Inverse Scattering Problems for Acoustic Waves in AN Inhomogeneous Medium.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kedzierawski, Andrzej Wladyslaw
1990-01-01
This dissertation considers the inverse scattering problem of determining either the absorption of sound in an inhomogeneous medium or the surface impedance of an obstacle from a knowledge of the far-field patterns of the scattered fields corresponding to many incident time -harmonic plane waves. First, we consider the inverse problem in the case when the scattering object is an inhomogeneous medium with complex refraction index having compact support. Our approach to this problem is the orthogonal projection method of Colton-Monk (cf. The inverse scattering problem for time acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium, Quart. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 41 (1988), 97-125). After that, we prove the analogue of Karp's Theorem for the scattering of acoustic waves through an inhomogeneous medium with compact support. We then generalize some of these results to the case when the inhomogeneous medium is no longer of compact support. If the acoustic wave penetrates the inhomogeneous medium by only a small amount then the inverse medium problem leads to the inverse obstacle problem with an impedance boundary condition. We solve the inverse impedance problem of determining the surface impedance of an obstacle of known shape by using both the methods of Kirsch-Kress and Colton-Monk (cf. R. Kress, Linear Integral Equations, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1989).
A time domain sampling method for inverse acoustic scattering problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Yukun; Hömberg, Dietmar; Hu, Guanghui; Li, Jingzhi; Liu, Hongyu
2016-06-01
This work concerns the inverse scattering problems of imaging unknown/inaccessible scatterers by transient acoustic near-field measurements. Based on the analysis of the migration method, we propose efficient and effective sampling schemes for imaging small and extended scatterers from knowledge of time-dependent scattered data due to incident impulsive point sources. Though the inverse scattering problems are known to be nonlinear and ill-posed, the proposed imaging algorithms are totally "direct" involving only integral calculations on the measurement surface. Theoretical justifications are presented and numerical experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our methods. In particular, the proposed static imaging functionals enhance the performance of the total focusing method (TFM) and the dynamic imaging functionals show analogous behavior to the time reversal inversion but without solving time-dependent wave equations.
Inverse scattering problems for acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kedzierawski, Andrzej Wladyslaw
The inverse scattering problem is considered of determining either the absorption of sound in an inhomogeneous medium or the surface impedance of an obstacle from a knowledge of the far field patterns of the scattered field corresponding to many incident time-harmonic plane waves. First, the inverse problem is studied in the case when the scattering object is an inhomogeneous medium with complex refractive index having compact support. The approach to this problem is the orthogonal projection method of Colton-Monk (1988). After that, the analogue is proven of Karp's Theorem for the scattering of acoustic waves through an inhomogeneous medium with compact support. Some of these results are then generalized to the case when the inhomogeneous medium is no longer of compact support. If the acoustic wave penetrates the inhomogeneous medium by only a small amount then the inverse medium problem leads to the inverse obstacle problem with an impedance boundary condition. The inverse impedance problem is solved of determining the surface impedance of an obstacle of known shape by using both the methods of Kirsch-Kress and Colton-Monk (1989).
Sound field reproduction as an equivalent acoustical scattering problem.
Fazi, Filippo Maria; Nelson, Philip A
2013-11-01
Given a continuous distribution of acoustic sources, the determination of the source strength that ensures the synthesis of a desired sound field is shown to be identical to the solution of an equivalent acoustic scattering problem. The paper begins with the presentation of the general theory that underpins sound field reproduction with secondary sources continuously arranged on the boundary of the reproduction region. The process of reproduction by a continuous source distribution is modeled by means of an integral operator (the single layer potential). It is then shown how the solution of the sound reproduction problem corresponds to that of an equivalent scattering problem. Analytical solutions are computed for two specific instances of this problem, involving, respectively, the use of a secondary source distribution in spherical and planar geometries. The results are shown to be the same as those obtained with analyses based on High Order Ambisonics and Wave Field Synthesis, respectively, thus bringing to light a fundamental analogy between these two methods of sound reproduction. Finally, it is shown how the physical optics (Kirchhoff) approximation enables the derivation of a high-frequency simplification for the problem under consideration, this in turn being related to the secondary source selection criterion reported in the literature on Wave Field Synthesis.
The inverse problem of acoustic wave scattering by an air-saturated poroelastic cylinder.
Ogam, Erick; Fellah, Z E A; Baki, Paul
2013-03-01
The efficient use of plastic foams in a diverse range of structural applications like in noise reduction, cushioning, and sleeping mattresses requires detailed characterization of their permeability and deformation (load-bearing) behavior. The elastic moduli and airflow resistance properties of foams are often measured using two separate techniques, one employing mechanical vibration methods and the other, flow rates of fluids based on fluid mechanics technology, respectively. A multi-parameter inverse acoustic scattering problem to recover airflow resistivity (AR) and mechanical properties of an air-saturated foam cylinder is solved. A wave-fluid saturated poroelastic structure interaction model based on the modified Biot theory and plane-wave decomposition using orthogonal cylindrical functions is employed to solve the inverse problem. The solutions to the inverse problem are obtained by constructing the objective functional given by the total square of the difference between predictions from the model and scattered acoustic field data acquired in an anechoic chamber. The value of the recovered AR is in good agreement with that of a slab sample cut from the cylinder and characterized using a method employing low frequency transmitted and reflected acoustic waves in a long waveguide developed by Fellah et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(11), 114902 (2007)].
The inverse problem of acoustic wave scattering by an air-saturated poroelastic cylinder.
Ogam, Erick; Fellah, Z E A; Baki, Paul
2013-03-01
The efficient use of plastic foams in a diverse range of structural applications like in noise reduction, cushioning, and sleeping mattresses requires detailed characterization of their permeability and deformation (load-bearing) behavior. The elastic moduli and airflow resistance properties of foams are often measured using two separate techniques, one employing mechanical vibration methods and the other, flow rates of fluids based on fluid mechanics technology, respectively. A multi-parameter inverse acoustic scattering problem to recover airflow resistivity (AR) and mechanical properties of an air-saturated foam cylinder is solved. A wave-fluid saturated poroelastic structure interaction model based on the modified Biot theory and plane-wave decomposition using orthogonal cylindrical functions is employed to solve the inverse problem. The solutions to the inverse problem are obtained by constructing the objective functional given by the total square of the difference between predictions from the model and scattered acoustic field data acquired in an anechoic chamber. The value of the recovered AR is in good agreement with that of a slab sample cut from the cylinder and characterized using a method employing low frequency transmitted and reflected acoustic waves in a long waveguide developed by Fellah et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(11), 114902 (2007)]. PMID:23464016
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turc, Catalin; Anand, Akash; Bruno, Oscar; Chaubell, Julian
2011-01-01
We present a computational methodology (a novel Nystrom approach based on use of a non-overlapping patch technique and Chebyshev discretizations) for efficient solution of problems of acoustic and electromagnetic scattering by open surfaces. Our integral equation formulations (1) Incorporate, as ansatz, the singular nature of open-surface integral-equation solutions, and (2) For the Electric Field Integral Equation (EFIE), use analytical regularizes that effectively reduce the number of iterations required by iterative linear-algebra solution based on Krylov-subspace iterative solvers.
A fast and stable solver for acoustic scattering problems based on the nonuniform grid approach.
Chernokozhin, Evgeny; Brick, Yaniv; Boag, Amir
2016-01-01
A fast and stable boundary element method (BEM) algorithm for solving external problems of acoustic scattering by impenetrable bodies is developed. The method employs the Burton-Miller integral equation, which provides stable convergence of iterative solvers, and a generalized multilevel nonuniform grid (MLNG) algorithm for fast evaluation of field integrals. The MLNG approach is used here for the removal of computational bottlenecks involved with repeated matrix-vector multiplications as well as for the low-order basis function regularization of the hyper-singular integral kernel. The method is used for calculating the fields scattered by large acoustic scatterers, including nonconvex bodies with piece-wise smooth surfaces. As a result, the algorithm is capable of accurately incorporating high-frequency effects such as creeping waves and multiple-edges diffractions. In all cases, stable convergence of the method is observed. High accuracy of the method is demonstrated by comparison with the traditional BEM solution. The computational complexity of the method in terms of both the computation time and storage is estimated in practical computations and shown to be close to the asymptotic O(N log N) dependence. PMID:26827041
An immersed boundary computational model for acoustic scattering problems with complex geometries.
Sun, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Yongsong; Liang, An; Jing, Xiaodong
2012-11-01
An immersed boundary computational model is presented in order to deal with the acoustic scattering problem by complex geometries, in which the wall boundary condition is treated as a direct body force determined by satisfying the non-penetrating boundary condition. Two distinct discretized grids are used to discrete the fluid domain and immersed boundary, respectively. The immersed boundaries are represented by Lagrangian points and the direct body force determined on these points is applied on the neighboring Eulerian points. The coupling between the Lagrangian points and Euler points is linked by a discrete delta function. The linearized Euler equations are spatially discretized with a fourth-order dispersion-relation-preserving scheme and temporal integrated with a low-dissipation and low-dispersion Runge-Kutta scheme. A perfectly matched layer technique is applied to absorb out-going waves and in-going waves in the immersed bodies. Several benchmark problems for computational aeroacoustic solvers are performed to validate the present method.
Malhotra, M.
1996-12-31
Finite-element discretizations of time-harmonic acoustic wave problems in exterior domains result in large sparse systems of linear equations with complex symmetric coefficient matrices. In many situations, these matrix problems need to be solved repeatedly for different right-hand sides, but with the same coefficient matrix. For instance, multiple right-hand sides arise in radiation problems due to multiple load cases, and also in scattering problems when multiple angles of incidence of an incoming plane wave need to be considered. In this talk, we discuss the iterative solution of multiple linear systems arising in radiation and scattering problems in structural acoustics by means of a complex symmetric variant of the BL-QMR method. First, we summarize the governing partial differential equations for time-harmonic structural acoustics, the finite-element discretization of these equations, and the resulting complex symmetric matrix problem. Next, we sketch the special version of BL-QMR method that exploits complex symmetry, and we describe the preconditioners we have used in conjunction with BL-QMR. Finally, we report some typical results of our extensive numerical tests to illustrate the typical convergence behavior of BL-QMR method for multiple radiation and scattering problems in structural acoustics, to identify appropriate preconditioners for these problems, and to demonstrate the importance of deflation in block Krylov-subspace methods. Our numerical results show that the multiple systems arising in structural acoustics can be solved very efficiently with the preconditioned BL-QMR method. In fact, for multiple systems with up to 40 and more different right-hand sides we get consistent and significant speed-ups over solving the systems individually.
The inverse problem of an impenetrable sound-hard body in acoustic scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olshansky, Yaakov; Turkel, Eli
2008-11-01
We study the inverse problem of recovering the scatterer shape from the far-field pattern(FFP) of the scattered wave in presence of noise. This problem is ill-posed and is usually addressed via regularization. Instead, a direct approach to denoise the FFP using wavelet technique is proposed by us. We are interested in methods that deal with the scatterer of the general shape which may be described by a finite number of parameters. To study the effectiveness of the technique we concentrate on simple bodies such as ellipses, where the analytic solution to the forward scattering problem is known. The shape parameters are found based on a least-square error estimator. Two cases with the FFP corrupted by Gaussian noise and/or computational error from a finite element method are considered. We also consider the case where only partial data is known in the far field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fatone, Lorella; Recchioni, Maria Cristina; Zirilli, Francesco
2006-05-01
In this paper we propose a highly parallelizable numerical method for time dependent acoustic scattering problems involving realistic smart obstacles hit by incoming waves having wavelengths small compared with the characteristic dimension of the obstacles. A smart obstacle is an obstacle that when hit by an incoming wave tries to pursue a goal circulating on its boundary a pressure current. In particular we consider obstacles whose goal is to be undetectable and we refer to them as furtive obstacles. These scattering problems are modelled as optimal control problems for the wave equation. We validate the method proposed to solve the optimal control problem considered on some test problems where a "smart" simplified version of the NASA space shuttle is hit by incoming waves with small wavelengths compared to its characteristic dimension. That is we consider test problems with ratio between the characteristic dimension of the obstacle and wavelength of the time harmonic component of the incoming wave up to approximately one hundred. The website: http://www.econ.univpm.it/recchioni/w14 contains animations and virtual reality applications showing some numerical experiments relative to the problems studied in this paper.
Scattering problems in elastodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diatta, Andre; Kadic, Muamer; Wegener, Martin; Guenneau, Sebastien
2016-09-01
In electromagnetism, acoustics, and quantum mechanics, scattering problems can routinely be solved numerically by virtue of perfectly matched layers (PMLs) at simulation domain boundaries. Unfortunately, the same has not been possible for general elastodynamic wave problems in continuum mechanics. In this Rapid Communication, we introduce a corresponding scattered-field formulation for the Navier equation. We derive PMLs based on complex-valued coordinate transformations leading to Cosserat elasticity-tensor distributions not obeying the minor symmetries. These layers are shown to work in two dimensions, for all polarizations, and all directions. By adaptative choice of the decay length, the deep subwavelength PMLs can be used all the way to the quasistatic regime. As demanding examples, we study the effectiveness of cylindrical elastodynamic cloaks of the Cosserat type and approximations thereof.
Inverse potential scattering in duct acoustics.
Forbes, Barbara J; Pike, E Roy; Sharp, David B; Aktosun, Tuncay
2006-01-01
The inverse problem of the noninvasive measurement of the shape of an acoustical duct in which one-dimensional wave propagation can be assumed is examined within the theoretical framework of the governing Klein-Gordon equation. Previous deterministic methods developed over the last 40 years have all required direct measurement of the reflectance or input impedance but now, by application of the methods of inverse quantum scattering to the acoustical system, it is shown that the reflectance can be algorithmically derived from the radiated wave. The potential and area functions of the duct can subsequently be reconstructed. The results are discussed with particular reference to acoustic pulse reflectometry.
Low frequency acoustic and electromagnetic scattering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hariharan, S. I.; Maccamy, R. C.
1986-01-01
This paper deals with two classes of problems arising from acoustics and electromagnetics scattering in the low frequency stations. The first class of problem is solving Helmholtz equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions on an arbitrary two dimensional body while the second one is an interior-exterior interface problem with Helmholtz equation in the exterior. Low frequency analysis show that there are two intermediate problems which solve the above problems accurate to 0(k/2/ log k) where k is the frequency. These solutions greatly differ from the zero frequency approximations. For the Dirichlet problem numerical examples are shown to verify the theoretical estimates.
Low frequency acoustic and electromagnetic scattering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hariharan, S. I.; Maccamy, R. C.
1983-01-01
This paper deals with two classes of problems arising from acoustics and electromagnetics scattering in the low frequency stations. The first class of problem is solving Helmholtz equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions on an arbitrary two dimensional body while the second one is an interior-exterior interface problem with Helmholtz equation in the exterior. Low frequency analysis show that there are two intermediate problems which solve the above problems accurate to 0(k(2) log k) where k is the frequency. These solutions greatly differ from the zero frequency approximations. For the Dirichlet problem numerical examples are shown to verify the theoretical estimates.
Classical problems in computational aero-acoustics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hardin, Jay C.
1996-01-01
In relation to the expected problems in the development of computational aeroacoustics (CAA), the preliminary applications were to classical problems where the known analytical solutions could be used to validate the numerical results. Such comparisons were used to overcome the numerical problems inherent in these calculations. Comparisons were made between the various numerical approaches to the problems such as direct simulations, acoustic analogies and acoustic/viscous splitting techniques. The aim was to demonstrate the applicability of CAA as a tool in the same class as computational fluid dynamics. The scattering problems that occur are considered and simple sources are discussed.
Homentcovschi, Dorel; Miles, Ronald N.
2010-01-01
The paper gives a new method for analyzing planar discontinuities in rectangular waveguides. The method consists of a re-expansion of the normal modes in the two ducts at the junction plane into a system of functions accounting for the velocity singularities at the corner points. As the new expansion has an exponential convergence, only a few terms have to be considered for obtaining the solution of most practical problems. To see how the method works some closed form solutions, obtained by the conformal mapping method, are used to discuss the convergence of the re-expanded series when the number of retained terms increases. The equivalent impedance accounting for nonplanar waves into a plane-wave analysis is determined. Finally, the paper yields the scattering matrix which describes the coupling of arbitrary modes at each side of the discontinuity valid in the case of many propagating modes in both parts of the duct. PMID:20707432
Homentcovschi, Dorel; Miles, Ronald N
2010-08-01
The paper gives a new method for analyzing planar discontinuities in rectangular waveguides. The method consists of a re-expansion of the normal modes in the two ducts at the junction plane into a system of functions accounting for the velocity singularities at the corner points. As the new expansion has an exponential convergence, only a few terms have to be considered for obtaining the solution of most practical problems. To see how the method works some closed form solutions, obtained by the conformal mapping method, are used to discuss the convergence of the re-expanded series when the number of retained terms increases. The equivalent impedance accounting for nonplanar waves into a plane-wave analysis is determined. Finally, the paper yields the scattering matrix which describes the coupling of arbitrary modes at each side of the discontinuity valid in the case of many propagating modes in both parts of the duct.
Acoustic Scattering from Compact Bubble Clouds.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schindall, Jeffrey Alan
In this study, a simple model describing the low -frequency scattering properties of high void fraction bubble clouds in both the free field and near the ocean surface is developed. This model, which is based on an effective medium approximation and acoustically compact scatters, successfully predicts the results of the bubble cloud scattering experiment carried out at Lake Seneca in New York state for frequencies consistent with the model assumptions (Roy et al., 1992). The introduction of the surface is facilitated by the method of images and is subject to the same constraint of low-acoustic frequency imposed by the compact scatterer assumption. This model is not intended to serve as an exact replicate of oceanic bubble cloud scattering. The model herein was kept simple by design, for only then can the complex physical behavior be expressed in a simple analytical form. Simple, analytic theories facilitate the exploration of parameter space, and more importantly serve to illuminate the underlying physics.
Numerical Simulations of Radar Acoustic Scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boluriaan, Said; Morris, Philip J.
1998-11-01
Wake vortices are produced by the lifting surfaces of all aircraft. The vortex created by a large aircraft can have a catastrophic effect on a small plane following closely behind. A vortex detection system would not only increase airport productivity by allowing adaptive spacing, but would also increase the safety of all aircraft operating around the airport by alerting controllers to hazardous conditions that might exist near the runways. In the present research, one and two-dimensional models have been considered for the study of wake vortex detection using a Radar Acoustic Sounding System (RASS). The permittivity perturbation caused by the vortex is modeled as a traveling wave with a Gaussian envelope and a variable propagation speed. The model equations are solved numerically. The one-dimensional model is also solved analytically. The main problem with a time domain simulation is the number of samples required to resolve the Doppler shift. Even for a 1D model with a typical scatterer size, the CPU time required to run the code is far beyond the currently available computer resources. One way to make the time domain simulation feasible is to recast the governing differential equation in order to remove the carrier frequency and solve only for the frequency shift in the scattered wave. The numerical stability characteristics of the resulting equation with complex coefficients are discussed. In order to validate the numerical scheme, the code is run for a fictitious speed of light.
Nonlinear scattering of acoustic waves by vibrating obstacles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piquette, J. C.
1983-06-01
The problem of the generation of sum- and difference-frequency waves produced via the scattering of an acoustic wave by an obstacle whose surface vibrates harmonically was studied both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical approach involved solving the nonlinear wave equation, subject to appropriate boundary conditions, by the use of a perturbation expansion of the fields and a Green's function method. In addition to ordinary rigid-body scattering, Censor predicted nongrowing waves at frequencies equal to the sum and to the difference of the frequencies of the primary waves. The solution to the nonlinear wave equation also yields scattered waves at the sum and difference frequencies. However, the nonlinearity of the medium causes these waves to grow with increasing distance from the scatter's surface and, after a very small distance, dominate those predicted by Censor. The simple-source formulation of the second-order nonlinear wave equation for a lossless fluid medium has been derived for arbitrary primary wave fields. This equation was used to solve the problem of nonlinear scattering of acoustic waves by a vibrating obstacle for three geometries: (1) a plane-wave scattering by a vibrating plane, (2) cylindrical-wave scattering by a vibrating cylinder, and (3) plane-wave scattering by a vibrating cylinder. Successful experimental validation of the theory was inhibited by previously unexpected levels of nonlinearity in the hydrophones used. Such high levels of hydrophone nonlinearity appeared in hydrophones that, by their geometry of construction, were expected to be fairly linear.
An invariance theorem in acoustic scattering theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ha-Duong, T.
1996-10-01
Karp's theorem states that if the far-field pattern corresponding to the scattering of a time-harmonic acoustic plane wave by a sound-soft obstacle is invariant under the group of orthogonal transformations in 0266-5611/12/5/007/img1 (rotations in 0266-5611/12/5/007/img2), then the scatterer is a sphere (circle). The theorem is generalized to the case where the invariant group of the far field pattern is only a subgroup of the orthogonal group, and for a class of mixed boundary conditions.
Acoustic scattering from microfibers of Parylene C
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chindam, Chandraprakash; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Awadelkarim, Osama O.; Orfali, Wasim
2014-10-01
The acoustic scattering characteristics of ˜10 μ m-long microfibers of Parylene C embedded in water were investigated, towards the eventual goal of designing polymeric sculptured thin films for biomedical applications. The chosen microfibers were upright circular-cylindrical, slanted circular-cylindrical, chevronic, and helical in shape. A combination of numerical and analytical techniques was adopted to examine the scattering of plane waves in a spectral regime spanning the lower few eigenfrequencies of the microfibers. Certain maximums in the spectrums of the forward and back scattering efficiencies arise from the phenomenon of creeping waves. The same phenomenon affects the total scattering efficiency in some instances. The spectrums of all efficiencies exhibit the geometric symmetry of a microfiber in relation to the direction of propagation of the incident plane wave. Similarities in the shapes of the slanted circular-cylindrical and the chevronic microfibers are reflected in the spectrums of their scattering efficiencies. A highly compliant microfiber has shorter and broader peaks than a less compliant microfiber in the spectrums of the total scattering efficiency. The proper design of polymeric sculptured thin films will benefit from the knowledge gained of the directions of maximum scattering from individual microfibers.
Support minimized inversion of acoustic and elastic wave scattering
Safaeinili, A.
1994-04-24
This report discusses the following topics on support minimized inversion of acoustic and elastic wave scattering: Minimum support inversion; forward modelling of elastodynamic wave scattering; minimum support linearized acoustic inversion; support minimized nonlinear acoustic inversion without absolute phase; and support minimized nonlinear elastic inversion.
Acoustic asymmetric transmission based on time-dependent dynamical scattering
Wang, Qing; Yang, Yang; Ni, Xu; Xu, Ye-Long; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Chen, Ze-Guo; Feng, Liang; Liu, Xiao-ping; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng
2015-01-01
An acoustic asymmetric transmission device exhibiting unidirectional transmission property for acoustic waves is extremely desirable in many practical scenarios. Such a unique property may be realized in various configurations utilizing acoustic Zeeman effects in moving media as well as frequency-conversion in passive nonlinear acoustic systems and in active acoustic systems. Here we demonstrate a new acoustic frequency conversion process in a time-varying system, consisting of a rotating blade and the surrounding air. The scattered acoustic waves from this time-varying system experience frequency shifts, which are linearly dependent on the blade’s rotating frequency. Such scattering mechanism can be well described theoretically by an acoustic linear time-varying perturbation theory. Combining such time-varying scattering effects with highly efficient acoustic filtering, we successfully develop a tunable acoustic unidirectional device with 20 dB power transmission contrast ratio between two counter propagation directions at audible frequencies. PMID:26038886
Acoustic Scattering in Flexible Waveguide Involving Step Discontinuity
Afzal, Muhammad; Nawaz, Rab; Ayub, Muhammad; Wahab, Abdul
2014-01-01
In this paper, the propagation and scattering of acoustic waves in a flexible wave-guide involving step discontinuity at an interface is considered. The emerging boundary value problem is non-Sturm-Liouville and is solved by employing a hybrid mode-matching technique. The physical scattering process and attenuation of duct modes versus frequency regime and change of height is studied. Moreover, the mode-matching solution is validated through a series of numerical experiments by testifying the power conservation identity and matching interface conditions. PMID:25084019
Novel limiting circle theory in acoustic wave scattering and absorption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Changzheng
Wave scattering theory is the basis for many key technologies that have important military and commercial applications. The familiar examples are radar, sonar, and various ultrasound instruments commonly used in remote sensing, target identification, non-destructive evaluation, medical diagnosis, and many other areas. Their mathematical model involves the solution of the so- called inverse scattering problem where an incident wave is used to probe a remote or inaccessible object. From the scattered field measurement, the shape and/or the material composition of the object can be determined. A new wave scattering theory, termed limiting circle theory (LCT), has been developed in this dissertation based on a novel approach of decomposing the wave scattering matrix. LCT has rigorously proved that the scattered wave field from any penetrable object (of cylinder and sphere geometries) is composed of three contributions: a rigid background, a soft background, and a pure resonance. This is a significant modification to the existing resonance scattering theory (RST) which states that the scattered field is made up of only two components: a proper background (either rigid or soft), and a pure resonance. LCT formalism led to the discovery of the limiting circle patterns associated with all normal modes or partial waves. These patterns provide a clear understanding of the resonance behavior such as the resonance period and the resonance intensity. The analytical LCT approach could also be the key to solving the background problems for shell structures that have remained unsolved for many years in acoustics.
Experimental Demonstration of Underwater Acoustic Scattering Cancellation
Rohde, Charles A.; Martin, Theodore P.; Guild, Matthew D.; Layman, Christopher N.; Naify, Christina J.; Nicholas, Michael; Thangawng, Abel L.; Calvo, David C.; Orris, Gregory J.
2015-01-01
We explore an acoustic scattering cancellation shell for buoyant hollow cylinders submersed in a water background. A thin, low-shear, elastic coating is used to cancel the monopole scattering from an air-filled, neutrally buoyant steel shell for all frequencies where the wavelength is larger than the object diameter. By design, the uncoated shell also has an effective density close to the aqueous background, independently canceling its dipole scattering. Due to the significantly reduced monopole and dipole scattering, the compliant coating results in a hollow cylindrical inclusion that is simultaneously impedance and sound speed matched to the water background. We demonstrate the proposed cancellation method with a specific case, using an array of hollow steel cylinders coated with thin silicone rubber shells. These experimental results are matched to finite element modeling predictions, confirming the scattering reduction. Additional calculations explore the optimization of the silicone coating properties. Using this approach, it is found that scattering cross-sections can be reduced by 20 dB for all wavelengths up to k0a = 0.85. PMID:26282067
Numerical solution of acoustic scattering by finite perforated elastic plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cavalieri, A. V. G.; Wolf, W. R.; Jaworski, J. W.
2016-04-01
We present a numerical method to compute the acoustic field scattered by finite perforated elastic plates. A boundary element method is developed to solve the Helmholtz equation subjected to boundary conditions related to the plate vibration. These boundary conditions are recast in terms of the vibration modes of the plate and its porosity, which enables a direct solution procedure. A parametric study is performed for a two-dimensional problem whereby a cantilevered perforated elastic plate scatters sound from a point quadrupole near the free edge. Both elasticity and porosity tend to diminish the scattered sound, in agreement with previous work considering semi-infinite plates. Finite elastic plates are shown to reduce acoustic scattering when excited at high Helmholtz numbers k0 based on the plate length. However, at low k0, finite elastic plates produce only modest reductions or, in cases related to structural resonance, an increase to the scattered sound level relative to the rigid case. Porosity, on the other hand, is shown to be more effective in reducing the radiated sound for low k0. The combined beneficial effects of elasticity and porosity are shown to be effective in reducing the scattered sound for a broader range of k0 for perforated elastic plates.
Microparticle and Cell Characterization Using Acoustic Scattering.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roos, Mark Schaefer
A technique is presented for measuring physical properties of particles with radii from one to five microns. Tone bursts of 30 MHz center frequency are scattered by single particles as they are carried by a coaxial jet flow past three focused acoustic transducers (one sender and two receivers). The scattered pressure is measured simultaneously at two angles, which allows the compressibility and density of the particles to be calculated given the volume of the particles and the density and compressibility of the host liquid using Rayleigh's theory for long wavelength acoustic scattering. Because the particles are measured one at a time, statistical distributions of their properties may be determined. The device is calibrated using particles whose properties are known. A study was conducted on human red blood cells in hosts of different tonicity. Density and compressibility values obtained in these experiments are compared with a model accounting for changes in red cell properties due to variations in cell water content. Other studies were conducted using polystyrene and polystyrene divinylbenzene spheres. This technique is well suited to in vitro measurement of properties of biological cells. Applications are discussed, with emphasis on the study of red blood cells.
