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Sample records for acoustic pressure response

  1. Response of space shuttle insulation panels to acoustic noise pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaicaitis, R.

    1976-01-01

    The response of reusable space shuttle insulation panels to random acoustic pressure fields are studied. The basic analytical approach in formulating the governing equations of motion uses a Rayleigh-Ritz technique. The input pressure field is modeled as a stationary Gaussian random process for which the cross-spectral density function is known empirically from experimental measurements. The response calculations are performed in both frequency and time domain.

  2. Nonlinear Response of Composite Panels Under Combined Acoustic Excitation and Aerodynamic Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdel-Motagaly, K.; Duan, B.; Mei, C.

    1999-01-01

    A finite element formulation is presented for the analysis of large deflection response of composite panels subjected to aerodynamic pressure- at supersonic flow and high acoustic excitation. The first-order shear deformation theory is considered for laminated composite plates, and the von Karman nonlinear strain-displacement relations are employed for the analysis of large deflection panel response. The first-order piston theory aerodynamics and the simulated Gaussian white noise are employed for the aerodynamic and acoustic loads, respectively. The nonlinear equations of motion for an arbitrarily laminated composite panel subjected to a combined aerodynamic and acoustic pressures are formulated first in structure node degrees-of-freedom. The system equations are then transformed and reduced to a set of coupled nonlinear equations in modal coordinates. Modal participation is defined and the in-vacuo modes to be retained in the analysis are based on the modal participation values. Numerical results include root mean square values of maximum deflections, deflection and strain response time histories, probability distributions, and power spectrum densities. Results showed that combined acoustic and aerodynamic loads have to be considered for panel analysis and design at high dynamic pressure values.

  3. Response of acoustic and elastic properties to pressure and crystallization of Ce-based bulk metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Wang, R. J.; Wang, W. H.

    2005-09-01

    The density and acoustic velocities of a Ce70Al10Ni10Cu10 bulk metallic glass (BMG) under hydrostatic-pressure (up to 0.5GPa ) and in crystallized state in ambient conditions were measured in situ by a pulse echo overlap method. The pressure derivatives of velocities and Grüneisen parameters as well as the equation of state (EOS) of the BMG were determined and compared to those of various other BMGs and nonmetallic glasses. Surprisingly, the BMG, unlike other BMGs with normal mode stiffness, exhibits an anomalous soft longitudinal acoustic mode under pressure similar to that of typical oxide glasses. An unusually large softening of longitudinal acoustic phonons in the BMG, relative to its crystalline state, is also observed, analogous with that in oxide glasses. The possible origin for the anomaly is the intrinsic glassy structure containing short-range covalent bonds.

  4. Acoustic pressure-vector sensor array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Dehua; Elswick, Roy C.; McEachern, James F.

    2004-05-01

    Pressure-vector sensors measure both scalar and vector components of the acoustic field. December 2003 measurements at the NUWC Seneca Lake test facility verify previous observations that acoustic ambient noise spectrum levels measured by acoustic intensity sensors are reduced relative to either acoustic pressure or acoustic vector sensor spectrum levels. The Seneca measurements indicate a reduction by as much as 15 dB at the upper measurement frequency of 2500 Hz. A nonlinear array synthesis theory for pressure-vector sensors will be introduced that allows smaller apertures to achieve narrow beams. The significantly reduced ambient noise of individual pressure-vector elements observed in the ocean by others, and now at Seneca Lake, should allow a nonlinearly combined array to detect significantly lower levels than has been observed in previous multiplicative processing of pressure sensors alone. Nonlinear array synthesis of pressure-vector sensors differs from conventional super-directive algorithms that linearly combine pressure elements with positive and negative weights, thereby reducing the sensitivity of conventional super-directive arrays. The much smaller aperture of acoustic pressure-vector sensor arrays will be attractive for acoustic systems on underwater vehicles, as well as for other applications that require narrow beam acoustic receivers. [The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of ONR and NUWC.

  5. Acoustic waves in gases with strong pressure gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorumski, William E.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of strong pressure gradients on the acoustic modes (standing waves) of a rectangular cavity is investigated analytically. When the cavity response is represented by a sum of modes, each mode is found to have two resonant frequencies. The lower frequency is near the Viaesaela-Brundt frequency, which characterizes the buoyant effect, and the higher frequency is above the ordinary acoustic resonance frequency. This finding shows that the propagation velocity of the acoustic waves is increased due to the pressure gradient effect.

  6. Measurement of the acoustic reflex without a pressure seal.

    PubMed

    Surr, R K; Schuchman, G I

    1976-03-01

    Obtaining a hermetic seal in the external auditory canal is often a major obstacle in impedance audiometry. In the present study, the acoustic reflex threshold was determined for three groups of subjects, first with and then without a pressure-tight seal. It was found that for subjects with normal hearing or sensorineural hearing loss and normal tympanograms, 96% of the measurements obtained without a pressure seal were within 5 dB of those obtained with a seal. Among the subjects who exhibited negative middle ear pressure, the acoustic reflex could be measured consistently at the point of maximum compliance, while no response was observed without a pressure seal.

  7. Acoustic wave propagation in high-pressure system.

    PubMed

    Foldyna, Josef; Sitek, Libor; Habán, Vladimír

    2006-12-22

    Recently, substantial attention is paid to the development of methods of generation of pulsations in high-pressure systems to produce pulsating high-speed water jets. The reason is that the introduction of pulsations into the water jets enables to increase their cutting efficiency due to the fact that the impact pressure (so-called water-hammer pressure) generated by an impact of slug of water on the target material is considerably higher than the stagnation pressure generated by corresponding continuous jet. Special method of pulsating jet generation was developed and tested extensively under the laboratory conditions at the Institute of Geonics in Ostrava. The method is based on the action of acoustic transducer on the pressure liquid and transmission of generated acoustic waves via pressure system to the nozzle. The purpose of the paper is to present results obtained during the research oriented at the determination of acoustic wave propagation in high-pressure system. The final objective of the research is to solve the problem of transmission of acoustic waves through high-pressure water to generate pulsating jet effectively even at larger distances from the acoustic source. In order to be able to simulate numerically acoustic wave propagation in the system, it is necessary among others to determine dependence of the sound speed and second kinematical viscosity on operating pressure. Method of determination of the second kinematical viscosity and speed of sound in liquid using modal analysis of response of the tube filled with liquid to the impact was developed. The response was measured by pressure sensors placed at both ends of the tube. Results obtained and presented in the paper indicate good agreement between experimental data and values of speed of sound calculated from so-called "UNESCO equation". They also show that the value of the second kinematical viscosity of water depends on the pressure.

  8. Pressure-Coupled Acoustic-Transducer Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, F. Raymond

    1993-01-01

    Improved acoustic-transducer assembly easy to assemble, relocatable, and used at high temperatures. In assembly, piezoelectric acoustic transducer pressure-coupled to delay line or fixture through soft metal like aluminum, copper or gold. Transducer subassembly includes layered structure of coupling material, transducer, thin disk of coupling material acting as cushion for transducer, electrode disk with coaxial cable lead attached, insulation/damping material, and pressure plate. Pressure coupling precludes problem of matching coefficients of thermal expansion of transducer, coupling material, and delay line.

  9. Acoustic emission testing of 12-nickel maraging steel pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunegan, H. L.

    1973-01-01

    Acoustic emission data were obtained from three point bend fracture toughness specimens of 12-nickel maraging steel, and two pressure vessels of the same material. One of the pressure vessels contained a prefabricated flaw which was extended and sharpened by fatigue cycling. It is shown that the flawed vessel had similar characteristics to the fracture specimens, thereby allowing estimates to be made of its nearness to failure during a proof test. Both the flawed and unflawed pressure vessel survived the proof pressure and 5 cycles to the working pressure, but it was apparent from the acoustic emission response during the proof cycle and the 5 cycles to the working pressure that the flawed vessel was very near failure. The flawed vessel did not survive a second cycle to the proof pressure before failure due to flaw extension through the wall (causing a leak).

  10. Acoustic oscillatory pressure control for ramjet

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.S.; Dunlap, R.

    1988-08-02

    A method for controlling the acoustic oscillatory pressures generated by gas flow at the combustor inlet to a ramjet engine, the inlet including a sudden geometry expansion is described characterized by; restricting the inlet at the sudden expansion geometry such that the gas flow separates upstream and has a vena contracta downstream of the restricted inlet.

  11. Nonlinear Bubble Interactions in Acoustic Pressure Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbat, Tiberiu; Ashgriz, Nasser; Liu, Ching-Shi

    1996-01-01

    The systems consisting of a two-phase mixture, as clouds of bubbles or drops, have shown many common features in their responses to different external force fields. One of particular interest is the effect of an unsteady pressure field applied to these systems, case in which the coupling of the vibrations induced in two neighboring components (two drops or two bubbles) may result in an interaction force between them. This behavior was explained by Bjerknes by postulating that every body that is moving in an accelerating fluid is subjected to a 'kinetic buoyancy' equal with the product of the acceleration of the fluid multiplied by the mass of the fluid displaced by the body. The external sound wave applied to a system of drops/bubbles triggers secondary sound waves from each component of the system. These secondary pressure fields integrated over the surface of the neighboring drop/bubble may result in a force additional to the effect of the primary sound wave on each component of the system. In certain conditions, the magnitude of these secondary forces may result in significant changes in the dynamics of each component, thus in the behavior of the entire system. In a system containing bubbles, the sound wave radiated by one bubble at the location of a neighboring one is dominated by the volume oscillation mode and its effects can be important for a large range of frequencies. The interaction forces in a system consisting of drops are much smaller than those consisting of bubbles. Therefore, as a first step towards the understanding of the drop-drop interaction subject to external pressure fluctuations, it is more convenient to study the bubble interactions. This paper presents experimental results and theoretical predictions concerning the interaction and the motion of two levitated air bubbles in water in the presence of an acoustic field at high frequencies (22-23 KHz).

  12. Nucleation pressure threshold in acoustic droplet vaporization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Christopher; Doering, Charles; Kripfgans, Oliver

    2016-11-01

    We combine classical nucleation theory with superharmonic focusing to predict necessary pressures to induce nucleation in acoustic droplet vaporization. We show that linear acoustics is a valid approximation to leading order when particle displacements in the sound field are small relative the radius of the droplet. This is done by perturbation analysis of an axisymmetric compressible inviscid flow about a droplet with small surface perturbations relative to the mean radius subjected to an incoming ultrasonic wave. The necessary nucleation pressure threshold inside the droplet is calculated to be - 9 . 33 +/- 0 . 30 MPa for typical experimental parameters by employing results from classical homogeneous nucleation theory. As a result we are able to predict if a given incident pressure waveform will induce nucleation. This research was supported by the Rackham Merit Fellowship, the University of Michigan Physics department, the University of Michigan's MCubed program, and NSF awards PHY-1205219 and DMS-1515161.

  13. Structural Acoustic Response of Shape Memory Alloy Hybrid Composite Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.

    1996-01-01

    A method has been developed to predict the structural acoustic response of shape memory alloy hybrid composite panels subjected to acoustic excitation. The panel is modeled by a finite element analysis and the radiated field is predicted using Rayleigh's integral. Transmission loss predictions for the case of an aluminum panel excited by a harmonic acoustic pressure are shown to compare very well with a classical analysis. Predictions of the normal velocity response and transmitted acoustic pressure for a clamped aluminum panel show excellent agreement with experimental measurements. Predicted transmission loss performance for a composite panel with and without shape memory alloy reinforcement are also presented. The preliminary results demonstrate that the transmission loss can be significantly increased with shape memory alloy reinforcement.

  14. Detecting Structural Failures Via Acoustic Impulse Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.; Joshi, Sanjay S.

    1995-01-01

    Advanced method of acoustic pulse reflectivity testing developed for use in determining sizes and locations of failures within structures. Used to detect breaks in electrical transmission lines, detect faults in optical fibers, and determine mechanical properties of materials. In method, structure vibrationally excited with acoustic pulse (a "ping") at one location and acoustic response measured at same or different location. Measured acoustic response digitized, then processed by finite-impulse-response (FIR) filtering algorithm unique to method and based on acoustic-wave-propagation and -reflection properties of structure. Offers several advantages: does not require training, does not require prior knowledge of mathematical model of acoustic response of structure, enables detection and localization of multiple failures, and yields data on extent of damage at each location.

  15. Acoustic responses of coupled fluid-structure system by acoustic-structural analogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Y. S.; Chargin, M. K.

    1983-01-01

    The use of an analogy between structural mechanics and acoustics makes it possible to solve fluid-structural interaction (FSI) problems using an existing structural analysis computer program. This method was implemented in MSC/NASTRAN program and the FSI analysis was performed using two dimensional coupled fluid beam model to assess and evaluate the adequacy of this approach. The coupled modal analysis of 3-D model is also briefly discussed. The normal mode, modal frequency response and transient response analysis of 2-D coupled fluid beam system is presented. The significant reduction of the acoustic pressure response at the fluid structure interface is observed as a result of fluid structure interaction.

  16. System for Manipulating Drops and Bubbles Using Acoustic Radiation Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The manipulation and control of drops of liquid and gas bubbles is achieved using high intensity acoustics in the form of and/or acoustic radiation pressure and acoustic streaming. generated by a controlled wave emission from a transducer. Acoustic radiation pressure is used to deploy or dispense drops into a liquid or a gas or bubbles into a liquid at zero or near zero velocity from the discharge end of a needle such as a syringe needle. Acoustic streaming is useful in manipulating the drop or bubble during or after deployment. Deployment and discharge is achieved by focusing the acoustic radiation pressure on the discharge end of the needle, and passing the acoustic waves through the fluid in the needle. through the needle will itself, or coaxially through the fluid medium surrounding the needle. Alternatively, the acoustic waves can be counter-deployed by focusing on the discharge end of the needle from a transducer axially aligned with the needle, but at a position opposite the needle, to prevent premature deployment of the drop or bubble. The acoustic radiation pressure can also be used for detecting the presence or absence of a drop or a bubble at the tip of a needle or for sensing various physical characteristics of the drop or bubble such as size or density.

  17. Acoustics of the piezo-electric pressure probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutt, G. S.

    1974-01-01

    Acoustical properties of a piezoelectric device are reported for measuring the pressure in the plasma flow from an MPD arc. A description and analysis of the acoustical behavior in a piezoelectric probe is presented for impedance matching and damping. The experimental results are presented in a set of oscillographic records.

  18. Droplet actuation by surface acoustic waves: an interplay between acoustic streaming and radiation pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, Philippe; Baudoin, Michael; Matar, Olivier Bou; Zoueshtiagh, Farzam

    2010-11-01

    Surface acoustic waves (SAW) are known to be a versatile technique for the actuation of sessile drops. Droplet displacement, internal mixing or drop splitting, are amongst the elementary operations that SAW can achieve, which are useful on lab-on-chip microfluidics benches. On the purpose to understand the underlying physical mechanisms involved during these operations, we study experimentally the droplet dynamics varying different physical parameters. Here in particular, the influence of liquid viscosity and acoustic frequency is investigated: it is indeed predicted that both quantities should play a role in the acoustic-hydrodynamic coupling involved in the dynamics. The key point is to compare the relative magnitude of the attenuation length, i.e. the scale within which the acoustic wave decays in the fluid, and the size of the drop. This relative magnitude governs the relative importance of acoustic streaming and acoustic radiation pressure, which are both involved in the droplet dynamics.

  19. Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Tests Instrumentation for Acoustic and Pressure Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Magda B.; Counter, Douglas D.

    2011-01-01

    The Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) was a development test performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) East Test Area (ETA) Test Stand 116. The test article included a 5% scale Ares I vehicle model and tower mounted on the Mobile Launcher. Acoustic and pressure data were measured by approximately 200 instruments located throughout the test article. There were four primary ASMAT instrument suites: ignition overpressure (IOP), lift-off acoustics (LOA), ground acoustics (GA), and spatial correlation (SC). Each instrumentation suite incorporated different sensor models which were selected based upon measurement requirements. These requirements included the type of measurement, exposure to the environment, instrumentation check-outs and data acquisition. The sensors were attached to the test article using different mounts and brackets dependent upon the location of the sensor. This presentation addresses the observed effect of the sensors and mounts on the acoustic and pressure measurements.

  20. Measuring the acoustic response of Helmholtz resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, Martín; Marti, Arturo C.; Vogt, Patrik; Kasper, Lutz; Quarthal, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    Many experiments have been proposed to investigate acoustic phenomena in college and early undergraduate levels, in particular the speed of sound,1-9 by means of different methods, such as time of flight, transit time, or resonance in tubes. In this paper we propose to measure the acoustic response curves of a glass beaker filled with different gases, used as an acoustic resonator. We show that these curves expose many interesting peaks and features, one of which matches the resonance peak predicted for a Helmholtz resonator fairly well, and gives a decent estimate for the speed of sound in some cases. The measures are obtained thanks to the capabilities of smartphones.

  1. Acoustic response of a rectangular levitator with orifices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Raheb, Michael; Wagner, Paul

    1990-01-01

    The acoustic response of a rectangular cavity to speaker-generated excitation through waveguides terminating at orifices in the cavity walls is analyzed. To find the effects of orifices, acoustic pressure is expressed by eigenfunctions satisfying Neumann boundary conditions as well as by those satisfying Dirichlet ones. Some of the excess unknowns can be eliminated by point constraints set over the boundary, by appeal to Lagrange undetermined multipliers. The resulting transfer matrix must be further reduced by partial condensation to the order of a matrix describing unmixed boundary conditions. If the cavity is subjected to an axial temperature dependence, the transfer matrix is determined numerically.

  2. Cryogenic High-Pressure Shear-Coaxial Jets Exposed to Transverse Acoustic Forcing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-13

    Air Force Research Laboratory (AFMC) AFRL/RZSA 10 E. Saturn Blvd. Edwards AFB CA 93524-7680 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND...pressure antinode ( PAN ). The role of injector exit geometry on the flow response was examined using two shear coaxial injectors with different outer-to...jets to pressure perturbations due to transverse acoustic forcing at a pressure antinode ( PAN ). The role of injector exit geometry on the flow

  3. On reconstruction of acoustic pressure fields using the Helmholtz equation least squares method

    PubMed

    Wu

    2000-05-01

    This paper presents analyses and implementation of the reconstruction of acoustic pressure fields radiated from a general, three-dimensional complex vibrating structure using the Helmholtz equation least-squares (HELS) method. The structure under consideration emulates a full-size four-cylinder engine. To simulate sound radiation from a vibrating structure, harmonic excitations are assumed to act on arbitrarily selected surfaces. The resulting vibration responses are solved by the commercial FEM (finite element method) software I-DEAS. Once the normal component of the surface velocity distribution is determined, the surface acoustic pressures are calculated using standard boundary element method (BEM) codes. The radiated acoustic pressures over several planar surfaces at certain distances from the source are calculated by the Helmholtz integral formulation. These field pressures are taken as the input to the HELS formulation to reconstruct acoustic pressures on the entire source surface, as well as in the field. The reconstructed acoustic pressures thus obtained are then compared with benchmark values. Numerical results demonstrate that good agreements can be obtained with relatively few expansion functions. The HELS method is shown to be very effective in the low-to-mid frequency regime, and can potentially become a powerful noise diagnostic tool.

  4. Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test Instrumentation for Acoustic and Pressure Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Magda B.; Counter, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) is a 5% scale model test of the Ares I vehicle, launch pad and support structures conducted at MSFC to verify acoustic and ignition environments and evaluate water suppression systems Test design considerations 5% measurements must be scaled to full scale requiring high frequency measurements Users had different frequencies of interest Acoustics: 200 - 2,000 Hz full scale equals 4,000 - 40,000 Hz model scale Ignition Transient: 0 - 100 Hz full scale equals 0 - 2,000 Hz model scale Environment exposure Weather exposure: heat, humidity, thunderstorms, rain, cold and snow Test environments: Plume impingement heat and pressure, and water deluge impingement Several types of sensors were used to measure the environments Different instrument mounts were used according to the location and exposure to the environment This presentation addresses the observed effects of the selected sensors and mount design on the acoustic and pressure measurements

  5. Pressure potential and stability analysis in an acoustical noncontact transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Liu, C. J.; Zhang, W. J.

    2017-01-01

    Near field acoustic traveling wave is one of the most popular principles in noncontact manipulations and transportations. The stability behavior is a key factor in the industrial applications of acoustical noncontact transportation. We present here an in-depth analysis of the transportation stability of a planar object levitated in near field acoustic traveling waves. To more accurately describe the pressure distributions on the radiation surface, a 3D nonlinear traveling wave model is presented. A closed form solution is derived based on the pressure potential to quantitatively calculate the restoring forces and moments under small disturbances. The physical explanations of the effects of fluid inertia and the effects of non-uniform pressure distributions are provided in detail. It is found that a vibration rail with tapered cross section provides more stable transportation than a rail with rectangular cross section. The present study sheds light on the issue of quantitative evaluation of stability in acoustic traveling waves and proposes three main factors that influence the stability: (a) vibration shape, (b) pressure distribution and (c) restoring force/moment. It helps to provide a better understanding of the physics behind the near field acoustic transportation and provide useful design and optimization tools for industrial applications.

  6. Computing Response Of A Structure To Random Transient Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepcenko, Valentin; Margasahayam, Ravi

    1994-01-01

    Improved method of computing vibrational response of structure to transient random acoustic excitation at predominantly low frequencies devised, called "deterministic". Motivated by need to analyze more accurately vibro/acoustic responses of structures at spacecraft-launching facilities and determine whether need for reinforcement or redesign to withstand launch environment. Also used to study such phenomena as earthquake motions, ocean waves, aircraft pressure gusts, responses of bridges to winds, and effects to jet-engine noise on aircraft structures.

  7. Sound pressure level gain in an acoustic metamaterial cavity.

    PubMed

    Song, Kyungjun; Kim, Kiwon; Hur, Shin; Kwak, Jun-Hyuk; Park, Jihyun; Yoon, Jong Rak; Kim, Jedo

    2014-12-11

    The inherent attenuation of a homogeneous viscous medium limits radiation propagation, thereby restricting the use of many high-frequency acoustic devices to only short-range applications. Here, we design and experimentally demonstrate an acoustic metamaterial localization cavity which is used for sound pressure level (SPL) gain using double coiled up space like structures thereby increasing the range of detection. This unique behavior occurs within a subwavelength cavity that is 1/10(th) of the wavelength of the incident acoustic wave, which provides up to a 13 dB SPL gain. We show that the amplification results from the Fabry-Perot resonance of the cavity, which has a simultaneously high effective refractive index and effective impedance. We also experimentally verify the SPL amplification in an underwater environment at higher frequencies using a sample with an identical unit cell size. The versatile scalability of the design shows promising applications in many areas, especially in acoustic imaging and underwater communication.

  8. Sound Pressure Level Gain in an Acoustic Metamaterial Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kyungjun; Kim, Kiwon; Hur, Shin; Kwak, Jun-Hyuk; Park, Jihyun; Yoon, Jong Rak; Kim, Jedo

    2014-12-01

    The inherent attenuation of a homogeneous viscous medium limits radiation propagation, thereby restricting the use of many high-frequency acoustic devices to only short-range applications. Here, we design and experimentally demonstrate an acoustic metamaterial localization cavity which is used for sound pressure level (SPL) gain using double coiled up space like structures thereby increasing the range of detection. This unique behavior occurs within a subwavelength cavity that is 1/10th of the wavelength of the incident acoustic wave, which provides up to a 13 dB SPL gain. We show that the amplification results from the Fabry-Perot resonance of the cavity, which has a simultaneously high effective refractive index and effective impedance. We also experimentally verify the SPL amplification in an underwater environment at higher frequencies using a sample with an identical unit cell size. The versatile scalability of the design shows promising applications in many areas, especially in acoustic imaging and underwater communication.

  9. The acoustic field scattered from some approximate pressure release materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caille, Gary W.

    1988-03-01

    The objective was to determine if a pressure release boundary condition can be achieved by coating an elastic shell with a visco-elastic material. One necessary condition is that the coating must acoustically decouple the shell from the scattering problem. Two closed cell rubbers and two cork-rubber composites (nitrile and neoprene based) were investigated. The dynamic viscoelastic constants of the materials were determined by wave propagation techniques. The far field scattering form functions for an infinite cylindrical shell coated with the viscoelastic material were calculated using the complete elastic equations of motion. The form functions were experimentally measured for the different materials at different thicknesses as verification of the theory. A thick finite right cylindrical shell was coated with .25 inches of closed cell neoprene and the normalized scattered pressure measured. The pressure release normalized scattered pressure was determined for the end on incident plane wave case using the acoustic radiation Simplified Helmholtz Integral Program (SHIP).

  10. Cardiorespiratory Responses to Acoustic Noise in Belugas.

    PubMed

    Lyamin, Oleg I; Korneva, Svetlana M; Rozhnov, Viatcheslav V; Mukhametov, Lev M

    2016-01-01

    To date, most research on the adverse effects of anthropogenic noise on marine mammals has focused on auditory and behavioral responses. Other responses have received little attention and are often ignored. In this study, the effect of acoustic noise on heart rate was examined in captive belugas. The data suggest that (1) heart rate can be used as a measure of physiological response (including stress) to noise in belugas and other cetaceans, (2) cardiac response is influenced by parameters of noise and adaptation to repeated exposure, and (3) cetacean calves are more vulnerable to the adverse effect of noise than adults.

  11. Acoustic Wave Propagation in Pressure Sense Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vitarius, Patrick; Gregory, Don A.; Wiley, John; Korman, Valentin

    2003-01-01

    Sense lines are used in pressure measurements to passively transmit information from hostile environments to areas where transducers can be used. The transfer function of a sense line can be used to obtain information about the measured environment from the protected sensor. Several properties of this transfer function are examined, including frequency dependence, Helmholtz resonance, and time of flight delay.

  12. Acoustics and Surface Pressure Measurements from Tandem Cylinder Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Lockard, David P.; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Stead, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic and unsteady surface pressure measurements from two cylinders in tandem configurations were acquired to study the effect of spacing, surface trip and freestream velocity on the radiated noise. The Reynolds number ranged from 1.15x10(exp 5) to 2.17x10(exp 5), and the cylinder spacing varied between 1.435 and 3.7 cylinder diameters. The acoustic and surface pressure spectral characteristics associated with the different flow regimes produced by the cylinders' wake interference were identified. The dependence of the Strouhal number, peak Sound Pressure Level and spanwise coherence on cylinder spacing and flow velocity was examined. Directivity measurements were performed to determine how well the dipole assumption for the radiation of vortex shedding noise holds for the largest and smallest cylinder spacing tested.

  13. Acoustic Determination of Methane Hydrate Disssociation Pressures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    coring operations between 1998 and 2000 and stored in liquid nitrogen at at- mospheric pressure...recent years , several groups have attempted to model the stability regimes of gas hydrates. Parrish and Prausnitz (Ref. [13]) used experi- mental data to...t c u rr e n t e x p e ri m e n t P a rr is h & P ra u s n it z , 1 9 7 2 P a rr is h & P ra u s n it z , 1 9 7 2 D ic k e n s & Q u in b

  14. Tongue-Palate Contact Pressure, Oral Air Pressure, and Acoustics of Clear Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searl, Jeff; Evitts, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors compared articulatory contact pressure (ACP), oral air pressure (Po), and speech acoustics for conversational versus clear speech. They also assessed the relationship of these measures to listener perception. Method: Twelve adults with normal speech produced monosyllables in a phrase using conversational and clear speech.…

  15. Structural and acoustic response of a finite stiffened submarine hull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xian-zhong; Jiang, Chen-ban; Xu, Rui-yang

    2016-12-01

    After borrowing the idea of precise integration method, a precise integration transfer matrix method (PITMM) is proposed by modifying traditional transfer matrix method. The submarine hull can be modeled as joined conicalcylindrical-spherical shells. By considering the effect of the ring-stiffeners, the field transfer matrixes of shells of revolution are obtained accurately by PITMM. After assembling the field transfer matrixes into an entire matrix, the dynamic model is established to solve the dynamic responses of the joined shell. By describing the sound pressure in fluid by modified wave superposition method (MWSM) and collocating points along the meridian line of the joined shell, finally the structural and acoustic responses of a finite stiffened submarine hull can be predicted by coupled PITMM and MWSM. The effectiveness of the present method has been verified by comparing the structural and acoustic responses of the spherical shell with existing results. Furthermore, the effects of the model truncation, stiffness and thickness on the structural and acoustic responses of the submarine hull are studied.

  16. Responses evoked from man by acoustic stimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galambos, R.; Hecox, K.; Picton, T.

    1974-01-01

    Clicks and other acoustic stimuli evoke time-locked responses from the brain of man. The properties of the waves recordable within the interval from 1 to 10 msec after the stimuli strike the eardrum are discussed along with factors influencing the waves in the 100 to 500 msec epoch. So-called brainstem responses from a normal young adult are considered. No waves were observed for clicks to weak to be heard. With increasing stimulus strength the waves become larger in amplitude and their latency shortens.

  17. Dual mode acoustic wave sensor for precise pressure reading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Xiaojing; Kropelnicki, Piotr; Wang, Yong; Randles, Andrew Benson; Chuan Chai, Kevin Tshun; Cai, Hong; Gu, Yuan Dong

    2014-09-01

    In this letter, a Microelectromechanical system acoustic wave sensor, which has a dual mode (lateral field exited Lamb wave mode and surface acoustic wave (SAW) mode) behavior, is presented for precious pressure change read out. Comb-like interdigital structured electrodes on top of piezoelectric material aluminium nitride (AlN) are used to generate the wave modes. The sensor membrane consists of single crystalline silicon formed by backside-etching of the bulk material of a silicon on insulator wafer having variable device thickness layer (5 μm-50 μm). With this principle, a pressure sensor has been fabricated and mounted on a pressure test package with pressure applied to the backside of the membrane within a range of 0 psi to 300 psi. The temperature coefficient of frequency was experimentally measured in the temperature range of -50 °C to 300 °C. This idea demonstrates a piezoelectric based sensor having two modes SAW/Lamb wave for direct physical parameter—pressure readout and temperature cancellation which can operate in harsh environment such as oil and gas exploration, automobile and aeronautic applications using the dual mode behavior of the sensor and differential readout at the same time.

  18. An Analysis of the Transient Responses of Acoustic Delay Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okano, Tatsuo; Tominaga, Goroh

    1981-09-01

    Transient responses of acoustic delay lines (ADLs) were simulated on the assumptions that gas molecules in each segment of an ADL were in thermal equilibrium and that the straight-through component in the intruding gas was negligibly small. The flow rate of gas through an orifice was evaluated by using expressions of orifice conductance applicable in a wide pressure range. In order to examine the adequateness of the present method, the results of simulations were compared with several experimental data. The influence of the location of vacuum pumps and of arranging a high speed shutter at the entrance of an ADL were also simulated.

  19. Acoustic power measurement of high-intensity focused ultrasound transducer using a pressure sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yufeng

    2015-03-01

    The acoustic power of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is an important parameter that should be measured prior to each treatment to guarantee effective and safe outcomes. A new calibration technique was developed that involves estimating the pressure distribution, calculating the acoustic power using an underwater pressure blast sensor, and compensating the contribution of harmonics to the acoustic power. The output of a clinical extracorporeal HIFU system (center frequency of ~1 MHz, p+ = 2.5-57.2 MPa, p(-) = -1.8 to -13.9 MPa, I(SPPA) = 513-22,940 W/cm(2), -6 dB size of 1.6 × 10 mm: lateral × axial) was measured using this approach and then compared with that obtained using a radiation force balance. Similarities were found between each method at acoustic power ranging from 18.2 W to 912 W with an electrical-to-acoustic conversion efficiency of ~42%. The proposed method has advantages of low weight, smaller size, high sensitivity, quick response, high signal-to-noise ratio (especially at low power output), robust performance, and easy operation of HIFU exposimetry measurement.

  20. Reverberant Acoustic Testing and Direct Field Acoustic Testing Acoustic Standing Waves and their Impact on Structural Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolaini, Ali R.; Doty, Benjamin; Chang, Zensheu

    2012-01-01

    The aerospace industry has been using two methods of acoustic testing to qualify flight hardware: (1) Reverberant Acoustic Test (RAT), (2) Direct Field Acoustic Test (DFAT). The acoustic field obtained by RAT is generally understood and assumed to be diffuse, expect below Schroeder cut-of frequencies. DFAT method of testing has some distinct advantages over RAT, however the acoustic field characteristics can be strongly affected by test setup such as the speaker layouts, number and location of control microphones and control schemes. In this paper the following are discussed based on DEMO tests performed at APL and JPL: (1) Acoustic wave interference patterns and acoustic standing waves, (2) The structural responses in RAT and DFAT.

  1. MRI acoustic noise: sound pressure and frequency analysis.

    PubMed

    Counter, S A; Olofsson, A; Grahn, H F; Borg, E

    1997-01-01

    The large gradient coils used in MRI generate, simultaneously with the pulsed radiofrequency (RF) wave, acoustic noise of high intensity that has raised concern regarding hearing safety. The sound pressure levels (SPLs) and power spectra of MRI acoustic noise were measured at the position of the human head in the isocenter of five MRI systems and with 10 different pulse sequences used in clinical MR scanning. Each protocol, including magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo (MP-RAGE; 113 dB SPL linear), fast gradient echo turbo (114 dB SPL linear), and spin echo T1/2 mm (117 dB SPL linear), was found to have the high SPLs, rapid pulse rates, amplitude-modulated pulse envelopes, and multipeaked spectra. Since thickness and SPL were inversely related, the T1-weighted images generated more intense acoustic noise than the proton-dense T2-weighted measures. The unfiltered linear peak values provided more accurate measurements of the SPL and spectral content of the MRI acoustic noise than the commonly used dB A-weighted scale, which filters out the predominant low frequency components. Fourier analysis revealed predominantly low frequency energy peaks ranging from .05 to approximately 1 kHz, with a steep high frequency cutoff for each pulse sequence. Ear protectors of known attenuation ratings are recommended for all patients during MRI testing.

  2. Response to "Comments on 'A theoretical model of the pressure distributions arising from asymmetric intraglottal flows applied to a two-mass model of the vocal folds'" [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 130, 389-403 (2011)].

    PubMed

    Erath, Byron D; Peterson, Sean D; Zañartu, Matías; Wodicka, George R; Stewart, Kelley C; Plesniak, Michael W

    2013-08-01

    Hirschberg [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134, 9-12 (2013)] presents a commentary and criticisms of the viscous flow model presented by Erath et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 130, 389-403 (2011)] that solves for the asymmetric pressure loading on the vocal fold walls. This pressure loading arises from asymmetric flow attachment to one vocal fold wall when the glottal channel forms a divergent configuration. Hirschberg proposes an alternative model for the asymmetric loading based upon inviscid flow curvature at the glottal inlet. In this manuscript further evidence is provided in support of the model of Erath et al. and the underlying assumptions, and demonstrates that the primary criticisms presented by Hirschberg are unwarranted. The model presented by Hirschberg is compared with the model from the original paper by Erath et al., and it is shown that each model describes different and complementary aspects of divergent glottal flows.

  3. Sensing the characteristic acoustic impedance of a fluid utilizing acoustic pressure waves

    PubMed Central

    Antlinger, Hannes; Clara, Stefan; Beigelbeck, Roman; Cerimovic, Samir; Keplinger, Franz; Jakoby, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasonic sensors can be used to determine physical fluid parameters like viscosity, density, and speed of sound. In this contribution, we present the concept for an integrated sensor utilizing pressure waves to sense the characteristic acoustic impedance of a fluid. We note that the basic setup generally allows to determine the longitudinal viscosity and the speed of sound if it is operated in a resonant mode as will be discussed elsewhere. In this contribution, we particularly focus on a modified setup where interferences are suppressed by introducing a wedge reflector. This enables sensing of the liquid's characteristic acoustic impedance, which can serve as parameter in condition monitoring applications. We present a device model, experimental results and their evaluation. PMID:23565036

  4. Nonlinear response - A time domain approach. [with applications to acoustic fatigue, spacecraft and composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaicaitis, R.

    1986-01-01

    The present paper reviews the basic concepts of nonlinear response of panels to surface flow and acoustic pressures, simulation of random processes, time domain solutions and the Monte Carlo Method. Applications of this procedure to the orbit-on-demand space vehicles, acoustic fatigue and composite materials are discussed. Numerical examples are included for a variety of nonlinear problems to illustrate the applicability of this method.

  5. Acoustic pressure wound therapy in the treatment of stage II pressure ulcers.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Raenell

    2008-11-01

    Pressure ulcers are localized skin injuries secondary to unrelieved pressure or friction. Patients with immobility issues are at increased risk for developing pressure ulcers. In 2004, stricter federal regulations for prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers in institutional settings--eg, long-term care facilities--were introduced. Effective, low-cost treatments for pressure ulcers are needed; acoustic pressure wound therapy (APWT), a noncontact, low-frequency, therapeutic ultrasound system, is one option. A retrospective case series of six long-term care patients (two men and one woman, age range 61 to 92 years), each with one Stage II pressure ulcer, is presented. Acoustic pressure wound therapy was provided as an adjunct to standard treatment that included balsam of Peru/castor oil/trypsin ointment, hydrogel, hydrocolloid dressings, silver dressings, and offloading. Outcomes (days to healing) were determined through changes in wound dimensions. Study participants each received APWT for 3 to 4 minutes three to four times weekly. In four of the six wounds, the average number of days to healing was 22. One of the two remaining patients discontinued treatment at 95% healed; treatment for the sixth patient was ongoing due to hospitalization that delayed APWT. In a long-term care setting, APWT added to standard of care may accelerate healing of Stage II pressure ulcers.

  6. Vibro-acoustics of a pressurized optical membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarazaga, Pablo A.; Johnson, Marty E.; Inman, Daniel J.

    2012-07-01

    Optical membranes are currently pursued for their ability to replace the conventional rigid mirrors that are used in space-based telescopes. Among some of the many benefits of using optical membranes is their ability to considerably reduce the weight of the structure. Given the low density of these thin-film membranes, the lower end dynamics play a more significant role than in their rigid plate-like counterparts. Space-based mirrors are subjected to a series of disturbances. Among those encountered are thermal radiation, debris impact, and slewing maneuvers. Thus, being able to model the dynamics appropriately is essential for the adequate performance of thin-film membrane mirrors. With this in mind, the work presented herein uses an impedance based modeling approach to describe the coupled dynamics of a pressurized optical membrane mirror with the end goal of performing vibration suppression of a membrane through acoustic excitation. First the effects of mass loading due to air surrounding a membrane and energy loss due to sound radiation to the far field are modeled in the case of a single membrane. These results are compared to the case of a membrane in vacuum. Second, the membrane is then coupled to a cylindrical cavity where the modeling takes into account the structural acoustic coupling between a cylindrical membrane and a rigid cylindrical cavity, similar to a drum. The coupled model also takes into account the energy loss by sound radiation to the far field due to the membrane's vibration. Third, this paper also looks at using a positive position feedback controller for vibration suppression of the membrane. This is done using a centralized acoustic source at the base of the cavity as the method of actuation. The acoustic actuation is of great interest since it does not mass load the membrane in the conventional way, as most methods of actuation would.

  7. Modeling of Structural-Acoustic Interaction Using Coupled FE/BE Method and Control of Interior Acoustic Pressure Using Piezoelectric Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, Chuh; Shi, Yacheng

    1997-01-01

    A coupled finite element (FE) and boundary element (BE) approach is presented to model full coupled structural/acoustic/piezoelectric systems. The dual reciprocity boundary element method is used so that the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the coupled system can be obtained, and to extend this approach to time dependent problems. The boundary element method is applied to interior acoustic domains, and the results are very accurate when compared with limited exact solutions. Structural-acoustic problems are then analyzed with the coupled finite element/boundary element method, where the finite element method models the structural domain and the boundary element method models the acoustic domain. Results for a system consisting of an isotropic panel and a cubic cavity are in good agreement with exact solutions and experiment data. The response of a composite panel backed cavity is then obtained. The results show that the mass and stiffness of piezoelectric layers have to be considered. The coupled finite element and boundary element equations are transformed into modal coordinates, which is more convenient for transient excitation. Several transient problems are solved based on this formulation. Two control designs, a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) and a feedforward controller, are applied to reduce the acoustic pressure inside the cavity based on the equations in modal coordinates. The results indicate that both controllers can reduce the interior acoustic pressure and the plate deflection.

  8. Impact of Acoustic Standing Waves on Structural Responses: Reverberant Acoustic Testing (RAT) vs. Direct Field Acoustic Testing (DFAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolaini, Ali R.; Doty, Benjamin; Chang, Zensheu

    2012-01-01

    Loudspeakers have been used for acoustic qualification of spacecraft, reflectors, solar panels, and other acoustically responsive structures for more than a decade. Limited measurements from some of the recent speaker tests used to qualify flight hardware have indicated significant spatial variation of the acoustic field within the test volume. Also structural responses have been reported to differ when similar tests were performed using reverberant chambers. To address the impact of non-uniform acoustic field on structural responses, a series of acoustic tests were performed using a flat panel and a 3-ft cylinder exposed to the field controlled by speakers and repeated in a reverberant chamber. The speaker testing was performed using multi-input-single-output (MISO) and multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) control schemes with and without the test articles. In this paper the spatial variation of the acoustic field due to acoustic standing waves and their impacts on the structural responses in RAT and DFAT (both using MISO and MIMO controls for DFAT) are discussed in some detail.

  9. A modal test method using sound pressure transducers based on vibro-acoustic reciprocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, W. D.; Liu, J. M.; Xu, Y. F.; Ying, H. Q.

    2014-06-01

    A modal test method that uses sound pressure transducers at fixed locations and an impact hammer roving over a test structure is developed in this work. Since sound pressure transducers are used, the current method deals with a coupled structural-acoustic system. Based on the vibro-acoustic reciprocity, the method is equivalent to one, where acoustic excitations at fixed locations are given and the resulting acceleration of the test structure is measured. The current method can eliminate mass loading due to use of accelerometers, which can destroy existence of repeated or close natural frequencies of a symmetric structure. It can also avoid effects of a nodal line of a mode and an inactive area of a local mode, and measure all the out-of-plane modes within a frequency range of interest, including global and local ones. The coupling between the structure and the acoustic field in a structural-acoustic system introduces asymmetry in the model formulation. An equivalent state space formulation is used for a damped structural-acoustic system and the associated eigenvalue problem is derived. The biorthonormality relations between the left and right eigenvectors and the relations between the structural and acoustic components in the left and right eigenvectors are proved. The frequency response functions associated with the current method are derived and their physical meanings are explained. The guidelines for using the current method, including the types of structures that are suitable for the method, the positions of the sound pressure transducers, and the orientation of the test structure relative to the transducers, are provided. Modal tests were carried out on an automotive disk brake using the traditional and current methods, where multiple accelerometers and microphones were used to measure its dynamic responses induced by impacts, respectively. The differences between the measured natural frequencies using the current method and those from the finite element

  10. Auditorium acoustics evaluation based on simulated impulse response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shuoxian; Wang, Hongwei; Zhao, Yuezhe

    2001-05-01

    The impulse responses and other acoustical parameters of Huangpu Teenager Palace in Guangzhou were measured. Meanwhile, the acoustical simulation and auralization based on software ODEON were also made. The comparison between the parameters based on computer simulation and measuring is given. This case study shows that auralization technique based on computer simulation can be used for predicting the acoustical quality of a hall at its design stage.

  11. The effects of external acoustic pressure fields on a free-running supercavitating projectile.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Peter J K; Rogers, Peter H; Doane, John W

    2010-12-01

    Proliferation of supercavitating torpedoes has motivated research on countermeasures against them as well as on the fluid phenomenon which makes them possible. The goal of this research was to investigate an envisaged countermeasure, an acoustic field capable of slowing or diverting the weapon by disrupting the cavitation envelope. The research focused on the interactions between high pressure amplitude sound waves and a supercavity produced by a small free-flying projectile. The flight dynamics and cavity geometry measurements were compared to control experiments and theoretical considerations were made for evaluating the effects. Corrugations on the cavity/water interface caused by the pressure signal have been observed and characterized. Results also show that the accuracy of a supercavitating projectile can be adversely affected by the sound signal. This research concludes with results that indicate that it is acoustic cavitation in the medium surrounding the supercavity, caused by the high pressure amplitude sound, that is responsible for the reduced accuracy. A hypothesis has been presented addressing the means by which the acoustic cavitation could cause this effect.

  12. Active control of acoustic pressure fields using smart material technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.; Smith, R. C.

    1993-01-01

    An overview describing the use of piezoceramic patches in reducing noise in a structural acoustics setting is presented. The passive and active contributions due to patches which are bonded to an Euler-Bernoulli beam or thin shell are briefly discussed and the results are incorporated into a 2-D structural acoustics model. In this model, an exterior noise source causes structural vibrations which in turn lead to interior noise as a result of nonlinear fluid/structure coupling mechanism. Interior sound pressure levels are reduced via patches bonded to the flexible boundary (a beam in this case) which generate pure bending moments when an out-of-phase voltage is applied. Well-posedness results for the infinite dimensional system are discussed and a Galerkin scheme for approximating the system dynamics is outlined. Control is implemented by using linear quadratic regulator (LQR) optimal control theory to calculate gains for the linearized system and then feeding these gains back into the nonlinear system of interest. The effectiveness of this strategy for this problem is illustrated in an example.

  13. Acoustic response variability in automotive vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hills, E.; Mace, B. R.; Ferguson, N. S.

    2009-03-01

    A statistical analysis of a series of measurements of the audio-frequency response of a large set of automotive vehicles is presented: a small hatchback model with both a three-door (411 vehicles) and five-door (403 vehicles) derivative and a mid-sized family five-door car (316 vehicles). The sets included vehicles of various specifications, engines, gearboxes, interior trim, wheels and tyres. The tests were performed in a hemianechoic chamber with the temperature and humidity recorded. Two tests were performed on each vehicle and the interior cabin noise measured. In the first, the excitation was acoustically induced by sets of external loudspeakers. In the second test, predominantly structure-borne noise was induced by running the vehicle at a steady speed on a rough roller. For both types of excitation, it is seen that the effects of temperature are small, indicating that manufacturing variability is larger than that due to temperature for the tests conducted. It is also observed that there are no significant outlying vehicles, i.e. there are at most only a few vehicles that consistently have the lowest or highest noise levels over the whole spectrum. For the acoustically excited tests, measured 1/3-octave noise reduction levels typically have a spread of 5 dB or so and the normalised standard deviation of the linear data is typically 0.1 or higher. Regarding the statistical distribution of the linear data, a lognormal distribution is a somewhat better fit than a Gaussian distribution for lower 1/3-octave bands, while the reverse is true at higher frequencies. For the distribution of the overall linear levels, a Gaussian distribution is generally the most representative. As a simple description of the response variability, it is sufficient for this series of measurements to assume that the acoustically induced airborne cabin noise is best described by a Gaussian distribution with a normalised standard deviation between 0.09 and 0.145. There is generally

  14. Subharmonic scattering of phospholipid-shell microbubbles at low acoustic pressure amplitudes.

    PubMed

    Frinking, Peter J A; Brochot, Jean; Arditi, Marcel

    2010-08-01

    Subharmonic scattering of phospholipid-shell microbubbles excited at relatively low acoustic pressure amplitudes (<30 kPa) has been associated with echo responses from compression-only bubbles having initial surface tension values close to zero. In this work, the relation between sbharmonics and compression-only behavior of phospholipid-shell microbubbles was investigated, experimentally and by simulation, as a function of the initial surface tension by applying ambient overpressures of 0 and 180 mmHg. The microbubbles were excited using a 64-cycle transmit burst with a center frequency of 4 MHz and peak-negative pressure amplitudes ranging from 20 of 150 kPa. In these conditions, an increase in subharmonic response of 28.9 dB (P < 0.05) was measured at 50 kPa after applying an overpressure of 180 mmHg. Simulations using the Marmottant model, taking into account the effect of ambient overpressure on bubble size and initial surface tension, confirmed the relation between subharmonics observed in the pressure-time curves and compression-only behavior observed in the radius-time curves. The trend of an increase in subharmonic response as a function of ambient overpressure, i.e., as a function of the initial surface tension, was predicted by the model. Subharmonics present in the echo responses of phospholipid-shell microbubbles excited at low acoustic pressure amplitudes are indeed related to the echo responses from compression-only bubbles. The increase in subharmonics as a function of ambient overpressure may be exploited for improving methods for noninvasive pressure measurement in heart cavities or big vessels in the human body.

  15. Systems and methods of monitoring acoustic pressure to detect a flame condition in a gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Krull, Anthony Wayne; Healy, Timothy Andrew , Yilmaz, Ertan

    2011-05-17

    A method may detect a flashback condition in a fuel nozzle of a combustor. The method may include obtaining a current acoustic pressure signal from the combustor, analyzing the current acoustic pressure signal to determine current operating frequency information for the combustor, and indicating that the flashback condition exists based at least in part on the current operating frequency information.

  16. Combining COMSOL modeling with acoustic pressure maps to design sono-reactors.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zongsu; Weavers, Linda K

    2016-07-01

    Scaled-up and economically viable sonochemical systems are critical for increased use of ultrasound in environmental and chemical processing applications. In this study, computational simulations and acoustic pressure maps were used to design a larger-scale sono-reactor containing a multi-stepped ultrasonic horn. Simulations in COMSOL Multiphysics showed ultrasonic waves emitted from the horn neck and tip, generating multiple regions of high acoustic pressure. The volume of these regions surrounding the horn neck were larger compared with those below the horn tip. The simulated acoustic field was verified by acoustic pressure contour maps generated from hydrophone measurements in a plexiglass box filled with water. These acoustic pressure contour maps revealed an asymmetric and discrete distribution of acoustic pressure due to acoustic cavitation, wave interaction, and water movement by ultrasonic irradiation. The acoustic pressure contour maps were consistent with simulation results in terms of the effective scale of cavitation zones (∼ 10 cm and <5 cm above and below horn tip, respectively). With the mapped acoustic field and identified cavitation location, a cylindrically-shaped sono-reactor with a conical bottom was designed to evaluate the treatment capacity (∼ 5 L) for the multi-stepped horn using COMSOL simulations. In this study, verification of simulation results with experiments demonstrates that coupling of COMSOL simulations with hydrophone measurements is a simple, effective and reliable scientific method to evaluate reactor designs of ultrasonic systems.

  17. Enhanced acoustic sensing through wave compression and pressure amplification in anisotropic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongyao; Liu, Haijun; Reilly, Michael; Bae, Hyungdae; Yu, Miao

    2014-10-15

    Acoustic sensors play an important role in many areas, such as homeland security, navigation, communication, health care and industry. However, the fundamental pressure detection limit hinders the performance of current acoustic sensing technologies. Here, through analytical, numerical and experimental studies, we show that anisotropic acoustic metamaterials can be designed to have strong wave compression effect that renders direct amplification of pressure fields in metamaterials. This enables a sensing mechanism that can help overcome the detection limit of conventional acoustic sensing systems. We further demonstrate a metamaterial-enhanced acoustic sensing system that achieves more than 20 dB signal-to-noise enhancement (over an order of magnitude enhancement in detection limit). With this system, weak acoustic pulse signals overwhelmed by the noise are successfully recovered. This work opens up new vistas for the development of metamaterial-based acoustic sensors with improved performance and functionalities that are highly desirable for many applications.

  18. Model helicopter rotor high-speed impulsive noise: Measured acoustics and blade pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boxwell, D. A.; Schmitz, F. H.; Splettstoesser, W. R.; Schultz, K. J.

    1983-01-01

    A 1/17-scale research model of the AH-1 series helicopter main rotor was tested. Model-rotor acoustic and simultaneous blade pressure data were recorded at high speeds where full-scale helicopter high-speed impulsive noise levels are known to be dominant. Model-rotor measurements of the peak acoustic pressure levels, waveform shapes, and directively patterns are directly compared with full-scale investigations, using an equivalent in-flight technique. Model acoustic data are shown to scale remarkably well in shape and in amplitude with full-scale results. Model rotor-blade pressures are presented for rotor operating conditions both with and without shock-like discontinuities in the radiated acoustic waveform. Acoustically, both model and full-scale measurements support current evidence that above certain high subsonic advancing-tip Mach numbers, local shock waves that exist on the rotor blades ""delocalize'' and radiate to the acoustic far-field.

  19. Comparison of acoustic and mechanical excitation for modal response measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musson, B. G.; Stevens, J. R.

    An acoustic field is examined as an alternate to mechanical excitation of a test specimen to measure modal response. A square, flat plate with clamped edges is used because classical analytical solutions to its modal analysis are readily available. A small hammer with a built-in force transducer is used to mechanically excite the plate, and the plate is excited with electro-pneumatic acoustic drivers coupled to a progressive-wave test fixture. Band limited random amplitude acoustic waves over a frequency range of 50 to 1000 Hz are applied at grazing incidence to the plate. The acoustic field is characterized and a microphone at a single fixed position is used to provide the reference forcing function. Results are compared with the analytical solutions and with the mechanically excited results. Conclusions are presented concerning the equivalence of acoustic and mechanical excitation for obtaining modal response.

  20. Study on demodulated signal distribution and acoustic pressure phase sensitivity of a self-interfered distributed acoustic sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Ying; Yang, Yuan-Hong; Wang, Chen; Liu, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Chang; Peng, Gang-Ding

    2016-06-01

    We propose a demodulated signal distribution theory for a self-interfered distributed acoustic sensing system. The distribution region of Rayleigh backscattering including the acoustic sensing signal in the sensing fiber is investigated theoretically under different combinations of both the path difference and pulse width Additionally we determine the optimal solution between the path difference and pulse width to obtain the maximum phase change per unit length. We experimentally test this theory and realize a good acoustic pressure phase sensitivity of  -150 dB re rad/(μPa·m) of fiber in the frequency range from 200 Hz to 1 kHz.

  1. Robust intravascular optical coherence elastography driven by acoustic radiation pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Soest, Gijs; Bouchard, Richard R.; Mastik, Frits; de Jong, Nico; van der Steen, Anton F. W.

    2007-07-01

    High strain spots in the vessel wall indicate the presence of vulnerable plaques. The majority of acute cardiovascular events are preceded by rupture of such a plaque in a coronary artery. Intracoronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be extended, in principle, to an elastography technique, mapping the strain in the vascular wall. However, the susceptibility of OCT to frame-to-frame decorrelation, caused by tissue and catheter motion, inhibits reliable tissue displacement tracking and has to date obstructed the development of OCT-based intravascular elastography. We introduce a new technique for intravascular optical coherence elastography, which is robust against motion artifacts. Using acoustic radiation force, we apply a pressure to deform the tissue synchronously with the line scan rate of the OCT instrument. Radial tissue displacement can be tracked based on the correlation between adjacent lines, instead of subsequent frames in conventional elastography. The viability of the method is demonstrated with a simulation study. The root mean square (rms) error of the displacement estimate is 0.55 μm, and the rms error of the strain is 0.6%. It is shown that high-strain spots in the vessel wall, such as observed at the sites of vulnerable atherosclerotic lesions, can be detected with the technique. Experiments to realize this new elastographic method are presented. Simultaneous optical and ultrasonic pulse-echo tracking demonstrate that the material can be put in a high-frequency oscillatory motion with an amplitude of several micrometers, more than sufficient for accurate tracking with OCT. The resulting data are used to optimize the acoustic pushing sequence and geometry.

  2. Effects of Non-Homogeneities on the Eigenmodes of Acoustic Pressure in Combustion Chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. S.; Williams, F. A.

    1998-02-01

    Modifications to acoustic eigenmodes in combustion chambers such as those of liquid propellant rocket engines, produced by spatial variations of density and sound speed that arise mainly through progress of combustion processes, are analyzed by using a variational method. The variational principle shows that the eigenvalue is the ratio of a weighted acoustic kinetic energy to a weighted acoustic potential energy, and the eigenfunction is the minimizing function of this ratio. A sample calculation is made for the case in which variations of the properties occur dominantly in the longitudinal direction, with lower temperatures and higher densities prevailing near the injector. The results of the calculation exhibit two major characteristics: the longitudinal density variation aids transfer of acoustic kinetic energy from a lower mode to the adjacent higher mode, so that the pure transverse modes have substantially larger reductions (sometimes exceeding 50%) of their eigenvalues than the combined modes; and variations of the acoustic pressure gradients are found to be larger in high-density regions, so that the acoustic pressure amplitude for purely tangential modes is found to be much higher near the injector than near the nozzle. The higher head acoustic pressure may contribute to the greater sensitivity of acoustic instability to characteristics of the flames near the injectors, as commonly found in engine tests. The improved acoustic eigensolutions can also be helpful in sizing damping devices, such as baffles or acoustic liners.

  3. Dynamic response and acoustic fatigue of stiffened composite structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soovere, J.

    1984-01-01

    The results of acoustic fatigue and dynamic response tests performed on L-1011 graphite-epoxy (GrE) aileron and panel components are reported. The aileron featured glass microballoons between the GrE skins. Tests yielded random fatigue data from double and single cantilever coupons and modal data from impedance hammer and loudspeaker impulses. Numerical and sample test data were obtained on combined acoustic and shear loads, acoustic and thermal loads, random fatigue and damping of the integrally stiffened and secondary bonded panels. The fatigue data indicate a fatigue life beyond 10 million cycles. The acoustic data suggested that noise transmission could be enhanced in the integrally stiffened panels, which were more acoustic-fatigue resistant than were the secondary bonded panels.

  4. Pressure probe and hot-film probe rsponses to acoustic excitation in mean flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrott, T. L.; Jones, M. G.

    1986-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the relative responses of a hot-film probe and a pressure probe positioned in a flow duct carrying mean flow and progressive acoustic waves. The response of each probe was compared with that of a condenser-type microphone flush mounted in the duct wall for flow Mach numbers up to about 0.5. The response of the pressure probe was less than that of the flush-mounted microphone by not more than about 2.1 dB at the highest centerline Mach number. This decreased response of the probe can likely be attributed to flow-induced impedance changes at the probe sensor orifices. The response of the hot-film probe, expressed in terms of fluctuating pressure, was greater than that of the flush-mounted microphone by as much as 6.0 dB at the two higher centerline Mach numbers. Removal of the contribution from fluctuating temperature in the hot-film analytical model greatly improved the agreement between the two transducer responses.

  5. Coupled vibro-acoustic model updating using frequency response functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehete, D. V.; Modak, S. V.; Gupta, K.

    2016-03-01

    Interior noise in cavities of motorized vehicles is of increasing significance due to the lightweight design of these structures. Accurate coupled vibro-acoustic FE models of such cavities are required so as to allow a reliable design and analysis. It is, however, experienced that the vibro-acoustic predictions using these models do not often correlate acceptably well with the experimental measurements and hence require model updating. Both the structural and the acoustic parameters addressing the stiffness as well as the damping modeling inaccuracies need to be considered simultaneously in the model updating framework in order to obtain an accurate estimate of these parameters. It is also noted that the acoustic absorption properties are generally frequency dependent. This makes use of modal data based methods for updating vibro-acoustic FE models difficult. In view of this, the present paper proposes a method based on vibro-acoustic frequency response functions that allow updating of a coupled FE model by considering simultaneously the parameters associated with both the structural as well as the acoustic model of the cavity. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated through numerical studies on a 3D rectangular box cavity with a flexible plate. Updating parameters related to the material property, stiffness of joints between the plate and the rectangular cavity and the properties of absorbing surfaces of the acoustic cavity are considered. The robustness of the method under presence of noise is also studied.

  6. Frequency response calibration of recess-mounted pressure transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcolini, M. A.; Lorber, P. F.; Miller, W. T., Jr.; Covino, A. F., Jr.

    1991-03-01

    A technique is described for measuring the frequency response of pressure transducers mounted inside a model, where a narrow pipette leads to an orifice at the surface. An acoustic driver is mounted to a small chamber which has an opening at the opposite end with an O-ring seal to place over the orifice. A 3.18 mm (1/8 inch) reference microphone is mounted to one side of the chamber. The acoustic driver receives an input of white noise, and the transducer and reference microphone outputs are compared to obtain the frequency response of the pressure transducer. Selected results are presented in the form of power spectra for both the transducer and the reference, as well as the amplitude variation and phase shift between the two signals as a function of frequency. The effect of pipette length and the use of this technique for identifying both blocked orifices and faulty transducers are described.

  7. Frequency response calibration of recess-mounted pressure transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcolini, M. A.; Lorber, P. F.; Miller, W. T., Jr.; Covino, A. F., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A technique is described for measuring the frequency response of pressure transducers mounted inside a model, where a narrow pipette leads to an orifice at the surface. An acoustic driver is mounted to a small chamber which has an opening at the opposite end with an O-ring seal to place over the orifice. A 3.18 mm (1/8 inch) reference microphone is mounted to one side of the chamber. The acoustic driver receives an input of white noise, and the transducer and reference microphone outputs are compared to obtain the frequency response of the pressure transducer. Selected results are presented in the form of power spectra for both the transducer and the reference, as well as the amplitude variation and phase shift between the two signals as a function of frequency. The effect of pipette length and the use of this technique for identifying both blocked orifices and faulty transducers are described.

  8. Structural and internal acoustic response of cylinders with applications to rocket payload fairings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niezrecki, Christopher

    In this work the internal acoustic response of a closed simply-supported (SS) cylinder actuated by piezoelectric (PZT) actuators is presented. A research-grade SS cylinder is created and the modal properties are analyzed experimentally. The experimental modal properties are compared to finite element analysis (FEA) and to results predicted by Love shell theory. The experimental results indicate that the created cylinder has dynamic properties that are similar to the analytical and FEA results. The validated model is used to extrapolate results for a SS cylinder that emulates a Minotaur payload fairing. The internal cylinder acoustic levels are investigated for PZT actuation between 35 and 400 Hz. It is found that changes in cylinder parameters (stiffness and material density) do not have a large effect on the magnitude of the structural response. Likewise the interior acoustic response is not greatly affected by changes to the cylinder parameters. As the applied voltage increases linearly, the internal sound pressure level (SPL) varies logarithmically. This behavior is a limiting factor in using a PZT actuator to generate high internal SPLs. Significant reductions in the structural response due to increased damping do not equate to similar reductions in the acoustic SPLs for the cylinder. The sound levels at the acoustic resonant frequencies are essentially unaffected by the significant increase in structural damping while the acoustic levels at the structural resonant frequencies are mildly reduced. The interior acoustic response of the cylinder is dominated by the acoustic modes and therefore significant reductions in the overall interior acoustic levels will not be achieved if only the structural resonances are controlled. The model indicates that the maximum acoustic levels generated by the baseline PZT actuator are sufficient at the higher frequency range but are not commensurate with the levels found in a typical fairing in the lower frequency range (below

  9. Neural Network Burst Pressure Prediction in Graphite/Epoxy Pressure Vessels from Acoustic Emission Amplitude Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Eric v. K.; Walker, James L., II; Rowell, Ginger H.

    1995-01-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) data were taken during hydroproof for three sets of ASTM standard 5.75 inch diameter filament wound graphite/epoxy bottles. All three sets of bottles had the same design and were wound from the same graphite fiber; the only difference was in the epoxies used. Two of the epoxies had similar mechanical properties, and because the acoustic properties of materials are a function of their stiffnesses, it was thought that the AE data from the two sets might also be similar; however, this was not the case. Therefore, the three resin types were categorized using dummy variables, which allowed the prediction of burst pressures all three sets of bottles using a single neural network. Three bottles from each set were used to train the network. The resin category, the AE amplitude distribution data taken up to 25 % of the expected burst pressure, and the actual burst pressures were used as inputs. Architecturally, the network consisted of a forty-three neuron input layer (a single categorical variable defining the resin type plus forty-two continuous variables for the AE amplitude frequencies), a fifteen neuron hidden layer for mapping, and a single output neuron for burst pressure prediction. The network trained on all three bottle sets was able to predict burst pressures in the remaining bottles with a worst case error of + 6.59%, slightly greater than the desired goal of + 5%. This larger than desired error was due to poor resolution in the amplitude data for the third bottle set. When the third set of bottles was eliminated from consideration, only four hidden layer neurons were necessary to generate a worst case prediction error of - 3.43%, well within the desired goal.

  10. Liquid-membrane coupling response of submersible electrostatic acoustic transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H.; Yost, William T.

    1989-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed for the liquid-membrane coupling response of the submersible electrostatic acoustic transducer (ESAT) described by Cantrell et al. (1979). The model accounts for the ESAT's rolloff response and predicts the essential features of the ESAT frequency response. Model predictions were found to agree well with measurements taken over the frequency range from 1 to 11 MHz.

  11. Acoustic response of compliable microvessels containing ultrasound contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shengping; Ferrara, Katherine W

    2006-10-21

    The existing models of the dynamics of ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) have largely been focused on an UCA surrounded by an infinite liquid. Preliminary investigations of a microbubble's oscillation in a rigid tube have been performed using linear perturbation, under the assumption that the tube diameter is significantly larger than the UCA diameter. In the potential application of drug and gene delivery, it may be desirable to fragment the agent shell within small blood vessels and in some cases to rupture the vessel wall, releasing drugs and genes at the site. The effect of a compliant small blood vessel on the UCA's oscillation and the microvessel's acoustic response are unknown. The aim of this work is to propose a lumped-parameter model to study the interaction of a microbubble oscillation and compliable microvessels. Numerical results demonstrate that in the presence of UCAs, the transmural pressure through the blood vessel substantially increases and thus the vascular permeability is predicted to be enhanced. For a microbubble within an 8 to 40 microm vessel with a peak negative pressure of 0.1 MPa and a centre frequency of 1 MHz, small changes in the microbubble oscillation frequency and maximum diameter are observed. When the ultrasound pressure increases, strong nonlinear oscillation occurs, with an increased circumferential stress on the vessel. For a compliable vessel with a diameter equal to or greater than 8 microm, 0.2 MPa PNP at 1 MHz is predicted to be sufficient for microbubble fragmentation regardless of the vessel diameter; however, for a rigid vessel 0.5 MPa PNP at 1 MHz may not be sufficient to fragment the bubbles. For a centre frequency of 1 MHz, a peak negative pressure of 0.5 MPa is predicted to be sufficient to exceed the stress threshold for vascular rupture in a small (diameter less than 15 microm) compliant vessel. As the vessel or surrounding tissue becomes more rigid, the UCA oscillation and vessel dilation decrease; however the

  12. Acoustic response of compliable microvessels containing ultrasound contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Shengping; Ferrara, Katherine W.

