Corrigendum and addendum. Modeling weakly nonlinear acoustic wave propagation
Christov, Ivan; Christov, C. I.; Jordan, P. M.
2014-12-18
This article presents errors, corrections, and additions to the research outlined in the following citation: Christov, I., Christov, C. I., & Jordan, P. M. (2007). Modeling weakly nonlinear acoustic wave propagation. The Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics, 60(4), 473-495.
Numerical modelling of nonlinear full-wave acoustic propagation
Velasco-Segura, Roberto Rendón, Pablo L.
2015-10-28
The various model equations of nonlinear acoustics are arrived at by making assumptions which permit the observation of the interaction with propagation of either single or joint effects. We present here a form of the conservation equations of fluid dynamics which are deduced using slightly less restrictive hypothesis than those necessary to obtain the well known Westervelt equation. This formulation accounts for full wave diffraction, nonlinearity, and thermoviscous dissipative effects. A two-dimensional, finite-volume method using Roe’s linearisation has been implemented to obtain numerically the solution of the proposed equations. This code, which has been written for parallel execution on a GPU, can be used to describe moderate nonlinear phenomena, at low Mach numbers, in domains as large as 100 wave lengths. Applications range from models of diagnostic and therapeutic HIFU, to parametric acoustic arrays and nonlinear propagation in acoustic waveguides. Examples related to these applications are shown and discussed.
Acoustic Propagation Modeling for Marine Hydro-Kinetic Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, C. N.; Johnson, E.
2014-12-01
The combination of riverine, tidal, and wave energy have the potential to supply over one third of the United States' annual electricity demand. However, in order to deploy and test prototypes, and commercial installations, marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices must meet strict regulatory guidelines that determine the maximum amount of noise that can be generated and sets particular thresholds for determining disturbance and injury caused by noise. An accurate model for predicting the propagation of a MHK source in a real-life hydro-acoustic environment has been established. This model will help promote the growth and viability of marine, water, and hydrokinetic energy by confidently assuring federal regulations are meet and harmful impacts to marine fish and wildlife are minimal. Paracousti, a finite difference solution to the acoustic equations, was originally developed for sound propagation in atmospheric environments and has been successfully validated for a number of different geophysical activities. The three-dimensional numerical implementation is advantageous over other acoustic propagation techniques for a MHK application where the domains of interest have complex 3D interactions from the seabed, banks, and other shallow water effects. A number of different cases for hydro-acoustic environments have been validated by both analytical and numerical results from canonical and benchmark problems. This includes a variety of hydrodynamic and physical environments that may be present in a potential MHK application including shallow and deep water, sloping, and canyon type bottoms, with varying sound speed and density profiles. With the model successfully validated for hydro-acoustic environments more complex and realistic MHK sources from turbines and/or arrays can be modeled.
Theoretical models for duct acoustic propagation and radiation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eversman, Walter
1991-01-01
The development of computational methods in acoustics has led to the introduction of analysis and design procedures which model the turbofan inlet as a coupled system, simultaneously modeling propagation and radiation in the presence of realistic internal and external flows. Such models are generally large, require substantial computer speed and capacity, and can be expected to be used in the final design stages, with the simpler models being used in the early design iterations. Emphasis is given to practical modeling methods that have been applied to the acoustical design problem in turbofan engines. The mathematical model is established and the simplest case of propagation in a duct with hard walls is solved to introduce concepts and terminologies. An extensive overview is given of methods for the calculation of attenuation in uniform ducts with uniform flow and with shear flow. Subsequent sections deal with numerical techniques which provide an integrated representation of duct propagation and near- and far-field radiation for realistic geometries and flight conditions.
Modeling of Acoustic Emission Signal Propagation in Waveguides
Zelenyak, Andreea-Manuela; Hamstad, Marvin A.; Sause, Markus G. R.
2015-01-01
Acoustic emission (AE) testing is a widely used nondestructive testing (NDT) method to investigate material failure. When environmental conditions are harmful for the operation of the sensors, waveguides are typically mounted in between the inspected structure and the sensor. Such waveguides can be built from different materials or have different designs in accordance with the experimental needs. All these variations can cause changes in the acoustic emission signals in terms of modal conversion, additional attenuation or shift in frequency content. A finite element method (FEM) was used to model acoustic emission signal propagation in an aluminum plate with an attached waveguide and was validated against experimental data. The geometry of the waveguide is systematically changed by varying the radius and height to investigate the influence on the detected signals. Different waveguide materials were implemented and change of material properties as function of temperature were taken into account. Development of the option of modeling different waveguide options replaces the time consuming and expensive trial and error alternative of experiments. Thus, the aim of this research has important implications for those who use waveguides for AE testing. PMID:26007731
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nunney, Victoria; Mantey, Robert; Crile, James
2002-08-01
Acoustic signatures are being exploited more and more by new technology in the battlefield as a way of detecting and identifying potential targets. An understanding of the way in which the acoustic signature of a land platform propagates through the atmosphere enables one to target suppression techniques to those acoustic sources on the vehicle that will provide the greatest military benefit in terms of reducing the detection range of the platform. Dstl Chertsey (UK) and TACOM (US) have developed acoustic propagation models which can predict the far-field sound pressure levels (SPLs) and associated detection ranges of land platforms under a variety of meteorological conditions over different terrain types. The Acoustic Prediction Propagation Model (APPM), UK) and Acoustic Detection Range Prediction Model (ADRPM, US) have previously been compared and have been found to produce similar results for simple scenarios. With recent developments in both models, this comparison has been carried out again, looking at the introduction of Fast-Field Programs (FFP) to both models and, in more detail, the differences between the results at certain frequencies. This paper represents the results found from this comparison study, showing the differences, similarities and potential of these models for the future.
Validation of an analytical compressed elastic tube model for acoustic wave propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van Hirtum, A.; Blandin, R.; Pelorson, X.
2015-12-01
Acoustic wave propagation through a compressed elastic tube is a recurrent problem in engineering. Compression of the tube is achieved by pinching it between two parallel bars so that the pinching effort as well as the longitudinal position of pinching can be controlled. A stadium-based geometrical tube model is combined with a plane wave acoustic model in order to estimate acoustic wave propagation through the elastic tube as a function of pinching effort, pinching position, and outlet termination (flanged or unflanged). The model outcome is validated against experimental data obtained in a frequency range from 3.5 kHz up to 10 kHz by displacing an acoustic probe along the tube's centerline. Due to plane wave model assumptions and the decrease of the lowest higher order mode cut-on frequency with increasing pinching effort, the difference between modeled and measured data is analysed in three frequency bands, up to 5 kHz, 8 kHz, and 9.5 kHz, respectively. It is seen that the mean and standard error within each frequency band do not significantly vary with pinching effort, pinching position, or outlet termination. Therefore, it is concluded that the analytical tube model is suitable to approximate the elastic tube geometry when modeling acoustic wave propagation through the pinched elastic tube with either flanged or unflanged termination.
Aldridge, David Franklin; Collier, Sandra L.; Marlin, David H.; Ostashev, Vladimir E.; Symons, Neill Phillip; Wilson, D. Keith
2005-05-01
This document is intended to serve as a users guide for the time-domain atmospheric acoustic propagation suite (TDAAPS) program developed as part of the Department of Defense High-Performance Modernization Office (HPCMP) Common High-Performance Computing Scalable Software Initiative (CHSSI). TDAAPS performs staggered-grid finite-difference modeling of the acoustic velocity-pressure system with the incorporation of spatially inhomogeneous winds. Wherever practical the control structure of the codes are written in C++ using an object oriented design. Sections of code where a large number of calculations are required are written in C or F77 in order to enable better compiler optimization of these sections. The TDAAPS program conforms to a UNIX style calling interface. Most of the actions of the codes are controlled by adding flags to the invoking command line. This document presents a large number of examples and provides new users with the necessary background to perform acoustic modeling with TDAAPS.
A Fusion Model of Seismic and Hydro-Acoustic Propagation for Treaty Monitoring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arora, Nimar; Prior, Mark
2014-05-01
We present an extension to NET-VISA (Network Processing Vertically Integrated Seismic Analysis), which is a probabilistic generative model of the propagation of seismic waves and their detection on a global scale, to incorporate hydro-acoustic data from the IMS (International Monitoring System) network. The new model includes the coupling of seismic waves into the ocean's SOFAR channel, as well as the propagation of hydro-acoustic waves from underwater explosions. The generative model is described in terms of multiple possible hypotheses -- seismic-to-hydro-acoustic, under-water explosion, other noise sources such as whales singing or icebergs breaking up -- that could lead to signal detections. We decompose each hypothesis into conditional probability distributions that are carefully analyzed and calibrated. These distributions include ones for detection probabilities, blockage in the SOFAR channel (including diffraction, refraction, and reflection around obstacles), energy attenuation, and other features of the resulting waveforms. We present a study of the various features that are extracted from the hydro-acoustic waveforms, and their correlations with each other as well the source of the energy. Additionally, an inference algorithm is presented that concurrently infers the seismic and under-water events, and associates all arrivals (aka triggers), both from seismic and hydro-acoustic stations, to the appropriate event, and labels the path taken by the wave. Finally, our results demonstrate that this fusion of seismic and hydro-acoustic data leads to very good performance. A majority of the under-water events that IDC (International Data Center) analysts built in 2010 are correctly located, and the arrivals that correspond to seismic-to-hydroacoustic coupling, the T phases, are mostly correctly identified. There is no loss in the accuracy of seismic events, in fact, there is a slight overall improvement.
Modelling acoustic propagation beneath Antarctic sea ice using measured environmental parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alexander, Polly; Duncan, Alec; Bose, Neil; Williams, Guy
2016-09-01
Autonomous underwater vehicles are improving and expanding in situ observations of sea ice for the validation of satellite remote sensing and climate models. Missions under sea ice, particularly over large distances (up to 100 km) away from the immediate vicinity of a ship or base, require accurate acoustic communication for monitoring, emergency response and some navigation systems. We investigate the propagation of acoustic signals in the Antarctic seasonal ice zone using the BELLHOP model, examining the influence of ocean and sea ice properties. We processed available observations from around Antarctica to generate input variables such as sound speed, surface reflection coefficient (R) and roughness parameters. The results show that changes in the sound speed profile make the most significant difference to the propagation of the direct path signal. The inclusion of the surface reflected signals from a flat ice surface was found to greatly decrease the transmission loss with range. When ice roughness was added, the transmission loss increased with roughness, in a manner similar to the direct path transmission loss results. The conclusions of this work are that: (1) the accuracy of acoustic modelling in this environment is greatly increased by using realistic sound speed data; (2) a risk averse ranging model would use only the direct path signal transmission; and (3) in a flat ice scenario, much greater ranges can be achieved if the surface reflected transmission paths are included. As autonomous missions under sea ice increase in scale and complexity, it will be increasingly important for operational procedures to include effective modelling of acoustic propagation with representative environmental data.
Blanc-Benon, Philippe; Lipkens, Bart; Dallois, Laurent; Hamilton, Mark F; Blackstock, David T
2002-01-01
Sonic boom propagation can be affected by atmospheric turbulence. It has been shown that turbulence affects the perceived loudness of sonic booms, mainly by changing its peak pressure and rise time. The models reported here describe the nonlinear propagation of sound through turbulence. Turbulence is modeled as a set of individual realizations of a random temperature or velocity field. In the first model, linear geometrical acoustics is used to trace rays through each realization of the turbulent field. A nonlinear transport equation is then derived along each eigenray connecting the source and receiver. The transport equation is solved by a Pestorius algorithm. In the second model, the KZK equation is modified to account for the effect of a random temperature field and it is then solved numerically. Results from numerical experiments that simulate the propagation of spark-produced N waves through turbulence are presented. It is observed that turbulence decreases, on average, the peak pressure of the N waves and increases the rise time. Nonlinear distortion is less when turbulence is present than without it. The effects of random vector fields are stronger than those of random temperature fields. The location of the caustics and the deformation of the wave front are also presented. These observations confirm the results from the model experiment in which spark-produced N waves are used to simulate sonic boom propagation through a turbulent atmosphere. PMID:11837954
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brissaud, Q.; Garcia, R.; Martin, R.; Komatitsch, D.
2015-12-01
The acoustic and gravity waves propagating in the planetary atmospheres have been studied intensively as markers of specific phenomena (tectonic events, explosions) or as contributors to the atmosphere dynamics. To get a better understanding of the physic behind these dynamic processes, both acoustic and gravity waves propagation should be modeled in an attenuating and windy 3D atmosphere from the ground to the upper thermosphere. Thus, In order to provide an efficient numerical tool at the regional or the global scale a high order finite difference time domain (FDTD) approach is proposed that relies on the linearized compressible Navier-Stokes equations (Landau 1959) with non constant physical parameters (density, viscosities and speed of sound) and background velocities (wind). One significant benefit from this code is its versatility. Indeed, it handles both acoustic and gravity waves in the same simulation that enables one to observe correlations between the two. Simulations will also be performed on 2D/3D realistic cases such as tsunamis in a full MSISE-00 atmosphere and gravity-wave generation through atmospheric explosions. Computations are validated by comparison to well-known analytical solutions based on dispersion relations in specific benchmark cases (atmospheric explosion and bottom displacement forcing).
Turbofan Acoustic Propagation and Radiation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eversman, Walter
2000-01-01
This document describes progress in the development of finite element codes for the prediction of near and far field acoustic radiation from the inlet and aft fan ducts of turbofan engines. The report consists of nine papers which have appeared in archival journals and conference proceedings, or are presently in review for publication. Topics included are: 1. Aft Fan Duct Acoustic Radiation; 2. Mapped Infinite Wave Envelope Elements for Acoustic Radiation in a Uniformly Moving Medium; 3. A Reflection Free Boundary Condition for Propagation in Uniform Flow Using Mapped Infinite Wave Envelope Elements; 4. A Numerical Comparison Between Multiple-Scales and FEM Solution for Sound Propagation in Lined Flow Ducts; 5. Acoustic Propagation at High Frequencies in Ducts; 6. The Boundary Condition at an Impedance Wall in a Nonuniform Duct with Potential Flow; 7. A Reverse Flow Theorem and Acoustic Reciprocity in Compressible Potential Flows; 8. Reciprocity and Acoustics Power in One Dimensional Compressible Potential Flows; and 9. Numerical Experiments on Acoustic Reciprocity in Compressible Potential Flows.
Vehicular sources in acoustic propagation experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prado, Gervasio; Fitzgerald, James; Arruda, Anthony; Parides, George
1990-01-01
One of the most important uses of acoustic propagation models lies in the area of detection and tracking of vehicles. Propagation models are used to compute transmission losses in performance prediction models and to analyze the results of past experiments. Vehicles can also provide the means for cost effective experiments to measure acoustic propagation conditions over significant ranges. In order to properly correlate the information provided by the experimental data and the propagation models, the following issues must be taken into consideration: the phenomenology of the vehicle noise sources must be understood and characterized; the vehicle's location or 'ground truth' must be accurately reproduced and synchronized with the acoustic data; and sufficient meteorological data must be collected to support the requirements of the propagation models. The experimental procedures and instrumentation needed to carry out propagation experiments are discussed. Illustrative results are presented for two cases. First, a helicopter was used to measure propagation losses at a range of 1 to 10 Km. Second, a heavy diesel-powered vehicle was used to measure propagation losses in the 300 to 2200 m range.
Experimental study of noise sources and acoustic propagation in a turbofan model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lewy, S.; Canard-Caruana, S.; Julliard, J.
1990-10-01
Experimental studies of the acoustic radiation of subsonic fans mainly due to blade and vane presure fluctuations were performed in the SNECMA 5C2 compressor anechoic facility. A brief description of the test rig is presented noting that the CA5 turbojet engine model fan has a diameter of 47 cm, 48 blades, and a nominal rotation speed of 12,600 rpm. The two chief experiments discussed are the measurement of blade and vane pressure fluctuations by thin-film transducers and the spinning mode analysis of the sound field propagating in the intake duct. Several examples of applications are discussed, and it is shown that an inflow control device, as expected, reduces the aerodynamic disturbances by about 10 dB. Rotor-stator interaction tones are determined by the modal analysis, and it is found that a duct lining with a length of one duct radius could give an insertion loss up to 20 dB in flight.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watson, Willie R.; Jones, Michael G.; Tanner, Sharon E.; Parrott, Tony L.
1995-01-01
A propagation model method for extracting the normal incidence impedance of an acoustic material installed as a finite length segment in a wall of a duct carrying a nonprogressive wave field is presented. The method recasts the determination of the unknown impedance as the minimization of the normalized wall pressure error function. A finite element propagation model is combined with a coarse/fine grid impedance plane search technique to extract the impedance of the material. Results are presented for three different materials for which the impedance is known. For each material, the input data required for the prediction scheme was computed from modal theory and then contaminated by random error. The finite element method reproduces the known impedance of each material almost exactly for random errors typical of those found in many measurement environments. Thus, the method developed here provides a means for determining the impedance of materials in a nonprogressirve wave environment such as that usually encountered in a commercial aircraft engine and most laboratory settings.
Llor, Jesús; Malumbres, Manuel P
2012-01-01
Several Medium Access Control (MAC) and routing protocols have been developed in the last years for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs). One of the main difficulties to compare and validate the performance of different proposals is the lack of a common standard to model the acoustic propagation in the underwater environment. In this paper we analyze the evolution of underwater acoustic prediction models from a simple approach to more detailed and accurate models. Then, different high layer network protocols are tested with different acoustic propagation models in order to determine the influence of environmental parameters on the obtained results. After several experiments, we can conclude that higher-level protocols are sensitive to both: (a) physical layer parameters related to the network scenario and (b) the acoustic propagation model. Conditions like ocean surface activity, scenario location, bathymetry or floor sediment composition, may change the signal propagation behavior. So, when designing network architectures for UWSNs, the role of the physical layer should be seriously taken into account in order to assert that the obtained simulation results will be close to the ones obtained in real network scenarios.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Breitzke, M.; Bohlen, T.
2007-12-01
According to the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, adopted 1991, seismic surveys in the Southern Ocean south of 60°S are exclusively dedicated to academic research. The seismic surveys conducted by the Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany during the last 20 years focussed on two areas: The Wedell Sea (60°W - 0°W) and the Amundsen/Bellinghausen Sea (120°W - 60°W). Histograms of the Julian days and water depths covered by these surveys indicate that maximum activities occurred in January and February, and most lines were collected either in shallow waters of 400 - 500 m depth or in deep waters of 2500 - 4500 m depth. To assess the potential risk of future seismic research on marine mammal populations an acoustic wave propagation modeling study is conducted for the Wedell and the Amundsen/ Bellinghausen Sea. A 2.5D finite-difference code is used. It allows to simulate the spherical amplitude decay of point sources correctly, considers P- and S-wave velocities at the sea floor and provides snapshots of the wavefield at any spatial and temporal resolution. As source signals notional signatures of GI-, G- and Bolt guns, computed by the NUCLEUS software (PGS) are used. Based on CTD measurements, sediment core samplings and sediment echosounder recordings two horizontally-layered, range-independent generic models are established for the Wedell and the Amundsen/Bellinghausen Sea, one for shallow (500 m) and one for deep water (3000 m). They indicate that the vertical structure of the water masses is characterized by a 100 m thick, cold, low sound velocity layer (~1440 - 1450 m/s), centered in 100 m depth. In the austral summer it is overlain by a warmer, 50 m thick surface layer with slightly higher sound velocities (~1447 - 1453 m/s). Beneath the low-velocity layer sound velocities increase rapidly to ~1450 - 1460 m/s in 200 m depth, and smoothly to ~1530 m/s in 4700 m depth. The sea floor is mainly
Joint Acoustic Propagation Experiment (JAPE)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carnes, Benny L.; Olsen, Robert O.; Kennedy, Bruce W.
1993-01-01
The Joint Acoustic Propagation Experiment (JAPE), performed under the auspices of NATO and the Acoustics Working Group, was conducted at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, USA, during the period 11-28 Jul. 1991. JAPE consisted of 220 trials using various acoustic sources including speakers, propane cannon, various types of military vehicles, helicopters, a 155mm howitzer, and static high explosives. Of primary importance to the performance of these tests was the intensive characterization of the atmosphere before and during the trials. Because of the wide range of interests on the part of the participants, JAPE was organized in such a manner to provide a broad cross section of test configurations. These included short and long range propagation from fixed and moving vehicles, terrain masking, and vehicle detection. A number of independent trials were also performed by individual participating agencies using the assets available during JAPE. These tests, while not documented in this report, provided substantial and important data to those groups. Perhaps the most significant feature of JAPE is the establishment of a permanent data base which can be used by not only the participants but by others interested in acoustics. A follow-on test was performed by NASA LaRC during the period 19-29 Aug. 1991 at the same location. These trials consisted of 59 overflights of supersonic aircraft in order to establish the relationship between atmospheric turbulence and the received sonic boom energy at the surface.
Predictability of Acoustic Propagation in Shallow Water Using Parabolic Approximation Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cederberg, Robert John
Accuracy of relative intensity, interference wavelength and horizontal wavenumber predictions from parabolic approximation models of shallow water, low frequency (less than 100 Hz) acoustic propagation problems is examined. The investigation is directed toward environmental parameter values corresponding generally to those near the site of a recent New Jersey shelf experiment. First, typical parameter uncertainties in the environment of the experiment site are used to determine effects of parameter sensitivities on the accuracy of two -layer isospeed model predictions. Also, analytic expressions for rates of change of wavenumbers with respect to parameters are used to compute wavenumber and interference wavelength changes caused by parameter variations corresponding to the uncertainties. It is found that channel depth variations cause the largest change in intensity, while water sound speed variations have the greatest effect on wavenumbers. Variability of the parameter sensitivities in regions about the base parameter sets is also examined, with rates of change generally staying of the same order of magnitude throughout the regions considered. Effects of input parameter uncertainties and basic approximations in depth and range dependent PE models are also investigated. Parameter uncertainties are found to impose the greatest limitations on prediction accuracy, with sediment sound speed uncertainties causing the largest restrictions. Models of bottom sound speed profiles that take into account sediment consolidation are developed, and their effects on propagation model predictions in range dependent environments are examined. Using borehole density data and Biot-Stoll theory, a functional form for porosity in a homogeneous consolidated sediment is derived. Corresponding sound speed profiles for different sediment types are then constructed. Predictions from models consisting of consolidated sediment layers throughout the bottom are compared with results from cases
Propagation characteristics of acoustic waves in snow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Capelli, Achille; Kapil, Jagdish Chandra; Reiweger, Ingrid; Schweizer, Jürg; Or, Dani
2015-04-01
Acoustic emission analysis is a promising technique for monitoring snow slope stability with potential for application in early warning systems for avalanches. Current research efforts focus on identification and localization of acoustic emission features preceding snow failure and avalanches. However, our knowledge of sound propagation characteristics in snow is still limited. A review of previous studies showed that significant gaps exist and that the results of the various studies are partly contradictory. Furthermore, sound velocity and attenuation have been determined for the frequency range below 10 kHz, while recent snow failure experiments suggest that the peak frequency is in the ultrasound range between 30 kHz to 500 kHz. We therefore studied the propagation of pencil lead fracture (PLF) signals through snow in the ultrasound frequency range. This was achieved by performing laboratory experiments with columns of artificially produced snow of varying density and temperature. The attenuation constant was obtained by varying the size of the columns to eliminate possible influences of the snow-sensor coupling. The attenuation constant was measured for the entire PLF burst signal and for single frequency components. The propagation velocity was calculated from the arrival time of the acoustic signal. We then modelled the sound propagation for our experimental setup using Biot's model for wave propagation in porous media. The Model results were in good agreement with our experimental results. For the studied samples, the acoustic signals propagated as fast and slow longitudinal waves, but the main part of the energy was carried by the slow waves. The Young's modulus of our snow samples was determined from the sound velocity. This is highly relevant, as the elastic properties of snow are not well known.
Nonlinear acoustic wave propagation in atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hariharan, S. I.
1985-01-01
A model problem that simulates an atmospheric acoustic wave propagation situation that is nonlinear is considered. The model is derived from the basic Euler equations for the atmospheric flow and from the regular perturbations for the acoustic part. The nonlinear effects are studied by obtaining two successive linear problems in which the second one involves the solution of the first problem. Well posedness of these problems is discussed and approximations of the radiation boundary conditions that can be used in numerical simulations are presented.
Nonlinear acoustic wave propagation in atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hariharan, S. I.
1986-01-01
In this paper a model problem is considered that simulates an atmospheric acoustic wave propagation situation that is nonlinear. The model is derived from the basic Euler equations for the atmospheric flow and from the regular perturbations for the acoustic part. The nonlinear effects are studied by obtaining two successive linear problems in which the second one involves the solution of the first problem. Well-posedness of these problems is discussed and approximations of the radiation boundary conditions that can be used in numerical simulations are presented.
Dimensional analysis of acoustically propagated signals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hansen, Scott D.; Thomson, Dennis W.
1993-01-01
Traditionally, long term measurements of atmospherically propagated sound signals have consisted of time series of multiminute averages. Only recently have continuous measurements with temporal resolution corresponding to turbulent time scales been available. With modern digital data acquisition systems we now have the capability to simultaneously record both acoustical and meteorological parameters with sufficient temporal resolution to allow us to examine in detail relationships between fluctuating sound and the meteorological variables, particularly wind and temperature, which locally determine the acoustic refractive index. The atmospheric acoustic propagation medium can be treated as a nonlinear dynamical system, a kind of signal processor whose innards depend on thermodynamic and turbulent processes in the atmosphere. The atmosphere is an inherently nonlinear dynamical system. In fact one simple model of atmospheric convection, the Lorenz system, may well be the most widely studied of all dynamical systems. In this paper we report some results of our having applied methods used to characterize nonlinear dynamical systems to study the characteristics of acoustical signals propagated through the atmosphere. For example, we investigate whether or not it is possible to parameterize signal fluctuations in terms of fractal dimensions. For time series one such parameter is the limit capacity dimension. Nicolis and Nicolis were among the first to use the kind of methods we have to study the properties of low dimension global attractors.
Yuldashev, Petr; Ollivier, Sébastien; Averiyanov, Mikhail; Sapozhnikov, Oleg; Khokhlova, Vera; Blanc-Benon, Philippe
2010-12-01
The propagation of nonlinear spherically diverging N-waves in homogeneous air is studied experimentally and theoretically. A spark source is used to generate high amplitude (1.4 kPa) short duration (40 μs) N-waves; acoustic measurements are performed using microphones (3 mm diameter, 150 kHz bandwidth). Numerical modeling with the generalized Burgers equation is used to reveal the relative effects of acoustic nonlinearity, thermoviscous absorption, and oxygen and nitrogen relaxation on the wave propagation. The results of modeling are in a good agreement with the measurements in respect to the wave amplitude and duration. However, the measured rise time of the front shock is ten times longer than the calculated one, which is attributed to the limited bandwidth of the microphone. To better resolve the shock thickness, a focused shadowgraphy technique is used. The recorded optical shadowgrams are compared with shadow patterns predicted by geometrical optics and scalar diffraction model of light propagation. It is shown that the geometrical optics approximation results in overestimation of the shock rise time, while the diffraction model allows to correctly resolve the shock width. A combination of microphone measurements and focused optical shadowgraphy is therefore a reliable way of studying evolution of spark-generated shock waves in air. PMID:21218866
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vorontsov, Artem; Andreeva, Elena; Nesterov, Ivan; Padokhin, Artem; Kurbatov, Grigory
2016-04-01
The acoustic-gravity waves (AGW) in the upper atmosphere and ionosphere can be generated by a variety of the phenomena in the near-Earth environment and atmosphere as well as by some perturbations of the Earth's ground or ocean surface. For instance, the role of the AGW sources can be played by the earthquakes, explosions, thermal heating, seisches, tsunami waves. We present the examples of AGWs excited by the tsunami waves traveling in the ocean, by seisches, and by ionospheric heating by the high-power radio wave. In the last case, the gravity waves are caused by the pulsed modulation of the heating wave. The AGW propagation in the upper atmosphere induces the variations and irregularities in the electron density distribution of the ionosphere, whose structure can be efficiently reconstructed by the method of the ionospheric radio tomography (RT) based on the data from the global navigational satellite systems (GNSS). The input data for RT diagnostics are composed of the 150/400 MHz radio signals from the low-orbiting (LO) satellites and 1.2-1.5 GHz radio signals from the high-orbiting (HO) satellites with their orbits at ~1000 and ~20000 km above the ground, respectively. These data enable ionospheric imaging on different spatiotemporal scales with different spatiotemporal resolution and coverage, which is suitable, inter alia, for tracking the waves and wave-like features in the ionosphere. In particular, we demonstrate the maps of the ionospheric responses to the tornado at Moore (Oklahoma, USA) of May 20, 2013, which are reconstructed from the HO data. We present the examples of LORT images containing the waves and wavelike disturbances associated with various sources (e.g., auroral precipitation and high-power heating of the ionosphere). We also discuss the results of modeling the AGW generation by the surface and volumetric sources. The millihertz AGW from these sources initiate the ionospheric perturbation with a typical scale of a few hundred km at the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robertsson, Johan O. A.; Levander, Alan; Holliger, Klaus
1996-02-01
Quantitative modeling of bottom-interacting ocean acoustic waves is complicated by the long propagation ranges and by the complexity of the scattering targets. We employ a two-dimensional (2-D) hybrid technique combining Gaussian beam, finite difference, and Kirchhoff integral solutions of the wave equation to simulate ocean acoustic experiments within half of a convergence zone in the SOFAR channel. The 2-D modeling approach is reasonable due to the one-dimensional (1-D) velocity distribution in the water column and the strong lineation of the seafloor morphology parallel to the mid-ocean ridges. Full-waveform modeling of ocean acoustic data requires that the topography and the material properties of the seafloor are available at scales that are several orders of magnitude smaller than typical bathymetric sampling rates. We have therefore investigated the effects on the ocean acoustic response of a stochastic interpolation scheme used to generate seafloor models. For typical grazing angles of the incident wave field (approximately 5°-20°), we found that different stochastic realizations of the same seafloor segment (sampled at 200 m) yield an intrinsic uncertainty of the order of 3-8 dB in amplitude and 0.1-0.3 s in time for individual prominent events in the reverberant acoustic field. Hybrid simulations are compared to beam-formed ocean acoustic data collected during the Acoustic Reverberation Special Research Program (ARSRP) cruises. Side lobe noise in the observed acoustic data is simulated by adding band-limited white noise at -30 dB relative to the maximum intensity in the synthetic data. Numerical simulations can be limited to the response of only one of the mirror azimuth beams provided that the experimental geometry is suitably chosen. For the 2-D approximation to be valid, the cross-range resolution of the observed data must be smaller than the characteristic scale of seafloor lineations, and the beams of interest must be approximately perpendicular to
Bilbao, Stefan; Harrison, Reginald
2016-07-01
Numerical modeling of wave propagation in acoustic tubes is a subject of longstanding interest, particularly for enclosures of varying cross section, and especially when viscothermal losses due to boundary layer effects are taken into consideration. Though steady-state, or frequency domain methods, are a common avenue of approach, recursive time domain methods are an alternative, allowing for the generation of wideband responses, and offer a point of departure for more general modeling of nonlinear wave propagation. The design of time-domain methods is complicated by numerical stability considerations, and to this end, a passive representation is a useful design principle leading to simple stable and explicit numerical schemes, particularly in the case of viscothermal loss modeling. Such schemes and the accompanying energy and stability analysis are presented here. Numerical examples are presented for a variety of duct profiles, illustrating strict energy dissipation, and for comparison of computed input impedances against frequency-domain results. PMID:27475194
Bilbao, Stefan; Harrison, Reginald
2016-07-01
Numerical modeling of wave propagation in acoustic tubes is a subject of longstanding interest, particularly for enclosures of varying cross section, and especially when viscothermal losses due to boundary layer effects are taken into consideration. Though steady-state, or frequency domain methods, are a common avenue of approach, recursive time domain methods are an alternative, allowing for the generation of wideband responses, and offer a point of departure for more general modeling of nonlinear wave propagation. The design of time-domain methods is complicated by numerical stability considerations, and to this end, a passive representation is a useful design principle leading to simple stable and explicit numerical schemes, particularly in the case of viscothermal loss modeling. Such schemes and the accompanying energy and stability analysis are presented here. Numerical examples are presented for a variety of duct profiles, illustrating strict energy dissipation, and for comparison of computed input impedances against frequency-domain results.
Evaluation of a scale-model experiment to investigate long-range acoustic propagation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parrott, Tony L.; Mcaninch, Gerry L.; Carlberg, Ingrid A.
1987-01-01
Tests were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using a scale-model experiment situated in an anechoic facility to investigate long-range sound propagation over ground terrain. For a nominal scale factor of 100:1, attenuations along a linear array of six microphones colinear with a continuous-wave type of sound source were measured over a wavelength range from 10 to 160 for a nominal test frequency of 10 kHz. Most tests were made for a hard model surface (plywood), but limited tests were also made for a soft model surface (plywood with felt). For grazing-incidence propagation over the hard surface, measured and predicted attenuation trends were consistent for microphone locations out to between 40 and 80 wavelengths. Beyond 80 wavelengths, significant variability was observed that was caused by disturbances in the propagation medium. Also, there was evidence of extraneous propagation-path contributions to data irregularities at more remote microphones. Sensitivity studies for the hard-surface and microphone indicated a 2.5 dB change in the relative excess attenuation for a systematic error in source and microphone elevations on the order of 1 mm. For the soft-surface model, no comparable sensitivity was found.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xiaofeng; Matula, Thomas J.; Ma, Yong; Liu, Zheng; Tu, Juan; Guo, Xiasheng; Zhang, Dong
2013-06-01
It is well known that extracorporeal shock wave treatment is capable of providing a non-surgical and relatively pain free alternative treatment modality for patients suffering from musculoskeletal disorders but do not respond well to conservative treatments. The major objective of current work is to investigate how the shock wave (SW) field would change if a bony structure exists in the path of the acoustic wave. Here, a model of finite element method (FEM) was developed based on linear elasticity and acoustic propagation equations to examine SW propagation and deflection near a mimic musculoskeletal bone. High-speed photography experiments were performed to record cavitation bubbles generated in SW field with the presence of mimic bone. By comparing experimental and simulated results, the effectiveness of FEM model could be verified and strain energy distributions in the bone were also predicted according to numerical simulations. The results show that (1) the SW field will be deflected with the presence of bony structure and varying deflection angles can be observed as the bone shifted up in the z-direction relative to SW geometric focus (F2 focus); (2) SW deflection angels predicted by the FEM model agree well with experimental results obtained from high-speed photographs; and (3) temporal evolutions of strain energy distribution in the bone can also be evaluated based on FEM model, with varied vertical distance between F2 focus and intended target point on the bone surface. The present studies indicate that, by combining MRI/CT scans and FEM modeling work, it is possible to better understand SW propagation characteristics and energy deposition in musculoskeletal structure during extracorporeal shock wave treatment, which is important for standardizing the treatment dosage, optimizing treatment protocols, and even providing patient-specific treatment guidance in clinic.
Acoustic propagation in a thermally stratified atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vanmoorhem, W. K.
1987-01-01
Acoustic propagation in an atmosphere with a specific form of temperature profile has been investigated by analytical means. The temperature profile used is representative of an actual atmospheric profile and contains three free parameters. Both lapse and inversion cases have been considered. Although ray solution have been considered the primary emphasis has been on solutions of the acoustic wave equation with point force where the sound speed varies with height above the ground corresponding to the assumed temperature profile. The method used to obtain the solution of the wave equation is based on Hankel transformation of the wave equation, approximate solution of the transformed equation for wavelength small compared to the scale of the temperature (or sound speed) profile, and approximate or numerical inversion of the Hankel transformed solution. The solution displays the characteristics found in experimental data but extensive comparison between the models and experimental data has not been carried out.
Acoustic propagation in a thermally stratified atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vanmoorhem, W. K.
1988-01-01
Acoustic propagation in an atmosphere with a specific form of a temperature profile has been investigated by analytical means. The temperature profile used is representative of an actual atmospheric profile and contains three free parameters. Both lapse and inversion cases have been considered. Although ray solutions have been considered, the primary emphasis has been on solutions of the acoustic wave equation with point source where the sound speed varies with height above the ground corresponding to the assumed temperature profile. The method used to obtain the solution of the wave equation is based on Hankel transformation of the wave equation, approximate solution of the transformed equation for wavelength small compared to the scale of the temperature (or sound speed) profile, and approximate or numerical inversion of the Hankel transformed solution. The solution displays the characteristics found in experimental data but extensive comparison between the models and experimental data has not been carried out.
Linear and nonlinear acoustic wave propagation in the atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hariharan, S. I.; Yu, Ping
1988-01-01
The investigation of the acoustic wave propagation theory and numerical implementation for the situation of an isothermal atmosphere is described. A one-dimensional model to validate an asymptotic theory and a 3-D situation to relate to a realistic situation are considered. In addition, nonlinear wave propagation and the numerical treatment are included. It is known that the gravitational effects play a crucial role in the low frequency acoustic wave propagation. They propagate large distances and, as such, the numerical treatment of those problems become difficult in terms of posing boundary conditions which are valid for all frequencies.
Acoustic propagation in a thermally stratified atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vanmoorhem, W. K.
1985-01-01
This report describes the activities during the fifth six month period of the investigation of acoustic propagation in the atmosphere with a realistic temperature profile. Progress has been achieved in two major directions: comparisons between the lapse model and experimental data taken by NASA during the second tower experiment, and development of a model propagation in an inversion. Data from the second tower experiment became available near the end of 1984 and some comparisons have been carried out, but this work is not complete. Problems with the temperature profiler during the experiment have produced temperature profiles that are difficult to fit the assumed variation of temperature with height, but in cases where reasonable fits have been obtained agreement between the model and the experiments are close. The major weaknesses in the model appear to be the presence of discontinuities in some regions, the low sound levels predicted near the source height, and difficulties with the argument of the Hankel function being outside the allowable range. Work on the inversion model has progressed slowly, and the rays for that case are discussed along with a simple energy conservation model of sound level enhancement in the inversion case.
Sturm, Frédéric; Korakas, Alexios
2013-01-01
In this paper, laboratory scale measurements of long range across-slope acoustic propagation in a three-dimensional (3-D) wedge-like environment are compared to numerical solutions. In a previous work, it was shown that the experimental data contain strong 3-D effects like mode shadow zones and multiple mode arrivals, in qualitative agreement with theoretical and numerical predictions. In the present work, the experimental data are compared with numerical solutions obtained using a fully 3-D parabolic equation based model. A subspace inversion approach is used for the refinement of some of the parameters describing the model experiment. The inversion procedure is implemented in a Bayesian framework based on the exhaustive search over the parameter space. The comparisons are performed both in the time and in the frequency domain using the maximum a posteriori estimates of the refined parameters as input in the 3-D model. A very good quantitative agreement is achieved between the numerical predictions provided by the 3-D parabolic equation model and the experimental data.
Radio wave propagation and acoustic sounding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singal, S. P.
Radio wave propagation of the decimetric and centimetric waves depends to a large extent on the boundary layer meteorological conditions which give rise to severe fadings, very often due to multipath propagation. Sodar is one of the inexpensive remote sensing techniques which can be employed to probe the boundary layer structure. In the paper a historical perspective has been given of the simultaneously conducted studies on radio waves and sodar at various places. The radio meteorological information needed for propagation studies has been clearly spelt out and conditions of a ray path especially in the presence of a ducting layer have been defined as giving rise to fading or signal enhancement conditions. Finally the potential of the sodar studies to obtain information about the boundary layer phenomena has been stressed, clearly spelling out the use of acoustic sounding in radio wave propagation studies.
Surface acoustic wave propagation in graphene film
Roshchupkin, Dmitry Plotitcyna, Olga; Matveev, Viktor; Kononenko, Oleg; Emelin, Evgenii; Irzhak, Dmitry; Ortega, Luc; Zizak, Ivo; Erko, Alexei; Tynyshtykbayev, Kurbangali; Insepov, Zinetula
2015-09-14
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation in a graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals was studied at the BESSY II synchrotron radiation source. Talbot effect enabled the visualization of the SAW propagation on the crystal surface with the graphene film in a real time mode, and high-resolution x-ray diffraction permitted the determination of the SAW amplitude in the graphene/piezoelectric crystal system. The influence of the SAW on the electrical properties of the graphene film was examined. It was shown that the changing of the SAW amplitude enables controlling the magnitude and direction of current in graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals.
Joint Acoustic Propagation Experiment (JAPE-91) Workshop
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Willshire, William L., Jr. (Compiler); Chestnutt, David (Compiler)
1993-01-01
The Joint Acoustic Propagation Experiment (JAPE), was conducted at the White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, USA, during the period 11-28 Jul. 1991. JAPE consisted of various short and long range propagation experiments using various acoustic sources including speakers, propane cannons, helicopters, a 155 mm howitzer, and static high explosives. Of primary importance to the performance of theses tests was the extensive characterization of the atmosphere during these tests. This atmospheric characterization included turbulence measurements. A workshop to disseminate the results of JAPE-91 was held in Hampton, VA, on 28 Apr. 1993. This report is a compilation of the presentations made at the workshop along with a list of attendees and the agenda.
Worcester, Peter F; Dzieciuch, Matthew A; Mercer, James A; Andrew, Rex K; Dushaw, Brian D; Baggeroer, Arthur B; Heaney, Kevin D; D'Spain, Gerald L; Colosi, John A; Stephen, Ralph A; Kemp, John N; Howe, Bruce M; Van Uffelen, Lora J; Wage, Kathleen E
2013-10-01
A series of experiments conducted in the Philippine Sea during 2009-2011 investigated deep-water acoustic propagation and ambient noise in this oceanographically and geologically complex region: (i) the 2009 North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory (NPAL) Pilot Study/Engineering Test, (ii) the 2010-2011 NPAL Philippine Sea Experiment, and (iii) the Ocean Bottom Seismometer Augmentation of the 2010-2011 NPAL Philippine Sea Experiment. The experimental goals included (a) understanding the impacts of fronts, eddies, and internal tides on acoustic propagation, (b) determining whether acoustic methods, together with other measurements and ocean modeling, can yield estimates of the time-evolving ocean state useful for making improved acoustic predictions, (c) improving our understanding of the physics of scattering by internal waves and spice, (d) characterizing the depth dependence and temporal variability of ambient noise, and (e) understanding the relationship between the acoustic field in the water column and the seismic field in the seafloor. In these experiments, moored and ship-suspended low-frequency acoustic sources transmitted to a newly developed distributed vertical line array receiver capable of spanning the water column in the deep ocean. The acoustic transmissions and ambient noise were also recorded by a towed hydrophone array, by acoustic Seagliders, and by ocean bottom seismometers.
Worcester, Peter F; Dzieciuch, Matthew A; Mercer, James A; Andrew, Rex K; Dushaw, Brian D; Baggeroer, Arthur B; Heaney, Kevin D; D'Spain, Gerald L; Colosi, John A; Stephen, Ralph A; Kemp, John N; Howe, Bruce M; Van Uffelen, Lora J; Wage, Kathleen E
2013-10-01
A series of experiments conducted in the Philippine Sea during 2009-2011 investigated deep-water acoustic propagation and ambient noise in this oceanographically and geologically complex region: (i) the 2009 North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory (NPAL) Pilot Study/Engineering Test, (ii) the 2010-2011 NPAL Philippine Sea Experiment, and (iii) the Ocean Bottom Seismometer Augmentation of the 2010-2011 NPAL Philippine Sea Experiment. The experimental goals included (a) understanding the impacts of fronts, eddies, and internal tides on acoustic propagation, (b) determining whether acoustic methods, together with other measurements and ocean modeling, can yield estimates of the time-evolving ocean state useful for making improved acoustic predictions, (c) improving our understanding of the physics of scattering by internal waves and spice, (d) characterizing the depth dependence and temporal variability of ambient noise, and (e) understanding the relationship between the acoustic field in the water column and the seismic field in the seafloor. In these experiments, moored and ship-suspended low-frequency acoustic sources transmitted to a newly developed distributed vertical line array receiver capable of spanning the water column in the deep ocean. The acoustic transmissions and ambient noise were also recorded by a towed hydrophone array, by acoustic Seagliders, and by ocean bottom seismometers. PMID:24116529
Analysis of Acoustic Modeling and Sound Propagation in Aircraft Noise Prediction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Plotkin, Kenneth J.; Shepherd, Kevin P. (Technical Monitor)
2006-01-01
An analysis has been performed of measured and predicted aircraft noise levels around Denver International Airport. A detailed examination was made of 90 straight-out departures that yielded good measurements on multiple monitors. Predictions were made with INM 5, INM 6 and the simulation model NMSIM. Predictions were consistently lower than measurements, less so for the simulation model than for the integrated models. Lateral directivity ("installation effect") patterns were seen which are consistent with other recent measurements. Atmospheric absorption was determined to be a significant factor in the underprediction. Calculations of atmospheric attenuation were made over a full year of upper air data at seven locations across the United States. It was found that temperature/humidity effects could cause variations of up to +/-4 dB, depending on season, for the sites examined. It was concluded that local temperature and humidity should be accounted for in aircraft noise modeling.
Acoustic propagation under tidally driven, stratified flow.
Finette, Steven; Oba, Roger; Shen, Colin; Evans, Thomas
2007-05-01
Amplitude and phase variability in acoustic fields are simulated within a canonical shelf-break ocean environment using sound speed distributions computed from hydrodynamics. The submesoscale description of the space and time varying environment is physically consistent with tidal forcing of stratified flows over variable bathymetry and includes the generation, evolution and propagation of internal tides and solibores. For selected time periods, two-dimensional acoustic transmission examples are presented for which signal gain degradation is computed between 200 and 500 Hz on vertical arrays positioned both on the shelf and beyond the shelf break. Decorrelation of the field is dominated by the phase contribution and occurs over 2-3 min, with significant recorrelation often noted for selected frequency subbands. Detection range is also determined in this frequency band. Azimuth-time variations in the acoustic field are illustrated for 100 Hz sources by extending the acoustic simulations to three spatial dimensions. The azimuthal and temporal structure of both the depth-averaged transmission loss and temporal correlation of the acoustic fields under different environmental conditions are considered. Depth-averaged transmission loss varies up to 4 dB, depending on a combination of source depth, location relative to the slope and tidally induced volumetric changes in the sound speed distribution. PMID:17550157
Coherence of acoustic modes propagating through shallow water internal waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rouseff, Daniel; Turgut, Altan; Wolf, Stephen N.; Finette, Steve; Orr, Marshall H.; Pasewark, Bruce H.; Apel, John R.; Badiey, Mohsen; Chiu, Ching-Sang; Headrick, Robert H.; Lynch, James F.; Kemp, John N.; Newhall, Arthur E.; von der Heydt, Keith; Tielbuerger, Dirk
2002-04-01
The 1995 Shallow Water Acoustics in a Random Medium (SWARM) experiment [Apel et al., IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 22, 445-464 (1997)] was conducted off the New Jersey coast. The experiment featured two well-populated vertical receiving arrays, which permitted the measured acoustic field to be decomposed into its normal modes. The decomposition was repeated for successive transmissions allowing the amplitude of each mode to be tracked. The modal amplitudes were observed to decorrelate with time scales on the order of 100 s [Headrick et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107(1), 201-220 (2000)]. In the present work, a theoretical model is proposed to explain the observed decorrelation. Packets of intense internal waves are modeled as coherent structures moving along the acoustic propagation path without changing shape. The packets cause mode coupling and their motion results in a changing acoustic interference pattern. The model is consistent with the rapid decorrelation observed in SWARM. The model also predicts the observed partial recorrelation of the field at longer time scales. The model is first tested in simple continuous-wave simulations using canonical representations for the internal waves. More detailed time-domain simulations are presented mimicking the situation in SWARM. Modeling results are compared to experimental data.
Longitudinal elastic wave propagation characteristics of inertant acoustic metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulkarni, Prateek P.; Manimala, James M.
2016-06-01
Longitudinal elastic wave propagation characteristics of acoustic metamaterials with various inerter configurations are investigated using their representative one-dimensional discrete element lattice models. Inerters are dynamic mass-amplifying mechanical elements that are activated by a difference in acceleration across them. They have a small device mass but can provide a relatively large dynamic mass presence depending on accelerations in systems that employ them. The effect of introducing inerters both in local attachments and in the lattice was examined vis-à-vis the propagation characteristics of locally resonant acoustic metamaterials. A simple effective model based on mass, stiffness, or their combined equivalent was used to establish dispersion behavior and quantify attenuation within bandgaps. Depending on inerter configurations in local attachments or in the lattice, both up-shift and down-shift in the bandgap frequency range and their extent are shown to be possible while retaining static mass addition to the host structure to a minimum. Further, frequency-dependent negative and even extreme effective-stiffness regimes are encountered. The feasibility of employing tuned combinations of such mass-delimited inertant configurations to engineer acoustic metamaterials that act as high-pass filters without the use of grounded elements or even as complete longitudinal wave inhibitors is shown. Potential device implications and strategies for practical applications are also discussed.
Sources and propagation of atmospherical acoustic shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coulouvrat, François
2012-09-01
Sources of aerial shock waves are numerous and produce acoustical signals that propagate in the atmosphere over long ranges, with a wide frequency spectrum ranging from infrasonic to audible, and with a complex human response. They can be of natural origin, like meteors, lightning or volcanoes, or human-made as for explosions, so-called "buzz-saw noise" (BSN) from aircraft engines or sonic booms. Their description, modeling and data analysis within the viewpoint of nonlinear acoustics will be the topic of the present lecture, with focus on two main points: the challenges of the source description, and the main features of nonlinear atmospheric propagation. Inter-disciplinary aspects, with links to atmospheric and geo-sciences will be outlined. Detailed description of the source is very dependent on its nature. Mobile supersonic sources can be rotating (fan blades of aircraft engines) or in translation (meteors, sonic boom). Mach numbers range from transonic to hypersonic. Detailed knowledge of geometry is critical for the processes of boom minimization and audible frequency spectrum of BSN. Sources of geophysical nature are poorly known, and various mechanisms for explaining infrasound recorded from meteors or thunderstorms have been proposed. Comparison between recorded data and modeling may be one way to discriminate between them. Moreover, the nearfield of these sources is frequently beyond the limits of acoustical approximation, or too complex for simple modeling. A proper numerical description hence requires specific matching procedures between nearfield behavior and farfield propagation. Nonlinear propagation in the atmosphere is dominated by temperature and wind stratification. Ray theory is an efficient way to analyze observations, but is invalid in various situations. Nonlinear effects are enhanced locally at caustics, or in case of grazing propagation over a rigid surface. Absorption, which controls mostly the high frequency part of the spectrum contained
Propagation of acoustic waves in the partly ionized interstellar medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chalov, S. V.
2014-07-01
The properties of linear acoustic waves propagating in the interstellar medium, which is a mixture of electron-proton plasma and hydrogen atoms, are studied analytically. The plasma component interacts with hydrogen atoms through resonant charge exchange between the atoms and protons. To make the problem tractable, only short-wavelength disturbances are considered. Namely, the wavelength is assumed to be small as compared with the mean free path of atoms with respect to charge exchange. It is shown that short waves are damped out due to the charge exchange process, and the magnitude of decrement increases with the cross-section for charge exchange, number density of atoms and sound speed. In the first approximation, decrement does not depend on the wavelength, and acoustic waves are dispersionless. The advantage of our model is fully kinetic treatment of the interstellar atom motion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandal, Sudip; Yuan, Ding; Fang, Xia; Banerjee, Dipankar; Pant, Vaibhav; Van Doorsselaere, Tom
2016-09-01
Slow MHD waves are important tools for understanding coronal structures and dynamics. In this paper, we report a number of observations from the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) on board HINODE and Solar Dynamic Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) of reflecting longitudinal waves in hot coronal loops. To our knowledge, this is the first report of this kind as seen from the XRT and simultaneously with the AIA. The wave appears after a micro-flare occurs at one of the footpoints. We estimate the density and temperature of the loop plasma by performing differential emission measure (DEM) analysis on the AIA image sequence. The estimated speed of propagation is comparable to or lower than the local sound speed, suggesting it to be a propagating slow wave. The intensity perturbation amplitude, in every case, falls very rapidly as the perturbation moves along the loop and eventually vanishes after one or more reflections. To check the consistency of such reflection signatures with the obtained loop parameters, we perform a 2.5D MHD simulation, which uses the parameters obtained from our observation as inputs, and perform forward modeling to synthesize AIA 94 Å images. Analyzing the synthesized images, we obtain the same properties of the observables as for the real observation. From the analysis we conclude that a footpoint heating can generate a slow wave which then reflects back and forth in the coronal loop before fading. Our analysis of the simulated data shows that the main agent for this damping is anisotropic thermal conduction.
Obliquely propagating dust-acoustic waves in dense quantum magnetoplasmas
Khan, S. A.; Masood, W.; Siddiq, M.
2009-01-15
Two-dimensional, obliquely propagating nonlinear quantum dust-acoustic waves in dense magnetized plasmas are investigated on the basis of a quantum hydrodynamic model. In this regard, the Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation is derived using the small amplitude approximation method. The extended hyperbolic tangent method is employed to obtain solitary and explosive solutions of the ZK equation. It is found that the quantum effects related to the Bohm potential, dust concentration, external magnetic field, and obliqueness significantly modify the amplitude and width of both solitary and explosive pulses. The relevance of the study to dense plasmas is also discussed.
Obliquely propagating dust-acoustic waves in dense quantum magnetoplasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, S. A.; Masood, W.; Siddiq, M.
2009-01-01
Two-dimensional, obliquely propagating nonlinear quantum dust-acoustic waves in dense magnetized plasmas are investigated on the basis of a quantum hydrodynamic model. In this regard, the Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation is derived using the small amplitude approximation method. The extended hyperbolic tangent method is employed to obtain solitary and explosive solutions of the ZK equation. It is found that the quantum effects related to the Bohm potential, dust concentration, external magnetic field, and obliqueness significantly modify the amplitude and width of both solitary and explosive pulses. The relevance of the study to dense plasmas is also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Musa, Abu Bakar
2013-09-01
The study is about impact of a short elastic rod(or slug) on a stationary semi-infinite viscoelastic rod. The viscoelastic materials are modeled as standard linear solid which involve three material parameters and the motion is treated as one-dimensional. We first establish the governing equations pertaining to the impact of viscoelastic materials subject to certain boundary conditions for the case when an elastic slug moving at a speed V impacts a semi-infinite stationary viscoelastic rod. The objective is to predict stresses and velocities at the interface following wave transmissions and reflections in the slug after the impact using viscoelastic discontinuity. If the stress at the interface becomes tensile and the velocity changes its sign, then the slug and the rod part company. If the stress at the interface is compressive after the impact, the slug and the rod remain in contact. In the process of predicting the stress and velocity of wave propagation using viscoelastic discontinuity, the Z-effective which is the effective ratio of acoustic impedance plays important role. It can be shown that effective ratio of acoustic impedance can help us to determine whether the slug and the rod move together or part company after the impact. After modeling the impact and solve the governing system of partial differential equations in the Laplace transform domain. We invert the Laplace transformed solution numerically to obtain the stresses and velocities at the interface for several viscosity time constants and ratios of acoustic impedances. In inverting the Laplace transformed equations, we used the complex inversion formula because there is a branch cut and infinitely many poles within the Bromwich contour. In the discontinuity analysis, we look at the moving discontinuities in stress and velocity using the impulse-momentum relation and kinematical condition of compatibility. Finally, we discussed the relationship of the stresses and velocities using numeric and the
Wave envelopes method for description of nonlinear acoustic wave propagation.
Wójcik, J; Nowicki, A; Lewin, P A; Bloomfield, P E; Kujawska, T; Filipczyński, L
2006-07-01
A novel, free from paraxial approximation and computationally efficient numerical algorithm capable of predicting 4D acoustic fields in lossy and nonlinear media from arbitrary shaped sources (relevant to probes used in medical ultrasonic imaging and therapeutic systems) is described. The new WE (wave envelopes) approach to nonlinear propagation modeling is based on the solution of the second order nonlinear differential wave equation reported in [J. Wójcik, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 104 (1998) 2654-2663; V.P. Kuznetsov, Akust. Zh. 16 (1970) 548-553]. An incremental stepping scheme allows for forward wave propagation. The operator-splitting method accounts independently for the effects of full diffraction, absorption and nonlinear interactions of harmonics. The WE method represents the propagating pulsed acoustic wave as a superposition of wavelet-like sinusoidal pulses with carrier frequencies being the harmonics of the boundary tone burst disturbance. The model is valid for lossy media, arbitrarily shaped plane and focused sources, accounts for the effects of diffraction and can be applied to continuous as well as to pulsed waves. Depending on the source geometry, level of nonlinearity and frequency bandwidth, in comparison with the conventional approach the Time-Averaged Wave Envelopes (TAWE) method shortens computational time of the full 4D nonlinear field calculation by at least an order of magnitude; thus, predictions of nonlinear beam propagation from complex sources (such as phased arrays) can be available within 30-60 min using only a standard PC. The approximate ratio between the computational time costs obtained by using the TAWE method and the conventional approach in calculations of the nonlinear interactions is proportional to 1/N2, and in memory consumption to 1/N where N is the average bandwidth of the individual wavelets. Numerical computations comparing the spatial field distributions obtained by using both the TAWE method and the conventional approach
Wave envelopes method for description of nonlinear acoustic wave propagation.
Wójcik, J; Nowicki, A; Lewin, P A; Bloomfield, P E; Kujawska, T; Filipczyński, L
2006-07-01
A novel, free from paraxial approximation and computationally efficient numerical algorithm capable of predicting 4D acoustic fields in lossy and nonlinear media from arbitrary shaped sources (relevant to probes used in medical ultrasonic imaging and therapeutic systems) is described. The new WE (wave envelopes) approach to nonlinear propagation modeling is based on the solution of the second order nonlinear differential wave equation reported in [J. Wójcik, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 104 (1998) 2654-2663; V.P. Kuznetsov, Akust. Zh. 16 (1970) 548-553]. An incremental stepping scheme allows for forward wave propagation. The operator-splitting method accounts independently for the effects of full diffraction, absorption and nonlinear interactions of harmonics. The WE method represents the propagating pulsed acoustic wave as a superposition of wavelet-like sinusoidal pulses with carrier frequencies being the harmonics of the boundary tone burst disturbance. The model is valid for lossy media, arbitrarily shaped plane and focused sources, accounts for the effects of diffraction and can be applied to continuous as well as to pulsed waves. Depending on the source geometry, level of nonlinearity and frequency bandwidth, in comparison with the conventional approach the Time-Averaged Wave Envelopes (TAWE) method shortens computational time of the full 4D nonlinear field calculation by at least an order of magnitude; thus, predictions of nonlinear beam propagation from complex sources (such as phased arrays) can be available within 30-60 min using only a standard PC. The approximate ratio between the computational time costs obtained by using the TAWE method and the conventional approach in calculations of the nonlinear interactions is proportional to 1/N2, and in memory consumption to 1/N where N is the average bandwidth of the individual wavelets. Numerical computations comparing the spatial field distributions obtained by using both the TAWE method and the conventional approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Breitzke, Monika; Bohlen, Thomas
2010-05-01
Modelling sound propagation in the ocean is an essential tool to assess the potential risk of air-gun shots on marine mammals. Based on a 2.5-D finite-difference code a full waveform modelling approach is presented, which determines both sound exposure levels of single shots and cumulative sound exposure levels of multiple shots fired along a seismic line. Band-limited point source approximations of compact air-gun clusters deployed by R/V Polarstern in polar regions are used as sound sources. Marine mammals are simulated as static receivers. Applications to deep and shallow water models including constant and depth-dependent sound velocity profiles of the Southern Ocean show dipole-like directivities in case of single shots and tubular cumulative sound exposure level fields beneath the seismic line in case of multiple shots. Compared to a semi-infinite model an incorporation of seafloor reflections enhances the seismically induced noise levels close to the sea surface. Refraction due to sound velocity gradients and sound channelling in near-surface ducts are evident, but affect only low to moderate levels. Hence, exposure zone radii derived for different hearing thresholds are almost independent of the sound velocity structure. With decreasing thresholds radii increase according to a spherical 20 log10 r law in case of single shots and according to a cylindrical 10 log10 r law in case of multiple shots. A doubling of the shot interval diminishes the cumulative sound exposure levels by -3 dB and halves the radii. The ocean bottom properties only slightly affect the radii in shallow waters, if the normal incidence reflection coefficient exceeds 0.2.
Nonlinear propagation and control of acoustic waves in phononic superlattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiménez, Noé; Mehrem, Ahmed; Picó, Rubén; García-Raffi, Lluís M.; Sánchez-Morcillo, Víctor J.
2016-05-01
The propagation of intense acoustic waves in a one-dimensional phononic crystal is studied. The medium consists in a structured fluid, formed by a periodic array of fluid layers with alternating linear acoustic properties and quadratic nonlinearity coefficient. The spacing between layers is of the order of the wavelength, therefore Bragg effects such as band gaps appear. We show that the interplay between strong dispersion and nonlinearity leads to new scenarios of wave propagation. The classical waveform distortion process typical of intense acoustic waves in homogeneous media can be strongly altered when nonlinearly generated harmonics lie inside or close to band gaps. This allows the possibility of engineer a medium in order to get a particular waveform. Examples of this include the design of media with effective (e.g., cubic) nonlinearities, or extremely linear media (where distortion can be canceled). The presented ideas open a way towards the control of acoustic wave propagation in nonlinear regime. xml:lang="fr"
The influence of mesoscale eddies on shallow water acoustic propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deferrari, Harry; Olson, Donald
2003-10-01
Acoustic propagation measurements in 150 m depth on the Florida escarpment observe the effects of the passage of a cyclonic eddy. As the stream core of the Florida Current meanders, the eddy is formed and propagates along the shelf edge. The sequence over a roughly a fortnight is as follows: ahead of the eddy, warm surface water and cold bottom water are swept onto the terrace forming a steep thermocline and corresponding strong downward refracting C(z). The gradient produce intense, focused RBR arrivals and the thermocline becomes a duct for internal waves to propagate shoreward. At first, the internal wave energy is minimal and propagation is stable and coherent. As the internal tides attempt to propagate on shelf, the sound speed field and the acoustic signals become increasingly variable. The variability reaches a crescendo as the 200 m long internal tide is blocked from propagating on to the narrower shelf and begins to break and overturn producing small-scale variability. As the eddy passes, nearly iso-thermal conditions are restored along with quiescent internal wave fields and reduced signal variability. Here, the effects are quantized with data from fixed-system acoustic and oceanographic measurements demonstrating that the mesoscale determines acoustic propagation conditions days in advance.
Reeder, D Benjamin
2016-01-01
The estuarine environment often hosts a salt wedge, the stratification of which is a function of the tide's range and speed of advance, river discharge volumetric flow rate, and river mouth morphology. Competing effects of temperature and salinity on sound speed in this stratified environment control the degree of acoustic refraction occurring along an acoustic path. A field experiment was carried out in the Columbia River Estuary to test the hypothesis: the estuarine salt wedge is acoustically observable in terms of low-to-mid-frequency acoustic propagation. Linear frequency-modulated acoustic signals in the 500-2000 Hz band were transmitted during the advance and retreat of the salt wedge during May 27-29, 2013. Results demonstrate that the salt wedge front is the dominant physical mechanism controlling acoustic propagation in this environment: received signal energy is relatively stable before and after the passage of the salt wedge front when the acoustic path consists of a single medium (either entirely fresh water or entirely salt water), and suffers a 10-15 dB loss and increased variability during salt wedge front passage. Physical parameters and acoustic propagation modeling corroborate and inform the acoustic observations. PMID:26827001
Estimating propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor
Xu, Wenyuan; Huizinga, John S.