Acoustic scattering by multiple elliptical cylinders using collocation multipole method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Wei-Ming
2012-05-01
This paper presents the collocation multipole method for the acoustic scattering induced by multiple elliptical cylinders subjected to an incident plane sound wave. To satisfy the Helmholtz equation in the elliptical coordinate system, the scattered acoustic field is formulated in terms of angular and radial Mathieu functions which also satisfy the radiation condition at infinity. The sound-soft or sound-hard boundary condition is satisfied by uniformly collocating points on the boundaries. For the sound-hard or Neumann conditions, the normal derivative of the acoustic pressure is determined by using the appropriate directional derivative without requiring the addition theorem of Mathieu functions. By truncating the multipole expansion, a finite linear algebraic system is derived and the scattered field can then be determined according to the given incident acoustic wave. Once the total field is calculated as the sum of the incident field and the scattered field, the near field acoustic pressure along the scatterers and the far field scattering pattern can be determined. For the acoustic scattering of one elliptical cylinder, the proposed results match well with the analytical solutions. The proposed scattered fields induced by two and three elliptical-cylindrical scatterers are critically compared with those provided by the boundary element method to validate the present method. Finally, the effects of the convexity of an elliptical scatterer, the separation between scatterers and the incident wave number and angle on the acoustic scattering are investigated.
Nonlinear ion acoustic waves scattered by vortexes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohno, Yuji; Yoshida, Zensho
2016-09-01
The Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) hierarchy is the archetype of infinite-dimensional integrable systems, which describes nonlinear ion acoustic waves in two-dimensional space. This remarkably ordered system resides on a singular submanifold (leaf) embedded in a larger phase space of more general ion acoustic waves (low-frequency electrostatic perturbations). The KP hierarchy is characterized not only by small amplitudes but also by irrotational (zero-vorticity) velocity fields. In fact, the KP equation is derived by eliminating vorticity at every order of the reductive perturbation. Here, we modify the scaling of the velocity field so as to introduce a vortex term. The newly derived system of equations consists of a generalized three-dimensional KP equation and a two-dimensional vortex equation. The former describes 'scattering' of vortex-free waves by ambient vortexes that are determined by the latter. We say that the vortexes are 'ambient' because they do not receive reciprocal reactions from the waves (i.e., the vortex equation is independent of the wave fields). This model describes a minimal departure from the integrable KP system. By the Painlevé test, we delineate how the vorticity term violates integrability, bringing about an essential three-dimensionality to the solutions. By numerical simulation, we show how the solitons are scattered by vortexes and become chaotic.
Preconditioned iterative methods for inhomogeneous acoustic scattering applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sifuentes, Josef
This thesis develops and analyzes efficient iterative methods for solving discretizations of the Lippmann--Schwinger integral equation for inhomogeneous acoustic scattering. Analysis and numerical illustrations of the spectral properties of the scattering problem demonstrate that a significant portion of the spectrum is approximated well on coarse grids. To exploit this, I develop a novel restarted GMRES method with adaptive deflation preconditioning based on spectral approximations on multiple grids. Much of the literature in this field is based on exact deflation, which is not feasible for most practical computations. This thesis provides an analytical framework for general approximate deflation methods and suggests a way to rigorously study a host of inexactly-applied preconditioners. Approximate deflation algorithms are implemented for scattering through thin inhomogeneities in photonic band gap problems. I also develop a short term recurrence for solving the one dimensional version of the problem that exploits the observation that the integral operator is a low rank perturbation of a self-adjoint operator. This method is based on strategies for solving Schur complement problems, and provides an alternative to a recent short term recurrence algorithm for matrices with such structure that we show to be numerically unstable for this application. The restarted GMRES method with adaptive deflation preconditioning over multiple grids, as well as the short term recurrence method for operators with low rank skew-adjoint parts, are very effective for reducing both the computational time and computer memory required to solve acoustic scattering problems. Furthermore, the methods are sufficiently general to be applicable to a wide class of problems.
The factorization method for the acoustic transmission problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anagnostopoulos, Konstantinos A.; Charalambopoulos, Antonios; Kleefeld, Andreas
2013-11-01
In this work, the shape reconstruction problem of acoustically penetrable bodies from the far-field data corresponding to time-harmonic plane wave incidence is investigated within the framework of the factorization method. Although the latter technique has received considerable attention in inverse scattering problems dealing with impenetrable scatterers and it has not been elaborated for inverse transmission problems with the only exception being a work by the first two authors and co-workers. We aim to bridge this gap in the field of acoustic scattering; the paper on one hand focuses on establishing rigorously the necessary theoretical framework for the application of the factorization method to the inverse acoustic transmission problem. The main outcome of the investigation undertaken is the derivation of an explicit formula for the scatterer's characteristic function, which depends solely on the far-field data feeding the inverse scattering scheme. Extended numerical examples in three dimensions are also presented, where a variety of different surfaces are successfully reconstructed by the factorization method, thus, complementing the method's validation from the computational point of view.
Flow velocity measurement with the nonlinear acoustic wave scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Didenkulov, Igor; Pronchatov-Rubtsov, Nikolay
2015-10-01
A problem of noninvasive measurement of liquid flow velocity arises in many practical applications. To this end the most often approach is the use of the linear Doppler technique. The Doppler frequency shift of signal scattered from the inhomogeneities distributed in a liquid relatively to the emitted frequency is proportional to the sound frequency and velocities of inhomogeneities. In the case of very slow flow one needs to use very high frequency sound. This approach fails in media with strong sound attenuation because acoustic wave attenuation increases with frequency and there is limit in increasing sound intensity, i.e. the cavitation threshold. Another approach which is considered in this paper is based on the method using the difference frequency Doppler Effect for flows with bubbles. This method is based on simultaneous action of two high-frequency primary acoustic waves with closed frequencies on bubbles and registration of the scattered by bubbles acoustic field at the difference frequency. The use of this method is interesting since the scattered difference frequency wave has much lower attenuation in a liquid. The theoretical consideration of the method is given in the paper. The experimental examples confirming the theoretical equations, as well as the ability of the method to be applied in medical diagnostics and in technical applications on measurement of flow velocities in liquids with strong sound attenuation is described. It is shown that the Doppler spectrum form depends on bubble concentration velocity distribution in the primary acoustic beams crossing zone that allows one to measure the flow velocity distribution.
Flow velocity measurement with the nonlinear acoustic wave scattering
Didenkulov, Igor; Pronchatov-Rubtsov, Nikolay
2015-10-28
A problem of noninvasive measurement of liquid flow velocity arises in many practical applications. To this end the most often approach is the use of the linear Doppler technique. The Doppler frequency shift of signal scattered from the inhomogeneities distributed in a liquid relatively to the emitted frequency is proportional to the sound frequency and velocities of inhomogeneities. In the case of very slow flow one needs to use very high frequency sound. This approach fails in media with strong sound attenuation because acoustic wave attenuation increases with frequency and there is limit in increasing sound intensity, i.e. the cavitation threshold. Another approach which is considered in this paper is based on the method using the difference frequency Doppler Effect for flows with bubbles. This method is based on simultaneous action of two high-frequency primary acoustic waves with closed frequencies on bubbles and registration of the scattered by bubbles acoustic field at the difference frequency. The use of this method is interesting since the scattered difference frequency wave has much lower attenuation in a liquid. The theoretical consideration of the method is given in the paper. The experimental examples confirming the theoretical equations, as well as the ability of the method to be applied in medical diagnostics and in technical applications on measurement of flow velocities in liquids with strong sound attenuation is described. It is shown that the Doppler spectrum form depends on bubble concentration velocity distribution in the primary acoustic beams crossing zone that allows one to measure the flow velocity distribution.
Acoustic-structure interaction problems. Final report
Love, E.; Taylor, R.L.
1993-12-01
The purpose of this report is to compare and evaluate different numerical methods for solving problems of interaction between elastic solids and acoustic fluids. In particular, we concentrate our efforts on solution techniques involving the finite element method. To that end, in Chapter 2 we discuss different options for analysis of infinite fluids. In particular, the method of mesh trunction and the use of radiation elements and the use of infinite elements are discussed. Also discussed is the analysis of scattering from rigid boundaries. Chapter 3 is a brief discussion of finite element formulations for elastic solids. We review the development, of two dimensional plane strain elements and one dimensional plate and shell elements. In Chapter 4, there is a discussion of the method used to couple the solid and the fluid. We give examples for solution of scattering of pressure waves from thin elastic shell structures. Chapter 5 is a brief conclusion of results and includes recommendations for the best methods of solution and additional research.
Acoustic and elastic multiple scattering and radiation from cylindrical structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amirkulova, Feruza Abdukadirovna
Multiple scattering (MS) and radiation of waves by a system of scatterers is of great theoretical and practical importance and is required in a wide variety of physical contexts such as the implementation of "invisibility" cloaks, the effective parameter characterization, and the fabrication of dynamically tunable structures, etc. The dissertation develops fast, rapidly convergent iterative techniques to expedite the solution of MS problems. The formulation of MS problems reduces to a system of linear algebraic equations using Graf's theorem and separation of variables. The iterative techniques are developed using Neumann expansion and Block Toeplitz structure of the linear system; they are very general, and suitable for parallel computations and a large number of MS problems, i.e. acoustic, elastic, electromagnetic, etc., and used for the first time to solve MS problems. The theory is implemented in Matlab and FORTRAN, and the theoretical predictions are compared to computations obtained by COMSOL. To formulate the MS problem, the transition matrix is obtained by analyzing an acoustic and an elastic single scattering of incident waves by elastic isotropic and anisotropic solids. The mathematical model of wave scattering from multilayered cylindrical and spherical structures is developed by means of an exact solution of dynamic 3D elasticity theory. The recursive impedance matrix algorithm is derived for radially heterogeneous anisotropic solids. An explicit method for finding the impedance in piecewise uniform, transverse-isotropic material is proposed; the solution is compared to elasticity theory solutions involving Buchwald potentials. Furthermore, active exterior cloaking devices are modeled for acoustic and elastic media using multipole sources. A cloaking device can render an object invisible to some incident waves as seen by some external observer. The active cloak is generated by a discrete set of multipole sources that destructively interfere with an
Topics in electromagnetic, acoustic, and potential scattering theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nuntaplook, Umaporn
the former (previously known) results. The link with time-independent quantum mechanical scattering, via morphology-dependent resonances (MDRs), is discussed in Chapter 2. This requires a generalization of the classical problem for scattering of a plane wave from a uniform spherically-symmetric inhomogeneity (in which the velocity of propagation is a function only of the radial coordinate r. i.e.. c = c(r)) to a piecewise-uniform inhomogeneity. In Chapter 3 the Jost-function formulation of potential scattering theory is used to solve the radial differential equation for scattering which can be converted into an integral equation corresponding via the Jost boundary conditions. The first two iterations for the zero angular momentum case l = 0 are provided for both two-layer and three-layer models. It is found that the iterative technique is most useful for long wavelengths and sufficiently small ratios of interior and exterior wavenumbers. Exact solutions are also provided for these cases. In Chapter 4 the time-independent quantum mechanical 'connection' is exploited further by generalizing previous work on a spherical well potential to the case where a delta 'function' potential is appended to the exterior of the well (for l ≠ 0). This corresponds to an idealization of the former approach to the case of a 'coated sphere'. The poles of the associated 'S-matrix' are important in this regard, since they correspond directly with the morphology-dependent resonances discussed in Chapter 2. These poles (for the l = 0 case, to compare with Nussenzveig's analysis) are tracked in the complex wavenumber plane as the strength of the delta function potential changes. Finally, a set of 4 Appendices is provided to clarify some of the connections between (i) the scattering of acoustic/electromagnetic waves from a penetrable/dielectric sphere and (ii) time-independent potential scattering theory in quantum mechanics. This, it is hoped, will be the subject of future work.
Cloaking of an acoustic sensor using scattering cancellation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guild, Matthew D.; Alù, Andrea; Haberman, Michael R.
2014-07-01
In this Letter, a bilaminate acoustic cloak designed using scattering cancellation methods is applied to the case of an acoustic sensor consisting of a hollow piezoelectric shell with mechanical absorption. The bilaminate cloak provides 20-50 dB reduction in scattering strength relative to the uncloaked configuration over the typical range of operation for an acoustic sensor, retains its ability to sensing acoustic pressure signals, and remains within the physical bounds of a passive absorber. Further, the cloak is shown to increase the range of frequencies over which there is nearly perfect phase fidelity between the acoustic signal and the voltage generated by the sensor. The feasibility of achieving the necessary fluid layer properties is demonstrated using sonic crystals with the use of readily available acoustic materials.
Multiscale analysis of the acoustic scattering by many scatterers of impedance type
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Challa, Durga Prasad; Sini, Mourad
2016-06-01
We are concerned with the acoustic scattering problem, at a frequency {κ}, by many small obstacles of arbitrary shapes with impedance boundary condition. These scatterers are assumed to be included in a bounded domain {Ω} in {{R}^3} which is embedded in an acoustic background characterized by an eventually locally varying index of refraction. The collection of the scatterers {D_m, m=1,ldots,M} is modeled by four parameters: their number M, their maximum radius a, their minimum distance d and the surface impedances {λ_m, m=1,ldots,M}. We consider the parameters M, d and {λ_m}'s having the following scaling properties: {M:=M(a)=O(a^{-s}), d:=d(a)≈ a^t} and {λ_m:=λ_m(a)=λ_{m,0}a^{-β}}, as {a→ 0}, with non negative constants s, t and {β} and complex numbers {λ_{m, 0}}'s with eventually negative imaginary parts. We derive the asymptotic expansion of the far-fields with explicit error estimate in terms of a, as {a→ 0}. The dominant term is the Foldy-Lax field corresponding to the scattering by the point-like scatterers located at the centers {z_m}'s of the scatterers {D_m}'s with {λ_m \\vert partial D_m\\vert} as the related scattering coefficients. This asymptotic expansion is justified under the following conditions a ≤ a_0, \\vert Re (λ_{m,0})\\vert ≥ λ_-,quad \\vertλ_{m,0}\\vert ≤ λ_+,quad β < 1,quad 0 ≤ s ≤2-β,quads/3 ≤ t and the error of the approximation is {C a^{3-2β-s}}, as {a → 0}, where the positive constants {a_0, λ_-,λ_+} and C depend only on the a priori uniform bounds of the Lipschitz characters of the obstacles {D_m}'s and the ones of {M(a)a^s} and {d(a)/a^t}. We do not assume the periodicity in distributing the small scatterers. In addition, the scatterers can be arbitrary close since t can be arbitrary large, i.e., we can handle the mesoscale regime. Finally, for spherical scatterers, we can also allow the limit case {β=1} with a slightly better error of the approximation.
Acoustical scattering cross section of gas bubbles under dual-frequency acoustic excitation.
Zhang, Yuning; Li, Shengcai
2015-09-01
The acoustical scattering cross section is a paramount parameter determining the scattering ability of cavitation bubbles when they are excited by the incident acoustic waves. This parameter is strongly related with many important applications of acoustic cavitation including facilitating the reaction of chemical process, boosting bubble sonoluminescence, and performing non-invasive therapy and drug delivery. In present paper, both the analytical and numerical solutions of acoustical scattering cross section of gas bubbles under dual-frequency excitation are obtained. The validity of the analytical solution is shown with demonstrating examples. The nonlinear characteristics (e.g., harmonics, subharmonics and ultraharmonics) of the scattering cross section curve under dual-frequency approach are investigated. Compared with single-frequency approach, the dual-frequency approach displays more resonances termed as "combination resonances" and could promote the acoustical scattering cross section significantly within a much broader range of bubble sizes due to the generation of more resonances. The influence of several paramount parameters (e.g., acoustic pressure amplitude, power allocations between two acoustic components, and the ratio of the frequencies) in the dual-frequency system on the predictions of scattering cross section has been discussed.
Kinetic Enhancement of Raman Backscatter, and Electron Acoustic Thomson Scatter
Strozzi, D J; Williams, E A; Langdon, A B; Bers, A
2006-09-01
1-D Eulerian Vlasov-Maxwell simulations are presented which show kinetic enhancement of stimulated Raman backscatter (SRBS) due to electron trapping in regimes of heavy linear Landau damping. The conventional Raman Langmuir wave is transformed into a set of beam acoustic modes [L. Yin et al., Phys. Rev. E 73, 025401 (2006)]. For the first time, a low phase velocity electron acoustic wave (EAW) is seen developing from the self-consistent Raman physics. Backscatter of the pump laser off the EAW fluctuations is reported and referred to as electron acoustic Thomson scatter. This light is similar in wavelength to, although much lower in amplitude than, the reflected light between the pump and SRBS wavelengths observed in single hot spot experiments, and previously interpreted as stimulated electron acoustic scatter [D. S. Montgomery et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 155001 (2001)]. The EAW observed in our simulations is strongest well below the phase-matched frequency for electron acoustic scatter, and therefore the EAW is not produced by it. The beating of different beam acoustic modes is proposed as the EAW excitation mechanism, and is called beam acoustic decay. Supporting evidence for this process, including bispectral analysis, is presented. The linear electrostatic modes, found by projecting the numerical distribution function onto a Gauss-Hermite basis, include beam acoustic modes (some of which are unstable even without parametric coupling to light waves) and a strongly-damped EAW similar to the observed one. This linear EAW results from non-Maxwellian features in the electron distribution, rather than nonlinearity due to electron trapping.
The Inverse Problem in Jet Acoustics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wooddruff, S. L.; Hussaini, M. Y.
2001-01-01
The inverse problem for jet acoustics, or the determination of noise sources from far-field pressure information, is proposed as a tool for understanding the generation of noise by turbulence and for the improved prediction of jet noise. An idealized version of the problem is investigated first to establish the extent to which information about the noise sources may be determined from far-field pressure data and to determine how a well-posed inverse problem may be set up. Then a version of the industry-standard MGB code is used to predict a jet noise source spectrum from experimental noise data.
A meshless method for unbounded acoustic problems.
Shojaei, Arman; Boroomand, Bijan; Soleimanifar, Ehsan
2016-05-01
In this paper an effective meshless method is proposed to solve time-harmonic acoustic problems defined on unbounded domains. To this end, the near field is discretized by a set of nodes and the far field effect is taken into account by considering radiative boundary conditions. The approximation within the near field is performed using a set of local residual-free basis functions defined on a series of finite clouds. For considering the far field effect, a series of infinite clouds are defined on which another set of residual-free bases, satisfying the radiation conditions, are considered for the approximation. Validation of the results is performed through solving some acoustic problems.
A meshless method for unbounded acoustic problems.
Shojaei, Arman; Boroomand, Bijan; Soleimanifar, Ehsan
2016-05-01
In this paper an effective meshless method is proposed to solve time-harmonic acoustic problems defined on unbounded domains. To this end, the near field is discretized by a set of nodes and the far field effect is taken into account by considering radiative boundary conditions. The approximation within the near field is performed using a set of local residual-free basis functions defined on a series of finite clouds. For considering the far field effect, a series of infinite clouds are defined on which another set of residual-free bases, satisfying the radiation conditions, are considered for the approximation. Validation of the results is performed through solving some acoustic problems. PMID:27250155
Broadband acoustic scattering measurements of underwater unexploded ordnance (UXO).
Bucaro, J A; Houston, B H; Saniga, M; Dragonette, L R; Yoder, T; Dey, S; Kraus, L; Carin, L
2008-02-01
In order to evaluate the potential for detection and identification of underwater unexploded ordnance (UXO) by exploiting their structural acoustic response, we carried out broadband monostatic scattering measurements over a full 360 degrees on UXO's (two mortar rounds, an artillery shell, and a rocket warhead) and false targets (a cinder block and a large rock). The measurement band, 1-140 kHz, includes a low frequency structural acoustics region in which the wavelengths are comparable to or larger than the target characteristic dimensions. In general, there are aspects that provide relatively high target strength levels ( approximately -10 to -15 dB), and from our experience the targets should be detectable in this structural acoustics band in most acoustic environments. The rigid body scattering was also calculated for one UXO in order to highlight the measured scattering features involving elastic responses. The broadband scattering data should be able to support feature-based separation of UXO versus false targets and identification of various classes of UXO as well.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoder, Timothy J.
2000-05-01
The solutions for acoustic scattering from objects in separable geometries along with the associated fluid- structure interactions are well established. Closed-form solutions to these problems have either interpretations such as resonance scattering theory, or some limiting situations that provide insight into the physical processes that occur. In contrast, most acoustical scattering problems do not have closed-form solutions. Numerical solutions, like finite and boundary element methods, allow researchers to obtain solutions from scattering problems with more complicated geometries; unfortunately, these methods of solution are limited in that they lack the kind of interpretation that provides insight into the physical processes that occur. It is only through the systematic analysis of the large volume of data produced by numerical solutions that this insight is gained. One way to gain this insight is to analyze the monostatic dependence of echoes in the time-frequency domain. However, traditional three-dimensional graphical analysis of time-frequency signals that vary as a function of a third parameter (the monostatic dependence) does not display all of the signals' information content because two marginals, of this distribution (the time and frequency representations) contain information that is lost in the visual representation of the time-frequency domain. This information is lost because the uncertainty principal prevents simultaneous display of the time and frequency information via a time-frequency transform, and because humans do not possess the innate ability to perform the transforms that extract the information. The problem of how to systematically analyze monostatic scattering data in the time-frequency domain and how to visually display all of the data's information content is overcome by introducing a time-frequency-parameter graphical analysis technique. This technique is applied to farfield acoustic scattering from finite, elastic, cylindrical
Acoustic scattering by benthic and planktonic shelled animals.
Stanton, T K; Chu, D; Wiebe, P H; Eastwood, R L; Warren, J D
2000-08-01
Acoustic backscattering measurements and associated scattering modeling were recently conducted on a type of benthic shelled animal that has a spiral form of shell (Littorina littorea). Benthic and planktonic shelled animals with this shape occur on the seafloor and in the water column, respectively, and can be a significant source of acoustic scattering in the ocean. Modeling of the scattering properties allows reverberation predictions to be made for sonar performance predictions as well as for detection and classification of animals for biological and ecological applications. The studies involved measurements over the frequency range 24 kHz to 1 MHz and all angles of orientation in as small as 1 degree increments. This substantial data set is quite revealing of the physics of the acoustic scattering by these complex shelled bodies and served as a basis for the modeling. Specifically, the resonance structure of the scattering was strongly dependent upon angle of orientation and could be traced to various types of rays (e.g., subsonic Lamb waves and rays entering the opercular opening). The data are analyzed in both the frequency and time domain (compressed pulse processing) so that dominant scattering mechanisms could be identified. Given the complexity of the animal body (irregular elastic shell with discontinuities), approximate scattering models are used with only the dominant scattering properties retained. Two models are applied to the data, both approximating the body as a deformed sphere: (1) an averaged form of the exact modal-series-based solution for the spherical shell, which is used to estimate the backscattering by a deformed shell averaged over all angles of orientation, and produces reasonably accurate predictions over all k1a(esr) (k1 is the acoustic wave number of the surrounding water and a(esr) is the equivalent spherical radius of the body), and (2) a ray-based formula which is used to estimate the scattering at fixed angle of orientation, but
Acoustic scattering from phononic crystals with complex geometry.
Kulpe, Jason A; Sabra, Karim G; Leamy, Michael J
2016-05-01
This work introduces a formalism for computing external acoustic scattering from phononic crystals (PCs) with arbitrary exterior shape using a Bloch wave expansion technique coupled with the Helmholtz-Kirchhoff integral (HKI). Similar to a Kirchhoff approximation, a geometrically complex PC's surface is broken into a set of facets in which the scattering from each facet is calculated as if it was a semi-infinite plane interface in the short wavelength limit. When excited by incident radiation, these facets introduce wave modes into the interior of the PC. Incorporation of these modes in the HKI, summed over all facets, then determines the externally scattered acoustic field. In particular, for frequencies in a complete bandgap (the usual operating frequency regime of many PC-based devices and the requisite operating regime of the presented theory), no need exists to solve for internal reflections from oppositely facing edges and, thus, the total scattered field can be computed without the need to consider internal multiple scattering. Several numerical examples are provided to verify the presented approach. Both harmonic and transient results are considered for spherical and bean-shaped PCs, each containing over 100 000 inclusions. This facet formalism is validated by comparison to an existing self-consistent scattering technique.
The scattering problem for nonlocal potentials
Zolotarev, V A
2014-11-30
We solve the direct and inverse scattering problems for integro-differential operators which are one-dimensional perturbations of the self-adjoint second derivative operator on the half-axis. We also describe the scattering data for this class of operators. Bibliography: 28 titles.
A second degree Newton method for an inverse obstacle scattering problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kress, Rainer; Lee, Kuo-Ming
2011-08-01
A regularized second degree Newton method is proposed and implemented for the inverse problem for scattering of time-harmonic acoustic waves from a sound-soft obstacle. It combines ideas due to Johansson and Sleeman [18] and Hettlich and Rundell [8] and reconstructs the obstacle from the far field pattern for scattering of one incident plane wave.
Acoustic orbital angular momentum transfer to matter by chiral scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wunenburger, Régis; Israel Vazquez Lozano, Juan; Brasselet, Etienne
2015-10-01
We report on orbital angular momentum exchange between sound and matter mediated by a non-dissipative chiral scattering process. An experimental demonstration is made possible by irradiating a three-dimensional printed, spiral-shaped chiral object with an incident ultrasonic beam carrying zero orbital angular momentum. Chiral refraction is shown to impart a nonzero orbital angular momentum to the scattered field and to rotate the object. This result constitutes a proof of concept of a novel kind of acoustic angular manipulation of matter.
Acoustic scattering from mud volcanoes and carbonate mounds.
Holland, Charles W; Weber, Thomas C; Etiope, Giuseppe
2006-12-01
Submarine mud volcanoes occur in many parts of the world's oceans and form an aperture for gas and fluidized mud emission from within the earth's crust. Their characteristics are of considerable interest to the geology, geophysics, geochemistry, and underwater acoustics communities. For the latter, mud volcanoes are of interest in part because they pose a potential source of clutter for active sonar. Close-range (single-interaction) scattering measurements from a mud volcano in the Straits of Sicily show scattering 10-15 dB above the background. Three hypotheses were examined concerning the scattering mechanism: (1) gas entrained in sediment at/near mud volcano, (2) gas bubbles and/or particulates (emitted) in the water column, (3) the carbonate bio-construction covering the mud volcano edifice. The experimental evidence, including visual, acoustic, and nonacoustic sensors, rules out the second hypothesis (at least during the observation time) and suggests that, for this particular mud volcano the dominant mechanism is associated with carbonate chimneys on the mud volcano. In terms of scattering levels, target strengths of 4-14 dB were observed from 800 to 3600 Hz for a monostatic geometry with grazing angles of 3-5 degrees. Similar target strengths were measured for vertically bistatic paths with incident and scattered grazing angles of 3-5 degrees and 33-50 degrees, respectively. PMID:17225386
Acoustic scattering from mud volcanoes and carbonate mounds.
Holland, Charles W; Weber, Thomas C; Etiope, Giuseppe
2006-12-01
Submarine mud volcanoes occur in many parts of the world's oceans and form an aperture for gas and fluidized mud emission from within the earth's crust. Their characteristics are of considerable interest to the geology, geophysics, geochemistry, and underwater acoustics communities. For the latter, mud volcanoes are of interest in part because they pose a potential source of clutter for active sonar. Close-range (single-interaction) scattering measurements from a mud volcano in the Straits of Sicily show scattering 10-15 dB above the background. Three hypotheses were examined concerning the scattering mechanism: (1) gas entrained in sediment at/near mud volcano, (2) gas bubbles and/or particulates (emitted) in the water column, (3) the carbonate bio-construction covering the mud volcano edifice. The experimental evidence, including visual, acoustic, and nonacoustic sensors, rules out the second hypothesis (at least during the observation time) and suggests that, for this particular mud volcano the dominant mechanism is associated with carbonate chimneys on the mud volcano. In terms of scattering levels, target strengths of 4-14 dB were observed from 800 to 3600 Hz for a monostatic geometry with grazing angles of 3-5 degrees. Similar target strengths were measured for vertically bistatic paths with incident and scattered grazing angles of 3-5 degrees and 33-50 degrees, respectively.
Tunneling effects in resonant acoustic scattering of an air bubble in unbounded water.