    2006-10-01

    The existing models of the dynamics of ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) have largely been focused on an UCA surrounded by an infinite liquid. Preliminary investigations of a microbubble's oscillation in a rigid tube have been performed using linear perturbation, under the assumption that the tube diameter is significantly larger than the UCA diameter. In the potential application of drug and gene delivery, it may be desirable to fragment the agent shell within small blood vessels and in some cases to rupture the vessel wall, releasing drugs and genes at the site. The effect of a compliant small blood vessel on the UCA's oscillation and the microvessel's acoustic response are unknown. The aim of this work is to propose a lumped-parameter model to study the interaction of a microbubble oscillation and compliable microvessels. Numerical results demonstrate that in the presence of UCAs, the transmural pressure through the blood vessel substantially increases and thus the vascular permeability is predicted to be enhanced. For a microbubble within an 8 to 40 µm vessel with a peak negative pressure of 0.1 MPa and a centre frequency of 1 MHz, small changes in the microbubble oscillation frequency and maximum diameter are observed. When the ultrasound pressure increases, strong nonlinear oscillation occurs, with an increased circumferential stress on the vessel. For a compliable vessel with a diameter equal to or greater than 8 µm, 0.2 MPa PNP at 1 MHz is predicted to be sufficient for microbubble fragmentation regardless of the vessel diameter; however, for a rigid vessel 0.5 MPa PNP at 1 MHz may not be sufficient to fragment the bubbles. For a centre frequency of 1 MHz, a peak negative pressure of 0.5 MPa is predicted to be sufficient to exceed the stress threshold for vascular rupture in a small (diameter less than 15 µm) compliant vessel. As the vessel or surrounding tissue becomes more rigid, the UCA oscillation and vessel dilation decrease; however the

  13. Acoustic response of compliable microvessels containing ultrasound contrast agents

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Shengping; Ferrara, Katherine W.

    2010-01-01

    The existing models of the dynamics of ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) have largely been focused on an UCA surrounded by an infinite liquid. Preliminary investigations of a microbubble’s oscillation in a rigid tube have been performed using linear perturbation, under the assumption that the tube diameter is significantly larger than UCA size. In the potential application of drug and gene delivery, it may be desirable to fragment the agent shell within small blood vessels and in some cases to rupture the vessel wall, releasing drugs and genes at the site. The effect of a compliant small blood vessel on the UCA’s oscillation and the microvessel’s acoustic response are unknown. The aim of this work is to propose a lumped-parameter model to study the interaction of a microbubble oscillation and compliable microvessels. Numerical results demonstrate that in the presence of UCAs, the transmural pressure through the blood vessel substantially increases and thus the vascular permeability is predicted to be enhanced. For a microbubble within an 8 to 40 micron vessel with a peak negative pressure of 0.1MPa and a center frequency of 1MHz, small changes in the microbubble oscillation frequency and maximum diameter are observed. When the ultrasound pressure increases, strong nonlinear oscillation occurs, with an increased circumferential stress on the vessel. For a compliable vessel with the range of diameters considered in this work, 0.2 MPa PNP at 1 MHz is predicted to be sufficient for microbubble fragmentation regardless the vessel diameter, however, for a rigid vessel 0.5 MPa PNP at 1 MHz may not be sufficient to fragment the bubbles. For a center frequency of 1MHz, a peak negative pressure of 0.5 MPa is predicted to be sufficient to exceed the stress threshold for vascular rupture in a small (diameter less than 15 μm) compliant vessel. As the vessel or surrounding tissue becomes more rigid, the UCA oscillation and vessel dilation decrease, however the

  14. Pressure Sensitivity Kernels Applied to Time-reversal Acoustics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-29

    diversity in passive time reversal com- munications,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, October 2006, Vol. 120, Issue 4, pp. 2067-2076. xvi 5...communications. J. Acoustic Soc. Am., 115:2468–2468, 2004. [3] P. Gerstoft. Inversion of seismo-acoustic data using genetic algorithms and a posteriori...average of focal spots tends to have high stability.[6] The presence of spatial diversity (large arrays) has the same effect as an ensemble average and

  15. Pressurized Wideband Acoustic Stapedial Reflex Thresholds: Normal Development and Relationships to Auditory Function in Infants.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Lisa L; Keefe, Douglas H; Feeney, M Patrick; Fitzpatrick, Denis F

    2017-02-01

    This study analyzed effects of pressurization on wideband acoustic stapedial-muscle reflex (ASR) tests in infants cared for in normal newborn (NN) and neonatal intensive care units (NICU). Effects of hearing-screening outcomes on ASR threshold measurements were also evaluated, and a subsequent longitudinal study established normative threshold ranges over the first year after birth. An initial experiment compared thresholds in newborns measured at ambient pressure in the ear canal and at the tympanometric peak pressure. ASR thresholds for broadband noise were higher for ears that did not pass newborn hearing screening and ASR threshold was 14 dB higher for real-ear compared to coupler conditions. Effects of pressurization were significant for ears that passed screening; thus, ASR testing in infants should be conducted at tympanometric peak pressure. ASR threshold was significantly higher for ears that referred on transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) screening tests and also for ears with conductive and sensorineural hearing loss diagnosed by ABR. Developmental ASR changes were significant over the first year for both normal and NICU infants. Wideband pressurized ASR thresholds are a clinically relevant measure of newborn hearing screening and diagnostic outcomes.

  16. High-pressure acoustic properties of glycerol studied by Brillouin spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Min-Seok; Ko, Jae-Hyeon; Ko, Young Ho; Kim, Kwang Joo

    2015-12-01

    Acoustic properties of glycerol was investigated in a wide pressure range from ambient pressure to 30.9 GPa by using a multi-pass Fabry-Perot interferometer and a diamond anvil cell. Pressure dependences of the sound velocity and the Brillouin linewidth showed substantial changes at low pressures below ~4 GPa. This was attributed to the coupling between the main structural relaxation process and the longitudinal acoustic waves. The pressure dependence of the refractive index and the density of glycerol could be obtained by using two scattering geometries and the Lorentz-Lorenz relation.

  17. Comment on "Transient response of an acoustic medium by an excited submerged spherical shell" [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109(6), 2789-2796 (2001)].

    PubMed

    Bahari, Ako; Popplewell, Neil

    2015-05-01

    A closed form solution was derived previously for the response of a submerged spherical shell when the shell was excited by a spatially distributed, transient load at its inner surface [Zakout (2001). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109(6), 2789-2796]. Numerical results were presented for the modal and total acoustic pressures outside the empty sphere when the load's temporal history corresponded to the Heaviside step function. However, the result presented for the shell's "breathing" mode was inconsistent with these data as it corresponded to the delta Dirac (impulse) function. Furthermore, numerical results, which were given later for the total acoustic pressure responses, did not involve either of these excitations. Consequently the present objective is to rectify these anomalies.

  18. Effect of static pressure on acoustic energy radiated by cavitation bubbles in viscous liquids under ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Kyuichi; Towata, Atsuya; Tuziuti, Toru; Kozuka, Teruyuki; Kato, Kazumi

    2011-11-01

    The effect of static pressure on acoustic emissions including shock-wave emissions from cavitation bubbles in viscous liquids under ultrasound has been studied by numerical simulations in order to investigate the effect of static pressure on dispersion of nano-particles in liquids by ultrasound. The results of the numerical simulations for bubbles of 5 μm in equilibrium radius at 20 kHz have indicated that the optimal static pressure which maximizes the energy of acoustic waves radiated by a bubble per acoustic cycle increases as the acoustic pressure amplitude increases or the viscosity of the solution decreases. It qualitatively agrees with the experimental results by Sauter et al. [Ultrason. Sonochem. 15, 517 (2008)]. In liquids with relatively high viscosity (∼200 mPa s), a bubble collapses more violently than in pure water when the acoustic pressure amplitude is relatively large (∼20 bar). In a mixture of bubbles of different equilibrium radius (3 and 5 μm), the acoustic energy radiated by a 5 μm bubble is much larger than that by a 3 μm bubble due to the interaction with bubbles of different equilibrium radius. The acoustic energy radiated by a 5 μm bubble is substantially increased by the interaction with 3 μm bubbles.

  19. Acoustic environmental accuracy requirements for response determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettitt, M. R.

    1983-01-01

    A general purpose computer program was developed for the prediction of vehicle interior noise. This program, named VIN, has both modal and statistical energy analysis capabilities for structural/acoustic interaction analysis. The analytic models and their computer implementation were verified through simple test cases with well-defined experimental results. The model was also applied in a space shuttle payload bay launch acoustics prediction study. The computer program processes large and small problems with equal efficiency because all arrays are dynamically sized by program input variables at run time. A data base is built and easily accessed for design studies. The data base significantly reduces the computational costs of such studies by allowing the reuse of the still-valid calculated parameters of previous iterations.

  20. Flame response to acoustic excitation in a rectangular rocket combustor with LOx/H2 propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardi, Justin; Oschwald, Michael; Dally, Bassam

    2011-12-01

    Research efforts are currently underway at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) Lampoldshausen, which aim to understand the mechanisms by which self-sustaining oscillations in combustion chamber pressure, known as high frequency combustion instabilities, are driven. Testing has been conducted in the rectangular combustor `BKH', running cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen propellants under pressure and injection conditions which are representative of real rocket engines and with acoustic forcing. For the first time, such tests with LOx/H2 propellants and acoustic forcing have been conducted at combustion chamber pressures above 10 bar, the reported results herein from a test at 42 bar. Optical access to the combustor allowed the application of high speed hydroxyl radical (OH*) chemiluminescence imaging of the flame during periods of forced excitation of acoustic resonance modes of the combustion chamber. This paper reports the investigation of flame response to acoustic excitation. Both fluctuation in OH* emission intensity and deflection of the flame at frequencies corresponding to the excitation frequency have been observed. These responses are then discussed as potential indicators of driving mechanisms for combustion instabilities.

  1. Quantitative measurements of acoustic emissions from cavitation at the surface of a stone in response to a lithotripter shock wave.

    PubMed

    Chitnis, Parag V; Cleveland, Robin O

    2006-04-01

    Measurements are presented of acoustic emissions from cavitation collapses on the surface of a synthetic kidney stone in response to shock waves (SWs) from an electrohydraulic lithotripter. A fiber optic probe hydrophone was used for pressure measurements, and passive cavitation detection was used to identify acoustic emissions from bubble collapse. At a lithotripter charging voltage of 20 kV, the focused SW incident on the stone surface resulted in a peak pressure of 43 +/- 6 MPa compared to 23 +/- 4 MPa in the free field. The focused SW incident upon the stone appeared to be enhanced due to the acoustic emissions from the forced cavitation collapse of the preexisting bubbles. The peak pressure of the acoustic emission from a bubble collapse was 34 +/- 15 MPa, that is, the same magnitude as the SWs incident on the stone. These data indicate that stresses induced by focused SWs and cavitation collapses are similar in magnitude thus likely play a similar role in stone fragmentation.

  2. Wavenumber-frequency Spectra of Pressure Fluctuations Measured via Fast Response Pressure Sensitive Paint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, J.; Roozeboom, N. H.; Ross, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    The recent advancement in fast-response Pressure-Sensitive Paint (PSP) allows time-resolved measurements of unsteady pressure fluctuations from a dense grid of spatial points on a wind tunnel model. This capability allows for direct calculations of the wavenumber-frequency (k-?) spectrum of pressure fluctuations. Such data, useful for the vibro-acoustics analysis of aerospace vehicles, are difficult to obtain otherwise. For the present work, time histories of pressure fluctuations on a flat plate subjected to vortex shedding from a rectangular bluff-body were measured using PSP. The light intensity levels in the photographic images were then converted to instantaneous pressure histories by applying calibration constants, which were calculated from a few dynamic pressure sensors placed at selective points on the plate. Fourier transform of the time-histories from a large number of spatial points provided k-? spectra for pressure fluctuations. The data provides first glimpse into the possibility of creating detailed forcing functions for vibro-acoustics analysis of aerospace vehicles, albeit for a limited frequency range.

  3. Analytic Formulation and Numerical Implementation of an Acoustic Pressure Gradient Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Seongkyu; Brentner, Kenneth S.; Farassat, Fereidoun

    2007-01-01

    The scattering of rotor noise is an area that has received little attention over the years, yet the limited work that has been done has shown that both the directivity and intensity of the acoustic field may be significantly modified by the presence of scattering bodies. One of the inputs needed to compute the scattered acoustic field is the acoustic pressure gradient on a scattering surface. Two new analytical formulations of the acoustic pressure gradient have been developed and implemented in the PSU-WOPWOP rotor noise prediction code. These formulations are presented in this paper. The first formulation is derived by taking the gradient of Farassat's retarded-time Formulation 1A. Although this formulation is relatively simple, it requires numerical time differentiation of the acoustic integrals. In the second formulation, the time differentiation is taken inside the integrals analytically. The acoustic pressure gradient predicted by these new formulations is validated through comparison with the acoustic pressure gradient determined by a purely numerical approach for two model rotors. The agreement between analytic formulations and numerical method is excellent for both stationary and moving observers case.

  4. Energy Transform and Initial Acoustic Pressure Distribution in Microwave-induced Thermoacoustic Tomography.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jing; Tao, Chunjing; Wu, Shizeng

    2005-01-01

    A study of Microwave-induced Thermoacoustic Tomography is presented in this paper. Microwaves illuminate biological tissues to generate acoustic waves by thermoelastic expansion when electromagnetic energy was absorbed by human tissues. The generated acoustic waves carry information about different electromagnetic properties of different tissues which will be collected and processed to reconstruct human cross section image. In this paper, digital electromagnetic human body model with 1cm resolution was founded according to algorithm requirements. Firstly we analyzed the transform and interrelation among electromagnetic energy, heat energy and acoustic energy. On the basis of established human model: (1) we calculated initial acoustic pressure distribution in cross section image under plane microwave radiation with different frequency. It shows that microwave absorption properties and initial acoustic pressure were different with the change of frequency; (2) using single pulse to illuminate human model, initial acoustic pressure maps of thorax cross section at different time steps were analyzed. These results provided a research basis for further study and calculation of acoustic pressure in microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography.

  5. Vibration and acoustic response of an orthotropic composite laminated plate in a hygroscopic environment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Geng, Qian; Li, Yueming

    2013-03-01

    This paper is a study of the vibration and acoustic response characteristics of orthotropic laminated composite plate with simple supported boundary conditions excited by a harmonic concentrated force in a hygroscopic environment. First the natural vibration of the plate with the in-plane forces induced by hygroscopic stress is obtained analytically. Secondly, the sound pressure distribution of the plate at the far field is obtained using the Rayleigh integral. Furthermore, the sound radiation efficiency is deduced. Third, different ratios of elastic modulus in material principal directions are set to research the effects of increasing stiffness of the orthotropic plate on the vibration and acoustic radiation characteristics. Finally, to verify the theoretical solution, numerical simulations are also carried out with commercial finite software. It is found that the natural frequencies decrease with the increase of the moisture content and the first two order modes interconvert at high moisture content. The dynamic response and sound pressure level float to lower frequencies with elevated moisture content. Acoustic radiation efficiency generally floats to the low frequencies and decreases with an increase of moisture content. The dynamic and acoustic responses reduce and the coincidence frequency decreases with the enhanced stiffness.

  6. Acoustic response from adherent targeted contrast agents

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shukui; Kruse, Dustin E.; Ferrara, Katherine W.; Dayton, Paul A.

    2006-01-01

    In ultrasonic molecular imaging, encapsulated micron-sized gas bubbles are tethered to a blood vessel wall by targeting ligands. A challenging problem is to detect the echoes from adherent microbubbles and distinguish them from echoes from non-adherent agents and tissue. Echoes from adherent contrast agents are observed to include a high amplitude at the fundamental frequency, and significantly different spectral shape compared with free agents (p < 0.0003). Mechanisms for the observed acoustical difference and potential techniques to utilize these differences for molecular imaging are proposed. PMID:17225437

  7. Linearized Unsteady Aerodynamic Analysis of the Acoustic Response to Wake/Blade-Row Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verdon, Joseph M.; Huff, Dennis L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The three-dimensional, linearized Euler analysis, LINFLUX, is being developed to provide a comprehensive and efficient unsteady aerodynamic scheme for predicting the aeroacoustic and aeroelastic responses of axial-flow turbomachinery blading. LINFLUX couples a near-field, implicit, wave-split, finite-volume solution to far-field acoustic eigensolutions, to predict the aerodynamic responses of a blade row to prescribed structural and aerodynamic excitations. It is applied herein to predict the acoustic responses of a fan exit guide vane (FEGV) to rotor wake excitations. The intent is to demonstrate and assess the LINFLUX analysis via application to realistic wake/blade-row interactions. Numerical results are given for the unsteady pressure responses of the FEGV, including the modal pressure responses at inlet and exit. In addition, predictions for the modal and total acoustic power levels at the FEGV exit are compared with measurements. The present results indicate that the LINFLUX analysis should be useful in the aeroacoustic design process, and for understanding the three-dimensional flow physics relevant to blade-row noise generation and propagation.

  8. The Influence of Stuttering Severity on Acoustic Startle Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, John B.; Finan, Donald S.; Ramig, Peter R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the potential impact of stuttering severity, as measured by the Perceptions of Stuttering Inventory (Woolf, 1967) on acoustic startle responses. Method: Three groups, consisting of 10 nonstuttering adults, 9 mild stutterering adults, and 11 moderate/severe stutterering adults, were presented with identical 95-dB…

  9. Measured wavenumber: frequency spectrum associated with acoustic and aerodynamic wall pressure fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Arguillat, Blandine; Ricot, Denis; Bailly, Christophe; Robert, Gilles

    2010-10-01

    Direct measurements of the wavenumber-frequency spectrum of wall pressure fluctuations beneath a turbulent plane channel flow have been performed in an anechoic wind tunnel. A rotative array has been designed that allows the measurement of a complete map, 63×63 measuring points, of cross-power spectral densities over a large area. An original post-processing has been developed to separate the acoustic and the aerodynamic exciting loadings by transforming space-frequency data into wavenumber-frequency spectra. The acoustic part has also been estimated from a simple Corcos-like model including the contribution of a diffuse sound field. The measured acoustic contribution to the surface pressure fluctuations is 5% of the measured aerodynamic surface pressure fluctuations for a velocity and boundary layer thickness relevant for automotive interior noise applications. This shows that for aerodynamically induced car interior noise, both contributions to the surface pressure fluctuations on car windows have to be taken into account.

  10. Wideband flat frequency response of thermo-acoustic emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hanping; Wang, Yandong; Wang, Zedong

    2012-08-01

    Many advantages of thermo-acoustic (TA) ultrasound over the conventional electro-acoustic ultrasound are mainly attributed to its unique nature—constant (flat) amplitude-frequency response over a wide frequency range. However, realization of the TA flat frequency response itself has so far remained unclear due to the lack of theoretical investigation. In this work, using analysis of thermal-mechanical coupling and thermal wave penetration depth for TA emission in gas, the mechanism and regularities of flat frequency response are clarified. The limits of both frequency and space for the existence of flat frequency response of TA ultrasound are revealed. In addition, the performance evaluation and selection techniques for both TA material and its backing are presented. Therefore, the most important feature of TA ultrasound from a technical standpoint is studied more completely.

  11. Impact of Acoustic Standing Waves on Structural Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolaini, Ali R.

    2014-01-01

    For several decades large reverberant chambers and most recently direct field acoustic testing have been used in the aerospace industry to test larger structures with low surface densities such as solar arrays and reflectors to qualify them and to detect faults in the design and fabrication. It has been reported that in reverberant chamber and direct acoustic testing, standing acoustic modes may strongly couple with the fundamental structural modes of the test hardware (Reference 1). In this paper results from a recent reverberant chamber acoustic test of a composite reflector are discussed. These results provide further convincing evidence of the acoustic standing wave and structural modes coupling phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to alert test organizations to this phenomenon so that they can account for the potential increase in structural responses and ensure that flight hardware undergoes safe testing. An understanding of the coupling phenomenon may also help minimize the over and/or under testing that could pose un-anticipated structural and flight qualification issues.

  12. The acoustics and unsteady wall pressure of a circulation control airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, Jonathan C.

    A Circulation Control (CC) airfoil uses a wall jet exiting onto a rounded trailing edge to generate lift via the Coanda effect. The aerodynamics of the CC airfoil have been studied extensively. The acoustics of the airfoil are, however, much less understood. The primary goal of the present work was to study the radiated sound and unsteady surface pressures of a CC airfoil. The focus of this work can be divided up into three main categories: characterizing the unsteady surface pressures, characterizing the radiated sound, and understanding the acoustics from surface pressures. The present work is the first to present the unsteady surface pressures from the trailing edge cylinder of a circulation control airfoil. The auto-spectral density of the unsteady surface pressures at various locations around the trailing edge are presented over a wide range of the jets momentum coefficient. Coherence of pressure and length scales were computed and presented. Single microphone measurements were made at a range of angles for a fixed observer distance in the far field. Spectra are presented for select angles to show the directivity of the airfoil's radiated sound. Predictions of the acoustics were made from unsteady surface pressures via Howe's curvature noise model and a modified Curle's analogy. A summary of the current understanding of the acoustics from a CC airfoil is given along with suggestions for future work.

  13. ACOUSTIC LOCATION OF LEAKS IN PRESSURIZED UNDER- GROUND PETROLEUM PIPELINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were conducted at the Underground Storage Tank (UST) Test Apparatus Pipeline in which three acoustic sensors separated by a maximum distance of 38.1 m (125 ft) were used to monitor signals produced by 11.4-, 5.7-, and 3.8-L/h (3.0-, 1.5-, and 1.0-gal/h) leaks in th...

  14. Experimental and numerical characterization of the sound pressure in standing wave acoustic levitators.

    PubMed

    Stindt, A; Andrade, M A B; Albrecht, M; Adamowski, J C; Panne, U; Riedel, J

    2014-01-01

    A novel method for predictions of the sound pressure distribution in acoustic levitators is based on a matrix representation of the Rayleigh integral. This method allows for a fast calculation of the acoustic field within the resonator. To make sure that the underlying assumptions and simplifications are justified, this approach was tested by a direct comparison to experimental data. The experimental sound pressure distributions were recorded by high spatially resolved frequency selective microphone scanning. To emphasize the general applicability of the two approaches, the comparative studies were conducted for four different resonator geometries. In all cases, the results show an excellent agreement, demonstrating the accuracy of the matrix method.

  15. Dexterous manipulation of microparticles using Bessel-function acoustic pressure fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtney, Charles R. P.; Drinkwater, Bruce W.; Demore, Christine E. M.; Cochran, Sandy; Grinenko, Alon; Wilcox, Paul D.

    2013-03-01

    We show that Bessel-function acoustic pressure fields can be used to trap and controllably position microparticles. A circular, 16-element ultrasound array generates and manipulates an acoustic field within a chamber, trapping microparticles and agglomerates. Changes in the phase of the sinusoidal signals applied to the array elements result in the movement of the Bessel-function pressure field and hence the microparticles. This demonstrates ultrasonic manipulation analogous to holographic optical tweezers. The manipulation limits of the device are explained by the existence of unwanted resonances within the manipulation chamber.

  16. Investigations of High Pressure Acoustic Waves in Resonators with Seal-like Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, Christopher; Steinetz, Bruce; Finkbeiner, Joshua

    2003-01-01

    A conical resonator (having a dissonant acoustic design) was tested in four configurations: (1) baseline resonator with closed ends and no blockage, (2) closed resonator with internal blockage, (3) ventilated resonator with no blockage, and (4) ventilated resonator with an applied pressure differential. These tests were conducted to investigate the effects of blockage and ventilation holes on dynamic pressurization. Additionally, the investigation was to determine the ability of acoustic pressurization to impede flow through the resonator. In each of the configurations studied, the entire resonator was oscillated at the gas resonant frequency while dynamic pressure, static pressure, and temperature of the fluid were measured. In the final configuration, flow through the resonator was recorded for three oscillation conditions. Ambient condition air was used as the working fluid.

  17. Acoustic model of micro-pressure wave emission from a high-speed train tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyachi, T.

    2017-03-01

    The micro-pressure wave (MPW) radiated from a tunnel portal can, if audible, cause serious problems around tunnel portals in high-speed railways. This has created a need to develop an acoustic model that considers the topography around a radiation portal in order to predict MPWs more accurately and allow for higher speed railways in the future. An acoustic model of MPWs based on linear acoustic theory is developed in this study. First, the directivity of sound sources and the acoustical effect of topography are investigated using a train launcher facility around a portal on infinitely flat ground and with an infinite vertical baffle plate. The validity of linear acoustic theory is then discussed through a comparison of numerical results obtained using the finite difference method (FDM) and experimental results. Finally, an acoustic model is derived that considers sound sources up to the second order and Green's function to represent the directivity and effect of topography, respectively. The results predicted by this acoustic model are shown to be in good agreement with both numerical and experimental results.

  18. Burst prediction by acoustic emission in filament-wound pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorman, Michael R.

    1990-01-01

    Acoustic emission in 51-cm diameter graphite/epoxy pressure vessels was monitored during pressurization (hydrotesting). Several vessels were subjected to impact by a blunt impactor, but only after the vessels had been proofed; that is, pressurized to 80 percent of nominal burst pressure as determined from control (unimpacted) vessels. AE activity was then monitored throughout a series of successively higher pressure cycles ranging from 10 to 60 percent of ultimate. Each cycle included a ramp up to pressure followed by a 4-min hold period and then pressure unload. The event rate was high, and especially modified AE analyzers had to be used to acquire the data. This paper presents the AE event count versus pressure history of these tests and demonstrates the ability of the AE technique to monitor the growth of damage and to estimate the effect on ultimate strength. The number of events that occurred during pressure holds proved to be a reasonable estimator of vessel performance.

  19. Pressure transducer for measuring acoustic radiation force based on a magnetic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamimura, H. A. S.; Pavan, T. Z.; Almeida, T. W. J.; Pádua, M. L. A.; Baggio, A. L.; Fatemi, M.; Carneiro, A. A. O.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a pressure transducer based on a magnetic sensor to measure acoustic radiation force (ARF) and small displacements. The methodology presented in this paper allowed this transducer to be calibrated for use as an acoustic pressure and intensity meter. It can control the acoustic intensity emitted by ultrasound used, for example, in ARF impulse imaging, vibro-acoustography and high-intensity focused ultrasound techniques. The device comprises a magnet, a membrane, a magnetoresistive sensor and a coil to cancel the external magnetic field. When ARF is applied to the membrane, the magnetic field on the sensor changes due to the magnetic target displacement. The variation of the output signal from the magnetic transducer is proportional to the acoustic pressure applied to the membrane. A focused ultrasound transducer with a central frequency of 3 MHz was used to apply a continuous ARF. The sensitivities of the magnetic transducer as an acoustic pressure and intensity meter, evaluated in water, were respectively 0.597 µV MPa-1 and 0.073 µV (W cm-2)-1/2, while those of the needle hydrophone (Onda model HNP-0400) used in the magnetic transducer calibration were respectively, 0.5024 mV MPa-1 and 6.153 mV (W cm-2)-1/2. The transducer resolution to displacement is 5 nm and 6 dB of signal attenuation occurs for 7° of misalignment. The transducer responded well to acoustic pressure in water above 200 kPa.

  20. Full bandwidth calibration procedure for acoustic probes containing a pressure and particle velocity sensor.

    PubMed

    Basten, Tom G H; de Bree, Hans-Elias

    2010-01-01

    Calibration of acoustic particle velocity sensors is still difficult due to the lack of standardized sensors to compare with. Recently it is shown by Jacobsen and Jaud [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 120, 830-837 (2006)] that it is possible to calibrate a sound pressure and particle velocity sensor in free field conditions at higher frequencies. This is done by using the known acoustic impedance at a certain distance of a spherical loudspeaker. When the sound pressure is measured with a calibrated reference microphone, the particle velocity can be calculated from the known impedance and the measured pressure. At lower frequencies, this approach gives unreliable results. The method is now extended to lower frequencies by measuring the acoustic pressure inside the spherical source. At lower frequencies, the sound pressure inside the sphere is proportional to the movement of the loudspeaker membrane. If the movement is known, the particle velocity in front of the loudspeaker can be derived. This low frequency approach is combined with the high frequency approach giving a full bandwidth calibration procedure which can be used in free field conditions using a single calibration setup. The calibration results are compared with results obtained with a standing wave tube.

  1. Test-Anchored Vibration Response Predictions for an Acoustically Energized Curved Orthogrid Panel with Mounted Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frady, Gregory P.; Duvall, Lowery D.; Fulcher, Clay W. G.; Laverde, Bruce T.; Hunt, Ronald A.

    2011-01-01

    rich body of vibroacoustic test data was recently generated at Marshall Space Flight Center for component-loaded curved orthogrid panels typical of launch vehicle skin structures. The test data were used to anchor computational predictions of a variety of spatially distributed responses including acceleration, strain and component interface force. Transfer functions relating the responses to the input pressure field were generated from finite element based modal solutions and test-derived damping estimates. A diffuse acoustic field model was applied to correlate the measured input sound pressures across the energized panel. This application quantifies the ability to quickly and accurately predict a variety of responses to acoustically energized skin panels with mounted components. Favorable comparisons between the measured and predicted responses were established. The validated models were used to examine vibration response sensitivities to relevant modeling parameters such as pressure patch density, mesh density, weight of the mounted component and model form. Convergence metrics include spectral densities and cumulative root-mean squared (RMS) functions for acceleration, velocity, displacement, strain and interface force. Minimum frequencies for response convergence were established as well as recommendations for modeling techniques, particularly in the early stages of a component design when accurate structural vibration requirements are needed relatively quickly. The results were compared with long-established guidelines for modeling accuracy of component-loaded panels. A theoretical basis for the Response/Pressure Transfer Function (RPTF) approach provides insight into trends observed in the response predictions and confirmed in the test data. The software developed for the RPTF method allows easy replacement of the diffuse acoustic field with other pressure fields such as a turbulent boundary layer (TBL) model suitable for vehicle ascent. Structural responses

  2. Acoustic properties of pistonphones at low frequencies in the presence of pressure leakage and heat conduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan; He, Wen; He, Longbiao; Rong, Zuochao

    2015-12-01

    The wide concern on absolute pressure calibration of acoustic transducers at low frequencies prompts the development of the pistonphone method. At low frequencies, the acoustic properties of pistonphones are governed by the pressure leakage and the heat conduction effects. However, the traditional theory for these two effects applies a linear superposition of two independent correction models, which differs somewhat from their coupled effect at low frequencies. In this paper, acoustic properties of pistonphones at low frequencies in full consideration of the pressure leakage and heat conduction effects have been quantitatively studied, and the explicit expression for the generated sound pressure has been derived. With more practical significance, a coupled correction expression for these two effects of pistonphones has been derived. In allusion to two typical pistonphones, the NPL pistonphone and our developed infrasonic pistonphone, comparisons were done for the coupled correction expression and the traditional one, whose results reveal that the traditional one produces maximum insufficient errors of about 0.1 dB above the lower limiting frequencies of two pistonphones, while at lower frequencies, excessive correction errors with an explicit limit of about 3 dB are produced by the traditional expression. The coupled correction expression should be adopted in the absolute pressure calibration of acoustic transducers at low frequencies. Furthermore, it is found that the heat conduction effect takes a limiting deviation of about 3 dB for the pressure amplitude and a small phase difference as frequency decreases, while the pressure leakage effect remarkably drives the pressure amplitude to attenuate and the phase difference tends to be 90° as the frequency decreases. The pressure leakage effect plays a more important role on the low frequency property of pistonphones.

  3. Variabilities detected by acoustic emission from filament-wound Aramid fiber/epoxy composite pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamstad, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty Aramid fiber/epoxy pressure vessels were filament-wound over spherical aluminum mandrels under controlled conditions typical for advanced filament-winding. A random set of 30 vessels was proof-tested to 74% of the expected burst pressure; acoustic emission data were obtained during the proof test. A specially designed fixture was used to permit in situ calibration of the acoustic emission system for each vessel by the fracture of a 4-mm length of pencil lead (0.3 mm in diameter) which was in contact with the vessel. Acoustic emission signatures obtained during testing showed larger than expected variabilities in the mechanical damage done during the proof tests. To date, identification of the cause of these variabilities has not been determined.

  4. Manipulation of Liquids Using Phased Array Generation of Acoustic Radiation Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A phased array of piezoelectric transducers is used to control and manipulate contained as well as uncontained fluids in space and earth applications. The transducers in the phased array are individually activated while being commonly controlled to produce acoustic radiation pressure and acoustic streaming. The phased array is activated to produce a single pulse, a pulse burst or a continuous pulse to agitate, segregate or manipulate liquids and gases. The phased array generated acoustic radiation pressure is also useful in manipulating a drop, a bubble or other object immersed in a liquid. The transducers can be arranged in any number of layouts including linear single or multi- dimensional, space curved and annular arrays. The individual transducers in the array are activated by a controller, preferably driven by a computer.

  5. On an integro-differential equation model for the study of the response of an acoustically coupled panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, D. H. Y.; Maestrello, L.; Padula, S.

    1975-01-01

    The response of a clamped panel to supersonically convected turbulence is considered. A theoretical model in the form of an integro-differential equation is employed that takes into account the coupling between the panel motion and the surrounding acoustic medium. The kernels of the integrals, which represent induced pressures due to the panel motion, are Green's functions for sound radiations under various moving and stationary sources. An approximate analysis is made by following a finite-element Ritz-Galerkin procedure. Preliminary numerical results, in agreement with experimental findings, indicate that the acoustic damping is the controlling mechanism of the response.

  6. A Neural Network/Acoustic Emission Analysis of Impact Damaged Graphite/Epoxy Pressure Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James L.; Hill, Erik v. K.; Workman, Gary L.; Russell, Samuel S.

    1995-01-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) signal analysis has been used to measure the effects of impact damage on burst pressure in 5.75 inch diameter, inert propellant filled, filament wound pressure vessels. The AE data were collected from fifteen graphite/epoxy pressure vessels featuring five damage states and three resin systems. A burst pressure prediction model was developed by correlating the AE amplitude (frequency) distribution, generated during the first pressure ramp to 800 psig (approximately 25% of the average expected burst pressure for an undamaged vessel) to known burst pressures using a four layered back propagation neural network. The neural network, trained on three vessels from each resin system, was able to predict burst pressures with a worst case error of 5.7% for the entire fifteen bottle set.

  7. Test-Anchored Vibration Response Predictions for an Acoustically Energized Curved Orthogrid Panel with Mounted Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frady, Gregory P.; Duvall, Lowery D.; Fulcher, Clay W. G.; Laverde, Bruce T.; Hunt, Ronald A.

    2011-01-01

    A rich body of vibroacoustic test data was recently generated at Marshall Space Flight Center for a curved orthogrid panel typical of launch vehicle skin structures. Several test article configurations were produced by adding component equipment of differing weights to the flight-like vehicle panel. The test data were used to anchor computational predictions of a variety of spatially distributed responses including acceleration, strain and component interface force. Transfer functions relating the responses to the input pressure field were generated from finite element based modal solutions and test-derived damping estimates. A diffuse acoustic field model was employed to describe the assumed correlation of phased input sound pressures across the energized panel. This application demonstrates the ability to quickly and accurately predict a variety of responses to acoustically energized skin panels with mounted components. Favorable comparisons between the measured and predicted responses were established. The validated models were used to examine vibration response sensitivities to relevant modeling parameters such as pressure patch density, mesh density, weight of the mounted component and model form. Convergence metrics include spectral densities and cumulative root-mean squared (RMS) functions for acceleration, velocity, displacement, strain and interface force. Minimum frequencies for response convergence were established as well as recommendations for modeling techniques, particularly in the early stages of a component design when accurate structural vibration requirements are needed relatively quickly. The results were compared with long-established guidelines for modeling accuracy of component-loaded panels. A theoretical basis for the Response/Pressure Transfer Function (RPTF) approach provides insight into trends observed in the response predictions and confirmed in the test data. The software modules developed for the RPTF method can be easily adapted for

  8. Load influence on gear noise. [mathematical model for determining acoustic pressure level as function of load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merticaru, V.

    1974-01-01

    An original mathematical model is proposed to derive equations for calculation of gear noise. These equations permit the acoustic pressure level to be determined as a function of load. Application of this method to three parallel gears is reported. The logical calculation scheme is given, as well as the results obtained.

  9. Correlation of combustor acoustic power levels inferred from internal fluctuating pressure measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonglahn, U. H.

    1978-01-01

    Combustion chamber acoustic power levels inferred from internal fluctuating pressure measurements are correlated with operating conditions and chamber geometries over a wide range. The variables include considerations of chamber design (can, annular, and reverse-flow annular) and size, number of fuel nozzles, burner staging and fuel split, airflow and heat release rates, and chamber inlet pressure and temperature levels. The correlated data include those obtained with combustion component development rigs as well as engines.

  10. Experimental investigation on dynamic response of aircraft panels excited by high-intensity acoustic loads in thermal environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WU, Z. Q.; LI, H. B.; ZHANG, W.; CHENG, H.; KONG, F. J.; LIU, B. R.

    2016-09-01

    Metallic and composite panels are the major components for thermal protection system of aircraft vehicles, which are exposed to a severe combination of aerodynamic, thermal and acoustic environments during hypersonic flights. A thermal-acoustic testing apparatus which simulates thermal and acoustic loads was used to validate the integrity and the reliability of these panels. Metallic and ceramic matrix composite flat panels were designed. Dynamic response tests of these panels were carried out using the thermal acoustic apparatus. The temperature of the metallic specimen was up to 400 °C, and the temperature of the composite specimen was up to 600 °C. Moreover, the acoustic load was over 160 dB. Acceleration responses of these testing panels were measured using high temperature instruments during the testing process. Results show that the acceleration root mean square values are dominated by sound pressure level of acoustic loads. Compared with testing data in room environment, the peaks of the acceleration dynamic response shifts obviously to the high frequency in thermal environment.

  11. Acoustic correlates of human responses to domestic cat (feliscatus) vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicastro, Nicholas

    2002-05-01

    As part of ongoing research on coevolution of vocal communication between humans and domestic cats, perceptual data were collected on participants as they listened to recorded cat vocalizations. In experiment 1, human subjects were asked to rate the pleasantness of 100 meows along a 7-point scale, from most to least pleasant. In experiment 2, a different group of participants was asked to rate the urgency of the same meows along a 7-point scale, from most to least urgent. Linear regression analysis of the results showed a strong inverse correlation between pleasantness and urgency. Acoustic correlates of pleasantness included reduced frequency modulation, a downward shift in fundamental frequency, and fewer noisy segments. Correlates of urgency included increased duration, higher Wiener entropy, and acute spectral tilt. It is speculated that humans' affective responses to these acoustic qualities, in conjunction with contextual cues, may form the basis of the communication of more specific meanings by cats to humans.

  12. Acoustic response modeling of energetics systems in confined spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, David R.; Hixon, Ray; Liou, William W.; Sanford, Matthew

    2007-04-01

    In recent times, warfighting has been taking place not in far-removed areas but within urban environments. As a consequence, the modern warfighter must adapt. Currently, an effort is underway to develop shoulder-mounted rocket launcher rounds suitable with reduced acoustic signatures for use in such environments. Of prime importance is to ensure that these acoustic levels, generated by propellant burning, reflections from enclosures, etc., are at tolerable levels without requiring excessive hearing protection. Presented below is a proof-of-concept approach aimed at developing a computational tool to aid in the design process. Unsteady, perfectly-expanded-jet simulations at two different Mach numbers and one at an elevated temperature ratio were conducted using an existing computational aeroacoustics code. From the solutions, sound pressure levels and frequency spectra were then obtained. The results were compared to sound pressure levels collected from a live-fire test of the weapon. Lastly, an outline of work that is to continue and be completed in the near future will be presented.

  13. Acoustic Detection Of Loose Particles In Pressure Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, Lloyd C.

    1995-01-01

    Particle-impact-noise-detector (PIND) apparatus used in conjunction with computer program analyzing output of apparatus to detect extraneous particles trapped in pressure sensors. PIND tester essentially shaker equipped with microphone measuring noise in pressure sensor or other object being shaken. Shaker applies controlled vibration. Output of microphone recorded and expressed in terms of voltage, yielding history of noise subsequently processed by computer program. Data taken at sampling rate sufficiently high to enable identification of all impacts of particles on sensor diaphragm and on inner surfaces of sensor cavities.

  14. Optimization of Acoustic Pressure Measurements for Impedance Eduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M. G.; Watson, W. R.; Nark, D. M.

    2007-01-01

    As noise constraints become increasingly stringent, there is continued emphasis on the development of improved acoustic liner concepts to reduce the amount of fan noise radiated to communities surrounding airports. As a result, multiple analytical prediction tools and experimental rigs have been developed by industry and academia to support liner evaluation. NASA Langley has also placed considerable effort in this area over the last three decades. More recently, a finite element code (Q3D) based on a quasi-3D implementation of the convected Helmholtz equation has been combined with measured data acquired in the Langley Grazing Incidence Tube (GIT) to reduce liner impedance in the presence of grazing flow. A new Curved Duct Test Rig (CDTR) has also been developed to allow evaluation of liners in the presence of grazing flow and controlled, higher-order modes, with straight and curved waveguides. Upgraded versions of each of these two test rigs are expected to begin operation by early 2008. The Grazing Flow Impedance Tube (GFIT) will replace the GIT, and additional capabilities will be incorporated into the CDTR. The current investigation uses the Q3D finite element code to evaluate some of the key capabilities of these two test rigs. First, the Q3D code is used to evaluate the microphone distribution designed for the GFIT. Liners ranging in length from 51 to 610 mm are investigated to determine whether acceptable impedance eduction can be achieved with microphones placed on the wall opposite the liner. This analysis indicates the best results are achieved for liner lengths of at least 203 mm. Next, the effects of moving this GFIT microphone array to the wall adjacent to the liner are evaluated, and acceptable results are achieved if the microphones are placed off the centerline. Finally, the code is used to investigate potential microphone placements in the CDTR rigid wall adjacent to the wall containing an acoustic liner, to determine if sufficient fidelity can be

  15. Design and characterization of fibrin-based acoustically responsive scaffolds for tissue engineering applications

    PubMed Central

    Moncion, Alexander; Arlotta, Keith J.; Kripfgans, Oliver D.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Carson, Paul L.; Putnam, Andrew J.; Franceschi, Renny T.; Fabiilli, Mario L.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogel scaffolds are used in tissue engineering as a delivery vehicle for regenerative growth factors (GFs). Spatiotemporal patterns of GF signaling are critical for tissue regeneration, yet most scaffolds afford limited control of GF release, especially after implantation. We previously demonstrated that acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) can control GF release from a fibrin scaffold doped with a perfluorocarbon emulsion. This study investigates properties of the acoustically responsive scaffold (ARS) critical for further translation. At 2.5 MHz, ADV and inertial cavitation thresholds ranged from 1.5 – 3.0 MPa and 2.0 – 7.0 MPa peak rarefactional pressure, respectively, for ARSs of varying compositions. Viability of C3H10T1/2 cells, encapsulated in the ARS, did not decrease significantly for pressures below 4 MPa. ARSs with perfluorohexane emulsions displayed higher stability versus perfluoropentane emulsions, while surrogate payload release was minimal without ultrasound. These results enable the selection of ARS compositions and acoustic parameters needed for optimized spatiotemporal control. PMID:26526782

  16. Comparison of occlusion pressure and ventilatory responses.

    PubMed Central

    Lederer, D H; Altose, M D; Kelsen, S G; Cherniack, N S

    1977-01-01

    The airway pressure 100 msec after the onset of an inspiratory effort against a closed airway (P100, occlusion pressure) is theoretically a more accurate index of respiratory neuron motor output than ventilation. Occlusion pressure and ventilation responses to hypercapnia were compared in repeated trials in 10 normal subjects while in the seated and supine positions. During progressive hypercapnia changes in P100 were also compared to changes in tidal volume and inspiratory airflow. These studies show that occlusion pressure increases linearly with hypercapnia in both sitting and supine subjects. Changing from the seated to the supine position, or vice versa, had no significant effect on either ventilation or occlusion pressure responses to CO2. Correlations between P100 and ventilation or airflow rate were significantly higher than correlations between P100 and tidal volume or breathing frequency. Intermittent random airway occlusion had no effect on either ventilation or pattern of breathing during hypercapnia. Occlusion pressure responses were no less variable than ventilation responses in groups of subjects whether studied seated or supine. However, maintenance of a constant moderate breathing frequency (20 breaths per minute) reduced the interindividual variability in ventilation and occlusion pressure responses to hypercapnia. PMID:867336

  17. The Dynamics of Vapor Bubbles in Acoustic Pressure Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hao, Y.; Prosperetti, A.

    1999-01-01

    In spite of a superficial similarity with gas bubbles, the intimate coupling between dynamical and thermal processes confers to oscillating vapor bubbles some unique characteristics. This paper examines numerically the validity of some asymptotic-theory predictions such as the existence of two resonant radii and a limit size for a given sound amplitude and frequency. It is found that a small vapor bubble in a sound field of sufficient amplitude grows quickly through resonance and continues to grow thereafter at a very slow rate, seemingly indefinitely. Resonance phenomena therefore play a role for a few cycles at most, and reaching a limit size-if one exists at all-is found to require far more than several tens of thousands of cycles. It is also found that some small bubbles may grow or collapse depending on the phase of the sound field. The model accounts in detail for the thermo-fluid-mechanic processes in the vapor. In the second part of the paper, an approximate formulation valid for bubbles small with respect to the thermal penetration length in the vapor is derived and its accuracy examined, The present findings have implications for acoustically enhanced boiling heat transfer and other special applications such as boiling in microgravity.

  18. Biomimetic Acoustically-Responsive Vesicles for Theranostic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Chen-Chan; Kang, Shih-Tsung; Lin, Yee-Hsien; Ho, Yi-Ju; Wang, Chung-Hsin; Yeh, Chih-Kuang; Chang, Chien-Wen

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, biomimetic cell membrane-derived particles have emerged as a new class of drug delivery system with advantages of biocompatibility, ease of isolation and long circulation profile. Here we report the development and potential theranostic applications of a new biomimetic acoustically-responsive droplet system derived from mammalian red blood cell membrane (RBCM). We hypothesized that drug-loaded RBCM droplets (RBCMDs) would undergo a transition from liquid (droplets) to gas (bubbles) upon high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) insonation, resulting in on-demand drug release. The generated microbubbles could also serve as a contrast agent to enhance ultrasound imaging. As-synthesized RBCMDs exhibited uniform size, good dispersity and preservation of RBCM-associated proteins that prevented uptake by macrophages. Camptothecin (CPT), an anti-cancer drug, was successfully loaded in the RBCMDs with a loading efficiency of 2-3% and an encapsulation efficiency of 62-97%. A short (3 min) exposure to HIFU irradiation triggered release of CPT from the RBCMDs and the physical explosion of droplets damaged nearby cancer cells resulting in significant cell death. In addition, the acoustically vaporized RBCMDs significantly increased the ultrasound echo signal to 30 dB. Lastly, we demonstrated that RBCMDs could be acoustically vaporized in vivo in target tissues, and enhancing ultrasound imaging. Taken together, we have developed a new class of naturally derived RBCMDs which show great potential for future application in remotely triggered drug delivery and ultrasound imaging enhancement. PMID:26379791

  19. Biomimetic Acoustically-Responsive Vesicles for Theranostic Applications.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chen-Chan; Kang, Shih-Tsung; Lin, Yee-Hsien; Ho, Yi-Ju; Wang, Chung-Hsin; Yeh, Chih-Kuang; Chang, Chien-Wen

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, biomimetic cell membrane-derived particles have emerged as a new class of drug delivery system with advantages of biocompatibility, ease of isolation and long circulation profile. Here we report the development and potential theranostic applications of a new biomimetic acoustically-responsive droplet system derived from mammalian red blood cell membrane (RBCM). We hypothesized that drug-loaded RBCM droplets (RBCMDs) would undergo a transition from liquid (droplets) to gas (bubbles) upon high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) insonation, resulting in on-demand drug release. The generated microbubbles could also serve as a contrast agent to enhance ultrasound imaging. As-synthesized RBCMDs exhibited uniform size, good dispersity and preservation of RBCM-associated proteins that prevented uptake by macrophages. Camptothecin (CPT), an anti-cancer drug, was successfully loaded in the RBCMDs with a loading efficiency of 2-3% and an encapsulation efficiency of 62-97%. A short (3 min) exposure to HIFU irradiation triggered release of CPT from the RBCMDs and the physical explosion of droplets damaged nearby cancer cells resulting in significant cell death. In addition, the acoustically vaporized RBCMDs significantly increased the ultrasound echo signal to 30 dB. Lastly, we demonstrated that RBCMDs could be acoustically vaporized in vivo in target tissues, and enhancing ultrasound imaging. Taken together, we have developed a new class of naturally derived RBCMDs which show great potential for future application in remotely triggered drug delivery and ultrasound imaging enhancement.

  20. Evaluation of Acoustic Emission SHM of PRSEUS Composite Pressure Cube Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, Michael R.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2013-01-01

    A series of tests of the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) pressure cube were conducted during third quarter 2011 at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) in the Combined Loads Test facility (COLTS). This is a report of the analysis of the Acoustic Emission (AE) data collected during those tests. The AE signals of the later tests are consistent with the final failure progression through two of the pressure cube panels. Calibration tests and damage precursor AE indications, from preliminary checkout pressurizations, indicated areas of concern that eventually failed. Hence those tests have potential for vehicle health monitoring.

  1. On the acoustic response of microbubbles in arteriole sized vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Mairead B.; Thomas, David H.; Silva, Nadia; Pye, Stephen D.; Sboros, Vassilis

    2011-11-01

    Microbubbles are used to improve ultrasound imaging of the vascular bed. Optical microscopy has shown microbubbles in different size tubes which have different responses to ultrasound. The acoustic scatter associated with such differences has not been previously measured. Echoes from two types of microbubbles, in narrow tubes, were collected at incident ultrasound parameters relevant to diagnostic imaging. Microbubbles were found to have increased second harmonic signatures in 50 μm diameter tubes compared to 200 μm. There was decreased survival of lipid microbubbles in the smaller tube. Understanding scatter mechanisms in narrow tubes is useful for signal processing optimisation for imaging applications.

  2. Acoustic pressure waves induced in human heads by RF pulses from high-field MRI scanners.

    PubMed

    Lin, James C; Wang, Zhangwei

    2010-04-01

    The current evolution toward greater image resolution from magnetic resonance image (MRI) scanners has prompted the exploration of higher strength magnetic fields and use of higher levels of radio frequencies (RFs). Auditory perception of RF pulses by humans has been reported during MRI with head coils. It has shown that the mechanism of interaction for the auditory effect is caused by an RF pulse-induced thermoelastic pressure wave inside the head. We report a computational study of the intensity and frequency of thermoelastic pressure waves generated by RF pulses in the human head inside high-field MRI and clinical scanners. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) guides limit the local specific absorption rate (SAR) in the body-including the head-to 8 W kg(-1). We present results as functions of SAR and show that for a given SAR the peak acoustic pressures generated in the anatomic head model were essentially the same at 64, 300, and 400 MHz (1.5, 7.0, and 9.4 T). Pressures generated in the anatomic head are comparable to the threshold pressure of 20 mPa for sound perception by humans at the cochlea for 4 W kg(-1). Moreover, results indicate that the peak acoustic pressure in the brain is only 2 to 3 times the auditory threshold at the U.S. FDA guideline of 8 W kg(-1). Even at a high SAR of 20 W kg(-1), where the acoustic pressure in the brain could be more than 7 times the auditory threshold, the sound pressure levels would not be more than 17 db above threshold of perception at the cochlea.

  3. Thermo-acoustic random response of temperature-dependent functionally graded material panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Hesham Hamed; Yoo, Hong Hee; Tawfik, Mohammad; Lee, Kwan-Soo

    2010-08-01

    A nonlinear finite element model is provided for the nonlinear random response of functionally graded material panels subject to combined thermal and random acoustic loads. Material properties are assumed to be temperature-dependent, and graded in the thickness direction according to a simple power law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents. The governing equations are derived using the first-order shear-deformable plate theory with von Karman geometric nonlinearity and the principle of virtual work. The thermal load is assumed to be steady state constant temperature distribution, and the acoustic excitation is considered to be a stationary white-Gaussian random pressure with zero mean and uniform magnitude over the plate surface. The governing equations are transformed to modal coordinates to reduce the computational efforts. Newton-Raphson iteration method is employed to obtain the dynamic response at each time step of the Newmark implicit scheme for numerical integration. Finally, numerical results are provided to study the effects of volume fraction exponent, temperature rise, and the sound pressure level on the panel response.

  4. Improved method of measuring pressure coupled response for composite solid propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Wanxing; Wang, Ningfei; Li, Junwei; Zhao, Yandong; Yan, Mi

    2014-04-01

    Pressure coupled response is one of the main causes of combustion instability in the solid rocket motor. It is also a characteristic parameter for predicting the stability. The pressure coupled response function is usually measured by different methods to evaluate the performance of new propellant. Based on T-burner and "burning surface doubled and secondary attenuation", an improved method for measuring the pressure coupled response of composite propellant is introduced in this article. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study has also been conducted to validate the method and to understand the pressure oscillation phenomenon in T-burner. Three rounds of tests were carried out on the same batch of aluminized AP/HTPB composite solid propellant. The experimental results show that the sample propellant had a high response function under the conditions of high pressure (~11.5 MPa) and low frequency (~140 Hz). The numerically predicted oscillation frequency and amplitude are consistent with the experimental results. One practical solid rocket motor using this sample propellant was found to experience pressure oscillation at the end of burning. This confirms that the sample propellant is prone to combustion instability. Finally, acoustic pressure distribution and phase difference in T-burner were analyzed. Both the experimental and numerical results are found to be associated with similar acoustic pressure distribution. And the phase difference analysis showed that the pressure oscillations at the head end of the T-burner are 180° out of phase from those in the aft end of the T-burner.

  5. Dynamic response analysis of an aircraft structure under thermal-acoustic loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, H.; Li, H. B.; Zhang, W.; Wu, Z. Q.; Liu, B. R.

    2016-09-01

    Future hypersonic aircraft will be exposed to extreme combined environments includes large magnitude thermal and acoustic loads. It presents a significant challenge for the integrity of these vehicles. Thermal-acoustic test is used to test structures for dynamic response and sonic fatigue due to combined loads. In this research, the numerical simulation process for the thermal acoustic test is presented, and the effects of thermal loads on vibro-acoustic response are investigated. To simulate the radiation heating system, Monte Carlo theory and thermal network theory was used to calculate the temperature distribution. Considering the thermal stress, the high temperature modal parameters are obtained with structural finite element methods. Based on acoustic finite element, modal-based vibro-acoustic analysis is carried out to compute structural responses. These researches are very vital to optimum thermal-acoustic test and structure designs for future hypersonic vehicles structure

  6. Acoustic response of cemented granular sedimentary rocks: molecular dynamics modeling.

    PubMed

    García, Xavier; Medina, Ernesto

    2007-06-01

    The effect of cementation processes on the acoustical properties of sands is studied via molecular dynamics simulation methods. We propose numerical methods where the initial uncemented sand is built by simulating the settling process of sediments. Uncemented samples of different porosity are considered by emulating natural mechanical compaction of sediments due to overburden. Cementation is considered through a particle-based model that captures the underlying physics behind the process. In our simulations, we consider samples with different degrees of compaction and cementing materials with distinct elastic properties. The microstructure of cemented sands is taken into account while adding cement at specific locations within the pores, such as grain-to-grain contacts. Results show that the acoustical properties of cemented sands are strongly dependent on the amount of cement, its stiffness relative to the hosting medium, and its location within the pores. Simulation results are in good correspondence with available experimental data and compare favorably with some theoretical predictions for the sound velocity within a range of cement saturation, porosity, and confining pressure.

  7. Method for Estimating the Acoustic Pressure in Tissues Using Low-Amplitude Measurements in Water.

    PubMed

    Keravnou, Christina P; Izamis, Maria-Louisa; Averkiou, Michalakis A

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a simple, reliable and reproducible method for accuracy in estimating the acoustic pressure delivered in tissue exposed to ultrasound. Such a method would be useful for therapeutic applications of ultrasound with microbubbles, for example, sonoporation. The method is based on (i) low-amplitude water measurements that are easily made and do not suffer from non-linear propagation effects, and (ii) the attenuation coefficient of the tissue of interest. The range of validity of the extrapolation method for different attenuation and pressure values was evaluated with a non-linear propagation theoretical model. Depending on the specific tissue attenuation, the method produces good estimates of pressures in excess of 10 MPa. Ex vivo machine-perfused pig liver tissue was used to validate the method for source pressures up to 3.5 MPa. The method can be used to estimate the delivered pressure in vivo in diagnostic and therapeutic applications of ultrasound.

  8. Three-dimensional visualization of shear wave propagation generated by dual acoustic radiation pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, Yuta; Taki, Hirofumi; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    An elastic property of biological soft tissue is an important indicator of the tissue status. Therefore, quantitative and noninvasive methods for elasticity evaluation have been proposed. Our group previously proposed a method using acoustic radiation pressure irradiated from two directions for elastic property evaluation, in which by measuring the propagation velocity of the shear wave generated by the acoustic radiation pressure inside the object, the elastic properties of the object were successfully evaluated. In the present study, we visualized the propagation of the shear wave in a three-dimensional space by the synchronization of signals received at various probe positions. The proposed method succeeded in visualizing the shear wave propagation clearly in the three-dimensional space of 35 × 41 × 4 mm3. These results show the high potential of the proposed method to estimate the elastic properties of the object in the three-dimensional space.

  9. Reconstruction of an acoustic pressure field in a resonance tube by particle image velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Kuzuu, K; Hasegawa, S

    2015-11-01

    A technique for estimating an acoustic field in a resonance tube is suggested. The estimation of an acoustic field in a resonance tube is important for the development of the thermoacoustic engine, and can be conducted employing two sensors to measure pressure. While this measurement technique is known as the two-sensor method, care needs to be taken with the location of pressure sensors when conducting pressure measurements. In the present study, particle image velocimetry (PIV) is employed instead of a pressure measurement by a sensor, and two-dimensional velocity vector images are extracted as sequential data from only a one- time recording made by a video camera of PIV. The spatial velocity amplitude is obtained from those images, and a pressure distribution is calculated from velocity amplitudes at two points by extending the equations derived for the two-sensor method. By means of this method, problems relating to the locations and calibrations of multiple pressure sensors are avoided. Furthermore, to verify the accuracy of the present method, the experiments are conducted employing the conventional two-sensor method and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV). Then, results by the proposed method are compared with those obtained with the two-sensor method and LDV.

  10. Measurements of underwater acoustic pressure fields using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Gerard P.

    2004-05-01

    Laser Doppler vibrometers (LDV) are designed to measure structural vibration velocity by sensing the phase shift in the laser signal reflected from a vibrating source. It is known that index of refraction modulations resulting from acoustic pressure distributions along a laser light path will also cause a phase shift. Simpson et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 99(4), 2521(A) (1996)] have investigated this acousto-optic phase modulation as a possible contaminating effect for underwater LDV vibration measurements. This paper will investigate acousto-optic phase modulations measured by a scanning LDV as a method for measuring pressure radiating from underwater vibrating surfaces. This is done by passing the laser beam through the radiating pressure field and measuring the backscattered laser signal which is reflected off a rigid and retroreflective surface (outside the pressure field). It is shown experimentally, using the average pressure measured with an LDV over a plane in the vicinity of a vibrating structure, that the pressure at a far-field location normal to the plane can be determined.

  11. Role of transient water pressure in quarrying: A subglacial experiment using acoustic emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, D.; Hooyer, T. S.; Iverson, N. R.; Thomason, J. F.; Jackson, M.

    2006-09-01

    Probably the most important mechanism of glacial erosion is quarrying: the growth and coalescence of cracks in subglacial bedrock and dislodgement of resultant rock fragments. Although evidence indicates that erosion rates depend on sliding speed, rates of crack growth in bedrock may be enhanced by changing stresses on the bed caused by fluctuating basal water pressure in zones of ice-bed separation. To study quarrying in real time, a granite step, 12 cm high with a crack in its stoss surface, was installed at the bed of Engabreen, Norway. Acoustic emission sensors monitored crack growth events in the step as ice slid over it. Vertical stresses, water pressure, and cavity height in the lee of the step were also measured. Water was pumped to the lee of the step several times over 8 days. Pumping initially caused opening of a leeward cavity, which then closed after pumping was stopped and water pressure decreased. During cavity closure, acoustic emissions emanating mostly from the vicinity of the base of the crack in the step increased dramatically. With repeated pump tests this crack grew with time until the step's lee surface was quarried. Our experiments indicate that fluctuating water pressure caused stress thresholds required for crack growth to be exceeded. Natural basal water pressure fluctuations should also concentrate stresses on rock steps, increasing rates of crack growth. Stress changes on the bed due to water pressure fluctuations will increase in magnitude and duration with cavity size, which may help explain the effect of sliding speed on erosion rates.

  12. Evaluation of Acoustic Emission NDE of Kevlar Composite Over Wrapped Pressure Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, Michael R.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2008-01-01

    Pressurization and failure tests of small Kevlar/epoxy COPV bottles were conducted during 2006 and 2007 by Texas Research Institute Austin, Inc., at TRI facilities. This is a report of the analysis of the Acoustic Emission (AE) data collected during those tests. Results of some of the tests indicate a possibility that AE can be used to track the stress-rupture degradation of COPV vessels.

  13. Dynamic response of an array of flexural plates in acoustic medium

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kwan Kyu; Khuri-Yakub, Brutus T.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic response of a transducer array made up of circular flexural plates in immersion is analytically calculated. The calculation method includes three steps: (1) the calculation of parallel resonant frequency and the velocity profile of each plate, (2) the calculation of mutual acoustic impedance between the plates, and (3) the calculation of velocity response, including the mechanical and acoustic impedance. The calculation method is validated by both finite element analysis and measurement results of a fabricated capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer. Based on the calculated velocity, the near-field pressure and the near-to-far field radiation patterns are presented. The flexural plate array in immersion displays two modes of operation. At low frequency, the mode shape of the transducer array is similar to that of a suspended plate and, at certain frequencies, two groups of plates move in opposite phase, which results in the cancellation of the average velocity. At high frequency, the mode shape is similar to that of a piston transducer; however, the near-field pressure distribution is similar to that of a resilient disk. PMID:23039426

  14. Numerical simulation of the nonlinear response of composite plates under combined thermal and acoustic loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, Chuh; Moorthy, Jayashree

    1995-01-01

    A time-domain study of the random response of a laminated plate subjected to combined acoustic and thermal loads is carried out. The features of this problem also include given uniform static inplane forces. The formulation takes into consideration a possible initial imperfection in the flatness of the plate. High decibel sound pressure levels along with high thermal gradients across thickness drive the plate response into nonlinear regimes. This calls for the analysis to use von Karman large deflection strain-displacement relationships. A finite element model that combines the von Karman strains with the first-order shear deformation plate theory is developed. The development of the analytical model can accommodate an anisotropic composite laminate built up of uniformly thick layers of orthotropic, linearly elastic laminae. The global system of finite element equations is then reduced to a modal system of equations. Numerical simulation using a single-step algorithm in the time-domain is then carried out to solve for the modal coordinates. Nonlinear algebraic equations within each time-step are solved by the Newton-Raphson method. The random gaussian filtered white noise load is generated using Monte Carlo simulation. The acoustic pressure distribution over the plate is capable of accounting for a grazing incidence wavefront. Numerical results are presented to study a variety of cases.

  15. Analytic Formulation and Numerical Implementation of an Acoustic Pressure Gradient Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Seongkyu; Brentner, Kenneth S.; Farassat, F.; Morris, Philip J.

    2008-01-01

    Two new analytical formulations of the acoustic pressure gradient have been developed and implemented in the PSU-WOPWOP rotor noise prediction code. The pressure gradient can be used to solve the boundary condition for scattering problems and it is a key aspect to solve acoustic scattering problems. The first formulation is derived from the gradient of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation. This formulation has a form involving the observer time differentiation outside the integrals. In the second formulation, the time differentiation is taken inside the integrals analytically. This formulation avoids the numerical time differentiation with respect to the observer time, which is computationally more efficient. The acoustic pressure gradient predicted by these new formulations is validated through comparison with available exact solutions for a stationary and moving monopole sources. The agreement between the predictions and exact solutions is excellent. The formulations are applied to the rotor noise problems for two model rotors. A purely numerical approach is compared with the analytical formulations. The agreement between the analytical formulations and the numerical method is excellent for both stationary and moving observer cases.

  16. Numerical simulation of the processes in the normal incidence tube for high acoustic pressure levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedotov, E. S.; Khramtsov, I. V.; Kustov, O. Yu.

    2016-10-01

    Numerical simulation of the acoustic processes in an impedance tube at high levels of acoustic pressure is a way to solve a problem of noise suppressing by liners. These studies used liner specimen that is one cylindrical Helmholtz resonator. The evaluation of the real and imaginary parts of the liner acoustic impedance and sound absorption coefficient was performed for sound pressure levels of 130, 140 and 150 dB. The numerical simulation used experimental data having been obtained on the impedance tube with normal incidence waves. At the first stage of the numerical simulation it was used the linearized Navier-Stokes equations, which describe well the imaginary part of the liner impedance whatever the sound pressure level. These equations were solved by finite element method in COMSOL Multiphysics program in axisymmetric formulation. At the second stage, the complete Navier-Stokes equations were solved by direct numerical simulation in ANSYS CFX in axisymmetric formulation. As the result, the acceptable agreement between numerical simulation and experiment was obtained.

