocking any backward flow of the original frequency. In this work, an AD model that preserves the frequencies of acoustic waves and has a relatively high forward-power-transmission rate is proposed. Theoretical analysis indicates that the proposed AD has forward, reverse, and breakdown characteristics very similar to electrical diodes. The significant rectifying effect of the proposed AD is verified numerically through a one-dimensional example. Possible schemes for experimental realization of this model as well as more complex and efficient AD designs are also discussed.
Effect of acoustic coupling on power-law flame acceleration in spherical confinement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akkerman, V'yacheslav; Law, Chung K.
2013-01-01
A model describing acoustically-generated parametric instability in a spherical chamber is developed for quasi-one-dimensional, low-Mach number flames. We demonstrate how sound waves generated by a centrally-ignited, outwardly-propagating accelerating flamefront can be incorporated into an existing theory of self-similar flame acceleration in free space [V. Akkerman, C. K. Law, and V. Bychkov, "Self-similar accelerative propagation of expanding wrinkled flames and explosion triggering," Phys. Rev. E 83, 026305 (2011)], 10.1103/PhysRevE.83.026305. Being reflected from the chamber wall, flame-generated acoustics interact with the flamefront and the attendant hydrodynamic flamefront cellular instability. This in turn affects the subsequent flame morphology and propagation speed. It is shown that the acoustics modify the power-law flame acceleration, concomitantly facilitating or inhibiting the transition to detonation in confinement, which allows reconciliation of a discrepancy in experimental measurements of different groups.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kotov, V. M.
2016-09-01
Acousto-optic Bragg diffraction in paratellurite is investigated within the two first diffraction orders for the case of diffraction by the sidelobes of the spatial radiation spectrum of an acoustic transducer. One of the diffraction orders is due to anisotropic diffraction, and the other, to isotropic diffraction. Such a diffraction regime is achieved when the diffraction plane is inclined toward the optical axis of the crystal. For light with a wavelength of 0.63 × 10-4 cm diffracted by a "slow" sound wave with a frequency of 26 MHz, the effect manifests itself when the angle between the acousto-optic diffraction plane and the optical axis of paratellurite is ~3°. The effect is experimentally verified. The diffraction efficiency is 20% for each of the diffraction orders for a microwave signal of 8 V at the transducer.
Self-heating study of bulk acoustic wave resonators under high RF power.
Ivira, Brice; Fillit, René-Yves; Ndagijimana, Fabien; Benech, Philippe; Parat, Guy; Ancey, Pascal
2008-01-01
The present work first provides an experimental technique to study self-heating of bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonators under high RF power in the gigahertz range. This study is specially focused on film bulk acoustic wave resonators and solidly mounted resonators processed onto silicon wafers and designed for wireless systems. Precisely, the reflection coefficient of a one-port device is measured while up to several watts are applied and power leads to electrical drifts of impedances. In the following, we describe how absorbed power can be determined from the incident one in real time. Therefore, an infrared camera held over the radio frequency micro electromechanical system (RF-MEMS) surface with an exceptional spatial resolution reaching up to 2 microm/pixels gives accurate temperature mapping of resonators after emissivity correction. From theoretical point of view, accurate three-dimensional (3-D) structures for finite-element modeling analyses are carried out to know the best materials and architectures to use for enhancing power handling. In both experimental and theoretical investigations, comparison is made between film bulk acoustic wave resonators and solidly mounted resonators. Thus, the trend in term of material, architecture, and size of device for power application such as in transmission path of a transceiver is clearly identified. PMID:18334320
Self-heating study of bulk acoustic wave resonators under high RF power.
Ivira, Brice; Fillit, René-Yves; Ndagijimana, Fabien; Benech, Philippe; Parat, Guy; Ancey, Pascal
2008-01-01
The present work first provides an experimental technique to study self-heating of bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonators under high RF power in the gigahertz range. This study is specially focused on film bulk acoustic wave resonators and solidly mounted resonators processed onto silicon wafers and designed for wireless systems. Precisely, the reflection coefficient of a one-port device is measured while up to several watts are applied and power leads to electrical drifts of impedances. In the following, we describe how absorbed power can be determined from the incident one in real time. Therefore, an infrared camera held over the radio frequency micro electromechanical system (RF-MEMS) surface with an exceptional spatial resolution reaching up to 2 microm/pixels gives accurate temperature mapping of resonators after emissivity correction. From theoretical point of view, accurate three-dimensional (3-D) structures for finite-element modeling analyses are carried out to know the best materials and architectures to use for enhancing power handling. In both experimental and theoretical investigations, comparison is made between film bulk acoustic wave resonators and solidly mounted resonators. Thus, the trend in term of material, architecture, and size of device for power application such as in transmission path of a transceiver is clearly identified.
Neural Spike-Train Analyses of the Speech-Based Envelope Power Spectrum Model
Rallapalli, Varsha H.
2016-01-01
Diagnosing and treating hearing impairment is challenging because people with similar degrees of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) often have different speech-recognition abilities. The speech-based envelope power spectrum model (sEPSM) has demonstrated that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNRENV) from a modulation filter bank provides a robust speech-intelligibility measure across a wider range of degraded conditions than many long-standing models. In the sEPSM, noise (N) is assumed to: (a) reduce S + N envelope power by filling in dips within clean speech (S) and (b) introduce an envelope noise floor from intrinsic fluctuations in the noise itself. While the promise of SNRENV has been demonstrated for normal-hearing listeners, it has not been thoroughly extended to hearing-impaired listeners because of limited physiological knowledge of how SNHL affects speech-in-noise envelope coding relative to noise alone. Here, envelope coding to speech-in-noise stimuli was quantified from auditory-nerve model spike trains using shuffled correlograms, which were analyzed in the modulation-frequency domain to compute modulation-band estimates of neural SNRENV. Preliminary spike-train analyses show strong similarities to the sEPSM, demonstrating feasibility of neural SNRENV computations. Results suggest that individual differences can occur based on differential degrees of outer- and inner-hair-cell dysfunction in listeners currently diagnosed into the single audiological SNHL category. The predicted acoustic-SNR dependence in individual differences suggests that the SNR-dependent rate of susceptibility could be an important metric in diagnosing individual differences. Future measurements of the neural SNRENV in animal studies with various forms of SNHL will provide valuable insight for understanding individual differences in speech-in-noise intelligibility.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Diehl, Joshua John; Paul, Rhea
2013-01-01
Prosody production atypicalities are a feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), but behavioral measures of performance have failed to provide detail on the properties of these deficits. We used acoustic measures of prosody to compare children with ASDs to age-matched groups with learning disabilities and typically developing peers. Overall,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Komatsu, Sahoko; Nakahachi, Takayuki; Ogino, Kazuo; Kamio, Yoko
2016-01-01
Auditory hyper-reactivity is a common sensory-perceptual abnormality in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which interrupts behavioral adaptation. We investigated acoustic startle response (ASR) modulations in 17 children with ASD and 27 with typical development (TD). Compared to TD, children with ASD had larger ASR magnitude to weak stimuli and…
The Knotted Sky I: Planck constraints on the primordial power spectrum
Aslanyan, Grigor; Price, Layne C.; Easther, Richard; Abazajian, Kevork N. E-mail: lpri691@aucklanduni.ac.nz E-mail: r.easther@auckland.ac.nz
2014-08-01
Using the temperature data from Planck we search for departures from a power-law primordial power spectrum, employing Bayesian model-selection and posterior probabilities. We parametrize the spectrum with n knots located at arbitrary values of logk, with both linear and cubic splines. This formulation recovers both slow modulations and sharp transitions in the primordial spectrum. The power spectrum is well-fit by a featureless, power-law at wavenumbers k>10{sup -3} Mpc{sup -1}. A modulated primordial spectrum yields a better fit relative to ΛCDM at large scales, but there is no strong evidence for a departure from a power-law spectrum. Moreover, using simulated maps we show that a local feature at k ∼ 10{sup -3} Mpc{sup -1} can mimic the suppression of large-scale power. With multi-knot spectra we see only small changes in the posterior distributions for the other free parameters in the standard ΛCDM universe. Lastly, we investigate whether the hemispherical power asymmetry is explained by independent features in the primordial power spectrum in each ecliptic hemisphere, but find no significant differences between them.
Design of Low-power Wake-up Circuits in Underwater Acoustic Communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cuixia, Zhang; Jiaxin, Wu; Yuanxuan, Li
In underwater acoustic communication, the power consumption of the underwater communication equipments at harsh conditions of marine environment is an important problem. Under that scenario, we propose a design of low-power wake-up circuits based on SCM C8051F020 system. Compare to traditional wake-up circuits which directly judge the energy of received signals, our approach can greatly reduce the misjudgment caused by the environmental disturbance, and the performance of energy conservation is effective. The low-power wake-up circuits possess a promising application prospect in the long-distance wireless underwater communication.
Every, Arthur G; Amulele, George M
2002-03-01
The angular spectrum method is applied to calculating the acoustic field of a liquid-coupled focusing transducer in an anisotropic slab-shaped solid with surfaces normal to the axis of the transducer. The stationary phase approximation (SPA) is used to determine the dominant contributions to this field and calculate the echo signals produced by waves that have been reflected off the rear surface of the solid. The dominant features of this field and of the echoes are reproduced well by a hybrid ray method devised to simulate the finite point-spread function of the lens. Both approaches in the paraxial approximation yield a split focus for each wave polarization branch for a general direction of the surface normal. Echo arrival times and amplitudes calculated by the two methods are in good agreement. The hybrid ray method is shown to be particularly suited to handling multiple stationary phase points within the angular spectrum of the incident field and stationary phase points not associated with the normally incident ray, and should be useful for dealing with scattering from cracks and other defects. Pulse echo calculations for different crystallographic directions in a nickel-based superalloy are shown to be in good agreement with measurements carried out on single crystal specimens of the alloy. PMID:12322879
Every, Arthur G; Amulele, George M
2002-03-01
The angular spectrum method is applied to calculating the acoustic field of a liquid-coupled focusing transducer in an anisotropic slab-shaped solid with surfaces normal to the axis of the transducer. The stationary phase approximation (SPA) is used to determine the dominant contributions to this field and calculate the echo signals produced by waves that have been reflected off the rear surface of the solid. The dominant features of this field and of the echoes are reproduced well by a hybrid ray method devised to simulate the finite point-spread function of the lens. Both approaches in the paraxial approximation yield a split focus for each wave polarization branch for a general direction of the surface normal. Echo arrival times and amplitudes calculated by the two methods are in good agreement. The hybrid ray method is shown to be particularly suited to handling multiple stationary phase points within the angular spectrum of the incident field and stationary phase points not associated with the normally incident ray, and should be useful for dealing with scattering from cracks and other defects. Pulse echo calculations for different crystallographic directions in a nickel-based superalloy are shown to be in good agreement with measurements carried out on single crystal specimens of the alloy.
Chluba, Jens; Erickcek, Adrienne L.; Ben-Dayan, Ido
2012-10-20
In the early universe, energy stored in small-scale density perturbations is quickly dissipated by Silk damping, a process that inevitably generates {mu}- and y-type spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). These spectral distortions depend on the shape and amplitude of the primordial power spectrum at wavenumbers k {approx}< 10{sup 4} Mpc{sup -1}. Here, we study constraints on the primordial power spectrum derived from COBE/FIRAS and forecasted for PIXIE. We show that measurements of {mu} and y impose strong bounds on the integrated small-scale power, and we demonstrate how to compute these constraints using k-space window functions that account for the effects of thermalization and dissipation physics. We show that COBE/FIRAS places a robust upper limit on the amplitude of the small-scale power spectrum. This limit is about three orders of magnitude stronger than the one derived from primordial black holes in the same scale range. Furthermore, this limit could be improved by another three orders of magnitude with PIXIE, potentially opening up a new window to early universe physics. To illustrate the power of these constraints, we consider several generic models for the small-scale power spectrum predicted by different inflation scenarios, including running-mass inflation models and inflation scenarios with episodes of particle production. PIXIE could place very tight constraints on these scenarios, potentially even ruling out running-mass inflation models if no distortion is detected. We also show that inflation models with sub-Planckian field excursion that generate detectable tensor perturbations should simultaneously produce a large CMB spectral distortion, a link that could potentially be established with PIXIE.
2-D steering and propelling of acoustic bubble-powered microswimmers.
Feng, Jian; Yuan, Junqi; Cho, Sung Kwon
2016-06-21
This paper describes bi-directional (linear and rotational) propelling and 2-D steering of acoustic bubble-powered microswimmers that are achieved in a centimeter-scale pool (beyond chip level scale). The core structure of a microswimmer is a microtube with one end open in which a gaseous bubble is trapped. The swimmer is propelled by microstreaming flows that are generated when the trapped bubble is oscillated by an external acoustic wave. The bubble oscillation and thus propelling force are highly dependent on the frequency of the acoustic wave and the bubble length. This dependence is experimentally studied by measuring the resonance behaviors of the testing pool and bubble using a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) and by evaluating the generated streaming flows. The key idea in the present 2-D steering is to utilize this dependence. Multiple bubbles with different lengths are mounted on a single microswimmer with a variety of arrangements. By controlling the frequency of the acoustic wave, only frequency-matched bubbles can strongly oscillate and generate strong propulsion. By arranging multiple bubbles of different lengths in parallel but with their openings opposite and switching the frequency of the acoustic wave, bi-directionally linear propelling motions are successfully achieved. The propelling forces are calculated by a CFD analysis using the Ansys Fluent® package. For bi-directional rotations, a similar method but with diagonal arrangement of bubbles on a rectangular swimmer is also applied. The rotation can be easily reversed when the frequency of the acoustic wave is switched. For 2-D steering, short bubbles are aligned perpendicular to long bubbles. It is successfully demonstrated that the microswimmer navigates through a T-junction channel under full control with and without carrying a payload. During the navigation, the frequency is the main control input to select and resonate targeted bubbles. All of these operations are achieved by a single
2-D steering and propelling of acoustic bubble-powered microswimmers.
Feng, Jian; Yuan, Junqi; Cho, Sung Kwon
2016-06-21
This paper describes bi-directional (linear and rotational) propelling and 2-D steering of acoustic bubble-powered microswimmers that are achieved in a centimeter-scale pool (beyond chip level scale). The core structure of a microswimmer is a microtube with one end open in which a gaseous bubble is trapped. The swimmer is propelled by microstreaming flows that are generated when the trapped bubble is oscillated by an external acoustic wave. The bubble oscillation and thus propelling force are highly dependent on the frequency of the acoustic wave and the bubble length. This dependence is experimentally studied by measuring the resonance behaviors of the testing pool and bubble using a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) and by evaluating the generated streaming flows. The key idea in the present 2-D steering is to utilize this dependence. Multiple bubbles with different lengths are mounted on a single microswimmer with a variety of arrangements. By controlling the frequency of the acoustic wave, only frequency-matched bubbles can strongly oscillate and generate strong propulsion. By arranging multiple bubbles of different lengths in parallel but with their openings opposite and switching the frequency of the acoustic wave, bi-directionally linear propelling motions are successfully achieved. The propelling forces are calculated by a CFD analysis using the Ansys Fluent® package. For bi-directional rotations, a similar method but with diagonal arrangement of bubbles on a rectangular swimmer is also applied. The rotation can be easily reversed when the frequency of the acoustic wave is switched. For 2-D steering, short bubbles are aligned perpendicular to long bubbles. It is successfully demonstrated that the microswimmer navigates through a T-junction channel under full control with and without carrying a payload. During the navigation, the frequency is the main control input to select and resonate targeted bubbles. All of these operations are achieved by a single
Study of the Cavitation Region and the Evolution of the Acoustic Spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alekseev, V. N.; Andreev, V. G.; Romanenko, G. A.; Rybak, S. A.
2001-07-01
An experimental setup and a technique for measuring the transient period before a stationary cavitation in a liquid by the evolution of the cavitation noise spectrum are described. The time dependences of harmonic amplitudes both near the radiator and outside the cavitation region are presented. From the form of these dependences, the characteristic transient periods preceding the stage of a fully developed cavitation in water and in transformer oil are calculated. A formal scheme for describing the cavitation region is proposed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vonglahn, U. H.
1978-01-01
Combustion chamber acoustic power levels inferred from internal fluctuating pressure measurements are correlated with operating conditions and chamber geometries over a wide range. The variables include considerations of chamber design (can, annular, and reverse-flow annular) and size, number of fuel nozzles, burner staging and fuel split, airflow and heat release rates, and chamber inlet pressure and temperature levels. The correlated data include those obtained with combustion component development rigs as well as engines.
Thermometric- and Acoustic-Based Beam Power Monitor for Ultra-Bright X-Rays
Bentsen, Gregory; /Rochester U. /SLAC
2010-08-25
A design for an average beam power monitor for ultra-bright X-ray sources is proposed that makes simultaneous use of calorimetry and radiation acoustics. Radiation incident on a solid target will induce heating and ultrasonic vibrations, both of which may be measured to give a fairly precise value of the beam power. The monitor is intended for measuring ultra-bright Free-Electron Laser (FEL) X-ray beams, for which traditional monitoring technologies such as photo-diodes or scintillators are unsuitable. The monitor consists of a Boron Carbide (B{sub 4}C) target designed to absorb most of the incident beam's energy. Resistance temperature detectors (RTD) and piezoelectric actuators are mounted on the outward faces of the target to measure the temperature changes and ultrasonic vibrations induced by the incident beam. The design was tested using an optical pulsed beam (780 nm, 120 and 360 Hz) from a Ti:sapphire oscillator at several energies between 0.8 and 2.6 mJ. The RTDs measured an increase in temperature of about 10 K over a period of several minutes. The piezoelectric sensors recorded ringing acoustic oscillations at 580 {+-} 40 kHz. Most importantly, the amplitude of the acoustic signals was observed to scale linearly with beam power up to 2 mJ of pulse energy. Above this pulse energy, the vibrational signals became nonlinear. Several causes for this nonlinearity are discussed, including amplifier saturation and piezoelectric saturation. Despite this nonlinearity, these measurements demonstrate the feasibility of such a beam power measurement device. The advantage of two distinct measurements (acoustic and thermometric) provides a useful method of calibration that is unavailable to current LCLS diagnostics tools.
Angular power spectrum of the FastICA CMB component from BEAST data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donzelli, Simona
We present the angular power spectrum of the CMB component extracted with FASTICA from the data of the Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope (BEAST), operating in Q two input channels FASTICA returns two possible independent components. We found that one of them has an unphysical spectral behaviour, due to the poor S/N ratio, while the other is a reasonable CMB component. After a detailed calibration procedure based on Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations we extracted the angular power spectrum for the identified CMB component and found a very good agreement with the already published BEAST CMB angular power spectrum
Estimating the angular power spectrum of z > 2 BOSS QSOs using the MASTER method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maldonado, Felipe; Huffenberger, Kevin; Rotti, Aditya
2016-01-01
We implement the MASTER method for angular power spectrum estimation and apply it to z > 2 quasars selected by the SDSS-III BOSS survey. Quasars are filtered for completeness and bad spectra, and include ~100,000 QSOs in the CORE sample and ~75,000 in the non-uniform BONUS sample. We estimate the angular power spectrum in redshift shells to constrain the matter power spectrum and quasar properties. In the future, we will jointly analyze overlapping Cosmic Microwave Background lensing maps from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope to place further constraints.
Lugli, M; Yan, H Y; Fine, M L
2003-04-01
Two freshwater gobies Padogobius martensii and Gobius nigricans live in shallow (5-70 cm) stony streams, and males of both species produce courtship sounds. A previous study demonstrated high noise levels near waterfalls, a quiet window in the noise around 100 Hz at noisy locations, and extremely short-range propagation of noise and goby signals. To investigate the relationship of this acoustic environment to communication, we determined audiograms for both species and measured parameters of courtship sounds produced in the streams. We also deflated the swimbladder in P. martensii to determine its effect on frequency utilization in sound production and hearing. Both species are maximally sensitive at 100 Hz and produce low-frequency sounds with main energy from 70 to 100-150 Hz. Swimbladder deflation does not affect auditory threshold or dominant frequency of courtship sounds and has no or minor effects on sound amplitude. Therefore, both species utilize frequencies for hearing and sound production that fall within the low-frequency quiet region, and the equivalent relationship between auditory sensitivity and maximum ambient noise levels in both species further suggests that ambient noise shapes hearing sensitivity. PMID:12665991
Lugli, M; Yan, H Y; Fine, M L
2003-04-01
Two freshwater gobies Padogobius martensii and Gobius nigricans live in shallow (5-70 cm) stony streams, and males of both species produce courtship sounds. A previous study demonstrated high noise levels near waterfalls, a quiet window in the noise around 100 Hz at noisy locations, and extremely short-range propagation of noise and goby signals. To investigate the relationship of this acoustic environment to communication, we determined audiograms for both species and measured parameters of courtship sounds produced in the streams. We also deflated the swimbladder in P. martensii to determine its effect on frequency utilization in sound production and hearing. Both species are maximally sensitive at 100 Hz and produce low-frequency sounds with main energy from 70 to 100-150 Hz. Swimbladder deflation does not affect auditory threshold or dominant frequency of courtship sounds and has no or minor effects on sound amplitude. Therefore, both species utilize frequencies for hearing and sound production that fall within the low-frequency quiet region, and the equivalent relationship between auditory sensitivity and maximum ambient noise levels in both species further suggests that ambient noise shapes hearing sensitivity.
Keisler, R.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; Hoover, S.; Reichardt, C. L.; George, E. M.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Aird, K. A.; Hrubes, J. D.; Cho, H. M.; De Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Dudley, J.; Holder, G. P.; Halverson, N. W.; Hou, Z.; and others
2011-12-10
We present a measurement of the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) using data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT). The data consist of 790 deg{sup 2} of sky observed at 150 GHz during 2008 and 2009. Here we present the power spectrum over the multipole range 650 < l < 3000, where it is dominated by primary CMB anisotropy. We combine this power spectrum with the power spectra from the seven-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data release to constrain cosmological models. We find that the SPT and WMAP data are consistent with each other and, when combined, are well fit by a spatially flat, {Lambda}CDM cosmological model. The SPT+WMAP constraint on the spectral index of scalar fluctuations is n{sub s} = 0.9663 {+-} 0.0112. We detect, at {approx}5{sigma} significance, the effect of gravitational lensing on the CMB power spectrum, and find its amplitude to be consistent with the {Lambda}CDM cosmological model. We explore a number of extensions beyond the {Lambda}CDM model. Each extension is tested independently, although there are degeneracies between some of the extension parameters. We constrain the tensor-to-scalar ratio to be r < 0.21 (95% CL) and constrain the running of the scalar spectral index to be dn{sub s} /dln k = -0.024 {+-} 0.013. We strongly detect the effects of primordial helium and neutrinos on the CMB; a model without helium is rejected at 7.7{sigma}, while a model without neutrinos is rejected at 7.5{sigma}. The primordial helium abundance is measured to be Y{sub p} = 0.296 {+-} 0.030, and the effective number of relativistic species is measured to be N{sub eff} = 3.85 {+-} 0.62. The constraints on these models are strengthened when the CMB data are combined with measurements of the Hubble constant and the baryon acoustic oscillation feature. Notable improvements include n{sub s} = 0.9668 {+-} 0.0093, r < 0.17 (95% CL), and N{sub eff} = 3.86 {+-} 0.42. The SPT+WMAP data show a mild preference for low power
Wind tunnel study of the power output spectrum in a micro wind farm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bossuyt, Juliaan; Howland, Michael F.; Meneveau, Charles; Meyers, Johan
2016-09-01
Instrumented small-scale porous disk models are used to study the spectrum of a surrogate for the power output in a micro wind farm with 100 models of wind turbines. The power spectra of individual porous disk models in the first row of the wind farm show the expected -5/3 power law at higher frequencies. Downstream models measure an increased variance due to wake effects. Conversely, the power spectrum of the sum of the power over the entire wind farm shows a peak at the turbine-to-turbine travel frequency between the model turbines, and a near -5/3 power law region at a much wider range of lower frequencies, confirming previous LES results. Comparison with the spectrum that would result when assuming that the signals are uncorrelated, highlights the strong effects of correlations and anti-correlations in the fluctuations at various frequencies.
Ionospheric wave measurements with satellite-borne cross-power spectrum analyzers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harker, K. J.; Crawford, F. W.
1980-01-01
The paper studies the feasibility of using the cross-power spectrum analyzer on a satellite such as the Space Shuttle to measure the spectrum of potential and charged particle density fluctuations and macroscopic parameters in the ionosphere. The integration time required to make a measurement of a cross-power spectral density to a given accuracy, or its equivalent, the spatial resolution of a measurement to a given accuracy is examined.
Moisture estimation in power transformer oil using acoustic signals and spectral kurtosis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leite, Valéria C. M. N.; Veloso, Giscard F. C.; Borges da Silva, Luiz Eduardo; Lambert-Torres, Germano; Borges da Silva, Jonas G.; Onofre Pereira Pinto, João
2016-03-01
The aim of this paper is to present a new technique for estimating the contamination by moisture in power transformer insulating oil based on the spectral kurtosis analysis of the acoustic signals of partial discharges (PDs). Basically, in this approach, the spectral kurtosis of the PD acoustic signal is calculated and the correlation between its maximum value and the moisture percentage is explored to find a function that calculates the moisture percentage. The function can be easily implemented in DSP, FPGA, or any other type of embedded system for online moisture monitoring. To evaluate the proposed approach, an experiment is assembled with a piezoelectric sensor attached to a tank, which is filled with insulating oil samples contaminated by different levels of moisture. A device generating electrical discharges is submerged into the oil to simulate the occurrence of PDs. Detected acoustic signals are processed using fast kurtogram algorithm to extract spectral kurtosis values. The obtained data are used to find the fitting function that relates the water contamination to the maximum value of the spectral kurtosis. Experimental results show that the proposed method is suitable for online monitoring system of power transformers.
Incident signal power comparison for localization of concurrent multiple acoustic sources.
Salvati, Daniele; Canazza, Sergio
2014-01-01
In this paper, a method to solve the localization of concurrent multiple acoustic sources in large open spaces is presented. The problem of the multisource localization in far-field conditions is to correctly associate the direction of arrival (DOA) estimated by a network array system to the same source. The use of systems implementing a Bayesian filter is a traditional approach to address the problem of localization in multisource acoustic scenario. However, in a real noisy open space the acoustic sources are often discontinuous with numerous short-duration events and thus the filtering methods may have difficulty to track the multiple sources. Incident signal power comparison (ISPC) is proposed to compute DOAs association. ISPC is based on identifying the incident signal power (ISP) of the sources on a microphone array using beamforming methods and comparing the ISP between different arrays using spectral distance (SD) measurement techniques. This method solves the ambiguities, due to the presence of simultaneous sources, by identifying sounds through a minimization of an error criterion on SD measures of DOA combinations. The experimental results were conducted in an outdoor real noisy environment and the ISPC performance is reported using different beamforming techniques and SD functions. PMID:24701179
Incident Signal Power Comparison for Localization of Concurrent Multiple Acoustic Sources
2014-01-01
In this paper, a method to solve the localization of concurrent multiple acoustic sources in large open spaces is presented. The problem of the multisource localization in far-field conditions is to correctly associate the direction of arrival (DOA) estimated by a network array system to the same source. The use of systems implementing a Bayesian filter is a traditional approach to address the problem of localization in multisource acoustic scenario. However, in a real noisy open space the acoustic sources are often discontinuous with numerous short-duration events and thus the filtering methods may have difficulty to track the multiple sources. Incident signal power comparison (ISPC) is proposed to compute DOAs association. ISPC is based on identifying the incident signal power (ISP) of the sources on a microphone array using beamforming methods and comparing the ISP between different arrays using spectral distance (SD) measurement techniques. This method solves the ambiguities, due to the presence of simultaneous sources, by identifying sounds through a minimization of an error criterion on SD measures of DOA combinations. The experimental results were conducted in an outdoor real noisy environment and the ISPC performance is reported using different beamforming techniques and SD functions. PMID:24701179
1KW Power Transmission Using Wireless Acoustic-Electric Feed-Through (WAEF)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sherrit, S.; Bao, X.; Badescu, M.; Aldrich, J.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Biederman, W.
2008-01-01
A variety of space applications require the delivery of power into sealed structures. Since the structural integrity can be degraded by holes for cabling we present an alternative method of delivering power and information using stress waves to the internal space of a sealed structure. One particular application of this technology is in sample return missions where it is critical to preserve the sample integrity and to prevent earth contamination. Therefore, the container has to be hermetically sealed and the integrity of the seal must be monitored in order to insure to a high degree of reliability the integrity of the sample return vessel. In this study we investigated the use of piezoelectric acoustic-electric power feed-through devices to transfer electric power wirelessly through a solid wall by using elastic or acoustic waves. The technology is applicable to a range of space and terrestrial applications where power is required by electronic equipment inside sealed containers, vacuum or pressure vessels, etc., where holes in the wall are prohibitive or may result in significant structural performance degradation or unnecessarily complex designs. To meet requirements of higher power applications, the feasibility to transfer kilowatts level power was investigated. Pre-stressed longitudinal piezoelectric feed-through devices were analyzed by finite element models and an equivalent circuit model was developed to predict the power transfer characteristics to different electric loads. Based on the results of the analysis a prototype device was designed, fabricated and a demonstration of the transmission of electric power up to 1.068-kW was successfully conducted. Efficiencies in the 80-90% range were also demonstrated and methods to increase the efficiency further are currently being considered.
Estimating magnetic field power spectrum using CRRES magnetometer data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, A.; Elkington, S. R.
2013-05-01
Radial diffusion is one of the acceleration mechanisms responsible for populating and depleting the Van Allen radiation belts with high energy charged particles. We use the magnetometer data from the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) to estimate the power spectral density in the compressional component of the geomagnetic field in the frequency range of 0.8mHz-16.3mHz. We see a clear dependence of power spectral density on radial distance L, measure of geomagnetic disturbance Kp, and magnetic local time. Comparing total integrated power, the noon sector contains more power with no significant difference between other sectors during periods of low activity. During high activity the dusk sector has significantly more power than dawn sector with the difference sometimes being an order of magnitude higher with power increasing slightly as we move radially outward to higher L-shells. We then recompute the power spectral density without local time dependence and compute the electromagnetic part of the radial diffusion coefficient. The electromagnetic diffusion coefficients are then compared with the electrostatic coefficients computed by Brautigam et al. (2005). The dependence of the diffusion coefficients is then studied on parameters of L, Kp, and the first invariant. For a fixed first invariant the diffusion coefficient can be up to two orders of magnitude higher as we move from the inner magnetosphere (L=3.5) to the outer magnetosphere (L=6.5). During high activity, radial diffusion is also significantly faster than at quiet times.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kraft, Robert E.
1992-01-01
The design and performance of a ground-based acoustic sensor system for the detection of subsonic jet-powered aircraft is described and specified. The acoustic detection system performance criteria will subsequently be used to determine target detection ranges for the subject contract. Although the defined system has never been built and demonstrated in the field, the design parameters were chosen on the basis of achievable technology and overall system practicality. Areas where additional information is needed to substantiate the design are identified.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dikmese, Sener; Srinivasan, Sudharsan; Shaat, Musbah; Bader, Faouzi; Renfors, Markku
2014-12-01
Multicarrier waveforms have been commonly recognized as strong candidates for cognitive radio. In this paper, we study the dynamics of spectrum sensing and spectrum allocation functions in cognitive radio context using very practical signal models for the primary users (PUs), including the effects of power amplifier nonlinearities. We start by sensing the spectrum with energy detection-based wideband multichannel spectrum sensing algorithm and continue by investigating optimal resource allocation methods. Along the way, we examine the effects of spectral regrowth due to the inevitable power amplifier nonlinearities of the PU transmitters. The signal model includes frequency selective block-fading channel models for both secondary and primary transmissions. Filter bank-based wideband spectrum sensing techniques are applied for detecting spectral holes and filter bank-based multicarrier (FBMC) modulation is selected for transmission as an alternative multicarrier waveform to avoid the disadvantage of limited spectral containment of orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM)-based multicarrier systems. The optimization technique used for the resource allocation approach considered in this study utilizes the information obtained through spectrum sensing and knowledge of spectrum leakage effects of the underlying waveforms, including a practical power amplifier model for the PU transmitter. This study utilizes a computationally efficient algorithm to maximize the SU link capacity with power and interference constraints. It is seen that the SU transmission capacity depends critically on the spectral containment of the PU waveform, and these effects are quantified in a case study using an 802.11-g WLAN scenario.
Contribution of strong discontinuities to the power spectrum of the solar wind.
Borovsky, Joseph E
2010-09-10
Eight and a half years of magnetic field measurements (2(22) samples) from the ACE spacecraft in the solar wind at 1 A.U. are analyzed. Strong (large-rotation-angle) discontinuities in the solar wind are collected and measured. An artificial time series is created that preserves the timing and amplitudes of the discontinuities. The power spectral density of the discontinuity series is calculated and compared with the power spectral density of the solar-wind magnetic field. The strong discontinuities produce a power-law spectrum in the "inertial subrange" with a spectral index near the Kolmogorov -5/3 index. The discontinuity spectrum contains about half of the power of the full solar-wind magnetic field over this "inertial subrange." Warnings are issued about the significant contribution of discontinuities to the spectrum of the solar wind, complicating interpretation of spectral power and spectral indices.
Biosonar resolving power: echo-acoustic perception of surface structures in the submillimeter range.
Simon, Ralph; Knörnschild, Mirjam; Tschapka, Marco; Schneider, Annkathrin; Passauer, Nadine; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; von Helversen, Otto
2014-01-01
The minimum distance for which two points still can be separated from each other defines the resolving power of a visual system. In an echo-acoustic context, the resolving power is usually measured as the smallest perceivable distance of two reflecting surfaces on the range axis and is found to be around half a millimeter for bats employing frequency modulated (FM) echolocation calls. Only few studies measured such thresholds with physical objects, most often bats were trained on virtual echoes i.e., echoes generated and played back by a computer; moreover, bats were sitting while they received the stimuli. In these studies differences in structure depth between 200 and 340 μm were found. However, these low thresholds were never verified for free-flying bats and real physical objects. Here, we show behavioral evidence that the echo-acoustic resolving power for surface structures in fact can be as low as measured for computer generated echoes and even lower, sometimes below 100 μm. We found this exceptional fine discrimination ability only when one of the targets showed spectral interferences in the frequency range of the bats' echolocation call while the other target did not. This result indicates that surface structure is likely to be perceived as a spectral quality rather than being perceived strictly in the time domain. Further, it points out that sonar resolving power directly depends on the highest frequency/shortest wavelength of the signal employed.
Acoustic Power Absorption and its Relation to Vector Magnetic Field of a Sunspot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gosain, S.; Mathew, S. K.; Venkatakrishnan, P.
2011-02-01
The distribution of acoustic power over sunspots shows an enhanced absorption near the umbra - penumbra boundary. Previous studies revealed that the region of enhanced absorption coincides with the region of strongest transverse potential field. The aim of this paper is to i) utilize the high-resolution vector magnetograms derived using Hinode SOT/SP observations and study the relationship between the vector magnetic field and power absorption and ii) study the variation of power absorption in sunspot penumbrae due to the presence of spine-like radial structures. It is found that i) both potential and observed transverse fields peak at a similar radial distance from the center of the sunspot, and ii) the magnitude of the transverse field, derived from Hinode observations, is much larger than the potential transverse field derived from SOHO/MDI longitudinal-field observations. In the penumbra, the radial structures called spines (intra-spines) have stronger (weaker) field strength and are more vertical (horizontal). The absorption of acoustic power in the spine and intra-spine shows different behavior, with the absorption being larger in the spine as compared to the intra-spine.
Power Versus Spectrum 2-D Sensing in Energy Harvesting Cognitive Radio Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yanyan; Han, Weijia; Li, Di; Zhang, Ping; Cui, Shuguang
2015-12-01
Energy harvester based cognitive radio is a promising solution to address the shortage of both spectrum and energy. Since the spectrum access and power consumption patterns are interdependent, and the power value harvested from certain environmental sources are spatially correlated, the new power dimension could provide additional information to enhance the spectrum sensing accuracy. In this paper, the Markovian behavior of the primary users is considered, based on which we adopt a hidden input Markov model to specify the primary vs. secondary dynamics in the system. Accordingly, we propose a 2-D spectrum and power (harvested) sensing scheme to improve the primary user detection performance, which is also capable of estimating the primary transmit power level. Theoretical and simulated results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, in term of the performance gain achieved by considering the new power dimension. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to jointly consider the spectrum and power dimensions for the cognitive primary user detection problem.
Analytical model for CMB temperature angular power spectrum from cosmic (super-)strings
Yamauchi, Daisuke; Yoo, Chul-Moon; Sasaki, Misao; Takahashi, Keitaro; Sendouda, Yuuiti
2010-09-15
We present a new analytical method to calculate the small angle cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature angular power spectrum due to cosmic (super-)string segments. In particular, using our method, we clarify the dependence on the intercommuting probability P. We find that the power spectrum is dominated by Poisson-distributed string segments. The power spectrum for a general value of P has a plateau on large angular scales and shows a power-law decrease on small angular scales. The resulting spectrum in the case of conventional cosmic strings is in very good agreement with the numerical result obtained by Fraisse et al.. Then we estimate the upper bound on the dimensionless tension of the string for various values of P by assuming that the fraction of the CMB power spectrum due to cosmic (super-)strings is less than ten percent at various angular scales up to l=2000. We find that the amplitude of the spectrum increases as the intercommuting probability. As a consequence, strings with smaller intercommuting probabilities are found to be more tightly constrained.
Interplanetary Magnetic Field Power Spectrum Variations: A VHO Enabled Study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Szabo, A.; Koval, A.; Merka, J.; Narock, T.
2010-01-01
The newly reprocessed high time resolution (11/22 vectors/sec) Wind mission interplanetary magnetic field data and the solar wind key parameter search capability of the Virtual Heliospheric Observatory (VHO) affords an opportunity to study magnetic field power spectral density variations as a function of solar wind conditions. In the reprocessed Wind Magnetic Field Investigation (MFI) data, the spin tone and its harmonics are greatly reduced that allows the meaningful fitting of power spectra to the approx.2 Hz limit above which digitization noise becomes apparent. The power spectral density is computed and the spectral index is fitted for the MHD and ion inertial regime separately along with the break point between the two for various solar wind conditions . The time periods of fixed solar wind conditions are obtained from VHO searches that greatly simplify the process. The functional dependence of the ion inertial spectral index and break point on solar wind plasma and magnetic field conditions will be discussed
Interplanetary Magnetic Field Power Spectrum Variations: A VHO Enabled Study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Szabo, A.; Koval, A.; Merka, J.; Narock, T.
2011-01-01
The newly reprocessed high time resolution (11/22 vectors/sec) Wind mission interplanetary magnetic field data and the solar wind key parameter search capability of the Virtual Heliospheric Observatory (VHO) affords an opportunity to study magnetic field power spectral density variations as a function of solar wind conditions. In the reprocessed Wind Magnetic Field Investigation (MFI) data, the spin tone and its harmonics are greatly reduced that allows the meaningful fitting of power spectra to the 2 Hz limit above which digitization noise becomes apparent. The power spectral density is computed and the spectral index is fitted for the MHD and ion inertial regime separately along with the break point between the two for various solar wind conditions. The time periods of fixed solar wind conditions are obtained from VHO searches that greatly simplify the process. The functional dependence of the ion inertial spectral index and break point on solar wind plasma and magnetic field conditions will be discussed
Heitmann, Katrin; Higdon, David; Williams, Brian J.; Lawrence, Earl; White, Martin; Habib, Salman; Wagner, Christian
2009-11-01
The power spectrum of density fluctuations is a foundational source of cosmological information. Precision cosmological probes targeted primarily at investigations of dark energy require accurate theoretical determinations of the power spectrum in the nonlinear regime. To exploit the observational power of future cosmological surveys, accuracy demands on the theory are at the 1% level or better. Numerical simulations are currently the only way to produce sufficiently error-controlled predictions for the power spectrum. The very high computational cost of (precision) N-body simulations is a major obstacle to obtaining predictions in the nonlinear regime, while scanning over cosmological parameters. Near-future observations, however, are likely to provide a meaningful constraint only on constant dark energy equation of state, 'wCDM', cosmologies. In this paper, we demonstrate that a limited set of only 37 cosmological models-the 'Coyote Universe' suite-can be used to predict the nonlinear matter power spectrum to 1% over a prior parameter range set by current cosmic microwave background observations. This paper is the second in a series of three, with the final aim to provide a high-accuracy prediction scheme for the nonlinear matter power spectrum for wCDM cosmologies.
Heitmann, Katrin; Habib, Salman; Higdon, David; Williams, Brian J; White, Martin; Wagner, Christian
2008-01-01
The power spectrum of density fluctuations is a foundational source of cosmological information. Precision cosmological probes targeted primarily at investigations of dark energy require accurate theoretical determinations of the power spectrum in the nonlinear regime. To exploit the observational power of future cosmological surveys, accuracy demands on the theory are at the one percent level or better. Numerical simulations are currently the only way to produce sufficiently error-controlled predictions for the power spectrum. The very high computational cost of (precision) N-body simulations is a major obstacle to obtaining predictions in the nonlinear regime, while scanning over cosmological parameters. Near-future observations, however, are likely to provide a meaningful constraint only on constant dark energy equation of state 'wCDM' cosmologies. In this paper we demonstrate that a limited set of only 37 cosmological models -- the 'Coyote Universe' suite -- can be used to predict the nonlinear matter power spectrum at the required accuracy over a prior parameter range set by cosmic microwave background observations. This paper is the second in a series of three, with the final aim to provide a high-accuracy prediction scheme for the nonlinear matter power spectrum for wCDM cosmologies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heitmann, Katrin; Higdon, David; White, Martin; Habib, Salman; Williams, Brian J.; Lawrence, Earl; Wagner, Christian
2009-11-01
The power spectrum of density fluctuations is a foundational source of cosmological information. Precision cosmological probes targeted primarily at investigations of dark energy require accurate theoretical determinations of the power spectrum in the nonlinear regime. To exploit the observational power of future cosmological surveys, accuracy demands on the theory are at the 1% level or better. Numerical simulations are currently the only way to produce sufficiently error-controlled predictions for the power spectrum. The very high computational cost of (precision) N-body simulations is a major obstacle to obtaining predictions in the nonlinear regime, while scanning over cosmological parameters. Near-future observations, however, are likely to provide a meaningful constraint only on constant dark energy equation of state, "wCDM", cosmologies. In this paper, we demonstrate that a limited set of only 37 cosmological models—the "Coyote Universe" suite—can be used to predict the nonlinear matter power spectrum to 1% over a prior parameter range set by current cosmic microwave background observations. This paper is the second in a series of three, with the final aim to provide a high-accuracy prediction scheme for the nonlinear matter power spectrum for wCDM cosmologies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Białous, Małgorzata; Yunko, Vitalii; Bauch, Szymon; Ławniczak, Michał; Dietz, Barbara; Sirko, Leszek
2016-09-01
We present experimental studies of the power spectrum and other fluctuation properties in the spectra of microwave networks simulating chaotic quantum graphs with violated time reversal invariance. On the basis of our data sets, we demonstrate that the power spectrum in combination with other long-range and also short-range spectral fluctuations provides a powerful tool for the identification of the symmetries and the determination of the fraction of missing levels. Such a procedure is indispensable for the evaluation of the fluctuation properties in the spectra of real physical systems like, e.g., nuclei or molecules, where one has to deal with the problem of missing levels.
Primordial power spectrum: a complete analysis with the WMAP nine-year data
Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Shafieloo, Arman; Souradeep, Tarun E-mail: arman@apctp.org
2013-07-01
We have improved further the error sensitive Richardson-Lucy deconvolution algorithm making it applicable directly on the un-binned measured angular power spectrum of Cosmic Microwave Background observations to reconstruct the form of the primordial power spectrum. This improvement makes the application of the method significantly more straight forward by removing some intermediate stages of analysis allowing a reconstruction of the primordial spectrum with higher efficiency and precision and with lower computational expenses. Applying the modified algorithm we fit the WMAP 9 year data using the optimized reconstructed form of the primordial spectrum with more than 300 improvement in χ{sup 2}{sub eff} with respect to the best fit power-law. This is clearly beyond the reach of other alternative approaches and reflects the efficiency of the proposed method in the reconstruction process and allow us to look for any possible feature in the primordial spectrum projected in the CMB data. Though the proposed method allow us to look at various possibilities for the form of the primordial spectrum, all having good fit to the data, proper error-analysis is needed to test for consistency of theoretical models since, along with possible physical artefacts, most of the features in the reconstructed spectrum might be arising from fitting noises in the CMB data. Reconstructed error-band for the form of the primordial spectrum using many realizations of the data, all bootstrapped and based on WMAP 9 year data, shows proper consistency of power-law form of the primordial spectrum with the WMAP 9 data at all wave numbers. Including WMAP polarization data in to the analysis have not improved much our results due to its low quality but we expect Planck data will allow us to make a full analysis on CMB observations on both temperature and polarization separately and in combination.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marengo, Edwin A.; Khodja, Mohamed R.