Simão, André G; Guimarães, Luiz G
2016-01-01
The problem of acoustic scattering of a gaseous spherical bubble immersed within unbounded liquid surrounding is considered in this work. The theory of partial wave expansion related to this problem is revisited. A physical model based on the analogy between acoustic scattering and potential scattering in quantum mechanics is proposed to describe and interpret the acoustical natural oscillation modes of the bubble, namely, the resonances. In this context, a physical model is devised in order to describe the air water interface and the implications of the high density contrast on the various regimes of the scattering resonances. The main results are presented in terms of resonance lifetime periods and quality factors. The explicit numerical calculations are undertaken through an asymptotic analysis considering typical bubble dimensions and underwater sound wavelengths. It is shown that the resonance periods are scaled according to the Minnaert's period, which is the short lived resonance mode, called breathing mode of the bubble. As expected, resonances with longer lifetimes lead to impressive cavity quality Q-factor ranging from 1010 to 105. The present theoretical findings lead to a better understanding of the energy storage mechanism in a bubbly medium. PMID:27331803
Riemann–Hilbert problem approach for two-dimensional flow inverse scattering
Agaltsov, A. D.; Novikov, R. G.
2014-10-15
We consider inverse scattering for the time-harmonic wave equation with first-order perturbation in two dimensions. This problem arises in particular in the acoustic tomography of moving fluid. We consider linearized and nonlinearized reconstruction algorithms for this problem of inverse scattering. Our nonlinearized reconstruction algorithm is based on the non-local Riemann–Hilbert problem approach. Comparisons with preceding results are given.
Simulation of Acoustic Scattering from a Trailing Edge
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singer, Bart A.; Brentner, Kenneth S.; Lockhard, David P.; Lilley, Geoffrey M.
1999-01-01
Three model problems were examined to assess the difficulties involved in using a hybrid scheme coupling flow computation with the the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation to predict noise generated by vortices passing over a sharp edge. The results indicate that the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation correctly propagates the acoustic signals when provided with accurate flow information on the integration surface. The most difficult of the model problems investigated inviscid flow over a two-dimensional thin NACA airfoil with a blunt-body vortex generator positioned at 98 percent chord. Vortices rolled up downstream of the blunt body. The shed vortices possessed similarities to large coherent eddies in boundary layers. They interacted and occasionally paired as they convected past the sharp trailing edge of the airfoil. The calculations showed acoustic waves emanating from the airfoil trailing edge. Acoustic directivity and Mach number scaling are shown.
Hierarchical optimization for neutron scattering problems
Bao, Feng; Archibald, Rick; Bansal, Dipanshu; Delaire, Olivier
2016-03-14
In this study, we present a scalable optimization method for neutron scattering problems that determines confidence regions of simulation parameters in lattice dynamics models used to fit neutron scattering data for crystalline solids. The method uses physics-based hierarchical dimension reduction in both the computational simulation domain and the parameter space. We demonstrate for silicon that after a few iterations the method converges to parameters values (interatomic force-constants) computed with density functional theory simulations.
Representation theorems and Green's function retrieval for scattering in acoustic media.
Vasconcelos, Ivan; Snieder, Roel; Douma, Huub
2009-09-01
Reciprocity theorems for perturbed acoustic media are provided in the form of convolution- and correlation-type theorems. These reciprocity relations are particularly useful in the general treatment of both forward and inverse-scattering problems. Using Green's functions to describe perturbed and unperturbed waves in two distinct wave states, representation theorems for scattered waves are derived from the reciprocity relations. While the convolution-type theorems can be manipulated to obtain scattering integrals that are analogous to the Lippmann-Schwinger equation, the correlation-type theorems can be used to retrieve the scattering response of the medium by cross correlations. Unlike previous formulations of Green's function retrieval, the extraction of scattered-wave responses by cross correlations does not require energy equipartitioning. Allowing for uneven energy radiation brings experimental advantages to the retrieval of fields scattered by remote lossless and/or attenuative scatterers. These concepts are illustrated with a number of examples, including analytic solutions to a one-dimensional scattering problem, and a numerical example in the context of seismic waves recorded on the ocean bottom. PMID:19905236
Finite Element Prediction of Acoustic Scattering and Radiation from Submerged Elastic Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Everstine, G. C.; Henderson, F. M.; Lipman, R. R.
1984-01-01
A finite element formulation is derived for the scattering and radiation of acoustic waves from submerged elastic structures. The formulation uses as fundamental unknowns the displacement in the structure and a velocity potential in the field. Symmetric coefficient matrices result. The outer boundary of the fluid region is terminated with an approximate local wave-absorbing boundary condition which assumes that outgoing waves are locally planar. The finite element model is capable of predicting only the near-field acoustic pressures. Far-field sound pressure levels may be determined by integrating the surface pressures and velocities over the wet boundary of the structure using the Helmholtz integral. Comparison of finite element results with analytic results show excellent agreement. The coupled fluid-structure problem may be solved with general purpose finite element codes by using an analogy between the equations of elasticity and the wave equation of linear acoustics.
Multi-frequency orthogonality sampling for inverse obstacle scattering problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Griesmaier, Roland
2011-08-01
We discuss a simple non-iterative method to reconstruct the support of a collection of obstacles from the measurements of far-field patterns of acoustic or electromagnetic waves corresponding to plane-wave incident fields with one or few incident directions at several frequencies. The method is a variant of the orthogonality sampling algorithm recently studied by Potthast (2010 Inverse Problems 26 074015). Our theoretical analysis of the algorithm relies on an asymptotic expansion of the far-field pattern of the scattered field as the size of the scatterers tends to zero with respect to the wavelength of the incident field that holds not only at a single frequency, but also across appropriate frequency bands. This expansion suggests some modifications to the original orthogonality sampling algorithm and yields a theoretical motivation for its multi-frequency version. We illustrate the performance of the reconstruction method by numerical examples.
Inverse scattering problems with multi-frequencies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bao, Gang; Li, Peijun; Lin, Junshan; Triki, Faouzi
2015-09-01
This paper is concerned with computational approaches and mathematical analysis for solving inverse scattering problems in the frequency domain. The problems arise in a diverse set of scientific areas with significant industrial, medical, and military applications. In addition to nonlinearity, there are two common difficulties associated with the inverse problems: ill-posedness and limited resolution (diffraction limit). Due to the diffraction limit, for a given frequency, only a low spatial frequency part of the desired parameter can be observed from measurements in the far field. The main idea developed here is that if the reconstruction is restricted to only the observable part, then the inversion will become stable. The challenging task is how to design stable numerical methods for solving these inverse scattering problems inspired by the diffraction limit. Recently, novel recursive linearization based algorithms have been presented in an attempt to answer the above question. These methods require multi-frequency scattering data and proceed via a continuation procedure with respect to the frequency from low to high. The objective of this paper is to give a brief review of these methods, their error estimates, and the related mathematical analysis. More attention is paid to the inverse medium and inverse source problems. Numerical experiments are included to illustrate the effectiveness of these methods.
The Casimir effect as a scattering problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wirzba, A.
2008-04-01
We show that Casimir-force calculations for a finite number of non-overlapping obstacles can be mapped onto quantum-mechanical billiard-type problems which are characterized by the scattering of a fictitious point particle off the very same obstacles. With the help of a modified Krein trace formula the genuine/finite part of the Casimir energy is determined as the energy-weighted integral over the log-determinant of the multi-scattering matrix of the analog billiard problem. The formalism is self-regulating and inherently shows that the Casimir energy is governed by the infrared end of the multi-scattering phase shifts or the spectrum of the fluctuating field. The calculation is exact and in principle applicable for any separation(s) between the obstacles. In practice, it is more suited for large- to medium-range separations. We report especially about the Casimir energy of a fluctuating massless scalar field between two spheres or a sphere and a plate under Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. But the formalism can easily be extended to any number of spheres and/or planes in three or arbitrary dimensions, with a variety of boundary conditions or non-overlapping potentials/non-ideal reflectors.
Modeling of the fisheries acoustics problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adams, Barbara Leigh
This dissertation presents a mathematical model of the overall fisheries acoustics problem posed by enumeration of fish populations using sonar. Emphasis is placed on three key components: a new geometric model for the target strength (TS) of Pacific salmon, a fish distribution for sockeye salmon, and generation of artificial sonar data. Results of the TS and fish distribution models show TS varies on height and breadth of fish as much as on fish length and TS from the air-filled swimbladder is the major contributor as reported by Foote [1985]. A fish roll factor within 45° leads to TS variations within 7 dB for normal incidence, side aspect and 2 dB for dorsal aspect. Also second order effects of ray propagation through fish flesh on TS from the swimbladder provide TS results up to 20 dB lower at high aspect angles. The geometric model predicts TS values that match extremely well with TS data collected on Pacific salmon and other species in river and ocean environments. By varying fish size and swimbladder parameters and considering the effect of fish flesh, the model covers the range of TS values that occur in the field, thus identifying and quantifying the uncertainty in the experimental data. The overall approach in this work is to construct a direct model providing artificial sonar data, then use an inverse model (echo integration algorithm) with that data or with experimental data to compare results. The echo integration results are not reliable at any fish rate for a fixed river cross-section. Estimated fish counts of 0--7 are obtained from 100 simulations for a known fish distribution of 3 fish (0.1 fish/sec). Similarly, at 0.5 fish/sec with 15 known fish, estimates of 0--30 were obtained; at 1 fish/sec with 30 known fish, estimates of 0--50; and at 5 fish/sec with 150 known fish, estimates of 0--100 fish. Fish counts ranged from 0--19 for 3 known fish when ping rate changed from 1--10 pings/sec and when pulse width varied from 0.1--1.0 ms.
Classroom Acoustics: The Problem, Impact, and Solution.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Berg, Frederick S.; And Others
1996-01-01
This article describes aspects of classroom acoustics that interfere with the ability of listeners to understand speech. It considers impacts on students and teachers and offers four possible solutions: noise control, signal control without amplification, individual amplification systems, and sound field amplification systems. (Author/DB)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Qi; Cheng, Ying; Liu, Xiao-jun
2012-07-01
We present a three-dimensional acoustic concentrator capable of significantly enhancing the sound intensity in the compressive region with scattering cancellation, imaging, and mirage effects. The concentrator shell is built by isotropic gradient negative-index materials, which together with an exterior host medium slab constructs a pair of complementary media. The enhancement factor, which can approach infinity by tuning the geometric parameters, is always much higher than that of a traditional concentrator made by positive-index materials with the same size. The acoustic scattering theory is applied to derive the pressure field distribution of the concentrator, which is consistent with the numerical full-wave simulations. The inherent acoustic impedance match at the interfaces of the shell as well as the inverse processes of “negative refraction—progressive curvature—negative refraction” for arbitrary sound rays can exactly cancel the scattering of the concentrator. In addition, the concentrator shell can also function as an acoustic spherical magnifying superlens, which produces a perfect image with the same shape, with bigger geometric and acoustic parameters located at a shifted position. Then some acoustic mirages are observed whereby the waves radiated from (scattered by) an object located in the center region may seem to be radiated from (scattered by) its image. Based on the mirage effect, we further propose an intriguing acoustic transformer which can transform the sound scattering pattern of one object into another object at will with arbitrary geometric, acoustic, and location parameters.
A boundary integral approach to the scattering of nonplanar acoustic waves by rigid bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gallman, Judith M.; Myers, M. K.; Farassat, F.
1990-01-01
The acoustic scattering of an incident wave by a rigid body can be described by a singular Fredholm integral equation of the second kind. This equation is derived by solving the wave equation using generalized function theory, Green's function for the wave equation in unbounded space, and the acoustic boundary condition for a perfectly rigid body. This paper will discuss the derivation of the wave equation, its reformulation as a boundary integral equation, and the solution of the integral equation by the Galerkin method. The accuracy of the Galerkin method can be assessed by applying the technique outlined in the paper to reproduce the known pressure fields that are due to various point sources. From the analysis of these simpler cases, the accuracy of the Galerkin solution can be inferred for the scattered pressure field caused by the incidence of a dipole field on a rigid sphere. The solution by the Galerkin technique can then be applied to such problems as a dipole model of a propeller whose pressure field is incident on a rigid cylinder. This is the groundwork for modeling the scattering of rotating blade noise by airplane fuselages.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meyer, Harold D.
1999-01-01
This second volume of Acoustic Scattering by Three-Dimensional Stators and Rotors Using the SOURCE3D Code provides the scattering plots referenced by Volume 1. There are 648 plots. Half are for the 8750 rpm "high speed" operating condition and the other half are for the 7031 rpm "mid speed" operating condition.
Brillouin light scattering from surface acoustic waves in a subwavelength-diameter optical fibre
Beugnot, Jean-Charles; Lebrun, Sylvie; Pauliat, Gilles; Maillotte, Hervé; Laude, Vincent; Sylvestre, Thibaut
2014-01-01
Brillouin scattering in optical fibres is a fundamental interaction between light and sound with important implications ranging from optical sensors to slow and fast light. In usual optical fibres, light both excites and feels shear and longitudinal bulk elastic waves, giving rise to forward-guided acoustic wave Brillouin scattering and backward-stimulated Brillouin scattering. In a subwavelength-diameter optical fibre, the situation changes dramatically, as we here report with the first experimental observation of Brillouin light scattering from surface acoustic waves. These Rayleigh-type surface waves travel the wire surface at a specific velocity of 3,400 m s−1 and backscatter the light with a Doppler shift of about 6 GHz. As these acoustic resonances are sensitive to surface defects or features, surface acoustic wave Brillouin scattering opens new opportunities for various sensing applications, but also in other domains such as microwave photonics and nonlinear plasmonics. PMID:25341638
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tchahame, Joël. Cabrel; Sylvestre, Thibaut; Phan Huy, Kien; Kudlinski, Alexandre; Laude, Vincent; Beugnot, Jean-Charles
2016-04-01
Light propagation in small-core photonic crystal fibers enables tight optical confinement over long propagation lengths to enhance light-matter interactions. Not only can photonic crystal fibers compress light spatially, they also provide a tunable means to control light-hypersound interactions. By exploring Brillouin light scattering in a small-core and high air-filling fraction microstructured fiber, we report the observation of Brillouin scattering from surface acoustic waves at lower frequencies than standard Brillouin scattering from bulk acoustic waves. This effect could find potential applications for optical sensing technologies that exploit surface acoustic waves.
The direct and inverse problems of an air-saturated porous cylinder submitted to acoustic radiation.
Ogam, Erick; Depollier, Claude; Fellah, Z E A
2010-09-01
Gas-saturated porous skeleton materials such as geomaterials, polymeric and metallic foams, or biomaterials are fundamental in a diverse range of applications, from structural materials to energy technologies. Most polymeric foams are used for noise control applications and knowledge of the manner in which the energy of sound waves is dissipated with respect to the intrinsic acoustic properties is important for the design of sound packages. Foams are often employed in the audible, low frequency range where modeling and measurement techniques for the recovery of physical parameters responsible for energy loss are still few. Accurate acoustic methods of characterization of porous media are based on the measurement of the transmitted and/or reflected acoustic waves by platelike specimens at ultrasonic frequencies. In this study we develop an acoustic method for the recovery of the material parameters of a rigid-frame, air-saturated polymeric foam cylinder. A dispersion relation for sound wave propagation in the porous medium is derived from the propagation equations and a model solution is sought based on plane-wave decomposition using orthogonal cylindrical functions. The explicit analytical solution equation of the scattered field shows that it is also dependent on the intrinsic acoustic parameters of the porous cylinder, namely, porosity, tortuosity, and flow resistivity (permeability). The inverse problem of the recovery of the flow resistivity and porosity is solved by seeking the minima of the objective functions consisting of the sum of squared residuals of the differences between the experimental and theoretical scattered field data. PMID:20887001
Inverse scattering problem in turbulent magnetic fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Treumann, Rudolf A.; Baumjohann, Wolfgang; Narita, Yasuhito
2016-08-01
We apply a particular form of the inverse scattering theory to turbulent magnetic fluctuations in a plasma. In the present note we develop the theory, formulate the magnetic fluctuation problem in terms of its electrodynamic turbulent response function, and reduce it to the solution of a special form of the famous Gelfand-Levitan-Marchenko equation of quantum mechanical scattering theory. The last of these applies to transmission and reflection in an active medium. The theory of turbulent magnetic fluctuations does not refer to such quantities. It requires a somewhat different formulation. We reduce the theory to the measurement of the low-frequency electromagnetic fluctuation spectrum, which is not the turbulent spectral energy density. The inverse theory in this form enables obtaining information about the turbulent response function of the medium. The dynamic causes of the electromagnetic fluctuations are implicit to it. Thus, it is of vital interest in low-frequency magnetic turbulence. The theory is developed until presentation of the equations in applicable form to observations of turbulent electromagnetic fluctuations as input from measurements. Solution of the final integral equation should be done by standard numerical methods based on iteration. We point to the possibility of treating power law fluctuation spectra as an example. Formulation of the problem to include observations of spectral power densities in turbulence is not attempted. This leads to severe mathematical problems and requires a reformulation of inverse scattering theory. One particular aspect of the present inverse theory of turbulent fluctuations is that its structure naturally leads to spatial information which is obtained from the temporal information that is inherent to the observation of time series. The Taylor assumption is not needed here. This is a consequence of Maxwell's equations, which couple space and time evolution. The inversion procedure takes advantage of a particular
A Advanced Boundary Element Formulation for Acoustic Radiation and Scattering in Three Dimensions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soenarko, Benjamin
A computational method is presented for determining acoustic fields produced by arbitrary shaped three-dimensional bodies. The formulation includes both radiation and scattering problems. In particular an isoparametric element formulation is introduced in which both the surface geometry and the acoustic variables on the surface of the body are represented by second order shape functions within the local coordinate system. A general result for the surface velocity potential and the exterior field is derived. This result is applicable to non-smooth bodies, i.e. it includes the case where the surface may have a non-unique normal (e.g. at the edge of a cube). Test cases are shown involving spherical, cylindrical and cubical geometry for both radiation and scattering problems. The present formulation is also extended to include half-space problems in which the effect of the reflected wave from an infinite plane is taken into account. By selecting an appropriate Green's function, the surface integral over the plane is nullified; thus all the computational efforts can be performed only on the radiating or scattering body at issue and thereby greatly simplify the solution. A special formulation involving axisymmetric bodies and boundary conditions is also presented. For this special case, the surface integrals are reduced to line integrals and an integral over the angle of revolution. The integration over the angle is performed partly analytically in terms of elliptic integrals and partly numerically using simple Gaussian quadrature formula. Since the rest of the integrals involve only line integrals along the generator of the body, any discretization scheme can be easily obtained to achieve a desired degree of accuracy in evaluating these integrals.
On the numerical solution of a three-dimensional inverse medium scattering problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hohage, Thorsten
2001-12-01
We examine the scattering of time-harmonic acoustic waves in inhomogeneous media. The problem is to recover a spatially varying refractive index in a three-dimensional medium from far-field measurements of scattered waves corresponding to incoming waves from all directions. This problem is exponentially ill-posed and of a large scale since a solution of the direct problem corresponds to solving a partial differential equation in R3 for each incident wave. We construct a preconditioner for the conjugate gradient method applied to the normal equation to solve the regularized linearized operator equation in each Newton step. This reduces the number of operator evaluations dramatically compared to standard regularized Newton methods. Our method can also be applied effectively to other exponentially ill-posed problems, for example, in impedance tomography, heat conduction and obstacle scattering. To solve the direct problems, we use an improved fast solver for the Lippmann-Schwinger equation suggested by Vainikko.
Scattering coefficients and gray-body factor for 1D BEC acoustic black holes: Exact results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fabbri, Alessandro; Balbinot, Roberto; Anderson, Paul R.
2016-03-01
A complete set of exact analytic solutions to the mode equation is found in the region exterior to the acoustic horizon for a class of 1D Bose-Einstein condensate acoustic black holes. From these, analytic expressions for the scattering coefficients and gray-body factor are obtained. The results are used to verify previous predictions regarding the behaviors of the scattering coefficients and gray-body factor in the low-frequency limit.
Rausch, Anne; Fischer, André; Kings, Nancy; Bake, Friedrich; Roehle, Ingo
2012-07-01
Rayleigh scattering is a measurement technique applicable for the determination of density distributions in various technical or natural flows. The current sensitivity limits of the Rayleigh scattering technique were investigated experimentally. It is shown that it is possible to measure density oscillations caused by acoustic pressure oscillations noninvasively and directly. Acoustical standing waves in a rectangular duct were investigated using Rayleigh scattering and compared to microphone measurements. The comparison showed a sensitivity of the Rayleigh scattering technique of 75 Pa (7·10(-4) kg/m(3)) and a precision of 14 Pa (1·10(-4) kg/m(3)). Therefore, it was also shown that Rayleigh scattering is applicable for acoustic measurements. PMID:22743495
Resolving the Location of Acoustic Point Sources Scattered Due to the Presence of a Skull Phantom
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadler, J.; Shapoori, K.; Malyarenko, E.; DiCarlo, A.; Dech, J.; Severin, F.; Maev, R. Gr.
This paper considers resolving the location of a foreign object in the brain without the removal of the skull bone by detecting and processing the acoustic waves emitted from the foreign object modeled as point source. The variable thickness of the skull bone causes propagation acoustic waves to be scattered in such a manner that the acoustic wave undergoes a variable time delay relative to its entry point on the skull. Matched filtering can be used to detect the acoustic wave front, the time delay variations of the skull can be corrected for, and matched filtering time reversal algorithms can then detect the location of the acoustic source. This process is examined experimentally in a water tank system containing an acoustic source, custom-made skull phantom, and receiver. The apparatus is arranged in transmission mode so that the acoustic waves are emitted from the source, scattered by the phantom, and then received by a second transducer. The skull phantom has been designed so that the acoustic properties (velocity, density, and attenuation correspond approximately to those of a typical human skull. In addition, the phantom has been molded so that the surface closest to the acoustic source has smoothly oscillating ridges and valleys and a flat outer surface, approximately modeling a real-world skull bone. The data obtained from the experiment is processed to detect and extract the scattered acoustic wave front and correct for the time of flight variations in the skull. This re-creates the approximate wave front of a point source, whose location can be resolved via a matched filtering time reversal algorithm. The results of this process are examined for cases where there is no phantom present (no scattering), and with the phantom present. Comparison of these results shows a correlation between the calculated locations of the acoustic source and the expected location.
Unified treatment of bound-state and scattering problems
Adhikari, S.K.; Tomio, L.
1988-01-01
The iteration-subtraction method for the unified treatment of bound-state and scattering problems is compared and contrasted with a similar method for the two-body bound-state problem via nonsingular scattering equations developed recently. We also compare another recent method for solving bound-state problems with the iteration-subtraction method.
Chu, Dezhang; Lawson, Gareth L; Wiebe, Peter H
2016-05-01
The linear inversion commonly used in fisheries and zooplankton acoustics assumes a constant inversion kernel and ignores the uncertainties associated with the shape and behavior of the scattering targets, as well as other relevant animal parameters. Here, errors of the linear inversion due to uncertainty associated with the inversion kernel are quantified. A scattering model-based nonlinear inversion method is presented that takes into account the nonlinearity of the inverse problem and is able to estimate simultaneously animal abundance and the parameters associated with the scattering model inherent to the kernel. It uses sophisticated scattering models to estimate first, the abundance, and second, the relevant shape and behavioral parameters of the target organisms. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the abundance, size, and behavior (tilt angle) parameters of marine animals (fish or zooplankton) can be accurately inferred from the inversion by using multi-frequency acoustic data. The influence of the singularity and uncertainty in the inversion kernel on the inversion results can be mitigated by examining the singular values for linear inverse problems and employing a non-linear inversion involving a scattering model-based kernel. PMID:27250181
Acoustic build-up in on-chip stimulated Brillouin scattering
Wolff, C.; Steel, M. J.; Eggleton, B. J.; Poulton, C. G.
2015-01-01
We investigate the role of the spatial evolution of the acoustic field in stimulated Brillouin scattering processes in short high-gain structures. When the gain is strong enough that the gain length becomes comparable to the acoustic wave decay length of order 100 microns, standard approximations treating the acoustic field as a local response no longer apply. Treating the acoustic evolution more accurately, we find that the backward SBS gain of sub-millimetre long waveguides is significantly reduced from the value obtained by the conventional treatment because the acoustic mode requires several decay lengths to build up to its nominal value. In addition, the corresponding resonance line is broadened with the development of side bands. In contrast, we argue that intra-mode forward SBS is not expected to show these effects. Our results have implications for several recent proposals and experiments on high-gain stimulated Brillouin scattering in short semiconductor waveguides. PMID:26338720
Chen, Xin; Parker, David S; Singh, David J
2013-01-01
We present first principles calculations of the phonon dispersions of \\BiTe and discuss these in relation to the acoustic phonon interface scattering in ceramics. The phonon dispersions show agreement with what is known from neutron scattering for the optic modes. We find a difference between the generalized gradient approximation and local density results for the acoustic branches. This is a consequence of an artificial compression of the van der Waals bonded gaps in the \\BiTe structure when using the generalized gradient approximation. As a result local density approximation calculations provide a better description of the phonon dispersions in Bi$_{2}$Te$_{3}$. A key characteristic of the acoustic dispersions is the existence of a strong anisotropy in the velocities. We develop a model for interface scattering in ceramics with acoustic wave anisotropy and apply this to \\BiTe and compare with PbTe and diamond.
Acoustic vibrations contribute to the diffuse scatter produced by ribosome crystals.
Polikanov, Yury S; Moore, Peter B
2015-10-01
The diffuse scattering pattern produced by frozen crystals of the 70S ribosome from Thermus thermophilus is as highly structured as it would be if it resulted entirely from domain-scale motions within these particles. However, the qualitative properties of the scattering pattern suggest that acoustic displacements of the crystal lattice make a major contribution to it.
Acoustic vibrations contribute to the diffuse scatter produced by ribosome crystals
Polikanov, Yury S.; Moore, Peter B.
2015-01-01
The diffuse scattering pattern produced by frozen crystals of the 70S ribosome from Thermus thermophilus is as highly structured as it would be if it resulted entirely from domain-scale motions within these particles. However, the qualitative properties of the scattering pattern suggest that acoustic displacements of the crystal lattice make a major contribution to it. PMID:26457426
Air bubbles in water: a strongly multiple scattering medium for acoustic waves.
Kafesaki, M; Penciu, R S; Economou, E N
2000-06-26
Using a newly developed multiple scattering scheme, we calculate band structure and transmission properties for acoustic waves propagating in bubbly water. We prove that the multiple scattering effects are responsible for the creation of wide gaps in the transmission even in the presence of strong positional and size disorder.
Wood's anomalies and surface waves in the problem of scattering by a periodic boundary. I
Kamotskii, I V; Nazarov, S A
1999-02-28
The solution of the problem of diffraction of an acoustic plane wave by a periodic boundary for frequencies close to threshold values is studied. Wood's well-known experiments show that deviations from the threshold frequency values by a small quantity bring about drastic changes in the diffraction pattern. The asymptotic formula with respect to the small parameter {epsilon} is obtained for the corresponding scattering matrix.
Nonlinear Raman-Type Acoustic Scattering in Three-Phase Marine Sediments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pushkina, N. I.
2001-03-01
Stimulated Raman-type acoustic scattering by bubble oscillations in three-phase marine sediments, which consist of a solid frame, the pore water, and air bubbles, is considered. A model is developed for the case of the bubbles surrounded by water. The acoustic properties of the sediments are described on the basis of the Biot theory of sound propagation in a fluid-saturated porous medium. Nonlinear wave equations are obtained for marine sediments containing air bubbles. Expressions for the nonlinear scattering coefficient and the threshold intensity of the exciting sound wave are derived. A possibility of an experimental observation of the scattering process is discussed.
Solution of a Simple Inelastic Scattering Problem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Knudson, Stephen K.
1975-01-01
Provides an analytical solution of a model representing the collision of an atom with a harmonic oscillator, interacting via a repulsive square well potential. Presents results for various energies and strengths of inelastic scattering. (Author/CP)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yang; Li, Xiukun
2016-06-01
Separation of the components of rigid acoustic scattering by underwater objects is essential in obtaining the structural characteristics of such objects. To overcome the problem of rigid structures appearing to have the same spectral structure in the time domain, time-frequency Blind Source Separation (BSS) can be used in combination with image morphology to separate the rigid scattering components of different objects. Based on a highlight model, the separation of the rigid scattering structure of objects with time-frequency distribution is deduced. Using a morphological filter, different characteristics in a Wigner-Ville Distribution (WVD) observed for single auto term and cross terms can be simplified to remove any cross-term interference. By selecting time and frequency points of the auto terms signal, the accuracy of BSS can be improved. An experimental simulation has been used, with changes in the pulse width of the transmitted signal, the relative amplitude and the time delay parameter, in order to analyzing the feasibility of this new method. Simulation results show that the new method is not only able to separate rigid scattering components, but can also separate the components when elastic scattering and rigid scattering exist at the same time. Experimental results confirm that the new method can be used in separating the rigid scattering structure of underwater objects.