  17. Nonlinear Acoustic Response of an Aircraft Fuselage Sidewall Structure by a Reduced-Order Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekop, Adam; Rizzi, Stephen A.; Groen, David S.

    2006-01-01

    A reduced-order nonlinear analysis of a structurally complex aircraft fuselage sidewall panel is undertaken to explore issues associated with application of such analyses to practical structures. Of primary interest is the trade-off between computational efficiency and accuracy. An approach to modal basis selection is offered based upon the modal participation in the linear regime. The nonlinear static response to a uniform pressure loading and nonlinear random response to a uniformly distributed acoustic loading are computed. Comparisons of the static response with a nonlinear static solution in physical degrees-of-freedom demonstrate the efficacy of the approach taken for modal basis selection. Changes in the modal participation as a function of static and random loading levels suggest a means for improvement in the basis selection.

  18. Pressure Measurement in Supersonic Air Flow by Differential Absorptive Laser-Induced Thermal Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Roger C.; Herring, Gregory C.; Balla, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Nonintrusive, off-body flow barometry in Mach-2 airflow has been demonstrated in a large-scale supersonic wind tunnel using seedless laser-induced thermal acoustics (LITA). The static pressure of the gas flow is determined with a novel differential absorption measurement of the ultrasonic sound produced by the LITA pump process. Simultaneously, stream-wise velocity and static gas temperature of the same spatially-resolved sample volume were measured with this nonresonant time-averaged LITA technique. Mach number, temperature and pressure have 0.2%, 0.4%, and 4% rms agreement, respectively, in comparison with known free-stream conditions.

  19. Pressure measurement in supersonic air flow by differential absorptive laser-induced thermal acoustics.

    PubMed

    Hart, Roger C; Herring, G C; Balla, R Jeffrey

    2007-06-15

    Nonintrusive, off-body flow barometry in Mach 2 airflow has been demonstrated in a large-scale supersonic wind tunnel using seedless laser-induced thermal acoustics (LITA). The static pressure of the gas flow is determined with a novel differential absorption measurement of the ultrasonic sound produced by the LITA pump process. Simultaneously, the streamwise velocity and static gas temperature of the same spatially resolved sample volume were measured with this nonresonant time-averaged LITA technique. Mach number, temperature, and pressure have 0.2%, 0.4%, and 4% rms agreement, respectively, in comparison with known free-stream conditions.

  20. Study of the transit time of pressure propagation in an acoustic delay line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yunn-Fang; Chen, Ching-Iue; Chang, Chu-Nan; You, Jean-Luh; Hwang, Fu-Kwun; Hsu, Chih-Ying

    1986-12-01

    A fast sensor was used as a vacuum gauge to measure the transit time of a gas pressure through an acoustic delay line (ADL). The results were compared with the predictions of two theoretical models. We found that in the rupture pressure range of 101 to 104 Pa, the predictions of Jean and Rauss' model, based on the assumption that the flow of gas be a gas fluid, set lower boundaries for the observed transit times; while the predictions of our model, based on the molecular motion, set the upper ones.

  1. The effects of pressure sensor acoustics on airdata derived from a High-angle-of-attack Flush Airdata Sensing (HI-FADS) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Moes, Timothy R.

    1991-01-01

    The accuracy of a nonintrusive high angle-of-attack flush airdata sensing (HI-FADS) system was verified for quasi-steady flight conditions up to 55 deg angle of attack during the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) Program. The system is a matrix of nine pressure ports arranged in annular rings on the aircraft nose. The complete airdata set is estimated using nonlinear regression. Satisfactory frequency response was verified to the system Nyquist frequency (12.5 Hz). The effects of acoustical distortions within the individual pressure sensors of the nonintrusive pressure matrix on overall system performance are addressed. To quantify these effects, a frequency-response model describing the dynamics of acoustical distortion is developed and simple design criteria are derived. The model adjusts measured HI-FADS pressure data for the acoustical distortion and quantifies the effects of internal sensor geometries on system performance. Analysis results indicate that sensor frequency response characteristics very greatly with altitude, thus it is difficult to select satisfactory sensor geometry for all altitudes. The solution used presample filtering to eliminate resonance effects, and short pneumatic tubing sections to reduce lag effects. Without presample signal conditioning the system designer must use the pneumatic transmission line to attenuate the resonances and accept the resulting altitude variability.

  2. Validation of Vehicle Panel/Equipment Response from Diffuse Acoustic Field Excitation Using Spatially Correlated Transfer Function Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Andrew; LaVerde, Bruce; Fulcher, Clay; Hunt, Ron

    2012-01-01

    An approach for predicting the vibration, strain, and force responses of a flight-like vehicle panel assembly to acoustic pressures is presented. Important validation for the approach is provided by comparison to ground test measurements in a reverberant chamber. The test article and the corresponding analytical model were assembled in several configurations to demonstrate the suitability of the approach for response predictions when the vehicle panel is integrated with equipment. Critical choices in the analysis necessary for convergence of the predicted and measured responses are illustrated through sensitivity studies. The methodology includes representation of spatial correlation of the pressure field over the panel surface. Therefore, it is possible to demonstrate the effects of hydrodynamic coincidence in the response. The sensitivity to pressure patch density clearly illustrates the onset of coincidence effects on the panel response predictions.

  3. Relations among subglottal pressure, breathing, and acoustic parameters of sentence-level prominence in German.

    PubMed

    Petrone, Caterina; Fuchs, Susanne; Koenig, Laura L

    2017-03-01

    This study investigates whether acoustic correlates of prominence are related to actions of the respiratory system resulting in local changes of subglottal pressure (Psub). Simultaneous recordings were made of acoustics; intraoral pressure (Pio), as an estimate of Psub; and thoracic and abdominal volume changes. Ten German speakers read sentences containing a verb ending with /t/ followed by a noun starting with /t/. These /t#t/ sequences were typically realized as one /t:/ with a long intraoral pressure plateau. Sentence-level prominence was manipulated by shifting the position of contrastive focus within the sentences. The slope and peak values of Pio within the /t#t/ sequence were used to estimate differences in Psub across focus positions. Results show that prominence production is related to changes in the slope and maximum value of the pressure plateau. While pressure increases led to higher intensity, the increases did not relate to f0, hence, suggesting that local f0 changes primarily reflect laryngeal activity. Finally, strong individual differences were observed in the respiratory data. These findings confirm past reports of local Psub increases corresponding to sentence-level prominence. Speaker-specific activations of the respiratory system are interpreted in terms of motor equivalence, with laryngeal mechanisms also appearing to contribute to Psub changes.

  4. A Study of Standing Pressure Waves Within Open and Closed Acoustic Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, C.; Steinetz, B.; Finkbeiner, J.; Raman, G.; Li, X.

    2002-01-01

    The first section of the results presented herein was conducted on an axisymmetric resonator configured with open ventilation ports on either end of the resonator, but otherwise closed and free from obstruction. The remaining section presents the results of a similar resonator shape that was closed, but contained an axisymmetric blockage centrally located through the axis of the resonator. Ambient air was used as the working fluid. In each of the studies, the resonator was oscillated at the resonant frequency of the fluid contained within the cavity while the dynamic pressure, static pressure, and temperature of the fluid were recorded at both ends of the resonator. The baseline results showed a marked reduction in the amplitude of the dynamic pressure waveforms over previous studies due to the use of air instead of refrigerant as the working fluid. A sharp reduction in the amplitude of the acoustic pressure waves was expected and recorded when the configuration of the resonators was modified from closed to open. A change in the resonant frequency was recorded when blockages of differing geometries were used in the closed resonator, while acoustic pressure amplitudes varied little from baseline measurements.

  5. Acoustic seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a sealing device having an acoustic resonator. The acoustic resonator is adapted to create acoustic waveforms to generate a sealing pressure barrier blocking fluid flow from a high pressure area to a lower pressure area. The sealing device permits noncontacting sealing operation. The sealing device may include a resonant-macrosonic-synthesis (RMS) resonator.

  6. Acoustic Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a sealing device having an acoustic resonator. The acoustic resonator is adapted to create acoustic waveforms to generate a sealing pressure barrier blocking fluid flow from a high pressure area to a lower pressure area. The sealing device permits noncontacting sealing operation. The sealing device may include a resonant-macrosonic-synthesis (RMS) resonator.

  7. Pressure and temperature dependences of the acoustic behaviors of biocompatible silk studied by using Brillouin spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byoung Wan; Ryeom, Junho; Ko, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Dong Wook; Park, Chan Hum; Park, Jaehoon; Ko, Young Ho; Kim, Kwang Joo

    2016-07-01

    The elastic properties of a biocompatible silk film were investigated under temperature and pressure variations by using Brillouin spectroscopy. The Brillouin frequency shift decreased monotonically upon heating and showed a sudden change at the glass transition temperature. The existence of water molecules in the film increased the longitudinal modulus by approximately 10% and induced a relaxation peak in the hypersonic damping at ~60 ◦ C. The pressure dependences of the sound velocities of the longitudinal and the transverse acoustic modes and the refractive index were determined for the first time at pressures up to ~15.5 GPa. All these properties increased upon compression; these changes indicated that the free volume in the silk film collapsed at a pressure of about 3 GPa.

  8. Mechanisms for Induction of Pulmonary Capillary Hemorrhage by Diagnostic Ultrasound: Review and Consideration of Acoustical Radiation Surface Pressure.

    PubMed

    Miller, Douglas L

    2016-12-01

    Diagnostic ultrasound can induce pulmonary capillary hemorrhage (PCH) in rats and other mammals. This phenomenon represents the only clearly demonstrated biological effect of (non-contrast enhanced) diagnostic ultrasound and thus presents a uniquely important safety issue. However, the physical mechanism responsible for PCH remains uncertain more than 25 y after its discovery. Experimental research has indicated that neither heating nor acoustic cavitation, the predominant mechanisms for bioeffects of ultrasound, is responsible for PCH. Furthermore, proposed theoretical mechanisms based on gas-body activation, on alveolar resonance and on impulsive generation of liquid droplets all appear unlikely to be responsible for PCH, owing to unrealistic model assumptions. Here, a simple model based on the acoustical radiation surface pressure (ARSP) at a tissue-air interface is hypothesized as the mechanism for PCH. The ARSP model seems to explain some features of PCH, including the approximate frequency independence of PCH thresholds and the dependence of thresholds on biological factors. However, ARSP evaluated for experimental threshold conditions appear to be too weak to fully account for stress failure of pulmonary capillaries, gauging by known stresses for injurious physiologic conditions. Furthermore, consideration of bulk properties of lung tissue suggests substantial transmission of ultrasound through the pleura, with reduced ARSP and potential involvement of additional mechanisms within the pulmonary interior. Although these recent findings advance our knowledge, only a full understanding of PCH mechanisms will allow development of science-based safety assurance for pulmonary ultrasound.

  9. Acoustic Beam Forming Array Using Feedback-Controlled Microphones for Tuning and Self-Matching of Frequency Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radcliffe, Eliott (Inventor); Naguib, Ahmed (Inventor); Humphreys, Jr., William M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A feedback-controlled microphone includes a microphone body and a membrane operatively connected to the body. The membrane is configured to be initially deflected by acoustic pressure such that the initial deflection is characterized by a frequency response. The microphone also includes a sensor configured to detect the frequency response of the initial deflection and generate an output voltage indicative thereof. The microphone additionally includes a compensator in electric communication with the sensor and configured to establish a regulated voltage in response to the output voltage. Furthermore, the microphone includes an actuator in electric communication with the compensator, wherein the actuator is configured to secondarily deflect the membrane in opposition to the initial deflection such that the frequency response is adjusted. An acoustic beam forming microphone array including a plurality of the above feedback-controlled microphones is also disclosed.

  10. DIASCoPE: Directly integrated acoustic system combined with pressure experiments—A new method for fast acoustic velocity measurements at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, Matthew L.; Baldwin, Kenneth J.; Huebsch, William R.

    2017-03-01

    A new experimental system to measure elastic wave velocities in samples in situ under extreme conditions of pressure and temperature in a multi-anvil apparatus has been installed at Beamline 6-BM-B of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. This system allows for measurement of acoustic velocities via ultrasonic interferometry, and makes use of the synchrotron beam to measure sample densities via X-ray diffraction and sample lengths using X-radiographic imaging. This system is fully integrated into the automated software controls of the beamline and is capable of collecting robust data on elastic wave travel times in less than 1 s, which is an improvement of more than one to two orders of magnitude over existing systems. Moreover, this fast data collection time has been shown to have no effect on the obtained travel time results. This allows for more careful study of time-dependent phenomena with tighter snapshots in time of processes that would otherwise be lost or averaged out in other acoustic measurement systems.

  11. A model for the pressure excitation spectrum and acoustic impedance of sound absorbers in the presence of grazing flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, E. J.

    1973-01-01

    The acoustic impedance of sound absorbers in the presence of grazing flow is essential information when analyzing sound propagation within ducts. A unification of the theory of the nonlinear acoustic resistance of Helmholtz resonators including grazing flow is presented. The nonlinear resistance due to grazing flow is considered to be caused by an exciting pressure spectrum produced by the interaction of the grazing flow and the jets flowing from the resonator orifices. With this exciting pressure spectrum the resonator can be treated in the same manner as a resonator without grazing flow but with an exciting acoustic spectrum.

  12. Liquid mercury sound velocity measurements under high pressure and high temperature by picosecond acoustics in a diamond anvils cell.

    PubMed

    Decremps, F; Belliard, L; Couzinet, B; Vincent, S; Munsch, P; Le Marchand, G; Perrin, B

    2009-07-01

    Recent improvements to measure ultrasonic sound velocities of liquids under extreme conditions are described. Principle and feasibility of picosecond acoustics in liquids embedded in a diamond anvils cell are given. To illustrate the capability of these advances in the sound velocity measurement technique, original high pressure and high temperature results on the sound velocity of liquid mercury up to 5 GPa and 575 K are given. This high pressure technique will certainly be useful in several fundamental and applied problems in physics and many other fields such as geophysics, nonlinear acoustics, underwater sound, petrology or physical acoustics.

  13. Transient Response of FGM Pressure Vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekel, Hakan; Keles, Ibrahim; Temel, Beytullah; Tutuncu, Naki

    The present study aims to investigate the transient behavior of thick-walled cylinders under dynamic internal pressure. Analytical solutions are possible only for simple time-dependent pressure functions. The solution procedure presented is general in the sense that the pressure applied may be an arbitrary continuous function of time, impulsive or given in a discrete form. The material considered is isotropic and heterogeneous with properties varying in the radial direction termed as Functionally Graded Material (FGM). Laplace transform method is used and the inversion into the time domain is performed using the modified Durbin's method. Verification of the numerical procedure is performed by comparing the results with those of an analytical solution available in the literature for a simple exponentially-varying pressure. The inhomogeneity constant in the material property model is shown to have a significant effect on the transient response.

  14. Response of cyanobacteria to low atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Lifeng; Yu, Qingni; Ai, Weidang; Tang, Yongkang; Ren, Jin; Guo, Shuangsheng

    2014-10-01

    Maintaining a low pressure environment in a controlled ecological life support system would reduce the technological complexity and resupply cost in the course of the construction of a future manned lunar base. To estimate the effect of a hypobaric environment in a lunar base on biological components, such as higher plants, microbes, and algae, cyanobacteria was used as the model by determining their response of growth, morphology, and physiology when exposed to half of standard atmospheric pressure for 16 days (brought back to standard atmospheric pressure 30 minutes every two days for sampling). The results indicated that the decrease of atmospheric pressure from 100 kPa to 50 kPa reduced the growth rates of Microcystis aeruginosa, Merismopedia sp., Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, and Anabaena flos-aquae. The ratio of carotenoid to chlorophyll a content in the four tested strains increased under low pressure conditions compared to ambient conditions, resulting from the decrease of chlorophyll a and the increase of carotenoid in the cells. Moreover, low pressure induced the reduction of the phycocyanin content in Microcystis aeruginosa, Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, and Anabaena flos-aquae. The result from the ultrastructure observed using SEM indicated that low pressure promoted the production of more extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) compared to ambient conditions. The results implied that the low pressure environment of 50 kPa in a future lunar base would induce different effects on biological components in a CELSS, which must be considered during the course of designing a future lunar base. The results will be a reference for exploring the response of other biological components, such as plants, microbes, and animals, living in the life support system of a lunar base.

  15. Picosecond acoustics method for measuring the thermodynamical properties of solids and liquids at high pressure and high temperature.

    PubMed

    Decremps, F; Gauthier, M; Ayrinhac, S; Bove, L; Belliard, L; Perrin, B; Morand, M; Le Marchand, G; Bergame, F; Philippe, J

    2015-02-01

    Based on the original combination of picosecond acoustics and diamond anvils cell, recent improvements to accurately measure hypersonic sound velocities of liquids and solids under extreme conditions are described. To illustrate the capability of this technique, results are given on the pressure and temperature dependence of acoustic properties for three prototypical cases: polycrystal (iron), single-crystal (silicon) and liquid (mercury) samples. It is shown that such technique also enables the determination of the density as a function of pressure for liquids, of the complete set of elastic constants for single crystals, and of the melting curve for any kind of material. High pressure ultrafast acoustic spectroscopy technique clearly opens opportunities to measure thermodynamical properties under previously unattainable extreme conditions. Beyond physics, this state-of-the-art experiment would thus be useful in many other fields such as nonlinear acoustics, oceanography, petrology, in of view. A brief description of new developments and future directions of works conclude the article.

  16. Temperature and Pressure Dependence of Signal Amplitudes for Electrostriction Laser-Induced Thermal Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, Gregory C.

    2015-01-01

    The relative signal strength of electrostriction-only (no thermal grating) laser-induced thermal acoustics (LITA) in gas-phase air is reported as a function of temperature T and pressure P. Measurements were made in the free stream of a variable Mach number supersonic wind tunnel, where T and P are varied simultaneously as Mach number is varied. Using optical heterodyning, the measured signal amplitude (related to the optical reflectivity of the acoustic grating) was averaged for each of 11 flow conditions and compared to the expected theoretical dependence of a pure-electrostriction LITA process, where the signal is proportional to the square root of [P*P /( T*T*T)].

  17. Acoustic mechanisms that determine the ear-canal sound pressures generated by earphones.

    PubMed

    Voss, S E; Rosowski, J J; Shera, C A; Peake, W T

    2000-03-01

    In clinical measurements of hearing sensitivity, a given earphone is assumed to produce essentially the same sound-pressure level in all ears. However, recent measurements [Voss et al., Ear and Hearing (in press)] show that with some middle-ear pathologies, ear-canal sound pressures can deviate by as much as 35 dB from the normal-ear value; the deviations depend on the earphone, the middle-ear pathology, and frequency. These pressure variations cause errors in the results of hearing tests. Models developed here identify acoustic mechanisms that cause pressure variations in certain pathological conditions. The models combine measurement-based Thévenin equivalents for insert and supra-aural earphones with lumped-element models for both the normal ear and ears with pathologies that alter the ear's impedance (mastoid bowl, tympanostomy tube, tympanic-membrane perforation, and a "high-impedance" ear). Comparison of the earphones' Thévenin impedances to the ear's input impedance with these middle-ear conditions shows that neither class of earphone acts as an ideal pressure source; with some middle-ear pathologies, the ear's input impedance deviates substantially from normal and thereby causes abnormal ear-canal pressure levels. In general, for the three conditions that make the ear's impedance magnitude lower than normal, the model predicts a reduced ear-canal pressure (as much as 35 dB), with a greater pressure reduction with an insert earphone than with a supra-aural earphone. In contrast, the model predicts that ear-canal pressure levels increase only a few dB when the ear has an increased impedance magnitude; the compliance of the air-space between the tympanic membrane and the earphone determines an upper limit on the effect of the middle-ear's impedance increase. Acoustic leaks at the earphone-to-ear connection can also cause uncontrolled pressure variations during hearing tests. From measurements at the supra-aural earphone-to-ear connection, we conclude that it

  18. Effect of Pressure Gradients on Plate Response and Radiation in a Supersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frendi, Abdelkader

    1997-01-01

    Using the model developed by the author for zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers, results are obtained for adverse and favorable pressure gradients. It is shown that when a flexible plate is located in an adverse pressure gradient area, it vibrates more than if it were in a favorable pressure gradient one. Therefore the noise generated by the plate in an adverse pressure gradient is much greater than that due to the plate in a favorable pressure gradient. The effects of Reynolds number and boundary layer thickness are also analyzed and found to have the same effect in both adverse and favorable pressure gradient cases. Increasing the Reynolds number is found to increase the loading on the plate and therefore acoustic radiation. An increase in boundary layer thickness is found to decrease the level of the high frequencies and therefore the response and radiation at these frequencies. The results are in good qualitative agreement with experimental measurements.

  19. Vibration and acoustic properties of honeycomb sandwich structures subject to variable incident plane-wave angle pressure loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jiaxue

    Honeycomb structures are widely used in many areas for their material characteristics such as high strength-to-weight ratio, stiffness-to-weight, sound transmission, and other properties. Honeycomb structures are generally constructed from periodically spaced tessellations of unit cells. It can be shown that the effective stiffness and mass properties of honeycomb are controlled by the local geometry and wall thickness of the particular unit cells used. Of particular interest are regular hexagonal (6-sided) honeycomb unit cell geometries which exhibit positive effective Poisson's ratio, and modified 6-sided auxetic honeycomb unit cells with Poisson's ratio which is effectively negative; a property not found in natural materials. One important honeycomb meta-structure is sandwich composites designed with a honeycomb core bonded between two panel layers. By changing the geometry of the repetitive unit cell, and overall depth and material properties of the honeycomb core, sandwich panels with different vibration and acoustic properties can be designed to shift resonant frequencies and improve intensity and Sound Transmission Loss (STL). In the present work, a honeycomb finite element model based on beam elements is programmed in MATLAB and verified with the commercial finite element software ABAQUS for frequency extraction and direct frequency response analysis. The MATLAB program was used to study the vibration and acoustic properties of different kinds of honeycomb sandwich panels undergoing in-plane loading with different incident pressure wave angles and frequency. Results for the root mean square intensity IRMS based on normal velocity on the transmitted side of the panel measure vibration magnitude are reported for frequencies between 0 and 1000 Hz. The relationship between the sound transmission loss computed with ABAQUS and the inverse of the intensity of surface velocity is established. In the present work it is demonstrated that the general trend between the

  20. Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Jerry R.; Grosveld, Ferdinand

    2007-01-01

    The acoustics environment in space operations is important to maintain at manageable levels so that the crewperson can remain safe, functional, effective, and reasonably comfortable. High acoustic levels can produce temporary or permanent hearing loss, or cause other physiological symptoms such as auditory pain, headaches, discomfort, strain in the vocal cords, or fatigue. Noise is defined as undesirable sound. Excessive noise may result in psychological effects such as irritability, inability to concentrate, decrease in productivity, annoyance, errors in judgment, and distraction. A noisy environment can also result in the inability to sleep, or sleep well. Elevated noise levels can affect the ability to communicate, understand what is being said, hear what is going on in the environment, degrade crew performance and operations, and create habitability concerns. Superfluous noise emissions can also create the inability to hear alarms or other important auditory cues such as an equipment malfunctioning. Recent space flight experience, evaluations of the requirements in crew habitable areas, and lessons learned (Goodman 2003; Allen and Goodman 2003; Pilkinton 2003; Grosveld et al. 2003) show the importance of maintaining an acceptable acoustics environment. This is best accomplished by having a high-quality set of limits/requirements early in the program, the "designing in" of acoustics in the development of hardware and systems, and by monitoring, testing and verifying the levels to ensure that they are acceptable.

  1. Acoustic predictions using measured pressures from a model rotor in the DNW

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visintainer, Joseph A.; Burley, Casey L.; Marcolini, Michael A.; Liu, Sandy R.

    1991-01-01

    A contemporary design, 4-bladed United Technologies model rotor with pressure-instrumented blades was tested in the Duits-Nederslandse Windtunnel. Simultaneous acoustic and pressure measurements were made for a wide range of operating conditions. Microphones were optimally positioned at a number of locations in the flow forward of the rotor to measure rotor thickness noise, high-speed impulsive noise (both in the rotor plane), and blade-vortex interaction noise (forward and 25 deg below the rotor plane). The blade surface pressure data are used as aerodynamic input to WOPWOP, which is a state-of-the-art rotor noise prediction program that predicts rotor thickness and loading noise. The predicted results using WOPWOP are compared to the measured noise levels for cases where either thickness noise, blade-vortex interaction noise, or high-speed impulsive noise is the dominant noise mechanism. The comparisons show regions of good agreement, as well as areas where further improvement is necessary.

  2. Effect of grazing flow on structural-acoustic response of an elastic plate with sound in a duct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchakattil Sucheendran, Mahesh

    The design of supersonic and hypersonic vehicles involves the challenging task of designing thin panels that can withstand severe unsteady pressure and thermal loads. A good understanding and accurate prediction of the coupled structural-acoustic response of thin panels subjected to sound waves are key elements of this design process. Due to the cost of in-flight testing, the experimental assessment of the structural-acoustic response of skin panels is usually conducted in ground-based facilities consisting of a duct in which acoustic waves propagate at grazing incidence with skin panels mounted along the duct walls. A key limitation of such facility is the absence of flow, the impact of which on the structural-acoustic response of the skin panel is still poorly understood. To shed some insight on this key contribution, this analytical and numerical study focuses on the structural-acoustic interaction of sound with a thin elastic plate mounted flush on a wall in a rectangular duct in the presence of a uniform mean subsonic and supersonic flow. A linear, time-harmonic theory based on modal descriptions of the plate velocity and duct acoustic fields is first developed. The theory includes the effect of uniform mean flow in the duct and clamped and simply-supported boundary conditions for the plate. The sound radiated by the plate is calculated using Doak's theory [22], extended in this work to account for subsonic and supersonic uniform mean flow in the duct, and verified using the numerical solver. The theoretical model provides important insight on the effect of flow in the duct on the coupled response of the plate. Four metrics characterizing the coupled response are considered: the deviation of the peak response frequency from the in vacuo natural frequency of plate, the amplitude of the peak response, the effective acoustic damping of the plate, and the plate modal coupling through the duct acoustic field. The theory is extended to estimate the onset of

  3. Role of transient water pressure in quarrying: A subglacial experiment using acoustic emissions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, D.; Hooyer, T.S.; Iverson, N.R.; Thomason, J.F.; Jackson, M.

    2006-01-01

    Probably the most important mechanism of glacial erosion is quarrying: the growth and coalescence of cracks in subglacial bedrock and dislodgement of resultant rock fragments. Although evidence indicates that erosion rates depend on sliding speed, rates of crack growth in bedrock may be enhanced by changing stresses on the bed caused by fluctuating basal water pressure in zones of ice-bed separation. To study quarrying in real time, a granite step, 12 cm high with a crack in its stoss surface, was installed at the bed of Engabreen, Norway. Acoustic emission sensors monitored crack growth events in the step as ice slid over it. Vertical stresses, water pressure, and cavity height in the lee of the step were also measured. Water was pumped to the lee of the step several times over 8 days. Pumping initially caused opening of a leeward cavity, which then closed after pumping was stopped and water pressure decreased. During cavity closure, acoustic emissions emanating mostly from the vicinity of the base of the crack in the step increased dramatically. With repeated pump tests this crack grew with time until the step's lee surface was quarried. Our experiments indicate that fluctuating water pressure caused stress thresholds required for crack growth to be exceeded. Natural basal water pressure fluctuations should also concentrate stresses on rock steps, increasing rates of crack growth. Stress changes on the bed due to water pressure fluctuations will increase in magnitude and duration with cavity size, which may help explain the effect of sliding speed on erosion rates. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Cryogenic Impinging Jets Subjected to High Frequency Transverse Acoustic Forcing in a High Pressure Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-27

    mode shape Properties of DMD • Isolates response of flow at forcing frequency and harmonics • Single modes can reconstruct convective processes (POD...impact wave detaches and convective velocity. 4822 Hz Distribution A: Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited. PA# 16333 13 PAN Acoustic...amount of variability from the flow field ( convective velocity or ligament separation) to detect a single, strong natural frequency associated with

  5. Responses of microstructure optical fibers to strain and pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, W.; Pang, M.

    2010-11-01

    The phase/birefringence sensitivities of the fundamental mode of air-silica microstructure optical fibers to strain and pressure are investigated. Theoretical models are built for both hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers and solid-core highly non-linear photonic crystal fibers to study the effects of axial strain, lateral pressure, and acoustic pressure on the fiber length and the effective refractive indexes of the fundamental mode. Numerical simulation shows that the phase/birefringence sensitivity to pressure of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber depends strongly on the thickness of the outer solid-silica layer and the air-filling ratio of the microstructure inner-cladding, and the normalized phase sensitivity to acoustic pressure can be 35 dB higher than that of the conventional single mode fiber. Potential applications of the microstructure optical fibers for high sensitivity hydrophones and novel polarization controllers are discussed.

  6. Magnetic Barkhausen noise and magneto acoustic emission in pressure vessel steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neyra Astudillo, Miriam Rocío; López Pumarega, María Isabel; Núñez, Nicolás Marcelo; Pochettino, Alberto; Ruzzante, José

    2017-03-01

    Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) and Magneto Acoustic Emission (MAE) were studied in A508 Class II forged steel used for pressure vessels in nuclear power stations. The magnetic experimental determinations were completed with a macro graphic study of sulfides and the texture analysis of the material. The analysis of these results allows us to determine connections between the magnetic anisotropy, texture and microstructure of the material. Results clearly suggest that the plastic flow direction is different from the forging direction indicated by the material supplier

  7. Pressure field induced in the water column by acoustic-gravity waves generated from sea bottom motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    C. A. Oliveira, Tiago; Kadri, Usama

    2016-10-01

    An uplift of the ocean bottom caused by a submarine earthquake can trigger acoustic-gravity waves that travel at near the speed of sound in water and thus may act as early tsunami precursors. We study the spatiotemporal evolution of the pressure field induced by acoustic-gravity modes during submarine earthquakes, analytically. We show that these modes may all induce comparable temporal variations in pressure at different water depths in regions far from the epicenter, though the pressure field depends on the presence of a leading acoustic-gravity wave mode. Practically, this can assist in the implementation of an early tsunami detection system by identifying the pressure and frequency ranges of measurement equipment and appropriate installation locations.

  8. Reduced-Order Models for Acoustic Response Prediction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    acoustic and thermal loading. These methods reduce a finite element model to a reduced-order system of nonlinear modal equations. A short...magnitude reductions in computational cost over full-order finite element analysis. 15. SUBJECT TERMS sonic fatigue, reduced-order models, acoustic...4.4.3 Vacuum Shaker Test ...........................................................................................93 4.4.4 Finite element

  9. Articulatory-to-Acoustic Relations in Response to Speaking Rate and Loudness Manipulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mefferd, Antje S.; Green, Jordan R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this investigation, the authors determined the strength of association between tongue kinematic and speech acoustics changes in response to speaking rate and loudness manipulations. Performance changes in the kinematic and acoustic domains were measured using two aspects of speech production presumably affecting speech clarity:…

  10. Baseline and Modulated Acoustic Startle Responses in Adolescent Girls with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipschitz, Deborah S.; Mayes, Linda M.; Rasmusson, Ann M.; Anyan, Walter; Billingslea, Eileen; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Southwick, Steven M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess baseline and modulated acoustic startle responses in adolescent girls with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Twenty-eight adolescent girls with PTSD and 23 healthy control girls were recruited for participation in the study. Acoustic stimuli were bursts of white noise of 104 dB presented biaurally through…

  11. The Acoustic Field Scattered from Some Approximate Pressure Release Materials Coating a Finite Cylinder.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caille, Gary William

    1988-12-01

    The objective was to determine if a pressure release boundary condition can be achieved by coating an elastic shell with a viscoelastic material. One necessary condition is that the coating must acoustically decouple the shell from the scattering problem. Two closed cell rubbers and two cork-rubber composites (nitrile and neoprene based) were investigated. The dynamic viscoelastic constants of the materials were determined by wave propagation techniques. The far field scattering form functions for an infinite cylindrical shell coated with the viscoelastic material were calculated using the complete elastic equations of motion. The form functions were experimentally measured for the different materials at different thicknesses as verification of the theory. A thick finite right cylindrical shell was coated with.25 inches of closed cell neoprene and the normalized scattered pressure measured. The pressure release normalized scattered pressure was determined for the end on incident plane wave case using the acoustic radiation Simplified Helmholtz Integral Program (SHIP). The pressure release normalized scattered pressure was determined for the side incident case using a modified Combined Helmholtz Integral Equation Formulation (CHIEF) radiation program. The material property measurements showed the closed cell rubbers have longitudinal wave propagation speeds of approximately 150 m/sec and attenuations of 30 dB/cm. The cork-rubber composites have longitudinal wave speeds of approximately 300 m/sec and attenuations of 7 dB/cm. The scattering measurements demonstrated that a thin shell (inner radius to outer radius ratio of.97) could be made to scatter in a pressure release manner with a.25 inches of nitrile. The rubber-cork composites could not produce the pressure release effect for nondimensionalized wave number (product of the wave number and the radius of the cylinder) values less than 4 with reasonable thicknesses. The coated finite thick shell, with side

  12. Conditionally Increased Acoustic Pressures in Nonfetal Diagnostic Ultrasound Examinations Without Contrast Agents: A Preliminary Assessment.

    PubMed

    Nightingale, Kathryn R; Church, Charles C; Harris, Gerald; Wear, Keith A; Bailey, Michael R; Carson, Paul L; Jiang, Hui; Sandstrom, Kurt L; Szabo, Thomas L; Ziskin, Marvin C

    2015-07-01

    The mechanical index (MI) has been used by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) since 1992 for regulatory decisions regarding the acoustic output of diagnostic ultrasound equipment. Its formula is based on predictions of acoustic cavitation under specific conditions. Since its implementation over 2 decades ago, new imaging modes have been developed that employ unique beam sequences exploiting higher-order acoustic phenomena, and, concurrently, studies of the bioeffects of ultrasound under a range of imaging scenarios have been conducted. In 2012, the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine Technical Standards Committee convened a working group of its Output Standards Subcommittee to examine and report on the potential risks and benefits of the use of conditionally increased acoustic pressures (CIP) under specific diagnostic imaging scenarios. The term "conditionally" is included to indicate that CIP would be considered on a per-patient basis for the duration required to obtain the necessary diagnostic information. This document is a result of that effort. In summary, a fundamental assumption in the MI calculation is the presence of a preexisting gas body. For tissues not known to contain preexisting gas bodies, based on theoretical predications and experimentally reported cavitation thresholds, we find this assumption to be invalid. We thus conclude that exceeding the recommended maximum MI level given in the FDA guidance could be warranted without concern for increased risk of cavitation in these tissues. However, there is limited literature assessing the potential clinical benefit of exceeding the MI guidelines in these tissues. The report proposes a 3-tiered approach for CIP that follows the model for employing elevated output in magnetic resonance imaging and concludes with summary recommendations to facilitate Institutional Review Board (IRB)-monitored clinical studies investigating CIP in specific tissues.

  13. Conditionally Increased Acoustic Pressures in Nonfetal Diagnostic Ultrasound Examinations Without Contrast Agents: A Preliminary Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Nightingale, Kathryn R.; Church, Charles C.; Harris, Gerald; Wear, Keith A.; Bailey, Michael R.; Carson, Paul L.; Jiang, Hui; Sandstrom, Kurt L.; Szabo, Thomas L.; Ziskin, Marvin C.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical index (MI) has been used by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) since 1992 for regulatory decisions regarding the acoustic output of diagnostic ultrasound equipment. Its formula is based on predictions of acoustic cavitation under specific conditions. Since its implementation over 2 decades ago, new imaging modes have been developed that employ unique beam sequences exploiting higher-order acoustic phenomena, and, concurrently, studies of the bioeffects of ultrasound under a range of imaging scenarios have been conducted. In 2012, the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine Technical Standards Committee convened a working group of its Output Standards Subcommittee to examine and report on the potential risks and benefits of the use of conditionally increased acoustic pressures (CIP) under specific diagnostic imaging scenarios. The term “conditionally” is included to indicate that CIP would be considered on a per-patient basis for the duration required to obtain the necessary diagnostic information. This document is a result of that effort. In summary, a fundamental assumption in the MI calculation is the presence of a preexisting gas body. For tissues not known to contain preexisting gas bodies, based on theoretical predications and experimentally reported cavitation thresholds, we find this assumption to be invalid. We thus conclude that exceeding the recommended maximum MI level given in the FDA guidance could be warranted without concern for increased risk of cavitation in these tissues. However, there is limited literature assessing the potential clinical benefit of exceeding the MI guidelines in these tissues. The report proposes a 3-tiered approach for CIP that follows the model for employing elevated output in magnetic resonance imaging and concludes with summary recommendations to facilitate Institutional Review Board (IRB)-monitored clinical studies investigating CIP in specific tissues. PMID:26112617

  14. Low-frequency acoustic pressure, velocity, and intensity thresholds in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and white whale (Delphinapterus leucas).

    PubMed

    Finneran, James J; Carder, Donald A; Ridgway, Sam H

    2002-01-01

    The relative contributions of acoustic pressure and particle velocity to the low-frequency, underwater hearing abilities of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and white whale (Delphinapterus leucas) were investigated by measuring (masked) hearing thresholds while manipulating the relationship between the pressure and velocity. This was accomplished by varying the distance within the near field of a single underwater sound projector (experiment I) and using two underwater sound projectors and an active sound control system (experiment II). The results of experiment I showed no significant change in pressure thresholds as the distance between the subject and the sound source was changed. In contrast, velocity thresholds tended to increase and intensity thresholds tended to decrease as the source distance decreased. These data suggest that acoustic pressure is a better indicator of threshold, compared to particle velocity or mean active intensity, in the subjects tested. Interpretation of the results of experiment II (the active sound control system) was difficult because of complex acoustic conditions and the unknown effects of the subject on the generated acoustic field; however, these data also tend to support the results of experiment I and suggest that odontocete thresholds should be reported in units of acoustic pressure, rather than intensity.

  15. Low-frequency acoustic pressure, velocity, and intensity thresholds in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and white whale (Delphinapterus leucas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finneran, James J.; Carder, Donald A.; Ridgway, Sam H.

    2002-01-01

    The relative contributions of acoustic pressure and particle velocity to the low-frequency, underwater hearing abilities of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and white whale (Delphinapterus leucas) were investigated by measuring (masked) hearing thresholds while manipulating the relationship between the pressure and velocity. This was accomplished by varying the distance within the near field of a single underwater sound projector (experiment I) and using two underwater sound projectors and an active sound control system (experiment II). The results of experiment I showed no significant change in pressure thresholds as the distance between the subject and the sound source was changed. In contrast, velocity thresholds tended to increase and intensity thresholds tended to decrease as the source distance decreased. These data suggest that acoustic pressure is a better indicator of threshold, compared to particle velocity or mean active intensity, in the subjects tested. Interpretation of the results of experiment II (the active sound control system) was difficult because of complex acoustic conditions and the unknown effects of the subject on the generated acoustic field; however, these data also tend to support the results of experiment I and suggest that odontocete thresholds should be reported in units of acoustic pressure, rather than intensity.

  16. Advances in Fast Response Acoustically Derived Air Temperature Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogoev, Ivan; Jacobsen, Larry; Horst, Thomas; Conrad, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Fast-response accurate air-temperature measurements are required when estimating turbulent fluxes of heat, water and carbon dioxide by open-path eddy-covariance technique. In comparison with contact thermometers like thermocouples, ultra-sonic thermometers do not suffer from solar radiation loading, water vapor condensation and evaporative cooling effects. Consequently they have the potential to provide more accurate true air temperature measurements. The absolute accuracy of the ultrasonic thermometer is limited by the following parameters: the distance between the transducer pairs, transducer delays associated with the electrical-acoustic signal conversion that vary with temperature, components of the wind vector that are normal to the ultrasonic paths, and humidity. The distance between the transducer pairs is commonly obtained by coordinate measuring machine. Improved accuracy demonstrated in this study results from increased stiffness in the anemometer head to better maintain the ultrasonic path-length distances. To further improve accuracy and account for changes in transducer delays and distance as a function of temperature, these parameters are characterized in a zero-wind chamber over the entire operating temperature range. When the sonic anemometer is combined with a co-located fast-response water vapor analyzer, like in the IRGASON instrument, speed of sound can be compensated for humidity effects on a point-by-point basis resulting in a true fast-response air temperature measurement. Laboratory test results show that when the above steps are implemented in the calibration of the ultrasonic thermometer air-temperature accuracy better than ±0.5 degrees Celsius can be achieved over the entire operating range. The approach is also validated in a field inter-comparison with an aspirated thermistor probe mounted in a radiation shield.

  17. PRSEUS Pressure Cube Test Data and Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovejoy, Andrew E.

    2013-01-01

    NASA s Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Program is examining the hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft, among others, in an effort to increase the fuel efficiency of commercial aircraft. The HWB design combines features of a flying wing with features of conventional transport aircraft, and has the advantage of simultaneously increasing both fuel efficiency and payload. Recent years have seen an increased focus on the structural performance of the HWB. The key structural challenge of a HWB airframe is the ability to create a cost and weight efficient, non-circular, pressurized shell. Conventional round fuselage sections react cabin pressure by hoop tension. However, the structural configuration of the HWB subjects the majority of the structural panels to bi-axial, in-plane loads in addition to the internal cabin pressure, which requires more thorough examination and analysis than conventional transport aircraft components having traditional and less complex load paths. To address this issue, while keeping structural weights low, extensive use of advanced composite materials is made. This report presents the test data and preliminary conclusions for a pressurized cube test article that utilizes Boeing's Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS), and which is part of the building block approach used for HWB development.

  18. Response of cyanobacteria to low atmosphere pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Lifeng; Ai, Weidang; Guo, Shuangsheng; Tang, Yongkang; Yu, Qingni; Shen, Yunze; Ren, Jin

    Maintaining a low pressure environment would reduce the technological complexity and constructed cost of future lunar base. To estimate the effect of hypobaric of controlled ecological life support system in lunar base on terrestrial life, cyanobacteria was used as the model to exam the response of growth, morphology, physiology to it. The decrease of atmosphere pressure from 100 KPa to 50 KPa reducing the growth rates of Microcystis aeruginosa, Merismopedia.sp, Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, Anabaena Hos-aquae, the chlorophyll a content in Microcystis aeruginosa, Merismopedia.sp, Anabaena Hos-aquae, the carotenoid content in Microcystis aeruginosa, Merismopedia.sp and Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, the phycocyanin content in Microcystis aeruginosa. This study explored the biological characteristics of the cyanobacteria under low pressure condition, which aimed at understanding the response of the earth's life to environment for the future moon base, the results enrich the research contents of the lunar biology and may be referred for the research of other terrestrial life, such as human, plant, microbe and animal living in life support system of lunar base.

  19. A parametric study of double-shell tank response to internal high-frequency pressure loading

    SciTech Connect

    Baliga, R.; Choi, K.; Shulman, J.S.; Strehlow, J.P.; Abatt, G.

    1995-02-01

    The double-shell waste tank 241SY101 (SY101) is a 3,785,400-liter tank used to store radioactive waste at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The tank waste has formed two layers of sludge in the tank; a convective and a nonconvective layer. Ongoing reactions in the waste cause a buildup of hydrogen molecules that become trapped within the nonconvective layer of the waste. Various means of preventing the buildup of hydrogen molecules in the nonconvective layer have been investigated, including the use of a sonic probe that would transmit high-frequency acoustic pressure waves into the nonconvective layer of the waste. During the operation of the sonic probe, the pressure waves transmitted from the probe induce pressure time history loading on the inside surface of the primary tank. For low-frequency fluid-structure interaction loads, such as those associated with seismic events, the convective and impulsive effects of the waste-filled tank are well documented. However, for high-frequency loading, such as that associated with acoustic pressure waves, interactions between the waste and the primary tank are not understood. The pressure time history is represented by a harmonic function with a frequency range between 30 and 100 Hz. Structural analyses of the double-shell tank have been performed that address the tank`s response to the sonic probe acoustic pressure loads. This paper addresses the variations in the tank response as a function of percent waste mass considered to be effective in the dynamic excitation of the tank. It also compares results predicted by analyses that discretely model the liquid waste and presents recommendations for the simplified effective mass approach. Also considered in the parametric study is the effect of damping on the tank response for the same pressure loading.

  20. Application of SH surface acoustic waves for measuring the viscosity of liquids in function of pressure and temperature.

    PubMed

    Kiełczyński, P; Szalewski, M; Balcerzak, A; Rostocki, A J; Tefelski, D B

    2011-12-01

    Viscosity measurements were carried out on triolein at pressures from atmospheric up to 650 MPa and in the temperature range from 10°C to 40°C using ultrasonic measuring setup. Bleustein-Gulyaev SH surface acoustic waves waveguides were used as viscosity sensors. Additionally, pressure changes occurring during phase transition have been measured over the same temperature range. Application of ultrasonic SH surface acoustic waves in the liquid viscosity measurements at high pressure has many advantages. It enables viscosity measurement during phase transitions and in the high-pressure range where the classical viscosity measurement methods cannot operate. Measurements of phase transition kinetics and viscosity of liquids at high pressures and various temperatures (isotherms) is a novelty. The knowledge of changes in viscosity in function of pressure and temperature can help to obtain a deeper insight into thermodynamic properties of liquids.

  1. Numerical acoustic characteristics and optimum design of the pressure reducing valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, P. C.; Sun, L. G.; Sun, S. H.; Feng, J. J.; Wu, K. G.; Luo, X. Q.

    2016-11-01

    The pressure reducing valves are widely used in the technological water supplied ways of gravity flow. A credible pressure reducing valve can provide stable cooling water for units with extremely low maintenance cost and labor intensity in a fairly long period of time. In this paper, a three-dimensional numerical simulation of flow field and acoustic characteristics towards a combined type pressure reducing valve was carried out based on ANSYS Fluent and the FW-H equation. The numerical results achieve the regulation of noise generation, transmission and attenuation. It shows that the sound pressure level of monitoring points seem to be higher and large gradient at low frequencies under the same flow velocity, while it presents reverse results with the increment of frequency and maintains a constant valve finally. At the same time, the monitoring points in the vicinity of throttling cone shows higher sound pressure level and upstream noise is lower than downstream's. Aiming at the problem of valve noise, a modified measure to reduce the flow-induced noise was proposed.

  2. Acoustic cooling engine

    DOEpatents

    Hofler, Thomas J.; Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1988-01-01

    An acoustic cooling engine with improved thermal performance and reduced internal losses comprises a compressible fluid contained in a resonant pressure vessel. The fluid has a substantial thermal expansion coefficient and is capable of supporting an acoustic standing wave. A thermodynamic element has first and second ends and is located in the resonant pressure vessel in thermal communication with the fluid. The thermal response of the thermodynamic element to the acoustic standing wave pumps heat from the second end to the first end. The thermodynamic element permits substantial flow of the fluid through the thermodynamic element. An acoustic driver cyclically drives the fluid with an acoustic standing wave. The driver is at a location of maximum acoustic impedance in the resonant pressure vessel and proximate the first end of the thermodynamic element. A hot heat exchanger is adjacent to and in thermal communication with the first end of the thermodynamic element. The hot heat exchanger conducts heat from the first end to portions of the resonant pressure vessel proximate the hot heat exchanger. The hot heat exchanger permits substantial flow of the fluid through the hot heat exchanger. The resonant pressure vessel can include a housing less than one quarter wavelength in length coupled to a reservoir. The housing can include a reduced diameter portion communicating with the reservoir. The frequency of the acoustic driver can be continuously controlled so as to maintain resonance.

  3. Simultaneous measurement of temperature, hydrostatic pressure and acoustic signal using a single distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yan-Nan; Zhang, Yang; Guan, Bai-Ou

    2011-05-01

    A fiber-optic sensor based on a dual polarization fiber grating laser for simultaneous measurement of temperature, hydrostatic pressure and acoustic signal is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The acoustic wave induces a frequency modulation (FM) of the carrier in radio frequency (RF) range generated by the fiber laser and can be easily extracted by using the FM demodulation technique. The temperature can be determined by the laser wavelength. The hydrostatic pressure can be determined by monitoring the static shift of the carrier frequency and deducting the effect of the temperature.

  4. On the implementation of an automated acoustic output optimization algorithm for subharmonic aided pressure estimation

    PubMed Central

    Dave, J. K.; Halldorsdottir, V. G.; Eisenbrey, J. R.; Merton, D. A.; Liu, J. B.; Machado, P.; Zhao, H.; Park, S.; Dianis, S.; Chalek, C. L.; Thomenius, K. E.; Brown, D. B.; Forsberg, F.

    2013-01-01

    Incident acoustic output (IAO) dependent subharmonic signal amplitudes from ultrasound contrast agents can be categorized into occurrence, growth or saturation stages. Subharmonic aided pressure estimation (SHAPE) is a technique that utilizes growth stage subharmonic signal amplitudes for hydrostatic pressure estimation. In this study, we developed an automated IAO optimization algorithm to identify the IAO level eliciting growth stage subharmonic signals and also studied the effect of pulse length on SHAPE. This approach may help eliminate the problems of acquiring and analyzing the data offline at all IAO levels as was done in previous studies and thus, pave the way for real-time clinical pressure monitoring applications. The IAO optimization algorithm was implemented on a Logiq 9 (GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI) scanner interfaced with a computer. The optimization algorithm stepped the ultrasound scanner from 0 to 100 % IAO. A logistic equation fitting function was applied with the criterion of minimum least squared error between the fitted subharmonic amplitudes and the measured subharmonic amplitudes as a function of the IAO levels and the optimum IAO level was chosen corresponding to the inflection point calculated from the fitted data. The efficacy of the optimum IAO level was investigated for in vivo SHAPE to monitor portal vein (PV) pressures in 5 canines and was compared with the performance of IAO levels, below and above the optimum IAO level, for 4, 8 and 16 transmit cycles. The canines received a continuous infusion of Sonazoid microbubbles (1.5 μl/kg/min; GE Healthcare, Oslo, Norway). PV pressures were obtained using a surgically introduced pressure catheter (Millar Instruments, Inc., Houston, TX) and were recorded before and after increasing PV pressures. The experiments showed that optimum IAO levels for SHAPE in the canines ranged from 6 to 40 %. The best correlation between changes in PV pressures and in subharmonic amplitudes (r = -0.76; p = 0

  5. Laboratory calibration of the seismo-acoustic response of CO2 saturated sandstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siggins, A. F.; Lwin, M.; Wisman, P.

    2009-04-01

    Geological sequestration can be regarded as one of the promising mitigation strategies against the negative effects of atmospheric carbon dioxide on global climate change. Injection of CO2into depleted natural gas reservoirs in particular, sandstone formations at depth with suitable porosity and seals, seems to be a promising scenario for on-land storage. In fact, a demonstration project is currently underway in the Otway Basin in South Eastern Australia under the auspices of the Australian CO2CRC. One of the most useful geophysical remote sensing tools for monitoring sub surface CO2 injection is seismic imaging. Interpretation of seismic data for the quantitative measurement of the distribution and saturations of CO2 in the subsurface requires a knowledge of the effects of CO2as a pore fluid on the seismo-acoustic response of the reservoir rocks. This report describes some recent experiments that we have conducted to investigate this aspect under controlled laboratory conditions at pressures representative of in-situ reservoir conditions. Prior to the availability of core from the actual Otway injection site, two synthetic sandstones were tested ultrasonically in a computer controlled triaxial testing rig under a range of confining pressures and pore pressures representative of in-situ reservoir pressures. These sandstones comprised; (1) a synthetic material with calcite intergranular cement (CIPS) and (2), a synthetic sandstone with silica intergranular cement. Porosities of the sandstones were respectively, 32%,and 33%. Initial testing was carried on the cores at room temperature-dried condition with confining pressures up to 65MPa in steps of 5 MPa. Cores were then flooded with CO2, initially at 6MPa, 22 degrees C, then with liquid phase CO2at pressures from 7MPa to 17 MPa in steps of 5 MPa. Confining pressures varied from 10 MPa to 65 MPa. A limited number of experiments were also conducted in an additional rig at 50oC with supercritical phase CO2. Ultrasonic

  6. Acoustic diffraction effects at the Hellenistic amphitheater of Epidaurus: seat rows responsible for the marvelous acoustics.

    PubMed

    Declercq, Nico F; Dekeyser, Cindy S A

    2007-04-01

    The Hellenistic theater of Epidaurus, on the Peloponnese in Greece, attracts thousands of visitors every year who are all amazed by the fact that sound coming from the middle of the theater reaches the outer seats, apparently without too much loss of intensity. The theater, renowned for its extraordinary acoustics, is one of the best conserved of its kind in the world. It was used for musical and poetical contests and theatrical performances. The presented numerical study reveals that the seat rows of the theater, unexpectedly play an essential role in the acoustics--at least when the theater is not fully filled with spectators. The seats, which constitute a corrugated surface, serve as an acoustic filter that passes sound coming from the stage at the expense of surrounding acoustic noise. Whether a coincidence or not, the theater of Epidaurus was built with optimized shape and dimensions. Understanding and application of corrugated surfaces as filters rather than merely as diffuse scatterers of sound, may become imperative in the future design of modern theaters.

  7. Observation of contrast agent response to chirp insonation with a simultaneous optical-acoustical system

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yang; Zhao, Shukui; Dayton, Paul A.; Ferrara, Katherine W.

    2006-01-01

    Rayleigh-Plesset analysis, ultra-high speed photography, and single bubble acoustical recordings have previously been applied independently to characterize the radial oscillation and resulting echoes from a microbubble in response to an ultrasonic pulse. In addition, high speed photography has shown that microbubbles are destroyed over a single pulse or pulse train by diffusion and fragmentation. In order to develop a single model to characterize microbubble echoes based on oscillatory and destructive characteristics, an optical-acoustical system was developed to simultaneously record the optical image and backscattered echo from each microbubble. Combined observation provides the opportunity to compare predictions for oscillation and echoes with experimental results and identify discrepancies due to diffusion or fragmentation. Optimization of agents and insonating pulse parameters may be facilitated with this system. The mean correlation of the predicted and experimental radius-time curves and echoes exceeds 0.7 for the parameters studied here. An important application of this new system is to record and analyze microbubble response to a long pulse where diffusion is shown to occur over the pulse duration. The microbubble response to an increasing or decreasing chirp is evaluated using this new tool. For chirp insonation beginning with the lower center frequency, low frequency modulation of the oscillation envelope was obvious. However, low frequency modulation was not observed in the radial oscillation produced by decreasing chirp insonation. Comparison of the echoes from similar sized microbubbles following increasing and decreasing chirp insonation demonstrated that the echoes were not time-reversed replicas. Using a transmission pressure of 620 kPa, the −6 dB echo length was 0.9 and 1.1 μs for increasing and decreasing chirp insonation, respectively (P = 0.02). The mean power in the low frequency portion of the echoes was 8 (mV)2 and 13 (mV)2 for increasing

  8. A Fabry-Perot fiber-optic ultrasonic hydrophone for the simultaneous measurement of temperature and acoustic pressure.

    PubMed

    Morris, Paul; Hurrell, Andrew; Shaw, Adam; Zhang, Edward; Beard, Paul

    2009-06-01

    A dual sensing fiber-optic hydrophone that can make simultaneous measurements of acoustic pressure and temperature at the same location has been developed for characterizing ultrasound fields and ultrasound-induced heating. The transduction mechanism is based on the detection of acoustically- and thermally-induced thickness changes in a polymer film Fabry-Perot interferometer deposited at the tip of a single mode optical fiber. The sensor provides a peak noise-equivalent pressure of 15 kPa (at 5 MHz, over a 20 MHz measurement bandwidth), an acoustic bandwidth of 50 MHz, and an optically defined element size of 10 microm. As well as measuring acoustic pressure, temperature changes up to 70 degrees C can be measured, with a resolution of 0.34 degrees C. To evaluate the thermal measurement capability of the sensor, measurements were made at the focus of a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) field in a tissue mimicking phantom. These showed that the sensor is not susceptible to viscous heating, is able to withstand high intensity fields, and can simultaneously acquire acoustic waveforms while monitoring induced temperature rises. These attributes, along with flexibility, small physical size (OD approximately 150 microm), immunity to Electro-Magnetic Interference (EMI), and low sensor cost, suggest that this type of hydrophone may provide a practical alternative to piezoelectric based hydrophones.

  9. AST Launch Vehicle Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, Janice; Counter, D.; Giacomoni, D.

    2015-01-01

    The liftoff phase induces acoustic loading over a broad frequency range for a launch vehicle. These external acoustic environments are then used in the prediction of internal vibration responses of the vehicle and components which result in the qualification levels. Thus, predicting these liftoff acoustic (LOA) environments is critical to the design requirements of any launch vehicle. If there is a significant amount of uncertainty in the predictions or if acoustic mitigation options must be implemented, a subscale acoustic test is a feasible pre-launch test option to verify the LOA environments. The NASA Space Launch System (SLS) program initiated the Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) to verify the predicted SLS LOA environments and to determine the acoustic reduction with an above deck water sound suppression system. The SMAT was conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center and the test article included a 5% scale SLS vehicle model, tower and Mobile Launcher. Acoustic and pressure data were measured by approximately 250 instruments. The SMAT liftoff acoustic results are presented, findings are discussed and a comparison is shown to the Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) results.

  10. Laser-Induced Acoustic Desorption Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization via VUV-Generating Microplasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benham, Kevin; Hodyss, Robert; Fernández, Facundo M.; Orlando, Thomas M.

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate the first application of laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) as a mass spectrometric method for detecting low-polarity organics. This was accomplished using a Lyman-α (10.2 eV) photon generating microhollow cathode discharge (MHCD) microplasma photon source in conjunction with the addition of a gas-phase molecular dopant. This combination provided a soft desorption and a relatively soft ionization technique. Selected compounds analyzed include α-tocopherol, perylene, cholesterol, phenanthrene, phylloquinone, and squalene. Detectable surface concentrations as low as a few pmol per spot sampled were achievable using test molecules. The combination of LIAD and APPI provided a soft desorption and ionization technique that can allow detection of labile, low-polarity, structurally complex molecules over a wide mass range with minimal fragmentation.

  11. Stabilization and Low-Frequency Oscillation of Capillary Bridges with Modulated Acoustic Radiation Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, Philip L.; Marr-Lyon, Mark J.; Morse, S. F.; Thiessen, David B.

    1996-01-01

    In the work reported here it is demonstrated that acoustic radiation pressure may be used in simulated low gravity to produce stable bridges significantly beyond the Rayleigh limit with S as large as 3.6. The bridge (PDMS mixed with a dense liquid) has the same density as the surrounding water bath containing an ultrasonic standing wave. Modulation was first used to excite specific bridge modes. In the most recent work reported here the shape of the bridge is optically sensed and the ultrasonic drive is electronically adjusted such that the radiation stress distribution dynamically quenches the most unstable mode. This active control simulates passive stabilization suggested for low gravity. Feedback increases the mode frequency in the naturally stable region since the effective stiffness of the mode is increased.

  12. Laser-Induced Acoustic Desorption Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization via VUV-Generating Microplasmas.

    PubMed

    Benham, Kevin; Hodyss, Robert; Fernández, Facundo M; Orlando, Thomas M

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate the first application of laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) as a mass spectrometric method for detecting low-polarity organics. This was accomplished using a Lyman-α (10.2 eV) photon generating microhollow cathode discharge (MHCD) microplasma photon source in conjunction with the addition of a gas-phase molecular dopant. This combination provided a soft desorption and a relatively soft ionization technique. Selected compounds analyzed include α-tocopherol, perylene, cholesterol, phenanthrene, phylloquinone, and squalene. Detectable surface concentrations as low as a few pmol per spot sampled were achievable using test molecules. The combination of LIAD and APPI provided a soft desorption and ionization technique that can allow detection of labile, low-polarity, structurally complex molecules over a wide mass range with minimal fragmentation. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  13. Comparison of sonochemiluminescence images using image analysis techniques and identification of acoustic pressure fields via simulation.

    PubMed

    Tiong, T Joyce; Chandesa, Tissa; Yap, Yeow Hong

    2017-05-01

    One common method to determine the existence of cavitational activity in power ultrasonics systems is by capturing images of sonoluminescence (SL) or sonochemiluminescence (SCL) in a dark environment. Conventionally, the light emitted from SL or SCL was detected based on the number of photons. Though this method is effective, it could not identify the sonochemical zones of an ultrasonic systems. SL/SCL images, on the other hand, enable identification of 'active' sonochemical zones. However, these images often provide just qualitative data as the harvesting of light intensity data from the images is tedious and require high resolution images. In this work, we propose a new image analysis technique using pseudo-colouring images to quantify the SCL zones based on the intensities of the SCL images and followed by comparison of the active SCL zones with COMSOL simulated acoustic pressure zones.

  14. Quantitative measurement of ultrasound pressure field by optical phase contrast method and acoustic holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, Seiji; Yasuda, Jun; Hanayama, Hiroki; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2016-07-01

    A fast and accurate measurement of an ultrasound field with various exposure sequences is necessary to ensure the efficacy and safety of various ultrasound applications in medicine. The most common method used to measure an ultrasound pressure field, that is, hydrophone scanning, requires a long scanning time and potentially disturbs the field. This may limit the efficiency of developing applications of ultrasound. In this study, an optical phase contrast method enabling fast and noninterfering measurements is proposed. In this method, the modulated phase of light caused by the focused ultrasound pressure field is measured. Then, a computed tomography (CT) algorithm used to quantitatively reconstruct a three-dimensional (3D) pressure field is applied. For a high-intensity focused ultrasound field, a new approach that combines the optical phase contrast method and acoustic holography was attempted. First, the optical measurement of focused ultrasound was rapidly performed over the field near a transducer. Second, the nonlinear propagation of the measured ultrasound was simulated. The result of the new approach agreed well with that of the measurement using a hydrophone and was improved from that of the phase contrast method alone with phase unwrapping.

  15. Experimental feasibility of investigating acoustic waves in Couette flow with entropy and pressure gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrott, Tony L.; Zorumski, William E.; Rawls, John W., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility is discussed for an experimental program for studying the behavior of acoustic wave propagation in the presence of strong gradients of pressure, temperature, and flow. Theory suggests that gradients effects can be experimentally observed as resonant frequency shifts and mode shape changes in a waveguide. A convenient experimental geometry for such experiments is the annular region between two co-rotating cylinders. Radial temperature gradients in a spinning annulus can be generated by differentially heating the two cylinders via electromagnetic induction. Radial pressure gradients can be controlled by varying the cylinder spin rates. Present technology appears adequate to construct an apparatus to allow independent control of temperature and pressure gradients. A complicating feature of a more advanced experiment, involving flow gradients, is the requirement for independently controlled cylinder spin rates. Also, the boundary condition at annulus terminations must be such that flow gradients are minimally disturbed. The design and construction of an advanced apparatus to include flow gradients will require additional technology development.

  16. Extension of the angular spectrum method to calculate pressure from a spherically curved acoustic source.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Urvi; Christensen, Douglas A

    2011-11-01

    The angular spectrum method is an accurate and computationally efficient method for modeling acoustic wave propagation. The use of the typical 2D fast Fourier transform algorithm makes this a fast technique but it requires that the source pressure (or velocity) be specified on a plane. Here the angular spectrum method is extended to calculate pressure from a spherical transducer-as used extensively in applications such as magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery-to a plane. The approach, called the Ring-Bessel technique, decomposes the curved source into circular rings of increasing radii, each ring a different distance from the intermediate plane, and calculates the angular spectrum of each ring using a Fourier series. Each angular spectrum is then propagated to the intermediate plane where all the propagated angular spectra are summed to obtain the pressure on the plane; subsequent plane-to-plane propagation can be achieved using the traditional angular spectrum method. Since the Ring-Bessel calculations are carried out in the frequency domain, it reduces calculation times by a factor of approximately 24 compared to the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld method and about 82 compared to the Field II technique, while maintaining accuracies of better than 96% as judged by those methods for cases of both solid and phased-array transducers.

  17. Acoustic scattering by circular cylinders of various aspect ratios. [pressure gradient microphones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maciulaitis, A.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of acoustic scattering on the useful frequency range of pressure gradient microphones were investigated experimentally between ka values of 0.407 and 4.232 using two circular cylindrical models (L/D = 0.5 and 0.25) having a 25 cm outside diameter. Small condenser microphones, attached to preamplifiers by flexible connectors, were installed from inside the cylindrical bodies, and flush mounted on the exterior surface of the cylinders. A 38 cm diameter woofer in a large speaker enclosure was used as the sound source. Surface pressure augmentation and phase differences were computed from measured data for various sound wave incidence angles. Results are graphically compared with theoretical predictions supplied by NASA for ka = 0.407, 2.288, and 4.232. All other results are tabulated in the appendices. With minor exceptions, the experimentally determined pressure augmentations agreed within 0.75 dB with theoretical predictions. The agreement for relative phase angles was within 5 percent without any exceptions. Scattering parameter variations with ka and L/D ratio, as computed from experimental data, are also presented.

  18. A comparison between heterodyne and homodyne interferometry to realise the SI unit of acoustic pressure in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukoulas, Triantafillos; Robinson, Stephen; Rajagopal, Srinath; Zeqiri, Bajram

    2016-04-01

    Optical approaches for hydrophone calibrations offer significant advantages over existing methods based on reciprocity. In particular, heterodyne and homodyne interferometry can accurately measure particle velocity and displacements at a specific point in space thus enabling the acoustical pressure to be measured in an absolute, direct, assumption-free manner, with traceability through the SI definition of the metre. The calibration of a hydrophone can then be performed by placing the active element of the sensor at the point where the acoustic pressure field was measured and monitoring its electrical output. However, it is crucial to validate the performance and accuracy of such optical methods by direct comparison rather than through device calibration. Here we report on the direct comparison of two such optical interferometers used in underwater acoustics and ultrasonics in terms of acoustic pressure estimation and their associated uncertainties in the frequency range 200 kHz-3.5 MHz, with results showing agreement better than 1% in terms of pressure and typical expanded uncertainties better than 3% for both reported methods.