2006-09-01
The nonrelativistic Larmor radiation formula, giving the power radiated by an accelerated charged point particle, is generalized for a spatially extended particle in the context of the classical charged harmonic oscillator. The particle is modeled as a spherically symmetric rigid charge distribution that possesses both translational and spinning degrees of freedom. The power spectrum obtained exhibits a structure that depends on the form factor of the particle, but reduces, in the limit of an infinitesimally small particle and for the charge distributions considered, to Larmor’s familiar result. It is found that for finite-duration small-enough accelerations as well as perpetual uniform accelerations the power spectrum of the spatially extended particle reduces to that of a point particle. It is also found that when the acceleration is violent or the size parameter of the particle is very large compared to the wavelength of the emitted radiation the power spectrum is highly suppressed. Possible applications are discussed.
Red, Straight, no bends: primordial power spectrum reconstruction from CMB and large-scale structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ravenni, Andrea; Verde, Licia; Cuesta, Antonio J.
2016-08-01
We present a minimally parametric, model independent reconstruction of the shape of the primordial power spectrum. Our smoothing spline technique is well-suited to search for smooth features such as deviations from scale invariance, and deviations from a power law such as running of the spectral index or small-scale power suppression. We use a comprehensive set of the state-of the art cosmological data: Planck observations of the temperature and polarisation anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background, WiggleZ and Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 galaxy power spectra and the Canada-France-Hawaii Lensing Survey correlation function. This reconstruction strongly supports the evidence for a power law primordial power spectrum with a red tilt and disfavours deviations from a power law power spectrum including small-scale power suppression such as that induced by significantly massive neutrinos. This offers a powerful confirmation of the inflationary paradigm, justifying the adoption of the inflationary prior in cosmological analyses.
Angular Power Spectrum in Modular Invariant Inflation Model
Hayashi, Mitsuo J.; Okame, Y.; Takagi, K.; Watanabe, T.; Hirai, S.; Takami, T.
2008-05-29
A scalar potential of inflation is proposed and the angular power spectra of the adiabatic density perturbations are computed. The potential consists of three scalar fields, S, Y and T, together with two free parameters. By fitting the parameters to cosmological data at the fixed point T = 1, we find that the potential behaves like the single-field potential of S, which slowly rolls down. We further show that the inflation predictions corresponding to this potential provide a good fit to the recent three-year WMAP data, e.g. the spectral index n{sub s} = 0.951.The TT and TE angular power spectra obtained from our model almost completely coincide with the corresponding results obtained from the {lambda}CDM model. We conclude that our model is considered to be an adequate theory of inflation that explains the present data.
Shahab, S.; Gray, M.; Erturk, A.
2015-03-14
Contactless powering of small electronic components has lately received growing attention for wireless applications in which battery replacement or tethered charging is undesired or simply impossible, and ambient energy harvesting is not a viable solution. As an alternative to well-studied methods of contactless energy transfer, such as the inductive coupling method, the use of ultrasonic waves transmitted and received by piezoelectric devices enables larger power transmission distances, which is critical especially for deep-implanted electronic devices. Moreover, energy transfer by means of acoustic waves is well suited in situations where no electromagnetic fields are allowed. The limited literature of ultrasonic acoustic energy transfer is mainly centered on proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating the feasibility of this method, lacking experimentally validated modeling efforts for the resulting multiphysics problem that couples the source and receiver dynamics with domain acoustics. In this work, we present fully coupled analytical, numerical, and experimental multiphysics investigations for ultrasonic acoustic energy transfer from a spherical wave source to a piezoelectric receiver bar that operates in the 33-mode of piezoelectricity. The fluid-loaded piezoelectric receiver under free-free mechanical boundary conditions is shunted to an electrical load for quantifying the electrical power output for a given acoustic source strength of the transmitter. The analytical acoustic-piezoelectric structure interaction modeling framework is validated experimentally, and the effects of system parameters are reported along with optimal electrical loading and frequency conditions of the receiver.
Nicholson, Gavin; Contaldi, Carlo R. E-mail: c.contaldi@imperial.ac.uk
2009-07-01
We develop a method to reconstruct the primordial power spectrum, P(k), using both temperature and polarisation data from the joint analysis of a number of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) observations. The method is an extension of the Richardson-Lucy algorithm, first applied in this context by Shafieloo and Souradeep [1]. We show how the inclusion of polarisation measurements can decrease the uncertainty in the reconstructed power spectrum. In particular, the polarisation data can constrain oscillations in the spectrum more effectively than total intensity only measurements. We apply the estimator to a compilation of current CMB results. The reconstructed spectrum is consistent with the best-fit power spectrum although we find evidence for a 'dip' in the power on scales k ≈ 0.002 Mpc{sup −1}. This feature appears to be associated with the WMAP power in the region 18 ≤ l ≤ 26 which is consistently below best-fit models. We also forecast the reconstruction for a simulated, Planck-like [2] survey including sample variance limited polarisation data.
Calculated power distribution of a thermionic, beryllium oxide reflected, fast-spectrum reactor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mayo, W.; Lantz, E.
1973-01-01
A procedure is developed and used to calculate the detailed power distribution in the fuel elements next to a beryllium oxide reflector of a fast-spectrum, thermionic reactor. The results of the calculations show that, although the average power density in these outer fuel elements is not far from the core average, the power density at the very edge of the fuel closest to the beryllium oxide is about 1.8 times the core avearge.
Power spectrum of electrical discharges seen on earth and at Saturn
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Warwick, J. W.
1989-07-01
A technique is described for deriving the radio spectrum of electrical discharges by using the properties of the time series of charges crossing the discharge gap. The method was applied to the spectrum of lightning and to the Saturn's electrical discharges (SEDs). It is shown that the occurrence and the power density of SEDs have subtle, but important, differences from these observables described in the last five years. The reasons for these differences are discussed.
An Attempt to Observe Stellar Convection via Power Spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vazquez Ramio, Hector; Roca Cortes, Teodoro; Regulo, Clara
It is known that the convective motions at solar photosphere level are visible in the frequency domain through the so called ""solar noise"". Time-resolved differential CCD photometry time series form 2 to 4 days long obtained at the Observatorio del Teide Izaña (Tenerife) using the 1m telescope of the Optical Ground Station (OGS) have been taken of five different stellar fields containing late type stars (spectral types F G and K) using de-focusing technique. It is expected they present convective activity at stellar surface and hence its signature must appear in their power spectra. By analogy with the solar case information about time scales of the possible stellar convective structures may be inferred. One of the observed stellar fields contained Uranus which reflects the light coming from the Sun and may be used to calibrate the stellar power spectra of the surrounding stars in the field since solar one is known from space observations carried out by Variability of the solar IRradiance and Gravity Oscillations (VIRGO) instrument.
Monitoring Thermal Fatigue Damage In Nuclear Power Plant Materials Using Acoustic Emission
Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Watson, Bruce E.; Pitman, Stan G.; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Bond, Leonard J.
2012-04-26
Proactive aging management of nuclear power plant passive components requires technologies to enable monitoring and accurate quantification of material condition at early stages of degradation (i.e., pre-macrocrack). Acoustic emission (AE) is well-suited to continuous monitoring of component degradation and is proposed as a method to monitor degradation during accelerated thermal fatigue tests. A key consideration is the ability to separate degradation responses from external sources such as water spray induced during thermal fatigue testing. Water spray provides a significant background of acoustic signals, which can overwhelm AE signals caused by degradation. Analysis of AE signal frequency and energy is proposed in this work as a means for separating degradation signals from background sources. Encouraging results were obtained by applying both frequency and energy filters to preliminary data. The analysis of signals filtered using frequency and energy provides signatures exhibiting several characteristics that are consistent with degradation accumulation in materials. Future work is planned to enable verification of the efficacy of AE for thermal fatigue crack initiation detection. While the emphasis has been placed on the use of AE for crack initiation detection during accelerated aging tests, this work also has implications with respect to the use of AE as a primary tool for early degradation monitoring in nuclear power plant materials. The development of NDE tools for characterization of aging in materials can also benefit from the use of a technology such as AE which can continuously monitor and detect crack initiation during accelerated aging tests.
Sensitivity of neutrinos to the supernova turbulence power spectrum: Point source statistics
Kneller, James P.; Kabadi, Neel V.
2015-07-16
The neutrinos emitted from the proto-neutron star created in a core-collapse supernova must run through a significant amount of turbulence before exiting the star. Turbulence can modify the flavor evolution of the neutrinos imprinting itself upon the signal detected here at Earth. The turbulence effect upon individual neutrinos, and the correlation between pairs of neutrinos, might exhibit sensitivity to the power spectrum of the turbulence, and recent analysis of the turbulence in a two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulation of a core-collapse supernova indicates the power spectrum may not be the Kolmogorov 5 /3 inverse power law as has been previously assumed. In this paper we study the effect of non-Kolmogorov turbulence power spectra upon neutrinos from a point source as a function of neutrino energy and turbulence amplitude at a fixed postbounce epoch. We find the two effects of turbulence upon the neutrinos—the distorted phase effect and the stimulated transitions—both possess strong and weak limits in which dependence upon the power spectrum is absent or evident, respectively. Furthermore, since neutrinos of a given energy will exhibit these two effects at different epochs of the supernova each with evolving strength, we find there is sensitivity to the power spectrum present in the neutrino burst signal from a Galactic supernova.
Sensitivity of neutrinos to the supernova turbulence power spectrum: Point source statistics
Kneller, James P.; Kabadi, Neel V.
2015-07-16
The neutrinos emitted from the proto-neutron star created in a core-collapse supernova must run through a significant amount of turbulence before exiting the star. Turbulence can modify the flavor evolution of the neutrinos imprinting itself upon the signal detected here at Earth. The turbulence effect upon individual neutrinos, and the correlation between pairs of neutrinos, might exhibit sensitivity to the power spectrum of the turbulence, and recent analysis of the turbulence in a two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulation of a core-collapse supernova indicates the power spectrum may not be the Kolmogorov 5 /3 inverse power law as has been previously assumed. Inmore » this paper we study the effect of non-Kolmogorov turbulence power spectra upon neutrinos from a point source as a function of neutrino energy and turbulence amplitude at a fixed postbounce epoch. We find the two effects of turbulence upon the neutrinos—the distorted phase effect and the stimulated transitions—both possess strong and weak limits in which dependence upon the power spectrum is absent or evident, respectively. Furthermore, since neutrinos of a given energy will exhibit these two effects at different epochs of the supernova each with evolving strength, we find there is sensitivity to the power spectrum present in the neutrino burst signal from a Galactic supernova.« less
Calculation of power spectrums from digital time series with missing data points
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murray, C. W., Jr.
1980-01-01
Two algorithms are developed for calculating power spectrums from the autocorrelation function when there are missing data points in the time series. Both methods use an average sampling interval to compute lagged products. One method, the correlation function power spectrum, takes the discrete Fourier transform of the lagged products directly to obtain the spectrum, while the other, the modified Blackman-Tukey power spectrum, takes the Fourier transform of the mean lagged products. Both techniques require fewer calculations than other procedures since only 50% to 80% of the maximum lags need be calculated. The algorithms are compared with the Fourier transform power spectrum and two least squares procedures (all for an arbitrary data spacing). Examples are given showing recovery of frequency components from simulated periodic data where portions of the time series are missing and random noise has been added to both the time points and to values of the function. In addition the methods are compared using real data. All procedures performed equally well in detecting periodicities in the data.
Contamination of the Epoch of Reionization power spectrum in the presence of foregrounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sims, Peter H.; Lentati, Lindley; Alexander, Paul; Carilli, Chris L.
2016-11-01
We construct foreground simulations comprising spatially correlated extragalactic and diffuse Galactic emission components and calculate the `intrinsic' (instrument-free) two-dimensional spatial power spectrum and the cylindrically and spherically averaged three-dimensional k-space power spectra of the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) and our foreground simulations using a Bayesian power spectral estimation framework. This leads us to identify a model-dependent region of optimal signal estimation for our foreground and EoR models, within which the spatial power in the EoR signal relative to the foregrounds is maximized. We identify a target field-dependent region, in k-space, of intrinsic foreground power spectral contamination at low k⊥ and k∥ and a transition to a relatively foreground-free intrinsic EoR window in the complement to this region. The contaminated region of k-space demonstrates that simultaneous estimation of the EoR and foregrounds is important for obtaining statistically robust estimates of the EoR power spectrum; biased results will be obtained from methodologies that ignore their covariance. Using simulated observations with frequency-dependent uv-coverage and primary beam, with the former derived for the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array in 37-antenna and 331-antenna configuration, we recover instrumental power spectra consistent with their intrinsic counterparts. We discuss the implications of these results for optimal strategies for unbiased estimation of the EoR power spectrum.
Richardson, M.; Bhethanabotla, V. R.; Sankaranarayanan, S. K. R. S.
2014-06-23
Finite element simulations of a phononic shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor based on ST 90°-X Quartz reveal a dramatic reduction in power consumption. The phononic sensor is realized by artificially structuring the delay path to form an acoustic meta-material comprised of a periodic microcavity array incorporating high-density materials such as tantalum or tungsten. Constructive interference of the scattered and secondary reflected waves at every microcavity interface leads to acoustic energy confinement in the high-density regions translating into reduced power loss. Tantalum filled cavities show the best performance while tungsten inclusions create a phononic bandgap. Based on our simulation results, SAW devices with tantalum filled microcavities were fabricated and shown to significantly decrease insertion loss. Our findings offer encouraging prospects for designing low power, highly sensitive portable biosensors.
Scaling-law for the energy dependence of anatomic power spectrum in dedicated breast CT
Vedantham, Srinivasan; Shi, Linxi; Glick, Stephen J.; Karellas, Andrew
2013-01-15
Purpose: To determine the x-ray photon energy dependence of the anatomic power spectrum of the breast when imaged with dedicated breast computed tomography (CT). Methods: A theoretical framework for scaling the empirically determined anatomic power spectrum at one x-ray photon energy to that at any given x-ray photon energy when imaged with dedicated breast CT was developed. Theory predicted that when the anatomic power spectrum is fitted with a power curve of the form k f{sup -{beta}}, where k and {beta} are fit coefficients and f is spatial frequency, the exponent {beta} would be independent of x-ray photon energy (E), and the amplitude k scales with the square of the difference in energy-dependent linear attenuation coefficients of fibroglandular and adipose tissues. Twenty mastectomy specimens based numerical phantoms that were previously imaged with a benchtop flat-panel cone-beam CT system were converted to 3D distribution of glandular weight fraction (f{sub g}) and were used to verify the theoretical findings. The 3D power spectrum was computed in terms of f{sub g} and after converting to linear attenuation coefficients at monoenergetic x-ray photon energies of 20-80 keV in 5 keV intervals. The 1D power spectra along the axes were extracted and fitted with a power curve of the form k f{sup -{beta}}. The energy dependence of k and {beta} were analyzed. Results: For the 20 mastectomy specimen based numerical phantoms used in the study, the exponent {beta} was found to be in the range of 2.34-2.42, depending on the axis of measurement. Numerical simulations agreed with the theoretical predictions that for a power-law anatomic spectrum of the form k f{sup -{beta}}, {beta} was independent of E and k(E) =k{sub 1}[{mu}{sub g}(E) -{mu}{sub a}(E)]{sup 2}, where k{sub 1} is a constant, and {mu}{sub g}(E) and {mu}{sub a}(E) represent the energy-dependent linear attenuation coefficients of fibroglandular and adipose tissues, respectively. Conclusions: Numerical
Model independent signatures of new physics in the inflationary power spectrum.
Jackson, Mark G; Schalm, Koenraad
2012-03-16
We compute the universal generic corrections to the inflationary power spectrum due to unknown high-energy physics. We arrive at this result via a careful integrating out of massive fields in the "in-in" formalism yielding a consistent and predictive low-energy effective description in time-dependent backgrounds. We find that the power spectrum is universally modified at order H/M, where H is the scale of inflation. This is qualitatively different from the universal corrections in time-independent backgrounds, and it suggests that such effects may be present in upcoming cosmological observations.
Noise power spectrum estimation and fast map making for CMB experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amblard, A.; Hamilton, J.-Ch.
2004-04-01
We present a method designed to estimate the noise power spectrum in the time domain for CMB experiments. The noise power spectrum is extracted from the time ordered data avoiding the contamination coming from sky signal and accounting the pixellisation of the signal and the projection of the noise when making intermediate sky projections. This method is simple to implement and relies on Monte-Carlo simulations, it runs on a simple desk computer. We also propose a trick for filtering data before making coadded maps in order to avoid ringing due to the presence of signal in the timelines. These algorithms were succesfully tested on Archeops data.
Extracting information from the power spectrum of synaptic noise.
Destexhe, Alain; Rudolph, Michael
2004-01-01
In cortical neurons, synaptic "noise" is caused by the nearly random release of thousands of synapses. Few methods are presently available to analyze synaptic noise and deduce properties of the underlying synaptic inputs. We focus here on the power spectral density (PSD) of several models of synaptic noise. We examine different classes of analytically solvable kinetic models for synaptic currents, such as the "delta kinetic models," which use Dirac delta functions to represent the activation of the ion channel. We first show that, for this class of kinetic models, one can obtain an analytic expression for the PSD of the total synaptic conductance and derive equivalent stochastic models with only a few variables. This yields a method for constraining models of synaptic currents by analyzing voltage-clamp recordings of synaptic noise. Second, we show that a similar approach can be followed for the PSD of the the membrane potential (Vm) through an effective-leak approximation. Third, we show that this approach is also valid for inputs distributed in dendrites. In this case, the frequency scaling of the Vm PSD is preserved, suggesting that this approach may be applied to intracellular recordings of real neurons. In conclusion, using simple mathematical tools, we show that Vm recordings can be used to constrain kinetic models of synaptic currents, as well as to estimate equivalent stochastic models. This approach, therefore, provides a direct link between intracellular recordings in vivo and the design of models consistent with the dynamics and spectral structure of synaptic noise. PMID:15483395
Acoustical gas core reactor with MHD power generation for burst power in a bimodal system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dugan, E. T.; Jacobs, A. M.; Oliver, C. C.; Lear, W. E., Jr.
Research is being conducted on gas core reactors for space nuclear power to establish the scientific feasibility and engineering validation of a reactor and energy conversion system that can significantly improve specific power, dynamic performance and system efficiency. Rapid achievement of burst mode (GWe) operation at core power densities of 1 kW/mL and reactor masses of a kg/MWt are research objectives; coupled with MHD conversion, system efficiencies of 40 percent for open cycle operation and heat rejection temperatures of 1500 K or higher for closed cycle operation are anticipated. The design of the gas core reactor/MHD generator configuration to directly produce pulsed electrical power, thereby alleviating external power conditioning requirements, is also a research objective.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ebihara, Tadashi
2013-07-01
In underwater acoustic (UWA) communication, power efficiency is one of the important characteristics. This paper is about multistream transmission using orthogonal signal division multiplexing (OSDM) as a technique to increase power efficiency. In this work, the performance of multistream transmission using OSDM is evaluated both experimentally in a test tank and by numerical simulation. Through this study, it is confirmed that the multistream transmission scheme is effective in enhancing the power efficiency compared with the single-stream transmission using higher order modulation. Moreover, the performance of multistream transmission using OSDM is compared with the existing scheme, multistream transmission using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). The obtained results suggest that multistream transmission using OSDM is attractive because it can achieve the same bit-error rate (BER) and the same data rate with less power of the signal, compared with the reference. Although the calculation cost of OSDM in the receiver remains as an issue, multistream transmission using OSDM may contribute to high-speed UWA communication because of its excellent power efficiency.
Das, Sudeep; Louis, Thibaut; Calabrese, Erminia; Dunkley, Joanna; Nolta, Michael R.; Bond, J Richard; Hajian, Amir; Hincks, Adam D.; Addison, Graeme E.; Halpern, Mark; Battistelli, Elia S.; Crichton, Devin; Gralla, Megan; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon; Dünner, Rolando; Fowler, Joseph W.; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hlozek, Renée; Hilton, Matt; and others
2014-04-01
We present the temperature power spectra of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) derived from the three seasons of data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 148 GHz and 218 GHz, as well as the cross-frequency spectrum between the two channels. We detect and correct for contamination due to the Galactic cirrus in our equatorial maps. We present the results of a number of tests for possible systematic error and conclude that any effects are not significant compared to the statistical errors we quote. Where they overlap, we cross-correlate the ACT and the South Pole Telescope (SPT) maps and show they are consistent. The measurements of higher-order peaks in the CMB power spectrum provide an additional test of the ΛCDM cosmological model, and help constrain extensions beyond the standard model. The small angular scale power spectrum also provides constraining power on the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effects and extragalactic foregrounds. We also present a measurement of the CMB gravitational lensing convergence power spectrum at 4.6σ detection significance.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Das, Sudeep; Louis, Thibaut; Nolta, Michael R.; Addison, Graeme E.; Battisetti, Elia S.; Bond, J. Richard; Calabrese, Erminia; Crichton, Devin; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon; Dunkley, Joanna; Dunner, Rolando; Fowler, Joseph W.; Gralla, Megan; Hajian, Amir; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam D.; Hlozek, Renee; Huffenberger, Kevin M.; Hughes, John P.; Irwin, Kent D; Kosowsky, Arthur; Wollack, Ed
2014-01-01
We present the temperature power spectra of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) derived from the three seasons of data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 148 GHz and 218 GHz, as well as the cross-frequency spectrum between the two channels. We detect and correct for contamination due to the Galactic cirrus in our equatorial maps. We present the results of a number of tests for possible systematic error and conclude that any effects are not significant compared to the statistical errors we quote. Where they overlap, we cross-correlate the ACT and the South Pole Telescope (SPT) maps and show they are consistent. The measurements of higher-order peaks in the CMB power spectrum provide an additional test of the ?CDM cosmological model, and help constrain extensions beyond the standard model. The small angular scale power spectrum also provides constraining power on the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effects and extragalactic foregrounds. We also present a measurement of the CMB gravitational lensing convergence power spectrum at 4.6s detection significance.
General requirements on matter power spectrum predictions for cosmology with weak lensing tomography
Hearin, Andrew P.; Zentner, Andrew R.; Ma, Zhaoming E-mail: zentner@pitt.edu
2012-04-01
Forthcoming projects such as DES, LSST, WFIRST, and Euclid aim to measure weak lensing shear correlations with unprecedented precision, constraining the dark energy equation of state at the percent level. Reliance on photometrically-determined redshifts constitutes a major source of uncertainty for these surveys. Additionally, interpreting the weak lensing signal requires a detailed understanding of the nonlinear physics of gravitational collapse. We present a new analysis of the stringent calibration requirements for weak lensing analyses of future imaging surveys that addresses both photo-z uncertainty and errors in the calibration of the matter power spectrum. We find that when photo-z uncertainty is taken into account the requirements on the level of precision in the prediction for the matter power spectrum are more stringent than previously thought. Including degree-scale galaxy clustering statistics in a joint analysis with weak lensing not only strengthens the survey's constraining power by ∼ 20%, but can also have a profound impact on the calibration demands, decreasing the degradation in dark energy constraints with matter power spectrum uncertainty by a factor of 2-5. Similarly, using galaxy clustering information significantly relaxes the demands on photo-z calibration. We compare these calibration requirements to the contemporary state-of-the-art in photometric redshift estimation and predictions of the power spectrum and suggest strategies to utilize forthcoming data optimally.
Ruling out the power-law form of the scalar primordial spectrum
Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Shafieloo, Arman; Smoot, George F.; Starobinsky, Alexei A. E-mail: arman@apctp.org E-mail: alstar@landau.ac.ru
2014-06-01
Combining Planck CMB temperature [1] and BICEP2 B-mode polarization data [2,3] we show qualitatively that, assuming inflationary consistency relation, the power-law form of the scalar primordial spectrum is ruled out at more than 3σ CL. This is an important finding, since the power-law form of the scalar primordial spectrum is one of the main assumptions of concordance model of cosmology and also a direct prediction of many inflationary scenarios. We show that a break or step in the form of the primordial scalar perturbation spectrum, similar to what we studied recently analyzing Planck data [4], can address both Planck and BICEP2 results simultaneously. Our findings also indicate that the data may require more flexibilities than what running of scalar spectral index can provide. Finally we show that an inflaton potential, originally appeared in [5], can generate both the step and the break model of scalar primordial spectrum in two different limits. The discussed potential is found to be favored by Planck data but marginally disfavored by BICEP2 results as it produces slightly lower amplitude of tensor primordial spectrum. Hence, if the tensor-to-scalar ratio (r) quoted by BICEP2 persists, it is of importance that we generate inflationary models with large r and at the same time provide suppression in scalar primordial spectrum at large scales.
Power Spectrum of Sea Level Change and Implications for Global Change
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harrison, C. G.
2002-12-01
It has been shown that relative sea level change has a 1/f{2} power spectrum over more than 8 decades of frequency, f, or period. The period range is 100 years to >10{8} years. Other parts of the spectrum, such as the part with periods between ~ 50 years and 1 year show a less red spectrum, but at higher frequencies still, the spectrum reddens considerably for a few more decades. Signals with a 1/f{2} spectrum are created by processes like a random walk. The variance of such signals of limited extent tends to increase with the length of the record, and so does not represent a stationary process. Such signals can therefore present strange behavior if they are lengthened. Thye can easily go into unsampled territory and so give the impression that new types of phenomena are being exhibited. If a record of some environmental indicator, such as sea level or temperature or proxy temperature, is studied and shows departure from ``normal" behavior when the record is lengthened, it does not mean that some new phenomenon such as anthropogenic global warming, is coming into play. It may just mean that the record is sampling more of the natural processes that have gone towards creating the first part of the signal. The sea level record and its power spectrum plus spectra of other climate change signals will be discussed to illustrate some of these phenomena. My question therefore is ``How do you recognize an athropogenic global change signal in such a record?"
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hou, Dong; Wang, Jingwei; Gao, Lijun; Liang, Xuejie; Li, Xiaoning; Liu, Xingsheng
2016-03-01
The high power diode lasers have been widely used in many fields. In this work, a sophisticated high power and high performance horizontal array of diode laser stacks have been developed and fabricated with high duty cycle using hard solder bonding technology. CTE-matched submount and Gold Tin (AuSn) hard solder are used for bonding the diode laser bar to achieve the performances of anti-thermal fatigue, higher reliability and longer lifetime. This array consists of 30 bars with the expected optical output peak power of 6000W. By means of numerical simulation and analytical results, the diode laser bars are aligned on suitable positions along the water cooled cooler in order to achieve the uniform wavelength with narrow spectrum and accurate central wavelength. The performance of the horizontal array, such as output power, spectrum, thermal resistance, life time, etc., is characterized and analyzed.
THE EFFECTS OF POLARIZED FOREGROUNDS ON 21 cm EPOCH OF REIONIZATION POWER SPECTRUM MEASUREMENTS
Moore, David F.; Aguirre, James E.; Parsons, Aaron R.; Pober, Jonathan C.; Jacobs, Daniel C.
2013-06-01
Experiments aimed at detecting highly-redshifted 21 cm emission from the epoch of reionization (EoR) are plagued by the contamination of foreground emission. A potentially important source of contaminating foregrounds may be Faraday-rotated, polarized emission, which leaks into the estimate of the intrinsically unpolarized EoR signal. While these foregrounds' intrinsic polarization may not be problematic, the spectral structure introduced by the Faraday rotation could be. To better understand and characterize these effects, we present a simulation of the polarized sky between 120 and 180 MHz. We compute a single visibility, and estimate the three-dimensional power spectrum from that visibility using the delay spectrum approach presented in Parsons et al. Using the Donald C. Backer Precision Array to Probe the Epoch of Reionization as an example instrument, we show the expected leakage into the unpolarized power spectrum to be several orders of magnitude above the expected 21 cm EoR signal.
Interference detection and correction applied to incoherent-scatter radar power spectrum measurement
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ying, W. P.; Mathews, J. D.; Rastogi, P. K.
1986-01-01
A median filter based interference detection and correction technique is evaluated and the method applied to the Arecibo incoherent scatter radar D-region ionospheric power spectrum is discussed. The method can be extended to other kinds of data when the statistics involved in the process are still valid.
Angular 21 cm power spectrum of a scaling distribution of cosmic string wakes
Hernández, Oscar F.; Wang, Yi; Brandenberger, Robert; Fong, José E-mail: wangyi@physics.mcgill.ca E-mail: jose.fong@ens-lyon.fr
2011-08-01
Cosmic string wakes lead to a large signal in 21 cm redshift maps at redshifts larger than that corresponding to reionization. Here, we compute the angular power spectrum of 21 cm radiation as predicted by a scaling distribution of cosmic strings whose wakes have undergone shock heating.
Effect of features on the functional form of the scalar power spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brooker, D. J.; Tsamis, N. C.; Woodard, R. P.
2016-08-01
We study how the scalar power spectrum of single-scalar inflation depends functionally on models with features which have been proposed to explain anomalies in the data. We exploit a new formalism based on evolving the norm-squared of the scalar mode functions, rather than the mode functions themselves.
Gong, Yanming; Radachowsky, Sage E; Wolf, Michael; Nielsen, Mark E; Girguis, Peter R; Reimers, Clare E
2011-06-01
Supported by the natural potential difference between anoxic sediment and oxic seawater, benthic microbial fuel cells (BMFCs) promise to be ideal power sources for certain low-power marine sensors and communication devices. In this study a chambered BMFC with a 0.25 m(2) footprint was used to power an acoustic modem interfaced with an oceanographic sensor that measures dissolved oxygen and temperature. The experiment was conducted in Yaquina Bay, Oregon over 50 days. Several improvements were made in the BMFC design and power management system based on lessons learned from earlier prototypes. The energy was harvested by a dynamic gain charge pump circuit that maintains a desired point on the BMFC's power curve and stores the energy in a 200 F supercapacitor. The system also used an ultralow power microcontroller and quartz clock to read the oxygen/temperature sensor hourly, store data with a time stamp, and perform daily polarizations. Data records were transmitted to the surface by the acoustic modem every 1-5 days after receiving an acoustic prompt from a surface hydrophone. After jump-starting energy production with supplemental macroalgae placed in the BMFC's anode chamber, the average power density of the BMFC adjusted to 44 mW/m(2) of seafloor area which is better than past demonstrations at this site. The highest power density was 158 mW/m(2), and the useful energy produced and stored was ≥ 1.7 times the energy required to operate the system. PMID:21545151
Cosmology Constraints from the Weak Lensing Peak Counts and the Power Spectrum in CFHTLenS
Liu, Jia; May, Morgan; Petri, Andrea; Haiman, Zoltan; Hui, Lam; Kratochvil, Jan M.
2015-03-04
Lensing peaks have been proposed as a useful statistic, containing cosmological information from non-Gaussianities that is inaccessible from traditional two-point statistics such as the power spectrum or two-point correlation functions. Here we examine constraints on cosmological parameters from weak lensing peak counts, using the publicly available data from the 154 deg2 CFHTLenS survey. We utilize a new suite of ray-tracing N-body simulations on a grid of 91 cosmological models, covering broad ranges of the three parameters Ω_{m}, σ_{8}, and w, and replicating the galaxy sky positions, redshifts, and shape noise in the CFHTLenS observations. We then build an emulator that interpolates the power spectrum and the peak counts to an accuracy of ≤ 5%, and compute the likelihood in the three-dimensional parameter space (Ω_{m}, σ_{8}, w) from both observables. We find that constraints from peak counts are comparable to those from the power spectrum, and somewhat tighter when different smoothing scales are combined. Neither observable can constrain w without external data. When the power spectrum and peak counts are combined, the area of the error “banana” in the (Ω_{m}, σ_{8}) plane reduces by a factor of ≈ two, compared to using the power spectrum alone. For a flat Λ cold dark matter model, combining both statistics, we obtain the constraint σ_{8}(Ω_{m}/0.27)0.63 = 0.85^{+0.03}_{-0.03}.
Cosmology Constraints from the Weak Lensing Peak Counts and the Power Spectrum in CFHTLenS
Liu, Jia; May, Morgan; Petri, Andrea; Haiman, Zoltan; Hui, Lam; Kratochvil, Jan M.
2015-03-04
Lensing peaks have been proposed as a useful statistic, containing cosmological information from non-Gaussianities that is inaccessible from traditional two-point statistics such as the power spectrum or two-point correlation functions. Here we examine constraints on cosmological parameters from weak lensing peak counts, using the publicly available data from the 154 deg2 CFHTLenS survey. We utilize a new suite of ray-tracing N-body simulations on a grid of 91 cosmological models, covering broad ranges of the three parameters Ωm, σ8, and w, and replicating the galaxy sky positions, redshifts, and shape noise in the CFHTLenS observations. We then build an emulator thatmore » interpolates the power spectrum and the peak counts to an accuracy of ≤ 5%, and compute the likelihood in the three-dimensional parameter space (Ωm, σ8, w) from both observables. We find that constraints from peak counts are comparable to those from the power spectrum, and somewhat tighter when different smoothing scales are combined. Neither observable can constrain w without external data. When the power spectrum and peak counts are combined, the area of the error “banana” in the (Ωm, σ8) plane reduces by a factor of ≈ two, compared to using the power spectrum alone. For a flat Λ cold dark matter model, combining both statistics, we obtain the constraint σ8(Ωm/0.27)0.63 = 0.85+0.03-0.03.« less
A Novel Device for Total Acoustic Output Measurement of High Power Transducers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Howard, S.; Twomey, R.; Morris, H.; Zanelli, C. I.
2010-03-01
The objective of this work was to develop a device for ultrasound power measurement applicable over a broad range of medical transducer types, orientations and powers, and which supports automatic measurements to simplify use and minimize errors. Considering all the recommendations from standards such as IEC 61161, an accurate electromagnetic null-balance has been designed for ultrasound power measurements. The sensing element is placed in the water to eliminate errors due to surface tension and water evaporation, and the motion and detection of force is constrained to one axis, to increase immunity to vibration from the floor, water sloshing and water surface waves. A transparent tank was designed so it could easily be submerged in a larger tank to accommodate large transducers or side-firing geometries, and can also be turned upside-down for upward-firing transducers. A vacuum lid allows degassing the water and target in situ. An external control module was designed to operate the sensing/driving loop and to communicate to a local computer for data logging. The sensing algorithm, which incorporates temperature compensation, compares the feedback force needed to cancel the motion for sources in the "on" and "off" states. These two states can be controlled by the control unit or manually by the user, under guidance by a graphical user interface (the system presents measured power live during collection). Software allows calibration to standard weights, or to independently calibrated acoustic sources. The design accommodates a variety of targets, including cone, rubber, brush targets and an oil-filled target for power measurement via buoyancy changes. Measurement examples are presented, including HIFU sources operating at powers from 1 to 100.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McNelis, Mark E.; Staab, Lucas D.; Akers, James C.; Hughes, William O.; Chang, Li C.; Hozman, Aron D.; Henry, Michael W.
2012-01-01
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) has led the design and build of the new world-class vibroacoustic test capabilities at the NASA GRC's Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio, USA from 2007 to 2011. SAIC-Benham has completed construction of a new reverberant acoustic test facility to support the future testing needs of NASA's space exploration program and commercial customers. The large Reverberant Acoustic Test Facility (RATF) is approximately 101,000 cubic feet in volume and was designed to operate at a maximum empty chamber acoustic overall sound pressure level (OASPL) of 163 dB. This combination of size and acoustic power is unprecedented amongst the world s known active reverberant acoustic test facilities. Initial checkout acoustic testing was performed on March 2011 by SAIC-Benham at test levels up to 161 dB OASPL. During testing, several branches of the gaseous nitrogen (GN2) piping system, which supply the fluid to the noise generating acoustic modulators, failed at their T-junctions connecting the 12 in. supply line to their respective 4 in. branch lines. The problem was initially detected when the oxygen sensors in the horn room indicated a lower than expected oxygen level from which was inferred GN2 leaks in the piping system. In subsequent follow up inspections, cracks were identified in the failed T-junction connections through non-destructive evaluation testing. Through structural dynamic modeling of the piping system, the root cause of the T-junction connection failures was determined. The structural dynamic assessment identified several possible corrective design improvements to the horn room piping system. The effectiveness of the chosen design repairs were subsequently evaluated in September 2011 during acoustic verification testing to 161 dB OASPL.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McNelis, Mark E.; Staab, Lucas D.; Akers, James C.; Hughes, WIlliam O.; Chang, Li, C.; Hozman, Aron D.; Henry, Michael W.
2012-01-01
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) has led the design and build of the new world-class vibroacoustic test capabilities at the NASA GRC's Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio, USA from 2007-2011. SAIC-Benham has completed construction of a new reverberant acoustic test facility to support the future testing needs of NASA's space exploration program and commercial customers. The large Reverberant Acoustic Test Facility (RATF) is approximately 101,000 cu ft in volume and was designed to operate at a maximum empty chamber acoustic overall sound pressure level (OASPL) of 163 dB. This combination of size and acoustic power is unprecedented amongst the world's known active reverberant acoustic test facilities. Initial checkout acoustic testing was performed on March 2011 by SAIC-Benham at test levels up to 161 dB OASPL. During testing, several branches of the gaseous nitrogen (GN2) piping system, which supply the fluid to the noise generating acoustic modulators, failed at their "t-junctions" connecting the 12 inch supply line to their respective 4 inch branch lines. The problem was initially detected when the oxygen sensors in the horn room indicated a lower than expected oxygen level from which was inferred GN2 leaks in the piping system. In subsequent follow up inspections, cracks were identified in the failed "t-junction" connections through non-destructive evaluation testing . Through structural dynamic modeling of the piping system, the root cause of the "t-junction" connection failures was determined. The structural dynamic assessment identified several possible corrective design improvements to the horn room piping system. The effectiveness of the chosen design repairs were subsequently evaluated in September 2011 during acoustic verification testing to 161 dB OASPL.
The Trial Software version for DEMETER power spectrum files visualization and mapping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lozbin, Anatoliy; Inchin, Alexander; Shpadi, Maxim
2010-05-01
In the frame of Kazakhstan's Scientific Space System creation for earthquakes precursors research, the hardware and software of DEMETER satellite was investigated. The data processing Software of DEMETER is based on package SWAN under IDL Virtual machine and realizes many features, but we can't find an important tool for the spectrograms analysis - space-time visualization of power spectrum files from electromagnetic devices as ICE and IMSC. For elimination of this problem we have developed Software which is offered to use. The DeSS (DEMETER Spectrogram Software) - it is Software for visualization, analysis and a mapping of power spectrum data from electromagnetic devices ICE and IMSC. The Software primary goal is to give the researcher friendly tool for the analysis of electromagnetic data from DEMETER Satellite for earthquake precursors and other ionosphere events researches. The Input data for DeSS Software is a power spectrum files: - Power spectrum of 1 component of the electric field in the VLF range (APID 1132); - Power spectrum of 1 component of the electric field in the HF range (APID 1134); - Power spectrum of 1 component of the magnetic field in the VLF range (APID 1137). The main features and operations of the software is possible: - various time and frequency filtration; - visualization of time dependence of signal intensity on fixed frequency; - spectral density visualization for fixed frequency range; - spectrogram autosize and smooth spectrogram; - the information in each point of the spectrogram: time, frequency and intensity; - the spectrum information in the separate window, consisting of 4 blocks; - data mapping with 6 range scale. On the map we can browse next information: - satellite orbit; - conjugate point at the satellite altitude; - north conjugate point at the altitude 110 km; - south conjugate point at the altitude 110 km. This is only trial software version to help the researchers and we always ready collaborate with scientists for
The Power Spectrum of Ionic Nanopore Currents: The Role of Ion Correlations.
Zorkot, Mira; Golestanian, Ramin; Bonthuis, Douwe Jan
2016-04-13
We calculate the power spectrum of electric-field-driven ion transport through nanometer-scale membrane pores using both linearized mean-field theory and Langevin dynamics simulations. Remarkably, the linearized mean-field theory predicts a plateau in the power spectral density at low frequency ω, which is confirmed by the simulations at low ion concentration. At high ion concentration, however, the power spectral density follows a power law that is reminiscent of the 1/ω(α) dependence found experimentally at low frequency. On the basis of simulations with and without ion-ion interactions, we attribute the low-frequency power-law dependence to ion-ion correlations. We show that neither a static surface charge density, nor an increased pore length, nor an increased ion valency have a significant effect on the shape of the power spectral density at low frequency. PMID:26977905
Choi, Kwang-Ho; Cho, Seong Jin; Kang, Suk-Yun; Ahn, Seong Hun
2016-01-01
To identify physical and sensory responses to acupuncture point stimulation (APS), nonacupuncture point stimulation (NAPS) and no stimulation (NS), changes in the high-frequency power spectrum before and after stimulation were evaluated with electroencephalography (EEG). A total of 37 healthy subjects received APS at the LI4 point, NAPS, or NS with their eyes closed. Background brain waves were measured before, during, and after stimulation using 8 channels. Changes in the power spectra of gamma waves and high beta waves before, during, and after stimulation were comparatively analyzed. After NAPS, absolute high beta power (AHBP), relative high beta power (RHBP), absolute gamma power (AGP), and relative gamma power (RGP) tended to increase in all channels. But no consistent notable changes were found for APS and NS. NAPS is believed to cause temporary reactions to stress, tension, and sensory responses of the human body, while APS responds stably compared to stimulation of other parts of the body.
Cosmology with anisotropic galaxy clustering from the combination of power spectrum and bispectrum
Song, Yong-Seon; Taruya, Atsushi; Oka, Akira E-mail: ataruya@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp
2015-08-01
The apparent anisotropies of the galaxy clustering in observable redshift space provide a unique opportunity to simultaneously probe cosmic expansion and gravity on cosmological scales via the Alcock-Paczynski effect and redshift-space distortions. While the improved theoretical models have been proposed and developed to describe the apparent anisotropic clustering at weakly non-linear scales, the applicability of these models is still limited in the presence of the non-perturbative smearing effect caused by the randomness of the relative velocities. Although the cosmological constraint from the anisotropic clustering will be improved with a more elaborate theoretical model, here we consider an alternative approach using the statistical power of both the power spectrum and bispectrum at large scales. Based on the Fisher matrix analysis, we estimate the benefit of combining the power spectrum and bispectrum, finding that for the future spectroscopy survey DESI (Dark Energy Spectroscopy Instrument), the constraints on the cosmic expansion and growth of structure will be improved by a factor of two. This approach compensates for the loss of constraining power, using the power spectrum alone, due to the randomness of the relative velocities.
Sunyaev-Zel'dovich power spectrum with decaying cold dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, Keitaro; Oguri, Masamune; Ichiki, Kiyotomo
2004-07-01
Recent studies of the structures of galaxies and clusters imply that dark matter might be unstable and may decay with lifetime Γ-1, about the age of the Universe. We study the effects of the decay of cold dark matter on the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) power spectrum. We analytically calculate the SZ power spectrum taking the finite lifetime of cold dark matter into account. We find the finite lifetime of dark matter decreases the power at large scale (l < 4000) and increases the power at small scale (l > 4000). This is in marked contrast with the dependence of other cosmological parameters such as the amplitude of mass fluctuations σ8 and the cosmological constant Ωλ (under the assumption of a flat Universe) which mainly change the normalization of the angular power spectrum. This difference allows one to determine the lifetime and other cosmological parameters separately. We also investigate the sensitivity of future SZ surveys to the cosmological parameters including the lifetime, assuming a fiducial model Γ-1 = 10 h-1 Gyr, σ8 = 1.0 and Ωλ = 0.7. We show that future SZ surveys such as ACT, AMIBA and BOLOCAM can determine the lifetime within a factor of 2 even if σ8 and Ωλ are marginalized.
Wong, Yvonne Y Y
2008-10-15
We present the first systematic derivation of the one-loop correction to the large scale matter power spectrum in a mixed cold + hot dark matter cosmology with subdominant massive neutrino hot dark matter. Starting with the equations of motion for the density and velocity fields, we derive perturbative solutions to these quantities and construct recursion relations for the interaction kernels, noting and justifying all approximations along the way. We find interaction kernels similar to those for a cold dark matter only universe, but with additional dependences on the neutrino energy density fraction f{sub {nu}} and the linear growth functions of the incoming wavevectors. Compared with the f{sub {nu}} = 0 case, the one-loop corrected matter power spectrum for a mixed dark matter cosmology exhibits a decrease in small scale power exceeding the canonical {approx}8f{sub {nu}} suppression predicted by linear theory, a feature also seen in multi-component N-body simulations.
The ICM power spectrum: probing the gas physics of galaxy clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaspari, M.; Churazov, E.; Zhuravleva, I.; Lau, E.; Nagai, D.