MODE CONVERSION BETWEEN DIFFERENT RADIAL ORDERS FOR SOLAR ACOUSTIC WAVES SCATTERED BY SUNSPOTS
Zhao, Hui; Chou, Dean-Yi
2013-11-20
We study the mode conversion between different radial orders for solar acoustic waves interacting with sunspots. Solar acoustic waves are modified in the presence of sunspots. The modification in the wave can be viewed as that the sunspot, excited by the incident wave, generates the scattered wave, and the scattered wave is added to the incident wave to form the total wave inside and around the sunspot. The wavefunction of the acoustic wave on the solar surface is computed from the cross-correlation function. The wavefunction of the scattered wave is obtained by subtracting the wavefunction of the incident wave from that of the total wave. We use the incident waves of radial order n = 0-5 to measure the scattered wavefunctions from n to another radial order n' for NOAAs 11084 and 11092. The strength of scattered waves decreases rapidly with |Δn|, where Δn ≡ n' – n. The scattered waves of Δn = ±1 are visible for n ≤ 1, and significant for n ≥ 2. For the scattered wave of Δn = ±2, only few cases are visible. None of the scattered waves of Δn = ±3 are visible. The properties of scattered waves for Δn = 0 and Δn ≠ 0 are different. The scattered wave amplitude relative to the incident wave amplitude decreases with n for Δn = 0, while it increases with n for Δn ≠ 0. The scattered wave amplitudes of Δn = 0 are greater for the larger sunspot, while those of Δn ≠ 0 are insensitive to the sunspot size.
Arbitrary scattering of an acoustical Bessel beam by a rigid spheroid with large aspect-ratio
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gong, Zhixiong; Li, Wei; Mitri, Farid G.; Chai, Yingbin; Zhao, Yao
2016-11-01
In this paper, the T-matrix (null-field) method is applied to investigate the acoustic scattering by a large-aspect-ratio rigid spheroid immersed in a non-viscous fluid under the illumination of an unbounded zeroth-order Bessel beam with arbitrary orientation. Based on the proposed method, a MATLAB software package is constructed accordingly, and then verified and validated to compute the acoustic scattering by a rigid oblate or prolate spheroid in the Bessel beam. Several numerical examples are carried out to investigate the novel phenomenon of acoustic scattering by spheroids in Bessel beams with arbitrary incidence, with particular emphasis on the aspect ratio (i.e. the ratio of the polar radius over the equatorial radius of the spheroid), the half-cone angle of Bessel beam, the dimensionless frequency, as well as the angle of incidence. The quasi-periodic oscillations are observed in the plots of the far-field backscattering form function modulus versus the dimensionless frequency, owing to the interference between the specular reflection and the Franz wave circumnavigating the spheroid in the surrounding fluid. Furthermore, the 3D far-field scattering directivity patterns at end-on incidence and 2D polar plots at arbitrary angles of incidence are exhibited, which could provide new insights into the physical mechanisms of Bessel beam scattering by flat or elongated spheroid. This research work may provide an impetus for the application of acoustic Bessel beam in engineering practices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyons, Anthony Patrick
1995-11-01
There has been little work on developing and testing seafloor volume scattering models and on the characterization of such volumes because of the complexity of the medium and the paucity of high resolution ground truth data. This dissertation addresses the different physical mechanisms responsible for backscattering from a seafloor volume and their relative importance. This was accomplished by: (1) examining and adapting theoretical and numerical techniques for predicting volume backscatter from seafloor environments in the frequency range from 5-50 kHz, (2) characterizing the physical properties of the seafloor volume that control acoustic backscatter in selected environmental regimes by using the high resolution techniques of CT scanning and p-wave logging and casting these descriptions in a form useful for scattering models, and (3) comparing model results constrained by ground truth information with acoustic data sets obtained in different seafloor environments in order to isolate physical scattering mechanisms which dominate scattering and to examine the effectiveness of the characterization and modeling components of this research. Specifically, a layered, gassy sediment and a sandy, shell hash sediment were examined. The gassy sediment was analyzed by using a continuum model for scattering from the surrounding sediment and a non-spherical bubble model for scattering from the included gas features. Simulations carried out with the bubble model showed that bubble scattering will dominate continuum scattering in soft mud containing gas bubbles. Results of calculations using the bubble scattering model compare well with data taken with the Naval Research Laboratory's Acoustic Sediment Classification System. The comparisons also show that bubbles smaller than those which could be found with CT scanning methods might be important at higher acoustic frequencies. The shell hash sediment was examined by using a single scattering model for the shell pieces instead of
Williams, Kevin L; Kargl, Steven G; Thorsos, Eric I; Burnett, David S; Lopes, Joseph L; Zampolli, Mario; Marston, Philip L
2010-06-01
Understanding acoustic scattering from objects placed on the interface between two media requires incorporation of scattering off the interface. Here, this class of problems is studied in the particular context of a 61 cm long, 30.5 cm diameter solid aluminum cylinder placed on a flattened sand interface. Experimental results are presented for the monostatic scattering from this cylinder for azimuthal scattering angles from 0 degrees to 90 degrees and frequencies from 1 to 30 kHz. In addition, synthetic aperture sonar (SAS) processing is carried out. Next, details seen within these experimental results are explained using insight derived from physical acoustics. Subsequently, target strength results are compared to finite-element (FE) calculations. The simplest calculation assumes that the source and receiver are at infinity and uses the FE result for the cylinder in free space along with image cylinders for approximating the target/interface interaction. Then the effect of finite geometries and inclusion of a more complete Green's function for the target/interface interaction is examined. These first two calculations use the axial symmetry of the cylinder in carrying out the analysis. Finally, the results from a three dimensional FE analysis are presented and compared to both the experiment and the axially symmetric calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Follett, R. K.; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Henchen, R. J.; Katz, J.; Myatt, J. F.; Froula, D. H.
2016-11-01
Collective Thomson scattering is a technique for measuring the plasma conditions in laser-plasma experiments. Simultaneous measurements of ion-acoustic and electron plasma-wave spectra were obtained using a 263.25-nm Thomson-scattering probe beam. A fully reflective collection system was used to record light scattered from electron plasma waves at electron densities greater than 1021 cm-3, which produced scattering peaks near 200 nm. An accurate analysis of the experimental Thomson-scattering spectra required accounting for plasma gradients, instrument sensitivity, optical effects, and background radiation. Practical techniques for including these effects when fitting Thomson-scattering spectra are presented and applied to the measured spectra to show the improvements in plasma characterization.
Difference-frequency generation in nonlinear scattering of acoustic waves by a rigid sphere.
Silva, Glauber T; Bandeira, Anderson
2013-02-01
In this paper, the partial-wave expansion method is applied to describe the difference-frequency pressure generated in a nonlinear scattering of two acoustic waves with an arbitrary wavefront by means of a rigid sphere. Particularly, the difference-frequency generation is analyzed in the nonlinear scattering with a spherical scatterer involving two intersecting plane waves in the following configurations: collinear, crossing at right angles, and counter-propagating. For the sake of simplicity, the plane waves are assumed to be spatially located in a spherical region which diameter is smaller than the difference-frequency wavelength. Such arrangements can be experimentally accomplished in vibro-acoustography and nonlinear acoustic tomography techniques. It turns out to be that when the sphere radius is of the order of the primary wavelengths, and the downshift ratio (i.e. the ratio between the fundamental frequency and the difference-frequency) is larger than five, difference-frequency generation is mostly due to a nonlinear interaction between the primary scattered waves. The exception to this is the collinear scattering for which the nonlinear interaction of the primary incident waves is also relevant. In addition, the difference-frequency scattered pressure in all scattering configurations decays as r(-1)lnr and 1/r, where r is the radial distance from the scatterer to the observation point.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sapega, V. F.; Belitsky, V. I.; Ruf, T.; Fuchs, H. D.; Cardona, M.; Ploog, K.
1992-12-01
A strong increase of low-frequency Raman scattering has been observed in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells in magnetic fields up to 14 T. The spectra, consisting of background scattering, folded acoustic phonons, and additional features, show resonant behavior with respect to the laser frequency and the strength of the magnetic field. The broad background, usually related to geminate recombination, has its origin in a continuum of Raman processes with the emission of longitudinal-acoustic phonons where crystal momentum is not conserved. Such processes can become dominant when interface fluctuations allow for resonant scattering in individual quantum wells only. Thus phonons with all possible energies contribute to the background scattering efficiency. The observed folded longitudinal-acoustic phonons are in good agreement with calculated frequencies. Additional features, detected in all samples measured, are attributed to local vibrational modes tied to the gaps at the folded Brillouin-zone center and edge. Other peculiarities observed correspond to modes localized at crossings of the folded longitudinal- and transverse-acoustic branches inside the Brillouin zone. The appearance of these local modes is attributed to fluctuations in the well and barrier thicknesses of the quantum wells.
Scattered acoustic field above a grating of non-parallel rectangular cavities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khanfir, A.; Faiz, A.; Ducourneau, J.; Chatillon, J.; Lami, S. Skali
2016-01-01
Geometric or acoustical irregularities induces acoustic scattering. In this paper, a generalization of the model proposed by Khanfir et al. [8] (Journal of Sound and Vibration 332 (4) (2013)) to determine the scattered acoustic field above gratings of parallel rectangular cavities is developed, addressing the case of gratings of non-parallel rectangular cavities. The results provided by the model were compared both to numerical results, obtained with the finite element method, and to experimental ones. The observed agreement between the analytical predictions and the numerical and experimental results supports the validity of the proposed model. The coupling between the different cavities was investigated, in order to attain an explanation for its dependence on frequency and on the spacing between cavities.
Initial Integration of Noise Prediction Tools for Acoustic Scattering Effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nark, Douglas M.; Burley, Casey L.; Tinetti, Ana; Rawls, John W.
2008-01-01
This effort provides an initial glimpse at NASA capabilities available in predicting the scattering of fan noise from a non-conventional aircraft configuration. The Aircraft NOise Prediction Program, Fast Scattering Code, and the Rotorcraft Noise Model were coupled to provide increased fidelity models of scattering effects on engine fan noise sources. The integration of these codes led to the identification of several keys issues entailed in applying such multi-fidelity approaches. In particular, for prediction at noise certification points, the inclusion of distributed sources leads to complications with the source semi-sphere approach. Computational resource requirements limit the use of the higher fidelity scattering code to predict radiated sound pressure levels for full scale configurations at relevant frequencies. And, the ability to more accurately represent complex shielding surfaces in current lower fidelity models is necessary for general application to scattering predictions. This initial step in determining the potential benefits/costs of these new methods over the existing capabilities illustrates a number of the issues that must be addressed in the development of next generation aircraft system noise prediction tools.
Temperature dependence of Brillouin light scattering spectra of acoustic phonons in silicon
Olsson, Kevin S.; Klimovich, Nikita; An, Kyongmo; Sullivan, Sean; Weathers, Annie; Shi, Li E-mail: elaineli@physics.utexas.edu; Li, Xiaoqin E-mail: elaineli@physics.utexas.edu
2015-02-02
Electrons, optical phonons, and acoustic phonons are often driven out of local equilibrium in electronic devices or during laser-material interaction processes. The need for a better understanding of such non-equilibrium transport processes has motivated the development of Raman spectroscopy as a local temperature sensor of optical phonons and intermediate frequency acoustic phonons, whereas Brillouin light scattering (BLS) has recently been explored as a temperature sensor of low-frequency acoustic phonons. Here, we report the measured BLS spectra of silicon at different temperatures. The origins of the observed temperature dependence of the BLS peak position, linewidth, and intensity are examined in order to evaluate their potential use as temperature sensors for acoustic phonons.
Nikolaeva, Anastasiia V. Kryzhanovsky, Maxim A.; Tsysar, Sergey A.; Kreider, Wayne; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.
2015-10-28
Acoustic radiation force is a nonlinear acoustic effect caused by the transfer of wave momentum to absorbing or scattering objects. This phenomenon is exploited in modern ultrasound metrology for measurement of the acoustic power radiated by a source and is used for both therapeutic and diagnostic sources in medical applications. To calculate radiation force an acoustic hologram can be used in conjunction with analytical expressions based on the angular spectrum of the measured field. The results of an experimental investigation of radiation forces in two different cases are presented in this paper. In one case, the radiation force of an obliquely incident ultrasound beam on a large absorber (which completely absorbs the beam) is considered. The second case concerns measurement of the radiation force on a spherical target that is small compared to the beam diameter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikolaeva, Anastasiia V.; Kryzhanovsky, Maxim A.; Tsysar, Sergey A.; Kreider, Wayne; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.
2015-10-01
Acoustic radiation force is a nonlinear acoustic effect caused by the transfer of wave momentum to absorbing or scattering objects. This phenomenon is exploited in modern ultrasound metrology for measurement of the acoustic power radiated by a source and is used for both therapeutic and diagnostic sources in medical applications. To calculate radiation force an acoustic hologram can be used in conjunction with analytical expressions based on the angular spectrum of the measured field. The results of an experimental investigation of radiation forces in two different cases are presented in this paper. In one case, the radiation force of an obliquely incident ultrasound beam on a large absorber (which completely absorbs the beam) is considered. The second case concerns measurement of the radiation force on a spherical target that is small compared to the beam diameter.
Reflection and Scattering of Acoustical Waves from a Discontinuity in Absorption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, J. P.; Leeman, S.; Nolan, E.; Lee, D.
The reflection and transmission of a plane acoustical wave from a planar boundary at the interface between two homogeneous media of different acoustical properties is a classical problem in acoustics that has served as a basis for many developments in acoustics for over 100 years. This problem, detailed in virtually every textbook on acoustics, provides us with the acoustical analogue to Snell's Law in optics and gives us correspondingly simple results. Classical acoustics predicts that a reflection from a boundary occurs only if the characteristic acoustical impedances of the two media are different. Here we show that a reflection also occurs if the media have the same impedances but different absorption coefficients. Our analysis yields some surprising results. For example, a reflection will occur at a discontinuity in absorption even if the impedance is uniform and continuous across the interface. In addition, a discontinuity in impedance at an interface between two media that have constant and equal, but non-zero absorption, results in a reflection coefficient that is dependent on absorption as well as impedance. In general, reflection coefficients now become frequency dependent. To experimentally test our results, we measured the reflection at the interface between water and castor oil, two liquids with similar impedances but very different absorption coefficients. Measurement of the reflection coefficient between 1 and 50 MHz demonstrated a frequency dependence that was in good agreement with our analysis.
Characterization of Biological Cells by Inverse Acoustic Scattering and Electrozone Sensing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Xucai
A technique is presented which characterizes biological cells by their mechanical descriptors: size, compressibility and density. The experimental apparatus consists of two acoustic transducers and an electrozone sensor submerged in a bath of conducting host fluid. Diluted biological cells are convected through the apparatus by a coaxial jet. An individual cell passes through the electrozone where its volume is measured by the Coulter principle, and then through the confocal region of the two acoustic transducers. One acoustic transducer sends out tone bursts at a center frequency of 30 MHz and detects a back-scattered signal from the cell while the other transducer detects the scattered signal at 90^circ. Thus the volume, the 90^circ scattering function, and the 180^circ scattering function are recorded for each cell. The acoustic scattering functions are then inverted to provide the compressibility and density of that cell. Statistics of the mechanical properties for human red and white blood cells are generated and displayed. The size, compressibility and density of both normal and abnormal red blood cells are reported. By modeling a cell as an immiscible mixture of protein and saline solution, perfect mixture laws for compressibility and density are derived and confirmed by experimental results. With the mixture laws established, the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) is inferred from the compressibility and density data for red blood cells. Using only the data from the 180^circ back-scattered signal, different white cell subgroups are successfully distinguished by their locations in the two dimensional histograms of their mechanical descriptors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lacombe, R.; Föller, S.; Jasor, G.; Polifke, W.; Aurégan, Y.; Moussou, P.
2013-09-01
The identification of the aero-acoustic scattering matrix of an orifice in a duct is achieved by computational fluid dynamics. The methodology first consists in performing a large eddy simulation of a turbulent compressible flow, with superimposed broadband acoustic excitations. After extracting time series of acoustic data with a specific filter, system identification techniques are applied. They allow us to determine the components of the acoustic scattering matrix of the orifice. Following the same procedure, a previous paper determines the scattering features of a sudden area expansion. In the present paper, the focus is on whistling orifices. The whistling ability of the tested orifice is evaluated by deriving the acoustic power balance from the scattering matrix. Comparisons with experiments at two different Mach numbers show a good agreement. The potential whistling frequency range is well predicted in terms of frequency and amplitude.
Detection of nonlinear picosecond acoustic pulses by time-resolved Brillouin scattering
Gusev, Vitalyi E.
2014-08-14
In time-resolved Brillouin scattering (also called picosecond ultrasonic interferometry), the time evolution of the spatial Fourier component of an optically excited acoustic strain distribution is monitored. The wave number is determined by the momentum conservation in photon-phonon interaction. For linear acoustic waves propagating in a homogeneous medium, the detected time-domain signal of the optical probe transient reflectivity shows a sinusoidal oscillation at a constant frequency known as the Brillouin frequency. This oscillation is a result of heterodyning the constant reflection from the sample surface with the Brillouin-scattered field. Here, we present an analytical theory for the nonlinear reshaping of a propagating, finite amplitude picosecond acoustic pulse, which results in a time-dependence of the observed frequency. In particular, we examine the conditions under which this information can be used to study the time-evolution of the weak-shock front speed. Depending on the initial strain pulse parameters and the time interval of its nonlinear transformation, our theory predicts the detected frequency to either be monotonically decreasing or oscillating in time. We support these theoretical predictions by comparison with available experimental data. In general, we find that picosecond ultrasonic interferometry of nonlinear acoustic pulses provides access to the nonlinear acoustic properties of a medium spanning most of the GHz frequency range.
Near-specular acoustic scattering from a buried submarine mud volcano.
Gerig, Anthony L; Holland, Charles W
2007-12-01
Submarine mud volcanoes are objects that form on the seafloor due to the emission of gas and fluidized sediment from the Earth's interior. They vary widely in size, can be exposed or buried, and are of interest to the underwater acoustics community as potential sources of active sonar clutter. Coincident seismic reflection data and low frequency bistatic scattering data were gathered from one such buried mud volcano located in the Straits of Sicily. The bistatic data were generated using a pulsed piston source and a 64-element horizontal array, both towed over the top of the volcano. The purpose of this work was to appropriately model low frequency scattering from the volcano using the bistatic returns, seismic bathymetry, and knowledge of the general geoacoustic properties of the area's seabed to guide understanding and model development. Ray theory, with some approximations, was used to model acoustic propagation through overlying layers. Due to the volcano's size, scattering was modeled using geometric acoustics and a simple representation of volcano shape. Modeled bistatic data compared relatively well with experimental data, although some features remain unexplained. Results of an inversion for the volcano's reflection coefficient indicate that it may be acoustically softer than expected. PMID:18247739
Near-specular acoustic scattering from a buried submarine mud volcano.
Gerig, Anthony L; Holland, Charles W
2007-12-01
Submarine mud volcanoes are objects that form on the seafloor due to the emission of gas and fluidized sediment from the Earth's interior. They vary widely in size, can be exposed or buried, and are of interest to the underwater acoustics community as potential sources of active sonar clutter. Coincident seismic reflection data and low frequency bistatic scattering data were gathered from one such buried mud volcano located in the Straits of Sicily. The bistatic data were generated using a pulsed piston source and a 64-element horizontal array, both towed over the top of the volcano. The purpose of this work was to appropriately model low frequency scattering from the volcano using the bistatic returns, seismic bathymetry, and knowledge of the general geoacoustic properties of the area's seabed to guide understanding and model development. Ray theory, with some approximations, was used to model acoustic propagation through overlying layers. Due to the volcano's size, scattering was modeled using geometric acoustics and a simple representation of volcano shape. Modeled bistatic data compared relatively well with experimental data, although some features remain unexplained. Results of an inversion for the volcano's reflection coefficient indicate that it may be acoustically softer than expected.
Use of the Wigner representation in scattering problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bemler, E. A.
1975-01-01
The basic equations of quantum scattering were translated into the Wigner representation, putting quantum mechanics in the form of a stochastic process in phase space, with real valued probability distributions and source functions. The interpretative picture associated with this representation is developed and stressed and results used in applications published elsewhere are derived. The form of the integral equation for scattering as well as its multiple scattering expansion in this representation are derived. Quantum corrections to classical propagators are briefly discussed. The basic approximation used in the Monte-Carlo method is derived in a fashion which allows for future refinement and which includes bound state production. Finally, as a simple illustration of some of the formalism, scattering is treated by a bound two body problem. Simple expressions for single and double scattering contributions to total and differential cross-sections as well as for all necessary shadow corrections are obtained.
Yin, Jie; Tao, Chao Cai, Peng; Liu, Xiaojun
2015-06-08
Acoustically inhomogeneous mediums with multiple scattering are often the nightmare of photoacoustic tomography. In order to break this limitation, a photoacoustic tomography scheme combining ultrasound interferometry and time reversal is proposed to achieve images in acoustically scattering medium. An ultrasound interferometry is developed to determine the unknown Green's function of strong scattering tissue. Using the determined Greens' function, a time-reversal process is carried out to restore images behind an acoustically inhomogeneous layer from the scattering photoacoustic signals. This method effectively decreases the false contrast, noise, and position deviation of images induced by the multiple scattering. Phantom experiment is carried out to validate the method. Therefore, the proposed method could have potential value in extending the biomedical applications of photoacoustic tomography in acoustically inhomogeneous tissue.
Guided acoustic and optical waves in silicon-on-insulator for Brillouin scattering and optomechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarabalis, Christopher J.; Hill, Jeff T.; Safavi-Naeini, Amir H.
2016-10-01
We numerically study silicon waveguides on silica showing that it is possible to simultaneously guide optical and acoustic waves in the technologically important silicon on insulator (SOI) material system. Thin waveguides, or fins, exhibit geometrically softened mechanical modes at gigahertz frequencies with phase velocities below the Rayleigh velocity in glass, eliminating acoustic radiation losses. We propose slot waveguides on glass with telecom optical frequencies and strong radiation pressure forces resulting in Brillouin gains on the order of 500 and 50 000 W-1m-1 for backward and forward Brillouin scattering, respectively.
Fischell, Erin M; Schmidt, Henrik
2015-12-01
One of the long term goals of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) minehunting is to have multiple inexpensive AUVs in a harbor autonomously classify hazards. Existing acoustic methods for target classification using AUV-based sensing, such as sidescan and synthetic aperture sonar, require an expensive payload on each outfitted vehicle and post-processing and/or image interpretation. A vehicle payload and machine learning classification methodology using bistatic angle dependence of target scattering amplitudes between a fixed acoustic source and target has been developed for onboard, fully autonomous classification with lower cost-per-vehicle. To achieve the high-quality, densely sampled three-dimensional (3D) bistatic scattering data required by this research, vehicle sampling behaviors and an acoustic payload for precision timed data acquisition with a 16 element nose array were demonstrated. 3D bistatic scattered field data were collected by an AUV around spherical and cylindrical targets insonified by a 7-9 kHz fixed source. The collected data were compared to simulated scattering models. Classification and confidence estimation were shown for the sphere versus cylinder case on the resulting real and simulated bistatic amplitude data. The final models were used for classification of simulated targets in real time in the LAMSS MOOS-IvP simulation package [M. Benjamin, H. Schmidt, P. Newman, and J. Leonard, J. Field Rob. 27, 834-875 (2010)].
Axisymmetric scattering of an acoustical Bessel beam by a rigid fixed spheroid.
Mitri, Farid G
2015-10-01
Based on the partial-wave series expansion (PWSE) method in spherical coordinates, a formal analytical solution for the acoustic scattering of a zeroth-order Bessel acoustic beam centered on a rigid fixed (oblate or prolate) spheroid is provided. The unknown scattering coefficients of the spheroid are determined by solving a system of linear equations derived for the Neumann boundary condition. Numerical results for the modulus of the backscattered pressure (θ = π) in the near field and the backscattering form function in the far field for both prolate and oblate spheroids are presented and discussed, with particular emphasis on the aspect ratio (i.e., the ratio of the major axis over the minor axis of the spheroid), the half-cone angle of the Bessel beam, and the dimensionless frequency. The plots display periodic oscillations (versus the dimensionless frequency) because of the interference of specularly reflected waves in the backscattering direction with circumferential Franz' waves circumnavigating the surface of the spheroid in the surrounding fluid. Moreover, the 3-D directivity patterns illustrate the near- and far-field axisymmetric scattering. Investigations in underwater acoustics, particle levitation, scattering, and the detection of submerged elongated objects and other related applications utilizing Bessel waves would benefit from the results of the present study. PMID:26470043
Fischell, Erin M; Schmidt, Henrik
2015-12-01
One of the long term goals of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) minehunting is to have multiple inexpensive AUVs in a harbor autonomously classify hazards. Existing acoustic methods for target classification using AUV-based sensing, such as sidescan and synthetic aperture sonar, require an expensive payload on each outfitted vehicle and post-processing and/or image interpretation. A vehicle payload and machine learning classification methodology using bistatic angle dependence of target scattering amplitudes between a fixed acoustic source and target has been developed for onboard, fully autonomous classification with lower cost-per-vehicle. To achieve the high-quality, densely sampled three-dimensional (3D) bistatic scattering data required by this research, vehicle sampling behaviors and an acoustic payload for precision timed data acquisition with a 16 element nose array were demonstrated. 3D bistatic scattered field data were collected by an AUV around spherical and cylindrical targets insonified by a 7-9 kHz fixed source. The collected data were compared to simulated scattering models. Classification and confidence estimation were shown for the sphere versus cylinder case on the resulting real and simulated bistatic amplitude data. The final models were used for classification of simulated targets in real time in the LAMSS MOOS-IvP simulation package [M. Benjamin, H. Schmidt, P. Newman, and J. Leonard, J. Field Rob. 27, 834-875 (2010)]. PMID:26723332
A PROPOSED BENCHMARK PROBLEM FOR SCATTER CALCULATIONS IN RADIOGRAPHIC MODELLING
Jaenisch, G.-R.; Bellon, C.; Schumm, A.; Tabary, J.; Duvauchelle, Ph.
2009-03-03
Code Validation is a permanent concern in computer modelling, and has been addressed repeatedly in eddy current and ultrasonic modeling. A good benchmark problem is sufficiently simple to be taken into account by various codes without strong requirements on geometry representation capabilities, focuses on few or even a single aspect of the problem at hand to facilitate interpretation and to avoid that compound errors compensate themselves, yields a quantitative result and is experimentally accessible. In this paper we attempt to address code validation for one aspect of radiographic modeling, the scattered radiation prediction. Many NDT applications can not neglect scattered radiation, and the scatter calculation thus is important to faithfully simulate the inspection situation. Our benchmark problem covers the wall thickness range of 10 to 50 mm for single wall inspections, with energies ranging from 100 to 500 keV in the first stage, and up to 1 MeV with wall thicknesses up to 70 mm in the extended stage. A simple plate geometry is sufficient for this purpose, and the scatter data is compared on a photon level, without a film model, which allows for comparisons with reference codes like MCNP. We compare results of three Monte Carlo codes (McRay, Sindbad and Moderato) as well as an analytical first order scattering code (VXI), and confront them to results obtained with MCNP. The comparison with an analytical scatter model provides insights into the application domain where this kind of approach can successfully replace Monte-Carlo calculations.
Acoustic scattering by elastic cylinders of elliptical cross-section and splitting up of resonances
Ancey, S. Bazzali, E. Gabrielli, P. Mercier, M.
2014-05-21
The scattering of a plane acoustic wave by an infinite elastic cylinder of elliptical cross section is studied from a modal formalism by emphasizing the role of the symmetries. More precisely, as the symmetry is broken in the transition from the infinite circular cylinder to the elliptical one, the splitting up of resonances is observed both theoretically and experimentally. This phenomenon can be interpreted using group theory. The main difficulty stands in the application of this theory within the framework of the vectorial formalism in elastodynamics. This method significantly simplifies the numerical treatment of the problem, provides a full classification of the resonances, and gives a physical interpretation of the splitting up in terms of symmetry breaking. An experimental part based on ultrasonic spectroscopy complements the theoretical study. A series of tank experiments is carried out in the case of aluminium elliptical cylinders immersed in water, in the frequency range 0 ≤ kr ≤ 50, where kr is the reduced wave number in the fluid. The symmetry is broken by selecting various cylinders of increasing eccentricity. More precisely, the greater the eccentricity, the higher the splitting up of resonances is accentuated. The experimental results provide a very good agreement with the theoretical ones, the splitting up is observed on experimental form functions, and the split resonant modes are identified on angular diagrams.
Studies of Inviscid Flux Schemes for Acoustics and Turbulence Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morris, Christopher I.