2010-03-16
Techniques are described for estimating the propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor. In particular, techniques which measure and exploit a proper segment of phase frequency response of the surface acoustic wave sensor are described for use as a basis of bacterial detection by the sensor. As described, use of velocity estimation based on a proper segment of phase frequency response has advantages over conventional techniques that use phase shift as the basis for detection.
Physical oceanography and acoustic propagation during LADC experiment in the Gulf of Mexico in 2001
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vinogradov, Sergey; Caruthers, Jerald W.; Rayborn, Grayson H.; Udovydchenkov, Ilya A.; Sidorovskaia, Natalia A.; Rypina, Irina I.; Newcomb, Joal J.; Fisher, Robert A.; Ioup, George E.; Ioup, Juliette W.
2003-04-01
The Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center (LADC) deployed three environmental and acoustic moorings in a downslope line just off the Mississippi River Delta in the northern Gulf of Mexico in an area of a large concentration of sperm whales in July 2001. The measurement of whale vocalizations and, more generally, ambient noise, were the objectives of the experiment. Each mooring had a single hydrophone autonomously recording Environmental Acoustic Recording System (EARS) obtained from the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office and modified to recorded signals up to 5859 Hz continuously for 36 days. Also, self-recording, environmental sensors were attached to the moorings to obtain profiles of time series data of temperature and salinity. Satellite imagery and NOAA mooring data were gathered for an analysis of eddy formations and movement in the Gulf. This paper will discuss the possible environmental impact of two events that occurred during the experiment: the passage of Tropical Storm Barry and the movement of the remnants of an eddy in the area. Discussed also will be the expected effects of these events on acoustic propagation based on modeling, which are carried out for long range and low frequency (300 km and 500 Hz) using the normal-mode acoustic model SWAMP (Shallow Water Acoustic Modal Propagation by M. F. Werby and N. A. Sidorovskaia) and for short range and high frequency (10 km and 5000 Hz) using the parabolic-equation acoustic model RAM (Range-dependent Acoustic model by M. Collins). [Work supported by ONR.
Acoustic propagation in rigid ducts with blockage
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
El-Raheb, M.; Wagner, P.
1982-01-01
Acoustic levitation has been suggested for moving nonmagnetic material in furnaces for heat processing in space experiments. Basically, acoustic standing waves under resonant conditions are excited in the cavity of the furnace while the material blockage is located at a pressure node and thus at a maximum gradient. The position of the blockage is controlled by displacing the node as a result of frequency change. The present investigation is concerned with the effect of blockage on the longitudinal and transverse resonances of a cylindrical cavity, taking into account the results of a one-dimensional and three-dimensional (3-D) analysis. Based on a Green's function surface element method, 3-D analysis is tested experimentally and proved to be accurate over a wide range of geometric parameters and boundary shapes. The shift in resonance depends on the change in pressure gradient and duct shortening caused by the blockage.
Acoustic propagation in rigid ducts with blockage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El-Raheb, M.; Wagner, P.
1982-09-01
Acoustic levitation has been suggested for moving nonmagnetic material in furnaces for heat processing in space experiments. Basically, acoustic standing waves under resonant conditions are excited in the cavity of the furnace while the material blockage is located at a pressure node and thus at a maximum gradient. The position of the blockage is controlled by displacing the node as a result of frequency change. The present investigation is concerned with the effect of blockage on the longitudinal and transverse resonances of a cylindrical cavity, taking into account the results of a one-dimensional and three-dimensional (3-D) analysis. Based on a Green's function surface element method, 3-D analysis is tested experimentally and proved to be accurate over a wide range of geometric parameters and boundary shapes. The shift in resonance depends on the change in pressure gradient and duct shortening caused by the blockage.
Underwater Acoustic Propagation in the Philippine Sea: Intensity Fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
White, Andrew W.
In the spring of 2009, broadband transmissions from a ship-suspended source with a 284 Hz center frequency were received on a moored and navigated vertical array of hydrophones over a range of 107 km in the Philippine Sea. During a 60-hour period over 19 000 transmissions were carried out. The observed wavefront arrival structure reveals four distinct purely refracted acoustic paths: one with a single upper turning point near 80 m depth, two with a pair of upper turning points at a depth of roughly 300 m, and one with three upper turning points at 420 m. Individual path intensity, defined as the absolute square of the center frequency Fourier component for that arrival, was estimated over the 60-hour duration and used to compute scintillation index and log-intensity variance. Monte Carlo parabolic equation simulations using internal-wave induced sound speed perturbations obeying the Garrett-Munk internal-wave en- ergy spectrum were in agreement with measured data for the three deeper-turning paths but differed by as much as a factor of four for the near surface-interacting path. Estimates of the power spectral density and temporal autocorrelation function of intensity were attempted, but were complicated by gaps in the measured time-series. Deep fades in intensity were observed in the near surface-interacting path. Hypothesized causes for the deep fades were examined through further acoustic propagation modeling and analysis of various available oceanographic measurements.
Database for propagation models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kantak, Anil V.
1991-01-01
A propagation researcher or a systems engineer who intends to use the results of a propagation experiment is generally faced with various database tasks such as the selection of the computer software, the hardware, and the writing of the programs to pass the data through the models of interest. This task is repeated every time a new experiment is conducted or the same experiment is carried out at a different location generating different data. Thus the users of this data have to spend a considerable portion of their time learning how to implement the computer hardware and the software towards the desired end. This situation may be facilitated considerably if an easily accessible propagation database is created that has all the accepted (standardized) propagation phenomena models approved by the propagation research community. Also, the handling of data will become easier for the user. Such a database construction can only stimulate the growth of the propagation research it if is available to all the researchers, so that the results of the experiment conducted by one researcher can be examined independently by another, without different hardware and software being used. The database may be made flexible so that the researchers need not be confined only to the contents of the database. Another way in which the database may help the researchers is by the fact that they will not have to document the software and hardware tools used in their research since the propagation research community will know the database already. The following sections show a possible database construction, as well as properties of the database for the propagation research.
Low frequency acoustic pulse propagation in temperate forests.
Albert, Donald G; Swearingen, Michelle E; Perron, Frank E; Carbee, David L
2015-08-01
Measurements of acoustic pulse propagation for a 30-m path were conducted in an open field and in seven different forest stands in the northeastern United States consisting of deciduous, evergreen, or mixed tree species. The waveforms recorded in forest generally show the pulse elongation characteristic of propagation over a highly porous ground surface, with high frequency scattered arrivals superimposed on the basic waveform shape. Waveform analysis conducted to determine ground properties resulted in acoustically determined layer thicknesses of 4-8 cm in summer, within 2 cm of the directly measured thickness of the litter layers. In winter the acoustic thicknesses correlated with the site-specific snow cover depths. Effective flow resistivity values of 50-88 kN s m(-4) were derived for the forest sites in summer, while lower values typical for snow were found in winter. Reverberation times (T60) were typically around 2 s, but two stands (deciduous and pruned spruce planted on a square grid) had lower values of about 1.2 s. One site with a very rough ground surface had very low summer flow resistivity value and also had the longest reverberation time of about 3 s. These measurements can provide parameters useful for theoretical predictions of acoustic propagation within forests. PMID:26328690
Low frequency acoustic pulse propagation in temperate forests.
Albert, Donald G; Swearingen, Michelle E; Perron, Frank E; Carbee, David L
2015-08-01
Measurements of acoustic pulse propagation for a 30-m path were conducted in an open field and in seven different forest stands in the northeastern United States consisting of deciduous, evergreen, or mixed tree species. The waveforms recorded in forest generally show the pulse elongation characteristic of propagation over a highly porous ground surface, with high frequency scattered arrivals superimposed on the basic waveform shape. Waveform analysis conducted to determine ground properties resulted in acoustically determined layer thicknesses of 4-8 cm in summer, within 2 cm of the directly measured thickness of the litter layers. In winter the acoustic thicknesses correlated with the site-specific snow cover depths. Effective flow resistivity values of 50-88 kN s m(-4) were derived for the forest sites in summer, while lower values typical for snow were found in winter. Reverberation times (T60) were typically around 2 s, but two stands (deciduous and pruned spruce planted on a square grid) had lower values of about 1.2 s. One site with a very rough ground surface had very low summer flow resistivity value and also had the longest reverberation time of about 3 s. These measurements can provide parameters useful for theoretical predictions of acoustic propagation within forests.
Acoustic pulse propagation in an urban environment using a three-dimensional numerical simulation.
Mehra, Ravish; Raghuvanshi, Nikunj; Chandak, Anish; Albert, Donald G; Wilson, D Keith; Manocha, Dinesh
2014-06-01
Acoustic pulse propagation in outdoor urban environments is a physically complex phenomenon due to the predominance of reflection, diffraction, and scattering. This is especially true in non-line-of-sight cases, where edge diffraction and high-order scattering are major components of acoustic energy transport. Past work by Albert and Liu [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 127, 1335-1346 (2010)] has shown that many of these effects can be captured using a two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method, which was compared to the measured data recorded in an army training village. In this paper, a full three-dimensional analysis of acoustic pulse propagation is presented. This analysis is enabled by the adaptive rectangular decomposition method by Raghuvanshi, Narain and Lin [IEEE Trans. Visual. Comput. Graphics 15, 789-801 (2009)], which models sound propagation in the same scene in three dimensions. The simulation is run at a much higher usable bandwidth (nearly 450 Hz) and took only a few minutes on a desktop computer. It is shown that a three-dimensional solution provides better agreement with measured data than two-dimensional modeling, especially in cases where propagation over rooftops is important. In general, the predicted acoustic responses match well with measured results for the source/sensor locations. PMID:24907788
Radial propagation of geodesic acoustic modes
Hager, Robert; Hallatschek, Klaus
2009-07-15
The GAM group velocity is estimated from the ratio of the radial free energy flux to the total free energy applying gyrokinetic and two-fluid theory. This method is much more robust than approaches that calculate the group velocity directly and can be generalized to include additional physics, e.g., magnetic geometry. The results are verified with the gyrokinetic code GYRO[J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)], the two-fluid code NLET[K. Hallatschek and A. Zeiler, Phys. Plasmas 7, 2554 (2000)], and analytical calculations. GAM propagation must be kept in mind when discussing the windows of GAM activity observed experimentally and the match between linear theory and experimental GAM frequencies.
Acoustic pulse propagation in an urban environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albert, Donald G.; Liu, Lanbo
2005-04-01
Experimental measurements conducted in a full-scale artificial village show that complex signatures are formed by multiple reflections and diffractions from buildings along the propagation path. A two-dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulation running on a personal computer allows this wave interaction to be studied in detail. Time reversal processing to locate a sound source in an urban area is investigated using this simulation method. The results demonstrate that as few as three non-line-of-sight sensors are sufficient to determine the source location, and that errors on the order of a meter in the building or sensor locations still allow the correct source location to be determined. [Work supported by U.S. Army.
Frequency Domain Calculations Of Acoustic Propagation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lockard, David P.
2004-01-01
Two complex geometry problems are solved using the linearized Euler equations. The impedance mismatch method1 is used to impose the solid surfaces without the need to use a body-fitted grid. The problem is solved in the frequency domain to avoid long run times. Although the harmonic assumption eliminates all time dependence, a pseudo-time term is added to allow conventional iterative methods to be employed. A Jameson type, Runge-Kutta scheme is used to advance the solution in pseudo time. The spatial operator is based on a seven-point, sixth-order finite difference. Constant coefficient, sixth-derivative artificial dissipation is used throughout the domain. A buffer zone technique employing a complex frequency to damp all waves near the boundaries is used to minimize reflections. The results show that the method is capable of capturing the salient features of the scattering, but an excessive number of grid points are required to resolve the phenomena in the vicinity of the solid bodies because the wavelength of the acoustics is relatively short compared with the size of the bodies. Smoothly transitioning into the immersed boundary condition alleviates the difficulties, but a fine mesh is still required.
The role of gravity in ocean acoustics propagation and its implication to early tsunami detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oliveira, Tiago; Lin, Ying-Tsong; Kadri, Usama
2016-04-01
Oceanic low frequency sound generated by submarine earthquake travels much faster than tsunamis and leaves pressure signatures that can act as tsunami precursors. In this regard, it is anticipated that the correct measurement and analysis of low frequency acoustics would enhance current early tsunami detection systems. In this work we model the low frequency acoustics generated by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake using the "Method of Normal Modes" and the "Acoustics-Gravity Wave" theory. Ocean acoustic theories usually neglect the effect of gravity. However, we show for rigid and elastic bottom conditions how gravity influences the acoustic normal mode propagation speed. Practically, our results can help in the real time characterization of low frequency sources in the ocean. This will enhance the robustness of early tsunami detection systems.
Analytical modeling of the acoustic field during a direct field acoustic test.
Stasiunas, Eric Carl; Rouse, Jerry W.; Mesh, Mikhail
2010-12-01
The acoustic field generated during a Direct Field Acoustic Test (DFAT) has been analytically modeled in two space dimensions using a properly phased distribution of propagating plane waves. Both the pure-tone and broadband acoustic field were qualitatively and quantitatively compared to a diffuse acoustic field. The modeling indicates significant non-uniformity of sound pressure level for an empty (no test article) DFAT, specifically a center peak and concentric maxima/minima rings. This spatial variation is due to the equivalent phase among all propagating plane waves at each frequency. The excitation of a simply supported slender beam immersed within the acoustic fields was also analytically modeled. Results indicate that mid-span response is dependent upon location and orientation of the beam relative to the center of the DFAT acoustic field. For a diffuse acoustic field, due to its spatial uniformity, mid-span response sensitivity to location and orientation is nonexistent.
Propagation of three-dimensional electron-acoustic solitary waves
Shalaby, M.; El-Sherif, L. S.; El-Labany, S. K.; Sabry, R.
2011-06-15
Theoretical investigation is carried out for understanding the properties of three-dimensional electron-acoustic waves propagating in magnetized plasma whose constituents are cold magnetized electron fluid, hot electrons obeying nonthermal distribution, and stationary ions. For this purpose, the hydrodynamic equations for the cold magnetized electron fluid, nonthermal electron density distribution, and the Poisson equation are used to derive the corresponding nonlinear evolution equation, Zkharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation, in the small- but finite- amplitude regime. The ZK equation is solved analytically and it is found that it supports both solitary and blow-up solutions. It is found that rarefactive electron-acoustic solitary waves strongly depend on the density and temperature ratios of the hot-to-cold electron species as well as the nonthermal electron parameter. Furthermore, there is a critical value for the nonthermal electron parameter, which decides whether the electron-acoustic solitary wave's amplitude is decreased or increased by changing various plasma parameters. Importantly, the change of the propagation angles leads to miss the balance between the nonlinearity and dispersion; hence, the localized pulses convert to explosive/blow-up pulses. The relevance of this study to the nonlinear electron-acoustic structures in the dayside auroral zone in the light of Viking satellite observations is discussed.
Nonlinear acoustics in cicada mating calls enhance sound propagation.
Hughes, Derke R; Nuttall, Albert H; Katz, Richard A; Carter, G Clifford
2009-02-01
An analysis of cicada mating calls, measured in field experiments, indicates that the very high levels of acoustic energy radiated by this relatively small insect are mainly attributed to the nonlinear characteristics of the signal. The cicada emits one of the loudest sounds in all of the insect population with a sound production system occupying a physical space typically less than 3 cc. The sounds made by tymbals are amplified by the hollow abdomen, functioning as a tuned resonator, but models of the signal based solely on linear techniques do not fully account for a sound radiation capability that is so disproportionate to the insect's size. The nonlinear behavior of the cicada signal is demonstrated by combining the mutual information and surrogate data techniques; the results obtained indicate decorrelation when the phase-randomized and non-phase-randomized data separate. The Volterra expansion technique is used to fit the nonlinearity in the insect's call. The second-order Volterra estimate provides further evidence that the cicada mating calls are dominated by nonlinear characteristics and also suggests that the medium contributes to the cicada's efficient sound propagation. Application of the same principles has the potential to improve radiated sound levels for sonar applications.
3D numerical simulation of laser-generated Lamb waves propagation in 2D acoustic black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Shiling; Lomonosov, Alexey M.; Shen, Zhonghua; Han, Bing
2015-05-01
Acoustic black holes have been widely used in damping structural vibration. In this work, the Lamb waves are utilized to evaluate the specified structure. The three-dimensional numerical model of acoustic black holes with parabolic profile was established. The propagation of laser-generated Lamb wave in two-dimensional acoustic black holes was numerically simulated using the finite element method. The results indicated that the incident wave was trapped by the structure obviously.
Oblique Propagation of Ion Acoustic Solitons in Magnetized Superthermal Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Devanandhan, S.; Sreeraj, T.; Singh, S.; Lakhina, G. S.
2015-12-01
Small amplitude ion-acoustic solitons are studied in a magnetized plasma consisting of protons, doubly charged helium ions and superthermal electrons. The Korteweg-de-Vries-Zakharov-Kuznetsov (KdV-ZK) is derived to examine the properties of ion acoustic solitary structures observed in space plasmas. Our model is applicable for weakly magnetized plasmas. The results will be applied to the satellite observations in the solar wind at 1 AU where magnetized ion acoustic waves with superthermal electrons can exist. The effects of superthermality, temperature and densities on these solitary structures will be discussed.
Advanced Concepts for Underwater Acoustic Channel Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Etter, P. C.; Haas, C. H.; Ramani, D. V.
2014-12-01
This paper examines nearshore underwater-acoustic channel modeling concepts and compares channel-state information requirements against existing modeling capabilities. This process defines a subset of candidate acoustic models suitable for simulating signal propagation in underwater communications. Underwater-acoustic communications find many practical applications in coastal oceanography, and networking is the enabling technology for these applications. Such networks can be formed by establishing two-way acoustic links between autonomous underwater vehicles and moored oceanographic sensors. These networks can be connected to a surface unit for further data transfer to ships, satellites, or shore stations via a radio-frequency link. This configuration establishes an interactive environment in which researchers can extract real-time data from multiple, but distant, underwater instruments. After evaluating the obtained data, control messages can be sent back to individual instruments to adapt the networks to changing situations. Underwater networks can also be used to increase the operating ranges of autonomous underwater vehicles by hopping the control and data messages through networks that cover large areas. A model of the ocean medium between acoustic sources and receivers is called a channel model. In an oceanic channel, characteristics of the acoustic signals change as they travel from transmitters to receivers. These characteristics depend upon the acoustic frequency, the distances between sources and receivers, the paths followed by the signals, and the prevailing ocean environment in the vicinity of the paths. Properties of the received signals can be derived from those of the transmitted signals using these channel models. This study concludes that ray-theory models are best suited to the simulation of acoustic signal propagation in oceanic channels and identifies 33 such models that are eligible candidates.
Gong, Zheng; Chen, Tianrun; Ratilal, Purnima; Makris, Nicholas C
2013-11-01
An analytical model derived from normal mode theory for the accumulated effects of range-dependent multiple forward scattering is applied to estimate the temporal coherence of the acoustic field forward propagated through a continental-shelf waveguide containing random three-dimensional internal waves. The modeled coherence time scale of narrow band low-frequency acoustic field fluctuations after propagating through a continental-shelf waveguide is shown to decay with a power-law of range to the -1/2 beyond roughly 1 km, decrease with increasing internal wave energy, to be consistent with measured acoustic coherence time scales. The model should provide a useful prediction of the acoustic coherence time scale as a function of internal wave energy in continental-shelf environments. The acoustic coherence time scale is an important parameter in remote sensing applications because it determines (i) the time window within which standard coherent processing such as matched filtering may be conducted, and (ii) the number of statistically independent fluctuations in a given measurement period that determines the variance reduction possible by stationary averaging.
On fast radial propagation of parametrically excited geodesic acoustic mode
Qiu, Z.; Chen, L.; Zonca, F.
2015-04-15
The spatial and temporal evolution of parametrically excited geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) initial pulse is investigated both analytically and numerically. Our results show that the nonlinearly excited GAM propagates at a group velocity which is, typically, much larger than that due to finite ion Larmor radius as predicted by the linear theory. The nonlinear dispersion relation of GAM driven by a finite amplitude drift wave pump is also derived, showing a nonlinear frequency increment of GAM. Further implications of these findings for interpreting experimental observations are also discussed.
Acoustic structure and propagation in highly porous, layered, fibrous materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lambert, R. F.; Tesar, J. S.
1984-01-01
The acoustic structure and propagation of sound in highly porous, layered, fine fiber materials is examined. Of particular interest is the utilization of the Kozeny number for determining the static flow resistance and the static structure factor based on flow permeability measurements. In this formulation the Kozeny number is a numerical constant independent of volume porosity at high porosities. The other essential parameters are then evaluated employing techniques developed earlier for open cell foams. The attenuation and progressive phase characteristics in bulk samples are measured and compared with predicted values. The agreements on the whole are very satisfactory.
Seismic wave propagation modeling
Jones, E.M.; Olsen, K.B.
1998-12-31
This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A hybrid, finite-difference technique was developed for modeling nonlinear soil amplification from three-dimensional, finite-fault radiation patters for earthquakes in arbitrary earth models. The method was applied to the 17 January 1994 Northridge earthquake. Particle velocities were computed on a plane at 5-km depth, immediately above the causative fault. Time-series of the strike-perpendicular, lateral velocities then were propagated vertically in a soil column typical of the San Fernando Valley. Suitable material models were adapted from a suite used to model ground motions at the US Nevada Test Site. The effects of nonlinearity reduced relative spectral amplitudes by about 40% at frequencies above 1.5 Hz but only by 10% at lower frequencies. Runs made with source-depth amplitudes increased by a factor of two showed relative amplitudes above 1.5 Hz reduced by a total of 70% above 1.5 Hz and 20% at lower frequencies. Runs made with elastic-plastic material models showed similar behavior to runs made with Masing-Rule models.
Seismic-acoustic finite-difference wave propagation algorithm.
Preston, Leiph; Aldridge, David Franklin
2010-10-01
An efficient numerical algorithm for treating earth models composed of fluid and solid portions is obtained via straightforward modifications to a 3D time-domain finite-difference algorithm for simulating isotropic elastic wave propagation.
Propagation of high frequency jet noise using geometric acoustics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Khavaran, A.; Krejsa, E. A.
1993-01-01
Spherical directivity of noise radiated from a convecting quadrupole source embedded in an arbitrary spreading jet is obtained by ray-tracing methods of geometrical acoustics. The six propagation equations are solved in their general form in a rectangular coordinate system. The noise directivity in the far field is calculated by applying an iteration scheme that finds the required radiation angles at the source resulting in propagation through a given observer point. Factors influencing the zone of silence are investigated. The caustics of geometrical acoustics and the exact locations where it forms is demonstrated by studying the variation in ray tube area obtained from transport equation. For a ring source convecting along the center-axis of an axisymmetric jet, the polar directivity of the radiated noise is obtained by an integration with respect to azimuthal directivity of compact quadrupole sources distributed on the ring. The Doppler factor is shown to vary slightly from point to point on the ring. Finally the scaling of the directivity pattern with power -3 of Doppler factor is investigated and compared with experimental data.
Acoustic propagation in curved ducts with extended reacting wall treatment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baumeister, Kenneth J.
1989-01-01
A finite-element Galerkin formulation was employed to study the attenuation of acoustic waves propagating in two-dimensional S-curved ducts with absorbing walls without a mean flow. The reflection and transmission at the entrance and the exit of a curved duct were determined by coupling the finite-element solutions in the curved duct to the eigenfunctions of an infinite, uniform, hard wall duct. In the frequency range where the duct height and acoustic wave length are nearly equal, the effects of duct length, curvature (duct offset) and absorber thickness were examined. For a given offset in the curved duct, the length of the S-duct was found to significantly affect both the absorptive and reflective characteristics of the duct. A means of reducing the number of elements in the absorber region was also presented. In addition, for a curved duct, power attenuation contours were examined to determine conditions for maximum acoustic power absorption. Again, wall curvature was found to significantly effect the optimization process.
Observations of acoustic surface waves in outdoor sound propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albert, Donald G.
2003-05-01
Acoustic surface waves have been detected propagating outdoors under natural conditions. Two critical experimental conditions were employed to ensure the conclusive detection of these waves. First, acoustic pulses rather than a continuous wave source allowed an examination of the waveform shape and avoided the masking of wave arrivals. Second, a snow cover provided favorable ground impedance conditions for surface waves to exist. The acoustic pulses were generated by blank pistol shots fired 1 m above the snow. The resultant waveforms were measured using a vertical array of six microphones located 60 m away from the source at heights between 0.1 and 4.75 m. A strong, low frequency ``tail'' following the initial arrival was recorded near the snow surface. This tail, and its exponential decay with height (z) above the surface (~e-αz), are diagnostic features of surface waves. The measured attenuation coefficient α was 0.28 m-1. The identification of the surface wave is confirmed by comparing the measured waveforms with waveforms predicted by the theoretical evaluation of the explicit surface wave pole term using residue theory.
Modeling turbulent flame propagation
Ashurst, W.T.
1994-08-01
Laser diagnostics and flow simulation techniques axe now providing information that if available fifty years ago, would have allowed Damkoehler to show how turbulence generates flame area. In the absence of this information, many turbulent flame speed models have been created, most based on Kolmogorov concepts which ignore the turbulence vortical structure, Over the last twenty years, the vorticity structure in mixing layers and jets has been shown to determine the entrainment and mixing behavior and these effects need to be duplicated by combustion models. Turbulence simulations reveal the intense vorticity structure as filaments and simulations of passive flamelet propagation show how this vorticity Creates flame area and defines the shape of the expected chemical reaction surface. Understanding how volume expansion interacts with flow structure should improve experimental methods for determining turbulent flame speed. Since the last decade has given us such powerful new tools to create and see turbulent combustion microscopic behavior, it seems that a solution of turbulent combustion within the next decade would not be surprising in the hindsight of 2004.
Resonant acoustic propagation and negative density in liquid foams.
Pierre, Juliette; Dollet, Benjamin; Leroy, Valentin
2014-04-11
We measured the dispersion relation for acoustic longitudinal waves in liquid foams, over a broad frequency range (60-600 kHz). Strong dispersion was found, with two nondispersive behaviors, separated by a negative density regime. A new model, based on the coupled displacements of films, liquid channels, and gas in the foam, rationalizes all the experimental findings.
Spacecraft Internal Acoustic Environment Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chu, S. Reynold; Allen, Chris
2009-01-01
The objective of the project is to develop an acoustic modeling capability, based on commercial off-the-shelf software, to be used as a tool for oversight of the future manned Constellation vehicles. The use of such a model will help ensure compliance with acoustic requirements. Also, this project includes modeling validation and development feedback via building physical mockups and conducting acoustic measurements to compare with the predictions.
Numerical simulation of acoustic holography with propagator adaptation. Application to a 3D disc
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, Vincent; Le Bourdon, Thibault; Pasqual, Alexander Mattioli
2011-08-01
Acoustical holography can be used to identify the vibration velocity of an extended vibrating body. Such an inverse problem relies on the radiated acoustic pressure measured by a microphone array and on an a priori knowledge of the way the body radiates sound. Any perturbation on the radiation model leads to a perturbation on the velocity identified by the inversion process. Thus, to obtain the source vibration velocity with a good precision, it is useful to identify also an appropriate propagation model. Here, this identification, or adaptation, procedure rests on a geometrical interpretation of the acoustic holography in the objective space (here the radiated pressure space equipped with the L2-norm) and on a genetic algorithm. The propagator adaptation adds information to the holographic process, so it is not a regularisation method, which approximates the inverse of the model but does not affect the model. Moreover regularisations act in the variables space, here the velocities space. It is shown that an adapted model significantly decreases the quantity of regularisation needed to obtain a good reconstructed velocity, and that model adaptation improves significantly the acoustical holography results. In the presence of perturbations on the radiated pressure, some indications will be given on the interest or not to adapt the model, again thanks to the geometrical interpretation of holography in the objective space. As a numerical example, a disc whose vibration velocity on one of its sides is identified by acoustic holography is presented. On an industrial scale, this problem occurs due to the noise radiated by car wheels. The assessment of the holographic results has not yet been rigorously performed in such situations due to the complexity of the wheel environment made up of the car body, road and rolling conditions.
Tests Of Shear-Flow Model For Acoustic Impedance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parrot, Tony L.; Watson, Willie R.; Jones, Michael G.
1992-01-01
Tests described in report conducted to validate two-dimensional shear-flow analytical model for determination of acoustic impedance of acoustic liner in grazing-incidence, grazing-flow environment by use of infinite-waveguide method. Tests successful for both upstream and downstream propagations. Work has potential for utility in testing of engine ducts in commercial aircraft.
Wang, Ding; Wang, Liji; Ding, Pinbo
2016-08-01
An illustrative theory is developed to analyze the acoustic wave propagation characteristics in the porous media with anisotropic permeability. We focus here on the role of fracture permeability in the unconsolidated porous media, looking in particular at the compressional P-wave phase velocity and attenuation. Two fluid pressure equilibration characteristic time factors are defined, which are corresponding to crack-pore system and crack-crack system, respectively. The theoretical results show that the dispersion and attenuation characteristics of acoustic wave are affected by porous matrix and fracture permeability simultaneously. Due to the fluid exchange that takes place between fractures and pores dominantly, the influence of the fracture connectivity on the wave propagation is very weak when the permeability of background medium is relatively high. However, correlation between wave propagation and fracture permeability is significant when the matrix permeability at a low level. A second attenuation peak occurs for the fluid flow within fractures in high-frequency region for more and more higher fracture permeability. The exact analytical solutions that are compared to numerical forward modeling of wave propagation in fractured media allow us to verify the correctness of the new model. If there exists another approach for obtaining the connectivity information of background media, we can use this model to analyze qualitatively the permeability of fractures or afford an indicator of in-situ permeability changes in a oil reservoir, for example, fracturing operations.
Wang, Ding; Wang, Liji; Ding, Pinbo
2016-08-01
An illustrative theory is developed to analyze the acoustic wave propagation characteristics in the porous media with anisotropic permeability. We focus here on the role of fracture permeability in the unconsolidated porous media, looking in particular at the compressional P-wave phase velocity and attenuation. Two fluid pressure equilibration characteristic time factors are defined, which are corresponding to crack-pore system and crack-crack system, respectively. The theoretical results show that the dispersion and attenuation characteristics of acoustic wave are affected by porous matrix and fracture permeability simultaneously. Due to the fluid exchange that takes place between fractures and pores dominantly, the influence of the fracture connectivity on the wave propagation is very weak when the permeability of background medium is relatively high. However, correlation between wave propagation and fracture permeability is significant when the matrix permeability at a low level. A second attenuation peak occurs for the fluid flow within fractures in high-frequency region for more and more higher fracture permeability. The exact analytical solutions that are compared to numerical forward modeling of wave propagation in fractured media allow us to verify the correctness of the new model. If there exists another approach for obtaining the connectivity information of background media, we can use this model to analyze qualitatively the permeability of fractures or afford an indicator of in-situ permeability changes in a oil reservoir, for example, fracturing operations. PMID:27259119
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Hong-xiang; Zhang, Shu-yi; Yuan, Shou-qi; Xia, Jian-ping
2016-04-01
The manipulation of the propagation directions of the transmitted waves in an acoustic system with asymmetric acoustic transmission is investigated numerically and experimentally, in which the system consists of a brass plate and a periodical grating immersed in water. It is experimentally demonstrated that the propagation angles of the transmitted waves are close to those of ±1-order diffractions in the pass-band of the asymmetric acoustic transmission, and thus, the manipulation of the propagation directions of the transmitted waves is realized by adjusting the grating period and plate thickness. Our scheme may open up an avenue to the design of tunable unidirectional acoustic devices.
Determination of particle size distributions from acoustic wave propagation measurements
Spelt, P.D.; Norato, M.A.; Sangani, A.S.; Tavlarides, L.L.
1999-05-01
The wave equations for the interior and exterior of the particles are ensemble averaged and combined with an analysis by Allegra and Hawley [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. {bold 51}, 1545 (1972)] for the interaction of a single particle with the incident wave to determine the phase speed and attenuation of sound waves propagating through dilute slurries. The theory is shown to compare very well with the measured attenuation. The inverse problem, i.e., the problem of determining the particle size distribution given the attenuation as a function of frequency, is examined using regularization techniques that have been successful for bubbly liquids. It is shown that, unlike the bubbly liquids, the success of solving the inverse problem is limited since it depends strongly on the nature of particles and the frequency range used in inverse calculations. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}
Low-Frequency Acoustic Signals Propagation in Buried Pipelines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ovchinnikov, A. L.; Lapshin, B. M.
2016-01-01
The article deals with the issues concerning acoustic signals propagation in the large-diameter oil pipelines caused by mechanical action on the pipe body. Various mechanisms of signals attenuation are discussed. It is shown that the calculation of the attenuation caused only by internal energy loss, i.e, the presence of viscosity, thermal conductivity and liquid pipeline wall friction lead to low results. The results of experimental studies, carried out using the existing pipeline with a diameter of 1200 mm. are shown. It is experimentally proved that the main mechanism of signal attenuation is the energy emission into the environment. The numerical values of attenuation coefficients that are 0,14- 0.18 dB/m for the pipeline of 1200 mm in diameter, in the frequency range from 50 Hz to 500 Hz, are determined.
Analysis of passive acoustic ranging of helicopters from the joint acoustic propagation experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carnes, Benny L.; Morgan, John C.
1993-01-01
For more than twenty years, personnel of the U.S.A.E. Waterways Experiment Station (WES) have been performing research dealing with the application of sensors for detection of military targets. The WES research has included the use of seismic, acoustic, magnetic, and other sensors to detect, track, and classify military ground targets. Most of the WES research has been oriented toward the employment of such sensors in a passive mode. Techniques for passive detection are of particular interest in the Army because of the advantages over active detection. Passive detection methods are not susceptible to interception, detection, jamming, or location of the source by the threat. A decided advantage for using acoustic and seismic sensors for detection in tactical situations is the non-line-of-sight capability; i.e., detection of low flying helicopters at long distances without visual contact. This study was conducted to analyze the passive acoustic ranging (PAR) concept using a more extensive data set from the Joint Acoustic Propagation Experiment (JAPE).
Zhang, Yuning; Du, Xiaoze
2015-09-01
Predictions of the propagation of the acoustic waves in bubbly liquids is of great importance for bubble dynamics and related applications (e.g. sonochemistry, sonochemical reactor design, biomedical engineering). In the present paper, an approach for modeling the propagation of the acoustic waves in dilute bubbly liquids is proposed through considering the non-uniform pressure field outside the bubbles. This approach is validated through comparing with available experimental data in the literature. Comparing with the previous models, our approach mainly improves the predictions of the attenuation of acoustic waves in the regions with large kR0 (k is the wave number and R0 is the equilibrium bubble radius). Stability of the oscillating bubbles under acoustic excitation are also quantitatively discussed based on the analytical solution.
Maraghechi, Borna; Hasani, Mojtaba H; Kolios, Michael C; Tavakkoli, Jahan
2016-05-01
Ultrasound-based thermometry requires a temperature-sensitive acoustic parameter that can be used to estimate the temperature by tracking changes in that parameter during heating. The objective of this study is to investigate the temperature dependence of acoustic harmonics generated by nonlinear ultrasound wave propagation in water at various pulse transmit frequencies from 1 to 20 MHz. Simulations were conducted using an expanded form of the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov nonlinear acoustic wave propagation model in which temperature dependence of the medium parameters was included. Measurements were performed using single-element transducers at two different transmit frequencies of 3.3 and 13 MHz which are within the range of frequencies simulated. The acoustic pressure signals were measured by a calibrated needle hydrophone along the axes of the transducers. The water temperature was uniformly increased from 26 °C to 46 °C in increments of 5 °C. The results show that the temperature dependence of the harmonic generation is different at various frequencies which is due to the interplay between the mechanisms of absorption, nonlinearity, and focusing gain. At the transmit frequencies of 1 and 3.3 MHz, the harmonic amplitudes decrease with increasing the temperature, while the opposite temperature dependence is observed at 13 and 20 MHz. PMID:27250143
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilcox, Lucas C.; Stadler, Georg; Burstedde, Carsten; Ghattas, Omar
2010-12-01
We introduce a high-order discontinuous Galerkin (dG) scheme for the numerical solution of three-dimensional (3D) wave propagation problems in coupled elastic-acoustic media. A velocity-strain formulation is used, which allows for the solution of the acoustic and elastic wave equations within the same unified framework. Careful attention is directed at the derivation of a numerical flux that preserves high-order accuracy in the presence of material discontinuities, including elastic-acoustic interfaces. Explicit expressions for the 3D upwind numerical flux, derived as an exact solution for the relevant Riemann problem, are provided. The method supports h-non-conforming meshes, which are particularly effective at allowing local adaptation of the mesh size to resolve strong contrasts in the local wavelength, as well as dynamic adaptivity to track solution features. The use of high-order elements controls numerical dispersion, enabling propagation over many wave periods. We prove consistency and stability of the proposed dG scheme. To study the numerical accuracy and convergence of the proposed method, we compare against analytical solutions for wave propagation problems with interfaces, including Rayleigh, Lamb, Scholte, and Stoneley waves as well as plane waves impinging on an elastic-acoustic interface. Spectral rates of convergence are demonstrated for these problems, which include a non-conforming mesh case. Finally, we present scalability results for a parallel implementation of the proposed high-order dG scheme for large-scale seismic wave propagation in a simplified earth model, demonstrating high parallel efficiency for strong scaling to the full size of the Jaguar Cray XT5 supercomputer.
Wilcox, Lucas C.; Stadler, Georg; Burstedde, Carsten; Ghattas, Omar
2010-12-10
We introduce a high-order discontinuous Galerkin (dG) scheme for the numerical solution of three-dimensional (3D) wave propagation problems in coupled elastic-acoustic media. A velocity-strain formulation is used, which allows for the solution of the acoustic and elastic wave equations within the same unified framework. Careful attention is directed at the derivation of a numerical flux that preserves high-order accuracy in the presence of material discontinuities, including elastic-acoustic interfaces. Explicit expressions for the 3D upwind numerical flux, derived as an exact solution for the relevant Riemann problem, are provided. The method supports h-non-conforming meshes, which are particularly effective at allowing local adaptation of the mesh size to resolve strong contrasts in the local wavelength, as well as dynamic adaptivity to track solution features. The use of high-order elements controls numerical dispersion, enabling propagation over many wave periods. We prove consistency and stability of the proposed dG scheme. To study the numerical accuracy and convergence of the proposed method, we compare against analytical solutions for wave propagation problems with interfaces, including Rayleigh, Lamb, Scholte, and Stoneley waves as well as plane waves impinging on an elastic-acoustic interface. Spectral rates of convergence are demonstrated for these problems, which include a non-conforming mesh case. Finally, we present scalability results for a parallel implementation of the proposed high-order dG scheme for large-scale seismic wave propagation in a simplified earth model, demonstrating high parallel efficiency for strong scaling to the full size of the Jaguar Cray XT5 supercomputer.
Model-scale sound propagation experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Willshire, William L., Jr.
1988-01-01
The results of a scale model propagation experiment to investigate grazing propagation above a finite impedance boundary are reported. In the experiment, a 20 x 25 ft ground plane was installed in an anechoic chamber. Propagation tests were performed over the plywood surface of the ground plane and with the ground plane covered with felt, styrofoam, and fiberboard. Tests were performed with discrete tones in the frequency range of 10 to 15 kHz. The acoustic source and microphones varied in height above the test surface from flush to 6 in. Microphones were located in a linear array up to 18 ft from the source. A preliminary experiment using the same ground plane, but only testing the plywood and felt surfaces was performed. The results of this first experiment were encouraging, but data variability and repeatability were poor, particularly, for the felt surface, making comparisons with theoretical predictions difficult. In the main experiment the sound source, microphones, microphone positioning, data acquisition, quality of the anechoic chamber, and environmental control of the anechoic chamber were improved. High-quality, repeatable acoustic data were measured in the main experiment for all four test surfaces. Comparisons with predictions are good, but limited by uncertainties of the impedance values of the test surfaces.
Model-scale sound propagation experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Willshire, William L., Jr.
1988-04-01
The results of a scale model propagation experiment to investigate grazing propagation above a finite impedance boundary are reported. In the experiment, a 20 x 25 ft ground plane was installed in an anechoic chamber. Propagation tests were performed over the plywood surface of the ground plane and with the ground plane covered with felt, styrofoam, and fiberboard. Tests were performed with discrete tones in the frequency range of 10 to 15 kHz. The acoustic source and microphones varied in height above the test surface from flush to 6 in. Microphones were located in a linear array up to 18 ft from the source. A preliminary experiment using the same ground plane, but only testing the plywood and felt surfaces was performed. The results of this first experiment were encouraging, but data variability and repeatability were poor, particularly, for the felt surface, making comparisons with theoretical predictions difficult. In the main experiment the sound source, microphones, microphone positioning, data acquisition, quality of the anechoic chamber, and environmental control of the anechoic chamber were improved. High-quality, repeatable acoustic data were measured in the main experiment for all four test surfaces. Comparisons with predictions are good, but limited by uncertainties of the impedance values of the test surfaces.
Numerical and experimental study of Lamb wave propagation in a two-dimensional acoustic black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Shiling; Lomonosov, Alexey M.; Shen, Zhonghua
2016-06-01
The propagation of laser-generated Lamb waves in a two-dimensional acoustic black-hole structure was studied numerically and experimentally. The geometrical acoustic theory has been applied to calculate the beam trajectories in the region of the acoustic black hole. The finite element method was also used to study the time evolution of propagating waves. An optical system based on the laser-Doppler vibration method was assembled. The effect of the focusing wave and the reduction in wave speed of the acoustic black hole has been validated.
Hybrid CFD/CAA Modeling for Liftoff Acoustic Predictions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Strutzenberg, Louise L.; Liever, Peter A.
2011-01-01
This paper presents development efforts at the NASA Marshall Space flight Center to establish a hybrid Computational Fluid Dynamics and Computational Aero-Acoustics (CFD/CAA) simulation system for launch vehicle liftoff acoustics environment analysis. Acoustic prediction engineering tools based on empirical jet acoustic strength and directivity models or scaled historical measurements are of limited value in efforts to proactively design and optimize launch vehicles and launch facility configurations for liftoff acoustics. CFD based modeling approaches are now able to capture the important details of vehicle specific plume flow environment, identifY the noise generation sources, and allow assessment of the influence of launch pad geometric details and sound mitigation measures such as water injection. However, CFD methodologies are numerically too dissipative to accurately capture the propagation of the acoustic waves in the large CFD models. The hybrid CFD/CAA approach combines the high-fidelity CFD analysis capable of identifYing the acoustic sources with a fast and efficient Boundary Element Method (BEM) that accurately propagates the acoustic field from the source locations. The BEM approach was chosen for its ability to properly account for reflections and scattering of acoustic waves from launch pad structures. The paper will present an overview of the technology components of the CFD/CAA framework and discuss plans for demonstration and validation against test data.
Mode tomography using signals from the Long Range Ocean Acoustic Propagation EXperiment (LOAPEX)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chandrayadula, Tarun K.
Ocean acoustic tomography uses acoustic signals to infer the environmental properties of the ocean. The procedure for tomography consists of low frequency acoustic transmissions at mid-water depths to receivers located at hundreds of kilometer ranges. The arrival times of the signal at the receiver are then inverted for the sound speed of the background environment. Using this principle, experiments such as the 2004 Long Range Ocean Acoustic Propagation EXperiment have used acoustic signals recorded across Vertical Line Arrays (VLAs) to infer the Sound Speed Profile (SSP) across depth. The acoustic signals across the VLAs can be represented in terms of orthonormal basis functions called modes. The lower modes of the basis set concentrated around mid-water propagate longer distances and can be inverted for mesoscale effects such as currents and eddies. In spite of these advantages, mode tomography has received less attention. One of the important reasons for this is that internal waves in the ocean cause significant amplitude and travel time fluctuations in the modes. The amplitude and travel time fluctuations cause errors in travel time estimates. The absence of a statistical model and the lack of signal processing techniques for internal wave effects have precluded the modes from being used in tomographic inversions. This thesis estimates a statistical model for modes affected by internal waves and then uses the estimated model to design appropriate signal processing methods to obtain tomographic observables for the low modes. In order to estimate a statistical model, this thesis uses both the LOAPEX signals and also numerical simulations. The statistical model describes the amplitude and phase coherence across different frequencies for modes at different ranges. The model suggests that Matched Subspace Detectors (MSDs) based on the amplitude statistics of the modes are the optimum detectors to make travel time estimates for modes up to 250 km. The mean of the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramos, António L. L.; Holm, Sverre; Gudvangen, Sigmund; Otterlei, Ragnvald
2013-06-01
Counter sniper systems rely on the detection and parameter estimation of the shockwave and the muzzle blast in order to determine the sniper location. In real-world situations, these acoustical signals can be disturbed by natural phenomena like weather and climate conditions, multipath propagation effect, and background noise. While some of these issues have received some attention in recent publications with application to gunshot acoustics, the multipath propagation phenomenon whose effect can not be neglected, specially in urban environments, has not yet been discussed in details in the technical literature in the same context. Propagating sound waves can be reflected at the boundaries in the vicinity of sound sources or receivers, whenever there is a difference in acoustical impedance between the reflective material and the air. Therefore, the received signal can be composed of a direct-path signal plus N scaled delayed copies of that signal. This paper presents a discussion on the multipath propagation effect and its impact on the performance and reliability of sniper positioning systems. In our formulation, propagation models for both the shockwave and the muzzle blast are considered and analyzed. Conclusions following the theoretical analysis of the problem are fully supported by actual gunshots acoustical signatures.
Acoustic wave propagation in heterogeneous structures including experimental validation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baumeister, Kenneth J.; Dahl, Milo D.
1989-01-01
A finite element model was developed to solve for the acoustic pressure and energy fields in a heterogeneous suppressor. The derivations from the governing equations assumed that the material properties could vary with position resulting in a heterogeneous variable property two-dimensional wave equation. This eliminated the necessity of finding the boundary conditions between different materials. For a two media region consisting of part air and part bulk absorber, a model was used to describe the bulk absorber properties in two directions. Complex metallic structures inside the air duct are simulated by simply changing element properties from air to the structural material in a pattern to describe the desired shapes. To verify the numerical theory, experiments were conducted without flow in a rectangular duct with a single folded cavity mounted above the duct and absorbing material mounted inside a cavity. Changes in a nearly plane wave sound field were measured on the wall opposite the absorbing cavity. Fairly good agreement was found in the standing wave pattern upstream of the absorber and in the decay of pressure level opposite the absorber, as a function of distance along the duct. The finite element model provides a convenient method for evaluating the acoustic properties of bulk absorbers.
Acoustic wave propagation in heterogeneous structures including experimental validation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baumeister, Kenneth J.; Dahl, Milo D.
1989-01-01
A finite element model was developed to solve for the acoustic pressure and energy fields in a heterogeneous suppressor. The derivations from the governing equations assumed that the material properties could vary with position resulting in a heterogeneous variable property two-dimensional wave equation. This eliminated the necessity of finding the boundary conditions between different materials. For a two-media region consisting of part air and part bulk absorber, a model was used to describe the bulk absorber properties in two directions. Complex metallic structures inside the air duct are simulated by simply changing element properties from air to the structural material in a pattern to describe the desired shapes. To verify the numerical theory, experiments were conducted without flow in a rectangular duct with a single folded cavity mounted above the duct and absorbing material mounted inside a cavity. Changes in a nearly plane wave sound field were measured on the wall opposite the absorbing cavity. Fairly good agreement was found in the standing wave pattern upstream of the absorber and in the decay of pressure level opposite the absorber, as a function of distance along the duct. The finite element model provides a convenient method for evaluating the acoustic properties of bulk absorbers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Theobald, M. A.
1977-01-01
The outdoor propagation of spherically spreading sound waves of finite amplitude was investigated. The main purpose of the experiments was to determine the extent to which the outdoor environment, mainly random inhomogeneity of the medium, affects finite amplitude propagation. Periodic sources with fundamental frequencies in the range 6 to 8 kHz and source levels SPLlm from 140 to 149 dB were used. The sources were an array of 7 to 10 horn drivers and a siren. The propagation path was vertical and parallel to an 85 m tower, whose elevator carried the traveling microphone. The general conclusions drawn from the experimental results were as follows. The inhomogeneities caused significant fluctuations in the instantaneous acoustic signal, but with sufficient time averaging of the measured harmonic levels, the results were comparable to results expected for propagation in a quiet medium. Propagation data for the fundamental of the siren approached within 1 dB of the weak shock saturation levels. Extra attenuation on the order of 8 dB was observed. The measurements generally confirmed the predictions of several theoretical models. The maximum propagation distance was 36 m. The narrowbeam arrays were much weaker sources. Nonlinear propagation distortion was produced, but the maximum value of extra attenuation measured was 1.5 dB. The maximum propagation distance was 76 m. The behavior of the asymetric waveforms received in one experiment qualitatively suggested that beam type diffraction effects were present. The role of diffraction of high intensity sound waves in radiation from a single horn was briefly investigated.
Effects of dissipation on propagation of surface electromagnetic and acoustic waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagaraj, Nagaraj
With the recent emergence of the field of metamaterials, the study of subwavelength propagation of plane waves and the dissipation of their energy either in the form of Joule losses in the case of electomagnetic waves or in the form of viscous dissipation in the case of acoustic waves in different interfaced media assumes great importance. With this motivation, I have worked on problems in two different areas, viz., plasmonics and surface acoustics. The first part (chapters 2 & 3) of the dissertation deals with the emerging field of plasmonics. Researchers have come up with various designs in an effort to fabricate efficient plasmonic waveguides capable of guiding plasmonic signals. However, the inherent dissipation in the form of Joule losses limits efficient usage of surface plasmon signal. A dielectric-metal-dielectric planar structure is one of the most practical plasmonic structures that can serve as an efficient waveguide to guide electromagnetic waves along the metal-dielectric boundary. I present here a theoretical study of propagation of surface plasmons along a symmetric dielectric-metal-dielectric structure and show how proper orientation of the optical axis of the anisotropic substrate enhances the propagation length. An equation for propagation length is derived in a wide range of frequencies. I also show how the frequency of coupled surface plasmons can be modulated by changing the thickness of the metal film. I propose a Kronig-Penny model for the plasmonic crystal, which in the long wavelength limit, may serve as a homogeneous dielectric substrate with high anisotropy which do not exist for natural optical crystals. In the second part (chapters 4 & 5) of the dissertation, I discuss an interesting effect of extraordinary absorption of acoustic energy due to resonant excitation of Rayleigh waves in a narrow water channel clad between two metal plates. Starting from the elastic properties of the metal plates, I derive a dispersion equation that gives
The propagation and attenuation of complex acoustic waves in treated circular and annular ducts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reethof, G.
1976-01-01
The propagation of plane waves and higher order acoustic modes in a circular multisectioned duct was studied. A unique source array consisting of two concentric rings of sources, providing phase and amplitude control in the radial, as well as circumferential direction, was developed to generate plane waves and both spinning and nonspinning higher order modes. Measurements of attenuation and radial mode shapes were taken with finite length liners between the hard wall sections of an anechoically terminated duct. Materials tested as liners included a glass fiber material and both sintered fiber metals and perforated sheet metals with a honeycomb backing. The fundamental acoustic properties of these materials were studied with emphasis on the attenuation of sound by the liners and the determination of local versus extended reaction behavior for the boundary condition. The experimental results were compared with a mathematical model for the multisectioned duct.
Investigation of near-axial interference effects in long-range acoustic propagation in the ocean
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grigorieva, Natalie S.; Fridman, Gregory M.
2002-05-01
The observed time-of-arrival patterns from a number of long-range ocean acoustic propagation experiments show early geometrical-like arrivals followed by a crescendo of energy that propagates along the sound-channel axis and is not resolved into individual arrivals. The two-dimensional reference point source problem for the parabolic index of refraction squared is investigated to describe in a simple model case the interference of near-axial waves which resulted in forming the so-called axial wave and propose a formula for the axial wave in more general cases. Using the method proposed by Buldyrev [V. Buldyrev, Tr. Mat. Inst. Steklov 115, 78-102 (1971)], the integral representation for the exact solution is transformed in such a way to extract ray summands corresponding to rays radiated from the source at angles less than a certain angle, the axial wave, and a term corresponding to the sum of all the rays having launch angles greater than the indicated angle. Numerical results for the axial wave and the last term are obtained for parameters corresponding to long-range ocean acoustic propagation experiments. The generalization of the obtained formula for the axial wave to the case of an arbitrary range-independent sound speed is given and discussed. [Work supported by VSP Grant No. N00014-01-4003.
Toward a Nonlinear Acoustic Analogy: Turbulence as a Source of Sound and Nonlinear Propagation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, Steven A. E.
2015-01-01
An acoustic analogy is proposed that directly includes nonlinear propagation effects. We examine the Lighthill acoustic analogy and replace the Green's function of the wave equation with numerical solutions of the generalized Burgers' equation. This is justified mathematically by using similar arguments that are the basis of the solution of the Lighthill acoustic analogy. This approach is superior to alternatives because propagation is accounted for directly from the source to the far-field observer instead of from an arbitrary intermediate point. Validation of a numerical solver for the generalized Burgers' equation is performed by comparing solutions with the Blackstock bridging function and measurement data. Most importantly, the mathematical relationship between the Navier-Stokes equations, the acoustic analogy that describes the source, and canonical nonlinear propagation equations is shown. Example predictions are presented for nonlinear propagation of jet mixing noise at the sideline angle.
Toward a Nonlinear Acoustic Analogy: Turbulence as a Source of Sound and Nonlinear Propagation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, Steven A. E.
2015-01-01
An acoustic analogy is proposed that directly includes nonlinear propagation effects. We examine the Lighthill acoustic analogy and replace the Green's function of the wave equation with numerical solutions of the generalized Burgers' equation. This is justified mathematically by using similar arguments that are the basis of the solution of the Lighthill acoustic analogy. This approach is superior to alternatives because propagation is accounted for directly from the source to the far-field observer instead of from an arbitrary intermediate point. Validation of a numerical solver for the generalized Burgers' equation is performed by comparing solutions with the Blackstock bridging function and measurement data. Most importantly, the mathematical relationship between the Navier- Stokes equations, the acoustic analogy that describes the source, and canonical nonlinear propagation equations is shown. Example predictions are presented for nonlinear propagation of jet mixing noise at the sideline angle
Acoustic field distribution of sawtooth wave with nonlinear SBE model
Liu, Xiaozhou Zhang, Lue; Wang, Xiangda; Gong, Xiufen
2015-10-28
For precise prediction of the acoustic field distribution of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy with an ellipsoid transducer, the nonlinear spheroidal beam equations (SBE) are employed to model acoustic wave propagation in medium. To solve the SBE model with frequency domain algorithm, boundary conditions are obtained for monochromatic and sawtooth waves based on the phase compensation. In numerical analysis, the influence of sinusoidal wave and sawtooth wave on axial pressure distributions are investigated.
Optimization of Gaussian beam widths in acoustic propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gordon, D. F.
1989-10-01
The use of Gaussian beams to compute wave propagation phenomena is a field of current interest and activity. Porter and Bucker (1987) supply an extensive list of references. More recent references can be found in Benites and Aki (1989). Gaussian beams can be traced as rays in range-dependent media providing not only propagation loss, but travel times, multipath structure, and frequency dependence. The well-known ray theory problems of caustics and shadow zones are treated automatically. A beam width minimization technique applied to a Gaussian beam model developed by Dr. H. P. Bucker, is outlined. Porter and Bucker (1987) gives the formulation upon which the techniques is built. A free parameter E is usually determined in a heuristic manner. Here, it is shown that the minimization of beam width assigns a precise value to E. Examples are given showing that the minimized beams give good propagation losses in some cases. A case also shown in the standard Gaussian beams give poor results and the minimized beams give even worse results. The problem appears to arise in beams that pass near boundaries. This problem will have to be corrected before a final judgment can be made on the validity of minimum-width beams.
Atmospheric millimeter wave propagation model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liebe, H. J.
1983-12-01
The neutral atmosphere is characterized for the frequency range from 1 to 300 GHz as nonturbulent propagation medium. Attenuation and propagation delay effects are predicated from meteorological data sets: pressure, temperature, humidity, suspended particle concentration, and rain rate. The physical data base of the propagation model consists of four terms: (1) resonance information for 30 water vapor and 48 oxygen absorption lines in the form of intensity coefficients and center frequency for each line; (2) a composite (oxygen, water vapor, and nitrogen) continum spectrum; (3) a hydrosol attenuation term for haze, fog, and cloud conditions; and (4) a rain attenuation model. Oxygen lines extend into the mesosphere, where they behave in a complicated manner due to the Zeeman effect.
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2005-07-20
... Federal Aviation Administration Advisory Circular 25.856-1, Thermal/Acoustic Insulation Flame Propagation... requirements applicable to thermal/acoustic insulation materials. The guidance in this AC describes a test method to determine the flammability and flame propagation characteristics of thermal/acoustic...
Underwater Sound Propagation Modeling Methods for Predicting Marine Animal Exposure.
Hamm, Craig A; McCammon, Diana F; Taillefer, Martin L
2016-01-01
The offshore exploration and production (E&P) industry requires comprehensive and accurate ocean acoustic models for determining the exposure of marine life to the high levels of sound used in seismic surveys and other E&P activities. This paper reviews the types of acoustic models most useful for predicting the propagation of undersea noise sources and describes current exposure models. The severe problems caused by model sensitivity to the uncertainty in the environment are highlighted to support the conclusion that it is vital that risk assessments include transmission loss estimates with statistical measures of confidence.
Underwater Sound Propagation Modeling Methods for Predicting Marine Animal Exposure.
Hamm, Craig A; McCammon, Diana F; Taillefer, Martin L
2016-01-01
The offshore exploration and production (E&P) industry requires comprehensive and accurate ocean acoustic models for determining the exposure of marine life to the high levels of sound used in seismic surveys and other E&P activities. This paper reviews the types of acoustic models most useful for predicting the propagation of undersea noise sources and describes current exposure models. The severe problems caused by model sensitivity to the uncertainty in the environment are highlighted to support the conclusion that it is vital that risk assessments include transmission loss estimates with statistical measures of confidence. PMID:26610982
Siemens, M.; Li, Q.; Murnane, M.; Kapteyn, H.; Yang, R.; Anderson, E.; Nelson, K.
2009-03-02
We study ultrahigh frequency surface acoustic wave propagation in nickel-on-sapphire nanostructures. The use of ultrafast, coherent, extreme ultraviolet beams allows us to extend optical measurements of propagation dynamics of surface acoustic waves to frequencies of nearly 50 GHz, corresponding to wavelengths as short as 125 nm. We repeat the measurement on a sequence of nanostructured samples to observe surface acoustic wave dispersion in a nanostructure series for the first time. These measurements are critical for accurate characterization of thin films using this technique.
Arctic acoustics ultrasonic modeling studies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chamuel, Jacques R.
1990-03-01
A unique collection of laboratory ultrasonic modeling results are presented revealing and characterizing hidden pulsed seismoacoustic wave phenomena from 3-D range dependent liquid/solid boundaries. The research succeeded in isolating and identifying low frequency (10 to 500 Hz) transmission loss mechanisms and provided physical insight into Arctic acoustic problems generally beyond the state-of-the-art of theoretical and numerical analysis. The ultrasonic modeling studies dealt with controversial issues and existing discrepancies on seismo-acoustic waves at water/ice interface, sea ice thickness determination, low frequency transmission loss, and bottom leaky Rayleigh waves. The areas investigated include leaky Rayleigh waves at water/ice interface, leaky flexural waves in floating ice plates, effects of dry/wet cracks in sea ice on plate waves and near grazing acoustic waves, edge waves in floating plates, low frequency backscatter from ice keel width resonances, conversion of underwater acoustic waves into plate waves by keels, nondispersive flexural wave along apex of small angle solid wedge, Scholte and leaky Rayleigh waves along apex of immersed 90 ice wedge, backscatter from trailing edge of floes, floating plate resonances associated with near-grazing underwater acoustic waves, acoustic coupling between adjacent floes, and multiple bottom leaky Rayleigh wave components in water layer over solid bottom.
Seismo-acoustic propagation in environments that depend strongly on both range and depth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Outing, Donald A.; Siegmann, William L.; Dorman, LeRoy M.; Collins, Michael D.
2002-11-01
The parabolic equation method provides an excellent combination of accuracy and efficiency for range-dependent ocean acoustics and seismology problems. This approach is highly developed for problems in which the ocean bottom can be modeled as a fluid. For the elastic case, there remain some accuracy limitations for problems involving sloping interfaces. Progress on this problem has been made by combining a new formulation of the elastic parabolic equation that handles layering more effectively [W. Jerzak, ''Parabolic Equations for Layered Elastic Media,'' doctoral dissertation, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (2001)] and a mapping approach that handles sloping interfaces accurately [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107, 1937-1942 (2000)]. This approach makes it possible to handle problems involving complex layering and steep slopes, but the rate of change of the slope must be small. The method and its application to data will be described. Our immediate goal is to model propagation of seismic surface waves propagating across a transition between dry and marshy terrain. We have suitable data applicable to vehicle-tracking problems from Marine Corps Base Camp, Pendleton, CA. [Work supported by ONR.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robertson, J. S.; Jacobson, M. J.; Siegmann, W. L.; Santandrea, D. P.
1989-01-01
The effects of a ridge on a low-frequency acoustic propagation in quiescent and windy atmospheres are investigated using a parabolic approximation. A logarithmic wind-speed profile, commonly employed to model atmospheric wind currents, is modified and used to model two-dimensional atmospheric flow over a triangularly-shaped hill. The parabolic equation is solved using an implicit finite-difference algorithm. Several examples are examined to determine the combined effects of source-ridge distance, ridge dimensions, wind-speed profile, and CW source frequency on the received acoustic field.
Wind Turbine Noise Propagation Modelling: An Unsteady Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barlas, E.; Zhu, W. J.; Shen, W. Z.; Andersen, S. J.
2016-09-01
Wind turbine sound generation and propagation phenomena are inherently time dependent, hence tools that incorporate the dynamic nature of these two issues are needed for accurate modelling. In this paper, we investigate the sound propagation from a wind turbine by considering the effects of unsteady flow around it and time dependent source characteristics. For the acoustics modelling we employ the Parabolic Equation (PE) method while Large Eddy Simulation (LES) as well as synthetically generated turbulence fields are used to generate the medium flow upon which sound propagates. Unsteady acoustic simulations are carried out for three incoming wind shear and various turbulence intensities, using a moving source approach to mimic the rotating turbine blades. The focus of the present paper is to study the near and far field amplitude modulation characteristics and time evolution of Sound Pressure Level (SPL).