2014-07-01
Exploring the power spectrum of fluctuations in the intracluster medium can deeply improve our knowledge of galaxy cluster physics, in analogy to what the cosmology field has experienced with CMB studies during the last decade. The normalization of the ICM spectrum (related to density, entropy, or pressure fluctuations) is linearly linked to the level of large-scale motions, which excite gravity and sound waves. The slope of the spectrum reflects instead the competition between the turbulence cascade and diffusive processes, which act to damp fluctuations and smooth the X-ray surface brightness images. Using high-resolution 3D plasma simulations in realistic galaxy clusters, we probe the behavior of the ICM power spectrum under different physics, such as turbulence and thermal conduction. We test our spectral modeling on deep X-ray observations of Coma cluster, retrieving mild subsonic turbulence and strongly suppressed conduction. Being able to probe the (astro)physics of the diffuse medium or, for instance, to easily retrieve the gas motions from the thermodynamic fluctuations, is a powerful tool with profound implications for the evolution of baryons in the universe, which can be exploited by the current (XMM-Newton, Chandra) and future (e.g. Astro-H, Athena+) generation of X-ray telescopes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kybartas, Darius; Rodriguez, Alberto; Svilainis, Linas; Chaziachmetovas, Andrius
Replacement of a single ultrasonic pulse to the spread spectrum signals allows higher energy without losing the bandwidth and it also means higher requirements for energy delivery to test object. Pulser efficiency for single pulse is not essential comparing to high energy signals. Pulser stress is large if power delivery efficiency to transducer is low. In narrowband case the solution is to use the matching network, but matching circuit effect will be different in case of wideband excitation. Aim of the investigation was to evaluate the matching techniques for spread spectrum signals.
JPL 2-to-the-20th-power channel 300 MHz bandwidth digital spectrum analyzer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morris, G. A., Jr.; Wilck, H. C.
1978-01-01
A million (two to the 20th power) channel, 300 MHz bandwidth, digital spectrum analyzer was considered. The design, fabrication, and maintenance philosophy of the modular, pipelined, fast fourier transform (FFT) hardware are described. The spectrum analyzer will be used to examine the region from 1.4 GHz to 26 GHz for radio frequency interference which may be harmful to present and future tracking missions of the Deep Space Network. The design has application to the search for extraterrestrial intelligence signals and radio science phenomena.
Solar cycle variations in the powers and damping rates of low-degree solar acoustic oscillations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Broomhall, A.-M.; Pugh, C. E.; Nakariakov, V. M.
2015-12-01
Helioseismology uses the Sun's natural resonant oscillations to study the solar interior. The properties of the solar oscillations are sensitive to the Sun'2019;s magnetic activity cycle. Here we examine variations in the powers, damping rates, and energy supply rates of the most prominent acoustic oscillations in unresolved, Sun-as-a-star data, obtained by the Birmingham Solar Oscillations Network (BiSON) during solar cycles 22, 23, and the first half of 24. The variations in the helioseismic parameters are compared to the 10.7 cm flux, a well-known global proxy of solar activity. As expected the oscillations are most heavily damped and the mode powers are at a minimum at solar activity maximum. The 10.7 cm flux was linearly regressed using the fractional variations of damping rates and powers observed during cycle 23. In general, good agreement is found between the damping rates and the 10.7 cm flux. However, the linearly regressed 10.7 cm flux and fractional variation in powers diverge in cycles 22 and 24, indicating that the relationship between the mode powers and the 10.7 cm flux is not consistent from one cycle to the next. The energy supply rate of the oscillations, which is usually approximately constant, also decreases at this time. We have determined that this discrepancy is not because of the first-order bias introduced by an increase in the level of background noise or gaps in the data. Although we cannot categorically rule out an instrumental origin, the divergence observed in cycle 24, when the data were of high quality and the data coverage was over 80%, raises the possibility that the effect may be solar in origin.
What is the optimal way to measure the galaxy power spectrum?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Robert E.; Marian, Laura
2016-04-01
Measurements of the galaxy power spectrum contain a wealth of cosmological information. In Smith & Marian, we generalized the power spectrum methodology of Feldman et al. to take into account the key tenets of galaxy formation: galaxies form and reside exclusively in dark matter haloes; a given dark matter halo may host galaxies of various luminosities; galaxies inherit the large-scale bias of their host halo. In this paradigm, we derived the optimal weighting scheme for maximizing the signal-to-noise ({S}/{N}) on a given band power estimate. For a future all-sky flux-limited galaxy redshift survey of depth bJ > 22, we demonstrate that the optimal weighting scheme does indeed provide improved {S}/{N} at the level of ˜20 per cent when compared to Feldman et al. and ˜60 per cent relative to Percival et al., for scales of the order of k ˜ 0.5 h Mpc-1. Using a Fisher matrix approach, we show the cosmological information yield is also increased relative to these alternate methods - especially the primordial power spectrum amplitude and dark energy equation of state. Caveats: uncertainties in cluster masses, non-linear halo bias and redshift distortions may reduce information gains.
Effective field theory during inflation. II. Stochastic dynamics and power spectrum suppression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boyanovsky, D.
2016-02-01
We obtain the nonequilibrium effective action of an inflatonlike scalar field—the system—by tracing over sub-Hubble degrees of freedom of "environmental" light scalar fields. The effective action is stochastic leading to effective Langevin equations of motion for the fluctuations of the inflatonlike field, with self-energy corrections and stochastic noise correlators that obey a de Sitter space-time analog of a fluctuation dissipation relation. We solve the Langevin equation implementing a dynamical renormalization group resummation of the leading secular terms and obtain the corrections to the power spectrum of super-Hubble fluctuations of the inflaton field, P (k ;η )=P0(k )e-γ (k ;η ) where P0(k ) is the nearly scale invariant power spectrum in absence of coupling. γ (k ;η )>0 describes the suppression of the power spectrum; it features Sudakov-type double logarithms and entails violations of scale invariance. We also obtain the effective action for the case of a heavy scalar field of mass M ≫H ; this case yields a local "Fermi" limit with a very weak self-interaction of the inflatonlike field and dissipative terms that are suppressed by powers of H /M . We conjecture on the possibility that the large scale anomalies in the cosmic microwave background may originate in dissipative processes from inflaton coupling to sub-Hubble degrees of freedom.
Chiang, Lung-Yih; Chen, Fei-Fan
2011-09-10
The cross-power spectrum is a quadratic estimator between two maps that can provide unbiased estimate of the underlying power spectrum of the correlated signals, which is therefore used for extracting the power spectrum in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data. In this paper, we discuss the limit of the cross-power spectrum and derive the residual from the uncorrelated signal, which is the source of error in power spectrum extraction. We employ the estimator to extract window functions by crossing pairs of extragalactic point sources. We demonstrate its usefulness in WMAP difference assembly maps where the window functions are measured via Jupiter and then extract the window functions of the five WMAP frequency band maps.
First limits on the 21 cm power spectrum during the Epoch of X-ray heating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ewall-Wice, A.; Dillon, Joshua S.; Hewitt, J. N.; Loeb, A.; Mesinger, A.; Neben, A. R.; Offringa, A. R.; Tegmark, M.; Barry, N.; Beardsley, A. P.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, Judd D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Carroll, P.; Corey, B. E.; de Oliveira-Costa, A.; Emrich, D.; Feng, L.; Gaensler, B. M.; Goeke, R.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hazelton, B. J.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Jacobs, Daniel C.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Kim, HS; Kratzenberg, E.; Lenc, E.; Line, J.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Lynch, M. J.; McKinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Oberoi, D.; Ord, S. M.; Paul, S.; Pindor, B.; Pober, J. C.; Prabu, T.; Procopio, P.; Riding, J.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Roshi, A.; Shankar, N. Udaya; Sethi, Shiv K.; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Sullivan, I. S.; Tingay, S. J.; Trott, C. M.; Waterson, M.; Wayth, R. B.; Webster, R. L.; Whitney, A. R.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.; Wu, C.; Wyithe, J. S. B.
2016-08-01
We present first results from radio observations with the Murchison Widefield Array seeking to constrain the power spectrum of 21 cm brightness temperature fluctuations between the redshifts of 11.6 and 17.9 (113 and 75 MHz). 3 h of observations were conducted over two nights with significantly different levels of ionospheric activity. We use these data to assess the impact of systematic errors at low frequency, including the ionosphere and radio-frequency interference, on a power spectrum measurement. We find that after the 1-3 h of integration presented here, our measurements at the Murchison Radio Observatory are not limited by RFI, even within the FM band, and that the ionosphere does not appear to affect the level of power in the modes that we expect to be sensitive to cosmology. Power spectrum detections, inconsistent with noise, due to fine spectral structure imprinted on the foregrounds by reflections in the signal-chain, occupy the spatial Fourier modes where we would otherwise be most sensitive to the cosmological signal. We are able to reduce this contamination using calibration solutions derived from autocorrelations so that we achieve an sensitivity of 104 mK on comoving scales k ≲ 0.5 h Mpc-1. This represents the first upper limits on the 21 cm power spectrum fluctuations at redshifts 12 ≲ z ≲ 18 but is still limited by calibration systematics. While calibration improvements may allow us to further remove this contamination, our results emphasize that future experiments should consider carefully the existence of and their ability to calibrate out any spectral structure within the EoR window.
Fiber laser strain sensor based in the measurement of a Sagnac interferometer optical power spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Durán Sánchez, M.; Álvarez Tamayo, R. I.; Pottiez, O.; Kuzin, E. A.; Ibarra-Escamilla, B.; Barcelata Pinzón, A.
2014-06-01
In this paper a linear cavity Erbium doped fiber (EDF) laser based in a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and a fiber optical loop mirror with a high birefringence fiber in the loop (Hi-Bi FOLM) is used as a strain sensor. The Fabry-Perot cavity is formed by the FBG and the Hi-Bi FOLM, used as a measurement system of strain variations produced on the FBG, used as a strain sensor device. Usually, fiber laser sensor experimental setups determine the measured variable magnitude by using of an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA). Hi-Bi FOLM transmission spectrum wavelength displacement by fiber loop temperature variations measurement can be an attractive application exploiting the characteristics of FOLM transmission spectrum behavior due to Hi-Bi fiber loop temperature variations to determine the FBG strain applied through the maximal optical power monitoring by simple use of a photodetector and a temperature meter.
Studies of acoustic-electric feed-throughs for power transmission through structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sherrit, Stewart; Doty, Benjamin; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Aldrich, Jack; Chang, Zensheu
2006-01-01
There are numerous engineering design problems where the use of wires to transfer power and communicate data thru the walls of a structure is prohibitive or significantly difficult that it may require a complex design. Using physical feedthroughs in such systems may make them susceptible to leakage of chemicals or gasses, loss of pressure or vacuum, as well as difficulties in providing adequate thermal or electrical insulation. Moreover, feeding wires thru a wall of a structure reduces the strength of the structure and makes the structure prone to cracking due to fatigue that can result from cyclic loading and stress concentrations. One area that has already been identified to require a wireless alternative to electrical feedthroughs is the container of the Mars Sample Return Mission, which will need wireless sensors to sense a pressure leak and to avoid potential contamination. The idea of using elastic or acoustic waves to transfer power was suggested recently by [Y. Hu, et al., July 2003]. This system allows for the avoidance of cabling or wiring. The technology is applicable to the transfer of power for actuation, sensing and other tasks inside any sealed container or vacuum/pressure vessel. An alternative approach to the modeling presented previously [Sherrit et a., 2005] used network analysis to solve the same problem in a clear and expandable manner. Experimental tests on three different designs of these devices were performed. The three designs used different methods of coupling the piezoelectric element to the wall. In the first test the piezoelectric material was bolted using a backing structure. In the second test the piezoelectric was clamped after the application of grease and finally the piezoelectric element was attached using a conductive epoxy. The mechanical clamp with grease produced the highest measured efficiency of 53% however this design was the least practical from a fabrication viewpoint. The power transfer efficiency of conductive epoxy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keustermans, William; Pires, Felipe; De Greef, Daniël; Vanlanduit, Steve J. A.; Dirckx, Joris J. J.
2016-06-01
Despite the importance of the eardrum and the ossicles in the hearing chain, it remains an open question how acoustical energy is transmitted between them. Identifying the transmission path at different frequencies could lead to valuable information for the domain of middle ear surgery. In this work a setup for stroboscopic holography is combined with an algorithm for power flow calculations. With our method we were able to accurately locate the power sources and sinks in a membrane. The setup enabled us to make amplitude maps of the out-of-plane displacement of a vibrating rubber membrane at subsequent instances of time within the vibration period. From these, the amplitude maps of the moments of force and velocities are calculated. The magnitude and phase maps are extracted from this amplitude data, and form the input for the power flow calculations. We present the algorithm used for the measurements and for the power flow calculations. Finite element models of a circular plate with a local energy source and sink allowed us to test and optimize this algorithm in a controlled way and without the present of noise, but will not be discussed below. At the setup an earphone was connected with a thin tube which was placed very close to the membrane so that sound impinges locally on the membrane, hereby acting as a local energy source. The energy sink was a little piece of foam carefully placed against the membrane. The laser pulses are fired at selected instants within the vibration period using a 30 mW HeNe continuous wave laser (red light, 632.8 nm) in combination with an acousto-optic modulator. A function generator controls the phase of these illumination pulses and the holograms are recorded using a CCD camera. We present the magnitude and phase maps as well as the power flow measurements on the rubber membrane. Calculation of the divergence of this power flow map provides a simple and fast way of identifying and locating an energy source or sink. In conclusion
Sánchez, Antonio; Blanc, Sara; Yuste, Pedro; Perles, Angel; Serrano, Juan José
2012-01-01
This paper is focused on the description of the physical layer of a new acoustic modem called ITACA. The modem architecture includes as a major novelty an ultra-low power asynchronous wake-up system implementation for underwater acoustic transmission that is based on a low-cost off-the-shelf RFID peripheral integrated circuit. This feature enables a reduced power dissipation of 10 μW in stand-by mode and registers very low power values during reception and transmission. The modem also incorporates clear channel assessment (CCA) to support CSMA-based medium access control (MAC) layer protocols. The design is part of a compact platform for a long-life short/medium range underwater wireless sensor network.
Sánchez, Antonio; Blanc, Sara; Yuste, Pedro; Perles, Angel; Serrano, Juan José
2012-01-01
This paper is focused on the description of the physical layer of a new acoustic modem called ITACA. The modem architecture includes as a major novelty an ultra-low power asynchronous wake-up system implementation for underwater acoustic transmission that is based on a low-cost off-the-shelf RFID peripheral integrated circuit. This feature enables a reduced power dissipation of 10 μW in stand-by mode and registers very low power values during reception and transmission. The modem also incorporates clear channel assessment (CCA) to support CSMA-based medium access control (MAC) layer protocols. The design is part of a compact platform for a long-life short/medium range underwater wireless sensor network. PMID:22969324
Analyses of DNA Base Sequences for Eukaryotes in Terms of Power Spectrum Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isohata, Yasuhiko; Hayashi, Masaki
2005-02-01
By adopting a power spectrum method we have analyzed long-range correlations in the gene base sequences, exons and introns for five or six eukaryote species. As a measure of the long-range correlations, we have used an exponent α in 1/fα, which is an approximation of a power spectrum in a low-frequency region. We have analyzed frequency distributions of α and the dependence of its average values <α> on the sequence length for the five or six species, paying particular attention to the species dependence. We have shown that long-range correlations have been formed mainly due to the intron's elongation as well as by the sequence structures of introns acquired over the course of evolution.
Imprint of inhomogeneous and anisotropic primordial power spectrum on CMB polarization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kothari, Rahul; Ghosh, Shamik; Rath, Pranati K.; Kashyap, Gopal; Jain, Pankaj
2016-08-01
We consider an inhomogeneous model and independently an anisotropic model of primordial power spectrum in order to describe the observed hemispherical anisotropy in cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR). This anisotropy can be parametrized in terms of the dipole modulation model of the temperature field. Both the models lead to correlations between spherical harmonic coefficients corresponding to multipoles, l and l ± 1. We obtain the model parameters by making a fit to TT correlations in CMBR data. Using these parameters we predict the signature of our models for correlations among different multipoles for the case of the TE and EE modes. These predictions can be used to test whether the observed hemispherical anisotropy can be correctly described in terms of a primordial power spectrum. Furthermore these may also allow us to distinguish between an inhomogeneous and an anisotropic model.
Reconstruction of a nonminimal coupling theory with scale-invariant power spectrum
Qiu, Taotao
2012-06-01
A nonminimal coupling single scalar field theory, when transformed from Jordan frame to Einstein frame, can act like a minimal coupling one. Making use of this property, we investigate how a nonminimal coupling theory with scale-invariant power spectrum could be reconstructed from its minimal coupling counterpart, which can be applied in the early universe. Thanks to the coupling to gravity, the equation of state of our universe for a scale-invariant power spectrum can be relaxed, and the relation between the parameters in the action can be obtained. This approach also provides a means to address the Big-Bang puzzles and anisotropy problem in the nonminimal coupling model within Jordan frame. Due to the equivalence between the two frames, one may be able to find models that are free of the horizon, flatness, singularity as well as anisotropy problems.
The Coyote Universe. I. Precision Determination of the Nonlinear Matter Power Spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heitmann, Katrin; White, Martin; Wagner, Christian; Habib, Salman; Higdon, David
2010-05-01
Near-future cosmological observations targeted at investigations of dark energy pose stringent requirements on the accuracy of theoretical predictions for the nonlinear clustering of matter. Currently, N-body simulations comprise the only viable approach to this problem. In this paper, we study various sources of computational error and methods to control them. By applying our methodology to a large suite of cosmological simulations we show that results for the (gravity-only) nonlinear matter power spectrum can be obtained at 1% accuracy out to k ~ 1 h Mpc-1. The key components of these high accuracy simulations are precise initial conditions, very large simulation volumes, sufficient mass resolution, and accurate time stepping. This paper is the first in a series of three; the final aim is a high-accuracy prediction scheme for the nonlinear matter power spectrum that improves current fitting formulae by an order of magnitude.
CosmicEmu: Cosmic Emulator for the Dark Matter Power Spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lawrence, Earl; Heitmann, Katrin; White, Martin; Higdon, David; Wagner, Christian; Habib, Salman; Williams, Brian
2010-10-01
Many of the most exciting questions in astrophysics and cosmology, including the majority of observational probes of dark energy, rely on an understanding of the nonlinear regime of structure formation. In order to fully exploit the information available from this regime and to extract cosmological constraints, accurate theoretical predictions are needed. Currently such predictions can only be obtained from costly, precision numerical simulations. The "Coyote Universe'' simulation suite comprises nearly 1,000 N-body simulations at different force and mass resolutions, spanning 38 wCDM cosmologies. This large simulation suite enabled construct of a prediction scheme, or emulator, for the nonlinear matter power spectrum accurate at the percent level out to k~1 h/Mpc. This is the first cosmic emulator for the dark matter power spectrum.
THE COYOTE UNIVERSE. I. PRECISION DETERMINATION OF THE NONLINEAR MATTER POWER SPECTRUM
Heitmann, Katrin; White, Martin; Wagner, Christian; Habib, Salman; Higdon, David
2010-05-20
Near-future cosmological observations targeted at investigations of dark energy pose stringent requirements on the accuracy of theoretical predictions for the nonlinear clustering of matter. Currently, N-body simulations comprise the only viable approach to this problem. In this paper, we study various sources of computational error and methods to control them. By applying our methodology to a large suite of cosmological simulations we show that results for the (gravity-only) nonlinear matter power spectrum can be obtained at 1% accuracy out to k {approx} 1 h Mpc{sup -1}. The key components of these high accuracy simulations are precise initial conditions, very large simulation volumes, sufficient mass resolution, and accurate time stepping. This paper is the first in a series of three; the final aim is a high-accuracy prediction scheme for the nonlinear matter power spectrum that improves current fitting formulae by an order of magnitude.
Revisiting a pre-inflationary radiation era and its effect on the CMB power spectrum
Das, Suratna; Goswami, Gaurav; Rangarajan, Raghavan; Prasad, Jayanti E-mail: gaugo@prl.res.in E-mail: raghavan@prl.res.in
2015-06-01
We revisit the scenario where inflation is preceded by a radiation era by considering that the inflaton too could have been in thermal equilibrium early in the radiation era. Hence we take into account not only the effect of a pre-inflationary era on the inflaton mode functions but also that of a frozen thermal distribution of inflaton quanta. We initially discuss in detail the issues relevant to our scenario of a pre-inflationary radiation dominated era and then obtain the scalar power spectrum for this scenario. We find that the power spectrum is free from infrared divergences. We then use the WMAP and Planck data to determine the constraints on the inflaton comoving 'temperature' and on the duration of inflation. We find that the best fit value of the duration of inflation is less than 1 e-folding more than what is required to solve cosmological problems, while only an upper bound on the inflaton temperature can be obtained.
EFFECTS OF THE NEUTRINO MASS SPLITTING ON THE NONLINEAR MATTER POWER SPECTRUM
Wagner, Christian; Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul
2012-06-20
We have performed cosmological N-body simulations which include the effect of the masses of the individual neutrino species. The simulations were aimed at studying the effect of different neutrino hierarchies on the matter power spectrum. Compared to the linear theory predictions, we find that nonlinearities enhance the effect of hierarchy on the matter power spectrum at mildly nonlinear scales. The maximum difference between the different hierarchies is about 0.5% for a sum of neutrino masses of 0.1 eV. Albeit this is a small effect, it is potentially measurable from upcoming surveys. In combination with neutrinoless double-{beta} decay experiments, this opens up the possibility of using the sky to determine if neutrinos are Majorana or Dirac fermions.
Power-Law Entanglement Spectrum in Many-Body Localized Phases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Serbyn, Maksym; Michailidis, Alexios A.; Abanin, Dmitry A.; Papić, Z.
2016-10-01
The entanglement spectrum of the reduced density matrix contains information beyond the von Neumann entropy and provides unique insights into exotic orders or critical behavior of quantum systems. Here, we show that strongly disordered systems in the many-body localized phase have power-law entanglement spectra, arising from the presence of extensively many local integrals of motion. The power-law entanglement spectrum distinguishes many-body localized systems from ergodic systems, as well as from ground states of gapped integrable models or free systems in the vicinity of scale-invariant critical points. We confirm our results using large-scale exact diagonalization. In addition, we develop a matrix-product state algorithm which allows us to access the eigenstates of large systems close to the localization transition, and discuss general implications of our results for variational studies of highly excited eigenstates in many-body localized systems.
Comparison of Two Methods of Noise Power Spectrum Determinations of Medical Radiography Systems
Hassan, Wan Muhamad Saridan Wan; Ahmed Darwish, Zeki
2011-03-30
Noise in medical images is recognized as an important factor that determines the image quality. Image noise is characterized by noise power spectrum (NPS). We compared two methods of NPS determination namely the methods of Wagner and Dobbins on Lanex Regular TMG screen-film system and Hologic Lorad Selenia full field digital mammography system, with the aim of choosing the better method to use. The methods differ in terms of various parametric choices and algorithm implementations. These parameters include the low pass filtering, low frequency filtering, windowing, smoothing, aperture correction, overlapping of region of interest (ROI), length of fast Fourier transform, ROI size, method of ROI normalization, and slice selection of the NPS. Overall, the two methods agreed to the practical value of noise power spectrum between 10{sup -3}-10{sup -6} mm{sup 2} over spatial frequency range 0-10 mm{sup -1}.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woo, R.; Armstrong, J. W.
1979-01-01
Solar wind electron density power spectra in the solar equatorial region are inferred from observations of phase scintillations and spectral broadening made with the Viking, Helios, and Pioneer spacecraft. The heliocentric distance range covered is 2-215 solar radii and for some observations close to the sun the spectra extend to fluctuation frequencies as high as 100 Hz. For heliocentric distances of about 20 solar radii the equivalent spacecraft-measured one-dimensional density spectrum is well modeled by a single power law in the frequency range 0.0001-0.05 Hz. The flattening of the density spectrum within 20 solar radii is presumably associated with energy deposition in the near-sun region and acceleration of the solar wind.
Alvarez-Estrada, R. F.; Pastor, I.; Guasp, J.; Castejon, F.
2012-06-15
The classical nonlinear incoherent Thomson scattering power spectrum from a single relativistic electron with incoming laser radiation of any intensity, investigated numerically by the present authors in a previous publication, displayed both an approximate quadratic behavior in frequency and a redshift of the power spectrum for high intensity incoming radiation. The present work is devoted to justify, in a more general setup, those numerical findings. Those justifications are reinforced by extending suitably analytical approaches, as developed by other authors. Moreover, our analytical treatment exhibits differences between the Doppler-like frequencies for linear and circular polarization of the incoming radiation. Those differences depend nonlinearly on the laser intensity and on the electron initial velocity and do not appear to have been displayed by previous authors. Those Doppler-like frequencies and their differences are validated by new Monte Carlo computations beyond our previuos ones and reported here.
Das, Sudeep; Sherwin, Blake D; Aguirre, Paula; Appel, John W; Bond, J Richard; Carvalho, C Sofia; Devlin, Mark J; Dunkley, Joanna; Dünner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joseph W; Hajian, Amir; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hincks, Adam D; Hlozek, Renée; Huffenberger, Kevin M; Hughes, John P; Irwin, Kent D; Klein, Jeff; Kosowsky, Arthur; Lupton, Robert H; Marriage, Tobias A; Marsden, Danica; Menanteau, Felipe; Moodley, Kavilan; Niemack, Michael D; Nolta, Michael R; Page, Lyman A; Parker, Lucas; Reese, Erik D; Schmitt, Benjamin L; Sehgal, Neelima; Sievers, Jon; Spergel, David N; Staggs, Suzanne T; Swetz, Daniel S; Switzer, Eric R; Thornton, Robert; Visnjic, Katerina; Wollack, Ed
2011-07-01
We report the first detection of the gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background through a measurement of the four-point correlation function in the temperature maps made by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. We verify our detection by calculating the levels of potential contaminants and performing a number of null tests. The resulting convergence power spectrum at 2° angular scales measures the amplitude of matter density fluctuations on comoving length scales of around 100 Mpc at redshifts around 0.5 to 3. The measured amplitude of the signal agrees with Lambda cold dark matter cosmology predictions. Since the amplitude of the convergence power spectrum scales as the square of the amplitude of the density fluctuations, the 4σ detection of the lensing signal measures the amplitude of density fluctuations to 12%.
A perturbative approach to the redshift space power spectrum: beyond the Standard Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bose, Benjamin; Koyama, Kazuya
2016-08-01
We develop a code to produce the power spectrum in redshift space based on standard perturbation theory (SPT) at 1-loop order. The code can be applied to a wide range of modified gravity and dark energy models using a recently proposed numerical method by A.Taruya to find the SPT kernels. This includes Horndeski's theory with a general potential, which accommodates both chameleon and Vainshtein screening mechanisms and provides a non-linear extension of the effective theory of dark energy up to the third order. Focus is on a recent non-linear model of the redshift space power spectrum which has been shown to model the anisotropy very well at relevant scales for the SPT framework, as well as capturing relevant non-linear effects typical of modified gravity theories. We provide consistency checks of the code against established results and elucidate its application within the light of upcoming high precision RSD data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lacot, Eric; Houchmandzadeh, Bahram; Girardeau, Vadim; Hugon, Olivier; Jacquin, Olivier
2016-09-01
In this article, we study the nonlinear coupling between the stationary (i.e., the beating modulation signal) and transient (i.e., the laser quantum noise) dynamics of a laser subjected to frequency-shifted optical feedback. We show how the noise power spectrum and more specifically the relaxation oscillation frequency of the laser are modified under different optical feedback conditions. Specifically we study the influence of (i) the amount of light returning to the laser cavity and (ii) the initial detuning between the frequency shift and intrinsic relaxation frequency. The present work shows how the relaxation frequency is related to the strength of the beating signal, and the shape of the noise power spectrum gives an image of the transfer modulation function (i.e., of the amplification gain) of the nonlinear-laser dynamics. The theoretical predictions, confirmed by numerical resolutions, are in good agreement with the experimental data.
Noise-induced synchronization in a system with a 1 / f power spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koverda, V. P.; Skokov, V. N.
2016-06-01
A spatially distributed system with 1/ f fluctuations at coupled nonequilibrium phase transitions have been simulated by two nonlinear stochastic equations. It is shown numerically that at sufficiently high intensity of white noise in the system there arises noise-induced synchronization, which is a nonequilibrium phase transition. To the critical point of the nonequilibrium phase transition corresponds the 1/ f power spectrum and the maximum of informational entropy.
Cui Weiguang; Zhang Pengjie; Yang Xiaohu
2010-05-15
A large fraction of cosmological information on dark energy and gravity is encoded in the nonlinear regime. Precision cosmology thus requires precision modeling of nonlinearities in general dark energy and modified gravity models. We modify the Gadget-2 code and run a series of N-body simulations on modified gravity cosmology to study the nonlinearities. The modified gravity model that we investigate in the present paper is characterized by a single parameter {zeta}, which determines the enhancement of particle acceleration with respect to general relativity (GR), given the identical mass distribution ({zeta}=1 in GR). The first nonlinear statistics we investigate is the nonlinear matter power spectrum at k < or approx. 3h/Mpc, which is the relevant range for robust weak lensing power spectrum modeling at l < or approx. 2000. In this study, we focus on the relative difference in the nonlinear power spectra at corresponding redshifts where different gravity models have the same linear power spectra. This particular statistics highlights the imprint of modified gravity in the nonlinear regime and the importance of including the nonlinear regime in testing GR. By design, it is less susceptible to the sample variance and numerical artifacts. We adopt a mass assignment method based on wavelet to improve the power spectrum measurement. We run a series of tests to determine the suitable simulation specifications (particle number, box size, and initial redshift). We find that, the nonlinear power spectra can differ by {approx}30% for 10% deviation from GR (|{zeta}-1|=0.1) where the rms density fluctuations reach 10. This large difference, on one hand, shows the richness of information on gravity in the corresponding scales, and on the other hand, invalidates simple extrapolations of some existing fitting formulae to modified gravity cosmology.
The thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect power spectrum in light of Planck
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCarthy, I. G.; Le Brun, A. M. C.; Schaye, J.; Holder, G. P.
2014-06-01
The amplitude of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (tSZ) power spectrum is extremely sensitive to the abundance of the most massive dark matter haloes (galaxy clusters) and therefore to fundamental cosmological parameters that control their growth, such as σ8 and Ωm. Here we explore the sensitivity of the tSZ power spectrum to important non-gravitational (`subgrid') physics by employing the cosmo-OWLS suite of large-volume cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, run in both the Planck and 7-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP7) best-fitting cosmologies. On intermediate and small angular scales (ℓ ≳ 1000, or θ≲10 arcmin), accessible with the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), the predicted tSZ power spectrum is highly model dependent, with gas ejection due to active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback having a particularly large effect. However, at large scales, observable with the Planck telescope, the effects of subgrid physics are minor. Comparing the simulated tSZ power spectra with observations, we find a significant amplitude offset on all measured angular scales (including large scales), if the Planck best-fitting cosmology is assumed by the simulations. This is shown to be a generic result for all current models of the tSZ power spectrum. By contrast, if the WMAP7 cosmology is adopted, there is full consistency with the Planck tSZ power spectrum measurements on large scales and agreement at the 2σ level with the SPT and ACT measurements at intermediate scales for our fiducial AGN model, which Le Brun et al. have shown reproduces the `resolved' properties of the Local Group and cluster population remarkably well. These findings strongly suggest that there are significantly fewer massive galaxy clusters than expected for the Planck best-fitting cosmology, which is consistent with recent measurements of the tSZ number counts. Our findings therefore pose a significant challenge to the cosmological
No evidence for the blue-tilted power spectrum of relic gravitational waves
Huang, Qing-Guo; Wang, Sai E-mail: wangsai@itp.ac.cn
2015-06-01
In this paper, we constrain the tilt of the power spectrum of relic gravitational waves by combining the data from BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck (BKP) and the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Waves Observatory (LIGO). Supposing the linearly uniform priors for both the tensor-to-scalar ratio r and the tensor tilt n{sub t}, we find n{sub t}=0.66{sup +1.83}{sub −1.44} at the 68% confidence level from the data of BKP B-modes. By further adding the LIGO upper limit on the intensity of stochastic gravitational-wave background, the constraint becomes n{sub t}=−0.76{sup +1.37}{sub −0.52} at the 68% confidence level by assuming that the tensor amplitude has the similar order of the upper bounds from current CMB experiments. We find that there is no evidence for a blue-tilted power spectrum of relic gravitational waves and either sign of the index of tensor power spectrum is compatible with the current data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lawrence, Earl; Heitmann, Katrin; White, Martin; Higdon, David; Wagner, Christian; Habib, Salman; Williams, Brian
2010-04-01
Many of the most exciting questions in astrophysics and cosmology, including the majority of observational probes of dark energy, rely on an understanding of the nonlinear regime of structure formation. In order to fully exploit the information available from this regime and to extract cosmological constraints, accurate theoretical predictions are needed. Currently, such predictions can only be obtained from costly, precision numerical simulations. This paper is the third in a series aimed at constructing an accurate calibration of the nonlinear mass power spectrum on Mpc scales for a wide range of currently viable cosmological models, including dark energy models with w ≠ -1. The first two papers addressed the numerical challenges and the scheme by which an interpolator was built from a carefully chosen set of cosmological models. In this paper, we introduce the "Coyote Universe" simulation suite which comprises nearly 1000 N-body simulations at different force and mass resolutions, spanning 38 w CDM cosmologies. This large simulation suite enables us to construct a prediction scheme, or emulator, for the nonlinear matter power spectrum accurate at the percent level out to k ~= 1 h Mpc-1. We describe the construction of the emulator, explain the tests performed to ensure its accuracy, and discuss how the central ideas may be extended to a wider range of cosmological models and applications. A power spectrum emulator code is released publicly as part of this paper.
Heitmann, Katrin; White, Martin; Higdon, David; Wagner, Christian; Lawrence, Earl; Habib, Salman; Williams, Brian
2009-01-01
Ongoing and future large scale structure surveys targeted at the investigation of dark energy will enter the nonlinear regime of structure formation. In order to fully exploit the newly available information from this regime and to extract cosmological constraints. very accurate theoretical predictions are needed. Such predictions can currently only be obtained from costly precision N-body simulations. We have recently shown that it is possible to obtain predictions for the nonlinear matter power spectrum at the level of one-percent accuracy and that we can build a precise prediction scheme for the nonlinear power spectrum from a small set of cosmological models. In this paper we introduce the 'Coyote Universe' simulation suite which comprises more than 800 N-body simulations at different force and mass resolutions, spanning 38 wCDM cosmologies. This large simulation suite enables us to construct a prediction scheme for the nonlinear matter power spectrum accurate at the 1% level out to k {approx_equal} 1 hMpc{sup -1}.
Constraining high-redshift X-ray sources with next generation 21-cm power spectrum measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ewall-Wice, Aaron; Hewitt, Jacqueline; Mesinger, Andrei; Dillon, Joshua S.; Liu, Adrian; Pober, Jonathan
2016-05-01
We use the Fisher matrix formalism and seminumerical simulations to derive quantitative predictions of the constraints that power spectrum measurements on next-generation interferometers, such as the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) and the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), will place on the characteristics of the X-ray sources that heated the high-redshift intergalactic medium. Incorporating observations between z = 5 and 25, we find that the proposed 331 element HERA and SKA phase 1 will be capable of placing ≲ 10 per cent constraints on the spectral properties of these first X-ray sources, even if one is unable to perform measurements within the foreground contaminated `wedge' or the FM band. When accounting for the enhancement in power spectrum amplitude from spin temperature fluctuations, we find that the observable signatures of reionization extend well beyond the peak in the power spectrum usually associated with it. We also find that lower redshift degeneracies between the signatures of heating and reionization physics lead to errors on reionization parameters that are significantly greater than previously predicted. Observations over the heating epoch are able to break these degeneracies and improve our constraints considerably. For these two reasons, 21-cm observations during the heating epoch significantly enhance our understanding of reionization as well.
Spherical collapse, formation hysteresis and the deeply non-linear cosmological power spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mead, A. J.
2016-09-01
I examine differences in non-linear structure formation between cosmological models that share a z = 0 linear power spectrum in both shape and amplitude, but that differ via their growth history. N-body simulations of these models display an approximately identical large-scale-structure skeleton, but reveal deeply non-linear differences in the demographics and properties of haloes. I investigate to what extent the spherical-collapse model can help in understanding these differences, in both real and redshift space. I discuss how this is difficult to do if one attempts to identify haloes directly, because in that case one is subject to the vagaries of halo finding algorithms. However, I demonstrate that the halo model of structure formation provides an accurate non-linear response in the power spectrum, but only if results from spherical collapse that include formation hysteresis are properly incorporated. I comment on how this fact can be used to provide per cent level accurate matter power spectrum predictions for dark energy models for k ≤ 5 hMpc-1 by using the halo model as a correction to accurate ΛCDM simulations. In the appendix I provide some fitting functions for the linear-collapse threshold (δc) and virialized overdensity (Δv) that are valid for a wide range of dark energy models. I also make my spherical-collapse code available at https://github.com/alexander-mead/collapse.
Nonlinear evolution of the matter power spectrum in modified theories of gravity
Koyama, Kazuya; Taruya, Atsushi; Hiramatsu, Takashi
2009-06-15
We present a formalism to calculate the nonlinear matter power spectrum in modified gravity models that explain the late-time acceleration of the Universe without dark energy. Any successful modified gravity models should contain a mechanism to recover general relativity (GR) on small scales in order to avoid the stringent constrains on deviations from GR at solar system scales. Based on our formalism, the quasi-nonlinear power spectrum in the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porratti braneworld models and f(R) gravity models are derived by taking into account the mechanism to recover GR properly. We also extrapolate our predictions to fully nonlinear scales using the parametrized post-Friedmann framework. In the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porratti and f(R) gravity models, the predicted nonlinear power spectrum is shown to reproduce N-body results. We find that the mechanism to recover GR suppresses the difference between the modified gravity models and dark energy models with the same expansion history, but the difference remains large at the weakly nonlinear regime in these models. Our formalism is applicable to a wide variety of modified gravity models and it is ready to use once consistent models for modified gravity are developed.
Power spectrum sensitivity of raster-scanned CMB experiments in the presence of 1/f noise
Crawford, Tom
2007-09-15
We investigate the effects of 1/f noise on the ability of a particular class of cosmic microwave background experiments to measure the angular power spectrum of temperature anisotropy. We concentrate on experiments that operate primarily in raster-scan mode and develop formalism that allows us to calculate analytically the effect of 1/f noise on power-spectrum sensitivity for this class of experiments and determine the benefits of raster-scanning at different angles relative to the sky field versus scanning at only a single angle (cross-linking versus not cross-linking). We find that the sensitivity of such experiments in the presence of 1/f noise is not significantly degraded at moderate spatial scales (l{approx}100) for reasonable values of scan speed and 1/f knee. We further find that the difference between cross-linked and non-cross-linked experiments is small in all cases and that the non-cross-linked experiments are preferred from a raw sensitivity standpoint in the noise-dominated regime - i.e., in experiments in which the instrument noise is greater than the sample variance of the target power spectrum at the scales of interest. This analysis does not take into account systematic effects.
Violation of statistical isotropy and homogeneity in the 21-cm power spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shiraishi, Maresuke; Muñoz, Julian B.; Kamionkowski, Marc; Raccanelli, Alvise
2016-05-01
Most inflationary models predict primordial perturbations to be statistically isotropic and homogeneous. Cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations, however, indicate a possible departure from statistical isotropy in the form of a dipolar power modulation at large angular scales. Alternative models of inflation, beyond the simplest single-field slow-roll models, can generate a small power asymmetry, consistent with these observations. Observations of clustering of quasars show, however, agreement with statistical isotropy at much smaller angular scales. Here, we propose to use off-diagonal components of the angular power spectrum of the 21-cm fluctuations during the dark ages to test this power asymmetry. We forecast results for the planned SKA radio array, a future radio array, and the cosmic-variance-limited case as a theoretical proof of principle. Our results show that the 21-cm line power spectrum will enable access to information at very small scales and at different redshift slices, thus improving upon the current CMB constraints by ˜2 orders of magnitude for a dipolar asymmetry and by ˜1 - 3 orders of magnitude for a quadrupolar asymmetry case.
Double Power Laws in the Event-integrated Solar Energetic Particle Spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Lulu; Zhang, Ming; Rassoul, Hamid K.
2016-04-01
A double power law or a power law with exponential rollover at a few to tens of MeV nucleon-1 of the event-integrated differential spectra has been reported in many solar energetic particle (SEP) events. The rollover energies per nucleon of different elements correlate with a particle's charge-to-mass ratio (Q/A). The probable causes are suggested as residing in shock finite lifetimes, shock finite sizes, shock geometry, and an adiabatic cooling effect. In this work, we conduct a numerical simulation to investigate a particle's transport process in the inner heliosphere. We solve the focused transport equation using a time-backward Markov stochastic approach. The convection, magnetic focusing, adiabatic cooling effect, and pitch-angle scattering are included. The effects that the interplanetary turbulence imposes on the shape of the resulting SEP spectra are examined. By assuming a pure power-law differential spectrum at the Sun, a perfect double-power-law feature with a break energy ranging from 10 to 120 MeV nucleon-1 is obtained at 1 au. We found that the double power law of the differential energy spectrum is a robust result of SEP interplanetary propagation. It works for many assumptions of interplanetary turbulence spectra that give various forms of momentum dependence of a particle's mean free path. The different spectral shapes in low-energy and high-energy ends are not just a transition from the convection-dominated propagation to diffusion-dominated propagation.
Power Spectrum of Atmospheric Scintillation for the Deep Space Network Goldstone Ka-Band Downlink
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ho, C.; Wheelon, A.
2004-01-01
Dynamic signal fluctuations due to atmospheric scintillations may impair the Ka-band (around 32-GHz) link sensitivities for a low-margin Deep Space Network (DSN) receiving system. The ranges of frequency and power of the fast fluctuating signals (time scale less than 1 min) are theoretically investigated using the spatial covariance and turbulence theory. Scintillation power spectrum solutions are derived for both a point receiver and a finite-aperture receiver. The aperture-smoothing frequency ((omega(sub s)), corner frequency ((omega(sub c)), and damping rate are introduced to define the shape of the spectrum for a finite-aperture antenna. The emphasis is put on quantitatively describing the aperture-smoothing effects and graphically estimating the corner frequency for a large aperture receiver. Power spectral shapes are analyzed parametrically in detail through both low- and high-frequency approximations. It is found that aperture-averaging effects become significant when the transverse correlation length of the scintillation is smaller than the antenna radius. The upper frequency or corner frequency for a finite-aperture receiver is controlled by both the Fresnel frequency and aperture-smoothing frequency. Above the aperture-smoothing frequency, the spectrum rolls off at a much faster rate of exp (-omega(sup 2)/omega(sup 2, sub s), rather than omega(sup -8/3), which is customary for a point receiver. However, a relatively higher receiver noise level can mask the fast falling-off shape and make it hard to be identified. We also predict that when the effective antenna radius a(sub r) less than or = 6 m, the corner frequency of its power spectrum becomes the same as that for a point receiver. The aperture-smoothing effects are not obvious. We have applied these solutions to the scenario of a DSN Goldstone 34-m-diameter antenna and predicted the power spectrum shape for the receiving station. The maximum corner frequency for the receiver (with omega(sub s) = 0
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bezrukovs, Valerijs; Bezrukovs, Vladislavs; Levins, Nikolajs
2011-01-01
Interest in the use of renewable energy in Latvia is increasing every year. Government support and availability of large unpopulated areas on the coast makes the use of these lands for the placement of large wind power plants (WPP) attractive. The key factors that determine the choice of the location of WPP are reliable information about distribution of the resource of wind energy in this area and the influence of wind turbines on the environment. The paper presents the results of years-long observations on the density fluctuations of wind energy at heights of
Robert C. Brown; Robert J. Weber; Jeffrey J. Swetelitsch
2005-01-01
The objective of this project is to explore microwave-excited thermal-acoustic (META) phenomena for quantitative analysis of granular and powdered materials, with the culmination of the research to be an on-line carbon-in-ash monitor for coal-fired power plants. This technique of analyzing unburned carbon in fly ash could be a less tedious and time consuming method as compared to the traditional LOI manual procedure. Phase 1 of the research focused on off-line single-frequency thermal-acoustic measurements where an off-line fly ash monitor was constructed that could operate as analytical tool to explore instrument and methodology parameters for quantifying the microwave-excited thermal-acoustic effect of carbon in fly ash, and it was determined that the off-line thermal-acoustic technique could predict the carbon content of a random collection of fly ashes with a linear correlation constant of R{sup 2} = 0.778. Much higher correlations are expected for fly ashes generated from a single boiler. Phase 2 of the research developing a methodology to generate microwave spectra of various powders, including fly ash, coal, and inorganic minerals, and to determine if these microwave spectra could be used for chemical analyses. Although different minerals produced different responses, higher resolution microwave spectra would be required to be able to distinguish among minerals. Phase 3 of the research focused on the development of an on-line fly ash monitor that could be adapted to measure either a thermal-acoustic or thermal-elastic response to due microwave excitation of fly ash. The thermal-acoustic response was successfully employed for this purpose but the thermal-elastic response was too weak to yield a useful on-line device.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kikuchi, Tsuneo; Nakazawa, Toshihiro; Furukawa, Tetsuo; Higuchi, Toshiyuki; Maruyama, Yukio; Sato, Sojun
1995-05-01
This paper describes the quantitative measurement of the amount of fibrosis in the rat liver using the fractal dimension of the shape of power spectrum. The shape of the power spectrum of the scattered echo from biotissues is strongly affected by its internal structure. The fractal dimension, which is one of the important parameters of the fractal theory, is useful to express the complexity of shape of figures such as the power spectrum. From in vitro experiments using rat liver, it was found that this method can be used to quantitatively measure the amount of fibrosis in the liver, and has the possibility for use in the diagnosis of human liver cirrhosis.