2013-01-01
The last two decades have witnessed tremendous growth in computational power, the development of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes which scale well over thousands of processors, and the refinement of unstructured grid-generation tools which facilitate rapid surface and volume gridding of complex geometries. Thus, engineering calculations of 10(exp 7) - 10(exp 8) finite-volume cells have become routine for some types of problems. Although the Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) approach to modeling turbulence is still in extensive and wide use, increasingly large-eddy simulation (LES) and hybrid RANS-LES approaches are being applied to resolve the largest scales of turbulence in many engineering problems. However, it has also become evident that LES places different requirements on the numerical approaches for both the spatial and temporal discretization of the Navier Stokes equations than does RANS. In particular, LES requires high time accuracy and minimal intrinsic numerical dispersion and dissipation over a wide spectral range. In this paper, the performance of both central-difference and upwind-biased spatial discretizations is examined for a one-dimensional acoustic standing wave problem, the Taylor-Green vortex problem, and the turbulent channel ow problem.
Studies of Inviscid Flux Schemes for Acoustics and Turbulence Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morris, C. I.
2013-01-01
The last two decades have witnessed tremendous growth in computational power, the development of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes which scale well over thousands of processors, and the refinement of unstructured grid-generation tools which facilitate rapid surface and volume gridding of complex geometries. Thus, engineering calculations of 10(exp 7) - 10(exp 8) finite-volume cells have become routine for some types of problems. Although the Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) approach to modeling turbulence is still in extensive and wide use, increasingly large-eddy simulation (LES) and hybrid RANS-LES approaches are being applied to resolve the largest scales of turbulence in many engineering problems. However, it has also become evident that LES places different requirements on the numerical approaches for both the spatial and temporal discretization of the Navier Stokes equations than does RANS. In particular, LES requires high time accuracy and minimal intrinsic numerical dispersion and dissipation over a wide spectral range. In this paper, the performance of both central-difference and upwind-biased spatial discretizations is examined for a one-dimensional acoustic standing wave problem, the Taylor-Green vortex problem, and the turbulent channel fl ow problem.
Daeva, S.G.; Setukha, A.V.
2015-03-10
A numerical method for solving a problem of diffraction of acoustic waves by system of solid and thin objects based on the reduction the problem to a boundary integral equation in which the integral is understood in the sense of finite Hadamard value is proposed. To solve this equation we applied piecewise constant approximations and collocation methods numerical scheme. The difference between the constructed scheme and earlier known is in obtaining approximate analytical expressions to appearing system of linear equations coefficients by separating the main part of the kernel integral operator. The proposed numerical scheme is tested on the solution of the model problem of diffraction of an acoustic wave by inelastic sphere.
Dushaw, Brian D; Sagen, Hanne; Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka
2016-08-01
Acoustic tomography systems have been deployed in Fram Strait over the past decade to complement existing observing systems there. The observed acoustic arrival patterns are unusual, however, consisting of a single, broad arrival pulse, with no discernible repeating patterns or individual ray arrivals. The nature of these arrivals is caused by vigorous acoustic scattering from the small-scale processes that dominate ocean variability in Fram Strait. Simple models for internal wave and mesoscale variability were constructed and tailored to match the variability observed by moored thermisters in Fram Strait. The internal wave contribution to variability is weak. Acoustic propagation through a simulated ocean consisting of a climatological sound speed plus mesoscale and internal wave scintillations obtains arrival patterns that match the characteristics of those observed, i.e., pulse width and travel time variation. The scintillations cause a proliferation of acoustic ray paths, however, reminiscent of "ray chaos." This understanding of the acoustic forward problem is prerequisite to designing an inverse scheme for estimating temperature from the observed travel times. PMID:27586755
Improved TV-CS Approaches for Inverse Scattering Problem
Bevacqua, M. T.; Di Donato, L.
2015-01-01
Total Variation and Compressive Sensing (TV-CS) techniques represent a very attractive approach to inverse scattering problems. In fact, if the unknown is piecewise constant and so has a sparse gradient, TV-CS approaches allow us to achieve optimal reconstructions, reducing considerably the number of measurements and enforcing the sparsity on the gradient of the sought unknowns. In this paper, we introduce two different techniques based on TV-CS that exploit in a different manner the concept of gradient in order to improve the solution of the inverse scattering problems obtained by TV-CS approach. Numerical examples are addressed to show the effectiveness of the method. PMID:26495420
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ariza, A.; Landeira, J. M.; Escánez, A.; Wienerroither, R.; Aguilar de Soto, N.; Røstad, A.; Kaartvedt, S.; Hernández-León, S.
2016-05-01
Diel vertical migration (DVM) facilitates biogeochemical exchanges between shallow waters and the deep ocean. An effective way of monitoring the migrant biota is by acoustic observations although the interpretation of the scattering layers poses challenges. Here we combine results from acoustic observations at 18 and 38 kHz with limited net sampling in order to unveil the origin of acoustic phenomena around the Canary Islands, subtropical northeast Atlantic Ocean. Trawling data revealed a high diversity of fishes, decapods and cephalopods (152 species), although few dominant species likely were responsible for most of the sound scattering in the region. We identified four different acoustic scattering layers in the mesopelagic realm: (1) at 400-500 m depth, a swimbladder resonance phenomenon at 18 kHz produced by gas-bearing migrant fish such as Vinciguerria spp. and Lobianchia dofleini, (2) at 500-600 m depth, a dense 38 kHz layer resulting primarily from the gas-bearing and non-migrant fish Cyclothone braueri, and to a lesser extent, from fluid-like migrant fauna also inhabiting these depths, (3) between 600 and 800 m depth, a weak signal at both 18 and 38 kHz ascribed either to migrant fish or decapods, and (4) below 800 m depth, a weak non-migrant layer at 18 kHz which was not sampled. All the dielly migrating layers reached the epipelagic zone at night, with the shorter-range migrations moving at 4.6 ± 2.6 cm s - 1 and the long-range ones at 11.5 ± 3.8 cm s - 1. This work reduces uncertainties interpreting standard frequencies in mesopelagic studies, while enhances the potential of acoustics for future research and monitoring of the deep pelagic fauna in the Canary Islands.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neuville, C.; Tassin, V.; Pesme, D.; Monteil, M.-C.; Masson-Laborde, P.-E.; Baccou, C.; Fremerye, P.; Philippe, F.; Seytor, P.; Teychenné, D.; Seka, W.; Katz, J.; Bahr, R.; Depierreux, S.
2016-06-01
The indirect-drive scheme to inertial confinement fusion uses a large number of laser beams arranged in a symmetric angular distribution. Collective laser plasma instabilities can therefore develop that couple all the incident laser waves located in a cone to the daughter wave growing along the cone symmetry axis [D. F. DuBois et al., Phys. Fluids B 4, 241 (1992)]. With complementary diagnostics of Thomson scattering and of the scattered light, we demonstrate the occurrence of collective stimulated Brillouin sidescattering driving collective acoustic waves in indirect-drive experiments.
Surprises and anomalies in acoustical and optical scattering and radiation forces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marston, Philip L.
2015-09-01
Experiments on radiation torques and negative radiation forces by various researchers display how the underlying wave-field geometry influences radiation forces. Other situations strongly influenced by wave-field geometry include high-order caustics present in light-scattering patterns of objects as simple as oblate drops of water or oblate bubbles of air in water. Related theoretical and experimental investigations are considered. Acoustic scattering enhancements associated with various guided waves are also examined. These include guided waves having negative group velocities and guided wave radiating wavefronts having a vanishing Gaussian curvature.
Neuville, C; Tassin, V; Pesme, D; Monteil, M-C; Masson-Laborde, P-E; Baccou, C; Fremerye, P; Philippe, F; Seytor, P; Teychenné, D; Seka, W; Katz, J; Bahr, R; Depierreux, S
2016-06-10
The indirect-drive scheme to inertial confinement fusion uses a large number of laser beams arranged in a symmetric angular distribution. Collective laser plasma instabilities can therefore develop that couple all the incident laser waves located in a cone to the daughter wave growing along the cone symmetry axis [D. F. DuBois et al., Phys. Fluids B 4, 241 (1992)]. With complementary diagnostics of Thomson scattering and of the scattered light, we demonstrate the occurrence of collective stimulated Brillouin sidescattering driving collective acoustic waves in indirect-drive experiments. PMID:27341238
Acoustical problems in high energy pulsed E-beams lasers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horton, T. E.; Wylie, K. F.
1976-01-01
During the pulsing of high energy, CO2, electron beam lasers, a significant fraction of input energy ultimately appears as acoustical disturbances. The magnitudes of these disturbances were quantified by computer analysis. Acoustical and shock impedance data are presented on materials (Rayleigh type) which show promise in controlling acoustical disturbance in E-beam systems.
Saikia, P.
1981-07-01
The spectrum of stimulated Brillouin scattering from an inhomogeneous moving laser plasma is analyzed. The damping of acoustic waves and scattered electromagnetic waves is taken into account. Spectra are derived for various scattering angles and for various radii of the laser beam. For all observation angles the center of the spectral line is at an unshifted frequency. As the observation angle increases, the width of the red wing in the spectrum increases. The intensity of the scattered light is very anisotropic.
Problems in measuring diffuse X-ray scattering
Welberry, T. Richard; Goossens, Darren J.; Heerdegen, Aidan P.; Lee, Peter L.
2005-01-01
Problems encountered in making measurements of diffuse X-ray scattering are discussed. These generally arise from the need to measure very weak scattering in the presence of very strong scattering (Bragg peaks) using multi-detectors of various kinds. The problems are not confined to synchrotron experiments but may even occur using a tube source in the home laboratory. Specific details are given of experiments using 80.725 keV X-rays and a mar345 Image Plate detector on the 1-ID beamline of XOR at the Advanced Photon Source. In these a severe ‘blooming’ artefact which occurred around some strong Bragg peaks was traced to fluorescence from a steel mounting plate in the detector when strong Bragg peaks were incident. Algorithms developed to remove these artefacts from the data are described.
Studies of Inviscid Flux Schemes for Acoustics and Turbulence Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morris, Chris
2013-01-01
Five different central difference schemes, based on a conservative differencing form of the Kennedy and Gruber skew-symmetric scheme, were compared with six different upwind schemes based on primitive variable reconstruction and the Roe flux. These eleven schemes were tested on a one-dimensional acoustic standing wave problem, the Taylor-Green vortex problem and a turbulent channel flow problem. The central schemes were generally very accurate and stable, provided the grid stretching rate was kept below 10%. As near-DNS grid resolutions, the results were comparable to reference DNS calculations. At coarser grid resolutions, the need for an LES SGS model became apparent. There was a noticeable improvement moving from CD-2 to CD-4, and higher-order schemes appear to yield clear benefits on coarser grids. The UB-7 and CU-5 upwind schemes also performed very well at near-DNS grid resolutions. The UB-5 upwind scheme does not do as well, but does appear to be suitable for well-resolved DNS. The UF-2 and UB-3 upwind schemes, which have significant dissipation over a wide spectral range, appear to be poorly suited for DNS or LES.
Acoustic scattering of a Bessel vortex beam by a rigid fixed spheroid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitri, F. G.
2015-12-01
Partial-wave series representation of the acoustic scattering field of high-order Bessel vortex beams by rigid oblate and prolate spheroids using the modal matching method is developed. The method, which is applicable to slightly elongated objects at low-to-moderate frequencies, requires solving a system of linear equations which depends on the partial-wave index n and the order of the Bessel vortex beam m using truncated partial-wave series expansions (PWSEs), and satisfying the Neumann boundary condition for a rigid immovable surface in the least-squares sense. This original semi-analytical approach developed for Bessel vortex beams is demonstrated for finite oblate and prolate spheroids, where the mathematical functions describing the spheroidal geometry are written in a form involving single angular (polar) integrals that are numerically computed. The transverse (θ = π / 2) and 3D scattering directivity patterns are evaluated in the far-field for both prolate and oblate spheroids, with particular emphasis on the aspect ratio (i.e., the ratio of the major axis over the minor axis of the spheroid) not exceeding 3:1, the half-cone angle β and order m of the Bessel vortex beam, as well as the dimensionless size parameter kr0. Periodic oscillations in the magnitude plots of the far-field scattering form function are observed, which result from the interference of the reflected waves with the circumferential (Franz') waves circumnavigating the surface of the spheroid in the surrounding fluid. Moreover, the 3D directivity patterns illustrate the far-field scattering from the spheroid, that vanishes in the forward (θ = 0) and backward (θ = π) directions. Particular applications in underwater acoustics and scattering, acoustic levitation and the detection of submerged elongated objects using Bessel vortex waves to name a few, would benefit from the results of the present investigation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Hai-Bin; Li, Yue; Zhao, Hong-Gang; Wen, Ji-Hong; Wen, Xi-Sen
2014-10-01
The acoustic properties of anechoic layers with a singly periodic array of cylindrical scatterers are investigated. A method combined plane wave expansion and finite element analysis is extended for out-of-plane incidence. The reflection characteristics of the anechoic layers with cavities and locally resonant scatterers are discussed. The backing is a steel plate followed by an air half space. Under this approximate zero transmission backing condition, the reflection reduction is induced by the absorption enhancement. The absorption mechanism is explained by the scattering/absorption cross section of the isolated scatterer. Three types of resonant modes which can induce efficient absorption are revealed. Due to the fact that the frequencies of the resonant modes are related to the size of the scatterers, anechoic layers with scatterers of mixed size can broaden the absorption band. A genetic optimization algorithm is adopted to design the anechoic layer with scatterers of mixed size at a desired frequency band from 2 kHz to 10 kHz for normal incidence, and the influence of the incident angle is also discussed.
Seismic scattering of low-grazing-angle acoustic waves incident on the seafloor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greaves, Robert John
The goal of this thesis is to develop a methodology to interpret sound scattered from the seafloor in terms of seafloor structure and subseafloor geological properties. Specifically, this work has been directed towards the interpretation of matched-filtered, beamformed monostatic acoustic reverberation data acquired on the west flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge when the seafloor is insonified by a band-limited, low-grazing-angle acoustic pulse. This research is based on the hypothesis that observed backscatter signals are produced by a combination of seafloor (interface) scattering and subseafloor (volume) scattering from structure having variations at scale lengths similar to the wavelength of the insonifying acoustic field. Analysis of monostatic reverberation data acquired during the Site A experiment (Run 1) of the Acoustic Reverberation Special Research Program 1993 Acoustics Cruise suggests that the scattered signals cannot be accounted for quantitatively in terms of large- scale slope, even though a strong correspondence between high intensity backscatter and seafloor ridges is observed. In order to investigate and quantify the actual sources of seafloor scattering, a numerical modeling study of seafloor models is undertaken using a finite- difference solution to the elastic wave equation. Geological data available at Site A and published reports describing geological properties of similar deep ocean crustal regions are used to develop a realistic seafloor model for the study area with realistic constraints on elastic parameters. Wavelength-scale heterogeneity in each model, in the form of seafloor roughness and subseafloor volume heterogeneity is defined using stochastic distributions with Gaussian autocorrelations. These distributions are quantified by their correlation lengths and standard deviation in amplitude. In order to incorporate all seafloor structure in a single parameterization of seafloor scattering, large-scale slope and wavelength
Characterizing riverbed sediment using high-frequency acoustics 1: spectral properties of scattering
Buscombe, Daniel D.; Grams, Paul E.; Kaplinski, Matt A.
2014-01-01
Bed-sediment classification using high-frequency hydro-acoustic instruments is challenging when sediments are spatially heterogeneous, which is often the case in rivers. The use of acoustic backscatter to classify sediments is an attractive alternative to analysis of topography because it is potentially sensitive to grain-scale roughness. Here, a new method is presented which uses high-frequency acoustic backscatter from multibeam sonar to classify heterogeneous riverbed sediments by type (sand, gravel,rock) continuously in space and at small spatial resolution. In this, the first of a pair of papers that examine the scattering signatures from a heterogeneous riverbed, methods are presented to construct spatially explicit maps of spectral properties from geo-referenced point clouds of geometrically and radiometrically corrected echoes. Backscatter power spectra are computed to produce scale and amplitude metrics that collectively characterize the length scales of stochastic measures of riverbed scattering, termed ‘stochastic geometries’. Backscatter aggregated over small spatial scales have spectra that obey a power-law. This apparently self-affine behavior could instead arise from morphological- and grain-scale roughnesses over multiple overlapping scales, or riverbed scattering being transitional between Rayleigh and geometric regimes. Relationships exist between stochastic geometries of backscatter and areas of rough and smooth sediments. However, no one parameter can uniquely characterize a particular substrate, nor definitively separate the relative contributions of roughness and acoustic impedance (hardness). Combinations of spectral quantities do, however, have the potential to delineate riverbed sediment patchiness, in a data-driven approach comparing backscatter with bed-sediment observations (which is the subject of part two of this manuscript).
Spurious fields in time domain computations of scattering problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kangro, Urve; Nicolaides, Roy
1995-01-01
In this paper two-dimensional electromagnetic scattering problems with a time-periodic incident field are considered. The scatterer is a perfect conductor, and an artificial boundary condition is used. The large time behavior of solutions, depending on (divergence-free) initial conditions, is characterized. It turns out that in addition to the expected time-periodic solution the limiting solution may also contain a spurious stationary field. The source of the stationary field is explained and equations describing it are obtained. Several avoidance strategies are discussed, and numerical comparisons of these techniques are given.
Canonically Transformed Detectors Applied to the Classical Inverse Scattering Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jung, C.; Seligman, T. H.; Torres, J. M.
The concept of measurement in classical scattering is interpreted as an overlap of a particle packet with some area in phase space that describes the detector. Considering that usually we record the passage of particles at some point in space, a common detector is described e.g. for one-dimensional systems as a narrow strip in phase space. We generalize this concept allowing this strip to be transformed by some, possibly non-linear, canonical transformation, introducing thus a canonically transformed detector. We show such detectors to be useful in the context of the inverse scattering problem in situations where recently discovered scattering echoes could not be seen without their help. More relevant applications in quantum systems are suggested.
Love, Richard H
2013-11-01
In the 1970s a model of resonant scattering from a swimbladder-bearing fish was developed. The fish was modeled as an air bubble, representing a swimbladder, encased in a viscous spherical shell, representing the fish flesh. This model has been used successfully to correlate acoustic scattering data with fish information in a number of ocean locations. Recently, questions have arisen about viscous damping of the flesh and the thickness of the shell [K. Baik, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133, 5-8 (2013)]. This Letter responds to those questions and provides practical insight into the model's use.
Love, Richard H
2013-11-01
In the 1970s a model of resonant scattering from a swimbladder-bearing fish was developed. The fish was modeled as an air bubble, representing a swimbladder, encased in a viscous spherical shell, representing the fish flesh. This model has been used successfully to correlate acoustic scattering data with fish information in a number of ocean locations. Recently, questions have arisen about viscous damping of the flesh and the thickness of the shell [K. Baik, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133, 5-8 (2013)]. This Letter responds to those questions and provides practical insight into the model's use. PMID:24180749
Haynes, Mark; Verweij, Sacha A. M.; Moghaddam, Mahta; Carson, Paul L.
2014-01-01
A self-contained source characterization method for commercial ultrasound probes in transmission acoustic inverse scattering is derived and experimentally tested. The method is based on modified scattered field volume integral equations that are linked to the source-scattering transducer model. The source-scattering parameters are estimated via pair-wise transducer measurements and the nonlinear inversion of an acoustic propagation model that is derived. This combination creates a formal link between the transducer characterization and the inverse scattering algorithm. The method is tested with two commercial ultrasound probes in a transmission geometry including provisions for estimating the probe locations and aligning a robotic rotator. The transducer characterization results show that the nonlinear inversion fit the measured data well. The transducer calibration and inverse scattering algorithm are tested on simple targets. Initial images show that the recovered contrasts are physically consistent with expected values. PMID:24569251
A study of MLFMA for large-scale scattering problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hastriter, Michael Larkin
This research is centered in computational electromagnetics with a focus on solving large-scale problems accurately in a timely fashion using first principle physics. Error control of the translation operator in 3-D is shown. A parallel implementation of the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) was studied as far as parallel efficiency and scaling. The large-scale scattering program (LSSP), based on the ScaleME library, was used to solve ultra-large-scale problems including a 200lambda sphere with 20 million unknowns. As these large-scale problems were solved, techniques were developed to accurately estimate the memory requirements. Careful memory management is needed in order to solve these massive problems. The study of MLFMA in large-scale problems revealed significant errors that stemmed from inconsistencies in constants used by different parts of the algorithm. These were fixed to produce the most accurate data possible for large-scale surface scattering problems. Data was calculated on a missile-like target using both high frequency methods and MLFMA. This data was compared and analyzed to determine possible strategies to increase data acquisition speed and accuracy through multiple computation method hybridization.
Nonlocal Separable Solutions of the Inverse Scattering Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gherghetta, Tony; Nambu, Yoichiro
We extend the nonlocal separable potential solutions of Gourdin and Martin for the inverse scattering problem to the case where sin δ0 has more than N zeroes, δ0 being the s-wave scattering phase shift and δ0(0) - δ0(∞) = Nπ. As an example we construct the solution for the particular case of 4He and show how to incorporate a weakly bound state. Using a local square well potential chosen to mimic the real 4He potential, we compare the off-shell extension of the nonlocal potential solution with the exactly solvable square well. We then discuss how a nonlocal potential might be used to simplify the many-body problem of liquid 4He.
Control of acoustic absorption in one-dimensional scattering by resonant scatterers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merkel, A.; Theocharis, G.; Richoux, O.; Romero-García, V.; Pagneux, V.
2015-12-01
We experimentally report perfect acoustic absorption through the interplay of the inherent losses and transparent modes with high Q factor. These modes are generated in a two-port, one-dimensional waveguide, which is side-loaded by isolated resonators of moderate Q factor. In symmetric structures, we show that in the presence of small inherent losses, these modes lead to coherent perfect absorption associated with one-sided absorption slightly larger than 0.5. In asymmetric structures, near perfect one-sided absorption is possible (96%) with a deep sub-wavelength sample ( λ / 28 , where λ is the wavelength of the sound wave in the air). The control of strong absorption by the proper tuning of the radiation leakage of few resonators with weak losses will open possibilities in various wave-control devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanyshyn Yaman, Olha; Le Louër, Frédérique
2016-09-01
This paper deals with the material derivative analysis of the boundary integral operators arising from the scattering theory of time-harmonic electromagnetic waves and its application to inverse problems. We present new results using the Piola transform of the boundary parametrisation to transport the integral operators on a fixed reference boundary. The transported integral operators are infinitely differentiable with respect to the parametrisations and simplified expressions of the material derivatives are obtained. Using these results, we extend a nonlinear integral equations approach developed for solving acoustic inverse obstacle scattering problems to electromagnetism. The inverse problem is formulated as a pair of nonlinear and ill-posed integral equations for the unknown boundary representing the boundary condition and the measurements, for which the iteratively regularized Gauss-Newton method can be applied. The algorithm has the interesting feature that it avoids the numerous numerical solution of boundary value problems at each iteration step. Numerical experiments are presented in the special case of star-shaped obstacles.
Doc, Jean-Baptiste; Conoir, Jean-Marc; Marchiano, Régis; Fuster, Daniel
2016-04-01
The weakly nonlinear propagation of acoustic waves in monodisperse bubbly liquids is investigated numerically. A hydrodynamic model based on the averaged two-phase fluid equations is coupled with the Rayleigh-Plesset equation to model the dynamics of bubbles at the local scale. The present model is validated in the linear regime by comparing with the Foldy approximation. The analysis of the pressure signals in the linear regime highlights two resonance frequencies: the Minnaert frequency and a multiple scattering resonance that strongly depends on the bubble concentration. For weakly nonlinear regimes, the generation of higher harmonics is observed only for the Minnaert frequency. Linear combinations between the Minnaert harmonics and the multiple scattering resonance are also observed. However, the most significant effect observed is the appearance of softening-hardening effects that share some similarities with those observed for sandstones or cracked materials. These effects are related to the multiple scattering resonance. Downward or upward resonance frequency shifts can be observed depending on the characteristic of the incident wave when increasing the excitation amplitude. It is shown that the frequency shift can be explained assuming that the acoustic wave velocity depends on a law different from those usually encountered for sandstones or cracked materials.
Doc, Jean-Baptiste; Conoir, Jean-Marc; Marchiano, Régis; Fuster, Daniel
2016-04-01
The weakly nonlinear propagation of acoustic waves in monodisperse bubbly liquids is investigated numerically. A hydrodynamic model based on the averaged two-phase fluid equations is coupled with the Rayleigh-Plesset equation to model the dynamics of bubbles at the local scale. The present model is validated in the linear regime by comparing with the Foldy approximation. The analysis of the pressure signals in the linear regime highlights two resonance frequencies: the Minnaert frequency and a multiple scattering resonance that strongly depends on the bubble concentration. For weakly nonlinear regimes, the generation of higher harmonics is observed only for the Minnaert frequency. Linear combinations between the Minnaert harmonics and the multiple scattering resonance are also observed. However, the most significant effect observed is the appearance of softening-hardening effects that share some similarities with those observed for sandstones or cracked materials. These effects are related to the multiple scattering resonance. Downward or upward resonance frequency shifts can be observed depending on the characteristic of the incident wave when increasing the excitation amplitude. It is shown that the frequency shift can be explained assuming that the acoustic wave velocity depends on a law different from those usually encountered for sandstones or cracked materials. PMID:27106317
Weber, Thomas C; Lutcavage, Molly E; Schroth-Miller, Madeline L
2013-06-01
Schools of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) can exhibit highly organized spatial structure within the school. This structure was quantified for dome shaped schools using both aerial imagery collected from a commercial spotter plane and 400 kHz multibeam echo sounder data collected on a fishing vessel in 2009 in Cape Cod Bay, MA. Observations from one school, containing an estimated 263 fish within an approximately ellipsoidal volume of 1900 m(3), were used to seed an acoustic model that estimated the school target strength at frequencies between 10 and 2000 Hz. The fish's swimbladder resonance was estimated to occur at approximately 50 Hz. The acoustic model examined single and multiple scattering solutions and also a completely incoherent summation of scattering responses from the fish. Three levels of structure within the school were examined, starting with fish locations that were constrained by the school boundaries but placed according to a Poisson process, then incorporating a constraint on the distance to the nearest neighbor, and finally adding a constraint on the bearing to the nearest neighbor. Results suggest that both multiple scattering and spatial organization within the school should be considered when estimating the target strength of schools similar to the ones considered here. PMID:23742334
Numerical method to compute acoustic scattering effect of a moving source.
Song, Hao; Yi, Mingxu; Huang, Jun; Pan, Yalin; Liu, Dawei
2016-01-01
In this paper, the aerodynamic characteristic of a ducted tail rotor in hover has been numerically studied using CFD method. An analytical time domain formulation based on Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation is derived for the prediction of the acoustic velocity field and used as Neumann boundary condition on a rigid scattering surface. In order to predict the aerodynamic noise, a hybrid method combing computational aeroacoustics with an acoustic thin-body boundary element method has been proposed. The aerodynamic results and the calculated sound pressure levels (SPLs) are compared with the known method for validation. Simulation results show that the duct can change the value of SPLs and the sound directivity. Compared with the isolate tail rotor, the SPLs of the ducted tail rotor are smaller at certain azimuth. PMID:27610323
Numerical method to compute acoustic scattering effect of a moving source.
Song, Hao; Yi, Mingxu; Huang, Jun; Pan, Yalin; Liu, Dawei
2016-01-01
In this paper, the aerodynamic characteristic of a ducted tail rotor in hover has been numerically studied using CFD method. An analytical time domain formulation based on Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation is derived for the prediction of the acoustic velocity field and used as Neumann boundary condition on a rigid scattering surface. In order to predict the aerodynamic noise, a hybrid method combing computational aeroacoustics with an acoustic thin-body boundary element method has been proposed. The aerodynamic results and the calculated sound pressure levels (SPLs) are compared with the known method for validation. Simulation results show that the duct can change the value of SPLs and the sound directivity. Compared with the isolate tail rotor, the SPLs of the ducted tail rotor are smaller at certain azimuth.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hanson, Donald B.
1999-01-01
A reduced order modeling scheme has been developed for the unsteady acoustic and vortical coupling between blade rows of a turbomachine. The essential behavior of the system is governed by modal scattering coefficients (i.e., reflection and transmission coefficients) of the rotor, stator, inlet and nozzle, which are calculated as if they were connected to non-reflecting ducts. The objective of this report is to identify fundamental behavior of these scattering coefficients for a better understanding of the role of blade row reflection and transmission in noise generation. A 2D flat plate unsteady cascade model is used for the analysis with the expectation that the general behavior presented herein will carry over to models that include more realistic flow and geometry. It is shown that stators scatter input waves into many modes at the same frequency whereas rotors scatter on frequency, or harmonic order. Important cases are shown here the rotor reflection coefficient is greater than unity; a mode at blade passing frequency (BPF) traveling from the stator with unit sound power is reflected by the rotor with more than unit power at 2xBPF and 3xBPE Analysis is presented to explain this unexpected phenomenon. Scattering curves are presented in a format chosen for design use and for physical interpretation. To aid in interpretation of the curves, formulas are derived for special condition where waveforms are parallel to perpendicular to the rotor.