  19. A Correlated Study of the Response of a Satellite to Acoustic Radiation Using Statistical Energy Analysis and Acoustic Test Data

    SciTech Connect

    CAP,JEROME S.; TRACEY,BRIAN

    1999-11-15

    Aerospace payloads, such as satellites, are subjected to vibroacoustic excitation during launch. Sandia's MTI satellite has recently been certified to this environment using a combination of base input random vibration and reverberant acoustic noise. The initial choices for the acoustic and random vibration test specifications were obtained from the launch vehicle Interface Control Document (ICD). In order to tailor the random vibration levels for the laboratory certification testing, it was necessary to determine whether vibration energy was flowing across the launch vehicle interface from the satellite to the launch vehicle or the other direction. For frequencies below 120 Hz this issue was addressed using response limiting techniques based on results from the Coupled Loads Analysis (CLA). However, since the CLA Finite Element Analysis FEA model was only correlated for frequencies below 120 Hz, Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) was considered to be a better choice for predicting the direction of the energy flow for frequencies above 120 Hz. The existing SEA model of the launch vehicle had been developed using the VibroAcoustic Payload Environment Prediction System (VAPEPS) computer code [1]. Therefore, the satellite would have to be modeled using VAPEPS as well. As is the case for any computational model, the confidence in its predictive capability increases if one can correlate a sample prediction against experimental data. Fortunately, Sandia had the ideal data set for correlating an SEA model of the MTI satellite--the measured response of a realistic assembly to a reverberant acoustic test that was performed during MTI's qualification test series. The first part of this paper will briefly describe the VAPEPS modeling effort and present the results of the correlation study for the VAPEPS model. The second part of this paper will present the results from a study that used a commercial SEA software package [2] to study the effects of in-plane modes and to

  20. Acoustic Response of Underwater Munitions near a Sediment Interface: Measurement Model Comparisons and Classification Schemes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-23

    FINAL REPORT Acoustic Response of Underwater Munitions near a Sediment Interface: Measurement Model Comparisons and Classification Schemes SERDP...6 Figure 2. Effect of fish on acoustic color templates during GULFEX12 …………… 8 Figure 3. Selection of targets deployed during TREX13 and BAYEX14...deployed during TREX13 and BAYEX14 …… 29 Figure 16. Ray diagrams for the acoustic ray model …………………………… 29 Figure 17. Model-model and data-model

  1. Laser-Doppler acoustic probing of granular media with in-depth property gradient and varying pore pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Bodet, L.; Dhemaied, A.; Mourgues, R.; Tournat, V.; Rejiba, F.

    2012-05-24

    Non-contacting ultrasonic techniques recently proved to be efficient in the physical modeling of seismic-wave propagation at various application scales, as for instance in the context of geological analogue and seismic modeling. An innovative experimental set-up is proposed here to perform laser-Doppler acoustic probing of unconsolidated granular media with varying pore pressures. The preliminary experiments presented here provide reproducible results and exploitable data, thus validating both the proposed medium preparation and pressure gradient generation procedure.

  2. Interaction between acoustic startle and habituated neck postural responses in seated subjects.

    PubMed

    Blouin, Jean-Sébastien; Siegmund, Gunter P; Timothy Inglis, J

    2007-04-01

    Postural and startle responses rapidly habituate with repeated exposures to the same stimulus, and the first exposure to a seated forward acceleration elicits a startle response in the neck muscles. Our goal was to examine how the acoustic startle response is integrated with the habituated neck postural response elicited by forward accelerations of seated subjects. In experiment 1, 14 subjects underwent 11 sequential forward accelerations followed by 5 additional sled accelerations combined with a startling tone (124-dB sound pressure level) initiated 18 ms after sled acceleration onset. During the acceleration-only trials, changes consistent with habituation occurred in the root-mean-square amplitude of the neck muscles and in the peak amplitude of five head and torso kinematic variables. The subsequent addition of the startling tone restored the amplitude of the neck muscles and four of the five kinematic variables but shortened onset of muscle activity by 9-12 ms. These shortened onset times were further explored in experiment 2, wherein 16 subjects underwent 11 acceleration-only trials followed by 15 combined acceleration-tone trials with interstimulus delays of 0, 13, 18, 23, and 28 ms. Onset times shortened further for the 0- and 13-ms delays but did not lengthen for the 23- and 28-ms delays. These temporal and spatial changes in EMG can be explained by a summation of the excitatory drive converging at or before the neck muscle motoneurons. The present observations suggest that habituation to repeated sled accelerations involves extinguishing the startle response and tuning the postural response to the whole body disturbance.

  3. Response of transonic diffuser flows to abrupt increases of back pressure: Wall pressure measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogar, T. J.; Sajben, M.

    1986-10-01

    The propagation of compression pulses in a supercritically operated transonic diffuser was investigated by use of pressure measurements along the top wall of the model. The pulses were generated at the downstream end of the diffuser by the abrupt injection of a secondary flow of air. Two types of waves were observed: (1) an upstream-traveling acoustic wave and (2) a downstream-traveling convective wave which resulted from the impingement of the acoustic wave on the shock. Wave speeds were determined for a range of diffuser pressure ratios including separated, strong-shock flows and fully attached, weak-shock flows. Streamwise distributions of initial and reflected pulse amplitudes were determined for one weak and one strong-shock case over a 3-to-1 range of initial pulse strengths.

  4. Towards a reference cavitating vessel Part III—design and acoustic pressure characterization of a multi-frequency sonoreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lian; Memoli, Gianluca; Hodnett, Mark; Butterworth, Ian; Sarno, Dan; Zeqiri, Bajram

    2015-08-01

    A multi-frequency cavitation vessel (RV-multi) has been commissioned at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL, UK), with the aim of establishing a standard source of acoustic cavitation in water, with reference to which details of the cavitation process can be studied and cavitation measurement techniques evaluated. The vessel is a cylindrical cavity with a maximum capacity up to 17 L, and is designed to work at six frequency ranges, from 21 kHz to 136 kHz, under controlled temperature conditions. This paper discusses the design of RV-multi and reports experiments carried out to establish the reproducibility of the acoustic pressure field established within the vessel and its operating envelope, including sensitivity to aspects such as water depth and temperature. The acoustic field distribution was determined along the radial and depth directions within the vessel using a miniature hydrophone, for two input voltage levels under low power transducer excitation conditions (e.g. below the cavitation threshold). Particular care was taken in determining peak acoustic pressure locations, as these are critical for accompanying cavitation studies. Perturbations of the vessel by the measuring hydrophone were also monitored with a bottom-mounted pressure sensor.

  5. Ultrasound and microbubble mediated drug delivery: acoustic pressure as determinant for uptake via membrane pores or endocytosis.

    PubMed

    De Cock, Ine; Zagato, Elisa; Braeckmans, Kevin; Luan, Ying; de Jong, Nico; De Smedt, Stefaan C; Lentacker, Ine

    2015-01-10

    Although promising results are achieved in ultrasound mediated drug delivery, its underlying biophysical mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Pore formation as well as endocytosis has been reported during ultrasound application. Due to the plethora of ultrasound settings used in literature, it is extremely difficult to draw conclusions on which mechanism is actually involved. To our knowledge, we are the first to show that acoustic pressure influences which route of drug uptake is addressed, by inducing different microbubble-cell interactions. To investigate this, FITC-dextrans were used as model drugs and their uptake was analyzed by flow cytometry. In fluorescence intensity plots, two subpopulations arose in cells with FITC-dextran uptake after ultrasound application, corresponding to cells having either low or high uptake. Following separation of the subpopulations by FACS sorting, confocal images indicated that the low uptake population showed endocytic uptake. The high uptake population represented uptake via pores. Moreover, the distribution of the subpopulations shifted to the high uptake population with increasing acoustic pressure. Real-time confocal recordings during ultrasound revealed that membrane deformation by microbubbles may be the trigger for endocytosis via mechanostimulation of the cytoskeleton. Pore formation was shown to be caused by microbubbles propelled towards the cell. These results provide a better insight in the role of acoustic pressure in microbubble-cell interactions and the possible consequences for drug uptake. In addition, it pinpoints the need for a more rational, microbubble behavior based choice of acoustic parameters in ultrasound mediated drug delivery experiments.

  6. Analysis of the Acoustic Response of a Railroad Bridge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    atmospheric explosions, surf, missiles, rockets, weather systems and even animal vocalizations [1]. In order for up-going infrasonic energy to be...systems – Animal vocalizations – Urban Noise* PREMISE: Structures generate coupled low-frequency acoustics as fundamental modes of motion What is...rating tests: – Strain Gages (44 Used) • Main Structural Elements – One Train Engine Stringer Bottom Chord Diagonal Chord Diagonal Floor Beam Top

  7. Acoustics of fish shelters: frequency response and gain properties.

    PubMed

    Lugli, Marco

    2012-11-01

    Many teleosts emit sounds from cavities beneath stones and other types of submerged objects, yet the acoustical properties of fish shelters are virtually unexplored. This study examines the gain properties of shelters commonly used by Mediterranean gobies as hiding places and/or nest sites in the field (flat stones, shells belonging to five bivalve species), or within aquarium tanks (tunnel-shaped plastic covers, concrete blocks, concrete cylinder pipe, halves of terracotta flower pots). All shelters were acoustically stimulated using a small underwater buzzer, placed inside or around the shelter to mimic a fish calling from the nest site, and different types of driving stimuli (white noise, pure tones, and artificial pulse trains). Results showed the presence of significant amplitude gain (3-18 dB) at frequencies in the range 100-150 Hz in all types of natural shelters but one (Mytilus), terracotta flower pots, and concrete blocks. Gain was higher for stones and artificial shelters than for shells. Gain peak amplitude increased with the weight of stones and shells. Conclusions were verified by performing analogous acoustical tests on flat stones in the stream. Results draw attention to the use of suitable shelters for proper recording of sounds produced by fishes kept within laboratory aquaria.

  8. Characterizing response to elemental unit of acoustic imaging noise: an FMRI study.

    PubMed

    Tamer, Gregory G; Luh, Wen-Ming; Talavage, Thomas M

    2009-07-01

    Acoustic imaging noise produced during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies can hinder auditory fMRI research analysis by altering the properties of the acquired time-series data. Acoustic imaging noise can be especially confounding when estimating the time course of the hemodynamic response (HDR) in auditory event-related fMRI (fMRI) experiments. This study is motivated by the desire to establish a baseline function that can serve not only as a comparison to other quantities of acoustic imaging noise for determining how detrimental is one's experimental noise, but also as a foundation for a model that compensates for the response to acoustic imaging noise. Therefore, the amplitude and spatial extent of the HDR to the elemental unit of acoustic imaging noise (i.e., a single ping) associated with echoplanar acquisition were characterized and modeled. Results from this fMRI study at 1.5 T indicate that the group-averaged HDR in left and right auditory cortex to acoustic imaging noise (duration of 46 ms) has an estimated peak magnitude of 0.29% (right) to 0.48% (left) signal change from baseline, peaks between 3 and 5 s after stimulus presentation, and returns to baseline and remains within the noise range approximately 8 s after stimulus presentation.

  9. Acoustic gain in piezoelectric semiconductors at ɛ-near-zero response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willatzen, M.; Christensen, J.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate strong acoustic gain in electric-field biased piezoelectric semiconductors at frequencies near the plasmon frequency in the terahertz range. When the electron drift velocity produced by an external electric field is higher than the speed of sound, Cherenkov radiation of phonons generates amplification of sound. It is demonstrated that this effect is particularly effective at ɛ-near-zero response, leading to giant levels of acoustic gain. Operating at conditions with strong acoustic amplification, we predict unprecedented enhancement of the scattered sound field radiated from an electrically controlled piezoelectric slab waveguide. This extreme sound field enhancement in an active piezo material shows potential for acoustic sensing and loss compensation in metamaterials and nonlinear devices.

  10. Numerical investigation of amplitude-dependent dynamic response in acoustic metamaterials with nonlinear oscillators.

    PubMed

    Manimala, James M; Sun, C T

    2016-06-01

    The amplitude-dependent dynamic response in acoustic metamaterials having nonlinear local oscillator microstructures is studied using numerical simulations on representative discrete mass-spring models. Both cubically nonlinear hardening and softening local oscillator cases are considered. Single frequency, bi-frequency, and wave packet excitations at low and high amplitude levels were used to interrogate the models. The propagation and attenuation characteristics of harmonic waves in a tunable frequency range is found to correspond to the amplitude and nonlinearity-dependent shifts in the local resonance bandgap for such nonlinear acoustic metamaterials. A predominant shift in the propagated wave spectrum towards lower frequencies is observed. Moreover, the feasibility of amplitude and frequency-dependent selective filtering of composite signals consisting of individual frequency components which fall within propagating or attenuating regimes is demonstrated. Further enrichment of these wave manipulation mechanisms in acoustic metamaterials using different combinations of nonlinear microstructures presents device implications for acoustic filters and waveguides.

  11. Development of a Dynamic Pressure Response Calibrator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    fluid L = length of the tube n = mode number The steps in the verification process were to: 1. Calculate the admittance function (pressure...solution. Using this admittance, calculate the piston displacement at 2 Hz for an RMS pressure of 1 psi. This is a worst case estimate of driver...displacement. Then calculate the piston acceleration at 500 Hz for an RMS pressure of 1 psi. This places an upper bound on allowable piston mass (knowing

  12. Comparison of structural response and fatigue endurance of aircraft flap-like box structures subjected to acoustic loading.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Y; White, R G; Aglietti, G S

    2005-05-01

    The results of an extensive test program to characterize the behavior of typical aircraft structures under acoustic loading and to establish their fatigue endurance are presented. The structures tested were the three flap-like box-type of structures. Each structure consisted of one flat (bottom) and one curved (top) stiffener stiffened skin panel, front, and rear spars, and ribs that divided the structures into three bays. The three structures, constructed from three different materials (aircraft standard aluminum alloy, Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic, and a Glass Fibre Metal Laminate, i.e., GLARE) had the same size and configuration, with only minor differences due to the use of different materials. A first set of acoustic tests with excitations of intensity ranging from 140 to 160 dB were carried out to obtain detailed data on the dynamic response of the three structures. The FE analysis of the structures is also briefly described and the results compared with the experimental data. The fatigue endurance of the structures was then determined using random acoustic excitation with an overall sound pressure level of 161 dB, and details of crack propagation are reported.

  13. Comparison of structural response and fatigue endurance of aircraft flap-like box structures subjected to acoustic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Y.; White, R. G.; Aglietti, G. S.

    2005-05-01

    The results of an extensive test program to characterize the behavior of typical aircraft structures under acoustic loading and to establish their fatigue endurance are presented. The structures tested were the three flap-like box-type of structures. Each structure consisted of one flat (bottom) and one curved (top) stiffener stiffened skin panel, front, and rear spars, and ribs that divided the structures into three bays. The three structures, constructed from three different materials (aircraft standard aluminum alloy, Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic, and a Glass Fibre Metal Laminate, i.e., GLARE) had the same size and configuration, with only minor differences due to the use of different materials. A first set of acoustic tests with excitations of intensity ranging from 140 to 160 dB were carried out to obtain detailed data on the dynamic response of the three structures. The FE analysis of the structures is also briefly described and the results compared with the experimental data. The fatigue endurance of the structures was then determined using random acoustic excitation with an overall sound pressure level of 161 dB, and details of crack propagation are reported. .

  14. Offshore exposure experiments on cuttlefish indicate received sound pressure and particle motion levels associated with acoustic trauma

    PubMed Central

    Solé, Marta; Sigray, Peter; Lenoir, Marc; van der Schaar, Mike; Lalander, Emilia; André, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Recent findings on cephalopods in laboratory conditions showed that exposure to artificial noise had a direct consequence on the statocyst, sensory organs, which are responsible for their equilibrium and movements in the water column. The question remained about the contribution of the consequent near-field particle motion influence from the tank walls, to the triggering of the trauma. Offshore noise controlled exposure experiments (CEE) on common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), were conducted at three different depths and distances from the source and particle motion and sound pressure measurements were performed at each location. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed injuries in statocysts, which severity was quantified and found to be proportional to the distance to the transducer. These findings are the first evidence of cephalopods sensitivity to anthropogenic noise sources in their natural habitat. From the measured received power spectrum of the sweep, it was possible to determine that the animals were exposed at levels ranging from 139 to 142 dB re 1 μPa2 and from 139 to 141 dB re 1 μPa2, at 1/3 octave bands centred at 315 Hz and 400 Hz, respectively. These results could therefore be considered a coherent threshold estimation of noise levels that can trigger acoustic trauma in cephalopods. PMID:28378762

  15. Roles of positively charged heavy ions and degenerate plasma pressure on cylindrical and spherical ion acoustic solitary waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossen, M. R.; Nahar, L.; Sultana, S.; Mamun, A. A.

    2014-09-01

    The properties of heavy-ion-acoustic (HIA) solitary structures associated with the nonlinear propagation of cylindrical and spherical electrostatic perturbations in an unmagnetized, collisionless dense plasma system has been investigated theoretically. Our considered model contains degenerate electron and inertial light ion fluids, and positively charged static heavy ions, which is valid for both of the non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic limits. The Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV) and modified K-dV (mK-dV) equations have been derived by employing the reductive perturbation method, and numerically examined in order. It has been found that the effect of degenerate pressure and number density of electron and inertial light ion fluids, and positively charged static heavy ions significantly modify the basic features of HIA solitary waves. It is also noted that the inertial light ion fluid is the source of dispersion for HIA waves and is responsible for the formation of solitary waves. The basic features and the underlying physics of HIA solitary waves, which are relevant to some astrophysical compact objects, are briefly discussed.

  16. Offshore exposure experiments on cuttlefish indicate received sound pressure and particle motion levels associated with acoustic trauma.

    PubMed

    Solé, Marta; Sigray, Peter; Lenoir, Marc; van der Schaar, Mike; Lalander, Emilia; André, Michel

    2017-04-05

    Recent findings on cephalopods in laboratory conditions showed that exposure to artificial noise had a direct consequence on the statocyst, sensory organs, which are responsible for their equilibrium and movements in the water column. The question remained about the contribution of the consequent near-field particle motion influence from the tank walls, to the triggering of the trauma. Offshore noise controlled exposure experiments (CEE) on common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), were conducted at three different depths and distances from the source and particle motion and sound pressure measurements were performed at each location. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed injuries in statocysts, which severity was quantified and found to be proportional to the distance to the transducer. These findings are the first evidence of cephalopods sensitivity to anthropogenic noise sources in their natural habitat. From the measured received power spectrum of the sweep, it was possible to determine that the animals were exposed at levels ranging from 139 to 142 dB re 1 μPa(2) and from 139 to 141 dB re 1 μPa(2), at 1/3 octave bands centred at 315 Hz and 400 Hz, respectively. These results could therefore be considered a coherent threshold estimation of noise levels that can trigger acoustic trauma in cephalopods.

  17. Effect of Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow on Measurement of Acoustic Pressure and Intensity. Revised.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-18

    variation is identical to that in the k 3R domain. The measured response 77 -17- 18 May 1984 GCL: Ihz function shown in Figure 2 is by Farabee and Geib ...I1hz 14. Farabee, T. M. and F. E. Geib , Jr., OfLsurme nt , Boundarv Lav,,r Pressure Fields with an Array of Pressure Transducers in a Subsonic Flow...Research & Development Center (Copy No. 34) Department of the Navy Bethesda, MD 20084 Commanding Officer Attn: F. E. Geib Naval Ocean Systems Center Code

  18. Mesospheric, Thermospheric, and Ionospheric Responses to Acoustic and Gravity Waves Generated by Transient Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snively, J. B.; Zettergren, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Strong acoustic waves with periods ~1-4 minutes have been confirmed to perturb the ionosphere following their generation by earthquakes [e.g., Garcia et al., GRL, 40(5), 2013] and volcanic eruption events [e.g., Heki, GRL, 33, L14303, 2006]. Clear acoustic and gravity wave signatures have also been reported in ionospheric data above strong tropospheric convection [Nishioka, GRL, 40(21), 2013], and prior modeling results suggest that convectively-generated acoustic waves with ~3-4 minute periods are readily detectable above their sources in TEC [Zettergren and Snively, GRL, 40(20), 2013]. These observations have provided quantitative insight into the coupling of processes occurring near Earth's surface with the upper atmosphere and ionosphere over short time-scales. Here, we investigate acoustic waves and short-period gravity waves generated by sources near ground level, and the observable responses of the mesosphere, lower-thermosphere, and ionosphere (MLTI) systems. Numerical simulations are performed using a nonlinear, compressible, atmospheric dynamics model, in cylindrically-axisymmetric coordinates, to investigate wave generation, upward propagation, steepening, and dissipation. Acoustic waves may produce observable signatures in the mesospheric hydroxyl airglow layer [e.g., Snively, GRL, 40(17), 2013], and can strongly perturb the lower-thermosphere and E- and F-region ionosphere, prior to the arrival of simultaneously-generated gravity waves. Using a coupled multi-fluid ionospheric model [Zettergren and Semeter, JGR, 117(A6), 2012], extended for mid and low latitudes using a 2D dipole magnetic field coordinate system [Zettergren and Snively, GRL, 40(20), 2013], we investigate its response to realistic acoustic wave perturbations. In particular, we demonstrate that the MLT and ionospheric responses are significantly and nonlinearly determined by the acoustic wave source geometry, spectrum, and amplitude, in addition to the local ambient state of the

  19. Capturing the acoustic response of historical spaces for interactive music performance and recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woszczyk, Wieslaw; Martens, William

    2004-10-01

    Performers engaged in musical recording while they are located in relatively dry recording studios generally find their musical performance facilitated when they are provided with synthetic reverberation. This well established practice is extended in the project described here to include highly realistic virtual acoustic recreation of original rooms in which Haydn taught his students to play pianoforte. The project has two primary components, the first of which is to capture for posterity the acoustic response of such historical rooms that may no longer be available or functional for performance. The project's second component is to reproduce as accurately as possible the virtual acoustic interactions between a performer and the re-created acoustic space, as performers, during their performance, move relative to their instrument and the boundaries of surrounding enclosure. In the first of two presentations on this ongoing project, the method for measurement of broadband impulse responses for these historical rooms is described. The test signal is radiated by a group of omnidirectional loudspeakers approximating the layout and the complex directional radiation pattern of the pianoforte, and the room response is sampled by a spaced microphone array. The companion presentation will describe the method employed for virtual acoustic reproduction for the performer.

  20. A Finite-Element Method Model of Soft Tissue Response to Impulsive Acoustic Radiation Force

    PubMed Central

    Palmeri, Mark L.; Sharma, Amy C.; Bouchard, Richard R.; Nightingale, Roger W.; Nightingale, Kathryn R

    2010-01-01

    Several groups are studying acoustic radiation force and its ability to image the mechanical properties of tissue. Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging is one modality using standard diagnostic ultrasound scanners to generate localized, impulsive, acoustic radiation forces in tissue. The dynamic response of tissue is measured via conventional ultrasonic speckle-tracking methods and provides information about the mechanical properties of tissue. A finite-element method (FEM) model has been developed that simulates the dynamic response of tissues, with and without spherical inclusions, to an impulsive acoustic radiation force excitation from a linear array transducer. These FEM models were validated with calibrated phantoms. Shear wave speed, and therefore elasticity, dictates tissue relaxation following ARFI excitation, but Poisson’s ratio and density do not significantly alter tissue relaxation rates. Increased acoustic attenuation in tissue increases the relative amount of tissue displacement in the near field compared with the focal depth, but relaxation rates are not altered. Applications of this model include improving image quality, and distilling material and structural information from tissue’s dynamic response to ARFI excitation. Future work on these models includes incorporation of viscous material properties and modeling the ultrasonic tracking of displaced scatterers. PMID:16382621

  1. Laser-induced acoustic desorption/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jinshan; Borton, David J; Owen, Benjamin C; Jin, Zhicheng; Hurt, Matt; Amundson, Lucas M; Madden, Jeremy T; Qian, Kuangnan; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I

    2011-03-01

    Laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) was successfully coupled to a conventional atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source in a commercial linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer (LQIT). Model compounds representing a wide variety of different types, including basic nitrogen and oxygen compounds, aromatic and aliphatic compounds, as well as unsaturated and saturated hydrocarbons, were tested separately and as a mixture. These model compounds were successfully evaporated into the gas phase by using LIAD and then ionized by using APCI with different reagents. From the four APCI reagent systems tested, neat carbon disulfide provided the best results. The mixture of methanol and water produced primarily protonated molecules, as expected. However, only the most basic compounds yielded ions under these conditions. In sharp contrast, using APCI with either neat benzene or neat carbon disulfide as the reagent resulted in the ionization of all the analytes studied to predominantly yield stable molecular ions. Benzene yielded a larger fraction of protonated molecules than carbon disulfide, which is a disadvantage. A similar but minor amount of fragmentation was observed for these two reagents. When the experiment was performed without a liquid reagent (nitrogen gas was the reagent), more fragmentation was observed. Analysis of a known mixture as well as a petroleum cut was also carried out. In summary, the new experiment presented here allows the evaporation of thermally labile compounds, both polar and nonpolar, without dissociation or aggregation, and their ionization to predominantly form stable molecular ions.

  2. Laser-Induced Acoustic Desorption/Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jinshan; Borton, David J.; Owen, Benjamin C.; Jin, Zhicheng; Hurt, Matt; Amundson, Lucas M.; Madden, Jeremy T.; Qian, Kuangnan; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I.

    2010-01-01

    Laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) was successfully coupled to a conventional atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source in a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer (LQIT). Model compounds representing a wide variety of different types, including basic nitrogen and oxygen compounds, aromatic and aliphatic compounds, as well as unsaturated and saturated hydrocarbons, were tested separately and as a mixture. These model compounds were successfully evaporated into the gas phase by using LIAD and then ionized by using APCI with different reagents. Four APCI reagent systems were tested: the traditionally used mixture of methanol and water, neat benzene, neat carbon disulfide, and nitrogen gas (no liquid reagent). The mixture of methanol and water produced primarily protonated molecules, as expected. However, only the most basic compounds yielded ions under these conditions. In sharp contrast, using APCI with either neat benzene or neat carbon disulfide as the reagent resulted in the ionization of all the analytes studied to predominantly yield stable molecular ions. Benzene yielded a larger fraction of protonated molecules than carbon disulfide, which is a disadvantage. A similar amount of fragmentation was observed for these reagents. When the experiment was performed without a liquid reagent(nitrogen gas was the reagent), more fragmentation was observed. Analysis of a known mixture as well as a petroleum cut was also carried out. In summary, the new experiment presented here allows the evaporation of thermally labile compounds, both polar and nonpolar, without dissociation or aggregation, and their ionization to form stable molecular ions. PMID:21472571

  3. The acoustic velocity, refractive index, and equation of state of liquid ammonia dihydrate under high pressure and high temperature.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunli; Wu, Xiaoxin; Huang, Fengxian; Zhou, Qiang; Li, Fangfei; Cui, Qiliang

    2012-09-14

    High-pressure and high-temperature Brillouin scattering studies have been performed on liquid of composition corresponding to the ammonia dihydrate stoichiometry (NH(3)·2H(2)O) in a diamond anvil cell. Using the measured Brillouin frequency shifts from 180° back- and 60° platelet-scattering geometries, the acoustic velocity, refractive index, density, and adiabatic bulk modulus have been determined under pressure up to freezing point along the 296, 338, 376, and 407 K isotherms. Along these four isotherms, the acoustic velocities increase smoothly with increasing pressure but decrease with the increased temperature. However, the pressure dependence of the refractive indexes on the four isotherms exhibits a change in slope around 1.5 GPa. The bulk modulus increases linearly with pressure and its slope, dB/dP, decreases from 6.83 at 296 K to 4.41 at 407 K. These new datasets improve our understanding of the pressure- and temperature-induced molecular structure changes in the ammonia-water binary system.

  4. Active modal control simulation of vibro-acoustic response of a fluid-loaded plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sheng

    2011-11-01

    Active modal control simulation of vibro-acoustic response of a fluid-loaded plate is presented. The active modal control of the vibro-acoustic response is implemented using piezoelectric actuators/sensors. The active modal damping is added to the coupled system via negative velocity feedback. The feedback gain between the piezoelectric actuators/sensors for the modal control is obtained using the in-vacuo modal matrix and the incompressible fluid-loaded modal matrix. The modal control performance of structural vibration and acoustic radiation of a baffled plate is numerically studied. It is shown that the proposed method increases the modal damping ratio and achieves reduction in the mean square velocity and the sound power for given modes of the fluid-loaded plate.

  5. Analysis of the acoustic response in water and sand of different fiber optic sensing cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Joachim; Facchini, Massimo; Lowell, Mark

    2015-05-01

    Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) is a highly promising technology to efficiently monitor assets for energy production and transportation, both off- and on-shore, such as boreholes, pipelines and risers. The aim of the hereby-presented measurements is to evaluate the sensitivity of the different optical fiber cables to acoustic signals in sand and water, independently from the DAS read-out unit type and manufacturer. Acoustic sensing cables specifically designed by BRUGG Cables are characterized and compared to standard telecommunication cables. The spectral response of each cable was quantified using an all-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The response was also measured with calibrated microphones in order to convert the measurements into absolute physical units (Pascal). The measurement campaign is part of an investigation program for a reliable DAS system, which comprises the sensing cable (including installation procedure), the interrogator unit and suitable software.

  6. Ambient pressure dependence of the ultra-harmonic response from contrast microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tao; Jia, Nan; Zhang, Dong; Xu, Di

    2012-06-01

    Sub-harmonic response from ultrasound contrast agent microbubbles has been demonstrated to be an effective modality for noninvasive pressure measurement. In the present study, the dependence of ultra-harmonic response on the ambient overpressure was investigated by both experimental measurements and simulations. In the measurements, the microbubbles were exposed to Gaussian pulses with varied driving frequencies and pulse lengths, at an acoustic pressure of 0.3 MPa. The amplitudes of sub- and ultra-harmonic components were measured when the ambient overpressures varied from 0-25 kPa. At the driving frequency of 1.33 MHz, the ultra-harmonic energy decreased but the sub-harmonic energy increased with the increasing overpressure; while at the driving frequency of 4 MHz, both the sub- and ultra-harmonic components showed the same tendency that the corresponding energy decreased as the overpressure was increased. A 4-MHz Gaussian pulse with 64 cycles could provide an ultra-harmonic response with both good ambient pressure sensitivity and high linearity. Furthermore, the effects of shell parameters of a microbubble on the generation of ultra- and sub-harmonic responses were discussed based on simulations using Marmottant's model. This study suggests that the ultra-harmonic response from contrast microbubbles might be applicable for noninvasive pressure measurement.

  7. An Acoustic Emission and Acousto-Ultrasonic Analysis of Impact Damaged Composite Pressure Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James L.; Workman, Gary L.; Workman, Gary L.

    1996-01-01

    The research presented herein summarizes the development of acoustic emission (AE) and acousto-ultrasonic (AU) techniques for the nondestructive evaluation of filament wound composite pressure vessels. Vessels fabricated from both graphite and kevlar fibers with an epoxy matrix were examined prior to hydroburst using AU and during hydroburst using AE. A dead weight drop apparatus featuring both blunt and sharp impactor tips was utilized to produce a single known energy 'damage' level in each of the vessels so that the degree to which the effects of impact damage could be measured. The damage levels ranged from barely visible to obvious fiber breakage and delamination. Independent neural network burst pressure prediction models were developed from a sample of each fiber/resin material system. Here, the cumulative AE amplitude distribution data collected from low level proof test (25% of the expected burst for undamaged vessels) were used to measure the effects of the impact on the residual burst pressure of the vessels. The results of the AE/neural network model for the inert propellant filled graphite/epoxy vessels 'IM7/3501-6, IM7/977-2 and IM7/8553-45' demonstrated that burst pressures can be predicted from low level AE proof test data, yielding an average error of 5.0%. The trained network for the IM7/977-2 class vessels was also able to predict the expected burst pressure of taller vessels (three times longer hoop region length) constructed of the same material and using the same manufacturing technique, with an average error of 4.9%. To a lesser extent, the burst pressure prediction models could also measure the effects of impact damage to the kevlar/epoxy 'Kevlar 49/ DPL862' vessels. Here though, due to the higher attenuation of the material, an insufficient amount of AE amplitude information was collected to generate robust network models. Although, the worst case trial errors were less than 6%, when additional blind predictions were attempted, errors as

  8. Optical Verification of Microbubble Response to Acoustic Radiation Force in Large Vessels with In Vivo Results

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shiying; Wang, Claudia Y.; Unnikrishnan, Sunil; Klibanov, Alexander L.; Hossack, John A.; Mauldin, F. William

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To optically verify the dynamic behaviors of adherent microbubbles in large blood vessel environments in response to a new ultrasound technique using modulated acoustic radiation force. Materials and Methods Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) flow channels coated with streptavidin were used in targeted groups to mimic large blood vessels. The custom modulated acoustic radiation force beam sequence was programmed on a Verasonics research scanner. In vitro experiments were performed by injecting a biotinylated lipid-perfluorobutane microbubble dispersion through flow channels. The dynamic response of adherent microbubbles was detected acoustically and simultaneously visualized using a video camera connected to a microscope. In vivo verification was performed in a large abdominal blood vessel of a murine model for inflammation with injection of biotinylated microbubbles conjugated with P-selectin antibody. Results Aggregates of adherent microbubbles were observed optically under the influence of acoustic radiation force. Large microbubble aggregates were observed solely in control groups without targeted adhesion. Additionally, the dispersion of microbubble aggregates were demonstrated to lead to a transient acoustic signal enhancement in control groups (a new phenomenon we refer to as “control peak”). In agreement with in vitro results, the “control peak” phenomenon was observed in vivo in a murine model. Conclusions This study provides the first optical observation of microbubble binding dynamics in large blood vessel environments with application of a modulated acoustic radiation force beam sequence. With targeted adhesion, secondary radiation forces were unable to produce large aggregates of adherent microbubbles. Additionally, the new phenomenon called “control peak” was observed both in vitro and in vivo in a murine model for the first time. The findings in this study provide us with a better understanding of microbubble behaviors in large blood

  9. Dynamic response of CTD pressure sensors to temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiswell, S. M.

    1991-10-01

    Pressure sensors used in CTDs (conductivity temperature depth) respond to transients in temperature. It is often assumed that these transients have a negligible effect on pressure. However, in a CTD used in Hawaiian waters, these transients lead to pressure errors as high as 8 db. A method is presented for correcting these errors using linear system theory by computing the response function of the pressure sensor to temperature transients. The CTD housing insulates the pressure sensor from the water to some extent, so that the effective response function is a combination of the intrinsic response of the pressure transducer convolved with a response function due to transfer of heat through the housing. Using this method, pressure is corrected to within 1 db. The impulse response functions for two similar pressure transducers are quite different, probably due to small manufacturing variations. Thermal insulation of pressure sensors also varies from CTD to CTD. The net effect is that the response functions vary considerably from CTD to CTD. .

  10. Acoustic Seaglider

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-07

    a national naval responsibility. Acoustic sensors on mobile, autonomous platforms will enable basic research topics on temporal and spatial...problem and acoustic navigation and communications within the context of distributed autonomous persistent undersea surveillance sensor networks...Acoustic sensors on mobile, autonomous platforms will enable basic research topics on temporal and spatial coherence and the description of ambient

  11. Acoustic Responses after Total Destruction of the Cochlear Receptor: Brainstem and Auditory Cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazals, Yves; Aran, Jean-Marie; Erre, Jean-Paul; Guilhaume, Anne

    1980-10-01

    Acoustically evoked neural activity has been recorded from the brainstem and auditory cortex of guinea pigs after complete destruction of the organ of Corti by the aminoglycosidic antibiotic amikacin. These responses to sound differ in important respects from the evoked potentials normally recorded from the auditory pathways. At the brainstem level they resemble the potentials reported by others after stimulation of the vestibular nerve.

  12. Nonlinear ionospheric responses to large-amplitude infrasonic-acoustic waves generated by undersea earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zettergren, M. D.; Snively, J. B.; Komjathy, A.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.

    2017-02-01

    Numerical models of ionospheric coupling with the neutral atmosphere are used to investigate perturbations of plasma density, vertically integrated total electron content (TEC), neutral velocity, and neutral temperature associated with large-amplitude acoustic waves generated by the initial ocean surface displacements from strong undersea earthquakes. A simplified source model for the 2011 Tohoku earthquake is constructed from estimates of initial ocean surface responses to approximate the vertical motions over realistic spatial and temporal scales. Resulting TEC perturbations from modeling case studies appear consistent with observational data, reproducing pronounced TEC depletions which are shown to be a consequence of the impacts of nonlinear, dissipating acoustic waves. Thermospheric acoustic compressional velocities are ˜±250-300 m/s, superposed with downward flows of similar amplitudes, and temperature perturbations are ˜300 K, while the dominant wave periodicity in the thermosphere is ˜3-4 min. Results capture acoustic wave processes including reflection, onset of resonance, and nonlinear steepening and dissipation—ultimately leading to the formation of ionospheric TEC depletions "holes"—that are consistent with reported observations. Three additional simulations illustrate the dependence of atmospheric acoustic wave and subsequent ionospheric responses on the surface displacement amplitude, which is varied from the Tohoku case study by factors of 1/100, 1/10, and 2. Collectively, results suggest that TEC depletions may only accompany very-large amplitude thermospheric acoustic waves necessary to induce a nonlinear response, here with saturated compressional velocities ˜200-250 m/s generated by sea surface displacements exceeding ˜1 m occurring over a 3 min time period.

  13. Modeling Hemodynamic Responses in Auditory Cortex at 1.5T Using Variable Duration Imaging Acoustic Noise

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shuowen; Olulade, Olumide; Gonzalez, Javier Castillo; Santos, Joseph; Kim, Sungeun; Tamer, Gregory G.; Luh, Wen-Ming; Talavage, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    A confound for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), especially for auditory studies, is the presence of imaging acoustic noise generated mainly as a byproduct of rapid gradient switching during volume acquisition and to a lesser extent, the radio-frequency transmit. This work utilized a novel pulse sequence to present actual imaging acoustic noise for characterization of the induced hemodynamic responses and assessment of linearity in the primary auditory cortex with respect to noise duration. Results show that responses to brief duration (46ms) imaging acoustic noise is highly nonlinear while responses to longer duration (>1s) imaging acoustic noise becomes approximately linear, with the right primary auditory cortex exhibiting a higher degree of nonlinearity than the left for the investigated noise durations. This study also assessed the spatial extent of activation induced by imaging acoustic noise, showing that the use of modeled responses (specific to imaging acoustic noise) as the reference waveform revealed additional activations in the auditory cortex not observed with a canonical gamma variate reference waveform, suggesting an improvement in detection sensitivity for imaging acoustic noise-induced activity. Longer duration (1.5s) imaging acoustic noise was observed to induce activity that expanded outwards from Heschl’s gyrus to cover the superior temporal gyrus as well as parts of the middle temporal gyrus and insula, potentially affecting higher level acoustic processing. PMID:19948232

  14. Method specificity of non-invasive blood pressure measurement: oscillometry and finger pulse pressure vs acoustic methods.

    PubMed Central

    De Mey, C; Schroeter, V; Butzer, R; Roll, S; Belz, G G

    1995-01-01

    1. The agreement of blood pressure measurements by stethoscope auscultation (SBPa, DBPa-IV and DBPa-V), oscillometry (Dinamap; SBPo, and DBPo) and digital photoplethysmography (Finapres; SBPf, and DBPf) with the graphical analysis of the analogue microphone signals of vascular wall motion sound (SBPg and DBPg) was evaluated in eight healthy subjects in the presence of responses to the intravenous infusion of 1 microgram min-1 isoprenaline. 2. In general, there was good agreement between the SBP/DBP-measurements based on auscultatory Korotkoff-I- and IV-criteria and the reference method; the average method difference in estimating the isoprenaline responses for SBPa-SBPg was: -1.1, 95% CI: -5.4 to 3.1 mm Hg with a within-subject between-method repeatability coefficient (REP) of 11.6 mm Hg and for DBPa-IV-DBPg: 3.5, 95% CI: -0.5 to 6.5 mm Hg, REP: 11.5 mm Hg. The ausculatation of Korotkoff-V substantially overestimated the isoprenaline induced reduction of DBP: method difference DBPa-V-DBPg: -11.3, 95% CI: -17.8 to -4.7 mm Hg, REP: 31.8 mm Hg. 3. Oscillometry yielded good approximations for the SBP response to isoprenaline (average method difference SBPo-SBPg: -2.9, 95% CI: -9.0 to 3.3 mm Hg, REP: 17.6 mm Hg) but was poorly sensitive with regard to the DBP responses: method difference DBPo-DBPg: 6.5, 95% CI: -1.3 to 14.3 mm Hg, REP: 25.7 mm Hg. 4. Whilst the finger pulse pressure agreed well with regard to DBP (method difference for the DBP responses to isoprenaline: DBPf-DBPg: 1.8, 95% CI: -5.1 to 8.6 mm Hg, REP: 18.5 mm Hg) it was rather unsatisfactory with regard to SBP (method difference SBPf-SBPg: -14.1, 95% CI: -28.2 to -0.1 mm Hg, REP: 49.9 mm Hg).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8554929

  15. Development of Microbubble Contrast Agents with Biochemical Recognition and Tunable Acoustic Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatsuka, Matthew Allan Masao

    Microbubbles, consisting of gas-filled cores encapsulated within phospholipid or polymer shells, are the most widely used ultrasound contrast agents in the world. Because of their acoustic impedance mismatch with surrounding tissues and compressible gaseous interiors, they have high echogenicities that allow for efficient backscatter of ultrasound. They can also generate unique harmonic frequencies when insonated near their resonance frequency, depending on physical microbubble properties such as the stiffness and thickness of the encapsulating shell. Microbubbles are used to detect a number of cardiovascular diseases, but current methodologies lack the ability to detect and distinguish small, rapidly growing abnormalities that do not produce visible blockage or slowing of blood flow. This work describes the development, formulation, and validation of microbubbles with various polymer shell architectures designed to modulate their acoustic ability. We demonstrate that the addition of a thick disulfide crosslinked, poly(acrylic acid) encapsulating shell increases a bubble's resistance to cavitation and changes its resonance frequency. Modification of this shell architecture to use hybridized DNA strands to form crosslinks between the polymer chains allows for tuning of the bubble acoustic response. When the DNA crosslinks are in place, shell stiffness is increased so the bubbles do not oscillate and acoustic signal is muted. Subsequently, when these DNA strands are displaced, partial acoustic activity is restored. By using aptamer sequences with a specific affinity towards the biomolecule thrombin as the DNA crosslinking strand, this acoustic "ON/OFF" behavior can be specifically tailored towards the presence of a specific biomarker, and produces a change in acoustic signal at concentrations of thrombin consistent with acute deep venous thrombosis. Incorporation of the emulsifying agent poly(ethylene glycol) into the encapsulating shell improves microbubble yield

  16. Development of heart rate responses to acoustic stimuli in Muscovy duck embryos.

    PubMed

    Höchel, Joachim; Pirow, Ralph; Nichelmann, Martin

    2002-04-01

    Heart rate (HR) of Muscovy duck embryos (Cairina moschata f. domestica) was continuously recorded from the 21st day of incubation (E21) until hatching (E35). During that period, embryos were exposed to different acoustic stimuli (species-specific maternal and duckling calls, music, rectangular and sine waves, white noise). Sudden HR changes occurred at the onset of acoustic stimulation (on-response), as well as spontaneously. From E27 onwards, the response rate was significantly higher than the rate of spontaneous HR changes. The on-response rate increased further until E30. Most responses were elicited by maternal calls and music, but rarely by duckling calls. On-responses could be classified into: HR increase (36.4%), HR decrease (37.9%) and an increase in instantaneous HR variability (23.2%). The increase in HR variability occurred only in response to sounds, but not spontaneously. HR increases were mainly observed when the baseline HR was lower than the long-term HR trend. On-response duration was no longer than 3 min in 90% of all observations. The hourly mean HR and standard deviation did not change, even during phonoperiods composed of several sound patterns and lasting several hours. We conclude that Muscovy duck embryos are able to perceive exogenous acoustic stimuli, and that the acousto-sensory-->cardiac axis is functional from E27.

  17. Disruption of the neural response to rapid acoustic stimuli in dyslexia: Evidence from functional MRI

    PubMed Central

    Temple, E.; Poldrack, R. A.; Protopapas, A.; Nagarajan, S.; Salz, T.; Tallal, P.; Merzenich, M. M.; Gabrieli, J. D. E.

    2000-01-01

    The biological basis for developmental dyslexia remains unknown. Research has suggested that a fundamental deficit in dyslexia is the inability to process sensory input that enters the nervous system rapidly and that deficits in processing rapid acoustic information are associated with impaired reading. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to identify the brain basis of rapid acoustic processing in normal readers and to discover the status of that response in dyslexic readers. Normal readers showed left prefrontal activity in response to rapidly changing, relative to slowly changing, nonlinguistic acoustic stimuli. Dyslexic readers showed no differential left frontal response. Two dyslexic readers participated in a remediation program and showed increased activity in left prefrontal cortex after training. These fMRI results identify left prefrontal regions as normally being sensitive to rapid relative to slow acoustic stimulation, insensitive to the difference between such stimuli in dyslexic readers, and plastic enough in adulthood to develop such differential sensitivity after intensive training. PMID:11095716

  18. Vibroacoustic Response of the NASA ACTS Spacecraft Antenna to Launch Acoustic Excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larko, Jeffrey M.; Cotoni, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite was an experimental NASA satellite launched from the Space Shuttle Discovery. As part of the ground test program, the satellite s large, parabolic reflector antennas were exposed to a reverberant acoustic loading to simulate the launch acoustics in the Shuttle payload bay. This paper describes the modelling and analysis of the dynamic response of these large, composite spacecraft antenna structure subjected to a diffuse acoustic field excitation. Due to the broad frequency range of the excitation, different models were created to make predictions in the various frequency regimes of interest: a statistical energy analysis (SEA) model to capture the high frequency response and a hybrid finite element-statistical energy (hybrid FE-SEA) model for the low to mid-frequency responses. The strengths and limitations of each of the analytical techniques are discussed. The predictions are then compared to the measured acoustic test data and to a boundary element (BEM) model to evaluate the performance of the hybrid techniques.

  19. Acoustic startle responses and temperament in individuals who stutter.

    PubMed

    Guitar, Barry

    2003-02-01

    Fourteen individuals who stutter and 14 individuals who do not stutter were presented with 10 bursts of white noise to assess the magnitude of their eyeblink responses as a measure of temperament. Both the magnitude of the eyeblink response to the initial noise burst and the mean of the 10 responses were significantly greater for the stuttering group. The Taylor-Johnson Temperament Analysis (R. M. Taylor & L P. Morrison, 1996) did not distinguish between the two groups, but informal follow-up statistics indicated that the Nervous subscale showed a significant group difference. Scores on this subscale were also significantly positively correlated with the magnitude of the startle response. A discriminant analysis demonstrated that although both the startle response and the nervous trait differentiated the two groups, the startle response measures were more powerful in making this differentiation.

  20. Response of composite plates subjected to acoustic loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moyer, E. Thomas, Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of the project were to investigate numerical methodology for the determination of narrowband response in the geometrically nonlinear regime, to determine response characteristics for geometrically nonlinear plates subjected to random loading and to compare the predictions with experiments to be performed at NASA-Langley. The first two objectives were met. The response of composite plates subjected to both narrowband and broadband excitation were studied and the results are presented and discussed.

  1. Numerical investigation of the seismo-acoustic responses of the Source Physics Experiment underground explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoun, T.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Vorobiev, O.; Glenn, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    We have performed three-dimensional high resolution simulations of underground explosions conducted recently in jointed rock outcrop as part of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) being conducted at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The main goal of the current study is to investigate the effects of the structural and geomechanical properties on the spall phenomena due to underground explosions and its subsequent effect on the seismo-acoustic signature at far distances. Two parametric studies have been undertaken to assess the impact of different 1) conceptual geological models including a single layer and two layers model, with and without joints and with and without varying geomechanical properties, and 2) depth of bursts of the explosions and explosion yields. Through these investigations we have explored not only the near-field response of the explosions but also the far-field responses of the seismic and the acoustic signatures. The near-field simulations were conducted using the Eulerian and Lagrangian codes, GEODYN and GEODYN -L, respectively, while the far-field seismic simulations were conducted using the elastic wave propagation code, WPP, and the acoustic response using the Kirchhoff-Helmholtz-Rayleigh time-dependent approximation code, KHR. Though a series of simulations, we have recorded the velocity field histories a) at the ground surface on an acoustic-source-patch for the acoustic simulations, and 2) on a seismic-source-box for the seismic simulations. We first analyzed the SPE3 and SPE4-prime experimental data and simulated results, and then simulated SPE5, SPE6/7 to anticipate their seismo-acoustic responses given conditions of uncertainties. SPE experiments were conducted in a granitic formation; we have extended the parametric study to include other geological settings such dolomite and alluvial formations. These parametric studies enabled us 1) investigating the geotechnical and geophysical key parameters that impact the seismo-acoustic

  2. Acoustic performance of low pressure axial fan rotors with different blade chord length and radial load distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carolus, Thomas

    The paper examines the acoustic and aerodynamic performance of low-pressure axial fan rotors with a hub/tip ratio of 0.45. Six rotors were designed for the same working point by means of the well-known airfoil theory. The condition of an equilibrium between the static pressure gradient and the centrifugal forces is maintained. All rotors have unequally spaced blades to diminish tonal noise. The rotors are tested in a short cylindrical housing without guide vanes. All rotors show very similar flux-pressure difference characteristics. The peak efficiency and the noise performance is considerably influenced by the chosen blade design. The aerodynamically and acoustically optimal rotor is the one with the reduced load at the hub and increased load in the tip region under satisfied equilibrium conditions. It runs at the highest aerodynamic efficiency, and its noise spectrum is fairly smooth. The overall sound pressure level of this rotor is up to 8 dB (A) lower compared to the other rotors under consideration.

  3. Acoustic bubble traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler, Reinhard; Kurz, Thomas; Lauterborn, Werner

    2000-07-01

    A small, oscillating bubble in a liquid can be trapped in the antinode of an acoustic standing wave field. Bubble stability is required for the study of single bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL). The properties of the acoustic resonator are essential for the stable trapping of sonoluminescing bubbles. Resonators can be chosen according to the intended application: size and geometry can be varied in a wide range. In this work, the acoustic responses of different resonators were measured by means of holographic interferometry, hydrophones and a laser vibrometer. Also, high-speed photography was used to observe the bubble dynamics. Several single, stable sonoluminescent bubbles were trapped simultaneously within an acoustic resonator in the pressure antinodes of a higher harmonic mode (few bubble sonoluminescence, FBSL).

  4. Dynamic Encoding of Acoustic Features in Neural Responses to Continuous Speech.

    PubMed

    Khalighinejad, Bahar; Cruzatto da Silva, Guilherme; Mesgarani, Nima

    2017-02-22

    Humans are unique in their ability to communicate using spoken language. However, it remains unclear how the speech signal is transformed and represented in the brain at different stages of the auditory pathway. In this study, we characterized electroencephalography responses to continuous speech by obtaining the time-locked responses to phoneme instances (phoneme-related potential). We showed that responses to different phoneme categories are organized by phonetic features. We found that each instance of a phoneme in continuous speech produces multiple distinguishable neural responses occurring as early as 50 ms and as late as 400 ms after the phoneme onset. Comparing the patterns of phoneme similarity in the neural responses and the acoustic signals confirms a repetitive appearance of acoustic distinctions of phonemes in the neural data. Analysis of the phonetic and speaker information in neural activations revealed that different time intervals jointly encode the acoustic similarity of both phonetic and speaker categories. These findings provide evidence for a dynamic neural transformation of low-level speech features as they propagate along the auditory pathway, and form an empirical framework to study the representational changes in learning, attention, and speech disorders.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We characterized the properties of evoked neural responses to phoneme instances in continuous speech. We show that each instance of a phoneme in continuous speech produces several observable neural responses at different times occurring as early as 50 ms and as late as 400 ms after the phoneme onset. Each temporal event explicitly encodes the acoustic similarity of phonemes, and linguistic and nonlinguistic information are best represented at different time intervals. Finally, we show a joint encoding of phonetic and speaker information, where the neural representation of speakers is dependent on phoneme category. These findings provide compelling new evidence for

  5. Dynamic Encoding of Acoustic Features in Neural Responses to Continuous Speech

    PubMed Central

    Khalighinejad, Bahar; Cruzatto da Silva, Guilherme

    2017-01-01

    Humans are unique in their ability to communicate using spoken language. However, it remains unclear how the speech signal is transformed and represented in the brain at different stages of the auditory pathway. In this study, we characterized electroencephalography responses to continuous speech by obtaining the time-locked responses to phoneme instances (phoneme-related potential). We showed that responses to different phoneme categories are organized by phonetic features. We found that each instance of a phoneme in continuous speech produces multiple distinguishable neural responses occurring as early as 50 ms and as late as 400 ms after the phoneme onset. Comparing the patterns of phoneme similarity in the neural responses and the acoustic signals confirms a repetitive appearance of acoustic distinctions of phonemes in the neural data. Analysis of the phonetic and speaker information in neural activations revealed that different time intervals jointly encode the acoustic similarity of both phonetic and speaker categories. These findings provide evidence for a dynamic neural transformation of low-level speech features as they propagate along the auditory pathway, and form an empirical framework to study the representational changes in learning, attention, and speech disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We characterized the properties of evoked neural responses to phoneme instances in continuous speech. We show that each instance of a phoneme in continuous speech produces several observable neural responses at different times occurring as early as 50 ms and as late as 400 ms after the phoneme onset. Each temporal event explicitly encodes the acoustic similarity of phonemes, and linguistic and nonlinguistic information are best represented at different time intervals. Finally, we show a joint encoding of phonetic and speaker information, where the neural representation of speakers is dependent on phoneme category. These findings provide compelling new evidence for

  6. Acoustic travel time gauges for in-situ determination of pressure and temperature in multi-anvil apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xuebing; Chen, Ting; Qi, Xintong; Zou, Yongtao; Liebermann, Robert C.; Li, Baosheng; Kung, Jennifer; Yu, Tony; Wang, Yanbin

    2015-08-14

    In this study, we developed a new method for in-situ pressure determination in multi-anvil, high-pressure apparatus using an acoustic travel time approach within the framework of acoustoelasticity. The ultrasonic travel times of polycrystalline Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were calibrated against NaCl pressure scale up to 15 GPa and 900 °C in a Kawai-type double-stage multi-anvil apparatus in conjunction with synchrotron X-radiation, thereby providing a convenient and reliable gauge for pressure determination at ambient and high temperatures. The pressures derived from this new travel time method are in excellent agreement with those from the fixed-point methods. Application of this new pressure gauge in an offline experiment revealed a remarkable agreement of the densities of coesite with those from the previous single crystal compression studies under hydrostatic conditions, thus providing strong validation for the current travel time pressure scale. The travel time approach not only can be used for continuous in-situ pressure determination at room temperature, high temperatures, during compression and decompression, but also bears a unique capability that none of the previous scales can deliver, i.e., simultaneous pressure and temperature determination with a high accuracy (±0.16 GPa in pressure and ±17 °C in temperature). Therefore, the new in-situ Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} pressure gauge is expected to enable new and expanded opportunities for offline laboratory studies of solid and liquid materials under high pressure and high temperature in multi-anvil apparatus.

  7. Surface Acoustic Wave Based Pressure Sensor with Ground Shielding over Cavity on 41° YX LiNbO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Keekeun; Wang, Wen; Kim, Geunyoung; Yang, Sangsik

    2006-07-01

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW)-based pressure sensor was fabricated for stable mechanical compression force measurement. A single phase unidirectional transducer (SPUDT) and two acoustic tracks were employed to minimize inherent insertion loss and improve reflectivity from the reflectors. The coupling of modes (COM) theory and finite element methods (FEMs) were used to determine optimal design parameters. A LiNbO3 diaphragm was bonded to a heavily doped silicon substrate with a cavity of ˜250 μm deep, in which gold was lined all over the inner cavity to reduce the coupling loss of SAW energy to the surrounding atmosphere. As a mechanical compression force was applied to the diaphragm, the diaphragm bent, resulting in phase shifts of the reflected peaks. The phase shifts were modulated depending on the amount of mechanical compression applied. The measured reflection coefficient S11 showed good agreement with simulated results.

  8. Estimating sub-surface dispersed oil concentration using acoustic backscatter response.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Christopher B; Bonner, James S; Islam, Mohammad S; Page, Cheryl; Ojo, Temitope; Kirkey, William

    2013-05-15

    The recent Deepwater Horizon disaster resulted in a dispersed oil plume at an approximate depth of 1000 m. Several methods were used to characterize this plume with respect to concentration and spatial extent including surface supported sampling and autonomous underwater vehicles with in situ instrument payloads. Additionally, echo sounders were used to track the plume location, demonstrating the potential for remote detection using acoustic backscatter (ABS). This study evaluated use of an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) to quantitatively detect oil-droplet suspensions from the ABS response in a controlled laboratory setting. Results from this study showed log-linear ABS responses to oil-droplet volume concentration. However, the inability to reproduce ABS response factors suggests the difficultly in developing meaningful calibration factors for quantitative field analysis. Evaluation of theoretical ABS intensity derived from the particle size distribution provided insight regarding method sensitivity in the presence of interfering ambient particles.

  9. Impulse source versus dodecahedral loudspeaker for measuring parameters derived from the impulse response in room acoustics.

    PubMed

    San Martín, Ricardo; Arana, Miguel; Machín, Jorge; Arregui, Abel

    2013-07-01

    This study investigates the performance of dodecahedral and impulse sources when measuring acoustic parameters in enclosures according to ISO 3382-1 [Acoustics-Measurement of room acoustic parameters. Part 1: Performance spaces (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2009)]. In general, methods using speakers as a sound source are limited by their frequency response and directivity. On the other hand, getting impulse responses from impulse sources typically involves a lack of repeatability, and it is usually necessary to average several measurements for each position. Through experiments in different auditoriums that recreate typical situations in which the measurement standard is applied, it is found that using impulse sources leads to greater variation in the results, especially at low frequencies. However, this prevents subsequent dispersions due to variables that this technique does not require, such as the orientation of the emitting source. These dispersions may be relevant at high frequencies exceeding the established tolerance criteria for certain parameters. Finally, a new descriptor for dodecahedral sources reflecting the influence their lack of omnidirectionality produces on measuring acoustic parameters is proposed.

  10. Ionospheric response to infrasonic-acoustic waves generated by natural hazard events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zettergren, M. D.; Snively, J. B.

    2015-09-01

    Recent measurements of GPS-derived total electron content (TEC) reveal acoustic wave periods of ˜1-4 min in the F region ionosphere following natural hazard events, such as earthquakes, severe weather, and volcanoes. Here we simulate the ionospheric responses to infrasonic-acoustic waves, generated by vertical accelerations at the Earth's surface or within the lower atmosphere, using a compressible atmospheric dynamics model to perturb a multifluid ionospheric model. Response dependencies on wave source geometry and spectrum are investigated at middle, low, and equatorial latitudes. Results suggest constraints on wave amplitudes that are consistent with observations and that provide insight on the geographical variability of TEC signatures and their dependence on the geometry of wave velocity field perturbations relative to the ambient geomagnetic field. Asymmetries of responses poleward and equatorward from the wave sources indicate that electron perturbations are enhanced on the equatorward side while field aligned currents are driven principally on the poleward side, due to alignments of acoustic wave velocities parallel and perpendicular to field lines, respectively. Acoustic-wave-driven TEC perturbations are shown to have periods of ˜3-4 min, which are consistent with the fraction of the spectrum that remains following strong dissipation throughout the thermosphere. Furthermore, thermospheric acoustic waves couple with ion sound waves throughout the F region and topside ionosphere, driving plasma disturbances with similar periods and faster phase speeds. The associated magnetic perturbations of the simulated waves are calculated to be observable and may provide new observational insight in addition to that provided by GPS TEC measurements.

  11. One Reading Specialist's Response to High-Stakes Testing Pressures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assaf, Lori

    2006-01-01

    Pressures to help students pass high-stakes tests affect teachers' reading instruction, their responsiveness to students' learning needs, and their professional effectiveness. This article reports on how one reading specialist responded to testing pressures in her urban elementary school. She believed that what was "right" for her…

  12. Unusual blood pressure response during standing therapy in tetraplegic man.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Hisayoshi; Ogata, Toru; Hoshikawa, Shinya; Uematsu, Azusa; Ogawa, Tetsuya; Saitou, Sakiko; Kitamura, Taku; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2010-02-01

    We report a case of an individual with cervical spinal cord injury who showed a unique blood pressure response during passive standing and passive walking-like leg movement, i.e., hypertension with standing and hypotension with leg movement.

  13. Loudness Change in Response to Dynamic Acoustic Intensity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Kirk N.; Stevens, Catherine J.; Tardieu, Julien

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments investigate psychological, methodological, and domain-specific characteristics of loudness change in response to sounds that continuously increase in intensity (up-ramps), relative to sounds that decrease (down-ramps). Timbre (vowel, violin), layer (monotone, chord), and duration (1.8 s, 3.6 s) were manipulated in Experiment 1.…

  14. Analysis of concert hall acoustics via visualizations of time-frequency and spatiotemporal responses.

    PubMed

    Pätynen, Jukka; Tervo, Sakari; Lokki, Tapio

    2013-02-01

    Acousticians and other practitioners alike often describe acoustic conditions in performance spaces with standard objective parameters. Apart from a few exceptions, the parameters are calculated by integrating the sound energy of the impulse responses over time; this makes them inadequate for researching the acoustics in detail, especially in the early part of the room impulse response. This paper proposes a method based on time-frequency and spatiotemporal presentations to overcome the lack of detail in the standard analysis. In brief, the proposed methods visualize the cumulative development of the sound field as a function of frequency or direction by forward-integrating the energy in the impulse response in short time frames. Analysis on the measurements from six concert halls concentrates particularly on interpreting the results in light of the seat dip effect. Earlier research has concluded that the seat dip effect is reduced by reflection from low overhead surfaces. In contrast, the current results indicate that the seat dip attenuation in the frequency response is corrected the best when the hall provides most lateral reflections. These findings suggest that the proposed analysis is suitable for explaining concert hall acoustics in detail.

  15. Neural network burst pressure prediction in impact damaged Kevlar/epoxy bottles from acoustic emission amplitude data

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.L.; Workman, G.L.; Russell, S.S.

    1994-12-31

    Acoustic emission (AE) signal analysis has been used to measure the effect of impact damage on the burst pressure of 5.75 inch diameter filament wound Kevlar/epoxy pressure vessels. A calibrated dead weight drop fixture, featuring both sharp and blunt hemispherical impact tups, generated impact damages with energies up to twenty ft-lb{sub f} in the mid hoop region of each vessel. Burst pressures were obtained by hydrostatically testing twenty-seven damaged and undamaged bottles, eleven of which were filled with inert propellant to simulate a rocket motor. Burst pressure prediction models were developed by correlating the differential AE amplitude distributions, Generated during the first pressure ramp to 25% of the expected burst pressure for the undamaged vessels, to known burst pressures using back propagation neural networks. Independent networks were created for the inert propellant filled vessels and the unfilled vessels using a small subset of each during the training phases. The remaining bottles served as the test sets. The eleven filled vessels had an average prediction error of 5.6%, while the unfilled bottles averaged 5.4%. Both of these results were within the 95% prediction interval, but a portion of the vessel burst pressure errors were greater than the {+-}5% worst case error obtained in previous work. in conclusion, the AE amplitude distribution data collected at low proof loads provided a suitable input for neural network burst pressure prediction in damaged and undamaged Kevlar/epoxy bottles. This included pressure vessels both with and without propellant backing. Work is ongoing to decrease the magnitude of the prediction error through network restructuring.

  16. The influence of proscenium boxes on acoustic response in historical opera halls.

    PubMed

    Šumarac Pavlović, Dragana; Mijić, Miomir; Mašović, Draško

    2015-09-01

    In some historical opera halls there are boxes located around the proscenium, commonly called proscenium or "director" boxes. These boxes have a certain influence on the initial part of the impulse response of an opera hall on the singer-auditorium, singer-singer, and singer-orchestra pit paths. During the reconstruction of the Ljubljana opera hall, measurement of a scaled model was performed to quantify the influence of proscenium boxes on the hall's impulse response. Some variation in box configuration on the acoustic response was also tested. This paper describes the results of this research.

  17. Comparative evaluation of test methods to simulate acoustic response of shroud-enclosed spacecraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    On, F. J.

    1975-01-01

    Test methods were evaluated to ascertain whether a spacecraft, properly tested within its shroud, could be vibroacoustic tested without the shroud, with adjustments made in the acoustic input spectra to simulate the acoustic response of the missing shroud. The evaluation was based on vibroacoustic test results obtained from a baseline model composed (1) of a spacecraft with adapter, lower support structure, and shroud; (2) of the spacecraft, adapter, and lower structure, but without the shroud; and (3) of the spacecraft and adapter only. Emphasis was placed on the magnitude of the acoustic input changes required to substitute for the shroud and the difficulty of making such input changes, and the degree of missimulation which can result from the performance of a particular, less-than optimum test. Conclusions are drawn on the advantages and disadvantages derived from the use of input spectra adjustment methods and lower support structure simulations. Test guidelines were also developed for planning and performing a launch acoustic-environmental test.