The 2-loop matter power spectrum and the IR-safe integrand
Carrasco, John Joseph M.; Foreman, Simon; Green, Daniel; Senatore, Leonardo E-mail: sfore@stanford.edu E-mail: senatore@stanford.edu
2014-07-01
Large scale structure surveys are likely the next leading probe of cosmological information. It is therefore crucial to reliably predict their observables. The Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures (EFTofLSS) provides a manifestly convergent perturbation theory for the weakly non-linear regime, where dark matter correlation functions are computed in an expansion of the wavenumber k over the wavenumber associated to the non-linear scale k{sub NL}. To push the predictions to higher wavenumbers, it is necessary to compute the 2-loop matter power spectrum. For equal-time correlators, exactly as with standard perturturbation theory, there are IR divergences present in each diagram that cancel completely in the final result. We develop a method by which all 2-loop diagrams are computed as one integral, with an integrand that is manifestly free of any IR divergences. This allows us to compute the 2-loop power spectra in a reliable way that is much less numerically challenging than standard techniques. We apply our method to scaling universes where the linear power spectrum is a single power law of k, and where IR divergences can particularly easily interfere with accurate evaluation of loop corrections if not handled carefully. We show that our results are independent of IR cutoff and, after renormalization, of the UV cutoff, and comment how the method presented here naturally generalizes to higher loops.
The Knotted Sky II: does BICEP2 require a nontrivial primordial power spectrum?
Abazajian, Kevork N.; Aslanyan, Grigor; Easther, Richard; Price, Layne C. E-mail: g.aslanyan@auckland.ac.nz E-mail: lpri691@aucklanduni.ac.nz
2014-08-01
An inflationary gravitational wave background consistent with BICEP2 is difficult to reconcile with a simple power-law spectrum of primordial scalar perturbations. Tensor modes contribute to the temperature anisotropies at multipoles with l∼< 100, and this effect — together with a prior on the form of the scalar perturbations — was the source of previous bounds on the tensor-to-scalar ratio. We compute Bayesian evidence for combined fits to BICEP2 and Planck for three nontrivial primordial spectra: a) a running spectral index, b) a cutoff at fixed wavenumber, and c) a spectrum described by a linear spline with a single internal knot. We find no evidence for a cutoff, weak evidence for a running index, and significant evidence for a ''broken'' spectrum. Taken at face-value, the BICEP2 results require two new inflationary parameters in order to describe both the broken scale invariance in the perturbation spectrum and the observed tensor-to-scalar ratio. Alternatively, this tension may be resolved by additional data and more detailed analyses.
So You Think the Crab is Described by a Power-Law Spectrum
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weisskopf, Martin C.
2008-01-01
X-ray observations of the Crab Nebula and its pulsar have played a prominent role in the history of X-ray astronomy. Discoveries range from the detection of the X-ray Nebula and pulsar and the measurement of the Nebula-averaged X-ray polarization, to the observation of complex X-ray morphology, including jets emanating from the pulsar and the ring defining the shocked pulsar wind. The synchrotron origin of much of the radiation has been deduced by detailed studies across the electromagnetic spectrum, yet has fooled many X-ray astronomers into believing that the integrated spectrum from this system ought to be a power law. In many cases, this assumption has led observers to adjust the experiment response function(s) to guarantee such a result. We shall discuss why one should not observe a power-law spectrum, and present simulations using the latest available response matrices showing what should have been observed for a number of representative cases including the ROSAT IPC, XMM-Newton, and RXTE. We then discuss the implications, if any, for current calibrations.
Lim, Myunghee; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian; Son, Younggyu
2014-11-01
Even though much knowledge on acoustic cavitation and its application has been accumulated over the past decades, further research is still required to develop industrial uses of acoustic cavitation. It is because the available information is mainly based on small-scale sonoreactors and the design and optimization of sonoreactors for large-scale applications have not been widely studied. In this study, the effects of liquid height/volume, initial concentration of the reactant and input acoustic power on sonochemical oxidation reactions including iodide ion oxidation, As(III) oxidation, and hydrogen peroxide generation were investigated using a 291kHz sonoreactor with various liquid height/volumes (50, 100, 200, 300, 500, and 1000mL) and input powers (23, 40, and 82W). As the liquid height/volume and the input power changed, the power density varied from 23 to 1640W/L and the maximum cavitation yields of triiodide ion for 23, 40, and 82W were observed at 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2/0.3L, respectively. It was found that low power was more effective for the small volume and the large volume required high power level and the moderate power density, approximately 400W/L, was suggested for the sonochemical oxidation of iodide ion in the 291kHz sonoreactor in this study. Similar results were observed in the generation of hydrogen peroxide and the sonochemical oxidation of As(III) to As(V). It was also revealed that KI dosimetry could be applicable for the estimation of the sonochemical reactions of non-volatile compounds such as As(III).
The power spectrum of the solar wind speed for periods greater than 10 days
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fenimore, E. E.; Asbridge, J. R.; Bame, S. J.; Feldman, W. C.; Gosling, J. T.
1978-01-01
The use of the more than 11 years of solar wind speed data obtained by Vela 2-6 and Imp 6-8 to study the power spectrum of speed variations in the range near the solar rotational frequency is discussed. The broad bands of power near periods of 27 days (corresponding to the rotational period of the sun), 13.5 days, and higher harmonics are characterized, and it is suggested that the described individual peaks in both the solar wind and the geomagnetic spectra are probably not due to differential rotation. The alternate explanation is that the multipeak nature of the power spectra are explained by a wave packet concept in which recurring highspeed streams are described as a series of pulses (separated by a constant period) that last for a varying number of solar rotations.
Chien, C; Elgorriaga, I; McConaghy, C
2001-07-03
Emerging CMOS and MEMS technologies enable the implementation of a large number of wireless distributed microsensors that can be easily and rapidly deployed to form highly redundant, self-configuring, and ad hoc sensor networks. To facilitate ease of deployment, these sensors should operate on battery for extended periods of time. A particular challenge in maintaining extended battery lifetime lies in achieving communications with low power. This paper presents a direct-sequence spread-spectrum modem architecture that provides robust communications for wireless sensor networks while dissipating very low power. The modem architecture has been verified in an FPGA implementation that dissipates only 33 mW for both transmission and reception. The implementation can be easily mapped to an ASIC technology, with an estimated power performance of less than 1 mW.
Ozeri, Shaul; Shmilovitz, Doron
2014-09-01
The advancement and miniaturization of body implanted medical devices pose several challenges to Ultrasonic Transcutaneous Energy Transfer (UTET), such as the need to reduce the size of the piezoelectric resonator, and the need to maximize the UTET link power-transfer efficiency. Accordingly, the same piezoelectric resonator that is used for energy harvesting at the body implant, may also be used for ultrasonic backward data transfer, for instance, through impedance modulation. This paper presents physical considerations and design guidelines of the body implanted transducer of a UTET link with impedance modulation for a backward data transfer. The acoustic matching design procedure was based on the 2×2 transfer matrix chain analysis, in addition to the Krimholtz Leedom and Matthaei KLM transmission line model. The UTET power transfer was carried out at a frequency of 765 kHz, continuous wave (CW) mode. The backward data transfer was attained by inserting a 9% load resistance variation around its matched value (550 Ohm), resulting in a 12% increase in the acoustic reflection coefficient. A backward data transmission rate of 1200 bits/s was experimentally demonstrated using amplitude shift keying, simultaneously with an acoustic power transfer of 20 mW to the implant. PMID:24861424
Ozeri, Shaul; Shmilovitz, Doron
2014-09-01
The advancement and miniaturization of body implanted medical devices pose several challenges to Ultrasonic Transcutaneous Energy Transfer (UTET), such as the need to reduce the size of the piezoelectric resonator, and the need to maximize the UTET link power-transfer efficiency. Accordingly, the same piezoelectric resonator that is used for energy harvesting at the body implant, may also be used for ultrasonic backward data transfer, for instance, through impedance modulation. This paper presents physical considerations and design guidelines of the body implanted transducer of a UTET link with impedance modulation for a backward data transfer. The acoustic matching design procedure was based on the 2×2 transfer matrix chain analysis, in addition to the Krimholtz Leedom and Matthaei KLM transmission line model. The UTET power transfer was carried out at a frequency of 765 kHz, continuous wave (CW) mode. The backward data transfer was attained by inserting a 9% load resistance variation around its matched value (550 Ohm), resulting in a 12% increase in the acoustic reflection coefficient. A backward data transmission rate of 1200 bits/s was experimentally demonstrated using amplitude shift keying, simultaneously with an acoustic power transfer of 20 mW to the implant.
Bayesian Analysis of the Power Spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jewell, Jeffrey B.; Eriksen, H. K.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Wandelt, B. D.
2005-01-01
There is a wealth of cosmological information encoded in the spatial power spectrum of temperature anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background. The sky, when viewed in the microwave, is very uniform, with a nearly perfect blackbody spectrum at 2.7 degrees. Very small amplitude brightness fluctuations (to one part in a million!!) trace small density perturbations in the early universe (roughly 300,000 years after the Big Bang), which later grow through gravitational instability to the large-scale structure seen in redshift surveys... In this talk, I will discuss a Bayesian formulation of this problem; discuss a Gibbs sampling approach to numerically sampling from the Bayesian posterior, and the application of this approach to the first-year data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. I will also comment on recent algorithmic developments for this approach to be tractable for the even more massive data set to be returned from the Planck satellite.
THE TURBULENCE VELOCITY POWER SPECTRUM OF NEUTRAL HYDROGEN IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD
Chepurnov, A.; Lazarian, A.; Stanimirovic, S.; Burkhart, B.
2015-09-01
We present the results of the Velocity Coordinate Spectrum (VCS) technique to calculate the velocity power spectrum of turbulence in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) in 21 cm emission. We present an updated version of the VCS technique that takes into account regular motions, which is an important factor in our SMC VCS analysis. We have obtained a velocity spectral index of −3.85, a cold phase sonic Mach number of 5.6, and an injection scale of 2.3 kpc. The spectral index is steeper than the Kolmogorov index, which is expected for shock-dominated turbulence. The injection scale of 2.3 kpc suggests that HI supershells or tidal interactions with the Large Magellanic Cloud are the dominant drivers of turbulence in this dwarf galaxy. This implies that turbulence may be driven by multiple mechanisms in galaxies and that galaxy–galaxy interactions may play an important role in addition to supernova feedback.
Galaxy power spectrum in redshift space: Combining perturbation theory with the halo model
Okumura, Teppei; Hand, Nick; Seljak, Uros; Vlah, Zvonimir; Desjacques, Vincent
2015-11-19
Theoretical modeling of the redshift-space power spectrum of galaxies is crucially important to correctly extract cosmological information from galaxy redshift surveys. The task is complicated by the nonlinear biasing and redshift space distortion (RSD) effects, which change with halo mass, and by the wide distribution of halo masses and their occupations by galaxies. One of the main modeling challenges is the existence of satellite galaxies that have both radial distribution inside the halos and large virial velocities inside halos, a phenomenon known as the Finger-of-God (FoG) effect. We present a model for the redshift-space power spectrum of galaxies in which we decompose a given galaxy sample into central and satellite galaxies and relate different contributions to the power spectrum to 1-halo and 2-halo terms in a halo model. Our primary goal is to ensure that any parameters that we introduce have physically meaningful values, and are not just fitting parameters. For the lowest order 2-halo terms we use the previously developed RSD modeling of halos in the context of distribution function and perturbation theory approach. This term needs to be multiplied by the effect of radial distances and velocities of satellites inside the halo. To this one needs to add the 1-halo terms, which are nonperturbative. We show that the real space 1-halo terms can be modeled as almost constant, with the finite extent of the satellites inside the halo inducing a small k^{2}R^{2} term over the range of scales of interest, where R is related to the size of the halo given by its halo mass. Furthermore, we adopt a similar model for FoG in redshift space, ensuring that FoG velocity dispersion is related to the halo mass. For FoG k^{2} type expansions do not work over the range of scales of interest and FoG resummation must be used instead. We test several simple damping functions to model the velocity dispersion FoG effect. Applying the formalism to mock
Galaxy power spectrum in redshift space: Combining perturbation theory with the halo model
Okumura, Teppei; Hand, Nick; Seljak, Uros; Vlah, Zvonimir; Desjacques, Vincent
2015-11-19
Theoretical modeling of the redshift-space power spectrum of galaxies is crucially important to correctly extract cosmological information from galaxy redshift surveys. The task is complicated by the nonlinear biasing and redshift space distortion (RSD) effects, which change with halo mass, and by the wide distribution of halo masses and their occupations by galaxies. One of the main modeling challenges is the existence of satellite galaxies that have both radial distribution inside the halos and large virial velocities inside halos, a phenomenon known as the Finger-of-God (FoG) effect. We present a model for the redshift-space power spectrum of galaxies in whichmore » we decompose a given galaxy sample into central and satellite galaxies and relate different contributions to the power spectrum to 1-halo and 2-halo terms in a halo model. Our primary goal is to ensure that any parameters that we introduce have physically meaningful values, and are not just fitting parameters. For the lowest order 2-halo terms we use the previously developed RSD modeling of halos in the context of distribution function and perturbation theory approach. This term needs to be multiplied by the effect of radial distances and velocities of satellites inside the halo. To this one needs to add the 1-halo terms, which are nonperturbative. We show that the real space 1-halo terms can be modeled as almost constant, with the finite extent of the satellites inside the halo inducing a small k2R2 term over the range of scales of interest, where R is related to the size of the halo given by its halo mass. Furthermore, we adopt a similar model for FoG in redshift space, ensuring that FoG velocity dispersion is related to the halo mass. For FoG k2 type expansions do not work over the range of scales of interest and FoG resummation must be used instead. We test several simple damping functions to model the velocity dispersion FoG effect. Applying the formalism to mock galaxies modeled after the
Galaxy power spectrum in redshift space: Combining perturbation theory with the halo model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okumura, Teppei; Hand, Nick; Seljak, Uroš; Vlah, Zvonimir; Desjacques, Vincent
2015-11-01
Theoretical modeling of the redshift-space power spectrum of galaxies is crucially important to correctly extract cosmological information from galaxy redshift surveys. The task is complicated by the nonlinear biasing and redshift space distortion (RSD) effects, which change with halo mass, and by the wide distribution of halo masses and their occupations by galaxies. One of the main modeling challenges is the existence of satellite galaxies that have both radial distribution inside the halos and large virial velocities inside halos, a phenomenon known as the Finger-of-God (FoG) effect. We present a model for the redshift-space power spectrum of galaxies in which we decompose a given galaxy sample into central and satellite galaxies and relate different contributions to the power spectrum to 1-halo and 2-halo terms in a halo model. Our primary goal is to ensure that any parameters that we introduce have physically meaningful values, and are not just fitting parameters. For the lowest order 2-halo terms we use the previously developed RSD modeling of halos in the context of distribution function and perturbation theory approach. This term needs to be multiplied by the effect of radial distances and velocities of satellites inside the halo. To this one needs to add the 1-halo terms, which are nonperturbative. We show that the real space 1-halo terms can be modeled as almost constant, with the finite extent of the satellites inside the halo inducing a small k2R2 term over the range of scales of interest, where R is related to the size of the halo given by its halo mass. We adopt a similar model for FoG in redshift space, ensuring that FoG velocity dispersion is related to the halo mass. For FoG k2 type expansions do not work over the range of scales of interest and FoG resummation must be used instead. We test several simple damping functions to model the velocity dispersion FoG effect. Applying the formalism to mock galaxies modeled after the "CMASS" sample of the
Characteristics of the Velocity Power Spectrum as a Function of Taylor Reynolds Number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Puga, Alejandro J.
An understanding of the wide range of scales present in a turbulent flow as well as the turbulence kinetic energy associated with those scales can provide significant insight into the modeling of such flows. Since turbulence is a stochastic process, statistical quantities such as mean, root mean square, correlations and spectra are used to identify and understand the evolution of turbulent flows. Time-resolved velocity measurements presented herein are obtained using hot-wire anemometry in nearly homogeneous, isotropic and moderately high Taylor Reynolds number, Rlambda , flow downstream of an active grid. Velocity power spectra presented herein are show that the slope, n, of the inertial subrange, where the inertial subrange is defined as the wavenumber range where the power spectrum scales as kappa--n, varies with R lambda as n = 1.69 -- 5.86 Rlambda--0.645. This variation in the slope of the inertial subrange is consistent with measurements presented by Mydlarski and Warhaft (1996) in an active grid flow and Saddoughi and Veeravalli (1994) in a turbulent boundary layer. The effectiveness of velocity power spectrum normalizations proposed by Kolmogorov (1963), Von Karman and Howarth (1938), and George (1992) are compared qualitatively and quantitatively. The effectiveness of these normalizations suggests how the turbulent scales make specific portions of the velocity spectrum self-similar. It is found that the relation between the large and small scales is also shown by the normalized dissipation rate, which is defined as the dissipation rate normalized by the ratio of the turbulence kinetic energy to the time scale of the large scale structure is shown to be a constant with respect to R lambda for Rlambda ≥ 450. A modified model of the one-dimensional velocity power spectrum is proposed that is based on a model proposed by Pope (2000), which has been demonstrated to model power spectra at high value of Rlambda where the slope of the inertial subrange is very
Tore Supra LH transmitter upgrade, a new RF driver for the power spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berger-By, G.; Achard, J.; Armitano, A.; Bouquey, F.; Corbel, E.; Delpech, L.; Ekedahl, A.; Lombard, G.; Magne, R.; Mollard, P.; Pagano, M.; Prou, M.; Samaille, F.; Volpe, D.; Volpe, R.
2011-12-01
New real time tools have been developed for testing new 700kW/3.7GHz/CW klystrons and for the operations on very long plasma shots. After the commissioning of the 18 series tubes on the high power test bed facility, the installation of the first 8 klystrons in the Tore Supra transmitter and the adjustment tests on load, this upgrade work has been materialized during the last 2010 campaign by a successful operation on the Full Active Multijunction (FAM) C3 antenna, with new performances: 3.5MW/40s on plasma. The RF output power control in amplitude and phase has been improved for a better control of the wave spectrum launched into the plasma. The new klystrons have no modulating anode and the high cathode voltage must be adjusted with the RF input power in order to optimize the RF output power with a minimization of the thermal power losses in the collector. A new phase correction, depending on the 3 RF output power ranges used, has been introduced. The improvements made in 2009 and 2010 on the generic phase loop and the procedures used during the real time tests of the RF transfer functions in amplitude and phase are detailed below. All RF measurements systems, RF safety systems and the RF calibration procedures have been revised in order to have the best consistency, reproducibility and with a measurement error against the calorimetry measurement lower than 10%.
Distributed joint power and access control algorithm for secondary spectrum sharing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Hongyan; Chen, Enqing; Fu, Hongliang
2010-08-01
Based on interference temperature model, the problem of efficient secondary spectrum sharing is formulated as a power optimization problem with some constraints at physical layer. These constraints and optimization objective limit a feasible power vector set which leads to the need of access control besides power control. In this paper, we consider the decentralized cognitive radio network scenario where short-term data service is required, and the problem of distributed joint power and access control is studied to maximize the total secondary system throughput, subject to Quality of Service (QoS) constraints from individual secondary users and interference temperature limit (ITL) from primary system. Firstly, a pricing-based game model was used to solve distributed power allocation optimization problem in both high and low signal to interference noise ratio (SINR) scenarios. Secondly, when not all the secondary links can be supported with their QoS requirement and ITL, a distributed joint power and access control algorithm was introduced to find the allowable links which results in maximum network throughput with all the constraints satisfied, and the convergence performance is tested by simulations.
Tan, Liying; Zhai, Chao; Yu, Siyuan; Ma, Jing; Lu, Gaoyuan
2015-05-01
In the past decades, both the increasing experimental evidence and some results of theoretical investigation on non-Kolmogorov turbulence have been reported. This has prompted the study of optical propagation in non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence. In this paper, based on the thin phase screen model and a non-Kolmogorov power spectrum which owns a generalized power law instead of standard Kolmogorov power law value 11/3 and a generalized amplitude factor instead of constant value 0.033, the temporal power spectrum of irradiance fluctuations for a Gaussian-beam wave is derived in the weak fluctuation regime for a horizontal path. The analytic expressions are obtained and then used to analyze the influence of spectral power law variations on the temporal power spectrum of irradiance fluctuations.
CMB anisotropy due to filamentary gas: power spectrum and cosmological parameter bias
Shimon, Meir; Sadeh, Sharon; Rephaeli, Yoel E-mail: shrs@post.tau.ac.il
2012-10-01
Hot gas in filamentary structures induces CMB aniostropy through the SZ effect. Guided by results from N-body simulations, we model the morphology and gas properties of filamentary gas and determine the power spectrum of the anisotropy. Our treatment suggests that power levels can be an appreciable fraction of the cluster contribution at multipoles l∼<1500. Its spatially irregular morphology and larger characteristic angular scales can help to distinguish this SZ signature from that of clusters. In addition to intrinsic interest in this most extended SZ signal as a probe of filaments, its impact on cosmological parameter estimation should also be assessed. We find that filament 'noise' can potentially bias determination of A{sub s}, n{sub s}, and w (the normalization of the primordial power spectrum, the scalar index, and the dark energy equation of state parameter, respectively) by more than the nominal statistical uncertainty in Planck SZ survey data. More generally, when inferred from future optimal cosmic-variance-limited CMB experiments, we find that virtually all parameters will be biased by more than the nominal statistical uncertainty estimated for these next generation CMB experiments.
Scintillation noise power spectrum and its impact on high-redshift 21-cm observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vedantham, H. K.; Koopmans, L. V. E.
2016-05-01
Visibility scintillation resulting from wave propagation through the turbulent ionosphere can be an important source of noise at low radio frequencies (ν ≲ 200 MHz). Many low-frequency experiments are underway to detect the power spectrum of brightness temperature fluctuations of the neutral-hydrogen 21-cm signal from the Epoch of Reionization (EoR: 12 ≳ z ≳ 7, 100 ≲ ν ≲ 175 MHz). In this paper, we derive scintillation noise power spectra in such experiments while taking into account the effects of typical data processing operations such as self-calibration and Fourier synthesis. We find that for minimally redundant arrays such as LOFAR and MWA, scintillation noise is of the same order of magnitude as thermal noise, has a spectral coherence dictated by stretching of the snapshot uv-coverage with frequency, and thus is confined to the well-known wedge-like structure in the cylindrical (two-dimensional) power spectrum space. Compact, fully redundant (dcore ≲ rF ≈ 300 m at 150 MHz) arrays such as HERA and SKA-LOW (core) will be scintillation noise dominated at all baselines, but the spatial and frequency coherence of this noise will allow it to be removed along with spectrally smooth foregrounds.
Updating constraints on inflationary features in the primordial power spectrum with the Planck data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benetti, Micol
2013-10-01
We present new constraints on possible features in the primordial inflationary density perturbation power spectrum in light of the recent cosmic microwave background anisotropy measurements from the Planck satellite. We found that the Planck data hints for the presence of features in two different ranges of angular scales, corresponding to multipoles 10<ℓ<60 and 150<ℓ<300, with a decrease in the best-fit χ2 value with respect to the featureless “vanilla” ΛCDM model of Δχ2≃9 in both cases.
Computation of the power spectrum in chaotic ¼λφ{sup 4} inflation
Rojas, Clara; Villalba, Víctor M. E-mail: Victor.Villalba@monash.edu
2012-01-01
The phase-integral approximation devised by Fröman and Fröman, is used for computing cosmological perturbations in the quartic chaotic inflationary model. The phase-integral formulas for the scalar power spectrum are explicitly obtained up to fifth order of the phase-integral approximation. As in previous reports (Rojas 2007b, 2007c and 2009), we point out that the accuracy of the phase-integral approximation compares favorably with the numerical results and those obtained using the slow-roll and uniform approximation methods.
Is it possible to estimate the Higgs mass from the CMB power spectrum?
Arbuzov, A. B. Barbashov, B. M.; Borowiec, A.; Pervushin, V. N.; Shuvalov, S. A.; Zakharov, A. F.
2009-05-15
General Relativity and Standard Model are considered as a theory of dynamical scale symmetry with definite initial data compatible with the accepted Higgs mechanism. In this theory the Early Universe behaves like a factory of electroweak bosons and Higgs scalars, and it gives a possibility to identify three peaks in the Cosmic Microwave Background power spectrum with the contributions of photonic decays and annihilation processes of primordial Higgs, W and Z bosons in agreement with the QED coupling constant, Weinberg's angle, and Higgs' particle mass of about 118 GeV.
Brito, Ana; Lopes, Ilídio E-mail: ilidio.lopes@ist.utl.pt
2014-02-10
In the last decade, the quality and the amount of observational asteroseismic data that has been made available by space based missions had a tremendous upgrowth. The determination of asteroseismic parameters to estimate the fundamental physical processes occurring in stars' interiors can be done today in a way that has never been possible before. In this work, we propose to compute the seismic observable β, which is a proxy of the phase shift of the acoustic modes propagating in the envelope of the Sun-like stars. This seismic parameter β can be used to identify rapid variation regions usually known as glitches. We show that a small variation in the structure, smaller than 1% in the sound speed, produces a glitch in the acoustic potential that could explain the oscillatory character of β. This method allows us to determine the location and the thickness of the glitch with precision. We applied this idea to the Sun-like star α Centauri A and found a glitch located at approximately 0.94 R (1400 s) and with a thickness of 0.2% of the stars' radius. This is fully consistent with the data and also validates other seismic tests.
Xu, Tailin; Soto, Fernando; Gao, Wei; Dong, Renfeng; Garcia-Gradilla, Victor; Magaña, Ernesto; Zhang, Xueji; Wang, Joseph
2015-02-18
The collective behavior of biological systems has inspired efforts toward the controlled assembly of synthetic nanomotors. Here we demonstrate the use of acoustic fields to induce reversible assembly of catalytic nanomotors, controlled swarm movement, and separation of different nanomotors. The swarming mechanism relies on the interaction between individual nanomotors and the acoustic field, which triggers rapid migration and assembly around the nearest pressure node. Such on-demand assembly of catalytic nanomotors is extremely fast and reversible. Controlled movement of the resulting swarm is illustrated by changing the frequency of the acoustic field. Efficient separation of different types of nanomotors, which assemble in distinct swarming regions, is illustrated. The ability of acoustic fields to regulate the collective behavior of catalytic nanomotors holds considerable promise for a wide range of practical applications. PMID:25634724
Wireless acoustic-electric feed-through for power and signal transmission
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Doty, Benjamin (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Chang, Zensheu (Inventor)
2011-01-01
An embodiment provides electrical energy from a source on one side of a medium to a load on the other side of the medium, the embodiment including a first piezoelectric to generate acoustic energy in response to electrical energy from the source, and a second piezoelectric to convert the received acoustic energy to electrical energy used by the load. Other embodiments are described and claimed.
Semi-blind Bayesian inference of CMB map and power spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vansyngel, Flavien; Wandelt, Benjamin D.; Cardoso, Jean-François; Benabed, Karim
2016-04-01
We present a new blind formulation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) inference problem. The approach relies on a phenomenological model of the multifrequency microwave sky without the need for physical models of the individual components. For all-sky and high resolution data, it unifies parts of the analysis that had previously been treated separately such as component separation and power spectrum inference. We describe an efficient sampling scheme that fully explores the component separation uncertainties on the inferred CMB products such as maps and/or power spectra. External information about individual components can be incorporated as a prior giving a flexible way to progressively and continuously introduce physical component separation from a maximally blind approach. We connect our Bayesian formalism to existing approaches such as Commander, spectral mismatch independent component analysis (SMICA), and internal linear combination (ILC), and discuss possible future extensions.
Precise measurement of the matter power spectrum amplitude and the background radiation amplitude
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jena, Tridivesh
2004-09-01
We investigate the one dimensional flux power spectrum of the Lymanα forest and compare it with Lymanα forest simulations using state of the art hydrodynamical simulations. We investigate how properties of the forest, such as the mean flux
Gapeev, A B; Rubanik, A V; Pashovkin, T N; Chemeris, N K
2007-01-01
The capability of high peak-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency (35,27 GHz, pulse widths of 100 and 600 ns, peak power of 20 kW) to excite acoustic waves in model water-containing objects and muscular tissue of animals has been experimentally shown for the first time. The amplitude and duration of excited acoustic pulses are within the limits of accuracy of theoretical assessments and have a complex nonlinear dependence on the energy input of electromagnetic radiation supplied. The velocity of propagation of acoustic pulses in water-containing models and isolated muscular tissue of animals was close to the reference data. The excitation of acoustic waves in biological systems under the action of high peak-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency is the important phenomenon, which essentially contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms of biological effects of these electromagnetic fields.
Modeling the cross power spectrum of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich and X-ray surveys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hurier, G.; Aghanim, N.; Douspis, M.
2014-08-01
The thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect and X-ray emission from galaxy clusters have been used extensively to constrain cosmological parameters. These constraints are highly sensitive to the relations between cluster masses and observables (tSZ and X-ray fluxes). The cross-correlation of tSZ and X-ray data is thus a powerful tool, in addition of tSZ and X-ray based analysis, for testing our modeling of both tSZ and X-ray emission from galaxy clusters. We chose to explore this cross-correlation because both emissions trace the hot gas in galaxy clusters and thus constitute one of the easiest correlations that can be studied. We present a complete modeling of the cross-correlation between tSZ effect and X-ray emission from galaxy clusters and focus on the dependencies with cluster scaling laws and cosmological parameters. We show that current knowledge of cosmological parameters and scaling-law parameters leads to uncertainties of 48% on the overall normalization of the tSZ-X cross-correlation power spectrum. We present the expected signal-to-noise ratio for the tSZ-X cross-correlation angular power spectrum and consider the sensitivity of actual tSZ and X-ray surveys from Planck-like data and ROSAT. We demonstrate that this signal-to-noise can reach 31.5 in a realistic situation, leading to a constraint on the amplitude of tSZ-X cross-correlation up to 3.2%, which is ten times better than actual modeling limitations. Consequently, using it in addition to other probes of cosmological parameters and scaling relations, we show that the tSZ-X is a powerful probe that constrains the cosmological parameters of scaling relations.
Elementary Theoretical Forms for the Spatial Power Spectrum of Earth's Crustal Magnetic Field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Voorhies, C.
1998-01-01
The magnetic field produced by magnetization in Earth's crust and lithosphere can be distinguished from the field produced by electric currents in Earth's core because the spatial magnetic power spectrum of the crustal field differs from that of the core field. Theoretical forms for the spectrum of the crustal field are derived by treating each magnetic domain in the crust as the point source of a dipole field. The geologic null-hypothesis that such moments are uncorrelated is used to obtain the magnetic spectrum expected from a randomly magnetized, or unstructured, spherical crust of negligible thickness. This simplest spectral form is modified to allow for uniform crustal thickness, ellipsoidality, and the polarization of domains by an periodically reversing, geocentric axial dipole field from Earth's core. Such spectra are intended to describe the background crustal field. Magnetic anomalies due to correlated magnetization within coherent geologic structures may well be superimposed upon this background; yet representing each such anomaly with a single point dipole may lead to similar spectral forms. Results from attempts to fit these forms to observational spectra, determined via spherical harmonic analysis of MAGSAT data, are summarized in terms of amplitude, source depth, and misfit. Each theoretical spectrum reduces to a source factor multiplied by the usual exponential function of spherical harmonic degree n due to geometric attenuation with attitude above the source layer. The source factors always vary with n and are approximately proportional to n(exp 3) for degrees 12 through 120. The theoretical spectra are therefore not directly proportional to an exponential function of spherical harmonic degree n. There is no radius at which these spectra are flat, level, or otherwise independent of n.
The CMBR ISW and HI 21 cm cross-correlation angular power spectrum
Sarkar, Tapomoy Guha; Datta, Kanan K.; Bharadwaj, Somnath E-mail: kanan@cts.iitkgp.ernet.in
2009-08-01
The late-time growth of large scale structures is imprinted in the CMBR anisotropy through the Integrated Sachs Wolfe (ISW) effect. This is perceived to be a very important observational probe of dark energy. Future observations of redshifted 21-cm radiation from the cosmological neutral hydrogen (HI) distribution hold the potential of probing the large scale structure over a large redshift range. We have investigated the possibility of detecting the ISW through cross-correlations between the CMBR anisotropies and redshifted 21-cm observations. Assuming that the HI traces the dark matter, we find that the ISW-HI cross-correlation angular power spectrum at an angular multipole l is proportional to the dark matter power spectrum evaluated at the comoving wave number l/r, where r is the comoving distance to the redshift from which the HI signal originated. The amplitude of the cross-correlation signal depends on parameters related to the HI distribution and the growth of cosmological perturbations. However, the cross-correlation is extremely weak as compared to the CMBR anisotropies and the predicted HI signal. Even in an ideal situation, the cross-correlation signal is smaller than the cosmic variance and a statistically significant detection is not very likely.
Anisotropic power spectrum and bispectrum in the f(Φ)F² mechanism
Bartolo, Nicola; Matarrese, Sabino; Peloso, Marco; Ricciardone, Angelo
2013-01-04
A suitable coupling of the inflaton φ to a vector kinetic term F² gives frozen and scale invariant vector perturbations. We compute the cosmological perturbations ζ that result from such coupling by taking into account the classical vector field that unavoidably gets generated at large scales during inflation. This generically results in a too-anisotropic power spectrum of ζ. Specifically, the anisotropy exceeds the 1% level (10% level) if inflation lasts ~5 e-folds (~50 e-folds) more than the minimal amount required to produce the cosmic microwave background modes. This conclusion applies, among others, to the application of this mechanism for magnetogenesis, for anisotropic inflation, and for the generation of anisotropic perturbations at the end of inflation through a waterfall field coupled to the vector (in this case, the unavoidable contribution that we obtain is effective all throughout inflation, and it is independent of the waterfall field). For a tuned duration of inflation, a 1% (10%) anisotropy in the power spectrum corresponds to an anisotropic bispectrum which is enhanced like the local one in the squeezed limit, and with an effective local f_{NL}~3(~30). More in general, a significant anisotropy of the perturbations may be a natural outcome of all models that sustain higher than 0 spin fields during inflation.
Anisotropic power spectrum and bispectrum in the f(Φ)F² mechanism
Bartolo, Nicola; Matarrese, Sabino; Peloso, Marco; Ricciardone, Angelo
2013-01-04
A suitable coupling of the inflaton φ to a vector kinetic term F² gives frozen and scale invariant vector perturbations. We compute the cosmological perturbations ζ that result from such coupling by taking into account the classical vector field that unavoidably gets generated at large scales during inflation. This generically results in a too-anisotropic power spectrum of ζ. Specifically, the anisotropy exceeds the 1% level (10% level) if inflation lasts ~5 e-folds (~50 e-folds) more than the minimal amount required to produce the cosmic microwave background modes. This conclusion applies, among others, to the application of this mechanism for magnetogenesis,more » for anisotropic inflation, and for the generation of anisotropic perturbations at the end of inflation through a waterfall field coupled to the vector (in this case, the unavoidable contribution that we obtain is effective all throughout inflation, and it is independent of the waterfall field). For a tuned duration of inflation, a 1% (10%) anisotropy in the power spectrum corresponds to an anisotropic bispectrum which is enhanced like the local one in the squeezed limit, and with an effective local fNL~3(~30). More in general, a significant anisotropy of the perturbations may be a natural outcome of all models that sustain higher than 0 spin fields during inflation.« less
More on loops in reheating: non-gaussianities and tensor power spectrum
Katırcı, Nihan; Kaya, Ali; Tarman, Merve
2014-06-11
We consider the single field chaotic m{sup 2}ϕ{sup 2} inflationary model with a period of preheating, where the inflaton decays to another scalar field χ in the parametric resonance regime. In a recent work, one of us has shown that the χ modes circulating in the loops during preheating notably modify the <ζζ> correlation function. We first rederive this result using a different gauge condition hence reconfirm that superhorizon ζ modes are affected by the loops in preheating. Further, we examine how χ loops give rise to non-gaussianity and affect the tensor perturbations. For that, all cubic and some higher order interactions involving two χ fields are determined and their contribution to the non-gaussianity parameter f{sub NL} and the tensor power spectrum are calculated at one loop. Our estimates for these corrections show that while a large amount of non-gaussianity can be produced during reheating, the tensor power spectrum receive moderate corrections. We observe that the loop quantum effects increase with more χ fields circulating in the loops indicating that the perturbation theory might be broken down. These findings demonstrate that the loop corrections during reheating are significant and they must be taken into account for precision inflationary cosmology.
More on loops in reheating: non-gaussianities and tensor power spectrum
Katirci, Nihan; Kaya, Ali; Tarman, Merve E-mail: ali.kaya@boun.edu.tr
2014-06-01
We consider the single field chaotic m{sup 2}φ{sup 2} inflationary model with a period of preheating, where the inflaton decays to another scalar field χ in the parametric resonance regime. In a recent work, one of us has shown that the χ modes circulating in the loops during preheating notably modify the (ζζ) correlation function. We first rederive this result using a different gauge condition hence reconfirm that superhorizon ζ modes are affected by the loops in preheating. Further, we examine how χ loops give rise to non-gaussianity and affect the tensor perturbations. For that, all cubic and some higher order interactions involving two χ fields are determined and their contribution to the non-gaussianity parameter f{sub NL} and the tensor power spectrum are calculated at one loop. Our estimates for these corrections show that while a large amount of non-gaussianity can be produced during reheating, the tensor power spectrum receive moderate corrections. We observe that the loop quantum effects increase with more χ fields circulating in the loops indicating that the perturbation theory might be broken down. These findings demonstrate that the loop corrections during reheating are significant and they must be taken into account for precision inflationary cosmology.
Anisotropic power spectrum and bispectrum in the f(ϕ)F2 mechanism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartolo, Nicola; Matarrese, Sabino; Peloso, Marco; Ricciardone, Angelo
2013-01-01
A suitable coupling of the inflaton φ to a vector kinetic term F2 gives frozen and scale invariant vector perturbations. We compute the cosmological perturbations ζ that result from such coupling by taking into account the classical vector field that unavoidably gets generated at large scales during inflation. This generically results in a too-anisotropic power spectrum of ζ. Specifically, the anisotropy exceeds the 1% level (10% level) if inflation lasts ˜5 e-folds (˜50 e-folds) more than the minimal amount required to produce the cosmic microwave background modes. This conclusion applies, among others, to the application of this mechanism for magnetogenesis, for anisotropic inflation, and for the generation of anisotropic perturbations at the end of inflation through a waterfall field coupled to the vector (in this case, the unavoidable contribution that we obtain is effective all throughout inflation, and it is independent of the waterfall field). For a tuned duration of inflation, a 1% (10%) anisotropy in the power spectrum corresponds to an anisotropic bispectrum which is enhanced like the local one in the squeezed limit, and with an effective local fNL˜3(˜30). More in general, a significant anisotropy of the perturbations may be a natural outcome of all models that sustain higher than 0 spin fields during inflation.
Power Spectrum Analysis of Polarized Emission from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stutz, R. A.; Rosolowsky, E. W.; Kothes, R.; Landecker, T. L.
2014-05-01
Angular power spectra are calculated and presented for the entirety of the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey polarization data set at 1.4 GHz covering an area of 1060 deg2. The data analyzed are a combination of data from the 100 m Effelsberg Telescope, the 26 m Telescope at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, and the Synthesis Telescope at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, allowing all scales to be sampled down to arcminute resolution. The resulting power spectra cover multipoles from l ≈ 60 to l ≈ 104 and display both a power-law component at low multipoles and a flattening at high multipoles from point sources. We fit the power spectrum with a model that accounts for these components and instrumental effects. The resulting power-law indices are found to have a mode of 2.3, similar to previous results. However, there are significant regional variations in the index, defying attempts to characterize the emission with a single value. The power-law index is found to increase away from the Galactic plane. A transition from small-scale to large-scale structure is evident at b = 9°, associated with the disk-halo transition in a 15° region around l = 108°. Localized variations in the index are found toward H II regions and supernova remnants, but the interpretation of these variations is inconclusive. The power in the polarized emission is anticorrelated with bright thermal emission (traced by Hα emission) indicating that the thermal emission depolarizes background synchrotron emission.
Power spectrum analysis of polarized emission from the Canadian galactic plane survey
Stutz, R. A.; Rosolowsky, E. W.; Kothes, R.; Landecker, T. L.
2014-05-20
Angular power spectra are calculated and presented for the entirety of the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey polarization data set at 1.4 GHz covering an area of 1060 deg{sup 2}. The data analyzed are a combination of data from the 100 m Effelsberg Telescope, the 26 m Telescope at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, and the Synthesis Telescope at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, allowing all scales to be sampled down to arcminute resolution. The resulting power spectra cover multipoles from ℓ ≈ 60 to ℓ ≈ 10{sup 4} and display both a power-law component at low multipoles and a flattening at high multipoles from point sources. We fit the power spectrum with a model that accounts for these components and instrumental effects. The resulting power-law indices are found to have a mode of 2.3, similar to previous results. However, there are significant regional variations in the index, defying attempts to characterize the emission with a single value. The power-law index is found to increase away from the Galactic plane. A transition from small-scale to large-scale structure is evident at b = 9°, associated with the disk-halo transition in a 15° region around l = 108°. Localized variations in the index are found toward H II regions and supernova remnants, but the interpretation of these variations is inconclusive. The power in the polarized emission is anticorrelated with bright thermal emission (traced by Hα emission) indicating that the thermal emission depolarizes background synchrotron emission.
Borde, Arnaud; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Rossi, Graziano; Yèche, Christophe; LeGoff, Jean-Marc; Rich, Jim; Bolton, James S. E-mail: nathalie.palanque-delabrouille@cea.fr E-mail: matteoviel@gmail.com E-mail: christophe.yeche@cea.fr E-mail: james.rich@cea.fr
2014-07-01
Current experiments are providing measurements of the flux power spectrum from the Lyman-α forests observed in quasar spectra with unprecedented accuracy. Their interpretation in terms of cosmological constraints requires specific simulations of at least equivalent precision. In this paper, we present a suite of cosmological N-body simulations with cold dark matter and baryons, specifically aiming at modeling the low-density regions of the inter-galactic medium as probed by the Lyman-α forests at high redshift. The simulations were run using the GADGET-3 code and were designed to match the requirements imposed by the quality of the current SDSS-III/BOSS or forthcoming SDSS-IV/eBOSS data. They are made using either 2 × 768{sup 3} ≅ 1 billion or 2 × 192{sup 3} ≅ 14 million particles, spanning volumes ranging from (25 Mpc h{sup −1}){sup 3} for high-resolution simulations to (100 Mpc h{sup −1}){sup 3} for large-volume ones. Using a splicing technique, the resolution is further enhanced to reach the equivalent of simulations with 2 × 3072{sup 3} ≅ 58 billion particles in a (100 Mpc h{sup −1}){sup 3} box size, i.e. a mean mass per gas particle of 1.2 × 10{sup 5}M{sub ⊙} h{sup −1}. We show that the resulting power spectrum is accurate at the 2% level over the full range from a few Mpc to several tens of Mpc. We explore the effect on the one-dimensional transmitted-flux power spectrum of four cosmological parameters (n{sub s}, σ{sub 8}, Ω{sub m} and H{sub 0}) and two astrophysical parameters (T{sub 0} and γ) that are related to the heating rate of the intergalactic medium. By varying the input parameters around a central model chosen to be in agreement with the latest Planck results, we built a grid of simulations that allows the study of the impact on the flux power spectrum of these six relevant parameters. We improve upon previous studies by not only measuring the effect of each parameter individually, but also probing the impact of the
Separating Fractal and Oscillatory Components in the Power Spectrum of Neurophysiological Signal.