Zhang, Tao; Shi, Hongfei; Chen, Liping; Li, Yao; Tong, Jinwu
2016-01-01
This paper researches an AUV (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) positioning method based on SINS (Strapdown Inertial Navigation System)/LBL (Long Base Line) tightly coupled algorithm. This algorithm mainly includes SINS-assisted searching method of optimum slant-range of underwater acoustic propagation multipath, SINS/LBL tightly coupled model and multi-sensor information fusion algorithm. Fuzzy correlation peak problem of underwater LBL acoustic propagation multipath could be solved based on SINS positional information, thus improving LBL positional accuracy. Moreover, introduction of SINS-centered LBL locating information could compensate accumulative AUV position error effectively and regularly. Compared to loosely coupled algorithm, this tightly coupled algorithm can still provide accurate location information when there are fewer than four available hydrophones (or within the signal receiving range). Therefore, effective positional calibration area of tightly coupled system based on LBL array is wider and has higher reliability and fault tolerance than loosely coupled. It is more applicable to AUV positioning based on SINS/LBL. PMID:26978361
Zhang, Tao; Shi, Hongfei; Chen, Liping; Li, Yao; Tong, Jinwu
2016-03-11
This paper researches an AUV (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) positioning method based on SINS (Strapdown Inertial Navigation System)/LBL (Long Base Line) tightly coupled algorithm. This algorithm mainly includes SINS-assisted searching method of optimum slant-range of underwater acoustic propagation multipath, SINS/LBL tightly coupled model and multi-sensor information fusion algorithm. Fuzzy correlation peak problem of underwater LBL acoustic propagation multipath could be solved based on SINS positional information, thus improving LBL positional accuracy. Moreover, introduction of SINS-centered LBL locating information could compensate accumulative AUV position error effectively and regularly. Compared to loosely coupled algorithm, this tightly coupled algorithm can still provide accurate location information when there are fewer than four available hydrophones (or within the signal receiving range). Therefore, effective positional calibration area of tightly coupled system based on LBL array is wider and has higher reliability and fault tolerance than loosely coupled. It is more applicable to AUV positioning based on SINS/LBL.
Zhang, Tao; Shi, Hongfei; Chen, Liping; Li, Yao; Tong, Jinwu
2016-01-01
This paper researches an AUV (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) positioning method based on SINS (Strapdown Inertial Navigation System)/LBL (Long Base Line) tightly coupled algorithm. This algorithm mainly includes SINS-assisted searching method of optimum slant-range of underwater acoustic propagation multipath, SINS/LBL tightly coupled model and multi-sensor information fusion algorithm. Fuzzy correlation peak problem of underwater LBL acoustic propagation multipath could be solved based on SINS positional information, thus improving LBL positional accuracy. Moreover, introduction of SINS-centered LBL locating information could compensate accumulative AUV position error effectively and regularly. Compared to loosely coupled algorithm, this tightly coupled algorithm can still provide accurate location information when there are fewer than four available hydrophones (or within the signal receiving range). Therefore, effective positional calibration area of tightly coupled system based on LBL array is wider and has higher reliability and fault tolerance than loosely coupled. It is more applicable to AUV positioning based on SINS/LBL. PMID:26978361
Vibro-acoustic propagation of gear dynamics in a gear-bearing-housing system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Yi; Eritenel, Tugan; Ericson, Tristan M.; Parker, Robert G.
2014-10-01
This work developed a computational process to predict noise radiation from gearboxes. It developed a system-level vibro-acoustic model of an actual gearbox, including gears, bearings, shafts, and housing structure, and compared the results to experiments. The meshing action of gear teeth causes vibrations to propagate through shafts and bearings to the housing radiating noise. The vibration excitation from the gear mesh and the system response were predicted using finite element and lumped-parameter models. From these results, the radiated noise was calculated using a boundary element model of the housing. Experimental vibration and noise measurements from the gearbox confirmed the computational predictions. The developed tool was used to investigate the influence of standard rolling element and modified journal bearings on gearbox radiated noise.
A database for propagation models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kantak, Anil V.; Suwitra, Krisjani; Le, Chuong
1995-01-01
A database of various propagation phenomena models that can be used by telecommunications systems engineers to obtain parameter values for systems design is presented. This is an easy-to-use tool and is currently available for either a PC using Excel software under Windows environment or a Macintosh using Excel software for Macintosh. All the steps necessary to use the software are easy and many times self explanatory.
Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test Lift-Off Acoustics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Counter, Douglas D.; Houston, Janie D.
2011-01-01
The lift-off acoustic (LOA) environment is an important design factor for any launch vehicle. For the Ares I vehicle, the LOA environments were derived by scaling flight data from other launch vehicles. The Ares I LOA predicted environments are compared to the Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) preliminary results.
Acoustic wave propagation in heterogeneous two-dimensional fractured porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamzehpour, Hossein; Asgari, Mojgan; Sahimi, Muhammad
2016-06-01
This paper addresses an important fundamental question: the differences between wave propagation in fractured porous media with a uniform matrix (constant bulk modulus) and those in which the matrix is heterogeneous with its bulk modulus distributed spatially. The analysis of extensive experimental data [Phys. Rev. E 71, 046301 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevE.71.046301] indicated that such distributions are self-affine and induce correlations at all the relevant length scales. The comparison is important from a practical view point because in many of the traditional models of fractured rock, particularly those that are used to study wave propagation or fit some data, the matrix is assumed to be uniform. Using extensive numerical simulation of propagation of acoustic waves, we present strong evidence indicating that the waves' amplitude in a fractured porous medium with a heterogeneous matrix decays exponentially with the distance from the source. This is in sharp contrast with a fractured porous medium with a uniform matrix in which not only the waves' amplitude decays with the distance as a stretched exponential function, but the exponent that characterizes the function is also dependent upon the fracture density. The localization length depends on the correlations in the spatial distribution of the bulk modulus, as well as the fracture density. The mean speed of the waves varies linearly with the fractures' mean orientation.
Acoustic wave propagation in heterogeneous two-dimensional fractured porous media.
Hamzehpour, Hossein; Asgari, Mojgan; Sahimi, Muhammad
2016-06-01
This paper addresses an important fundamental question: the differences between wave propagation in fractured porous media with a uniform matrix (constant bulk modulus) and those in which the matrix is heterogeneous with its bulk modulus distributed spatially. The analysis of extensive experimental data [Phys. Rev. E 71, 046301 (2005)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.71.046301] indicated that such distributions are self-affine and induce correlations at all the relevant length scales. The comparison is important from a practical view point because in many of the traditional models of fractured rock, particularly those that are used to study wave propagation or fit some data, the matrix is assumed to be uniform. Using extensive numerical simulation of propagation of acoustic waves, we present strong evidence indicating that the waves' amplitude in a fractured porous medium with a heterogeneous matrix decays exponentially with the distance from the source. This is in sharp contrast with a fractured porous medium with a uniform matrix in which not only the waves' amplitude decays with the distance as a stretched exponential function, but the exponent that characterizes the function is also dependent upon the fracture density. The localization length depends on the correlations in the spatial distribution of the bulk modulus, as well as the fracture density. The mean speed of the waves varies linearly with the fractures' mean orientation. PMID:27415385
Doc, Jean-Baptiste; Conoir, Jean-Marc; Marchiano, Régis; Fuster, Daniel
2016-04-01
The weakly nonlinear propagation of acoustic waves in monodisperse bubbly liquids is investigated numerically. A hydrodynamic model based on the averaged two-phase fluid equations is coupled with the Rayleigh-Plesset equation to model the dynamics of bubbles at the local scale. The present model is validated in the linear regime by comparing with the Foldy approximation. The analysis of the pressure signals in the linear regime highlights two resonance frequencies: the Minnaert frequency and a multiple scattering resonance that strongly depends on the bubble concentration. For weakly nonlinear regimes, the generation of higher harmonics is observed only for the Minnaert frequency. Linear combinations between the Minnaert harmonics and the multiple scattering resonance are also observed. However, the most significant effect observed is the appearance of softening-hardening effects that share some similarities with those observed for sandstones or cracked materials. These effects are related to the multiple scattering resonance. Downward or upward resonance frequency shifts can be observed depending on the characteristic of the incident wave when increasing the excitation amplitude. It is shown that the frequency shift can be explained assuming that the acoustic wave velocity depends on a law different from those usually encountered for sandstones or cracked materials.
Doc, Jean-Baptiste; Conoir, Jean-Marc; Marchiano, Régis; Fuster, Daniel
2016-04-01
The weakly nonlinear propagation of acoustic waves in monodisperse bubbly liquids is investigated numerically. A hydrodynamic model based on the averaged two-phase fluid equations is coupled with the Rayleigh-Plesset equation to model the dynamics of bubbles at the local scale. The present model is validated in the linear regime by comparing with the Foldy approximation. The analysis of the pressure signals in the linear regime highlights two resonance frequencies: the Minnaert frequency and a multiple scattering resonance that strongly depends on the bubble concentration. For weakly nonlinear regimes, the generation of higher harmonics is observed only for the Minnaert frequency. Linear combinations between the Minnaert harmonics and the multiple scattering resonance are also observed. However, the most significant effect observed is the appearance of softening-hardening effects that share some similarities with those observed for sandstones or cracked materials. These effects are related to the multiple scattering resonance. Downward or upward resonance frequency shifts can be observed depending on the characteristic of the incident wave when increasing the excitation amplitude. It is shown that the frequency shift can be explained assuming that the acoustic wave velocity depends on a law different from those usually encountered for sandstones or cracked materials. PMID:27106317
General constitutive model for supercooled liquids: anomalous transverse wave propagation.
Mizuno, Hideyuki; Yamamoto, Ryoichi
2013-03-01
A transverse acoustic wave propagates through supercooled liquids in an anomalous manner: for a macroscopic wave number k, the wave propagates long distances, as in elastic solids, whereas it attenuates rapidly for a mesoscopic to microscopic wave number k, as in viscous liquids. In this work, we theoretically describe this anomalous wave propagation using the hydrodynamics of the two-mode Maxwell constitutive model, which were determined independently from the mechanical properties under oscillatory shear strains. To ensure that the Maxwell model can be applied down to a microscopic length scale, we extended it to a k-dependent equation, taking into account the recently reported k dependences of the shear viscosity and modulus [A. Furukawa and H. Tanaka, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 135703 (2009); A. Furukawa H. Tanaka Phys. Rev. E 84, 061503 (2011)]. The anomalous wave propagation in supercooled liquids can also be understood in terms of a linear coupling of many independent normal modes, as in amorphous solids. PMID:23496725
Multidimensional Fourier Methods: Analysis of Internal Soliton Data and Acoustic Wave Propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osborne, A.
2005-05-01
The aggressive pursuit of a satisfactory level of physical understanding of nonlinear oceanic wave dynamics has lead to the use of multidimensional Fourier analysis as a tool for the time series analysis of both internal wave motion and acoustic wave propagation. These new tools have arisen naturally for studies using the inverse scattering transform to particular nonlinear wave equations. When applied to the Korteweg-deVries equation, for example, one finds that the approach can be extended to arbitrarily high order. There are several advantages for using multidimensional Fourier methods over ordinary Fourier analysis: (1) fully nonlinear wave dynamics can be studied, (2) solitons become a natural component in the theory and correspond to the diagonal elements of the "Riemann matrix", (3) nonlinear interactions are accounted for by the off-diagonal elements of this matrix, (4) nonlinear acoustic modes are found to also have an (albeit static) solitonic component. These surprising results lead to new interpretations of acoustic waves propagating in the presence of a nonlinear internal wave field. One of the most important results is the implication that new nonlinear filtering techniques allow for the spectral decomposition of both the internal wave field and of the acoustic field. With regard to the acoustic field, one can foresee the application of the method to the observations of phenomena in the "hidden zones", where one would normally conclude that acoustic wave propagation does not occur.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mironov, A. K.; Krasheninnikov, S. Yu.; Maslov, V. P.; Zakharov, D. E.
2016-07-01
An experimental study was conducted on the specific features of instability wave propagation in the mixing layer of a turbulent jet when the jet is excited by an external acoustic wave. We used the technique of conditional phase averaging of data obtained by particle image velocimetry using the reference signal of a microphone placed near the jet. The influence of the excitation frequency on the characteristics of large-scale structures in the mixing layer was investigated. It is shown that the propagation patterns of the instability waves agree well with previously obtained data on the localization of acoustic sources in turbulent jets.
Measurement of Bubble Size Distribution Based on Acoustic Propagation in Bubbly Medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Xiongjun; Hsiao, Chao-Tsung; Choi, Jin-Keun; Chahine, Georges
2013-03-01
Acoustic properties are strongly affected by bubble size distribution in a bubbly medium. Measurement of the acoustic transmission becomes increasingly difficulty as the void fraction of the bubbly medium increases due to strong attenuation, while acoustic reflection can be measured more easily with increasing void fraction. The ABS ACOUSTIC BUBBLE SPECTROMETER®\\copyright, an instrument for bubble size measurement that is under development tries to take full advantage of the properties of acoustic propagation in bubbly media to extract bubble size distribution. Properties of both acoustic transmission and reflection in the bubbly medium from a range of short single-frequency bursts of acoustic waves at different frequencies are measured in an effort to deduce the bubble size distribution. With the combination of both acoustic transmission and reflection, assisted with validations from photography, the ABS ACOUSTIC BUBBLE SPECTROMETER®\\copyright has the potential to measure bubble size distributions in a wider void fraction range. This work was sponsored by Department of Energy SBIR program
Acoustic propagation from a spiral wave front source in an ocean environment.
Hefner, Brian T; Dzikowicz, Benjamin R
2012-03-01
A spiral wave front source generates a pressure field that has a phase that depends linearly on the azimuthal angle at which it is measured. This differs from a point source that has a phase that is constant with direction. The spiral wave front source has been developed for use in navigation; however, very little work has been done to model this source in an ocean environment. To this end, the spiral wave front analogue of the acoustic point source is developed and is shown to be related to the point source through a simple transformation. This makes it possible to transform the point source solution in a particular ocean environment into the solution for a spiral source in the same environment. Applications of this transformation are presented for a spiral source near the ocean surface and seafloor as well as for the more general case of propagation in a horizontally stratified waveguide.
Acoustic Models of Optical Mirrors
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mayer, V. V.; Varaksina, E. I.
2014-01-01
Students form a more exact idea of the action of optical mirrors if they can observe the wave field being formed during reflection. For this purpose it is possible to organize model experiments with flexural waves propagating in thin elastic plates. The direct and round edges of the plates are used as models of plane, convex and concave mirrors.…
Dushaw, Brian D; Sagen, Hanne; Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka
2016-08-01
Acoustic tomography systems have been deployed in Fram Strait over the past decade to complement existing observing systems there. The observed acoustic arrival patterns are unusual, however, consisting of a single, broad arrival pulse, with no discernible repeating patterns or individual ray arrivals. The nature of these arrivals is caused by vigorous acoustic scattering from the small-scale processes that dominate ocean variability in Fram Strait. Simple models for internal wave and mesoscale variability were constructed and tailored to match the variability observed by moored thermisters in Fram Strait. The internal wave contribution to variability is weak. Acoustic propagation through a simulated ocean consisting of a climatological sound speed plus mesoscale and internal wave scintillations obtains arrival patterns that match the characteristics of those observed, i.e., pulse width and travel time variation. The scintillations cause a proliferation of acoustic ray paths, however, reminiscent of "ray chaos." This understanding of the acoustic forward problem is prerequisite to designing an inverse scheme for estimating temperature from the observed travel times. PMID:27586755
Lipkens, Bart
2002-01-01
In previous papers, we have shown that model experiments are successful in simulating the propagation of sonic booms through the atmospheric turbulent boundary layer. The results from the model experiment, pressure wave forms of spark-produced N waves and turbulence characteristics of the plane jet, are used to test various sonic boom models for propagation through turbulence. Both wave form distortion models and rise time prediction models are tested. Pierce's model [A. D. Pierce, "Statistical theory of atmospheric turbulence effects on sonic boom rise times," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 49, 906-924 (1971)] based on the wave front folding mechanism at a caustic yields an accurate prediction for the rise time of the mean wave form after propagation through the turbulence. PMID:11837956
Parallel acoustic wave propagation and generation of a seismic dataset
Oldfield, R.; Dyke, J.V.; Semeraro, B.D.
1995-12-01
The ultimate goal of this work is to construct a large seismic dataset that will be used to calibrate industrial seismic analysis codes. Seismic analysis is used in oil and gas exploration to deduce subterranean geological formations based on the reflection of acoustic waves from a source to an array of receivers placed on or near the surface. This work deals with the generation of a test set of acoustic data based on a known representative geological formation. Industrial users of the data will calibrate their codes by comparing their predicted geology to the know geology used to generate the test data. This is a cooperative effort involving Los Alamos, Sandia, Oak Ridge and Lawrence Livermore national labs as well as Institut Francais du Petrole and the Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
Single crystal metal wedges for surface acoustic wave propagation
Fisher, E.S.
1980-05-09
An ultrasonic testing device has been developed to evaluate flaws and inhomogeneities in the near-surface region of a test material. A metal single crystal wedge is used to generate high frequency Rayleigh surface waves in the test material surface by conversion of a slow velocity, bulk acoustic mode in the wedge into a Rayleigh wave at the metal-wedge test material interface. Particular classes of metals have been found to provide the bulk acoustic modes necessary for production of a surface wave with extremely high frequency and angular collimation. The high frequency allows flaws and inhomogeneities to be examined with greater resolution. The high degree of angular collimation for the outgoing ultrasonic beam permits precision angular location of flaws and inhomogeneities in the test material surface.
Single crystal metal wedges for surface acoustic wave propagation
Fisher, Edward S.
1982-01-01
An ultrasonic testing device has been developed to evaluate flaws and inhomogeneities in the near-surface region of a test material. A metal single crystal wedge is used to generate high frequency Rayleigh surface waves in the test material surface by conversion of a slow velocity, bulk acoustic mode in the wedge into a Rayleigh wave at the metal-wedge test material interface. Particular classes of metals have been found to provide the bulk acoustic modes necessary for production of a surface wave with extremely high frequency and angular collimation. The high frequency allows flaws and inhomogeneities to be examined with greater resolution. The high degree of angular collimation for the outgoing ultrasonic beam permits precision angular location of flaws and inhomogeneities in the test material surface.
Spacecraft Internal Acoustic Environment Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chu, Shao-Sheng R.; Allen Christopher S.
2010-01-01
Acoustic modeling can be used to identify key noise sources, determine/analyze sub-allocated requirements, keep track of the accumulation of minor noise sources, and to predict vehicle noise levels at various stages in vehicle development, first with estimates of noise sources, later with experimental data. This paper describes the implementation of acoustic modeling for design purposes by incrementally increasing model fidelity and validating the accuracy of the model while predicting the noise of sources under various conditions. During FY 07, a simple-geometry Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) model was developed and validated using a physical mockup and acoustic measurements. A process for modeling the effects of absorptive wall treatments and the resulting reverberation environment were developed. During FY 08, a model with more complex and representative geometry of the Orion Crew Module (CM) interior was built, and noise predictions based on input noise sources were made. A corresponding physical mockup was also built. Measurements were made inside this mockup, and comparisons were made with the model and showed excellent agreement. During FY 09, the fidelity of the mockup and corresponding model were increased incrementally by including a simple ventilation system. The airborne noise contribution of the fans was measured using a sound intensity technique, since the sound power levels were not known beforehand. This is opposed to earlier studies where Reference Sound Sources (RSS) with known sound power level were used. Comparisons of the modeling result with the measurements in the mockup showed excellent results. During FY 10, the fidelity of the mockup and the model were further increased by including an ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support System) wall, associated closeout panels, and the gap between ECLSS wall and mockup wall. The effect of sealing the gap and adding sound absorptive treatment to ECLSS wall were also modeled and validated.
Crack propagation testing using a YCOB acoustic emission sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Joseph A.; Kim, Kyungrim; Zhang, Shujun; Jiang, Xiaoning
2014-03-01
Piezoelectric crystals are popular for passive sensors, such as accelerometers and acoustic emission sensors, due to their robustness and high sensitivity. These sensors are widespread in structural health monitoring among civil and industrial structures, but there is little application in high temperature environments (e.g. > 1000°C) due to the few materials that are capable of operating at elevated temperatures. Most piezoelectric materials suffer from a loss of electric properties above temperatures in the 500-700°C range, but rare earth oxyborate crystals, such as Yttrium calcium oxyborate (YCOB), retain their piezoelectric properties above 1000 °C. Our previous research demonstrated that YCOB can be used to detect transient lamb waves via Hsu-Nielsen tests, which replicate acoustic emission waves, up to 1000°C. In this paper, YCOB piezoelectric acoustic emission sensors were tested for their ability to detect crack progression at elevated temperatures. The sensor was fabricated using a YCOB single crystal and Inconel electrodes and wires. The sensor was mounted onto a stainless steel bar substrate, which was machined to include a pre-crack notch. A dynamic load was induced on the bar with a shaker in order to force the crack to advance along the thickness of the substrate. The obtained raw data was processed and analyzed in the frequency domain and compared to the Lamb wave modes that were evaluated in previous Hsu-Nielsen testing for the substrate.
An Investigation of Acoustic Wave Propagation in Mach 2 Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nieberding, Zachary J.
Hypersonic technology is the next advancement to enter the aerospace community; it is defined as the study of flight at speeds Mach 5 and higher where intense aerodynamic heating is prevalent. Hypersonic flight is achieved through use of scramjet engines, which intake air and compress it by means of shock waves and geometry design. The airflow is then directed through an isolator where it is further compressed, it is then delivered to the combustor at supersonic speeds. The combusted airflow and fuel mixture is then accelerated through a nozzle to achieve the hypersonic speeds. Unfortunately, scramjet engines can experience a phenomenon known as an inlet unstart, where the combustor produces pressures large enough to force the incoming airflow out of the inlet of the engine, resulting in a loss of acceleration and power. There have been several government-funded programs that look to prove the concept of the scramjet engine and also tackle this inlet unstart issue. The research conducted in this thesis is a fundamental approach towards controlling the unstart problem: it looks at the basic concept of sending a signal upstream through the boundary layer of a supersonic flow and being able to detect a characterizeable signal. Since conditions within and near the combustor are very harsh, hardware is unable to be installed in that area, so this testing will determine if a signal can be sent and if so, how far upstream can the signal be detected. This experimental approach utilizes several acoustic and mass injection sources to be evaluated over three test series in a Mach 2 continuous flow wind tunnel that will determine the success of the objective. The test series vary in that the conditions of the flow and the test objectives change. The research shows that a characterizeable signal can be transmitted upstream roughly 12 inches through the subsonic boundary layer of a supersonic cross flow. It is also shown that the signal attenuates as the distance between the
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2004-12-14
... Federal Aviation Administration Proposed Advisory Circulars 25.856-1X, Thermal/Acoustic Insulation Flame Propagation Test Method Details; and 25.856-2X, Installation of Thermal/Acoustic Insulation for Burnthrough... draft advisory circulars concerning thermal.acoustic insulation installed on transport...
Propagation of acoustic shock waves between parallel rigid boundaries and into shadow zones
Desjouy, C. Ollivier, S.; Dragna, D.; Blanc-Benon, P.; Marsden, O.
2015-10-28
The study of acoustic shock propagation in complex environments is of great interest for urban acoustics, but also for source localization, an underlying problematic in military applications. To give a better understanding of the phenomenon taking place during the propagation of acoustic shocks, laboratory-scale experiments and numerical simulations were performed to study the propagation of weak shock waves between parallel rigid boundaries, and into shadow zones created by corners. In particular, this work focuses on the study of the local interactions taking place between incident, reflected, and diffracted waves according to the geometry in both regular or irregular – also called Von Neumann – regimes of reflection. In this latter case, an irregular reflection can lead to the formation of a Mach stem that can modify the spatial distribution of the acoustic pressure. Short duration acoustic shock waves were produced by a 20 kilovolts electric spark source and a schlieren optical method was used to visualize the incident shockfront and the reflection/diffraction patterns. Experimental results are compared to numerical simulations based on the high-order finite difference solution of the two dimensional Navier-Stokes equations.
Application of the Parabolic Approximation to Predict Acoustical Propagation in the Ocean.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McDaniel, Suzanne T.
1979-01-01
A simplified derivation of the parabolic approximation to the acoustical wave equation is presented. Exact solutions to this approximate equation are compared with solutions to the wave equation to demonstrate the applicability of this method to the study of underwater sound propagation. (Author/BB)
Collis, Jon M; Frank, Scott D; Metzler, Adam M; Preston, Kimberly S
2016-05-01
Sound propagation predictions for ice-covered ocean acoustic environments do not match observational data: received levels in nature are less than expected, suggesting that the effects of the ice are substantial. Effects due to elasticity in overlying ice can be significant enough that low-shear approximations, such as effective complex density treatments, may not be appropriate. Building on recent elastic seafloor modeling developments, a range-dependent parabolic equation solution that treats the ice as an elastic medium is presented. The solution is benchmarked against a derived elastic normal mode solution for range-independent underwater acoustic propagation. Results from both solutions accurately predict plate flexural modes that propagate in the ice layer, as well as Scholte interface waves that propagate at the boundary between the water and the seafloor. The parabolic equation solution is used to model a scenario with range-dependent ice thickness and a water sound speed profile similar to those observed during the 2009 Ice Exercise (ICEX) in the Beaufort Sea. PMID:27250161
Collis, Jon M; Frank, Scott D; Metzler, Adam M; Preston, Kimberly S
2016-05-01
Sound propagation predictions for ice-covered ocean acoustic environments do not match observational data: received levels in nature are less than expected, suggesting that the effects of the ice are substantial. Effects due to elasticity in overlying ice can be significant enough that low-shear approximations, such as effective complex density treatments, may not be appropriate. Building on recent elastic seafloor modeling developments, a range-dependent parabolic equation solution that treats the ice as an elastic medium is presented. The solution is benchmarked against a derived elastic normal mode solution for range-independent underwater acoustic propagation. Results from both solutions accurately predict plate flexural modes that propagate in the ice layer, as well as Scholte interface waves that propagate at the boundary between the water and the seafloor. The parabolic equation solution is used to model a scenario with range-dependent ice thickness and a water sound speed profile similar to those observed during the 2009 Ice Exercise (ICEX) in the Beaufort Sea.
A k-space method for acoustic propagation using coupled first-order equations in three dimensions
Tillett, Jason C.; Daoud, Mohammad I.; Lacefield, James C.; Waag, Robert C.
2009-01-01
A previously described two-dimensional k-space method for large-scale calculation of acoustic wave propagation in tissues is extended to three dimensions. The three-dimensional method contains all of the two-dimensional method features that allow accurate and stable calculation of propagation. These features are spectral calculation of spatial derivatives, temporal correction that produces exact propagation in a homogeneous medium, staggered spatial and temporal grids, and a perfectly matched boundary layer. Spectral evaluation of spatial derivatives is accomplished using a fast Fourier transform in three dimensions. This computational bottleneck requires all-to-all communication; execution time in a parallel implementation is therefore sensitive to node interconnect latency and bandwidth. Accuracy of the three-dimensional method is evaluated through comparisons with exact solutions for media having spherical inhomogeneities. Large-scale calculations in three dimensions were performed by distributing the nearly 50 variables per voxel that are used to implement the method over a cluster of computers. Two computer clusters used to evaluate method accuracy are compared. Comparisons of k-space calculations with exact methods including absorption highlight the need to model accurately the medium dispersion relationships, especially in large-scale media. Accurately modeled media allow the k-space method to calculate acoustic propagation in tissues over hundreds of wavelengths. PMID:19739736
Guo, Y.; Ding, M. D.; Chen, P. F.
2015-08-15
Using the high spatiotemporal resolution extreme ultraviolet (EUV) observations of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we conduct a statistical study of the observational properties of the coronal EUV propagating fronts. We find that it might be a universal phenomenon for two types of fronts to coexist in a large solar eruptive event. It is consistent with the hybrid model of EUV propagating fronts, which predicts that coronal EUV propagating fronts consist of both a fast magneto-acoustic wave and a nonwave component. We find that the morphologies, propagation behaviors, and kinematic features of the two EUV propagating fronts are completely different from each other. The fast magneto-acoustic wave fronts are almost isotropic. They travel continuously from the flaring region across multiple magnetic polarities to global distances. On the other hand, the slow nonwave fronts appear as anisotropic and sequential patches of EUV brightening. Each patch propagates locally in the magnetic domains where the magnetic field lines connect to the bottom boundary and stops at the magnetic domain boundaries. Within each magnetic domain, the velocities of the slow patchy nonwave component are an order of magnitude lower than that of the fast-wave component. However, the patches of the slow EUV propagating front can jump from one magnetic domain to a remote one. The velocities of such a transit between different magnetic domains are about one-third to one-half of those of the fast-wave component. The results show that the velocities of the nonwave component, both within one magnetic domain and between different magnetic domains, are highly nonuniform due to the inhomogeneity of the magnetic field in the lower atmosphere.
The physical theory and propagation model of THz atmospheric propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, R.; Yao, J. Q.; Xu, D. G.; Wang, J. L.; Wang, P.
2011-02-01
Terahertz (THz) radiation is extensively applied in diverse fields, such as space communication, Earth environment observation, atmosphere science, remote sensing and so on. And the research on propagation features of THz wave in the atmosphere becomes more and more important. This paper firstly illuminates the advantages and outlook of THz in space technology. Then it introduces the theoretical framework of THz atmospheric propagation, including some fundamental physical concepts and processes. The attenuation effect (especially the absorption of water vapor), the scattering of aerosol particles and the effect of turbulent flow mainly influence THz atmosphere propagation. Fundamental physical laws are illuminated as well, such as Lamber-beer law, Mie scattering theory and radiative transfer equation. The last part comprises the demonstration and comparison of THz atmosphere propagation models like Moliere(V5), SARTre and AMATERASU. The essential problems are the deep analysis of physical mechanism of this process, the construction of atmospheric propagation model and databases of every kind of material in the atmosphere, and the standardization of measurement procedures.
Evolution of nonlinear ion-acoustic solitary wave propagation in rotating plasma
Das, G. C.; Nag, Apratim
2006-08-15
A simple unmagnetized plasma rotating around an axis at an angle {theta} with the propagation direction of the acoustic mode has been taken. The nonlinear wave mode has been derived as an equivalent Sagdeev potential equation. A special procedure, known as the tanh method, has been developed to study the nonlinear wave propagation in plasma dynamics. Further, under small amplitude approximation, the nonlinear plasma acoustic mode has been exploited to study the evolution of soliton propagation in the plasma. The main emphasis has been given to the interaction of Coriolis force on the changes of coherent structure of the soliton. The solitary wave solution finds the different nature of solitons called compressive and rarefactive solitons as well as its explosions or collapses along with soliton dynamics and these have been showing exciting observations in exhibiting a narrow wave packet with the generation of high electric pressure and the growth of high energy which, in turn, yields the phenomena of radiating soliton in dynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mochizuki, Yuta; Taki, Hirofumi; Kanai, Hiroshi
2016-07-01
An elastic property of biological soft tissue is an important indicator of the tissue status. Therefore, quantitative and noninvasive methods for elasticity evaluation have been proposed. Our group previously proposed a method using acoustic radiation pressure irradiated from two directions for elastic property evaluation, in which by measuring the propagation velocity of the shear wave generated by the acoustic radiation pressure inside the object, the elastic properties of the object were successfully evaluated. In the present study, we visualized the propagation of the shear wave in a three-dimensional space by the synchronization of signals received at various probe positions. The proposed method succeeded in visualizing the shear wave propagation clearly in the three-dimensional space of 35 × 41 × 4 mm3. These results show the high potential of the proposed method to estimate the elastic properties of the object in the three-dimensional space.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pokatilov, E. P.; Nika, D. L.; Balandin, A. A.
2005-09-01
We have theoretically studied acoustic phonon spectra and phonon propagation in rectangular nanowires embedded within elastically dissimilar materials. As example systems, we have considered GaN nanowires with AlN and plastic barrier layers. It has been established that the acoustically mismatched barriers dramatically influence the quantized phonon spectrum of the nanowires. The barriers with lower sound velocity compress the phonon energy spectrum and reduce the phonon group velocities in the nanowire. The barriers with higher sound velocity have an opposite effect. The physical origin of this effect is related to redistribution of the elastic deformations in the acoustically mismatched nanowires. In the case of the “acoustically slow” barriers, the elastic deformation waves are squeezed in the barrier layer. The effect predicted for the nanowires embedded with elastically dissimilar materials could be used for reengineering phonon spectrum in nanostructures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajabi, Majid
2016-05-01
The method of wave function expansion is adopted to study the three dimensional scattering of a plane progressive harmonic acoustic wave incident upon an arbitrarily thick-walled helically filament-wound composite cylindrical shell submerged in and filled with compressible ideal fluids. An approximate laminate model in the context of the so-called state-space formulation is employed for the construction of T-matrix solution to solve for the unknown modal scattering coefficients. Considering the nonaxisymmetric wave propagation phenomenon in anisotropic cylindrical components and following the resonance scattering theory which determines the resonance and background scattering fields, the stimulated resonance frequencies of the shell are isolated and classified due to their fundamental mode of excitation, overtone and style of propagation along the cylindrical axis (i.e., clockwise or anticlockwise propagation around the shell) and are identified as the helically circumnavigating waves.
Yuan, X; Borup, D; Wiskin, J; Berggren, M; Johnson, S A
1999-01-01
We present a method to incorporate the relaxation dominated attenuation into the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation of acoustic wave propagation in complex media. A dispersive perfectly matched layer (DPML) boundary condition, which is suitable for boundary matching to such a dispersive media whole space, is also proposed to truncate the FDTD simulation domain. The numerical simulation of a Ricker wavelet propagating in a dispersive medium, described by second-order Debye model, shows that the Ricker wavelet is attenuated in amplitude and expanded in time in its course of propagation, as required by Kramers-Kronig relations. The numerical results also are compared to exact solution showing that the dispersive FDTD method is accurate and that the DPML boundary condition effectively dampens reflective waves. The method presented here is applicable to the simulation of ultrasonic instrumentation for medical imaging and other nondestructive testing problems with frequency dependent, attenuating media.
A Stratified Acoustic Model Accounting for Phase Shifts for Underwater Acoustic Networks
Wang, Ping; Zhang, Lin; Li, Victor O. K.
2013-01-01
Accurate acoustic channel models are critical for the study of underwater acoustic networks. Existing models include physics-based models and empirical approximation models. The former enjoy good accuracy, but incur heavy computational load, rendering them impractical in large networks. On the other hand, the latter are computationally inexpensive but inaccurate since they do not account for the complex effects of boundary reflection losses, the multi-path phenomenon and ray bending in the stratified ocean medium. In this paper, we propose a Stratified Acoustic Model (SAM) based on frequency-independent geometrical ray tracing, accounting for each ray's phase shift during the propagation. It is a feasible channel model for large scale underwater acoustic network simulation, allowing us to predict the transmission loss with much lower computational complexity than the traditional physics-based models. The accuracy of the model is validated via comparisons with the experimental measurements in two different oceans. Satisfactory agreements with the measurements and with other computationally intensive classical physics-based models are demonstrated. PMID:23669708
Diffusive Propagation of Energy in a Non-acoustic Chain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Komorowski, Tomasz; Olla, Stefano
2016-08-01
We consider a non-acoustic chain of harmonic oscillators with the dynamics perturbed by a random local exchange of momentum, such that energy and momentum are conserved. The macroscopic limits of the energy density, momentum and the curvature (or bending) of the chain satisfy a system of evolution equations. We prove that, in a diffusive space-time scaling, the curvature and momentum evolve following a linear system that corresponds to a damped Euc(uler)-Buc(ernoulli) beam equation. The macroscopic energy density evolves following a non linear diffusive equation. In particular, the energy transfer is diffusive in this dynamics. This provides a first rigorous example of a normal diffusion of energy in a one dimensional dynamics that conserves the momentum.
Makse, Hernan A.; Johnson, David L.
2014-09-03
This is the final report describing the results of DOE Grant # DE-FG02-03ER15458 with original termination date of April 31, 2013, which has been extended to April 31, 2014. The goal of this project is to develop a theoretical and experimental understanding of sound propagation, elasticity and dissipation in granular materials. The topic is relevant for the efficient production of hydrocarbon and for identifying and characterizing the underground formation for storage of either CO_{2} or nuclear waste material. Furthermore, understanding the basic properties of acoustic propagation in granular media is of importance not only to the energy industry, but also to the pharmaceutical, chemical and agricultural industries. We employ a set of experimental, theoretical and computational tools to develop a study of acoustics and dissipation in granular media. These include the concept effective mass of granular media, normal modes analysis, statistical mechanics frameworks and numerical simulations based on Discrete Element Methods. Effective mass measurements allow us to study the mechanisms of the elastic response and attenuation of acoustic modes in granular media. We perform experiments and simulations under varying conditions, including humidity and vacuum, and different interparticle force-laws to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of damping and acoustic propagation in granular media. A theoretical statistical approach studies the necessary phase space of configurations in pressure, volume fraction to classify granular materials.
Propagation modeling for land mobile satellite systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barts, R. Michael; Stutzman, Warren L.
1988-01-01
A simplified empirical model for predicting primary fade statistics for a vegetatively shadowed mobile satellite signal is presented, and predictions based on the model are presented using propagation parameter values from experimental data. Results from the empirical model are used to drive a propagation simulator to produce the secondary fade statistics of average fade duration.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Plumblee, H. E., Jr.; Dean, P. D.; Wynne, G. A.; Burrin, R. H.
1973-01-01
The results of an experimental and theoretical study of many of the fundamental details of sound propagation in hard wall and soft wall annular flow ducts are reported. The theory of sound propagation along such ducts and the theory for determining the complex radiation impedance of higher order modes of an annulus are outlined, and methods for generating acoustic duct modes are developed. The results of a detailed measurement program on propagation in rigid wall annular ducts with and without airflow through the duct are presented. Techniques are described for measuring cut-on frequencies, modal phase speed, and radial and annular mode shapes. The effects of flow velocity on cut-on frequencies and phase speed are measured. Comparisons are made with theoretical predictions for all of the effects studies. The two microphone method of impedance is used to measure the effects of flow on acoustic liners. A numerical study of sound propagation in annular ducts with one or both walls acoustically lined is presented.
Acoustic Propagation in a Water-Filled Cylindrical Pipe
Sullivan, E J; Candy, J V
2003-06-01
This study was concerned with the physics of the propagation of a tone burst of high frequency sound in a steel water-filled pipe. The choice of the pulse was rather arbitrary, so that this work in no way can be considered as recommending a particular pulse form. However, the MATLAB computer codes developed in this study are general enough to carry out studies of pulses of various forms. Also, it should be pointed out that the codes as written are quite time consuming. A computation of the complete field, including all 5995 modes, requires several hours on a desktop computer. The time required by such computations as these is a direct consequence of the bandwidths, frequencies and sample rates employed. No attempt was made to optimize these codes, and it is assumed that much can be done in this regard.
Gusev, Vitalyi E; Ni, Chenyin; Lomonosov, Alexey; Shen, Zhonghua
2015-08-01
Theory accounting for the influence of hysteretic nonlinearity of micro-inhomogeneous material on flexural wave in the plates of continuously varying thickness is developed. For the wedges with thickness increasing as a power law of distance from its edge strong modifications of the wave dynamics with propagation distance are predicted. It is found that nonlinear absorption progressively disappearing with diminishing wave amplitude leads to complete attenuation of acoustic waves in most of the wedges exhibiting black hole phenomenon. It is also demonstrated that black holes exist beyond the geometrical acoustic approximation. Applications include nondestructive evaluation of micro-inhomogeneous materials and vibrations damping.
Gusev, Vitalyi E; Ni, Chenyin; Lomonosov, Alexey; Shen, Zhonghua
2015-08-01
Theory accounting for the influence of hysteretic nonlinearity of micro-inhomogeneous material on flexural wave in the plates of continuously varying thickness is developed. For the wedges with thickness increasing as a power law of distance from its edge strong modifications of the wave dynamics with propagation distance are predicted. It is found that nonlinear absorption progressively disappearing with diminishing wave amplitude leads to complete attenuation of acoustic waves in most of the wedges exhibiting black hole phenomenon. It is also demonstrated that black holes exist beyond the geometrical acoustic approximation. Applications include nondestructive evaluation of micro-inhomogeneous materials and vibrations damping. PMID:25937493
Sound propagation and absorption in foam - A distributed parameter model.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Manson, L.; Lieberman, S.
1971-01-01
Liquid-base foams are highly effective sound absorbers. A better understanding of the mechanisms of sound absorption in foams was sought by exploration of a mathematical model of bubble pulsation and coupling and the development of a distributed-parameter mechanical analog. A solution by electric-circuit analogy was thus obtained and transmission-line theory was used to relate the physical properties of the foams to the characteristic impedance and propagation constants of the analog transmission line. Comparison of measured physical properties of the foam with values obtained from measured acoustic impedance and propagation constants and the transmission-line theory showed good agreement. We may therefore conclude that the sound propagation and absorption mechanisms in foam are accurately described by the resonant response of individual bubbles coupled to neighboring bubbles.
Linear models of acoustic waves in sunspot umbrae
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gurman, J. B.; Leibacher, J. W.
1984-01-01
The two-dimensional, linear hydrodynamics of quiet solar and umbral model atmospheres in a plane-parallel, adiabatic approximation are investigated. The 5.5-8.5 mHz oscillations observed in umbral chromospheres and transition regions are interpreted as acoustic waves propagating parallel, or nearly parallel, to the temperature gradient. These waves are not totally internally reflected by the steep temperature gradient and, thus, are not trapped. Partial reflections, however, are effective in modulating the transmission as a function of frequency. The resonant transmission mechanism of Zugzda, Locans, and Staude (1983) is found to produce a spectrum of resonances in the transmission of acoustic waves in any atmosphere with a temperature minimum. Since the observed umbral oscillations display power in only a narrow range of frequencies, characteristics of the umbral models, wave propagation, and observations that would tend to suppress the higher frequency resonances are examined.
Kim, J.T.; Kim, Y.M.; Maeng, J.S.; Lyu, M.S.; Ku, Y.G.
1996-10-01
The unstructured grid finite volume method has been applied to predict the linear and nonlinear attenuation characteristics of the expansion chamber type silencer system. In order to achieve grid flexibility and a solution adaptation for geometrically complex flow regions associated with the actual silencers, the unstructured mesh algorithm in context with the node-centered finite volume method has been employed. The validation cases for the linear and nonlinear wave propagation characteristics include the acoustic field of the concentric expansion chamber and the axisymmetric blast flow field with the open end. Effects of the chamber geometry on the nonlinear wave propagation characteristics are discussed in detail.
Isentropic acoustic propagation in a viscous fluid with uniform circular pipeline flow.
Chen, Yong; Huang, Yiyong; Chen, Xiaoqian
2013-10-01
Isentropic wave propagation in a viscous fluid with a uniform mean flow confined by a rigid-walled circular pipeline is considered. A method based on the Fourier-Bessel theory, which is complete and orthogonal in Lebesgue space, is introduced to solve the convected acoustic equations. After validating the method's convergence, the cut-off frequency of wave modes is addressed. Furthermore, the effect of flow profile on wave attenuation is analyzed. Meanwhile, measurement performance of an ultrasonic flow meter based on wave propagation is numerically accounted.
Isentropic acoustic propagation in a viscous fluid with uniform circular pipeline flow.
Chen, Yong; Huang, Yiyong; Chen, Xiaoqian
2013-10-01
Isentropic wave propagation in a viscous fluid with a uniform mean flow confined by a rigid-walled circular pipeline is considered. A method based on the Fourier-Bessel theory, which is complete and orthogonal in Lebesgue space, is introduced to solve the convected acoustic equations. After validating the method's convergence, the cut-off frequency of wave modes is addressed. Furthermore, the effect of flow profile on wave attenuation is analyzed. Meanwhile, measurement performance of an ultrasonic flow meter based on wave propagation is numerically accounted. PMID:24116397
JAPE 91: Influence of terrain masking of the acoustic propagation of helicopter noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Naz, P.
1993-01-01
The acoustic propagation in the case of a noise source masked by a small element of terrain has been investigated experimentally. These data have been measured during the 'terrain masking' experiment of the NATO JAPE 91 experimental campaign. The main objective of that experiment was to study the acoustic detection of a helicopter masked by a small hill. Microphones have been placed at different locations on the shadow zone of the hill to study the effect of the terrain obstruction on sound propagation. The results presented come from data measured by Atlas Elektronik and by ISL, and have been processed together. The terrain obstruction causes an excess attenuation of the SPL (Sound Pressure Level) for all the frequencies, but this attenuation is more effective for the high frequencies than for the low frequencies. Results typical of diffraction phenomena have been observed; the SPL is minimal at the foot of the hill and is relatively constant beyond it.
Deep seafloor arrivals: an unexplained set of arrivals in long-range ocean acoustic propagation.
Stephen, Ralph A; Bolmer, S Thompson; Dzieciuch, Matthew A; Worcester, Peter F; Andrew, Rex K; Buck, Linda J; Mercer, James A; Colosi, John A; Howe, Bruce M
2009-08-01
Receptions, from a ship-suspended source (in the band 50-100 Hz) to an ocean bottom seismometer (about 5000 m depth) and the deepest element on a vertical hydrophone array (about 750 m above the seafloor) that were acquired on the 2004 Long-Range Ocean Acoustic Propagation Experiment in the North Pacific Ocean, are described. The ranges varied from 50 to 3200 km. In addition to predicted ocean acoustic arrivals and deep shadow zone arrivals (leaking below turning points), "deep seafloor arrivals," that are dominant on the seafloor geophone but are absent or very weak on the hydrophone array, are observed. These deep seafloor arrivals are an unexplained set of arrivals in ocean acoustics possibly associated with seafloor interface waves.
A sonic boom propagation model including mean flow atmospheric effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salamone, Joe; Sparrow, Victor W.
2012-09-01
This paper presents a time domain formulation of nonlinear lossy propagation in onedimension that also includes the effects of non-collinear mean flow in the acoustic medium. The model equation utilized is an augmented Burgers equation that includes the effects of nonlinearity, geometric spreading, atmospheric stratification, and also absorption and dispersion due to thermoviscous and molecular relaxation effects. All elements of the propagation are implemented in the time domain and the effects of non-collinear mean flow are accounted for in each term of the model equation. Previous authors have presented methods limited to showing the effects of wind on ray tracing and/or using an effective speed of sound in their model equation. The present work includes the effects of mean flow for all terms included in the augmented Burgers equation with all of the calculations performed in the time-domain. The capability to include the effects of mean flow in the acoustic medium allows one to make predictions more representative of real-world atmospheric conditions. Examples are presented for nonlinear propagation of N-waves and shaped sonic booms. [Work supported by Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation.
Soukhomlinov, Vladimir; Gerasimov, Nikolay; Sheverev, Valery A.
2008-08-15
This paper extends the recently reported one-dimensional model for sound propagation in glow discharge plasma to arbitrary mutual orientation of the plasma electric field and acoustic wave vectors. The results demonstrate that an acoustic wave in plasma may amplify, attenuate, or remain unchanged depending on the angle between these vectors and on the power input into the discharge. Quantitative evaluations indicate that for glow discharge plasma of a self-sustained discharge in air at the electric current densities of the order of 100 mA cm{sup -2}, a gain of as much as 1 m{sup -1} at 0 deg. angle between the vectors changes to similar strength attenuation for the 90 deg. angle.
Lee, S.H.; Cavalieri, A.L.; Fritz, D.M.; Swan, M.C.; Reis, D.A.; Hegde, R.S.; Reason, M.; Goldman, R.S.
2005-12-09
We report on the propagation of coherent acoustic wave packets in (001) surface oriented Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As/GaAs heterostructure, generated through localized femtosecond photoexcitation of the GaAs. Transient structural changes in both the substrate and film are measured with picosecond time-resolved x-ray diffraction. The data indicate an elastic response consisting of unipolar compression pulses of a few hundred picosecond duration traveling along [001] and [001] directions that are produced by predominately impulsive stress. The transmission and reflection of the strain pulses are in agreement with an acoustic mismatch model of the heterostructure and free-space interfaces.
Weber, Thomas C
2008-11-01
It has recently been shown [Weber, T. C. et al. (2007). "Acoustic propagation through clustered bubble clouds," IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 32, 513-523] that gas bubble clustering plays a role in determining the acoustic field characteristics of bubbly fluids. In particular, it has been shown that clustering changes the bubble-induced attenuation as well as the ping-to-ping variability in the acoustic field. The degree to which bubble clustering exists in nature, however, is unknown. This paper describes a method for quantifying bubble clustering using a high frequency (400 kHz) multibeam sonar, and reports on observations of near-surface bubble clustering during a storm (14.6 m/s wind speed) in the Gulf of Maine. The multibeam sonar data are analyzed to estimate the pair correlation function, a measure of bubble clustering. In order to account for clustering in the mean acoustic field, a modification to the effective medium wave number is made. With this modification, the multibeam sonar observations are used to predict the effect of clustering on the attenuation of the mean field for short-range propagation (1 m) at frequencies between 10 and 350 kHz. Results for this specific case show that clustering can cause the attenuation to change by 20%-80% over this frequency range.
Weber, Thomas C
2008-11-01
It has recently been shown [Weber, T. C. et al. (2007). "Acoustic propagation through clustered bubble clouds," IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 32, 513-523] that gas bubble clustering plays a role in determining the acoustic field characteristics of bubbly fluids. In particular, it has been shown that clustering changes the bubble-induced attenuation as well as the ping-to-ping variability in the acoustic field. The degree to which bubble clustering exists in nature, however, is unknown. This paper describes a method for quantifying bubble clustering using a high frequency (400 kHz) multibeam sonar, and reports on observations of near-surface bubble clustering during a storm (14.6 m/s wind speed) in the Gulf of Maine. The multibeam sonar data are analyzed to estimate the pair correlation function, a measure of bubble clustering. In order to account for clustering in the mean acoustic field, a modification to the effective medium wave number is made. With this modification, the multibeam sonar observations are used to predict the effect of clustering on the attenuation of the mean field for short-range propagation (1 m) at frequencies between 10 and 350 kHz. Results for this specific case show that clustering can cause the attenuation to change by 20%-80% over this frequency range. PMID:19045766
Kallinderis, Yannis; Vitsas, Panagiotis A.; Menounou, Penelope
2012-07-15
A low-order flow/acoustics interaction method for the prediction of sound propagation and diffraction in unsteady subsonic compressible flow using adaptive 3-D hybrid grids is investigated. The total field is decomposed into the flow field described by the Euler equations, and the acoustics part described by the Nonlinear Perturbation Equations. The method is shown capable of predicting monopole sound propagation, while employment of acoustics-guided adapted grid refinement improves the accuracy of capturing the acoustic field. Interaction of sound with solid boundaries is also examined in terms of reflection, and diffraction. Sound propagation through an unsteady flow field is examined using static and dynamic flow/acoustics coupling demonstrating the importance of the latter.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robertson, J. S.; Siegman, W. L.; Jacobson, M. J.
1989-01-01
There is substantial interest in the analytical and numerical modeling of low-frequency, long-range atmospheric acoustic propagation. Ray-based models, because of frequency limitations, do not always give an adequate prediction of quantities such as sound pressure or intensity levels. However, the parabolic approximation method, widely used in ocean acoustics, and often more accurate than ray models for lower frequencies of interest, can be applied to acoustic propagation in the atmosphere. Modifications of an existing implicit finite-difference implementation for computing solutions to the parabolic approximation are discussed. A locally-reacting boundary is used together with a one-parameter impedance model. Intensity calculations are performed for a number of flow resistivity values in both quiescent and windy atmospheres. Variations in the value of this parameter are shown to have substantial effects on the spatial variation of the acoustic signal.
Recent Advances in Underwater Acoustic Modelling and Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
ETTER, P. C.
2001-02-01
A comprehensive review of international developments in underwater acoustic modelling is used to construct an updated technology baseline containing 107 propagation models, 16 noise models, 17 reverberation models and 25 sonar performance models. This updated technology baseline represents a 30% increase over a previous baseline published in 1996. When executed in higher-level simulations, these models can generate predictive and diagnostic outputs that are useful to acoustical oceanographers or sonar technologists in the analysis of complex systems operating in the undersea environment. Recent modelling developments described in the technical literature suggest two principal areas of application: low-frequency, inverse acoustics in deep water; and high-frequency, bottom-interacting acoustics in coastal regions. Rapid changes in global geopolitics have opened new avenues for collaboration, thereby facilitating the transfer of modelling and simulation technologies among members of the international community. This accelerated technology transfer has created new imperatives for international standards in modelling and simulation architectures. National and international activities to promote interoperability among modelling and simulation efforts in government, industry and academia are reviewed and discussed.
Error Propagation in a System Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schloegel, Kirk (Inventor); Bhatt, Devesh (Inventor); Oglesby, David V. (Inventor); Madl, Gabor (Inventor)
2015-01-01
Embodiments of the present subject matter can enable the analysis of signal value errors for system models. In an example, signal value errors can be propagated through the functional blocks of a system model to analyze possible effects as the signal value errors impact incident functional blocks. This propagation of the errors can be applicable to many models of computation including avionics models, synchronous data flow, and Kahn process networks.
Acoustic Propagation Studies For Sperm Whale Phonation Analysis During LADC Experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sidorovskaia, Natalia A.; Ioup, George E.; Ioup, Juliette W.; Caruthers, Jerald W.
2004-11-01
The Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center (LADC) conducted a series of passive acoustic experiments in the Northern Gulf of Mexico and the Ligurian Sea in 2001 and 2002. Environmental and acoustic moorings were deployed in areas of large concentrations of marine mammals (mainly, sperm whales). Recordings and analysis of whale phonations are among the objectives of the project. Each mooring had a single autonomously recording hydrophone (Environmental Acoustic Recording System (EARS)) obtained from the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office after modification to record signals up to 5,859 Hz in the Gulf of Mexico and up to 12,500 Hz in the Ligurian Sea. Self-recording environmental sensors, attached to the moorings, and concurrent environmental ship surveys provided the environmental data for the experiments. The results of acoustic simulations of long-range propagation of the broad-band (500-6,000 Hz) phonation pulses from a hypothetical whale location to the recording hydrophone in the experimental environments are presented. The utilization of the simulation results for an interpretation of the spectral features observed in whale clicks and for the development of tracking algorithms from single hydrophone recordings based on the identification of direct and surface and bottom reflected arrivals are discussed. [Research supported by ONR.
Local probing of propagating acoustic waves in a gigahertz echo chamber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gustafsson, Martin V.; Santos, Paulo V.; Johansson, Göran; Delsing, Per
2012-04-01
In the same way that micro-mechanical resonators resemble guitar strings and drums, surface acoustic waves resemble the sound these instruments produce, but moving over a solid surface rather than through air. In contrast with oscillations in suspended resonators, such propagating mechanical waves have not before been studied near the quantum mechanical limits. Here, we demonstrate local probing of surface acoustic waves with a displacement sensitivity of 30amRMSHz-1/2 and detection sensitivity on the single-phonon level after averaging, at a frequency of 932MHz. Our probe is a piezoelectrically coupled single-electron transistor, which is sufficiently fast, non-destructive and localized to enable us to track pulses echoing back and forth in a long acoustic cavity, self-interfering and ringing the cavity up and down. We project that strong coupling to quantum circuits will enable new experiments, and hybrids using the unique features of surface acoustic waves. Prospects include quantum investigations of phonon-phonon interactions, and acoustic coupling to superconducting qubits for which we present favourable estimates.
Spacecraft Internal Acoustic Environment Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chu, SShao-sheng R.; Allen, Christopher S.
2009-01-01
Acoustic modeling can be used to identify key noise sources, determine/analyze sub-allocated requirements, keep track of the accumulation of minor noise sources, and to predict vehicle noise levels at various stages in vehicle development, first with estimates of noise sources, later with experimental data. In FY09, the physical mockup developed in FY08, with interior geometric shape similar to Orion CM (Crew Module) IML (Interior Mode Line), was used to validate SEA (Statistical Energy Analysis) acoustic model development with realistic ventilation fan sources. The sound power levels of these sources were unknown a priori, as opposed to previous studies that RSS (Reference Sound Source) with known sound power level was used. The modeling results were evaluated based on comparisons to measurements of sound pressure levels over a wide frequency range, including the frequency range where SEA gives good results. Sound intensity measurement was performed over a rectangular-shaped grid system enclosing the ventilation fan source. Sound intensities were measured at the top, front, back, right, and left surfaces of the and system. Sound intensity at the bottom surface was not measured, but sound blocking material was placed tinder the bottom surface to reflect most of the incident sound energy back to the remaining measured surfaces. Integrating measured sound intensities over measured surfaces renders estimated sound power of the source. The reverberation time T6o of the mockup interior had been modified to match reverberation levels of ISS US Lab interior for speech frequency bands, i.e., 0.5k, 1k, 2k, 4 kHz, by attaching appropriately sized Thinsulate sound absorption material to the interior wall of the mockup. Sound absorption of Thinsulate was modeled in three methods: Sabine equation with measured mockup interior reverberation time T60, layup model based on past impedance tube testing, and layup model plus air absorption correction. The evaluation/validation was
Yellow Sea ocean-acoustic solitary wave modeling studies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Warn-Varnas, A. C.; Chin-Bing, S. A.; King, D. B.; Hawkins, J. A.; Lamb, K. G.; Teixeira, M.
2005-08-01
This study is in an area south of the Shandong peninsula, near the region where Zhou et al. (1991) observed anomalous drops in acoustical intensity. Solitary wave generation and propagation simulations are performed using the Lamb (1994) nonhydrostatic model. The model simulations show that, for summer conditions, the existing semi-diurnal tidal flow over the topographic variations formed internal bores and solitary waves. For the Shandong area, we analyzed summer observations from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) that tracked solitary wave trains from their surface roughness signatures. The images contained seven events consisting of internal bores and solitary waves that traveled in a well-defined direction for 2.5 days. The origin of the trains appeared at a well-defined point along a steep topographic drop. The SAR observations guided and tuned the model simulations, by comparing spectra of observed and modeled wavelengths. The tuned model yields wavelengths within factors of 2, or less, of those derived from SAR data. Wavelength and amplitude dispersion analysis showed two dispersion regimes. Modeled phase speeds were at the lower limit of phase speeds deduced from SAR data, from about 0.8 to 1.0 m/s. Acoustical intensity calculations in the presence of solitary wave trains will be undertaken in a subsequent paper using a parabolic equation acoustical model along the path of solitary wave train propagation.
Acoustic wave propagation and stochastic effects in metamaterial absorbers
Christensen, J. Willatzen, M.
2014-07-28
We show how stochastic variations of the effective parameters of anisotropic structured metamaterials can lead to increased absorption of sound. For this, we derive an analytical model based on the Bourret approximation and illustrate the immediate connection between material disorder and attenuation of the averaged field. We demonstrate numerically that broadband absorption persists at oblique irradiation and that the influence of red noise comprising short spatial correlation lengths increases the absorption beyond what can be archived with a structured but ordered system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
EL-Shamy, E. F.
2014-08-01
The solitary structures of multi-dimensional ion-acoustic solitary waves (IASWs) have been considered in magnetoplasmas consisting of electron-positron-ion with high-energy (superthermal) electrons and positrons are investigated. Using a reductive perturbation method, a nonlinear Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation is derived. The multi-dimensional instability of obliquely propagating (with respect to the external magnetic field) IASWs has been studied by the small-k (long wavelength plane wave) expansion perturbation method. The instability condition and the growth rate of the instability have been derived. It is shown that the instability criterion and their growth rate depend on the parameter measuring the superthermality, the ion gyrofrequency, the unperturbed positrons-to-ions density ratio, the direction cosine, and the ion-to-electron temperature ratio. Clearly, the study of our model under consideration is helpful for explaining the propagation and the instability of IASWs in space observations of magnetoplasmas with superthermal electrons and positrons.
EL-Shamy, E. F.
2014-08-15
The solitary structures of multi–dimensional ion-acoustic solitary waves (IASWs) have been considered in magnetoplasmas consisting of electron-positron-ion with high-energy (superthermal) electrons and positrons are investigated. Using a reductive perturbation method, a nonlinear Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation is derived. The multi-dimensional instability of obliquely propagating (with respect to the external magnetic field) IASWs has been studied by the small-k (long wavelength plane wave) expansion perturbation method. The instability condition and the growth rate of the instability have been derived. It is shown that the instability criterion and their growth rate depend on the parameter measuring the superthermality, the ion gyrofrequency, the unperturbed positrons-to-ions density ratio, the direction cosine, and the ion-to-electron temperature ratio. Clearly, the study of our model under consideration is helpful for explaining the propagation and the instability of IASWs in space observations of magnetoplasmas with superthermal electrons and positrons.
An Investigation of Two Acoustic Propagation Codes for Three-Dimensional Geometries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nark, D. M.; Watson, W. R.; Jones, M. G.
2005-01-01
The ability to predict fan noise within complex three-dimensional aircraft engine nacelle geometries is a valuable tool in studying low-noise designs. Recent years have seen the development of aeroacoustic propagation codes using various levels of approximation to obtain such a capability. In light of this, it is beneficial to pursue a design paradigm that incorporates the strengths of the various tools. The development of a quasi-3D methodology (Q3D-FEM) at NASA Langley has brought these ideas to mind in relation to the framework of the CDUCT-LaRC acoustic propagation and radiation tool. As more extensive three dimensional codes become available, it would seem appropriate to incorporate these tools into a framework similar to CDUCT-LaRC and use them in a complementary manner. This work focuses on such an approach in beginning the steps toward a systematic assessment of the errors, and hence the trade-offs, involved in the use of these codes. To illustrate this point, CDUCT-LaRC was used to study benchmark hardwall duct problems to quantify errors caused by wave propagation in directions far removed from that defined by the parabolic approximation. Configurations incorporating acoustic treatment were also studied with CDUCT-LaRC and Q3D-FEM. The cases presented show that acoustic treatment diminishes the effects of CDUCT-LaRC phase error as the solutions are attenuated. The results of the Q3D-FEM were very promising and matched the analytic solution very well. Overall, these tests were meant to serve as a step toward the systematic study of errors inherent in the propagation module of CDUCT-LaRC, as well as an initial test of the higher fidelity Q3D-FEM code.
Exact solutions for modeling sound propagation through a combustion zone.
Sujith, R I
2001-10-01
Exact analytical solutions for one-dimensional sound propagation through a combustion zone, taking the effects of mean temperature gradient and oscillatory heat release into account, are presented in this paper. The wave equation is derived starting from the momentum and energy equations. Using appropriate transformations, solutions are derived for the case of an exponential mean temperature gradient in terms of Bessel functions. For the case of a linear mean temperature profile, solutions are derived in terms of confluent hypergeometric functions. Example calculations show that the accuracy in modeling combustion-acoustics interactions can be significantly increased by the use of these solutions.
Steps toward quantitative infrasound propagation modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Waxler, Roger; Assink, Jelle; Lalande, Jean-Marie; Velea, Doru
2016-04-01
Realistic propagation modeling requires propagation models capable of incorporating the relevant physical phenomena as well as sufficiently accurate atmospheric specifications. The wind speed and temperature gradients in the atmosphere provide multiple ducts in which low frequency sound, infrasound, can propagate efficiently. The winds in the atmosphere are quite variable, both temporally and spatially, causing the sound ducts to fluctuate. For ground to ground propagation the ducts can be borderline in that small perturbations can create or destroy a duct. In such cases the signal propagation is very sensitive to fluctuations in the wind, often producing highly dispersed signals. The accuracy of atmospheric specifications is constantly improving as sounding technology develops. There is, however, a disconnect between sound propagation and atmospheric specification in that atmospheric specifications are necessarily statistical in nature while sound propagates through a particular atmospheric state. In addition infrasonic signals can travel to great altitudes, on the order of 120 km, before refracting back to earth. At such altitudes the atmosphere becomes quite rare causing sound propagation to become highly non-linear and attenuating. Approaches to these problems will be presented.