  18. Receptivity and Forced Response to Acoustic Disturbances in High-Speed Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakumar, P.; King, Rudolph A.; Chou, Amanda; Owens, Lewis R.; Kegerise, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Supersonic boundary-layer receptivity to freestream acoustic disturbances is investigated by solving the Navier-Stokes equations for Mach 3.5 flow over a sharp flat plate and a 7-deg half-angle cone. The freestream disturbances are generated from a wavy wall placed at the nozzle wall. The freestream acoustic disturbances radiated by the wavy wall are obtained by solving the linearized Euler equations. The results for the flat plate show that instability modes are generated at all the incident angles ranging from zero to highly oblique. However, the receptivity coefficient decreases by about 20 times when the incident angle increases from zero to a highly oblique angle of 68 degrees. The results for the cone show that no instability modes are generated when the acoustic disturbances impinge the cone obliquely. The results show that the perturbations generated inside the boundary layer by the acoustic disturbances are the response of the boundary layer to the external forcing. The amplitude of the forced disturbances inside the boundary layer are about 2.5 times larger than the incoming field for zero azimuthal wavenumber and they are about 1.5 times for large azimuthal wavenumbers.

  19. Characterization of intense ion beam energy density and beam induced pressure on the target with acoustic diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Pushkarev, A. I.; Isakova, Yu. I.; Khailov, I. P.; Yu, Xiao

    2013-08-15

    We have developed the acoustic diagnostics based on a piezoelectric transducer for characterization of high-intensity pulsed ion beams. The diagnostics was tested using the TEMP-4M accelerator (150 ns, 250–300 kV). The beam is composed of C{sup +} ions (85%) and protons, the beam energy density is 0.5–5 J/cm{sup 2} (depending on diode geometry). A calibration dependence of the signal from a piezoelectric transducer on the ion beam energy density is obtained using thermal imaging diagnostics. It is shown that the acoustic diagnostics allows for measurement of the beam energy density in the range of 0.1–2 J/cm{sup 2}. The dependence of the beam generated pressure on the input energy density is also determined and compared with the data from literature. The developed acoustic diagnostics do not require sophisticated equipment and can be used for operational control of pulsed ion beam parameters with a repetition rate of 10{sup 3} pulses/s.

  20. Is pressure stressful? The impact of pressure on the stress response and category learning.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Shannon K; Hutchinson, Steven; Hawthorne, Lauren; Cosley, Brandon J; Ell, Shawn W

    2014-06-01

    We examined the basic question of whether pressure is stressful. We proposed that when examining the role of stress or pressure in cognitive performance, it is important to consider the type of pressure, the stress response, and the aspect of cognition assessed. In Experiment 1, outcome pressure was not experienced as stressful but did lead to impaired performance on a rule-based (RB) category-learning task, but not on a more procedural information-integration (II) task. In Experiment 2, the addition of monitoring pressure resulted in a modest stress response to combined pressure and impairment on both tasks. Across experiments, higher stress appraisals were associated with decreased performance on the RB, but not on the II, task. In turn, higher stress reactivity (i.e., heart rate) was associated with enhanced performance on the II, but not on the RB, task. This work represents an initial step toward integrating the stress cognition and pressure cognition literatures and suggests that integrating these fields may require consideration of the type of pressure, the stress response, and the cognitive system mediating performance.

  1. Influence of Electro-Acoustic Effects on the Electro-Optic Response of Charged Colloids.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov; Alekov; Stoimenova

    1999-12-15

    Low-frequencyanomalous electro-optic behavior of colloidal systems (sign reversal and deviations from Kerr low) is considered in the light of electrically induced acoustic modes. The latter were recently detected and investigated in samples of isotropic spherical particles. Their linear dependence on field intensity explains the low-field "permanent dipole" behavior of charged colloids. The coupling of anisotropy and density fluctuations results in the complicated frequency curves of the electro-optic responses of anisometric particles. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  2. Comment on "Relative variance of the mean squared pressure in multimode media: rehabilitating former approaches" [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 136, 2621-2629 (2014)].

    PubMed

    Davy, John L; Weaver, Richard L

    2015-03-01

    Models for the statistics of responses in finite reverberant structures, and in particular, for the variance of the mean square pressure in reverberation rooms, have been studied for decades. It is therefore surprising that a recent communication has claimed that the literature has gotten the simplest of such calculations very wrong. Monsef, Cozza, Rodrigues, Cellard, and Durocher [(2014). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 136, 2621-2629] have derived a modal-based expression for the relative variance that differs significantly from expressions that have been accepted since 1969. This Comment points out that the Monsef formula is clearly incorrect, and then for the interested reader, points out the subtle place where they made their mistake.

  3. Canonical Acoustics and Its Application to Surface Acoustic Wave on Acoustic Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jian Qi

    2016-08-01

    In a conventional formalism of acoustics, acoustic pressure p and velocity field u are used for characterizing acoustic waves propagating inside elastic/acoustic materials. We shall treat some fundamental problems relevant to acoustic wave propagation alternatively by using canonical acoustics (a more concise and compact formalism of acoustic dynamics), in which an acoustic scalar potential and an acoustic vector potential (Φ ,V), instead of the conventional acoustic field quantities such as acoustic pressure and velocity field (p,u) for characterizing acoustic waves, have been defined as the fundamental variables. The canonical formalism of the acoustic energy-momentum tensor is derived in terms of the acoustic potentials. Both the acoustic Hamiltonian density and the acoustic Lagrangian density have been defined, and based on this formulation, the acoustic wave quantization in a fluid is also developed. Such a formalism of acoustic potentials is employed to the problem of negative-mass-density assisted surface acoustic wave that is a highly localized surface bound state (an eigenstate of the acoustic wave equations). Since such a surface acoustic wave can be strongly confined to an interface between an acoustic metamaterial (e.g., fluid-solid composite structures with a negative dynamical mass density) and an ordinary material (with a positive mass density), it will give rise to an effect of acoustic field enhancement on the acoustic interface, and would have potential applications in acoustic device design for acoustic wave control.

  4. Diffraction-free acoustic detection for optoacoustic depth profiling of tissue using an optically transparent polyvinylidene fluoride pressure transducer operated in backward and forward mode.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Michael; Niederhauser, Joël J; Hejazi, Marjaneh; Frenz, Martin

    2005-01-01

    An optoacoustic detection method suitable for depth profiling of optical absorption of layered or continuously varying tissue structures is presented. Detection of thermoelastically induced pressure transients allows reconstruction of optical properties of the sample to a depth of several millimeters with a spatial resolution of 24 mum. Acoustic detection is performed using a specially designed piezoelectric transducer, which is transparent for optical radiation. Thus, ultrasonic signals can be recorded at the same position the tissue is illuminated. Because the optoacoustical sound source is placed in the pulsed-acoustic near field of the pressure sensor, signal distortions commonly associated with acoustical diffraction are eliminated. Therefore, the acoustic signals mimic exactly the depth profile of the absorbed energy. This is illustrated by imaging the absorption profile of a two-layered sample with different absorption coefficients, and of a dye distribution while diffusing into a gelatin phantom.

  5. A primer for structural response to random pressure fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowell, E. H.; Vaicaitis, R.

    1975-01-01

    A review was made of power spectral methods for determining linear response of structures to random pressure fluctuations. Various simplifying assumptions are made for the purpose of obtaining useful formula for structural response. The transmission of sound through a flexible structure into an interior cavity was also treated.

  6. Effect of cushing response on systemic arterial pressure.

    PubMed

    Ursino, Mauro; Giannessi, Massimo; Frapparelli, Marta; Magosso, Elisa

    2009-01-01

    This work investigates the complex relationships between cerebrovascular dynamics, intracranial pressure (ICP), Cushing response, and short-term systemic regulation via an original mathematical model. The model has been used to analyze the effects of Cushing response on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular quantities during constant ICP elevation and during the occurrence of ICP plateau waves and to investigate the conditions leading to system instability with the formation of slow (0.05-0.1 Hz) arterial pressure waves. The model may be of value to assist clinicians in finding the balance between clinical benefits of Cushing response and its shortcomings.

  7. Nonlinear Acoustics in a Dispersive Continuum: Random Waves, Radiation Pressure, and Quantum Noise.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    Karpman , Nonlinear Waves in Dispersive Media, Pergamon Press, New York, 1975, p. 76. 26. R. Beyers, Nonlinear Acoustics, U.S. Government Printing...20301 U. S. Army Research nffice 2 copies Box 12211 Research Triangle Park tlorth Carolina 27709 Defense Technical Information Center 12 copies Cameron

  8. Plant adaptation to low atmospheric pressures: potential molecular responses.

    PubMed

    Ferl, Robert J; Schuerger, Andrew C; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Gurley, William B; Corey, Kenneth; Bucklin, Ray

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing realization that it may be impossible to attain Earth normal atmospheric pressures in orbital, lunar, or Martian greenhouses, simply because the construction materials do not exist to meet the extraordinary constraints imposed by balancing high engineering requirements against high lift costs. This equation essentially dictates that NASA have in place the capability to grow plants at reduced atmospheric pressure. Yet current understanding of plant growth at low pressures is limited to just a few experiments and relatively rudimentary assessments of plant vigor and growth. The tools now exist, however, to make rapid progress toward understanding the fundamental nature of plant responses and adaptations to low pressures, and to develop strategies for mitigating detrimental effects by engineering the growth conditions or by engineering the plants themselves. The genomes of rice and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana have recently been sequenced in their entirety, and public sector and commercial DNA chips are becoming available such that thousands of genes can be assayed at once. A fundamental understanding of plant responses and adaptation to low pressures can now be approached and translated into procedures and engineering considerations to enhance plant growth at low atmospheric pressures. In anticipation of such studies, we present here the background arguments supporting these contentions, as well as informed speculation about the kinds of molecular physiological responses that might be expected of plants in low-pressure environments.

  9. Plant adaptation to low atmospheric pressures: potential molecular responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferl, Robert J.; Schuerger, Andrew C.; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Gurley, William B.; Corey, Kenneth; Bucklin, Ray

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing realization that it may be impossible to attain Earth normal atmospheric pressures in orbital, lunar, or Martian greenhouses, simply because the construction materials do not exist to meet the extraordinary constraints imposed by balancing high engineering requirements against high lift costs. This equation essentially dictates that NASA have in place the capability to grow plants at reduced atmospheric pressure. Yet current understanding of plant growth at low pressures is limited to just a few experiments and relatively rudimentary assessments of plant vigor and growth. The tools now exist, however, to make rapid progress toward understanding the fundamental nature of plant responses and adaptations to low pressures, and to develop strategies for mitigating detrimental effects by engineering the growth conditions or by engineering the plants themselves. The genomes of rice and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana have recently been sequenced in their entirety, and public sector and commercial DNA chips are becoming available such that thousands of genes can be assayed at once. A fundamental understanding of plant responses and adaptation to low pressures can now be approached and translated into procedures and engineering considerations to enhance plant growth at low atmospheric pressures. In anticipation of such studies, we present here the background arguments supporting these contentions, as well as informed speculation about the kinds of molecular physiological responses that might be expected of plants in low-pressure environments.

  10. A Hardware-and-Software System for Experimental Studies of the Acoustic Startle Response in Laboratory Rodents.

    PubMed

    Pevtsov, E F; Storozheva, Z I; Proshin, A T; Pevtsova, E I

    2016-02-01

    We developed and tested a novel hardware-and-software system for recording the amplitude of the acoustic startle response in rodents. In our experiments, the baseline indexes of acoustic startle response in laboratory rats and pre-stimulation inhibition under the standard delivery of acoustic stimulation were similar to those evaluated by other investigators on foreign devices. The proposed system is relatively cheap and provides the possibility of performing experiments on freely moving specimens. It should be emphasized that the results of studies can be processed with free-access software.

  11. Coupling between plate vibration and acoustic radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frendi, Abdelkader; Maestrello, Lucio; Bayliss, Alvin

    1992-01-01

    A detailed numerical investigation of the coupling between the vibration of a flexible plate and the acoustic radiation is performed. The nonlinear Euler equations are used to describe the acoustic fluid while the nonlinear plate equation is used to describe the plate vibration. Linear, nonlinear, and quasi-periodic or chaotic vibrations and the resultant acoustic radiation are analyzed. We find that for the linear plate response, acoustic coupling is negligible. However, for the nonlinear and chaotic responses, acoustic coupling has a significant effect on the vibration level as the loading increases. The radiated pressure from a plate undergoing nonlinear or chaotic vibrations is found to propagate nonlinearly into the far-field. However, the nonlinearity due to wave propagation is much weaker than that due to the plate vibrations. As the acoustic wave propagates into the far-field, the relative difference in level between the fundamental and its harmonics and subharmonics decreases with distance.

  12. Coupling between plate vibration and acoustic radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frendi, Abdelkader; Maestrello, Lucio; Bayliss, Alvin

    1993-01-01

    A detailed numerical investigation of the coupling between the vibration of a flexible plate and the acoustic radiation is performed. The nonlinear Euler equations are used to describe the acoustic fluid while the nonlinear plate equation is used to describe the plate vibration. Linear, nonlinear, and quasi-periodic or chaotic vibrations and the resultant acoustic radiation are analyzed. We find that for the linear plate response, acoustic coupling is negligible. However, for the nonlinear and chaotic responses, acoustic coupling has a significant effect on the vibration level as the loading increases. The radiated pressure from a plate undergoing nonlinear or chaotic vibrations is found to propagate nonlinearly into the far field. However, the nonlinearity due to wave propagation is much weaker than that due to the plate vibrations. As the acoustic wave propagates into the far field, the relative difference in level between the fundamental and its harmonics and subharmonics decreases with distance.

  13. Effect of anisotropic dust pressure and superthermal electrons on propagation and stability of dust acoustic solitary waves

    SciTech Connect

    Bashir, M. F.; Behery, E. E.; El-Taibany, W. F.

    2015-06-15

    Employing the reductive perturbation technique, Zakharov–Kuznetzov (ZK) equation is derived for dust acoustic (DA) solitary waves in a magnetized plasma which consists the effects of dust anisotropic pressure, arbitrary charged dust particles, Boltzmann distributed ions, and Kappa distributed superthermal electrons. The ZK solitary wave solution is obtained. Using the small-k expansion method, the stability analysis for DA solitary waves is also discussed. The effects of the dust pressure anisotropy and the electron superthermality on the basic characteristics of DA waves as well as on the three-dimensional instability criterion are highlighted. It is found that the DA solitary wave is rarefactive (compressive) for negative (positive) dust. In addition, the growth rate of instability increases rapidly as the superthermal spectral index of electrons increases with either positive or negative dust grains. A brief discussion for possible applications is included.

  14. Introducing DIASCoPE: Directly Integrated Acoustic System Combined with Pressure Experiments — Changing the Paradigm from Product to Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, M. L.; Baldwin, K. J.; Huebsch, W. B.; Tercé, N.; Bejina, F.; Bystricky, M.; Chen, H.; Vaughan, M. T.; Weidner, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the properties and behaviors of materials and multi-phase aggregates under conditions of high pressure and temperature is vital to unraveling the mysteries that lie beneath the surface of the planet. Advances in in situexperimental techniques using synchrotron radiation at these extreme conditions have helped to provide answers to fundamental questions that were previously unattainable. Synchrotron-based ultrasonic interferometry measurements have proven to be especially important in determining acoustic velocities and thermoelastic properties of materials at high pressures and temperatures. However, due to relatively slow data collection times, it has been difficult to measure the effects of processes as they occur, and instead the measurement is made on the end product of these processes. DIASCoPE is an important step toward addressing this problem.Over the last three years, we have designed and developed an on-board ultrasonic acoustic velocity measurement system that cuts data collection time down by over an order of magnitude. We can now measure P- and S-wave travel times in samples at extreme conditions in less than one second. Moreover, the system has been fully integrated with the multi-anvil apparatus and the EPICS control system at beamline X17B2 of the National Synchrotron Light Source, allowing for greater ease of control andfull automation of experimental data collection. The DIASCoPE has completed the testing and commissioning phase, and the first data collected using this powerful new system will be presented here.DIASCoPE represents a major step forward in acoustic velocity collection time reduction that will finally allow us to begin to witness what effects various processes in the deep Earth may have on the physical properties of materials at extreme conditions as they occur. These new capabilities will allow us to change the focus of study from the product to the process itself and will lead to a greater understanding of the

  15. A film bulk acoustic resonator-based high-performance pressure sensor integrated with temperature control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mengying; Zhao, Zhan; Du, Lidong; Fang, Zhen

    2017-04-01

    This paper presented a high-performance pressure sensor based on a film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR). The support film of the FBAR chip was made of silicon nitride and the part under the resonator area was etched to enhance the sensitivity and improve the linearity of the pressure sensor. A micro resistor temperature sensor and a micro resistor heater were integrated in the chip to monitor and control the operating temperature. The sensor chip was fabricated, and packaged in an oscillator circuit for differential pressure detection. When the detected pressure ranged from  ‑100 hPa to 600 hPa, the sensitivity of the improved FBAR pressure sensor was  ‑0.967 kHz hPa‑1, namely  ‑0.69 ppm hPa‑1, which was 19% higher than that of existing sensors with a complete support film. The nonlinearity of the improved sensor was less than  ±0.35%, while that of the existing sensor was  ±5%. To eliminate measurement errors from humidity, the temperature control system integrated in the sensor chip controlled the temperature of the resonator up to 75 °C, with accuracy of  ±0.015 °C and power of 20 mW.

  16. Procedures for ambient-pressure and tympanometric tests of aural acoustic reflectance and admittance in human infants and adults

    PubMed Central

    Keefe, Douglas H.; Hunter, Lisa L.; Feeney, M. Patrick; Fitzpatrick, Denis F.

    2015-01-01

    Procedures are described to measure acoustic reflectance and admittance in human adult and infant ears at frequencies from 0.2 to 8 kHz. Transfer functions were measured at ambient pressure in the ear canal, and as down- or up-swept tympanograms. Acoustically estimated ear-canal area was used to calculate ear reflectance, which was parameterized by absorbance and group delay over all frequencies (and pressures), with substantial data reduction for tympanograms. Admittance measured at the probe tip in adults was transformed into an equivalent admittance at the eardrum using a transmission-line model for an ear canal with specified area and ear-canal length. Ear-canal length was estimated from group delay around the frequency above 2 kHz of minimum absorbance. Illustrative measurements in ears with normal function are described for an adult, and two infants at 1 month of age with normal hearing and a conductive hearing loss. The sensitivity of this equivalent eardrum admittance was calculated for varying estimates of area and length. Infant-ear patterns of absorbance peaks aligned in frequency with dips in group delay were explained by a model of resonant canal-wall mobility. Procedures will be applied in a large study of wideband clinical diagnosis and monitoring of middle-ear and cochlear function. PMID:26723319

  17. Vibro-Acoustic Response of Buildings Due to Sonic Boom Exposure: July 2007 Field Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klos, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    During the month of July 2007, a series of structural response measurements were made on a house on Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB) property that was exposed to sonic booms of various amplitudes. The purpose of this report is to document the measurements that were made, the structure on which they were made, the conditions under which they were made, the sensors and other hardware that were used, and the data that were collected. To that end, Chapter 2 documents the house, its location, the physical layout of the house, the surrounding area, and summarizes the transducers placed in and around the house. Chapter 3 details the sensors and other hardware that were placed in the house during the experiment. In addition, day-to-day variations of hardware configurations and transducer calibrations are documented in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 documents the boom generation process, flight conditions, and ambient weather conditions during the test days. Chapter 5 includes information about sub-experiments that were performed to characterize the vibro-acoustic response of the structure, the acoustic environment inside the house, and the acoustic environment outside the house. Chapter 6 documents the data format and presents examples of reduced data that were collected during the test days.

  18. Binding Dynamics of Targeted Microbubbles in Response to Modulated Acoustic Radiation Force

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shiying; Hossack, John A; Klibanov, Alexander L; Mauldin, F William

    2014-01-01

    Detection of molecular targeted microbubbles plays a foundational role in ultrasound-based molecular imaging and targeted gene or drug delivery. In this paper, an empirical model describing the binding dynamics of targeted microbubbles in response to modulated acoustic radiation forces in large vessels is presented and experimentally verified using tissue-mimicking flow phantoms. Higher flow velocity and microbubble concentration led to faster detaching rates for specifically bound microbubbles (p < 0.001). Higher time-averaged acoustic radiation force intensity led to faster attaching rates and a higher saturation level of specifically bound microbubbles (p < 0.05). The level of residual microbubble signal in targeted experiments after cessation of radiation forces was the only response parameter that was reliably different between targeted and control experiments (p < 0.05). A related parameter, the ratio of residual-to-saturated microbubble signal (Rresid), is proposed as a measurement that is independent of absolute acoustic signal magnitude and therefore able to reliably detect targeted adhesion independently of control measurements (p < 0.01). These findings suggest the possibility of enhanced detection of specifically bound microbubbles in real-time, using relatively short imaging protocols (approximately 3 min), without waiting for free microbubble clearance. PMID:24374866

  19. Time-dependent response of filamentary composite spherical pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    A filamentary composite spherical pressure vessel is modeled as a pseudoisotropic (or transversely isotropic) composite shell, with the effects of the liner and fill tubes omitted. Equations of elasticity, macromechanical and micromechanical formulations, and laminate properties are derived for the application of an internally pressured spherical composite vessel. Viscoelastic properties for the composite matrix are used to characterize time-dependent behavior. Using the maximum strain theory of failure, burst pressure and critical strain equations are formulated, solved in the Laplace domain with an associated elastic solution, and inverted back into the time domain using the method of collocation. Viscoelastic properties of HBFR-55 resin are experimentally determined and a Kevlar/HBFR-55 system is evaluated with a FORTRAN program. The computed reduction in burst pressure with respect to time indicates that the analysis employed may be used to predict the time-dependent response of a filamentary composite spherical pressure vessel.

  20. Effects of an elastic mass on frequency response characteristics of an ultra-thin piezoelectric micro-acoustic actuator.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Jin; Yang, Woo Seok; No, Kwangsoo

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents an optimized method to improve the sound quality of ultra-thin piezoelectric micro-acoustic actuators. To achieve flat and smooth frequency response characteristics of the piezoelectric acoustic actuators, we have proposed an elastic mass attached to the acoustic diaphragm. The effects of the elastic mass on frequency response characteristics of the piezoelectric acoustic actuator were investigated by finite element analysis simulation and laser scanning vibrometer measurement. Based on the modal and vibrational characteristics, it was found that the fabricated piezoelectric acoustic actuator has a significant dip of 1.32 kHz and peak of 2.24 kHz, which correspond respectively to the (1,3) and (3,1) resonant modes of the acoustic diaphragm. However, by attaching an elastic mass to the acoustic diaphragm with a shape similar to the (3,1) mode, the resonant frequencies corresponding to the (1,3) and (3,1) modes shifted to higher frequencies and the vibrational displacements at each mode were dramatically reduced by about 40%. As a result, the dip at (1,3) mode was greatly improved by 13 dB and total harmonic distortion was dramatically reduced from 80.83% to 8.71%. This paper shows that the optimized elastic mass can allow flat and smooth frequency response characteristics by improving the significant peak and dip.

  1. Prenatal features of Pena-Shokeir sequence with atypical response to acoustic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Pittyanont, Sirida; Jatavan, Phudit; Suwansirikul, Songkiat; Tongsong, Theera

    2016-09-01

    A fetal sonographic screening examination performed at 23 weeks showed polyhydramnios, micrognathia, fixed postures of all long bones, but no movement and no breathing. The fetus showed fetal heart rate acceleration but no movement when acoustic stimulation was applied with artificial larynx. All these findings persisted on serial examinations. The neonate was stillborn at 37 weeks and a final diagnosis of Pena-Shokeir sequence was made. In addition to typical sonographic features of Pena-Shokeir sequence, fetal heart rate accelerations with no movement in response to acoustic stimulation suggests that peripheral myopathy may possibly play an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 44:459-462, 2016.

  2. Structural Acoustic Response of a Shape Memory Alloy Hybrid Composite Panel (Lessons Learned)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.

    2002-01-01

    This study presents results from an effort to fabricate a shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) panel specimen and test the structure for dynamic response and noise transmission characteristics under the action of thermal and random acoustic loads. A method for fabricating a SMAHC laminate with bi-directional SMA reinforcement is described. Glass-epoxy unidirectional prepreg tape and Nitinol ribbon comprise the material system. Thermal activation of the Nitinol actuators was achieved through resistive heating. The experimental hardware required for mechanical support of the panel/actuators and for establishing convenient electrical connectivity to the actuators is presented. Other experimental apparatus necessary for controlling the panel temperature and acquiring structural acoustic data are also described. Deficiency in the thermal control system was discovered in the process of performing the elevated temperature tests. Discussion of the experimental results focuses on determining the causes for the deficiency and establishing means for rectifying the problem.

  3. Acoustically determined linear piezoelectric response of lithium niobate up to 1100 V

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, N.; Branch, D. W.; Cular, S.; Schamiloglu, E.

    2014-04-21

    We present a method to measure high voltages using the piezoelectric crystal lithium niobate without using voltage dividers. A 36° Y-X cut lithium niobate crystal was coupled to two acoustic transducers, where direct current voltages were applied from 128–1100 V. The time-of-flight through the crystal was determined to be linearly dependent on the applied voltage. A model was developed to predict the time-delay in response to the applied voltage. The results show a sensitivity of 17 fs/V with a measurement error of 1 fs/V was achievable using this method. The sensitivity of this method can be increased by measuring the acoustic wave after multiple passes through the crystal. This method has many advantages over traditional techniques such as: favorable scalability for larger voltages, ease of use, cost effectiveness, and compactness.

  4. Physiological response to ''pressure-demand'' respirator wear

    SciTech Connect

    Raven, P.B.; Bradley, O.; Rohm-Young, D.; McClure, F.L.; Skaggs, B.

    1982-07-01

    This investigation determined cardiorespiratory responses of subjects with normal lung function and exercise tolerance and compared them with subjects with moderate impairment of lung function and exercise tolerance. The respirator was an air-line full-face mask (MSA-Ultravue) ''pressure-demand'' breathing type equipped with an inspiratory resistance of 85 mmH/sub 2/0 at 85 L/min air flow. This resistance was operable in conjunction with the fixed 25 mmH/sub 2/O inspiratory and expiratory resistance required to pressurize the face piece. Physiologically and subjectively the response of the normal and moderately impaired subjects to respirator wear during rest, 35%, 50% and 80% of their maximal aerobic capacity (VO/sub 2//sub max/) were not different. However, the pressure swings inside the face piece exceeded 24 cm H/sub 2/O and resulted in 50% of the subjects being unable to finish 10 minutes of work at 80% VO/sub 2//sub max/. The greater the ventilatory demand placed upon the respirator due to increasing workload, the more like a ''demand'' system pressure-flow response the ''pressure-demand'' system produced. Hence, the concept of increased protection and reduced inspiratory resistance as a result of pressurizing the facepiece during heavy work is seriously questioned.

  5. Source analysis of auditory steady-state responses in acoustic and electric hearing.

    PubMed

    Luke, Robert; De Vos, Astrid; Wouters, Jan

    2017-02-15

    Speech is a complex signal containing a broad variety of acoustic information. For accurate speech reception, the listener must perceive modulations over a range of envelope frequencies. Perception of these modulations is particularly important for cochlear implant (CI) users, as all commercial devices use envelope coding strategies. Prolonged deafness affects the auditory pathway. However, little is known of how cochlear implantation affects the neural processing of modulated stimuli. This study investigates and contrasts the neural processing of envelope rate modulated signals in acoustic and CI listeners. Auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) are used to study the neural processing of amplitude modulated (AM) signals. A beamforming technique is applied to determine the increase in neural activity relative to a control condition, with particular attention paid to defining the accuracy and precision of this technique relative to other tomographies. In a cohort of 44 acoustic listeners, the location, activity and hemispheric lateralisation of ASSRs is characterised while systematically varying the modulation rate (4, 10, 20, 40 and 80Hz) and stimulation ear (right, left and bilateral). We demonstrate a complex pattern of laterality depending on both modulation rate and stimulation ear that is consistent with, and extends, existing literature. We present a novel extension to the beamforming method which facilitates source analysis of electrically evoked auditory steady-state responses (EASSRs). In a cohort of 5 right implanted unilateral CI users, the neural activity is determined for the 40Hz rate and compared to the acoustic cohort. Results indicate that CI users activate typical thalamic locations for 40Hz stimuli. However, complementary to studies of transient stimuli, the CI population has atypical hemispheric laterality, preferentially activating the contralateral hemisphere.

  6. An acoustic emission and acousto-ultrasonic analysis of impact damaged composite pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L. (Principal Investigator); Walker, James L.

    1996-01-01

    The use of acoustic emission to characterize impact damage in composite structures is being performed on composite bottles wrapped with graphite epoxy and kevlar bottles. Further development of the acoustic emission methodology will include neural net analysis and/or other multivariate techniques to enhance the capability of the technique to identify dominant failure mechanisms during fracture. The acousto-ultrasonics technique will also continue to be investigated to determine its ability to predict regions prone to failure prior to the burst tests. Characterization of the stress wave factor before, and after impact damage will be useful for inspection purposes in manufacturing processes. The combination of the two methods will also allow for simple nondestructive tests capable of predicting the performance of a composite structure prior to its being placed in service and during service.

  7. Generation of ion-acoustic waves in an inductively coupled, low-pressure discharge lamp

    SciTech Connect

    Camparo, J. C.; Klimcak, C. M.

    2006-04-15

    For a number of years it has been known that the alkali rf-discharge lamps used in atomic clocks can exhibit large amplitude intensity oscillations. These oscillations arise from ion-acoustic plasma waves and have typically been associated with erratic clock behavior. Though large amplitude ion-acoustic plasma waves are clearly deleterious for atomic clock operation, it does not follow that small amplitude oscillations have no utility. Here, we demonstrate two easily implemented methods for generating small amplitude ion-acoustic plasma waves in alkali rf-discharge lamps. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the frequency of these waves is proportional to the square root of the rf power driving the lamp and therefore that their examination can provide an easily accessible parameter for monitoring and controlling the lamp's plasma conditions. This has important consequences for precise timekeeping, since the atomic ground-state hyperfine transition, which is the heart of the atomic clock signal, can be significantly perturbed by changes in the lamp's output via the ac-Stark shift.

  8. Ultrahigh-pressure acoustic wave velocities of SiO2-Al2O3 glasses up to 200 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohira, Itaru; Murakami, Motohiko; Kohara, Shinji; Ohara, Koji; Ohtani, Eiji

    2016-12-01

    Extensive experimental studies on the structure and density of silicate glasses as laboratory analogs of natural silicate melts have attempted to address the nature of dense silicate melts that may be present at the base of the mantle. Previous ultrahigh-pressure experiments, however, have been performed on simple systems such as SiO2 or MgSiO3, and experiments in more complex system have been conducted under relatively low-pressure conditions below 60 GPa. The effect of other metal cations on structural changes that occur in dense silicate glasses under ultrahigh pressures has been poorly understood. Here, we used a Brillouin scattering spectroscopic method up to pressures of 196.9 GPa to conduct in situ high-pressure acoustic wave velocity measurements of SiO2-Al2O3 glasses in order to understand the effect of Al2O3 on pressure-induced structural changes in the glasses as analogs of aluminosilicate melts. From 10 to 40 GPa, the transverse acoustic wave velocity ( V S ) of Al2O3-rich glass (SiO2 + 20.5 mol% Al2O3) was greater than that of Al2O3-poor glass (SiO2 + 3.9 mol% Al2O3). This result suggests that SiO2-Al2O3 glasses with higher proportions of Al ions with large oxygen coordination numbers (5 and 6) become elastically stiffer up to 40 GPa, depending on the Al2O3 content, but then soften above 40 GPa. At pressures from 40 to ~100 GPa, the increase in V S with increasing pressure became less steep than below 40 GPa. Above ~100 GPa, there were abrupt increases in the P-V S gradients ( dV S /dP) at 130 GPa in Al2O3-poor glass and at 116 GPa in Al2O3-rich glass. These changes resemble previous experimental results on SiO2 glass and MgSiO3 glass. Given that changes of dV S / dP have commonly been related to changes in the Si-O coordination states in the glasses, our results, therefore, may indicate a drastic structural transformation in SiO2-Al2O3 glasses above 116 GPa, possibly associated with an average Si-O coordination number change to higher than 6. Compared

  9. Incubation pit analysis and calculation of the hydrodynamic impact pressure from the implosion of an acoustic cavitation bubble.

    PubMed

    Tzanakis, I; Eskin, D G; Georgoulas, A; Fytanidis, D K

    2014-03-01

    An experimental study to evaluate cavitation bubble dynamics is conducted. The aim is to predict the magnitude and statistical distribution of hydrodynamic impact pressure generated from the implosion of various individual acoustic cavitation bubbles near to a rigid boundary, considering geometrical features of the pitted area. A steel sample was subjected to cavitation impacts by an ultrasonic transducer with a 5mm diameter probe. The pitted surface was then examined using high-precision 3D optical interferometer techniques. Only the incubation period where surface is plastically deformed without material loss is taken into account. The exposure time was adjusted in the range of 3-60 s to avoid pit overlapping and a special procedure for pit analysis and characterisation was then followed. Moreover, a high-speed camera device was deployed to capture the implosion mechanisms of cavitation bubbles near to the surface. The geometrical characteristics of single incubation pits as well as pit clusters were studied and their deformation patterns were compared. Consequently, a reverse engineering approach was applied in order the hydrodynamic impact pressure from the implosion of an individual cavitation bubble to be determined. The characteristic parameters of the cavitation implosion process such as hydrodynamic impact pressure and liquid micro-jet impact velocity as well as the hydrodynamic severity of the cavitation impacts were quantified. It was found that the length of the hypotenuse of the orthographic projections from the center of the pit, which basically represents the deformed area of the pit, increases with the hydrodynamic impact aggressiveness in a linear rate. Majority of the hydrodynamic impacts were in the range of 0.4-1 GPa while the corresponding micro-jet velocities were found to be in the range of 200-700 m/s. Outcomes of this study, contribute to further understanding the cavitation intensity from the implosion of acoustically generated bubbles and

  10. A Patch Density Recommendation based on Convergence Studies for Vehicle Panel Vibration Response resulting from Excitation by a Diffuse Acoustic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Andrew; LaVerde, Bruce; Jones, Douglas; Towner, Robert; Waldon, James; Hunt, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Producing fluid structural interaction estimates of panel vibration from an applied pressure field excitation are quite dependent on the spatial correlation of the pressure field. There is a danger of either over estimating a low frequency response or under predicting broad band panel response in the more modally dense bands if the pressure field spatial correlation is not accounted for adequately. It is a useful practice to simulate the spatial correlation of the applied pressure field over a 2d surface using a matrix of small patch area regions on a finite element model (FEM). Use of a fitted function for the spatial correlation between patch centers can result in an error if the choice of patch density is not fine enough to represent the more continuous spatial correlation function throughout the intended frequency range of interest. Several patch density assumptions to approximate the fitted spatial correlation function are first evaluated using both qualitative and quantitative illustrations. The actual response of a typical vehicle panel system FEM is then examined in a convergence study where the patch density assumptions are varied over the same model. The convergence study results illustrate the impacts possible from a poor choice of patch density on the analytical response estimate. The fitted correlation function used in this study represents a diffuse acoustic field (DAF) excitation of the panel to produce vibration response.

  11. The structural response of gadolinium phosphate to pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heffernan, Karina M.; Ross, Nancy L.; Spencer, Elinor C.; Boatner, Lynn A.

    2016-09-01

    Accurate elastic constants for gadolinium phosphate (GdPO4) have been measured by single-crystal high-pressure diffraction methods. The bulk modulus of GdPO4 determined under hydrostatic conditions, 128.1(8) GPa (Kʹ=5.8(2)), is markedly different from that obtained with GdPO4 under non-hydrostatic conditions (160(2) GPa), which indicates the importance of shear stresses on the elastic response of this phosphate. High pressure Raman and diffraction analysis indicate that the PO4 tetrahedra behave as rigid units in response to pressure and that contraction of the GdPO4 structure is facilitated by bending/twisting of the Gd-O-P links that result in increased distortion in the GdO9 polyhedra.

  12. The structural response of gadolinium phosphate to pressure

    DOE PAGES

    Heffernan, Karina M.; Ross, Nancy L.; Spencer, Elinor C.; ...

    2016-06-16

    In this study, accurate elastic constants for gadolinium phosphate (GdPO4) have been measured by single-crystal high-pressure diffraction methods. The bulk modulus of GdPO4 determined under hydrostatic conditions, 128.1(8) GPa (K'=5.8(2)), is markedly different from that obtained with GdPO4 under non-hydrostatic conditions (160(2) GPa), which indicates the importance of shear stresses on the elastic response of this phosphate. Finally, high pressure Raman and diffraction analysis indicate that the PO4 tetrahedra behave as rigid units in response to pressure and that contraction of the GdPO4 structure is facilitated by bending/twisting of the Gd–O–P links that result in increased distortion in the GdO9more » polyhedra.« less

  13. The structural response of gadolinium phosphate to pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Heffernan, Karina M.; Ross, Nancy L.; Spencer, Elinor C.; Boatner, Lynn A.

    2016-06-16

    In this study, accurate elastic constants for gadolinium phosphate (GdPO4) have been measured by single-crystal high-pressure diffraction methods. The bulk modulus of GdPO4 determined under hydrostatic conditions, 128.1(8) GPa (K'=5.8(2)), is markedly different from that obtained with GdPO4 under non-hydrostatic conditions (160(2) GPa), which indicates the importance of shear stresses on the elastic response of this phosphate. Finally, high pressure Raman and diffraction analysis indicate that the PO4 tetrahedra behave as rigid units in response to pressure and that contraction of the GdPO4 structure is facilitated by bending/twisting of the Gd–O–P links that result in increased distortion in the GdO9 polyhedra.

  14. Apparatus and method for non-contact, acoustic resonance determination of intraocular pressure

    DOEpatents

    Sinha, Dipen N.; Wray, William O.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus and method for measuring intraocular pressure changes in an eye under investigation by detection of vibrational resonances therein. An ultrasonic transducer operating at its resonant frequency is amplitude modulated and swept over a range of audio frequencies in which human eyes will resonate. The output therefrom is focused onto the eye under investigation, and the resonant vibrations of the eye observed using a fiber-optic reflection vibration sensor. Since the resonant frequency of the eye is dependent on the pressure therein, changes in intraocular pressure may readily be determined after a baseline pressure is established.

  15. Apparatus and method for non-contact, acoustic resonance determination of intraocular pressure

    DOEpatents

    Sinha, D.N.; Wray, W.O.

    1994-12-27

    The apparatus and method for measuring intraocular pressure changes in an eye under investigation by detection of vibrational resonances therein. An ultrasonic transducer operating at its resonant frequency is amplitude modulated and swept over a range of audio frequencies in which human eyes will resonate. The output therefrom is focused onto the eye under investigation, and the resonant vibrations of the eye observed using a fiber-optic reflection vibration sensor. Since the resonant frequency of the eye is dependent on the pressure therein, changes in intraocular pressure may readily be determined after a baseline pressure is established. 3 figures.

  16. Phenomenological Description of Acoustic Emission Processes Occurring During High-Pressure Sand Compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado-Martín, Jordi; Muñoz-Ibáñez, Andrea; Grande-García, Elisa; Rodríguez-Cedrún, Borja

    2016-04-01

    Compaction, pore collapse and grain crushing have a significant impact over the hydrodynamic properties of sand formations. The assessment of the crushing stress threshold constitutes valuable information in order to assess the behavior of these formations provided that it can be conveniently identified. Because of the inherent complexities of the direct observation of sand crushing, different authors have developed several indirect methods, being acoustic emission a promising one. However, previous researches have evidenced that there are different processes triggering acoustic emissions which need to be carefully accounted. Worth mentioning among them are grain bearing, grain to container friction, intergranular friction and crushing. The work presented here addresses this purpose. A broadband acoustic emission sensor (PA MicroHF200) connected to a high-speed data acquisition system and control software (AeWIN for PCI1 2.10) has been attached to a steel ram and used to monitor the different processes occurring during the oedometric compaction of uniform quartz sand up to an axial load of about 110 MPa and constant temperature. Load was stepwise applied using a servocontrolled hydraulic press acting at a constant load rate. Axial strain was simultaneously measured with the aid of a LDT device. Counts, energy, event duration, rise time and amplitude were recorded along each experiment and after completion selected waveforms were transformed from the time to the frequency domain via FFT transform. Additional simplified tests were performed in order to isolate the frequency characteristics of the dominant processes occurring during sand compaction. Our results show that, from simple tests, it is possible to determine process-dependent frequency components. When considering more complex experiments, many of the studied processes overlap but it is still possible to identify when a particular one dominates as well as the likely onset of crushing.

  17. Acoustic study of the elastic and inelastic properties of high-pressure polyethylene samples with different irradiation histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardashev, B. K.; Nikanorov, S. P.; Kravchenko, V. S.; Malinov, V. I.; Punin, V. T.

    2007-11-01

    The influence of vibrational deformation amplitude ɛ on the dynamic elasticity modulus (Young’s modulus E) and internal friction (logarithmic decrement δ) of high-pressure polyethylene samples with different histories is studied. Acoustic measurements are made by a resonance method using the longitudinal vibrations of a composite piezoelectric vibrator at a frequency of ≈ 100 kHz. The dependences E(ɛ) and δ(ɛ) are taken at room temperature. From the acoustic data, the elasticity and microplasticity of the samples are estimated. It is found that the microplasticity remains almost unaffected upon irradiation and aging, while the elasticity modulus and breaking elongation per unit length considerably depend on the history and clearly correlated with each other. The observed effects are explained by the fact that atom-atom interaction and defects inside polymer macromolecules substantially influence the elastic modulus and breaking strength, while the inelastic microplastic strain is most likely associated with molecule-molecule interaction, which is affected by irradiation insignificantly.

  18. Nondeterministic wave-based methods for low- and mid-frequency response analysis of acoustic field with limited information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Baizhan; Yin, Hui; Yu, Dejie

    2017-02-01

    The response of the acoustic field, especially for the mid-frequency response, is very sensitive to uncertainties rising from manufacturing/construction tolerances, aggressive environmental factors and unpredictable excitations. To quantify these uncertainties with limited information effectively, two nondeterministic models (the interval model and the hybrid probability-interval model) are introduced. And then, two corresponding nondeterministic numerical methods are developed for the low- and mid-frequency response analysis of the acoustic field under these two nondeterministic models. The first one is the interval perturbation wave-based method (IPWBM) which is proposed to predict the maximal values of the low- and mid-frequency responses of the acoustic field under the interval model. The second one is the hybrid perturbation wave-based method (HPWBM) which is proposed to predict the maximal values of expectations and standard variances of the low- and mid-frequency responses of the acoustic field under the hybrid probability-interval model. The effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed nondeterministic numerical methods for the low- and mid-frequency response analysis of the acoustic field under the interval model and the hybrid probability-interval model are investigated by a numerical example.

  19. Surface acoustic wave response to optical absorption by graphene composite film.

    PubMed

    Chivukula, Venkata S; Ciplys, Daumantas; Kim, Jin Ho; Rimeika, Romualdas; Xu, Jimmy M; Shur, Michael S

    2012-02-01

    Propagation of surface acoustic waves in YZ LiNbO3 overlaid with graphene flakes has been investigated and its optical response to illumination by 633-nm light from a He-Ne laser was studied. The heating of the sample surface caused by optical absorption by the graphene led to a downshift in the transmitted SAW phase caused by the wave velocity's dependence on temperature. The proposed simple model based on optothermal SAW phase modulation was found to be in good agreement with the experimental results.

  20. Investigating the emotional response to room acoustics: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Lawless, M S; Vigeant, M C

    2015-10-01

    While previous research has demonstrated the powerful influence of pleasant and unpleasant music on emotions, the present study utilizes functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess the positive and negative emotional responses as demonstrated in the brain when listening to music convolved with varying room acoustic conditions. During fMRI scans, subjects rated auralizations created in a simulated concert hall with varying reverberation times. The analysis detected activations in the dorsal striatum, a region associated with anticipation of reward, for two individuals for the highest rated stimulus, though no activations were found for regions associated with negative emotions in any subject.

  1. Nanorod-Based Fast-Response Pressure-Sensitive Paints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bencic, Timothy; VanderWal, Randall

    2007-01-01

    A proposed program of research and development would be devoted to exploitation of nanomaterials in pressuresensitive paints (PSPs), which are used on wind-tunnel models for mapping surface pressures associated with flow fields. Heretofore, some success has been achieved in measuring steady-state pressures by use of PSPs, but success in measuring temporally varying pressures has been elusive because of the inherent slowness of the optical responses of these materials. A PSP contains a dye that luminesces in a suitable wavelength range in response to photoexcitation in a shorter wavelength range. The luminescence is quenched by oxygen at a rate proportional to the partial pressure of oxygen and thus proportional to the pressure of air. As a result, the intensity of luminescence varies inversely with the pressure of air. The major problem in developing a PSP that could be easily applied to a wind-tunnel model and could be useful for measuring rapidly varying pressure is to provide very high gas diffusivity for rapid, easy transport of oxygen to and from active dye molecules. Most PSPs include polymer-base binders, which limit the penetration of oxygen to dye molecules, thereby reducing responses to pressure fluctuations. The proposed incorporation of nanomaterials (somewhat more specifically, nanorods) would result in paints having nanostructured surfaces that, relative to conventional PSP surfaces, would afford easier and more nearly complete access of oxygen molecules to dye molecules. One measure of greater access is effective surface area: For a typical PSP as proposed applied to a given solid surface, the nanometer-scale structural features would result in an exposed surface area more than 100 times that of a conventional PSP, and the mass of proposed PSP needed to cover the surface would be less than tenth of the mass of the conventional PSP. One aspect of the proposed development would be to synthesize nanorods of Si/SiO2, in both tangle-mat and regular- array

  2. Non-invasive estimation of static and pulsatile intracranial pressure from transcranial acoustic signals.

    PubMed

    Levinsky, Alexandra; Papyan, Surik; Weinberg, Guy; Stadheim, Trond; Eide, Per Kristian

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether a method for estimation of non-invasive ICP (nICP) from transcranial acoustic (TCA) signals mixed with head-generated sounds estimate the static and pulsatile invasive ICP (iICP). For that purpose, simultaneous iICP and mixed TCA signals were obtained from patients undergoing continuous iICP monitoring as part of clinical management. The ear probe placed in the right outer ear channel sent a TCA signal with fixed frequency (621 Hz) that was picked up by the left ear probe along with acoustic signals generated by the intracranial compartment. Based on a mathematical model of the association between mixed TCA and iICP, the static and pulsatile nICP values were determined. Total 39 patients were included in the study; the total number of observations for prediction of static and pulsatile iICP were 5789 and 6791, respectively. The results demonstrated a good agreement between iICP/nICP observations, with mean difference of 0.39 mmHg and 0.53 mmHg for static and pulsatile ICP, respectively. In summary, in this cohort of patients, mixed TCA signals estimated the static and pulsatile iICP with rather good accuracy. Further studies are required to validate whether mixed TCA signals may become useful for measurement of nICP.

  3. The Responsivity of a Miniaturized Passive Implantable Wireless Pressure Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hao; Lan, Di; Goldman, Ken; Etemadi, Mozziyar; Shahnasser, Hamid; Roy, Shuvo

    2011-01-01

    A miniature batteryless implantable wireless pressure sensor that can be used deep inside the body is desired by the medical community. MEMS technology makes it possible to achieve high responsivity that directly determines the operating distance between a miniature implanted sensor and the external RF probe, while providing the read-out. In this paper, for the first time, an analytical expression of the system responsivity versus the sensor design is derived using an equivalent circuit model. Also, the integration of micro-coil inductors and pressure sensitive capacitors on a single silicon chip using MEMS fabrication techniques is demonstrated. Further, the derived analytical design theory is validated by the measured responsivity of these sensors. PMID:25309965

  4. Acoustic responses of monodisperse lipid-encapsulated microbubble contrast agents produced by flow focusing

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Mehmet; Feingold, Steven; Hettiarachchi, Kanaka; Lee, Abraham P; Dayton, Paul A

    2010-01-01

    Lipid-encapsulated microbubbles are used as contrast agents in ultrasound imaging. Currently available commercially made contrast agents have a polydisperse size distribution. It has been hypothesised that improved imaging sensitivity could be achieved with a uniform microbubble radius. We have recently developed microfluidics technology to produce contrast agents with a nearly monodisperse distribution. In this manuscript, we analyze echo responses from individual microbubbles from monodisperse populations in order to establish the relationship between scattered echo, microbubble radius, and excitation frequency. Simulations of bubble response from a modified Rayleigh-Plesset type model corroborate experimental data. Results indicate that microbubble echo response can be greatly increased by optimal combinations of microbubble radius and acoustic excitation frequency. These results may have a significant impact in the formulation of contrast agents to improve ultrasonic sensitivity. PMID:21475641

  5. External and middle ear sound pressure distribution and acoustic coupling to the tympanic membrane.

    PubMed

    Bergevin, Christopher; Olson, Elizabeth S

    2014-03-01

    Sound energy is conveyed to the inner ear by the diaphanous, cone-shaped tympanic membrane (TM). The TM moves in a complex manner and transmits sound signals to the inner ear with high fidelity, pressure gain, and a short delay. Miniaturized sensors allowing high spatial resolution in small spaces and sensitivity to high frequencies were used to explore how pressure drives the TM. Salient findings are: (1) A substantial pressure drop exists across the TM, and varies in frequency from ∼10 to 30 dB. It thus appears reasonable to approximate the drive to the TM as being defined solely by the pressure in the ear canal (EC) close to the TM. (2) Within the middle ear cavity (MEC), spatial variations in sound pressure could vary by more than 20 dB, and the MEC pressure at certain locations/frequencies was as large as in the EC. (3) Spatial variations in pressure along the TM surface on the EC-side were typically less than 5 dB up to 50 kHz. Larger surface variations were observed on the MEC-side.

  6. Pressure response in deep-sea piezophilic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kato, C; Qureshi, M H

    1999-08-01

    Several piezophilic bacteria have been isolated from deep-sea environments under high hydrostatic pressure. Taxonomic studies of the isolates showed that the piezophilic bacteria are not widely distributed in terms of taxonomic positions, and all were assigned to particular branches of the Proteobacteria gamma-subgroup. A pressure-regulated operon from piezophilic bacteria of the genus Shewanella, S. benthica and S. violacea, was cloned and sequenced, and downstream of this operon another pressure regulated operon, cydD-C, was found. The cydD gene was found to be essential for the bacterial growth under high-pressure conditions, and the product of this gene was found to play a role in their respiratory system. Results obtained later indicated that the respiratory system in piezophilic bacteria may be important for survival in a high-pressure environment, and more studies focusing on other components of the respiratory chain have been conducted. These studies suggested that piezophilic bacteria are capable of changing their respiratory system in response to pressure conditions, and a proposed respiratory chain model has been suggested in this regard.

  7. The Acoustic Field Scattered from Some Approximate Pressure Release Materials Coating a Finite Cyclinder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    Center Frequency) 101 Figure 3-29 Normalized Scattered Pressure Versus ka for Thick Finite Shell (b/a =.9) with Axial Incidence (Solid Line is Shell...Incidence (45 kiz Center Frequency) 104 Figure 3-31 Normalized Scattered Pressure Versus ka for Thick Finite Shell (b/a =.9) with Axial Incidence and...with 0.25 inches of Neoprene for Normal Incidence (20 kHz Center Frequency) 112 X; Figure 3-36 Normalized Scattered Pressure Versus ka for Thick Finite

  8. The structural response of gadolinium phosphate to pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Heffernan, Karina M.; Ross, Nancy L.; Spencer, Elinor C.; Boatner, Lynn A.

    2016-09-15

    Accurate elastic constants for gadolinium phosphate (GdPO{sub 4}) have been measured by single-crystal high-pressure diffraction methods. The bulk modulus of GdPO{sub 4} determined under hydrostatic conditions, 128.1(8) GPa (K′=5.8(2)), is markedly different from that obtained with GdPO{sub 4} under non-hydrostatic conditions (160(2) GPa), which indicates the importance of shear stresses on the elastic response of this phosphate. High pressure Raman and diffraction analysis indicate that the PO{sub 4} tetrahedra behave as rigid units in response to pressure and that contraction of the GdPO{sub 4} structure is facilitated by bending/twisting of the Gd–O–P links that result in increased distortion in the GdO{sub 9} polyhedra. - Graphical abstract: A high-pressure single crystal diffraction study of GdPO{sub 4} with the monazite structure is presented. The elastic behaviour of rare-earth phosphates are believed to be sensitive to shear forces. The bulk modulus of GdPO{sub 4} measured under hydrostatic conditions is 128.1(8) GPa. Compression of the structure is facilitated by bending/twisting of the Gd−O−P links that result in increased distortion in the GdO{sub 9} polyhedra. Display Omitted - Highlights: • The elastic responses of rare-earth phosphates are sensitive to shear forces. • The bulk modulus of GdPO{sub 4} measured under hydrostatic conditions is 128.1(8) GPa. • Twisting of the inter-polyhedral links allows compression of the GdPO{sub 4} structure. • Changes to the GdO{sub 9} polyhedra occur in response to pressure (<7.0 GPa).

  9. Use of large-scale acoustic monitoring to assess anthropogenic pressures on Orthoptera communities.

    PubMed

    Penone, Caterina; Le Viol, Isabelle; Pellissier, Vincent; Julien, Jean-François; Bas, Yves; Kerbiriou, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Biodiversity monitoring at large spatial and temporal scales is greatly needed in the context of global changes. Although insects are a species-rich group and are important for ecosystem functioning, they have been largely neglected in conservation studies and policies, mainly due to technical and methodological constraints. Sound detection, a nondestructive method, is easily applied within a citizen-science framework and could be an interesting solution for insect monitoring. However, it has not yet been tested at a large scale. We assessed the value of a citizen-science program in which Orthoptera species (Tettigoniidae) were monitored acoustically along roads. We used Bayesian model-averaging analyses to test whether we could detect widely known patterns of anthropogenic effects on insects, such as the negative effects of urbanization or intensive agriculture on Orthoptera populations and communities. We also examined site-abundance correlations between years and estimated the biases in species detection to evaluate and improve the protocol. Urbanization and intensive agricultural landscapes negatively affected Orthoptera species richness, diversity, and abundance. This finding is consistent with results of previous studies of Orthoptera, vertebrates, carabids, and butterflies. The average mass of communities decreased as urbanization increased. The dispersal ability of communities increased as the percentage of agricultural land and, to a lesser extent, urban area increased. Despite changes in abundances over time, we found significant correlations between yearly abundances. We identified biases linked to the protocol (e.g., car speed or temperature) that can be accounted for ease in analyses. We argue that acoustic monitoring of Orthoptera along roads offers several advantages for assessing Orthoptera biodiversity at large spatial and temporal extents, particularly in a citizen science framework.

  10. Acoustic startle response in rats predicts inter-individual variation in fear extinction.

    PubMed

    Russo, Amanda S; Parsons, Ryan G

    2017-03-01

    Although a large portion of the population is exposed to a traumatic event at some point, only a small percentage of the population develops post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), suggesting the presence of predisposing factors. Abnormal acoustic startle response (ASR) has been shown to be associated with PTSD, implicating it as a potential predictor of the development of PTSD-like behavior. Since poor extinction and retention of extinction learning are characteristic of PTSD patients, it is of interest to determine if abnormal ASR is predictive of development of such deficits. To determine whether baseline ASR has utility in predicting the development of PTSD-like behavior, the relationship between baseline ASR and freezing behavior following Pavlovian fear conditioning was examined in a group of adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats. Baseline acoustic startle response (ASR) was assessed preceding exposure to a Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm where freezing behavior was measured during fear conditioning, extinction training, and extinction testing. Although there was no relationship between baseline ASR and fear memory following conditioning, rats with low baseline ASR had significantly lower magnitude of retention of the extinction memory than rats with high baseline ASR. The results suggest that baseline ASR has value as a predictive index of the development of a PTSD-like phenotype.

  11. Habituation of parasympathetic-mediated heart rate responses to recurring acoustic startle

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kuan-Hua; Aksan, Nazan; Anderson, Steven W.; Grafft, Amanda; Chapleau, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Startle habituation is a type of implicit and automatic emotion regulation. Diminished startle habituation is linked to several psychiatric or neurological disorders. Most previous studies quantified startle habituation by assessing skin conductance response (SCR; reflecting sympathetic-mediated sweating), eye-blink reflex, or motor response. The habituation of parasympathetic-mediated heart rate responses to recurrent startle stimuli is not well understood. A variety of methods and metrics have been used to quantify parasympathetic activity and its effects on the heart. We hypothesized that these different measures reflect unique psychological and physiological processes that may habituate differently during repeated startle stimuli. We measured cardiac inter-beat intervals (IBIs) to recurring acoustic startle probes in 75 eight year old children. Eight acoustic stimuli of 500 ms duration were introduced at intervals of 15–25 s. Indices of parasympathetic effect included: (1) the initial rapid decrease in IBI post-startle mediated by parasympathetic inhibition (PI); (2) the subsequent IBI recovery mediated by parasympathetic reactivation (PR); (3) rapid, beat-to-beat heart rate variability (HRV) measured from the first seven IBIs following each startle probe. SCR and motor responses to startle were also measured. Results showed that habituation of PR (IBI recovery and overshoot) and SCRs were rapid and robust. In addition, changes in PR and SCR were significantly correlated. In contrast, habituation of PI (the initial decrease in IBI) was slower and relatively modest. Measurement of rapid HRV provided an index reflecting the combination of PI and PR. We conclude that different measures of parasympathetic-mediated heart rate responses to repeated startle probes habituate in a differential manner. PMID:25477830

  12. Geosat observations of sea level response to barometric pressure forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoar, Timothy J.; Wilson, Clark R.

    1994-01-01

    Altimeter and sea level pressure data from the Geosat mission are analyzed for evidence of inverted barometer responses of sea level to atmospheric pressure forcing. Estimates of the inverted barometer coefficient are given for a variety of geographic regions and time scales using various orbit error removal strategies. There is some sensitivity to the orbit error removal method, but the estimated coefficients show a clear latitudinal dependence and are generally between -0.5 cm/mbar and -0.9 cm/mbar. The southern oceans respond slightly more like an inverted barometer than the northern oceans for similar latitudes. The regression exhibits significant geographic variability, particularly near major circulation features and in the northern hemisphere. The results suggest that the inverted barometer approximation is resonable over much of the oceans, but that some sea level variability may be correlated with barometric pressure by means other than the inverted barometer effect.

  13. Evaluation of the sensitivity of electro-acoustic measurements for process monitoring and control of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, V. J.; O'Neill, F. T.; Dowling, D. P.

    2011-06-01

    The development of non-invasive process diagnostic techniques for the control of atmospheric plasmas is a critical issue for the wider adoption of this technology. This paper evaluates the use of a frequency-domain deconvolution of an electro-acoustic emission as a means to monitor and control the plasma formed using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) system. The air plasma system investigated was formed using a PlasmaTreat™ OpenAir applicator. Change was observed in the electro-acoustic signal with changes in substrate type (ceramic, steel, polymer). APPJ nozzle to substrate distance and substrate feature size were monitored. The decoding of the electro-acoustic emission yields three subdatasets that are described by three separate emission mechanisms. The three emissions are associated with the power supply fundamental drive frequency and its harmonics, the APPJ nozzle longitudinal mode acoustic emission and its odd overtones, and the acoustic surface reflection that is produced by the impedance mismatch between the discharge and the surface. Incorporating this knowledge into a LabVIEW program facilitated the continuous deconvolution of the electro-acoustic data. This enabled the use of specific frequency band test limits to control the APPJ treatment process which is sensitive to both plasma processing conditions and substrate type and features.

  14. Transition and acoustic response of recirculation structures in an unconfined co-axial isothermal swirling flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh, R.; Miglani, Ankur; Basu, Saptarshi

    2013-08-01

    This paper reports the first observations of transition from a pre-vortex breakdown (Pre-VB) flow reversal to a fully developed central toroidal recirculation zone in a non-reacting, double-concentric swirling jet configuration and its response to longitudinal acoustic excitation. This transition proceeds with the formation of two intermediate, critical flow regimes. First, a partially penetrated vortex breakdown bubble (VBB) is formed that indicates the first occurrence of an enclosed structure as the centre jet penetration is suppressed by the growing outer roll-up eddy; resulting in an opposed flow stagnation region. Second, a metastable transition structure is formed that marks the collapse of inner mixing vortices. In this study, the time-averaged topological changes in the coherent recirculation structures are discussed based on the non-dimensional modified Rossby number (Rom) which appears to describe the spreading of the zone of swirl influence in different flow regimes. Further, the time-mean global acoustic response of pre-VB and VBB is measured as a function of pulsing frequency using the relative aerodynamic blockage factor (i.e., maximum radial width of the inner recirculation zone). It is observed that all flow modes except VBB are structurally unstable as they exhibit severe transverse radial shrinkage (˜20%) at the burner Helmholtz resonant modes (100-110 Hz). In contrast, all flow regimes show positional instability as seen by the large-scale, asymmetric spatial shifting of the vortex core centres. Finally, the mixing transfer function M (f) and magnitude squared coherence λ2(f) analysis is presented to determine the natural coupling modes of the system dynamic parameters (u', p'), i.e., local acoustic response. It is seen that the pre-VB flow mode exhibits a narrow-band, low pass filter behavior with a linear response window of 100-105 Hz. However, in the VBB structure, presence of critical regions such as the opposed flow stagnation region

  15. Effects of local cooling on sacral skin perfusion response to pressure: implications for pressure ulcer prevention.

    PubMed

    Tzen, Yi-Ting; Brienza, David M; Karg, Patricia; Loughlin, Patrick

    2010-08-01

    People with spinal cord injuries are at high risk for developing pressure ulcers. Increased skin temperature is one of the extrinsic causative factors for this multi-factorial disease. Previous animal studies revealed that local skin cooling reduced the severity of ulceration, and cooling is widely used in plastic surgery and organ transplants for tissue preservation. The objectives of this pilot study were to develop test protocols and instrumentation and to investigate the effect of local cooling on skin perfusion response to pressure on young healthy human subjects. Reactive hyperemia was quantified in this study to compare the effects of pressure with and without cooling. Reactive hyperemia is a normal physiological response occurring after vessel occlusion. Laser Doppler flowmetry was used to measure skin blood flow. Time-dependent spectral analysis was used to analyze and decompose the blood flow data into frequency ranges associated with specific blood flow control mechanisms. The study used a repeated measures design with two test conditions: 8 kPa of pressure with and without cooling to 25 degrees C. We hypothesized that local cooling would reduce the post-ischemic reactive hyperemic response induced by the rigid indenter. Time series results showed that normalized peak perfusion response was significantly lower with cooling (p=0.019). Time-dependent spectral analysis results suggested that both metabolic and myogenic responses contribute to this protective effect. Findings from our study on humans were consistent with previous animal studies. Additional studies on individuals with spinal cord injury are planned to further evaluate the cooling effect in a high-risk population.

  16. Responses of photonic crystal fibres to pressure, axial strain and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Meng

    Photonic crystal fibres (PCFs) show different elastic and optical properties from conventional silica fibres because they contain periodic transverse microstructures in their profiles. In this dissertation, the microstructure cladding of PCF is regarded as a honeycomb structure which has inhomogeneous elastic properties. Both Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of this region are anisotropic, and are the functions of the air-filling ratio of the microstructure cladding. Based on this assumption, three theoretical models for three types of PCFs (solid-core PCF, hollow-core photonic bandgap fibre and hybrid PCF) are constructed. Using the theoretical models, the responses of PCFs to axial strain, acoustic pressure, temperature and lateral pressure are investigated respectively. The simulation results show that compared with conventional silica fibres, PCFs are predicted to have several novel or improved responses to external measurands, which can be used to enhance the performance of the fibre sensors or construct new PCF-based devices. Hybrid PCF guides light by a novel guiding mechanism, which is a combination of index-guiding and bandgap-guiding. Because the guiding mechanisms of the hybrid PCF are different in two orthogonal directions, high birefringence property is expected. To our knowledge, there is no theoretical model that can simulate the birefringence properties of hybrid PCFs. In this dissertation, a theoretical model for hybrid PCFs is constructed to simulate the birefringence property of hybrid PCFs and the responses of hybrid fibres' birefringence to axial strain and temperature. Using this theoretical model, the birefringence/responses of hybrid PCFs are predicted, as the functions of their design parameters. In experiment, the birefringence of one type of hybrid PCF and its responses to axial strain and temperature is measured. The experimental results agree well with the simulation results, which give us the confidence to use this theoretical model

  17. Cardiovascular responses of women to lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, M. A. B.; Mathes, K. L.; Hoffler, G. W.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) on the cardiovascular response of 20 women between 23-43 years are evaluated. Calf circumference and cardiovascular data were recorded for women in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle at -30, -40, and -50 mm Hg LBNP. The data reveal that the two menstrual phases did not cause differences in the way women respond to LBNP. It is observed that during LBNP calf circumference is enlarged; transthoracic impedance, and heart rate are increased; stroke volume, left ventricular ejection time, the Heather Index of contractility and systolic pressure, and cardiac output are reduced; and total peripheral resistance is elevated. The experimental data are compared to Montgomery et al. (1979). It is noted that the response of women to -50 mm Hg LBNP is similar to that of men; however, women adapt to stresses on the cardiovascular system with greater heart rate adjustments.

  18. The analysis of the transient pressure response of the shuttle EPS-ECS cryogenic tanks with external pressurization systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, J. E.; Patterson, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of transient pressures in externally pressurized cryogenic hydrogen and oxygen tanks was conducted and the effects of design variables on pressure response determined. The analysis was conducted with a computer program which solves the compressible viscous flow equations in two-dimensional regions representing the tank and external loop. The external loop volume, thermal mass, and heat leak were the dominant design variables affecting the system pressure response. No significant temperature stratification occurred in the fluid contained in the tank.