Wen, Haiguang; Liu, Zhongming
2016-01-01
Neurophysiological field-potential signals consist of both arrhythmic and rhythmic patterns indicative of the fractal and oscillatory dynamics arising from likely distinct mechanisms. Here, we present a new method, namely the irregular-resampling auto-spectral analysis (IRASA), to separate fractal and oscillatory components in the power spectrum of neurophysiological signal according to their distinct temporal and spectral characteristics. In this method, we irregularly resampled the neural signal by a set of non-integer factors, and statistically summarized the auto-power spectra of the resampled signals to separate the fractal component from the oscillatory component in the frequency domain. We tested this method on simulated data and demonstrated that IRASA could robustly separate the fractal component from the oscillatory component. In addition, applications of IRASA to macaque electrocorticography and human magnetoencephalography data revealed a greater power-law exponent of fractal dynamics during sleep compared to wakefulness. The temporal fluctuation in the broadband power of the fractal component revealed characteristic dynamics within and across the eyes-closed, eyes-open and sleep states. These results demonstrate the efficacy and potential applications of this method in analyzing electrophysiological signatures of large-scale neural circuit activity. We expect that the proposed method or its future variations would potentially allow for more specific characterization of the differential contributions of oscillatory and fractal dynamics to distributed neural processes underlying various brain functions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Carvalho, P.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Comis, B.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Da Silva, A.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-11-01
We have constructed the first all-sky map of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect by applying specifically tailored component separation algorithms to the 100 to 857 GHz frequency channel maps from the Planck survey. This map shows an obvious galaxy cluster tSZ signal that is well matched with blindly detected clusters in the Planck SZ catalogue. To characterize the signal in the tSZ map we have computed its angular power spectrum. At large angular scales (ℓ < 60), the major foreground contaminant is the diffuse thermal dust emission. At small angular scales (ℓ > 500) the clustered cosmic infrared background and residual point sources are the major contaminants. These foregrounds are carefully modelled and subtracted. We thus measure the tSZ power spectrum over angular scales 0.17° ≲ θ ≲ 3.0° that were previously unexplored. The measured tSZ power spectrum is consistent with that expected from the Planck catalogue of SZ sources, with clear evidence of additional signal from unresolved clusters and, potentially, diffuse warm baryons. Marginalized band-powers of the Planck tSZ power spectrum and the best-fit model are given. The non-Gaussianity of the Compton parameter map is further characterized by computing its 1D probability distribution function and its bispectrum. The measured tSZ power spectrum and high order statistics are used to place constraints on σ8.
THE POWER SPECTRUM OF THE MILKY WAY: VELOCITY FLUCTUATIONS IN THE GALACTIC DISK
Bovy, Jo; Bird, Jonathan C.; Pérez, Ana E. García; Majewski, Steven R.; Nidever, David L.; Zasowski, Gail
2015-02-20
We investigate the kinematics of stars in the mid-plane of the Milky Way (MW) on scales between 25 pc and 10 kpc with data from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), the Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE), and the Geneva-Copenhagen survey (GCS). Using red-clump (RC) stars in APOGEE, we determine the large-scale line-of-sight velocity field out to 5 kpc from the Sun in (0.75 kpc){sup 2} bins. The solar motion V{sub ☉} {sub –} {sub c} with respect to the circular velocity V{sub c} is the largest contribution to the power on large scales after subtracting an axisymmetric rotation field; we determine the solar motion by minimizing the large-scale power to be V{sub ☉} {sub –} {sub c} = 24 ± 1 (ran.) ± 2 (syst. [V{sub c} ]) ± 5 (syst.[large-scale]) km s{sup –1}, where the systematic uncertainty is due to (1) a conservative 20 km s{sup –1} uncertainty in V{sub c} and (2) the estimated power on unobserved larger scales. Combining the APOGEE peculiar-velocity field with RC stars in RAVE out to 2 kpc from the Sun and with local GCS stars, we determine the power spectrum of residual velocity fluctuations in the MW's disk on scales between 0.2 kpc{sup –1} ≤ k ≤ 40 kpc{sup –1}. Most of the power is contained in a broad peak between 0.2 kpc{sup –1} < k < 0.9 kpc{sup –1}. We investigate the expected power spectrum for various non-axisymmetric perturbations and demonstrate that the central bar with commonly used parameters but of relatively high mass can explain the bulk of velocity fluctuations in the plane of the Galactic disk near the Sun. Streaming motions ≈10 km s{sup –1} on ≳ 3 kpc scales in the MW are in good agreement with observations of external galaxies and directly explain why local determinations of the solar motion are inconsistent with global measurements.
Berge, Joel; Refregier, Alexandre
2010-04-01
We compare the efficiency of weak-lensing-selected galaxy cluster counts and of the weak-lensing bispectrum at capturing non-Gaussian features in the dark matter distribution. We use the halo model to compute the weak-lensing power spectrum, the bispectrum, and the expected number of detected clusters, and derive constraints on cosmological parameters for a large, low systematic weak-lensing survey, by focusing on the OMEGA{sub m}-sigma{sub 8} plane and on the dark energy equation of state. We separate the power spectrum into the resolved and the unresolved parts of the data, the resolved part being defined as detected clusters, and the unresolved part as the rest of the field. We consider four kinds of clusters counts, taking into account different amount of information: signal-to-noise ratio peak counts, counts as a function of clusters' mass, counts as a function of clusters' redshift, and counts as a function of clusters' mass and redshift. We show that when combined with the power spectrum, those four kinds of counts provide similar constraints, thus allowing one to perform the most direct counts, signal-to-noise peak counts, and get percent level constraints on cosmological parameters. We show that the weak-lensing bispectrum gives constraints comparable to those given by the power spectrum and captures non-Gaussian features as well as cluster counts, its combination with the power spectrum giving errors on cosmological parameters that are similar to, if not marginally smaller than, those obtained when combining the power spectrum with cluster counts. We finally note that in order to reach its potential, the weak-lensing bispectrum must be computed using all triangle configurations, as equilateral triangles alone do not provide useful information. The appendices summarize the halo model, and the way the power spectrum and bispectrum are computed in this framework.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Lin; Abbey, Craig K.; Boone, John M.
2013-03-01
Previous research has demonstrated that a parameter extracted from a power function fit to the anatomical noise power spectrum, β, may be predictive of breast mass lesion detectability in x-ray based medical images of the breast. In this investigation, the value of β was compared with a number of other more widely used parameters, in order to determine the relationship between β and these other parameters. This study made use of breast CT data sets, acquired on two breast CT systems developed in our laboratory. A total of 185 breast data sets in 183 women were used, and only the unaffected breast was used (where no lesion was suspected). The anatomical noise power spectrum computed from two-dimensional region of interests (ROIs), was fit to a power function (NPS(f) = α f-β), and the exponent parameter (β) was determined using log/log linear regression. Breast density for each of the volume data sets was characterized in previous work. The breast CT data sets analyzed in this study were part of a previous study which evaluated the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve performance using simulated spherical lesions and a pre-whitened matched filter computer observer. This ROC information was used to compute the detectability index as well as the sensitivity at 95% specificity. The fractal dimension was computed from the same ROIs which were used for the assessment of β. The value of β was compared to breast density, detectability index, sensitivity, and fractal dimension, and the slope of these relationships was investigated to assess statistical significance from zero slope. A statistically significant non-zero slope was considered to be a positive association in this investigation. All comparisons between β and breast density, detectability index, sensitivity at 95% specificity, and fractal dimension demonstrated statistically significant association with p < 0.001 in all cases. The value of β was also found to be associated with patient age and
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Campbell, Abbi; Tincani, Matt
2011-01-01
The Power Card strategy is a strength-based intervention to promote social skills of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) by capitalizing on their special interests. Although preliminary studies have shown that the Power Card strategy is a promising approach to teach social skills, additional research is needed. The purpose of this study…
The power spectrum of galaxies in the 2dF 100k redshift survey
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tegmark, Max; Hamilton, Andrew J. S.; Xu, Yongzhong
2002-10-01
We compute the real-space power spectrum and the redshift-space distortions of galaxies in the 2dF 100k galaxy redshift survey using pseudo-Karhunen-Loève eigenmodes and the stochastic bias formalism. Our results agree well with those published by the 2dFGRS team, and have the added advantage of producing easy-to-interpret uncorrelated minimum-variance measurements of the galaxy-galaxy, galaxy-velocity and velocity-velocity power spectra in 27 k-bands, with narrow and well-behaved window functions in the range 0.01 h Mpc-1 < k < 0.8 h Mpc-1. We find no significant detection of baryonic wiggles, although our results are consistent with a standard flat ΩΛ= 0.7`concordance' model and previous tantalizing hints of baryonic oscillations. We measure the galaxy-matter correlation coefficient r > 0.4 and the redshift-distortion parameter β= 0.49 +/- 0.16 for r= 1 (β= 0.47 +/- 0.16 without finger-of-god compression). Since this is an apparent-magnitude limited sample, luminosity-dependent bias may cause a slight red-tilt in the power spectrum. A battery of systematic error tests indicate that the survey is not only impressive in size, but also unusually clean, free of systematic errors at the level to which our tests are sensitive. Our measurements and window functions are available at
Kim, Jaiseung; Naselsky, Pavel
2010-12-01
There exists power contrast in even and odd multipoles of the WMAP power spectrum at low and intermediate multipole ranges. This anomaly is explicitly associated with the angular power spectrum, which is heavily used for cosmological model fitting. Having noted this, we have investigated whether even (odd) multipole data set is individually consistent with the WMAP concordance model. Our investigation shows that the WMAP concordance model does not make a good fit for even (odd) multipole data set, which indicates parametric tension between even and odd multipole data set. Noting that tension is highest in primordial power spectrum parameters, we have additionally considered a running spectral index, but found that tension increases to even a higher level. We believe these parametric tensions may be indications of unaccounted contamination or imperfection of the model.
Perception of power modulation of light in conjunction with acoustic stimulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hahlweg, Cornelius F.; Weyer, Cornelia; Gercke-Hahn, Harald; Gutzmann, Holger L.; Brahmann, Andre; Rothe, Hendrik
2013-09-01
The present paper is derived from an ongoing study on the human perception of combined optical and acoustical periodical stimuli. Originating from problems of occupational medicine concerning artificial illumination and certain machinery with coherent optical and acoustical emissions there are effects which are interesting in the context of Optics and Music. Because of the difficulties in evaluation of physical and psychological effects of such coherent stimuli in a first step we questioned if such coherence is perceivable at all. Concept, experimental set-up and first results are discussed in short.
A high-powered siren for stable acoustic levitation of dense materials in the earth's gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gammel, Paul M.; Croonquist, Arvid P.; Wang, Taylor G.
1988-01-01
Levitation of large dense samples (e.g., 1-cm diameter steel balls) has been performed in a 1-g environment. A siren was used to study the effects of reflector geometry and variable-frequency operation in order to attain stable acoustic positioning. The harmonic content and spatial distribution of the acoustic field have been investigated. The best stability was obtained with an open reflector system, using a flat lower reflector and a slightly concave upper reflector while operating at a frequency slightly below resonance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heitmann, Adam Arthur
Advances in piezocrystal transducer materials technology has opened new avenues to impact the size, weight, and power consumption of sonar systems for deployment in autonomous undersea vehicles (AUVs). Although piezocrystals exhibit exceptional electromechanical properties, they have low ferroelectric Curie temperatures, small electrical coercivities, and exhibit temperature, electrical field, and/or stress induced phase transitions between ferroelectric phases with differing electromechanical properties. New piezocrystal materials are required that can provide the compositional tailoring capability needed to increase the Curie temperature and coercive field, ameliorate the deleterious effects of ferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transitions, and enable property optimization for specific transducer applications. Currently, new piezocrystal systems and compositions are selected almost exclusively by empirical 'make and measure' approaches guided by past experiences. These empirical processes can be time and labor intensive and as a result there exists only limited predictive capability for finding new piezocrystal compositions even in known piezocrystal systems. In this study we seek to develop a comprehensive phenomenological theory and a unified parameterization scheme applicable to binary and ternary ferroelectric solid solution systems in order to enable the accelerated development and characterization of new piezocrystal systems for optimized transducer performance. A modified form of the classical Ginzburg-Landau-Devonshire theory of weak first-order transitions is applied to perovskite-structured ferroelectric systems based on the ternary oxide compounds, barium titanate and lead titanate, which places special emphasis on the role played by the crystallographic anisotropy of polarization. It is shown that the theory produces excellent qualitative agreement with the experimentally measured phase diagram topologies, crystal lattice parameters, and
van Walree, P A
2010-12-01
Underwater communication experiments have been conducted in the Norwegian Oslofjord. Two modulation schemes are compared in a 7-kHz frequency band on a 14-kHz center frequency. The first scheme is direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS), using a 7-chip spreading code to achieve a raw data rate of 1000 bps on a single carrier. The second scheme is multicarrier spread spectrum (MCSS) and accomplishes spreading by using seven subbands. The DSSS receiver equalizes on the chips prior to explicit symbol despreading, whereas MCSS features joint multiband equalization and despreading. Four channels are examined, from nearly static to overspread. In slowly varying channels, MCSS offers the best performance. DSSS has the best tracking potential for rapidly varying channels, where the challenge is to obtain reliable chip decisions before symbol despreading. The tracking potential can be realized to some extent by hypothesis-feedback equalization. It is further shown that adaptive equalizers are capable of code conversion, i.e., the DSSS receiver can demodulate the MCSS waveform, and vice versa. Neither receiver requires knowledge of the spreading code in order to despread the data.
Rumerman, M L
2001-02-01
The previous paper showed that, when the attachment forces on a rib-reinforced panel subjected to turbulent boundary layer excitation can be considered to radiate independently, the rib-related acoustic power in a broad (e.g., one-third octave) frequency band can be estimated as the product of the average mean squared force, the real part of the radiation admittance of an attachment force, and the number of ribs. This paper shows that the radiation condition is always approximated when the acoustic wavelength is less than twice the rib spacing of a periodically reinforced panel, and generally applies at lower frequencies where the acoustic wavelength is less than four times the rib spacing. The procedure is used to estimate the broadband acoustic power radiated per rib of an infinite periodically reinforced membrane and plate in water, and the results are shown to agree with those of "exact" calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Nakanishi, Hidekazu; Goto, Rei; Hashimoto, Ken-ya; Yamaguchi, Masatsune
2010-07-01
Because of their low insertion loss, high out-of-band rejection, and high power durability, miniature surface acoustic wave (SAW) duplexers are widely used in mobile phones. Substrate materials substantially limit and determine the performance of SAW duplexers; for their applications to Band I and Band IV systems with large pass-band widths and wide frequency separations between the transmitting and receiving frequency bands, a larger coupling coefficient (K2) is of primary importance. We have developed a shape-controlled SiO2 film/Al electrode/LiNbO3 substrate structure for their applications. It could lead to a large K2 and suppression of Rayleigh-mode spurious response. In this paper, we report the analysis using finite element method/spectrum domain analysis (FEM/SDA) for the SAW resonator on a nonflat SiO2 film/Al electrode/LiNbO3 structure. It was clarified that the shape-controlled SiO2 was effective in terms of achieving a large K2 for the SAW resonator with suppressed Rayleigh-mode spurious responses and bulk wave radiation. Furthermore, the experiment results showed a good agreement with the analysis results.
Reconstruction of the primordial power spectrum of curvature perturbations using multiple data sets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hunt, Paul; Sarkar, Subir
2014-01-01
Detailed knowledge of the primordial power spectrum of curvature perturbations is essential both in order to elucidate the physical mechanism (`inflation') which generated it, and for estimating the cosmological parameters from observations of the cosmic microwave background and large-scale structure. Hence it ought to be extracted from such data in a model-independent manner, however this is difficult because relevant cosmological observables are given by a convolution of the primordial perturbations with some smoothing kernel which depends on both the assumed world model and the matter content of the universe. Moreover the deconvolution problem is ill-conditioned so a regularisation scheme must be employed to control error propagation. We demonstrate that `Tikhonov regularisation' can robustly reconstruct the primordial spectrum from multiple cosmological data sets, a significant advantage being that both its uncertainty and resolution are then quantified. Using Monte Carlo simulations we investigate several regularisation parameter selection methods and find that generalised cross-validation and Mallow's Cp method give optimal results. We apply our inversion procedure to data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, other ground-based small angular scale CMB experiments, and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The reconstructed spectrum (assuming the standard ΛCDM cosmology) is not scale-free but has an infrared cutoff at klesssim5 × 10-4 Mpc-1 (due to the anomalously low CMB quadrupole) and several features with ~ 2σ significance at k/Mpc-1 ~ 0.0013-0.0025, 0.0362-0.0402 and 0.051-0.056, reflecting the `WMAP glitches'. To test whether these are indeed real will require more accurate data, such as from the Planck satellite and new ground-based experiments.
Reconstruction of the primordial power spectrum of curvature perturbations using multiple data sets
Hunt, Paul; Sarkar, Subir E-mail: s.sarkar@physics.ox.ac.uk
2014-01-01
Detailed knowledge of the primordial power spectrum of curvature perturbations is essential both in order to elucidate the physical mechanism ('inflation') which generated it, and for estimating the cosmological parameters from observations of the cosmic microwave background and large-scale structure. Hence it ought to be extracted from such data in a model-independent manner, however this is difficult because relevant cosmological observables are given by a convolution of the primordial perturbations with some smoothing kernel which depends on both the assumed world model and the matter content of the universe. Moreover the deconvolution problem is ill-conditioned so a regularisation scheme must be employed to control error propagation. We demonstrate that 'Tikhonov regularisation' can robustly reconstruct the primordial spectrum from multiple cosmological data sets, a significant advantage being that both its uncertainty and resolution are then quantified. Using Monte Carlo simulations we investigate several regularisation parameter selection methods and find that generalised cross-validation and Mallow's C{sub p} method give optimal results. We apply our inversion procedure to data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, other ground-based small angular scale CMB experiments, and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The reconstructed spectrum (assuming the standard ΛCDM cosmology) is not scale-free but has an infrared cutoff at k∼<5 × 10{sup −4} Mpc{sup −1} (due to the anomalously low CMB quadrupole) and several features with ∼ 2σ significance at k/Mpc{sup −1} ∼ 0.0013–0.0025, 0.0362–0.0402 and 0.051–0.056, reflecting the 'WMAP glitches'. To test whether these are indeed real will require more accurate data, such as from the Planck satellite and new ground-based experiments.
Reyne, G.; Magnin, H.; Berliat, G.; Clerc, C.
1994-09-01
A supervisor has been developed so as to allow successive 3D computations of different quantities by different softwares on the same physical problem. Noise of a given power oil transformer can be deduced from the surface vibrations of the tank. These vibrations are obtained through a mechanic computation whose Inputs are the electromagnetic forces provided . by an electromagnetic computation. Magnetic, mechanic and acoustic experimental data are compared with the results of the 3D computations. Stress Is put on the main characteristics of the supervisor such as the transfer of a given quantity from one mesh to the other.
Angular power spectrum of sterile neutrino decay lines: the role of eROSITA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zandanel, Fabio; Weniger, Christoph; Ando, Shin’ichiro
2016-05-01
We study the potential of the angular auto and cross-correlation power spectrum of the cosmic X-ray background in identifying sterile neutrino dark matter taking as reference the performances of the soon-to-be-launched eROSITA satellite. The main astrophysical background sources in this case are active galactic nuclei, galaxies powered by X-ray binaries, and clusters of galaxies. We show that while sterile neutrino decays are always subdominant in the autocorrelation power spectra, they can be efficiently enhanced when cross-correlating with tracers of the dark matter distribution. We estimate that the four-years eROSITA all-sky survey will potentially provide very stringent constraints on the sterile neutrino decay lifetime by cross-correlating the cosmic X-ray background with the 2MASS galaxy catalogue. This will allow to firmly test the recently claimed 3.56-keV X-ray line found towards several clusters and galaxies and its decaying dark matter interpretation. We finally stress that the main limitation of this approach is due to the shot noise of the galaxy catalogues used as tracers for the dark matter distribution, a limitation that we need to overcome to fully exploit the potential of the eROSITA satellite in this context.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dodelson, Scott; Narayanan, Vijay K.; Tegmark, Max; Scranton, Ryan; Budavári, Tamas; Connolly, Andrew; Csabai, Istvan; Eisenstein, Daniel; Frieman, Joshua A.; Gunn, James E.; Hui, Lam; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Johnston, David; Kent, Stephen; Loveday, Jon; Nichol, Robert C.; O'Connell, Liam; Scoccimarro, Roman; Sheth, Ravi K.; Stebbins, Albert; Strauss, Michael A.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Szapudi, István; Vogeley, Michael S.; Zehavi, Idit; Annis, James; Bahcall, Neta A.; Brinkman, Jon; Doi, Mamoru; Fukugita, Masataka; Hennessy, Greg; Ivezić, Željko; Knapp, Gillian R.; Kunszt, Peter; Lamb, Don Q.; Lee, Brian C.; Lupton, Robert H.; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Peoples, John; Pier, Jeffrey R.; Rockosi, Constance; Schlegel, David; Stoughton, Christopher; Tucker, Douglas L.; Yanny, Brian; York, Donald G.
2002-06-01
Early photometric data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) contain angular positions for 1.5 million galaxies. In companion papers, the angular correlation function w(θ) and two-dimensional power spectrum Cl of these galaxies are presented. Here we invert Limber's equation to extract the three-dimensional power spectrum from the angular results. We accomplish this using an estimate of dn/dz, the redshift distribution of galaxies in four different magnitude slices in the SDSS photometric catalog. The resulting three-dimensional power spectrum estimates from w(θ) and Cl agree with each other and with previous estimates over a range in wavenumbers 0.03
Cosmology constraints from the weak lensing peak counts and the power spectrum in CFHTLenS data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Jia; Petri, Andrea; Haiman, Zoltán; Hui, Lam; Kratochvil, Jan M.; May, Morgan
2015-03-01
Lensing peaks have been proposed as a useful statistic, containing cosmological information from non-Gaussianities that is inaccessible from traditional two-point statistics such as the power spectrum or two-point correlation functions. Here we examine constraints on cosmological parameters from weak lensing peak counts, using the publicly available data from the 154 deg2 CFHTLenS survey. We utilize a new suite of ray-tracing N-body simulations on a grid of 91 cosmological models covering broad ranges of the three parameters Ωm, σ8, and w , and replicating the Galaxy sky positions, redshifts, and shape noise in the CFHTLenS observations. We then build an emulator that interpolates the power spectrum and the peak counts to an accuracy of ≤5 %, and compute the likelihood in the three-dimensional parameter space (Ωm, σ8, w ) from both observables. We find that constraints from peak counts are comparable to those from the power spectrum, and somewhat tighter when different smoothing scales are combined. Neither observable can constrain w without external data. When the power spectrum and peak counts are combined, the area of the error "banana" in the (Ωm, σ8) plane reduces by a factor of ≈2 , compared to using the power spectrum alone. For a flat Λ cold dark matter model, combining both statistics, we obtain the constraint σ8(Ωm/0.27 )0.63=0.85-0.03+0.03 .
Intercomparison of methods for image quality characterization. II. Noise power spectrum
Dobbins, James T. III; Samei, Ehsan; Ranger, Nicole T.; Chen Ying
2006-05-15
Second in a two-part series comparing measurement techniques for the assessment of basic image quality metrics in digital radiography, in this paper we focus on the measurement of the image noise power spectrum (NPS). Three methods were considered: (1) a method published by Dobbins et al. [Med. Phys. 22, 1581-1593 (1995)] (2) a method published by Samei et al. [Med. Phys. 30, 608-622 (2003)], and (3) a new method sanctioned by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC 62220-1, 2003), developed as part of an international standard for the measurement of detective quantum efficiency. In addition to an overall comparison of the estimated NPS between the three techniques, the following factors were also evaluated for their effect on the measured NPS: horizontal versus vertical directional dependence, the use of beam-limiting apertures, beam spectrum, and computational methods of NPS analysis, including the region-of-interest (ROI) size and the method of ROI normalization. Of these factors, none was found to demonstrate a substantial impact on the amplitude of the NPS estimates ({<=}3.1% relative difference in NPS averaged over frequency, for each factor considered separately). Overall, the three methods agreed to within 1.6%{+-}0.8% when averaged over frequencies >0.15 mm{sup -1}.
The Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy Power Spectrum from the BEAST Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Dwyer, Ian J.; Bersanelli, Marco; Childers, Jeffrey; Figueiredo, Newton; Halevi, Doron; Huey, Greg; Lubin, Philip M.; Maino, Davide; Mandolesi, Nazzareno; Marvil, Joshua; Meinhold, Peter R.; Mejía, Jorge; Natoli, Paolo; O'Neill, Hugh; Pina, Agenor; Seiffert, Michael D.; Stebor, Nathan C.; Tello, Camilo; Villela, Thyrso; Wandelt, Benjamin D.; Williams, Brian; Wuensche, Carlos Alexandre
2005-05-01
The Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope (BEAST) is a 2.2 m off-axis telescope with an eight-element mixed Q-band (38-45 GHz) and Ka-band (26-36 GHz) focal plane, designed for balloon-borne and ground-based studies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Here we present the CMB angular power spectrum calculated from 682 hr of data observed with the BEAST instrument. We use a binned pseudo-Cl estimator (the MASTER method). We find results that are consistent with other determinations of the CMB anisotropy for angular wavenumbers l between 100 and 600. We also perform cosmological parameter estimation. The BEAST data alone produce a good constraint on Ωk≡1-Ωtot=-0.074+/-0.070, consistent with a flat universe. A joint parameter estimation analysis with a number of previous CMB experiments produces results consistent with previous determinations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Price, Layne C.
2015-11-01
We consider a phenomenological model of inflation where the inflaton is the phase of a complex scalar field Φ . Planck-suppressed operators of O (f5/Mpl) modify the geometry of the vev ⟨Φ ⟩ at first order in the decay constant f , which adds a first-order periodic term to the definition of the canonically normalized inflaton ϕ . This correction to the inflaton induces a fixed number of extra oscillatory terms in the potential V ˜θp. We derive the same result in a toy scenario where the vacuum ⟨Φ ⟩ is an ellipse with an arbitrarily large eccentricity. These extra oscillations change the form of the power spectrum as a function of scale k and provide a possible mechanism for differentiating effective field theory motivated inflation from models where the angular shift symmetry is a gauge symmetry.
Gao, Xian; Langlois, David; Mizuno, Shuntaro E-mail: langlois@apc.univ-paris7.fr
2013-10-01
In the context of two-field inflation characterized by a light direction and a heavy direction, we revisit the question of the impact of the massive modes on the power spectrum produced after a turn in the inflationary trajectory. We consider in particular the resonant effect due to the background oscillations following a sharp turn. Working in the mass basis, i.e. in the basis spanned by the eigenvectors of the effective mass matrix for the perturbations, we provide an analytical estimate of the resonant effect, using the in-in formalism. In comparison with earlier estimates, we find the same the spectral dependence but a smaller amplitude. We also compute, again via the in-in formalism, the effect of the direct coupling between the light and heavy modes at the instant of the turn and confirm our previous results obtained via a different method.
Constraining halo occupation distribution and cosmic growth rate using multipole power spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hikage, Chiaki
2014-06-01
We propose a new method of measuring halo occupation distribution (HOD) together with cosmic growth rate using multipole components of galaxy power spectrum Pl(k). The non-linear redshift-space distortion due to the random motion of satellite galaxies, i.e. Fingers-of-God, generates high-l multipole anisotropy in galaxy clustering, such as the hexadecapole (l = 4) and tetra-hexadecapole (l = 6), which are sensitive to the fraction and the velocity dispersion of satellite galaxies. Using simulated samples following the HOD of luminous red galaxies, we find that the input HOD parameters are successfully reproduced from Pl(k), and that high-l multipole information help to break the degeneracy among HOD parameters. We also show that the measurements of the cosmic growth rate as well as the satellite fraction and velocity dispersions are significantly improved by adding the small-scale information of high-l multipoles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy-Choudhury, Kaushik; Hughes, Stephen
2015-11-01
Electron-phonon coupling in semiconductor quantum dots plays a significant role in determining the optical properties of excited excitons, especially the spectral nature of emitted photons. This paper presents a comprehensive theory and analysis of emission spectra from artificial atoms or quantum dots coupled to structured photon reservoirs and acoustic phonons, when excited with incoherent pump fields. As specific examples of structured reservoirs, we chose a Lorentzian cavity and a slow-light coupled-cavity waveguide, which have both been explored experimentally. For the case of optical cavities, we directly compare and contrast the spectra from three well-known and distinct theoretical approaches to treat electron-phonon coupling, including a Markovian polaron master equation, a non-Markovian phonon correlation expansion technique, and a semiclassical linear susceptibility approach, and we point out the limitations of these models. For the cavity-QED polaron master equation, which treats the cavity-mode operator at the level of a system operator, we give closed form analytical solutions to the phonon-assisted scattering rates in the weak excitation approximation, fully accounting for temperature, cavity-exciton detuning, and cavity-dot coupling. We also show explicitly why the semiclassical linear susceptibility approach fails to correctly account for phonon-mediated cavity feeding. For weakly coupled cavities, we calculate the optical spectra using a more general photon reservoir polaron master-equation approach, and explain its differences from the above approaches in the low-Q limit of a Lorentzian cavity. We subsequently use this general reservoir approach to calculate the emission spectra from quantum dots coupled to slow-light photonic crystal waveguides, which demonstrate a number of striking photon-phonon coupling effects.
Optimized Large-scale CMB Likelihood and Quadratic Maximum Likelihood Power Spectrum Estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gjerløw, E.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Eriksen, H. K.; Górski, K. M.; Gruppuso, A.; Jewell, J. B.; Plaszczynski, S.; Wehus, I. K.
2015-11-01
We revisit the problem of exact cosmic microwave background (CMB) likelihood and power spectrum estimation with the goal of minimizing computational costs through linear compression. This idea was originally proposed for CMB purposes by Tegmark et al., and here we develop it into a fully functioning computational framework for large-scale polarization analysis, adopting WMAP as a working example. We compare five different linear bases (pixel space, harmonic space, noise covariance eigenvectors, signal-to-noise covariance eigenvectors, and signal-plus-noise covariance eigenvectors) in terms of compression efficiency, and find that the computationally most efficient basis is the signal-to-noise eigenvector basis, which is closely related to the Karhunen-Loeve and Principal Component transforms, in agreement with previous suggestions. For this basis, the information in 6836 unmasked WMAP sky map pixels can be compressed into a smaller set of 3102 modes, with a maximum error increase of any single multipole of 3.8% at ℓ ≤ 32 and a maximum shift in the mean values of a joint distribution of an amplitude-tilt model of 0.006σ. This compression reduces the computational cost of a single likelihood evaluation by a factor of 5, from 38 to 7.5 CPU seconds, and it also results in a more robust likelihood by implicitly regularizing nearly degenerate modes. Finally, we use the same compression framework to formulate a numerically stable and computationally efficient variation of the Quadratic Maximum Likelihood implementation, which requires less than 3 GB of memory and 2 CPU minutes per iteration for ℓ ≤ 32, rendering low-ℓ QML CMB power spectrum analysis fully tractable on a standard laptop.
Disentangling redshift-space distortions and non-linear bias using the 2D power spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jennings, Elise; Wechsler, Risa H.; Skillman, Samuel W.; Warren, Michael S.
2016-03-01
We present the 2D redshift-space galaxy power spectrum, P(k, μ), measured from the Dark Sky simulations, using catalogues constructed with halo occupation distribution and subhalo abundance matching methods, chosen to represent an intermediate redshift sample of luminous red galaxies. We find that the information content in individual μ (cosine of the angle to the line of sight) bins is substantially richer then multipole moments, and show that this can be used to isolate the impact of non-linear growth and redshift-space distortion (RSD) effects. Using the μ < 0.2 simulation data, which is not impacted by RSD, we can successfully measure the non-linear bias to ˜5 per cent at k < 0.6 h Mpc-1. Using the low μ simulation data to constrain the non-linear bias, and μ ≥ 0.2 to constrain the growth rate, we show that f can be constrained to ˜26(22) per cent to a kmax < 0.4(0.6) h Mpc-1 from clustering alone using a dispersion model, for a range of galaxy models. Our analysis of individual μ bins reveals interesting physical effects which arise from different methods of populating haloes with galaxies. We find a prominent turnaround scale, at which RSD damping effects are greater than the non-linear growth, which differs for each galaxy model. The idea of separating non-linear growth and RSD effects making use of the full information in the 2D galaxy power spectrum yields significant improvements in constraining cosmological parameters and may be a promising probe of galaxy formation models.
The power spectrum and bispectrum of SDSS DR11 BOSS galaxies - II. Cosmological interpretation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gil-Marín, Héctor; Verde, Licia; Noreña, Jorge; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Samushia, Lado; Percival, Will J.; Wagner, Christian; Manera, Marc; Schneider, Donald P.
2015-09-01
We examine the cosmological implications of the measurements of the linear growth rate of cosmological structure obtained in a companion paper from the power spectrum and bispectrum monopoles of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey Data Release 11, CMASS galaxies. This measurement was of f 0.43σ8, where σ8 is the amplitude of dark matter density fluctuations, and f is the linear growth rate, at the effective redshift of the survey, zeff = 0.57. In conjunction with cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, interesting constraints can be placed on models with non-standard neutrino properties and models where gravity deviates from General Relativity on cosmological scales. In particular, the sum of the masses of the three species of the neutrinos is constrained to mν < 0.49 eV (at 95 per cent confidence level) when the f 0.43σ8 measurement is combined with state-of-the-art CMB measurements. Allowing the effective number of neutrinos to vary as a free parameter does not significantly change these results. When we combine the measurement of f 0.43σ8 with the complementary measurement of fσ8 from the monopole and quadrupole of the two-point correlation function, we are able to obtain an independent measurements of f and σ8. We obtain f = 0.63 ± 0.16 and σ8 = 0.710 ± 0.086 (68 per cent confidence level). This is the first time when these parameters have been able to be measured independently using the redshift-space power spectrum and bispectrum measurements from galaxy clustering data only.
Disentangling Redshift-Space Distortions and Nonlinear Bias using the 2D Power Spectrum
Jennings, Elise; Wechsler, Risa H.
2015-08-07
We present the nonlinear 2D galaxy power spectrum, P(k, µ), in redshift space, measured from the Dark Sky simulations, using galaxy catalogs constructed with both halo occupation distribution and subhalo abundance matching methods, chosen to represent an intermediate redshift sample of luminous red galaxies. We find that the information content in individual µ (cosine of the angle to the line of sight) bins is substantially richer then multipole moments, and show that this can be used to isolate the impact of nonlinear growth and redshift space distortion (RSD) effects. Using the µ < 0.2 simulation data, which we show is not impacted by RSD effects, we can successfully measure the nonlinear bias to an accuracy of ~ 5% at k < 0.6hMpc-1 . This use of individual µ bins to extract the nonlinear bias successfully removes a large parameter degeneracy when constraining the linear growth rate of structure. We carry out a joint parameter estimation, using the low µ simulation data to constrain the nonlinear bias, and µ > 0.2 to constrain the growth rate and show that f can be constrained to ~ 26(22)% to a kmax < 0.4(0.6)hMpc-1 from clustering alone using a simple dispersion model, for a range of galaxy models. Our analysis of individual µ bins also reveals interesting physical effects which arise simply from different methods of populating halos with galaxies. We also find a prominent turnaround scale, at which RSD damping effects are greater then the nonlinear growth, which differs not only for each µ bin but also for each galaxy model. These features may provide unique signatures which could be used to shed light on the galaxy–dark matter connection. Furthermore, the idea of separating nonlinear growth and RSD effects making use of the full information in the 2D galaxy power spectrum yields significant improvements in constraining cosmological parameters and may be a promising probe of galaxy formation models.
Won, Tae-Hee; Park, Sung-Joon
2012-01-01
For decades, underwater acoustic communication has been restricted to the point-to-point long distance applications such as deep sea probes and offshore oil fields. For this reason, previous acoustic modems were typically characterized by high data rates and long working ranges at the expense of large size and high power consumption. Recently, as the need for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) has increased, the research and development of compact and low-power consuming communication devices has become the focus. From the consideration that the requisites of acoustic modems for UWSNs are low power consumption, omni-directional beam pattern, low cost and so on, in this paper, we design and implement an omni-directional underwater acoustic micro-modem satisfying these requirements. In order to execute fast digital domain signal processing and support flexible interfaces with other peripherals, an ARM Cortex-M3 is embedded in the micro-modem. Also, for the realization of small and omni-directional properties, a spherical transducer having a resonant frequency of 70 kHz and a diameter of 34 mm is utilized for the implementation. Physical layer frame format and symbol structure for efficient packet-based underwater communication systems are also investigated. The developed acoustic micro-modem is verified analytically and experimentally in indoor and outdoor environments in terms of functionality and performance. Since the modem satisfies the requirements for use in UWSNs, it could be deployed in a wide range of applications requiring underwater acoustic communication. PMID:22438765
Won, Tae-Hee; Park, Sung-Joon
2012-01-01
For decades, underwater acoustic communication has been restricted to the point-to-point long distance applications such as deep sea probes and offshore oil fields. For this reason, previous acoustic modems were typically characterized by high data rates and long working ranges at the expense of large size and high power consumption. Recently, as the need for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) has increased, the research and development of compact and low-power consuming communication devices has become the focus. From the consideration that the requisites of acoustic modems for UWSNs are low power consumption, omni-directional beam pattern, low cost and so on, in this paper, we design and implement an omni-directional underwater acoustic micro-modem satisfying these requirements. In order to execute fast digital domain signal processing and support flexible interfaces with other peripherals, an ARM Cortex-M3 is embedded in the micro-modem. Also, for the realization of small and omni-directional properties, a spherical transducer having a resonant frequency of 70 kHz and a diameter of 34 mm is utilized for the implementation. Physical layer frame format and symbol structure for efficient packet-based underwater communication systems are also investigated. The developed acoustic micro-modem is verified analytically and experimentally in indoor and outdoor environments in terms of functionality and performance. Since the modem satisfies the requirements for use in UWSNs, it could be deployed in a wide range of applications requiring underwater acoustic communication.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koverda, V. P.; Skokov, V. N.
2012-12-01
The principle of maximum entropy has been used to analyze the stability of the resulting process observed during the interaction of a random process with a 1/f spectrum and a deterministic action in lumped and distributed systems of nonlinear stochastic differential equations describing the coupled nonequilibrium phase transitions. Under the action of a harmonic force the stable resulting process is divided into two branches depending on the amplitude of the harmonic force. Under the action of exponential relaxation in a lumped system with an increase in the dumping coefficient the power spectrum of the resulting process becomes a spectrum of the Lorentz type.
The effect of the size of the opening on the acoustic power radiated by a reed woodwind instrument
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guilloteau, Alexis; Guillemain, Philippe; Kergomard, Jean; Jousserand, Michael
2015-05-01
For a given note, the maker of woodwind instruments can choose between different sizes for the toneholes under the condition that the location is appropriate. The present paper aims at analyzing the consequences of this choice on the power radiated by a hole, which depends on the coupling between the acoustic resonator and the excitation mechanism of the self-sustained oscillation, thus on the blowing pressure. For that purpose a simplified reed instrument is investigated, with a cylindrical pipe and a unique orifice at the pipe termination. The orifice diameter was varied between the pipe diameter and a size such that the instrument did not play. The pipe length was in each case adjusted to keep the resonance frequency constant. A simple analytical model predicts that, for a given mouth pressure of the instrumentalist, the radiated power does not depend on the size of the hole if it is wide enough and if resonator losses are ignored. Numerical solution of a model including losses confirms this result: the difference in radiated power between two diaphragm sizes remains smaller than the difference obtained if the radiated power would be proportional to the orifice cross section area. This is confirmed by experiments using an artificial mouth, but the results show that the linear losses are underestimated, and that significant nonlinear losses occur. The measurements are limited to the acoustic pressure at a given distance of the orifice. Experiments also show that rounding edges of the orifice reduces nonlinear losses resulting in an increase of the power radiated and of the extinction threshold, and resulting in a larger dynamical range.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moser, D. T.
1972-01-01
The power spectrum of phase modulation imposed upon satellite radio signals by the inhomogeneous F-region of the ionosphere (100 - 500 km) was studied. Tapes of the S-66 Beacon B Satellite recorded during the period 1964 - 1966 were processed to yield or record the frequency of modulation induced on the signals by ionospheric dispersion. This modulation is produced from the sweeping across the receiving station as the satellite transits of the two dimensional spatial phase pattern are produced on the ground. From this a power spectrum of structure sizes comprising the diffracting mechanism was determined using digital techniques. Fresnel oscillations were observed and analyzed along with some comments on the statistical stationarity of the shape of the power spectrum observed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Anliang; Zha, Yan; Fu, Xingting
2013-07-01
A new method for splitting a droplet with oil encapsulation is presented. An interdigital transducer and a reflector are fabricated on a 128° yx-LiNbO3 piezoelectric substrate using microelectric technology. An electric signal with the power of 12.3 dBm is applied to the interdigital transducer to generate surface acoustic wave, which is radiated into a droplet with oil encapsulation, leading to surface acoustic wave streaming force. When the electric signal is suddenly moved off, the breakup of the droplet occurs due to inertial force. Color dye solution droplets encapsulated by oil droplets are demonstrated. The effects of electric power, the volume ratio of color dye solution to oil, and the volume of mother droplet on the breakup of droplets are studied. As applications, the presented method is successfully applied to mixture operation and color development reaction of two droplets. The method provides a new sample preparation technique, which is helpful for microfluidic biochemical analysis in a piezoelectric microfluidic system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akselrod, Solange; Gordon, David; Ubel, F. Andrew; Shannon, Daniel C.; Barger, A. Clifford; Cohen, Richard J.
1981-07-01
Power spectrum analysis of heart rate fluctuations provides a quantitative noninvasive means of assessing the functioning of the short-term cardiovascular control systems. We show that sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activity make frequency-specific contributions to the heart rate power spectrum, and that renin-angiotensin system activity strongly modulates the amplitude of the spectral peak located at 0.04 hertz. Our data therefore provide evidence that the reninangiotensin system plays a significant role in short-term cardiovascular control on the time scale of seconds to minutes.
A power line data communication interface using spread spectrum technology in home automation
Shwehdi, M.H.; Khan, A.Z.
1996-07-01
Building automation technology is rapidly developing towards more reliable communication systems, devices that control electronic equipments. These equipment if controlled leads to efficient energy management, and savings on the monthly electricity bill. Power Line communication (PLC) has been one of the dreams of the electronics industry for decades, especially for building automation. It is the purpose of this paper to demonstrate communication methods among electronic control devices through an AC power line carrier within the buildings for more efficient energy control. The paper outlines methods of communication over a powerline, namely the X-10 and CE bus. It also introduces the spread spectrum technology as to increase speed to 100--150 times faster than the X-10 system. The powerline carrier has tremendous applications in the field of building automation. The paper presents an attempt to realize a smart house concept, so called, in which all home electronic devices from a coffee maker to a water heater microwave to chaos robots will be utilized by an intelligent network whenever one wishes to do so. The designed system may be applied very profitably to help in energy management for both customer and utility.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frolov, Vladimir; Chernogor, Leonid; Rozumenko, Victor
The Radiophysical Research Institute (Nizhny Novgorod, Russia) and Kharkiv V. N. Karazin National University (Kharkiv, Ukraine) have studied opportunities for the effective generation of acoustic gravity waves (AGWs) in 3 - 180-min period range. The excitation of such waves was conducted for the last several years using the SURA heating facility (Nizhny Novgorod). The detection of the HF-induced AGWs was carried out in the Radiophysical Observatory located near Kharkiv City at a distance of about 960 km from the SURA. A coherent radar for vertical sounding, an ionosonde, and magnetometer chains were used in our measurements. The main results are the following (see [1-5]): 1. Infrasound oscillation trains with a period of 6 min are detected during periodic SURA heater turn-on and -off. Similar oscillation trains are detected after long time pumping, during periodic transmissions with a period of 20 s, as well as after pumping turn-off. The train recordings begin 28 - 54 min after the heater turn-on or -off, and the train propagation speeds are about 300 - 570 m/s, the value of which is close to the sound speed at upper atmospheric altitudes. The amplitude of the Doppler shift frequency is of 10 - 40 mHz, which fits to the 0.1 - 0.3% electron density disturbances at ionospheric altitudes. The amplitude of the infrasound oscillations depends on the SURA mode of operation and the state of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. 2. High-power radio transmissions stimulate the generation (or enhancement) of waves at ionospheric altitudes in the range of internal gravity wave periods. The HF-induced waves propagate with speeds of 360 - 460 m/s and produce changes in electron density with amplitudes of 2 - 3%. The generation of such periodic perturbations is more preferable with periods of 10 - 60 minutes. Their features depend significantly on the heater mode of operation. It should be stressed that perturbation intensity increases when a pumping wave frequency approaches
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Battistoni, G.; Bellotti, E.; Bloise, C.; Bologna, G.; Campana, P.; Castagnoli, C.; Castellina, A.; Chiarella, V.; Ciocio, A.; Cundy, D.
1985-01-01
A primary cosmic ray spectrum was derived which fits both experimental multiple muon rates and the all-nucleon flux derived from the single muon intensities underground. In the frame of the interaction model developed by Gaisser, Elbert and Stanev, it is possible to reproduce NUSEX muon data with a primary composition in which the iron spectrum is only slightly flatter than the proton one. This result rules out the popular idea that the primary composition varies drastically with increasing energy, leading to the dominance of heavier nuclei at energies 10 to the 15th power to 10 to the 16th power eV.