Numerical computations on one-dimensional inverse scattering problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dunn, M. H.; Hariharan, S. I.
1983-01-01
An approximate method to determine the index of refraction of a dielectric obstacle is presented. For simplicity one dimensional models of electromagnetic scattering are treated. The governing equations yield a second order boundary value problem, in which the index of refraction appears as a functional parameter. The availability of reflection coefficients yield two additional boundary conditions. The index of refraction by a k-th order spline which can be written as a linear combination of B-splines is approximated. For N distinct reflection coefficients, the resulting N boundary value problems yield a system of N nonlinear equations in N unknowns which are the coefficients of the B-splines.
Hesford, Andrew J.; Tillett, Jason C.; Astheimer, Jeffrey P.; Waag, Robert C.
2014-01-01
Accurate and efficient modeling of ultrasound propagation through realistic tissue models is important to many aspects of clinical ultrasound imaging. Simplified problems with known solutions are often used to study and validate numerical methods. Greater confidence in a time-domain k-space method and a frequency-domain fast multipole method is established in this paper by analyzing results for realistic models of the human breast. Models of breast tissue were produced by segmenting magnetic resonance images of ex vivo specimens into seven distinct tissue types. After confirming with histologic analysis by pathologists that the model structures mimicked in vivo breast, the tissue types were mapped to variations in sound speed and acoustic absorption. Calculations of acoustic scattering by the resulting model were performed on massively parallel supercomputer clusters using parallel implementations of the k-space method and the fast multipole method. The efficient use of these resources was confirmed by parallel efficiency and scalability studies using large-scale, realistic tissue models. Comparisons between the temporal and spectral results were performed in representative planes by Fourier transforming the temporal results. An RMS field error less than 3% throughout the model volume confirms the accuracy of the methods for modeling ultrasound propagation through human breast. PMID:25096103
Measurements of high-frequency acoustic scattering from glacially eroded rock outcrops.
Olson, Derek R; Lyons, Anthony P; Sæbø, Torstein O
2016-04-01
Measurements of acoustic backscattering from glacially eroded rock outcrops were made off the coast of Sandefjord, Norway using a high-frequency synthetic aperture sonar (SAS) system. A method by which scattering strength can be estimated from data collected by a SAS system is detailed, as well as a method to estimate an effective calibration parameter for the system. Scattering strength measurements from very smooth areas of the rock outcrops agree with predictions from both the small-slope approximation and perturbation theory, and range between -33 and -26 dB at 20° grazing angle. Scattering strength measurements from very rough areas of the rock outcrops agree with the sine-squared shape of the empirical Lambertian model and fall between -30 and -20 dB at 20° grazing angle. Both perturbation theory and the small-slope approximation are expected to be inaccurate for the very rough area, and overestimate scattering strength by 8 dB or more for all measurements of very rough surfaces. Supporting characterization of the environment was performed in the form of geoacoustic and roughness parameter estimates. PMID:27106331
Measurements of high-frequency acoustic scattering from glacially eroded rock outcrops.
Olson, Derek R; Lyons, Anthony P; Sæbø, Torstein O
2016-04-01
Measurements of acoustic backscattering from glacially eroded rock outcrops were made off the coast of Sandefjord, Norway using a high-frequency synthetic aperture sonar (SAS) system. A method by which scattering strength can be estimated from data collected by a SAS system is detailed, as well as a method to estimate an effective calibration parameter for the system. Scattering strength measurements from very smooth areas of the rock outcrops agree with predictions from both the small-slope approximation and perturbation theory, and range between -33 and -26 dB at 20° grazing angle. Scattering strength measurements from very rough areas of the rock outcrops agree with the sine-squared shape of the empirical Lambertian model and fall between -30 and -20 dB at 20° grazing angle. Both perturbation theory and the small-slope approximation are expected to be inaccurate for the very rough area, and overestimate scattering strength by 8 dB or more for all measurements of very rough surfaces. Supporting characterization of the environment was performed in the form of geoacoustic and roughness parameter estimates.
Stevens, Lewis L; Orler, E Bruce; Dattelbaum, Dana M; Ahart, Muhtar; Hemley, Russell J
2007-09-14
The acoustic properties of three polymer elastomers, a cross-linked poly(dimethylsiloxane) (Sylgard 184), a cross-linked terpolymer poly(ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol), and a segmented thermoplastic poly(ester urethane) copolymer (Estane 5703), have been measured from ambient pressure to approximately 12 GPa by using Brillouin scattering in high-pressure diamond anvil cells. The Brillouin-scattering technique is a powerful tool for aiding in the determination of equations of state for a variety of materials, but to date has not been applied to polymers at pressures exceeding a few kilobars. For the three elastomers, both transverse and longitudinal acoustic modes were observed, though the transverse modes were observed only at elevated pressures (>0.7 GPa) in all cases. From the Brillouin frequency shifts, longitudinal and transverse sound speeds were calculated, as were the C(11) and C(12) elastic constants, bulk, shear, and Young's moduli, and Poisson's ratios, and their respective pressure dependencies. P-V isotherms were then constructed, and fit to several empirical/semiempirical equations of state to extract the isothermal bulk modulus and its pressure derivative for each material. Finally, the lack of shear waves observed for any polymer at ambient pressure, and the pressure dependency of their appearance is discussed with regard to instrumental and material considerations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stevens, Lewis L.; Orler, E. Bruce; Dattelbaum, Dana M.; Ahart, Muhtar; Hemley, Russell J.
2007-09-01
The acoustic properties of three polymer elastomers, a cross-linked poly(dimethylsiloxane) (Sylgard® 184), a cross-linked terpolymer poly(ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol), and a segmented thermoplastic poly(ester urethane) copolymer (Estane® 5703), have been measured from ambient pressure to approximately 12GPa by using Brillouin scattering in high-pressure diamond anvil cells. The Brillouin-scattering technique is a powerful tool for aiding in the determination of equations of state for a variety of materials, but to date has not been applied to polymers at pressures exceeding a few kilobars. For the three elastomers, both transverse and longitudinal acoustic modes were observed, though the transverse modes were observed only at elevated pressures (>0.7GPa) in all cases. From the Brillouin frequency shifts, longitudinal and transverse sound speeds were calculated, as were the C11 and C12 elastic constants, bulk, shear, and Young's moduli, and Poisson's ratios, and their respective pressure dependencies. P-V isotherms were then constructed, and fit to several empirical/semiempirical equations of state to extract the isothermal bulk modulus and its pressure derivative for each material. Finally, the lack of shear waves observed for any polymer at ambient pressure, and the pressure dependency of their appearance is discussed with regard to instrumental and material considerations.
Rank-one inverse scattering problem: Reformulation and analytic solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartt, K.
1984-03-01
Using the K-matrix formalism, we give a simplified reformulation of the S-wave rank-one inverse scattering problem. The resulting Cauchy integral equation, obtained differently by Gourdin and Martin in their first paper, is tailored to rational representations of F(k)=k(δ0). Use of such F(k) permits a simple but general solution without integration, giving analytic form factors having a pole structure like the S matrix that are reducible to rational expressions using Padé approximants. Finally, we show a bound state pole condition is necessary, and makes the form factor unique.
Rank-one inverse scattering problem: Reformulation and analytic solutions
Hartt, K.
1984-03-01
Using the K-matrix formalism, we give a simplified reformulation of the S-wave rank-one inverse scattering problem. The resulting Cauchy integral equation, obtained differently by Gourdin and Martin in their first paper, is tailored to rational representations of F(k) = k cot(delta/sub 0/). Use of such F(k) permits a simple but general solution without integration, giving analytic form factors having a pole structure like the S matrix that are reducible to rational expressions using Pade approximants. Finally, we show a bound state pole condition is necessary, and makes the form factor unique.
Bottcher, C.; Strayer, M.R.; Werby, M.F.
1993-10-01
The Helmholtz-Poincare Wave Equation (H-PWE) arises in many areas of classical wave scattering theory. In particular it can be found for the cases of acoustical scattering from submerged bounded objects and electromagnetic scattering from objects. The extended boundary integral equations (EBIE) method is derived from considering both the exterior and interior solutions of the H-PWE`s. This coupled set of expressions has the advantage of not only offering a prescription for obtaining a solution for the exterior scattering problem, but it also obviates the problem of irregular values corresponding to fictitious interior eigenvalues. Once the coupled equations are derived, they can by obtained in matrix form be expanding all relevant terms in partial wave expansions, including a biorthogonal expansion of the Green function. However some freedom of choice in the choice of the surface expansion is available since the unknown surface quantities may be expanded in a variety of ways to long as closure is obtained. Out of many possible choices, we develop an optimal method to obtain such expansions which is based on the optimum eigenfunctions related to the surface of the object. In effect, we convert part of the problem (that associated with the Fredholms integral equation of the first kind) an eigenvalue problem of a related Hermition operator. The methodology will be explained in detail and examples will be presented.
Kaina, Nadège; Lemoult, Fabrice; Fink, Mathias; Lerosey, Geoffroy
2015-09-01
Metamaterials, man-made composite media structured on a scale much smaller than a wavelength, offer surprising possibilities for engineering the propagation of waves. One of the most interesting of these is the ability to achieve superlensing--that is, to focus or image beyond the diffraction limit. This originates from the left-handed behavior--the property of refracting waves negatively--that is typical of negative index metamaterials. Yet reaching this goal requires the design of 'double negative' metamaterials, which act simultaneously on the permittivity and permeability in electromagnetics, or on the density and compressibility in acoustics; this generally implies the use of two different kinds of building blocks or specific particles presenting multiple overlapping resonances. Such a requirement limits the applicability of double negative metamaterials, and has, for example, hampered any demonstration of subwavelength focusing using left-handed acoustic metamaterials. Here we show that these strict conditions can be largely relaxed by relying on media that consist of only one type of single resonant unit cell. Specifically, we show with a simple yet general semi-analytical model that judiciously breaking the symmetry of a single negative metamaterial is sufficient to turn it into a double negative one. We then demonstrate that this occurs solely because of multiple scattering of waves off the metamaterial resonant elements, a phenomenon often disregarded in these media owing to their subwavelength patterning. We apply our approach to acoustics and verify through numerical simulations that it allows the realization of negative index acoustic metamaterials based on Helmholtz resonators only. Finally, we demonstrate the operation of a negative index acoustic superlens, achieving subwavelength focusing and imaging with spot width and resolution 7 and 3.5 times better than the diffraction limit, respectively. Our findings have profound implications for the
Acoustic holography: Problems associated with construction and reconstruction techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singh, J. J.
1978-01-01
The implications of the difference between the inspecting and interrogating radiations are discussed. For real-time, distortionless, sound viewing, it is recommended that infrared radiation of wavelength comparable to the inspecting sound waves be used. The infrared images can be viewed with (IR visible) converter phosphors. The real-time display of the visible image of the acoustically-inspected object at low sound levels such as are used in medical diagnosis is evaluated. In this connection attention is drawn to the need for a phosphor screen which is such that its optical transmission at any point is directly related to the incident electron beam intensity at that point. Such a screen, coupled with an acoustical camera, can enable instantaneous sound wave reconstruction.
Acoustic phonons in chrysotile asbestos probed by high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering
Mamontov, Eugene; Vakhrushev, S. B.; Kumzerov, Yu. A,; Alatas, A.
2009-01-01
Acoustic phonons in an individual, oriented fiber of chrysotile asbestos (chemical formula Mg{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}) were observed at room temperature in the inelastic x-ray measurement with a very high (meV) resolution. The x-ray scattering vector was aligned along [1 0 0] direction of the reciprocal lattice, nearly parallel to the long axis of the fiber. The latter coincides with [1 0 0] direction of the direct lattice and the axes of the nano-channels. The data were analyzed using a damped harmonic oscillator model. Analysis of the phonon dispersion in the first Brillouin zone yielded the longitudinal sound velocity of (9200 {+-} 600) m/s.
Stimulated scattering of a whistler wave off ion-cyclotron and ion-acoustic modes in a dusty plasma
Annou, R.; Tripathi, V.K.
1998-01-01
A whistler wave propagating through a magnetized dusty plasma undergoes stimulated Brillioun scattering off ion-cyclotron and ion-acoustic modes. The dust has little effect on nonlinear coupling. However, it reduces the growth rate by introducing linear damping on the low-frequency modes. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}
Resonant raman scattering and dispersion of polar optical and acoustic phonons in hexagonal inn
Davydov, V. Yu. Klochikhin, A. A.; Smirnov, A. N.; Strashkova, I. Yu.; Krylov, A. S.; Lu Hai; Schaff, William J.; Lee, H.-M.; Hong, Y.-L.; Gwo, S.
2010-02-15
It is shown that a study of the dependence of impurity-related resonant first-order Raman scattering on the frequency of excitation light makes it possible to observe the dispersion of polar optical and acoustic branches of vibrational spectrum in hexagonal InN within a wide range of wave vectors. It is established that the wave vectors of excited phonons are uniquely related to the energy of excitation photon. Frequencies of longitudinal optical phonons E{sub 1}(LO) and A{sub 1}(LO) in hexagonal InN were measured in the range of excitation-photon energies from 2.81 to 1.17 eV and the frequencies of longitudinal acoustic phonons were measured in the range 2.81-1.83 eV of excitation-photon energies. The obtained dependences made it possible to extrapolate the dispersion of phonons A{sub 1}(LO) and E{sub 1}(LO) to as far as the point {Gamma} in the Brillouin zone and estimate the center-band energies of these phonons (these energies have not been uniquely determined so far).
Bugay, A. N.; Sazonov, S. V.
2008-08-15
A new mechanism is proposed for continuous frequency down-conversion of acoustic waves propagating in a paramagnetic crystal at a low temperature in an applied magnetic field. A transverse hypersonic pulse generating a carrier-free longitudinal strain pulse via nonlinear effects is scattered by the generated pulse. This leads to a Stokes shift in the transverse hypersonic wave proportional to its intensity, and both pulses continue to propagate in the form of a mode-locked soliton. As the transverse-pulse frequency is Stokes shifted, its spectrum becomes narrower. This process can be effectively implemented only if the linear group velocity of the transverse hypersonic pulse equals the phase velocity of the longitudinal strain wave. These velocities are renormalized by spin-phonon coupling and can be made equal by adjusting the magnitude of the applied magnetic field. The transverse structure of the soliton depends on the sign of the group velocity dispersion of the transverse component. When the dispersion is positive, planar solitons can develop whose transverse component has a topological defect of dark vortex type and longitudinal component has a hole. In the opposite case, the formation of two-component acoustic 'bullets' or vortices localized in all directions is possible.
Turnbull, D.; Li, S.; Morozov, A.; Suckewer, S.
2012-08-15
In a Raman plasma amplifier, the aim is to create plasma conditions in which Raman backscattering is the fastest growing instability, outrunning all competing effects so that it is possible to amplify and compress a laser beam to unprecedented unfocused intensities by utilizing that instability. However, achieving high efficiencies via this scheme has proven very difficult experimentally. Recent data show the simultaneous occurrence of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), and stimulated electron-acoustic scattering (SEAS). The appearance of SEAS is indicative of strong particle trapping, the existence of which is hard to justify without highlighting the interplay between SRS and SBS.
Scattering reduction of an acoustically hard cylinder covered with layered pentamode metamaterials.
Boisvert, Jeffrey E; Scandrett, Clyde L; Howarth, Thomas R
2016-06-01
Transformational acoustics offers the theoretical possibility of cloaking obstacles within fluids, provided metamaterials having continuously varying bulk moduli and densities can be found or constructed. Realistically, materials with the proper, continuously varying anisotropies do not presently exist. However, discretely layered cloaks having constant material parameters within each layer may be a viable alternative in practice. The present work considers a range of cloaks, from those comprised of fluid layers that are isotropic in bulk moduli with anisotropic density (inertial cloaks) to those having anisotropic bulk moduli and isotropic density (pentamode cloaks). In this paper an analytical solution is obtained for the case of plane wave scattering from a submerged rigid cylinder covered with a multilayered cylindrical cloak composed of discrete anisotropic fluid layers. An investigation of the parameter space defining such cloaks is undertaken with the goal of minimizing the far-field scattered pressure, using layer constituent anisotropic properties (density and bulk modulus) constrained to lie within reasonable ranges relative to those of water.
Acoustic scattering by circular cylinders of various aspect ratios. [pressure gradient microphones
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maciulaitis, A.
1979-01-01
The effects of acoustic scattering on the useful frequency range of pressure gradient microphones were investigated experimentally between ka values of 0.407 and 4.232 using two circular cylindrical models (L/D = 0.5 and 0.25) having a 25 cm outside diameter. Small condenser microphones, attached to preamplifiers by flexible connectors, were installed from inside the cylindrical bodies, and flush mounted on the exterior surface of the cylinders. A 38 cm diameter woofer in a large speaker enclosure was used as the sound source. Surface pressure augmentation and phase differences were computed from measured data for various sound wave incidence angles. Results are graphically compared with theoretical predictions supplied by NASA for ka = 0.407, 2.288, and 4.232. All other results are tabulated in the appendices. With minor exceptions, the experimentally determined pressure augmentations agreed within 0.75 dB with theoretical predictions. The agreement for relative phase angles was within 5 percent without any exceptions. Scattering parameter variations with ka and L/D ratio, as computed from experimental data, are also presented.
Scattering reduction of an acoustically hard cylinder covered with layered pentamode metamaterials.
Boisvert, Jeffrey E; Scandrett, Clyde L; Howarth, Thomas R
2016-06-01
Transformational acoustics offers the theoretical possibility of cloaking obstacles within fluids, provided metamaterials having continuously varying bulk moduli and densities can be found or constructed. Realistically, materials with the proper, continuously varying anisotropies do not presently exist. However, discretely layered cloaks having constant material parameters within each layer may be a viable alternative in practice. The present work considers a range of cloaks, from those comprised of fluid layers that are isotropic in bulk moduli with anisotropic density (inertial cloaks) to those having anisotropic bulk moduli and isotropic density (pentamode cloaks). In this paper an analytical solution is obtained for the case of plane wave scattering from a submerged rigid cylinder covered with a multilayered cylindrical cloak composed of discrete anisotropic fluid layers. An investigation of the parameter space defining such cloaks is undertaken with the goal of minimizing the far-field scattered pressure, using layer constituent anisotropic properties (density and bulk modulus) constrained to lie within reasonable ranges relative to those of water. PMID:27369167
Ecology of acoustic signalling and the problem of masking interference in insects.
Schmidt, Arne K D; Balakrishnan, Rohini
2015-01-01
The efficiency of long-distance acoustic signalling of insects in their natural habitat is constrained in several ways. Acoustic signals are not only subjected to changes imposed by the physical structure of the habitat such as attenuation and degradation but also to masking interference from co-occurring signals of other acoustically communicating species. Masking interference is likely to be a ubiquitous problem in multi-species assemblages, but successful communication in natural environments under noisy conditions suggests powerful strategies to deal with the detection and recognition of relevant signals. In this review we present recent work on the role of the habitat as a driving force in shaping insect signal structures. In the context of acoustic masking interference, we discuss the ecological niche concept and examine the role of acoustic resource partitioning in the temporal, spatial and spectral domains as sender strategies to counter masking. We then examine the efficacy of different receiver strategies: physiological mechanisms such as frequency tuning, spatial release from masking and gain control as useful strategies to counteract acoustic masking. We also review recent work on the effects of anthropogenic noise on insect acoustic communication and the importance of insect sounds as indicators of biodiversity and ecosystem health.
Kakodkar, Rohit R.; Feser, Joseph P.
2015-09-07
We present a numerical approach to the solution of elastic phonon-interface and phonon-nanostructure scattering problems based on a frequency-domain decomposition of the atomistic equations of motion and the use of perfectly matched layer (PML) boundaries. Unlike molecular dynamic wavepacket analysis, the current approach provides the ability to simulate scattering from individual phonon modes, including wavevectors in highly dispersive regimes. Like the atomistic Green's function method, the technique reduces scattering problems to a system of linear algebraic equations via a sparse, tightly banded matrix regardless of dimensionality. However, the use of PML boundaries enables rapid absorption of scattered wave energies at the boundaries and provides a simple and inexpensive interpretation of the scattered phonon energy flux calculated from the energy dissipation rate in the PML. The accuracy of the method is demonstrated on connected monoatomic chains, for which an analytic solution is known. The parameters defining the PML are found to affect the performance and guidelines for selecting optimal parameters are given. The method is used to study the energy transmission coefficient for connected diatomic chains over all available wavevectors for both optical and longitudinal phonons; it is found that when there is discontinuity between sublattices, even connected chains of equivalent acoustic impedance have near-zero transmission coefficient for short wavelengths. The phonon scattering cross section of an embedded nanocylinder is calculated in 2D for a wide range of frequencies to demonstrate the extension of the method to high dimensions. The calculations match continuum theory for long-wavelength phonons and large cylinder radii, but otherwise show complex physics associated with discreteness of the lattice. Examples include Mie oscillations which terminate when incident phonon frequencies exceed the maximum available frequency in the embedded nanocylinder, and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lazauskas, Rimantas
2015-12-01
A formalism based on the complex-scaling method is used to solve a four-nucleon scattering problem above the breakup threshold using the realistic nuclear Hamiltonians. This method allows to solve diverse scattering problems based on very trivial boundary conditions and is compatible with the techniques used to solve bound state problems.
Risk of a second cancer from scattered radiation in acoustic neuroma treatment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoon, Myonggeun; Lee, Hyunho; Sung, Jiwon; Shin, Dongoh; Park, Sungho; Chung, Weon Kuu; Jahng, Geon-Ho; Kim, Dong Wook
2014-06-01
The present study aimed to compare the risk of a secondary cancer from scattered and leakage doses in patients receiving intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Four acoustic neuroma patients were treated with IMRT, VMAT, or SRS. Their excess relative risk (ERR), excess absolute risk (EAR), and lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of a secondary cancer were estimated using the corresponding secondary doses measured at various organs by using radio-photoluminescence glass dosimeters (RPLGD) placed inside a humanoid phantom. When a prescription dose was delivered in the planning target volume of the 4 patients, the average organ equivalent doses (OED) at the thyroid, lung, liver, bowel, bladder, prostate (or ovary), and rectum were 14.6, 1.7, 0.9, 0.8, 0.6, 0.6, and 0.6 cGy, respectively, for IMRT whereas they were 19.1, 1.8, 2.0, 0.6, 0.4, 0.4, and 0.4 cGy, respectively, for VMAT, and 22.8, 4.6, 1.4, 0.7, 0.5, 0.5, and 0.5 cGy, respectively, for SRS. The OED decreased as the distance from the primary beam increased. The thyroid received the highest OED compared to other organs. A lifetime attributable risk evaluation estimated that more than 0.03% of acoustic neuroma (AN) patients would get radiation-induced cancer within 20 years of receiving radiation therapy. The organ with the highest radiation-induced cancer risk after radiation treatment for AN was the thyroid. We found that the LAR could be increased by the transmitted dose from the primary beam. No modality-specific difference in radiation-induced cancer risk was observed in our study.
Benefits of Acoustic Beamforming for Solving the Cocktail Party Problem
Mason, Christine R.; Best, Virginia; Swaminathan, Jayaganesh
2015-01-01
The benefit provided to listeners with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) by an acoustic beamforming microphone array was determined in a speech-on-speech masking experiment. Normal-hearing controls were tested as well. For the SNHL listeners, prescription-determined gain was applied to the stimuli, and performance using the beamformer was compared with that obtained using bilateral amplification. The listener identified speech from a target talker located straight ahead (0° azimuth) in the presence of four competing talkers that were either colocated with, or spatially separated from, the target. The stimuli were spatialized using measured impulse responses and presented via earphones. In the spatially separated masker conditions, the four maskers were arranged symmetrically around the target at ±15° and ±30° or at ±45° and ±90°. Results revealed that masked speech reception thresholds for spatially separated maskers were higher (poorer) on average for the SNHL than for the normal-hearing listeners. For most SNHL listeners in the wider masker separation condition, lower thresholds were obtained through the microphone array than through bilateral amplification. Large intersubject differences were found in both listener groups. The best masked speech reception thresholds overall were found for a hybrid condition that combined natural and beamforming listening in order to preserve localization for broadband sources. PMID:26126896
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajabi, Majid
2016-05-01
The method of wave function expansion is adopted to study the three dimensional scattering of a plane progressive harmonic acoustic wave incident upon an arbitrarily thick-walled helically filament-wound composite cylindrical shell submerged in and filled with compressible ideal fluids. An approximate laminate model in the context of the so-called state-space formulation is employed for the construction of T-matrix solution to solve for the unknown modal scattering coefficients. Considering the nonaxisymmetric wave propagation phenomenon in anisotropic cylindrical components and following the resonance scattering theory which determines the resonance and background scattering fields, the stimulated resonance frequencies of the shell are isolated and classified due to their fundamental mode of excitation, overtone and style of propagation along the cylindrical axis (i.e., clockwise or anticlockwise propagation around the shell) and are identified as the helically circumnavigating waves.
Collective Thomson scattering measurements of the Ion Acoustic Decay Instability. Final report
Mizuno, K.; DeGroot, J.S.; Drake, R.P.; Seka, W.
1993-12-31
We have developed an uv collective Thomson scattering system for plasma produced by a short wavelength laser. The Ion Acoustic Decay Instabilities are studied in a large ({approximately}mm) scale, hot ({approximately}keV) plasma, which is relevant to a direct-driven laser fusion plasma. The IADI primary decay process is measured by the CTS. We used a random phase plate to minimize the non uniform irradiation of the interaction laser. Nevertheless, the threshold of the most unstable mode driven by the IADI is quite low. The measured threshold value agrees favorably with the theoretical value of the large scale plasma. We have also shown that the CTS from the IADI can be a good tool for measuring a local electron temperature. The measured results agree reasonably with the SAGE computer calculations. We used the real part of the wave (frequency) to estimate T{sub e}. The real part is, in general, reliable compared to the imaginary part such as the damping, and the growth rates. We have shown that the IADI can be easily excited in a large scale, hot plasma. The IADI has potentially important applications to direct drive laser fusion, and also critical surface diagnostic.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hu, Fang Q.; Pizzo, Michelle E.; Nark, Douglas M.
2016-01-01
Based on the time domain boundary integral equation formulation of the linear convective wave equation, a computational tool dubbed Time Domain Fast Acoustic Scattering Toolkit (TD-FAST) has recently been under development. The time domain approach has a distinct advantage that the solutions at all frequencies are obtained in a single computation. In this paper, the formulation of the integral equation, as well as its stabilization by the Burton-Miller type reformulation, is extended to cases of a constant mean flow in an arbitrary direction. In addition, a "Source Surface" is also introduced in the formulation that can be employed to encapsulate regions of noise sources and to facilitate coupling with CFD simulations. This is particularly useful for applications where the noise sources are not easily described by analytical source terms. Numerical examples are presented to assess the accuracy of the formulation, including a computation of noise shielding by a thin barrier motivated by recent Historical Baseline F31A31 open rotor noise shielding experiments. Furthermore, spatial resolution requirements of the time domain boundary element method are also assessed using point per wavelength metrics. It is found that, using only constant basis functions and high-order quadrature for surface integration, relative errors of less than 2% may be obtained when the surface spatial resolution is 5 points-per-wavelength (PPW) or 25 points-per-wavelength squared (PPW2).
Time-frequency analysis of the bistatic acoustic scattering from a spherical elastic shell.
Anderson, Shaun D; Sabra, Karim G; Zakharia, Manell E; Sessarego, Jean-Pierre
2012-01-01
The development of low-frequency sonar systems, using, for instance, a network of autonomous systems in unmanned vehicles, provides a practical means for bistatic measurements (i.e., when the source and receiver are widely separated) allowing for multiple viewpoints of the target of interest. Time-frequency analysis, in particular, Wigner-Ville analysis, takes advantage of the evolution time dependent aspect of the echo spectrum to differentiate a man-made target, such as an elastic spherical shell, from a natural object of the similar shape. A key energetic feature of fluid-loaded and thin spherical shell is the coincidence pattern, also referred to as the mid-frequency enhancement (MFE), that results from antisymmetric Lamb-waves propagating around the circumference of the shell. This article investigates numerically the bistatic variations of the MFE with respect to the monostatic configuration using the Wigner-Ville analysis. The observed time-frequency shifts of the MFE are modeled using a previously derived quantitative ray theory by Zhang et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 91, 1862-1874 (1993)] for spherical shell's scattering. Additionally, the advantage of an optimal array beamformer, based on joint time delays and frequency shifts is illustrated for enhancing the detection of the MFE recorded across a bistatic receiver array when compared to a conventional time-delay beamformer.