  19. The Effect of Basis Selection on Thermal-Acoustic Random Response Prediction Using Nonlinear Modal Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Przekop, Adam

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to further develop nonlinear modal numerical simulation methods for prediction of geometrically nonlinear response due to combined thermal-acoustic loadings. As with any such method, the accuracy of the solution is dictated by the selection of the modal basis, through which the nonlinear modal stiffness is determined. In this study, a suite of available bases are considered including (i) bending modes only; (ii) coupled bending and companion modes; (iii) uncoupled bending and companion modes; and (iv) bending and membrane modes. Comparison of these solutions with numerical simulation in physical degrees-of-freedom indicates that inclusion of any membrane mode variants (ii - iv) in the basis affects the bending displacement and stress response predictions. The most significant effect is on the membrane displacement, where it is shown that only the type (iv) basis accurately predicts its behavior. Results are presented for beam and plate structures in the thermally pre-buckled regime.

  20. Frequency Response of the Sample Vibration Mode in Scanning Probe Acoustic Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ya-Jun; Cheng, Qian; Qian, Meng-Lu

    2010-05-01

    Based on the interaction mechanism between tip and sample in the contact mode of a scanning probe acoustic microscope (SPAM), an active mass of the sample is introduced in the mass-spring model. The tip motion and frequency response of the sample vibration mode in the SPAM are calculated by the Lagrange equation with dissipation function. For the silicon tip and glass assemblage in the SPAM the frequency response is simulated and it is in agreement with the experimental result. The living myoblast cells on the glass slide are imaged at resonance frequencies of the SPAM system, which are 20kHz, 30kHz and 120kHz. It is shown that good contrast of SPAM images could be obtained when the system is operated at the resonance frequencies of the system in high and low-frequency regions.

  1. Responses to graded lower body negative pressure after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortney, Suzanne M.; Charles, John B.; Wood, Margie; Dussack, Larry

    1992-01-01

    Lower body negative pressure tests (0 to -60 mm Hg) were administered 2-3 times preflight and 4 times postflight (L0 to L7), to evaluate the effect of space flight on orthostatic responses. This paper presents preliminary findings from the first 4 crew members who have completed this protocol. Overall the results suggest a greater orthostatic strain lasting approximately two days postflight, that may have been due to enhanced pooling of blood in body regions other than the calf.

  2. Structural and acoustic responses of a submarine hull due to propeller forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merz, Sascha; Kinns, Roger; Kessissoglou, Nicole

    2009-08-01

    The low frequency structural and acoustic responses of a simplified axisymmetric submarine model to fluctuating propeller forces along the submarine axis are investigated. The forces arise from a hydrodynamic mechanism and are transmitted from the propeller to the submarine hull through both the shaft and the fluid. Numerical models have been developed to simulate the strongly coupled structure-fluid interaction of a submerged vessel in the frequency domain. The structure is modelled using the finite element method, so that more complex features such as ring-stiffeners, bulkheads and the propulsion system can be taken into account. A simple, passive vibration attenuation system known as a resonance changer is included in the model of the propeller/shafting system. The surrounding fluid is modelled using the boundary element method. The influence and importance of model parameters such as structural stiffness and fluid loading effects are investigated. Due to the fluctuating propeller forces, the hull is excited by axial structural forces transmitted through the propeller/shafting system as well as by acoustic dipoles, where the dipoles are correlated to the structural forces in strength and direction. The acoustic dipole at the propeller also radiates sound directly to the far field of the surrounding fluid. It is demonstrated that the performance of the RC is negatively influenced at frequencies above the fundamental axial resonance of the hull by the effect of forces transmitted through the fluid. Another problem arises due to increased axial movement of the propeller, when the RC is optimised to minimise excitation of the hull via the propeller shaft. This results in an additional sound field that excites the submarine hull in a similar manner to the fluid forces that arise directly from the hydrodynamic mechanism.

  3. Discrimination of speech stimuli based on neuronal response phase patterns depends on acoustics but not comprehension.

    PubMed

    Howard, Mary F; Poeppel, David

    2010-11-01

    Speech stimuli give rise to neural activity in the listener that can be observed as waveforms using magnetoencephalography. Although waveforms vary greatly from trial to trial due to activity unrelated to the stimulus, it has been demonstrated that spoken sentences can be discriminated based on theta-band (3-7 Hz) phase patterns in single-trial response waveforms. Furthermore, manipulations of the speech signal envelope and fine structure that reduced intelligibility were found to produce correlated reductions in discrimination performance, suggesting a relationship between theta-band phase patterns and speech comprehension. This study investigates the nature of this relationship, hypothesizing that theta-band phase patterns primarily reflect cortical processing of low-frequency (<40 Hz) modulations present in the acoustic signal and required for intelligibility, rather than processing exclusively related to comprehension (e.g., lexical, syntactic, semantic). Using stimuli that are quite similar to normal spoken sentences in terms of low-frequency modulation characteristics but are unintelligible (i.e., their time-inverted counterparts), we find that discrimination performance based on theta-band phase patterns is equal for both types of stimuli. Consistent with earlier findings, we also observe that whereas theta-band phase patterns differ across stimuli, power patterns do not. We use a simulation model of the single-trial response to spoken sentence stimuli to demonstrate that phase-locked responses to low-frequency modulations of the acoustic signal can account not only for the phase but also for the power results. The simulation offers insight into the interpretation of the empirical results with respect to phase-resetting and power-enhancement models of the evoked response.

  4. Discrimination of Speech Stimuli Based on Neuronal Response Phase Patterns Depends on Acoustics But Not Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Poeppel, David

    2010-01-01

    Speech stimuli give rise to neural activity in the listener that can be observed as waveforms using magnetoencephalography. Although waveforms vary greatly from trial to trial due to activity unrelated to the stimulus, it has been demonstrated that spoken sentences can be discriminated based on theta-band (3–7 Hz) phase patterns in single-trial response waveforms. Furthermore, manipulations of the speech signal envelope and fine structure that reduced intelligibility were found to produce correlated reductions in discrimination performance, suggesting a relationship between theta-band phase patterns and speech comprehension. This study investigates the nature of this relationship, hypothesizing that theta-band phase patterns primarily reflect cortical processing of low-frequency (<40 Hz) modulations present in the acoustic signal and required for intelligibility, rather than processing exclusively related to comprehension (e.g., lexical, syntactic, semantic). Using stimuli that are quite similar to normal spoken sentences in terms of low-frequency modulation characteristics but are unintelligible (i.e., their time-inverted counterparts), we find that discrimination performance based on theta-band phase patterns is equal for both types of stimuli. Consistent with earlier findings, we also observe that whereas theta-band phase patterns differ across stimuli, power patterns do not. We use a simulation model of the single-trial response to spoken sentence stimuli to demonstrate that phase-locked responses to low-frequency modulations of the acoustic signal can account not only for the phase but also for the power results. The simulation offers insight into the interpretation of the empirical results with respect to phase-resetting and power-enhancement models of the evoked response. PMID:20484530

  5. Acoustic stress responses in juvenile sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax induced by offshore pile driving.

    PubMed

    Debusschere, Elisabeth; Hostens, Kris; Adriaens, Dominique; Ampe, Bart; Botteldooren, Dick; De Boeck, Gudrun; De Muynck, Amelie; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Vandendriessche, Sofie; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Vincx, Magda; Degraer, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Underwater sound generated by pile driving during construction of offshore wind farms is a major concern in many countries. This paper reports on the acoustic stress responses in young European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (68 and 115 days old), based on four in situ experiments as close as 45 m from a pile driving activity. As a primary stress response, whole-body cortisol seemed to be too sensitive to 'handling' bias. On the other hand, measured secondary stress responses to pile driving showed significant reductions in oxygen consumption rate and low whole-body lactate concentrations. Furthermore, repeated exposure to impulsive sound significantly affected both primary and secondary stress responses. Under laboratory conditions, no tertiary stress responses (no changes in specific growth rate or Fulton's condition factor) were noted in young sea bass 30 days after the treatment. Still, the demonstrated acute stress responses and potentially repeated exposure to impulsive sound in the field will inevitably lead to less fit fish in the wild.

  6. An evaluation of acoustic emission for in-service crack detection in pressure vessels and pipework

    SciTech Connect

    Tidswell, R.D.; Shipley, M.P.; Cane, B.J.

    1996-12-01

    In an increasingly competitive environment there is a growing need for non-invasive inspection techniques which can be applied in-service to reduce downtime and extend the run time between inspection overhauls. As a result, acoustic emission has begun to be extended to testing during plant operation or cool-down prior to plant outage. Some notable successes have been demonstrated and the technique offers considerable potential for widespread application throughout the refinery, petrochemical and power industries. However, before world-wide acceptance can be gained, a number of critical issues need to be addressed. To address these issues, identify the application areas for which in-service AE is suitable and to provide clear guidelines to successful implementation, ERA has carried out the first independent survey of world-wide plant experience. Approximately 500 facilities were contacted world-wide and detailed discussions with experienced plant operators and service providers has enabled applications to be identified where clear guidelines for the successful implementation of in-service AE can be compiled. A summary of the results of the survey are presented, together with several case studies, illustrating the benefits, limitations and procedures key to the successful implementation of in-service AE.

  7. Acoustic solitons in a magnetized quantum electron-positron-ion plasma with relativistic degenerate electrons and positrons pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdikian, A.; Mahmood, S.

    2016-12-01

    The obliquely nonlinear acoustic solitary propagation in a relativistically quantum magnetized electron-positron (e-p) plasma in the presence of the external magnetic field as well as the stationary ions for neutralizing the plasma background was studied. By considering the dynamic of the fluid e-p quantum and by using the quantum hydrodynamics model and the standard reductive perturbation technique, the Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation is derived for small but finite amplitude waves and the solitary wave solution for the parameters relevant to dense astrophysical objects such as white dwarf stars is obtained. The numerical results show that the relativistic effects lead to propagate the electrostatic bell shape structures in quantum e-p plasmas like those in classical pair-ion or pair species for relativistic plasmas. It is also observed that by increasing the relativistic effects, the amplitude and width of the e-p acoustic solitary wave will decrease. In addition, the wave amplitude increases as positron density decreases in magnetized e-p plasmas. It is indicated that by increasing the strength of the magnetic field, the width of the soliton reduces and it becomes sharper. At the end, we have analytically and numerically shown that the pulse soliton solution of the ZK equation is unstable and have traced the dependence of the instability growth rate on electron density. It is found that by considering the relativistic pressure, the instability of the soliton pulse can be reduced. The results can be useful to study the obliquely nonlinear propagation of small amplitude localized structures in magnetized quantum e-p plasmas and be applicable to understand the particle and energy transport mechanism in compact stars such as white dwarfs, where the effects of relativistic electron degeneracy become important.

  8. Noninvasive estimation of dynamic pressures in vitro and in vivo using the subharmonic response from microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Dave, Jaydev K; Halldorsdottir, Valgerdur G; Eisenbrey, John R; Liu, Ji-Bin; McDonald, Maureen E; Dickie, Kris; Leung, Corina; Forsberg, Flemming

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a noninvasive pressure estimation technique based on subharmonic emissions from a commercially available ultrasound contrast agent and scanner, unlike other studies that have either adopted a single-element transducer approach and/ or use of in-house contrast agents. Ambient pressures were varied in a closed-loop flow system between 0 and 120 mmHg and were recorded by a solid-state pressure catheter as the reference standard. Simultaneously, the ultrasound scanner was operated in pulse inversion mode transmitting at 2.5 MHz, and the unprocessed RF data were captured at different incident acoustic pressures (from 76 to 897 kPa). The subharmonic data for each pulse were extracted using band-pass filtering with averaging, and subsequently processed to eliminate noise. The incident acoustic pressure most sensitive to ambient pressure fluctuations was determined, and then the ambient pressure was tracked over 20 s. In vivo validation of this technique was performed in the left ventricle (LV) of 2 canines. In vitro, the subharmonic signal could track ambient pressure values with r(2) = 0.922 (p < 0.001), whereas in vivo, the subharmonic signal tracked the LV pressures with r(2) > 0.790 (p < 0.001) showing a maximum error of 2.84 mmHg compared with the reference standard. In conclusion, a subharmonic ultrasound-based pressure estimation technique, which can accurately track left ventricular pressures, has been established.

  9. Acoustics Research of Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Ximing; Houston, Janice

    2014-01-01

    The liftoff phase induces high acoustic loading over a broad frequency range for a launch vehicle. These external acoustic environments are used in the prediction of the internal vibration responses of the vehicle and components. Present liftoff vehicle acoustic environment prediction methods utilize stationary data from previously conducted hold-down tests to generate 1/3 octave band Sound Pressure Level (SPL) spectra. In an effort to update the accuracy and quality of liftoff acoustic loading predictions, non-stationary flight data from the Ares I-X were processed in PC-Signal in two flight phases: simulated hold-down and liftoff. In conjunction, the Prediction of Acoustic Vehicle Environments (PAVE) program was developed in MATLAB to allow for efficient predictions of sound pressure levels (SPLs) as a function of station number along the vehicle using semi-empirical methods. This consisted of generating the Dimensionless Spectrum Function (DSF) and Dimensionless Source Location (DSL) curves from the Ares I-X flight data. These are then used in the MATLAB program to generate the 1/3 octave band SPL spectra. Concluding results show major differences in SPLs between the hold-down test data and the processed Ares I-X flight data making the Ares I-X flight data more practical for future vehicle acoustic environment predictions.

  10. Relative acoustic frequency response of induced methane, carbon dioxide and air gas bubble plumes, observed laterally.

    PubMed

    Kubilius, Rokas; Pedersen, Geir

    2016-10-01

    There is an increased need to detect, identify, and monitor natural and manmade seabed gas leaks. Fisheries echosounders are well suited to monitor large volumes of water and acoustic frequency response [normalized acoustic backscatter, when a measure at one selected frequency is used as a denominator, r(f)] is commonly used to identify echoes from fish and zooplankton species. Information on gas plume r(f) would be valuable for automatic detection of subsea leaks and for separating bubble plumes from natural targets such as swimbladder-bearing fish. Controlled leaks were produced with a specially designed instrument frame suspended in mid-water in a sheltered fjord. The frame was equipped with echosounders, stereo-camera, and gas-release nozzles. The r(f) of laterally observed methane, carbon dioxide, and air plumes (0.040-29 l/min) were measured at 70, 120, 200, and 333 kHz, with bubble sizes determined optically. The observed bubble size range (1-25 mm) was comparable to that reported in the literature for natural cold seeps of methane. A negative r(f) with increasing frequency was observed, namely, r(f) of about 0.7, 0.6, and 0.5 at 120, 200, and 333 kHz when normalized to 70 kHz. Measured plume r(f) is also compared to resolved, single bubble target strength-based, and modeled r(f).

  11. DOT Tomography of the Solar Atmosphere VII. Chromospheric Response to Acoustic Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutten, R. J.; van Veelen, B.; Sütterlin, P.

    2008-09-01

    We use synchronous movies from the Dutch Open Telescope sampling the G band, Ca ii H, and Hα with five-wavelength profile sampling to study the response of the chromosphere to acoustic events in the underlying photosphere. We first compare the visibility of the chromosphere in Ca ii H and Hα, demonstrate that studying the chromosphere requires Hα data, and summarize recent developments in understanding why this is so. We construct divergence and vorticity maps of the photospheric flow field from the G-band images and locate specific events through the appearance of bright Ca ii H grains. The reaction of the Hα chromosphere is diagnosed in terms of brightness and Doppler shift. We show and discuss three particular cases in detail: a regular acoustic grain marking shock excitation by granular dynamics, a persistent flasher, which probably marks magnetic-field concentration, and an exploding granule. All three appear to buffet overlying fibrils, most clearly in Dopplergrams. Although our diagnostic displays to dissect these phenomena are unprecedentedly comprehensive, adding even more information (photospheric Doppler tomography and magnetograms along with chromospheric imaging and Doppler mapping in the ultraviolet) is warranted.

  12. Advanced vapor recognition materials for selective and fast responsive surface acoustic wave sensors: a review.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Adeel; Iqbal, Naseer; Mujahid, Adnan; Schirhagl, Romana

    2013-07-17

    The necessity of selectively detecting various organic vapors is primitive not only with respect to regular environmental and industrial hazard monitoring, but also in detecting explosives to combat terrorism and for defense applications. Today, the huge arsenal of micro-sensors has revolutionized the traditional methods of analysis by, e.g. replacing expensive laboratory equipment, and has made the remote screening of atmospheric threats possible. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors - based on piezoelectric crystal resonators - are extremely sensitive to even very small perturbations in the external atmosphere, because the energy associated with the acoustic waves is confined to the crystal surface. Combined with suitably designed molecular recognition materials SAW devices could develop into highly selective and fast responsive miniaturized sensors, which are capable of continuously monitoring a specific organic gas, preferably in the sub-ppm regime. For this purpose, different types of recognition layers ranging from nanostructured metal oxides and carbons to pristine or molecularly imprinted polymers and self-assembled monolayers have been applied in the past decade. We present a critical review of the recent developments in nano- and micro-engineered synthetic recognition materials predominantly used for SAW-based organic vapor sensors. Besides highlighting their potential to realize real-time vapor sensing, their limitations and future perspectives are also discussed.

  13. Influence of gradient acoustic noise on fMRI response in the human visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nanyin; Zhu, Xiao-Hong; Chen, Wei

    2005-08-01

    A paired-stimuli paradigm combined with fMRI was utilized to study the effect of gradient acoustic noise on fMRI response in the human primary visual cortex (V1) in terms of the auditory-visual cross-modal neural interaction. The gradient noise generated during the fMRI acquisition was used as the primary stimulus, and a single flashing light was used as the secondary stimulus. An interstimulus interval (ISI) separated the two. Six tasks were designed with different ISIs ranging from 50 to 700 ms. Both BOLD signal intensity and the number of activated pixels in V1 were analyzed and examined, and they showed a significant reduction when the gradient noise preceded the flashing light by approximately 300 ms. These results indicate that the gradient acoustic noise generated during fMRI acquisitions does interfere with neural behavior and the BOLD signal in the human visual cortex. This interference is modulated by the delay between the gradient noise and visual stimulation, and it can be studied quantitatively when the stimulation paradigm is designed appropriately. This study provides evidence of the auditory-visual interaction during fMRI studies, and the results should have an impact on fMRI applications.

  14. A microacoustic analysis including viscosity and thermal conductivity to model the effect of the protective cap on the acoustic response of a MEMS microphone

    PubMed Central

    Homentcovschi, D.; Miles, R. N.; Loeppert, P. V.; Zuckerwar, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the effect of the protective cover on the acoustic response of a miniature silicon microphone. The microphone diaphragm is contained within a small rectangular enclosure and the sound enters through a small hole in the enclosure's top surface. A numerical model is presented to predict the variation in the sound field with position within the enclosure. An objective of this study is to determine up to which frequency the pressure distribution remains sufficiently uniform so that a pressure calibration can be made in free space. The secondary motivation for this effort is to facilitate microphone design by providing a means of predicting how the placement of the microphone diaphragm in the package affects the sensitivity and frequency response. While the size of the package is typically small relative to the wavelength of the sounds of interest, because the dimensions of the package are on the order of the thickness of the viscous boundary layer, viscosity can significantly affect the distribution of sound pressure around the diaphragm. In addition to the need to consider viscous effects, it is shown here that one must also carefully account for thermal conductivity to properly represent energy dissipation at the system's primary acoustic resonance frequency. The sound field is calculated using a solution of the linearized system consisting of continuity equation, Navier-Stokes equations, the state equation and the energy equation using a finite element approach. The predicted spatial variation of both the amplitude and phase of the sound pressure is shown over the range of audible frequencies. Excellent agreement is shown between the predicted and measured effects of the package on the microphone's sensitivity. PMID:24701031

  15. A microacoustic analysis including viscosity and thermal conductivity to model the effect of the protective cap on the acoustic response of a MEMS microphone.

    PubMed

    Homentcovschi, D; Miles, R N; Loeppert, P V; Zuckerwar, A J

    2014-02-01

    An analysis is presented of the effect of the protective cover on the acoustic response of a miniature silicon microphone. The microphone diaphragm is contained within a small rectangular enclosure and the sound enters through a small hole in the enclosure's top surface. A numerical model is presented to predict the variation in the sound field with position within the enclosure. An objective of this study is to determine up to which frequency the pressure distribution remains sufficiently uniform so that a pressure calibration can be made in free space. The secondary motivation for this effort is to facilitate microphone design by providing a means of predicting how the placement of the microphone diaphragm in the package affects the sensitivity and frequency response. While the size of the package is typically small relative to the wavelength of the sounds of interest, because the dimensions of the package are on the order of the thickness of the viscous boundary layer, viscosity can significantly affect the distribution of sound pressure around the diaphragm. In addition to the need to consider viscous effects, it is shown here that one must also carefully account for thermal conductivity to properly represent energy dissipation at the system's primary acoustic resonance frequency. The sound field is calculated using a solution of the linearized system consisting of continuity equation, Navier-Stokes equations, the state equation and the energy equation using a finite element approach. The predicted spatial variation of both the amplitude and phase of the sound pressure is shown over the range of audible frequencies. Excellent agreement is shown between the predicted and measured effects of the package on the microphone's sensitivity.

  16. Development of the Acoustically Evoked Behavioral Response in Larval Plainfin Midshipman Fish, Porichthys notatus

    PubMed Central

    Alderks, Peter W.; Sisneros, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    The ontogeny of hearing in fishes has become a major interest among bioacoustics researchers studying fish behavior and sensory ecology. Most fish begin to detect acoustic stimuli during the larval stage which can be important for navigation, predator avoidance and settlement, however relatively little is known about the hearing capabilities of larval fishes. We characterized the acoustically evoked behavioral response (AEBR) in the plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, and used this innate startle-like response to characterize this species' auditory capability during larval development. Age and size of larval midshipman were highly correlated (r2 = 0.92). The AEBR was first observed in larvae at 1.4 cm TL. At a size ≥1.8 cm TL, all larvae responded to a broadband stimulus of 154 dB re1 µPa or −15.2 dB re 1 g (z-axis). Lowest AEBR thresholds were 140–150 dB re 1 µPa or −33 to −23 dB re 1 g for frequencies below 225 Hz. Larval fish with size ranges of 1.9–2.4 cm TL had significantly lower best evoked frequencies than the other tested size groups. We also investigated the development of the lateral line organ and its function in mediating the AEBR. The lateral line organ is likely involved in mediating the AEBR but not necessary to evoke the startle-like response. The midshipman auditory and lateral line systems are functional during early development when the larvae are in the nest and the auditory system appears to have similar tuning characteristics throughout all life history stages. PMID:24340003

  17. Unsteady hydrodynamics of blade forces and acoustic responses of a model scaled submarine excited by propeller's thrust and side-forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yingsan; Wang, Yongsheng

    2013-04-01

    This study presents the unsteady hydrodynamics of the excitations from a 5-bladed propeller at two rotating speeds running in the wake of a small-scaled submarine and the behavior of the submarine's structure and acoustic responses under the propeller excitations. Firstly, the propeller flow and submarine flows are independently validated. The propulsion of the hull-propeller is simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), so as to obtain the transient responses of the propeller excitations. Finally, the structure and acoustic responses of the submarine under propeller excitations are predicted using a finite element/boundary element model in the frequency domain. Results show that (1) the propeller excitations are tonal at the propeller harmonics, and the propeller transversal force is bigger than vertical force. (2) The structure and acoustic responses of the submarine hull is tonal mainly at the propeller harmonics and the resonant mode frequencies of the hull, and the breathing mode in axial direction as well as the bending modes in vertical and transversal directions of the hull can generate strong structure vibration and underwater noise. (3) The maximum sound pressure of the field points increases with the increasing propeller rotating speed at structure resonances and propeller harmonics, and the rudders resonant mode also contributes a lot to the sound radiation. Lastly, the critical rotating speeds of the submarine propeller are determined, which should be carefully taken into consideration when match the propeller with prime mover in the propulsion system. This work shows the importance of the propeller's tonal excitation and the breathing mode plus the bending modes in evaluating submarine's noise radiation.

  18. A dynamic pressure view cell for acoustic stimulation of fluids—Micro-bubble generation and fluid movement in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Robert A.; Shaw, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    The development and baseline operation of an acoustic view cell for observing fluids, and fluid-fluid and fluid-solid interfaces in porous media over the frequency range of 10-5000 Hz is described. This range includes the industrially relevant frequency range 500-5000 Hz that is not covered by existing devices. Pressure waveforms of arbitrary shape are generated in a 17.46 mm ID by 200 mm and 690.5 mm long glass tubes at flow rates up to 200 ml/min using a syringe pump. Peak-to-peak amplitudes exceeding 80 kPa are readily realized at frequencies from 10 to 5000 Hz in bubble free fluids when actuated with 20 Vpp as exemplified using castor oil. At resonant frequencies, peak-to-peak pressure amplitudes exceeding 500 kPa were obtained (castor oil at 2100 Hz when actuated with 20 Vpp). Impacts of vibration on macroscopic liquid-liquid and liquid-vapour interfaces and interface movement are illustrated. Pressure wave transmission and attenuation in a fluid saturated porous medium, randomly packed 250-330 μm spherical silica beads, is also demonstrated. Attenuation differences and frequency shifts in resonant peaks are used to detect the presence and generation of dispersed micro-bubbles (<180 μm diameter), and bubbles within porous media that are not readily visualized. Envisioned applications include assessment of the impacts of vibration on reaction, mass transfer, and flow/flow pattern outcomes. This knowledge will inform laboratory and pilot scale process studies, where nuisance vibrations may affect the interpretation of process outcomes, and large scale or in situ processes in aquifers or hydrocarbon reservoirs where imposed vibration may be deployed to improve aspects of process performance. Future work will include miscible interface observation and quantitative measurements in the bulk and in porous media where the roles of micro-bubbles comprise subjects of special interest.

  19. A dynamic pressure view cell for acoustic stimulation of fluids--Micro-bubble generation and fluid movement in porous media.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Robert A; Shaw, J M

    2015-09-01

    The development and baseline operation of an acoustic view cell for observing fluids, and fluid-fluid and fluid-solid interfaces in porous media over the frequency range of 10-5000 Hz is described. This range includes the industrially relevant frequency range 500-5000 Hz that is not covered by existing devices. Pressure waveforms of arbitrary shape are generated in a 17.46 mm ID by 200 mm and 690.5 mm long glass tubes at flow rates up to 200 ml/min using a syringe pump. Peak-to-peak amplitudes exceeding 80 kPa are readily realized at frequencies from 10 to 5000 Hz in bubble free fluids when actuated with 20 Vpp as exemplified using castor oil. At resonant frequencies, peak-to-peak pressure amplitudes exceeding 500 kPa were obtained (castor oil at 2100 Hz when actuated with 20 Vpp). Impacts of vibration on macroscopic liquid-liquid and liquid-vapour interfaces and interface movement are illustrated. Pressure wave transmission and attenuation in a fluid saturated porous medium, randomly packed 250-330 μm spherical silica beads, is also demonstrated. Attenuation differences and frequency shifts in resonant peaks are used to detect the presence and generation of dispersed micro-bubbles (<180 μm diameter), and bubbles within porous media that are not readily visualized. Envisioned applications include assessment of the impacts of vibration on reaction, mass transfer, and flow/flow pattern outcomes. This knowledge will inform laboratory and pilot scale process studies, where nuisance vibrations may affect the interpretation of process outcomes, and large scale or in situ processes in aquifers or hydrocarbon reservoirs where imposed vibration may be deployed to improve aspects of process performance. Future work will include miscible interface observation and quantitative measurements in the bulk and in porous media where the roles of micro-bubbles comprise subjects of special interest.

  20. A Patch Density Recommendation based on Convergence Studies for Vehicle Panel Vibration Response resulting from Excitation by a Diffuse Acoustic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Andrew; LaVerde, Bruce; Jones, Douglas; Towner, Robert; Hunt, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Fluid structural interaction problems that estimate panel vibration from an applied pressure field excitation are quite dependent on the spatial correlation of the pressure field. There is a danger of either over estimating a low frequency response or under predicting broad band panel response in the more modally dense bands if the pressure field spatial correlation is not accounted for adequately. Even when the analyst elects to use a fitted function for the spatial correlation an error may be introduced if the choice of patch density is not fine enough to represent the more continuous spatial correlation function throughout the intended frequency range of interest. Both qualitative and quantitative illustrations evaluating the adequacy of different patch density assumptions to approximate the fitted spatial correlation function are provided. The actual response of a typical vehicle panel system is then evaluated in a convergence study where the patch density assumptions are varied over the same finite element model. The convergence study results are presented illustrating the impact resulting from a poor choice of patch density. The fitted correlation function used in this study represents a Diffuse Acoustic Field (DAF) excitation of the panel to produce vibration response.

  1. Pressure Tuning of Bragg Diffraction in Stimuli Responsive Microgel Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, R. G.; Tata, B. V. R.; Brijitta, J.

    2011-07-01

    Recently Lietor-Santos et al [Macromolecules 42, 6225 (2009)] have shown that thermo-responsive poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) microgel particles in aqueous medium shrink in size upon applying hundreds of mega-Pascals of pressure. We show here for the first time that, these particles when organized in a crystalline state can be shrunk using a few kilo-Pascals of osmotic pressure. In a novel way, we subject PNIPAM microgel suspensions to different amounts of osmotic compression by removing known amounts of water from the suspension using stirred cells equipped with an ultrafiltration membrane and freeze them into a crystalline state by repeated annealing. Bragg diffraction of these microgel crystals is recorded using UV-Visible spectroscopy. The Bragg peak has been used to determine the lattice spacing and the particle size. The Bragg peak is found to exhibit a blue shift upon increasing the osmotic pressure and is understood to arise from the increase in number density as well as due to decrease in particle size. The osmotic pressure calculated from the equation of state for hard-sphere colloidal crystals is found to agree well with that estimated experimentally.

  2. Dynamic response of a collidant impacting a low pressure airbag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreher, Peter A.

    There are many uses of low pressure airbags, both military and commercial. Many of these applications have been hampered by inadequate and inaccurate modeling tools. This dissertation contains the derivation of a four degree-of-freedom system of differential equations from physical laws of mass and energy conservation, force equilibrium, and the Ideal Gas Law. Kinematic equations were derived to model a cylindrical airbag as a single control volume impacted by a parallelepiped collidant. An efficient numerical procedure was devised to solve the simplified system of equations in a manner amenable to discovering design trends. The largest public airbag experiment, both in scale and scope, was designed and built to collect data on low-pressure airbag responses, otherwise unavailable in the literature. The experimental results were compared to computational simulations to validate the simplified numerical model. Experimental response trends are presented that will aid airbag designers. The two objectives of using a low pressure airbag to demonstrate the feasibility to (1) accelerate a munition to 15 feet per second velocity from a bomb bay, and (2) decelerate humans hitting trucks below the human tolerance level of 50 G's, were both met.

  3. Acoustic and aerodynamic performance of a 1.83 meter (6 foot) diameter 1.2 pressure ratio fan (QF-6). [for short takeoff aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, R. P.; Lucas, J. G.; Stakolich, E. G.

    1974-01-01

    A 1.2-pressure-ratio, 1.83-meter-(6-ft-) diameter experimental fan stage with characteristics suitable for use in STOL aircraft engines was tested for acoustic and aerodynamic performance. The design incorporated features for low noise, including absence of inlet guide vanes, low rotor-blade-tip speed, low aerodynamic blade loading, and long axial spacing between the rotor and stator rows. The stage was run with four nozzles of different area. The perceived noise along a 152.4 meter (500-ft) sideline was rear-quadrant dominated with a maximum design-point level of 103.9 PNdb. The acoustic 1/3-octave results were analytically separated into broadband and pure-tone components. It was found that the stage noise levels generally increase with a decrease in nozzle area, with this increase observed primarily in the broadband noise component. A stall condition was documented acoustically with a 90-percent-of-design-area nozzle.

  4. Behaviour of a Premixed Flame Subjected to Acoustic Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Shafiq R.; Khan, Waqar A.; Prosser, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a one dimensional premixed laminar methane flame is subjected to acoustic oscillations and studied. The purpose of this analysis is to investigate the effects of acoustic perturbations on the reaction rates of different species, with a view to their respective contribution to thermoacoustic instabilities. Acoustically transparent non reflecting boundary conditions are employed. The flame response has been studied with acoustic waves of different frequencies and amplitudes. The integral values of the reaction rates, the burning velocities and the heat release of the acoustically perturbed flame are compared with the unperturbed case. We found that the flame's sensitivity to acoustic perturbations is greatest when the wavelength is comparable to the flame thickness. Even in this case, the perturbations are stable with time. We conclude that acoustic fields acting on the chemistry do not contribute significantly to the emergence of large amplitude pressure oscillations. PMID:24376501

  5. Estimating and removing colorations from the deconvolved impulse response of an underwater acoustic channel.

    PubMed

    Gemba, Kay L; Nosal, Eva-Marie; Reed, Todd R

    2017-01-01

    The impulse response (IR) of an acoustic channel can be obtained by cross-correlating the received signal with the broadband excitation signal in unfavorable noise conditions. However, the deconvolved IR is colored by the IRs of the combined electrical equipment. This letter presents a time domain approach using pre-computed filters to whiten the unknown coloration in order to obtain the channel's time domain waveform. The method is validated with an image-source model and the IR of the channel is recovered with spectral root mean square error of -27 dB. Data results obtained from a pool experiment with non-calibrated equipment yield a whitened IR with standard deviation of 0.9 dB (30-68 kHz band).

  6. Acoustic response of a rectangular waveguide with a strong transverse temperature gradient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorumski, William E.

    1989-01-01

    An acoustic wave equation was developed for a perfect gas with spatially-variable temperature. The strong-gradient wave equation was used to analyze the response of a rectangular wave guide containing a thermally-stratified gas. It was assumed that the temperature gradient is constant, representing one-dimensional heat transfer with a constant coefficient of conductivity. The analysis of the waveguide shows that the resonant frequencies of the waveguide are shifted away from the values that would be expected from the average temperature of the waveguide. For small gradients, the frequency shift is proportional to the square of the gradient. The factor of proportionality is a quadratic function of the natural frequency of the waveguide with uniform temperature. An experiment is designed to verify the essential features of the strong-gradient theory.

  7. Dynamic Response of Acoustic Delay Line for Beam Lines of Synchrotron Radiation Lithography System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyota, Eijiro

    1998-12-01

    Protecting against the sudden rupture of a beryllium window foilhas been a concern in synchrotron radiation lithography. This paperpresents a design study of a new acoustic delay line (ADL) for beamline protection. The ADL consists of a stationary outer tube and amovable inner tube. Between the outer tube and the inner tube, aseries of partitions consisting of stationary and floating platesfunctions as a buffer against invading gas. The inner tube connectsthe floating plates and the beryllium window and maintains aninternal narrow light path by moving synchronously with the scanningmirror.BLVAC, a computer program, has been developed to assist in the design and to simulate the dynamic response. The calculation results provide us with satisfactory design parameters to ensure that the closing time of the shut-off valve is within 30 milliseconds.

  8. Blood Pressure Responses and Metabolic Effects of Hydrochlorothiazide and Atenolol

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Steven M.; Gong, Yan; Turner, Stephen T.; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M.; Beitelshees, Amber L.; Chapman, Arlene B.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bailey, Kent; Johnson, Julie A.; Gums, John G.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Thiazides and β-blockers cause adverse metabolic effects (AMEs), but whether these effects share predictors with blood pressure (BP) response is unknown. We aimed to determine whether AMEs are correlated with BP response in uncomplicated hypertensives. METHODS In a multicenter, open-label, parallel-group trial, we enrolled 569 persons, aged 17–65, with random assignment to 9 weeks of daily hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) or atenolol monotherapy, followed by 9 weeks of add-on therapy with the alternate agent. Measurements included home BP, averaged over 1 week, weight and fasting levels of serum glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides, and uric acid (UA) before and after monotherapy and after add-on therapy. RESULTS Increases in UA correlated with reductions in systolic BP (SBP) (r = −0.18; P = 0.003) and diastolic BP (DBP) (r = −0.20; P = 0.001) following HCTZ monotherapy and add-on therapy (r = −0.27 and r = −0.21, respectively; both P < 0.001). After adjustment for age, race, gender, and baseline body mass index (BMI), only the correlation between UA and DBP response became nonsignificant. Reductions in HDL correlated with systolic response following atenolol monotherapy (r = 0.18; P = 0.002) and with systolic and diastolic response following add-on therapy (r = 0.30 and r = 0.24, respectively; both P < 0.0001). These correlations remained significant after covariate adjustment. BP responses were not correlated with changes in glucose, LDL, triglycerides, or weight following either therapy. CONCLUSIONS BP response correlated with changes in UA following HCTZ therapy and HDL following atenolol therapy. No other significant correlations were observed between BP response and AMEs, suggesting that these effects generally do not share predictors. Patients should be monitored for AMEs, regardless of BP response. PMID:22089105

  9. Vessel Noise Affects Beaked Whale Behavior: Results of a Dedicated Acoustic Response Study

    PubMed Central

    Pirotta, Enrico; Milor, Rachael; Quick, Nicola; Moretti, David; Di Marzio, Nancy; Tyack, Peter; Boyd, Ian; Hastie, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Some beaked whale species are susceptible to the detrimental effects of anthropogenic noise. Most studies have concentrated on the effects of military sonar, but other forms of acoustic disturbance (e.g. shipping noise) may disrupt behavior. An experiment involving the exposure of target whale groups to intense vessel-generated noise tested how these exposures influenced the foraging behavior of Blainville’s beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris) in the Tongue of the Ocean (Bahamas). A military array of bottom-mounted hydrophones was used to measure the response based upon changes in the spatial and temporal pattern of vocalizations. The archived acoustic data were used to compute metrics of the echolocation-based foraging behavior for 16 targeted groups, 10 groups further away on the range, and 26 non-exposed groups. The duration of foraging bouts was not significantly affected by the exposure. Changes in the hydrophone over which the group was most frequently detected occurred as the animals moved around within a foraging bout, and their number was significantly less the closer the whales were to the sound source. Non-exposed groups also had significantly more changes in the primary hydrophone than exposed groups irrespective of distance. Our results suggested that broadband ship noise caused a significant change in beaked whale behavior up to at least 5.2 kilometers away from the vessel. The observed change could potentially correspond to a restriction in the movement of groups, a period of more directional travel, a reduction in the number of individuals clicking within the group, or a response to changes in prey movement. PMID:22880022

  10. Vessel noise affects beaked whale behavior: results of a dedicated acoustic response study.

    PubMed

    Pirotta, Enrico; Milor, Rachael; Quick, Nicola; Moretti, David; Di Marzio, Nancy; Tyack, Peter; Boyd, Ian; Hastie, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Some beaked whale species are susceptible to the detrimental effects of anthropogenic noise. Most studies have concentrated on the effects of military sonar, but other forms of acoustic disturbance (e.g. shipping noise) may disrupt behavior. An experiment involving the exposure of target whale groups to intense vessel-generated noise tested how these exposures influenced the foraging behavior of Blainville's beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris) in the Tongue of the Ocean (Bahamas). A military array of bottom-mounted hydrophones was used to measure the response based upon changes in the spatial and temporal pattern of vocalizations. The archived acoustic data were used to compute metrics of the echolocation-based foraging behavior for 16 targeted groups, 10 groups further away on the range, and 26 non-exposed groups. The duration of foraging bouts was not significantly affected by the exposure. Changes in the hydrophone over which the group was most frequently detected occurred as the animals moved around within a foraging bout, and their number was significantly less the closer the whales were to the sound source. Non-exposed groups also had significantly more changes in the primary hydrophone than exposed groups irrespective of distance. Our results suggested that broadband ship noise caused a significant change in beaked whale behavior up to at least 5.2 kilometers away from the vessel. The observed change could potentially correspond to a restriction in the movement of groups, a period of more directional travel, a reduction in the number of individuals clicking within the group, or a response to changes in prey movement.

  11. Cerebrovascular Responses During Lower Body Negative Pressure-Induced Presyncope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuriyama, Kana; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, Alan R.; Ueno, T.; Ballard, R. E.; Fortney, S. M.

    1996-01-01

    Reduced orthostatic tolerance is commonly observed after space flight, occasionally causing presyncopal conditions. Although the cerebrovascular system may play an important role in presyncope, there have been few reports concerning cerebral hemodynamics during presyncope. The purpose of this study was to investigate cerebrovascular responses during presyncope induced by lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Seven healthy male volunteers were exposed to LBNP in steps of -10 mmHg every 3 min until presyncopal symptoms were detected. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were measured with a finger cuff. Cerebral tissue oxy- and deoxy- hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations were estimated using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Cerebral blood flow (CBF) velocity at the middle cerebral artery was measured with Transcranial Doppler Sonography (TCD). We focused on the data during the 2 min before endpoint. BP marked a gradual decrease (91 to 86 mmHg from 2 min to 30 sec before endpoint), which was accelerated along with HR decrease during the final 30 sec (86 to 71 mmHg). Cerebral oxy-Hb concentration decreases as presyncope is approached while total-Hb concentration remains fairly constant. TCD reveals a decrease in the CBF velocity. The TCD and NIRS results suggest that CBF decreases along with the BP decrease. Cerebrovascular responses during presyncope are closely related to cardiovascular responses.

  12. The Effects of Acoustic Treatment on Pressure Disturbances From a Supersonic Jet in a Circular Duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.

    1996-01-01

    The pressure disturbances generated by an instability wave in the shear layer of a supersonic jet are studied for an axisymmetric jet inside a lined circular duct. For the supersonic jet, locally linear stability analysis with duct wall boundary conditions is used to calculate the eigenvalues and the eigenfunctions at each axial location. These values are used to determine the growth rates and phase velocities of the instability waves and the near field pressure disturbance patterns. The study is confined to the dominant Kelvin-Helmholtz instability mode and to the region just downstream of the nozzle exit where the shear layer is growing but is still small in size compared to the radius of the duct. Numerical results are used to study the effects of changes in the outer flow, growth in the shear layer thickness, wall distance, and wall impedance, and the effects of these changes on non-axisymmetric modes. The primary results indicate that the effects of the duct wall on stability characteristics diminish as the outer flow increases and as the jet azimuthal mode number increases. Also, wall reflections are reduced when using a finite impedance boundary condition at the wall; but in addition, reflections are reduced and growth rates diminished by keeping the imaginary part of the impedance negative when using the negative exponential for the harmonic dependence.

  13. Study of noise sources in a subsonic fan using measured blade pressures and acoustic theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, D. B.

    1975-01-01

    Sources of noise in a 1.4 m (4.6 ft) diameter subsonic tip speed propulsive fan running statically outdoors are studied using a combination of techniques. Signals measured with pressure transducers on a rotor blade are plotted in a format showing the space-time history of inlet distortion. Study of these plots visually and with statistical correlation analysis confirms that the inlet flow contains long, thin eddies of turbulence. Turbulence generated in the boundary layer of the shroud upstream of the rotor tips was not found to be an important noise source. Fan noise is diagnosed by computing narrowband spectra of rotor and stator sound power and comparing these with measured sound power spectra. Rotor noise is computed from spectra of the measured blade pressures and stator noise is computed using the author's stator noise theory. It is concluded that the rotor and stator sources contribute about equally at frequencies in the vicinity of the first three harmonics of blade passing frequency. At higher frequencies, the stator contribution diminishes rapidly and the rotor/inlet turbulence mechanism dominates. Two parametric studies are performed by using the rotor noise calculation procedure which was correlated with test. In the first study, the effects on noise spectrum and directivity are calculated for changes in turbulence properties, rotational Mach number, number of blades, and stagger angle. In the second study the influences of design tip speed and blade number on noise are evaluated.

  14. Acoustics Research of Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Ximing; Houston, Janice D.

    2014-01-01

    The liftoff phase induces some of the highest acoustic loading over a broad frequency for a launch vehicle. These external acoustic environments are used in the prediction of the internal vibration responses of the vehicle and components. Thus, predicting these liftoff acoustic environments is critical to the design requirements of any launch vehicle but there are challenges. Present liftoff vehicle acoustic environment prediction methods utilize stationary data from previously conducted hold-down tests; i.e. static firings conducted in the 1960's, to generate 1/3 octave band Sound Pressure Level (SPL) spectra. These data sets are used to predict the liftoff acoustic environments for launch vehicles. To facilitate the accuracy and quality of acoustic loading, predictions at liftoff for future launch vehicles such as the Space Launch System (SLS), non-stationary flight data from the Ares I-X were processed in PC-Signal in two forms which included a simulated hold-down phase and the entire launch phase. In conjunction, the Prediction of Acoustic Vehicle Environments (PAVE) program was developed in MATLAB to allow for efficient predictions of sound pressure levels (SPLs) as a function of station number along the vehicle using semiempirical methods. This consisted, initially, of generating the Dimensionless Spectrum Function (DSF) and Dimensionless Source Location (DSL) curves from the Ares I-X flight data. These are then used in the MATLAB program to generate the 1/3 octave band SPL spectra. Concluding results show major differences in SPLs between the hold-down test data and the processed Ares IX flight data making the Ares I-X flight data more practical for future vehicle acoustic environment predictions.

  15. Air Pressure Responses to Sudden Vocal Tract Pressure Bleeds during Production of Stop Consonants: New Evidence of Aeromechanical Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajac, David J.; Weissler, Mark C.

    2004-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate short-latency vocal tract air pressure responses to sudden pressure bleeds during production of voiceless bilabial stop consonants. It was hypothesized that the occurrence of respiratory reflexes would be indicated by distinct patterns of responses as a function of bleed magnitude. In Study 1, 19 adults…

  16. Asymmetry in melting and growth relaxation of 4He crystals in superfluid after manipulation by acoustic radiation pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Ryuji; Abe, Haruka; Okuda, Yuichi

    2017-02-01

    The relaxation dynamics of the crystal–superfluid interface of 4He after deformation induced by acoustic radiation pressure was investigated for various crystal orientations. The melting relaxation after growth was approximately 10 times slower than the growth relaxation after melting for vicinal surfaces and facets, while both relaxation times were consistent with each other for rough surfaces. The asymmetry in the time constant between the melting and growth of vicinal surfaces and facets can be qualitatively explained as the effect of superflow induced by local rapid interface motion, such as a quick rounding of facet edges of the 4He crystal. Rough surfaces move more isotropically and no significant local rapid interface motion is induced; therefore, their relaxation is likely to be symmetric with a minimal effect of superflow. While the growth relaxation was simply back to the initial shape in a single stage, the melting relaxation was much more complex with multiple stages and the exhibition of various anomalous shapes depending on temperature. Anomalous shapes such as needle-like shapes during melting have a larger curvature and higher energy and thus should have disappeared more quickly than the growth shape with a smaller curvature, but they were considerably stable and disappeared slowly. This counter-intuitive asymmetry suggests the significant role of superflow in the relaxation process.

  17. Acoustic detection of cracks in the anvil of a large-volume cubic high-pressure apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Zhaoli Tian, Hao; Cheng, Xiaobin; Yang, Jun; Chen, Bin

    2015-12-15

    A large-volume cubic high-pressure apparatus with three pairs of tungsten carbide anvils is the most popular device for synthetic diamond production. Currently, the consumption of anvils is one of the important costs for the diamond production industry. If one of the anvils is fractured during the production process, the other five anvils in the apparatus may be endangered as a result of a sudden loss of pressure. It is of critical importance to detect and replace cracked anvils before they fracture for reduction of the cost of diamond production and safety. An acoustic detection method is studied in this paper. Two new features, nested power spectrum centroid and modified power spectrum variance, are proposed and combined with linear prediction coefficients to construct a feature vector. A support vector machine model is trained for classification. A sliding time window is proposed for decision-level information fusion. The experiments and analysis show that the recognition rate of anvil cracks is 95%, while the false-alarm rate is as low as 5.8 × 10{sup −4} during a time window; this false-alarm rate indicates that at most one false alarm occurs every 2 months at a confidence level of 90%. An instrument to monitor anvil cracking was designed based on a digital signal processor and has been running for more than eight months in a diamond production field. In this time, two anvil-crack incidents occurred and were detected by the instrument correctly. In addition, no false alarms occurred.

  18. Acoustic detection of cracks in the anvil of a large-volume cubic high-pressure apparatus.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhaoli; Chen, Bin; Tian, Hao; Cheng, Xiaobin; Yang, Jun

    2015-12-01

    A large-volume cubic high-pressure apparatus with three pairs of tungsten carbide anvils is the most popular device for synthetic diamond production. Currently, the consumption of anvils is one of the important costs for the diamond production industry. If one of the anvils is fractured during the production process, the other five anvils in the apparatus may be endangered as a result of a sudden loss of pressure. It is of critical importance to detect and replace cracked anvils before they fracture for reduction of the cost of diamond production and safety. An acoustic detection method is studied in this paper. Two new features, nested power spectrum centroid and modified power spectrum variance, are proposed and combined with linear prediction coefficients to construct a feature vector. A support vector machine model is trained for classification. A sliding time window is proposed for decision-level information fusion. The experiments and analysis show that the recognition rate of anvil cracks is 95%, while the false-alarm rate is as low as 5.8 × 10(-4) during a time window; this false-alarm rate indicates that at most one false alarm occurs every 2 months at a confidence level of 90%. An instrument to monitor anvil cracking was designed based on a digital signal processor and has been running for more than eight months in a diamond production field. In this time, two anvil-crack incidents occurred and were detected by the instrument correctly. In addition, no false alarms occurred.

  19. Acoustic detection of cracks in the anvil of a large-volume cubic high-pressure apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhaoli; Chen, Bin; Tian, Hao; Cheng, Xiaobin; Yang, Jun

    2015-12-01

    A large-volume cubic high-pressure apparatus with three pairs of tungsten carbide anvils is the most popular device for synthetic diamond production. Currently, the consumption of anvils is one of the important costs for the diamond production industry. If one of the anvils is fractured during the production process, the other five anvils in the apparatus may be endangered as a result of a sudden loss of pressure. It is of critical importance to detect and replace cracked anvils before they fracture for reduction of the cost of diamond production and safety. An acoustic detection method is studied in this paper. Two new features, nested power spectrum centroid and modified power spectrum variance, are proposed and combined with linear prediction coefficients to construct a feature vector. A support vector machine model is trained for classification. A sliding time window is proposed for decision-level information fusion. The experiments and analysis show that the recognition rate of anvil cracks is 95%, while the false-alarm rate is as low as 5.8 × 10-4 during a time window; this false-alarm rate indicates that at most one false alarm occurs every 2 months at a confidence level of 90%. An instrument to monitor anvil cracking was designed based on a digital signal processor and has been running for more than eight months in a diamond production field. In this time, two anvil-crack incidents occurred and were detected by the instrument correctly. In addition, no false alarms occurred.

  20. Nonlinear acoustics in a dispersive continuum: Random waves, radiation pressure, and quantum noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabot, M. A.

    The nonlinear interaction of sound with sound is studied using dispersive hydrodynamics which derived from a variational principle and the assumption that the internal energy density depends on gradients of the mass density. The attenuation of sound due to nonlinear interaction with a background is calculated and is shown to be sensitive to both the nature of the dispersion and decay bandwidths. The theoretical results are compared to those of low temperature helium experiments. A kinetic equation which described the nonlinear self-inter action of a background is derived. When a Deybe-type cutoff is imposed, a white noise distribution is shown to be a stationary distribution of the kinetic equation. The attenuation and spectrum of decay of a sound wave due to nonlinear interaction with zero point motion is calculated. In one dimension, the dispersive hydrodynamic equations are used to calculate the Langevin and Rayleigh radiation pressures of wave packets and solitary waves.

  1. Dynamics of Supercritical-pressure Coaxial Jets Submitted to Transverse Acoustic Modulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-24

    modulation 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18, NUMBER OF PAGES 44 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Kevin Bollino...leads to a higher momentum flux ratio for case SarThick than for LarThin (9.2 vs 5.0). All the solid boundaries in the simulation are treated as no

  2. Physical fitness and cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raven, P. B.; Rohm-Young, D.; Blomqvist, C. G.

    1984-01-01

    Klein et al. (1977) have questioned the concept of endurance training as an appropriate means of preparing for prolonged space flights. Their opinion was mainly based on reports of endurance athletes who had a decreased tolerance to orthostatic or gravitational stress induced by lower body negative pressure (LBNP), upright tilt, or whole body water immersion. The present investigation had the objective to determine if the hemodynamic response to LBNP is different between a high and average fit group of subjects. In addition, the discrete aspect of cardiovascular function which had been altered by chronic training was to be identified. On the basis of the results of experiments conducted with 14 young male volunteers, it is concluded that the reflex response to central hypovolemia is altered by endurance exercise training.

  3. A computational simulation study on the acoustic pressure generated by a dental endosonic file: effects of intensity, file shape and volume.

    PubMed

    Tiong, T Joyce; Price, Gareth J; Kanagasingam, Shalini

    2014-09-01

    One of the uses of ultrasound in dentistry is in the field of endodontics (i.e. root canal treatment) in order to enhance cleaning efficiency during the treatment. The acoustic pressures generated by the oscillation of files in narrow channels has been calculated using the COMSOL simulation package. Acoustic pressures in excess of the cavitation threshold can be generated and higher values were found in narrower channels. This parallels experimental observations of sonochemiluminescence. The effect of varying the channel width and length and the dimensions and shape of the file are reported. As well as explaining experimental observations, the work provides a basis for the further development and optimisation of the design of endosonic files.

  4. Dynamics of encapsulated microbubbles for contrast ultrasound imaging and drug delivery: from pressure dependent subharmonic to collapsing jet and acoustic streaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Kausik

    2016-11-01

    Intravenously injected microbubbles used as ultrasound contrast enhancing agents are encapsulated by a nanometer-thick layer of lipids, proteins or polymers to stabilize them against premature dissolution. Over the years, we have developed interfacial rheological models for the encapsulation and used them to characterize several contrast agents by acoustic means. We will present an overview of our research emphasizing recent efforts in two directions. The first is on using subharmonic signals from the contrast microbubbles for non-invasive pressure estimation. Experimental measurement and modeling show that the subharmonic signal can both increase or decrease with pressure depending on frequency. Secondly, we will discuss boundary element (BEM) simulation of the collapse of an encapsulated microbubbles forming a jet near a blood vessel wall. Different rheology models of the encapsulation have been rigorously implemented in the BEM formulation. We will discuss the resulting stresses and the acoustic streaming near the wall leading to sonoporation and other bioeffects. Partially supported by Natinal Science Foundation.

  5. Characterization of the acoustic response of an auditorium for its recreation in a rehearsal room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martignon, Paolo; Zanolin, Michele; de Stabile, Stefano

    2002-05-01

    A characterization of the stage acoustic response of the auditorium Niccolò Paganini in Parma (Italy) was carried out. The aim is to reproduce, in a low reverberation room, the response of this auditorium by means of a loudspeakers array system, implementing the image sources corresponding to first reflections and the correct isotropy of the reverberant field [A. J. Berkhout, J. Audio Eng. Soc. 36, 977-995 (1988)]. The original idea is that such a room would become a virtual stage for orchestra rehearsals. Three linear microphone arrays 10 cm apart, arranged as Cartesian axes, were employed to acquire three impulse response arrays using one omnidirectional source. Measurement bandwidth was 20-2000 Hz: within this frequency range and the angles involved, spatial aliasing due to microphone array spacing (10 cm) does not occur (microphone spacing is a little less than the one of speakers array to be employed for reproduction). Data processing gave information about first reflections wave fronts curvature, and consequently their correspondence with architectural elements; after identifying these elements as different contributions, spectral absorption of each was calculated. Reverberation was separately measured in several points with different directions, using a directional microphone (W. P. Bruijn et al., 104th AES Conv., preprint 4690, 1998).

  6. Habituation of Auditory Steady State Responses Evoked by Amplitude-Modulated Acoustic Signals in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Prado-Gutierrez, Pavel; Castro-Fariñas, Anisleidy; Morgado-Rodriguez, Lisbet; Velarde-Reyes, Ernesto; Martínez, Agustín D.; Martínez-Montes, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Generation of the auditory steady state responses (ASSR) is commonly explained by the linear combination of random background noise activity and the stationary response. Based on this model, the decrease of amplitude that occurs over the sequential averaging of epochs of the raw data has been exclusively linked to the cancelation of noise. Nevertheless, this behavior might also reflect the non-stationary response of the ASSR generators. We tested this hypothesis by characterizing the ASSR time course in rats with different auditory maturational stages. ASSR were evoked by 8-kHz tones of different supra-threshold intensities, modulated in amplitude at 115 Hz. Results show that the ASSR amplitude habituated to the sustained stimulation and that dishabituation occurred when deviant stimuli were presented. ASSR habituation increased as animals became adults, suggesting that the ability to filter acoustic stimuli with no-relevant temporal information increased with age. Results are discussed in terms of the current model of the ASSR generation and analysis procedures. They might have implications for audiometric tests designed to assess hearing in subjects who cannot provide reliable results in the psychophysical trials. PMID:26557360

  7. Influence of intermediate aminodextran layers on the signal response of surface acoustic wave biosensors.

    PubMed

    Länge, Kerstin; Rapp, Michael

    2008-06-15

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices based on horizontally polarized surface shear waves enable direct and label-free detection of proteins in real time. Binding reactions on the sensor surface are detected by determining changes in surface wave velocity caused mainly by mass adsorption or change of viscoelasticity in the sensing layer. Intermediate hydrogel layers have been proven to be useful to immobilize capture molecules or ligands corresponding to the analyte. However, the SAW signal response strongly depends on the morphology of the hydrogel due to different relative changes of its acoustomechanical parameters such as viscoelasticity and density. In this work five aminodextrans (AMD) and one diamino polyethylene glycol (DA-PEG) were used as intermediate hydrogel layers. Sensors with immobilized streptavidin and samples containing biotinylated bovine serum albumin were used to exemplify affinity assays based on immobilized capture molecules for protein detection. The effects of the three-dimensional AMDs and the two-dimensional (2D) DA-PEG on the SAW signal response were investigated. The signal height decreased with increasing molar mass and increasing amount of immobilized AMD. Consequently, thin hydrogel layers are ideal to obtain optimum signal responses in this type of assay, whereas it is not necessarily a 2D hydrogel that gives the best results.

  8. Relationship between Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity and acoustic startle response in an inner-city population.

    PubMed

    Massa, Nick M; Duncan, Erica; Jovanovic, Tanja; Kerley, Kimberly; Weng, Lei; Gensler, Lauren; Lee, Samuel S; Norrholm, Seth; Powers, Abigail; Almli, Lynn M; Gillespie, Charles F; Ressler, Kerry; Pearce, Bradley D

    2017-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (TOXO) is a neuroinvasive protozoan parasite that induces the formation of persistent cysts in mammalian brains. It infects approximately 1.1million people in the United States annually. Latent TOXO infection is implicated in the etiology of psychiatric disorders, especially schizophrenia (SCZ), and has been correlated with modestly impaired cognition. The acoustic startle response (ASR) is a reflex seen in all mammals. It is mediated by a simple subcortical circuit, and provides an indicator of neural function. We previously reported the association of TOXO with slowed acoustic startle latency, an index of neural processing speed, in a sample of schizophrenia and healthy control subjects. The alterations in neurobiology with TOXO latent infection may not be specific to schizophrenia. Therefore we examined TOXO in relation to acoustic startle in an urban, predominately African American, population with mixed psychiatric diagnoses, and healthy controls. Physiological and diagnostic data along with blood samples were collected from 364 outpatients treated at an inner-city hospital. TOXO status was determined with an ELISA assay for TOXO-specific IgG. A discrete titer was calculated based on standard cut-points as an indicator of seropositivity, and the TOXO-specific IgG concentration served as serointensity. A series of linear regression models were used to assess the association of TOXO seropositivity and serointensity with ASR magnitude and latency in models adjusting for demographics and psychiatric diagnoses (PTSD, major depression, schizophrenia, psychosis, substance abuse). ASR magnitude was 11.5% higher in TOXO seropositive subjects compared to seronegative individuals (p=0.01). This effect was more pronounced in models with TOXO serointensity that adjusted for sociodemographic covariates (F=7.41, p=0.0068; F=10.05, p=0.0017), and remained significant when psychiatric diagnoses were stepped into the models. TOXO showed no association with

  9. Modality of fear cues affects acoustic startle potentiation but not heart-rate response in patients with dental phobia

    PubMed Central

    Wannemüller, André; Sartory, Gudrun; Elsesser, Karin; Lohrmann, Thomas; Jöhren, Hans P.

    2015-01-01

    The acoustic startle response (SR) has consistently been shown to be enhanced by fear-arousing cross-modal background stimuli in phobics. Intra-modal fear-potentiation of acoustic SR was rarely investigated and generated inconsistent results. The present study compared the acoustic SR to phobia-related sounds with that to phobia-related pictures in 104 dental phobic patients and 22 controls. Acoustic background stimuli were dental treatment noises and birdsong and visual stimuli were dental treatment and neutral control pictures. Background stimuli were presented for 4 s, randomly followed by the administration of the startle stimulus. In addition to SR, heart-rate (HR) was recorded throughout the trials. Irrespective of their content, background pictures elicited greater SR than noises in both groups with a trend for phobic participants to show startle potentiation to phobia-related pictures but not noises. Unlike controls, phobics showed HR acceleration to both dental pictures and noises. HR acceleration of the phobia group was significantly positively correlated with SR in the noise condition only. The acoustic SR to phobia-related noises is likely to be inhibited by prolonged sensorimotor gating. PMID:25774142

  10. Forced response sound radiation from acoustically or mechanically excited small plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.

    1992-01-01

    Sound radiation from an acoustically excited, clamped aluminum plate is measured and expressed in terms of noise reduction to take into account the incident acoustic excitation field. Its mode shapes and modal frequencies are measured and show good agreement with the predictions from a finite element MSC/NASTRAN model. Noise reduction is measured at 15 points behind the plate and demonstrate good agreement with predictions employing the SYSNOISE numerical analysis system for acoustic-structure interaction.

  11. Modeling of the acoustic response from contrast agent microbubbles near a rigid wall

    PubMed Central

    Doinikov, Alexander A.; Zhao, Shukui; Dayton, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    In ultrasonic targeted imaging, specially designed encapsulated microbubbles are used, which are capable of selectively adhering to the target site in the body. A challenging problem is to distinguish the echoes from such adherent agents from echoes produced by freely circulating agents. In the present paper, an equation of radial oscillation for an encapsulated bubble near a plane rigid wall is derived. The equation is then used to simulate the echo from a layer of contrast agents localized on a wall. The echo spectrum of adherent microbubbles is compared to that of free, randomly distributed microbubbles inside a vessel, in order to examine differences between the acoustic responses of free and adherent agents. It is shown that the fundamental spectral component of adherent bubbles is perceptibly stronger than that of free bubbles. This increase is accounted for by a more coherent summation of echoes from adherent agents and the acoustic interaction between the agents and the wall. For cases tested, the increase of the fundamental component caused by the above two effects is on the order of 8-9 dB. Bubble aggregates, which are observed experimentally to form near a wall due to secondary Bjerknes forces, increase the intensity of the fundamental component only if they are formed by bubbles whose radii are well below the resonant radius. If the formation of aggregates contributes to the growth of the fundamental component, the increase can exceed 17 dB. Statistical analysis for the comparison between adhering and free bubbles, performed over random space bubble distributions, gives p-values much smaller than 0.05. PMID:18789469

  12. Effect of positive end-expiratory pressure on acoustic wave propagation in experimental porcine lung injury.

    PubMed

    Räsänen, Jukka; Nemergut, Michael E; Gavriely, Noam

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on sound propagation through injured lungs, we injected a multifrequency broad-band sound signal into the airway of eight anesthetized, intubated and mechanically ventilated pigs, while recording transmitted sound at three locations bilaterally on the chest wall. Oleic acid injections effected a severe pulmonary oedema predominately in the dependent lung regions, with an average increase in venous admixture from 19 ± 15 to 59 ± 14% (P < 0.001), and a reduction in dynamic respiratory system compliance from 34 ± 7 to 14 ± 4 ml cmH2 O(-1) (P < 0.001). A concomitant decrease in sound transit time was seen in the dependent lung regions (P < 0.05); no statistically significant change occurred in the lateral or non-dependent areas. The application of PEEP resulted in a decrease in venous admixture, increase in respiratory system compliance and return of the sound transit time to pre-injury levels in the dependent lung regions. Our results indicate that sound transmission velocity increases in lung tissue affected by permeability-type pulmonary oedema in a manner reversible during alveolar recruitment with PEEP.

  13. Effects of Previous Acoustic Experience on Behavioral Responses to Experimental Sound Stimuli and Implications for Research.

    PubMed

    Voellmy, Irene K; Purser, Julia; Simpson, Stephen D; Radford, Andrew N

    2016-01-01

    Ambient noise differs considerably between habitats. Increased ambient noise can affect the physiology and behavior in a variety of taxa. Previous acoustic experience can modify behavior and potentially affect research conclusions in natural and laboratory environments. Acoustic conditions should thus be accounted for, especially in experiments involving experimental sound stimuli. Methods sections should contain acoustic specifications, and a consensus should be achieved over which measurements to include for comparability between researchers. Further investigation of how previous and repeated exposure to sound affects behavior and research conclusions is needed to improve our knowledge of acoustic long-term effects in animal welfare and conservation.