Stability analysis for acoustic wave propagation in tilted TI media by finite differences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakker, Peter M.; Duveneck, Eric
2011-05-01
Several papers in recent years have reported instabilities in P-wave modelling, based on an acoustic approximation, for inhomogeneous transversely isotropic media with tilted symmetry axis (TTI media). In particular, instabilities tend to occur if the axis of symmetry varies rapidly in combination with strong contrasts of medium parameters, which is typically the case at the foot of a steeply dipping salt flank. In a recent paper, we have proposed and demonstrated a P-wave modelling approach for TTI media, based on rotated stress and strain tensors, in which the wave equations reduce to a coupled set of two second-order partial differential equations for two scalar stress components: a normal component along the variable axis of symmetry and a lateral component of stress in the plane perpendicular to that axis. Spatially constant density is assumed in this approach. A numerical discretization scheme was proposed which uses discrete second-derivative operators for the non-mixed second-order derivatives in the wave equations, and combined first-derivative operators for the mixed second-order derivatives. This paper provides a complete and rigorous stability analysis, assuming a uniformly sampled grid. Although the spatial discretization operator for the TTI acoustic wave equation is not self-adjoint, this operator still defines a complete basis of eigenfunctions of the solution space, provided that the solution space is somewhat restricted at locations where the medium is elliptically anisotropic. First, a stability analysis is given for a discretization scheme, which is purely based on first-derivative operators. It is shown that the coefficients of the central difference operators should satisfy certain conditions. In view of numerical artefacts, such a discretization scheme is not attractive, and the non-mixed second-order derivatives of the wave equation are discretized directly by second-derivative operators. It is shown that this modification preserves
Guo, Min; Abbott, Derek; Lu, Minhua; Liu, Huafeng
2016-03-01
Shear wave propagation speed has been regarded as an attractive indicator for quantitatively measuring the intrinsic mechanical properties of soft tissues. While most existing techniques use acoustic radiation force (ARF) excitation with focal spot region based on linear array transducers, we try to employ a special ARF with a focal line region and apply it to viscoelastic materials to create shear waves. First, a two-dimensional capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer with 64 × 128 fully controllable elements is realised and simulated to generate this special ARF. Then three-dimensional finite element models are developed to simulate the resulting shear wave propagation through tissue phantom materials. Three different phantoms are explored in our simulation study using: (a) an isotropic viscoelastic medium, (b) within a cylindrical inclusion, and (c) a transverse isotropic viscoelastic medium. For each phantom, the ARF creates a quasi-plane shear wave which has a preferential propagation direction perpendicular to the focal line excitation. The propagation of the quasi-plane shear wave is investigated and then used to reconstruct shear moduli sequentially after the estimation of shear wave speed. In the phantom with a transverse isotropic viscoelastic medium, the anisotropy results in maximum speed parallel to the fiber direction and minimum speed perpendicular to the fiber direction. The simulation results show that the line excitation extends the displacement field to obtain a large imaging field in comparison with spot excitation, and demonstrate its potential usage in measuring the mechanical properties of anisotropic tissues. PMID:26768475
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wyerman, B. R.
1976-01-01
The propagation of plane waves and higher order acoustic modes in a circular multisectioned duct was studied. A unique source array consisting of two concentric rings of sources, providing phase and amplitude control in the radial, as well as circumferential direction, was developed to generate plane waves and both spinning and nonspinning higher order modes. Measurements of attenuation and radial mode shapes were taken with finite length liners inserted between the hard wall sections of an anechoically terminated duct. Materials tested as liners included a glass fiber material and both sintered fiber metals and perforated sheet metals with a honeycomb backing. The fundamental acoustic properties of these materials were studied with emphasis on the attenuation of sound by the liners and the determination of local versus extended reaction behavior for the boundary condition. A search technique was developed to find the complex eigenvalues for a liner under the assumption of a locally reacting boundary condition.
Finite element analysis of solitary wave propagation by acoustic velocity method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maruoka, Akira; Uchiyama, Ichiro; Kawahara, Mutsuto
2016-10-01
There is discontinuity between compressible and incompressible states in fluid flows. If we subtract the thermal effect from compressible fluid flows, we obtain adiabatic fluid flows, from which incompressible fluid flows are obtained if we let the acoustic velocity tend to infinity. Thus, we employ the idea of adiabatic fluid flows to solve incompressible flows. In the computation, the physical value of the acoustic velocity is employed. This idea corresponds to an extension of artificial compressibility under physical considerations. We present the new SUPG formulation of adiabatic fluid flows, by which not only the effect of SUPG but also those of PSPG and LSIC of incompressible fluid flows are derived. After the numerical verifications, three-dimensional solitary wave propagations are computed. Close agreement between computed and experimental values is obtained.
Probabilistic modeling of propagating explosions
Luck, L.B.; Eisenhawer, S.W.; Bott, T.F.
1996-03-01
Weapons containing significant quantities of high explosives (HE) are sometimes located in close proximity to one another. If an explosion occurs in a weapon, the possibility of propagation to one or more additional weapons may exist, with severe consequences possibly resulting. In the general case, a system of concern consists of multiple weapons and various other objects in a complex, three-dimensional geometry. In each weapon, HE is enclosed by (casing) materials that function as protection in the event of a neighbor detonation but become a source of fragments if the HE is initiated. The protection afforded by the casing means that only high-momentum fragments, which occur rarely, are of concern. These fragments, generated in an initial donor weapon are transported to other weapons either directly or by ricochet. Interaction of a fragment with an acceptor weapon can produce a reaction in the acceptor HE and result in a second detonation. In this paper we describe a comprehensive methodology to estimate the probability of various consequences for fragment-induced propagating detonations in arrays of weapons containing HE. Analysis of this problem requires an approach that can both define the circumstances under which rare events can occur and calculate the probability of such occurrences. Our approach is based on combining process tree methodology with Monte Carlo transport simulation. Our Monte Carlo technique very effectively captures important features of these differences. Process tree methodology is described and its use is discussed for a simplified problem and to illustrate the power of Monte Carlo simulation in estimating fragment-induced detonation of an acceptor weapon.
Unified modeling of turbulence effects on sound propagation.
Cheinet, Sylvain; Ehrhardt, Loic; Juvé, Daniel; Blanc-Benon, Philippe
2012-10-01
Many aspects of outdoor sound propagation depend on the scattering effects induced by atmospheric turbulence. Standard analytical and numerical assessments of these effects make an a priori distinction between the scattering effects at large versus small angles. The present study evaluates the ability of a numerical model in overcoming this distinction. The model solves a set of two coupled equations for the sound pressure and vector acoustic velocity, with the finite-difference time domain approach. It is first introduced and evaluated. The numerical predictions are compared to well-known analytical solutions in the case of two-dimensional plane wave propagation through turbulence. They are found to agree in the investigated scenarios. Hence, the finite-difference, time domain solution of the two coupled equations provides a unified, versatile numerical approach to investigating the effects of atmospheric turbulence on sound propagation. The comparison also provides original insights on the applicability and limitations of various methods used to investigate sound propagation through turbulence.
Chromospheric extents predicted by time-dependent acoustic wave models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cuntz, Manfred
1990-01-01
Theoretical models for chromospheric structures of late-type giant stars are computed, including the time-dependent propagation of acoustic waves. Models with short-period monochromatic shock waves as well as a spectrum of acoustic waves are discussed, and the method is applied to the stars Arcturus, Aldebaran, and Betelgeuse. Chromospheric extent, defined as the monotonic decrease with height of the time-averaged electron densities, are found to be 1.12, 1.13, and 1.22 stellar radii for the three stars, respectively; this corresponds to a time-averaged electron density of 10 to the 7th/cu cm. Predictions of the extended chromospheric obtained using a simple scaling law agree well with those obtained by the time-dependent wave models; thus, the chromospheres of all stars for which the scaling law is valid consist of the same number of pressure scale heights.
Measurement of the flow velocity in unmagnetized plasmas by counter propagating ion-acoustic waves
Ma, J.X.; Li Yangfang; Xiao Delong; Li Jingju; Li Yiren
2005-06-15
The diffusion velocity of an inhomogeneous unmagnetized plasma is measured by means of the phase velocities of ion-acoustic waves propagating along and against the direction of the plasma flow. Combined with the measurement of the plasma density distributions by usual Langmuir probes, the method is applied to measure the ambipolar diffusion coefficient and effective ion collision frequency in inhomogeneous plasmas formed in an asymmetrically discharged double-plasma device. Experimental results show that the measured flow velocities, diffusion coefficients, and effective collision frequencies are in agreement with ion-neutral collision dominated diffusion theory.
Parabolic equation modeling of high frequency acoustic transmission with an evolving sea surface.
Senne, J; Song, A; Badiey, M; Smith, K B
2012-09-01
The present paper examines the temporal evolution of acoustic fields by modeling forward propagation subject to sea surface dynamics with time scales of less than a second to tens of seconds. A time-evolving rough sea surface model is combined with a rough surface formulation of a parabolic equation model for predicting time-varying acoustic fields. Surface waves are generated from surface wave spectra, and stepped in time using a Runge-Kutta integration technique applied to linear evolution equations. This evolving, range-dependent surface information is combined with other environmental parameters and input to the acoustic model, giving an approximation of the time-varying acoustic field. The wide-angle parabolic equation model manages the rough sea surfaces by molding them into the boundary conditions for calculations of the near-surface acoustic field. This merged acoustic model is validated using concurrently-collected acoustic and environmental information, including surface wave spectra. Data to model comparisons demonstrate that the model is able to approximate the ensemble-averaged acoustic intensity at ranges of about a kilometer for acoustic signals of around 15 kHz. Furthermore, the model is shown to capture variations due to surface fluctuations occurring over time scales of less than a second to tens of seconds.
The effects of random bottom bathymetry on coherence in shallow water acoustic propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wylie, Jennifer Leigh
In an ideal shallow water propagation channel the sound field is accurately described by normal modes and the mode structure is predictable with clean separated modes. However the real ocean environment is rarely ideal, and variations in bottom bathymetry and water column sound speed are usually present. Random fluctuations of the sound speed in time, space, and/or the boundaries can distort modes such that phase coherence is reduced and under some conditions completely lost. The basic research community seeks to understand the effects of internal waves on temporal coherence. Here the study method of choice is to use fixed system experiments that observe both oceanographic and acoustical fluctuations. On the other hand applied Naval research is focused on using mobile platforms to instantaneously measure spatial coherence shipboard, and they have little to no interest in measuring long term coherence. Here we seek to present a unified theory using normal modes. Both spatial and temporal coherence as well as the effects of source motion and Doppler will be addressed. Mode structure can be randomized in two ways: sound speed fluctuations and boundary variations. The research proposed here will emphasize spatial variations of the bottom bathymetry and how they affect mode arrivals. A parabolic equation model is used to predict mode shapes in a range dependent environment and random variations in bottom boundaries will be introduced and distortion in the mode arrival structure will be observed. The mode arrival structures will then be used to estimate temporal and spatial coherence of the mode arrivals and the predictions will be compared to the data from three different shallow water experiments.
Muir, Thomas G; Costley, R Daniel; Sabatier, James M
2014-01-01
Finite element methods are utilized to model and compare the use of both a remote loudspeaker and a vertical shaker in the generation of sound and shear and interface waves in an elastic solid containing an imbedded elastic scatterer, which is resonant. Results for steady state and transient insonification are presented to illustrate excitation, propagation, and scattering mechanisms and effects. Comparisons of acoustic and vibratory excitation of the solid interface are made, with a view towards remote sensing of induced vibratory motion through optical measurement of the ground interface motion above the imbedded inclusion. Some advantages of the acoustic excitation method for exciting plate mode resonances in the target are observed. PMID:24437744
Muir, Thomas G; Costley, R Daniel; Sabatier, James M
2014-01-01
Finite element methods are utilized to model and compare the use of both a remote loudspeaker and a vertical shaker in the generation of sound and shear and interface waves in an elastic solid containing an imbedded elastic scatterer, which is resonant. Results for steady state and transient insonification are presented to illustrate excitation, propagation, and scattering mechanisms and effects. Comparisons of acoustic and vibratory excitation of the solid interface are made, with a view towards remote sensing of induced vibratory motion through optical measurement of the ground interface motion above the imbedded inclusion. Some advantages of the acoustic excitation method for exciting plate mode resonances in the target are observed.
Lipkens, B; Blackstock, D T
1998-09-01
A model experiment was reported to be successful in simulating the propagation of sonic booms through a turbulent atmosphere [B. Lipkens and D. T. Blackstock, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 148-158 (1998)]. In this study the effect on N wave characteristics of turbulence intensity and propagation distance through turbulence are investigated. The main parameters of interest are the rise time and the peak pressure. The effect of turbulence intensity and propagation distance is to flatten the rise time and peak pressure distributions. Rise time and peak pressure distributions always have positive skewness after propagation through turbulence. Average rise time grows with turbulence intensity and propagation distance. The scattering of rise time data is one-sided, i.e., rise times are almost always increased by turbulence. Average peak pressure decreases slowly with turbulence intensity and propagation distance. For the reported data a threefold increase in average rise time is observed and a maximum decrease of about 20% in average peak pressure. Rise times more than ten times that of the no turbulence value are observed. At most, the maximum peak pressure doubles after propagation through turbulence, and the minimum peak pressure values are about one-half the no-turbulence values. Rounded waveforms are always more common than peaked waveforms. PMID:9745733
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thoma, Carsten Hilmar
1997-12-01
The coupling of stress and strain fields to electric fields present in anisotropic piezoelectric crystals makes them ideal for use as electromechanical transducers in a wide variety of applications. In recent years such crystals have been utilized to produce surface acoustic wave devices for signal processing applications, in which an applied metallic grating both transmits and receives, through the piezoelectric effect, electromechanical surface waves. The design of such interdigital transducers requires an accurate knowledge of wave propagation and reflection. The presence of the metal grating in addition to its ideal transduction function, by means of electrical and mechanical loading, also introduces a velocity shift as well as reflection into substrate surface waves. We seek to obtain a consistent formulation of the wave behavior due to the electrical and mechanical loading of the substrate crystal by the metallic grating. A perturbative solution up to second order in h//lambda is developed, where h is the maximum grating height and λ the acoustic wavelength. For the operating frequencies and physical parameters of modern surface acoustic wave devices such an analysis will provide an adequate description of device behavior in many cases, thereby circumventing the need for more computationally laborious methods. Numerical calculations are presented and compared with available experimental data.
Solovchuk, Maxim; Sheu, Tony W H; Thiriet, Marc
2013-11-01
This study investigates the influence of blood flow on temperature distribution during high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation of liver tumors. A three-dimensional acoustic-thermal-hydrodynamic coupling model is developed to compute the temperature field in the hepatic cancerous region. The model is based on the nonlinear Westervelt equation, bioheat equations for the perfused tissue and blood flow domains. The nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations are employed to describe the flow in large blood vessels. The effect of acoustic streaming is also taken into account in the present HIFU simulation study. A simulation of the Westervelt equation requires a prohibitively large amount of computer resources. Therefore a sixth-order accurate acoustic scheme in three-point stencil was developed for effectively solving the nonlinear wave equation. Results show that focused ultrasound beam with the peak intensity 2470 W/cm(2) can induce acoustic streaming velocities up to 75 cm/s in the vessel with a diameter of 3 mm. The predicted temperature difference for the cases considered with and without acoustic streaming effect is 13.5 °C or 81% on the blood vessel wall for the vein. Tumor necrosis was studied in a region close to major vessels. The theoretical feasibility to safely necrotize the tumors close to major hepatic arteries and veins was shown. PMID:24180802
Model-based passive acoustic tracking of sperm whale foraging behavior in the Gulf of Alaska
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tiemann, Christopher; Thode, Aaron; Straley, Jan; Folkert, Kendall; O'Connell, Victoria
2005-09-01
In 2004, the Southeast Alaska Sperm Whale Avoidance Project (SEASWAP) introduced the use of passive acoustics to help monitor the behavior of sperm whales depredating longline fishing operations. Acoustic data from autonomous recorders mounted on longlines provide the opportunity to demonstrate a tracking algorithm based on acoustic propagation modeling while providing insight into whales' foraging behavior. With knowledge of azimuthally dependent bathymetry, a 3D track of whale motion can be obtained using data from just one hydrophone by exploiting multipath arrival information from recorded sperm whale clicks. The evolution of multipath arrival patterns is matched to range-, depth-, and azimuth-dependent modeled arrival patterns to generate an estimate of whale motion. This technique does not require acoustic ray identification (i.e., direct path, surface reflected, etc.) while still utilizing individual ray arrival information, and it can also account for all waveguide propagation physics such as interaction with range-dependent bathymetry and ray refraction.
Large-scale numerical modeling of hydro-acoustic waves generated by tsunamigenic earthquakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cecioni, C.; Abdolali, A.; Bellotti, G.; Sammarco, P.
2015-03-01
Tsunamigenic fast movements of the seabed generate pressure waves in weakly compressible seawater, namely hydro-acoustic waves, which travel at the sound celerity in water (about 1500 m s-1). These waves travel much faster than the counterpart long free-surface gravity waves and contain significant information on the source. Measurement of hydro-acoustic waves can therefore anticipate the tsunami arrival and significantly improve the capability of tsunami early warning systems. In this paper a novel numerical model for reproduction of hydro-acoustic waves is applied to analyze the generation and propagation in real bathymetry of these pressure perturbations for two historical catastrophic earthquake scenarios in Mediterranean Sea. The model is based on the solution of a depth-integrated equation, and therefore results are computationally efficient in reconstructing the hydro-acoustic waves propagation scenarios.
The evolution of sediment acoustic models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chotiros, Nicholas P.; Isakson, Marcia J.
2012-11-01
Sediment acoustic models contain two connected components, the geo-physical description of the sediment and the model of acoustic processes. Geo-physical descriptors are used in the classification of sediments, and they are based on grain size, density and other physical descriptors. Acoustic sediment models were initially fluid approximations that were simple to implement. As the need for accuracy increased, the fluid model was extended to stratified fluid and visco-elastic models. The latter, with five frequency-independent parameters, appeared to be consistent with sediment acoustic data up to the 1980s. More recent experimental data have revealed discrepancies in the frequency-dependence of attenuation and sound speed, particularly in the case of sandy sediments, which cover a large fraction of the continental shelves. Broad-band acoustic measurements of wave speeds and attenuations are more consistent with a poro-elastic model, consisting of Biot's theory with extensions to account for the physics of granular media. Aside from terminology, there is a fundamental difference between visco-elastic and poro-elastic theories. The former is based on two types of waves, a compressional wave and a shear wave, while the latter has an additional compressional wave, often called the Biot wave. There are currently two approaches to the development of sediment acoustic models: (a) visco-elastic models with frequency dependent parameters that mimic the observed behavior, and (b) poro-elastic models that reflect the physical processes. It is shown that (a) would be a significant improvement over existing models, but (b) is the preferred solution.
A direct method for measuring acoustic ground impedance in long-range propagation experiments.
Soh, Jin H; Gilbert, Kenneth E; Frazier, W M Garth; Talmadge, Carrick L; Waxler, Roger
2010-11-01
A method is reported for determining ground impedance in long-range propagation experiments by using the definition of impedance directly. The method is envisioned as way of measuring the impedence at multiple locations along the propagation path, using the signals broadcast during the experiment itself. In a short-range (10 m) test, the direct method was in good agreement with a more conventional model-based least-squares method. The utility of the direct method was demonstrated in a 400 m propagation experiment in a agricultural field. The resulting impedance was consistent with the impedance measured previously in the same field. PMID:21110540
Baik, Kyungmin; Jiang, Jian; Leighton, Timothy G
2013-03-01
Equations for the nonaxisymmetric modes that are axially and circumferentially propagating in a liquid-filled tube with elastic walls surrounded by air/vacuum are presented using exact elasticity theory. Dispersion curves for the axially propagating modes are obtained and verified through comparison with measurements. The resulting theory is applied to the circumferential modes, and the pressures and the stresses in the liquid-filled pipe are calculated under external forced oscillation by an acoustic source. This provides the theoretical foundation for the narrow band acoustic bubble detector that was subsequently deployed at the Target Test Facility (TTF) of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), TN.
Modeling of the fisheries acoustics problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adams, Barbara Leigh
This dissertation presents a mathematical model of the overall fisheries acoustics problem posed by enumeration of fish populations using sonar. Emphasis is placed on three key components: a new geometric model for the target strength (TS) of Pacific salmon, a fish distribution for sockeye salmon, and generation of artificial sonar data. Results of the TS and fish distribution models show TS varies on height and breadth of fish as much as on fish length and TS from the air-filled swimbladder is the major contributor as reported by Foote [1985]. A fish roll factor within 45° leads to TS variations within 7 dB for normal incidence, side aspect and 2 dB for dorsal aspect. Also second order effects of ray propagation through fish flesh on TS from the swimbladder provide TS results up to 20 dB lower at high aspect angles. The geometric model predicts TS values that match extremely well with TS data collected on Pacific salmon and other species in river and ocean environments. By varying fish size and swimbladder parameters and considering the effect of fish flesh, the model covers the range of TS values that occur in the field, thus identifying and quantifying the uncertainty in the experimental data. The overall approach in this work is to construct a direct model providing artificial sonar data, then use an inverse model (echo integration algorithm) with that data or with experimental data to compare results. The echo integration results are not reliable at any fish rate for a fixed river cross-section. Estimated fish counts of 0--7 are obtained from 100 simulations for a known fish distribution of 3 fish (0.1 fish/sec). Similarly, at 0.5 fish/sec with 15 known fish, estimates of 0--30 were obtained; at 1 fish/sec with 30 known fish, estimates of 0--50; and at 5 fish/sec with 150 known fish, estimates of 0--100 fish. Fish counts ranged from 0--19 for 3 known fish when ping rate changed from 1--10 pings/sec and when pulse width varied from 0.1--1.0 ms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Sai; Zhang, Yu; Gao, Xiao-Wei
2014-12-01
In this paper, superwide-angle acoustic propagations above the critical angles of the Snell law in liquid—solid superlattice are investigated. Incident waves above the critical angles of the Snell law usually inevitably induce total reflection. However, incident waves with big oblique angles through the liquid—solid superlattice will produce a superwide angle transmission in a certain frequency range so that total reflection does not occur. Together with the simulation by finite element analysis, theoretical analysis by using transfer matrix method suggests the Bragg scattering of the Lamb waves as the physical mechanism of acoustic wave super-propagation far beyond the critical angle. Incident angle, filling fraction, and material thickness have significant influences on propagation. Superwide-angle propagation phenomenon may have potential applications in nondestructive evaluation of layered structures and controlling of energy flux.
Modelling acoustic scattering, sound speed, and attenuation in gassy soft marine sediments.
Mantouka, A; Dogan, H; White, P R; Leighton, T G
2016-07-01
A model for nonlinear gas bubble pulsation in marine sediments is presented. This model is then linearized to determine the resonance frequency and the damping terms for linear radial oscillations. The linear model is then used to predict the effects that such bubble pulsations will have on the sound speed and attenuation of acoustic waves propagating in gassy marine sediment. The results are compared for monodisperse populations against the predictions of a model of Anderson and Hampton and, furthermore, the additional abilities of the model introduced in this paper are discussed. These features include the removal of the sign ambiguities in the expressions, the straightforward implementation for acoustic propagation through polydisperse bubble populations, the capability to estimate bubble size distributions through a full acoustic inversion, and the capability to predict nonlinear effects. PMID:27475152
Verification of Ares I Liftoff Acoustic Environments via the Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Counter, Douglas; Houston, Janice
2012-01-01
The Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) program was implemented to verify the predicted Ares I liftoff acoustic environments and to determine the acoustic reduction gained by using an above deck water sound suppression system. The test article included a 5% scale Ares I vehicle model and Mobile Launcher with tower. Acoustic and pressure data were measured by over 200 instruments. The ASMAT results are compared to Ares I-X flight data.
On the Propagation of Plane Acoustic Waves in a Duct With Flexible and Impedance Walls
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frendi, Abdelkader; Vu, Bruce
2003-01-01
This Technical Memorandum (TM) discusses the harmonic and random plane acoustic waves propagating from inside a duct to its surroundings. Various duct surfaces are considered, such as rigid, flexible, and impedance. In addition, the effects of a mean flow are studied when the duct alone is considered. Results show a significant reduction in overall sound pressure levels downstream of the impedance wall for both mean flow and no mean flow cases and for a narrow duct. When a wider duct is used, the overall sound pressure level (OSPL) reduction downstream of the impedance wall is much smaller. In the far field, the directivity is such that the overall sound pressure level is reduced by about 5 decibels (dB) on the side of the impedance wall. When a flexible surface is used, the far field directivity becomes asymmetric with an increase in the OSPL on the side of the flexible surface of about 7 dB.
El-Labany, S. K.; Behery, E. E.; El-Shamy, E. F.
2013-12-15
The propagation and oblique collision of ion-acoustic (IA) solitary waves in a magnetized dusty electronegative plasma consisting of cold mobile positive ions, Boltzmann negative ions, Boltzmann electrons, and stationary positive/negative dust particles are studied. The extended Poincaré-Lighthill-Kuo perturbation method is employed to derive the Korteweg-de Vries equations and the corresponding expressions for the phase shifts after collision between two IA solitary waves. It turns out that the angle of collision, the temperature and density of negative ions, and the dust density of opposite polarity have reasonable effects on the phase shift. Clearly, the numerical results demonstrated that the IA solitary waves are delayed after the oblique collision. The current finding of this work is applicable in many plasma environments having negative ion species, such as D- and F-regions of the Earth's ionosphere and some laboratory plasma experiments.
Wave propagation in piezoelectric layered structures of film bulk acoustic resonators.
Zhu, Feng; Qian, Zheng-hua; Wang, Bin
2016-04-01
In this paper, we studied the wave propagation in a piezoelectric layered plate consisting of a piezoelectric thin film on an electroded elastic substrate with or without a driving electrode. Both plane-strain and anti-plane waves were taken into account for the sake of completeness. Numerical results on dispersion relations, cut-off frequencies and vibration distributions of selected modes were given. The effects of mass ratio of driving electrode layer to film layer on the dispersion curve patterns and cut-off frequencies of the plane-strain waves were discussed in detail. Results show that the mass ratio does not change the trend of dispersion curves but larger mass ratio lowers corresponding frequency at a fixed wave number and may extend the frequency range for energy trapping. Those results are of fundamental importance and can be used as a reference to develop effective two-dimensional plate equations for structural analysis and design of film bulk acoustic resonators.
The stability of freely-propagating ion acoustic waves in 2D systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chapman, Thomas; Berger, Richard; Banks, Jeffrey; Brunner, Stephan
2014-10-01
The stability of a freely-propagating ion acoustic wave (IAW) is a basic science problem that is made difficult by the need to resolve electron kinetic effects over a timescale that greatly exceeds the IAW period during numerical simulation. Recent results examining IAW stability using a 1D+1V Vlasov-Poisson solver indicate that instability is a fundamental property of IAWs that occurs over most if not all of the parameter space of relevance to ICF experiments. We present here new results addressing the fundamental question of IAW stability across a broad range of plasma conditions in a 2D+2V system using LOKI, ranging from a regime of relatively weak to a regime of relatively strong ion kinetic effects. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LLNL (DE-AC52-07NA27344) and funded by the LDRD Program at LLNL (12-ERD-061).
Dagrau, Franck; Rénier, Mathieu; Marchiano, Régis; Coulouvrat, François
2011-07-01
Numerical simulation of nonlinear acoustics and shock waves in a weakly heterogeneous and lossless medium is considered. The wave equation is formulated so as to separate homogeneous diffraction, heterogeneous effects, and nonlinearities. A numerical method called heterogeneous one-way approximation for resolution of diffraction (HOWARD) is developed, that solves the homogeneous part of the equation in the spectral domain (both in time and space) through a one-way approximation neglecting backscattering. A second-order parabolic approximation is performed but only on the small, heterogeneous part. So the resulting equation is more precise than the usual standard or wide-angle parabolic approximation. It has the same dispersion equation as the exact wave equation for all forward propagating waves, including evanescent waves. Finally, nonlinear terms are treated through an analytical, shock-fitting method. Several validation tests are performed through comparisons with analytical solutions in the linear case and outputs of the standard or wide-angle parabolic approximation in the nonlinear case. Numerical convergence tests and physical analysis are finally performed in the fully heterogeneous and nonlinear case of shock wave focusing through an acoustical lens.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Monitoring sediment-generated noise using submerged hydrophones is a surrogate method for measuring bed load transport in streams with the potential for improving estimates of bed load transport through widespread, inexpensive monitoring. Understanding acoustic signal propagation in natural stream e...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcia, R.; Brissaud, Q.; Martin, R.; Rolland, L. M.; Komatitsch, D.
2015-12-01
A simulation tool of acoustic and gravity wave propagation through finite differences is applied to the case of Mars atmosphere.The details of the code and its validation for Earth atmosphere are presented in session SA003.The simulations include the modeling of both acoustic and gravity waves in the same run, an effects of exponential density decrease, winds and attenuation.The application to Mars requires the inclusion of a specific attenuation effect related to the relaxation induced by vibrational modes of carbon dioxide molecules.Two different applications are presented demonstrating the ability of the simulation tool to work at very different scale length and frequencies.First the propagation of acoustic and gravity waves due to a bolide explosion in the atmosphere of Mars are simulated.This case has a direct application to the atmospheric pressure and seismic measurements that will be performed by INSIGHT NASA discovery mission next year.Then, we also present simulations of sound wave propagation on a scale of meters that can be used to infer the feasability microphone measurements for future Mars missions.
Acoustical model of a Shoddy fibre absorber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manning, John Peter
Shoddy fibres or "Shoddies" are a mixture of post-consumer and post-industrial fibres diverted from textile waste streams and recycled into their raw fibre form. They have found widespread use as a raw material for manufacturing sound absorbers that include, but are not limited to: automotive, architectural and home appliance applications. The purpose of this project is to develop a simple acoustic model to describe the acoustic behaviour of sound absorbers composed primarily of Shoddy fibres. The model requires knowledge of the material's bulk density only. To date, these materials have not been the focus of much published research and acoustical designers must rely on models that were developed for other materials or are overly complex. For modelling purposes, an equivalent fluid approach is chosen to balance complexity and accuracy. In deriving the proposed model, several popular equivalent fluid models are selected and the required input parameters for each model identified. The models are: the model of Delaney and Bazley, two models by Miki, the model of Johnson in conjunction with the model of Champoux and Allard and the model of Johnson in conjunction with the model of Lafarge. Characterization testing is carried out on sets of Shoddy absorbers produced using three different manufacturing methods. The measured properties are open porosity, tortuosity, airflow resistivity, the viscous and thermal characteristic lengths and the static thermal permeability. Empirical relationships between model parameters and bulk density are then derived and used to populate the selected models. This yields several 'simplified' models with bulk density as the only parameter. The most accurate model is then selected by comparing each model's prediction to the results of normal incidence sound absorption tests. The model of Johnson-Lafarge populated with the empirical relations is the most accurate model over the range of frequencies considered (approx. 300 Hz - 4000 Hz
Model-based ocean acoustic passive localization. Revision 1
Candy, J.V.; Sullivan, E.J.
1994-06-01
A model-based approach is developed (theoretically) to solve the passive localization problem. Here the authors investigate the design of a model-based identifier for a shallow water ocean acoustic problem characterized by a normal-mode model. In this problem they show how the processor can be structured to estimate the vertical wave numbers directly from measured pressure-field and sound speed measurements thereby eliminating the need for synthetic aperture processing or even a propagation model solution. Finally, they investigate various special cases of the source localization problem, designing a model-based localizer for each and evaluating the underlying structure with the expectation of gaining more and more insight into the general problem.
Modeling Propagation of Shock Waves in Metals
Howard, W M; Molitoris, J D
2005-08-19
We present modeling results for the propagation of strong shock waves in metals. In particular, we use an arbitrary Lagrange Eulerian (ALE3D) code to model the propagation of strong pressure waves (P {approx} 300 to 400 kbars) generated with high explosives in contact with aluminum cylinders. The aluminum cylinders are assumed to be both flat-topped and have large-amplitude curved surfaces. We use 3D Lagrange mechanics. For the aluminum we use a rate-independent Steinberg-Guinan model, where the yield strength and shear modulus depend on pressure, density and temperature. The calculation of the melt temperature is based on the Lindermann law. At melt the yield strength and shear modulus is set to zero. The pressure is represented as a seven-term polynomial as a function of density. For the HMX-based high explosive, we use a JWL, with a program burn model that give the correct detonation velocity and C-J pressure (P {approx} 390 kbars). For the case of the large-amplitude curved surface, we discuss the evolving shock structure in terms of the early shock propagation experiments by Sakharov.
Lugli, M; Fine, M L
2003-07-01
Noise is an important theoretical constraint on the evolution of signal form and sensory performance. In order to determine environmental constraints on the communication of two freshwater gobies Padogobius martensii and Gobius nigricans, numerous noise spectra were measured from quiet areas and ones adjacent to waterfalls and rapids in two shallow stony streams. Propagation of goby sounds and waterfall noise was also measured. A quiet window around 100 Hz is present in many noise spectra from noisy locations. The window lies between two noise sources, a low-frequency one attributed to turbulence, and a high-frequency one (200-500 Hz) attributed to bubble noise from water breaking the surface. Ambient noise from a waterfall (frequencies below 1 kHz) attenuates as much as 30 dB between 1 and 2 m, after which values are variable without further attenuation (i.e., buried in the noise floor). Similarly, courtship sounds of P. martensii attenuate as much as 30 dB between 5 and 50 cm. Since gobies are known to court in noisy as well as quiet locations in these streams, their acoustic communication system (sounds and auditory system) must be able to cope with short-range propagation dictated by shallow depths and ambient noise in noisy locations. PMID:12880062
Paul, S.C.; Pirskawetz, S.; Zijl, G.P.A.G. van; Schmidt, W.
2015-03-15
This paper presents the analysis of crack propagation in strain-hardening cement-based composite (SHCC) under tensile and flexural load by using acoustic emission (AE). AE is a non-destructive technique to monitor the development of structural damage due to external forces. The main objective of this research was to characterise the cracking behaviour in SHCC in direct tensile and flexural tests by using AE. A better understanding of the development of microcracks in SHCC will lead to a better understanding of pseudo strain-hardening behaviour of SHCC and its general performance. ARAMIS optical deformation analysis was also used in direct tensile tests to observe crack propagation in SHCC materials. For the direct tensile tests, SHCC specimens were prepared with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibre with three different volume percentages (1%, 1.85% and 2.5%). For the flexural test beam specimens, only a fibre dosage of 1.85% was applied. It was found that the application of AE in SHCC can be a good option to analyse the crack growth in the specimens under increasing load, the location of the cracks and most importantly the identification of matrix cracking and fibre rupture or slippage.
Lugli, M; Fine, M L
2003-07-01
Noise is an important theoretical constraint on the evolution of signal form and sensory performance. In order to determine environmental constraints on the communication of two freshwater gobies Padogobius martensii and Gobius nigricans, numerous noise spectra were measured from quiet areas and ones adjacent to waterfalls and rapids in two shallow stony streams. Propagation of goby sounds and waterfall noise was also measured. A quiet window around 100 Hz is present in many noise spectra from noisy locations. The window lies between two noise sources, a low-frequency one attributed to turbulence, and a high-frequency one (200-500 Hz) attributed to bubble noise from water breaking the surface. Ambient noise from a waterfall (frequencies below 1 kHz) attenuates as much as 30 dB between 1 and 2 m, after which values are variable without further attenuation (i.e., buried in the noise floor). Similarly, courtship sounds of P. martensii attenuate as much as 30 dB between 5 and 50 cm. Since gobies are known to court in noisy as well as quiet locations in these streams, their acoustic communication system (sounds and auditory system) must be able to cope with short-range propagation dictated by shallow depths and ambient noise in noisy locations.
Oblique propagation of ion-acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized electron-positron-ion plasma
Ferdousi, M.; Sultana, S.; Mamun, A. A.
2015-03-15
The properties of obliquely propagating ion-acoustic solitary waves in the presence of ambient magnetic field have been investigated theoretically in an electron-positron-ion nonthermal plasma. The plasma nonthermality is introduced via the q-nonextensive distribution of electrons and positrons. The Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV) and modified K-dV (mK-dV) equations are derived by adopting reductive perturbation method. The solution of K-dV and modified K-dV equation, which describes the solitary wave characteristics in the long wavelength limit, is obtained by steady state approach. It is seen that the electron and positron nonextensivity and external magnetic field (obliqueness) have significant effects on the characteristics of solitary waves. A critical value of nonextensivity is found for which solitary structures transit from positive to negative potential. The findings of this investigation may be used in understanding the wave propagation in laboratory and space plasmas where static external magnetic field is present.
Numerical Models for Sound Propagation in Long Spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, Chenly Yuen Cheung
Both reverberation time and steady-state sound field are the key elements for assessing the acoustic condition in an enclosed space. They affect the noise propagation, speech intelligibility, clarity index, and definition. Since the sound field in a long space is non diffuse, classical room acoustics theory does not apply in this situation. The ray tracing technique and the image source methods are two common models to fathom both reverberation time and steady-state sound field in long enclosures nowadays. Although both models can give an accurate estimate of reverberation times and steady-state sound field directly or indirectly, they often involve time-consuming calculations. In order to simplify the acoustic consideration, a theoretical formulation has been developed for predicting both steady-state sound fields and reverberation times in street canyons. The prediction model is further developed to predict the steady-state sound field in a long enclosure. Apart from the straight long enclosure, there are other variations such as a cross junction, a long enclosure with a T-intersection, an U-turn long enclosure. In the present study, an theoretical and experimental investigations were conducted to develop formulae for predicting reverberation times and steady-state sound fields in a junction of a street canyon and in a long enclosure with T-intersection. The theoretical models are validated by comparing the numerical predictions with published experimental results. The theoretical results are also compared with precise indoor measurements and large-scale outdoor experimental results. In all of previous acoustical studies related to long enclosure, most of the studies are focused on the monopole sound source. Besides non-directional noise source, many noise sources in long enclosure are dipole like, such as train noise and fan noise. In order to study the characteristics of directional noise sources, a review of available dipole source was conducted. A dipole was
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Zhengzhi; Ulrich, Roger K.; Coroniti, Ferdinand V.
1995-01-01
The normal dispersion analysis for linear adiabatic wave propagation in stratified atmospheres adopts a real frequency and solves for the complex vertical wavenumber. We show that an exponentially stratified atmosphere does not have any spatially bounded normal modes for real frequencies. The usual treatment involves a representation where the imaginary part of the vertical wavenumber yields a rho(sup -1/2) dependence of the velocity amplitude which diverges as the absolute value of z approaches infinity. This solution includes a cutoff frequency below which acoustic modes cannot propagate. The standard dispersion analysis is a local representation of the wave behavior in both space and time but which is assumed to represent the motion throughout - infinity is less than t is less than infinity and 0 is less than infinity. However, any solution which has a purely sinusoidal time dependence extends through this full domain and is divergent due to the rho(sup -1/2) dependence. We show that a proper description is in terms of a near field of a boundary piston which is driven arbitrarily as a function of space and time. The atmosphere which responds to this piston is a semi-infinite layer which has an initially constant sound speed but which has the usual gravitational stratification. In a restricted domain of space and time above this boundary, the wavelike behavior of the medium may be described by frequencies and vertical wavenumbers which are both complex. When both parameters are allowed to have imaginary components, a new range of solutions is found for which there is virtually no cutoff frequency. We show that vertical energy propagation can take place through the solar atmosphere as a result of oscillations below the nominal cutoff frequency. Previously, the largest amplitude oscillations which generally have low frequencies were dropped from the calculation of energy flux becuase their frequencies are below the cutoff frequency. This new family of near
Target & Propagation Models for the FINDER Radar
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cable, Vaughn; Lux, James; Haque, Salmon
2013-01-01
Finding persons still alive in piles of rubble following an earthquake, a severe storm, or other disaster is a difficult problem. JPL is currently developing a victim detection radar called FINDER (Finding Individuals in Emergency and Response). The subject of this paper is directed toward development of propagation & target models needed for simulation & testing of such a system. These models are both physical (real rubble piles) and numerical. Early results from the numerical modeling phase show spatial and temporal spreading characteristics when signals are passed through a randomly mixed rubble pile.
Study of Two-Dimensional Compressible Non-Acoustic Modeling of Stirling Machine Type Components
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tew, Roy C., Jr.; Ibrahim, Mounir B.
2001-01-01
A two-dimensional (2-D) computer code was developed for modeling enclosed volumes of gas with oscillating boundaries, such as Stirling machine components. An existing 2-D incompressible flow computer code, CAST, was used as the starting point for the project. CAST was modified to use the compressible non-acoustic Navier-Stokes equations to model an enclosed volume including an oscillating piston. The devices modeled have low Mach numbers and are sufficiently small that the time required for acoustics to propagate across them is negligible. Therefore, acoustics were excluded to enable more time efficient computation. Background information about the project is presented. The compressible non-acoustic flow assumptions are discussed. The governing equations used in the model are presented in transport equation format. A brief description is given of the numerical methods used. Comparisons of code predictions with experimental data are then discussed.
Modeling Light Propagation in Luminescent Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sahin, Derya
This study presents physical, computational and analytical modeling approaches for light propagation in luminescent random media. Two different approaches are used, namely (i) a statistical approach: Monte-Carlo simulations for photon transport and (ii) a deterministic approach: radiative transport theory. Both approaches account accurately for the multiple absorption and reemission of light at different wavelengths and for anisotropic luminescence. The deterministic approach is a generalization of radiative transport theory for solving inelastic scattering problems in random media. We use the radiative transport theory to study light propagation in luminescent media. Based on this theory, we also study the optically thick medium. Using perturbation methods, a corrected diffusion approximation with asymptotically accurate boundary conditions and a boundary layer solution are derived. The accuracy and the efficacy of this approach is verified for a plane-parallel slab problem. In particular, we apply these two approaches (MC and radiative transport theory) to model light propagation in semiconductor-based luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs). The computational results for both approaches are compared with each other and found to agree. The results of this dissertation present practical and reliable techniques to use for solving forward/inverse inelastic scattering problems arising in various research areas such as optics, biomedical engineering, nuclear engineering, solar science and material science.
Validation and Simulation of ARES I Scale Model Acoustic Test -1- Pathfinder Development
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Putnam, G. C.
2011-01-01
The Ares I Scale Model Acoustics Test (ASMAT) is a series of live-fire tests of scaled rocket motors meant to simulate the conditions of the Ares I launch configuration. These tests have provided a well documented set of high fidelity measurements useful for validation including data taken over a range of test conditions and containing phenomena like Ignition Over-Pressure and water suppression of acoustics. To take advantage of this data, a digital representation of the ASMAT test setup has been constructed and test firings of the motor have been simulated using the Loci/CHEM computational fluid dynamics software. Within this first of a series of papers, results from ASMAT simulations with the rocket in a held down configuration and without water suppression have then been compared to acoustic data collected from similar live-fire tests to assess the accuracy of the simulations. Detailed evaluations of the mesh features, mesh length scales relative to acoustic signals, Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy numbers, and spatial residual sources have been performed to support this assessment. Results of acoustic comparisons have shown good correlation with the amplitude and temporal shape of pressure features and reasonable spectral accuracy up to approximately 1000 Hz. Major plume and acoustic features have been well captured including the plume shock structure, the igniter pulse transient, and the ignition overpressure. Finally, acoustic propagation patterns illustrated a previously unconsidered issue of tower placement inline with the high intensity overpressure propagation path.
Crack propagation modeling using Peridynamic theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hafezi, M. H.; Alebrahim, R.; Kundu, T.
2016-04-01
Crack propagation and branching are modeled using nonlocal peridynamic theory. One major advantage of this nonlocal theory based analysis tool is the unifying approach towards material behavior modeling - irrespective of whether the crack is formed in the material or not. No separate damage law is needed for crack initiation and propagation. This theory overcomes the weaknesses of existing continuum mechanics based numerical tools (e.g. FEM, XFEM etc.) for identifying fracture modes and does not require any simplifying assumptions. Cracks grow autonomously and not necessarily along a prescribed path. However, in some special situations such as in case of ductile fracture, the damage evolution and failure depend on parameters characterizing the local stress state instead of peridynamic damage modeling technique developed for brittle fracture. For brittle fracture modeling the bond is simply broken when the failure criterion is satisfied. This simulation helps us to design more reliable modeling tool for crack propagation and branching in both brittle and ductile materials. Peridynamic analysis has been found to be very demanding computationally, particularly for real-world structures (e.g. vehicles, aircrafts, etc.). It also requires a very expensive visualization process. The goal of this paper is to bring awareness to researchers the impact of this cutting-edge simulation tool for a better understanding of the cracked material response. A computer code has been developed to implement the peridynamic theory based modeling tool for two-dimensional analysis. A good agreement between our predictions and previously published results is observed. Some interesting new results that have not been reported earlier by others are also obtained and presented in this paper. The final objective of this investigation is to increase the mechanics knowledge of self-similar and self-affine cracks.
Nonlinear acoustic pulse propagation in dispersive sediments using fractional loss operators.
Maestas, Joseph T; Collis, Jon M
2016-03-01
The nonlinear progressive wave equation (NPE) is a time-domain formulation of the Euler fluid equations designed to model low-angle wave propagation using a wave-following computational domain. The wave-following frame of reference permits the simulation of long-range propagation and is useful in modeling blast wave effects in the ocean waveguide. Existing models do not take into account frequency-dependent sediment attenuation, a feature necessary for accurately describing sound propagation over, into, and out of the ocean sediment. Sediment attenuation is addressed in this work by applying lossy operators to the governing equation that are based on a fractional Laplacian. These operators accurately describe frequency-dependent attenuation and dispersion in typical ocean sediments. However, dispersion within the sediment is found to be a secondary process to absorption and effectively negligible for ranges of interest. The resulting fractional NPE is benchmarked against a Fourier-transformed parabolic equation solution for a linear case, and against the analytical Mendousse solution to Burgers' equation for the nonlinear case. The fractional NPE is then used to investigate the effects of attenuation on shock wave propagation. PMID:27036279
Urban, Matthew W; Nenadic, Ivan Z; Qiang, Bo; Bernal, Miguel; Chen, Shigao; Greenleaf, James F
2015-10-01
Evaluation of tissue engineering constructs is performed by a series of different tests. In many cases it is important to match the mechanical properties of these constructs to those of native tissues. However, many mechanical testing methods are destructive in nature which increases cost for evaluation because of the need for additional samples reserved for these assessments. A wave propagation method is proposed for characterizing the shear elasticity of thin layers bounded by a rigid substrate and fluid-loading, similar to the configuration for many tissue engineering applications. An analytic wave propagation model was derived for this configuration and compared against finite element model simulations and numerical solutions from the software package Disperse. The results from the different models found very good agreement. Experiments were performed in tissue-mimicking gelatin phantoms with thicknesses of 1 and 4 mm and found that the wave propagation method could resolve the shear modulus with very good accuracy, no more than 4.10% error. This method could be used in tissue engineering applications to monitor tissue engineering construct maturation with a nondestructive wave propagation method to evaluate the shear modulus of a material.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choudhary, Mangilal; Mukherjee, S.; Bandyopadhyay, P.
2016-08-01
The experimental observation of the self-excited dust acoustic waves (DAWs) and its propagation characteristics in the absence and presence of a floating cylindrical object is investigated. The experiments are carried out in a direct current (DC) glow discharge dusty plasma in a background of argon gas. Dust particles are found levitated at the interface of plasma and cathode sheath region. The DAWs are spontaneously excited in the dust medium and found to propagate in the direction of ion drift (along the gravity) above a threshold discharge current at low pressure. Excitation of such a low frequency wave is a result of the ion-dust streaming instability in the dust cloud. Characteristics of the propagating dust acoustic wave get modified in the presence of a floating cylindrical object of radius larger than that of the dust Debye length. Instead of propagation in the vertical direction, the DAWs are found to propagate obliquely in the presence of the floating object (kept either vertically or horizontally). In addition, a horizontally aligned floating object forms a wave structure in the cone shaped dust cloud in the sheath region. Such changes in the propagation characteristics of DAWs are explained on the basis of modified potential (or electric field) distribution, which is a consequence of coupling of sheaths formed around the cylindrical object and the cathode.
An asymptotic model in acoustics: acoustic drift equations.
Vladimirov, Vladimir A; Ilin, Konstantin
2013-11-01
A rigorous asymptotic procedure with the Mach number as a small parameter is used to derive the equations of mean flows which coexist and are affected by the background acoustic waves in the limit of very high Reynolds number.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vijay Prakash, S.; Sonti, Venkata R.
2016-02-01
Nonlinear acoustic wave propagation in an infinite rectangular waveguide is investigated. The upper boundary of this waveguide is a nonlinear elastic plate, whereas the lower boundary is rigid. The fluid is assumed to be inviscid with zero mean flow. The focus is restricted to non-planar modes having finite amplitudes. The approximate solution to the acoustic velocity potential of an amplitude modulated pulse is found using the method of multiple scales (MMS) involving both space and time. The calculations are presented up to the third order of the small parameter. It is found that at some frequencies the amplitude modulation is governed by the Nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE). The first objective here is to study the nonlinear term in the NLSE. The sign of the nonlinear term in the NLSE plays a role in determining the stability of the amplitude modulation. Secondly, at other frequencies, the primary pulse interacts with its higher harmonics, as do two or more primary pulses with their resultant higher harmonics. This happens when the phase speeds of the waves match and the objective is to identify the frequencies of such interactions. For both the objectives, asymptotic coupled wavenumber expansions for the linear dispersion relation are required for an intermediate fluid loading. The novelty of this work lies in obtaining the asymptotic expansions and using them for predicting the sign change of the nonlinear term at various frequencies. It is found that when the coupled wavenumbers approach the uncoupled pressure-release wavenumbers, the amplitude modulation is stable. On the other hand, near the rigid-duct wavenumbers, the amplitude modulation is unstable. Also, as a further contribution, these wavenumber expansions are used to identify the frequencies of the higher harmonic interactions. And lastly, the solution for the amplitude modulation derived through the MMS is validated using these asymptotic expansions.
Modelling and observing Jovian electron propagation times
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toit Strauss, Du; Potgieter, Marius; Kopp, Andreas; Heber, Bernd
2012-07-01
During the Pioneer 10 Jovian encounter, it was observed that the Jovian magnetosphere is a strong source of low energy electrons. These electrons are accelerated in the Jovian magnetosphere and then propagate through the interplanetary medium to reach Earth, sampling the heliospheric magnetic field (HMF) and its embedded turbulence. With the current constellation of near Earth spacecraft (STEREO, SOHO, ACE, ect.) various aspects of Jovian electron transport at/near Earth can be studied in 3D (spatially). During a CME, the plasma between the Earth and Jupiter becomes more disturbed, inhibiting the transport of these electrons to Earth. With the passage of the CME beyond Jupiter, quite-time transport conditions persist and increases of the electron flux at Earth are observed (so-called quite time increases). Using multi-spacecraft observation during such an event, we are able to infer the propagation time of these electrons from Jupiter to Earth. Using a state-of-the-art electron transport model, we study the transport of these electrons from Jupiter and Earth, focusing on their propagation times. These computed values are also compared with observations. We discuss the implications of these results from a particle transport point-of-view.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hafez, M. G.; Roy, N. C.; Talukder, M. R.; Hossain Ali, M.
2016-08-01
The characteristics of the nonlinear oblique propagation of ion acoustic solitary waves in unmagnetized plasmas consisting of Boltzmann positrons, trapped electrons and ions are investigated. The modified Kadomtsev-Petviashivili ( m K P ) equation is derived employing the reductive perturbation technique. The parametric effects on phase velocity, Sagdeev potential, amplitude and width of solitons, and electrostatic ion acoustic solitary structures are graphically presented with the relevant physical explanations. This study may be useful for the better understanding of physical phenomena concerned in plasmas in which the effects of trapped electrons control the dynamics of wave.
Sah, O.P.; Goswami, K.S. )
1994-10-01
Considering an unmagnetized plasma consisting of relativistic drifting electrons and nondrifting thermal ions and by using reductive perturbation method, a usual Korteweg--de Vries (KdV) equation and a generalized form of KdV equation are derived. It is found that while the former governs the dynamics of a small-amplitude rarefactive modified electron acoustic (MEA) soliton, the latter governs the dynamics of a weak compressive modified electron acoustic double layer. The influences of relativistic effect on the propagation of such a soliton and double layer are examined. The relevance of this investigation to space plasma is pointed out.
SLS Scale Model Acoustic Test Liftoff Results and Comparisons
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Houston, Janice; Counter, Douglas; Giacomoni, Clothilde
2015-01-01
The liftoff phase induces acoustic loading over a broad frequency range for a launch vehicle. These external acoustic environments are then used in the prediction of internal vibration responses of the vehicle and components which result in the qualification levels. Thus, predicting these liftoff acoustic (LOA) environments is critical to the design requirements of any launch vehicle. If there is a significant amount of uncertainty in the predictions or if acoustic mitigation options must be implemented, a subscale acoustic test is a feasible design phase test option to verify the LOA environments. The NASA Space Launch System (SLS) program initiated the Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) to verify the predicted SLS LOA environments.
A case-study comparison of computer modeling and scale modeling in acoustics consulting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calamia, Paul T.
2002-05-01
As an alternate or compliment to computer models, acoustics consultants often make use of scale models to evaluate the efficacy of architectural designs. The intention of this paper is to compare the two modeling approaches, using one or more case studies, to explore the pros and cons of each. Topics of comparison will include cost, geometric representations, effective bandwidths, propagation phenomena (e.g., diffraction), simulation of material properties, and auralization. Where possible, measured data from existing spaces will be presented to provide a reference for the modeled data.
Damage Propagation Modeling for Aircraft Engine Prognostics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saxena, Abhinav; Goebel, Kai; Simon, Don; Eklund, Neil
2008-01-01
This paper describes how damage propagation can be modeled within the modules of aircraft gas turbine engines. To that end, response surfaces of all sensors are generated via a thermo-dynamical simulation model for the engine as a function of variations of flow and efficiency of the modules of interest. An exponential rate of change for flow and efficiency loss was imposed for each data set, starting at a randomly chosen initial deterioration set point. The rate of change of the flow and efficiency denotes an otherwise unspecified fault with increasingly worsening effect. The rates of change of the faults were constrained to an upper threshold but were otherwise chosen randomly. Damage propagation was allowed to continue until a failure criterion was reached. A health index was defined as the minimum of several superimposed operational margins at any given time instant and the failure criterion is reached when health index reaches zero. Output of the model was the time series (cycles) of sensed measurements typically available from aircraft gas turbine engines. The data generated were used as challenge data for the Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) data competition at PHM 08.
Propagation of acoustic waves in a one-dimensional array of noncohesive cylinders.
Huillard, Guillaume; Noblin, Xavier; Rajchenbach, Jean
2011-07-01
By means of a photoelastic method, we access the visualization of acoustic waves propagating in a one-dimensional array of noncohesive cylinders. As pointed by Nesterenko in the case of spherical grains [V. F. Nesterenko, J. Appl. Mech. Tech. Phys. 24, p. 567 (1983)], the nonlinearity of the contact law between the grains induces a dependence of the wave velocity both on its amplitude and on the confinement force. Our experimental method allows one to access the evolution in time of the internal state of stress of individual grains with excellent accuracy. We show that the velocity of the sound presents two regimes as a function of the confining force. For low forces, the dependence is strongly nonlinear, while it weakens for higher forces. By means of the direct visualization of the contact zone, we show that both micro- and macroscale imperfections of the surface of contact explain the low forces behavior. We test the consistency of our experimental findings results with both the theoretical expectations and with the experimental determination of the force-displacement dependence. We show, moreover, that the main damping process originates in solid friction. PMID:21867329
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ramakrishnan, R.; Salikuddin, M.; Ahuja, K. K.
1982-01-01
A procedure to control transient signal generation is developed for the study of internal noise propagation from aircraft engines. A simple algorithm incorporating transform techniques is used to produce signals of any desired waveform from acoustic drivers. The accurate driver response is then calculated, and from this the limiting frequency characteristics are determined and the undesirable frequencies where the driver response is poor are eliminated from the analysis. A synthesized signal is then produced by convolving the inverse of the response function with the desired signal. Although the shape of the synthesized signal is in general quite awkward, the driver generates the desired signal when the distorted signal is fed into the driver. The results of operating the driver in two environments, in a free field and in a duct, are presented in order to show the impedance matching effect of the driver. In addition, results using a high frequency cut-off value as a parameter is presented in order to demonstrate the extent of the applicability of the synthesis procedure. It is concluded that the desired signals can be generated through the signal synthesis procedure.
Wave propagation in piezoelectric layered structures of film bulk acoustic resonators.
Zhu, Feng; Qian, Zheng-hua; Wang, Bin
2016-04-01
In this paper, we studied the wave propagation in a piezoelectric layered plate consisting of a piezoelectric thin film on an electroded elastic substrate with or without a driving electrode. Both plane-strain and anti-plane waves were taken into account for the sake of completeness. Numerical results on dispersion relations, cut-off frequencies and vibration distributions of selected modes were given. The effects of mass ratio of driving electrode layer to film layer on the dispersion curve patterns and cut-off frequencies of the plane-strain waves were discussed in detail. Results show that the mass ratio does not change the trend of dispersion curves but larger mass ratio lowers corresponding frequency at a fixed wave number and may extend the frequency range for energy trapping. Those results are of fundamental importance and can be used as a reference to develop effective two-dimensional plate equations for structural analysis and design of film bulk acoustic resonators. PMID:26812132
Kebkal, Konstantin G; Bannasch, Rudolf
2002-11-01
Multipath propagation causes the transmitted signal to take numerous, time-varying different-length paths to the receiver. Exploitation of conventional frequency-constant carrier signals for communication over underwater acoustic channels typically shows that intricate mutual time variations of multipath arrivals create an extremely hard problem for equalizers to compensate for nonstable intersymbol interactions. Communication over such channels can be, however, substantially improved by using a new method based on the implementation of a sweep-spread carrier (S2C). Such a carrier consists of a succession of sweeps, which cause permanent rapid fluctuation of signal frequency. Apart from some additional useful effects such as providing multiuser access and reducing influence of narrow-band noise, the method provides significant processing improvement enabling clear separation of multipath arrivals by converting their time delays into their frequency reallocations--the steeper the sweeps, the better the multipath resolution that can be achieved. When converting the signal into constant intermediate frequencies, the best suitable multipath arrival can be separated not as traditionally in time domains, applying complex equalizers, but in frequency domains by means of usual band-pass filters. High transmission stability of this approach was confirmed in both computer simulations as well as in validation experiments carried out since summer 1999.
Time Reversal Mirrors and Cross Correlation Functions in Acoustic Wave Propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fishman, Louis; Jonsson, B. Lars G.; de Hoop, Maarten V.
2009-03-01
In time reversal acoustics (TRA), a signal is recorded by an array of transducers, time reversed, and then retransmitted into the configuration. The retransmitted signal propagates back through the same medium and retrofocuses on the source that generated the signal. If the transducer array is a single, planar (flat) surface, then this configuration is referred to as a planar, one-sided, time reversal mirror (TRM). In signal processing, for example, in active-source seismic interferometry, the measurement of the wave field at two distinct receivers, generated by a common source, is considered. Cross correlating these two observations and integrating the result over the sources yield the cross correlation function (CCF). Adopting the TRM experiments as the basic starting point and identifying the kinematically correct correspondences, it is established that the associated CCF signal processing constructions follow in a specific, infinite recording time limit. This perspective also provides for a natural rationale for selecting the Green's function components in the TRM and CCF expressions. For a planar, one-sided, TRM experiment and the corresponding CCF signal processing construction, in a three-dimensional homogeneous medium, the exact expressions are explicitly calculated, and the connecting limiting relationship verified. Finally, the TRM and CCF results are understood in terms of the underlying, governing, two-way wave equation, its corresponding time reversal invariance (TRI) symmetry, and the absence of TRI symmetry in the associated one-way wave equations, highlighting the role played by the evanescent modal contributions.
Effect of Bohm quantum potential in the propagation of ion-acoustic waves in degenerate plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hasan, M. M.; Hossen, M. A.; Rafat, A.; Mamun, A. A.
2016-10-01
A theoretical investigation has been carried out on the propagation of the ion-acoustic (IA) waves in a relativistic degenerate plasma containing relativistic degenerate electron and positron fluids in the presence of inertial non-relativistic light ion fluid. The Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV), modified K-dV (mK-dV), and mixed mK-dV (mmK-dV) equations are derived by adopting the reductive perturbation method. In order to analyze the basic features (phase speed, amplitude, width, etc.) of the IA solitary waves (SWs), the SWs solutions of the K-dV, mK-dV, and mmK-dV are numerically analyzed. It is found that the degenerate pressure, inclusion of the new phenomena like the Fermi temperatures and quantum mechanical effects (arising due to the quantum diffraction) of both electrons and positrons, number densities, etc., of the plasma species remarkably change the basic characteristics of the IA SWs which are found to be formed either with positive or negative potential. The implication of our results in explaining different nonlinear phenomena in astrophysical compact objects, e.g., white dwarfs, neutron stars, etc., and laboratory plasmas like intense laser-solid matter interaction experiments, etc., are mentioned.
Frequency-dependent damping in propagating slow magneto-acoustic waves
Prasad, S. Krishna; Banerjee, D.; Van Doorsselaere, T.
2014-07-10
Propagating slow magneto-acoustic waves are often observed in polar plumes and active region fan loops. The observed periodicities of these waves range from a few minutes to a few tens of minutes and their amplitudes were found to decay rapidly as they travel along the supporting structure. Previously, thermal conduction, compressive viscosity, radiation, density stratification, and area divergence were identified to be some of the causes for change in the slow wave amplitude. Our recent studies indicate that the observed damping in these waves is frequency-dependent. We used imaging data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly to study this dependence in detail and for the first time via observations we attempted to deduce a quantitative relation between the damping length and frequency of these oscillations. We developed a new analysis method to obtain this relation. The observed frequency dependence does not seem to agree with the current linear wave theory and it was found that the waves observed in the polar regions show a different dependence from those observed in the on-disk loop structures despite the similarity in their properties.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gavrilov, Nikolai M.; Kshevetskii, Sergey P.
2014-12-01
Three-dimensional nonlinear breaking acoustic-gravity waves (AGWs) propagating from the Earth's surface to the upper atmosphere are simulated numerically. Horizontally moving periodical structures of vertical velocity on the Earth's surface are used as AGW sources in the model. The 3D algorithm for hydrodynamic equation solution uses finite-difference analogues of basic conservation laws. This approach allows us to select physically correct generalized wave solutions of hydrodynamic equations. The numerical simulation covers altitudes from the ground up to 500 km. Vertical profiles of the mean temperature, density, molecular viscosity, and thermal conductivity are specified from standard models of the atmosphere. Atmospheric waves in a few minutes can propagate to high altitudes above 100 km after activation of the surface wave forcing. Surfaces of constant phases are quasi-vertical first, and then become inclined to the horizon below about 100 km after some transition time interval. Vertical wavelengths decrease with time and tend to theoretically predicted values after times longer than several periods of the wave forcing. Decrease in vertical wavelengths and increase in AGW amplitudes can lead to wave instabilities, accelerations of the mean flow and wave-induced jet streams at altitudes above 100 km. AGWs may transport amplitude modulation of atmospheric wave sources in horizontal directions up to very high levels. Low wave amplitudes in the beginning of transition processes after activation of atmospheric wave sources could be additional reasons for slower amplitude grows with height compared to the nondissipative exponential growth predicted for stationary linear AGWs. Production of wave-induced mean jets and their superposition with nonlinear unstable dissipative AGWs can produce strong narrow peaks of horizontal speed in the upper atmosphere. This may increase the role of transient nonstationary waves in effective energy transport and variations of
Lattice Boltzmann model for wave propagation.