Burton-Miller-type singular boundary method for acoustic radiation and scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Zhuo-Jia; Chen, Wen; Gu, Yan
2014-08-01
This paper proposes the singular boundary method (SBM) in conjunction with Burton and Miller's formulation for acoustic radiation and scattering. The SBM is a strong-form collocation boundary discretization technique using the singular fundamental solutions, which is mathematically simple, easy-to-program, meshless and introduces the concept of source intensity factors (SIFs) to eliminate the singularities of the fundamental solutions. Therefore, it avoids singular numerical integrals in the boundary element method (BEM) and circumvents the troublesome placement of the fictitious boundary in the method of fundamental solutions (MFS). In the present method, we derive the SIFs of exterior Helmholtz equation by means of the SIFs of exterior Laplace equation owing to the same order of singularities between the Laplace and Helmholtz fundamental solutions. In conjunction with the Burton-Miller formulation, the SBM enhances the quality of the solution, particularly in the vicinity of the corresponding interior eigenfrequencies. Numerical illustrations demonstrate efficiency and accuracy of the present scheme on some benchmark examples under 2D and 3D unbounded domains in comparison with the analytical solutions, the boundary element solutions and Dirichlet-to-Neumann finite element solutions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Denis, V.; Pelat, A.; Gautier, F.
2016-02-01
The so-called "acoustic black hole" (ABH) effect is a passive vibration control technique based on the flexural waves properties in thin structure of varying thickness. A usual implementation consists in using a plate with tapered extremity with a power-law profile, covered with a thin damping layer. The inhomogeneity of the structure leads to a decrease of flexural wave speed and an increase of their amplitude, therefore resulting in an efficient energy dissipation if damping layer is placed where the thickness is minimal. The manufacture of an efficient extremity is difficult because of the small thickness, and often generates imperfections and tearing. Moreover, previous works suggest that multiple flexural modes are propagating across the width of the ABH tip. A model of an ABH multimodal waveguide taking into account an imperfect termination is developed. It shows that an elementary imperfection can affect the reflection coefficient of the extremity and reduce it. Scattering and propagation properties of the extremity are also studied. An incident mode excites several modes that are localised in the tapered region and local resonances explain the drops in the reflection coefficient. Experimental evidence of the influence of the imperfection on the reflection coefficient is provided. A key result of the paper is that manufacturing imperfections are not detrimental to the ABH effect.
Baik, Kyungmin; Dudley, Christopher; Marston, Philip L
2011-12-01
When synthetic aperture sonar (SAS) is used to image elastic targets in water, subtle features can be present in the images associated with the dynamical response of the target being viewed. In an effort to improve the understanding of such responses, as well as to explore alternative image processing methods, a laboratory-based system was developed in which targets were illuminated by a transient acoustic source, and bistatic responses were recorded by scanning a hydrophone along a rail system. Images were constructed using a relatively conventional bistatic SAS algorithm and were compared with images based on supersonic holography. The holographic method is a simplification of one previously used to view the time evolution of a target's response [Hefner and Marston, ARLO 2, 55-60 (2001)]. In the holographic method, the space-time evolution of the scattering was used to construct a two-dimensional image with cross range and time as coordinates. Various features for vertically hung cylindrical targets were interpreted using high frequency ray theory. This includes contributions from guided surface elastic waves, as well as transmitted-wave features and specular reflection.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sovardi, Carlo; Jaensch, Stefan; Polifke, Wolfgang
2016-09-01
A numerical method to concurrently characterize both aeroacoustic scattering and noise sources at a duct singularity is presented. This approach combines Large Eddy Simulation (LES) with techniques of System Identification (SI): In a first step, a highly resolved LES with external broadband acoustic excitation is carried out. Subsequently, time series data extracted from the LES are post-processed by means of SI to model both acoustic propagation and noise generation. The present work studies the aero-acoustic characteristics of an orifice placed in a duct at low flow Mach numbers with the "LES-SI" method. Parametric SI based on the Box-Jenkins mathematical structure is employed, with a prediction error approach that utilizes correlation analysis of the output residuals to avoid overfitting. Uncertainties of model parameters due to the finite length of times series are quantified in terms of confidence intervals. Numerical results for acoustic scattering matrices and power spectral densities of broad-band noise are validated against experimental measurements over a wide range of frequencies below the cut-off frequency of the duct.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Powell, Jesse R.; Ohman, Mark D.
2015-05-01
We report cross-frontal changes in the characteristics of plankton proxy variables measured by autonomous Spray ocean gliders operating within the Southern California Current System (SCCS). A comparison of conditions across the 154 positive frontal gradients (i.e., where density of the surface layer decreased in the offshore direction) identified from six years of continuous measurements showed that waters on the denser side of the fronts typically showed higher Chl-a fluorescence, shallower euphotic zones, and higher acoustic backscatter than waters on the less dense side. Transitions between these regions were relatively abrupt. For positive fronts the amplitude of Diel Vertical Migration (DVM), inferred from a 3-beam 750 kHz acoustic Doppler profiler, increased offshore of fronts and covaried with optical transparency of the water column. Average interbeam variability in acoustic backscatter also changed across many positive fronts within 3 depth strata (0-150 m, 150-400 m, and 400-500 m), revealing a front-related change in the acoustic scattering characteristics of the assemblages. The extent of vertical stratification of distinct scattering assemblages was also more pronounced offshore of positive fronts. Depth-stratified zooplankton samples collected by Mocness nets corroborated the autonomous measurements, showing copepod-dominated assemblages and decreased zooplankton body sizes offshore and euphausiid-dominated assemblages with larger median body sizes inshore of major frontal features.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mei, Chuh; Pates, Carl S., III
1994-01-01
A coupled boundary element (BEM)-finite element (FEM) approach is presented to accurately model structure-acoustic interaction systems. The boundary element method is first applied to interior, two and three-dimensional acoustic domains with complex geometry configurations. Boundary element results are very accurate when compared with limited exact solutions. Structure-interaction problems are then analyzed with the coupled FEM-BEM method, where the finite element method models the structure and the boundary element method models the interior acoustic domain. The coupled analysis is compared with exact and experimental results for a simplistic model. Composite panels are analyzed and compared with isotropic results. The coupled method is then extended for random excitation. Random excitation results are compared with uncoupled results for isotropic and composite panels.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zakharov, A. V.; Voloshinov, V. B.
2016-09-01
Influence of acoustic anisotropy on acousto-optic interaction in optically and acoustically anisotropic media is theoretically and experimentally studied. A specific type of acousto-optic diffraction is analyzed with allowance for the phase-matching conditions for two diffraction maxima. Analytical expressions for the phase-mismatch parameters versus the angle between the phase and group velocities of acoustic wave are derived. Light intensity in the diffraction peaks is numerically calculated, and experimental data on the diffraction in the paratellurite crystal at an acoustic walk-off angle of 54° are presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meyer, Harold D.
1999-01-01
This report provides a study of rotor and stator scattering using the SOURCE3D Rotor Wake/Stator Interaction Code. SOURCE3D is a quasi-three-dimensional computer program that uses three-dimensional acoustics and two-dimensional cascade load response theory to calculate rotor and stator modal reflection and transmission (scattering) coefficients. SOURCE3D is at the core of the TFaNS (Theoretical Fan Noise Design/Prediction System), developed for NASA, which provides complete fully coupled (inlet, rotor, stator, exit) noise solutions for turbofan engines. The reason for studying scattering is that we must first understand the behavior of the individual scattering coefficients provided by SOURCE3D, before eventually understanding the more complicated predictions from TFaNS. To study scattering, we have derived a large number of scattering curves for vane and blade rows. The curves are plots of output wave power divided by input wave power (in dB units) versus vane/blade ratio. Some of these plots are shown in this report. All of the plots are provided in a separate volume. To assist in understanding the plots, formulas have been derived for special vane/blade ratios for which wavefronts are either parallel or normal to rotor or stator chords. From the plots, we have found that, for the most part, there was strong transmission and weak reflection over most of the vane/blade ratio range for the stator. For the rotor, there was little transmission loss.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robertsson, Johan O. A.; Levander, Alan; Holliger, Klaus
1996-02-01
Quantitative modeling of bottom-interacting ocean acoustic waves is complicated by the long propagation ranges and by the complexity of the scattering targets. We employ a two-dimensional (2-D) hybrid technique combining Gaussian beam, finite difference, and Kirchhoff integral solutions of the wave equation to simulate ocean acoustic experiments within half of a convergence zone in the SOFAR channel. The 2-D modeling approach is reasonable due to the one-dimensional (1-D) velocity distribution in the water column and the strong lineation of the seafloor morphology parallel to the mid-ocean ridges. Full-waveform modeling of ocean acoustic data requires that the topography and the material properties of the seafloor are available at scales that are several orders of magnitude smaller than typical bathymetric sampling rates. We have therefore investigated the effects on the ocean acoustic response of a stochastic interpolation scheme used to generate seafloor models. For typical grazing angles of the incident wave field (approximately 5°-20°), we found that different stochastic realizations of the same seafloor segment (sampled at 200 m) yield an intrinsic uncertainty of the order of 3-8 dB in amplitude and 0.1-0.3 s in time for individual prominent events in the reverberant acoustic field. Hybrid simulations are compared to beam-formed ocean acoustic data collected during the Acoustic Reverberation Special Research Program (ARSRP) cruises. Side lobe noise in the observed acoustic data is simulated by adding band-limited white noise at -30 dB relative to the maximum intensity in the synthetic data. Numerical simulations can be limited to the response of only one of the mirror azimuth beams provided that the experimental geometry is suitably chosen. For the 2-D approximation to be valid, the cross-range resolution of the observed data must be smaller than the characteristic scale of seafloor lineations, and the beams of interest must be approximately perpendicular to
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goodman, Jerry R.; Grosveld, Ferdinand
2007-01-01
The acoustics environment in space operations is important to maintain at manageable levels so that the crewperson can remain safe, functional, effective, and reasonably comfortable. High acoustic levels can produce temporary or permanent hearing loss, or cause other physiological symptoms such as auditory pain, headaches, discomfort, strain in the vocal cords, or fatigue. Noise is defined as undesirable sound. Excessive noise may result in psychological effects such as irritability, inability to concentrate, decrease in productivity, annoyance, errors in judgment, and distraction. A noisy environment can also result in the inability to sleep, or sleep well. Elevated noise levels can affect the ability to communicate, understand what is being said, hear what is going on in the environment, degrade crew performance and operations, and create habitability concerns. Superfluous noise emissions can also create the inability to hear alarms or other important auditory cues such as an equipment malfunctioning. Recent space flight experience, evaluations of the requirements in crew habitable areas, and lessons learned (Goodman 2003; Allen and Goodman 2003; Pilkinton 2003; Grosveld et al. 2003) show the importance of maintaining an acceptable acoustics environment. This is best accomplished by having a high-quality set of limits/requirements early in the program, the "designing in" of acoustics in the development of hardware and systems, and by monitoring, testing and verifying the levels to ensure that they are acceptable.
A computational algorithm for a disturbance rejection problem in structural acoustics
Hendrickson, E.
1994-12-31
We consider a disturbance rejection problem for an optimal control problem arising in structural acoustics. The solution to the control problem with unbounded control action involves the solution to an algebraic Riccati equation as well as an associated linear, nonhomogeneous differential equation. The goal is to construct a numerical algorithm based on the FEM for the computations of solutions to associated matrix algebraic Riccati equations. The Riccati-based feedback control will be used to minimize the effect of the disturbance for a given performance index.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Chang-Jun; Chen, Hai-Bo; Chen, Lei-Lei
2013-04-01
This paper presents a novel wideband fast multipole boundary element approach to 3D half-space/plane-symmetric acoustic wave problems. The half-space fundamental solution is employed in the boundary integral equations so that the tree structure required in the fast multipole algorithm is constructed for the boundary elements in the real domain only. Moreover, a set of symmetric relations between the multipole expansion coefficients of the real and image domains are derived, and the half-space fundamental solution is modified for the purpose of applying such relations to avoid calculating, translating and saving the multipole/local expansion coefficients of the image domain. The wideband adaptive multilevel fast multipole algorithm associated with the iterative solver GMRES is employed so that the present method is accurate and efficient for both lowand high-frequency acoustic wave problems. As for exterior acoustic problems, the Burton-Miller method is adopted to tackle the fictitious eigenfrequency problem involved in the conventional boundary integral equation method. Details on the implementation of the present method are described, and numerical examples are given to demonstrate its accuracy and efficiency.
μ-diff: An open-source Matlab toolbox for computing multiple scattering problems by disks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thierry, Bertrand; Antoine, Xavier; Chniti, Chokri; Alzubaidi, Hasan
2015-07-01
The aim of this paper is to describe a Matlab toolbox, called μ-diff, for modeling and numerically solving two-dimensional complex multiple scattering by a large collection of circular cylinders. The approximation methods in μ-diff are based on the Fourier series expansions of the four basic integral operators arising in scattering theory. Based on these expressions, an efficient spectrally accurate finite-dimensional solution of multiple scattering problems can be simply obtained for complex media even when many scatterers are considered as well as large frequencies. The solution of the global linear system to solve can use either direct solvers or preconditioned iterative Krylov subspace solvers for block Toeplitz matrices. Based on this approach, this paper explains how the code is built and organized. Some complete numerical examples of applications (direct and inverse scattering) are provided to show that μ-diff is a flexible, efficient and robust toolbox for solving some complex multiple scattering problems.
Application of High Order Acoustic Finite Elements to Transmission Losses and Enclosure Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Craggs, A.; Stevenson, G.
1985-01-01
A family of acoustic finite elements was developed based on C continuity (acoustic pressure being the nodal variable) and the no-flow condition. The family include triangular, quadrilateral and hexahedral isoparametric elements with linear quadratic and cubic variation in modelling and distortion. Of greatest use in problems with irregular boundaries are the cubic isoparametric elements: the 32 node hexahedral element for three-dimensional systems; and the twelve node quadrilateral and ten node triangular elements for two-dimensional/axisymmetric applications. These elements were applied to problems involving cavity resonances, transmission loss in silencers and the study of end effects, using a Floating Point Systems 164 attached array processor accessed through an Amdahl 5860 mainframe. The elements are presently being used to study the end effects associated with duct terminations within finite enclosures. The transmission losses with various silencers and sidebranches in ducts is also being studied using the same elements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitri, F. G.
2015-11-01
Using the partial-wave series expansion method in cylindrical coordinates, a formal analytical solution for the acoustical scattering of a 2D cylindrical quasi-Gaussian beam with an arbitrary angle of incidence θi, focused on a rigid elliptical cylinder in a non-viscous fluid, is developed. The cylindrical focused beam expression is an exact solution of the Helmholtz equation. The scattering coefficients for the elliptical cylinder are determined by forcing the expression of the total (incident + scattered) field to satisfy the Neumann boundary condition for a rigid immovable surface, and performing the product of matrices involving an inversion procedure. Computations for the matrices elements require a single numerical integration procedure for each partial-wave mode. Numerical results are performed with particular emphasis on the focusing properties of the incident beam and its angle of incidence with respect to the major axis a of the ellipse as well as the aspect ratio a/b where b is the minor axis (assuming a > b). The method is validated and verified against previous results obtained via the T-matrix for plane waves. The present analysis is the first to consider an acoustical beam on an elliptic cylinder of variable cross-section as opposed to plane waves of infinite extent. Other 2D non-spherical and Chebyshev surfaces are mentioned that may be examined throughout this analytical formalism assuming a small deformation parameter ɛ.
Mitri, F. G.
2015-11-14
Using the partial-wave series expansion method in cylindrical coordinates, a formal analytical solution for the acoustical scattering of a 2D cylindrical quasi-Gaussian beam with an arbitrary angle of incidence θ{sub i}, focused on a rigid elliptical cylinder in a non-viscous fluid, is developed. The cylindrical focused beam expression is an exact solution of the Helmholtz equation. The scattering coefficients for the elliptical cylinder are determined by forcing the expression of the total (incident + scattered) field to satisfy the Neumann boundary condition for a rigid immovable surface, and performing the product of matrices involving an inversion procedure. Computations for the matrices elements require a single numerical integration procedure for each partial-wave mode. Numerical results are performed with particular emphasis on the focusing properties of the incident beam and its angle of incidence with respect to the major axis a of the ellipse as well as the aspect ratio a/b where b is the minor axis (assuming a > b). The method is validated and verified against previous results obtained via the T-matrix for plane waves. The present analysis is the first to consider an acoustical beam on an elliptic cylinder of variable cross-section as opposed to plane waves of infinite extent. Other 2D non-spherical and Chebyshev surfaces are mentioned that may be examined throughout this analytical formalism assuming a small deformation parameter ε.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaebler, Peter J.; Eulenfeld, Tom; Wegler, Ulrich
2015-12-01
In this study, frequency-dependent seismic scattering and intrinsic attenuation parameters for the crustal structure beneath the W-Bohemia/Vogtland swarm earthquake region close to the border of Czech Republic and Germany are estimated. Synthetic seismogram envelopes are modelled using elastic and acoustic radiative transfer theory. Scattering and absorption parameters are determined by fitting these synthetic envelopes to observed seismogram envelopes from 14 shallow local events from the October 2008 W-Bohemia/Vogtland earthquake swarm. The two different simulation approaches yield similar results for the estimated crustal parameters and show a comparable frequency dependence of both transport mean free path and intrinsic absorption path length. Both methods suggest that intrinsic attenuation is dominant over scattering attenuation in the W-Bohemia/Vogtland region for the investigated epicentral distance range and frequency bands from 3 to 24 Hz. Elastic simulations of seismogram envelopes suggest that forward scattering is required to explain the data, however, the degree of forward scattering is not resolvable. Errors in the parameter estimation are smaller in the elastic case compared to results from the acoustic simulations. The frequency decay of the transport mean free path suggests a random medium described by a nearly exponential autocorrelation function. The fluctuation strength and correlation length of the random medium cannot be estimated independently, but only a combination of the parameters related to the transport mean free path of the medium can be computed. Furthermore, our elastic simulations show, that using our numerical method, it is not possible to resolve the value of the mean free path of the random medium.
Inversion problem for ion-atom differential elastic scattering.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rich, W. G.; Bobbio, S. M.; Champion, R. L.; Doverspike, L. D.
1971-01-01
The paper describes a practical application of Remler's (1971) method by which one constructs a set of phase shifts from high resolution measurements of the differential elastic scattering of protons by rare-gas atoms. These JWKB phase shifts are then formally inverted to determine the corresponding intermolecular potentials. The validity of the method is demonstrated by comparing an intermolecular potential obtained by direct inversion of experimental data with a fairly accurate calculation by Wolniewicz (1965).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mamou, Jonathan; Oelze, Michael L.; O'Brien, William D.; Zachary, James F.
2001-05-01
Accurate estimates of scatterer parameters (size and acoustic concentration) are beneficial adjuncts to characterize disease from ultrasonic backscatterer measurements. An estimation technique was developed to obtain parameter estimates from the Fourier transform of the spatial autocorrelation function (SAF). A 3D impedance map (3DZM) is used to obtain the SAF of tissue. 3DZMs are obtained by aligning digitized light microscope images from histologic preparations of tissue. Estimates were obtained for simulated 3DZMs containing spherical scatterers randomly located: relative errors were less than 3%. Estimates were also obtained from a rat fibroadenoma and a 4T1 mouse mammary tumor (MMT). Tissues were fixed (10% neutral-buffered formalin), embedded in paraffin, serially sectioned and stained with H&E. 3DZM results were compared to estimates obtained independently against ultrasonic backscatter measurements. For the fibroadenoma and MMT, average scatterer diameters were 91 and 31.5 μm, respectively. Ultrasonic measurements yielded average scatterer diameters of 105 and 30 μm, respectively. The 3DZM estimation scheme showed results similar to those obtained by the independent ultrasonic measurements. The 3D impedance maps show promise as a powerful tool to characterize ultrasonic scattering sites of tissue. [Work supported by the University of Illinois Research Board.
Review of the inverse scattering problem at fixed energy in quantum mechanics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sabatier, P. C.
1972-01-01
Methods of solution of the inverse scattering problem at fixed energy in quantum mechanics are presented. Scattering experiments of a beam of particles at a nonrelativisitic energy by a target made up of particles are analyzed. The Schroedinger equation is used to develop the quantum mechanical description of the system and one of several functions depending on the relative distance of the particles. The inverse problem is the construction of the potentials from experimental measurements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sveshnikov, B. V.; Bagdasaryan, A. S.
2016-08-01
We develop a physical model allowing one to analyze reflection of the inhomogeneous beams of surface acoustic waves from metal strips in a planar waveguide on the piezoelectric substrate. Analytical relationships for determining the coefficients of scattering and mutual conversion of the transverse waveguide modes during their interaction with the spatially limited Bragg reflectors are obtained. The waveguide-reflector characteristics are shown to depend on the ratio of the waveguide aperture to its maximum value for which only the fundamental transverse mode is excited. It is established that the developed model strictly corresponds to the energy conservation law, i.e., in the absence of dissipation, the power of the inhomogeneous beam, which is incident on the finite reflector, is equal to the total power of all the scattered fields of the discrete and continuous waveguide spectra.
Boundary conditions for gas flow problems from anisotropic scattering kernels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
To, Quy-Dong; Vu, Van-Huyen; Lauriat, Guy; Léonard, Céline
2015-10-01
The paper presents an interface model for gas flowing through a channel constituted of anisotropic wall surfaces. Using anisotropic scattering kernels and Chapman Enskog phase density, the boundary conditions (BCs) for velocity, temperature, and discontinuities including velocity slip and temperature jump at the wall are obtained. Two scattering kernels, Dadzie and Méolans (DM) kernel, and generalized anisotropic Cercignani-Lampis (ACL) are examined in the present paper, yielding simple BCs at the wall fluid interface. With these two kernels, we rigorously recover the analytical expression for orientation dependent slip shown in our previous works [Pham et al., Phys. Rev. E 86, 051201 (2012) and To et al., J. Heat Transfer 137, 091002 (2015)] which is in good agreement with molecular dynamics simulation results. More important, our models include both thermal transpiration effect and new equations for the temperature jump. While the same expression depending on the two tangential accommodation coefficients is obtained for slip velocity, the DM and ACL temperature equations are significantly different. The derived BC equations associated with these two kernels are of interest for the gas simulations since they are able to capture the direction dependent slip behavior of anisotropic interfaces.
Generalizations of Karp's theorem to elastic scattering theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tuong, Ha-Duong
Karp's theorem states that if the far field pattern corresponding to the scattering of a time-harmonic acoustic plane wave by a sound-soft obstacle in R2 is invariant under the group of rotations, then the scatterer is a circle. The theorem is generalized to the elastic scattering problems and the axisymmetric scatterers in R3.
Willert, Jeffrey; Park, H.; Taitano, William
2015-11-01
High-order/low-order (or moment-based acceleration) algorithms have been used to significantly accelerate the solution to the neutron transport k-eigenvalue problem over the past several years. Recently, the nonlinear diffusion acceleration algorithm has been extended to solve fixed-source problems with anisotropic scattering sources. In this paper, we demonstrate that we can extend this algorithm to k-eigenvalue problems in which the scattering source is anisotropic and a significant acceleration can be achieved. Lastly, we demonstrate that the low-order, diffusion-like eigenvalue problem can be solved efficiently using a technique known as nonlinear elimination.
Willert, Jeffrey; Park, H.; Taitano, William
2015-10-12
High-order/low-order (or moment-based acceleration) algorithms have been used to significantly accelerate the solution to the neutron transport k-eigenvalue problem over the past several years. Recently, the nonlinear diffusion acceleration algorithm has been extended to solve fixed-source problems with anisotropic scattering sources. In this paper, we demonstrate that we can extend this algorithm to k-eigenvalue problems in which the scattering source is anisotropic and a significant acceleration can be achieved. Lastly, we demonstrate that the low-order, diffusion-like eigenvalue problem can be solved efficiently using a technique known as nonlinear elimination.
Pulse reflectometry as an acoustical inverse problem: Regularization of the bore reconstruction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forbes, Barbara J.; Sharp, David B.; Kemp, Jonathan A.
2002-11-01
The theoretical basis of acoustic pulse reflectometry, a noninvasive method for the reconstruction of an acoustical duct from the reflections measured in response to an input pulse, is reviewed in terms of the inversion of the central Fredholm equation. It is known that this is an ill-posed problem in the context of finite-bandwidth experimental signals. Recent work by the authors has proposed the truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) in the regularization of the transient input impulse response, a non-measurable quantity from which the spatial bore reconstruction is derived. In the present paper we further emphasize the relevance of the singular system framework to reflectometry applications, examining for the first time the transient bases of the system. In particular, by varying the truncation point for increasing condition numbers of the system matrix, it is found that the effects of out-of-bandwidth singular functions on the bore reconstruction can be systematically studied.
Seo, Jung Hee; Mittal, Rajat
2010-01-01
A new sharp-interface immersed boundary method based approach for the computation of low-Mach number flow-induced sound around complex geometries is described. The underlying approach is based on a hydrodynamic/acoustic splitting technique where the incompressible flow is first computed using a second-order accurate immersed boundary solver. This is followed by the computation of sound using the linearized perturbed compressible equations (LPCE). The primary contribution of the current work is the development of a versatile, high-order accurate immersed boundary method for solving the LPCE in complex domains. This new method applies the boundary condition on the immersed boundary to a high-order by combining the ghost-cell approach with a weighted least-squares error method based on a high-order approximating polynomial. The method is validated for canonical acoustic wave scattering and flow-induced noise problems. Applications of this technique to relatively complex cases of practical interest are also presented. PMID:21318129
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ouyang, Wei; Mao, Weijian; Li, Xuelei; Li, Wuqun
2014-08-01
Sound velocity inversion problem based on scattering theory is formulated in terms of a nonlinear integral equation associated with scattered field. Because of its nonlinearity, in practice, linearization algorisms (Born/single scattering approximation) are widely used to obtain an approximate inversion solution. However, the linearized strategy is not congruent with seismic wave propagation mechanics in strong perturbation (heterogeneous) medium. In order to partially dispense with the weak perturbation assumption of the Born approximation, we present a new approach from the following two steps: firstly, to handle the forward scattering by taking into account the second-order Born approximation, which is related to generalized Radon transform (GRT) about quadratic scattering potential; then to derive a nonlinear quadratic inversion formula by resorting to inverse GRT. In our formulation, there is a significant quadratic term regarding scattering potential, and it can provide an amplitude correction for inversion results beyond standard linear inversion. The numerical experiments demonstrate that the linear single scattering inversion is only good in amplitude for relative velocity perturbation () of background media up to 10 %, and its inversion errors are unacceptable for the perturbation beyond 10 %. In contrast, the quadratic inversion can give more accurate amplitude-preserved recovery for the perturbation up to 40 %. Our inversion scheme is able to manage double scattering effects by estimating a transmission factor from an integral over a small area, and therefore, only a small portion of computational time is added to the original linear migration/inversion process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burov, V. A.; Grishina, I. M.; Lapshenkina, O. I.; Morozov, S. A.; Rumyantseva, O. D.; Sukhov, E. G.
2003-11-01
In the ultrasonic diagnostics of small-size neoplasms of biological tissues at the earliest stage of their development, an efficient way to eliminate the distorting influence of high-contrast or large inhomogeneities of the biological medium is to apply the iterative technique. A simple approach is proposed, which makes it possible with only two iteration steps to achieve an efficient focusing of the tomograph array. At the first step, the unknown distribution of the large-scale inhomogeneities of sound velocity and absorption over the scatterer is reconstructed, where the large-scale inhomogeneities are those whose size exceeds several wavelengths. At the second step, the fine structure of the scatterer is reconstructed against the large-scale background, which can be performed with a high accuracy owing to the evaluation of the background at the first step. The possibility of simultaneous reconstruction of the large-scale and fine structures by the noniterative Grinevich-Novikov algorithm is considered as an alternative. This algorithm reconstructs in an explicit form two-dimensional refractive-absorbing acoustic scatterers of almost arbitrary shape and strength. Taking into account the effects of multiple scattering, this algorithm provides resolution of the fine structure almost as good as that achieved in reconstructing the same structure against an undistorting homogeneous background. The results of numerical simulations of both algorithms are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zimmerman, Robert Allen
Zooplankton and micronekton which cause a density discontinuity with the surrounding seawater reflect acoustic energy. This acoustic backscatter intensity (ABI) was measured using a vessel mounted 153 kHz acoustic Doppler current profiler. The ABI was used to describe vertical migration and distribution of sound scatterers in several mesoscale hydrographic features commonly found in the Gulf of Mexico: cold-core rings (CCRs), warm-core Loop Current eddies (LCEs) and the Loop Current (LC). The present paradigm contends that cold- core (cyclonic) features are mesoscale areas of enhanced production due to an influx of new nitrogen to surface waters as a result of divergent flow. The null hypothesis which was tested in this study was that the acoustic signatures of these features were not significantly different from one another. Clear diel differences in all of the features and a robust, positive correlation between ABI and plankton and micronekton wet displacement volume collected in MOCNESS tows in the upper 100 m of the water column were observed. During the day, ABI in CCRs was significantly greater than in LCEs and in the LC with regards to the upper 200 m. However, ABI in the LCEs and LC were not significantly different from each other. During the night, the ABI in the upper 50 m of the CCRs was significantly greater than that in the LCEs and the LC. However, there were no differences between features when ABI at night was summed for the entire upper 200 m, due to substantial vertical migrations of organisms into the upper 200 m of the water column at night. Two LCEs were revisited at an age of 8-9 months after their initial acoustic transects. The null hypothesis that there would be no significant difference in integrated ABI when the LCEs were resampled was rejected: both LCEs showed a reduction in integrated ABI over the upper 200 m. Further investigations into the faunal changes of these features are warranted, but the ADCP should continue to be a useful
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guillermin, R.; Lasaygues, P.; Sessarego, J. P.; Wirgin, A.