  14. Towards direct realisation of the SI unit of sound pressure in the audible hearing range based on optical free-field acoustic particle measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukoulas, Triantafillos; Piper, Ben

    2015-04-01

    Since the introduction of the International System of Units (the SI system) in 1960, weights, measures, standardised approaches, procedures, and protocols have been introduced, adapted, and extensively used. A major international effort and activity concentrate on the definition and traceability of the seven base SI units in terms of fundamental constants, and consequently those units that are derived from the base units. In airborne acoustical metrology and for the audible range of frequencies up to 20 kHz, the SI unit of sound pressure, the pascal, is realised indirectly and without any knowledge or measurement of the sound field. Though the principle of reciprocity was originally formulated by Lord Rayleigh nearly two centuries ago, it was devised in the 1940s and eventually became a calibration standard in the 1960s; however, it can only accommodate a limited number of acoustic sensors of specific types and dimensions. International standards determine the device sensitivity either through coupler or through free-field reciprocity but rely on the continuous availability of specific acoustical artefacts. Here, we show an optical method based on gated photon correlation spectroscopy that can measure sound pressures directly and absolutely in fully anechoic conditions, remotely, and without disturbing the propagating sound field. It neither relies on the availability or performance of any measurement artefact nor makes any assumptions of the device geometry and sound field characteristics. Most importantly, the required units of sound pressure and microphone sensitivity may now be experimentally realised, thus providing direct traceability to SI base units.

  15. Towards direct realisation of the SI unit of sound pressure in the audible hearing range based on optical free-field acoustic particle measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Koukoulas, Triantafillos Piper, Ben

    2015-04-20

    Since the introduction of the International System of Units (the SI system) in 1960, weights, measures, standardised approaches, procedures, and protocols have been introduced, adapted, and extensively used. A major international effort and activity concentrate on the definition and traceability of the seven base SI units in terms of fundamental constants, and consequently those units that are derived from the base units. In airborne acoustical metrology and for the audible range of frequencies up to 20 kHz, the SI unit of sound pressure, the pascal, is realised indirectly and without any knowledge or measurement of the sound field. Though the principle of reciprocity was originally formulated by Lord Rayleigh nearly two centuries ago, it was devised in the 1940s and eventually became a calibration standard in the 1960s; however, it can only accommodate a limited number of acoustic sensors of specific types and dimensions. International standards determine the device sensitivity either through coupler or through free-field reciprocity but rely on the continuous availability of specific acoustical artefacts. Here, we show an optical method based on gated photon correlation spectroscopy that can measure sound pressures directly and absolutely in fully anechoic conditions, remotely, and without disturbing the propagating sound field. It neither relies on the availability or performance of any measurement artefact nor makes any assumptions of the device geometry and sound field characteristics. Most importantly, the required units of sound pressure and microphone sensitivity may now be experimentally realised, thus providing direct traceability to SI base units.

  16. Continuous loudness response to acoustic intensity dynamics in melodies: effects of melodic contour, tempo, and tonality.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Kirk N; Stevens, Catherine J; Dean, Roger T; Bailes, Freya

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate perceived loudness change in response to melodies that increase (up-ramp) or decrease (down-ramp) in acoustic intensity, and the interaction with other musical factors such as melodic contour, tempo, and tonality (tonal/atonal). A within-subjects design manipulated direction of linear intensity change (up-ramp, down-ramp), melodic contour (ascending, descending), tempo, and tonality, using single ramp trials and paired ramp trials, where single up-ramps and down-ramps were assembled to create continuous up-ramp/down-ramp or down-ramp/up-ramp pairs. Twenty-nine (Exp 1) and thirty-six (Exp 2) participants rated loudness continuously in response to trials with monophonic 13-note piano melodies lasting either 6.4s or 12s. Linear correlation coefficients >.89 between loudness and time show that time-series loudness responses to dynamic up-ramp and down-ramp melodies are essentially linear across all melodies. Therefore, 'indirect' loudness change derived from the difference in loudness at the beginning and end points of the continuous response was calculated. Down-ramps were perceived to change significantly more in loudness than up-ramps in both tonalities and at a relatively slow tempo. Loudness change was also greater for down-ramps presented with a congruent descending melodic contour, relative to an incongruent pairing (down-ramp and ascending melodic contour). No differential effect of intensity ramp/melodic contour congruency was observed for up-ramps. In paired ramp trials assessing the possible impact of ramp context, loudness change in response to up-ramps was significantly greater when preceded by down-ramps, than when not preceded by another ramp. Ramp context did not affect down-ramp perception. The contribution to the fields of music perception and psychoacoustics are discussed in the context of real-time perception of music, principles of music composition, and performance of musical dynamics.

  17. The two parts of the blackcap song: Acoustic analysis and male responses to playbacks.

    PubMed

    Linossier, Juliette; Courvoisier, Hélène; Aubin, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    Bird songs are complex manifold acoustic signals serving two main functions: mate attraction and territorial defense. The way information is encoded in the song often reflects adaptation to proximate and ultimate constraints. Male blackcaps, Sylvia atricapilla, display versatile songs with two parts, a warble and a whistle, whose functions remain unclear. We showed that the two parts of songs differ in terms of intensity, frequency and temporal parameters. They also contain totally different sets of syllables. Furthermore, the warble is versatile whereas the whistle part shows syllable sharing between individuals leaving closeby. Altogether, the results of our analysis suggest that the two parts encode different information potentially directed to different audiences. In order to test the potential function of these two parts, we performed playback experiments by broadcasting entire songs and each part separately. Warble and whistle alone are sufficient to trigger male responses and males sing both parts in responses to all stimuli, showing that both parts of the song are used in male-male competition. It is suggested that the segregation of information in the blackcap song could be related to public versus private communication, used in both intra- and intersexual contexts, rather than directed to male versus female audiences only.

  18. Long-Lasting Suppression of Acoustic Startle Response after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Swamini; Avcu, Pelin; Roland, Jessica J.; Nadpara, Neil; Pfister, Bryan; Long, Mathew; Santhakumar, Vijayalakshmi; Servatius, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Acoustic startle response (ASR) is a defensive reflex that is largely ignored unless greatly exaggerated. ASR is suppressed after moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), but the effect of mild TBI (mTBI) on ASR has not been investigated. Because the neural circuitry for ASR resides in the pons in all mammals, ASR may be a good measure of brainstem function after mTBI. The present study assessed ASR in Sprague-Dawley rats after mTBI using lateral fluid percussion and compared these effects to those on spatial working memory. mTBI caused a profound, long-lasting suppression of ASR. Both probability of emitting a startle and startle amplitude were diminished. ASR suppression was observed as soon as 1 day after injury and remained suppressed for the duration of the study (21 days after injury). No indication of recovery was observed. mTBI also impaired spatial working memory. In contrast to the suppression of ASR, working memory impairment was transient; memory was impaired 1 and 7 days after injury, but recovered by 21 days. The long-lasting suppression of ASR suggests long-term dysfunction of brainstem neural circuits at a time when forebrain neural circuits responsible for spatial working memory have recovered. These results have important implications for return-to-activity decisions because recovery of cognitive impairments plays an important role in these decisions. PMID:25412226

  19. Long-lasting suppression of acoustic startle response after mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Pang, Kevin C H; Sinha, Swamini; Avcu, Pelin; Roland, Jessica J; Nadpara, Neil; Pfister, Bryan; Long, Mathew; Santhakumar, Vijayalakshmi; Servatius, Richard J

    2015-06-01

    Acoustic startle response (ASR) is a defensive reflex that is largely ignored unless greatly exaggerated. ASR is suppressed after moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), but the effect of mild TBI (mTBI) on ASR has not been investigated. Because the neural circuitry for ASR resides in the pons in all mammals, ASR may be a good measure of brainstem function after mTBI. The present study assessed ASR in Sprague-Dawley rats after mTBI using lateral fluid percussion and compared these effects to those on spatial working memory. mTBI caused a profound, long-lasting suppression of ASR. Both probability of emitting a startle and startle amplitude were diminished. ASR suppression was observed as soon as 1 day after injury and remained suppressed for the duration of the study (21 days after injury). No indication of recovery was observed. mTBI also impaired spatial working memory. In contrast to the suppression of ASR, working memory impairment was transient; memory was impaired 1 and 7 days after injury, but recovered by 21 days. The long-lasting suppression of ASR suggests long-term dysfunction of brainstem neural circuits at a time when forebrain neural circuits responsible for spatial working memory have recovered. These results have important implications for return-to-activity decisions because recovery of cognitive impairments plays an important role in these decisions.

  20. Random response and fatigue life of aircraft panels subjected to severe acoustic and thermal loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bo

    The focus of this investigation is on the prediction of the fatigue life of aircraft panels subject to thermal effects and a severe random acoustic excitation. The prototypical equations for this problem, i.e. the single and double well Duffing oscillators subjected to a bandlimited white noise, are first considered. A review of some currently available spectral approaches, i.e. the Rayleigh approximation and the single spectral moment method both with and without Gaussianity correction, strongly suggests that an accurate prediction of the fatigue life for this nonlinear system requires a dedicated model. To this end, an approximation of the probability density function of the peaks of the stationary response of the Duffing oscillators is derived. This model is then used in conjunction with either a narrowband assumption or the single spectral moment methodology to yield a prediction of the fatigue life. The application of this approach to simulation data from a single/double well Duffing oscillator, as well as on the experimental response of an unbuckled panel, demonstrates the reliability of this novel approximation. Spectral approaches typically make use of the values of specific spectral moments and thus their application necessitates the availability of a reliable approximation of the power spectral density of the response considered (displacement or stress). Although of fundamental importance, the determination of the power spectrum of the response of nonlinear systems is a very difficult problem and it is only recently that successful techniques have been devised to estimate this function. Two such approaches are assessed here for the single degree of freedom Duffing oscillator and are modified to improve their accuracy and ease of use.

  1. Exaggerated Exercise Blood Pressure Response and Future Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Tzemos, Nikolaos; Lim, Pitt O; Mackenzie, Isla S; MacDonald, Thomas M

    2015-11-01

    Exaggerated blood pressure (BP) response to exercise predicts future hypertension. However, there is considerable lack of understanding regarding the mechanism of how this abnormal response is generated, and how it relates to the future establishment of cardiovascular disease. The authors studied 82 healthy male volunteers without cardiovascular risk factors. The participants were categorized into two age-matched groups depending on their exercise systolic BP (ExSBP) rise after 3 minutes of exercise using a submaximal step test: exaggerated ExSBP group (hyper-responders [peak SBP ≥ 180 mm Hg]) and low ExSBP responder group (hypo-responders [peak SBP <180 mm Hg]). Forearm venous occlusion plethysmography and intra-arterial infusions of acetylcholine (ACh), N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and norepinephrine (NE) were used to assess vascular reactivity. Proximal aortic compliance was assessed with ultrasound, and neurohormonal blood sampling was performed at rest and during peak exercise. The hyper-responder group exhibited a significantly lower increase in forearm blood flow (FBF) with ACh compared with the hypo-responder group (ΔFBF 215% [14] vs 332.3% [28], mean [standard error of the mean]; P<.001), as well as decreased proximal aortic compliance. The vasoconstrictive response to L-NMMA was significantly impaired in the hyper-responder group in comparison to the hypo-responder group (ΔFBF -40.2% [1.6] vs -50.2% [2.6]; P<.05). In contrast, the vascular response to SNP and NE were comparable in both groups. Peak exercise plasma angiotensin II levels were significantly higher in the hyper-responder group (31 [1] vs 23 [2] pg/mL, P=.01). An exaggerated BP response to exercise is related to endothelial dysfunction, decreased proximal aortic compliance, and increased exercise-related neurohormonal activation, the constellation of which may explain future cardiovascular disease.

  2. Single-subject analyses of magnetoencephalographic evoked responses to the acoustic properties of affective non-verbal vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Salvia, Emilie; Bestelmeyer, Patricia E G; Kotz, Sonja A; Rousselet, Guillaume A; Pernet, Cyril R; Gross, Joachim; Belin, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Magneto-encephalography (MEG) was used to examine the cerebral response to affective non-verbal vocalizations (ANVs) at the single-subject level. Stimuli consisted of non-verbal affect bursts from the Montreal Affective Voices morphed to parametrically vary acoustical structure and perceived emotional properties. Scalp magnetic fields were recorded in three participants while they performed a 3-alternative forced choice emotion categorization task (Anger, Fear, Pleasure). Each participant performed more than 6000 trials to allow single-subject level statistical analyses using a new toolbox which implements the general linear model (GLM) on stimulus-specific responses (LIMO-EEG). For each participant we estimated "simple" models [including just one affective regressor (Arousal or Valence)] as well as "combined" models (including acoustical regressors). Results from the "simple" models revealed in every participant the significant early effects (as early as ~100 ms after onset) of Valence and Arousal already reported at the group-level in previous work. However, the "combined" models showed that few effects of Arousal remained after removing the acoustically-explained variance, whereas significant effects of Valence remained especially at late stages. This study demonstrates (i) that single-subject analyses replicate the results observed at early stages by group-level studies and (ii) the feasibility of GLM-based analysis of MEG data. It also suggests that early modulation of MEG amplitude by affective stimuli partly reflects their acoustical properties.

  3. The Response of Cryogenic H2/O2 Coaxial Jet Flames to Acoustic Disturbances (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    decomposition analysis • Conclusions and future work 3 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited Background • Combustion systems can no...longer be designed to meet modern requirements without considering system dynamics • Combustion dynamics always includes acoustic waves, and in enclosed...systems, acoustic waves can often reach detrimental amplitudes – eg, combustion instabilities • Achieving modern thermodynamic efficiencies requires

  4. Continuously phase-modulated standing surface acoustic waves for separation of particles and cells in microfluidic channels containing multiple pressure nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Junseok; Rhyou, Chanryeol; Kang, Byungjun; Lee, Hyungsuk

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes continuously phase-modulated standing surface acoustic waves (CPM-SSAW) and its application for particle separation in multiple pressure nodes. A linear change of phase in CPM-SSAW applies a force to particles whose magnitude depends on their size and contrast factors. During continuous phase modulation, we demonstrate that particles with a target dimension are translated in the direction of moving pressure nodes, whereas smaller particles show oscillatory movements. The rate of phase modulation is optimized for separation of target particles from the relationship between mean particle velocity and period of oscillation. The developed technique is applied to separate particles of a target dimension from the particle mixture. Furthermore, we also demonstrate human keratinocyte cells can be separated in the cell and bead mixture. The separation technique is incorporated with a microfluidic channel spanning multiple pressure nodes, which is advantageous over separation in a single pressure node in terms of throughput.

  5. New insights from well responses to fluctuations in barometric pressure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, J.J.; Jin, W.; Mohammed, G.A.; Reboulet, E.C.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrologists have long recognized that changes in barometric pressure can produce changes in water levels in wells. The barometric response function (BRF) has proven to be an effective means to characterize this relationship; we show here how it can also be utilized to glean valuable insights into semi-confined aquifer systems. The form of the BRF indicates the degree of aquifer confinement, while a comparison of BRFs between wells sheds light on hydrostratigraphic continuity. A new approach for estimating hydraulic properties of aquitards from BRFs has been developed and verified. The BRF is not an invariant characteristic of a well; in unconfined or semi-confined aquifers, it can change with conditions in the vadose zone. Field data from a long-term research site demonstrate the hydrostratigraphic insights that can be gained from monitoring water levels and barometric pressure. Such insights should be of value for a wide range of practical applications. ?? 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation ?? 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  6. Use of Strain Measurements from Acoustic Bench Tests of the Battleship Flowliner Test Articles To Link Analytical Model Results to In-Service Resonant Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frady, Greg; Smaolloey, Kurt; LaVerde, Bruce; Bishop, Jim

    2004-01-01

    The paper will discuss practical and analytical findings of a test program conducted to assist engineers in determining which analytical strain fields are most appropriate to describe the crack initiating and crack propagating stresses in thin walled cylindrical hardware that serves as part of the Space Shuttle Main Engine's fuel system. In service the hardware is excited by fluctuating dynamic pressures in a cryogenic fuel that arise from turbulent flow/pump cavitation. A bench test using a simplified system was conducted using acoustic energy in air to excite the test articles. Strain measurements were used to reveal response characteristics of two Flowliner test articles that are assembled as a pair when installed in the engine feed system.

  7. Advances in Fast-response Acoustically Derived Air-temperature Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogoev, I.; Jacobsen, L.; Horst, T. W.; Conrad, B.

    2015-12-01

    Fast-response accurate air-temperature measurements are required when estimating turbulent fluxes of heat, water and carbon dioxide by open-path eddy-covariance technique. In comparison with contact thermometers like thermocouples, ultra-sonic thermometers do not suffer from solar radiation loading, water vapor condensation and evaporative cooling effects. Consequently they have the potential to provide more accurate true air temperature measurements. The absolute accuracy of the ultrasonic thermometer is limited by the following parameters: the distance between the transducer pairs, transducer delays associated with the electrical-acoustic signal conversion that vary with temperature, components of the wind vector that are normal to the ultrasonic paths, and humidity.The distance between the transducer pairs is commonly obtained by coordinate measuring machine. Improved accuracy demonstrated in this study results from increased stiffness in the anemometer head to better maintain the ultrasonic path-length distances. To further improve accuracy and account for changes in transducer delays and distance as a function of temperature, these parameters are characterized in a zero-wind chamber over the entire operating temperature range. When the sonic anemometer is combined with a co-located fast-response water vapor analyzer, like in the IRGASON instrument, speed of sound can be compensated for humidity effects on a point-by-point basis resulting in a true fast-response air temperature measurement. Laboratory test results show that when the above steps are implemented in the calibration of the ultrasonic thermometer air-temperature accuracy better than ±0.5 degrees Celsius can be achieved over the entire operating range. The approach is also validated in a field inter-comparison with an aspirated thermistor probe mounted in a radiation shield.

  8. Acoustic neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    Vestibular schwannoma; Tumor - acoustic; Cerebellopontine angle tumor; Angle tumor; Hearing loss - acoustic; Tinnitus - acoustic ... Acoustic neuromas have been linked with the genetic disorder neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). Acoustic neuromas are uncommon.

  9. The neuronal responses to repetitive acoustic pulses in different fields of the auditory cortex of awake rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lanlan; Tai, Xuhui; Su, Liye; Shi, Lijuan; Wang, Enhua; Qin, Ling

    2013-01-01

    Cortical representation of time-varying features of acoustic signals is a fundamental issue of acoustic processing remaining unresolved. The rat is a widely used animal model for auditory cortical processing. Though some electrophysiological studies have investigated the neural responses to temporal repetitive sounds in the auditory cortex (AC) of rats, most of them were conducted under anesthetized condition. Recently, it has been shown that anesthesia could significantly alter the temporal patterns of neural response. For this reason, we systematically examined the single-unit neural responses to click-trains in the core region of rat AC under awake condition. Consistent with the reports on anesthetized rats, we confirmed the existence of characteristic tonotopic organizations, which were used to divide the AC into anterior auditory field (AAF), primary auditory cortex (A1) and posterior auditory field (PAF). We further found that the neuron's capability to synchronize to the temporal repetitive stimuli progressively decreased along the anterior-to-posterior direction of AC. The median of maximum synchronization rate was 64, 32 and 16 Hz in AAF, A1 and PAF, respectively. On the other hand, the percentage of neurons, which showed non-synchronized responses and could represent the stimulus repetition rate by the mean firing rate, increased from 7% in AAF and A1 to 20% in PAF. These results suggest that the temporal resolution of acoustic processing gradually increases from the anterior to posterior part of AC, and thus there may be a hierarchical stream along this direction of rat AC.

  10. Development of acoustically lined ejector technology for multitube jet noise suppressor nozzles by model and engine tests over a wide range of jet pressure ratios and temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atvars, J.; Paynter, G. C.; Walker, D. Q.; Wintermeyer, C. F.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental program comprising model nozzle and full-scale engine tests was undertaken to acquire parametric data for acoustically lined ejectors applied to primary jet noise suppression. Ejector lining design technology and acoustical scaling of lined ejector configurations were the major objectives. Ground static tests were run with a J-75 turbojet engine fitted with a 37-tube, area ratio 3.3 suppressor nozzle and two lengths of ejector shroud (L/D = 1 and 2). Seven ejector lining configurations were tested over the engine pressure ratio range of 1.40 to 2.40 with corresponding jet velocities between 305 and 610 M/sec. One-fourth scale model nozzles were tested over a pressure ratio range of 1.40 to 4.0 with jet total temperatures between ambient and 1088 K. Scaling of multielement nozzle ejector configurations was also studied using a single element of the nozzle array with identical ejector lengths and lining materials. Acoustic far field and near field data together with nozzle thrust performance and jet aerodynamic flow profiles are presented.

  11. Heart rate responses induced by acoustic tempo and its interaction with basal heart rate

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Ken; Ooishi, Yuuki; Kashino, Makio

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have revealed the influences of music on the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Since previous studies focused on the effects of acoustic tempo on the ANS, and humans have their own physiological oscillations such as the heart rate (HR), the effects of acoustic tempo might depend on the HR. Here we show the relationship between HR elevation induced by acoustic tempo and individual basal HR. Since high tempo-induced HR elevation requires fast respiration, which is based on sympatho-respiratory coupling, we controlled the participants’ respiration at a faster rate (20 CPM) than usual (15 CPM). We found that sound stimuli with a faster tempo than the individual basal HR increased the HR. However, the HR increased following a gradual increase in the acoustic tempo only when the extent of the gradual increase in tempo was within a specific range (around + 2%/min). The HR did not follow the increase in acoustic tempo when the rate of the increase in the acoustic tempo exceeded 3% per minute. These results suggest that the effect of the sympatho-respiratory coupling underlying the HR elevation caused by a high acoustic tempo depends on the basal HR, and the strength and the temporal dynamics of the tempo. PMID:28266647

  12. Heart rate responses induced by acoustic tempo and its interaction with basal heart rate.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Ken; Ooishi, Yuuki; Kashino, Makio

    2017-03-07

    Many studies have revealed the influences of music on the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Since previous studies focused on the effects of acoustic tempo on the ANS, and humans have their own physiological oscillations such as the heart rate (HR), the effects of acoustic tempo might depend on the HR. Here we show the relationship between HR elevation induced by acoustic tempo and individual basal HR. Since high tempo-induced HR elevation requires fast respiration, which is based on sympatho-respiratory coupling, we controlled the participants' respiration at a faster rate (20 CPM) than usual (15 CPM). We found that sound stimuli with a faster tempo than the individual basal HR increased the HR. However, the HR increased following a gradual increase in the acoustic tempo only when the extent of the gradual increase in tempo was within a specific range (around + 2%/min). The HR did not follow the increase in acoustic tempo when the rate of the increase in the acoustic tempo exceeded 3% per minute. These results suggest that the effect of the sympatho-respiratory coupling underlying the HR elevation caused by a high acoustic tempo depends on the basal HR, and the strength and the temporal dynamics of the tempo.

  13. Magnetic domain response to strain generated by focused surface acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Uday; Adenwalla, Shireen

    The effects of strain on magnetostrictive ferromagnets include changes in the magnetization, anisotropy and domain wall velocities. A ferromagnet (FM) on the surface of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) is subjected to periodic compressive and tensile strain that has resulted in coherent rotation of the magnetization, as well as inducing ferromagnetic resonance in FM films. We describe the response of magnetic domains in Co/Pt multilayers when subjected to the high strains generated by a focused SAW. Annular interdigital transducers (AIDT) patterned on LiNbO3 form a SAW standing wave pattern with large strain amplitude at the focal center. Domains in [Co(3A)/Pt(8A)]x5 with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy were observed using a MOKE microscope within this focal region. Controlled magnetic pulses steered a magnetic domain boundary to the large strain region after nucleation.Excitation of the AIDT resulted in a reversible change in the domain wall boundary in the high strain region. We attribute this to magnetic anisotropy changes in the presence of RF strain, which results in changes in the domain configuration to minimize the free energy. We will present results showing both slow and fast magnetization changes in Co/Pt occurring in the presence of high frequency strain. This work is supported by NSF (DMR 1409622) and Nebraska MRSEC (DMR-1420645). This work is supported by NSF (DMR 1409622) and Nebraska MRSEC (DMR-1420645).

  14. Response of a hypersonic boundary layer to freestream pulse acoustic disturbance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenqing; Tang, Xiaojun; Lv, Hongqing

    2014-01-01

    The response of hypersonic boundary layer over a blunt wedge to freestream pulse acoustic disturbance was investigated. The stability characteristics of boundary layer for freestream pulse wave and continuous wave were analyzed comparatively. Results show that freestream pulse disturbance changes the thermal conductivity characteristics of boundary layer. For pulse wave, the number of main disturbance clusters decreases and the frequency band narrows along streamwise. There are competition and disturbance energy transfer among different modes in boundary layer. The dominant mode of boundary layer has an inhibitory action on other modes. Under continuous wave, the disturbance modes are mainly distributed near fundamental and harmonic frequencies, while under pulse wave, the disturbance modes are widely distributed in different modes. For both pulse and continuous waves, most of disturbance modes slide into a lower-growth or decay state in downstream, which is tending towards stability. The amplitude of disturbance modes in boundary layer under continuous wave is considerably larger than pulse wave. The growth rate for the former is also considerably larger than the later the disturbance modes with higher growth are mainly distributed near fundamental and harmonic frequencies for the former, while the disturbance modes are widely distributed in different frequencies for the latter.

  15. Response of a Hypersonic Boundary Layer to Freestream Pulse Acoustic Disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenqing; Tang, Xiaojun; Lv, Hongqing

    2014-01-01

    The response of hypersonic boundary layer over a blunt wedge to freestream pulse acoustic disturbance was investigated. The stability characteristics of boundary layer for freestream pulse wave and continuous wave were analyzed comparatively. Results show that freestream pulse disturbance changes the thermal conductivity characteristics of boundary layer. For pulse wave, the number of main disturbance clusters decreases and the frequency band narrows along streamwise. There are competition and disturbance energy transfer among different modes in boundary layer. The dominant mode of boundary layer has an inhibitory action on other modes. Under continuous wave, the disturbance modes are mainly distributed near fundamental and harmonic frequencies, while under pulse wave, the disturbance modes are widely distributed in different modes. For both pulse and continuous waves, most of disturbance modes slide into a lower-growth or decay state in downstream, which is tending towards stability. The amplitude of disturbance modes in boundary layer under continuous wave is considerably larger than pulse wave. The growth rate for the former is also considerably larger than the later the disturbance modes with higher growth are mainly distributed near fundamental and harmonic frequencies for the former, while the disturbance modes are widely distributed in different frequencies for the latter. PMID:24737993

  16. Blood Pressure Response to Submaximal Exercise Test in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Szmigielska, Katarzyna; Leszczynska, Joanna; Jegier, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background. The assessment of blood pressure (BP) response during exercise test is an important diagnostic instrument in cardiovascular system evaluation. The study aim was to determine normal values of BP response to submaximal, multistage exercise test in healthy adults with regard to their age, gender, and workload. Materials and Methods. The study was conducted in randomly selected normotensive subjects (n = 1015), 512 females and 498 males, aged 18–64 years (mean age 42.1 ± 12.7 years) divided into five age groups. All subjects were clinically healthy with no chronic diseases diagnosed. Exercise stress tests were performed using Monark bicycle ergometer until a minimum of 85% of physical capacity was reached. BP was measured at rest and at peak of each exercise test stage. Results. The relations between BP, age, and workload during exercise test were determined by linear regression analysis and can be illustrated by the equations: systolic BP (mmHg) = 0.346 × load (W) + 135.76 for males and systolic BP (mmHg) = 0.103 × load (W) + 155.72 for females. Conclusions. Systolic BP increases significantly and proportionally to workload increase during exercise test in healthy adults. The relation can be described by linear equation which can be useful in diagnostics of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27703976

  17. Hyperreactivity to weak acoustic stimuli and prolonged acoustic startle latency in children with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background People with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are known to have enhanced auditory perception, however, acoustic startle response to weak stimuli has not been well documented in this population. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the basic profile of acoustic startle response, including peak startle latency and startle magnitude to weaker stimuli, in children with ASD and typical development (TD), and to evaluate their relationship to ASD characteristics. Methods We investigated acoustic startle response with weak and strong acoustic stimuli in 12 children with ASD and 28 children with TD, analyzing the relationship between startle measures and quantitative autistic traits assessed with the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). The electromyographic activity of the left orbicularis oculi muscle to acoustic stimuli of 65 to 115 dB sound pressure level (SPL), in increments of 5 dB, was measured to evaluate acoustic startle response. The average eyeblink magnitude for each acoustic stimuli intensity and the average peak startle latency of acoustic startle response were evaluated. Results The magnitude of the acoustic startle response to weak stimuli (85 dB or smaller) was greater in children with ASD. The peak startle latency was also prolonged in individuals with ASD. The average magnitude of the acoustic startle response for stimulus intensities greater than 85 dB was not significantly larger in the ASD group compared with the controls. Both greater startle magnitude in response to weak stimuli (particularly at 85 dB) and prolonged peak startle latency were significantly associated with total scores, as well as several subscales of the SRS in the whole sample. We also found a significant relationship between scores on the social cognition subscale of the SRS and the average magnitude of the acoustic startle response for stimulus intensities of 80 and 85 dB in the TD group. Conclusions Children with ASD exhibited larger startle magnitude to weak

  18. Beamforming synthesis of binaural responses from computer simulations of acoustic spaces.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Mark A; Svensson, U Peter

    2008-07-01

    Auditorium designs can be evaluated prior to construction by numerical modeling of the design. High-accuracy numerical modeling produces the sound pressure on a rectangular grid, and subjective assessment of the design requires auralization of the sampled sound field at a desired listener position. This paper investigates the production of binaural outputs from the sound pressure at a selected number of grid points by using a least squares beam forming approach. Low-frequency axisymmetric emulations are derived by assuming a solid sphere model of the head, and a spherical array of 640 microphones is used to emulate ten measured head-related transfer function (HRTF) data sets from the CIPIC database for half the audio bandwidth. The spherical array can produce high-accuracy band-limited emulation of any human subject's measured HRTFs for a fixed listener position by using individual sets of beam forming impulse responses.

  19. Acoustic behaviors of unsaturated soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.

    2011-12-01

    Soils are unconsolidated granular materials, consisting of solid particles, water and air. Their mechanical and dynamic behaviors are determined by the discrete nature of the media as well as external and inter-particle forces. For unsaturated soils, two factors significantly affect soils acoustic/seismic responses: external pressure and internal water potential/matric suction. In triaxial cell tests, unsaturated soils were subjected to predefined stress paths to undergo stages of normal consolidation, unload-reload cycles, and failure. The stress deformation curve and stress-P-wave velocity were measured and compared. The study revealed that soil's dynamic response to external pressure are similar to those of the load-deformation behaviors and demonstrated that acoustic velocity can be used to monitor the state of stress of soils. In a long term field soil survey, the P-wave velocities were found to be correlated with water potential as expressed as a power-law relationship. The above phenomena can be understood by using the Terzaghi' s the principle of effective stress. The measured results were in good agreement with Brutsaert theory. The effective stress concept can also be applied to explain the observations in a soil pipe flow study in which soil internal erosion processes were monitored and interpreted by the temporal evolution of the P-wave velocity. In addition to above linear acoustic behaviors, soils, like other earth materials, exhibit astonishing non-classical nonlinear behaviors such as end-point memory, hysteresis, strain -dependent shear modulus, resonant frequency shift, and phase shift, harmonics generation, etc. A nonlinear acoustic study of a soil as a function of water content showed that the nonlinear acoustic parameter are much sensitive to the variations of soil water content than that of the acoustic velocity.

  20. Reduction of peak acoustic pressure and shaping of heated region by use of multifoci sonications in MR-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound mediated mild hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Partanen, Ari; Tillander, Matti; Yarmolenko, Pavel S.; Wood, Bradford J.; Dreher, Matthew R.; Köhler, Max O.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Ablative hyperthermia (>55 °C) has been used as a definitive treatment for accessible solid tumors not amenable to surgery, whereas mild hyperthermia (40–45 °C) has been shown effective as an adjuvant for both radiotherapy and chemotherapy. An optimal mild hyperthermia treatment is spatially accurate, with precise and homogeneous heating limited to the target region while also limiting the likelihood of unwanted thermal or mechanical bioeffects (tissue damage, vascular shutoff). Magnetic resonance imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) can noninvasively heat solid tumors under image-guidance. In a mild hyperthermia setting, a sonication approach utilizing multiple concurrent foci may provide the benefit of reducing acoustic pressure in the focal region (leading to reduced or no mechanical effects), while providing better control over the heating. The objective of this study was to design, implement, and characterize a multifoci sonication approach in combination with a mild hyperthermia heating algorithm, and compare it to the more conventional method of electronically sweeping a single focus. Methods: Simulations (acoustic and thermal) and measurements (acoustic, with needle hydrophone) were performed. In addition, heating performance of multifoci and single focus sonications was compared using a clinical MR-HIFU platform in a phantom (target = 4–16 mm), in normal rabbit thigh muscle (target = 8 mm), and in a Vx2 tumor (target = 8 mm). A binary control algorithm was used for real-time mild hyperthermia feedback control (target range = 40.5–41 °C). Data were analyzed for peak acoustic pressure and intensity, heating energy efficiency, temperature accuracy (mean), homogeneity of heating (standard deviation [SD], T10 and T90), diameter and length of the heated region, and thermal dose (CEM43). Results: Compared to the single focus approach, multifoci sonications showed significantly lower (67% reduction) peak acoustic

  1. Dynamic Response of X-37 Hot Structure Control Surfaces Exposed to Controlled Reverberant Acoustic Excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Rizzi, Stephen A.; Rice, Chad E.

    2004-01-01

    This document represents a compilation of three informal reports from reverberant acoustic tests performed on X-37 hot structure control surfaces in the NASA Langley Research Center Structural Acoustics Loads and Transmission (SALT) facility. The first test was performed on a carbon-silicone carbide flaperon subcomponent on February 24, 2004. The second test was performed on a carbon-carbon ruddervator subcomponent on May 27, 2004. The third test was performed on a carbon-carbon flaperon subcomponent on June 30, 2004.

  2. Fundamentals of Acoustics. Psychoacoustics and Hearing. Acoustical Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Ahumada, Al (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    These are 3 chapters that will appear in a book titled "Building Acoustical Design", edited by Charles Salter. They are designed to introduce the reader to fundamental concepts of acoustics, particularly as they relate to the built environment. "Fundamentals of Acoustics" reviews basic concepts of sound waveform frequency, pressure, and phase. "Psychoacoustics and Hearing" discusses the human interpretation sound pressure as loudness, particularly as a function of frequency. "Acoustic Measurements" gives a simple overview of the time and frequency weightings for sound pressure measurements that are used in acoustical work.

  3. Eastern Bluebirds Alter their Song in Response to Anthropogenic Changes in the Acoustic Environment.

    PubMed

    Kight, Caitlin R; Swaddle, John P

    2015-09-01

    Vocal responses to anthropogenic noise have been documented in several species of songbird. However, only a few studies have investigated whether these adjustments are made in "real time" or are longer-term responses to particular soundscapes. Furthermore, increased ambient noise often is accompanied by structural changes to the habitat, including the introduction of noisy roadways and the removal of native vegetation. To date, no studies have simultaneously investigated the impact of both acoustic and structural disturbance on the same species. The relevance of each of these variables must be quantified if we wish to refine our understanding of the ways in which human activities influence avian communication. In this study, we quantified both among-male and within-male adjustments of song in response to ambient noise, and also investigated whether anthropogenic modifications of the habitat explained variations in songs' parameters. Recordings of songs were collected from male, breeding eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) residing in a network of nestboxes distributed across a gradient of anthropogenic disturbance. Levels of ambient noise were associated both with the average song-parameters of each male and with the change in a male's song-parameters between the loudest and quietest periods at his nest box. Males' song parameters were also related to habitat structure, as assessed using geographic information systems techniques. Males in noisier sites produced both higher-pitched and louder songs than did birds in quieter areas. Likewise, individual males demonstrated immediate adjustments to disturbance by noise, increasing the amplitude of their song between periods of quiet and loud ambient noise. Both spectral and temporal aspects of a male's song were related to whether his habitat was more "natural" or "anthropogenic." Our results indicate that males' adjustments of song may represent simultaneous responses to multiple modifications of the habitat by humans

  4. Comparison of auditory responses determined by acoustic stimulation and by mechanical round window stimulation at equivalent stapes velocities.

    PubMed

    Lee, JangWoo; Seong, KiWoong; Lee, Sang-Heun; Lee, Kyu-Yup; Cho, Jin-Ho

    2014-08-01

    Active middle ear implants (AMEIs) have been studied to overcome the limitations of conventional hearing aids such as howling, occlusion, and social discrimination. AMEIs usually drive the oval window (OW) by means of transmitting vibrational force through the ossicles and the vibrational force corresponding to sound is generated from a mechanical actuator. Recently, round window (RW) stimulation using an AMEI such as a floating mass transducer (FMT) to deliver sound to the cochlea has been introduced and hearing improvement in clinical use has been reported. Although previous studies demonstrated that the auditory response to RW stimulation was comparable to a sound-evoked auditory response, few studies have investigated the quantification of the physiologic performance of an AMEI through RW stimulation on the inner ear in vivo. There is no established relationship between the cochlear responses and mechanical stimulation to RW. The aim of this study is to assess the physiologic response in RW stimulation by an AMEI. The transferred energy through the RW to the inner ear could estimate the response corresponding to acoustic stimulation in order to quantify the AMEI output in the ossicular chain or OW stimulation. The parameters of the auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were measured and compared based on stapes velocities similar enough to be regarded as the same for acoustic stimulation to the external auditory canal (EAC) and mechanical stimulation to the RW in an in vivo system. In conclusion, this study showed that the amplitudes and latencies of the ABRs of acoustic and RW stimulation showed significant differences at comparable stapes velocities in an in vivo system. These differences in the ABR amplitudes and latencies reflect different output functions of the cochlea in response to different stimulation pathways. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a new method for quantifying the output of the cochlea in the case of RW stimulation.

  5. The phase transformation of methane caused by pressure change during its rising from seepage, revealed by acoustic reflection data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, C.; Aoyama, S.

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this survey is to measure acoustical reflection from the methane plumes at close range by utilizing a remotely-operated vehicle, in order to quantify methane gas flux seeping out from shallow methane hydrates in the sea of japan. In the off-Joetsu area, we conducted acoustic survey for methane plumes distribution using quantitative echo sounder (Simrad EK60) and Multi beam echo sounder (SEABAT 8160) installed on R/V Natsushima, and then conducted underwater survey using ROV Hyper-Dolphin in the following methods, 1) Observing seafloor morphology, 2) Measurement methane discharge with a calibrated collecting equipment , 3) Measuring rising speed of methane bubbles with a ruler, 4) Collecting acoustic reflection data using quantitative echo sounder, 5) Observing rising methane bubbles. All processes in the underwater survey were recorded by a HD camera equipped on ROV, and those videos are used for after-cruise analysis. In the underwater survey by ROV, we found three methane plume points and successfully collected acoustic data which would detect each methane bubble. Based on videos and acoustic data obtained in this survey, detailed analysis conducted.

  6. Broad frequency acoustic response of ground/floor to human footsteps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekimov, Alexander; Sabatier, James M.

    2006-04-01

    The human footstep is one of several signatures that can serve as a useful parameter for human detection. In early research, the force of footsteps was measured on load cells and the input energy from multiple footsteps was detected in the frequency range of 1-4 Hz. Cress investigated the seismic velocity response of outdoor ground sites to individuals that were crawling, walking, and running. In his work, the seismic velocity response was shown to be site-specific and the characteristic frequency range was 20-90 Hz. The current paper will present vibration and sound pressure responses of human footsteps in a broad frequency range. The vibration and sound in the low-frequency band are well known in the literature and generated by the force component normal to the ground/floor. This force is a function of person's weight and a manner of motion (e.g. walking, running, etc). Forces tangential to the ground/floor from a footstep and the ground reaction generate the high frequency responses. The interactions of foot and the ground/floor produce sliding contacts and the result is a friction signal. The parameters of this friction signal, such as frequency band and vibration and sound magnitudes as functions of human walking styles, were studied. The results of tests are presented and discussed.

  7. Vagal enhancement linking abnormal blood pressure response and subendocardial ischemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Tatsuya; Sugihara, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    An abnormal blood pressure response to exercise has been reported to be associated with left ventricular subendocardial ischemia in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We report a case of HCM with an abnormal blood pressure response and subendocardial ischemia, in which the analysis of heart rate variability revealed exercise-induced vagal enhancement. The present case highlights the possible mechanism linking abnormal blood pressure response and left ventricular subendocardial ischemia in patients with HCM.

  8. Quantifying Patterns of Change in Marine Ecosystem Response to Multiple Pressures

    PubMed Central

    Large, Scott I.; Fay, Gavin; Friedland, Kevin D.; Link, Jason S.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to understand and ultimately predict ecosystem response to multiple pressures is paramount to successfully implement ecosystem-based management. Thresholds shifts and nonlinear patterns in ecosystem responses can be used to determine reference points that identify levels of a pressure that may drastically alter ecosystem status, which can inform management action. However, quantifying ecosystem reference points has proven elusive due in large part to the multi-dimensional nature of both ecosystem pressures and ecosystem responses. We used ecological indicators, synthetic measures of ecosystem status and functioning, to enumerate important ecosystem attributes and to reduce the complexity of the Northeast Shelf Large Marine Ecosystem (NES LME). Random forests were used to quantify the importance of four environmental and four anthropogenic pressure variables to the value of ecological indicators, and to quantify shifts in aggregate ecological indicator response along pressure gradients. Anthropogenic pressure variables were critical defining features and were able to predict an average of 8-13% (up to 25-66% for individual ecological indicators) of the variation in ecological indicator values, whereas environmental pressures were able to predict an average of 1-5 % (up to 9-26% for individual ecological indicators) of ecological indicator variation. Each pressure variable predicted a different suite of ecological indicator’s variation and the shapes of ecological indicator responses along pressure gradients were generally nonlinear. Threshold shifts in ecosystem response to exploitation, the most important pressure variable, occurred when commercial landings were 20 and 60% of total surveyed biomass. Although present, threshold shifts in ecosystem response to environmental pressures were much less important, which suggests that anthropogenic pressures have significantly altered the ecosystem structure and functioning of the NES LME. Gradient response

  9. Quantifying patterns of change in marine ecosystem response to multiple pressures.

    PubMed

    Large, Scott I; Fay, Gavin; Friedland, Kevin D; Link, Jason S

    2015-01-01

    The ability to understand and ultimately predict ecosystem response to multiple pressures is paramount to successfully implement ecosystem-based management. Thresholds shifts and nonlinear patterns in ecosystem responses can be used to determine reference points that identify levels of a pressure that may drastically alter ecosystem status, which can inform management action. However, quantifying ecosystem reference points has proven elusive due in large part to the multi-dimensional nature of both ecosystem pressures and ecosystem responses. We used ecological indicators, synthetic measures of ecosystem status and functioning, to enumerate important ecosystem attributes and to reduce the complexity of the Northeast Shelf Large Marine Ecosystem (NES LME). Random forests were used to quantify the importance of four environmental and four anthropogenic pressure variables to the value of ecological indicators, and to quantify shifts in aggregate ecological indicator response along pressure gradients. Anthropogenic pressure variables were critical defining features and were able to predict an average of 8-13% (up to 25-66% for individual ecological indicators) of the variation in ecological indicator values, whereas environmental pressures were able to predict an average of 1-5 % (up to 9-26% for individual ecological indicators) of ecological indicator variation. Each pressure variable predicted a different suite of ecological indicator's variation and the shapes of ecological indicator responses along pressure gradients were generally nonlinear. Threshold shifts in ecosystem response to exploitation, the most important pressure variable, occurred when commercial landings were 20 and 60% of total surveyed biomass. Although present, threshold shifts in ecosystem response to environmental pressures were much less important, which suggests that anthropogenic pressures have significantly altered the ecosystem structure and functioning of the NES LME. Gradient response

  10. Response of fish communities to multiple pressures: Development of a total anthropogenic pressure intensity index.

    PubMed

    Poikane, Sandra; Ritterbusch, David; Argillier, Christine; Białokoz, Witold; Blabolil, Petr; Breine, Jan; Jaarsma, Nicolaas G; Krause, Teet; Kubečka, Jan; Lauridsen, Torben L; Nõges, Peeter; Peirson, Graeme; Virbickas, Tomas

    2017-05-15

    Lakes in Europe are subject to multiple anthropogenic pressures, such as eutrophication, habitat degradation and introduction of alien species, which are frequently inter-related. Therefore, effective assessment methods addressing multiple pressures are needed. In addition, these systems have to be harmonised (i.e. intercalibrated) to achieve common management objectives across Europe. Assessments of fish communities inform environmental policies on ecological conditions integrating the impacts of multiple pressures. However, the challenge is to ensure consistency in ecological assessments through time, across ecosystem types and across jurisdictional boundaries. To overcome the serious comparability issues between national assessment systems in Europe, a total anthropogenic pressure intensity (TAPI) index was developed as a weighted combination of the most common pressures in European lakes that is validated against 10 national fish-based water quality assessment systems using data from 556 lakes. Multi-pressure indices showed significantly higher correlations with fish indices than single-pressure indices. The best-performing index combines eutrophication, hydromorphological alterations and human use intensity of lakes. For specific lake types also biological pressures may constitute an important additional pressure. The best-performing index showed a strong correlation with eight national fish-based assessment systems. This index can be used in lake management for assessing total anthropogenic pressure on lake ecosystems and creates a benchmark for comparison of fish assessments independent of fish community composition, size structure and fishing-gear. We argue that fish-based multiple-pressure assessment tools should be seen as complementary to single-pressure tools offering the major advantage of integrating direct and indirect effects of multiple pressures over large scales of space and time.

  11. Acoustic and aerodynamic performance of a 1.83-meter (6-ft) diameter 1.25-pressure-ratio fan (QF-8)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, R. P.; Lucas, J. G.

    1976-01-01

    A 1.25-pressure-ratio 1.83-meter (6-ft) tip diameter experimental fan stage with characteristics suitable for engine application on STOL aircraft was tested for acoustic and aerodynamic performance. The design incorporated proven features for low noise, including absence of inlet guide vanes, low rotor blade tip speed, low aerodynamic blade loading, and long axial spacing between the rotor and stator blade rows. The fan was operated with five exhaust nozzle areas. The stage noise levels generally increased with a decrease in nozzle area. Separation of the acoustic one-third octave results into broadband and pure-tone components showed the broadband noise to be greater than the corresponding pure-tone components. The sideline perceived noise was highest in the rear quadrants. The acoustic results of QF-8 were compared with those of two similar STOL application fans in the test series. The QF-8 had somewhat higher relative noise levels than those of the other two fans. The aerodynamic results of QF-8 and the other two fans were compared with corresponding results from 50.8-cm (20-in.) diam scale models of these fans and design values. Although the results for the full-scale and scale models of the other two fans were in reasonable agreement for each design, the full-scale fan QF-8 results showed poor performance compared with corresponding model results and design expectations. Facility effects of the full-scale fan QF-8 installation were considered in analyzing this discrepancy.

  12. Acoustic and vibration response of a structure with added noise control treatment under various excitations.

    PubMed

    Rhazi, Dilal; Atalla, Noureddine

    2014-02-01

    The evaluation of the acoustic performance of noise control treatments is of great importance in many engineering applications, e.g., aircraft, automotive, and building acoustics applications. Numerical methods such as finite- and boundary elements allow for the study of complex structures with added noise control treatment. However, these methods are computationally expensive when used for complex structures. At an early stage of the acoustic trim design process, many industries look for simple and easy to use tools that provide sufficient physical insight that can help to formulate design criteria. The paper presents a simple and tractable approach for the acoustic design of noise control treatments. It presents and compares two transfer matrix-based methods to investigate the vibroacoustic behavior of noise control treatments. The first is based on a modal approach, while the second is based on wave-number space decomposition. In addition to the classical rain-on-the-roof and diffuse acoustic field excitations, the paper also addresses turbulent boundary layer and point source (monopole) excitations. Various examples are presented and compared to a finite element calculation to validate the methodology and to confirm its relevance along with its limitations.

  13. Analyzing panel acoustic contributions toward the sound field inside the passenger compartment of a full-size automobile.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sean F; Moondra, Manmohan; Beniwal, Ravi

    2015-04-01

    The Helmholtz equation least squares (HELS)-based nearfield acoustical holography (NAH) is utilized to analyze panel acoustic contributions toward the acoustic field inside the interior region of an automobile. Specifically, the acoustic power flows from individual panels are reconstructed, and relative contributions to sound pressure level and spectrum at any point of interest are calculated. Results demonstrate that by correlating the acoustic power flows from individual panels to the field acoustic pressure, one can correctly locate the panel allowing the most acoustic energy transmission into the vehicle interior. The panel on which the surface acoustic pressure amplitude is the highest should not be used as indicative of the panel responsible for the sound field in the vehicle passenger compartment. Another significant advantage of this HELS-based NAH is that measurements of the input data only need to be taken once by using a conformal array of microphones in the near field, and ranking of panel acoustic contributions to any field point can be readily performed. The transfer functions between individual panels of any vibrating structure to the acoustic pressure anywhere in space are calculated not measured, thus significantly reducing the time and effort involved in panel acoustic contributions analyses.

  14. Nearfield Acoustical Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayek, Sabih I.

    Nearfield acoustical holography (NAH) is a method by which a set of acoustic pressure measurements at points located on a specific surface (called a hologram) can be used to image sources on vibrating surfaces on the acoustic field in three-dimensional space. NAH data are processed to take advantage of the evanescent wavefield to image sources that are separated less that one-eighth of a wavelength.

  15. Near- and Far-field Response to Compact Acoustic Sources in Stratified Convection Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cally, Paul S.

    2013-05-01

    The role of the acoustic continuum associated with compact sources in the Sun's interior wave field is explored for a simple polytropic model. The continuum produces a near-field acoustic structure—the so-called acoustic jacket—that cannot be represented by a superposition of discrete normal modes. Particular attention is paid to monochromatic point sources of various frequency and depth, and to the surface velocity power that results, both in the discrete f- and p-mode spectrum and in the continuum. It is shown that a major effect of the continuum is to heal the surface wave field produced by compact sources, and therefore to hide them from view. It is found that the continuous spectrum is not a significant contributor to observable inter-ridge seismic power.

  16. Influence of central venous pressure upon sinus node responses to arterial baroreflex stimulation in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mark, A. L.; Takeshita, A.; Eckberg, D. L.; Abboud, F. M.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements were made of sinus node responses to arterial baroreceptor stimulation with phenylephrine injection or neck suction, before and during changes of central venous pressure provoked by lower body negative pressure or leg and lower truck elevation. Variations of central venous pressure between 1.1 and 9.0 mm Hg did not influence arterial baroreflex mediated bradycardia. Baroreflex sinus node responses were augmented by intravenous propranolol, but the level of responses after propranolol was comparable during the control state, lower body negative pressure, and leg and trunk elevation. Sinus node responses to very brief baroreceptor stimuli applied during the transitions of central venous pressure also were comparable in the three states. The authors conclude that physiological variations of central venous pressure do not influence sinus node responses to arterial baroreceptor stimulation in man.

  17. Mesospheric airglow and ionospheric responses to upward-propagating acoustic and gravity waves above tropospheric sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snively, J. B.; Zettergren, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    The existence of acoustic waves (periods ~1-5 minutes) and gravity waves (periods >4 minutes) in the ionosphere above active tropospheric convection has been appreciated for more than forty years [e.g., Georges, Rev. Geophys. and Space Phys., 11(3), 1973]. Likewise, gravity waves exhibiting cylindrical symmetry and curvature of phase fronts have been observed via imaging of the mesospheric airglow layers [e.g., Yue et al., JGR, 118(8), 2013], clearly associated with tropospheric convection; gravity wave signatures have also recently been detected above convection in ionospheric total electron content (TEC) measurements [Lay et al., GRL, 40, 2013]. We here investigate the observable features of acoustic waves, and their relationship to upward-propagating gravity waves generated by the same sources, as they arrive in the mesosphere, lower-thermosphere, and ionosphere (MLTI). Numerical simulations using a nonlinear, cylindrically-axisymmetric, compressible atmospheric dynamics model confirm that acoustic waves generated by transient tropospheric sources may produce "concentric ring" signatures in the mesospheric hydroxyl airglow layer that precede the arrival of gravity waves. As amplitudes increase with altitude and decreasing neutral density, the modeled acoustic waves achieve temperature and vertical wind perturbations on the order of ~10s of Kelvin and m/s throughout the E- and F-region. Using a coupled multi-fluid ionospheric model [Zettergren and Semeter, JGR, 117(A6), 2012], extended for low-latitudes using a 2D dipole magnetic field coordinate system, we investigate acoustic wave perturbations to the ionosphere in the meridional direction. Resulting perturbations are predicted to be detectable by ground-based radar and GPS TEC measurements, or via in situ instrumentation. Although transient and short-lived, the acoustic waves' airglow and ionospheric signatures are likely to in some cases be observable, and may provide important insight into the regional

  18. Space Shuttle Orbiter Main Engine Ignition Acoustic Pressure Loads Issue: Recent Actions to Install Wireless Instrumentation on STS-129

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Nathan; Studor, George

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development and construction of the wireless acoustic instruments surrounding the space shuttle's main engines in preparation for STS-129. The presentation also includes information on end-of-life processing and the mounting procedure for the devices.

  19. Effect of a hot spot on the strain response of an acoustically-loaded flat plate

    SciTech Connect

    Koval, L.R.; Jong, C.P.

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies of the acoustic fatigue of heated plates have treated uniformly-heated plates. The current study examines the effect of a 'hot spot' on the acoustic fatigue of a simply-supported flat plate. The hot spot is provided by a concentration of hot gas and is 'applied' to the plate through a convection boundary condition on the upper surface of the plate. For simplicity, the hot spot is assumed to be rectangular with its sides parallel to the sides of the plate. The size of the hot spot, the location of the hot spot, and the temperature of the hot spot were all varied to see their effects. 18 references.

  20. Brain pressure responses in translational head impact: a dimensional analysis and a further computational study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Ruan, Shijie; Ji, Songbai

    2015-08-01

    Brain pressure responses resulting from translational head impact are typically related to focal injuries at the coup and contrecoup sites. Despite significant efforts characterizing brain pressure responses using experimental and modeling approaches, a thorough investigation of the key controlling parameters appears lacking. In this study, we identified three parameters specific and important for brain pressure responses induced by isolated linear acceleration a(lin) via a dimensional analysis: a(lin) itself (magnitude and directionality), brain size and shape. These findings were verified using our recently developed Dartmouth Head Injury Model (DHIM). Applying a(lin) to the rigid skull, we found that the temporal profile of the given a(lin) directly determined that of pressure. Brain pressure was also found to be linearly proportional to brain size and dependent on impact direction. In addition, we investigated perturbations to brain pressure responses as a result of non-rigid skull deformation. Finally, DHIM pressure responses were quantitatively validated against two representative cadaveric head impacts (categorized as "good" to "excellent" in performance). These results suggest that both the magnitude and directionality of a(lin) as well as brain size and shape should be considered when interpreting brain pressure responses. Further, a model validated against pressure responses alone is not sufficient to ensure its fidelity in strain-related responses. These findings provide important insights into brain pressure responses in translational head impact and the resulting risk of pressure-induced injury. In addition, they establish the feasibility of creating a pre-computed atlas for real-time tissue-level pressure responses without a direct simulation in the future.

  1. Cyclic Crack Growth Testing of an A.O. Smith Multilayer Pressure Vessel with Modal Acoustic Emission Monitoring and Data Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziola, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Digital Wave Corp. (DWC) was retained by Jacobs ATOM at NASA Ames Research Center to perform cyclic pressure crack growth sensitivity testing on a multilayer pressure vessel instrumented with DWC's Modal Acoustic Emission (MAE) system, with captured wave analysis to be performed using DWCs WaveExplorerTM software, which has been used at Ames since 2001. The objectives were to document the ability to detect and characterize a known growing crack in such a vessel using only MAE, to establish the sensitivity of the equipment vs. crack size and / or relevance in a realistic field environment, and to obtain fracture toughness materials properties in follow up testing to enable accurate crack growth analysis. This report contains the results of the testing.

  2. A novel acoustically quiet coil for neonatal MRI system

    PubMed Central

    Ireland, Christopher M.; Giaquinto, Randy O.; Loew, Wolfgang; Tkach, Jean A.; Pratt, Ronald G.; Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Merhar, Stephanie L.; Dumoulin, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    MRI acoustic exposure has the potential to elicit physiological distress and impact development in preterm and term infants. To mitigate this risk, a novel acoustically quiet coil was developed to reduce the sound pressure level experienced by neonates during MR procedures. The new coil has a conventional high-pass birdcage RF design, but is built on a framework of sound abating material. We evaluated the acoustic and MR imaging performance of the quiet coil and a conventional body coil on two small footprint NICU MRI systems. Sound pressure level and frequency response measurements were made for six standard clinical MR imaging protocols. The average sound pressure level, reported for all six imaging pulse sequences, was 82.2 dBA for the acoustically quiet coil, and 91.1 dBA for the conventional body coil. The sound pressure level values measured for the acoustically quiet coil were consistently lower, 9 dBA (range 6-10 dBA) quieter on average. The acoustic frequency response of the two coils showed a similar harmonic profile for all imaging sequences. However, the amplitude was lower for the quiet coil, by as much as 20 dBA. PMID:26457072

  3. A novel acoustically quiet coil for neonatal MRI system.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Christopher M; Giaquinto, Randy O; Loew, Wolfgang; Tkach, Jean A; Pratt, Ronald G; Kline-Fath, Beth M; Merhar, Stephanie L; Dumoulin, Charles L

    2015-08-01

    MRI acoustic exposure has the potential to elicit physiological distress and impact development in preterm and term infants. To mitigate this risk, a novel acoustically quiet coil was developed to reduce the sound pressure level experienced by neonates during MR procedures. The new coil has a conventional high-pass birdcage RF design, but is built on a framework of sound abating material. We evaluated the acoustic and MR imaging performance of the quiet coil and a conventional body coil on two small footprint NICU MRI systems. Sound pressure level and frequency response measurements were made for six standard clinical MR imaging protocols. The average sound pressure level, reported for all six imaging pulse sequences, was 82.2 dBA for the acoustically quiet coil, and 91.1 dBA for the conventional body coil. The sound pressure level values measured for the acoustically quiet coil were consistently lower, 9 dBA (range 6-10 dBA) quieter on average. The acoustic frequency response of the two coils showed a similar harmonic profile for all imaging sequences. However, the amplitude was lower for the quiet coil, by as much as 20 dBA.

  4. Strouhal number dependency of the aero-acoustic response of wall perforations under combined grazing-bias flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moers, E. M. T.; Tonon, D.; Hirschberg, A.

    2017-02-01

    The influence of low Mach number grazing-bias flow on the linear acoustic response of slit shaped wall perforations is determined in terms of a dimensionless acoustical impedance for Strouhal numbers based on the perforation width of order unity. The influence of edge geometries is studied by experiments. In particular, slanted slits under an angle of 30° with respect to the grazing flow direction are considered. Sound production, i.e. whistling potentiality corresponding to a negative real part of the impedance, is observed for various geometries and flow conditions. Sound production restricts the largest perforation size which can be used in practice for acoustical liners. Whistling in the limit cases of purely bias and purely grazing flows can be explained qualitatively in terms of Vortex Sound Theory. For combined bias/grazing flow, most of the oscillations in the impedance as a function of the Strouhal number are related to these limit behaviours. A configuration with thin sharp edges both upstream and downstream corresponds to commonly used theoretical models assuming an infinite thin wall. This configuration displays a behaviour drastically different from a more realistic perforation geometry with sharp square edges.

  5. Roughness Spectra and Acoustic Response from a Diver-Manipulated Sea Floor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-18

    photogrammetry. An important component of the Sediment Acoustic Prior to and during SAX04 Hurricanes Frances, Ivan, and EXperiment 2004 (SAX04) conducted in the...positions of the calibration grid. on December 1, 2005. Spacing between grooves is 1.92 cm. diver-generated ripples, and this regular microtopography

  6. Inverse least-squares modeling of vapor descriptors using polymer-coated surface acoustic wave sensor array responses.

    PubMed

    Grate, J W; Patrash, S J; Kaganovet, S N; Abraham, M H; Wise, B M; Gallagher, N B

    2001-11-01

    In previous work, it was shown that, in principle, vapor descriptors could be derived from the responses of an array of polymer-coated acoustic wave devices. This new chemometric classification approach was based on polymer/vapor interactions following the well-established linear solvation energy relationships (LSERs) and the surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducers being mass sensitive. Mathematical derivations were included and were supported by simulations. In this work, an experimental data set of polymer-coated SAW vapor sensors is investigated. The data set includes 20 diverse polymers tested against 18 diverse organic vapors. It is shown that interfacial adsorption can influence the response behavior of sensors with nonpolar polymers in response to hydrogen-bonding vapors; however, in general, most sensor responses are related to vapor interactions with the polymers. It is also shown that polymer-coated SAW sensor responses can be empirically modeled with LSERs, deriving an LSER for each individual sensor based on its responses to the 18 vapors. Inverse least-squares methods are used to develop models that correlate and predict vapor descriptors from sensor array responses. Successful correlations can be developed by multiple linear regression (MLR), principal components regression (PCR), and partial least-squares (PLS) regression. MLR yields the best fits to the training data, however cross-validation shows that prediction of vapor descriptors for vapors not in the training set is significantly more successful using PCR or PLS. In addition, the optimal dimension of the PCR and PLS models supports the dimensionality of the LSER formulation and SAW response models.

  7. Transcapillary fluid responses to lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aratow, Michael; Fortney, Suzanne M.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Crenshaw, Albert G.; Hargens, Alan R.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) on transcapillary fluid balance, with and without saline ingestion, was investigated in normally hydrated human subjects by measuring leg interstitial fluid pressure, leg circumference, plasma volume, and net whole body transcapillary fluid transport during and after supine LBNP in human subjects. The results indicate that prolonged LBNP, especially with saline ingestion, promotes fluid filtration into lower body tissues.

  8. On the behavior of a shear-coaxial jet, spanning sub- to supercritical pressures, with and without an externally imposed transverse acoustic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Dustin Wayne

    In the past, liquid rocket engines (LRE) have experienced high-frequency combustion instability, which impose an acoustic field in the combustion chamber. The acoustic field interacts with the fluid jets issuing from the injectors, thus altering the behavior of the jet compared to that of stable operation of the LRE. It is possible that this interaction could be a substantial feed back mechanism driving the combustion instability. In order to understand the problem of combustion instability, it is necessary to understand the interaction of the jet with the acoustic waves. From past combustion instability studies of the liquid oxygen and hydrogen propellant combination in a shear-coaxial injector configuration, a design guideline of outer-to-inner jet velocity ratio greater than about ten was proposed in order to avoid high-frequency acoustic combustion instability problems. However, no satisfactory physical explanation was provided. To promote this understanding, a cold-flow experimental investigation of a shear-coaxial jet interacting with a high-amplitude non-linear acoustic field was undertaken under chamber pressures extending into the supercritical regime. Liquid nitrogen (LN2) flowed from the inner tube of a coaxial injector while gaseous nitrogen (GN2) issued from its annular region. The injector fluids were directed into a chamber pressurized with gaseous nitrogen. The acoustic excitation was provided by an external driver capable of delivering acoustic field amplitudes up to 165 dB. The resonant modes of the chamber governed the two frequencies studied here, with the first two modes being about 3 and 5.2 kHz. High-speed images of the jet were taken with a Phantom CMOS camera. The so-called "dark core" of the jet is among the most salient features in the acquired images, and therefore, was defined and measured. The core length was found to decrease with increasing velocity and momentum flux ratio. Because of the ability of the camera to capture thousands of

  9. Staging of the Acoustic Response at Laboratory Modelling of Tidal Influence upon Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltykov, Vadim; Patonin, Andrey; Kugaenko, Yulia

    2010-05-01

    INTRODUCTION The seismic radiation is varied through the wide range of seismic energy from seismic emission (high-frequency seismic noise, HFSN) to earthquakes. Some features of external influence response on the different scales allow to consider the medium as a single whole seismoactive object. Earth tide is a bright example of external excited field. Tidal topic has long history in seismology. Results obtained by different scientists are contradictory and ambiguous often. We denoted instability of tidal effect manifestation as possible reason of this situation. In view of the aforesaid it is significant, that tidal effects in weak seismicity and HFSN prove more strongly in the stage of large earthquake preparation [Rykunov et al., 1998, Saltykov et al., 2004, 2007]. It is presumed that the metastable medium has more high tidal sensitivity. For example, sources of prepared earthquakes and extensive near-surface zones of micro-fissuring and dilatancy, which appear during source formation and stretch far enough. [Alekseev et all., 2001, Goldin, 2004, 2005]. Common features of observed effects allow to suggest existence of tidal modulation mechanism, which is similar (may be single) for different seismic scales. Modelling of these processes can improve our understanding of tidal effect nature. LABORATORY EXPERIMENT Results of rock sample destruction experiments under controlling are presented. Acoustic emission (AE) pulses act as analogue of seismic events. Tides are simulated by weak long-period variations added to quasi-stationary subcritical loading. The results of tidal modeling confirmed AE intensity synchronization with external periodic influence with large (5-10%) variations of loading are known [Lockner, Beeler, 1999, Ponomarev et al., 2007]. But real (in nature) tidal strain&stress variations are much less and equal to splits of percent. Therefore, investigation of weak modulation influence upon deformed rock is one of main proposed purposes. Used software

  10. Respiratory and Laryngeal Responses to an Oral Air Pressure Bleed during Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Jessica E.; Stathopoulos, Elaine T.