Zhang, Jianying; Yan, Guangwu; Shi, Xiubo
2009-08-01
A lattice Boltzmann model for two-dimensional wave equation is proposed by using the higher-order moment method. The higher-order moment method is based on the solution of a series of partial differential equations obtained by using multiscale technique and Chapman-Enskog expansion. In order to obtain the lattice Boltzmann model for the wave equation with higher-order accuracy of truncation errors, we removed the second-order dissipation term and the third-order dispersion term by employing the moments up to fourth order. The reversibility in time appears owing to the absence of the second-order dissipation term and the third-order dispersion term. As numerical examples, some classical examples, such as interference, diffraction, and wave passing through a convex lens, are simulated. The numerical results show that this model can be used to simulate wave propagation.
Theory and modeling of cylindrical thermo-acoustic transduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tong, Lihong; Lim, C. W.; Zhao, Xiushao; Geng, Daxing
2016-06-01
Models both for solid and thinfilm-solid cylindrical thermo-acoustic transductions are proposed and the corresponding acoustic pressure solutions are obtained. The acoustic pressure for an individual carbon nanotube (CNT) as a function of input power is investigated analytically and it is verified by comparing with the published experimental data. Further numerical analysis on the acoustic pressure response and characteristics for varying input frequency and distance are also examined both for solid and thinfilm-solid cylindrical thermo-acoustic transductions. Through detailed theoretical and numerical studies on the acoustic pressure solution for thinfilm-solid cylindrical transduction, it is concluded that a solid with smaller thermal conductivity favors to improve the acoustic performance. In general, the proposed models are applicable to a variety of cylindrical thermo-acoustic devices performing in different gaseous media.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eversman, W.; Astley, R. J.; Thanh, V. P.
1977-01-01
The Method of Weighted Residuals (MWR) and the Finite Element Method (FEM) are considered as computational schemes in the problem of acoustic transmission in nonuniform ducts. MWR is presented in an improved form which includes the interaction of acoustic modes (irrotational) and hydrodynamic modes (rotational). FEM is based on a weighted residuals formulation using eight noded isoparametric elements. Both are applicable to two-dimensional and axially symmetric problems. Calculations are made for several sample problems to demonstrate accuracy and relative efficiency. One test case has implications in the phenomenon of subsonic acoustic choking and it is found that a large transmission loss is not an automatic consequence of propagation against a high subsonic mean flow.
Wang, Jian-Yong; Cheng, Xue-Ping; Tang, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Jian-Rong; Ren, Bo
2014-03-15
The oblique propagation of ion-acoustic soliton-cnoidal waves in a magnetized electron-positron-ion plasma with superthermal electrons is studied. Linear dispersion relations of the fast and slow ion-acoustic modes are discussed under the weak and strong magnetic field situations. By means of the reductive perturbation approach, Korteweg-de Vries equations governing ion-acoustic waves of fast and slow modes are derived, respectively. Explicit interacting soliton-cnoidal wave solutions are obtained by the generalized truncated Painlevé expansion. It is found that every peak of a cnoidal wave elastically interacts with a usual soliton except for some phase shifts. The influence of the electron superthermality, positron concentration, and magnetic field obliqueness on the soliton-cnoidal wave are investigated in detail.
Manga, Etoungh D; Blasco, Hugues; Da-Costa, Philippe; Drobek, Martin; Ayral, André; Le Clezio, Emmanuel; Despaux, Gilles; Coasne, Benoit; Julbe, Anne
2014-09-01
The present study reports on the development of a characterization method of porous membrane materials which consists of considering their acoustic properties upon gas adsorption. Using acoustic microscopy experiments and atomistic molecular simulations for helium adsorbed in a silicalite-1 zeolite membrane layer, we showed that acoustic wave propagation could be used, in principle, for controlling the membranes operando. Molecular simulations, which were found to fit experimental data, showed that the compressional modulus of the composite system consisting of silicalite-1 with adsorbed He increases linearly with the He adsorbed amount while its shear modulus remains constant in a large range of applied pressures. These results suggest that the longitudinal and Rayleigh wave velocities (VL and VR) depend on the He adsorbed amount whereas the transverse wave velocity VT remains constant. PMID:25089584
Manga, Etoungh D; Blasco, Hugues; Da-Costa, Philippe; Drobek, Martin; Ayral, André; Le Clezio, Emmanuel; Despaux, Gilles; Coasne, Benoit; Julbe, Anne
2014-09-01
The present study reports on the development of a characterization method of porous membrane materials which consists of considering their acoustic properties upon gas adsorption. Using acoustic microscopy experiments and atomistic molecular simulations for helium adsorbed in a silicalite-1 zeolite membrane layer, we showed that acoustic wave propagation could be used, in principle, for controlling the membranes operando. Molecular simulations, which were found to fit experimental data, showed that the compressional modulus of the composite system consisting of silicalite-1 with adsorbed He increases linearly with the He adsorbed amount while its shear modulus remains constant in a large range of applied pressures. These results suggest that the longitudinal and Rayleigh wave velocities (VL and VR) depend on the He adsorbed amount whereas the transverse wave velocity VT remains constant.
Speeding up tsunami wave propagation modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lavrentyev, Mikhail; Romanenko, Alexey
2014-05-01
Trans-oceanic wave propagation is one of the most time/CPU consuming parts of the tsunami modeling process. The so-called Method Of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) software package, developed at PMEL NOAA USA (Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, USA), is widely used to evaluate the tsunami parameters. However, it takes time to simulate trans-ocean wave propagation, that is up to 5 hours CPU time to "drive" the wave from Chili (epicenter) to the coast of Japan (even using a rather coarse computational mesh). Accurate wave height prediction requires fine meshes which leads to dramatic increase in time for simulation. Computation time is among the critical parameter as it takes only about 20 minutes for tsunami wave to approach the coast of Japan after earthquake at Japan trench or Sagami trench (as it was after the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011). MOST solves numerically the hyperbolic system for three unknown functions, namely velocity vector and wave height (shallow water approximation). The system could be split into two independent systems by orthogonal directions (splitting method). Each system can be treated independently. This calculation scheme is well suited for SIMD architecture and GPUs as well. We performed adaptation of MOST package to GPU. Several numerical tests showed 40x performance gain for NVIDIA Tesla C2050 GPU vs. single core of Intel i7 processor. Results of numerical experiments were compared with other available simulation data. Calculation results, obtained at GPU, differ from the reference ones by 10^-3 cm of the wave height simulating 24 hours wave propagation. This allows us to speak about possibility to develop real-time system for evaluating tsunami danger.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, G. S.; Hayden, R. E.; Thompson, A. R.; Madden, R.
1985-01-01
The feasibility of acoustical scale modeling techniques for modeling wind effects on long range, low frequency outdoor sound propagation was evaluated. Upwind and downwind propagation was studied in 1/100 scale for flat ground and simple hills with both rigid and finite ground impedance over a full scale frequency range from 20 to 500 Hz. Results are presented as 1/3-octave frequency spectra of differences in propagation loss between the case studied and a free-field condition. Selected sets of these results were compared with validated analytical models for propagation loss, when such models were available. When they were not, results were compared with predictions from approximate models developed. Comparisons were encouraging in many cases considering the approximations involved in both the physical modeling and analysis methods. Of particular importance was the favorable comparison between theory and experiment for propagation over soft ground.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garces, M. A.
2000-08-01
A theoretical solution is derived for the sound field in an arbitrarily layered viscous fluid moving with the non-negligible Mach number within a duct with elastic walls and varying cross-sectional area. The solution is applied to the interpretation of infrasonic and seismic signals preceding and accompanying volcanic eruptions, and can be used to study the acoustic response of various types of volcanic fluids, including magma-gas mixtures, ash-gas mixtures, and bubble-rich liquids. The acoustic field in a magma conduit can be propagated into the atmosphere through an open vent, and coupled into the ground through the displacement of the magma conduit walls. The theoretical solutions predict that fluids moving with the non-negligible Mach number will exhibit significant attenuation in the upstream direction, thereby reducing the quality factor of the conduit resonance. Thus, acoustic energy generated during an eruption may be preferentially radiated downstream, exacerbating the acoustic decoupling between the upper and lower parts of a stratified magma column. A source model for a repeated cavitation process is introduced as a possible excitation mechanism for tremor signals.
T-wave generation and propagation: a comparison between data and spectral element modeling.
Jamet, Guillaume; Guennou, Claude; Guillon, Laurent; Mazoyer, Camille; Royer, Jean-Yves
2013-10-01
T-waves are underwater acoustic waves generated by earthquakes. Modeling of their generation and propagation is a challenging problem. Using a spectral element code-SPECFEM2D, this paper presents the first realistic simulations of T-waves taking into account major aspects of this phenomenon: The radiation pattern of the source, the propagation of seismic waves in the crust, the seismic to acoustic conversion on a non-planar seafloor, and the propagation of acoustic waves in the water column. The simulated signals are compared with data from the mid-Atlantic Ridge recorded by an array of hydrophones. The crust/water interface is defined by the seafloor bathymetry. Different combinations of water sound-speed profiles and sub-seafloor seismic velocities, and frequency content of the source are tested. The relative amplitudes, main arrival-times, and durations of simulated T-phases are in good agreement with the observed data; differences in the spectrograms and early arrivals are likely due to too simplistic source signals and environmental model. These examples demonstrate the abilities of the SPECFEM2D code for modeling earthquake generated T-waves. PMID:24116530
T-wave generation and propagation: a comparison between data and spectral element modeling.
Jamet, Guillaume; Guennou, Claude; Guillon, Laurent; Mazoyer, Camille; Royer, Jean-Yves
2013-10-01
T-waves are underwater acoustic waves generated by earthquakes. Modeling of their generation and propagation is a challenging problem. Using a spectral element code-SPECFEM2D, this paper presents the first realistic simulations of T-waves taking into account major aspects of this phenomenon: The radiation pattern of the source, the propagation of seismic waves in the crust, the seismic to acoustic conversion on a non-planar seafloor, and the propagation of acoustic waves in the water column. The simulated signals are compared with data from the mid-Atlantic Ridge recorded by an array of hydrophones. The crust/water interface is defined by the seafloor bathymetry. Different combinations of water sound-speed profiles and sub-seafloor seismic velocities, and frequency content of the source are tested. The relative amplitudes, main arrival-times, and durations of simulated T-phases are in good agreement with the observed data; differences in the spectrograms and early arrivals are likely due to too simplistic source signals and environmental model. These examples demonstrate the abilities of the SPECFEM2D code for modeling earthquake generated T-waves.
Acoustic Modeling for Aqua Ventus I off Monhegan Island, ME
Whiting, Jonathan M.; Hanna, Luke A.; DeChello, Nicole L.; Copping, Andrea E.
2013-10-31
The DeepCwind consortium, led by the University of Maine, was awarded funding under the US Department of Energy’s Offshore Wind Advanced Technology Demonstration Program to develop two floating offshore wind turbines in the Gulf of Maine equipped with Goldwind 6 MW direct drive turbines, as the Aqua Ventus I project. The Goldwind turbines have a hub height of 100 m. The turbines will be deployed in Maine State waters, approximately 2.9 miles off Monhegan Island; Monhegan Island is located roughly 10 miles off the coast of Maine. In order to site and permit the offshore turbines, the acoustic output must be evaluated to ensure that the sound will not disturb residents on Monhegan Island, nor input sufficient sound levels into the nearby ocean to disturb marine mammals. This initial assessment of the acoustic output focuses on the sound of the turbines in air by modeling the assumed sound source level, applying a sound propagation model, and taking into account the distance from shore.
Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K R S; Bhethanabotla, Venkat R
2009-03-01
We develop a 3-D finite element model of a focused surface acoustic wave (F-SAW) device based on LiNbO(3) to analyze the wave generation and propagation characteristics for devices operating at MHz frequencies with varying applied input voltages. We compare the F-SAW device to a conventional SAW device with similar substrate dimensions and transducer finger periodicity. SAW devices with concentrically shaped focused interdigital transducer fingers (F-IDTs) are found to excite waves with high intensity and high beam-width compression ratio, confined to a small localized area. F-SAW devices are more sensitive to amplitude variations at regions close to the focal point than conventional SAW devices having uniform IDT configuration. We compute F-SAW induced streaming forces and velocity fields by applying a successive approximation technique to the Navier-Stokes equation (Nyborg's theory). The maximum streaming force obtained at the focal point varies as the square of the applied input voltage. Computed streaming velocities at the focal point in F-SAW devices are at least an order of magnitude higher than those in conventional SAW devices. Simulated frequency response indicates higher insertion losses in F-SAW devices than in conventional devices, reflecting their greater utility as actuators than as sensors. Our simulation findings suggest that F-SAW devices can be utilized effectively for actuation in microfluidic applications involving diffusion limited transport processes. PMID:19411221
Error propagation in energetic carrying capacity models
Pearse, Aaron T.; Stafford, Joshua D.
2014-01-01
Conservation objectives derived from carrying capacity models have been used to inform management of landscapes for wildlife populations. Energetic carrying capacity models are particularly useful in conservation planning for wildlife; these models use estimates of food abundance and energetic requirements of wildlife to target conservation actions. We provide a general method for incorporating a foraging threshold (i.e., density of food at which foraging becomes unprofitable) when estimating food availability with energetic carrying capacity models. We use a hypothetical example to describe how past methods for adjustment of foraging thresholds biased results of energetic carrying capacity models in certain instances. Adjusting foraging thresholds at the patch level of the species of interest provides results consistent with ecological foraging theory. Presentation of two case studies suggest variation in bias which, in certain instances, created large errors in conservation objectives and may have led to inefficient allocation of limited resources. Our results also illustrate how small errors or biases in application of input parameters, when extrapolated to large spatial extents, propagate errors in conservation planning and can have negative implications for target populations.
Shahmansouri, M.; Mamun, A. A.
2014-03-15
Linear and nonlinear propagation of dust-acoustic waves in a magnetized strongly coupled dusty plasma is theoretically investigated. The normal mode analysis (reductive perturbation method) is employed to investigate the role of ambient/external magnetic field, obliqueness, and effective electrostatic dust-temperature in modifying the properties of linear (nonlinear) dust-acoustic waves propagating in such a strongly coupled dusty plasma. The effective electrostatic dust-temperature, which arises from strong electrostatic interactions among highly charged dust, is considered as a dynamical variable. The linear dispersion relation (describing the linear propagation characteristics) for the obliquely propagating dust-acoustic waves is derived and analyzed. On the other hand, the Korteweg-de Vries equation describing the nonlinear propagation of the dust-acoustic waves (particularly, propagation of dust-acoustic solitary waves) is derived and solved. It is shown that the combined effects of obliqueness, magnitude of the ambient/external magnetic field, and effective electrostatic dust-temperature significantly modify the basic properties of linear and nonlinear dust-acoustic waves. The results of this work are compared with those observed by some laboratory experiments.
Mathematical model of acoustic speech production with mobile walls of the vocal tract
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyubimov, N. A.; Zakharov, E. V.
2016-03-01
A mathematical speech production model is considered that describes acoustic oscillation propagation in a vocal tract with mobile walls. The wave field function satisfies the Helmholtz equation with boundary conditions of the third kind (impedance type). The impedance mode corresponds to a threeparameter pendulum oscillation model. The experimental research demonstrates the nonlinear character of how the mobility of the vocal tract walls influence the spectral envelope of a speech signal.
Modeling Seismoacoustic Propagation from the Nonlinear to Linear Regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chael, E. P.; Preston, L. A.
2015-12-01
Explosions at shallow depth-of-burial can cause nonlinear material response, such as fracturing and spalling, up to the ground surface above the shot point. These motions at the surface affect the generation of acoustic waves into the atmosphere, as well as the surface-reflected compressional and shear waves. Standard source scaling models for explosions do not account for such nonlinear interactions above the shot, while some recent studies introduce a non-isotropic addition to the moment tensor to represent them (e.g., Patton and Taylor, 2011). We are using Sandia's CTH shock physics code to model the material response in the vicinity of underground explosions, up to the overlying ground surface. Across a boundary where the motions have decayed to nearly linear behavior, we couple the signals from CTH into a linear finite-difference (FD) seismoacoustic code to efficiently propagate the wavefields to greater distances. If we assume only one-way transmission of energy through the boundary, then the particle velocities there suffice as inputs for the FD code, simplifying the specification of the boundary condition. The FD algorithm we use applies the wave equations for velocity in an elastic medium and pressure in an acoustic one, and matches the normal traction and displacement across the interface. Initially we are developing and testing a 2D, axisymmetric seismoacoustic routine; CTH can use this geometry in the source region as well. The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) in Nevada has collected seismic and acoustic data on numerous explosions at different scaled depths, providing an excellent testbed for investigating explosion phenomena (Snelson et al., 2013). We present simulations for shots SPE-4' and SPE-5, illustrating the importance of nonlinear behavior up to the ground surface. Our goal is to develop the capability for accurately predicting the relative signal strengths in the air and ground for a given combination of source yield and depth. Sandia National
Evaluating a linearized Euler equations model for strong turbulence effects on sound propagation.
Ehrhardt, Loïc; Cheinet, Sylvain; Juvé, Daniel; Blanc-Benon, Philippe
2013-04-01
Sound propagation outdoors is strongly affected by atmospheric turbulence. Under strongly perturbed conditions or long propagation paths, the sound fluctuations reach their asymptotic behavior, e.g., the intensity variance progressively saturates. The present study evaluates the ability of a numerical propagation model based on the finite-difference time-domain solving of the linearized Euler equations in quantitatively reproducing the wave statistics under strong and saturated intensity fluctuations. It is the continuation of a previous study where weak intensity fluctuations were considered. The numerical propagation model is presented and tested with two-dimensional harmonic sound propagation over long paths and strong atmospheric perturbations. The results are compared to quantitative theoretical or numerical predictions available on the wave statistics, including the log-amplitude variance and the probability density functions of the complex acoustic pressure. The match is excellent for the evaluated source frequencies and all sound fluctuations strengths. Hence, this model captures these many aspects of strong atmospheric turbulence effects on sound propagation. Finally, the model results for the intensity probability density function are compared with a standard fit by a generalized gamma function.
Computer models in room acoustics: The ray tracing method and the auralization algorithms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pompei, Anna; Sumbatyan, M. A.; Todorov, N. F.
2009-11-01
Computer algorithms are described for constructing virtual acoustic models of various rooms that should satisfy some specific sound quality criteria. The algorithms are based on the ray tracing method, which, in the general case, allows calculation of the amplitude of an acoustic ray that survived multiple reflections from arbitrary curved surfaces. As a result, calculations of room acoustics are reduced to tracing the trajectories of all the acoustic rays in the course of their propagation with multiple reflections from reflecting surfaces to the point of their complete decay. For this approach to be used, the following physical properties of a room should be known: the geometry of the reflecting surfaces, the absorption and diffusion coefficients on each of these surfaces, and the decay law for rays propagating in air. The proposed models allow for the solution of the important problem of architectural acoustics called the auralization problem, i.e., to predict how any given audio segment will sound in any given hall on the basis of computer simulation alone, without any full-scale testing in specific halls.
Kreider, Wayne; Yuldashev, Petr V.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Farr, Navid; Partanen, Ari; Bailey, Michael R.; Khokhlova, Vera A.
2014-01-01
High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a treatment modality that relies on the delivery of acoustic energy to remote tissue sites to induce thermal and/or mechanical tissue ablation. To ensure the safety and efficacy of this medical technology, standard approaches are needed for accurately characterizing the acoustic pressures generated by clinical ultrasound sources under operating conditions. Characterization of HIFU fields is complicated by nonlinear wave propagation and the complexity of phased-array transducers. Previous work has described aspects of an approach that combines measurements and modeling, and here we demonstrate this approach for a clinical phased array transducer. First, low-amplitude hydrophone measurements were performed in water over a scan plane between the array and the focus. Second, these measurements were used to holographically reconstruct the surface vibrations of the transducer and to set a boundary condition for a 3-D acoustic propagation model. Finally, nonlinear simulations of the acoustic field were carried out over a range of source power levels. Simulation results were compared to pressure waveforms measured directly by hydrophone at both low and high power levels, demonstrating that details of the acoustic field including shock formation are quantitatively predicted. PMID:25004539
Improving Acoustic Models by Watching Television
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Witbrock, Michael J.; Hauptmann, Alexander G.
1998-01-01
Obtaining sufficient labelled training data is a persistent difficulty for speech recognition research. Although well transcribed data is expensive to produce, there is a constant stream of challenging speech data and poor transcription broadcast as closed-captioned television. We describe a reliable unsupervised method for identifying accurately transcribed sections of these broadcasts, and show how these segments can be used to train a recognition system. Starting from acoustic models trained on the Wall Street Journal database, a single iteration of our training method reduced the word error rate on an independent broadcast television news test set from 62.2% to 59.5%.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parker, Robert G.; Guo, Yi; Eritenel, Tugan; Ericson, Tristan M.
2012-01-01
Vibration and noise caused by gear dynamics at the meshing teeth propagate through power transmission components to the surrounding environment. This study is devoted to developing computational tools to investigate the vibro-acoustic propagation of gear dynamics through a gearbox using different bearings. Detailed finite element/contact mechanics and boundary element models of the gear/bearing/housing system are established to compute the system vibration and noise propagation. Both vibration and acoustic models are validated by experiments including the vibration modal testing and sound field measurements. The effectiveness of each bearing type to disrupt vibration propagation is speed-dependent. Housing plays an important role in noise radiation .It, however, has limited effects on gear dynamics. Bearings are critical components in drivetrains. Accurate modeling of rolling element bearings is essential to assess vibration and noise of drivetrain systems. This study also seeks to fully describe the vibro-acoustic propagation of gear dynamics through a power-transmission system using rolling element and fluid film wave bearings. Fluid film wave bearings, which have higher damping than rolling element bearings, could offer an energy dissipation mechanism that reduces the gearbox noise. The effectiveness of each bearing type to disrupt vibration propagation in explored using multi-body computational models. These models include gears, shafts, rolling element and fluid film wave bearings, and the housing. Radiated noise is mapped from the gearbox surface to surrounding environment. The effectiveness of rolling element and fluid film wave bearings in breaking the vibro-acoustic propagation path from the gear to the housing is investigated.
Modeling and adaptive control of acoustic noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Venugopal, Ravinder
Active noise control is a problem that receives significant attention in many areas including aerospace and manufacturing. The advent of inexpensive high performance processors has made it possible to implement real-time control algorithms to effect active noise control. Both fixed-gain and adaptive methods may be used to design controllers for this problem. For fixed-gain methods, it is necessary to obtain a mathematical model of the system to design controllers. In addition, models help us gain phenomenological insights into the dynamics of the system. Models are also necessary to perform numerical simulations. However, models are often inadequate for the purpose of controller design because they involve parameters that are difficult to determine and also because there are always unmodeled effects. This fact motivates the use of adaptive algorithms for control since adaptive methods usually require significantly less model information than fixed-gain methods. The first part of this dissertation deals with derivation of a state space model of a one-dimensional acoustic duct. Two types of actuation, namely, a side-mounted speaker (interior control) and an end-mounted speaker (boundary control) are considered. The techniques used to derive the model of the acoustic duct are extended to the problem of fluid surface wave control. A state space model of small amplitude surfaces waves of a fluid in a rectangular container is derived and two types of control methods, namely, surface pressure control and map actuator based control are proposed and analyzed. The second part of this dissertation deals with the development of an adaptive disturbance rejection algorithm that is applied to the problem of active noise control. ARMARKOV models which have the same structure as predictor models are used for system representation. The algorithm requires knowledge of only one path of the system, from control to performance, and does not require a measurement of the disturbance nor
Gunawan, Agus Indra; Hozumi, Naohiro; Yoshida, Sachiko; Saijo, Yoshifumi; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Yamamoto, Seiji
2015-08-01
This paper proposes a new method for microscopic acoustic imaging that utilizes the cross sectional acoustic impedance of biological soft tissues. In the system, a focused acoustic beam with a wide band frequency of 30-100 MHz is transmitted across a plastic substrate on the rear side of which a soft tissue object is placed. By scanning the focal point along the surface, a 2-D reflection intensity profile is obtained. In the paper, interpretation of the signal intensity into a characteristic acoustic impedance is discussed. Because the acoustic beam is strongly focused, interpretation assuming vertical incidence may lead to significant error. To determine an accurate calibration curve, a numerical sound field analysis was performed. In these calculations, the reflection intensity from a target with an assumed acoustic impedance was compared with that from water, which was used as a reference material. The calibration curve was determined by changing the assumed acoustic impedance of the target material. The calibration curve was verified experimentally using saline solution, of which the acoustic impedance was known, as the target material. Finally, the cerebellar tissue of a rat was observed to create an acoustic impedance micro profile. In the paper, details of the numerical analysis and verification of the observation results will be described.
Guo, Xiasheng; Zhang, Dong; Yang, Di; Gong, Xiufen; Wu, Junru
2008-06-01
Protopappas et al. performed finite element (FE) studies on the propagation of guided ultrasound waves in intact and healing long bones, and found that the dispersion of guided modes was significantly influenced by the irregularity and anisotropy of the bone. A time-frequency (t-f) method was applied to the obtained signals and several wave modes were identified. However, this technique was unable to quantify their observations and provide monitoring capabilities. One possible reason of this shortcoming may come from the inherent disadvantage of the t-f method. The objective of this comment is to demonstrate that it is necessary to combine other techniques with FE simulations for the extraction of significant quantitative ultrasonic features. Individual guided modes in an isotropic pipe have been theoretically examined using the normal mode expansion (NME) method, and many modes that are missed by the t-f analysis have been identified. It is concluded that in order to extract quantitative ultrasonic features, FE simulations should be supplemented by other techniques such as the NME.
Caliendo, Cinzia
2015-01-01
The propagation of the fundamental symmetric Lamb mode S0 along wz-BN/AlN thin composite plates suitable for telecommunication and sensing applications is studied. The investigation of the acoustic field profile across the plate thickness revealed the presence of modes having longitudinal polarization, the Anisimkin Jr. plate modes (AMs), travelling at a phase velocity close to that of the wz-BN longitudinal bulk acoustic wave propagating in the same direction. The study of the S0 mode phase velocity and coupling coefficient (K2) dispersion curves, for different electrical boundary conditions, has shown that eight different coupling configurations are allowable that exhibit a K2 as high as about 4% and very high phase velocity (up to about 16,700 m/s). The effect of the thickness and material type of the metal floating electrode on the K2 dispersion curves has also been investigated, specifically addressing the design of an enhanced coupling device. The gravimetric sensitivity of the BN/AlN-based acoustic waveguides was then calculated for both the AMs and elliptically polarized S0 modes; the AM-based sensor velocity and attenuation shifts due to the viscosity of a surrounding liquid was theoretically predicted. The performed investigation suggests that wz-BN/AlN is a very promising substrate material suitable for developing GHz band devices with enhanced electroacoustic coupling efficiency and suitable for application in telecommunications and sensing fields.
Caliendo, Cinzia
2015-01-01
The propagation of the fundamental symmetric Lamb mode S0 along wz-BN/AlN thin composite plates suitable for telecommunication and sensing applications is studied. The investigation of the acoustic field profile across the plate thickness revealed the presence of modes having longitudinal polarization, the Anisimkin Jr. plate modes (AMs), travelling at a phase velocity close to that of the wz-BN longitudinal bulk acoustic wave propagating in the same direction. The study of the S0 mode phase velocity and coupling coefficient (K2) dispersion curves, for different electrical boundary conditions, has shown that eight different coupling configurations are allowable that exhibit a K2 as high as about 4% and very high phase velocity (up to about 16,700 m/s). The effect of the thickness and material type of the metal floating electrode on the K2 dispersion curves has also been investigated, specifically addressing the design of an enhanced coupling device. The gravimetric sensitivity of the BN/AlN-based acoustic waveguides was then calculated for both the AMs and elliptically polarized S0 modes; the AM-based sensor velocity and attenuation shifts due to the viscosity of a surrounding liquid was theoretically predicted. The performed investigation suggests that wz-BN/AlN is a very promising substrate material suitable for developing GHz band devices with enhanced electroacoustic coupling efficiency and suitable for application in telecommunications and sensing fields. PMID:25625904
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, B.; Darmon, M.; Leymarie, N.; Chatillon, S.; Potel, C.
2012-05-01
In-service inspection of Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors (SFR) requires the development of non-destructive techniques adapted to the harsh environment conditions and the examination complexity. From past experiences, ultrasonic techniques are considered as suitable candidates. The ultrasonic telemetry is a technique used to constantly insure the safe functioning of reactor inner components by determining their exact position: it consists in measuring the time of flight of the ultrasonic response obtained after propagation of a pulse emitted by a transducer and its interaction with the targets. While in-service the sodium flow creates turbulences that lead to temperature inhomogeneities, which translates into ultrasonic velocity inhomogeneities. These velocity variations could directly impact the accuracy of the target locating by introducing time of flight variations. A stochastic simulation model has been developed to calculate the propagation of ultrasonic waves in such an inhomogeneous medium. Using this approach, the travel time is randomly generated by a stochastic process whose inputs are the statistical moments of travel times known analytically. The stochastic model predicts beam deviations due to velocity inhomogeneities, which are similar to those provided by a determinist method, such as the ray method.
Lu, B.; Darmon, M.; Leymarie, N.; Chatillon, S.; Potel, C.
2012-05-17
In-service inspection of Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors (SFR) requires the development of non-destructive techniques adapted to the harsh environment conditions and the examination complexity. From past experiences, ultrasonic techniques are considered as suitable candidates. The ultrasonic telemetry is a technique used to constantly insure the safe functioning of reactor inner components by determining their exact position: it consists in measuring the time of flight of the ultrasonic response obtained after propagation of a pulse emitted by a transducer and its interaction with the targets. While in-service the sodium flow creates turbulences that lead to temperature inhomogeneities, which translates into ultrasonic velocity inhomogeneities. These velocity variations could directly impact the accuracy of the target locating by introducing time of flight variations. A stochastic simulation model has been developed to calculate the propagation of ultrasonic waves in such an inhomogeneous medium. Using this approach, the travel time is randomly generated by a stochastic process whose inputs are the statistical moments of travel times known analytically. The stochastic model predicts beam deviations due to velocity inhomogeneities, which are similar to those provided by a determinist method, such as the ray method.
Modeling Passive Propagation of Malwares on the WWW
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chunbo, Liu; Chunfu, Jia
Web-based malwares host in websites fixedly and download onto user's computers automatically while users browse. This passive propagation pattern is different from that of traditional viruses and worms. A propagation model based on reverse web graph is proposed. In this model, propagation of malwares is analyzed by means of random jump matrix which combines orderness and randomness of user browsing behaviors. Explanatory experiments, which has single or multiple propagation sources respectively, prove the validity of the model. Using this model, people can evaluate the hazardness of specified websites and take corresponding countermeasures.
a Modeling and Measurement Study of Acoustic Horns
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Post, John Theodore
Although acoustic horns have been in use for thousands of years, formal horn design only began approximately 80 years ago with the pioneering effort of A. G. Webster. In this dissertation, the improvements to Webster's original horn model are reviewed and the lack of analytical progress since Webster is noted. In an attempt to augment the traditional methods of analysis, a semi-analytical technique presented by Rayleigh is extended. Although Rayleigh's method is not based on one-dimensional wave propagation, it is found not to offer significant improvement over Webster's model. In order to be free of the limitations associated with analytical techniques, a numerical method based on boundary elements has been developed. It is suitable for solving radiation problems that can be modeled as a source in an infinite bafffe. The exterior boundary element formulation is exchanged for an interior formulation by placing a hemisphere over the baffled source and using an analytical expansion of the field in the exterior half space. The boundary element method is demonstrated by solving the baffled piston problem, and is then used to obtain the acoustic throat impedance and far-field directivity of axisymmetric horns having exponential and tractrix contours. Experiments are performed to measure the throat impedance and the far-field directivity of two axisymmetric horns mounted in a rigid baffle. An exponential horn and a tractrix horn with equal throat radius (2.54 cm), length (55.9 cm), and mouth radius (27.1 cm) are critically examined. A modern implementation of the "reaction on the source" method is compared with a new implementation of the two-microphone method for measuring acoustic impedance. The modified two-microphone method is found to be extremely simple and accurate, but the "reaction on the source" method has the advantage of in situ measurements. The far-field directivity is measured by a new technique that allows the far-field pressure to be calculated from the
Tsunami propagation modelling - a sensitivity study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dao, M. H.; Tkalich, P.
2007-12-01
Indian Ocean (2004) Tsunami and following tragic consequences demonstrated lack of relevant experience and preparedness among involved coastal nations. After the event, scientific and forecasting circles of affected countries have started a capacity building to tackle similar problems in the future. Different approaches have been used for tsunami propagation, such as Boussinesq and Nonlinear Shallow Water Equations (NSWE). These approximations were obtained assuming different relevant importance of nonlinear, dispersion and spatial gradient variation phenomena and terms. The paper describes further development of original TUNAMI-N2 model to take into account additional phenomena: astronomic tide, sea bottom friction, dispersion, Coriolis force, and spherical curvature. The code is modified to be suitable for operational forecasting, and the resulting version (TUNAMI-N2-NUS) is verified using test cases, results of other models, and real case scenarios. Using the 2004 Tsunami event as one of the scenarios, the paper examines sensitivity of numerical solutions to variation of different phenomena and parameters, and the results are analyzed and ranked accordingly.
Propagation Effects of Wind and Temperature on Acoustic Ground Contour Levels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heath, Stephanie L.; McAninch, Gerry L.
2006-01-01
Propagation characteristics for varying wind and temperature atmospheric conditions are identified using physically-limiting propagation angles to define shadow boundary regions. These angles are graphically illustrated for various wind and temperature cases using a newly developed ray-tracing propagation code.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Youxuan; Qiu, Yanjun; Jacobs, Laurence J.; Qu, Jianmin
2016-02-01
As a longitudinal wave propagates through a linearly elastic solid with distributed cracks, the solid is subjected to cyclic tension and compression. During the tensile cycles, a crack might be open and its faces are traction-free. During the compressive cycles, a crack might be closed and its faces are in contact. Such contact may also be frictional because of crack face roughness. Such tension and compression asymmetry causes acoustic nonlinearity. This paper develops a micromechanics model that relates the crack density to the acoustic nonlinearity parameter. The model is based on a micromechanics homogenization of the cracked solid under dynamic loading. It is shown that the acoustic nonlinearity parameter is proportional to the crack density. Furthermore, the acoustic nonlinearity parameter also depends on the frequency of the wave motion, and the coefficient of friction of the crack faces. Unlike the second harmonic generated by dislocations, the amplitude of the second harmonic due to crack face contact is proportional to the amplitude of the fundamental frequency. To validate the micromechanics model, the finite element method is used to simulate wave propagation in solid with randomly distributed microcracks. The micromechanics model predictions agree well with the finite element simulation results.
Towards a Comprehensive Model of Jet Noise Using an Acoustic Analogy and Steady RANS Solutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, Steven A. E.
2013-01-01
An acoustic analogy is developed to predict the noise from jet flows. It contains two source models that independently predict the noise from turbulence and shock wave shear layer interactions. The acoustic analogy is based on the Euler equations and separates the sources from propagation. Propagation effects are taken into account by calculating the vector Green's function of the linearized Euler equations. The sources are modeled following the work of Tam and Auriault, Morris and Boluriaan, and Morris and Miller. A statistical model of the two-point cross-correlation of the velocity fluctuations is used to describe the turbulence. The acoustic analogy attempts to take into account the correct scaling of the sources for a wide range of nozzle pressure and temperature ratios. It does not make assumptions regarding fine- or large-scale turbulent noise sources, self- or shear-noise, or convective amplification. The acoustic analogy is partially informed by three-dimensional steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solutions that include the nozzle geometry. The predictions are compared with experiments of jets operating subsonically through supersonically and at unheated and heated temperatures. Predictions generally capture the scaling of both mixing noise and BBSAN for the conditions examined, but some discrepancies remain that are due to the accuracy of the steady RANS turbulence model closure, the equivalent sources, and the use of a simplified vector Green's function solver of the linearized Euler equations.
Hart, Carl R; Reznicek, Nathan J; Wilson, D Keith; Pettit, Chris L; Nykaza, Edward T
2016-05-01
Many outdoor sound propagation models exist, ranging from highly complex physics-based simulations to simplified engineering calculations, and more recently, highly flexible statistical learning methods. Several engineering and statistical learning models are evaluated by using a particular physics-based model, namely, a Crank-Nicholson parabolic equation (CNPE), as a benchmark. Narrowband transmission loss values predicted with the CNPE, based upon a simulated data set of meteorological, boundary, and source conditions, act as simulated observations. In the simulated data set sound propagation conditions span from downward refracting to upward refracting, for acoustically hard and soft boundaries, and low frequencies. Engineering models used in the comparisons include the ISO 9613-2 method, Harmonoise, and Nord2000 propagation models. Statistical learning methods used in the comparisons include bagged decision tree regression, random forest regression, boosting regression, and artificial neural network models. Computed skill scores are relative to sound propagation in a homogeneous atmosphere over a rigid ground. Overall skill scores for the engineering noise models are 0.6%, -7.1%, and 83.8% for the ISO 9613-2, Harmonoise, and Nord2000 models, respectively. Overall skill scores for the statistical learning models are 99.5%, 99.5%, 99.6%, and 99.6% for bagged decision tree, random forest, boosting, and artificial neural network regression models, respectively.
Theoretical models for ultrashort electromagnetic pulse propagation in nonlinear metamaterials
Wen, Shuangchun; Xiang, Yuanjiang; Dai, Xiaoyu; Tang, Zhixiang; Su, Wenhua; Fan, Dianyuan
2007-03-15
A metamaterial (MM) differs from an ordinary optical material mainly in that it has a dispersive magnetic permeability and offers greatly enhanced design freedom to alter the linear and nonlinear properties. This makes it possible for us to control the propagation of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses at will. Here we report on generic features of ultrashort electromagnetic pulse propagation and demonstrate the controllability of both the linear and nonlinear parameters of models for pulse propagation in MMs. First, we derive a generalized system of coupled three-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equations (NLSEs) suitable for few-cycle pulse propagation in a MM with both nonlinear electric polarization and nonlinear magnetization. The coupled equations recover previous models for pulse propagation in both ordinary material and a MM under the same conditions. Second, by using the coupled NLSEs in the Drude dispersive model as an example, we identify the respective roles of the dispersive electric permittivity and magnetic permeability in ultrashort pulse propagation and disclose some additional features of pulse propagation in MMs. It is shown that, for linear propagation, the sign and magnitude of space-time focusing can be controlled through adjusting the linear dispersive permittivity and permeability. For nonlinear propagation, the linear dispersive permittivity and permeability are incorporated into the nonlinear magnetization and nonlinear polarization, respectively, resulting in controllable magnetic and electric self-steepening effects and higher-order dispersively nonlinear terms in the propagation models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dantzker, Marc Steven
The thesis is an inquiry into the acoustic communication of a very unusual avian species, the Greater Sage-Grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus. One of the most outstanding features of this animal's dynamic mating display is its use of paired air sacs that emerge explosively from an esophageal pouch. My first line of inquiry into this system is a review of the form and function of similar vocal apparatuses, collectively called vocal sacs, in birds. Next, with a combination of mathematical models and field measurements, My collaborator and I investigate the acoustic environment where the Greater Sage-Grouse display. The complexities of this acoustic environment are relevant both to the birds and to the subsequent examinations of the display's properties. Finally, my collaborators and I examine a cryptic component of the acoustic display --- directionality --- which we measured simultaneously from multiple locations around free moving grouse on their mating grounds.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, Yoonkee; Hunt, William D.; Hickernell, Frederick S.; Higgins, Robert J.; Jen, Cheng-Kuei
1995-01-01
A potential application for piezoelectric films on GaAs substrates is the monolithic integration of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices with GaAs electronics. Knowledge of the SAW properties of the layered structure is critical for the optimum and accurate design of such devices. The acoustic properties of ZnO films sputtered on {001}-cut <110> -propagating GaAs substrates are investigated in this article, including SAW Velocity effective piezoelectric coupling constant, propagation loss. diffraction, velocity surface, and reflectivity of shorted and open metallic gratings. The measurements of these essential SAW properties for the frequency range between 180 and 360 MHz have been performed using a knife-edge laser probe for film thicknesses over the range of 1.6-4 micron and with films or different grain sizes. The high quality of dc triode sputtered films was observed as evidenced by high K(exp 2) and low attenuation. The measurements of the velocity surface, which directly affects the SAW diffraction, on the bare and metalized ZnO on SiO2, or Si3N4 on {001}-cut GaAs samples are reported using two different techniques: 1) knife-edge laser probe, 2) line-focus-beam scanning acoustic microscope. It was found that near the <110> propagation direction, the focusing SAW property of the bare GaAs changes into a nonfocusing one for the layered structure, but a reversed phenomenon exists near the <100> direction. Furthermore, to some extent the diffraction of the substrate can be controlled with the film thickness. The reflectivity of shorted and open gratings are also analyzed and measured. Zero reflectivity is observed for a shorted grating. There is good agreement between the measured data and theoretical values.
The effect of ocean fronts on acoustic wave propagation in the Celtic Sea
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shapiro, G.; Chen, F.; Thain, R.
2014-11-01
Underwater noise is now classed as pollution in accordance with the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Noise from shipping is a major contributor to the ambient noise levels in ocean, particularly at low (< 300 Hz) frequencies. This paper studies patterns and seasonal variations of underwater noise in the Celtic Sea by using a coupled ocean model (POLCOMS) and an acoustic model (HARCAM) in the year 2010. Two sources of sound are considered: (i) representing a typical large cargo ship and (ii) noise from pile-driving activity. In summer, when the source of sound is on the onshore side of the front, the sound energy is mostly concentrated in the near-bottom layer. In winter, the sound from the same source is distributed more evenly in the vertical. The difference between the sound level in summer and winter at 10 m depth is as high as 20 dB at a distance of 40 km. When the source of sound is on the seaward side of the front, the sound level is nearly uniform in the vertical. The transmission loss is also greater (~ 16 dB) in the summer than in the winter for shallow source while it is up to ~ 20 dB for deep source at 30 km.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pontecorvo, Emanuele; Ortolani, Michele; Polli, Dario; Ferretti, Marco; Ruocco, Giancarlo; Cerullo, Giulio; Scopigno, Tullio
2011-01-01
Building on a 1 kHz amplified Ti:sapphire laser source, we developed a novel pump-probe setup for broadband picosecond acoustics using a white-light continuum probe coupled to an optical multichannel analyzer. The system allows one to access, in a single measurement, acoustic parameters such as sound velocity and attenuation all over the bandwidth of the acoustic wave-packet launched by the pump pulse. We use the setup to measure the sound attenuation in fused silica and observe a dynamic crossover occurring at ≈170 GHz.
Coupled vibro-acoustic model updating using frequency response functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nehete, D. V.; Modak, S. V.; Gupta, K.
2016-03-01
Interior noise in cavities of motorized vehicles is of increasing significance due to the lightweight design of these structures. Accurate coupled vibro-acoustic FE models of such cavities are required so as to allow a reliable design and analysis. It is, however, experienced that the vibro-acoustic predictions using these models do not often correlate acceptably well with the experimental measurements and hence require model updating. Both the structural and the acoustic parameters addressing the stiffness as well as the damping modeling inaccuracies need to be considered simultaneously in the model updating framework in order to obtain an accurate estimate of these parameters. It is also noted that the acoustic absorption properties are generally frequency dependent. This makes use of modal data based methods for updating vibro-acoustic FE models difficult. In view of this, the present paper proposes a method based on vibro-acoustic frequency response functions that allow updating of a coupled FE model by considering simultaneously the parameters associated with both the structural as well as the acoustic model of the cavity. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated through numerical studies on a 3D rectangular box cavity with a flexible plate. Updating parameters related to the material property, stiffness of joints between the plate and the rectangular cavity and the properties of absorbing surfaces of the acoustic cavity are considered. The robustness of the method under presence of noise is also studied.
Propagating Linear Waves in Convectively Unstable Stellar Models: A Perturbative Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papini, E.; Gizon, L.; Birch, A. C.
2014-06-01
Linear time-domain simulations of acoustic oscillations are unstable in the stellar convection zone. To overcome this problem it is customary to compute the oscillations of a stabilized background stellar model. The stabilization affects the result, however. Here we propose to use a perturbative approach (running the simulation twice) to approximately recover the acoustic wave field while preserving seismic reciprocity. To test the method we considered a 1D standard solar model. We found that the mode frequencies of the (unstable) standard solar model are well approximated by the perturbative approach within 1 μHz for low-degree modes with frequencies near 3 mHz. We also show that the perturbative approach is appropriate for correcting rotational-frequency kernels. Finally, we comment that the method can be generalized to wave propagation in 3D magnetized stellar interiors because the magnetic fields have stabilizing effects on convection.
Obliquely propagating ion-acoustic solitons and supersolitons in four-component auroral plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rufai, O. R.; Bharuthram, R.; Singh, S. V.; Lakhina, G. S.
2016-02-01
Arbitrary amplitude nonlinear low frequency electrostatic soliton and supersoliton structures are studied in magnetized four-component auroral plasmas composed of a cold singly charged oxygen-ion fluid, Boltzmann distribution of hot protons and two distinct group of electron species. Using the Sagdeev pseudo-potential technique, the characteristics of obliquely propagating nonlinear structures are investigated analytically and numerically. The model supports the evolution of soliton and supersoliton structures in the auroral acceleration region. Depending on the parametric region, the positive and negative potential solitons coexists at lower Mach numbers, but at higher Mach numbers only negative potential solitons and supersolitons can exist. The presence of hot protons restricted the Mach number of the nonlinear structures to exist only at the subsonic region. The present investigation concurs with the Swedish Viking satellite observations in the auroral region.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanamori, Masashi; Takahashi, Takashi; Aoyama, Takashi
2015-10-01
Shown in this paper is an introduction of a prediction tool for the propagation of loud noise with the application to the aeronautics in mind. The tool, named SPnoise, is based on HOWARD approach, which can express almost exact multidimensionality of the diffraction effect at the cost of back scattering. This paper argues, in particular, the prediction of the effect of atmospheric turbulence on sonic boom as one of the important issues in aeronautics. Thanks to the simple and efficient modeling of the atmospheric turbulence, SPnoise successfully re-creates the feature of the effect, which often emerges in the region just behind the front and rear shock waves in the sonic boom signature.
Kanamori, Masashi Takahashi, Takashi Aoyama, Takashi
2015-10-28
Shown in this paper is an introduction of a prediction tool for the propagation of loud noise with the application to the aeronautics in mind. The tool, named SPnoise, is based on HOWARD approach, which can express almost exact multidimensionality of the diffraction effect at the cost of back scattering. This paper argues, in particular, the prediction of the effect of atmospheric turbulence on sonic boom as one of the important issues in aeronautics. Thanks to the simple and efficient modeling of the atmospheric turbulence, SPnoise successfully re-creates the feature of the effect, which often emerges in the region just behind the front and rear shock waves in the sonic boom signature.
Subspace model identification of guided wave propagation in metallic plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Junhee; Kim, Kiyoung; Sohn, Hoon
2014-03-01
In this study, a data-driven subspace system identification approach is proposed for modeling guided wave propagation in plate media. In the data-driven approach, the subspace system identification estimates a mathematical model fitted to experimentally measured data, but the black-box model identified captures the dynamics of wave propagation. To demonstrate the versatility of the black-box model, wave motions in various shapes of aluminum plates are investigated in the study. In addition, a waveform predictor and temperature change indicator are proposed as applications of the black-box models, to further promote the modeling approach to guided wave propagation.
Numerical study of wave propagation around an underground cavity: acoustic case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Esterhazy, Sofi; Perugia, Ilaria; Schöberl, Joachim; Bokelmann, Götz
2015-04-01
Motivated by the need to detect an underground cavity within the procedure of an On-Site-Inspection (OSI) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), which might be caused by a nuclear explosion/weapon testing, we aim to provide a basic numerical study of the wave propagation around and inside such an underground cavity. The aim of the CTBTO is to ban all nuclear explosions of any size anywhere, by anyone. Therefore, it is essential to build a powerful strategy to efficiently investigate and detect critical signatures such as gas filled cavities, rubble zones and fracture networks below the surface. One method to investigate the geophysical properties of an underground cavity allowed by the Comprehensive Nuclear-test Ban Treaty is referred to as 'resonance seismometry' - a resonance method that uses passive or active seismic techniques, relying on seismic cavity vibrations. This method is in fact not yet entirely determined by the Treaty and there are also only few experimental examples that have been suitably documented to build a proper scientific groundwork. This motivates to investigate this problem on a purely numerical level and to simulate these events based on recent advances in the mathematical understanding of the underlying physical phenomena. Here, we focus our numerical study on the propagation of P-waves in two dimensions. An extension to three dimensions as well as an inclusion of the full elastic wave field is planned in the following. For the numerical simulations of wave propagation we use a high order finite element discretization which has the significant advantage that it can be extended easily from simple toy designs to complex and irregularly shaped geometries without excessive effort. Our computations are done with the parallel Finite Element Library NGSOLVE ontop of the automatic 2D/3D tetrahedral mesh generator NETGEN (http://sourceforge.net/projects/ngsolve/). Using the basic mathematical understanding of the
Chelyabinsk meteoroid entry: analysis of acoustic signals in the area of direct sound propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Podobnaya, Elena; Popova, Olga; Glazachev, Dmitry; Rybnov, Yurij; Shuvalov, Valery; Jenniskens, Peter; Kharlamov, Vladimir
E.Podobnaya, Yu.Rybnov, O.Popova, V. Shuvalov, P. Jenniskens, V.Kharlamov, D.Glazachev The Chelyabinsk airburst of 15 February 2013, was exceptional because of the large kinetic energy of the impacting body and the airburst that was generated, creating significant damage and injuries in a populated area. The meteor and the effects of the airburst were extraordinarily well documented. Numerous video records provided an accurate record of the trajectory and orbit of the cosmic body as well as features of its interaction with the atmosphere (Borovicka et al., 2013; Popova et al. 2013). In this presentation, we discuss the information on shock wave arrival times. Arrival times of the shock wave were derived from the shaking of the camera, the movement of smoke or car exhaust, and the movement of cables in the field of view, as well as directly from the audio record. From the analysis of these shock wave arrival times, the altitudes of the energy deposition were derived (Popova et al. 2013). Borovicka et al (2013) suggested that subsequent acoustic arrivals corresponded to separate fragmentation events. The observed arrival times will be compared with model estimates taking into account the real wind and atmospheric conditions (i.e. sound velocity changes with altitude). Results of numerical simulations will be compared with recorded sound signals. References Borovicka J. et al., 2013, Nature 503, 235 Popova O. et al., 2013, Science, 342, 1096
Propagation and stability of quantum dust-ion-acoustic shock waves in planar and nonplanar geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masood, W.; Siddiq, M.; Nargis, Shahida; Mirza, Arshad M.
2009-01-01
Dust-ion-acoustic (DIA) shock waves are studied in an unmagnetized quantum plasma consisting of electrons, ions, and dust by employing the quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model. In this context, a Korteweg-deVries-Burger (KdVB) equation is derived by employing the small amplitude perturbation expansion method. The dissipation is introduced by taking into account the kinematic viscosity among the plasma constituents. It is found that the strength of the quantum DIA shock wave is maximum for spherical, intermediate for cylindrical, and minimum for the planar geometry. The effects of quantum Bohm potential, dust concentration, and kinematic viscosity on the quantum DIA shock structure are also investigated. The temporal evolution of DIA KdV solitons and Burger shocks are also studied by putting the dissipative and dispersive coefficients equal to zero, respectively. The effects of the quantum Bohm potential on the stability of the DIA shock is also investigated. The present investigation may be beneficial to understand the dissipative and dispersive processes that may occur in the quantum dusty plasmas found in microelectronic devices as well as in astrophysical plasmas.
Propagation and stability of quantum dust-ion-acoustic shock waves in planar and nonplanar geometry
Masood, W.; Siddiq, M.; Nargis, Shahida; Mirza, Arshad M.
2009-01-15
Dust-ion-acoustic (DIA) shock waves are studied in an unmagnetized quantum plasma consisting of electrons, ions, and dust by employing the quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model. In this context, a Korteweg-deVries-Burger (KdVB) equation is derived by employing the small amplitude perturbation expansion method. The dissipation is introduced by taking into account the kinematic viscosity among the plasma constituents. It is found that the strength of the quantum DIA shock wave is maximum for spherical, intermediate for cylindrical, and minimum for the planar geometry. The effects of quantum Bohm potential, dust concentration, and kinematic viscosity on the quantum DIA shock structure are also investigated. The temporal evolution of DIA KdV solitons and Burger shocks are also studied by putting the dissipative and dispersive coefficients equal to zero, respectively. The effects of the quantum Bohm potential on the stability of the DIA shock is also investigated. The present investigation may be beneficial to understand the dissipative and dispersive processes that may occur in the quantum dusty plasmas found in microelectronic devices as well as in astrophysical plasmas.
Efficient modeling of range-dependent ray convergence effects in propagation and reverberation.
Harrison, Chris H
2015-05-01
In an earlier paper [Harrison (2013). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133, 3777-3789] the computationally efficient energy flux approach to modeling sound propagation was modified to include focusing, ray convergence, and caustic-like behavior. The derivation started with the coherent normal mode sum but retained only terms that interfered on a scale of a ray cycle distance. Here, by starting with the adiabatic mode sum, the formulation is extended to a slowly varying range-dependent environment and applied to the target-echo and reverberation model, Artemis. Some examples are given.
Analyses of Tsunami Events using Simple Propagation Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chilvery, Ashwith Kumar; Tan, Arjun; Aggarwal, Mohan
2012-03-01
Tsunamis exhibit the characteristics of ``canal waves'' or ``gravity waves'' which belong to the class of ``long ocean waves on shallow water.'' The memorable tsunami events including the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and the 2011 Pacific Ocean tsunami off the coast of Japan are analyzed by constructing simple tsunami propagation models including the following: (1) One-dimensional propagation model; (2) Two-dimensional propagation model on flat surface; (3) Two-dimensional propagation model on spherical surface; and (4) A finite line-source model on two-dimensional surface. It is shown that Model 1 explains the basic features of the tsunami including the propagation speed, depth of the ocean, dispersion-less propagation and bending of tsunamis around obstacles. Models 2 and 3 explain the observed amplitude variations for long-distance tsunami propagation across the Pacific Ocean, including the effect of the equatorial ocean current on the arrival times. Model 3 further explains the enhancement effect on the amplitude due to the curvature of the Earth past the equatorial distance. Finally, Model 4 explains the devastating effect of superposition of tsunamis from two subduction event, which struck the Phuket region during the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami.
Empirical angle-dependent Biot and MBA models for acoustic anisotropy in cancellous bone.
Lee, Kang Il; Hughes, E R; Humphrey, V F; Leighton, T G; Choi, Min Joo
2007-01-01
The Biot and the modified Biot-Attenborough (MBA) models have been found useful to understand ultrasonic wave propagation in cancellous bone. However, neither of the models, as previously applied to cancellous bone, allows for the angular dependence of acoustic properties with direction. The present study aims to account for the acoustic anisotropy in cancellous bone, by introducing empirical angle-dependent input parameters, as defined for a highly oriented structure, into the Biot and the MBA models. The anisotropy of the angle-dependent Biot model is attributed to the variation in the elastic moduli of the skeletal frame with respect to the trabecular alignment. The angle-dependent MBA model employs a simple empirical way of using the parametric fit for the fast and the slow wave speeds. The angle-dependent models were used to predict both the fast and slow wave velocities as a function of propagation angle with respect to the trabecular alignment of cancellous bone. The predictions were compared with those of the Schoenberg model for anisotropy in cancellous bone and in vitro experimental measurements from the literature. The angle-dependent models successfully predicted the angular dependence of phase velocity of the fast wave with direction. The root-mean-square errors of the measured versus predicted fast wave velocities were 79.2 m s(-1) (angle-dependent Biot model) and 36.1 m s(-1) (angle-dependent MBA model). They also predicted the fact that the slow wave is nearly independent of propagation angle for angles about 50 degrees , but consistently underestimated the slow wave velocity with the root-mean-square errors of 187.2 m s(-1) (angle-dependent Biot model) and 240.8 m s(-1) (angle-dependent MBA model). The study indicates that the angle-dependent models reasonably replicate the acoustic anisotropy in cancellous bone.
Space Launch System Scale Model Acoustic Test Ignition Overpressure Testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nance, Donald; Liever, Peter; Nielsen, Tanner
2015-01-01
The overpressure phenomenon is a transient fluid dynamic event occurring during rocket propulsion system ignition. This phenomenon results from fluid compression of the accelerating plume gas, subsequent rarefaction, and subsequent propagation from the exhaust trench and duct holes. The high-amplitude unsteady fluid-dynamic perturbations can adversely affect the vehicle and surrounding structure. Commonly known as ignition overpressure (IOP), this is an important design-to environment for the Space Launch System (SLS) that NASA is currently developing. Subscale testing is useful in validating and verifying the IOP environment. This was one of the objectives of the Scale Model Acoustic Test, conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center. The test data quantifies the effectiveness of the SLS IOP suppression system and improves the analytical models used to predict the SLS IOP environments. The reduction and analysis of the data gathered during the SMAT IOP test series requires identification and characterization of multiple dynamic events and scaling of the event waveforms to provide the most accurate comparisons to determine the effectiveness of the IOP suppression systems. The identification and characterization of the overpressure events, the waveform scaling, the computation of the IOP suppression system knockdown factors, and preliminary comparisons to the analytical models are discussed.
Space Launch System Scale Model Acoustic Test Ignition Overpressure Testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nance, Donald K.; Liever, Peter A.
2015-01-01
The overpressure phenomenon is a transient fluid dynamic event occurring during rocket propulsion system ignition. This phenomenon results from fluid compression of the accelerating plume gas, subsequent rarefaction, and subsequent propagation from the exhaust trench and duct holes. The high-amplitude unsteady fluid-dynamic perturbations can adversely affect the vehicle and surrounding structure. Commonly known as ignition overpressure (IOP), this is an important design-to environment for the Space Launch System (SLS) that NASA is currently developing. Subscale testing is useful in validating and verifying the IOP environment. This was one of the objectives of the Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT), conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The test data quantifies the effectiveness of the SLS IOP suppression system and improves the analytical models used to predict the SLS IOP environments. The reduction and analysis of the data gathered during the SMAT IOP test series requires identification and characterization of multiple dynamic events and scaling of the event waveforms to provide the most accurate comparisons to determine the effectiveness of the IOP suppression systems. The identification and characterization of the overpressure events, the waveform scaling, the computation of the IOP suppression system knockdown factors, and preliminary comparisons to the analytical models are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Tao; Ma, Li
2010-09-01
An internal wave observation experiment was performed near the south of Hai-Nan Island in the South China Sea in July 2004. Three vertical thermistor arrays were moored to estimate internal wave propagation direction and velocity. A nonlinear internal wave packet was observed in this experiment. It appeared at flood tide time of wee hours. Computation indicated that the nonlinear internal wave packet's velocity was 0.54 m/s and its propagation direction was northwest. From its propagation direction, we estimated that the nonlinear internal wave packet was generated near Xi-Sha Islands. The dnoidal model of KdV(Korteweg-deVries) equation was used to simulate the waveform of thid nonlinear internal wave. Measured data shows the crest interval of nonlinear internal waves was shorter when they propagated. In the last section of this paper we simulate a nonlinear internal wave packet's effect on sound propagation and analyzed mode coupling led by the nonlinear internal wave packet.
On Modeling Eavesdropping Attacks in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks.
Wang, Qiu; Dai, Hong-Ning; Li, Xuran; Wang, Hao; Xiao, Hong
2016-01-01
The security and privacy of underwater acoustic sensor networks has received extensive attention recently due to the proliferation of underwater activities. This paper proposes an analytical model to investigate the eavesdropping attacks in underwater acoustic sensor networks. Our analytical framework considers the impacts of various underwater acoustic channel conditions (such as the acoustic signal frequency, spreading factor and wind speed) and different hydrophones (isotropic hydrophones and array hydrophones) in terms of network nodes and eavesdroppers. We also conduct extensive simulations to evaluate the effectiveness and the accuracy of our proposed model. Empirical results show that our proposed model is quite accurate. In addition, our results also imply that the eavesdropping probability heavily depends on both the underwater acoustic channel conditions and the features of hydrophones. PMID:27213379
On Modeling Eavesdropping Attacks in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks.
Wang, Qiu; Dai, Hong-Ning; Li, Xuran; Wang, Hao; Xiao, Hong
2016-05-18
The security and privacy of underwater acoustic sensor networks has received extensive attention recently due to the proliferation of underwater activities. This paper proposes an analytical model to investigate the eavesdropping attacks in underwater acoustic sensor networks. Our analytical framework considers the impacts of various underwater acoustic channel conditions (such as the acoustic signal frequency, spreading factor and wind speed) and different hydrophones (isotropic hydrophones and array hydrophones) in terms of network nodes and eavesdroppers. We also conduct extensive simulations to evaluate the effectiveness and the accuracy of our proposed model. Empirical results show that our proposed model is quite accurate. In addition, our results also imply that the eavesdropping probability heavily depends on both the underwater acoustic channel conditions and the features of hydrophones.
On Modeling Eavesdropping Attacks in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks †
Wang, Qiu; Dai, Hong-Ning; Li, Xuran; Wang, Hao; Xiao, Hong
2016-01-01
The security and privacy of underwater acoustic sensor networks has received extensive attention recently due to the proliferation of underwater activities. This paper proposes an analytical model to investigate the eavesdropping attacks in underwater acoustic sensor networks. Our analytical framework considers the impacts of various underwater acoustic channel conditions (such as the acoustic signal frequency, spreading factor and wind speed) and different hydrophones (isotropic hydrophones and array hydrophones) in terms of network nodes and eavesdroppers. We also conduct extensive simulations to evaluate the effectiveness and the accuracy of our proposed model. Empirical results show that our proposed model is quite accurate. In addition, our results also imply that the eavesdropping probability heavily depends on both the underwater acoustic channel conditions and the features of hydrophones. PMID:27213379
Modelling a nonlinear MTFDE from acoustics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teodoro, M. Filomena
2016-06-01
The main interest of this work is to compute a approximate solution of equations with equal delay and advance which often appear in models from applied sciences. In this article, we consider a special case of a nonlinear forward-backward which models the vibration of some elastics tissues in physiology, just as the vocal fold mucosa. The oscillation as superficial wave propagating through the tissues in the direction of the flow is described by the considered equation. The approximation of solution is obtained using a non regular mesh instead a regular one as presented in [1] where is adapted an numerical scheme based on algorithms introduced in [2, 3] using collocation, finite element method, method of steps and Newton's method3 are used.
Numerical modeling of the acoustic guitar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaigne, Antoine; Derveaux, Grégoire; Joly, Patrick; Bécache, Eliane
2003-10-01
An interactive DVD has been created, based on a numerical model of the acoustic guitar. In a first chapter, the retained physical model is described and illustrated, from the pluck to the 3D radiation field. The second chapter is devoted to the presentation of the numerical tools used for solving the equations of the model. Numerical simulations of plate vibrations and radiated sound pressure are shown in the third chapter. A number of simulated sounds are presented and analyzed in the fourth chapter. In addition, the DVD includes a discussion between a guitar maker, an acoustician, a guitar player and a mathematician. This discussion is entitled ``towards a common language.'' Its aim is to show the interest of simulations with respect to complementary professional approaches of the instrument. This DVD received the Henri Poincaré Prize from the 8th Research Film Festival of Nancy (June 2003), sponsored by the CNRS, in the category ``Documents for the scientific community and illustrations of the research for teaching purpose.''