Langner, Oliver; Wiese, Holger; Redies, Christoph
2015-01-01
We investigated whether low-level processed image properties that are shared by natural scenes and artworks – but not veridical face photographs – affect the perception of facial attractiveness and age. Specifically, we considered the slope of the radially averaged Fourier power spectrum in a log-log plot. This slope is a measure of the distribution of special frequency power in an image. Images of natural scenes and artworks possess – compared to face images – a relatively shallow slope (i.e., increased high spatial frequency power). Since aesthetic perception might be based on the efficient processing of images with natural scene statistics, we assumed that the perception of facial attractiveness might also be affected by these properties. We calculated Fourier slope and other beauty-associated measurements in face images and correlated them with ratings of attractiveness and age of the depicted persons (Study 1). We found that Fourier slope – in contrast to the other tested image properties – did not predict attractiveness ratings when we controlled for age. In Study 2A, we overlaid face images with random-phase patterns with different statistics. Patterns with a slope similar to those in natural scenes and artworks resulted in lower attractiveness and higher age ratings. In Studies 2B and 2C, we directly manipulated the Fourier slope of face images and found that images with shallower slopes were rated as more attractive. Additionally, attractiveness of unaltered faces was affected by the Fourier slope of a random-phase background (Study 3). Faces in front of backgrounds with statistics similar to natural scenes and faces were rated as more attractive. We conclude that facial attractiveness ratings are affected by specific image properties. An explanation might be the efficient coding hypothesis. PMID:25835539
Dorn, Sebastian; Enßlin, Torsten A.; Ramirez, Erandy; Kunze, Kerstin E.
2014-06-01
We present a generic inference method for inflation models from observational data by the usage of higher-order statistics of the curvature perturbation on uniform density hypersurfaces. This method is based on the calculation of the posterior for the primordial non-Gaussianity parameters f{sub NL} and g{sub NL}, which in general depend on specific parameters of inflation and reheating models, and enables to discriminate among the still viable inflation models. To keep analyticity as far as possible to dispense with numerically expensive sampling techniques a saddle-point approximation is introduced, whose precision is validated for a numerical toy example. The mathematical formulation is done in a generic way so that the approach remains applicable to cosmic microwave background data as well as to large scale structure data. Additionally, we review a few currently interesting inflation models and present numerical toy examples thereof in two and three dimensions to demonstrate the efficiency of the higher-order statistics method. A second quantity of interest is the primordial power spectrum. Here, we present two Bayesian methods to infer it from observational data, the so called critical filter and an extension thereof with smoothness prior, both allowing for a non-parametric spectrum reconstruction. These methods are able to reconstruct the spectra of the observed perturbations and the primordial ones of curvature perturbation even in case of non-Gaussianity and partial sky coverage. We argue that observables like T- and B-modes permit to measure both spectra. This also allows to infer the level of non-Gaussianity generated since inflation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiersma, R. P. C.; Ciardi, B.; Thomas, R. M.; Harker, G. J. A.; Zaroubi, S.; Bernardi, G.; Brentjens, M.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Daiboo, S.; Jelic, V.; Kazemi, S.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Labropoulos, P.; Martinez, O.; Mellema, G.; Offringa, A.; Pandey, V. N.; Schaye, J.; Veligatla, V.; Vedantham, H.; Yatawatta, S.
2013-07-01
Using a combination of N-body simulations, semi-analytic models and radiative transfer calculations, we have estimated the theoretical cross-power spectrum between galaxies and the 21 cm emission from neutral hydrogen during the epoch of reionization. In accordance with previous studies, we find that the 21 cm emission is initially correlated with haloes on large scales (≳30 Mpc), anticorrelated on intermediate (˜5 Mpc) and uncorrelated on small (≲3 Mpc) scales. This picture quickly changes as reionization proceeds and the two fields become anticorrelated on large scales. The normalization of the cross-power spectrum can be used to set constraints on the average neutral fraction in the intergalactic medium and its shape can be a powerful tool to study the topology of reionization. When we apply a drop-out technique to select galaxies and add to the 21 cm signal the noise expected from the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) telescope, we find that while the normalization of the cross-power spectrum remains a useful tool for probing reionization, its shape becomes too noisy to be informative. On the other hand, for an Lyα Emitter (LAE) survey both the normalization and the shape of the cross-power spectrum are suitable probes of reionization. A closer look at a specific planned LAE observing program using Subaru Hyper-Suprime Cam reveals concerns about the strength of the 21 cm signal at the planned redshifts. If the ionized fraction at z ˜ 7 is lower than the one estimated here, then using the cross-power spectrum may be a useful exercise given that at higher redshifts and neutral fractions it is able to distinguish between two toy models with different topologies.
Disentangling Redshift-Space Distortions and Nonlinear Bias using the 2D Power Spectrum
Jennings, Elise; Wechsler, Risa H.
2015-08-07
We present the nonlinear 2D galaxy power spectrum, P(k, µ), in redshift space, measured from the Dark Sky simulations, using galaxy catalogs constructed with both halo occupation distribution and subhalo abundance matching methods, chosen to represent an intermediate redshift sample of luminous red galaxies. We find that the information content in individual µ (cosine of the angle to the line of sight) bins is substantially richer then multipole moments, and show that this can be used to isolate the impact of nonlinear growth and redshift space distortion (RSD) effects. Using the µ < 0.2 simulation data, which we show ismore » not impacted by RSD effects, we can successfully measure the nonlinear bias to an accuracy of ~ 5% at k < 0.6hMpc-1 . This use of individual µ bins to extract the nonlinear bias successfully removes a large parameter degeneracy when constraining the linear growth rate of structure. We carry out a joint parameter estimation, using the low µ simulation data to constrain the nonlinear bias, and µ > 0.2 to constrain the growth rate and show that f can be constrained to ~ 26(22)% to a kmax < 0.4(0.6)hMpc-1 from clustering alone using a simple dispersion model, for a range of galaxy models. Our analysis of individual µ bins also reveals interesting physical effects which arise simply from different methods of populating halos with galaxies. We also find a prominent turnaround scale, at which RSD damping effects are greater then the nonlinear growth, which differs not only for each µ bin but also for each galaxy model. These features may provide unique signatures which could be used to shed light on the galaxy–dark matter connection. Furthermore, the idea of separating nonlinear growth and RSD effects making use of the full information in the 2D galaxy power spectrum yields significant improvements in constraining cosmological parameters and may be a promising probe of galaxy formation models.« less
Correlation between peak energy and Fourier power density spectrum slope in gamma-ray bursts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dichiara, S.; Guidorzi, C.; Amati, L.; Frontera, F.; Margutti, R.
2016-05-01
Context. The origin of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) prompt emission still defies explanation, in spite of recent progress made, for example, on the occasional presence of a thermal component in the spectrum along with the ubiquitous non-thermal component that is modelled with a Band function. The combination of finite duration and aperiodic modulations make GRBs hard to characterise temporally. Although correlations between GRB luminosity and spectral hardness on one side and time variability on the other side have long been known, the loose and often arbitrary definition of the latter makes the interpretation uncertain. Aims: We characterise the temporal variability in an objective way and search for a connection with rest-frame spectral properties for a number of well-observed GRBs. Methods: We studied the individual power density spectra (PDS) of 123 long GRBs with measured redshift, rest-frame peak energy Ep,i of the time-averaged ν Fν spectrum, and well-constrained PDS slope α detected with Swift, Fermi and past spacecraft. The PDS were modelled with a power law either with or without a break adopting a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo technique. Results: We find a highly significant Ep,i-α anti-correlation. The null hypothesis probability is ~10-9. Conclusions: In the framework of the internal shock synchrotron model, the Ep,i-α anti-correlation can hardly be reconciled with the predicted Ep,i ∝ Γ-2, unless either variable microphysical parameters of the shocks or continual electron acceleration are assumed. Alternatively, in the context of models based on magnetic reconnection, the PDS slope and Ep,i are linked to the ejecta magnetisation at the dissipation site, so that more magnetised outflows would produce more variable GRB light curves at short timescales (≲1 s), shallower PDS, and higher values of Ep,i. Full Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Gong-Bo; Saito, Shun; Percival, Will J.; Ross, Ashley J.; Montesano, Francesco; Viel, Matteo; Schneider, Donald P.; Manera, Marc; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Ross, Nicholas P.; Samushia, Lado; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Swanson, Molly E. C.; Thomas, Daniel; Tojeiro, Rita; Yèche, Christophe; York, Donald G.
2013-12-01
We measure the sum of the neutrino particle masses using the three-dimensional galaxy power spectrum of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III) Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey Data Release 9 the constant MASS (CMASS) galaxy sample. Combined with the cosmic microwave background, supernova and additional baryonic acoustic oscillation data, we find upper 95 per cent confidence limits (CL) of the neutrino mass Σmν < 0.340 eV within a flat Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) background, and Σmν < 0.821 eV, assuming a more general background cosmological model. The number of neutrino species is measured to be Neff = 4.308 ± 0.794 and 4.032^{+0.870}_{-0.894} for these two cases, respectively. We study and quantify the effect of several factors on the neutrino measurements, including the galaxy power spectrum bias model, the effect of redshift-space distortion, the cut-off scale of the power spectrum and the choice of additional data. The impact of neutrinos with unknown masses on other cosmological parameter measurements is investigated. The fractional matter density and the Hubble parameter are measured to be Ω _M=0.2796± 0.0097, H_0=69.72^{+0.90}_{-0.91} km s-1 Mpc-1 (flat ΛCDM) and Ω _M=0.2798^{+0.0132}_{-0.0136}, H_0=73.78^{+3.16}_{-3.17} km s-1 Mpc-1 (more general background model). Based on a Chevallier-Polarski-Linder parametrization of the equation-of-state w of dark energy, we find that w = -1 is consistent with observations, even allowing for neutrinos. Similarly, the curvature ΩK and the running of the spectral index αs are both consistent with zero. The tensor-to-scalar ratio is constrained down to r < 0.198 (95 per cent CL, flat ΛCDM) and r < 0.440 (95 per cent CL, more general background model).
Li, Changhong; Cheung, Yeuk-Kwan E. E-mail: cheung@nju.edu.cn
2014-07-01
We investigate the spectrum of cosmological perturbations in a bounce cosmos modeled by a scalar field coupled to the string tachyon field (CSTB cosmos). By explicit computation of its primordial spectral index we show the power spectrum of curvature perturbations, generated during the tachyon matter dominated contraction phase, to be nearly scale invariant. We propose a unified parameter space for a systematic study of inflationary and bounce cosmologies. The CSTB cosmos is dual-in Wands's sense-to slow-roll inflation as can be visualized with the aid of this parameter space. Guaranteed by the dynamical attractor behavior of the CSTB Cosmos, the scale invariance of its power spectrum is free of the fine-tuning problem, in contrast to the slow-roll inflation model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donzelli, S.; Maino, D.; Bersanelli, M.; Childers, J.; Figueiredo, N.; Lubin, P. M.; Meinhold, P. R.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Seiffert, M. D.; Villela, T.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wuensche, C. A.
2006-06-01
We present the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) component extracted with FASTICA from the Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope (BEAST) data. BEAST is a 2.2-m off-axis telescope with a focal plane comprising eight elements at Q (38-45 GHz) and Ka (26-36 GHz) bands. It operates from the UC (University of California) White Mountain Research Station at an altitude of 3800 m. The BEAST CMB angular power spectrum has already been calculated by O'Dwyer et al. using only the Q-band data. With two input channels, FASTICA returns two possible independent components. We found that one of these two has an unphysical spectral behaviour, while the other is a reasonable CMB component. After a detailed calibration procedure based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, we extracted the angular power spectrum for the identified CMB component and found a very good agreement with the already published BEAST CMB angular power spectrum and with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ushakov, Y. V.; Dubkov, A. A.; Spagnolo, B.
2013-01-01
In this work we develop an analytical approach for calculation of the all-order interspike interval density (AOISID), show its connection with the autocorrelation function, and try to explain the discovered resemblance of AOISID to the power spectrum of the same spike train.
Electromagnetic Launch Vehicle Fairing and Acoustic Blanket Model of Received Power Using FEKO
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trout, Dawn H.; Stanley, James E.; Wahid, Parveen F.
2011-01-01
Evaluating the impact of radio frequency transmission in vehicle fairings is important to sensitive spacecraft. This paper employees the Multilevel Fast Multipole Method (MLFMM) feature of a commercial electromagnetic tool to model the fairing electromagnetic environment in the presence of an internal transmitter. This work is an extension of the perfect electric conductor model that was used to represent the bare aluminum internal fairing cavity. This fairing model includes typical acoustic blanketing commonly used in vehicle fairings. Representative material models within FEKO were successfully used to simulate the test case.
CONSTRAINTS ON THE HIGH-l POWER SPECTRUM OF MILLIMETER-WAVE ANISOTROPIES FROM APEX-SZ
Reichardt, C. L.; Zahn, O.; Ferrusca, D.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Johnson, B. R.; Lee, A. T.; Lueker, M.; Ade, P. A. R.; Lanting, T.; Basu, K.; Chon, G.; Kneissl, R.; Bender, A. N.; Halverson, N. W.; Bertoldi, F.; Cho, H.-M.; Dobbs, M.; Kennedy, J.; Horellou, C.; Johansson, D.
2009-08-20
We present measurements of the angular power spectrum of millimeter wave anisotropies with the APEX-SZ instrument. APEX-SZ has mapped 0.8 deg{sup 2} of sky at a frequency of 150 GHz with an angular resolution of 1'. These new measurements significantly improve the constraints on anisotropy power at 150 GHz over the range of angular multipoles 3000 < l < 10, 000, limiting the total astronomical signal in a flat band power to be less than 105 {mu}K{sup 2} at 95% CL. We expect both submillimeter-bright, dusty galaxies and to a lesser extent secondary cosmic microwave background anisotropies from the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) to significantly contribute to the observed power. Subtracting the SZE power spectrum expected for {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.8 and masking bright sources, the best-fit value for the remaining power is C {sub l} = 1.1{sup +0.9} {sub -0.8} x 10{sup -5} {mu}K{sup 2} (1.7{sup +1.4} {sub -1.3} Jy{sup 2} sr{sup -1}). This agrees well with model predictions for power due to submillimeter-bright, dusty galaxies. Comparing this power to the power detected by BLAST at 600 GHz, we find the frequency dependence of the source fluxes to be S{sub {nu}}{proportional_to}{nu}{sup 2.6+0.4}{sub -0.2}} if both experiments measure the same population of sources. Simultaneously fitting for the amplitude of the SZE power spectrum and a Poisson-distributed point source population, we place an upper limit on the matter fluctuation amplitude of {sigma}{sub 8} < 1.18 at 95% confidence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, A.; André, Ph.; Arzoumanian, D.; Peretto, N.; Palmeirim, P.; Könyves, V.; Schneider, N.; Benedettini, M.; Di Francesco, J.; Elia, D.; Hill, T.; Ladjelate, B.; Louvet, F.; Motte, F.; Pezzuto, S.; Schisano, E.; Shimajiri, Y.; Spinoglio, L.; Ward-Thompson, D.; White, G.
2015-12-01
A complete understanding of the origin of the prestellar core mass function (CMF) is crucial. Two major features of the prestellar CMF are 1) a broad peak below 1 M⊙, presumably corresponding to a mean gravitational fragmentation scale, and 2) a characteristic power-law slope, very similar to the Salpeter slope of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) at the high-mass end. While recent Herschel observations have shown that the peak of the prestellar CMF is close to the thermal Jeans mass in marginally supercritical filaments, the origin of the power-law tail of the CMF/IMF at the high-mass end is less clear. In 2001, Inutsuka proposed a theoretical scenario in which the origin of the power-law tail can be understood as resulting from the growth of an initial spectrum of density perturbations seeded along the long axis of star-forming filaments by interstellar turbulence. Here, we report the statistical properties of the line-mass fluctuations of filaments in the Pipe, Taurus, and IC 5146 molecular clouds observed with Herschel for a sample of subcritical or marginally supercritical filaments using a 1D power spectrum analysis. The observed filament power spectra were fitted by a power-law function (Ptrue(s) ∝ sα) after removing the effect of beam convolution at small scales. A Gaussian-like distribution of power-spectrum slopes was found, centered at α̅corr = -1.6 ± 0.3. The characteristic index of the observed power spectra is close to that of the 1D velocity power spectrum generated by subsonic Kolomogorov turbulence (-1.67). Given the errors, the measured power-spectrum slope is also marginally consistent with the power spectrum index of -2 expected for supersonic compressible turbulence. With such a power spectrum of initial line-mass fluctuations, Inutsuka's model would yield a mass function of collapsed objects along filaments approaching dN/dM ∝ M- 2.3 ± 0.1 at the high-mass end (very close to the Salpeter power law) after a few free-fall times
Anatomical background noise power spectrum in differential phase contrast breast images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garrett, John; Ge, Yongshuai; Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong
2015-03-01
In x-ray breast imaging, the anatomical noise background of the breast has a significant impact on the detection of lesions and other features of interest. This anatomical noise is typically characterized by a parameter, β, which describes a power law dependence of anatomical noise on spatial frequency (the shape of the anatomical noise power spectrum). Large values of β have been shown to reduce human detection performance, and in conventional mammography typical values of β are around 3.2. Recently, x-ray differential phase contrast (DPC) and the associated dark field imaging methods have received considerable attention as possible supplements to absorption imaging for breast cancer diagnosis. However, the impact of these additional contrast mechanisms on lesion detection is not yet well understood. In order to better understand the utility of these new methods, we measured the β indices for absorption, DPC, and dark field images in 15 cadaver breast specimens using a benchtop DPC imaging system. We found that the measured β value for absorption was consistent with the literature for mammographic acquisitions (β = 3.61±0.49), but that both DPC and dark field images had much lower values of β (β = 2.54±0.75 for DPC and β = 1.44±0.49 for dark field). In addition, visual inspection showed greatly reduced anatomical background in both DPC and dark field images. These promising results suggest that DPC and dark field imaging may help provide improved lesion detection in breast imaging, particularly for those patients with dense breasts, in whom anatomical noise is a major limiting factor in identifying malignancies.
Non-linear matter power spectrum covariance matrix errors and cosmological parameter uncertainties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blot, L.; Corasaniti, P. S.; Amendola, L.; Kitching, T. D.
2016-06-01
The covariance of the matter power spectrum is a key element of the analysis of galaxy clustering data. Independent realizations of observational measurements can be used to sample the covariance, nevertheless statistical sampling errors will propagate into the cosmological parameter inference potentially limiting the capabilities of the upcoming generation of galaxy surveys. The impact of these errors as function of the number of realizations has been previously evaluated for Gaussian distributed data. However, non-linearities in the late-time clustering of matter cause departures from Gaussian statistics. Here, we address the impact of non-Gaussian errors on the sample covariance and precision matrix errors using a large ensemble of N-body simulations. In the range of modes where finite volume effects are negligible (0.1 ≲ k [h Mpc-1] ≲ 1.2), we find deviations of the variance of the sample covariance with respect to Gaussian predictions above ˜10 per cent at k > 0.3 h Mpc-1. Over the entire range these reduce to about ˜5 per cent for the precision matrix. Finally, we perform a Fisher analysis to estimate the effect of covariance errors on the cosmological parameter constraints. In particular, assuming Euclid-like survey characteristics we find that a number of independent realizations larger than 5000 is necessary to reduce the contribution of sampling errors to the cosmological parameter uncertainties at subpercent level. We also show that restricting the analysis to large scales k ≲ 0.2 h Mpc-1 results in a considerable loss in constraining power, while using the linear covariance to include smaller scales leads to an underestimation of the errors on the cosmological parameters.
A Microthermal Device for Measuring the Spatial Power Spectrum of Atmospheric Optical Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turner, Jonathan; McGraw, J.; Zimmer, P.; Williams, T.; Claver, C.; Krabbendam, V.; Wiecha, O.; Andrew, J.; Warner, M.
2010-01-01
The Measurement Astrophysics group at UNM designed and built a novel microthermal device for characterizing atmospheric optical turbulence at astronomical observatories. This instrument is based on a Wheatstone bridge circuit and uses fine tungsten filaments as resistance temperature detectors. The device makes differential temperature measurements which are directly related to the index of refraction structure constant, Cn2, which quantifies the strength of optical turbulence. The device is designed to work in two modes. In horizontal mode temperature differentials are measured between adjacent sensors. Measurements are combined to recover the differences over all pairwise sensor baselines. These measurements result in a spatial spectrum of turbulence. Measured turbulent spectra are then fit to standard turbulence models which yield estimates of the outer scale of turbulence and the slope of the power spectra. In vertical mode the device operates with pairs of microthermal sensors distributed vertically, each pair being separated horizontally by approximately one meter. Sensor pairs are suspended at multiple heights above the ground allowing measurement of atmospheric turbulence power as a function of altitude. This device was used to monitor optical turbulence during a site testing campaign at the future LSST site on Cerro Pachón. We present preliminary results from operation in both vertical and horizontal modes from October 2008 to December 2009. The microthermal array remains in operation on Cerro Pachón, and continues to produce valuable atmospheric measurements. Our results support the conclusion that Cerro Pachón is an excellent observatory site. The vertical turbulence profile decreases monotonically with height as expected, and the surface layer does not contribute a significant amount to the overall seeing measured at the site. This work was supported by Air Force Grant No. FA9451-04-2-0355. Instrumentation and travel support was provided in part by
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sree, Dave
2015-01-01
Near-field acoustic power level analysis of F31A31 open rotor model has been performed to determine its noise characteristics at simulated cruise flight conditions. The non-proprietary parts of the test data obtained from experiments in the 8x6 supersonic wind tunnel were provided by NASA-Glenn Research Center. The tone and broadband components of total noise have been separated from raw test data by using a new data analysis tool. Results in terms of sound pressure levels, acoustic power levels, and their variations with rotor speed, freestream Mach number, and input shaft power, with different blade-pitch setting angles at simulated cruise flight conditions, are presented and discussed. Empirical equations relating models acoustic power level and input shaft power have been developed. The near-field acoustic efficiency of the model at simulated cruise conditions is also determined. It is hoped that the results presented in this work will serve as a database for comparison and improvement of other open rotor blade designs and also for validating open rotor noise prediction codes.
The Angular Power Spectrum of BATSE 3B Gamma-Ray Bursts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tegmark, Max; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Briggs, Michael S.; Meegan, Charles A.
1996-01-01
We compute the angular power spectrum C(sub l) from the BATSE 3B catalog of 1122 gamma-ray bursts and find no evidence for clustering on any scale. These constraints bridge the entire range from small scales (which probe source clustering and burst repetition) to the largest scales (which constrain possible anisotropics from the Galactic halo or from nearby cosmological large-scale structures). We develop an analysis technique that takes the angular position errors into account. For specific clustering or repetition models, strong upper limits can be obtained down to scales l approx. equal to 30, corresponding to a couple of degrees on the sky. The minimum-variance burst weighting that we employ is visualized graphically as an all-sky map in which each burst is smeared out by an amount corresponding to its position uncertainty. We also present separate bandpass-filtered sky maps for the quadrupole term and for the multipole ranges l = 3-10 and l = 11-30, so that the fluctuations on different angular scales can be inspected separately for visual features such as localized 'hot spots' or structures aligned with the Galactic plane. These filtered maps reveal no apparent deviations from isotropy.
A new probe of the magnetic field power spectrum in cosmic web filaments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hales, Christopher A.; Greiner, Maksim; Ensslin, Torsten A.
2015-08-01
Establishing the properties of magnetic fields on scales larger than galaxy clusters is critical for resolving the unknown origin and evolution of galactic and cluster magnetism. More generally, observations of magnetic fields on cosmic scales are needed for assessing the impacts of magnetism on cosmology, particle physics, and structure formation over the full history of the Universe. However, firm observational evidence for magnetic fields in large scale structure remains elusive. In an effort to address this problem, we have developed a novel statistical method to infer the magnetic field power spectrum in cosmic web filaments using observation of the two-point correlation of Faraday rotation measures from a dense grid of extragalactic radio sources. Here we describe our approach, which embeds and extends the pioneering work of Kolatt (1998) within the context of Information Field Theory (a statistical theory for Bayesian inference on spatially distributed signals; Enfllin et al., 2009). We describe prospects for observation, for example with forthcoming data from the ultra-deep JVLA CHILES Con Pol survey and future surveys with the SKA.
Power spectrum tomography of dark matter annihilation with local galaxy distribution
Ando, Shin'ichiro
2014-10-01
Cross-correlating the gamma-ray background with local galaxy catalogs potentially gives stringent constraints on dark matter annihilation. We provide updated theoretical estimates of sensitivities to the annihilation cross section from gamma-ray data with Fermi telescope and 2MASS galaxy catalogs, by elaborating the galaxy power spectrum and astrophysical backgrounds, and adopting the Markov-Chain Monte Carlo simulations. In particular, we show that taking tomographic approach by dividing the galaxy catalogs into more than one redshift slice will improve the sensitivity by a factor of a few to several. If dark matter halos contain lots of bright substructures, yielding a large annihilation boost (e.g., a factor of ∼100 for galaxy-size halos), then one may be able to probe the canonical annihilation cross section for thermal production mechanism up to masses of ∼700 GeV. Even with modest substructure boost (e.g., a factor of ∼10 for galaxy-size halos), on the other hand, the sensitivities could still reach a factor of three larger than the canonical cross section for dark matter masses of tens to a few hundreds of GeV.
Power spectrum constraints from spectral distortions in the cosmic microwave background
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hu, Wayne; Scott, Douglas; Silk, Joseph
1994-01-01
Using recent experimental limits on chemical potential distortions from Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) Far Infrared Astronomy Satellite (FIRAS), and the large lever-arm spanning the damping of sub-Jeans scale fluctuations to the COBE DMR fluctuations, we set a constraint on the slope of the primordial power spectrum n. It is possible to analytically calculate the contribution over the full range of scales and redshifts, correctly taking into account fluctuation growth and damping as well as thermalization processes. Assuming conservatively that mu is less than 1.76 x 10(exp -4), we find that the 95% upper limit on n is only weakly dependent on other cosmological parameters, e.g., n is less than 1.60 (h=0.5) and n is less than 1.63 (h=1.0) for Omega(sub 0) = 1, with marginally weaker constraints for Omega(sub 0) is less than 1 in a flat model with a cosmological constant.
Reheating effects in the matter power spectrum and implications for substructure
Erickcek, Adrienne L.; Sigurdson, Kris
2011-10-15
The thermal and expansion history of the Universe before big bang nucleosynthesis is unknown. We investigate the evolution of cosmological perturbations through the transition from an early matter era to radiation domination. We treat reheating as the perturbative decay of an oscillating scalar field into relativistic plasma and cold dark matter. After reheating, we find that subhorizon perturbations in the decay-produced dark matter density are significantly enhanced, while subhorizon radiation perturbations are instead suppressed. If dark matter originates in the radiation bath after reheating, this suppression may be the primary cutoff in the matter power spectrum. Conversely, for dark matter produced nonthermally from scalar decay, enhanced perturbations can drive structure formation during the cosmic dark ages and dramatically increase the abundance of compact substructures. For low reheat temperatures, we find that as much as 50% of all dark matter is in microhalos with M > or approx. 0.1M{sub +} at z{approx_equal}100, compared to a fraction of {approx}10{sup -10} in the standard case. In this scenario, ultradense substructures may constitute a large fraction of dark matter in galaxies today.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Qing-Guo; Wang, Sai; Zhao, Wen
2015-10-01
By taking into account the contamination of foreground radiations, we employ the Fisher matrix to forecast the future sensitivity on the tilt of power spectrum of primordial tensor perturbations for several ground-based (AdvACT, CLASS, Keck/BICEP3, Simons Array, SPT-3G), balloon-borne (EBEX, Spider) and satellite (CMBPol, COrE, LiteBIRD) experiments of B-mode polarizations. For the fiducial model nt=0, our results show that the satellite experiments give good sensitivity on the tensor tilt nt to the level σntlesssim0.1 for rgtrsim2×10-3, while the ground-based and balloon-borne experiments give worse sensitivity. By considering the BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck (BKP) constraint on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r, we see that it is impossible for these experiments to test the consistency relation nt=-r/8 in the canonical single-field slow-roll inflation models.
Huang, Qing-Guo; Wang, Sai; Zhao, Wen E-mail: wangsai@itp.ac.cn
2015-10-01
By taking into account the contamination of foreground radiations, we employ the Fisher matrix to forecast the future sensitivity on the tilt of power spectrum of primordial tensor perturbations for several ground-based (AdvACT, CLASS, Keck/BICEP3, Simons Array, SPT-3G), balloon-borne (EBEX, Spider) and satellite (CMBPol, COrE, LiteBIRD) experiments of B-mode polarizations. For the fiducial model n{sub t}=0, our results show that the satellite experiments give good sensitivity on the tensor tilt n{sub t} to the level σ{sub n{sub t}}∼<0.1 for r∼>2×10{sup −3}, while the ground-based and balloon-borne experiments give worse sensitivity. By considering the BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck (BKP) constraint on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r, we see that it is impossible for these experiments to test the consistency relation n{sub t}=−r/8 in the canonical single-field slow-roll inflation models.
Constraining models of f(R) gravity with Planck and WiggleZ power spectrum data
Dossett, Jason; Parkinson, David; Hu, Bin E-mail: hu@lorentz.leidenuniv.nl
2014-03-01
In order to explain cosmic acceleration without invoking ''dark'' physics, we consider f(R) modified gravity models, which replace the standard Einstein-Hilbert action in General Relativity with a higher derivative theory. We use data from the WiggleZ Dark Energy survey to probe the formation of structure on large scales which can place tight constraints on these models. We combine the large-scale structure data with measurements of the cosmic microwave background from the Planck surveyor. After parameterizing the modification of the action using the Compton wavelength parameter B{sub 0}, we constrain this parameter using ISiTGR, assuming an initial non-informative log prior probability distribution of this cross-over scale. We find that the addition of the WiggleZ power spectrum provides the tightest constraints to date on B{sub 0} by an order of magnitude, giving log{sub 10}(B{sub 0}) < −4.07 at 95% confidence limit. Finally, we test whether the effect of adding the lensing amplitude A{sub Lens} and the sum of the neutrino mass ∑m{sub ν} is able to reconcile current tensions present in these parameters, but find f(R) gravity an inadequate explanation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Junhong; Wang, Jian; Lin, Jiewei; Bi, Fengrong; Guo, Qian; Chen, Kongwu; Ma, Liang
2015-09-01
As the essential foundation of noise reduction, many noise source identification methods have been developed and applied to engineering practice. To identify the noise source in the board-band frequency of different engine parts at various typical speeds, this paper presents an integrated noise source identification method based on the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), the coherent power spectrum analysis, and the improved analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The measured noise is decomposed into several IMFs with physical meaning, which ensures the coherence analysis of the IMFs and the vibration signals are meaningful. An improved AHP is developed by introducing an objective weighting function to replace the traditional subjective evaluation, which makes the results no longer dependent on the subject performances and provides a better consistency in the meantime. The proposed noise identification model is applied to identifying a diesel engine surface radiated noise. As a result, the frequency-dependent contributions of different engine parts to different test points at different speeds are obtained, and an overall weight order is obtained as oil pan > left body > valve chamber cover > gear chamber casing > right body > flywheel housing, which provides an effectual guidance for the noise reduction.
Matter power spectrum for the generalized Chaplygin gas model: The Newtonian approach
Fabris, J. C.; Goncalves, S. V. B.; Velten, H. E. S.; Zimdahl, W.
2008-11-15
We model the cosmic medium as the mixture of a generalized Chaplygin gas and a pressureless matter component. Within a neo-Newtonian approach (in which, different from standard Newtonian cosmology, the pressure enters the homogeneous and isotropic background dynamics) we compute the matter power spectrum. The 2dFGRS data are used to discriminate between unified models of the dark sector (a purely baryonic matter component of roughly 5% of the total energy content and roughly 95% generalized Chaplygin gas) and different models, for which there is separate dark matter, in addition to that accounted for by the generalized Chaplygin gas. Leaving the corresponding density parameters free, we find that the unified models are strongly disfavored. On the other hand, using unified model priors, the observational data are also well described, in particular, for small and large values of the generalized Chaplygin gas parameter {alpha}. The latter result is in agreement with a recent, more qualitative but fully relativistic, perturbation analysis in [V. Gorini, A. Y. Kamenshchik, U. Moschella, O. F. Piatella, and A. A. Starobinsky, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 02 (2008) 016.].
The Acoustic Analogy: A Powerful Tool in Aeroacoustics with Emphasis on Jet Noise Prediction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farassat, F.; Doty, Michael J.; Hunter, Craig A.
2004-01-01
The acoustic analogy introduced by Lighthill to study jet noise is now over 50 years old. In the present paper, Lighthill s Acoustic Analogy is revisited together with a brief evaluation of the state-of-the-art of the subject and an exploration of the possibility of further improvements in jet noise prediction from analytical methods, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions, and measurement techniques. Experimental Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) data is used both to evaluate turbulent statistics from Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) CFD and to propose correlation models for the Lighthill stress tensor. The NASA Langley Jet3D code is used to study the effect of these models on jet noise prediction. From the analytical investigation, a retarded time correction is shown that improves, by approximately 8 dB, the over-prediction of aft-arc jet noise by Jet3D. In experimental investigation, the PIV data agree well with the CFD mean flow predictions, with room for improvement in Reynolds stress predictions. Initial modifications, suggested by the PIV data, to the form of the Jet3D correlation model showed no noticeable improvements in jet noise prediction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saito, Shun; Takada, Masahiro; Taruya, Atsushi
2011-02-01
We compare the model power spectrum, computed based on perturbation theory, with the power spectrum of luminous red galaxies (LRG) measured from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 catalog, assuming a flat, cold dark matter-dominated cosmology. The model includes the effects of massive neutrinos, nonlinear matter clustering and nonlinear, scale-dependent galaxy bias in a self-consistent manner. We first test the accuracy of the perturbation theory model by comparing the model predictions with the halo power spectrum in real- and redshift-space, measured from 70 simulation realizations for a cold dark matter model without massive neutrinos. We show that the perturbation theory model with bias parameters being properly adjusted can fairly well reproduce the simulation results. As a result, the best-fit parameters obtained from the hypothetical parameter fitting recover, within statistical uncertainties, the input cosmological parameters in simulations, including an upper bound on neutrino mass, if the power spectrum information up to k≃0.15hMpc-1 is used. However, for the redshift-space power spectrum, the best-fit cosmological parameters show a sizable bias from the input values if using the information up to k≃0.2hMpc-1, probably due to nonlinear redshift distortion effect. Given these tests, we decided, as a conservative choice, to use the LRG power spectrum up to k=0.1hMpc-1 in order to minimize possible unknown nonlinearity effects. In combination with the recent results from Wilkinson Microwave Background Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), we derive a robust upper bound on the sum of neutrino masses, given as ∑mν≤0.81eV (95% C.L.), marginalized over other parameters including nonlinear bias parameters and dark energy equation of state parameter. The upper bound is only slightly improved to ∑mν≤0.80eV if including the LRG spectrum up to k=0.2hMpc-1, due to severe parameter degeneracies, although the constraint may be biased as discussed above. The
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Bo; Han, Ming; Wang, Anbo
2012-06-01
A reliable and low-cost two-wavelength quadrature interrogating method has been developed to demodulate optical signals from diaphragm-based Fabry-Perot interferometric fiber optic sensors for multipoint partial discharge detection in power transformers. Commercial available fused-silica parts (a wafer, a fiber ferrule, and a mating sleeve) and a cleaved optical single mode fiber were bonded together to form an extrinsic Fabry-Perot acoustic sensor. Two lasers with center wavelengths separated by a quarter of the period of sensor interference fringes were used to probe acousticwave- induced diaphragm vibration. A coarse wavelength-division multiplexing (CWDM) add/drop multiplexer was used to separate the reflected two wavelengths before two photo detectors. Optical couplers were used to distribute mixed laser light to each sensor-detector module for multiplexing purpose. Sensor structure, detection system design and experiment results are presented.
Classical acoustic waves in damped media.
Albuquerque, E L; Mauriz, P W
2003-05-01
A Green function technique is employed to investigate the propagation of classical damped acoustic waves in complex media. The calculations are based on the linear response function approach, which is very convenient to deal with this kind of problem. Both the displacement and the gradient displacement Green functions are determined. All deformations in the media are supposed to be negligible, so the motions considered here are purely acoustic waves. The damping term gamma is included in a phenomenological way into the wave vector expression. By using the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, the power spectrum of the acoustic waves is also derived and has interesting properties, the most important of them being a possible relation with the analysis of seismic reflection data.
Tunable high-power narrow-spectrum external-cavity diode laser based on tapered amplifier at 668 nm.
Chi, Mingjun; Erbert, G; Sumpf, B; Petersen, Paul Michael
2010-05-15
A 668 nm tunable high-power narrow-spectrum diode laser system based on a tapered semiconductor optical amplifier in external cavity is demonstrated. The laser system is tunable from 659to675 nm. As high as 1.38 W output power is obtained at 668.35 nm. The emission spectral bandwidth is less than 0.07 nm throughout the tuning range, and the beam quality factor M(2) is 2.0 with the output power of 1.27 W. PMID:20479803
Zajd, Henry J.
2007-01-01
The need for accurate real-time discharge in the International Niagara River hydro power system requires reliable, accurate and reproducible data. The U.S. Geological Survey has been widely using Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) to accurately measure discharge in riverine channels since the mid-1990s. The use of the ADCP to measure discharge has remained largely untested at hydroelectric-generation facilities such as the New York Power Authority's (NYPA) Niagara Power Project in Niagara Falls, N.Y. This facility has a large, engineered diversion channel with the capacity of high volume discharges in excess of 100,000 cubic feet per second (ft3/s). Facilities such as this could benefit from the use of an ADCP, if the ADCP discharge measurements prove to be more time effective and accurate than those obtained from the flow-calculation techniques that are currently used. Measurements of diversion flow by an ADCP in the 'Pant Leg' diversion channel at the Niagara Power Project were made on November 6, 7, and 8, 2006, and compared favorably (within 1 percent) with those obtained concurrently by a conventional Price-AA current-meter measurement during one of the ADCP measurement sessions. The mean discharge recorded during each 2-hour individual ADCP measurement session compared favorably with (3.5 to 6.8 percent greater than) the discharge values computed by the flow-calculation method presently in use by NYPA. The use of ADCP technology to measure discharge could ultimately permit increased power-generation efficiency at the NYPA Niagara Falls Power Project by providing improved predictions of the amount of water (and thus the power output) available.
Electromagnetic Launch Vehicle Fairing and Acoustic Blanket Model of Received Power Using FEKO
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trout, Dawn H.; Stanley, James E.; Wahid, Parveen F.
2011-01-01
Evaluating the impact of radio frequency transmission in vehicle fairings is important to electromagnetically sensitive spacecraft. This study employs the multilevel fast multipole method (MLFMM) from a commercial electromagnetic tool, FEKO, to model the fairing electromagnetic environment in the presence of an internal transmitter with improved accuracy over industry applied techniques. This fairing model includes material properties representative of acoustic blanketing commonly used in vehicles. Equivalent surface material models within FEKO were successfully applied to simulate the test case. Finally, a simplified model is presented using Nicholson Ross Weir derived blanket material properties. These properties are implemented with the coated metal option to reduce the model to one layer within the accuracy of the original three layer simulation.
Acoustic agglomeration of power-plant fly ash. A comprehensive semi-annual progress report
Reethof, G.
1980-02-01
Results obtained during the reporting period are presented. The agglomeration of submicron fly ash particles has been studied as a function of sound pressure level, sound frequency, loading, and exposure time. A second generation model of the agglomeration process is being developed. A high-frequency, high-intensity variable speed siren delivering at least 600 W at frequencies up to 4000 Hz has been developed and tested. Details on the design and operation are presented. The agglomeration chamber has been completely cleaned and the aerosol generating system has been rebuilt. A mathematical model of the acoustics of agglomeration is being developed. Preliminary results of computerized electron microscopic scanning of fly ash particles during agglomeration are presented. (DMC)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiménez, Noé; Camarena, Francisco; Redondo, Javier; Sánchez-Morcillo, Víctor; Konofagou, Elisa E.
2015-10-01
We report a numerical method for solving the constitutive relations of nonlinear acoustics, where multiple relaxation processes are included in a generalized formulation that allows the time-domain numerical solution by an explicit finite differences scheme. Thus, the proposed physical model overcomes the limitations of the one-way Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) type models and, due to the Lagrangian density is implicitly included in the calculation, the proposed method also overcomes the limitations of Westervelt equation in complex configurations for medical ultrasound. In order to model frequency power law attenuation and dispersion, such as observed in biological media, the relaxation parameters are fitted to both exact frequency power law attenuation/dispersion media and also empirically measured attenuation of a variety of tissues that does not fit an exact power law. Finally, a computational technique based on artificial relaxation is included to correct the non-negligible numerical dispersion of the finite difference scheme, and, on the other hand, improve stability trough artificial attenuation when shock waves are present. This technique avoids the use of high-order finite-differences schemes leading to fast calculations. The present algorithm is especially suited for practical configuration where spatial discontinuities are present in the domain (e.g. axisymmetric domains or zero normal velocity boundary conditions in general). The accuracy of the method is discussed by comparing the proposed simulation solutions to one dimensional analytical and k-space numerical solutions.
Statistics of the epoch of reionization 21-cm signal - I. Power spectrum error-covariance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mondal, Rajesh; Bharadwaj, Somnath; Majumdar, Suman
2016-02-01
The non-Gaussian nature of the epoch of reionization (EoR) 21-cm signal has a significant impact on the error variance of its power spectrum P(k). We have used a large ensemble of seminumerical simulations and an analytical model to estimate the effect of this non-Gaussianity on the entire error-covariance matrix {C}ij. Our analytical model shows that {C}ij has contributions from two sources. One is the usual variance for a Gaussian random field which scales inversely of the number of modes that goes into the estimation of P(k). The other is the trispectrum of the signal. Using the simulated 21-cm Signal Ensemble, an ensemble of the Randomized Signal and Ensembles of Gaussian Random Ensembles we have quantified the effect of the trispectrum on the error variance {C}ii. We find that its relative contribution is comparable to or larger than that of the Gaussian term for the k range 0.3 ≤ k ≤ 1.0 Mpc-1, and can be even ˜200 times larger at k ˜ 5 Mpc-1. We also establish that the off-diagonal terms of {C}ij have statistically significant non-zero values which arise purely from the trispectrum. This further signifies that the error in different k modes are not independent. We find a strong correlation between the errors at large k values (≥0.5 Mpc-1), and a weak correlation between the smallest and largest k values. There is also a small anticorrelation between the errors in the smallest and intermediate k values. These results are relevant for the k range that will be probed by the current and upcoming EoR 21-cm experiments.
The coyote universe extended: Precision emulation of the matter power spectrum
Heitmann, Katrin; Kwan, Juliana; Habib, Salman; Lawrence, Earl; Higdon, David
2014-01-01
Modern sky surveys are returning precision measurements of cosmological statistics such as weak lensing shear correlations, the distribution of galaxies, and cluster abundance. To fully exploit these observations, theorists must provide predictions that are at least as accurate as the measurements, as well as robust estimates of systematic errors that are inherent to the modeling process. In the nonlinear regime of structure formation, this challenge can only be overcome by developing a large-scale, multi-physics simulation capability covering a range of cosmological models and astrophysical processes. As a first step to achieving this goal, we have recently developed a prediction scheme for the matter power spectrum (a so-called emulator), accurate at the 1% level out to k ∼ 1 Mpc{sup –1} and z = 1 for wCDM cosmologies based on a set of high-accuracy N-body simulations. It is highly desirable to increase the range in both redshift and wavenumber and to extend the reach in cosmological parameter space. To make progress in this direction, while minimizing computational cost, we present a strategy that maximally reuses the original simulations. We demonstrate improvement over the original spatial dynamic range by an order of magnitude, reaching k ∼ 10 h Mpc{sup –1}, a four-fold increase in redshift coverage, to z = 4, and now include the Hubble parameter as a new independent variable. To further the range in k and z, a new set of nested simulations run at modest cost is added to the original set. The extension in h is performed by including perturbation theory results within a multi-scale procedure for building the emulator. This economical methodology still gives excellent error control, ∼5% near the edges of the domain of applicability of the emulator. A public domain code for the new emulator is released as part of the work presented in this paper.
The Coyote Universe Extended: Precision Emulation of the Matter Power Spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heitmann, Katrin; Lawrence, Earl; Kwan, Juliana; Habib, Salman; Higdon, David
2014-01-01
Modern sky surveys are returning precision measurements of cosmological statistics such as weak lensing shear correlations, the distribution of galaxies, and cluster abundance. To fully exploit these observations, theorists must provide predictions that are at least as accurate as the measurements, as well as robust estimates of systematic errors that are inherent to the modeling process. In the nonlinear regime of structure formation, this challenge can only be overcome by developing a large-scale, multi-physics simulation capability covering a range of cosmological models and astrophysical processes. As a first step to achieving this goal, we have recently developed a prediction scheme for the matter power spectrum (a so-called emulator), accurate at the 1% level out to k ~ 1 Mpc-1 and z = 1 for wCDM cosmologies based on a set of high-accuracy N-body simulations. It is highly desirable to increase the range in both redshift and wavenumber and to extend the reach in cosmological parameter space. To make progress in this direction, while minimizing computational cost, we present a strategy that maximally reuses the original simulations. We demonstrate improvement over the original spatial dynamic range by an order of magnitude, reaching k ~ 10 h Mpc-1, a four-fold increase in redshift coverage, to z = 4, and now include the Hubble parameter as a new independent variable. To further the range in k and z, a new set of nested simulations run at modest cost is added to the original set. The extension in h is performed by including perturbation theory results within a multi-scale procedure for building the emulator. This economical methodology still gives excellent error control, ~5% near the edges of the domain of applicability of the emulator. A public domain code for the new emulator is released as part of the work presented in this paper.