    2003-01-01

    Researchers have hypothesized that the respiratory and laryngeal speech subsystems would respond to an air pressure bleed, but these responses have not been empirically studied. The present study examined the nature of the responses of the respiratory and laryngeal subsystems to an air pressure bleed in order to provide information relevant to the…

  11. Reduced acoustic startle response and peripheral hearing loss in the 5xFAD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Timothy P; Shin, Sooyoun; Fertan, Emre; Dingle, Rachel N; Almuklass, Awad; Gunn, Rhian K; Yu, Zhiping; Wang, Jian; Brown, Richard E

    2017-01-29

    Hearing dysfunction has been associated with Alzheimer's disease in humans, but there is little data on the auditory function of mouse models of Alzheimer's disease. Furthermore, characterization of hearing ability in mouse models is needed to ensure that tests of cognition that use auditory stimuli are not confounded by hearing dysfunction. Therefore we assessed acoustic startle response and pre-pulse inhibition in the double transgenic 5xFAD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease from 3-4 to 16 months of age. The 5xFAD mice demonstrated an age-related decline in acoustic startle as early as 3-4 months of age. We subsequently tested Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) thresholds at 4 and 13-14 months of age using tone-bursts at frequencies of 2- 32 kHz. The 5xFAD mice showed increased ABR thresholds for tone-bursts between 8 and 32Khz at 13-14 months of age. Finally, cochleae were extracted and basilar membranes were dissected to count hair cell loss across the cochlea. The 5xFAD mice showed significantly greater loss of both inner and outer hair cells at the apical and basal ends of the basilar membrane than wildtype mice at 15-16 months of age. These results indicate that the 5xFAD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease shows age-related decreases in acoustic startle responses, which are at least partially due to age-related peripheral hearing loss. Therefore, we caution against the use of cognitive tests that rely on audition in 5xFAD mice over 3-4 months of age, without first confirming that performance is not confounded by hearing dysfunction.

  12. A point acoustic device based on aluminum nanowires.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qian-Yi; Ju, Zhen-Yi; Tian, He; Xue, Qing-Tang; Chen, Yuan-Quan; Tao, Lu-Qi; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Zhang, Xue-Yue; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2016-03-14

    A point Electrical Thermal Acoustic (ETA) device based on aluminum nanowire contacts is designed and fabricated. Interdigitated structural aluminum nanowires are released from the substrate by Inductively Coupled Plasma Reactive Ion Etching (ICP-RIE). By releasing the interdigitated structure, the nanowires contact each other at approximately 1 mm above the wafer, forming a Point Contact Structure (PCS). It is found that the PCS acoustic device realizes high efficiency when a biased AC signal is applied. The PCS acoustic device reaches a sound pressure level as high as 67 dB at a distance of 1 cm with 74 mW AC input. The power spectrum is flat, ranging from 2 kHz to 20 kHz with a less than ±3 dB fluctuation. The highest normalized Sound Pressure Level (SPL) of the point contact structure acoustic device is 18 dB higher than the suspended aluminum wire acoustic device. Comparisons between the PCS acoustic device and the Suspended Aluminum Nanowire (SAN) acoustic device illustrate that the PCS acoustic device has a flatter power spectrum within the 20 kHz range, and enhances the SPL at a lower frequency. Enhancing the response at lower frequencies is extremely useful, which may enable earphone and loudspeaker applications within the frequency range of the human ear with the help of pulse density modulation.

  13. Using Digital Acoustic Recording Tags to Detect Marine Mammals on Navy Ranges and Study their Responses to Naval Sonar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    7 Materials and Methods………………………………….. 12 Results and Discussion………………………………….. 20 Conclusions and Implications for Future Research/Implementation...beaked whales exposed to playback of sound, and has developed and validated a method to associate acoustic exposure with a safe response. The... safe exposure levels for beaked and other whales when they are exposed to military sonars. The DTAG was designed not only to record sounds produced by

  14. Fast Response and High Sensitivity ZnO/glass Surface Acoustic Wave Humidity Sensors Using Graphene Oxide Sensing Layer

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Weipeng; He, Mei; Meng, Nan; He, Xingli; Wang, Wenbo; Chen, Jinkai; Shi, Tianjin; Hasan, Tawfique; Xu, Zhen; Xu, Yang; Luo, J. K.

    2014-01-01

    We report ZnO/glass surface acoustic wave (SAW) humidity sensors with high sensitivity and fast response using graphene oxide sensing layer. The frequency shift of the sensors is exponentially correlated to the humidity change, induced mainly by mass loading effect rather than the complex impedance change of the sensing layer. The SAW sensors show high sensitivity at a broad humidity range from 0.5%RH to 85%RH with < 1 sec rise time. The simple design and excellent stability of our GO-based SAW humidity sensors, complemented with full humidity range measurement, highlights their potential in a wide range of applications. PMID:25425458

  15. Fast Response and High Sensitivity ZnO/glass Surface Acoustic Wave Humidity Sensors Using Graphene Oxide Sensing Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, Weipeng; He, Mei; Meng, Nan; He, Xingli; Wang, Wenbo; Chen, Jinkai; Shi, Tianjin; Hasan, Tawfique; Xu, Zhen; Xu, Yang; Luo, J. K.

    2014-11-01

    We report ZnO/glass surface acoustic wave (SAW) humidity sensors with high sensitivity and fast response using graphene oxide sensing layer. The frequency shift of the sensors is exponentially correlated to the humidity change, induced mainly by mass loading effect rather than the complex impedance change of the sensing layer. The SAW sensors show high sensitivity at a broad humidity range from 0.5%RH to 85%RH with < 1 sec rise time. The simple design and excellent stability of our GO-based SAW humidity sensors, complemented with full humidity range measurement, highlights their potential in a wide range of applications.

  16. Fast response and high sensitivity ZnO/glass surface acoustic wave humidity sensors using graphene oxide sensing layer.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Weipeng; He, Mei; Meng, Nan; He, Xingli; Wang, Wenbo; Chen, Jinkai; Shi, Tianjin; Hasan, Tawfique; Xu, Zhen; Xu, Yang; Luo, J K

    2014-11-26

    We report ZnO/glass surface acoustic wave (SAW) humidity sensors with high sensitivity and fast response using graphene oxide sensing layer. The frequency shift of the sensors is exponentially correlated to the humidity change, induced mainly by mass loading effect rather than the complex impedance change of the sensing layer. The SAW sensors show high sensitivity at a broad humidity range from 0.5%RH to 85%RH with < 1 sec rise time. The simple design and excellent stability of our GO-based SAW humidity sensors, complemented with full humidity range measurement, highlights their potential in a wide range of applications.

  17. Coherent entropy induced and acoustic noise separation in compact nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Wenjie; Schuller, Thierry; Huet, Maxime; Richecoeur, Franck

    2017-04-01

    A method to separate entropy induced noise from an acoustic pressure wave in an harmonically perturbed flow through a nozzle is presented. It is tested on an original experimental setup generating simultaneously acoustic and temperature fluctuations in an air flow that is accelerated by a convergent nozzle. The setup mimics the direct and indirect noise contributions to the acoustic pressure field in a confined combustion chamber by producing synchronized acoustic and temperature fluctuations, without dealing with the complexity of the combustion process. It allows generating temperature fluctuations with amplitude up to 10 K in the frequency range from 10 to 100 Hz. The noise separation technique uses experiments with and without temperature fluctuations to determine the relative level of acoustic and entropy fluctuations in the system and to identify the nozzle response to these forcing waves. It requires multi-point measurements of acoustic pressure and temperature. The separation method is first validated with direct numerical simulations of the nonlinear Euler equations. These simulations are used to investigate the conditions for which the separation technique is valid and yield similar trends as the experiments for the investigated flow operating conditions. The separation method then gives successfully the acoustic reflection coefficient but does not recover the same entropy reflection coefficient as predicted by the compact nozzle theory due to the sensitivity of the method to signal noises in the explored experimental conditions. This methodology provides a framework for experimental investigation of direct and indirect combustion noises originating from synchronized perturbations.

  18. Combustion Chamber Acoustics and Its Interaction with LOX/H2- and LOX/CH4-Spray Flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oschwald, Michael; Knapp, Bernhard; Sliphorst, Mark; Marpert, Mark

    The acoustics of combustion chambers and the interaction of acoustics and combustion is investigated in a model combustor operated with LOX/H2 and LOX/CH4. Acoustic excitations are induced by a siren during hot fire tests and the response of atomization and combustion is recorded with dynamic pressure sensors and high speed OH-imaging is applied. By analyzing the temporal and spatial distribution of the flame response the question is addressed, whether in the experiments the coupling of acoustics to combustion is via pressure or velocity sensitive processes. In the experiments it appeared that the acoustic eigenmodes of the combustor are characteristically deviating from cylinder modes. The results obtained can be explained by a modal analyses of the combustor geometry. These investigations have been extended to study the influence of absorbers and absorber rings on the acoustics of combustion chambers and resonance frequencies predicted by modal analysis and experimental results are presented.

  19. Prediction of the Strain Response of Poly-AlN/(100)Si Surface Acoustic Wave Resonator and Experimental Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuo; You, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    The strain sensitivity of the Aluminum Nitride (AlN)/Silicon (Si) surface acoustic wave resonator (SAWR) is predicted based on a modeling method introduced in this work, and further compared with experimental results. The strain influence on both the period of the inter-digital transducer (IDT) and the sound velocity is taken into consideration when modeling the strain response. From the modeling results, AlN and Si have opposite responses to strain; hence, for the AlN/Si-based SAWR, both a positive and a negative strain coefficient factor can be achieved by changing the thickness of the AlN layer, which is confirmed by strain response testing based on a silicon cantilever structure with two AlN configurations (1 μm and 3 μm in thickness, respectively). PMID:27128922

  20. The Effect of Basis Selection on Static and Random Acoustic Response Prediction Using a Nonlinear Modal Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Przekop, Adam

    2005-01-01

    An investigation of the effect of basis selection on geometric nonlinear response prediction using a reduced-order nonlinear modal simulation is presented. The accuracy is dictated by the selection of the basis used to determine the nonlinear modal stiffness. This study considers a suite of available bases including bending modes only, bending and membrane modes, coupled bending and companion modes, and uncoupled bending and companion modes. The nonlinear modal simulation presented is broadly applicable and is demonstrated for nonlinear quasi-static and random acoustic response of flat beam and plate structures with isotropic material properties. Reduced-order analysis predictions are compared with those made using a numerical simulation in physical degrees-of-freedom to quantify the error associated with the selected modal bases. Bending and membrane responses are separately presented to help differentiate the bases.

  1. Physiological and agonistic behavioural response of Procambarus clarkii to an acoustic stimulus.

    PubMed

    Celi, Monica; Filiciotto, Francesco; Parrinello, Daniela; Buscaino, Giuseppa; Damiano, Maria Alessandra; Cuttitta, Angela; D'Angelo, Stefania; Mazzola, Salvatore; Vazzana, Mirella

    2013-02-15

    This study examined the effects of an acoustic stimulus on the haemolymph and agonistic behaviour of the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii. The experiment was conducted in a tank equipped with a video recording system using six groups (three control and three test groups) of five adult crayfish (30 specimens in total). After 1 h of habituation, the behaviour of the crayfish was monitored for 2 h. During the second hour, the animals in the test groups were exposed to a linear sweep (frequency range 0.1-25 kHz; peak amplitude 148 dB(rms) re. 1 μPa at 12 kHz) acoustic stimulus for 30 min. Exposure to the noise produced significant variations in haemato-immunological parameters as well as a reduction in agonistic behaviour.

  2. Interactions of acoustic and somatosensory evoked responses in a polysensory cortex of the cat.

    PubMed

    Toldi, J; Fehér, O

    1987-01-01

    Interactions of acoustic and somatosensory evoked potentials were studied in the anterior suprasylvian gyrus of the cat. The interactions showed dynamic changes and were susceptible to different kinds of influences. The interactions could be influenced by synchronous activation of the acoustic and somatosensory inputs with 2 Hz frequency, or by elevating the stimulus frequency. Interactions could be influenced by amphetamine and gamma-glutamyl-taurine, drugs known as capable of influencing the arousal level of the brain. The antagonists of amphetamine prevented this effect. Drugs acting on the cortical GABA-ergic system proved also to be decisive in the interactions of evoked potentials of different origins. In some experiments unit activity was recorded parallel with evoked potentials.

  3. Insights into environmental drivers of acoustic angular response using a self-organising map and hierarchical clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, James; Siwabessy, Justy; Nichol, Scott; Brooke, Brendan

    2015-10-01

    Acoustic backscatter from the seafloor is a complex function of signal frequency, seabed roughness, grain size distribution, benthos, bioturbation, volume reverberation, and other factors. Angular response is the variation in acoustic backscatter with incident angle and is considered be an intrinsic property of the seabed. An unsupervised classification technique combining a self-organising map (SOM) and hierarchical clustering was used to create an angular response facies map and explore the relationships between acoustic facies and ground truth data. Cluster validation routines indicated that a two cluster solution was optimal and separated sediment dominated environments from mixtures of sediment and hard ground. Low cluster separation limited cluster validation routines from identifying fine cluster structure visible with an AR density plot. Cluster validation, aided by a visual comparison with an AR density plot, indicated that a 14 cluster solution was also a suitable representation of the input dataset. Clusters that were a mixture of hard and unconsolidated substrates displayed an increase in backscatter with an increase in the occurrence of hard ground and highlighted the sensitivity of AR curves to the presence of even modest amounts of hard ground. Remapping video observations and sediment data onto the SOM matrix is innovative and depicts the relationship between ground truth data and cluster structure. Mapping environmental variables onto the SOM matrix can show broad trends and localised peaks and troughs and display the variability of ground truth data within designated clusters. These variables, when linked to AR curves via clusters, can indicate how environmental factors influence the shape of the curves. Once these links are established they can be incorporated into improved geoacoustic models that replicate field observations.

  4. Distributed acoustic sensing with Michelson interferometer demodulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Chen; Shang, Ying; Wang, Chang; Zhao, Wenan; Peng, Gangding; Wang, Hongzhong

    2016-12-01

    The distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) has been extensively studied and widely used. A distributed acoustic sensing system based on the unbalanced Michelson interferometer with phase generated carrier (PGC) demodulation was designed and tested. The system could directly obtain the phase, amplitude, frequency response, and location information of sound wave at the same time and measurement at all points along the sensing fiber simultaneously. Experiments showed that the system successfully measured the acoustic signals with a phase-pressure sensitivity about-148 dB (re rad/μPa) and frequency response ripple less than 1.5 dB. The further field experiment showed that the system could measure signals at all points along the sensing fiber simultaneously.

  5. Changes in Humpback Whale Song Occurrence in Response to an Acoustic Source 200 km Away

    PubMed Central

    Risch, Denise; Corkeron, Peter J.; Ellison, William T.; Van Parijs, Sofie M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of underwater anthropogenic sound on marine mammals is of increasing concern. Here we show that humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) song in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary (SBNMS) was reduced, concurrent with transmissions of an Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing (OAWRS) experiment approximately 200 km away. We detected the OAWRS experiment in SBNMS during an 11 day period in autumn 2006. We compared the occurrence of song for 11 days before, during and after the experiment with song over the same 33 calendar days in two later years. Using a quasi-Poisson generalized linear model (GLM), we demonstrate a significant difference in the number of minutes with detected song between periods and years. The lack of humpback whale song during the OAWRS experiment was the most substantial signal in the data. Our findings demonstrate the greatest published distance over which anthropogenic sound has been shown to affect vocalizing baleen whales, and the first time that active acoustic fisheries technology has been shown to have this effect. The suitability of Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing technology for in-situ, long term monitoring of marine ecosystems should be considered, bearing in mind its possible effects on non-target species, in particular protected species. PMID:22253769

  6. Blood pressure response to patterns of weather fluctuations and effect on mortality.

    PubMed

    Aubinière-Robb, Louise; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Hastie, Claire E; Patel, Rajan K; McCallum, Linsay; Morrison, David; Walters, Matthew; Dawson, Jesse; Sloan, William; Muir, Scott; Dominiczak, Anna F; McInnes, Gordon T; Padmanabhan, Sandosh

    2013-07-01

    Very few studies have looked at longitudinal intraindividual blood pressure responses to weather conditions. There are no data to suggest that specific response to changes in weather will have an impact on survival. We analyzed >169 000 clinic visits of 16 010 Glasgow Blood Pressure Clinic patients with hypertension. Each clinic visit was mapped to the mean West of Scotland monthly weather (temperature, sunshine, rainfall) data. Percentage change in blood pressure was calculated between pairs of consecutive clinic visits, where the weather alternated between 2 extreme quartiles (Q(1)-Q(4) or Q(4)-Q(1)) or remained in the same quartile (Q(n)-Q(n)) of each weather parameter. Subjects were also categorized into 2 groups depending on whether their blood pressure response in Q(1)-Q(4) or Q(4)-Q(1) were concordant or discordant to Q(n)-Q(n). Generalized estimating equations and Cox proportional hazards model were used to model the effect on longitudinal blood pressure and mortality, respectively. Q(n)-Q(n) showed a mean 2% drop in blood pressure consistently, whereas Q(4)-Q(1) showed a mean 2.1% and 1.6% rise in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. However, Q(1)-Q(4) did not show significant changes in blood pressure. Temperature-sensitive subjects had significantly higher mortality (1.35 [95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.71]; P=0.01) and higher follow-up systolic blood pressure (1.85 [95% confidence interval, 0.24-3.46]; P=0.02) compared with temperature-nonsensitive subjects. Blood pressure response to temperature may be one of the underlying mechanisms that determine long-term blood pressure variability. Knowing a patient's blood pressure response to weather can help reduce unnecessary antihypertensive treatment modification, which may in turn increase blood pressure variability and, thus, risk.

  7. Piston slap induced pressure fluctuation in the water coolant passage of an internal combustion engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Kazuhide; Wang, Xiaoyu; Saeki, Atsushi

    2016-02-01

    Liner cavitation is caused by water pressure fluctuation in the water coolant passage (WCP). When the negative pressure falls below the saturated vapor pressure, the impulsive pressure following the implosion of cavitation bubbles causes cavitation erosion of the wet cylinder liner surface. The present work establishes a numerical model for structural-acoustic coupling between the crankcase and the acoustic field in the WCP considering their dynamic characteristics. The coupling effect is evaluated through mutual interaction terms that are calculated from the mode shapes of the acoustic field and of the crankcase vibration on the boundary. Water pressure fluctuations in the WCP under the action of piston slap forces are predicted and the contributions of the uncoupled mode shapes of the crankcase and the acoustic field to the pressure waveform are analyzed. The influence of sound speed variations on the water pressure response is discussed, as well as the pressure on the thrust sides of the four cylinders.

  8. Pressure-coupled vaporization and combustion responses of liquid-fuel droplets in high-pressure environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Vigor; Shuen, J. S.; Hsiao, C. C.

    1991-01-01

    The dynamic responses of liquid-fuel droplet vaporization and combustion to ambient pressure oscillations are examined. The analysis is based on the complete sets of conservation equations for both gas and liquid phases, and accommodates detailed treatments of finite-rate chemical kinetics and variable properties. With a full account of thermodynamic phase equilibrium at the droplet surface, the model enables a systematic examination of the effects of ambient flow conditions on the droplet behavior. The responses of hydrocarbon fuel droplets in both sub- and super-critical environments are investigated. Results indicate that the droplet gasification and burning mechanisms depend greatly on the ambient pressure. In particular, a rapid enlargement of the vaporization and combustion responses occurs when the droplet surface reaches its critical point, mainly due to the strong variations of latent heat of vaporization and thermophysical properties at the critical state.

  9. Acoustic intensity calculations for axisymmetrically modeled fluid regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hambric, Stephen A.; Everstine, Gordon C.

    1992-01-01

    An algorithm for calculating acoustic intensities from a time harmonic pressure field in an axisymmetric fluid region is presented. Acoustic pressures are computed in a mesh of NASTRAN triangular finite elements of revolution (TRIAAX) using an analogy between the scalar wave equation and elasticity equations. Acoustic intensities are then calculated from pressures and pressure derivatives taken over the mesh of TRIAAX elements. Intensities are displayed as vectors indicating the directions and magnitudes of energy flow at all mesh points in the acoustic field. A prolate spheroidal shell is modeled with axisymmetric shell elements (CONEAX) and submerged in a fluid region of TRIAAX elements. The model is analyzed to illustrate the acoustic intensity method and the usefulness of energy flow paths in the understanding of the response of fluid-structure interaction problems. The structural-acoustic analogy used is summarized for completeness. This study uncovered a NASTRAN limitation involving numerical precision issues in the CONEAX stiffness calculation causing large errors in the system matrices for nearly cylindrical cones.

  10. On the resolution of phonological constraints in spoken production: Acoustic and response time evidence.

    PubMed

    Bürki, Audrey; Frauenfelder, Ulrich H; Alario, F-Xavier

    2015-10-01

    This study examines the production of words the pronunciation of which depends on the phonological context. Participants produced adjective-noun phrases starting with the French determiner un. The pronunciation of this determiner requires a liaison consonant before vowels. Naming latencies and determiner acoustic durations were shorter when the adjective and the noun both started with vowels or both with consonants, than when they had different onsets. These results suggest that the liaison process is not governed by the application of a local contextual phonological rule; they rather favor the hypothesis that pronunciation variants with and without the liaison consonant are stored in memory.

  11. Acoustic lens for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chienliu; Firouzi, Kamyar; Park, Kwan Kyu; Sarioglu, Ali Fatih; Nikoozadeh, Amin; Yoon, Hyo-Seon; Vaithilingam, Srikant; Carver, Thomas; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T.

    2014-08-01

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) have great potential to compete with traditional piezoelectric transducers in therapeutic ultrasound applications. In this paper we have designed, fabricated and developed an acoustic lens formed on the CMUT to mechanically focus ultrasound. The acoustic lens was designed based on the paraxial theory and made of silicone rubber for acoustic impedance matching and encapsulation. The CMUT was fabricated based on the local oxidation of silicon (LOCOS) and fusion-bonding. The fabricated CMUT was verified to behave like an electromechanical resonator in air and exhibited wideband response with a center frequency of 2.2 MHz in immersion. The fabrication for the acoustic lens contained two consecutive mold castings and directly formed on the surface of the CMUT. Applied with ac burst input voltages at the center frequency, the CMUT with the acoustic lens generated an output pressure of 1.89 MPa (peak-to-peak) at the focal point with an effective focal gain of 3.43 in immersion. Compared to the same CMUT without a lens, the CMUT with the acoustic lens demonstrated the ability to successfully focus ultrasound and provided a viable solution to the miniaturization of the multi-modality forward-looking endoscopes without electrical focusing.

  12. Prefrontal oxygenation and the acoustic startle eyeblink response during exercise: A test of the dual-mode model.

    PubMed

    Tempest, Gavin D; Parfitt, Gaynor

    2017-03-30

    The interplay between the prefrontal cortex and amygdala is proposed to explain the regulation of affective responses (pleasure/displeasure) during exercise as outlined in the dual-mode model. However, due to methodological limitations the dual-mode model has not been fully tested. In this study, prefrontal oxygenation (using near-infrared spectroscopy) and amygdala activity (reflected by eyeblink amplitude using acoustic startle methodology) were recorded during exercise standardized to metabolic processes: 80% of ventilatory threshold (below VT), at the VT, and at the respiratory compensation point (RCP). Self-reported tolerance of the intensity of exercise was assessed prior to, and affective responses recorded during exercise. The results revealed that, as the intensity of exercise became more challenging (from below VT to RCP), prefrontal oxygenation was larger and eyeblink amplitude and affective responses were reduced. Below VT and at VT, larger prefrontal oxygenation was associated with larger eyeblink amplitude. At the RCP, prefrontal oxygenation was greater in the left than right hemisphere, and eyeblink amplitude explained significant variance in affective responses (with prefrontal oxygenation) and self-reported tolerance. These findings highlight the role of the prefrontal cortex and potentially the amygdala in the regulation of affective (particularly negative) responses during exercise at physiologically challenging intensities (above VT). In addition, a psychophysiological basis of self-reported tolerance is indicated. This study provides some support of the dual-mode model and insight into the neural basis of affective responses during exercise.

  13. Spatiotemporal reconstruction of auditory steady-state responses to acoustic amplitude modulations: Potential sources beyond the auditory pathway.

    PubMed

    Farahani, Ehsan Darestani; Goossens, Tine; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid

    2017-03-01

    Investigating the neural generators of auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs), i.e., auditory evoked brain responses, with a wide range of screening and diagnostic applications, has been the focus of various studies for many years. Most of these studies employed a priori assumptions regarding the number and location of neural generators. The aim of this study is to reconstruct ASSR sources with minimal assumptions in order to gain in-depth insight into the number and location of brain regions that are activated in response to low- as well as high-frequency acoustically amplitude modulated signals. In order to reconstruct ASSR sources, we applied independent component analysis with subsequent equivalent dipole modeling to single-subject EEG data (young adults, 20-30 years of age). These data were based on white noise stimuli, amplitude modulated at 4, 20, 40, or 80Hz. The independent components that exhibited a significant ASSR were clustered among all participants by means of a probabilistic clustering method based on a Gaussian mixture model. Results suggest that a widely distributed network of sources, located in cortical as well as subcortical regions, is active in response to 4, 20, 40, and 80Hz amplitude modulated noises. Some of these sources are located beyond the central auditory pathway. Comparison of brain sources in response to different modulation frequencies suggested that the identified brain sources in the brainstem, the left and the right auditory cortex show a higher responsiveness to 40Hz than to the other modulation frequencies.

  14. MEMS Based Acoustic Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheplak, Mark (Inventor); Nishida, Toshikaza (Inventor); Humphreys, William M. (Inventor); Arnold, David P. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Embodiments of the present invention described and shown in the specification aid drawings include a combination responsive to an acoustic wave that can be utilized as a dynamic pressure sensor. In one embodiment of the present invention, the combination has a substrate having a first surface and an opposite second surface, a microphone positioned on the first surface of the substrate and having an input and a first output and a second output, wherein the input receives a biased voltage, and the microphone generates an output signal responsive to the acoustic wave between the first output and the second output. The combination further has an amplifier positioned on the first surface of the substrate and having a first input and a second input and an output, wherein the first input of the amplifier is electrically coupled to the first output of the microphone and the second input of the amplifier is electrically coupled to the second output of the microphone for receiving the output sinual from the microphone. The amplifier is spaced from the microphone with a separation smaller than 0.5 mm.

  15. Dynamic response of vaporizing droplet to pressure oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Lei; Shen, Chibing; Zhang, Xinqiao

    2017-02-01

    Combustion instability is a major challenge in the development of the liquid propellant engines, and droplet vaporization is viewed as a potential mechanism for driving instabilities. Based on the previous work, an unsteady droplet heating and vaporization model was developed. The model and numerical method are validated by experimental data available in literature, and then the oscillatory vaporization of n-Heptane droplet exposed to unsteady harmonic nitrogen atmosphere was numerically investigated over a wide range of amplitudes and frequencies. Also, temperature variations inside the droplet were demonstrated under oscillation environments. It was found that the thermal wave is attenuated with significantly reduced wave intensities as it penetrates deep into droplet from the ambient gas. Droplet surface temperature exhibits smaller fluctuation than that of the ambient gas, and it exhibits a time lag with regard to the pressure variation. Furthermore, the mechanism leading to phase lag of vaporization rate with respect to pressure oscillation was unraveled. Results show that this phase lag varies during the droplet lifetime and it is strongly influenced by oscillation frequency, indicating droplet vaporization is only capable of driving combustion instability in some certain frequency domains. Instead, the amplitude of the oscillation does not have very significant effects. It is noteworthy that thermal inertia of the droplet also plays a considerable role in determining the phase lag.

  16. Acoustic Neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    ... search IRSA's site Unique Hits since January 2003 Acoustic Neuroma Click Here for Acoustic Neuroma Practice Guideline ... to microsurgery. One doctor's story of having an acoustic neuroma In August 1991, Dr. Thomas F. Morgan ...

  17. Ultrafast Time Response Pressure-Sensitive Paint for Unsteady Shock-Wave Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Numata, Daiju; Asai, Keisuke

    Pressure-Sensitive Paint (PSP) is an optical pressure measurement technique widely used in aerodynamic experiments, and has been applied to unsteady shock-wave phenomena [1, 2]. However, one of the largest problems to apply PSP to high-speed and unsteady phenomena is the response time of PSP.

  18. 49 CFR 178.69 - Responsibilities and requirements for manufacturers of UN pressure receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and responsibilities of personnel with regard to design and product quality; (ii) The design control... receptacles; (iii) The relevant procedures for pressure receptacle manufacturing, quality control, quality... Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  19. 49 CFR 178.69 - Responsibilities and requirements for manufacturers of UN pressure receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and responsibilities of personnel with regard to design and product quality; (ii) The design control... receptacles; (iii) The relevant procedures for pressure receptacle manufacturing, quality control, quality... Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  20. 49 CFR 178.69 - Responsibilities and requirements for manufacturers of UN pressure receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and responsibilities of personnel with regard to design and product quality; (ii) The design control... receptacles; (iii) The relevant procedures for pressure receptacle manufacturing, quality control, quality... Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. Development, modeling, simulation, and testing of a novel propane-fueled Brayton-Gluhareff cycle acoustically-pressurized ramjet engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramlette, Richard B.

    In the 1950s, Eugene Gluhareff built the first working "pressure jet" engine, a variation on the classical ramjet engine with a pressurized inlet system relying on sonic tuning which allowed operation at subsonic speeds. The engine was an unqualified success. Unfortunately, after decades of sales and research, Gluhareff passed away leaving behind no significant published studies of the engine or detailed analysis of its operation. The design was at serious risk of being lost to history. This dissertation is intended to address that risk by studying a novel subscale modification of Gluhareff's original design operating on the same principles. Included is a background of related engine and how the pressure jet is distinct. The preliminary sizing of a pressure jet using closed-form expressions is then discussed followed by a review of propane oxidation modeling, how it integrates into the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solver, and the modeling of the pressure jet engine cycle with CFD. The simulation was matched to experimental data recorded on a purpose-built test stand recording chamber pressure, exhaust speed (via a Pitot/static system), temperatures, and thrust force. The engine CFD simulation produced a wide range of qualitative results that matched the experimental data well and suggested strong recirculation flows through the engine confirming suspicions about how the engine operates. Engine operating frequency between CFD and experiment also showed good agreement and appeared to be driven by the "Kadenacy Effect." The research effort lastly opens the door for further study of the engine cycle, the use of pressurized intakes to produce static thrust in a ramjet engine, the Gluhareff pressure jet's original geometry, and a wide array of potential applications. A roadmap of further study and applications is detailed including a modeling and testing of larger engines.

  2. Simulation of the spatial distribution of the acoustic pressure in sonochemical reactors with numerical methods: a review.

    PubMed

    Tudela, Ignacio; Sáez, Verónica; Esclapez, María Deseada; Díez-García, María Isabel; Bonete, Pedro; González-García, José

    2014-05-01

    Numerical methods for the calculation of the acoustic field inside sonoreactors have rapidly emerged in the last 15 years. This paper summarizes some of the most important works on this topic presented in the past, along with the diverse numerical works that have been published since then, reviewing the state of the art from a qualitative point of view. In this sense, we illustrate and discuss some of the models recently developed by the scientific community to deal with some of the complex events that take place in a sonochemical reactor such as the vibration of the reactor walls and the nonlinear phenomena inherent to the presence of ultrasonic cavitation. In addition, we point out some of the upcoming challenges that must be addressed in order to develop a reliable tool for the proper designing of efficient sonoreactors and the scale-up of sonochemical processes.

  3. Laser-Induced Thermal Acoustic Measurements in a Highly Back-Pressured Scramjet Isolator Model: A Research Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, Troy F.; Balla, Robert J.; Baurle, Robert A.; Wilson, Lloyd G.

    2008-01-01

    Under the Propulsion Discipline of NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program s Hypersonics Project, a test apparatus, for testing a scramjet isolator model, is being constructed at NASA's Langley Research Center. The test apparatus will incorporate a 1-inch by 2-inch by 15-inch-long scramjet isolator model supplied with 2.1 lbm/sec of unheated dry air through a Mach 2.5 converging-diverging nozzle. The planned research will incorporate progressively more challenging measurement techniques to characterize the flow field within the isolator, concluding with the application of the Laser-Induced Thermal Acoustic (LITA) measurement technique. The primary goal of this research is to use the data acquired to validate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models employed to characterize the complex flow field of a scramjet isolator. This paper describes the test apparatus being constructed, pre-test CFD simulations, and the LITA measurement technique.

  4. Drinking and arterial blood pressure responses to ANG II in young and old rats.

    PubMed

    Thunhorst, Robert L; Beltz, Terry G; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2010-11-01

    We investigated water drinking and arterial blood pressure responses to intravenous infusions of ANG II in young (4 mo), middle-aged adult (12 mo), and old (29 mo) male Brown Norway rats. Infusions of ANG II began with arterial blood pressure either at control levels or at reduced levels following injection of the vasodilator minoxidil. Under control conditions, mean arterial pressure (MAP) in response to ANG II rose to the same level for all groups, and middle-aged and old rats drank as much or more water in response to ANG II compared with young rats, depending on whether intakes were analyzed using absolute or body weight-adjusted values. When arterial blood pressure first was reduced with minoxidil, MAP in response to ANG II stabilized at significantly lower levels compared with control conditions for all groups. Young rats drank significantly more water under reduced pressure conditions compared with control conditions, while middle-aged and old rats did not. Urine volume in response to ANG II was lower, while water balance was higher, under conditions of reduced pressure compared with control conditions. Baroreflex control of heart rate was substantially reduced in old rats compared with young and middle-aged animals. In summary, young rats appear to be more sensitive to the inhibitory effects of increased arterial blood pressure on water drinking than are older animals.

  5. Measurement of the frequency response and common-mode gain of neonatal respiratory pressure and flow measurement systems. Part 1: Apparatus.

    PubMed

    Turner, M J; Macleod, I M; Rothberg, A D

    1989-08-01

    It is necessary, especially in neonatal work, for investigators to measure accurately the frequency response and common mode gain of respiratory pressure and flow transducers in air and other gas mixtures. Many of the systems designed for this task have been incompletely analysed and have unknown frequency responses themselves. We analyse aspects of systems employed previously and show that substantial amplitude and phase errors may have occurred. We describe a plethysmograph-based system which operates in any available gas mixture. A mathematical model of the acoustic microphone used as reference transducer, the microphone preamplifier, and the thermal behaviour of the plethysmograph, is developed to quantify the frequency response of the system. Maximum deviation from a perfect response is less than 1% in amplitude and 1 degree in phase for both pressure and flow measurements over the range 1-100 Hz. Measurements using a pressure transducer mounted on the tip of a catheter indicate that the error due to amplitude and phase variation in the plethysmograph is less than 0.1 dB and 0.4 degrees at 100 Hz.

  6. Peripheral Chemoreception and Arterial Pressure Responses to Intermittent Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakar, Nanduri R.; Peng, Ying-Jie; Kumar, Ganesh K.; Nanduri, Jayasri

    2015-01-01

    Carotid bodies are the principal peripheral chemoreceptors for detecting changes in arterial blood oxygen levels, and the resulting chemoreflex is a potent regulator of blood pressure. Recurrent apnea with intermittent hypoxia (IH) is a major clinical problem in adult humans and infants born preterm. Adult patients with recurrent apnea exhibit heightened sympathetic nerve activity and hypertension. Adults born preterm are predisposed to early onset of hypertension. Available evidence suggests that carotid body chemoreflex contributes to hypertension caused by IH in both adults and neonates. Experimental models of IH provided important insights into cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying carotid body chemoreflex-mediated hypertension. This article provides a comprehensive appraisal of how IH affects carotid body function, underlying cellular, molecular, and epigenetic mechanisms, and the contribution of chemoreflex to the hypertension. PMID:25880505

  7. Visually evoked blood flow responses and interaction with dynamic cerebral autoregulation: correction for blood pressure variation.

    PubMed

    Gommer, Erik D; Bogaarts, Guy; Martens, Esther G H J; Mess, Werner H; Reulen, Jos P H

    2014-05-01

    Visually evoked flow responses recorded using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography are often quantified using a dynamic model of neurovascular coupling. The evoked flow response is seen as the model's response to a visual step input stimulus. However, the continuously active process of dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) compensating cerebral blood flow for blood pressure fluctuations may induce changes of cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) as well. The effect of blood pressure variability on the flow response is evaluated by separately modeling the dCA-induced effects of beat-to-beat measured blood pressure related CBFV changes. Parameters of 71 subjects are estimated using an existing, well-known second order dynamic neurovascular coupling model proposed by Rosengarten et al., and a new model extending the existing model with a CBFV contributing component as the output of a dCA model driven by blood pressure as input. Both models were evaluated for mean and systolic CBFV responses. The model-to-data fit errors of mean and systolic blood pressure for the new model were significantly lower compared to the existing model: mean: 0.8%±0.6 vs. 2.4%±2.8, p<0.001; systolic: 1.5%±1.2 vs. 2.2%±2.6, p<0.001. The confidence bounds of all estimated neurovascular coupling model parameters were significantly (p<0.005) narrowed for the new model. In conclusion, blood pressure correction of visual evoked flow responses by including cerebral autoregulation in model fitting of averaged responses results in significantly lower fit errors and by that in more reliable model parameter estimation. Blood pressure correction is more effective when mean instead of systolic CBFV responses are used. Measurement and quantification of neurovascular coupling should include beat-to-beat blood pressure measurement.

  8. A membrane-type acoustic metamaterial with adjustable acoustic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langfeldt, F.; Riecken, J.; Gleine, W.; von Estorff, O.

    2016-07-01

    A new realization of a membrane-type acoustic metamaterial (MAM) with adjustable sound transmission properties is presented. The proposed design distinguishes itself from other realizations by a stacked arrangement of two MAMs which is inflated using pressurized air. The static pressurization leads to large nonlinear deformations and, consequently, geometrical stiffening of the MAMs which is exploited to adjust the eigenmodes and sound transmission loss of the structure. A theoretical analysis of the proposed inflatable MAM design using numerical and analytical models is performed in order to identify two important mechanisms, namely the shifting of the eigenfrequencies and modal residuals due to the pressurization, responsible for the transmission loss adjustment. Analytical formulas are provided for predicting the eigenmode shifting and normal incidence sound transmission loss of inflated single and double MAMs using the concept of effective mass. The investigations are concluded with results from a test sample measurement inside an impedance tube, which confirm the theoretical predictions.

  9. Step Response Characteristics of Polymer/Ceramic Pressure-Sensitive Paint

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Anshuman; Gregory, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Experiments and numerical simulations have been used in this work to understand the step response characteristics of Polymer/Ceramic Pressure-Sensitive Paint (PC-PSP). A recently developed analytical model describing the essential physics in PC-PSP quenching kinetics is used, which includes the effect of both diffusion time scale and luminescent lifetime on the net response of PC-PSP. Step response simulations using this model enables an understanding of the effects of parameters, such as the diffusion coefficient of O2 in the polymer/ceramic coating, attenuation of excitation light, ambient luminescent lifetime, sensitivity, and the magnitude and direction of pressure change on the observed response time scales of PC-PSP. It was found that higher diffusion coefficient and greater light attenuation lead to faster response, whereas longer ambient lifetime and larger sensitivity lead to slower response characteristics. Due to the inherent non-linearity of the Stern-Volmer equation, response functions also change with magnitude and direction of the pressure change. Experimental results from a shock tube are presented where the effects of varying the roughness, pressure jump magnitude and luminophore probe have been studied. Model parameters have been varied to obtain a good fit to experimental results and this optimized model is then used to obtain the response time for a step decrease in pressure, an estimate of which is currently not obtainable from experiments. PMID:26404294

  10. Step Response Characteristics of Polymer/Ceramic Pressure-Sensitive Paint.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Anshuman; Gregory, James W

    2015-09-03

    Experiments and numerical simulations have been used in this work to understand the step response characteristics of Polymer/Ceramic Pressure-Sensitive Paint (PC-PSP). A recently developed analytical model describing the essential physics in PC-PSP quenching kinetics is used, which includes the effect of both diffusion time scale and luminescent lifetime on the net response of PC-PSP. Step response simulations using this model enables an understanding of the effects of parameters, such as the diffusion coefficient of O₂ in the polymer/ceramic coating, attenuation of excitation light, ambient luminescent lifetime, sensitivity, and the magnitude and direction of pressure change on the observed response time scales of PC-PSP. It was found that higher diffusion coefficient and greater light attenuation lead to faster response, whereas longer ambient lifetime and larger sensitivity lead to slower response characteristics. Due to the inherent non-linearity of the Stern-Volmer equation, response functions also change with magnitude and direction of the pressure change. Experimental results from a shock tube are presented where the effects of varying the roughness, pressure jump magnitude and luminophore probe have been studied. Model parameters have been varied to obtain a good fit to experimental results and this optimized model is then used to obtain the response time for a step decrease in pressure, an estimate of which is currently not obtainable from experiments.

  11. Induction of enhanced acoustic startle response by noise exposure: dependence on exposure conditions and testing parameters and possible relevance to hyperacusis.

    PubMed

    Salloum, Rony H; Yurosko, Christopher; Santiago, Lia; Sandridge, Sharon A; Kaltenbach, James A

    2014-01-01

    There has been a recent surge of interest in the development of animal models of hyperacusis, a condition in which tolerance to sounds of moderate and high intensities is diminished. The reasons for this decreased tolerance are likely multifactorial, but some major factors that contribute to hyperacusis are increased loudness perception and heightened sensitivity and/or responsiveness to sound. Increased sound sensitivity is a symptom that sometimes develops in human subjects after acoustic insult and has recently been demonstrated in animals as evidenced by enhancement of the acoustic startle reflex following acoustic over-exposure. However, different laboratories have obtained conflicting results in this regard, with some studies reporting enhanced startle, others reporting weakened startle, and still others reporting little, if any, change in the amplitude of the acoustic startle reflex following noise exposure. In an effort to gain insight into these discrepancies, we conducted measures of acoustic startle responses (ASR) in animals exposed to different levels of sound, and repeated such measures on consecutive days using a range of different startle stimuli. Since many studies combine measures of acoustic startle with measures of gap detection, we also tested ASR in two different acoustic contexts, one in which the startle amplitudes were tested in isolation, the other in which startle amplitudes were measured in the context of the gap detection test. The results reveal that the emergence of chronic hyperacusis-like enhancements of startle following noise exposure is highly reproducible but is dependent on the post-exposure thresholds, the time when the measures are performed and the context in which the ASR measures are obtained. These findings could explain many of the discrepancies that exist across studies and suggest guidelines for inducing in animals enhancements of the startle reflex that may be related to hyperacusis.

  12. Spectral indices of human cerebral blood flow control: responses to augmented blood pressure oscillations.

    PubMed

    Hamner, J W; Cohen, Michael A; Mukai, Seiji; Lipsitz, Lewis A; Taylor, J Andrew

    2004-09-15

    We set out to fully examine the frequency domain relationship between arterial pressure and cerebral blood flow. Oscillatory lower body negative pressure (OLBNP) was used to create consistent blood pressure oscillations of varying frequency and amplitude to rigorously test for a frequency- and/or amplitude-dependent relationship between arterial pressure and cerebral flow. We also examined the predictions from OLBNP data for the cerebral flow response to the stepwise drop in pressure subsequent to deflation of ischaemic thigh cuffs. We measured spectral powers, cross-spectral coherence, and transfer function gains and phases in arterial pressure and cerebral flow during three amplitudes (0, 20, and 40 mmHg) and three frequencies (0.10, 0.05, and 0.03 Hz) of OLBNP in nine healthy young volunteers. Pressure fluctuations were directly related to OLBNP amplitude and inversely to OLBNP frequency. Although cerebral flow oscillations were increased, they did not demonstrate the same frequency dependence seen in pressure oscillations. The overall pattern of the pressure-flow relation was of decreasing coherence and gain and increasing phase with decreasing frequency, characteristic of a high-pass filter. Coherence between pressure and flow was increased at all frequencies by OLBNP, but was still significantly lower at frequencies below 0.07 Hz despite the augmented pressure input. In addition, predictions of thigh cuff data from spectral estimates were extremely inconsistent and highly variable, suggesting that cerebral autoregulation is a frequency-dependent mechanism that may not be fully characterized by linear methods.

  13. Numerical simulation of a ramjet inlet flowfield in response to large amplitude combustor pressure oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsieh, T.; Wardlaw, A. B., Jr.; Coakley, T.

    1984-01-01

    The unsteady flow of a two-dimensional ramjet inlet is studied numerically by solving the Navier-Stokes equation with a two-equation turbulence model. Unsteadiness is introduced by prescribing the pressure disturbance at the inlet exit plane. The case with a sinusoidal exit plane pressure fluctuation of 20 percent of the steady exit pressure is considered. The resulting flow field exhibits a complicated interaction between the terminal shock, separation pockets and core flow. The exit plane properties feature a non-linear response to the imposed sinusoidal pressure variation.

  14. Piezoelectric Response to Coherent Longitudinal and Transverse Acoustic Phonons in a Semiconductor Schottky Diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srikanthreddy, D.; Glavin, B. A.; Poyser, C. L.; Henini, M.; Lehmann, D.; Jasiukiewicz, Cz.; Akimov, A. V.; Kent, A. J.

    2017-02-01

    We study the generation of microwave electronic signals by pumping a (311) GaAs Schottky diode with compressive and shear acoustic phonons, generated by the femtosecond optical excitation of an Al film transducer and mode conversion at the Al-GaAs interface. They propagate through the substrate and arrive at the Schottky device on the opposite surface, where they induce a microwave electronic signal. The arrival time, the amplitude, and the polarity of the signals depend on the phonon mode. A theoretical analysis is made of the polarity of the experimental signals. This analysis includes the piezoelectric and deformation potential mechanisms of electron-phonon interaction in a Schottky contact and shows that the piezoelectric mechanism is dominant for both transverse and longitudinal modes with frequencies below 250 and 70 GHz, respectively.

  15. An improved sample loading technique for cellular metabolic response monitoring under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gikunda, Millicent Nkirote

    To monitor cellular metabolism under pressure, a pressure chamber designed around a simple-to-construct capillary-based spectroscopic chamber coupled to a microliter-flow perfusion system is used in the laboratory. Although cyanide-induced metabolic responses from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) could be controllably induced and monitored under pressure, previously used sample loading technique was not well controlled. An improved cell-loading technique which is based on use of a secondary inner capillary into which the sample is loaded then inserted into the capillary pressure chamber, has been developed. As validation, we demonstrate the ability to measure the chemically-induced metabolic responses at pressures of up to 500 bars. This technique is shown to be less prone to sample loss due to perfusive flow than the previous techniques used.

  16. Influence of large deflection and transverse shear on random response of rectangular symmetric composite laminates to acoustic loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, Chuh; Prasad, C. B.

    1987-01-01

    Nonlinear equations of motion of symmetrically laminated anisotropic plates are derived accounting for von Karman strains. The effect of transverse shear is included in the formulation and the rotatory inertia effect is ignored. Using a single-mode Galerkin procedure the nonlinear modal equation is obtained. Direct equivalent linearization is employed. The response of acoustic excitation on moderately thick composite panels is studied. Further, the effects of transverse shear on large deflection vibration of laminates under random excitation are studied. Mean-square deflection and mean-square inplane stresses are obtained for some symmetric graphite-epoxy laminates. Using equilibrium equations and the continuity requirements, the mean-square transverse shear stresses are calculated. The results obtained will be useful in the sonic fatigue design of composite aircraft panels. The analysis is presented in detail for simply supported plate. The analogous equations for a clamped case are given in the appendix.

  17. Response of end tidal CO2 pressure to impulse exercise.

    PubMed

    Yano, T; Afroundeh, R; Yamanak, R; Arimitsu, T; Lian, C-S; Shirkawa, K; Yunoki, T

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine how end tidal CO(2) pressure (PETCO(2)) is controlled in impulse exercise. After pre-exercise at 25 watts for 5 min, impulse exercise for 10 sec with 200 watts followed by post exercise at 25 watts was performed. Ventilation (VE) significantly increased until the end of impulse exercise and significantly re-increased after a sudden decrease. Heart rate (HR) significantly increased until the end of impulse exercise and then decreased to the pre-exercise level. PETCO(2) remained constant during impulse exercise. PETCO(2) significantly increased momentarily after impulse exercise and then significantly decreased to the pre-exercise level. PETCO(2) showed oscillation. The average peak frequency of power spectral density in PETCO(2) appeared at 0.0078 Hz. Cross correlations were obtained after impulse exercise. The peak cross correlations between VE and PETCO(2), HR and PETCO(2), and VE and HR were 0.834 with a time delay of -7 sec, 0.813 with a time delay of 7 sec and 0.701 with a time delay of -15 sec, respectively. We demonstrated that PETCO(2) homeodynamics was interactively maintained by PETCO(2) itself, CO(2) transportation (product of cardiac output and mixed venous CO(2) content) into the lungs by heart pumping and CO(2) elimination by ventilation, and it oscillates as a result of their interactions.

  18. Insect hygroreceptor responses to continuous changes in humidity and air pressure

    PubMed Central

    Tichy, H.; Kallina, W.

    2011-01-01

    The most favored model of humidity transduction views the cuticular wall of insect hygroreceptive sensilla as a hygromechanical transducer. Hygroscopic swelling or shrinking alters the geometry of the wall, deforming the dendritic membranes of the moist and dry cells. The small size the sensilla and their position surrounded by elevated structures creates technical difficulties to mechanically stimulate them by direct contact. The present study investigated hygroreceptors on the antennae of the cockroach and the stick insect. Accurately controlled, homogeneous mechanical input was delivered by modulating air pressure. Both the moist and dry cells responded not only to changes in air pressure, but also in the opposite direction, as observed during changes in air humidity. The moist-cell’s excitatory response to increasing humidity and increasing air pressure implies that swelling of the hygroscopic cuticle compresses the dendrites, and the dry-cell’s excitatory response to decreasing humidity and decreasing air pressure implies that shrinking of the hygroscopic cuticle expands the dendrites. The moist and dry cells of the stick insect are more sensitive to pressure changes than those of the cockroach, but the responses to air pressure are generally weaker than to humidity. Therefore, the hygroreceptive sensilla differ in their physical properties and constitutions. Furthermore, the mechanical parameters associated with homogeneous changes in air pressure on the sensillum surface can only partially account for the responses of the moist and dry cells of both species to humidity stimulation. PMID:20375249

  19. PRSEUS Acoustic Panel Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolette, Velicki; Yovanof, Nicolette P.; Baraja, Jaime; Mathur, Gopal; Thrash, Patrick; Pickell, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the development of a novel structural concept, Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS), that addresses the demanding fuselage loading requirements for the Hybrid Wing or Blended Wing Body (BWB) airplane configuration with regards to acoustic response. A PRSEUS panel was designed and fabricated and provided to NASA-LaRC for acoustic response testing in the Structural Acoustics Loads and Transmission (SALT) facility). Preliminary assessments of the sound transmission characteristics of a PRSEUS panel subjected to a representative Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) operating environment were completed for the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Program.

  20. Prediction of conductive hearing loss based on acoustic ear-canal response using a multivariate clinical decision theory.

    PubMed

    Piskorski, P; Keefe, D H; Simmons, J L; Gorga, M P

    1999-03-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of acoustic response tests in predicting conductive hearing loss in 161 ears of subjects from the age of 2 to 10 yr, using as a "gold standard" the air-bone gap to classify ears as normal or impaired. The acoustic tests included tympanometric peak-compensated static admittance magnitude (SA) and tympanometric gradient at 226 Hz, and admittance-reflectance (YR) measurements from 0.5 to 8 kHz. The performance of individual, frequency-specific, YR test variables as predictors was assessed. By applying logistic regression (LR) and discriminant analysis (DA) techniques to the multivariate YR response, two univariate functions were calculated as the linear combinations of YR variables across frequency that best separated normal and impaired ears. The tympanometric and YR tests were also combined in a multivariate manner to test whether predictive efficacy improved when 226-Hz tympanometry was added to the predictor set. Conductive hearing loss was predicted based on air-bone gap thresholds at 0.5 and 2 kHz, and on a maximum air-bone gap at any octave frequency from 0.5 to 4 kHz. Each air-bone gap threshold ranged from 5 to 30 dB in 5-dB steps. Areas under the relative operating characteristic curve for DA and LR were larger than for reflectance at 2 kHz, SA and Gr. For constant hit rates of 80% and 90%, both DA and LR scores had lower false-alarm rates than tympanometric tests-LR achieved a false-alarm rate of 6% for a sensitivity of 90%. In general, LR outperformed DA as the multivariate technique of choice. In predicting an impairment at 0.5 kHz, the reflectance scores at 0.5 kHz were less accurate predictors than reflectance at 2 and 4 kHz. This supports the hypothesis that the 2-4-kHz range is a particularly sensitive indicator of middle-ear status, in agreement with the spectral composition of the output predictor from the multivariate analyses. When tympanometric and YR tests were combined, the resulting predictor performed

  1. Effects of inescapable stress and treatment with pyridostigmine bromide on plasma butyrylcholinesterase and the acoustic startle response in rats.

    PubMed

    Servatius, R J; Ottenweller, J E; Guo, W; Beldowicz, D; Zhu, G; Natelson, B H

    2000-05-01

    Pyridostigmine bromide (PB) is a reversible, peripherally active inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, and is recommended by the military as a pretreatment against potential nerve gas exposure. Recent evidence suggests that exposure to inescapable stressors allows PB to cross the blood-brain barrier, and thereby affect central AChE activity in mice. Here, we evaluated the functional impact of a stress/PB treatment interaction on acoustic startle responding and plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity in male Sprague-Dawley rats. To model the treatment protocol used by the military, PB was delivered in the drinking water of rats for 7 consecutive days. The morning after the start of PB treatment, and for the next 6 days, half the rats were exposed to 1 h of supine restraint stress. We therefore employed a 2 x 2 (stress x PB treatment) between-groups design. Exposure to supine stress alone induced a persistent decrease in plasma BuChE activity. Further decreases in BuChE activity were not observed in rats exposed to supine restraint and PB treatment. Exposure to stress also induced an exaggerated startle response, evident on the last day of stress and 24 h after stressor cessation. Treatment with PB alone produced an exaggerated startle response over the same time period, albeit to a lesser degree. Although treatment with PB concurrent with stress did not produce further changes in either BuChE activity or acoustic startle responding, stress-induced alterations in drinking behavior (and thereby the dose of PB ingested) may have affected these results. Persistent stress-induced reductions in BuChE activity may increase the risk of adverse reactions to cholinomimetics.

  2. A study of the nonlinear response of the upper atmosphere to episodic and stochastic acoustic-gravity wave forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Cissi Y.; Deng, Yue; Sheng, Cheng; Drob, Douglas P.

    2017-01-01

    Perturbations caused by geophysical and anthropogenic events on the ground have been observed to propagate upward and impact the upper atmosphere. Gravity waves with wavelengths less than 750 km are known to be responsible for the total electron content (TEC) perturbations and to play a significant role in the mass, momentum, and energy budgets of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. These waves are, however, difficult to continuously measure, globally resolve, and deterministically specify in first-principle ionosphere-thermosphere (IT) models. In this study, we investigate IT response to induced acoustic-gravity waves resulting from strong time-varying lower atmospheric wave forcing, including a traveling wave packet (TWP) and stochastic gravity wave (SGW) fields using the nonlinear Global Ionosphere Thermosphere Model (GITM) with high-resolution grids of 0.08° in longitude and latitude. When TWP and SGW forcing occurs concurrently, the induced gravity waves (GWs) cause variation of ±8.8% in neutral, ±6.2% in electron density, and ±1.5% in TEC. The magnitudes decrease by 2.4% (from ±8.8% to ±6.4%) with the SGW effects simulated separately and subtracted; importantly, interactions between TWP and SGW contribute to ±1.4% of the perturbations. On the other hand, the induced acoustic waves (AWs) cause variation of ±13.9% in neutral, ±2.1% in electron density, and ±0.4% in TEC. Furthermore, GWs sustain tens of minutes after the TWP has passed through the lower atmosphere and clear traveling ionospheric disturbances and traveling atmospheric disturbances are developed. We demonstrate that clear wave structures from an episodic event can be isolated even under a ubiquitously and overwhelmingly perturbed atmosphere.

  3. Particle analysis in an acoustic cytometer

    DOEpatents

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Ward, Michael D

    2012-09-18

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for acoustically manipulating one or more particles. Acoustically manipulated particles may be separated by size. The particles may be flowed in a flow stream and acoustic radiation pressure, which may be radial, may be applied to the flow stream. This application of acoustic radiation pressure may separate the particles. In one embodiment, the particles may be separated by size, and as a further example, the larger particles may be transported to a central axis.

  4. Response of entrained air-void systems in cement paste to pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, Robert

    2011-12-01

    Scope and Method of Study: Determine the response of entrained air-void systems in fresh cement paste to applied pressures by utilizing micro-computed tomography. Compare results to those suggested by the ASTM C231 Type B pressure meter calibration equations. Findings and Conclusions: The results of this research suggest that although the Type B pressure meter assumptions are valid for the compression of individual voids, the volume of air-voids which dissolve under pressure is significant enough to register noticeable errors when using a synthetic air-entraining admixture with the Type B pressure meter test. Results currently suggest that air-void systems with a significant percentage of small voids present will have higher deviation from the Boyle's Law model used by the Type B pressure meter due to the dissolution of these air-voids.

  5. Development of combustion response functions in a subscale high-pressure transverse combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierman, M.; Pomeroy, B.; Anderson, W.

    2016-07-01

    Combustion response functions describe the magnitude and time lag behavior of a flame in response to unsteady pressure and velocity. By understanding the feedback between unsteady flowfields and heat release, the growth and decay of combustion instability can be better predicted. An automated data isolation and reduction method has been developed to generate meaningful graphical combustion response functions from a combination of pressure amplitude and various image analysis metrics. It was developed and tested using pressure measurements and high-speed imaging of combustion light taken from a single element at the midspan of an unstable high-pressure subscale transverse combustor. The code was used to isolate time slices of near stationary pressure amplitude and to process the corresponding images into combustion response approximated by aggregate intensity, intensity weighted spatial center, Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD), and Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD). Overall, the generated combustion response functions generally agreed with expected behavior of an element located at a first width (1W) velocity antinode and second width (2W) pressure antinode. Results from both POD and DMD successfully isolated the prominent spatial and temporal light emission behavior.

  6. Is dust acoustic wave a new plasma acoustic mode?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, C. B.

    1997-09-01

    In this Brief Communication, the claim of the novelty of the dust acoustic wave in a dusty plasma within the constant dust charge model is questioned. Conceptual lacunas behind the claim have been highlighted and appropriate physical arguments have been forwarded against the claim. It is demonstrated that the so-called dust acoustic wave could better be termed as a general acoustic fluctuation response with a dominant characteristic feature of the acoustic-like mode (ALM) fluctuation response reported by Dwivedi et al. [J. Plasma Phys. 41, 219 (1989)]. It is suggested that both correct and more usable nomenclature of the ALM should be the so-called acoustic mode.

  7. Renaissance CFO emerges in response to market pressures.

    PubMed

    1995-08-01

    A 1995 survey of chief financial officers (CFOs) in healthcare organizations finds that as the healthcare industry reshapes itself through mergers, acquisitions, and downsizing, the CFOs of the mid-1990s also are reshaping themselves into "Renaissance CFOs." They are acquiring new skills and expertise beyond the traditional area of finance. About one-third of the CFOs who took part in the February 1995 survey, which updates similar surveys in 1992 and 1990, said they are working to enhance their knowledge of managed care because they expect to assume responsibility for managed care as part of their expanding CFO responsibilities. Other new areas survey respondents said they expect to oversee before the decade's end are financial costing and pricing and physician relations. The 1995 CFO survey was commissioned by HFMA and Executive Risk Management Associates, Inc., and was conducted by Elrick & Lavidge, Inc. Previous CFO profile surveys have included analysis of CFO compensation data. This year, however, a separate, more indepth survey of CFO compensation was commissioned by HFMA; the findings of this survey will be presented in the October issue of HFM.

  8. Relationship of the Acoustic Startle Response and Its Modulation to Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Typical Development Children and Those with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Komatsu, Sahoko; Nakahachi, Takayuki; Ogino, Kazuo; Kamio, Yoko

    2016-01-01

    Auditory hyper-reactivity is a common sensory-perceptual abnormality in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which interrupts behavioral adaptation. We investigated acoustic startle response (ASR) modulations in 17 children with ASD and 27 with typical development (TD). Compared to TD, children with ASD had larger ASR magnitude to weak stimuli and…

  9. The relationship between terazosin dose and blood pressure response in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Achari, R; Hosmane, B; Bonacci, E; O'Dea, R

    2000-10-01

    A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study was conducted to describe the dose-response curve for terazosin on blood pressure. A total of 128 patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension (supine diastolic blood pressure, 100 to 114 mmHg) participated in the study. The study consisted of a 4-week single-blind placebo lead-in period and a 14-week double-blind treatment period. Patients were randomized in equal numbers to four parallel treatment groups: terazosin 1, 2, and 5 mg; terazosin 2, 5, and 10 mg; terazosin 20, 40, and 80 mg; and placebo. The 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure measurements were performed at the end of the placebo lead-in period and at the end of each 4-week fixed-dose period. The nonlinear, mixed-effect model computer program was used to analyze the dose-response relationship. There was a strong dose-response relationship between fall in blood pressure and the 1 to 10 mg terazosin dose, as well as a plateauing of response for terazosin doses above 10 mg. The maximum antihypertensive response (Emax) to terazosin was 10.7 mmHg for systolic blood pressure and 8.0 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure. The daily dose of terazosin, which produced 50% of the maximum response (ED50), was 3.0 mg for systolic blood pressure and 1.5 mg for diastolic blood pressure. The results of this study suggest that although some patients may benefit from terazosin doses of greater than 10 mg, doses up to 10 mg will maximize therapeutic benefit for most patients, with acceptable side effects.

  10. GRAAL - Griggs-type Apparatus equipped with Acoustics in the Laboratory: a new instrument to explore the rheology of rocks at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubnel, A.; Champallier, R.; Precigout, J.; Pinquier, Y.; Ferrand, T. P.; Incel, S.; Hilairet, N.; Labrousse, L.; Renner, J.; Green, H. W., II; Stunitz, H.; Jolivet, L.

    2015-12-01

    Two new generation solid-medium Griggs-type apparatus have been set up at the Laboratoire de Géologie of ENS PARIS, and the Institut des Sciences de la Terre d'Orléans (ISTO). These new set-ups allow to perform controlled rock deformation experiments on large volume samples, up to 5 GPa and 1300°C. Careful pressure - stress calibration will be performed (using D-DIA and/or Paterson-type experiments as standards), strain-stress-pressure will be measured using modern techniques and state of the art salt assemblies. Focusing on rheology, the pressure vessel at ISTO has been designed in a goal of deforming large sample diameter (8 mm) at confining pressure of up to 3 GPa. Thanks to this large sample size, this new vessel will allow to explore the microstructures related to the deformation processes occurring at pressures of the deep lithosphere and in subduction zones. In this new apparatus, we moreover included a room below the pressure vessel in order to develop a basal load cell as close as possible to the sample. This new design, in progress, aims at significantly improving the accuracy of stress measurements in the Griggs-type apparatus. The ultimate goal is to set up a new technique able to routinely quantify the rheology of natural rocks between 0.5 and 5 GPa. Although fundamental to document the rheology of the lithosphere, such a technique is still missing in rock mechanics. Focusing on the evolution of physical and mechanical properties during mineral phase transformations, the vessel at ENS is equipped with continuous acoustic emission (AE) multi-sensor monitoring in order to "listen" to the sample during deformation. Indeed, these continuous recordings enable to detect regular AE like signals during dynamic crack propagation, as well as non-impulsive signals, which might be instrumental to identify laboratory analogs to non-volcanic tremor and low frequency earthquake signals. P and S elastic wave velocities will also be measured contemporaneously during

  11. Comparison of pilot and industrial scale atmospheric pressure glow discharge systems including a novel electro-acoustic technique for process monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tynan, J.; Law, V. J.; Ward, P.; Hynes, A. M.; Cullen, J.; Byrne, G.; Daniels, S.; Dowling, D. P.

    2010-02-01

    A comparison of a pilot and industrial scale atmospheric pressure polymer processing plasma system has been carried out using process-monitoring diagnostic tools during treatment of amorphous polyethylene terephthalate. These systems have been compared using optical emission spectroscopy (OES), photodiode (PD) analysis and multi-variate analysis of the applied electrical and emitted electro-acoustic signals to facilitate scale up operations from the pilot to the industrial scale system. The voltage, current, electro-acoustic intensity and frequency of the plasma systems were found to change systematically with an increase in applied plasma power and addition of oxygen (O2) into a helium (He) plasma. The plasma drive frequency was pulled by the plasma reactance from approximately 26 to 16 kHz on the pilot system and from approximately 36 to 32 kHz on the industrial system, for an increase in applied plasma power and addition of O2. The OES analysis revealed a number of peaks associated with nitrogen (N2) species between 250 and 450 nm due to the presence of air within the He plasma. Temporally resolved analysis of the discharge emission carried out using a PD showed an increase in the number of discharge events per power cycle with an increase in power and a decrease in emission intensity for addition of O2 into the He plasma for both the pilot and industrial scale systems. Using these diagnostic tools both plasma stability and run to run variations were assessed. A visual analysis of the 1.2 m wide plasma was also carried out where a more homogeneous plasma was observed at higher powers.

  12. Directional Acoustic Density Sensor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-13

    fluctuations of fluid density at a point . (2) DESCRIPTION OF THE PRIOR ART [0004] Conventional vector sensors measure particle velocity, v (vx,Vytvz...dipole-type or first order sensor that is realized by measuring particle velocity at a point , (which is the vector sensor sensing approach for...underwater sensors), or by measuring the gradient of the acoustic pressure at two closely spaced (less than the wavelength of an acoustic wave) points as it

  13. Acoustical heat pumping engine

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1983-08-16

    The disclosure is directed to an acoustical heat pumping engine without moving seals. A tubular housing holds a compressible fluid capable of supporting an acoustical standing wave. An acoustical driver is disposed at one end of the housing and the other end is capped. A second thermodynamic medium is disposed in the housing near to but spaced from the capped end. Heat is pumped along the second thermodynamic medium toward the capped end as a consequence both of the pressure oscillation due to the driver and imperfect thermal contact between the fluid and the second thermodynamic medium.

  14. Acoustical heat pumping engine