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brissaud, Quentin; Martin, Roland; Garcia, Raphaël F.; Komatitsch, Dimitri
2016-07-01
Acoustic and gravity waves propagating in planetary atmospheres have been studied intensively as markers of specific phenomena such as tectonic events or explosions or as contributors to atmosphere dynamics. To get a better understanding of the physics behind these dynamic processes, both acoustic and gravity waves propagation should be modelled in a 3-D attenuating and windy atmosphere extending from the ground to the upper thermosphere. Thus, in order to provide an efficient numerical tool at the regional or global scale, we introduce a finite difference in the time domain (FDTD) approach that relies on the linearized compressible Navier-Stokes equations with a background flow (wind). One significant benefit of such a method is its versatility because it handles both acoustic and gravity waves in the same simulation, which enables one to observe interactions between them. Simulations can be performed for 2-D or 3-D realistic cases such as tsunamis in a full MSISE-00 atmosphere or gravity-wave generation by atmospheric explosions. We validate the computations by comparing them to analytical solutions based on dispersion relations in specific benchmark cases: an atmospheric explosion, and a ground displacement forcing.
Modeling the propagation of mobile phone virus under complex network.
Yang, Wei; Wei, Xi-liang; Guo, Hao; An, Gang; Guo, Lei; Yao, Yu
2014-01-01
Mobile phone virus is a rogue program written to propagate from one phone to another, which can take control of a mobile device by exploiting its vulnerabilities. In this paper the propagation model of mobile phone virus is tackled to understand how particular factors can affect its propagation and design effective containment strategies to suppress mobile phone virus. Two different propagation models of mobile phone viruses under the complex network are proposed in this paper. One is intended to describe the propagation of user-tricking virus, and the other is to describe the propagation of the vulnerability-exploiting virus. Based on the traditional epidemic models, the characteristics of mobile phone viruses and the network topology structure are incorporated into our models. A detailed analysis is conducted to analyze the propagation models. Through analysis, the stable infection-free equilibrium point and the stability condition are derived. Finally, considering the network topology, the numerical and simulation experiments are carried out. Results indicate that both models are correct and suitable for describing the spread of two different mobile phone viruses, respectively.
Modeling the Propagation of Mobile Phone Virus under Complex Network
Yang, Wei; Wei, Xi-liang; Guo, Hao; An, Gang; Guo, Lei
2014-01-01
Mobile phone virus is a rogue program written to propagate from one phone to another, which can take control of a mobile device by exploiting its vulnerabilities. In this paper the propagation model of mobile phone virus is tackled to understand how particular factors can affect its propagation and design effective containment strategies to suppress mobile phone virus. Two different propagation models of mobile phone viruses under the complex network are proposed in this paper. One is intended to describe the propagation of user-tricking virus, and the other is to describe the propagation of the vulnerability-exploiting virus. Based on the traditional epidemic models, the characteristics of mobile phone viruses and the network topology structure are incorporated into our models. A detailed analysis is conducted to analyze the propagation models. Through analysis, the stable infection-free equilibrium point and the stability condition are derived. Finally, considering the network topology, the numerical and simulation experiments are carried out. Results indicate that both models are correct and suitable for describing the spread of two different mobile phone viruses, respectively. PMID:25133209
Verification of Ares I Liftoff Acoustic Environments via the Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Counter, Douglas D.; Houston, Janice D.
2012-01-01
Launch environments, such as Liftoff Acoustic (LOA) and Ignition Overpressure (IOP), are important design factors for any vehicle and are dependent upon the design of both the vehicle and the ground systems. The NASA Constellation Program had several risks to the development of the Ares I vehicle linked to LOA which are used in the development of the vibro-acoustic environments. The risks included cost, schedule and technical impacts for component qualification due to high predicted vibro-acoustic environments. One solution is to mitigate the environment at the component level. However, where the environment is too severe to mitigate at the component level, reduction of the launch environments is required. The Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) program was implemented to verify the predicted Ares I launch environments and to determine the acoustic reduction for the LOA environment with an above deck water sound suppression system. The test article included a 5% scale Ares I vehicle model, tower and Mobile Launcher. Acoustic and pressure data were measured by approximately 200 instruments. The ASMAT results are compared to the Ares I LOA predictions and water suppression effectiveness results are presented.
Verification of Ares I Liftoff Acoustic Environments via the Ares Scale Model Acoustic Test
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Counter, Douglas D.; Houston, Janice D.
2012-01-01
Launch environments, such as Liftoff Acoustic (LOA) and Ignition Overpressure (IOP), are important design factors for any vehicle and are dependent upon the design of both the vehicle and the ground systems. The NASA Constellation Program had several risks to the development of the Ares I vehicle linked to LOA which are used in the development of the vibro-acoustic environments. The risks included cost, schedule and technical impacts for component qualification due to high predicted vibro-acoustic environments. One solution is to mitigate the environment at the component level. However, where the environment is too severe to mitigate at the component level, reduction of the launch environments is required. The Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) program was implemented to verify the predicted Ares I launch environments and to determine the acoustic reduction for the LOA environment with an above deck water sound suppression system. The test article included a 5% scale Ares I vehicle model, tower and Mobile Launcher. Acoustic and pressure data were measured by approximately 200 instruments. The ASMAT results are compared to the Ares I LOA predictions and water suppression effectiveness results are presented.
Model of Blue Jet Formation and Propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milikh, Gennadiy; Shneider, Mikhail; Mokrov, Mikhail
2014-05-01
Upward-propagating luminous flashes above thunderstorms were discovered two decades ago. They were named blue jets (BJ) due to primarily blue color. It is broadly accepted that BJ are produced by a lightning leader running upward in the nonuniform atmosphere. It is also suggested that formation of a leader is governed by the contraction of the current of a streamer flash into a small radius channel. The paper presents results of simulations of the current contraction in the air as a function of the pressure, and convective heat removal time. It was shown that transition to the contracted state occurs in hysteresis mode in which contracted and diffusive stable states exist simultaneously. The critical current for the phase transition was obtained. Similarity methods were applied to the simulations of the critical contraction current, along with chosen observations of BJ, to study BJ formation and propagation in the atmosphere.
openPSTD: The open source pseudospectral time-domain method for acoustic propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hornikx, Maarten; Krijnen, Thomas; van Harten, Louis
2016-06-01
An open source implementation of the Fourier pseudospectral time-domain (PSTD) method for computing the propagation of sound is presented, which is geared towards applications in the built environment. Being a wave-based method, PSTD captures phenomena like diffraction, but maintains efficiency in processing time and memory usage as it allows to spatially sample close to the Nyquist criterion, thus keeping both the required spatial and temporal resolution coarse. In the implementation it has been opted to model the physical geometry as a composition of rectangular two-dimensional subdomains, hence initially restricting the implementation to orthogonal and two-dimensional situations. The strategy of using subdomains divides the problem domain into local subsets, which enables the simulation software to be built according to Object-Oriented Programming best practices and allows room for further computational parallelization. The software is built using the open source components, Blender, Numpy and Python, and has been published under an open source license itself as well. For accelerating the software, an option has been included to accelerate the calculations by a partial implementation of the code on the Graphical Processing Unit (GPU), which increases the throughput by up to fifteen times. The details of the implementation are reported, as well as the accuracy of the code.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Madeo, A.; Djeran-Maigre, I.; Rosi, G.; Silvani, C.
2013-03-01
In geomechanics, a relevant role is played by coupling phenomena between compressible fluid seepage flow and deformation of the solid matrix. The behavior of complex porous materials can be greatly influenced by such coupling phenomena. A satisfactorily theoretical framework for their description is not yet completely attained. In this paper, we discuss how the model developed in dell'Isola et al. (Int J Solids Struct 46:3150-3164, 2009) can describe how underground flows or, more generally, confined streams of fluid in deformable porous matrices affect compression wave propagation and their reflection and transmission at a solid-material discontinuity surface. Further work will investigate the effect of stream flow in porous media on shear waves, generalizing what done in Djeran Maigre and Kuznetsov (Comptes Rendus Mécanique 336(1-2):102-107, 2008) for shear waves in one-constituent orthotropic two-layered plates. The presented treatment shows that the presence of fluid streams considerably affect reflection and transmission phenomena in porous media.
Crack Propagation Analysis Using Acoustic Emission Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring Systems
Kral, Zachary; Horn, Walter; Steck, James
2013-01-01
Aerospace systems are expected to remain in service well beyond their designed life. Consequently, maintenance is an important issue. A novel method of implementing artificial neural networks and acoustic emission sensors to form a structural health monitoring (SHM) system for aerospace inspection routines was the focus of this research. Simple structural elements, consisting of flat aluminum plates of AL 2024-T3, were subjected to increasing static tensile loading. As the loading increased, designed cracks extended in length, releasing strain waves in the process. Strain wave signals, measured by acoustic emission sensors, were further analyzed in post-processing by artificial neural networks (ANN).more » Several experiments were performed to determine the severity and location of the crack extensions in the structure. ANNs were trained on a portion of the data acquired by the sensors and the ANNs were then validated with the remaining data. The combination of a system of acoustic emission sensors, and an ANN could determine crack extension accurately. The difference between predicted and actual crack extensions was determined to be between 0.004 in. and 0.015 in. with 95% confidence. These ANNs, coupled with acoustic emission sensors, showed promise for the creation of an SHM system for aerospace systems.« less
Crack Propagation Analysis Using Acoustic Emission Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring Systems
Horn, Walter; Steck, James
2013-01-01
Aerospace systems are expected to remain in service well beyond their designed life. Consequently, maintenance is an important issue. A novel method of implementing artificial neural networks and acoustic emission sensors to form a structural health monitoring (SHM) system for aerospace inspection routines was the focus of this research. Simple structural elements, consisting of flat aluminum plates of AL 2024-T3, were subjected to increasing static tensile loading. As the loading increased, designed cracks extended in length, releasing strain waves in the process. Strain wave signals, measured by acoustic emission sensors, were further analyzed in post-processing by artificial neural networks (ANN). Several experiments were performed to determine the severity and location of the crack extensions in the structure. ANNs were trained on a portion of the data acquired by the sensors and the ANNs were then validated with the remaining data. The combination of a system of acoustic emission sensors, and an ANN could determine crack extension accurately. The difference between predicted and actual crack extensions was determined to be between 0.004 in. and 0.015 in. with 95% confidence. These ANNs, coupled with acoustic emission sensors, showed promise for the creation of an SHM system for aerospace systems. PMID:24023536
Crack propagation analysis using acoustic emission sensors for structural health monitoring systems.
Kral, Zachary; Horn, Walter; Steck, James
2013-01-01
Aerospace systems are expected to remain in service well beyond their designed life. Consequently, maintenance is an important issue. A novel method of implementing artificial neural networks and acoustic emission sensors to form a structural health monitoring (SHM) system for aerospace inspection routines was the focus of this research. Simple structural elements, consisting of flat aluminum plates of AL 2024-T3, were subjected to increasing static tensile loading. As the loading increased, designed cracks extended in length, releasing strain waves in the process. Strain wave signals, measured by acoustic emission sensors, were further analyzed in post-processing by artificial neural networks (ANN). Several experiments were performed to determine the severity and location of the crack extensions in the structure. ANNs were trained on a portion of the data acquired by the sensors and the ANNs were then validated with the remaining data. The combination of a system of acoustic emission sensors, and an ANN could determine crack extension accurately. The difference between predicted and actual crack extensions was determined to be between 0.004 in. and 0.015 in. with 95% confidence. These ANNs, coupled with acoustic emission sensors, showed promise for the creation of an SHM system for aerospace systems. PMID:24023536
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hafez, M. G.; Roy, N. C.; Talukder, M. R.; Hossain Ali, M.
2016-09-01
This work investigates the oblique nonlinear propagation of ion acoustic (IA) shock waves for both weakly and highly relativistic plasmas composed of nonthermal electrons and positrons with relativistic thermal ions. The KdVB-like equation, involving dispersive, weakly transverse dispersive, nonlinearity and dissipative coefficients, is derived employing the well known reductive perturbation method. The integration of this equation is carried out by the {tanh} method taking the stable shock formation condition into account. The effects of nonthermal electrons and positrons, nonthermal electrons with isothermal positrons, isothermal electrons with nonthermal positrons, and isothermal electrons and positrons on oblique propagation of IA shock waves in weakly relativistic regime are described. Furthermore, the effects of plasma parameters on oblique propagation of IA shock waves in highly relativistic regime are discussed and compared with weakly relativistic case. It is seen that the plasma parameters within certain limits significantly modify the structures of the IA shock waves in both cases. The results may be useful for better understanding of the interactions of charged particles with extra-galactic jets as well as astrophysical compact objects.
Dai, Xiwen; Jing, Xiaodong Sun, Xiaofeng
2015-05-15
The acoustic resonance in a Helmholtz resonator excited by a low Mach number grazing flow is studied theoretically. The nonlinear numerical model is established by coupling the vortical motion at the cavity opening with the cavity acoustic mode through an explicit force balancing relation between the two sides of the opening. The vortical motion is modeled in the potential flow framework, in which the oscillating motion of the thin shear layer is described by an array of convected point vortices, and the unsteady vortex shedding is determined by the Kutta condition. The cavity acoustic mode is obtained from the one-dimensional acoustic propagation model, the time-domain equivalent of which is given by means of a broadband time-domain impedance model. The acoustic resistances due to radiation and viscous loss at the opening are also taken into account. The physical processes of the self-excited oscillations, at both resonance and off-resonance states, are simulated directly in the time domain. Results show that the shear layer exhibits a weak flapping motion at the off-resonance state, whereas it rolls up into large-scale vortex cores when resonances occur. Single and dual-vortex patterns are observed corresponding to the first and second hydrodynamic modes. The simulation also reveals different trajectories of the two vortices across the opening when the first and second hydrodynamic modes co-exist. The strong modulation of the shed vorticity by the acoustic feedback at the resonance state is demonstrated. The model overestimates the pressure pulsation amplitude by a factor 2, which is expected to be due to the turbulence of the flow which is not taken into account. The model neglects vortex shedding at the downstream and side edges of the cavity. This will also result in an overestimation of the pulsation amplitude.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Xiwen; Jing, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiaofeng
2015-05-01
The acoustic resonance in a Helmholtz resonator excited by a low Mach number grazing flow is studied theoretically. The nonlinear numerical model is established by coupling the vortical motion at the cavity opening with the cavity acoustic mode through an explicit force balancing relation between the two sides of the opening. The vortical motion is modeled in the potential flow framework, in which the oscillating motion of the thin shear layer is described by an array of convected point vortices, and the unsteady vortex shedding is determined by the Kutta condition. The cavity acoustic mode is obtained from the one-dimensional acoustic propagation model, the time-domain equivalent of which is given by means of a broadband time-domain impedance model. The acoustic resistances due to radiation and viscous loss at the opening are also taken into account. The physical processes of the self-excited oscillations, at both resonance and off-resonance states, are simulated directly in the time domain. Results show that the shear layer exhibits a weak flapping motion at the off-resonance state, whereas it rolls up into large-scale vortex cores when resonances occur. Single and dual-vortex patterns are observed corresponding to the first and second hydrodynamic modes. The simulation also reveals different trajectories of the two vortices across the opening when the first and second hydrodynamic modes co-exist. The strong modulation of the shed vorticity by the acoustic feedback at the resonance state is demonstrated. The model overestimates the pressure pulsation amplitude by a factor 2, which is expected to be due to the turbulence of the flow which is not taken into account. The model neglects vortex shedding at the downstream and side edges of the cavity. This will also result in an overestimation of the pulsation amplitude.
RMS ENVELOPE BACK-PROPAGATION IN THE XAL ONLINE MODEL
Allen, Christopher K; Sako, Hiroyuki; Ikegami, Masanori
2009-01-01
The ability to back-propagate RMS envelopes was added to the J-PARC XAL online model. Specifically, given an arbitrary downstream location, the online model can propagate the RMS envelopes backward to an arbitrary upstream location. This feature provides support for algorithms estimating upstream conditions from downstream data. The upgrade required significant refactoring, which we outline. We also show simulations using the new feature.
Pathogen Propagation Model with Superinfection in Vegetatively Propagated Plants on Lattice Space.
Sakai, Yuma; Takada, Takenori
2016-01-01
Many clonal plants have two reproductive patterns, seed propagation and vegetative propagation. By vegetative propagation, plants reproduce the genetically identical offspring with a low mortality, because resources are supplied from the other individuals through interconnected ramets at vegetative-propagated offspring. However, the ramets transport not only resources but also systemic pathogen. Pathogens evolve to establish and spread widely within the plant population. The superinfection, which is defined as the ability that an established pathogen spreads widely by infecting to already-infected individuals with other strains of a pathogen, is important to the evolution of pathogens. We examine the dynamics of plant reproduction and pathogen propagation considering spatial structure and the effect of superinfection on genetic diversity of pathogen by analysis of several models, 1-strain and multiple-strain models, on two-dimensional square lattice. In the analysis of 1-strain model, we derive equilibrium value by mean-field approximation and pair approximation, and its local stability by Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion. In the multiple-strain models, we analyze the dynamics by numerical simulation of mean-field approximation, pair approximation and Monte Carlo simulation. Through the analyses, we show the effect of parameter values to dynamics of models, such as transition of dominant strain of pathogen, competition between plants and pathogens and density of individuals. As a result, (i) The strain with intermediate cost becomes dominant when both superinfection rate and growth rate are low. (ii) The competition between plants and pathogens occurs in the phase of coexistence of various strains by pair approximation and Monte Carlo simulation. (iii) Too high growth rate leads to the decrease of plant population in all models. (iv) Pathogens are easy to maintain their genetic diversity with low superinfection rate. However, if they do not superinfect, the
Pathogen Propagation Model with Superinfection in Vegetatively Propagated Plants on Lattice Space
Sakai, Yuma; Takada, Takenori
2016-01-01
Many clonal plants have two reproductive patterns, seed propagation and vegetative propagation. By vegetative propagation, plants reproduce the genetically identical offspring with a low mortality, because resources are supplied from the other individuals through interconnected ramets at vegetative-propagated offspring. However, the ramets transport not only resources but also systemic pathogen. Pathogens evolve to establish and spread widely within the plant population. The superinfection, which is defined as the ability that an established pathogen spreads widely by infecting to already-infected individuals with other strains of a pathogen, is important to the evolution of pathogens. We examine the dynamics of plant reproduction and pathogen propagation considering spatial structure and the effect of superinfection on genetic diversity of pathogen by analysis of several models, 1-strain and multiple-strain models, on two-dimensional square lattice. In the analysis of 1-strain model, we derive equilibrium value by mean-field approximation and pair approximation, and its local stability by Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion. In the multiple-strain models, we analyze the dynamics by numerical simulation of mean-field approximation, pair approximation and Monte Carlo simulation. Through the analyses, we show the effect of parameter values to dynamics of models, such as transition of dominant strain of pathogen, competition between plants and pathogens and density of individuals. As a result, (i) The strain with intermediate cost becomes dominant when both superinfection rate and growth rate are low. (ii) The competition between plants and pathogens occurs in the phase of coexistence of various strains by pair approximation and Monte Carlo simulation. (iii) Too high growth rate leads to the decrease of plant population in all models. (iv) Pathogens are easy to maintain their genetic diversity with low superinfection rate. However, if they do not superinfect, the
Acoustic coupling in capacitive microfabricated ultrasonic transducers: modeling and experiments.
Caronti, Alessandro; Savoia, Alessandro; Caliano, Giosuè; Pappalardo, Massimo
2005-12-01
In the design of low-frequency transducer arrays for active sonar systems, the acoustic interactions that occur between the transducer elements have received much attention. Because of these interactions, the acoustic loading on each transducer depends on its position in the array, and the radiated acoustic power may vary considerably from one element to another. Capacitive microfabricated ultrasonic transducers (CMUT) are made of a two-dimensional array of metallized micromembranes, all electrically connected in parallel, and driven into flexural motion by the electrostatic force produced by an applied voltage. The mechanical impedance of these membranes is typically much lower than the acoustic impedance of water. In our investigations of acoustic coupling in CMUTs, interaction effects between the membranes in immersion were observed, similar to those reported in sonar arrays. Because CMUTs have many promising applications in the field of medical ultrasound imaging, understanding of cross-coupling mechanisms and acoustic interaction effects is especially important for reducing cross-talk between array elements, which can produce artifacts and degrade image quality. In this paper, we report a finite-element study of acoustic interactions in CMUTs and experimental results obtained by laser interferometry measurements. The good agreement found between finite element modeling (FEM) results and optical displacement measurements demonstrates that acoustic interactions through the liquid represent a major source of cross coupling in CMUTs.
Statistical Modeling of Large-Scale Signal Path Loss in Underwater Acoustic Networks
Llor, Jesús; Malumbres, Manuel Perez
2013-01-01
In an underwater acoustic channel, the propagation conditions are known to vary in time, causing the deviation of the received signal strength from the nominal value predicted by a deterministic propagation model. To facilitate a large-scale system design in such conditions (e.g., power allocation), we have developed a statistical propagation model in which the transmission loss is treated as a random variable. By applying repetitive computation to the acoustic field, using ray tracing for a set of varying environmental conditions (surface height, wave activity, small node displacements around nominal locations, etc.), an ensemble of transmission losses is compiled and later used to infer the statistical model parameters. A reasonable agreement is found with log-normal distribution, whose mean obeys a log-distance increases, and whose variance appears to be constant for a certain range of inter-node distances in a given deployment location. The statistical model is deemed useful for higher-level system planning, where simulation is needed to assess the performance of candidate network protocols under various resource allocation policies, i.e., to determine the transmit power and bandwidth allocation necessary to achieve a desired level of performance (connectivity, throughput, reliability, etc.). PMID:23396190
Oblique propagation of dust ion-acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized dusty pair-ion plasma
Misra, A. P. E-mail: apmisra@gmail.com; Barman, Arnab
2014-07-15
We investigate the propagation characteristics of electrostatic waves in a magnetized pair-ion plasma with immobile charged dusts. It is shown that obliquely propagating (OP) low-frequency (in comparison with the negative-ion cyclotron frequency) long-wavelength “slow” and “fast” modes can propagate, respectively, as dust ion-acoustic (DIA) and dust ion-cyclotron (DIC)-like waves. The properties of these modes are studied with the effects of obliqueness of propagation (θ), the static magnetic field, the ratios of the negative to positive ion masses (m), and temperatures (T) as well as the dust to negative-ion number density ratio (δ). Using the standard reductive perturbation technique, we derive a Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation which governs the evolution of small-amplitude OP DIA waves. It is found that the KdV equation admits only rarefactive solitons in plasmas with m well below its critical value m{sub c} (≫ 1) which typically depends on T and δ. It is shown that the nonlinear coefficient of the KdV equation vanishes at m = m{sub c}, i.e., for plasmas with much heavier negative ions, and the evolution of the DIA waves is then described by a modified KdV (mKdV) equation. The latter is shown to have only compressive soliton solution. The properties of both the KdV and mKdV solitons are studied with the system parameters as above, and possible applications of our results to laboratory and space plasmas are briefly discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hospital-Bravo, Raúl; Sarrate, Josep; Díez, Pedro
2016-05-01
A new 2D numerical model to predict the underwater acoustic propagation is obtained by exploring the potential of the Partition of Unity Method (PUM) enriched with plane waves. The aim of the work is to obtain sound pressure level distributions when multiple operational noise sources are present, in order to assess the acoustic impact over the marine fauna. The model takes advantage of the suitability of the PUM for solving the Helmholtz equation, especially for the practical case of large domains and medium frequencies. The seawater acoustic absorption and the acoustic reflectance of the sea surface and sea bottom are explicitly considered, and perfectly matched layers (PML) are placed at the lateral artificial boundaries to avoid spurious reflexions. The model includes semi-analytical integration rules which are adapted to highly oscillatory integrands with the aim of reducing the computational cost of the integration step. In addition, we develop a novel strategy to mitigate the ill-conditioning of the elemental and global system matrices. Specifically, we compute a low-rank approximation of the local space of solutions, which in turn reduces the number of degrees of freedom, the CPU time and the memory footprint. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the model and to assess its accuracy.
Sarkar, Susmita; Maity, Saumyen
2013-08-15
An expression for ion current flowing to the dust grains is proposed, when dust charge is positive and the ions are nonthermal. Secondary electron emission has been considered as the source of positive charging of the dust grains. Investigation shows that presence of positively charged dust grains along with thermal electrons and nonthermal ions generate purely growing dust acoustic waves for both the cases of ion nonthermal parameter greater than one and less than one. In the later case, the growth is conditional.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Terrana, Sebastien; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Guillot, Laurent; Mariotti, Christian
2015-04-01
Today seismological observation systems combine broadband seismic receivers, hydrophones and micro-barometers antenna that provide complementary observations of source-radiated waves in heterogeneous and complex geophysical media. Exploiting these observations requires accurate and multi-physics - elastic, hydro-acoustic, infrasonic - wave simulation methods. A popular approach is the Spectral Element Method (SEM) (Chaljub et al, 2006) which is high-order accurate (low dispersion error), very flexible to parallelization and computationally attractive due to efficient sum factorization technique and diagonal mass matrix. However SEMs suffer from lack of flexibility in handling complex geometry and multi-physics wave propagation. High-order Discontinuous Galerkin Methods (DGMs), i.e. Dumbser et al (2006), Etienne et al. (2010), Wilcox et al (2010), are recent alternatives that can handle complex geometry, space-and-time adaptativity, and allow efficient multi-physics wave coupling at interfaces. However, DGMs are more memory demanding and less computationally attractive than SEMs, especially when explicit time stepping is used. We propose a new class of higher-order Hybridized Discontinuous Galerkin Spectral Elements (HDGSEM) methods for spatial discretization of wave equations, following the unifying framework for hybridization of Cockburn et al (2009) and Nguyen et al (2011), which allows for a single implementation of conforming and non-conforming SEMs. When used with energy conserving explicit time integration schemes, HDGSEM is flexible to handle complex geometry, computationally attractive and has significantly less degrees of freedom than classical DGMs, i.e., the only coupled unknowns are the single-valued numerical traces of the velocity field on the element's faces. The formulation can be extended to model fractional energy loss at interfaces between elastic, acoustic and hydro-acoustic media. Accuracy and performance of the HDGSEM are illustrated and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishra, S.; Schwab, Ch.; Šukys, J.
2016-05-01
We consider the very challenging problem of efficient uncertainty quantification for acoustic wave propagation in a highly heterogeneous, possibly layered, random medium, characterized by possibly anisotropic, piecewise log-exponentially distributed Gaussian random fields. A multi-level Monte Carlo finite volume method is proposed, along with a novel, bias-free upscaling technique that allows to represent the input random fields, generated using spectral FFT methods, efficiently. Combined together with a recently developed dynamic load balancing algorithm that scales to massively parallel computing architectures, the proposed method is able to robustly compute uncertainty for highly realistic random subsurface formations that can contain a very high number (millions) of sources of uncertainty. Numerical experiments, in both two and three space dimensions, illustrating the efficiency of the method are presented.
Models and Observations of Shock Wave Propagation in Volcanic Settings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, J.; Johnson, J. B.; Ruiz, M. C.; Steele, A.
2013-12-01
High-amplitude air waves (shock waves) propagate nonlinearly; although this strongly affects recorded signals, it is not commonly modeled in studies of volcanic explosions. Failure to account for the shock wave component of air waves can lead to underestimation of source power and inaccurate source times. Additionally, propagation effects can significantly alter waveforms from the original source signals. In order to permit more accurate studies of shock wave sources, we examine modeling techniques and observations of shock waves. Shock wave signals begin with strong, abrupt compressions that, compared to typical sound waves, propagate and decay more quickly. Because of the high-amplitude discontinuities, numerical methods that are commonly used to study linear sound waves become unstable and inaccurate when applied to shock waves. We discuss the use of other techniques that are capable of modeling shock wave propagation. Equations relating wave speed to the difference of various physical quantities across the shock (such as pressure, density, and particle velocity) are useful for modeling these waves. Addressing the shock explicitly as such, in conjunction with use of traditional numerical methods for the remainder of the signal, permits modeling of full shock waveforms. Additionally, we present examples of recorded volcanic signals that propagate nonlinearly and demonstrate propagation effects on amplitude, waveform, and spectrum.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luquet, David; Marchiano, Régis; Coulouvrat, François
2015-10-01
Many situations involve the propagation of acoustical shock waves through flows. Natural sources such as lightning, volcano explosions, or meteoroid atmospheric entries, emit loud, low frequency, and impulsive sound that is influenced by atmospheric wind and turbulence. The sonic boom produced by a supersonic aircraft and explosion noises are examples of intense anthropogenic sources in the atmosphere. The Buzz-Saw-Noise produced by turbo-engine fan blades rotating at supersonic speed also propagates in a fast flow within the engine nacelle. Simulating these situations is challenging, given the 3D nature of the problem, the long range propagation distances relative to the central wavelength, the strongly nonlinear behavior of shocks associated to a wide-band spectrum, and finally the key role of the flow motion. With this in view, the so-called FLHOWARD (acronym for FLow and Heterogeneous One-Way Approximation for Resolution of Diffraction) method is presented with three-dimensional applications. A scalar nonlinear wave equation is established in the framework of atmospheric applications, assuming weak heterogeneities and a slow wind. It takes into account diffraction, absorption and relaxation properties of the atmosphere, quadratic nonlinearities including weak shock waves, heterogeneities of the medium in sound speed and density, and presence of a flow (assuming a mean stratified wind and 3D turbulent ? flow fluctuations of smaller amplitude). This equation is solved in the framework of the one-way method. A split-step technique allows the splitting of the non-linear wave equation into simpler equations, each corresponding to a physical effect. Each sub-equation is solved using an analytical method if possible, and finite-differences otherwise. Nonlinear effects are solved in the time domain, and others in the frequency domain. Homogeneous diffraction is handled by means of the angular spectrum method. Ground is assumed perfectly flat and rigid. Due to the 3D
Luquet, David; Marchiano, Régis; Coulouvrat, François
2015-10-28
Many situations involve the propagation of acoustical shock waves through flows. Natural sources such as lightning, volcano explosions, or meteoroid atmospheric entries, emit loud, low frequency, and impulsive sound that is influenced by atmospheric wind and turbulence. The sonic boom produced by a supersonic aircraft and explosion noises are examples of intense anthropogenic sources in the atmosphere. The Buzz-Saw-Noise produced by turbo-engine fan blades rotating at supersonic speed also propagates in a fast flow within the engine nacelle. Simulating these situations is challenging, given the 3D nature of the problem, the long range propagation distances relative to the central wavelength, the strongly nonlinear behavior of shocks associated to a wide-band spectrum, and finally the key role of the flow motion. With this in view, the so-called FLHOWARD (acronym for FLow and Heterogeneous One-Way Approximation for Resolution of Diffraction) method is presented with three-dimensional applications. A scalar nonlinear wave equation is established in the framework of atmospheric applications, assuming weak heterogeneities and a slow wind. It takes into account diffraction, absorption and relaxation properties of the atmosphere, quadratic nonlinearities including weak shock waves, heterogeneities of the medium in sound speed and density, and presence of a flow (assuming a mean stratified wind and 3D turbulent ? flow fluctuations of smaller amplitude). This equation is solved in the framework of the one-way method. A split-step technique allows the splitting of the non-linear wave equation into simpler equations, each corresponding to a physical effect. Each sub-equation is solved using an analytical method if possible, and finite-differences otherwise. Nonlinear effects are solved in the time domain, and others in the frequency domain. Homogeneous diffraction is handled by means of the angular spectrum method. Ground is assumed perfectly flat and rigid. Due to the 3D
Acoustic test and analyses of three advanced turboprop models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brooks, B. M.; Metzger, F. B.
1980-01-01
Results of acoustic tests of three 62.2 cm (24.5 inch) diameter models of the prop-fan (a small diameter, highly loaded. Multi-bladed variable pitch advanced turboprop) are presented. Results show that there is little difference in the noise produced by unswept and slightly swept designs. However, the model designed for noise reduction produces substantially less noise at test conditions simulating 0.8 Mach number cruise speed or at conditions simulating takeoff and landing. In the near field at cruise conditions the acoustically designed. In the far field at takeoff and landing conditions the acoustically designed model is 5 db quieter than unswept or slightly swept designs. Correlation between noise measurement and theoretical predictions as well as comparisons between measured and predicted acoustic pressure pulses generated by the prop-fan blades are discussed. The general characteristics of the pulses are predicted. Shadowgraph measurements were obtained which showed the location of bow and trailing waves.
Propagation modeling in a manufacturing environment
Birdwell, J.D.; Horn, R.D.; Rader, M.S.; Shourbaji, A.A.
1995-12-31
Wireless sensors which utilize low power spread spectrum data transmission have significant potential in industrial environments due to low cabling and installation costs. In addition, this technology imposes fewer constraints upon placement due to cable routing, allowing sensors to be installed in areas with poor access. Limitations are imposed on sensor and receiver placement by electromagnetic propagation effects in the industrial environment, including multipath and the presence of absorbing media. This paper explores the electromagnetic analysis of potential wireless sensor applications using commercially available finite element software. In addition, since the applications environment is often at least partially specified in electronic form using computer-aided drafting software, the importation of information from this software is discussed. Both three-dimensional and two-dimensional examples are presented which demonstrate the utility and limitations of the method.
Finite Element and Plate Theory Modeling of Acoustic Emission Waveforms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prosser, W. H.; Hamstad, M. A.; Gary, J.; OGallagher, A.
1998-01-01
A comparison was made between two approaches to predict acoustic emission waveforms in thin plates. A normal mode solution method for Mindlin plate theory was used to predict the response of the flexural plate mode to a point source, step-function load, applied on the plate surface. The second approach used a dynamic finite element method to model the problem using equations of motion based on exact linear elasticity. Calculations were made using properties for both isotropic (aluminum) and anisotropic (unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite) materials. For simulations of anisotropic plates, propagation along multiple directions was evaluated. In general, agreement between the two theoretical approaches was good. Discrepancies in the waveforms at longer times were caused by differences in reflections from the lateral plate boundaries. These differences resulted from the fact that the two methods used different boundary conditions. At shorter times in the signals, before reflections, the slight discrepancies in the waveforms were attributed to limitations of Mindlin plate theory, which is an approximate plate theory. The advantages of the finite element method are that it used the exact linear elasticity solutions, and that it can be used to model real source conditions and complicated, finite specimen geometries as well as thick plates. These advantages come at a cost of increased computational difficulty, requiring lengthy calculations on workstations or supercomputers. The Mindlin plate theory solutions, meanwhile, can be quickly generated on personal computers. Specimens with finite geometry can also be modeled. However, only limited simple geometries such as circular or rectangular plates can easily be accommodated with the normal mode solution technique. Likewise, very limited source configurations can be modeled and plate theory is applicable only to thin plates.
Chandrayadula, Tarun K; Colosi, John A; Worcester, Peter F; Dzieciuch, Matthew A; Mercer, James A; Andrew, Rex K; Howe, Bruce M
2013-10-01
Second order mode statistics as a function of range and source depth are presented from the Long Range Ocean Acoustic Propagation EXperiment (LOAPEX). During LOAPEX, low frequency broadband signals were transmitted from a ship-suspended source to a mode-resolving vertical line array. Over a one-month period, the ship occupied seven stations from 50 km to 3200 km distance from the receiver. At each station broadband transmissions were performed at a near-axial depth of 800 m and an off-axial depth of 350 m. Center frequencies at these two depths were 75 Hz and 68 Hz, respectively. Estimates of observed mean mode energy, cross mode coherence, and temporal coherence are compared with predictions from modal transport theory, utilizing the Garrett-Munk internal wave spectrum. In estimating the acoustic observables, there were challenges including low signal to noise ratio, corrections for source motion, and small sample sizes. The experimental observations agree with theoretical predictions within experimental uncertainty.
One-dimensional cloud fluid model for propagating star formation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Titus, Timothy N.; Struck-Marcell, Curtis
1990-01-01
The aim of this project was to study the propagation of star formation (SF) with a self-consistent deterministic model for the interstellar gas. The questions of under what conditions does star formation propagate in this model and what are the mechanisms of the propagation are explored. Here, researchers used the deterministic Oort-type cloud fluid model of Scalo and Struck-Marcell (1984, also see the review of Struck-Marcell, Scalo and Appleton 1987). This cloud fluid approach includes simple models for the effects of cloud collisional coalescence or disruption, collisional energy dissipation, and cloud disruption and acceleration as the result of young star winds, HII regions and supernovae. An extensive one-zone parameter study is presented in Struck-Marcell and Scalo (1987). To answer the questions above, researchers carried out one-dimensional calculations for an annulus within a galactic disk, like the so-called solar neighborhood of the galactic chemical evolution. In the calculations the left-hand boundary is set equal to the right hand boundary. The calculation is obviously idealized; however, it is computationally convenient to study the first order effects of propagating star formation. The annulus was treated as if it were at rest, i.e., in the local rotating frame. This assumption may remove some interesting effects of a supersonic gas flow, but was necessary to maintain a numerical stability in the annulus. The results on the one-dimensional propagation of SF in the Oort cloud fluid model follow: (1) SF is propagated by means of hydrodynamic waves, which can be generated by external forces or by the pressure generated by local bursts. SF is not effectively propagated via diffusion or variation in cloud interaction rates without corresponding density and velocity changes. (2) The propagation and long-range effects of SF depend on how close the gas density is to the critical threshold value, i.e., on the susceptibility of the medium.
Advances in edge-diffraction modeling for virtual-acoustic simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calamia, Paul Thomas
In recent years there has been growing interest in modeling sound propagation in complex, three-dimensional (3D) virtual environments. With diverse applications for the military, the gaming industry, psychoacoustics researchers, architectural acousticians, and others, advances in computing power and 3D audio-rendering techniques have driven research and development aimed at closing the gap between the auralization and visualization of virtual spaces. To this end, this thesis focuses on improving the physical and perceptual realism of sound-field simulations in virtual environments through advances in edge-diffraction modeling. To model sound propagation in virtual environments, acoustical simulation tools commonly rely on geometrical-acoustics (GA) techniques that assume asymptotically high frequencies, large flat surfaces, and infinitely thin ray-like propagation paths. Such techniques can be augmented with diffraction modeling to compensate for the effect of surface size on the strength and directivity of a reflection, to allow for propagation around obstacles and into shadow zones, and to maintain soundfield continuity across reflection and shadow boundaries. Using a time-domain, line-integral formulation of the Biot-Tolstoy-Medwin (BTM) diffraction expression, this thesis explores various aspects of diffraction calculations for virtual-acoustic simulations. Specifically, we first analyze the periodic singularity of the BTM integrand and describe the relationship between the singularities and higher-order reflections within wedges with open angle less than 180°. Coupled with analytical approximations for the BTM expression, this analysis allows for accurate numerical computations and a continuous sound field in the vicinity of an arbitrary wedge geometry insonified by a point source. Second, we describe an edge-subdivision strategy that allows for fast diffraction calculations with low error relative to a numerically more accurate solution. Third, to address
Computing Propagation Of Sound In Engine Ducts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saylor, Silvia
1995-01-01
Frequency Domain Propagation Model (FREDOM) computer program accounts for acoustic loads applied to components of engines. Models propagation of noise through fluids in ducts between components and through passages within components. Used not only to analyze hardware problems, but also for design purposes. Updated version of FREQPL program easier to use. Devised specifically for use in analyzing acoustic loads in rocket engines. Underlying physical and mathematical concepts implemented also applicable to acoustic propagation in other enclosed spaces; analyzing process plumbing and ducts in industrial buildings with view toward reducing noise in work areas.
Gerdes, Frank; Finette, Steven
2012-10-01
A modeling and simulation study is performed in a littoral ocean waveguide subject to uncertainty in four quantities: source depth, tidal forcing, initial thermocline structure, and sediment sound speed. In this partially known shelf-break environment, tidal forcing over a density-stratified water column produces internal tides and solitary wave packets. The resulting uncertainty in the space-time oceanographic field is mapped into the sound speed distribution which, in turn, introduces uncertainty into the acoustic wave field. The latter is treated as a stochastic field whose intensity is described by a polynomial chaos expansion. The expansion coefficients are estimated through constrained multivariate linear regression, and an analysis of the chaos coefficients provides insight into the relative contribution of the uncertain acoustic and oceanographic quantities. Histograms of acoustic intensity are estimated and compared to a reference solution obtained through Latin Hypercube sampling. A sensitivity analysis is performed to illustrate the relative importance of the four contributions of incomplete information about the environment. The simulation methodology represents an end-to-end analysis approach including both oceanographic and acoustic field uncertainty where the latter is quantified using stochastic basis expansions in the form of a polynomial chaos representation.
Gerdes, Frank; Finette, Steven
2012-10-01
A modeling and simulation study is performed in a littoral ocean waveguide subject to uncertainty in four quantities: source depth, tidal forcing, initial thermocline structure, and sediment sound speed. In this partially known shelf-break environment, tidal forcing over a density-stratified water column produces internal tides and solitary wave packets. The resulting uncertainty in the space-time oceanographic field is mapped into the sound speed distribution which, in turn, introduces uncertainty into the acoustic wave field. The latter is treated as a stochastic field whose intensity is described by a polynomial chaos expansion. The expansion coefficients are estimated through constrained multivariate linear regression, and an analysis of the chaos coefficients provides insight into the relative contribution of the uncertain acoustic and oceanographic quantities. Histograms of acoustic intensity are estimated and compared to a reference solution obtained through Latin Hypercube sampling. A sensitivity analysis is performed to illustrate the relative importance of the four contributions of incomplete information about the environment. The simulation methodology represents an end-to-end analysis approach including both oceanographic and acoustic field uncertainty where the latter is quantified using stochastic basis expansions in the form of a polynomial chaos representation. PMID:23039422
Paul, A.; Mandal, G.; Amin, M. R.; Mamun, A. A.
2013-10-15
The nonlinear propagation of dust-acoustic (DA) waves in an unmagnetized dusty plasma consisting of nonthermal electrons, vortex-like (trapped) distributed ions and mobile negative dust have been investigated by employing the reductive perturbation technique. The effects of nonthermal electrons and trapped ions are found to modify the properties of the DA solitary waves.
Model for small arms fire muzzle blast wave propagation in air
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aguilar, Juan R.; Desai, Sachi V.
2011-11-01
Accurate modeling of small firearms muzzle blast wave propagation in the far field is critical to predict sound pressure levels, impulse durations and rise times, as functions of propagation distance. Such a task being relevant to a number of military applications including the determination of human response to blast noise, gunfire detection and localization, and gun suppressor design. Herein, a time domain model to predict small arms fire muzzle blast wave propagation is introduced. The model implements a Friedlander wave with finite rise time which diverges spherically from the gun muzzle. Additionally, the effects in blast wave form of thermoviscous and molecular relaxational processes, which are associated with atmospheric absorption of sound were also incorporated in the model. Atmospheric absorption of blast waves is implemented using a time domain recursive formula obtained from numerical integration of corresponding differential equations using a Crank-Nicholson finite difference scheme. Theoretical predictions from our model were compared to previously recorded real world data of muzzle blast wave signatures obtained by shooting a set different sniper weapons of varying calibers. Recordings containing gunfire acoustical signatures were taken at distances between 100 and 600 meters from the gun muzzle. Results shows that predicted blast wave slope and exponential decay agrees well with measured data. Analysis also reveals the persistency of an oscillatory phenomenon after blast overpressure in the recorded wave forms.
Asymmetric Acoustic Propagation of Wave Packets Via the Self-Demodulation Effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Devaux, Thibaut; Tournat, Vincent; Richoux, Olivier; Pagneux, Vincent
2015-12-01
This Letter presents the experimental characterization of nonreciprocal elastic wave transmission in a single-mode elastic waveguide. This asymmetric system is obtained by coupling a selection layer with a conversion layer: the selection component is provided by a phononic crystal, while the conversion is achieved by a nonlinear self-demodulation effect in a 3D unconsolidated granular medium. A quantitative experimental study of this acoustic rectifier indicates a high rectifying ratio, up to 1 06, with wide band (10 kHz) and an audible effect. Moreover, this system allows for wave-packet rectification and extends the future applications of asymmetric systems.
Segment-based acoustic models for continuous speech recognition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ostendorf, Mari; Rohlicek, J. R.
1994-02-01
In work, we are interested in the problem of large vocabulary, speaker-independent continuous speech recognition, and primarily in the acoustic modeling component of this problem. In developing acoustic models for speech recognition, we have conflicting goals. On one hand, the models should be robust to inter- and intra-speaker variability, to the use of a different vocabulary in recognition than in training, and to the effects of moderately noisy environments. In order to accomplish this, we need to model gross features and global trends. On the other hand, the models must be sensitive and detailed enough to detect fine acoustic differences between similar words in a large vocabulary task. To answer these opposing demands requires improvements in acoustic modeling at several levels: the frame level (e.g. signal processing), the phoneme level (e.g. modeling feature dynamics), and the utterance level (e.g. defining a structural context for representing the intra-utterance dependence across phonemes). This project address the problem of acoustic modeling specifically focusing on modeling at the segment level and above.
Modeling beam propagation and frequency conversion for the beamlet laser
Auerbach, J.M.
1996-06-01
The development of the Beamlet laser has involved extensive and detailed modeling of laser performance and beam propagation to: (1) predict the performance limits of the laser, (2) select system configurations with higher performance, (3) analyze experiments and provide guidance for subsequent laser shots, and (4) design optical components and establish component manufacturing specifications. In contrast to modeling efforts of previous laser systems such as Nova, those for Beamlet include as much measured optical characterization data as possible. This article concentrates on modeling of beam propagation in the Beamlet laser system, including the frequency converter, and compares modeling predictions with experimental results for several Beamlet shots. It briefly describes the workstation-based propagation and frequency conversion codes used to accomplish modeling of the Beamlet.
Further Investigation of Acoustic Propagation Codes for Three-Dimensional Geometries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nark, Douglas M.; Watson, Willie R.; Jones, Michael G.
2006-01-01
The ability to predict fan noise within complex three-dimensional aircraft engine nacelle geometries is a valuable tool in designing and assessing low-noise concepts. This work begins a systematic study to identify the areas of the design space in which propagation codes of varying fidelity may be used effectively to provide efficient design and assessment. An efficient lower-fidelity code is used in conjunction with two higher-fidelity, more computationally intensive methods to solve benchmark problems of increasing complexity. The codes represent a small sampling of the current propagation codes available or under development. Results of this initial study indicate that the lower-fidelity code provides satisfactory results for cases involving low to moderate attenuation rates, whereas, the two higher-fidelity codes perform well across the range of problems.
On the propagation of long waves in acoustically treated, curved ducts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rostafinski, W.
1981-01-01
A two dimensional study is presented on the behavior of long waves in lined, curved ducts. The analysis includes a comparison between the propagation in curved and straight lined ducts. A parametric study was conducted over a range of wall admittance and duct wall separation. The complex eigenvalues of the characteristic equation, which in the case of a curved duct are also the angular wavenumbers, were obtained by successive approximations.
Nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic waves in electron-positron-ion plasma with trapped electrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alinejad, H.; Sobhanian, S.; Mahmoodi, J.
2006-01-01
A theoretical investigation has been made for ion-acoustic waves in an unmagnetized electron-positron-ion plasma. A more realistic situation in which plasma consists of a negatively charged ion fluid, free positrons, and trapped as well as free electrons is considered. The properties of stationary structures are studied by the reductive perturbation method, which is valid for small but finite amplitude limit, and by pseudopotential approach, which is valid for large amplitude. With an appropriate modified form of the electron number density, two new equations for the ion dynamics have been found. When deviations from isothermality are finite, the modified Korteweg-deVries equation has been found, and for the case that deviations from isothermality are small, calculations lead to a generalized Korteweg-deVries equation. It is shown from both weakly and highly nonlinear analysis that the presence of the positrons may allow solitary waves to exist. It is found that the effect of the positron density changes the maximum value of the amplitude and M (Mach number) for which solitary waves can exist. The present theory is applicable to analyze arbitrary amplitude ion-acoustic waves associated with positrons which may occur in space plasma.
Nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic waves in electron-positron-ion plasma with trapped electrons
Alinejad, H.; Sobhanian, S.; Mahmoodi, J.
2006-01-15
A theoretical investigation has been made for ion-acoustic waves in an unmagnetized electron-positron-ion plasma. A more realistic situation in which plasma consists of a negatively charged ion fluid, free positrons, and trapped as well as free electrons is considered. The properties of stationary structures are studied by the reductive perturbation method, which is valid for small but finite amplitude limit, and by pseudopotential approach, which is valid for large amplitude. With an appropriate modified form of the electron number density, two new equations for the ion dynamics have been found. When deviations from isothermality are finite, the modified Korteweg-deVries equation has been found, and for the case that deviations from isothermality are small, calculations lead to a generalized Korteweg-deVries equation. It is shown from both weakly and highly nonlinear analysis that the presence of the positrons may allow solitary waves to exist. It is found that the effect of the positron density changes the maximum value of the amplitude and M (Mach number) for which solitary waves can exist. The present theory is applicable to analyze arbitrary amplitude ion-acoustic waves associated with positrons which may occur in space plasma.
Saberian, E.; Esfandyari-Kalejahi, A.; Rastkar-Ebrahimzadeh, A.; Afsari-Ghazi, M.
2013-03-15
The propagation of ion-acoustic (IA) solitons is studied in a plasma system, comprised of warm ions and superthermal (Kappa distributed) electrons in the presence of an electron-beam by using a hydrodynamic model. In the linear analysis, it is seen that increasing the superthermality lowers the phase speed of the IA waves. On the other hand, in a fully nonlinear investigation, the Mach number range and characteristics of IA solitons are analyzed, parametrically and numerically. It is found that the accessible region for the existence of IA solitons reduces with increasing the superthermality. However, IA solitons with both negative and positive polarities can coexist in the system. Additionally, solitary waves with both subsonic and supersonic speeds are predicted in the plasma, depending on the value of ion-temperature and the superthermality of electrons in the system. It is examined that there are upper critical values for beam parameters (i.e., density and velocity) after which, IA solitary waves could not propagate in the plasma. Furthermore, a typical interaction between IA waves and the electron-beam in the plasma is confirmed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aguilar, Juan R.; Salinas, Renato A.; Abidi, Mongi A.
2007-04-01
The phenomenon of ballistic shock wave emission by a small calibre projectile at supersonic speed is quite relevant in automatic sniper localization applications. When available, ballistic shock wave analysis makes possible the estimation of the main ballistic features of a gunfire event. The propagation of ballistic shock waves in air is a process which mainly involves nonlinear distortion, or steepening, and atmospheric absorption. Current ballistic shock waves propagation models used in automatic sniper localization systems only consider nonlinear distortion effects. This means that only the rates of change of shock peak pressure and the N-wave duration with distance are considered in the determination of the miss distance. In the present paper we present an improved acoustical model of small calibre ballistic shock wave propagation in air, intended to be used in acoustics-based automatic sniper localization applications. In our approach, we have considered nonlinear distortion, but additionally we have also introduced the effects of atmospheric sound absorption. Atmospheric absorption is implemented in the time domain in order to get faster calculation times than those computed in frequency domain. Furthermore, we take advantage of the fact that atmospheric absorption plays a fundamental role in the rise times of the shocks, and introduce the rate of change of the rise time with distance as a third parameter to be used in the determination of the miss distance. This lead us to a more accurate and robust estimation of the miss distance, and consequently of the projectile trajectory, and the spatial coordinates of the gunshot origin.
Modeling the Tohoku, 2011, ionospheric acoustic-gravity waves with the Spectral Element Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khelfi, K.; Lognonne, P. H.; Komatitsch, D.; Astafyeva, E.
2013-12-01
After the Tohoku earthquake (Japan March 2011), several types of waves have been observed in the ionosphere. These waves are generated from different sources located at the Earth surface, either associated to the rupture and co-seismic ground uplift or to remote uplift associated to waves internal to the ocean-ground system, e.g. tsunami and seismic body and surface waves. These waves were densely observed by the Japanese GEONET network but also in several locations of the Pacific ocean e.g., Hawaii, Chile, California, etc..., enabling in depth studies and requesting therefore modeling integrating all the complexity and tri-dimensional structure of the atmosphere-ionosphere system. In this work, we present preliminary results obtained by the spectral element method, in order to perform 3D modeling of the propagation of the gravito-acoustic waves in the neutral atmosphere, by taking not only into account the coupling between the ionosphere and the neutral atmosphere which generate an anisotropic attenuation associated to the magnetic field, in addition to the isotropic attenuation due to viscosity, but also the complexity of the acoustic waves, which are originating from a complex structure with variable depth ocean. We first present the typical lateral variation of the propagation parameters, e.g . acoustic velocities and densities and local wave damping with respect to atmospheric viscosity, heat transfer and magnetic field used from the IGRF model, and we use also the IRI model for the ionospheric parameters We then show first results of wave simulations in 2D and 3D geometries. In this first step, the interaction between the neutral and ionosphere is assumed to be instantaneous, due to the large gyro frequency of ions and electrons as compared to the typical frequency of waves, but take into account the interaction with magnetic field and further diffusion. As this first steps focus on the propagation, results are illustrated for simple sources. The
Modelling of acoustic radiation problems associated with turbomachinery and rotating blades
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eversman, W.
Finite element methods developed for computational predictions of turbofan and propeller acoustic radiation are presented. Account is taken of the disparate acoustic and geometric scales, the complex geometry, sound propagation in a nonuniformly flowing medium, the presence of a lining, and definition of bounds for calculations which are carried out in an unbounded domain. Density and pressure perturbations in the turbofan inlet are modeled with a linearized momentum equation. The sound radiation is represented by the Fourier components, i.e., angular modes. The same nacelle geometry is used for propeller noise, which requires inclusion of acoustic volume sources and forces. A forced convected wave equation for harmonic driving is obtained by combining continuity, momentum and state equations linearized for acoustic perturbations. The weak formulations for the two types of noise generation are solved by the Galerkin method modified with a frontal solver to reduce the required computer time. Model predictions show good agreement with experimental data for the directivity and amplitude of sound from the bellmouth inlet of the NASA-Langley Spinning Mode Synthesizer.
Potsika, Vassiliki T; Grivas, Konstantinos N; Protopappas, Vasilios C; Vavva, Maria G; Raum, Kay; Rohrbach, Daniel; Polyzos, Demosthenes; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I
2014-07-01
Quantitative ultrasound has recently drawn significant interest in the monitoring of the bone healing process. Several research groups have studied ultrasound propagation in healing bones numerically, assuming callus to be a homogeneous and isotropic medium, thus neglecting the multiple scattering phenomena that occur due to the porous nature of callus. In this study, we model ultrasound wave propagation in healing long bones using an iterative effective medium approximation (IEMA), which has been shown to be significantly accurate for highly concentrated elastic mixtures. First, the effectiveness of IEMA in bone characterization is examined: (a) by comparing the theoretical phase velocities with experimental measurements in cancellous bone mimicking phantoms, and (b) by simulating wave propagation in complex healing bone geometries by using IEMA. The original material properties of cortical bone and callus were derived using serial scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) images from previous animal studies. Guided wave analysis is performed for different healing stages and the results clearly indicate that IEMA predictions could provide supplementary information for bone assessment during the healing process. This methodology could potentially be applied in numerical studies dealing with wave propagation in composite media such as healing or osteoporotic bones in order to reduce the simulation time and simplify the study of complicated geometries with a significant porous nature.
Numerical Modeling of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray Propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuempel, Daniel; Sigl, Guenter
Even more than 100 years after the discovery of cosmic rays and various experimental efforts, the origin of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (E > 100 PeV) remains unclear. A key ingredient to interpret data and to draw conclusions on astrophysical parameters is a detailed knowledge on production and propagation effects of these highest energetic particles in the universe. With the advent of advanced simulation engines developed during the last couple of years, and the increase of experimental data, we are now in a unique position to model source and propagation parameters in an unprecedented precision and compare it to measured data from large-scale observatories. In this contribution we revisit the most important propagation effects of ultra-high energy cosmic rays through photon backgrounds and magnetic fields and introduce recent developments of propagation codes. Finally, possible implications on astrophysical parameters are given.
Modeling ground vehicle acoustic signatures for analysis and synthesis
Haschke, G.; Stanfield, R.
1995-07-01
Security and weapon systems use acoustic sensor signals to classify and identify moving ground vehicles. Developing robust signal processing algorithms for this is expensive, particularly in presence of acoustic clutter or countermeasures. This paper proposes a parametric ground vehicle acoustic signature model to aid the system designer in understanding which signature features are important, developing corresponding feature extraction algorithms and generating low-cost, high-fidelity synthetic signatures for testing. The authors have proposed computer-generated acoustic signatures of armored, tracked ground vehicles to deceive acoustic-sensored smart munitions. They have developed quantitative measures of how accurately a synthetic acoustic signature matches those produced by actual vehicles. This paper describes parameters of the model used to generate these synthetic signatures and suggests methods for extracting these parameters from signatures of valid vehicle encounters. The model incorporates wide-bandwidth and narrow- bandwidth components that are modulated in a pseudo-random fashion to mimic the time dynamics of valid vehicle signatures. Narrow- bandwidth feature extraction techniques estimate frequency, amplitude and phase information contained in a single set of narrow frequency- band harmonics. Wide-bandwidth feature extraction techniques estimate parameters of a correlated-noise-floor model. Finally, the authors propose a method of modeling the time dynamics of the harmonic amplitudes as a means adding necessary time-varying features to the narrow-bandwidth signal components. The authors present results of applying this modeling technique to acoustic signatures recorded during encounters with one armored, tracked vehicle. Similar modeling techniques can be applied to security systems.
Spatial-temporal modeling of malware propagation in networks.
Chen, Zesheng; Ji, Chuanyi
2005-09-01
Network security is an important task of network management. One threat to network security is malware (malicious software) propagation. One type of malware is called topological scanning that spreads based on topology information. The focus of this work is on modeling the spread of topological malwares, which is important for understanding their potential damages, and for developing countermeasures to protect the network infrastructure. Our model is motivated by probabilistic graphs, which have been widely investigated in machine learning. We first use a graphical representation to abstract the propagation of malwares that employ different scanning methods. We then use a spatial-temporal random process to describe the statistical dependence of malware propagation in arbitrary topologies. As the spatial dependence is particularly difficult to characterize, the problem becomes how to use simple (i.e., biased) models to approximate the spatially dependent process. In particular, we propose the independent model and the Markov model as simple approximations. We conduct both theoretical analysis and extensive simulations on large networks using both real measurements and synthesized topologies to test the performance of the proposed models. Our results show that the independent model can capture temporal dependence and detailed topology information and, thus, outperforms the previous models, whereas the Markov model incorporates a certain spatial dependence and, thus, achieves a greater accuracy in characterizing both transient and equilibrium behaviors of malware propagation. PMID:16252834
Spatial-temporal modeling of malware propagation in networks.
Chen, Zesheng; Ji, Chuanyi
2005-09-01
Network security is an important task of network management. One threat to network security is malware (malicious software) propagation. One type of malware is called topological scanning that spreads based on topology information. The focus of this work is on modeling the spread of topological malwares, which is important for understanding their potential damages, and for developing countermeasures to protect the network infrastructure. Our model is motivated by probabilistic graphs, which have been widely investigated in machine learning. We first use a graphical representation to abstract the propagation of malwares that employ different scanning methods. We then use a spatial-temporal random process to describe the statistical dependence of malware propagation in arbitrary topologies. As the spatial dependence is particularly difficult to characterize, the problem becomes how to use simple (i.e., biased) models to approximate the spatially dependent process. In particular, we propose the independent model and the Markov model as simple approximations. We conduct both theoretical analysis and extensive simulations on large networks using both real measurements and synthesized topologies to test the performance of the proposed models. Our results show that the independent model can capture temporal dependence and detailed topology information and, thus, outperforms the previous models, whereas the Markov model incorporates a certain spatial dependence and, thus, achieves a greater accuracy in characterizing both transient and equilibrium behaviors of malware propagation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sébastien, T.; Vilotte, J. P.; Guillot, L.; Mariotti, C.
2014-12-01
Today seismological observation systems combine broadband seismic receivers, hydrophones and micro-barometers antenna that provide complementary observations of source-radiated waves in heterogeneous and complex geophysical media. Exploiting these observations requires accurate and multi-physics - elastic, hydro-acoustic, infrasonic - wave simulation methods. A popular approach is the Spectral Element Method (SEM) (Chaljub et al, 2006) which is high-order accurate (low dispersion error), very flexible to parallelization and computationally attractive due to efficient sum factorization technique and diagonal mass matrix. However SEMs suffer from lack of flexibility in handling complex geometry and multi-physics wave propagation. High-order Discontinuous Galerkin Methods (DGMs), i.e. Dumbser et al (2006), Etienne et al. (2010), Wilcox et al (2010), are recent alternatives that can handle complex geometry, space-and-time adaptativity, and allow efficient multi-physics wave coupling at interfaces. However, DGMs are more memory demanding and less computationally attractive than SEMs, especially when explicit time stepping is used. We propose a new class of higher-order Hybridized Discontinuous Galerkin Spectral Elements (HDGSEM) methods for spatial discretization of wave equations, following the unifying framework for hybridization of Cockburn et al (2009) and Nguyen et al (2011), which allows for a single implementation of conforming and non-conforming SEMs. When used with energy conserving explicit time integration schemes, HDGSEM is flexible to handle complex geometry, computationally attractive and has significantly less degrees of freedom than classical DGMs, i.e., the only coupled unknowns are the single-valued numerical traces of the velocity field on the element's faces. The formulation can be extended to model fractional energy loss at interfaces between elastic, acoustic and hydro-acoustic media. Accuracy and performance of the HDGSEM are illustrated and
Simulation and modeling of an acoustically forced model rocket injector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gers, David Michael
A numerical and experimental study was performed to assess the capability of the Loci-CHEM CFD solver in simulating dynamic interaction between hydrogen-oxygen turbulent diffusion flames and periodic pressure waves. Previous experimental studies involving a single-element shear-coaxial model injector revealed an unusual flame-acoustic interaction mechanism affecting combustion instability characteristics. To directly compare the simulation and experiments, various models in the present solver were examined and additional experiments conducted. A customized mesh and corresponding boundary conditions were designed and developed, closely approximating the experimental setup. Full 3-D simulations were conducted using a hybrid RANS/LES framework with appropriate chemistry and turbulence models. The results were compared for both reacting and non-reacting flows that were excited at various forcing frequencies representing both resonant and non-resonant behaviors. Although a good qualitative agreement was obtained for the most part, there was a significant discrepancy in simulating the flame-acoustic interaction behavior observed under non-resonant forcing conditions.
Drive Rig Mufflers for Model Scale Engine Acoustic Testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stephens, David
2010-01-01
Testing of air breathing propulsion systems in the 9x15 foot wind tunnel at NASA Glenn Research Center depends on compressed air turbines for power. The drive rig turbines exhaust directly to the wind tunnel test section, and have been found to produce significant unwanted noise that reduces the quality of the acoustic measurements of the model being tested. In order to mitigate this acoustic contamination, a muffler can be attached downstream of the drive rig turbine. The modern engine designs currently being tested produce much less noise than traditional engines, and consequently a lower noise floor is required of the facility. An acoustic test of a muffler designed to mitigate this extraneous noise is presented, and a noise reduction of 8 dB between 700 Hz and 20 kHz was documented, significantly improving the quality of acoustic measurements in the facility.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marie Tabaru,; Takashi Azuma,; Kunio Hashiba,
2010-07-01
Acoustic radiation force (ARF) imaging has been developed as a novel elastography technology to diagnose hepatic disease and breast cancer. The accuracy of shear wave speed estimation, which is one of the applications of ARF elastography, is studied. The Young’s moduli of pig liver and foie gras samples estimated from the shear wave speed were compared with those measured the static Young’s modulus measurement. The difference in the two methods was 8%. Distance attenuation characteristics of the shear wave were also studied using finite element method (FEM) analysis. We found that the differences in the axial and lateral beam widths in pressure and ARF are 16 and 9% at F-number=0.9. We studied the relationship between two branch points in distance attenuation characteristics and the shape of ARF. We found that the maximum measurable length to estimate shear wave speed for one ARF excitation was 8 mm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tabaru, Marie; Azuma, Takashi; Hashiba, Kunio
2010-07-01
Acoustic radiation force (ARF) imaging has been developed as a novel elastography technology to diagnose hepatic disease and breast cancer. The accuracy of shear wave speed estimation, which is one of the applications of ARF elastography, is studied. The Young's moduli of pig liver and foie gras samples estimated from the shear wave speed were compared with those measured the static Young's modulus measurement. The difference in the two methods was 8%. Distance attenuation characteristics of the shear wave were also studied using finite element method (FEM) analysis. We found that the differences in the axial and lateral beam widths in pressure and ARF are 16 and 9% at F-number=0.9. We studied the relationship between two branch points in distance attenuation characteristics and the shape of ARF. We found that the maximum measurable length to estimate shear wave speed for one ARF excitation was 8 mm.