Constraints on CDM cosmology from galaxy power spectrum, CMB and SNIa evolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferramacho, L. D.; Blanchard, A.; Zolnierowski, Y.
2009-05-01
Aims: We examine the constraints that can be obtained on standard cold dark matter models from the most currently used data set: CMB anisotropies, type Ia supernovae and the SDSS luminous red galaxies. We also examine how these constraints are widened when the equation of state parameter w and the curvature parameter Ωk are left as free parameters. Finally, we investigate the impact on these constraints of a possible form of evolution in SNIa intrinsic luminosity. Methods: We obtained our results from MCMC analysis using the full likelihood of each data set. Results: For the ΛCDM model, our “vanilla” model, cosmological parameters are tightly constrained and consistent with current estimates from various methods. When the dark energy parameter w is free we find that the constraints remain mostly unchanged, i.e. changes are smaller than the 1 sigma uncertainties. Similarly, relaxing the assumption of a flat universe leads to nearly identical constraints on the dark energy density parameter of the universe Ω_Λ , baryon density of the universe Ω_b, the optical depth τ, the index of the power spectrum of primordial fluctuations n_S, with most one sigma uncertainties better than 5%. More significant changes appear on other parameters: while preferred values are almost unchanged, uncertainties for the physical dark matter density Ω_ch^2, Hubble constant H0 and σ8 are typically twice as large. The constraint on the age of the Universe, which is very accurate for the vanilla model, is the most degraded. We found that different methodological approaches on large scale structure estimates lead to appreciable differences in preferred values and uncertainty widths. We found that possible evolution in SNIa intrinsic luminosity does not alter these constraints by much, except for w, for which the uncertainty is twice as large. At the same time, this possible evolution is severely constrained. Conclusions: We conclude that systematic uncertainties for some estimated
Campbell, Sheldon; Dutta, Bhaskar
2011-10-01
We present a formalism for estimating the angular power spectrum of extragalactic gamma-rays produced by dark matter annihilating with any general velocity-dependent cross section. The relevant density and velocity distribution of dark matter is modeled as an ensemble of smooth, universal, rigid, disjoint, spherical halos with distribution and universal properties constrained by simulation data. We apply this formalism to theories of dark matter with p-wave annihilation, for which the relative-velocity-weighted annihilation cross section is {sigma}v=a+bv{sup 2}. We determine that this significantly increases the gamma-ray power if b/a > or approx. 10{sup 6}. The effect of p-wave annihilation on the angular power spectrum is very similar for the sample of particle physics models we explored, suggesting that the important effect for a given b/a is largely determined by the cosmic dark matter distribution. If the dark matter relic from strong p-wave theories is thermally produced, the intensities of annihilation gamma-rays are strongly p-wave suppressed, making them difficult to observe. If an angular power spectrum consistent with a strong p wave were to be observed, it would likely indicate nonthermal production of dark matter in the early Universe.
Mohammad, Nabil; Wang, Peng; Friedman, Daniel J; Menon, Rajesh
2014-10-20
We report the enhancement of photovoltaic output power by separating the incident spectrum into 3 bands, and concentrating these bands onto 3 different photovoltaic cells. The spectrum-splitting and concentration is achieved via a thin, planar micro-optical element that demonstrates high optical efficiency over the entire spectrum of interest. The optic (which we call a polychromat) was designed using a modified version of the direct-binary-search algorithm. The polychromat was fabricated using grayscale lithography. Rigorous optical characterization demonstrates excellent agreement with simulation results. Electrical characterization of the solar cells made from GaInP, GaAs and Si indicate increase in the peak output power density of 43.63%, 30.84% and 30.86%, respectively when compared to normal operation without the polychromat. This represents an overall increase of 35.52% in output power density. The potential for cost-effective large-area manufacturing and for high system efficiencies makes our approach a strong candidate for low cost solar power.
Mohammad, Nabil; Wang, Peng; Friedman, Daniel J.; Menon, Rajesh
2014-09-17
We report the enhancement of photovoltaic output power by separating the incident spectrum into 3 bands, and concentrating these bands onto 3 different photovoltaic cells. The spectrum-splitting and concentration is achieved via a thin, planar micro-optical element that demonstrates high optical efficiency over the entire spectrum of interest. The optic (which we call a polychromat) was designed using a modified version of the direct-binary-search algorithm. The polychromat was fabricated using grayscale lithography. Rigorous optical characterization demonstrates excellent agreement with simulation results. Electrical characterization of the solar cells made from GaInP, GaAs and Si indicate increase in the peak output power density of 43.63%, 30.84% and 30.86%, respectively when compared to normal operation without the polychromat. This represents an overall increase of 35.52% in output power density. As a result, the potential for cost-effective large-area manufacturing and for high system efficiencies makes our approach a strong candidate for low cost solar power.
Fowler, J. W.; Appel, J. W.; Das, S.; Dunkley, J.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Fisher, R. P.; Acquaviva, V.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aguirre, P.; Barrientos, L. F.; Duenner, R.; Amiri, M.; Battistelli, E. S.; Burger, B.; Bond, J. R.; Brown, B.; Chervenak, J.; Doriese, W. B.
2010-10-20
We present a measurement of the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation observed at 148 GHz. The measurement uses maps with 1.'4 angular resolution made with data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). The observations cover 228 deg{sup 2} of the southern sky, in a 4.{sup 0}2 wide strip centered on declination 53{sup 0} south. The CMB at arcminute angular scales is particularly sensitive to the Silk damping scale, to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect from galaxy clusters, and to emission by radio sources and dusty galaxies. After masking the 108 brightest point sources in our maps, we estimate the power spectrum between 600 < l < 8000 using the adaptive multi-taper method to minimize spectral leakage and maximize use of the full data set. Our absolute calibration is based on observations of Uranus. To verify the calibration and test the fidelity of our map at large angular scales, we cross-correlate the ACT map to the WMAP map and recover the WMAP power spectrum from 250 < l < 1150. The power beyond the Silk damping tail of the CMB (l {approx} 5000) is consistent with models of the emission from point sources. We quantify the contribution of SZ clusters to the power spectrum by fitting to a model normalized to {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.8. We constrain the model's amplitude A{sub SZ} < 1.63 (95% CL). If interpreted as a measurement of {sigma}{sub 8}, this implies {sigma}{sup SZ}{sub 8} < 0.86 (95% CL) given our SZ model. A fit of ACT and WMAP five-year data jointly to a six-parameter {Lambda}CDM model plus point sources and the SZ effect is consistent with these results.
Banerjee, Gadadhar; Maitra, Sarit
2015-04-15
Sagdeev's pseudopotential method is used to study small as well as arbitrary amplitude dust acoustic solitons in a dusty plasma with kappa distributed electrons and ions with dust grains having power law size distribution. The existence of potential well solitons has been shown for suitable parametric region. The criterion for existence of soliton is derived in terms of upper and lower limit for Mach numbers. The numerical results show that the size distribution can affect the existence as well as the propagation characteristics of the dust acoustic solitons. The effect of kappa distribution is also highlighted.
Zhang, Jiang; Yuan, Zhen; Huang, Jin; Yang, Qin; Chen, Huafu
2014-12-01
Motor imagery is an experimental paradigm implemented in cognitive neuroscience and cognitive psychology. To investigate the asymmetry of the strength of cortical functional activity due to different single-hand motor imageries, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from right handed normal subjects were recorded and analyzed during both left-hand and right-hand motor imagery processes. Then the average power of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals in temporal domain was calculated using the developed tool that combines Welch power spectrum and the integral of power spectrum approach of BOLD signal changes during motor imagery. Power change analysis results indicated that cortical activity exhibited a stronger power in the precentral gyrus and medial frontal gyrus with left-hand motor imagery tasks compared with that from right-hand motor imagery tasks. These observations suggest that right handed normal subjects mobilize more cortical nerve cells for left-hand motor imagery. Our findings also suggest that the approach based on power differences of BOLD signals is a suitable quantitative analysis tool for quantification of asymmetry of brain activity intensity during motor imagery tasks.
Liu, Xin
2015-01-01
In a cognitive sensor network (CSN), the wastage of sensing time and energy is a challenge to cooperative spectrum sensing, when the number of cooperative cognitive nodes (CNs) becomes very large. In this paper, a novel wireless power transfer (WPT)-based weighed clustering cooperative spectrum sensing model is proposed, which divides all the CNs into several clusters, and then selects the most favorable CNs as the cluster heads and allows the common CNs to transfer the received radio frequency (RF) energy of the primary node (PN) to the cluster heads, in order to supply the electrical energy needed for sensing and cooperation. A joint resource optimization is formulated to maximize the spectrum access probability of the CSN, through jointly allocating sensing time and clustering number. According to the resource optimization results, a clustering algorithm is proposed. The simulation results have shown that compared to the traditional model, the cluster heads of the proposed model can achieve more transmission power and there exists optimal sensing time and clustering number to maximize the spectrum access probability. PMID:26528987
Liu, Xin
2015-10-30
In a cognitive sensor network (CSN), the wastage of sensing time and energy is a challenge to cooperative spectrum sensing, when the number of cooperative cognitive nodes (CNs) becomes very large. In this paper, a novel wireless power transfer (WPT)-based weighed clustering cooperative spectrum sensing model is proposed, which divides all the CNs into several clusters, and then selects the most favorable CNs as the cluster heads and allows the common CNs to transfer the received radio frequency (RF) energy of the primary node (PN) to the cluster heads, in order to supply the electrical energy needed for sensing and cooperation. A joint resource optimization is formulated to maximize the spectrum access probability of the CSN, through jointly allocating sensing time and clustering number. According to the resource optimization results, a clustering algorithm is proposed. The simulation results have shown that compared to the traditional model, the cluster heads of the proposed model can achieve more transmission power and there exists optimal sensing time and clustering number to maximize the spectrum access probability.
Liu, Xin
2015-01-01
In a cognitive sensor network (CSN), the wastage of sensing time and energy is a challenge to cooperative spectrum sensing, when the number of cooperative cognitive nodes (CNs) becomes very large. In this paper, a novel wireless power transfer (WPT)-based weighed clustering cooperative spectrum sensing model is proposed, which divides all the CNs into several clusters, and then selects the most favorable CNs as the cluster heads and allows the common CNs to transfer the received radio frequency (RF) energy of the primary node (PN) to the cluster heads, in order to supply the electrical energy needed for sensing and cooperation. A joint resource optimization is formulated to maximize the spectrum access probability of the CSN, through jointly allocating sensing time and clustering number. According to the resource optimization results, a clustering algorithm is proposed. The simulation results have shown that compared to the traditional model, the cluster heads of the proposed model can achieve more transmission power and there exists optimal sensing time and clustering number to maximize the spectrum access probability. PMID:26528987
Wu, Sean F; Moondra, Manmohan; Beniwal, Ravi
2015-04-01
The Helmholtz equation least squares (HELS)-based nearfield acoustical holography (NAH) is utilized to analyze panel acoustic contributions toward the acoustic field inside the interior region of an automobile. Specifically, the acoustic power flows from individual panels are reconstructed, and relative contributions to sound pressure level and spectrum at any point of interest are calculated. Results demonstrate that by correlating the acoustic power flows from individual panels to the field acoustic pressure, one can correctly locate the panel allowing the most acoustic energy transmission into the vehicle interior. The panel on which the surface acoustic pressure amplitude is the highest should not be used as indicative of the panel responsible for the sound field in the vehicle passenger compartment. Another significant advantage of this HELS-based NAH is that measurements of the input data only need to be taken once by using a conformal array of microphones in the near field, and ranking of panel acoustic contributions to any field point can be readily performed. The transfer functions between individual panels of any vibrating structure to the acoustic pressure anywhere in space are calculated not measured, thus significantly reducing the time and effort involved in panel acoustic contributions analyses.
Mauskopf, P.D.; Ade, P.A.R.; Bock, J.J.; Borrill, J.; Boscaleri, A.; Crill, B.P.; de Bernardis, P.; DeGasperis, G.; De Troia, G.; Farese, P.; Ferreira, P.G.; Ganga, K.; Giacometti, M.; Hanany, S.; Hristov, V.V.; Iacoangeli, A.; Jaffe, A.H.; Lange, A.E.; Lee, A.T.; Masi, S.; Melchiorri, A.; Melchiorri, F.; Miglio, L.; Montroy, T.; Netterfield, C.B.; Pascale, E.; Piacentini, F.; Richards, P.L.; Romeo, G.; Ruhl, J.E.; Scannapieco, E.; Scaramuzzi, F.; Stompor, R.; Vittorio, N.
1999-11-01
We describe a measurement of the angular power spectrum of anisotrophies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) from 0.2 deg to approx. 10 deg. from the test flight of the BOOMERANG experiment. BOOMERANG is a balloon-borne telescope with a bolometric receiver designed to map CMB anisotrophies on a Long Duration Balloon flight. During a 6-hour test flight of a prototype system in 1997, we mapped > 200 square degrees at high galactic latitudes in two bands centered at 90 and 150 GHz with a resolution of 26 and 16.6 arcmin FWHM respectively. Analysis of the maps gives a power spectrum with a peak at angular scales of approx. 1 deg. with an amplitude of approx. 70-muKcmb.
Low power underwater acoustic DPSK detection: Theoretical prediction and experimental results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dunne, Andrew
This thesis presents two methods of analyzing the effectiveness of a prototype differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) detection circuit. The first method is to make modifications to the existing hardware to reliably output and record the cross-correlation values of the DPSK detection process. The second method is to write a MATLAB detection algorithm which accurately simulates the detection results of the hardware system without the need of any electronics. These two systems were tested and verified with a bench test using computer generated DPSK signals. The hardware system was tested using real acoustic data from shallow and deep water at-sea tests to determine the effectiveness of the DPSK detection circuit in different ocean environments. The hydrophone signals from the tests were recorded so that the cross-correlation values could be verified using the MATLAB detector. As a result of this study, these two systems provided more insight into how well the DPSK detection prototype works and helped to identify ways of improving the detection reliability and overall performance of the prototype DPSK detection circuit.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dunn, H. J.
1981-01-01
A computer program for performing frequency analysis of time history data is presented. The program uses circular convolution and the fast Fourier transform to calculate power density spectrum (PDS) of time history data. The program interfaces with the advanced continuous simulation language (ACSL) so that a frequency analysis may be performed on ACSL generated simulation variables. An example of the calculation of the PDS of a Van de Pol oscillator is presented.
What next-generation 21 cm power spectrum measurements can teach us about the epoch of reionization
Pober, Jonathan C.; Morales, Miguel F.; Liu, Adrian; McQuinn, Matthew; Parsons, Aaron R.; Dillon, Joshua S.; Hewitt, Jacqueline N.; Tegmark, Max; Aguirre, James E.; Bowman, Judd D.; Jacobs, Daniel C.; Bradley, Richard F.; Carilli, Chris L.; DeBoer, David R.; Werthimer, Dan J.
2014-02-20
A number of experiments are currently working toward a measurement of the 21 cm signal from the epoch of reionization (EoR). Whether or not these experiments deliver a detection of cosmological emission, their limited sensitivity will prevent them from providing detailed information about the astrophysics of reionization. In this work, we consider what types of measurements will be enabled by the next generation of larger 21 cm EoR telescopes. To calculate the type of constraints that will be possible with such arrays, we use simple models for the instrument, foreground emission, and the reionization history. We focus primarily on an instrument modeled after the ∼0.1 km{sup 2} collecting area Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array concept design and parameterize the uncertainties with regard to foreground emission by considering different limits to the recently described 'wedge' footprint in k space. Uncertainties in the reionization history are accounted for using a series of simulations that vary the ionizing efficiency and minimum virial temperature of the galaxies responsible for reionization, as well as the mean free path of ionizing photons through the intergalactic medium. Given various combinations of models, we consider the significance of the possible power spectrum detections, the ability to trace the power spectrum evolution versus redshift, the detectability of salient power spectrum features, and the achievable level of quantitative constraints on astrophysical parameters. Ultimately, we find that 0.1 km{sup 2} of collecting area is enough to ensure a very high significance (≳ 30σ) detection of the reionization power spectrum in even the most pessimistic scenarios. This sensitivity should allow for meaningful constraints on the reionization history and astrophysical parameters, especially if foreground subtraction techniques can be improved and successfully implemented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaduchak, Gregory; Kogan, Aleksandr S.; Kwiatkowski, Christopher S.; Sinha, Dipen N.
2002-11-01
A cylindrical acoustic device for levitation and/or concentration of aerosols and small liquid/solid samples (up to several millimeters in diameter) in air has been developed [Kaduchak et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1332-1336]. It is inexpensive, low-power, and, in its simplest embodiment, does not require accurate alignment of a resonant cavity. It is constructed from a cylindrical PZT tube with thickness-to-radius ratio h/aapprox0.03. The novelty of the device is that the lowest-order breathing mode of the tube is tuned to match a resonant mode of the interior air-filled cylindrical cavity. A high-Q cavity results that is driven very efficiently; drops of water in excess of 1-mm diameter are levitated for approximately 100 mW of input electrical power. The present research addresses modifying the different spatial configurations of the standing wave field within the cavity. By breaking the cylindrical symmetry, it is shown that pressure nodes can be localized for collection or separation of aerosolds or other particulate matter. Several different symmetry-breaking configurations are demonstrated. It is shown that experimental observations of the nodal arrangements agree with theoretical predictions.
Fan, Xing; Chen, Jun; Yang, Jin; Bai, Peng; Li, Zhaoling; Wang, Zhong Lin
2015-04-28
A 125 μm thickness, rollable, paper-based triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) has been developed for harvesting sound wave energy, which is capable of delivering a maximum power density of 121 mW/m(2) and 968 W/m(3) under a sound pressure of 117 dBSPL. The TENG is designed in the contact-separation mode using membranes that have rationally designed holes at one side. The TENG can be implemented onto a commercial cell phone for acoustic energy harvesting from human talking; the electricity generated can be used to charge a capacitor at a rate of 0.144 V/s. Additionally, owing to the superior advantages of a broad working bandwidth, thin structure, and flexibility, a self-powered microphone for sound recording with rolled structure is demonstrated for all-sound recording without an angular dependence. The concept and design presented in this work can be extensively applied to a variety of other circumstances for either energy-harvesting or sensing purposes, for example, wearable and flexible electronics, military surveillance, jet engine noise reduction, low-cost implantable human ear, and wireless technology applications. PMID:25790372
Fan, Xing; Chen, Jun; Yang, Jin; Bai, Peng; Li, Zhaoling; Wang, Zhong Lin
2015-04-28
A 125 μm thickness, rollable, paper-based triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) has been developed for harvesting sound wave energy, which is capable of delivering a maximum power density of 121 mW/m(2) and 968 W/m(3) under a sound pressure of 117 dBSPL. The TENG is designed in the contact-separation mode using membranes that have rationally designed holes at one side. The TENG can be implemented onto a commercial cell phone for acoustic energy harvesting from human talking; the electricity generated can be used to charge a capacitor at a rate of 0.144 V/s. Additionally, owing to the superior advantages of a broad working bandwidth, thin structure, and flexibility, a self-powered microphone for sound recording with rolled structure is demonstrated for all-sound recording without an angular dependence. The concept and design presented in this work can be extensively applied to a variety of other circumstances for either energy-harvesting or sensing purposes, for example, wearable and flexible electronics, military surveillance, jet engine noise reduction, low-cost implantable human ear, and wireless technology applications.
A point acoustic device based on aluminum nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Qian-Yi; Ju, Zhen-Yi; Tian, He; Xue, Qing-Tang; Chen, Yuan-Quan; Tao, Lu-Qi; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Zhang, Xue-Yue; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling
2016-03-01
A point Electrical Thermal Acoustic (ETA) device based on aluminum nanowire contacts is designed and fabricated. Interdigitated structural aluminum nanowires are released from the substrate by Inductively Coupled Plasma Reactive Ion Etching (ICP-RIE). By releasing the interdigitated structure, the nanowires contact each other at approximately 1 mm above the wafer, forming a Point Contact Structure (PCS). It is found that the PCS acoustic device realizes high efficiency when a biased AC signal is applied. The PCS acoustic device reaches a sound pressure level as high as 67 dB at a distance of 1 cm with 74 mW AC input. The power spectrum is flat, ranging from 2 kHz to 20 kHz with a less than +/-3 dB fluctuation. The highest normalized Sound Pressure Level (SPL) of the point contact structure acoustic device is 18 dB higher than the suspended aluminum wire acoustic device. Comparisons between the PCS acoustic device and the Suspended Aluminum Nanowire (SAN) acoustic device illustrate that the PCS acoustic device has a flatter power spectrum within the 20 kHz range, and enhances the SPL at a lower frequency. Enhancing the response at lower frequencies is extremely useful, which may enable earphone and loudspeaker applications within the frequency range of the human ear with the help of pulse density modulation.A point Electrical Thermal Acoustic (ETA) device based on aluminum nanowire contacts is designed and fabricated. Interdigitated structural aluminum nanowires are released from the substrate by Inductively Coupled Plasma Reactive Ion Etching (ICP-RIE). By releasing the interdigitated structure, the nanowires contact each other at approximately 1 mm above the wafer, forming a Point Contact Structure (PCS). It is found that the PCS acoustic device realizes high efficiency when a biased AC signal is applied. The PCS acoustic device reaches a sound pressure level as high as 67 dB at a distance of 1 cm with 74 mW AC input. The power spectrum is flat, ranging from 2 k
Recovery of burner acoustic source structure from far-field sound spectra
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mahan, J. R.; Jones, J. D.
1984-01-01
A method is presented that permits the thermal-acoustic efficiency spectrum in a long turbulent burner to be recovered from the corresponding far-field sound spectrum. An acoustic source/propagation model is used based on the perturbation solution of the equations describing the unsteady one-dimensional flow of an inviscid ideal gas with a distributed heat source. The technique is applied to a long cylindrical hydrogen-flame burner operating over power levels of 4.5-22.3 kW. The results show that the thermal-acoustic efficiency at a given frequency, defined as the fraction of the total burner power converted to acoustic energy at that frequency, is rather insensitive to burner power, having a maximum value on the order of 10 to the -4th at 150 Hz and rolling off steeply with increasing frequency. Evidence is presented that acoustic agitation of the flame at low frequencies enhances the mixing of the unburned fuel and air with the hot products of combustion. The paper establishes the potential of the technique as a useful tool for characterizing the acoustic source structure in any burner, such as a gas turbine combustor, for which a reasonable acoustic propagation model can be postulated.
Caliandro, G.A.; Torres, D.F.; Rea, N. E-mail: dtorres@aliga.ieec.uab.es
2013-07-01
Here, we present a new method to evaluate the expectation value of the power spectrum of a time series. A statistical approach is adopted to define the method. After its demonstration, it is validated showing that it leads to the known properties of the power spectrum when the time series contains a periodic signal. The approach is also validated in general with numerical simulations. The method puts into evidence the importance that is played by the probability density function of the phases associated to each time stamp for a given frequency, and how this distribution can be perturbed by the uncertainties of the parameters in the pulsar ephemeris. We applied this method to solve the power spectrum in the case the first derivative of the pulsar frequency is unknown and not negligible. We also undertook the study of the most general case of a blind search, in which both the frequency and its first derivative are uncertain. We found the analytical solutions of the above cases invoking the sum of Fresnel's integrals squared.
Mohammad, Nabil; Wang, Peng; Friedman, Daniel J.; Menon, Rajesh
2014-09-17
We report the enhancement of photovoltaic output power by separating the incident spectrum into 3 bands, and concentrating these bands onto 3 different photovoltaic cells. The spectrum-splitting and concentration is achieved via a thin, planar micro-optical element that demonstrates high optical efficiency over the entire spectrum of interest. The optic (which we call a polychromat) was designed using a modified version of the direct-binary-search algorithm. The polychromat was fabricated using grayscale lithography. Rigorous optical characterization demonstrates excellent agreement with simulation results. Electrical characterization of the solar cells made from GaInP, GaAs and Si indicate increase in the peak output powermore » density of 43.63%, 30.84% and 30.86%, respectively when compared to normal operation without the polychromat. This represents an overall increase of 35.52% in output power density. As a result, the potential for cost-effective large-area manufacturing and for high system efficiencies makes our approach a strong candidate for low cost solar power.« less
Sajjadi, Baharak; Raman, Abdul Aziz Abdul; Ibrahim, Shaliza
2015-05-01
This paper aims at investigating the influence of ultrasound power amplitude on liquid behaviour in a low-frequency (24 kHz) sono-reactor. Three types of analysis were employed: (i) mechanical analysis of micro-bubbles formation and their activities/characteristics using mathematical modelling. (ii) Numerical analysis of acoustic streaming, fluid flow pattern, volume fraction of micro-bubbles and turbulence using 3D CFD simulation. (iii) Practical analysis of fluid flow pattern and acoustic streaming under ultrasound irradiation using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). In mathematical modelling, a lone micro bubble generated under power ultrasound irradiation was mechanistically analysed. Its characteristics were illustrated as a function of bubble radius, internal temperature and pressure (hot spot conditions) and oscillation (pulsation) velocity. The results showed that ultrasound power significantly affected the conditions of hotspots and bubbles oscillation velocity. From the CFD results, it was observed that the total volume of the micro-bubbles increased by about 4.95% with each 100 W-increase in power amplitude. Furthermore, velocity of acoustic streaming increased from 29 to 119 cm/s as power increased, which was in good agreement with the PIV analysis.
Trujillo, Francisco Javier; Knoerzer, Kai
2011-11-01
High power ultrasound reactors have gained a lot of interest in the food industry given the effects that can arise from ultrasonic-induced cavitation in liquid foods. However, most of the new food processing developments have been based on empirical approaches. Thus, there is a need for mathematical models which help to understand, optimize, and scale up ultrasonic reactors. In this work, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to predict the acoustic streaming and induced heat generated by an ultrasonic horn reactor. In the model it is assumed that the horn tip is a fluid inlet, where a turbulent jet flow is injected into the vessel. The hydrodynamic momentum rate of the incoming jet is assumed to be equal to the total acoustic momentum rate emitted by the acoustic power source. CFD velocity predictions show excellent agreement with the experimental data for power densities higher than W(0)/V ≥ 25kWm(-3). This model successfully describes hydrodynamic fields (streaming) generated by low-frequency-high-power ultrasound.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kashlinsky, A.
1993-01-01
Modified cold dark matter (CDM) models were recently suggested to account for large-scale optical data, which fix the power spectrum on large scales, and the COBE results, which would then fix the bias parameter, b. We point out that all such models have deficit of small-scale power where density fluctuations are presently nonlinear, and should then lead to late epochs of collapse of scales M between 10 exp 9 - 10 exp 10 solar masses and (1-5) x 10 exp 14 solar masses. We compute the probabilities and comoving space densities of various scale objects at high redshifts according to the CDM models and compare these with observations of high-z QSOs, high-z galaxies and the protocluster-size object found recently by Uson et al. (1992) at z = 3.4. We show that the modified CDM models are inconsistent with the observational data on these objects. We thus suggest that in order to account for the high-z objects, as well as the large-scale and COBE data, one needs a power spectrum with more power on small scales than CDM models allow and an open universe.
Sinha, Rakesh Kumar
2007-01-01
A method has been presented for an effective application of backpropagation artificial neural network (ANN) in establishment of electro-encephalogram (EEG) power spectra as an index of stress in hot environment. The power spectrum data for slow wave sleep (SWS), rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and awake (AWA) states in three groups of rats (acute heat stress, chronic heat stress and the normal) were tested by an ANN, containing 60 nodes in input layer, weighted from power spectrum data from 0 to 30 Hz, 18 nodes in hidden layer and an output node. The target output values for this network were determined with another five-layered neural network (with the structure of 3-12-1-12-3). The input and output of this network was assigned with the three well-established heat stress indices (body temperature, body weight and plasma corticosterone). The most important feature for acute stress, chronic stress and normal conditions were extracted from the third layer single neuron and used for the target value for the three-layered neural network. The ANN was found effective in recognising the EEG power spectra with an average of 96.67% for acute heat stress, 97.17% for chronic heat stress and 98.5% for normal subjects.
Chandran
2000-11-27
Scattering rates for a Goldreich-Sridhar (GS) spectrum of anisotropic, incompressible, magnetohydrodynamic turbulence are calculated in the quasilinear approximation. Because the small-scale fluctuations are constrained to have wave vectors nearly perpendicular to the background magnetic field, scattering is too weak to provide either the mean-free paths commonly used in Galactic cosmic-ray propagation models or the mean-free paths required for acceleration of cosmic rays at quasiparallel shocks. Where strong pitch-angle scattering occurs, it is due to fluctuations not described by the GS spectrum, such as fluctuations generated by streaming cosmic rays. PMID:11082620
Not Available
2010-12-01
When power production at The Geysers geothermal power complex began to falter, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) stepped in, developing advanced condensing technology that dramatically boosted production efficiency - and making a major contribution to the effective use of geothermal power. NREL developed advanced direct-contact condenser (ADCC) technology to condense spent steam more effectively, improving power production efficiency in Unit 11 by 5%.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Engelbrecht, N. E.; Burger, R. A.
2015-12-01
In this study, a novel ab initio cosmic ray (CR) modulation code that solves a set of stochastic transport equations equivalent to the Parker transport equation, and that uses output from a turbulence transport code as input for the diffusion tensor, is introduced. This code is benchmarked with a previous approach to ab initio modulation. The sensitivity of computed galactic CR proton spectra at Earth to assumptions made as to the low-wavenumber behavior of the two-dimensional (2D) turbulence power spectrum is investigated using perpendicular mean free path expressions derived from two different scattering theories. Constraints on the low-wavenumber behavior of the 2D power spectrum are inferred from the qualitative comparison of computed CR spectra with spacecraft observations at Earth. Another key difference from previous studies is that observed and inferred CR intensity spectra at 73 AU are used as boundary spectra instead of the usual local interstellar spectrum. Furthermore, the results presented here provide a tentative explanation as to the reason behind the unusually high galactic proton intensity spectra observed in 2009 during the recent unusual solar minimum.
Engelbrecht, N. E.; Burger, R. A.
2015-12-01
In this study, a novel ab initio cosmic ray (CR) modulation code that solves a set of stochastic transport equations equivalent to the Parker transport equation, and that uses output from a turbulence transport code as input for the diffusion tensor, is introduced. This code is benchmarked with a previous approach to ab initio modulation. The sensitivity of computed galactic CR proton spectra at Earth to assumptions made as to the low-wavenumber behavior of the two-dimensional (2D) turbulence power spectrum is investigated using perpendicular mean free path expressions derived from two different scattering theories. Constraints on the low-wavenumber behavior of the 2D power spectrum are inferred from the qualitative comparison of computed CR spectra with spacecraft observations at Earth. Another key difference from previous studies is that observed and inferred CR intensity spectra at 73 AU are used as boundary spectra instead of the usual local interstellar spectrum. Furthermore, the results presented here provide a tentative explanation as to the reason behind the unusually high galactic proton intensity spectra observed in 2009 during the recent unusual solar minimum.
Probing reionization with the cross-power spectrum of 21 cm and near-infrared radiation backgrounds
Mao, Xiao-Chun
2014-08-01
The cross-correlation between the 21 cm emission from the high-redshift intergalactic medium and the near-infrared (NIR) background light from high-redshift galaxies promises to be a powerful probe of cosmic reionization. In this paper, we investigate the cross-power spectrum during the epoch of reionization. We employ an improved halo approach to derive the distribution of the density field and consider two stellar populations in the star formation model: metal-free stars and metal-poor stars. The reionization history is further generated to be consistent with the electron-scattering optical depth from cosmic microwave background measurements. Then, the intensity of the NIR background is estimated by collecting emission from stars in first-light galaxies. On large scales, we find that the 21 cm and NIR radiation backgrounds are positively correlated during the very early stages of reionization. However, these two radiation backgrounds quickly become anti-correlated as reionization proceeds. The maximum absolute value of the cross-power spectrum is |Δ{sub 21,NIR}{sup 2}|∼10{sup −4} mK nW m{sup –2} sr{sup –1}, reached at ℓ ∼ 1000 when the mean fraction of ionized hydrogen is x-bar{sub i}∼0.9. We find that Square Kilometer Array can measure the 21 cm-NIR cross-power spectrum in conjunction with mild extensions to the existing CIBER survey, provided that the integration time independently adds up to 1000 and 1 hr for 21 cm and NIR observations, and that the sky coverage fraction of the CIBER survey is extended from 4 × 10{sup –4} to 0.1. Measuring the cross-correlation signal as a function of redshift provides valuable information on reionization and helps confirm the origin of the 'missing' NIR background.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ekas, Naomi V.; Timmons, Lisa; Pruitt, Megan; Ghilain, Christine; Alessandri, Michael
2015-01-01
The current study uses the actor-partner interdependence model to examine the predictors of relationship satisfaction for mothers and fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder. Sixty-seven couples completed measures of optimism, benefit finding, coping strategies, social support, and relationship satisfaction. Results indicated that…
Harnessing the Power of Play: Opportunities for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mastrangelo, Sonia
2009-01-01
Play is a complex phenomenon that occurs naturally for most children; they move through the various stages of play development and are able to add complexity, imagination, and creativity to their thought processes and actions. However, for many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), the various stages of play never truly develop, or occur…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benetti, Micol; Pandolfi, Stefania; Lattanzi, Massimiliano; Martinelli, Matteo; Melchiorri, Alessandro
2013-01-01
Using the most recent data from the WMAP, ACT and SPT experiments, we update the constraints on models with oscillatory features in the primordial power spectrum of scalar perturbations. This kind of features can appear in models of inflation where slow-roll is interrupted, like multifield models. We also derive constraints for the case in which, in addition to cosmic microwave observations, we also consider the data on the spectrum of luminous red galaxies from the 7th SDSS catalog, and the SNIa Union Compilation 2 data. We have found that: (i) considering a model with features in the primordial power spectrum increases the agreement with data compared to the featureless “vanilla” ΛCDM model by Δχ2=6.7, representing an improvement with respect to the expected value Δχ2=3 for an equivalent model with three additional parameters; (ii) the uncertainty on the determination of the standard parameters is not degraded when features are included; (iii) the best fit for the features model locates the step in the primordial spectrum at a scale k≃0.005Mpc-1, corresponding to the scale where the outliers in the WMAP7 data at ℓ=22 and ℓ=40 are located.; (iv) a distinct, albeit less statistically significant peak is present in the likelihood at smaller scales, whose presence might be related to the WMAP7 preference for a negative value of the running of the scalar spectral index parameter; (v) the inclusion of the LRG-7 data does not change significantly the best fit model, but allows to better constrain the amplitude of the oscillations.
Ocean acoustic hurricane classification.
Wilson, Joshua D; Makris, Nicholas C
2006-01-01
Theoretical and empirical evidence are combined to show that underwater acoustic sensing techniques may be valuable for measuring the wind speed and determining the destructive power of a hurricane. This is done by first developing a model for the acoustic intensity and mutual intensity in an ocean waveguide due to a hurricane and then determining the relationship between local wind speed and underwater acoustic intensity. From this it is shown that it should be feasible to accurately measure the local wind speed and classify the destructive power of a hurricane if its eye wall passes directly over a single underwater acoustic sensor. The potential advantages and disadvantages of the proposed acoustic method are weighed against those of currently employed techniques. PMID:16454274
Ocean acoustic hurricane classification.
Wilson, Joshua D; Makris, Nicholas C
2006-01-01
Theoretical and empirical evidence are combined to show that underwater acoustic sensing techniques may be valuable for measuring the wind speed and determining the destructive power of a hurricane. This is done by first developing a model for the acoustic intensity and mutual intensity in an ocean waveguide due to a hurricane and then determining the relationship between local wind speed and underwater acoustic intensity. From this it is shown that it should be feasible to accurately measure the local wind speed and classify the destructive power of a hurricane if its eye wall passes directly over a single underwater acoustic sensor. The potential advantages and disadvantages of the proposed acoustic method are weighed against those of currently employed techniques.
NASA powered lift facility internally generated noise and its transmission to the acoustic far field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huff, Ronald G.
1988-01-01
Noise tests of NASA Lewis Research Center's Powered Lift Facility (PLF) were performed to determine the frequency content of the internally generated noise that reaches the far field. The sources of the internally generated noise are the burner, elbows, valves, and flow turbulence. Tests over a range of nozzle pressure ratios from 1.2 to 3.5 using coherence analysis revealed that low frequency noise below 1200 Hz is transmitted through the nozzle. Broad banded peaks at 240 and 640 Hz were found in the transmitted noise. Aeroacoustic excitation effects are possible in this frequency range. The internal noise creates a noise floor that limits the amount of jet noise suppression that can be measured on the PLF and similar facilities.
Parsons, Aaron; Pober, Jonathan; McQuinn, Matthew; Jacobs, Daniel; Aguirre, James
2012-07-01
Telescopes aiming to measure 21 cm emission from the Epoch of Reionization must toe a careful line, balancing the need for raw sensitivity against the stringent calibration requirements for removing bright foregrounds. It is unclear what the optimal design is for achieving both of these goals. Via a pedagogical derivation of an interferometer's response to the power spectrum of 21 cm reionization fluctuations, we show that even under optimistic scenarios first-generation arrays will yield low-signal-to-noise detections, and that different compact array configurations can substantially alter sensitivity. We explore the sensitivity gains of array configurations that yield high redundancy in the uv-plane-configurations that have been largely ignored since the advent of self-calibration for high-dynamic-range imaging. We first introduce a mathematical framework to generate optimal minimum-redundancy configurations for imaging. We contrast the sensitivity of such configurations with high-redundancy configurations, finding that high-redundancy configurations can improve power-spectrum sensitivity by more than an order of magnitude. We explore how high-redundancy array configurations can be tuned to various angular scales, enabling array sensitivity to be directed away from regions of the uv-plane (such as the origin) where foregrounds are brighter and instrumental systematics are more problematic. We demonstrate that a 132 antenna deployment of the Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization observing for 120 days in a high-redundancy configuration will, under ideal conditions, have the requisite sensitivity to detect the power spectrum of the 21 cm signal from reionization at a 3{sigma} level at k < 0.25 h Mpc{sup -1} in a bin of {Delta}ln k = 1. We discuss the tradeoffs of low- versus high-redundancy configurations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nasir, Fahad; Bolton, James S.; Becker, George D.
2016-08-01
We use cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to assess the feasibility of constraining the thermal history of the intergalactic medium during reionisation with the Ly{α } forest at z ≃ 5 . The integrated thermal history has a measureable impact on the transmitted flux power spectrum that can be isolated from Doppler broadening at this redshift. We parameterise this using the cumulative energy per proton, u0, deposited into a gas parcel at the mean background density, a quantity that is tightly linked with the gas density power spectrum in the simulations. We construct mock observations of the line of sight Ly{α } forest power spectrum and use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach to recover u0 at redshifts 5 ⪉ z ⪉ 12. A statistical uncertainty of ˜20 per cent is expected (at 68 per cent confidence) at z ≃ 5 using high resolution spectra with a total redshift path length of Δz = 4 and a typical signal-to-noise ratio of S/N=15 per pixel. Estimates for the expected systematic uncertainties are comparable, such that existing data should enable a measurement of u0 to within ˜30 per cent. This translates to distinguishing between reionisation scenarios with similar instantaneous temperatures at z ≃ 5, but with an energy deposited per proton that differs by 2-3 eV over the redshift interval 5⪉ z ⪉ 12. For an initial temperature of T˜ 104 K following reionisation, this corresponds to the difference between early (zre = 12) and late (zre = 7) reionisation in our models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alvarez Blanco, M.; Janssens, K.; Bianciardi, F.
2016-09-01
During the last two decades there have been several improvements on environmental acoustic qualification testing for launch and space vehicles. Direct field excitation (DFAX) tests using Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) control strategies seems to become the most cost-efficient way for component and subsystem acoustic testing. However there are still some concerns about the uniformity and diffusivity of the acoustic field produced by direct field testing. Lately, much of the documented progresses aimed to solve the non-uniformity of the field by altering the sound pressure level requirement, limiting responses and adding or modifying control microphones positions. However, the first two solutions imply modifying the qualification criteria, which could lead to under-testing, potentially risking the mission. Furthermore, adding or moving control microphones prematurely changes the system configuration, even if it is an optimal geometric layout in terms of wave interference patterns control. This research investigates the target definition as an initial condition for the acoustic MIMO control. Through experiments it is shown that for a given system configuration the performance of a DFAX test strongly depends on the target definition procedure. As output of this research a set of descriptors are presented describing a phenomenon defined as “Energy- sink”.
Shear viscous effects on the primordial power spectrum from warm inflation
Bastero-Gil, Mar; Berera, Arjun; Ramos, Rudnei O. E-mail: ab@ph.ed.ac.uk
2011-07-01
We compute the primordial curvature spectrum generated during warm inflation, including shear viscous effects. The primordial spectrum is dominated by the thermal fluctuations of the radiation bath, sourced by the dissipative term of the inflaton field. The dissipative coefficient Υ, computed from first principles in the close-to-equilibrium approximation, depends in general on the temperature T, and this dependence renders the system of the linear fluctuations coupled. Whenever the dissipative coefficient is larger than the Hubble expansion rate H, there is a growing mode in the fluctuations before horizon crossing. However, dissipation intrinsically means departures from equilibrium, and therefore the presence of a shear viscous pressure in the radiation fluid. This in turn acts as an extra friction term for the radiation fluctuations that tends to damp the growth of the perturbations. Independently of the T functional dependence of the dissipation and the shear viscosity, we find that when the shear viscous coefficient ζ{sub s} is larger than 3ρ{sub r}/H at horizon crossing, ρ{sub r} being the radiation energy density, the shear damping effect wins and there is no growing mode in the spectrum.
Compton scattering and the gamma-ray power-law spectrum in Markarian 421
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Krolik, Julian H.
1993-01-01
The nearest BL Lac object, Mrk 421, has a gamma-ray spectrum which is approximately flat in EF-sub E from E less than about 50 MeV to E greater than about 1 TeV. Inverse Compton scattering can explain this smooth spectrum, despite the structure in the Klein-Nishina cross section, if the injected electron distribution function is proportional to gamma exp -2, where gamma is the electron Lorentz factor. When this is the case, the structure imprinted on the steady state electron distribution function by the structure in the Klein-Nishina cross section is almost exactly compensated in the radiated spectrum. Because particle acceleration in strong shocks injects particles with this distribution function, this shape injection function is in fact quite plausible. Other blazars may be explained by the same model if the cutoff below TeV energies observed in other objects is due to pair production on the cosmological IR background, as suggested by Stecker et al. (1992).
Murder on the mind: tyranical power and other points along the perverse spectrum.
Tuch, Richard
2010-02-01
This paper illustrates the breadth and depth of the spectrum of perversion and perversity as currently represented in the psychoanalytic literature, raises questions about recent tendencies to include a host of diverse-seeming phenomena under the same conceptual umbrella, and strives to demonstrate what these phenomena have in common that justifies lumping them together under the same rubric. One end of this spectrum is represented by the employment of simple fetishes introduced into a sexual scene in order to promote sexual arousal. Moving along the continuum, one encounters increasing complex behavioral patterns including the enactment of scripts that actualize one's perverse fantasies, including the assumption of complementary roles (e.g. sadomasochism) that equally serve the needs, and represent the desires, of both parties involved. A unique clinical entity, 'perverse modes of relatedness,' lies on the extreme end of the spectrum, representing the reification of the relationship as it becomes little more than a vehicle to take possession and control one's object for the gratification of one's sole needs and desires. What each of these phenomena share in common is both the insertion of a thing or condition - ranging from a simple fetishistic object to an elaborate style of relating that reduces the other into pawn played upon the pervert's chessboard, between the two 'relating' objects as well as a less than honest relationship with reality. PMID:20433479
Wang, Yao; Sokhadze, Estate M.; El-Baz, Ayman S.; Li, Xiaoli; Sears, Lonnie; Casanova, Manuel F.; Tasman, Allan
2016-01-01
Neurofeedback is a mode of treatment that is potentially useful for improving self-regulation skills in persons with autism spectrum disorder. We proposed that operant conditioning of EEG in neurofeedback mode can be accompanied by changes in the relative power of EEG bands. However, the details on the change of the relative power of EEG bands during neurofeedback training course in autism are not yet well explored. In this study, we analyzed the EEG recordings of children diagnosed with autism and enrolled in a prefrontal neurofeedback treatment course. The protocol used in this training was aimed at increasing the ability to focus attention, and the procedure represented the wide band EEG amplitude suppression training along with upregulation of the relative power of gamma activity. Quantitative EEG analysis was completed for each session of neurofeedback using wavelet transform to determine the relative power of gamma and theta/beta ratio, and further to detect the statistical changes within and between sessions. We found a linear decrease of theta/beta ratio and a liner increase of relative power of gamma activity over 18 weekly sessions of neurofeedback in 18 high functioning children with autism. The study indicates that neurofeedback is an effective method for altering EEG characteristics associated with the autism spectrum disorder. Also, it provides information about specific changes of EEG activities and details the correlation between changes of EEG and neurofeedback indexes during the course of neurofeedback. This pilot study contributes to the development of more effective approaches to EEG data analysis during prefrontal neurofeedback training in autism. PMID:26834615
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeong, Donghui; Komatsu, E.