Liu, Yu; Fite, Brett Z.; Mahakian, Lisa M.; Johnson, Sarah M.; Larrat, Benoit; Dumont, Erik; Ferrara, Katherine W.
2015-01-01
Manual palpation is a common and very informative diagnostic tool based on estimation of changes in the stiffness of tissues that result from pathology. In the case of a small lesion or a lesion that is located deep within the body, it is difficult for changes in mechanical properties of tissue to be detected or evaluated via palpation. Furthermore, palpation is non-quantitative and cannot be used to localize the lesion. Magnetic Resonance-guided Focused Ultrasound (MRgFUS) can also be used to evaluate the properties of biological tissues non-invasively. In this study, an MRgFUS system combines high field (7T) MR and 3 MHz focused ultrasound to provide high resolution MR imaging and a small ultrasonic interrogation region (~0.5 x 0.5 x 2 mm), as compared with current clinical systems. MR-Acoustic Radiation Force Imaging (MR-ARFI) provides a reliable and efficient method for beam localization by detecting micron-scale displacements induced by ultrasound mechanical forces. The first aim of this study is to develop a sequence that can concurrently quantify acoustic radiation force displacements and image the resulting transient shear wave. Our motivation in combining these two measurements is to develop a technique that can rapidly provide both ARFI and shear wave velocity estimation data, making it suitable for use in interventional radiology. Secondly, we validate this sequence in vivo by estimating the displacement before and after high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation, and we validate the shear wave velocity in vitro using tissue-mimicking gelatin and tofu phantoms. Such rapid acquisitions are especially useful in interventional radiology applications where minimizing scan time is highly desirable. PMID:26439259
On Modeling Hydrogen-Induced Crack Propagation Under Sustained Load
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dadfarnia, Mohsen; Somerday, Brian p.; Schembri, Philip E.; Sofronis, Petros; Foulk, James W.; Nibur, Kevin A.; Balch, Dorian K.
2014-08-01
The failure of hydrogen containment components is generally associated with subcritical cracking. Understanding subcritical crack growth behavior and its dependence on material and environmental variables can lead to methods for designing structural components in a hydrogen environment and will be beneficial in developing materials resistant to hydrogen embrittlement. In order to identify the issues underlying crack propagation and arrest, we present a model for hydrogen-induced stress-controlled crack propagation under sustained loading. The model is based on the assumptions that (I) hydrogen reduces the material fracture strength and (II) crack propagation takes place when the opening stress over the characteristic distance ahead of a crack tip is greater than the local fracture strength. The model is used in a finite-element simulation of crack propagation coupled with simultaneous hydrogen diffusion in a model material through nodal release. The numerical simulations show that the same physics, i.e., diffusion-controlled crack propagation, can explain the existence of both stages I and II in the velocity versus stress intensity factor ( V- K) curve.
A review of numerical modeling of dike propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rivalta, Eleonora; Taisne, Benoit; Bunger, Andrew; Katz, Richard
2014-05-01
Magma transport through brittle rock occurs by diking. Understanding the dynamics of dikes is a pre-requisite to interpreting observables associated with magma propagation in volcanic areas, such as seismicity and deformation. Moreover, diking plays an important role in the mechanics of a number of tectonic processes including continental rifts and mid-ocean ridges. Existing models of propagation of dikes are still mainly two-dimensional and include only a few of the many physical processes influencing the propagation of magma-filled fractures in rock: viscous dissipation, fracturing, magma rheology and phase changes, heat exchange, interaction with rock layering, pre-existing cracks and external stress field, among other factors. Here we review numerical models of dike propagation, focusing on the most recent developments. Current modeling approaches have been influenced by two main philosophies, one in which fluid dynamical processes are assumed to control diking, and the other which give primary control to rock fracturing. We show how integrating the two philosophies creates the highest potential for successful representation of natural systems. We present a selection of key results obtained through numerical modelling and draw on insights from the field of hydraulic fracturing, as an industrial analogue to dike propagation. Finally, we discuss promising directions for future research.
Lefebvre, J E; Zhang, V; Gazalet, J; Gryba, T; Sadaune, V
2001-09-01
The propagation of guided waves in continuous functionally graded plates is studied by using Legendre polynomials. Dispersion curves, and power and field profiles are easily obtained. Our computer program is validated by comparing our results against other calculations from the literature. Numerical results are also given for a graded semiconductor plate. It is felt that the present method could be of quite practical interest in waveguiding engineering, non-destructive testing of functionally graded materials (FGMs) to identify the best inspection strategies, or by means of a numerical inversion algorithm to determine through-thickness gradients in material parameters.
On the one-dimensional acoustic propagation in conical ducts with stationary mean flow.
Barjau, Ana
2007-12-01
This paper proposes a direct time-domain calculation of the time-domain responses of anechoic conical tubes with steady weak mean flow. The starting point is the approximated linear one-dimensional wave equation governing the velocity potential for the case of steady flow with low Mach number. A traveling solution with general space-dependent propagation velocity is then proposed from which the inward and outward pressure and velocity impulse responses can be obtained. The results include the well-known responses of conical and cylindrical ducts with zero mean flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Satyavir; Bharuthram, Ramashwar
2016-07-01
Small amplitude electron acoustic solitary waves are studied in a magnetized plasma consisting of hot electrons following Cairn's type non-thermal distribution function and fluid cool electrons, cool ions and an electron beam. Using reductive perturbation technique, the Korteweg-de-Vries-Zakharov-Kuznetsov (KdV-ZK) equation is derived to describe the nonlinear evolution of electron acoustic waves. It is observed that the presence of non-thermal electrons plays an important role in determining the existence region of solitary wave structures. Theoretical results of this work is used to model the electrostatic solitary structures observed by Viking satellite. Detailed investigation of physical parameters such as non-thermality of hot electrons, beam electron velocity and temperature, obliquity on the existence regime of solitons will be discussed.
Acoustic intensity calculations for axisymmetrically modeled fluid regions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hambric, Stephen A.; Everstine, Gordon C.
1992-01-01
An algorithm for calculating acoustic intensities from a time harmonic pressure field in an axisymmetric fluid region is presented. Acoustic pressures are computed in a mesh of NASTRAN triangular finite elements of revolution (TRIAAX) using an analogy between the scalar wave equation and elasticity equations. Acoustic intensities are then calculated from pressures and pressure derivatives taken over the mesh of TRIAAX elements. Intensities are displayed as vectors indicating the directions and magnitudes of energy flow at all mesh points in the acoustic field. A prolate spheroidal shell is modeled with axisymmetric shell elements (CONEAX) and submerged in a fluid region of TRIAAX elements. The model is analyzed to illustrate the acoustic intensity method and the usefulness of energy flow paths in the understanding of the response of fluid-structure interaction problems. The structural-acoustic analogy used is summarized for completeness. This study uncovered a NASTRAN limitation involving numerical precision issues in the CONEAX stiffness calculation causing large errors in the system matrices for nearly cylindrical cones.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chin-Bing, Stanley A.; King, David B.; Warn-Varnas, Alex C.; Lamb, Kevin G.; Hawkins, James A.; Teixeira, Marvi
2002-05-01
The results from collocated oceanographic and acoustic simulations in a region of the Yellow Sea near the Shandong peninsula have been presented [Chin-Bing et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 2577 (2000)]. In that work, the tidal flow near the peninsula was used to initialize a 2.5-dimensional ocean model [K. G. Lamb, J. Geophys. Res. 99, 843-864 (1994)] that subsequently generated internal solitary waves (solitons). The validity of these soliton simulations was established by matching satellite imagery taken over the region. Acoustic propagation simulations through this soliton field produced results similar to the anomalous signal loss measured by Zhou, Zhang, and Rogers [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 90, 2042-2054 (1991)]. Analysis of the acoustic interactions with the solitons also confirmed the hypothesis that the loss mechanism involved acoustic mode coupling. Recently we have attempted to estimate the prevalence of these anomalous signal losses in this region. These estimates were made from simulating acoustic effects over an 80 hour space-time evolution of soliton packets. Examples will be presented that suggest the conditions necessary for anomalous signal loss may be more prevalent than previously thought. [Work supported by ONR/NRL and by a High Performance Computing DoD grant.
Model-based processor design for a shallow water ocean acoustic experiment
Candy, J.V. ); Sullivan, E.J. )
1994-04-01
Model-based signal processing is a well-defined methodology enabling the inclusion of environmental (propagation) models, measurement (sensor arrays) models, and noise (shipping, measurement) models into a sophisticated processing algorithm. Depending on the class of model developed from the mathematical representation of the physical phenomenology, various processors can evolve. Here the design of a space-varying, nonstationary, model-based processor (MBP) is investigated and applied to the data from a well-controlled shallow water experiment performed at Hudson Canyon. This particular experiment is very attractive for the inaugural application of the MBP because it was performed in shallow water at low frequency requiring a small number of modes. In essence, the Hudson Canyon represents a well-known ocean environment, making it ideal for this investigation. In this shallow water application, a state-space representation of the normal-mode propagation model is used. The processor is designed such that it allows [ital in] [ital situ] recursive estimation of both the pressure-field and modal functions. It is shown that the MBP can be effectively utilized to validate'' the performance of the model on noisy ocean acoustic data. In fact, a set of processors is designed, one for each source range and the results are quite good---implying that the propagation model with measured parameters adequately represents the data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goodman, Jerry R.; Grosveld, Ferdinand
2007-01-01
The acoustics environment in space operations is important to maintain at manageable levels so that the crewperson can remain safe, functional, effective, and reasonably comfortable. High acoustic levels can produce temporary or permanent hearing loss, or cause other physiological symptoms such as auditory pain, headaches, discomfort, strain in the vocal cords, or fatigue. Noise is defined as undesirable sound. Excessive noise may result in psychological effects such as irritability, inability to concentrate, decrease in productivity, annoyance, errors in judgment, and distraction. A noisy environment can also result in the inability to sleep, or sleep well. Elevated noise levels can affect the ability to communicate, understand what is being said, hear what is going on in the environment, degrade crew performance and operations, and create habitability concerns. Superfluous noise emissions can also create the inability to hear alarms or other important auditory cues such as an equipment malfunctioning. Recent space flight experience, evaluations of the requirements in crew habitable areas, and lessons learned (Goodman 2003; Allen and Goodman 2003; Pilkinton 2003; Grosveld et al. 2003) show the importance of maintaining an acceptable acoustics environment. This is best accomplished by having a high-quality set of limits/requirements early in the program, the "designing in" of acoustics in the development of hardware and systems, and by monitoring, testing and verifying the levels to ensure that they are acceptable.
Applied topology optimization of vibro-acoustic hearing instrument models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Søndergaard, Morten Birkmose; Pedersen, Claus B. W.
2014-02-01
Designing hearing instruments remains an acoustic challenge as users request small designs for comfortable wear and cosmetic appeal and at the same time require sufficient amplification from the device. First, to ensure proper amplification in the device, a critical design challenge in the hearing instrument is to minimize the feedback between the outputs (generated sound and vibrations) from the receiver looping back into the microphones. Secondly, the feedback signal is minimized using time consuming trial-and-error design procedures for physical prototypes and virtual models using finite element analysis. In the present work it is demonstrated that structural topology optimization of vibro-acoustic finite element models can be used to both sufficiently minimize the feedback signal and to reduce the time consuming trial-and-error design approach. The structural topology optimization of a vibro-acoustic finite element model is shown for an industrial full scale model hearing instrument.
One-dimensional pressure transfer models for acoustic-electric transmission channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilt, K. R.; Lawry, T. J.; Scarton, H. A.; Saulnier, G. J.
2015-09-01
A method for modeling piezoelectric-based ultrasonic acoustic-electric power and data transmission channels is presented. These channels employ piezoelectric disk transducers to convey signals across a series of physical layers using ultrasonic waves. This model decomposes the mechanical pathway of the signal into individual ultrasonic propagation layers which are generally independent of the layer's adjacent domains. Each layer is represented by a two-by-two traveling pressure wave transfer matrix which relates the forward and reverse pressure waves on one side of the layer to the pressure waves on the opposite face, where each face is assumed to be in contact with a domain of arbitrary reference acoustic impedance. A rigorous implementation of ultrasonic beam spreading is introduced and implemented within applicable domains. Compatible pressure-wave models for piezoelectric transducers are given, which relate the electric voltage and current interface of the transducer to the pressure waves on one mechanical interface while also allowing for passive acoustic loading of the secondary mechanical interface. It is also shown that the piezoelectric model's electrical interface is compatible with transmission line parameters (ABCD-parameters), allowing for connection of electronic components and networks. The model is shown to be capable of reproducing the behavior of realistic physical channels.
Modelling of hydraulic fracture propagation in inhomogeneous poroelastic medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baykin, A. N.; Golovin, S. V.
2016-06-01
In the paper a model for description of a hydraulic fracture propagation in inhomogeneous poroelastic medium is proposed. Among advantages of the presented numerical algorithm, there are incorporation of the near-tip analysis into the general computational scheme, account for the rock failure criterion on the base of the cohesive zone model, possibility for analysis of fracture propagation in inhomogeneous reservoirs. The numerical convergence of the algorithm is verified and the agreement of our numerical results with known solutions is established. The influence of the inhomogeneity of the reservoir permeability to the fracture time evolution is also demonstrated.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, S. T.
1974-01-01
The responses of the solar atmosphere due to an outward propagation shock are examined by employing the Lax-Wendroff method to solve the set of nonlinear partial differential equations in the model of the solar atmosphere. It is found that this theoretical model can be used to explain the solar phenomena of surge and spray. A criterion to discriminate the surge and spray is established and detailed information concerning the density, velocity, and temperature distribution with respect to the height and time is presented. The complete computer program is also included.
Dynamics in Layer Models of Solid Flame Propagation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aldushin, A. P.; Bayliss, A.; Matkowsky, B. J.; Gokoglu, S. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) is a process in which combustion waves, e.g., "solid flames", which are considered here, are employed to synthesize desired materials. Like many other systems, SHS is a pattern forming system. The problem of describing experimentally observed patterns and of predicting new, as yet unobserved, patterns continues to attract the attention of scientists and mathematicians due to the fundamental significance of the phenomena in combustion in particular, and in nonlinear science in general. Here, we analyze the dynamics of solid flame propagation in a 2D region by considering the region to be composed of parallel, identical layers aligned along the direction of propagation and having thermal contact. Each layer is then described by wave propagation in 1D, with the transverse Laplacian replaced by a term describing heat exchange between neighboring layers. This configuration is the simplest model of a 2D system because it accounts, in a simple way, for the principal feature of the problem, i.e., heat exchange between neighbors in the transverse direction. For simplicity, we describe the situation for two layers. Because the layers are identical, uniformly propagating waves in each layer must be identical, independent of the heat exchange rate alpha. When the Zeldovich number Z exceeds a critical value Z(sub c), which depends on alpha, uniformly propagating waves become unstable. The stability diagram for the two coupled layers reproduces that for the full 2D problem after appropriate identification of parameters in the two problems. Depending on parameter values, we determine three different steady-state dynamical behaviors (though additional behaviors are also expected to occur). The three behaviors are: (i) waves in each layer which pulsate in phase as they propagate, so that together they form a single pulsating propagating wave; (ii) the waves in each layer are no longer identical, and antiphase pulsations occur, with
An information propagation model considering incomplete reading behavior in microblog
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Qiang; Huang, Jiajia; Zhao, Xiande
2015-02-01
Microblog is one of the most popular communication channels on the Internet, and has already become the third largest source of news and public opinions in China. Although researchers have studied the information propagation in microblog using the epidemic models, previous studies have not considered the incomplete reading behavior among microblog users. Therefore, the model cannot fit the real situations well. In this paper, we proposed an improved model entitled Microblog-Susceptible-Infected-Removed (Mb-SIR) for information propagation by explicitly considering the user's incomplete reading behavior. We also tested the effectiveness of the model using real data from Sina Microblog. We demonstrate that the new proposed model is more accurate in describing the information propagation in microblog. In addition, we also investigate the effects of the critical model parameters, e.g., reading rate, spreading rate, and removed rate through numerical simulations. The simulation results show that, compared with other parameters, reading rate plays the most influential role in the information propagation performance in microblog.
Uncertainty propagation in a cascade modelling approach to flood mapping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodríguez-Rincón, J. P.; Pedrozo-Acuña, A.; Breña Naranjo, J. A.
2014-07-01
The purpose of this investigation is to study the propagation of meteorological uncertainty within a cascade modelling approach to flood mapping. The methodology is comprised of a Numerical Weather Prediction Model (NWP), a distributed rainfall-runoff model and a standard 2-D hydrodynamic model. The cascade of models is used to reproduce an extreme flood event that took place in the Southeast of Mexico, during November 2009. The event is selected as high quality field data (e.g. rain gauges; discharge) and satellite imagery are available. Uncertainty in the meteorological model (Weather Research and Forecasting model) is evaluated through the use of a multi-physics ensemble technique, which considers twelve parameterization schemes to determine a given precipitation. The resulting precipitation fields are used as input in a distributed hydrological model, enabling the determination of different hydrographs associated to this event. Lastly, by means of a standard 2-D hydrodynamic model, hydrographs are used as forcing conditions to study the propagation of the meteorological uncertainty to an estimated flooded area. Results show the utility of the selected modelling approach to investigate error propagation within a cascade of models. Moreover, the error associated to the determination of the runoff, is showed to be lower than that obtained in the precipitation estimation suggesting that uncertainty do not necessarily increase within a model cascade.
Finite Element Modeling of Guided Wave Propagation in Plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar KM, Manoj; Ramaswamy, Sivaramanivas; Kommareddy, Vamshi; Baskaran, Ganesan; Zongqi, Sun; Kirkire, Gautam
2006-03-01
This paper aims at developing a numerical model for guided wave propagation in plates and the interaction of modes with defects using Finite Element Modeling (FEM). Guided waves propagate as extensional, flexural and torsional waves. Theoretically, these modes are infinite in number, but only some of these propagate and the others are attenuated. The dispersion curves for a structure reveal the plausibility of these modes. In this paper, FEM is used to examine interaction of first few symmetric and anti-symmetric modes independently with the cracks of various sizes in a plate. A time-frequency representation of the acquired guided wave mode signals will be discussed to show the mode sensitivity with crack size.
Aparicio, Joaquín; Jiménez, Ana; Álvarez, Fernando J.; Ureña, Jesús; De Marziani, Carlos; Diego, Cristina
2011-01-01
The great variability usually found in underwater media makes modeling a challenging task, but helpful for better understanding or predicting the performance of future deployed systems. In this work, an underwater acoustic propagation model is presented. This model obtains the multipath structure by means of the ray tracing technique. Using this model, the behavior of a relative positioning system is presented. One of the main advantages of relative positioning systems is that only the distances between all the buoys are needed to obtain their positions. In order to obtain the distances, the propagation times of acoustic signals coded by Complementary Set of Sequences (CSS) are used. In this case, the arrival instants are obtained by means of correlation processes. The distances are then used to obtain the position of the buoys by means of the Multidimensional Scaling Technique (MDS). As an early example of an application using this relative positioning system, a tracking of the position of the buoys at different times is performed. With this tracking, the surface current of a particular region could be studied. The performance of the system is evaluated in terms of the distance from the real position to the estimated one. PMID:22247661
A Thermo-Optic Propagation Modeling Capability.
Schrader, Karl; Akau, Ron
2014-10-01
A new theoretical basis is derived for tracing optical rays within a finite-element (FE) volume. The ray-trajectory equations are cast into the local element coordinate frame and the full finite-element interpolation is used to determine instantaneous index gradient for the ray-path integral equation. The FE methodology (FEM) is also used to interpolate local surface deformations and the surface normal vector for computing the refraction angle when launching rays into the volume, and again when rays exit the medium. The method is implemented in the Matlab(TM) environment and compared to closed- form gradient index models. A software architecture is also developed for implementing the algorithms in the Zemax(TM) commercial ray-trace application. A controlled thermal environment was constructed in the laboratory, and measured data was collected to validate the structural, thermal, and optical modeling methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Li-Hsien; Chen, Wei-Chih; Chen, Yao-Chung; Benyamin, Leo; Li, An-Jui
2015-05-01
This study investigates the fracture mechanism of fluid coupled with a solid resulting from hydraulic fracture. A new loading machine was designed to improve upon conventional laboratory hydraulic fracture testing and to provide a means of better understanding fracture behavior of solid media. Test specimens were made of cement mortar. An extensometer and acoustic emission (AE) monitoring system recorded the circumferential deformation and crack growth location/number during the test. To control the crack growth at the post-peak stage the input fluid rate can be adjusted automatically according to feedback from the extensometer. The complete stress-deformation curve, including pre- and post-peak stages, was therefore obtained. The crack extension/growth developed intensively after the applied stress reached the breakdown pressure. The number of cracks recorded by the AE monitoring system was in good agreement with the amount of deformation (expansion) recorded by the extensometer. The results obtained in this paper provide a better understanding of the hydraulic fracture mechanism which is useful for underground injection projects.
Theoretical vibro-acoustic modeling of acoustic noise transmission through aircraft windows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aloufi, Badr; Behdinan, Kamran; Zu, Jean
2016-06-01
In this paper, a fully vibro-acoustic model for sound transmission across a multi-pane aircraft window is developed. The proposed model is efficiently applied for a set of window models to perform extensive theoretical parametric studies. The studied window configurations generally simulate the passenger window designs of modern aircraft classes which have an exterior multi-Plexiglas pane, an interior single acrylic glass pane and a dimmable glass ("smart" glass), all separated by thin air cavities. The sound transmission loss (STL) characteristics of three different models, triple-, quadruple- and quintuple-paned windows identical in size and surface density, are analyzed for improving the acoustic insulation performances. Typical results describing the influence of several system parameters, such as the thicknesses, number and spacing of the window panes, on the transmission loss are then investigated. In addition, a comparison study is carried out to evaluate the acoustic reduction capability of each window model. The STL results show that the higher frequencies sound transmission loss performance can be improved by increasing the number of window panels, however, the low frequency performance is decreased, particularly at the mass-spring resonances.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K. R. S.; Singh, Reetu; Bhethanabotla, Venkat R.
2010-11-01
Biosensors typically operate in liquid media for detection of biomarkers and suffer from fouling resulting from nonspecific binding of protein molecules to the device surface. In the current work, using a coupled field finite element fluid-structure interaction simulation, we have identified that fluid motion induced by high intensity sound waves, such as those propagating in these sensors, can lead to the efficient removal of the nonspecifically bound proteins thereby eliminating sensor fouling. We present a computational analysis of the acoustic-streaming phenomenon induced biofouling elimination by surface acoustic-waves (SAWs) propagating on a lithium niobate piezoelectric crystal. The transient solutions generated from the developed coupled field fluid solid interaction model are utilized to predict trends in acoustic-streaming induced forces for varying design parameters such as voltage intensity, device frequency, fluid viscosity, and density. We utilize these model predictions to compute the various interaction forces involved and thereby identify the possible mechanisms for removal of nonspecifically-bound proteins. For the range of sensor operating conditions simulated, our study indicates that the SAW motion acts as a body force to overcome the adhesive forces of the fouling proteins to the device surface whereas the acoustic-streaming induced hydrodynamic forces prevent their reattachment. The streaming velocity fields computed using the finite element models in conjunction with the proposed particle removal mechanism were used to identify the optimum conditions that lead to improved removal efficiency. We show that it is possible to tune operational parameters such as device frequency and input voltage to achieve effective elimination of biofouling proteins in typical biosensing media. Our simulation results agree well with previously reported experimental observations. The findings of this work have significant implications in designing reusable
Shock Propagation Modeling in Heterogeneous Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haill, Thomas
2013-06-01
Shock compression of foams is an intriguing research area that challenges our abilities to model experiments using computer simulations that span 9 orders of magnitude in spatial scales from the atomistic scale through the mesoscale and up to the continuum levels. Experiments test shock compression of dense polymers, polymer foams, and high-Z doped foams. Random distributions of polymer fibers, variations in pore size, and non-uniformities in the bulk properties of the foam (such as mean density) lead to spread in the experimental data. Adding dopants to foams introduces new complexities and the effect of the distribution and sizes of dopant particles must be characterized and understood. Therefore we turn to computer simulation to illumine the intricacies of the experiments that cannot be directly measured. This paper overviews of our range of methods to model pure and platinum-doped poly-methyl-pentene (PMP) foams. At the nanometer scale, hydrodynamic simulations compare favorably to classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of porous foams, verifying models of foam vaporization under strong shock conditions. Inhomogeneous mesoscale and homogenized continuum simulations present contrasting pictures of shocked foams. Mesoscale simulations at the micron scale have diffuse shock widths that depend upon the pore size, and post-shock vorticity results in fluctuations about the mean post-shock state and lower mean pressures and temperatures. Homogenized simulations, in the limit of zero pore size, have narrow shock widths, steady post-shock states, and higher mean pressures and temperature that compare favorably with 1D analysis of experiments. We reconcile the contrasting mesoscale and continuum views using theoretical turbulent corrections to the Hugoniot jump condition to show a consistent picture of shocked foams over 9 orders of spatial scale. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned
Modeling Crack Propagation in Polycrystalline Microstructure Using Variational Multiscale Method
Sun, S.; Sundararaghavan, V.
2016-01-01
Crack propagation in a polycrystalline microstructure is analyzed using a novel multiscale model. The model includes an explicit microstructural representation at critical regions (stress concentrators such as notches and cracks) and a reduced order model that statistically captures the microstructure at regions far away from stress concentrations. Crack propagation is modeled in these critical regions using the variational multiscale method. In this approach, a discontinuous displacement field is added to elements that exceed the critical values of normal or tangential tractions during loading. Compared to traditional cohesive zone modeling approaches, the method does not require the use of any specialmore » interface elements in the microstructure and thus can model arbitrary crack paths. The capability of the method in predicting both intergranular and transgranular failure modes in an elastoplastic polycrystal is demonstrated under tensile and three-point bending loads.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Altshuler, Gennady; Manor, Ofer
2016-07-01
We use both theory and experiment to study the response of thin and free films of a partially wetting liquid to a MHz vibration, propagating in the solid substrate in the form of a Rayleigh surface acoustic wave (SAW). We generalise the previous theory for the response of a thin fully wetting liquid film to a SAW by including the presence of a small but finite three phase contact angle between the liquid and the solid. The SAW in the solid invokes a convective drift of mass in the liquid and leaks sound waves. The dynamics of a film that is too thin to support the accumulation of the sound wave leakage is governed by a balance between the drift and capillary stress alone. We use theory to demonstrate that a partially wetting liquid film, supporting a weak capillary stress, will spread along the path of the SAW. A partially wetting film, supporting an appreciable capillary stress, will however undergo a concurrent dynamic wetting and dewetting at the front and the rear, respectively, such that the film will displace, rather than spread, along the path of the SAW. The result of the theory for a weak capillary stress is in agreement with the previous experimental and theoretical studies on the response of thin silicon oil films to a propagating SAW. No corresponding previous results exist for the case of an appreciable capillary stress. We thus complement the large capillary limit of our theory by undertaking an experimental procedure where we explore the response of films of water and a surfactant solutions to a MHz SAW, which is found to be in qualitative agreement with the theory at this limit.
Studying Resist Stochastics with the Multivariate Poisson Propagation Model
Naulleau, Patrick; Anderson, Christopher; Chao, Weilun; Bhattarai, Suchit; Neureuther, Andrew
2014-01-01
Progress in the ultimate performance of extreme ultraviolet resist has arguably decelerated in recent years suggesting an approach to stochastic limits both in photon counts and material parameters. Here we report on the performance of a variety of leading extreme ultraviolet resist both with and without chemical amplification. The measured performance is compared to stochastic modeling results using the Multivariate Poisson Propagation Model. The results show that the best materials are indeed nearing modeled performance limits.
Soliton model of a photon propagating in dielectrics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bersons, I.; Veilande, R.; Balcers, O.
2016-06-01
The previously proposed three-dimensional soliton model of a photon propagating in vacuum is modified to describe its propagation in a homogeneous linear dielectric medium. The one-soliton solution of the derived nonlinear equation correctly predicts the energy and the Abraham and Minkowski momenta of the photon in dielectrics. A new nonlinear equation is proposed, which has a one-soliton solution that at every point oscillates with the same frequency and falls exponentially in the longitudinal, as well as in the transverse direction from the centre of the soliton.
Räsänen, Jukka; Nemergut, Michael E; Gavriely, Noam
2015-03-01
To evaluate the effect of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on sound propagation through injured lungs, we injected a multifrequency broad-band sound signal into the airway of eight anesthetized, intubated and mechanically ventilated pigs, while recording transmitted sound at three locations bilaterally on the chest wall. Oleic acid injections effected a severe pulmonary oedema predominately in the dependent lung regions, with an average increase in venous admixture from 19 ± 15 to 59 ± 14% (P < 0.001), and a reduction in dynamic respiratory system compliance from 34 ± 7 to 14 ± 4 ml cmH2 O(-1) (P < 0.001). A concomitant decrease in sound transit time was seen in the dependent lung regions (P < 0.05); no statistically significant change occurred in the lateral or non-dependent areas. The application of PEEP resulted in a decrease in venous admixture, increase in respiratory system compliance and return of the sound transit time to pre-injury levels in the dependent lung regions. Our results indicate that sound transmission velocity increases in lung tissue affected by permeability-type pulmonary oedema in a manner reversible during alveolar recruitment with PEEP.
Dynamic Analysis of a Reaction-Diffusion Rumor Propagation Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Hongyong; Zhu, Linhe
2016-06-01
The rapid development of the Internet, especially the emergence of the social networks, leads rumor propagation into a new media era. Rumor propagation in social networks has brought new challenges to network security and social stability. This paper, based on partial differential equations (PDEs), proposes a new SIS rumor propagation model by considering the effect of the communication between the different rumor infected users on rumor propagation. The stabilities of a nonrumor equilibrium point and a rumor-spreading equilibrium point are discussed by linearization technique and the upper and lower solutions method, and the existence of a traveling wave solution is established by the cross-iteration scheme accompanied by the technique of upper and lower solutions and Schauder’s fixed point theorem. Furthermore, we add the time delay to rumor propagation and deduce the conditions of Hopf bifurcation and stability switches for the rumor-spreading equilibrium point by taking the time delay as the bifurcation parameter. Finally, numerical simulations are performed to illustrate the theoretical results.
Fundamentals of Seismic Wave Propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chapman, Chris
2004-08-01
Presenting a comprehensive introduction to the propagation of high-frequency body-waves in elastodynamics, this volume develops the theory of seismic wave propagation in acoustic, elastic and anisotropic media to allow seismic waves to be modelled in complex, realistic three-dimensional Earth models. The book is a text for graduate courses in theoretical seismology, and a reference for all academic and industrial seismologists using numerical modelling methods. Exercises and suggestions for further reading are included in each chapter.
Pettit, Chris L; Wilson, D Keith
2007-09-01
Outdoor sound propagation predictions are compromised by uncertainty and error in the atmosphere and terrain representations, and sometimes also by simplified or incorrect physics. A model's predictive power, i.e., its accurate representation of the sound propagation, cannot be assessed without first quantifying the ensemble sound pressure variability and sensitivity to uncertainties in the model's governing parameters. This paper describes fundamental steps toward this goal for a single-frequency point source. The atmospheric surface layer is represented through Monin-Obukhov similarity theory and the acoustic ground properties with a relaxation model. Sound propagation is predicted with the parabolic equation method. Governing parameters are modeled as independent random variables across physically reasonable ranges. Latin hypercube sampling and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) are employed in conjunction with cluster-weighted models to develop compact representations of the sound pressure random field. Full-field sensitivity of the sound pressure field is computed via the sensitivities of the POD mode coefficients to the system parameters. Ensemble statistics of the full-field sensitivities are computed to illustrate their relative importance at every down range location. The central role of sensitivity analysis in uncertainty quantification of outdoor sound propagation is discussed and pitfalls of sampling-based sensitivity analysis for outdoor sound propagation are described. PMID:17927400
Zhu, Xuefeng; Li, Kun; Zhang, Peng; Zhu, Jie; Zhang, Jintao; Tian, Chao; Liu, Shengchun
2016-01-01
The ability to slow down wave propagation in materials has attracted significant research interest. A successful solution will give rise to manageable enhanced wave–matter interaction, freewheeling phase engineering and spatial compression of wave signals. The existing methods are typically associated with constructing dispersive materials or structures with local resonators, thus resulting in unavoidable distortion of waveforms. Here we show that, with helical-structured acoustic metamaterials, it is now possible to implement dispersion-free sound deceleration. The helical-structured metamaterials present a non-dispersive high effective refractive index that is tunable through adjusting the helicity of structures, while the wavefront revolution plays a dominant role in reducing the group velocity. Finally, we numerically and experimentally demonstrate that the helical-structured metamaterials with designed inhomogeneous unit cells can turn a normally incident plane wave into a self-accelerating beam on the prescribed parabolic trajectory. The helical-structured metamaterials will have profound impact to applications in explorations of slow wave physics. PMID:27198887
Zhu, Xuefeng; Li, Kun; Zhang, Peng; Zhu, Jie; Zhang, Jintao; Tian, Chao; Liu, Shengchun
2016-05-20
The ability to slow down wave propagation in materials has attracted significant research interest. A successful solution will give rise to manageable enhanced wave-matter interaction, freewheeling phase engineering and spatial compression of wave signals. The existing methods are typically associated with constructing dispersive materials or structures with local resonators, thus resulting in unavoidable distortion of waveforms. Here we show that, with helical-structured acoustic metamaterials, it is now possible to implement dispersion-free sound deceleration. The helical-structured metamaterials present a non-dispersive high effective refractive index that is tunable through adjusting the helicity of structures, while the wavefront revolution plays a dominant role in reducing the group velocity. Finally, we numerically and experimentally demonstrate that the helical-structured metamaterials with designed inhomogeneous unit cells can turn a normally incident plane wave into a self-accelerating beam on the prescribed parabolic trajectory. The helical-structured metamaterials will have profound impact to applications in explorations of slow wave physics.
Mhatre, Sameer; Zigelman, Anna; Abezgauz, Ludmila; Manor, Ofer
2016-09-20
We study the influence of a megahertz Rayleigh surface acoustic wave (SAW), propagating in a solid substrate, on the pattern deposition of a solute mass off an evaporating solution. An experimental procedure, where a film of a solution undergoes a controlled evaporation in a chamber, shows that the SAW alters the state of the pattern deposition. Increasing the power of the SAW supports an increase in the density of the deposited patterns. Beyond threshold conditions, the deposited patterns merge and we observe the deposition of a solid film. A simplified theory suggests that the SAW deforms the geometry of the film, which is predominantly governed by the capillary stress. The deformation of the film taking place alongside with the evaporation of the solution increases the concentration near the pinned three phase contact line at the front of the film, which is closer to the source of the SAW, on the expense of the concentration at the rear. The increased concentration translates to the deposition of solute mass over an increased area near the front of the film, which explains the experimental observation.
Mhatre, Sameer; Zigelman, Anna; Abezgauz, Ludmila; Manor, Ofer
2016-09-20
We study the influence of a megahertz Rayleigh surface acoustic wave (SAW), propagating in a solid substrate, on the pattern deposition of a solute mass off an evaporating solution. An experimental procedure, where a film of a solution undergoes a controlled evaporation in a chamber, shows that the SAW alters the state of the pattern deposition. Increasing the power of the SAW supports an increase in the density of the deposited patterns. Beyond threshold conditions, the deposited patterns merge and we observe the deposition of a solid film. A simplified theory suggests that the SAW deforms the geometry of the film, which is predominantly governed by the capillary stress. The deformation of the film taking place alongside with the evaporation of the solution increases the concentration near the pinned three phase contact line at the front of the film, which is closer to the source of the SAW, on the expense of the concentration at the rear. The increased concentration translates to the deposition of solute mass over an increased area near the front of the film, which explains the experimental observation. PMID:27552064
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qian, Lirong; Li, Cuiping; Li, Mingji; Wang, Fang; Yang, Baohe
2014-11-01
Propagation characteristics of surface acoustic wave (SAW) in periodic (AlN/ZnO)N/diamond multilayer structures were theoretically investigated using effective permittivity method. The phase velocity Vp, electromechanical coupling coefficient K2, and temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) of the Sezawa mode are analyzed for different thicknesses-to-wavelength H/λ, thickness ratios of AlN to ZnO Rh, and periods of alternating ZnO and AlN layers N. Results show that, comparing with AlN/ZnO/diamond multilayer structure, the periodic (AlN/ZnO)N/diamond multilayer structure (N ≥ 2) shows excellent electromechanical coupling and temperature stable characteristics with significantly improved K2 and TCF. The largest coupling coefficient of 3.0% associated with a phase velocity of 5726 m/s and a TCF of -29.2 ppm/°C can be reached for Rh = 0.2 and N = 2. For a low TCF of -24.4 ppm/°C, a large coupling coefficient of 2.0% associated with a phase velocity of 7058 m/s can be obtained for Rh = 1.0 and N = 5. The simulated results can be used to design the low loss and good temperature stability SAW devices of gigahertz-band application.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Xuefeng; Li, Kun; Zhang, Peng; Zhu, Jie; Zhang, Jintao; Tian, Chao; Liu, Shengchun
2016-05-01
The ability to slow down wave propagation in materials has attracted significant research interest. A successful solution will give rise to manageable enhanced wave-matter interaction, freewheeling phase engineering and spatial compression of wave signals. The existing methods are typically associated with constructing dispersive materials or structures with local resonators, thus resulting in unavoidable distortion of waveforms. Here we show that, with helical-structured acoustic metamaterials, it is now possible to implement dispersion-free sound deceleration. The helical-structured metamaterials present a non-dispersive high effective refractive index that is tunable through adjusting the helicity of structures, while the wavefront revolution plays a dominant role in reducing the group velocity. Finally, we numerically and experimentally demonstrate that the helical-structured metamaterials with designed inhomogeneous unit cells can turn a normally incident plane wave into a self-accelerating beam on the prescribed parabolic trajectory. The helical-structured metamaterials will have profound impact to applications in explorations of slow wave physics.
Zhu, Xuefeng; Li, Kun; Zhang, Peng; Zhu, Jie; Zhang, Jintao; Tian, Chao; Liu, Shengchun
2016-01-01
The ability to slow down wave propagation in materials has attracted significant research interest. A successful solution will give rise to manageable enhanced wave-matter interaction, freewheeling phase engineering and spatial compression of wave signals. The existing methods are typically associated with constructing dispersive materials or structures with local resonators, thus resulting in unavoidable distortion of waveforms. Here we show that, with helical-structured acoustic metamaterials, it is now possible to implement dispersion-free sound deceleration. The helical-structured metamaterials present a non-dispersive high effective refractive index that is tunable through adjusting the helicity of structures, while the wavefront revolution plays a dominant role in reducing the group velocity. Finally, we numerically and experimentally demonstrate that the helical-structured metamaterials with designed inhomogeneous unit cells can turn a normally incident plane wave into a self-accelerating beam on the prescribed parabolic trajectory. The helical-structured metamaterials will have profound impact to applications in explorations of slow wave physics. PMID:27198887
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El-Labany, S. K.; El-Taibany, W. F.; Behery, E. E.; Zedan, N. A.
2015-12-01
Propagation of dust acoustic solitary waves (DASWs) in a magnetized dusty plasma consisting of extremely massive, negatively/positively charged dust fluid and Boltzmann distributed electrons and ions is studied. A nonlinear Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation adequate for describing the solitary waves is derived by applying a reductive perturbation technique. Moreover, an extended Zakharov Kuznetsov (EZK) equation is derived at the vicinity of the critical phase velocity. The effects of the polarization force are explicitly discussed and the growth rate of the produced waves is calculated. It is found that the physical parameters have strong effects on the instability criterion as well as on the growth rate. It is noted that the phase velocity decreases as the polarization force, the effective-to-ion temperature ratio, and the ion-to-electron temperature ratio increase. Moreover, the nonlinearity coefficient and the critical phase velocity increase by increasing the polarization force. The relevance of these findings to a recent plasma experiment and astrophysical plasma observations is briefly discussed.
Chen, Jing Zhang, Qiaozhen; Han, Tao; Zhou, Liu; Tang, Gongbin; Liu, Boquan; Ji, Xiaojun
2015-08-15
The surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagating characteristics of Y-cut nano LiNbO{sub 3} (LN) film on SiO{sub 2}/LN substrate have been theoretically calculated. The simulated results showed a shear horizontal (SH) SAW with enhanced electromechanical coupling factor K{sup 2} owing to a dimensional effect of the nanoscale LN film. However, a Rayleigh SAW and two other resonances related to thickness vibrations caused spurious responses for wideband SAW devices. These spurious waves could be fully suppressed by properly controlling structural parameters including the electrode layer height, thickness, and the Euler angle (θ) of the LN thin film. Finally, a pure SH SAW was obtained with a wide θ range, from 0° to 5° and 165° to 180°. The largest K{sup 2} achieved for the pure SH SAW was about 35.1%. The calculated results demonstrate the promising application of nano LN film to the realization of ultra-wideband SAW devices.
Mowafy, A. E.; El-Shewy, E. K.; Zahran, M. A.; Moslem, W. M.
2008-07-15
Investigation of positive and negative dust charge fluctuations on the propagation of dust-ion acoustic waves (DIAWs) in a weakly inhomogeneous, collisionless, unmagnetized dusty plasmas consisting of cold positive ions, stationary positively and negatively charged dust particles and isothermal electrons. The reductive perturbation method is employed to reduce the basic set of fluid equations to the variable coefficients Korteweg-de Varies (KdV) equation. At the critical ion density, the KdV equation is not appropriate for describing the system. Hence, a new set of stretched coordinates is considered to derive the modified variable coefficients KdV equation. It is found that the presence of positively charged dust grains does not only significantly modify the basic properties of solitary structure, but also changes the polarity of the solitary profiles. In the vicinity of the critical ion density, neither KdV nor the modified KdV equation is appropriate for describing the DIAWs. Therefore, a further modified KdV equation is derived, which admits both soliton and double layer solutions.
Modeling of thermo-acoustic instabilities in counterflow flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zambon, Andrea C.
Under certain operating conditions, many combustion systems in aerospace propulsion and land-based power generation exhibit large-amplitude pressure oscillations coupled with unsteadiness in the combustion processes. This unsteady multi-scale phenomenon is generally referred to as thermo-acoustic instability. Recently, model-based active control approaches are being pursued to suppress the potentially destructive instability and for this purpose a fundamental understanding of the coupling mechanisms between the dynamics of the flame and acoustics is critical. In the present investigation, a numerical model is developed to study the interaction of longitudinal acoustic waves with planar flames in the simplified counterflow configuration. The mathematical formulation of quasi one-dimensional, fully unsteady, laminar counterflow flames is derived and the governing equations are integrated numerically based on a MacCormack predictor-corrector scheme, with the inclusion of detailed transport and finite-rate chemistry. In order to accurately represent perfect and partial reflection of acoustic waves at the boundaries, Navier-Stokes characteristic boundary conditions are implemented. The focus of the investigation is on the linear regime of thermo-acoustic instabilities associated with planar flames. Specifically, coupling mechanisms intrinsic to the dynamics of the flame are addressed, such as flow compressibility effects, which may be responsible for the initial triggering of thermo-acoustic instabilities, and finite-rate chemistry effects. For well-resolved simulations, the occurrence of the self-sustained amplification of pressure fluctuations is analyzed in both non-premixed and premixed methane-air flames for a range of flow strain rates and flame locations, and employing different chemical kinetic models. A detailed analysis of the characteristic time-scales associated with convection, diffusion, chemistry and acoustics is performed together with an analysis of the
A combined model for tsunami generation and propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lima, Vania; Baptista, Maria Ana; Avilez-Valente, Paulo; Miranda, Miguel
2016-04-01
Several tsunami models apply different wave models and numerical schemes with the aim of modelling the wide variety of wave phenomena, as its generation, propagation, transformation and run-up. However, models are limited by mathematical and numerical formulations which constrain their scope of applications. Combined models are an interesting option as they allow merging the advantages of different existent models into a single one. In this work a tsunami combined model which couples the GeoClaw code, an extension of the Clawpack software for geophysical flows using adaptive finite volume methods, with the fully non-linear, phase-resolving, time-stepping Boussinesq wave model FUNWAVE-TVD for near-shore water wave propagation is presented. GeoClaw is used for the seismic tsunami generation of the 1969 Portugal tsunami and with FUNWAVE-TVD we study the propagation of the tsunami and near-shore surface elevations. Both codes have been individually benchmarked with some mandatory established benchmark problems. The results obtained from the numerical simulation are compared with existent observational data along the Portuguese coast for this historical event. This work received funding from FCT (SFRH/BD/96725/2013) and project ASTARTE - Assessment Strategy and risk Reduction For Tsunamis in Europe - Grant 603839 - FP7.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tooms, S.; Attenborough, K.
1990-01-01
Using a Fast Fourier integration method and a global matrix method for solution of the boundary condition equations at all interfaces simultaneously, a useful tool for predicting acoustic propagation in a stratified fluid over a stratified porous-elastic solid was developed. The model for the solid is a modified Biot-Stoll model incorporating four parameters describing the pore structure corresponding to the Rayleigh-Attenborough rigid-porous structure model. The method is also compared to another Fast Fourier code (CERL-FFP) which models the ground as an impedance surface under a horizontally stratified air. Agreement with the CERL FFP is good. The effects on sound propagation of a combination of ground elasticity, complex ground structure, and atmospheric conditions are demonstrated by theoretical results over a snow layer, and experimental results over a model ground surface.
Clement, Gregory T.; McDannold, Nathan
2015-01-01
The interaction of ultrasonically-controlled microbubble oscillations (acoustic cavitation) with tissues and biological media has been shown to induce a wide range of bioeffects that may have significant impact to therapy and diagnosis of central nervous system diseases and disorders. However, the inherently non-linear microbubble oscillations combined with the micrometer and microsecond scales involved in these interactions and the limited methods to assess and visualize them transcranially hinder both their optimal use and translation to the clinics. To overcome these challenges, we present a noninvasive and clinically relevant framework that combines numerical simulations with multimodality imaging to assess and visualize the microbubble oscillations transcranially. In the present work, acoustic cavitation was studied with an integrated US and MR imaging guided clinical FUS system in non-human primates. This multimodality imaging system allowed us to concurrently induce and visualize acoustic cavitation transcranially. A high-resolution brain CT-scan that allowed us to determine the head acoustic properties (density, speed of sound, and absorption) was also co-registered to the US and MR images. The derived acoustic properties and the location of the targets that were determined by the 3D-CT scans and the post sonication MRI respectively were then used as inputs to two-and three-dimensional Finite Difference Time Domain (2D, 3D-FDTD) simulations that matched the experimental conditions and geometry. At the experimentally-determined target locations, synthetic point sources with pressure amplitude traces derived by either a Gaussian function or the output of a microbubble dynamics model were numerically excited and propagated through the skull towards a virtual US imaging array. Then, using passive acoustic mapping that was refined to incorporate variable speed of sound, we assessed the losses and aberrations induced by the skull as a function of the acoustic
Kinematic modeling of folding above listric propagating thrusts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardozo, Nestor; Brandenburg, J. P.
2014-03-01
We describe a kinematic approach to simulate folds above listric propagating thrusts. The model is based on a pre-defined circular thrust geometry with a maximum central angle beyond which the thrust is planar, inclined shear above the circular thrust, and trishear in front of the thrust. Provided the trajectory of thrust propagation is established, the model can be run forward and backwards. We use this last feature to implement a global simulated annealing, inverse modeling strategy. This inverse modeling strategy is applied to synthetic folds as well as two real examples in offshore Venezuela and the Niger Delta toe-thrust system. These three examples illustrate the benefits of the algorithm, particularly in predicting the possible range of models that can fit the structures. Thrust geometry, depth to detachment level, and backlimb geometry have high impact in model parameters such as backlimb shear angle and fault slip; while forelimb geometry is critical to constrain parameters such as fault propagation to fault slip ratio and trishear angle. Steep to overturned beds in forelimb areas are often not imaged by seismic, so in the absence of additional well data, considering all possible thrust-fold geometries is critical for the modeling and whatever prediction (e.g. hydrocarbon trap integrity) is made from it.
Modeling the propagation of mobile malware on complex networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Wanping; Liu, Chao; Yang, Zheng; Liu, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Yihao; Wei, Zuxue
2016-08-01
In this paper, the spreading behavior of malware across mobile devices is addressed. By introducing complex networks to model mobile networks, which follows the power-law degree distribution, a novel epidemic model for mobile malware propagation is proposed. The spreading threshold that guarantees the dynamics of the model is calculated. Theoretically, the asymptotic stability of the malware-free equilibrium is confirmed when the threshold is below the unity, and the global stability is further proved under some sufficient conditions. The influences of different model parameters as well as the network topology on malware propagation are also analyzed. Our theoretical studies and numerical simulations show that networks with higher heterogeneity conduce to the diffusion of malware, and complex networks with lower power-law exponents benefit malware spreading.
Comparison of Transmission Line Methods for Surface Acoustic Wave Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, William; Atkinson, Gary
2009-01-01
Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) technology is low cost, rugged, lightweight, extremely low power and can be used to develop passive wireless sensors. For these reasons, NASA is investigating the use of SAW technology for Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace structures. To facilitate rapid prototyping of passive SAW sensors for aerospace applications, SAW models have been developed. This paper reports on the comparison of three methods of modeling SAWs. The three models are the Impulse Response Method (a first order model), and two second order matrix methods; the conventional matrix approach, and a modified matrix approach that is extended to include internal finger reflections. The second order models are based upon matrices that were originally developed for analyzing microwave circuits using transmission line theory. Results from the models are presented with measured data from devices. Keywords: Surface Acoustic Wave, SAW, transmission line models, Impulse Response Method.
Design, characterization and modeling of biobased acoustic foams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghaffari Mosanenzadeh, Shahrzad
Polymeric open cell foams are widely used as sound absorbers in sectors such as automobile, aerospace, transportation and building industries, yet there is a need to improve sound absorption of these foams through understanding the relation between cell morphology and acoustic properties of porous material. Due to complicated microscopic structure of open cell foams, investigating the relation between foam morphology and acoustic properties is rather intricate and still an open problem in the field. The focus of this research is to design and develop biobased open cell foams for acoustic applications to replace conventional petrochemical based foams as well as investigating the link between cell morphology and macroscopic properties of open cell porous structures. To achieve these objectives, two industrially produced biomaterials, polylactide (PLA) and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) and their composites were examined and highly porous biobased foams were fabricated by particulate leaching and compression molding. Acoustic absorption capability of these foams was enhanced utilizing the effect of co-continuous blends to form a bimodal porous structure. To tailor mechanical and acoustic properties of biobased foams, blends of PLA and PHA were studied to reach the desired mechanical and viscoelastic properties. To enhance acoustic properties of porous medium for having a broad band absorption effect, cell structure must be appropriately graded. Such porous structures with microstructural gradation are called Functionally Graded Materials (FGM). A novel graded foam structure was designed with superior sound absorption to demonstrate the effect of cell arrangement on performance of acoustic fixtures. Acoustic measurements were performed in a two microphone impedance tube and acoustic theory of Johnson-Champoux-Allard was applied to the fabricated foams to determine micro cellular properties such as tortuosity, viscous and thermal lengths from sound absorption impedance tube
Vector wavefront propagation modeling for the TPF coronagraph
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lieber, Michael D.; Neureuther, Andrew R.; Ceperley, Dan; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Ter-Gabrielyan, Nikolay
2004-10-01
The TPF mission to search for exo-solar planets is extremely challenging both technically and from a performance modeling perspective. For the visible light coronagraph approach, the requirements for 1e10 rejection of star light to planet signal has not yet been achieved in laboratory testing and full-scale testing on the ground has many more obstacles and may not be possible. Therefore, end-to-end performance modeling will be relied upon to fully predict performance. One of the key technologies developed for achieving the rejection ratios uses shaped pupil masks to selectively cancel starlight in planet search regions by taking advantage of diffraction. Modeling results published to date have been based upon scalar wavefront propagation theory to compute the residual star and planet images. This ignores the 3D structure of the mask and the interaction of light with matter. In this paper we discuss previous work with a system model of the TPF coronagraph and propose an approach for coupling in a vector propagation model using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. This method, implemented in a software package called TEMPEST, allows us to propagate wavefronts through a mask structure to an integrated system model to explore the vector propagation aspects of the problem. We can then do rigorous mask scatter modeling to understand the effects of real physical mask structures on the magnitude, phase, polarization, and wavelength dependence of the transmitted light near edges. Shaped mask technology is reviewed, and computational aspects and interface issues to a TPF integrated system model are also discussed.
Overview of the Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Counter, Douglas D.; Houston, Janice D.
2011-01-01
Launch environments, such as lift-off acoustic (LOA) and ignition overpressure (IOP), are important design factors for any vehicle and are dependent upon the design of both the vehicle and the ground systems. LOA environments are used directly in the development of vehicle vibro-acoustic environments and IOP is used in the loads assessment. The NASA Constellation Program had several risks to the development of the Ares I vehicle linked to LOA. The risks included cost, schedule and technical impacts for component qualification due to high predicted vibro-acoustic environments. One solution is to mitigate the environment at the component level. However, where the environment is too severe for component survivability, reduction of the environment itself is required. The Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) program was implemented to verify the Ares I LOA and IOP environments for the vehicle and ground systems including the Mobile Launcher (ML) and tower. An additional objective was to determine the acoustic reduction for the LOA environment with an above deck water sound suppression system. ASMAT was a development test performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) East Test Area (ETA) Test Stand 116 (TS 116). The ASMAT program is described in this presentation.
3D Multispectral Light Propagation Model For Subcutaneous Veins Imaging
Paquit, Vincent C; Price, Jeffery R; Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William
2008-01-01
In this paper, we describe a new 3D light propagation model aimed at understanding the effects of various physiological properties on subcutaneous vein imaging. In particular, we build upon the well known MCML (Monte Carlo Multi Layer) code and present a tissue model that improves upon the current state-of-the-art by: incorporating physiological variation, such as melanin concentration, fat content, and layer thickness; including veins of varying depth and diameter; using curved surfaces from real arm shapes; and modeling the vessel wall interface. We describe our model, present results from the Monte Carlo modeling, and compare these results with those obtained with other Monte Carlo methods.
Horoshenkov, Kirill V; Groby, Jean-Philippe; Dazel, Olivier
2016-05-01
Modeling of sound propagation in porous media requires the knowledge of several intrinsic material parameters, some of which are difficult or impossible to measure directly, particularly in the case of a porous medium which is composed of pores with a wide range of scales and random interconnections. Four particular parameters which are rarely measured non-acoustically, but used extensively in a number of acoustical models, are the viscous and thermal characteristic lengths, thermal permeability, and Pride parameter. The main purpose of this work is to show how these parameters relate to the pore size distribution which is a routine characteristic measured non-acoustically. This is achieved through the analysis of the asymptotic behavior of four analytical models which have been developed previously to predict the dynamic density and/or compressibility of the equivalent fluid in a porous medium. In this work the models proposed by Johnson, Koplik, and Dashn [J. Fluid Mech. 176, 379-402 (1987)], Champoux and Allard [J. Appl. Phys. 70(4), 1975-1979 (1991)], Pride, Morgan, and Gangi [Phys. Rev. B 47, 4964-4978 (1993)], and Horoshenkov, Attenborough, and Chandler-Wilde [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 104, 1198-1209 (1998)] are compared. The findings are then used to compare the behavior of the complex dynamic density and compressibility of the fluid in a material pore with uniform and variable cross-sections. PMID:27250142
Coherent underwater acoustic communication: Channel modeling and receiver design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Aijun; Badiey, Mohsen
2012-11-01
High frequency acoustic communication (8-50 kHz) has attracted much attention recently due to increasing scientific and commercial activities in the marine environment. Based on multiple at-sea experiments, we have developed a number of communication techniques to address the receiver design challenges, resulting in significant data rate increases in the dynamic ocean. Our studies also show that it is possible to simulate the acoustic communication channel for its intensity profile, temporal coherence, and Doppler spread, leading to realistic representations of the at-sea measurements. We present our recent results in these two aspects, receiver design and channel modeling, for the mentioned frequency band.
An optoacoustic point source for acoustic scale model measurements.
Bolaños, Javier Gómez; Pulkki, Ville; Karppinen, Pasi; Hæggström, Edward
2013-04-01
A massless acoustic source is proposed for scale model work. This source is generated by focusing a pulsed laser beam to rapidly heat the air at the focal point. This produces an expanding small plasma ball which generates a sonic impulse that may be used as an acoustic point source. Repeatability, frequency response, and directivity of the source were measured to show that it can serve as a massless point source. The impulse response of a rectangular space was determined using this type of source. A good match was found between the predicted and the measured impulse responses of the space.
Analytical modelling of acoustic emission from buried or surface-breaking cracks under stress
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ben Khalifa, W.; Jezzine, K.; Hello, G.; Grondel, S.
2012-03-01
Acoustic emission (AE) is a non-destructive testing method used in various industries (aerospace, petrochemical and pressure-vessel industries in general, power generation, civil engineering, mechanical engineering, etc...) for the examination of large structures subjected to various stresses (e.g. mechanical loading).The energy released by a defect under stress (the AE phenomenon) can propagate as guided waves in thin structures or as surface Rayleigh waves in thick ones. Sensors (possibly permanently) are positioned at various locations on the structure under examination and are assumed to be sensitive to these waves. Then, post-processing tools typically based on signal processing and triangulation algorithms can be used to inverse these data, allowing one to estimate the position of the defect from which emanates the waves measured. The French Atomic Energy Commission is engaged in the development of tools for simulating AE examinations. These tools are based on specific models for the AE sources, for the propagation of guided or Rayleigh waves and for the behaviour of AE sensors. Here, the coupling of a fracture mechanics based model for AE source and surface/guided wave propagation models is achieved through an integral formulation relying on the elastodynamic reciprocity principle. As a first approximation, a simple piston-like model is used to predict the sensitivity of AE sensors. Predictions computed by our simulation tool are compared to results from the literature for validation purpose.
Cardiac dynamics: a simplified model for action potential propagation
2012-01-01
This paper analyzes a new semiphysiological ionic model, used recently to study reexitations and reentry in cardiac tissue [I.R. Cantalapiedra et al, PRE 82 011907 (2010)]. The aim of the model is to reproduce action potencial morphologies and restitution curves obtained, either from experimental data, or from more complex electrophysiological models. The model divides all ion currents into four groups according to their function, thus resulting into fast-slow and inward-outward currents. We show that this simplified model is flexible enough as to accurately capture the electrical properties of cardiac myocytes, having the advantage of being less computational demanding than detailed electrophysiological models. Under some conditions, it has been shown to be amenable to mathematical analysis. The model reproduces the action potential (AP) change with stimulation rate observed both experimentally and in realistic models of healthy human and guinea pig myocytes (TNNP and LRd models, respectively). When simulated in a cable it also gives the right dependence of the conduction velocity (CV) with stimulation rate. Besides reproducing correctly these restitution properties, it also gives a good fit for the morphology of the AP, including the notch typical of phase 1. Finally, we perform simulations in a realistic geometric model of the rabbit’s ventricles, finding a good qualitative agreement in AP propagation and the ECG. Thus, this simplified model represents an alternative to more complex models when studying instabilities in wave propagation. PMID:23194429
Equivalent Continuum Modeling for Shock Wave Propagation in Jointed Media
Vorobiev, O; Antoun, T
2009-12-11
This study presents discrete and continuum simulations of shock wave propagating through jointed media. The simulations were performed using the Lagrangian hydrocode GEODYN-L with joints treated explicitly using an advanced contact algorithm. They studied both isotropic and anisotropic joint representations. For an isotropically jointed geologic medium, the results show that the properties of the joints can be combined with the properties of the intact rock to develop an equivalent continuum model suitable for analyzing wave propagation through the jointed medium. For an anisotropically jointed geologic medium, they found it difficult to develop an equivalent continuum (EC) model that matches the response derived from mesoscopic simulation. They also performed simulations of wave propagation through jointed media. Two appraoches are suggested for modeling the rock mass. In one approach, jointed are modeled explicitly in a Lagrangian framework with appropriate contact algorithms used to track motion along the interfaces. In the other approach, the effect of joints is taken into account using a constitutive model derived from mesoscopic simulations.
Modelling of ultrasonic propagation in turbulent liquid sodium with temperature gradient
Massacret, N.; Moysan, J. Ploix, M. A.; Corneloup, G.; Jeannot, J. P.
2014-05-28
The use of ultrasonic instrumentation in sodium-cooled fast reactors requires to understand and to predict how ultrasonic waves can be deflected, slowed down or speeded up, depending on the thermo-hydraulic characteristics of the liquid sodium. These thermo-hydraulic characteristics are mainly the local temperature and flow speed of the sodium. In this study we show that ray theory can be used to simulate ultrasonic propagation in a medium similar to the core of a sodium-cooled fast reactor, in order to study ultrasonic instrumentation and prepare it installation and utilisation in the sodium of the nuclear reactor. A suitable model has been developed and a set of thermo-hydraulics data has been created, taking account of the particularities of the sodium flow. The results of these simulations are then analysed within the framework of acoustic thermometry, in order to determine which disturbance must be taken into account for the correct operation of the temperature measurement.
Modelling of ultrasonic propagation in turbulent liquid sodium with temperature gradient
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Massacret, N.; Moysan, J.; Ploix, M. A.; Jeannot, J. P.; Corneloup, G.
2014-05-01
The use of ultrasonic instrumentation in sodium-cooled fast reactors requires to understand and to predict how ultrasonic waves can be deflected, slowed down or speeded up, depending on the thermo-hydraulic characteristics of the liquid sodium. These thermo-hydraulic characteristics are mainly the local temperature and flow speed of the sodium. In this study we show that ray theory can be used to simulate ultrasonic propagation in a medium similar to the core of a sodium-cooled fast reactor, in order to study ultrasonic instrumentation and prepare it installation and utilisation in the sodium of the nuclear reactor. A suitable model has been developed and a set of thermo-hydraulics data has been created, taking account of the particularities of the sodium flow. The results of these simulations are then analysed within the framework of acoustic thermometry, in order to determine which disturbance must be taken into account for the correct operation of the temperature measurement.
Acoustically-coupled flow-induced vibration of a computational vocal fold model
Daily, David Jesse; Thomson, Scott L.
2012-01-01
The flow-induced vibration of synthetic vocal fold models has been previously observed to be acoustically-coupled with upstream flow supply tubes. This phenomenon was investigated using a finite element model that included flow–structure–acoustic interactions. The length of the upstream duct was varied to explore the coupling between model vibration and subglottal acoustics. Incompressible and slightly compressible flow models were tested. The slightly compressible model exhibited acoustic coupling between fluid and solid domains in a manner consistent with experimental observations, whereas the incompressible model did not, showing the slightly compressible approach to be suitable for simulating acoustically-coupled vocal fold model flow-induced vibration. PMID:23585700
Modeling propagation effects from explosions in western China and India
Bradley, C.R.; Jones, E.M.
1998-12-31
The authors report on the results of finite-difference simulations of regional seismic wave propagation from a 1995 explosion at the Chinese test site at Lop Nor and from the recent Indian test. These simulations provide insight into variations in explosion seismograms recorded for these events. Previous modeling efforts by App et al., 1996, and Jones et al., 1998, have shown that many features in seismograms from explosions and earthquakes received at various stations surrounding Lop Nor can be reproduced with simple descriptions of the geologic structure along each path. However, differences in detail between simulations and the earthquake-like seismograms recorded at Station TLY in the Baikal Rift for the Lop Nor explosion have motivated further study of propagation effects. Differences between the TLY data and the simulations indicate that the use of homogeneous materials within the basins, crust, and mantle is too simplistic to capture some of the important features of the observed seismograms. Current efforts involve simulations in which 1-D and 2-D lithosphere models are merged to mimic gradients and 2-D structure, features which produce Rayleigh-wave dispersion and an improved agreement in group velocity curves. Source models have been modified to include a component of tectonic release during the Lop Nor explosion. The recent nuclear tests in India have been modeled in a similar fashion. The propagation path crosses the Moho step beneath the southern edge of the Tibetan Plateau before being received at station NIL. Similarly, the path from Lop Nor to NIL crosses a Moho step beneath the northern edge of the Tibetan Plateau and, in both cases, the effect of a step when combined with surface basin attenuation effectively block the Lg phase. Simulations show that both attenuation and crustal thickening are important when modeling propagation near the Tibetan Plateau.
Modeling ocean wave propagation under sea ice covers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Xin; Shen, Hayley H.; Cheng, Sukun
2015-02-01
Operational ocean wave models need to work globally, yet current ocean wave models can only treat ice-covered regions crudely. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of ice effects on wave propagation and different research methodology used in studying these effects. Based on its proximity to land or sea, sea ice can be classified as: landfast ice zone, shear zone, and the marginal ice zone. All ice covers attenuate wave energy. Only long swells can penetrate deep into an ice cover. Being closest to open water, wave propagation in the marginal ice zone is the most complex to model. The physical appearance of sea ice in the marginal ice zone varies. Grease ice, pancake ice, brash ice, floe aggregates, and continuous ice sheet may be found in this zone at different times and locations. These types of ice are formed under different thermal-mechanical forcing. There are three classic models that describe wave propagation through an idealized ice cover: mass loading, thin elastic plate, and viscous layer models. From physical arguments we may conjecture that mass loading model is suitable for disjoint aggregates of ice floes much smaller than the wavelength, thin elastic plate model is suitable for a continuous ice sheet, and the viscous layer model is suitable for grease ice. For different sea ice types we may need different wave ice interaction models. A recently proposed viscoelastic model is able to synthesize all three classic models into one. Under suitable limiting conditions it converges to the three previous models. The complete theoretical framework for evaluating wave propagation through various ice covers need to be implemented in the operational ocean wave models. In this review, we introduce the sea ice types, previous wave ice interaction models, wave attenuation mechanisms, the methods to calculate wave reflection and transmission between different ice covers, and the effect of ice floe breaking on shaping the sea ice morphology
Dynamic models of pest propagation and pest control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, Ming; Lin, Zhen-Quan; Ke, Jian-Hong
2011-08-01
This paper proposes a pest propagation model to investigate the evolution behaviours of pest aggregates. A pest aggregate grows by self-monomer birth, and it may fragment into two smaller ones. The kinetic evolution behaviours of pest aggregates are investigated by the rate equation approach based on the mean-field theory. For a system with a self-birth rate kernel I(k) = Ik and a fragmentation rate kernel L(i, j) = L, we find that the total number M0A(t) and the total mass of the pest aggregates M1A(t) both increase exponentially with time if L ≠ 0. Furthermore, we introduce two catalysis-driven monomer death mechanisms for the former pest propagation model to study the evolution behaviours of pest aggregates under pesticide and natural enemy controlled pest propagation. In the pesticide controlled model with a catalyzed monomer death rate kernel J1(k) = J1k, it is found that only when I < J1B0 (B0 is the concentration of catalyst aggregates) can the pests be killed off. Otherwise, the pest aggregates can survive. In the model of pest control with a natural enemy, a pest aggregate loses one of its individuals and the number of natural enemies increases by one. For this system, we find that no matter how many natural enemies there are at the beginning, pests will be eliminated by them eventually.
Modeling of Propagation of Interacting Cracks Under Hydraulic Pressure Gradient
Huang, Hai; Mattson, Earl Douglas; Podgorney, Robert Karl
2015-04-01
A robust and reliable numerical model for fracture initiation and propagation, which includes the interactions among propagating fractures and the coupling between deformation, fracturing and fluid flow in fracture apertures and in the permeable rock matrix, would be an important tool for developing a better understanding of fracturing behaviors of crystalline brittle rocks driven by thermal and (or) hydraulic pressure gradients. In this paper, we present a physics-based hydraulic fracturing simulator based on coupling a quasi-static discrete element model (DEM) for deformation and fracturing with conjugate lattice network flow model for fluid flow in both fractures and porous matrix. Fracturing is represented explicitly by removing broken bonds from the network to represent microcracks. Initiation of new microfractures and growth and coalescence of the microcracks leads to the formation of macroscopic fractures when external and/or internal loads are applied. The coupled DEM-network flow model reproduces realistic growth pattern of hydraulic fractures. In particular, simulation results of perforated horizontal wellbore clearly demonstrate that elastic interactions among multiple propagating fractures, fluid viscosity, strong coupling between fluid pressure fluctuations within fractures and fracturing, and lower length scale heterogeneities, collectively lead to complicated fracturing patterns.
Wave-Propagation Modeling and Inversion Using Frequency-Domain Integral Equation Methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strickland, Christopher E.
Full waveform inverse methods describe the full physics of wave propagation and can potentially overcome the limitations of ray theoretic methods. This work explores the use of integral equation based methods for simulation and inversion and illustrates their potential for computationally demanding problems. A frequency-domain integral equation approach to simulate wave-propagation in heterogeneous media and solve the inverse wave-scattering problem will be presented for elastic, acoustic, and electromagnetic systems. The method will be illustrated for georadar (ground- or ice-penetrating radar) applications and compared to results obtained using ray theoretic methods. In order to tackle the non-linearity of the problem, the inversion incorporates a broad range of frequencies to stabilize the solution. As with most non-linear inversion methods, a starting model that reasonably approximates the true model is critical to convergence of the algorithm. To improve the starting model, a variable reference inversion technique is developed that allows the background reference medium to vary for each source-receiver data pair and is less restrictive than using a single reference medium for the entire dataset. The reference medium can be assumed homogeneous (although different for each data point) to provide a computationally efficient, single-step, frequency-domain inversion approach that incorporates finite frequency effects not captured by ray based methods. The inversion can then be iterated on to further refine the solution.
Liquid plug propagation in flexible microchannels: A small airway model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Y.; Fujioka, H.; Bian, S.; Torisawa, Y.; Huh, D.; Takayama, S.; Grotberg, J. B.
2009-07-01
In the present study, we investigate the effect of wall flexibility on the plug propagation and the resulting wall stresses in small airway models with experimental measurements and numerical simulations. Experimentally, a flexible microchannel was fabricated to mimic the flexible small airways using soft lithography. Liquid plugs were generated and propagated through the microchannels. The local wall deformation is observed instantaneously during plug propagation with the maximum increasing with plug speed. The pressure drop across the plug is measured and observed to increase with plug speed, and is slightly smaller in a flexible channel compared to that in a rigid channel. A computational model is then presented to model the steady plug propagation through a flexible channel corresponding to the middle plane in the experimental device. The results show qualitative agreements with experiments on wall shapes and pressure drops and the discrepancies bring up interesting questions on current field of modeling. The flexible wall deforms inward near the plug core region, the deformation and pressure drop across the plug increase with the plug speed. The wall deformation and resulting stresses vary with different longitudinal tensions, i.e., for large wall longitudinal tension, the wall deforms slightly, which causes decreased fluid stress and stress gradients on the flexible wall comparing to that on rigid walls; however, the wall stress gradients are found to be much larger on highly deformable walls with small longitudinal tensions. Therefore, in diseases such as emphysema, with more deformable airways, there is a high possibility of induced injuries on lining cells along the airways because of larger wall stresses and stress gradients.
Dike propagation in active volcanoes: importance, evidence, models and perspectives
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Acocella, V.
2011-12-01
Most eruptions are fed by dikes; therefore, better knowledge of dike propagation is crucial to improve our understanding of how magma is transferred and extruded at volcanoes. Dike pattern data from a few tens of active volcanic edifices show how dike propagation in a volcano is not a random process; rather, it depends from the following factors (listed in order of importance): the presence of relief, the shape of the edifice, the proximity to the surface, and regional tectonic control. Relief enhances the development of radial dikes, which may also cluster following volcano elongation or regional patterns. Dikes approaching the surface of volcanic edifices, regardless of their initial orientation, reorient to become radial (parallel to the maximum gravitational stress); in presence of scarps, dikes reorient subparallel to the scarp (perpendicular to the minimum gravitational stress). These relationships have been also observed or inferred during eruptions at Etna, Stromboli, Vesuvio (Italy), Erta Ale (Afar) and Faial (Azores). While numerical modelling of dike propagation remains challenging, analogue models of dike emplacement have been performed over a few decades, also supporting part of the above-described evidence. Analogue models have been mostly conducted injecting air or water within gelatine and, recently, injecting vegetable oil within sand. More sophisticated analogue modelling is foreseen for the future, using a more appropriate scaling, a larger sensitivity and providing a more quantitative approach in capturing relationships. More in general, future research on dikes should be devoted towards identifying dike propagation paths, dike arrest mechanisms, and likely locations of vent formation at specific volcanoes, to better aid hazards assessment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dyson, Rodger William, Jr.
1999-10-01
Finding the sources of noise generation in a turbofan propulsion system requires a computational tool that has sufficient fidelity to simulate steep gradients in the flow field and sufficient efficiency to run on today's computer systems. The goal of this dissertation was to develop an automated code generator for the creation of software that numerically solves the linearized Euler equations on Cartesian grids in three dimensional spatial domains containing bodies with complex shapes. It is based upon the recently developed Modified Expansion Solution Approximation (MESA) series of explicit finite-difference schemes that provide spectral-like resolution with extraordinary efficiency. The accuracy of these methods can, in theory, be arbritarily high in both space and time, without the significant inefficiences of Runge- Kutta based schemes. The complexity of coding these schemes was, however, very high, resulting in code that could not compile or took so long to write in FORTRAN that they were rendered impractical. Therefore, a tool in Mathematica was developed that could automatically code the MESA schemes into FORTRAN and the MESA schemes themselves were reformulated into a very simple form-making them practical to use without automation or very powerful with it. A method for automatically creating the MESA propagation schemes and their FORTRAN code in two and three spatial dimensions is shown with up to 29th order accuracy in space and time. Also, a method for treating solid wall boundaries in two dimensions is shown with up to 11th order accuracy on grid aligned boundaries and with up to 2nd order accuracy on generalized boundaries. Finally, an automated method for parallelizing these approaches on large scale parallel computers with near perfect scalability is presented. All these methods are combined to form a turnkey code generation tool in Mathematica that once provided the CAD geometry file can automatically simulate the acoustical physics by replacing the
Modeling of Biomass Plug Development and Propagation in Porous Media
Stewart, Terri L.; Kim, Dong-Shik
2004-02-01
Biomass accumulation and evolution in porous media were simulated using a combination of biofilm evolution model and a biofilm removal model. Theses models describe biomass plug development, removal, and propagation in biological applications such as microbial enhanced oil recovery, in situ bioremediation, and bio-barrier techniques. The biofilm evolution model includes the cell growth rate and exopolymer production kinetics. The biofilm removal model was used for describing the biomass plug propagation and channel breakthrough using Bingham yield stress of biofilm, which represents the stability of biofilm against shear stress. Network model was used to describe a porous medium. The network model consists of pore body and pore bond of which the sizes were determined based on the pore size distribution of ceramic cores. The pressure drop across the network is assumed to be generated from pore bonds only, and the cell growth and biomass accumulation took place in pore bonds. The simulation results showed that the biofilm models based on Bingham yield stress predicted the biomass accumulation and channel breakthrough well. The pressure oscillation (or, permeability oscillation) was also demonstrated well indicating the process of biomass accumulation and breakthrough channel formation. In addition, the effects of cell and biofilm sucrose concentration were significant on the biomass plug development and permeability reduction rates. The modeling elucidated some deficiencies in our knowledge of the biomass yield stress that enables us to predict the stability of biomass plug against shear stress.
Acoustic FMRI noise: linear time-invariant system model.
Rizzo Sierra, Carlos V; Versluis, Maarten J; Hoogduin, Johannes M; Duifhuis, Hendrikus Diek
2008-09-01
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) enables sites of brain activation to be localized in human subjects. For auditory system studies, however, the acoustic noise generated by the scanner tends to interfere with the assessments of this activation. Understanding and modeling fMRI acoustic noise is a useful step to its reduction. To study acoustic noise, the MR scanner is modeled as a linear electroacoustical system generating sound pressure signals proportional to the time derivative of the input gradient currents. The transfer function of one MR scanner is determined for two different input specifications: 1) by using the gradient waveform calculated by the scanner software and 2) by using a recording of the gradient current. Up to 4 kHz, the first method is shown as reliable as the second one, and its use is encouraged when direct measurements of gradient currents are not possible. Additionally, the linear order and average damping properties of the gradient coil system are determined by impulse response analysis. Since fMRI is often based on echo planar imaging (EPI) sequences, a useful validation of the transfer function prediction ability can be obtained by calculating the acoustic output for the EPI sequence. We found a predicted sound pressure level (SPL) for the EPI sequence of 104 dB SPL compared to a measured value of 102 dB SPL. As yet, the predicted EPI pressure waveform shows similarity as well as some differences with the directly measured EPI pressure waveform.
An efficient model for coupling structural vibrations with acoustic radiation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frendi, Abdelkader; Maestrello, Lucio; Ting, LU
1993-01-01
The scattering of an incident wave by a flexible panel is studied. The panel vibration is governed by the nonlinear plate equations while the loading on the panel, which is the pressure difference across the panel, depends on the reflected and transmitted waves. Two models are used to calculate this structural-acoustic interaction problem. One solves the three dimensional nonlinear Euler equations for the flow-field coupled with the plate equations (the fully coupled model). The second uses the linear wave equation for the acoustic field and expresses the load as a double integral involving the panel oscillation (the decoupled model). The panel oscillation governed by a system of integro-differential equations is solved numerically and the acoustic field is then defined by an explicit formula. Numerical results are obtained using the two models for linear and nonlinear panel vibrations. The predictions given by these two models are in good agreement but the computational time needed for the 'fully coupled model' is 60 times longer than that for 'the decoupled model'.
A generalized hydrodynamic model for acoustic mode stability in viscoelastic plasma fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borah, B.; Haloi, A.; Karmakar, P. K.
2016-05-01
In this paper a generalized hydrodynamic (GH) model to investigate acoustic-mode excitation and stability in simplified strongly coupled bi-component plasma is proposed. The goal is centered in seeing the viscoelasticity-influences on the instability properties. The dispersive and nondispersive features are methodologically explored followed by numerical illustrations. It is seen that, unlike usual plasma acoustic mode, here the mode stability is drastically modified due to the considered viscoelastic effects contributed from both the electronic and ionic fluids. For example, it is found that there exists an excitation threshold value on angular wavenumber, K ≈3 in the K-space on the Debye scale, beyond which only dispersive characteristic features prevail. Further, it is demonstrated that the viscoelastic relaxation time plays a stabilizing influential role on the wave dynamics. In contrast, it is just opposite for the effective viscoelastic relaxation effect. Consistency with the usual viscoelasticity-free situations, with and without plasma approximation taken into account, is also established and explained. It is identified and conjectured that the plasma fluid viscoelasticity acts as unavoidable dispersive agency in attributing several new characteristics to acoustic wave excitation and propagation. The analysis is also exploited to derive a quantitative glimpse on the various basic properties and dimensionless numbers of the viscoelastic plasma. Finally, extended implications of our results tentative to different cosmic, space and astrophysical situations, amid the entailed facts and faults, are highlighted together with indicated future directions.
Using special functions to model the propagation of airborne diseases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolaños, Daniela
2014-06-01
Some special functions of the mathematical physics are using to obtain a mathematical model of the propagation of airborne diseases. In particular we study the propagation of tuberculosis in closed rooms and we model the propagation using the error function and the Bessel function. In the model, infected individual emit pathogens to the environment and this infect others individuals who absorb it. The evolution in time of the concentration of pathogens in the environment is computed in terms of error functions. The evolution in time of the number of susceptible individuals is expressed by a differential equation that contains the error function and it is solved numerically for different parametric simulations. The evolution in time of the number of infected individuals is plotted for each numerical simulation. On the other hand, the spatial distribution of the pathogen around the source of infection is represented by the Bessel function K0. The spatial and temporal distribution of the number of infected individuals is computed and plotted for some numerical simulations. All computations were made using software Computer algebra, specifically Maple. It is expected that the analytical results that we obtained allow the design of treatment rooms and ventilation systems that reduce the risk of spread of tuberculosis.
Computational Modeling of Ultrafast Pulse Propagation in Nonlinear Optical Materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goorjian, Peter M.; Agrawal, Govind P.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)
1996-01-01
There is an emerging technology of photonic (or optoelectronic) integrated circuits (PICs or OEICs). In PICs, optical and electronic components are grown together on the same chip. rib build such devices and subsystems, one needs to model the entire chip. Accurate computer modeling of electromagnetic wave propagation in semiconductors is necessary for the successful development of PICs. More specifically, these computer codes would enable the modeling of such devices, including their subsystems, such as semiconductor lasers and semiconductor amplifiers in which there is femtosecond pulse propagation. Here, the computer simulations are made by solving the full vector, nonlinear, Maxwell's equations, coupled with the semiconductor Bloch equations, without any approximations. The carrier is retained in the description of the optical pulse, (i.e. the envelope approximation is not made in the Maxwell's equations), and the rotating wave approximation is not made in the Bloch equations. These coupled equations are solved to simulate the propagation of femtosecond optical pulses in semiconductor materials. The simulations describe the dynamics of the optical pulses, as well as the interband and intraband.
Method for modelling sea surface clutter in complicated propagation environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dockery, G. D.
1990-04-01
An approach for predicting clutter levels in complicated propagation conditions using an advanced propagation model and one of several empirical clutter cross-section models is described. Incident power and grazing angle information is obtained using a parabolic equation/Fourier split-step technique to predict the distribution of energy in complicated, range-varying environments. Such environments also require the use of an algorithm that establishes a physically reasonable range-interpolation scheme for the measured refractivity profiles. The reflectivity of the sea surface is represented using a clutter cross-section model that was developed originally by the Georgia Institutue of Technology and subsequently modified to include the effects of arbitrary refractive conditions. Predicted clutter power levels generated by the new procedure are compared with clutter measured at 2.9 GHz during propagation experiments conducted at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility on Virginia's Eastern Shore. During these experiments, high-resolution refractivity data were collected in both range and altitude by an instrumented helicopter.
GCR environmental models II: Uncertainty propagation methods for GCR environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slaba, Tony C.; Blattnig, Steve R.
2014-04-01
In order to assess the astronaut exposure received within vehicles or habitats, accurate models of the ambient galactic cosmic ray (GCR) environment are required. Many models have been developed and compared to measurements, with uncertainty estimates often stated to be within 15%. However, intercode comparisons can lead to differences in effective dose exceeding 50%. This is the second of three papers focused on resolving this discrepancy. The first paper showed that GCR heavy ions with boundary energies below 500 MeV/n induce less than 5% of the total effective dose behind shielding. Yet, due to limitations on available data, model development and validation are heavily influenced by comparisons to measurements taken below 500 MeV/n. In the current work, the focus is on developing an efficient method for propagating uncertainties in the ambient GCR environment to effective dose values behind shielding. A simple approach utilizing sensitivity results from the first paper is described and shown to be equivalent to a computationally expensive Monte Carlo uncertainty propagation. The simple approach allows a full uncertainty propagation to be performed once GCR uncertainty distributions are established. This rapid analysis capability may be integrated into broader probabilistic radiation shielding analysis and also allows error bars (representing boundary condition uncertainty) to be placed around point estimates of effective dose.
A propagation model of computer virus with nonlinear vaccination probability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gan, Chenquan; Yang, Xiaofan; Liu, Wanping; Zhu, Qingyi
2014-01-01
This paper is intended to examine the effect of vaccination on the spread of computer viruses. For that purpose, a novel computer virus propagation model, which incorporates a nonlinear vaccination probability, is proposed. A qualitative analysis of this model reveals that, depending on the value of the basic reproduction number, either the virus-free equilibrium or the viral equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable. The results of simulation experiments not only demonstrate the validity of our model, but also show the effectiveness of nonlinear vaccination strategies. Through parameter analysis, some effective strategies for eradicating viruses are suggested.
Modeling the Tohoku, 2011, ionospheric acoustic-gravity waves with the Spectral Element Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khelfi, K.; Lognonne, P. H.; Komatitsch, D.
2012-12-01
After the Tohoku earthquake (Japan March 2011), several types of waves have been observed in the ionosphere. These waves are generated from different sources located at the Earth surface, either associated to the rupture and co-seismic ground uplift or to remote uplift associated to waves internal to the ocean-ground system, e.g. tsunami and seismic body and surface waves. These waves were densely observed by the Japanese GEONET network but also in several locations of the Pacific ocean e.g., Hawaii, Chile, California, etc…, enabling in depth studies and requesting therefore modeling integrating all the complexity and tri-dimensional structure of the atmosphere-ionosphere system. In this work, we present preliminary results obtained by the spectral element method, in order to perform 3D modeling of the propagation of the gravito-acoustic waves in the neutral atmosphere, by taking into account the coupling between the ionosphere and the neutral atmosphere which generate an anisotropic attenuation associated to the magnetic field, in addition to the isotropic attenuation due to viscosity. We first present the typical lateral variation of the propagation parameters, e.g . acoustic velocities and densities and local wave damping with respect to atmospheric viscosity, heat transfer and magnetic field. We then show first results of wave simulations. In this first step, the interaction between the neutral and ionosphere is assumed to be instantaneous, due to the large gyro frequency of ions and electrons as compared to the typical frequency of waves. As this first steps focus on the propagation, results are illustrated for simple sources. The generalization for the more complex Tohoku signal is presented theoretically.
Effects of atmospheric variations on acoustic system performance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nation, Robert; Lang, Stephen; Olsen, Robert; Chintawongvanich, Prasan
1993-01-01
Acoustic propagation over medium to long ranges in the atmosphere is subject to many complex, interacting effects. Of particular interest at this point is modeling low frequency (less than 500 Hz) propagation for the purpose of predicting ranges and bearing accuracies at which acoustic sources can be detected. A simple means of estimating how much of the received signal power propagated directly from the source to the receiver and how much was received by turbulent scattering was developed. The correlations between the propagation mechanism and detection thresholds, beamformer bearing estimation accuracies, and beamformer processing gain of passive acoustic signal detection systems were explored.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Averbuch, Gil; Price, Colin
2015-04-01
Lithosphere-Atmosphere coupling: Spectral element modeling of the evolution of acoustic waves in the atmosphere from an underground source. G. Averbuch, C. Price Department of Geosciences, Tel Aviv University, Israel Infrasound is one of the four Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty technologies for monitoring nuclear explosions. This technology measures the acoustic waves generated by the explosions followed by their propagation through the atmosphere. There are also natural phenomena that can act as an infrasound sources like sprites, volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. The infrasound waves generated from theses phenomena can also be detected by the infrasound arrays. In order to study the behavior of these waves, i.e. the physics of wave propagation in the atmosphere, their evolution and their trajectories, numerical methods are required. This presentation will deal with the evolution of acoustic waves generated by underground sources (earthquakes and underground explosions). A 2D Spectral elements formulation for lithosphere-atmosphere coupling will be presented. The formulation includes the elastic wave equation for the seismic waves and the momentum, mass and state equations for the acoustic waves in a moving stratified atmosphere. The coupling of the two media is made by boundary conditions that ensures the continuity of traction and velocity (displacement) in the normal component to the interface. This work has several objectives. The first is to study the evolution of acoustic waves in the atmosphere from an underground source. The second is to derive transmission coefficients for the energy flux with respect to the seismic magnitude and earth density. The third will be the generation of seismic waves from acoustic waves in the atmosphere. Is it possible?
Modelling broad-band poroelastic propagation using an asymptotic approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasco, D. W.
2009-10-01
An asymptotic method, valid in the presence of smoothly varying heterogeneity, is used to derive a semi-analytic solution to the equations for fluid and solid displacements in a poroelastic medium. The solution is defined along trajectories through the porous medium model, in the manner of ray theory. The lowest order expression in the asymptotic expansion provides an eikonal equation for the phase. There are three modes of propagation, two modes of longitudinal displacement and a single mode of transverse displacement. The two longitudinal modes define the Biot fast and slow waves which have very different propagation characteristics. In the limit of low frequency, the Biot slow wave propagates as a diffusive disturbance, in essence a transient pressure pulse. Conversely, at low frequencies the Biot fast wave and the transverse mode are modified elastic waves. At intermediate frequencies the wave characteristics of the longitudinal modes are mixed. A comparison of the asymptotic solution with analytic and numerical solutions shows reasonably good agreement for both homogeneous and heterogeneous earth models.
Modeling broadband poroelastic propagation using an asymptotic approach
Vasco, Donald W.
2009-05-01
An asymptotic method, valid in the presence of smoothly-varying heterogeneity, is used to derive a semi-analytic solution to the equations for fluid and solid displacements in a poroelastic medium. The solution is defined along trajectories through the porous medium model, in the manner of ray theory. The lowest order expression in the asymptotic expansion provides an eikonal equation for the phase. There are three modes of propagation, two modes of longitudinal displacement and a single mode of transverse displacement. The two longitudinal modes define the Biot fast and slow waves which have very different propagation characteristics. In the limit of low frequency, the Biot slow wave propagates as a diffusive disturbance, in essence a transient pressure pulse. Conversely, at low frequencies the Biot fast wave and the transverse mode are modified elastic waves. At intermediate frequencies the wave characteristics of the longitudinal modes are mixed. A comparison of the asymptotic solution with analytic and numerical solutions shows reasonably good agreement for both homogeneous and heterogeneous Earth models.
Dynamic propagation channel characterization and modeling for human body communication.
Nie, Zedong; Ma, Jingjing; Li, Zhicheng; Chen, Hong; Wang, Lei
2012-12-18
This paper presents the first characterization and modeling of dynamic propagation channels for human body communication (HBC). In-situ experiments were performed using customized transceivers in an anechoic chamber. Three HBC propagation channels, i.e., from right leg to left leg, from right hand to left hand and from right hand to left leg, were investigated under thirty-three motion scenarios. Snapshots of data (2,800,000) were acquired from five volunteers. Various path gains caused by different locations and movements were quantified and the statistical distributions were estimated. In general, for a given reference threshold è = -10 dB, the maximum average level crossing rate of the HBC was approximately 1.99 Hz, the maximum average fade time was 59.4 ms, and the percentage of bad channel duration time was less than 4.16%. The HBC exhibited a fade depth of -4 dB at 90% complementary cumulative probability. The statistical parameters were observed to be centered for each propagation channel. Subsequently a Fritchman model was implemented to estimate the burst characteristics of the on-body fading. It was concluded that the HBC is motion-insensitive, which is sufficient for reliable communication link during motions, and therefore it has great potential for body sensor/area networks.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Golubev, Vladimir; Mankbadi, Reda R.; Dahl, Milo D.; Kiraly, L. James (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This paper provides preliminary results of the study of the acoustic radiation from the source model representing spatially-growing instability waves in a round jet at high speeds. The source model is briefly discussed first followed by the analysis of the produced acoustic directivity pattern. Two integral surface techniques are discussed and compared for prediction of the jet acoustic radiation field.
Majdak, Piotr; Baumgartner, Robert; Laback, Bernhard
2014-01-01
The ability of sound-source localization in sagittal planes (along the top-down and front-back dimension) varies considerably across listeners. The directional acoustic spectral features, described by head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), also vary considerably across listeners, a consequence of the listener-specific shape of the ears. It is not clear whether the differences in localization ability result from differences in the encoding of directional information provided by the HRTFs, i.e., an acoustic factor, or from differences in auditory processing of those cues (e.g., spectral-shape sensitivity), i.e., non-acoustic factors. We addressed this issue by analyzing the listener-specific localization ability in terms of localization performance. Directional responses to spatially distributed broadband stimuli from 18 listeners were used. A model of sagittal-plane localization was fit individually for each listener by considering the actual localization performance, the listener-specific HRTFs representing the acoustic factor, and an uncertainty parameter representing the non-acoustic factors. The model was configured to simulate the condition of complete calibration of the listener to the tested HRTFs. Listener-specifically calibrated model predictions yielded correlations of, on average, 0.93 with the actual localization performance. Then, the model parameters representing the acoustic and non-acoustic factors were systematically permuted across the listener group. While the permutation of HRTFs affected the localization performance, the permutation of listener-specific uncertainty had a substantially larger impact. Our findings suggest that across-listener variability in sagittal-plane localization ability is only marginally determined by the acoustic factor, i.e., the quality of directional cues found in typical human HRTFs. Rather, the non-acoustic factors, supposed to represent the listeners' efficiency in processing directional cues, appear to be
Modeling Nonlinear Acoustic Standing Waves in Resonators: Theory and Experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Raman, Ganesh; Li, Xiaofan; Finkbeiner, Joshua
2004-01-01
The overall goal of the cooperative research with NASA Glenn is to fundamentally understand, computationally model, and experimentally validate non-linear acoustic waves in enclosures with the ultimate goal of developing a non-contact acoustic seal. The longer term goal is to transition the Glenn acoustic seal innovation to a prototype sealing device. Lucas and coworkers are credited with pioneering work in Resonant Macrosonic Synthesis (RMS). Several Patents and publications have successfully illustrated the concept of Resonant Macrosonic Synthesis. To utilize this concept in practical application one needs to have an understanding of the details of the phenomenon and a predictive tool that can examine the waveforms produced within resonators of complex shapes. With appropriately shaped resonators one can produce un-shocked waveforms of high amplitude that would result in very high pressures in certain regions. Our goal is to control the waveforms and exploit the high pressures to produce an acoustic seal. Note that shock formation critically limits peak-to-peak pressure amplitudes and also causes excessive energy dissipation. Proper shaping of the resonator is thus critical to the use of this innovation.
Modelling in vivo action potential propagation along a giant axon.
George, Stuart; Foster, Jamie M; Richardson, Giles
2015-01-01
A partial differential equation model for the three-dimensional current flow in an excitable, unmyelinated axon is considered. Where the axon radius is significantly below a critical value R(crit) (that depends upon intra- and extra-cellular conductivity and ion channel conductance) the resistance of the intracellular space is significantly higher than that of the extracellular space, such that the potential outside the axon is uniformly small whilst the intracellular potential is approximated by the transmembrane potential. In turn, since the current flow is predominantly axial, it can be shown that the transmembrane potential is approximated by a solution to the one-dimensional cable equation. It is noted that the radius of the squid giant axon, investigated by (Hodgkin and Huxley 1952e), lies close to R(crit). This motivates us to apply the three-dimensional model to the squid giant axon and compare the results thus found to those obtained using the cable equation. In the context of the in vitro experiments conducted in (Hodgkin and Huxley 1952e) we find only a small difference between the wave profiles determined using these two different approaches and little difference between the speeds of action potential propagation predicted. This suggests that the cable equation approximation is accurate in this scenario. However when applied to the it in vivo setting, in which the conductivity of the surrounding tissue is considerably lower than that of the axoplasm, there are marked differences in both wave profile and speed of action potential propagation calculated using the two approaches. In particular, the cable equation significantly over predicts the increase in the velocity of propagation as axon radius increases. The consequences of these results are discussed in terms of the evolutionary costs associated with increasing the speed of action potential propagation by increasing axon radius.
Chromospheric heating by acoustic shock waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jordan, Stuart D.
1993-01-01
Work by Anderson & Athay (1989) suggests that the mechanical energy required to heat the quiet solar chromosphere might be due to the dissipation of weak acoustic shocks. The calculations reported here demonstrate that a simple picture of chromospheric shock heating by acoustic waves propagating upward through a model solar atmosphere, free of both magnetic fields and local inhomogeneities, cannot reproduce their chromospheric model. The primary reason is the tendency for vertically propagating acoustic waves in the range of allowed periods to dissipate too low in the atmosphere, providing insufficient residual energy for the middle chromosphere. The effect of diverging magnetic fields and the corresponding expanding acoustic wavefronts on the mechanical dissipation length is then discussed as a means of preserving a quasi-acoustic heating hypothesis. It is argued that this effect, in a canopy that overlies the low chromosphere, might preserve the acoustic shock hypothesis consistent with the chromospheric radiation losses computed by Anderson & Athay.
Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test Above Deck Water Sound Suppression Results
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Counter, Douglas D.; Houston, Janice D.
2011-01-01
The Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) program test matrix was designed to determine the acoustic reduction for the Liftoff acoustics (LOA) environment with an above deck water sound suppression system. The scale model test can be used to quantify the effectiveness of the water suppression system as well as optimize the systems necessary for the LOA noise reduction. Several water flow rates were tested to determine which rate provides the greatest acoustic reductions. Preliminary results are presented.
Numerical Modeling of Fracture Propagation in Naturally Fractured Formations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, W.; Prodanovic, M.; Olson, J. E.; Schultz, R.
2015-12-01
Hydraulic fracturing consists of injecting fluid at high pressure and high flowrate to the wellbore for the purpose of enhancing production by generating a complex fracture network. Both tensile failure and shear failure occur during the hydraulic fracturing treatment. The shear event can be caused by slip on existing weak planes such as faults or natural fractures. From core observation, partially cemented and fully cemented opening mode natural fractures, often with considerable thickness are widely present. Hydraulic fractures can propagate either within the natural fracture (tensile failure) or along the interface between the natural fracture and the rock matrix (tensile/shear failure), depending on the relative strength of cement and rock matrix materials, the bonding strength of interface, as well as the presence of any heterogeneities. In this study, we evaluate the fracture propagation both experimentally and numerically. We embed one or multiple inclusions of different mechanical properties within synthetic hydrostone samples in order to mimic cemented natural fractures and rock. A semi-circular bending test is performed for each set of properties. A finite element model built with ABAQUS is used to mimic the semi-circular bending test and study the fracture propagation path, as well as the matrix-inclusion bonding interface status. Mechanical properties required for the numerical model are measured experimentally. The results indicate that the match between experiment and modeling fracture path are extremely sensitive to the chosen interface (bonding) model and related parameters. The semi-circular bending test is dry and easily conducted, providing a good platform for validating numerical approaches. A validated numerical model will enable us to add pressurized fluid within the crack and simulate hydraulic fracture-natural fracture interaction in the reservoir conditions, ultimately providing insights into the extent of the fracture network.
Rapid geo-acoustic characterization from a surface ship of opportunity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heaney, Kevin D.
2002-05-01
The recent shift from deep water antisubmarine warfare to the littoral has brought about a dramatic change in the requirements of our understanding of the acoustic environment. In particular, shallow water acoustic propagation is dominated by the interaction of sound with the bottom and is therefore very sensitive to the geo-acoustic parameters of the local sea-floor. The rapid geo-acoustic characterization (RGC) algorithm is presented, that determines a geo-acoustic model that best matches the general acoustic propagation parameters. Using data from a passing surface ship, the time spread, TL versus range and striation slope are measured at various frequencies. These are then matched to a simple two-layer geo-acoustic model based on the empirical curves of Hamilton and Bachman. The resulting estimate does reproduce the global features of the acoustic field that are relevant to acoustic prediction. This method is robust, rapid, and produces the relevant acoustic predictions.
Gapeev, A B; Rubanik, A V; Pashovkin, T N; Chemeris, N K
2007-01-01
The capability of high peak-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency (35,27 GHz, pulse widths of 100 and 600 ns, peak power of 20 kW) to excite acoustic waves in model water-containing objects and muscular tissue of animals has been experimentally shown for the first time. The amplitude and duration of excited acoustic pulses are within the limits of accuracy of theoretical assessments and have a complex nonlinear dependence on the energy input of electromagnetic radiation supplied. The velocity of propagation of acoustic pulses in water-containing models and isolated muscular tissue of animals was close to the reference data. The excitation of acoustic waves in biological systems under the action of high peak-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency is the important phenomenon, which essentially contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms of biological effects of these electromagnetic fields.
Global Propagation of Gravity Waves Generated with the Whole Atmosphere Transfer Function Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayr, H. G.; Talaat, E. R.; Wolven, B. C.
2012-12-01
Gravity waves are ubiquitous phenomena in the Earth's atmosphere, accounting for a significant fraction of its observed variability. These waves, with periods ranging from minutes to hours, are thought to be a major means for exchange of momentum and energy between atmospheric regions. The Transfer Function Model (TFM) describes acoustic gravity waves (AGW) that propagate across the globe in a dissipative static background atmosphere extending from the ground to 700 km. The model is limited to waves with periods << 12 hr where the Coriolis force is not important. Formulated in terms of zonal vector spherical harmonics and oscillation frequencies, the linearized equations of energy, mass, and momentum conservation are solved to generate the transfer function (TF) for a chosen height distribution of the excitation source. The model accounts for momentum exchange between atmospheric species (He, O, N2, O2, Ar), which affects significantly the wave amplitudes and phases of thermospheric temperature, densities, and wind fields. Covering a broad range of frequencies and spherical harmonic wave numbers (wavelengths), without limitations, the assembled TF captures the physics that controls the propagation of AGW, and the computational effort is considerable. For a chosen horizontal geometry and impulsive time dependence of the source, however, the global wave response is then obtained in short order. The model is computationally efficient and well suited to serve as an experimental and educational tool for simulating propagating wave patterns on the globe. The model is also semi-analytical and therefore well suited to explore the different wave modes that can be generated under varying dynamical conditions. The TFM has been applied to simulate the AGW, which are generated in the auroral region of the thermosphere by joule heating and momentum coupling due to solar wind induced electric fields [e.g., Mayr et al., Space Science Reviews, 1990]. The auroral source generates
Integrated Structural/Acoustic Modeling of Heterogeneous Panels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bednarcyk, Brett, A.; Aboudi, Jacob; Arnold, Steven, M.; Pennline, James, A.
2012-01-01
A model for the dynamic response of heterogeneous media is presented. A given medium is discretized into a number of subvolumes, each of which may contain an elastic anisotropic material, void, or fluid, and time-dependent boundary conditions are applied to simulate impact or incident pressure waves. The full time-dependent displacement and stress response throughout the medium is then determined via an explicit solution procedure. The model is applied to simulate the coupled structural/acoustic response of foam core sandwich panels as well as aluminum panels with foam inserts. Emphasis is placed on the acoustic absorption performance of the panels versus weight and the effects of the arrangement of the materials and incident wave frequency.
Physically based simulation model for acoustic sensor robot navigation.
Kuc, R; Siegel, M W
1987-06-01
A computer model is described that combines concepts from the fields of acoustics, linear system theory, and digital signal processing to simulate an acoustic sensor navigation system using time-of-flight ranging. By separating the transmitter/receiver into separate components and assuming mirror-like reflectors, closed-form solutions for the reflections from corners, edges, and walls are determined as a function of transducer size, location, and orientation. A floor plan consisting of corners, walls, and edges is efficiently encoded to indicate which of these elements contribute to a particular pulse-echo response. Sonar maps produced by transducers having different resonant frequencies and transmitted pulse waveforms can then be simulated efficiently. Examples of simulated sonar maps of two floor plans illustrate the performance of the model. Actual sonar maps are presented to verify the simulation results.
Modeling of a Surface Acoustic Wave Strain Sensor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, W. C.; Atkinson, Gary M.
2010-01-01
NASA Langley Research Center is investigating Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensor technology for harsh environments aimed at aerospace applications. To aid in development of sensors a model of a SAW strain sensor has been developed. The new model extends the modified matrix method to include the response of Orthogonal Frequency Coded (OFC) reflectors and the response of SAW devices to strain. These results show that the model accurately captures the strain response of a SAW sensor on a Langasite substrate. The results of the model of a SAW Strain Sensor on Langasite are presented
Measurement and modelling of the reflection coefficient of an Acoustic Black Hole termination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Denis, V.; Gautier, F.; Pelat, A.; Poittevin, J.
2015-08-01
The flexural waves propagating in a beam can be efficiently absorbed if one extremity is tapered with a power law profile and covered by a thin layer of additional damping material. Such a termination induces the so-called "Acoustic Black Hole effect" (ABH): if the thickness decreases locally, flexural waves slow down and the amplitude of the displacement field increases, leading to efficient energy dissipation if an absorbing layer is placed where the thickness is minimum. This paper presents a specific study of the reflection coefficient of ABH beam terminations. A Kundt-like measurement method of the reflection coefficient of a beam termination is proposed. The method is validated using theoretical results in the case of a beam free end. Results for several ABH extremities show a clear decrease of the modulus of the reflection coefficient R. The phase of R due to the decreasing thickness profile is also investigated and is interpreted by defining a correction length for the tapered termination. These experimental results are compared with several models: geometrical acoustics based model, beam waveguide model and plate model.
High-performance modeling acoustic and elastic waves using the parallel Dichotomy Algorithm
Fatyanov, Alexey G.; Terekhov, Andrew V.
2011-03-01
A high-performance parallel algorithm is proposed for modeling the propagation of acoustic and elastic waves in inhomogeneous media. An initial boundary-value problem is replaced by a series of boundary-value problems for a constant elliptic operator and different right-hand sides via the integral Laguerre transform. It is proposed to solve difference equations by the conjugate gradient method for acoustic equations and by the GMRES(k) method for modeling elastic waves. A preconditioning operator was the Laplace operator that is inverted using the variable separation method. The novelty of the proposed algorithm is using the Dichotomy Algorithm , which was designed for solving a series of tridiagonal systems of linear equations, in the context of the preconditioning operator inversion. Via considering analytical solutions, it is shown that modeling wave processes for long instants of time requires high-resolution meshes. The proposed parallel fine-mesh algorithm enabled to solve real application seismic problems in acceptable time and with high accuracy. By solving model problems, it is demonstrated that the considered parallel algorithm possesses high performance and efficiency over a wide range of the number of processors (from 2 to 8192).
Modeling of transient ultrasonic wave propagation using the distributed point.
Rahani, Ehsan Kabiri; Kundu, Tribikram
2011-10-01
Transient ultrasonic waves in a fluid medium generated by a flat circular and a point-focused transducer of finite size are modeled by the distributed point source method (DPSM). DPSM is a Green's-function-based semi-analytical mesh-free technique which is modified here to incorporate the transient loading from a finite-sized acoustic transducer. Conventional DPSM solves acoustic problems in steady-state frequency domain. Here, DPSM is extended to the time domain without the fast Fourier transform (FFT) but using the Green's function in the time domain. This modified method is denoted t-DPSM. Harmonic point sources of DPSM are replaced by time-dependent point sources in t-DPSM. Generated t-DPSM results are compared with the finite element (FE) results for both focused and flat circular transducers. The developed method is used to solve the transient problem of wave scattering by an air bubble in a fluid as the bubble is moved horizontally or vertically from the focal point of the focused transducer. The received energy signal is compared for different eccentricities. PMID:21989885
Modeling of transient ultrasonic wave propagation using the distributed point.
Rahani, Ehsan Kabiri; Kundu, Tribikram
2011-10-01
Transient ultrasonic waves in a fluid medium generated by a flat circular and a point-focused transducer of finite size are modeled by the distributed point source method (DPSM). DPSM is a Green's-function-based semi-analytical mesh-free technique which is modified here to incorporate the transient loading from a finite-sized acoustic transducer. Conventional DPSM solves acoustic problems in steady-state frequency domain. Here, DPSM is extended to the time domain without the fast Fourier transform (FFT) but using the Green's function in the time domain. This modified method is denoted t-DPSM. Harmonic point sources of DPSM are replaced by time-dependent point sources in t-DPSM. Generated t-DPSM results are compared with the finite element (FE) results for both focused and flat circular transducers. The developed method is used to solve the transient problem of wave scattering by an air bubble in a fluid as the bubble is moved horizontally or vertically from the focal point of the focused transducer. The received energy signal is compared for different eccentricities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deán-Ben, X. Luís; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis
2011-03-01
A modified quantitative inversion algorithm is presented that minimizes the effects of internal acoustic reflections or scattering in tomographic optoacoustic images. The inversion procedure in our model-based algorithm consists in solving a linear system of equations in which each individual equation corresponds to a given position of the acoustic transducer and to a given time instant. Thus, the modification that we propose in this work consists in weighting each equation of the linear system with the probability that the measured wave is not distorted by reflection or scattering phenomena. We show that the probability that a reflected or scattered wave is detected at a given position and at a given instant is approximately proportional to the size of the area in which the original wave could have been generated, which is dependent on the position of the transducer and on the time instant, so that such probability can be used to weight each equation of the linear system. Thereby, the contribution of the waves that propagate directly to the transducer to the reconstructed images is emphasized. We experimentally test the proposed inversion algorithm with tissue-mimicking agar phantoms in which air-gaps are included to cause reflections of the acoustic waves. The tomographic reconstructions obtained with the modification proposed herein show a clear reduction of the artefacts due to these acoustic phenomena with respect to the reconstructions yielded with the original algorithm. This performance is directly related to in-vivo small animal imaging applications involving imaging in the presence of bones, lungs, and other highly mismatched organs.
Acoustic results of the Boeing model 360 whirl tower test
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watts, Michael E.; Jordan, David
1990-01-01
An evaluation is presented for whirl tower test results of the Model 360 helicopter's advanced, high-performance four-bladed composite rotor system intended to facilitate over-200-knot flight. During these performance measurements, acoustic data were acquired by seven microphones. A comparison of whirl-tower tests with theory indicate that theoretical prediction accuracies vary with both microphone position and the inclusion of ground reflection. Prediction errors varied from 0 to 40 percent of the measured signal-to-peak amplitude.
Ultrasonic wave propagation in concentrated slurries--the modelling problem.
Challis, Richard E; Pinfield, Valerie J
2014-09-01
The suspended particle size distribution in slurries can, in principle, be estimated from measured ultrasonic wave attenuation across a frequency band in the 10s of MHz range. The procedure requires a computational model of wave propagation which incorporates scattering phenomena. These models fail at high particle concentrations due to hydrodynamic effects which they do not incorporate. This work seeks an effective viscosity and density for the medium surrounding the particles, which would enable the scattering model predictions to match experimental data for high solids loading. It is found that the required viscosity model has unphysical characteristics leading to the conclusion that a simple effective medium modification to the ECAH/LB is not possible. The paper confirms the successful results which can be obtained using core-shell scattering models, for smaller particles than had previously been studied, and outlines modifications to these which would permit rapid computation of sufficient stability to support fast particle sizing procedures.
Acoustic 3D imaging of dental structures
Lewis, D.K.; Hume, W.R.; Douglass, G.D.
1997-02-01
Our goals for the first year of this three dimensional electodynamic imaging project was to determine how to combine flexible, individual addressable; preprocessing of array source signals; spectral extrapolation or received signals; acoustic tomography codes; and acoustic propagation modeling code. We investigated flexible, individually addressable acoustic array material to find the best match in power, sensitivity and cost and settled on PVDF sheet arrays and 3-1 composite material.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Zhaoju; Gao, Fei; Shi, Xihang; Lin, Xiao; Gao, Zhen; Chong, Yidong; Zhang, Baile
2015-03-01
The manipulation of acoustic wave propagation in fluids has numerous applications, including some in everyday life. Acoustic technologies frequently develop in tandem with optics, using shared concepts such as waveguiding and metamedia. It is thus noteworthy that an entirely novel class of electromagnetic waves, known as "topological edge states," has recently been demonstrated. These are inspired by the electronic edge states occurring in topological insulators, and possess a striking and technologically promising property: the ability to travel in a single direction along a surface without backscattering, regardless of the existence of defects or disorder. Here, we develop an analogous theory of topological fluid acoustics, and propose a scheme for realizing topological edge states in an acoustic structure containing circulating fluids. The phenomenon of disorder-free one-way sound propagation, which does not occur in ordinary acoustic devices, may have novel applications for acoustic isolators, modulators, and transducers.
Yang, Zhaoju; Gao, Fei; Shi, Xihang; Lin, Xiao; Gao, Zhen; Chong, Yidong; Zhang, Baile
2015-03-20
The manipulation of acoustic wave propagation in fluids has numerous applications, including some in everyday life. Acoustic technologies frequently develop in tandem with optics, using shared concepts such as waveguiding and metamedia. It is thus noteworthy that an entirely novel class of electromagnetic waves, known as "topological edge states," has recently been demonstrated. These are inspired by the electronic edge states occurring in topological insulators, and possess a striking and technologically promising property: the ability to travel in a single direction along a surface without backscattering, regardless of the existence of defects or disorder. Here, we develop an analogous theory of topological fluid acoustics, and propose a scheme for realizing topological edge states in an acoustic structure containing circulating fluids. The phenomenon of disorder-free one-way sound propagation, which does not occur in ordinary acoustic devices, may have novel applications for acoustic isolators, modulators, and transducers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Othmani, Cherif; Takali, Farid; Njeh, Anouar; Ben Ghozlen, Mohamed Hédi
2016-09-01
The propagation of Rayleigh-Lamb waves in bi-layered structures is studied. For this purpose, an extension of the Legendre polynomial (LP) method is proposed to formulate the acoustic wave equation in the bi-layered structures induced by thin film Gallium Antimonide (GaSb) and with Aluminum Antimonide (AlSb) substrate in moderate thickness. Acoustic modes propagating along a bi-layer plate are shown to be quite different than classical Lamb modes, contrary to most of the multilayered structures. The validation of the LP method is illustrated by a comparison between the associated numerical results and those obtained using the ordinary differential equation (ODE) method. The convergency of the LP method is discussed through a numerical example. Moreover, the influences of thin film GaSb parameters on the characteristics Rayleigh-Lamb waves propagation has been studied in detail. Finally, the advantages of the Legendre polynomial (LP) method to analyze the multilayered structures are described. All the developments performed in this work were implemented in Matlab software.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Sung-Jin; Choe, Ji-Ung; Bae, Dong-Ho
Recently, acoustic emission during hydroproof (AE/H) testing has been adopted for the quality assurance of filament-wound composite rocket motor (FCRM) cases. For the proper performance of this testing, it is crucial to understand the characteristics of elastic wave propagation in the FCRM case, since AE signals captured in this testing can very significantly according to various factors including its geometry and material properties. Furthermore, the optimization of the AE/H testing parameters is strongly desired based on this understanding for the suitable interpretation of the test results. To address such a need, we have conducted an experimental study on the analysis of the elastic wave propagation in the FCRM case. In the experiments, broadband ultrasonic waves radiated at a fixed point were received at many different locations after propagating through the FCRM case with different distances and/or directions. From the received signals, the characteristics of elastic wave propagation such as frequency components, the maximum propagation distances and velocity curves were investigated in two separate conditions: one with the case empty and the other with the case hydraulically pressurized. Based on this systematic investigation, the optimal frequency component of the elastic wave to be monitored in the AE/H testing of the FCRM case was determined successfully.
Validation of an Acoustic Impedance Prediction Model for Skewed Resonators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howerton, Brian M.; Parrott, Tony L.
2009-01-01
An impedance prediction model was validated experimentally to determine the composite impedance of a series of high-aspect ratio slot resonators incorporating channel skew and sharp bends. Such structures are useful for packaging acoustic liners into constrained spaces for turbofan noise control applications. A formulation of the Zwikker-Kosten Transmission Line (ZKTL) model, incorporating the Richards correction for rectangular channels, is used to calculate the composite normalized impedance of a series of six multi-slot resonator arrays with constant channel length. Experimentally, acoustic data was acquired in the NASA Langley Normal Incidence Tube over the frequency range of 500 to 3500 Hz at 120 and 140 dB OASPL. Normalized impedance was reduced using the Two-Microphone Method for the various combinations of channel skew and sharp 90o and 180o bends. Results show that the presence of skew and/or sharp bends does not significantly alter the impedance of a slot resonator as compared to a straight resonator of the same total channel length. ZKTL predicts the impedance of such resonators very well over the frequency range of interest. The model can be used to design arrays of slot resonators that can be packaged into complex geometries heretofore unsuitable for effective acoustic treatment.
Modelling the cosmic ray electron propagation in M 51
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mulcahy, D. D.; Fletcher, A.; Beck, R.; Mitra, D.; Scaife, A. M. M.
2016-08-01
Context. Cosmic ray electrons (CREs) are a crucial part of the interstellar medium and are observed via synchrotron emission. While much modelling has been carried out on the CRE distribution and propagation of the Milky Way, little has been done on normal external star-forming galaxies. Recent spectral data from a new generation of radio telescopes enable us to find more robust estimations of the CRE propagation. Aims: To model the synchrotron spectral index of M 51 using the diffusion energy-loss equation and to compare the model results with the observed spectral index determined from recent low-frequency observations with LOFAR. Methods: We solve the time-dependent diffusion energy-loss equation for CREs in M 51. This is the first time that this model for CRE propagation has been solved for a realistic distribution of CRE sources, which we derive from the observed star formation rate, in an external galaxy. The radial variation of the synchrotron spectral index and scale-length produced by the model are compared to recent LOFAR and older VLA observational data and also to new observations of M 51 at 325 MHz obtained with the GMRT. Results: We find that propagation of CREs by diffusion alone is sufficient to reproduce the observed spectral index distribution in M 51. An isotropic diffusion coefficient with a value of 6.6 ± 0.2 × 1028 cm2 s-1 is found to fit best and is similar to what is seen in the Milky Way. We estimate an escape time of 11 Myr from the central galaxy to 88 Myr in the extended disk. It is found that an energy dependence of the diffusion coefficient is not important for CRE energies in the range 0.01 GeV-3 GeV. We are able to reproduce the dependence of the observed synchrotron scale-lengths on frequency, with l ∝ ν- 1 / 4 in the outer disk and l ∝ ν- 1 / 8 in the inner disk. The reduced 325 MHz image as a FITS file is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc
Propagation modeling results for narrow-beam undersea laser communications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fletcher, Andrew S.; Hardy, Nicholas D.; Hamilton, Scott A.
2016-03-01
Communication links through ocean waters are challenging due to undersea propagation physics. Undersea optical communications at blue or green wavelengths can achieve high data rates (megabit- to gigabit-per-second class links) despite the challenging undersea medium. Absorption and scattering in ocean waters attenuate optical signals and distort the waveform through dense multipath. The exponential propagation loss and the temporal spread due to multipath limit the achievable link distance and data rate. In this paper, we describe the Monte Carlo modeling of the undersea scattering and absorption channel. We model photon signal attenuation levels, spatial photon distributions, time of arrival statistics, and angle of arrival statistics for a variety of lasercom scenarios through both clear and turbid water environments. Modeling results inform the design options for an undersea optical communication system, particularly illustrating the advantages of narrow-beam lasers compared to wide beam methods (e.g. LED sources). The modeled pupil plane and focal plane photon arrival distributions enable beam tracking techniques for robust pointing solutions, even in highly scattering harbor waters. Laser communication with collimated beams maximizes the photon transfer through the scattering medium and enables spatial and temporal filters to minimize waveform distortion and background interference.
Fundamental Rotorcraft Acoustic Modeling From Experiments (FRAME)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Greenwood, Eric
2011-01-01
A new methodology is developed for the construction of helicopter source noise models for use in mission planning tools from experimental measurements of helicopter external noise radiation. The models are constructed by employing a parameter identification method to an assumed analytical model of the rotor harmonic noise sources. This new method allows for the identification of individual rotor harmonic noise sources and allows them to be characterized in terms of their individual non-dimensional governing parameters. The method is applied to both wind tunnel measurements and ground noise measurements of two-bladed rotors. The method is shown to match the parametric trends of main rotor harmonic noise, allowing accurate estimates of the dominant rotorcraft noise sources to be made for operating conditions based on a small number of measurements taken at different operating conditions. The ability of this method to estimate changes in noise radiation due to changes in ambient conditions is also demonstrated.
Fundamental Rotorcraft Acoustic Modeling from Experiments (FRAME)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greenwood, Eric, II
2011-12-01
A new methodology is developed for the construction of helicopter source noise models for use in mission planning tools from experimental measurements of helicopter external noise radiation. The models are constructed by employing a parameter identification method to an assumed analytical model of the rotor harmonic noise sources. This new method allows for the identification of individual rotor harmonic noise sources and allows them to be characterized in terms of their individual non-dimensional governing parameters. The method is applied to both wind tunnel measurements and ground noise measurements of two-bladed rotors. The method is shown to match the parametric trends of main rotor harmonic noise, allowing accurate estimates of the dominant rotorcraft noise sources to be made for operating conditions based on a small number of measurements taken at different operating conditions. The ability of this method to estimate changes in noise radiation due to changes in ambient conditions is also demonstrated.
3D modeling of carbonates petro-acoustic heterogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baden, Dawin; Guglielmi, Yves; Saracco, Ginette; Marié, Lionel; Viseur, Sophie
2015-04-01
Characterizing carbonate reservoirs heterogeneity is a challenging issue for Oil & Gas Industry, CO2 sequestration and all kinds of fluid manipulations in natural reservoirs, due to the significant impact of heterogeneities on fluid flow and storage within the reservoir. Although large scale (> meter) heterogeneities such as layers petrophysical contrasts are well addressed by computing facies-based models, low scale (< meter) heterogeneities are often poorly constrained because of the complexity in predicting their spatial arrangement. In this study, we conducted petro-acoustic measurements on cores of different size and diameter (Ø = 1", 1.5" and 5") in order to evaluate anisotropy or heterogeneity in carbonates at different laboratory scales. Different types of heterogeneities which generally occur in carbonate reservoir units (e.g. petrographic, diagenetic, and tectonic related) were sampled. Dry / wet samples were investigated with different ultrasonic apparatus and using different sensors allowing acoustic characterization through a bandwidth varying from 50 to 500 kHz. Comprehensive measurements realized on each samples allowed statistical analyses of petro-acoustic properties such as attenuation, shear and longitudinal wave velocity. The cores properties (geological and acoustic facies) were modeled in 3D using photogrammetry and GOCAD geo-modeler. This method successfully allowed detecting and imaging in three dimensions differential diagenesis effects characterized by the occurrence of decimeter-scale diagenetic horizons in samples assumed to be homogeneous and/or different diagenetic sequences between shells filling and the packing matrix. We then discuss how small interfaces such as cracks, stylolithes and laminations which are also imaged may have guided these differential effects, considering that understanding the processes may be taken as an analogue to actual fluid drainage complexity in deep carbonate reservoir.
Reduced-dimension model of liquid plug propagation in tubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujioka, Hideki; Halpern, David; Ryans, Jason; Gaver, Donald P.
2016-09-01
We investigate the flow resistance caused by the propagation of a liquid plug in a liquid-lined tube and propose a simple semiempirical formula for the flow resistance as a function of the plug length, the capillary number, and the precursor film thickness. These formulas are based on computational investigations of three key contributors to the plug resistance: the front meniscus, the plug core, and the rear meniscus. We show that the nondimensional flow resistance in the front meniscus varies as a function of the capillary number and the precursor film thickness. For a fixed capillary number, the flow resistance increases with decreasing precursor film thickness. The flow in the core region is modeled as Poiseuille flow and the flow resistance is a linear function of the plug length. For the rear meniscus, the flow resistance increases monotonically with decreasing capillary number. We investigate the maximum mechanical stress behavior at the wall, such as the wall pressure gradient, the wall shear stress, and the wall shear stress gradient, and propose empirical formulas for the maximum stresses in each region. These wall mechanical stresses vary as a function of the capillary number: For semi-infinite fingers of air propagating through pulmonary airways, the epithelial cell damage correlates with the pressure gradient. However, for shorter plugs the front meniscus may provide substantial mechanical stresses that could modulate this behavior and provide a major cause of cell injury when liquid plugs propagate in pulmonary airways. Finally, we propose that the reduced-dimension models developed herein may be of importance for the creation of large-scale models of interfacial flows in pulmonary networks, where full computational fluid dynamics calculations are untenable.
Perez, Camilo; Chen, Hong; Matula, Thomas J; Karzova, Maria; Khokhlova, Vera A
2013-08-01
Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) uses acoustic pulses to treat certain musculoskeletal disorders. In this paper the acoustic field of a clinical portable ESWT device (Duolith SD1) was characterized. Field mapping was performed in water for two different standoffs of the electromagnetic head (15 or 30 mm) using a fiber optic probe hydrophone. Peak positive pressures at the focus ranged from 2 to 45 MPa, while peak negative pressures ranged from -2 to -11 MPa. Pulse rise times ranged from 8 to 500 ns; shock formation did not occur for any machine settings. The maximum standard deviation in peak pressure at the focus was 1.2%, indicating that the Duolith SD1 generates stable pulses. The results compare qualitatively, but not quantitatively with manufacturer specifications. Simulations were carried out for the short standoff by matching a Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetzov equation to the measured field at a plane near the source, and then propagating the wave outward. The results of modeling agree well with experimental data. The model was used to analyze the spatial structure of the peak pressures. Predictions from the model suggest that a true shock wave could be obtained in water if the initial pressure output of the device were doubled.
Perez, Camilo; Chen, Hong; Matula, Thomas J.; Karzova, Maria; Khokhlova, Vera A.
2013-01-01
Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) uses acoustic pulses to treat certain musculoskeletal disorders. In this paper the acoustic field of a clinical portable ESWT device (Duolith SD1) was characterized. Field mapping was performed in water for two different standoffs of the electromagnetic head (15 or 30 mm) using a fiber optic probe hydrophone. Peak positive pressures at the focus ranged from 2 to 45 MPa, while peak negative pressures ranged from −2 to −11 MPa. Pulse rise times ranged from 8 to 500 ns; shock formation did not occur for any machine settings. The maximum standard deviation in peak pressure at the focus was 1.2%, indicating that the Duolith SD1 generates stable pulses. The results compare qualitatively, but not quantitatively with manufacturer specifications. Simulations were carried out for the short standoff by matching a Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetzov equation to the measured field at a plane near the source, and then propagating the wave outward. The results of modeling agree well with experimental data. The model was used to analyze the spatial structure of the peak pressures. Predictions from the model suggest that a true shock wave could be obtained in water if the initial pressure output of the device were doubled. PMID:23927207
The reflection model for propagation of solar cosmic rays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyubimov, G. P.; Grigorenko, E. E.
2007-02-01
The principles of constructing the model are considered in this paper, together with the issues of its components and physical algorithm. The main emphasis is placed on the cause-and-effect relationships between the structure and dynamics of the solar and interplanetary media and the motion of solar cosmic ray particles. The specific features of the initial phase of motion of the particles after their acceleration in a solar flare are considered, as well as the subsequent phase of further particle propagation in the solar corona, and the phase of motion in the heliosphere. The processes of transport of charged particles in flare plasma ejections are considered in detail.