2007-12-01
We shall show that there exist quasi-nonlinear regions in the k-space, where one can actually model the effect of nonlinearities on the galaxy power spectrum by comparing the large number of N-body simulations with the nonlinear perturbation theory. Especially, we shall show that in the high redshift universe, the nonlinear matter evolution, and nonlinear halo bias are now perfectly modeled within a suffcient range in k-space, by the perturbation theory. And the nonlinear redshift space distortion is also well understood, except for the highly nonlinear Finger of God effect. D. J. acknowledges support from the Texas Advanced Research Program.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alimi, J.-M.; Füzfa, A.; Boucher, V.; Rasera, Y.; Courtin, J.; Corasaniti, P.-S.
2010-01-01
Quintessence has been proposed to account for dark energy (DE) in the Universe. This component causes a typical modification of the background cosmic expansion, which, in addition to its clustering properties, can leave a potentially distinctive signature on large-scale structures. Many previous studies have investigated this topic, particularly in relation to the non-linear regime of structure formation. However, no careful pre-selection of viable quintessence models with high precision cosmological data was performed. Here we show that this has led to a misinterpretation (and underestimation) of the imprint of quintessence on the distribution of large-scale structures. To this purpose, we perform a likelihood analysis of the combined Supernova Ia UNION data set and Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 5-yr data to identify realistic quintessence models. These are specified by different model parameter values, but still statistically indistinguishable from the vanilla Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM). Differences are especially manifest in the predicted amplitude and shape of the linear matter power spectrum though these remain within the uncertainties of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data. We use these models as a benchmark for studying the clustering properties of dark matter haloes by performing a series of high-resolution N-body simulations. In this first paper, we specifically focus on the non-linear matter power spectrum. We find that realistic quintessence models allow for relevant differences of the dark matter distribution with respect to the ΛCDM scenario well into the non-linear regime, with deviations of up to 40 per cent in the non-linear power spectrum. Such differences are shown to depend on the nature of DE, as well as the scale and epoch considered. At small scales (k ~ 1-5hMpc-1, depending on the redshift), the structure formation process is about 20 per cent more efficient than in ΛCDM. We show that these imprints are a specific record of the cosmic
García-Mayén, Héctor; Santillán, Arturo
2011-03-01
An experimental investigation on the coupling between the fingerboard and the top plate of a classical guitar at low frequencies is presented. The study was carried out using a finished top plate under fixed boundary conditions and a commercial guitar. Radiated sound power was determined in one-third octave bands up to the band of 1 kHz based on measurements of sound intensity. The results provide evidence that the way in which the fingerboard and top plate are coupled is not a relevant factor in the radiated acoustic power of the classical guitar in the studied frequency range.
García-Mayén, Héctor; Santillán, Arturo
2011-03-01
An experimental investigation on the coupling between the fingerboard and the top plate of a classical guitar at low frequencies is presented. The study was carried out using a finished top plate under fixed boundary conditions and a commercial guitar. Radiated sound power was determined in one-third octave bands up to the band of 1 kHz based on measurements of sound intensity. The results provide evidence that the way in which the fingerboard and top plate are coupled is not a relevant factor in the radiated acoustic power of the classical guitar in the studied frequency range. PMID:21428477
A MODEL FOR THE NON-UNIVERSAL POWER LAW OF THE SOLAR WIND SUB-ION-SCALE MAGNETIC SPECTRUM
Passot, T.; Sulem, P. L. E-mail: sulem@oca.eu
2015-10-20
A phenomenological turbulence model for kinetic Alfvén waves in a magnetized collisionless plasma that is able to reproduce the non-universal power-law spectra observed at the sub-ion scales in the solar wind and the terrestrial magnetosphere is presented. The process of temperature homogenization along distorted magnetic field lines, induced by Landau damping, affects the turbulence transfer time and results in a steepening of the sub-ion power-law spectrum of critically balanced turbulence, whose exponent is sensitive to the ratio between the Alfvén wave period and the nonlinear timescale. Transition from large-scale weak turbulence to smaller scale strong turbulence is captured and nonlocal interactions, relevant in the case of steep spectra, are accounted for.
García-González, M A; Fernández-Chimeno, M; Ferrer, J; Escorihuela, R M; Parrado, E; Capdevila, L; Benítez, A; Angulo, R; Rodríguez, F A; Iglesias, X; Bescós, R; Marina, M; Padullés, J M; Ramos-Castro, J
2011-08-01
This paper presents a new family of indices for the frequency domain analysis of heart rate variability time series that do not need any frequency band definition. After proper detrending of the time series, a cumulated power spectrum is obtained and frequencies that contain a certain percentage of the power below them are identified, so median frequency, bandwidth and a measure of the power spectrum asymmetry are proposed to complement or improve the classical spectral indices as the ratio of the powers of LF and HF bands (LF/HF). In normal conditions the median frequency provides similar information as the classical indices, while the bandwidth and asymmetry can be complementary measures of the physiological state of the tested subject. The proposed indices seem to be a good choice for tracking changes in the power spectrum in exercise stress, and they can guide in the determination of frequency band limits in other animal species.
Characterizing the peak in the cosmic microwave background angular power spectrum
Knox; Page
2000-08-14
A peak has been unambiguously detected in the cosmic microwave background angular spectrum. Here we characterize its properties with fits to phenomenological models. We find that the TOCO and BOOM/NA data determine the peak location to be in the range 175-243 and 151-259, respectively (at 95% confidence) and determine the peak amplitude to be between approximately 70 and 90 &mgr;K. The peak shape is consistent with inflation-inspired flat, cold dark matter plus cosmological constant models of structure formation with adiabatic, nearly scale invariant initial conditions. It is inconsistent with open models and presents a great challenge to defect models.
Ekas, Naomi V; Timmons, Lisa; Pruitt, Megan; Ghilain, Christine; Alessandri, Michael
2015-07-01
The current study uses the actor-partner interdependence model to examine the predictors of relationship satisfaction for mothers and fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder. Sixty-seven couples completed measures of optimism, benefit finding, coping strategies, social support, and relationship satisfaction. Results indicated that parent's positive strengths predicted better personal relationship satisfaction. Moreover, parents' benefit finding, use of emotional support, and perceived social support from their partner also predicted their partner's relationship satisfaction. The results of this study highlight the importance of focusing on positive factors that can enhance relationship quality. Implications for the development of parent-focused interventions are discussed.
Cosmic microwave background acoustic peak locations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Z.; Knox, L.; Mulroe, B.; Narimani, A.
2016-07-01
The Planck collaboration has measured the temperature and polarization of the cosmic microwave background well enough to determine the locations of eight peaks in the temperature (TT) power spectrum, five peaks in the polarization (EE) power spectrum and 12 extrema in the cross (TE) power spectrum. The relative locations of these extrema give a striking, and beautiful, demonstration of what we expect from acoustic oscillations in the plasma; e.g. that EE peaks fall half way between TT peaks. We expect this because the temperature map is predominantly sourced by temperature variations in the last scattering surface, while the polarization map is predominantly sourced by gradients in the velocity field, and the harmonic oscillations have temperature and velocity 90 deg out of phase. However, there are large differences in expectations for extrema locations from simple analytic models versus numerical calculations. Here, we quantitatively explore the origin of these differences in gravitational potential transients, neutrino free-streaming, the breakdown of tight coupling, the shape of the primordial power spectrum, details of the geometric projection from three to two dimensions, and the thickness of the last scattering surface. We also compare the peak locations determined from Planck measurements to expectations under the Λ cold dark matter model. Taking into account how the peak locations were determined, we find them to be in agreement.
Not Available
2010-12-01
Parabolic trough technology is the most mature of the various concentrating solar power (CSP) options. But scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) continue to make advances on trough systems through innovative research on various components in industrial partnerships with Acciona Solar Power, SkyFuel, Schott Solar, and others. The results are leading to improved system efficiencies and lower costs for CSP plants.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Motil, Susan M.; Ludwiczak, Damian R.; Carek, Gerald A.; Sorge, Richard N.; Free, James M.; Cikanek, Harry A., III
2011-01-01
NASA s human space exploration plans developed under the Exploration System Architecture Studies in 2005 included a Crew Exploration Vehicle launched on an Ares I launch vehicle. The mass of the Crew Exploration Vehicle and trajectory of the Ares I coupled with the need to be able to abort across a large percentage of the trajectory generated unprecedented testing requirements. A future lunar lander added to projected test requirements. In 2006, the basic test plan for Orion was developed. It included several types of environment tests typical of spacecraft development programs. These included thermal-vacuum, electromagnetic interference, mechanical vibration, and acoustic tests. Because of the size of the vehicle and unprecedented acoustics, NASA conducted an extensive assessment of options for testing, and as result, chose to augment the Space Power Facility at NASA Plum Brook Station, of the John H. Glenn Research Center to provide the needed test capabilities. The augmentation included designing and building the World s highest mass capable vibration table, the highest power large acoustic chamber, and adaptation of the existing World s largest thermal vacuum chamber as a reverberant electromagnetic interference test chamber. These augmentations were accomplished from 2007 through early 2011. Acceptance testing began in Spring 2011 and will be completed in the Fall of 2011. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities, design, construction and acceptance of this extraordinary facility.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choudhuri, Samir; Bharadwaj, Somnath; Roy, Nirupam; Ghosh, Abhik; Ali, Sk. Saiyad
2016-06-01
It is important to correctly subtract point sources from radio-interferometric data in order to measure the power spectrum of diffuse radiation like the Galactic synchrotron or the Epoch of Reionization 21-cm signal. It is computationally very expensive and challenging to image a very large area and accurately subtract all the point sources from the image. The problem is particularly severe at the sidelobes and the outer parts of the main lobe where the antenna response is highly frequency dependent and the calibration also differs from that of the phase centre. Here, we show that it is possible to overcome this problem by tapering the sky response. Using simulated 150 MHz observations, we demonstrate that it is possible to suppress the contribution due to point sources from the outer parts by using the Tapered Gridded Estimator to measure the angular power spectrum Cℓ of the sky signal. We also show from the simulation that this method can self-consistently compute the noise bias and accurately subtract it to provide an unbiased estimation of Cℓ.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertolini, Daniele; Schutz, Katelin; Solon, Mikhail P.; Walsh, Jonathan R.; Zurek, Kathryn M.
2016-06-01
We compute the non-Gaussian contribution to the covariance of the matter power spectrum at one-loop order in standard perturbation theory (SPT), using the framework of the effective field theory (EFT) of large scale structure (LSS). The complete one-loop contributions are evaluated for the first time, including the leading EFT corrections that involve seven independent operators, of which four appear in the power spectrum and bispectrum. We compare the non-Gaussian part of the one-loop covariance computed with both SPT and EFT of LSS to two separate simulations. In one simulation, we find that the one-loop prediction from SPT reproduces the simulation well to ki+kj˜0.25 h /Mpc , while in the other simulation we find a substantial improvement of EFT of LSS (with one free parameter) over SPT, more than doubling the range of k where the theory accurately reproduces the simulation. The disagreement between these two simulations points to unaccounted for systematics, highlighting the need for improved numerical and analytic understanding of the covariance.
Measurement of liquid surface acoustic wave amplitudes using HeNe laser homodyne techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hickman, G. D.; Hsu, Y. L.; Lee, M. S.; Bourgeois, B. S.; Hsieh, S. T.
1988-01-01
Recent results in the measurement of small amplitude acoustic waves on the water surface are presented. The research was performed using laser homodyne techniques in a small laboratory water tank. The homodyne system consists of optical, acoustic, and data acquisition subsystems. The optical subsystem includes an HeNe laser and polarizing components. THe acoustic subsystem consists of standard low power transducers and a power amplifier. The data acquisition subsystem includes a spectrum analyzer and a personal computer. Measurements were made in the acoustic frequency range of 15 - 23 kHz and sound pressure levels of 120-180 dB re 1 micropascal. It is estimated that the homodyne technique can detect surface amplitude deformations on the order of 90 A.
SIMULATIONS OF THE SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH POWER SPECTRUM WITH ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK
Battaglia, N.; Bond, J. R.; Pfrommer, C.; Sievers, J. L.; Sijacki, D.
2010-12-10
We explore how radiative cooling, supernova feedback, cosmic rays, and a new model of the energetic feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) affect the thermal and kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) power spectra. To do this, we use a suite of hydrodynamical TreePM-SPH simulations of the cosmic web in large periodic boxes and tailored higher resolution simulations of individual galaxy clusters. Our AGN feedback simulations match the recent universal pressure profile and cluster mass scaling relations of the REXCESS X-ray cluster sample better than previous analytical or numerical approaches. For multipoles l {approx}< 2000, our power spectra with and without enhanced feedback are similar, suggesting that theoretical uncertainties over that range are relatively small, although current analytic and semi-analytic approaches overestimate this SZ power. We find the power at high 2000-10, 000 multipoles in which the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) and South Pole Telescope (SPT) probe is sensitive to the feedback prescription, and hence can constrain the theory of intracluster gas, in particular for the highly uncertain redshifts >0.8. The apparent tension between {sigma}{sub 8} from primary cosmic microwave background power and from analytic SZ spectra inferred using ACT and SPT data is lessened with our AGN feedback spectra.
Ade, P. A. R.; Akiba, Y.; Hasegawa, M.; Anthony, A. E.; Halverson, N. W.; Arnold, K.; Atlas, M.; Barron, D.; Boettger, D.; Elleflot, T.; Feng, C.; Borrill, J.; Errard, J.; Chapman, S.; Chinone, Y.; Flanigan, D.; Dobbs, M.; Gilbert, A.; Fabbian, G.; Collaboration: Polarbear Collaboration; and others
2014-10-20
We report a measurement of the B-mode polarization power spectrum in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) using the POLARBEAR experiment in Chile. The faint B-mode polarization signature carries information about the universe's entire history of gravitational structure formation, and the cosmic inflation that may have occurred in the very early universe. Our measurement covers the angular multipole range 500 < ℓ < 2100 and is based on observations of an effective sky area of 25 deg{sup 2} with 3.'5 resolution at 150 GHz. On these angular scales, gravitational lensing of the CMB by intervening structure in the universe is expected to be the dominant source of B-mode polarization. Including both systematic and statistical uncertainties, the hypothesis of no B-mode polarization power from gravitational lensing is rejected at 97.2% confidence. The band powers are consistent with the standard cosmological model. Fitting a single lensing amplitude parameter A{sub BB} to the measured band powers, A{sub BB}=1.12±0.61(stat){sub −0.12}{sup +0.04}(sys)±0.07(multi), where A{sub BB} = 1 is the fiducial WMAP-9 ΛCDM value. In this expression, 'stat' refers to the statistical uncertainty, 'sys' to the systematic uncertainty associated with possible biases from the instrument and astrophysical foregrounds, and 'multi' to the calibration uncertainties that have a multiplicative effect on the measured amplitude A{sub BB}.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
The Polarbear Collaboration: P. A. R. Ade; Akiba, Y.; Anthony, A. E.; Arnold, K.; Atlas, M.; Barron, D.; Boettger, D.; Borrill, J.; Chapman, S.; Chinone, Y.; Dobbs, M.; Elleflot, T.; Errard, J.; Fabbian, G.; Feng, C.; Flanigan, D.; Gilbert, A.; Grainger, W.; Halverson, N. W.; Hasegawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Hazumi, M.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hori, Y.; Howard, J.; Hyland, P.; Inoue, Y.; Jaehnig, G. C.; Jaffe, A. H.; Keating, B.; Kermish, Z.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.; Le Jeune, M.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Linder, E.; Lungu, M.; Matsuda, F.; Matsumura, T.; Meng, X.; Miller, N. J.; Morii, H.; Moyerman, S.; Myers, M. J.; Navaroli, M.; Nishino, H.; Orlando, A.; Paar, H.; Peloton, J.; Poletti, D.; Quealy, E.; Rebeiz, G.; Reichardt, C. L.; Richards, P. L.; Ross, C.; Schanning, I.; Schenck, D. E.; Sherwin, B. D.; Shimizu, A.; Shimmin, C.; Shimon, M.; Siritanasak, P.; Smecher, G.; Spieler, H.; Stebor, N.; Steinbach, B.; Stompor, R.; Suzuki, A.; Takakura, S.; Tomaru, T.; Wilson, B.; Yadav, A.; Zahn, O.
2014-10-01
We report a measurement of the B-mode polarization power spectrum in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) using the POLARBEAR experiment in Chile. The faint B-mode polarization signature carries information about the universe's entire history of gravitational structure formation, and the cosmic inflation that may have occurred in the very early universe. Our measurement covers the angular multipole range 500 < l < 2100 and is based on observations of an effective sky area of 25 \\deg ^2 with 3.'5 resolution at 150 GHz. On these angular scales, gravitational lensing of the CMB by intervening structure in the universe is expected to be the dominant source of B-mode polarization. Including both systematic and statistical uncertainties, the hypothesis of no B-mode polarization power from gravitational lensing is rejected at 97.2% confidence. The band powers are consistent with the standard cosmological model. Fitting a single lensing amplitude parameter ABB to the measured band powers, ABB = 1.12 +/- 0.61 (stat) +0.04-0.12(sys) +/- 0.07 (multi), where ABB = 1 is the fiducial WMAP-9 ΛCDM value. In this expression, "stat" refers to the statistical uncertainty, "sys" to the systematic uncertainty associated with possible biases from the instrument and astrophysical foregrounds, and "multi" to the calibration uncertainties that have a multiplicative effect on the measured amplitude ABB .
Ebihara, Akira; Tanaka, Yuichi; Konno, Takehiko; Kawasaki, Shingo; Fujiwara, Michiyuki; Watanabe, Eiju
2013-10-01
The diagnosis and medical treatment of cerebral ischemia are becoming more important due to the increase in the prevalence of cerebrovascular disease. However, conventional methods of evaluating cerebral perfusion have several drawbacks: they are invasive, require physical restraint, and the equipment is not portable, which makes repeated measurements at the bedside difficult. An alternative method is developed using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). NIRS signals are measured at 44 positions (22 on each side) on the fronto-temporal areas in 20 patients with cerebral ischemia. In order to extract the pulse-wave component, the raw total hemoglobin data recorded from each position are band-pass filtered (0.8 to 2.0 Hz) and subjected to a fast Fourier transform to obtain the power spectrum of the pulse wave. The ischemic region is determined by single-photon emission computed tomography. The pulse-wave power in the ischemic region is compared with that in the symmetrical region on the contralateral side. In 17 cases (85%), the pulse-wave power on the ischemic side is significantly lower than that on the contralateral side, which indicates that the transmission of the pulse wave is attenuated in the region with reduced blood flow. Pulse-wave power might be useful as a noninvasive marker of cerebral ischemia.
ACOUSTIC LINERS FOR TURBOFAN ENGINES
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Minner, G. L.
1994-01-01
This program was developed to design acoustic liners for turbofan engines. This program combines results from theoretical models of wave alternation in acoustically treated passages with experimental data from full-scale fan noise suppressors. By including experimentally obtained information, the program accounts for real effects such as wall boundary layers, duct terminations, and sound modal structure. The program has its greatest use in generating a number of design specifications to be used for evaluation of trade-offs. The program combines theoretical and empirical data in designing annular acoustic liners. First an estimate of the noise output of the fan is made based on basic fan aerodynamic design variables. Then, using a target noise spectrum after alternation and the estimated fan noise spectrum, a design spectrum is calculated as their difference. Next, the design spectrum is combined with knowledge of acoustic liner performance and the liner design variables to specify the acoustic design. Details of the liner design are calculated by combining the required acoustic impedance with a mathematical model relating acoustic impedance to the physical structure of the liner. Input to the noise prediction part of the program consists of basic fan operating parameters, distance that the target spectrum is to be measured and the target spectrum. The liner design portion of the program requires the required alternation spectrum, desired values of length to height and several option selection parameters. Output from the noise prediction portion is a noise spectrum consisting of discrete tones and broadband noise. This may be used as input to the liner design portion of the program. The liner design portion of the program produces backing depths, open area ratios, and face plate thicknesses. This program is written in FORTRAN V and has been implemented in batch mode on a UNIVAC 1100 series computer with a central memory requirement of 12K (decimal) of 36 bit words.
Axicons for power conversion efficiency enhancement in solar cells for the visible spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Podlipnov, V. V.; Porfirev, A. P.; Khonina, S. N.
2016-08-01
We investigate the possibility of using diffractive microaxicons with different periods for power conversion efficiency enhancement in solar cells. The microaxicons were manufactured by using electron beam lithography. The parameters of the manufactured microaxicons were measured using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For imitation of solar light, we utilised a tunable laser (the used wavelength range is from 400 nm to 800 nm). Experimentally measured dependence of solar cell efficiency for the case of a combination of a solar cell and microaxicons of various types demonstrates a power conversion efficiency enhancement in the case of using such structures.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krasilnikov, D. D.; Knurenko, S. P.; Krasilnikov, A. D.; Pavlov, V. N.; Sleptsov, I. Y.; Yegorova, V. P.
1985-01-01
The extensive air showers spectrum on scintillation desity Rko in primary energy region E sub approx. 10 to the 15th power - 10 to the 20th power eV on the Yakutsk array data and recent results of the Akeno is given.
Block, David L.; Puerari, Ivanio; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Bournaud, Frederic
2010-07-20
Power spectra of Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) emission at 24, 70, and 160 {mu}m observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope have a two-component power-law structure with a shallow slope of -1.6 at low wavenumber, k, and a steep slope of -2.9 at high k. The break occurs at k {sup -1} {approx} 100-200 pc, which is interpreted as the line-of-sight thickness of the LMC disk. The slopes are slightly steeper for longer wavelengths, suggesting the cooler dust emission is smoother than the hot emission. The power spectrum (PS) covers {approx}3.5 orders of magnitude, and the break in the slope is in the middle of this range on a logarithmic scale. Large-scale driving from galactic and extragalactic processes, including disk self-gravity, spiral waves, and bars, presumably causes the low-k structure in what is effectively a two-dimensional geometry. Small-scale driving from stellar processes and shocks causes the high-k structure in a three-dimensional geometry. This transition in dimensionality corresponds to the observed change in PS slope. A companion paper models the observed power law with a self-gravitating hydrodynamics simulation of a galaxy like the LMC.
Dust and gas power spectrum in M 33 (HERM33ES)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Combes, F.; Boquien, M.; Kramer, C.; Xilouris, E. M.; Bertoldi, F.; Braine, J.; Buchbender, C.; Calzetti, D.; Gratier, P.; Israel, F.; Koribalski, B.; Lord, S.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Relaño, M.; Röllig, M.; Stacey, G.; Tabatabaei, F. S.; Tilanus, R. P. J.; van der Tak, F.; van der Werf, P.; Verley, S.
2012-03-01
Power spectra of deprojected images of late-type galaxies in gas or dust emission are very useful diagnostics of the dynamics and stability of their interstellar medium. Previous studies have shown that the power spectra can be approximated as two power laws, a shallow one on large scales (larger than 500 pc) and a steeper one on small scales, with the break between the two corresponding to the line-of-sight thickness of the galaxy disk. The break separates the 3D behavior of the interstellar medium on small scales, controlled by star formation and feedback, from the 2D behavior on large scales, driven by density waves in the disk. The break between these two regimes depends on the thickness of the plane, which is determined by the natural self-gravitating scale of the interstellar medium. We present a thorough analysis of the power spectra of the dust and gas emission at several wavelengths in the nearby galaxy M 33. In particular, we use the recently obtained images at five wavelengths by PACS and SPIRE onboard Herschel. The wide dynamical range (2-3 dex in scale) of most images allows us to clearly determine the change in slopes from -1.5 to -4, with some variations with wavelength. The break scale increases with wavelength from 100 pc at 24 and 100 μm to 350 pc at 500 μm, suggesting that the cool dust lies in a thicker disk than the warm dust, perhaps because of star formation that is more confined to the plane. The slope on small scales tends to be steeper at longer wavelength, meaning that the warmer dust is more concentrated in clumps. Numerical simulations of an isolated late-type galaxy, rich in gas and with no bulge, such as M 33, are carried out to better interpret these observed results. Varying the star formation and feedback parameters, it is possible to obtain a range of power spectra, with two power-law slopes and breaks, that nicelybracket the data. The small-scale power-law does indeed reflect the 3D behavior of the gas layer, steepening
High-power fiber-coupled 100W visible spectrum diode lasers for display applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Unger, Andreas; Küster, Matthias; Köhler, Bernd; Biesenbach, Jens
2013-02-01
Diode lasers in the blue and red spectral range are the most promising light sources for upcoming high-brightness digital projectors in cinemas and large venue displays. They combine improved efficiency, longer lifetime and a greatly improved color space compared to traditional xenon light sources. In this paper we report on high-power visible diode laser sources to serve the demands of this emerging market. A unique electro-optical platform enables scalable fiber coupled sources at 638 nm with an output power of up to 100 W from a 400 μm NA0.22 fiber. For the blue diode laser we demonstrate scalable sources from 5 W to 100 W from a 400 μm NA0.22 fiber.
Warm dark matter signatures on the 21cm power spectrum: intensity mapping forecasts for SKA
Carucci, Isabella P.; Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Viel, Matteo; Lapi, Andrea E-mail: villaescusa@oats.inaf.it E-mail: lapi@sissa.it
2015-07-01
We investigate the impact that warm dark matter (WDM) has in terms of 21 cm intensity mapping in the post-reionization Universe at z=3−5. We perform hydrodynamic simulations for 5 different models: cold dark matter and WDM with 1,2,3,4 keV (thermal relic) mass and assign the neutral hydrogen a-posteriori using two different methods that both reproduce observations in terms of column density distribution function of neutral hydrogen systems. Contrary to naive expectations, the suppression of power present in the linear and non-linear matter power spectra, results in an increase of power in terms of neutral hydrogen and 21 cm power spectra. This is due to the fact that there is a lack of small mass halos in WDM models with respect to cold dark matter: in order to distribute a total amount of neutral hydrogen within the two cosmological models, a larger quantity has to be placed in the most massive halos, that are more biased compared to the cold dark matter cosmology. We quantify this effect and address significance for the telescope SKA1-LOW, including a realistic noise modeling. The results indicate that we will be able to rule out a 4 keV WDM model with 5000 hours of observations at z>3, with a statistical significance of >3 σ, while a smaller mass of 3 keV, comparable to present day constraints, can be ruled out at more than 2 σ confidence level with 1000 hours of observations at z>5.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Szabo, Adam; Koval, A.
2011-01-01
The newly reprocessed high time resolution (11/22 vectors/sec) Wind mission interplanetary magnetic field data and the similar observations made by the MESSENGER spacecraft in the inner heliosphere affords an opportunity to compare magnetic field power spectral density variations as a function of radial distance from the Sun under different solar wind conditions. In the reprocessed Wind Magnetic Field Investigation (MFI) data, the spin tone and its harmonics are greatly reduced that allows the meaningful fitting of power spectra to the approx.2 Hz limit above which digitization noise becomes apparent. The powe'r spectral density is computed and the spectral index is fitted for the MHD and ion inertial regime separately along with the break point between the two for various solar wind conditions. Wind and MESSENGER magnetic fluctuations are compared for times when the two spacecraft are close to radial and Parker field alignment. The functional dependence of the ion inertial spectral index and break point on solar wind plasma and magnetic field conditions will be discussed.
Variability in the power spectrum of solar five-minute oscillations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hill, F.; Toomre, J.; November, L. J.
1983-01-01
It is noted that two-dimensional power spectra of solar five-minute oscillations exhibit prominent ridge structures in (k, omega) space, k being the horizontal wavenumber and omega the temporal frequency. The positions of these ridges in k and omega can be used in probing temperature and velocity structures in the subphotosphere. The progress made in a program to establish whether power spectra taken on separate days show shifts in ridge locations is surveyed, noting that these may arise from different velocity and temperature patterns having been brought into the sampling region by solar rotation. Power spectra are obtained for six days of observations of Doppler velocities using the Mg I 5173 A and Fe I 5434 A spectral lines. Each data set encompasses 8 to 11 hr in time and samples a region 256 x 1024 arcsec in spatial extent, with a spatial resolution of 2 arcsec and temporal sampling of 65 s. Statistically significant shifts are detected in ridge locations between certain data sets. When analyzed in terms of eastward and westward propagating waves, the character of these displacements is seen as implying that changes have occurred in both temperature and horizontal velocity fields underlying the observing window. The velocity changes are estimated to be of the order of 100 m/s.
The power of the positive: revisiting weak coherence in autism spectrum disorders.
Happé, Francesca G E; Booth, Rhonda D L
2008-01-01
This paper reexamines Frith's original concept of weak coherence, its historical origins, recent reformulations, and alternative accounts. We suggest that the key notion of reduced global integration of information, which Frith proposed to underlie the assets in local processing, has been neglected in recent accounts of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In fact, most paradigms used to test weak coherence conflate global and local processing, often placing them in direct trade-off, so that it is not possible to tell whether patterns of performance in ASD reflect reduced global processing, increased local processing, or both. We review the literature from typical development and ASD that may be pertinent to this distinction and examine some data from our own studies. Only once tasks are devised that measure separately the effects of reduced global processing and increased local processing will it be possible to test the on-line and developmental relations between these two aspects of "weak coherence". Some preliminary ideas about these relationships are discussed, and suggestions are made for why disentangling two possibly independent dimensions of weak coherence may be timely and productive.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Hyunbae; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Shapiro, Paul R.; Koda, Jun; Mao, Yi
2016-02-01
Cosmological transverse momentum fields, whose directions are perpendicular to Fourier wave vectors, induce temperature anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background via the kinetic Sunyaev-Zel’dovich (kSZ) effect. The transverse momentum power spectrum contains the four-point function of density and velocity fields, < δ δ {vv}> . In the post-reionization epoch, nonlinear effects dominate in the power spectrum. We use perturbation theory and cosmological N-body simulations to calculate this nonlinearity. We derive the next-to-leading order expression for the power spectrum with a particular emphasis on the connected term that has been ignored in the literature. While the contribution from the connected term on small scales (k\\gt 0.1 h {{{Mpc}}}-1) is subdominant relative to the unconnected term, we find that its contribution to the kSZ power spectrum at {\\ell }=3000 at z\\lt 6 can be as large as ten percent of the unconnected term, which would reduce the allowed contribution from the reionization epoch (z\\gt 6) by twenty percent. The power spectrum of transverse momentum on large scales is expected to scale as k2 as a consequence of momentum conservation. We show that both the leading and the next-to-leading order terms satisfy this scaling. In particular, we find that both of the unconnected and connected terms are necessary to reproduce k2.
Chiang, Chi-Ting; Wagner, Christian; Schmidt, Fabian; Komatsu, Eiichiro E-mail: cwagner@mpa-garching.mpg.de E-mail: komatsu@mpa-garching.mpg.de
2014-05-01
The influence of large-scale density fluctuations on structure formation on small scales is described by the three-point correlation function (bispectrum) in the so-called ''squeezed configurations,'' in which one wavenumber, say k{sub 3}, is much smaller than the other two, i.e., k{sub 3} << k{sub 1} ≈ k{sub 2}. This bispectrum is generated by non-linear gravitational evolution and possibly also by inflationary physics. In this paper, we use this fact to show that the bispectrum in the squeezed configurations can be measured without employing three-point function estimators. Specifically, we use the ''position-dependent power spectrum,'' i.e., the power spectrum measured in smaller subvolumes of the survey (or simulation box), and correlate it with the mean overdensity of the corresponding subvolume. This correlation directly measures an integral of the bispectrum dominated by the squeezed configurations. Measuring this correlation is only slightly more complex than measuring the power spectrum itself, and sidesteps the considerable complexity of the full bispectrum estimation. We use cosmological N-body simulations of collisionless particles with Gaussian initial conditions to show that the measured correlation between the position-dependent power spectrum and the long-wavelength overdensity agrees with the theoretical expectation. The position-dependent power spectrum thus provides a new, efficient, and promising way to measure the squeezed-limit bispectrum from large-scale structure observations such as galaxy redshift surveys.
Maki, Jr., Voldi E.; Sharma, Mukul M.
1997-01-21
A method and apparatus are disclosed for cleaning the wellbore and the near wellbore region. A sonde is provided which is adapted to be lowered into a borehole and which includes a plurality of acoustic transducers arranged around the sonde. Electrical power provided by a cable is converted to acoustic energy. The high intensity acoustic energy directed to the borehole wall and into the near wellbore region, redissolves or resuspends the material which is reducing the permeability of the formation and/or restricting flow in the wellbore.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xingyu; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Chung, Chi-Jui; Pan, Zeyu; Yan, Hai; Chen, Ray T.
2016-03-01
We design, fabricate and experimentally demonstrate a compact thermo-optic gate switch comprising a 3.78μm-long coupled L0-type photonic crystal microcavities on a silicon-on-insulator substrate. A nanohole is inserted in the center of each individual L0 photonic crystal microcavity. Coupling between identical microcavities gives rise to bonding and antibonding states of the coupled photonic molecules. The coupled photonic crystal microcavities are numerically simulated and experimentally verified with a 6nm-wide flat-bottom resonance in its transmission spectrum, which enables wider operational spectrum range than microring resonators. An integrated micro-heater is in direct contact with the silicon core to efficiently drive the device. The thermo-optic switch is measured with an optical extinction ratio of 20dB, an on-off switching power of 18.2mW, a therm-optic tuning efficiency of 0.63nm/mW, a rise time of 14.8μsec and a fall time of 18.5μsec. The measured on-chip loss on the transmission band is as low as 1dB.
A nanogenerator as a self-powered sensor for measuring the vibration spectrum of a drum membrane.
Yu, Aifang; Zhao, Yong; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Zhong Lin
2013-02-01
A nanogenerator (NG) is a device that converts vibration energy into electricity. Here, a flexible, small size and lightweight NG is successfully demonstrated as an active sensor for detecting the vibration spectrum of a drum membrane without the use of an external power source. The output current/voltage signal of the NG is a direct measure of the strain of the local vibrating drum membrane that contains rich informational content, such as, notably, the vibration frequency, vibration speed and vibration amplitude. In comparison to the laser vibrometer, which is excessively complex and expensive, this kind of small and low cost sensor based on an NG is also capable of detecting the local vibration frequency of a drum membrane accurately. A spatial arrangement of the NGs on the membrane can provide position-dependent vibration information on the surface. The measured frequency spectrum can be understood on the basis of the theoretically calculated vibration modes. This work expands the application of NGs and reveals the potential for developing sound wave detection, environmental/infrastructure monitoring and many more applications.
Drumheller, D.S.
1997-12-30
An acoustic transducer is described comprising a one-piece hollow mandrel into the outer surface of which is formed a recess with sides perpendicular to the central axis of the mandrel and separated by a first distance and with a bottom parallel to the central axis and within which recess are a plurality of washer-shaped discs of a piezoelectric material and at least one disc of a temperature-compensating material with the discs being captured between the sides of the recess in a pre-stressed interference fit, typically at 2,000 psi of compressive stress. The transducer also includes a power supply and means to connect to a measurement device. The transducer is intended to be used for telemetry between a measurement device located downhole in an oil or gas well and the surface. The transducer is of an construction that is stronger with fewer joints that could leak fluids into the recess holding the piezoelectric elements than is found in previous acoustic transducers. 4 figs.
Drumheller, Douglas S.
1997-01-01
An acoustic transducer comprising a one-piece hollow mandrel into the outer surface of which is formed a recess with sides perpendicular to the central axis of the mandrel and separated by a first distance and with a bottom parallel to the central axis and within which recess are a plurality of washer-shaped discs of a piezoelectric material and at least one disc of a temperature-compensating material with the discs being captured between the sides of the recess in a pre-stressed interference fit, typically at 2000 psi of compressive stress. The transducer also includes a power supply and means to connect to a measurement device. The transducer is intended to be used for telemetry between a measurement device located downhole in an oil or gas well and the surface. The transducer is of an construction that is stronger with fewer joints that could leak fluids into the recess holding the piezoelectric elements than is found in previous acoustic transducers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kudryavtsev, V. V.; Safronov, A. V.
2012-01-01
Paper deals with elaboration of semiempirical technique for prediction of broadband acoustic field generated at interaction of launch vehicle main engines jets with a launch pad having closed long ducts like a tunnel. Approach to a problem is based on analysis of jet interaction with typical deflectors, extraction of characteristic noise generation regions, and substitution of each region of noise generation by a system of independent acoustic sources with prescribed acoustic power and spectrum of acoustic radiation. Comparisons of calculated results with experimental data indicate that the technique allows to make reliable estimations of acoustical field characteristics as a function of geometrical and gasdynamic parameters and to analyze different means for reduction of acoustic loading at lift-off. Use of elaborated technique for multibody launch vehicles with clustered engines and multiduct launch pads is considered.
Dummer, Benjamin; Wieland, Stefan; Lindner, Benjamin
2014-01-01
A major source of random variability in cortical networks is the quasi-random arrival of presynaptic action potentials from many other cells. In network studies as well as in the study of the response properties of single cells embedded in a network, synaptic background input is often approximated by Poissonian spike trains. However, the output statistics of the cells is in most cases far from being Poisson. This is inconsistent with the assumption of similar spike-train statistics for pre- and postsynaptic cells in a recurrent network. Here we tackle this problem for the popular class of integrate-and-fire neurons and study a self-consistent statistics of input and output spectra of neural spike trains. Instead of actually using a large network, we use an iterative scheme, in which we simulate a single neuron over several generations. In each of these generations, the neuron is stimulated with surrogate stochastic input that has a similar statistics as the output of the previous generation. For the surrogate input, we employ two distinct approximations: (i) a superposition of renewal spike trains with the same interspike interval density as observed in the previous generation and (ii) a Gaussian current with a power spectrum proportional to that observed in the previous generation. For input parameters that correspond to balanced input in the network, both the renewal and the Gaussian iteration procedure converge quickly and yield comparable results for the self-consistent spike-train power spectrum. We compare our results to large-scale simulations of a random sparsely connected network of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons (Brunel, 2000) and show that in the asynchronous regime close to a state of balanced synaptic input from the network, our iterative schemes provide an excellent approximations to the autocorrelation of spike trains in the recurrent network.
Dummer, Benjamin; Wieland, Stefan; Lindner, Benjamin
2014-01-01
A major source of random variability in cortical networks is the quasi-random arrival of presynaptic action potentials from many other cells. In network studies as well as in the study of the response properties of single cells embedded in a network, synaptic background input is often approximated by Poissonian spike trains. However, the output statistics of the cells is in most cases far from being Poisson. This is inconsistent with the assumption of similar spike-train statistics for pre- and postsynaptic cells in a recurrent network. Here we tackle this problem for the popular class of integrate-and-fire neurons and study a self-consistent statistics of input and output spectra of neural spike trains. Instead of actually using a large network, we use an iterative scheme, in which we simulate a single neuron over several generations. In each of these generations, the neuron is stimulated with surrogate stochastic input that has a similar statistics as the output of the previous generation. For the surrogate input, we employ two distinct approximations: (i) a superposition of renewal spike trains with the same interspike interval density as observed in the previous generation and (ii) a Gaussian current with a power spectrum proportional to that observed in the previous generation. For input parameters that correspond to balanced input in the network, both the renewal and the Gaussian iteration procedure converge quickly and yield comparable results for the self-consistent spike-train power spectrum. We compare our results to large-scale simulations of a random sparsely connected network of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons (Brunel, 2000) and show that in the asynchronous regime close to a state of balanced synaptic input from the network, our iterative schemes provide an excellent approximations to the autocorrelation of spike trains in the recurrent network. PMID:25278869
Acoustical standards in engineering acoustics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burkhard, Mahlon D.
2001-05-01
The Engineering Acoustics Technical Committee is concerned with the evolution and improvement of acoustical techniques and apparatus, and with the promotion of new applications of acoustics. As cited in the Membership Directory and Handbook (2002), the interest areas include transducers and arrays; underwater acoustic systems; acoustical instrumentation and monitoring; applied sonics, promotion of useful effects, information gathering and transmission; audio engineering; acoustic holography and acoustic imaging; acoustic signal processing (equipment and techniques); and ultrasound and infrasound. Evident connections between engineering and standards are needs for calibration, consistent terminology, uniform presentation of data, reference levels, or design targets for product development. Thus for the acoustical engineer standards are both a tool for practices, for communication, and for comparison of his efforts with those of others. Development of many standards depends on knowledge of the way products are put together for the market place and acoustical engineers provide important input to the development of standards. Acoustical engineers and members of the Engineering Acoustics arm of the Society both benefit from and contribute to the Acoustical Standards of the Acoustical Society.
Entropy information of heart rate variability and its power spectrum during day and night
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Li; Jun, Wang
2013-07-01
Physiologic systems generate complex fluctuations in their output signals that reflect the underlying dynamics. We employed the base-scale entropy method and the power spectral analysis to study the 24 hours heart rate variability (HRV) signals. The results show that such profound circadian-, age- and pathologic-dependent changes are accompanied by changes in base-scale entropy and power spectral distribution. Moreover, the base-scale entropy changes reflect the corresponding changes in the autonomic nerve outflow. With the suppression of the vagal tone and dominance of the sympathetic tone in congestive heart failure (CHF) subjects, there is more variability in the date fluctuation mode. So the higher base-scale entropy belongs to CHF subjects. With the decrease of the sympathetic tone and the respiratory frequency (RSA) becoming more pronounced with slower breathing during sleeping, the base-scale entropy drops in CHF subjects. The HRV series of the two healthy groups have the same diurnal/nocturnal trend as the CHF series. The fluctuation dynamics trend of data in the three groups can be described as “HF effect”.
Rath, Pranati K.; Mudholkar, Tanmay; Jain, Pankaj; Aluri, Pavan K.; Panda, Sukanta E-mail: mtanmay@iitk.ac.in E-mail: aluri@iiserb.ac.in
2013-04-01
We study several anisotropic inflationary models and their implications for the observed violation of statistical isotropy in the CMBR data. In two of these models the anisotropy decays very quickly during the inflationary phase of expansion. We explicitly show that these models lead to violation of isotropy only for low l CMBR modes. Our primary aim is to fit the observed alignment of l = 2,3 multipoles to the theoretical models. We use two measures, based on the power tensor, which contains information about the alignment of each multipole, to quantify the anisotropy in data. One of the measures uses the dispersion in eigenvalues of the power tensor. We also define another measure which tests the overall correlation between two different multipoles. We perturbatively compute these measures of anisotropy and fix the theoretical parameters by making a best fit to l = 2,3 multipoles. We show that some of the models studied are able to consistently explain the observed violation of statistical isotropy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kleeberg, Florian P.; Gutzmann, Holger L.; Weyer, Cornelia; Weiß, Jürgen; Dörfler, Joachim; Hahlweg, Cornelius F.
2014-09-01
The present paper is a follow up of a paper presented in 2013 at the Novel Optical Systems conference in the session on Optics and Music. It is derived from an ongoing study on the human perception of combined optical and acoustical periodical stimuli. Originating from problems concerning artificial illumination and certain machinery with coherent optical and acoustical emissions there are effects to be observed which are interesting in the context of occupational medicine. It seems, that acoustic stimuli in the frequency range of the flicker fusion and below might lead to unexpected perceptible effects beyond those of the single stimuli. The effect of infrasound stimuli as a whole body perception seems to be boosted. Because of the difficulties in evaluation of physical and psychological effects of such coherent stimuli in a first step we question if such coherence is perceivable at all. Further, the problem of modulation of optical signals by acoustical signal is concerned. A catalogue of scenarios and 'effects to look for' including measurement concepts is presented and discussed.
An acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor that develops on the nerve that connects the ear to the brain. The tumor ... press against the brain, becoming life-threatening. Acoustic neuroma can be difficult to diagnose, because the symptoms ...
Acoustic energy harvesting based on a planar acoustic metamaterial
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qi, Shuibao; Oudich, Mourad; Li, Yong; Assouar, Badreddine
2016-06-01
We theoretically report on an innovative and practical acoustic energy harvester based on a defected acoustic metamaterial (AMM) with piezoelectric material. The idea is to create suitable resonant defects in an AMM to confine the strain energy originating from an acoustic incidence. This scavenged energy is converted into electrical energy by attaching a structured piezoelectric material into the defect area of the AMM. We show an acoustic energy harvester based on a meta-structure capable of producing electrical power from an acoustic pressure. Numerical simulations are provided to analyze and elucidate the principles and the performances of the proposed system. A maximum output voltage of 1.3 V and a power density of 0.54 μW/cm3 are obtained at a frequency of 2257.5 Hz. The proposed concept should have broad applications on energy harvesting as well as on low-frequency sound isolation, since this system acts as both acoustic insulator and energy harvester.
Concepts of EEG processing: from power spectrum to bispectrum, fractals, entropies and all that.
Schwilden, Helmut
2006-03-01
Over the past two decades, methods of processing the EEG for monitoring anaesthesia have greatly expanded. Whereas power spectral analysis was once the most important tool for extracting EEG monitoring variables, higher-order spectra, wavelet decomposition and especially methods used in the analysis of complex dynamical systems such as non-linear dissipative