2000-12-01
This paper is concerned with the reconstruction, from measured (synthetic and experimental) data, of a 2D penetrable fluid-like cylindrical object of arbitrary cross-section imbedded in a fluid-like (sediment) half-space separated by a plane interface from another fluid half-space (deep water) wherein propagates a plane acoustic interrogating wave. The Green theorem is used to provide (1) a domain integral representation (DIR) of the scattered field and (2) a domain integral equation (DIE) for the pressure field in a test region containing the object. Both the DIE and DIR are discretized by collocation, thereby leading to a linear system of equations for the discretized pressure in the test region and a linear transform for the discretized pressure outside the test region. This is the means adopted herein for generating synthetic scattered field data. The inverse problem is linearized by replacing the (unknown) field in the test region by the (known) field which is established in the water/sediment system in the absence of the object. Using this Born approximation and minimizing the discrepancy between the measured and model scattered fields gives rise to a linear system of equations for the (unknown) discretized index-of-refraction contrast function in the test region. Due to its ill conditioned nature, the linear system is solved by a singular value decomposition technique. Images of the index-of-refraction contrast representation of the object obtained by inversion of both simulated and experimentally measured scattered field data are presented and compared.
The inverse scattering problem at fixed angular momentum for nonlocal separable interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chadan, K.
1972-01-01
The problem of inverse scattering at fixed angular momentum is considered. The problem is particularized to the case of nonlocal separable interactions. A brief survey of the inverse problem for nonlocal separable interactions is presented. This problem can be solved exactly by integration. It amounts to solving singular integral equations of the Hilbert-Mushkhelishvili type, which have been studied extensively in the past and appear in many areas of physics, including theory of elasticity and dispersions relations in high energy physics.
Application of 30-MHz acoustic scattering to the study of human red blood cells
Roos, M.S.; Apfel, R.E.; Wardlaw, S.C.
1988-04-01
A technique for simultaneously measuring the scattering amplitude of individual particles at two angles is applied to human red blood cells. Using a Rayleigh scattering model, the density and compressibility of the cells may be determined given a priori knowledge of their volume. A calibration method relying on measurements of the bulk properties of particle suspensions is described. Red cell properties in hypotonic and hypertonic hosts are compared with a homogeneous mixture model, and a linear relation between hemoglobin content and scattering amplitude at a 90 deg scattering angle is established.
Inverse scattering problem for mixed-phase and cirrus clouds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oshchepkov, Sergey; Isaka, Harumi
1996-12-01
A new method of particle size retrieval is proposed of rice crystal and mixed phase clouds. The method enables us to identify each component of a bi-component cloud composed namely of ice crystals and water droplets and to retrieve separately size distributions of each cloud component. Its capability is explored as usually by using 'synthetic' multi-angular data of scattered light intensity. Various cloud microphysical characteristics are modeled by assuming two non-interacting cloud components such as liquid or supercooled droplets and cubic or hexagonal ice crystals with regular simple geometrical shapes as a first approximation. The sensitivity of the method is tested for different relative concentrations of the cloud components varying over a wide range. Firstly, we investigate the applicability limits of the single-component cloud approximation in retrieving particle size distributions of a bi-component cloud. Secondly, we test the method to retrieve simultaneously the size distributions of both the components in mixed-phase clouds, and discuss the conditions of its applicability.
Modelling acoustic scattering, sound speed, and attenuation in gassy soft marine sediments.
Mantouka, A; Dogan, H; White, P R; Leighton, T G
2016-07-01
A model for nonlinear gas bubble pulsation in marine sediments is presented. This model is then linearized to determine the resonance frequency and the damping terms for linear radial oscillations. The linear model is then used to predict the effects that such bubble pulsations will have on the sound speed and attenuation of acoustic waves propagating in gassy marine sediment. The results are compared for monodisperse populations against the predictions of a model of Anderson and Hampton and, furthermore, the additional abilities of the model introduced in this paper are discussed. These features include the removal of the sign ambiguities in the expressions, the straightforward implementation for acoustic propagation through polydisperse bubble populations, the capability to estimate bubble size distributions through a full acoustic inversion, and the capability to predict nonlinear effects. PMID:27475152
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buscombe, D.; Grams, P. E.; Kaplinski, M. A.
2013-12-01
Bed sediment classification using backscatter intensities from multibeam echosounder (MBES) systems in rivers is attractive due to its high coverage and resolution, limited costs compared to conventional sampling, and the potential combination of bathymetric and bottom sediment mapping in one instrument. Sediment classification by means of hydro-acoustic remote sensing is becoming an established discipline in oceanography. A number of techniques have been proposed, none of which has become the preferred method. In rivers, however, the field is relatively new and faces challenges not typically encountered in deep ocean settings. For example, river beds tend to have larger mean and maximum slopes than typical seabeds. Shallow water depths not only make MBES deployments more difficult, but also make the size of the beam footprint on the bed small which can lead to relatively noisy backscatter data. In particular, sediments can more heterogeneous in terms of: 1) range of particle sizes (both in a given area and over an entire mapped reach); 2) range of grain size over proximal bedform fields; 3) superimposed bedforms; and 4) abrupt sedimentological transitions over small scales. This sediment heterogeneity means grain-size usually changes along swath, which has a number of implications for existing sediment classification methods which use the distribution of backscatter intensities over all acoustic beams. We discuss these implications with reference to MBES data collected from the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona. We analyze the scale-dependence of probability density functions (PDF) of measured elevations in different sedimentological settings, which reveals the appropriate spatial scale at which to apply acoustic scattering theories. We also discuss the joint PDF of elevation and backscatter over different scales as a means by which to create an adaptive gridding scheme in which each grid is scaled appropriately, in situations with rapidly changing
Solving outside-axial-field-of-view scatter correction problem in PET via digital experimentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andreyev, Andriy; Zhu, Yang-Ming; Ye, Jinghan; Song, Xiyun; Hu, Zhiqiang
2016-03-01
Unaccounted scatter impact from unknown outside-axial-field-of-view (outside-AFOV) activity in PET is an important degrading factor for image quality and quantitation. Resource consuming and unpopular way to account for the outside- AFOV activity is to perform an additional PET/CT scan of adjacent regions. In this work we investigate a solution to the outside-AFOV scatter problem without performing a PET/CT scan of the adjacent regions. The main motivation for the proposed method is that the measured random corrected prompt (RCP) sinogram in the background region surrounding the measured object contains only scattered events, originating from both inside- and outside-AFOV activity. In this method, the scatter correction simulation searches through many randomly-chosen outside-AFOV activity estimates along with known inside-AFOV activity, generating a plethora of scatter distribution sinograms. This digital experimentation iterates until a decent match is found between a simulated scatter sinogram (that include supposed outside-AFOV activity) and the measured RCP sinogram in the background region. The combined scatter impact from inside- and outside-AFOV activity can then be used for scatter correction during final image reconstruction phase. Preliminary results using measured phantom data indicate successful phantom length estimate with the method, and, therefore, accurate outside-AFOV scatter estimate.
Muir, Thomas G; Costley, R Daniel; Sabatier, James M
2014-01-01
Finite element methods are utilized to model and compare the use of both a remote loudspeaker and a vertical shaker in the generation of sound and shear and interface waves in an elastic solid containing an imbedded elastic scatterer, which is resonant. Results for steady state and transient insonification are presented to illustrate excitation, propagation, and scattering mechanisms and effects. Comparisons of acoustic and vibratory excitation of the solid interface are made, with a view towards remote sensing of induced vibratory motion through optical measurement of the ground interface motion above the imbedded inclusion. Some advantages of the acoustic excitation method for exciting plate mode resonances in the target are observed. PMID:24437744
Muir, Thomas G; Costley, R Daniel; Sabatier, James M
2014-01-01
Finite element methods are utilized to model and compare the use of both a remote loudspeaker and a vertical shaker in the generation of sound and shear and interface waves in an elastic solid containing an imbedded elastic scatterer, which is resonant. Results for steady state and transient insonification are presented to illustrate excitation, propagation, and scattering mechanisms and effects. Comparisons of acoustic and vibratory excitation of the solid interface are made, with a view towards remote sensing of induced vibratory motion through optical measurement of the ground interface motion above the imbedded inclusion. Some advantages of the acoustic excitation method for exciting plate mode resonances in the target are observed.
Elastic parabolic equation solutions for underwater acoustic problems using seismic sources.
Frank, Scott D; Odom, Robert I; Collis, Jon M
2013-03-01
Several problems of current interest involve elastic bottom range-dependent ocean environments with buried or earthquake-type sources, specifically oceanic T-wave propagation studies and interface wave related analyses. Additionally, observed deep shadow-zone arrivals are not predicted by ray theoretic methods, and attempts to model them with fluid-bottom parabolic equation solutions suggest that it may be necessary to account for elastic bottom interactions. In order to study energy conversion between elastic and acoustic waves, current elastic parabolic equation solutions must be modified to allow for seismic starting fields for underwater acoustic propagation environments. Two types of elastic self-starter are presented. An explosive-type source is implemented using a compressional self-starter and the resulting acoustic field is consistent with benchmark solutions. A shear wave self-starter is implemented and shown to generate transmission loss levels consistent with the explosive source. Source fields can be combined to generate starting fields for source types such as explosions, earthquakes, or pile driving. Examples demonstrate the use of source fields for shallow sources or deep ocean-bottom earthquake sources, where down slope conversion, a known T-wave generation mechanism, is modeled. Self-starters are interpreted in the context of the seismic moment tensor. PMID:23464007
Elastic parabolic equation solutions for underwater acoustic problems using seismic sources.
Frank, Scott D; Odom, Robert I; Collis, Jon M
2013-03-01
Several problems of current interest involve elastic bottom range-dependent ocean environments with buried or earthquake-type sources, specifically oceanic T-wave propagation studies and interface wave related analyses. Additionally, observed deep shadow-zone arrivals are not predicted by ray theoretic methods, and attempts to model them with fluid-bottom parabolic equation solutions suggest that it may be necessary to account for elastic bottom interactions. In order to study energy conversion between elastic and acoustic waves, current elastic parabolic equation solutions must be modified to allow for seismic starting fields for underwater acoustic propagation environments. Two types of elastic self-starter are presented. An explosive-type source is implemented using a compressional self-starter and the resulting acoustic field is consistent with benchmark solutions. A shear wave self-starter is implemented and shown to generate transmission loss levels consistent with the explosive source. Source fields can be combined to generate starting fields for source types such as explosions, earthquakes, or pile driving. Examples demonstrate the use of source fields for shallow sources or deep ocean-bottom earthquake sources, where down slope conversion, a known T-wave generation mechanism, is modeled. Self-starters are interpreted in the context of the seismic moment tensor.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Titovich, Alexey S.; Norris, Andrew N.
2015-03-01
A thin infinitely long elastic shell is stiffened by J in number identical lengthwise ribs distributed uniformly around the circumference and joined to a rod in the center. The 2D model of the substructure is a rigid central mass supported by J axisymmetrically placed linear springs. The response of the shell-spring-mass system is quite different from a fluid filled shell or that of a solid cylinder due to the discrete number of contact points which couple the displacement of the shell at different locations. Exterior acoustic scattering due to normal plane wave incidence is solved in closed form for arbitrary J. The scattering matrix associated with the normal mode solution displays a simple structure, composed of distinct sub-matrices which decouple the incident and scattered fields into J families. The presence of a spring-mass substructure causes resonances which are shown to be related to the subsonic shell flexural waves, and an approximate analytic expression is derived for the quasi-flexural resonance frequencies. Numerical simulations indicate that the new solution for J ≥ 3 springs results in a complicated scattering response for plane wave incidence. As the number of springs becomes large enough, the total scattering cross-section is asymptotically zero at low frequencies and slightly increased compared to the empty shell at moderate frequencies due to the added stiffness and mass. It is also observed that the sensitivity to the angle of incidence diminishes as the number of springs is increased. This system can be tuned by selecting the shell thickness, spring stiffness and added mass to yield desired quasi-static effective properties making it a candidate element for graded index sonic crystals.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ponomarenko, Sergey A.; Wolf, Emil
2002-10-01
We investigate the inverse scattering problem for statistically homogeneous, isotropic random media under conditions of strong fluctuations of optical wavefields. We present a method for determining the spectral density of the dielectric constant fluctuations in such media from scattering of partially coherent light. The method may find applications to a wide class of turbulent media such as the turbulent atmosphere and certain turbulent plasmas where backscattering and depolarization effects are negligible.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nero, R. W.; Magnuson, J. J.; Brandt, S. B.; Stanton, T. K.; Jech, J. M.
1990-06-01
The spatial distribution of biological scatterers within the Gulf Stream front is inferred from an analysis of patch statistics obtained from digitally recorded backscattering data. Acoustic data were collected along 10 transects perpendicular to the front using a downward-looking 70 kHz echosounder. Patches were defined using an algorithm selected to search for finescale patches from within 200 × 900 element (approx. 200 m depth × 24 km length) integrated echo data. Based on principal component analyses of 17 patch parameters, we identified the third most important component as a measure of "acoustic roughness" (containing the coefficient of variance and coefficient of roughness of the integrated echo independent of echo intensity). This third component was a good descriptor of differences among patches within scattering layers and between water masses. It is independent of echo strength and patch size which constitute the first two components. We interpret higher acoustic roughness within patches to indicate a more contagious (clumped) distribution of animals within those patches. Classification of patches on acoustic roughness showed that patches were often acoustically different from distant neighbors but more similar to neighbors within the same scattering layer or region. We infer that finescale layers are made up of small patches of like animals exhibiting a similar spatial arrangement throughout the layer. Cross-stream differences in acoustic roughness indicate a greater number of solitary scatterers occur within the slope water than within the Gulf Stream. Acoustic roughness is also reduced at night when compared with day, indicating that the ascent of vertical migrators into the near-surface waters (<200 m) results in a more dispersed spatial pattern.
Efficient method for scattering problems in open billiards: Theory and applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akguc, Gursoy B.; Seligman, Thomas H.
2006-12-01
We present an efficient method to solve scattering problems in two-dimensional open billiards with two leads and a complicated scattering region. The basic idea is to transform the scattering region to a rectangle, which will lead to complicated dynamics in the interior, but simple boundary conditions. The method can be specialized to closed billiards, and it allows the treatment of interacting particles in the billiard. We apply this method to quantum echoes measured recently in a microwave cavity, and indicate how it can be used for interacting particles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mori, Kazuyoshi; Ogasawara, Hanako; Nakamura, Toshiaki; Tsuchiya, Takenobu; Endoh, Nobuyuki
2012-07-01
We have already designed and fabricated an aspherical lens with an aperture diameter of 1.0 m to develop a prototype system for ambient noise imaging (ANI). It has also been verified that this acoustic lens realizes a directional resolution, which is a beam width of 1° at the center frequency of 120 kHz over the field of view from -7 to +7°. In this study, a sea trial of silent target detection using the prototype ANI system was conducted under only natural ocean ambient noise at Uchiura Bay, in November of 2010. There were many transients in the received sound. These transients were classified roughly into directly received noises and target scatterings. We proposed a classification method to extract transients of only target scatterings. By analyzing transients extracted as target scatterings, it was verified that the power spectrum density levels of the on-target directions were greater than those of the off-target directions in the higher frequency band over 60 kHz. These results showed that the targets are successfully detected under natural ocean ambient noise, mainly generated by snapping shrimps.
On t-local solvability of inverse scattering problems in two-dimensional layered media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baev, A. V.
2015-06-01
The solvability of two-dimensional inverse scattering problems for the Klein-Gordon equation and the Dirac system in a time-local formulation is analyzed in the framework of the Galerkin method. A necessary and sufficient condition for the unique solvability of these problems is obtained in the form of an energy conservation law. It is shown that the inverse problems are solvable only in the class of potentials for which the stationary Navier-Stokes equation is solvable.
Application of Dynamic Logic Algorithm to Inverse Scattering Problems Related to Plasma Diagnostics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perlovsky, L.; Deming, R. W.; Sotnikov, V.
2010-11-01
In plasma diagnostics scattering of electromagnetic waves is widely used for identification of density and wave field perturbations. In the present work we use a powerful mathematical approach, dynamic logic (DL), to identify the spectra of scattered electromagnetic (EM) waves produced by the interaction of the incident EM wave with a Langmuir soliton in the presence of noise. The problem is especially difficult since the spectral amplitudes of the noise pattern are comparable with the amplitudes of the scattered waves. In the past DL has been applied to a number of complex problems in artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, and signal processing, resulting in revolutionary improvements. Here we demonstrate its application to plasma diagnostic problems. [4pt] Perlovsky, L.I., 2001. Neural Networks and Intellect: using model-based concepts. Oxford University Press, New York, NY.
Wood's anomalies and surface waves in the problem of scattering by a periodic boundary. II
Kamotskii, I V; Nazarov, S A
1999-02-28
The solution of the problem of diffraction of an acoustic plane wave by a periodic boundary for frequencies close to threshold values is studied. It is shown that if the periodic structure has some special geometry, then the transformations of the diffraction pattern (Wood's anomalies) are accompanied by the occurrence of surface waves. Substantiation of asymptotic formulae is carried out on the basis of the techniques of equivalent weighted norms in Sobolev spaces.
A mass-redistributed finite element method (MR-FEM) for acoustic problems using triangular mesh
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Z. C.; Li, Eric; Liu, G. R.; Li, G. Y.; Cheng, A. G.
2016-10-01
The accuracy of numerical results using standard finite element method (FEM) in acoustic problems will deteriorate with increasing frequency due to the "dispersion error". Such dispersion error depends on the balance between the "stiffness" and "mass" of discretization equation systems. This paper reports an improved finite element method (FEM) for solving acoustic problems by re-distributing the mass in the mass matrix to "tune" the balance, aiming to minimize the dispersion errors. This is done by shifting the integration point locations when computing the entries of the mass matrix, while ensuring the mass conservation. The new method is verified through the detailed numerical error analysis, and a strategy is also proposed for the best mass redistribution in terms of minimizing dispersion error. The relative dispersion error of present mass-redistributed finite element method (MR-FEM) is found to be much smaller than the FEM solution, in both theoretical prediction and numerical examination. The present MR-FEM works well by using the linear triangular elements that can be generated automatically, which enables automation in computation and saving computational cost in mesh generation. Numerical examples demonstrate the advantages of MR-FEM, in comparison with the standard FEM using the same triangular meshes and quadrilateral meshes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolghasi, Alireza; Ghadimi, Parviz; Chekab, Mohammad A. Feizi
2016-09-01
The aim of the present study is to improve the capabilities and precision of a recently introduced Sea Surface Acoustic Simulator (SSAS) developed based on optimization of the Helmholtz-Kirchhoff-Fresnel (HKF) method. The improved acoustic simulator, hereby known as the Modified SSAS (MSSAS), is capable of determining sound scattering from the sea surface and includes an extended Hall-Novarini model and optimized HKF method. The extended Hall-Novarini model is used for considering the effects of sub-surface bubbles over a wider range of radii of sub-surface bubbles compared to the previous SSAS version. Furthermore, MSSAS has the capability of making a three-dimensional simulation of scattered sound from the rough bubbly sea surface with less error than that of the Critical Sea Tests (CST) experiments. Also, it presents scattered pressure levels from the rough bubbly sea surface based on various incident angles of sound. Wind speed, frequency, incident angle, and pressure level of the sound source are considered as input data, and scattered pressure levels and scattering coefficients are provided. Finally, different parametric studies were conducted on wind speeds, frequencies, and incident angles to indicate that MSSAS is quite capable of simulating sound scattering from the rough bubbly sea surface, according to the scattering mechanisms determined by Ogden and Erskine. Therefore, it is concluded that MSSAS is valid for both scattering mechanisms and the transition region between them that are defined by Ogden and Erskine.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolghasi, Alireza; Ghadimi, Parviz; Chekab, Mohammad A. Feizi
2016-08-01
The aim of the present study is to improve the capabilities and precision of a recently introduced Sea Surface Acoustic Simulator (SSAS) developed based on optimization of the Helmholtz-Kirchhoff-Fresnel (HKF) method. The improved acoustic simulator, hereby known as the Modified SSAS (MSSAS), is capable of determining sound scattering from the sea surface and includes an extended Hall-Novarini model and optimized HKF method. The extended Hall-Novarini model is used for considering the effects of sub-surface bubbles over a wider range of radii of sub-surface bubbles compared to the previous SSAS version. Furthermore, MSSAS has the capability of making a three-dimensional simulation of scattered sound from the rough bubbly sea surface with less error than that of the Critical Sea Tests (CST) experiments. Also, it presents scattered pressure levels from the rough bubbly sea surface based on various incident angles of sound. Wind speed, frequency, incident angle, and pressure level of the sound source are considered as input data, and scattered pressure levels and scattering coefficients are provided. Finally, different parametric studies were conducted on wind speeds, frequencies, and incident angles to indicate that MSSAS is quite capable of simulating sound scattering from the rough bubbly sea surface, according to the scattering mechanisms determined by Ogden and Erskine. Therefore, it is concluded that MSSAS is valid for both scattering mechanisms and the transition region between them that are defined by Ogden and Erskine.
ADRPM-VII applied to the long-range acoustic detection problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shalis, Edward; Koenig, Gerald
1990-01-01
An acoustic detection range prediction model (ADRPM-VII) has been written for IBM PC/AT machines running on the MS-DOS operating system. The software allows the user to predict detection distances of ground combat vehicles and their associated targets when they are involved in quasi-military settings. The program can also calculate individual attenuation losses due to spherical spreading, atmospheric absorption, ground reflection and atmospheric refraction due to temperature and wind gradients while varying parameters effecting the source-receiver problem. The purpose here is to examine the strengths and limitations of ADRPM-VII by modeling the losses due to atmospheric refraction and ground absorption, commonly known as excess attenuation, when applied to the long range detection problem for distances greater than 3 kilometers.
Mizuno, K.; DeGroot, J.S.; Seka, W.; Drake, R.P.
1992-08-01
We have developed 5-channel collective Thomson scattering system to measure the ion acoustic wave excited by the ion acoustic wave decay instabilities. The multichannel collective Thomson scattering technique was established with 4{omega} probe laser beam using GDL laser system at LLE, Univ. of Rochester. We have obtained the ionic charge state Z by measuring the second harmonic emission from the ion acoustic decay instability. The LASNEX computer simulation calculations have been carried out. The experimental results agree very well with the LASNEX computer simulation results with the flux number f=0.l. In high power laser regime, the spectrum become broad, and the {Delta}{gamma} decreases indicating that the turbulent like spectrum is observed. In order to understand the experimental results, we have developed a theory to study absorption of laser and heat transport. This new theory includes the temporal evolution of the heat conduction region. The results agree with flux-limited hydrodynamic simulations.
Mizuno, K.; DeGroot, J.S. ); Seka, W. . Lab. of Laser Energetics); Drake, R.P. )
1992-01-01
We have developed 5-channel collective Thomson scattering system to measure the ion acoustic wave excited by the ion acoustic wave decay instabilities. The multichannel collective Thomson scattering technique was established with 4{omega} probe laser beam using GDL laser system at LLE, Univ. of Rochester. We have obtained the ionic charge state Z by measuring the second harmonic emission from the ion acoustic decay instability. The LASNEX computer simulation calculations have been carried out. The experimental results agree very well with the LASNEX computer simulation results with the flux number f=0.l. In high power laser regime, the spectrum become broad, and the {Delta}{gamma} decreases indicating that the turbulent like spectrum is observed. In order to understand the experimental results, we have developed a theory to study absorption of laser and heat transport. This new theory includes the temporal evolution of the heat conduction region. The results agree with flux-limited hydrodynamic simulations.
Bafile, Ubaldo; Guarini, Eleonora
2006-06-15
In the Q range where inelastic x-ray and neutron scattering are applied to the study of acoustic collective excitations in fluids, various models of the dynamic structure factor S(Q,{omega}) generalize in different ways the results obtained from linearized-hydrodynamics theory in the Q{yields}0 limit. Here we show that the models most commonly fitted to experimental S(Q,{omega}) spectra can be given a unified formulation. In this way, direct comparisons among the results obtained by fitting different models become now possible to a much larger extent than ever. We also show that a consistent determination of the dispersion curve and of the propagation Q range of the excitations is possible, whichever model is used. We derive an exact formula which describes in all cases the dispersion curve and allows for the first quantitative understanding of its shape, by assigning specific and distinct roles to the various structural, thermal, and damping effects that determine the Q dependence of the mode frequencies. The emerging picture describes the acoustic modes as Q-dependent harmonic oscillators whose characteristic frequency is explicitly renormalized in an exact way by the relaxation processes, which also determine, through the widths of both the inelastic and the elastic lines, the whole shape of collective-excitation spectra.
Elhanaoui, Abdelkader; Aassif, Elhoucein; Maze, Gérard; Décultot, Dominique
2016-02-01
The present paper studies the acoustic signal backscattered by an air-filled copper–solid polymer two-layer cylindrical tube immersed in water. The work is done from the calculation of the backscattered pressure, an inverse Fourier Transform, which allows us to obtain an impulse signal. Smoothed pseudo Wigner–Ville and Concentrated spectrogram representations have been chosen to analyze the scattering phenomenon. For reduced frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 200, the resonance trajectories and time–frequency images have shown the presence of the guided waves. The bifurcation of the A0 wave into the A0(-) and the A0(+) waves has also been observed. The authors provide the phase and the group velocities of guided waves and investigate the differences between curves. The findings are then compared with those obtained for the copper and the solid polymer one-layer cylindrical tubes. Group velocity values have also been extracted from smoothed pseudo Wigner–Ville and Concentrated spectrogram time–frequency images. A good agreement with the theory has, therefore, been observed. The study of acoustic backscattering by a copper–solid polymer two-layer tube has revealed the interaction and the coupling of guided waves, specially the presence of a pseudo A1 wave; which is a very interesting, remarkable phenomenon. PMID:26601563
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bafile, Ubaldo; Guarini, Eleonora; Barocchi, Fabrizio
2006-06-01
In the Q range where inelastic x-ray and neutron scattering are applied to the study of acoustic collective excitations in fluids, various models of the dynamic structure factor S(Q,ω) generalize in different ways the results obtained from linearized-hydrodynamics theory in the Q→0 limit. Here we show that the models most commonly fitted to experimental S(Q,ω) spectra can be given a unified formulation. In this way, direct comparisons among the results obtained by fitting different models become now possible to a much larger extent than ever. We also show that a consistent determination of the dispersion curve and of the propagation Q range of the excitations is possible, whichever model is used. We derive an exact formula which describes in all cases the dispersion curve and allows for the first quantitative understanding of its shape, by assigning specific and distinct roles to the various structural, thermal, and damping effects that determine the Q dependence of the mode frequencies. The emerging picture describes the acoustic modes as Q -dependent harmonic oscillators whose characteristic frequency is explicitly renormalized in an exact way by the relaxation processes, which also determine, through the widths of both the inelastic and the elastic lines, the whole shape of collective-excitation spectra.
Bafile, Ubaldo; Guarini, Eleonora; Barocchi, Fabrizio
2006-06-01
In the Q range where inelastic x-ray and neutron scattering are applied to the study of acoustic collective excitations in fluids, various models of the dynamic structure factor S(Q, omega) generalize in different ways the results obtained from linearized-hydrodynamics theory in the Q-->0 limit. Here we show that the models most commonly fitted to experimental S(Q, omega) spectra can be given a unified formulation. In this way, direct comparisons among the results obtained by fitting different models become now possible to a much larger extent than ever. We also show that a consistent determination of the dispersion curve and of the propagation Q range of the excitations is possible, whichever model is used. We derive an exact formula which describes in all cases the dispersion curve and allows for the first quantitative understanding of its shape, by assigning specific and distinct roles to the various structural, thermal, and damping effects that determine the Q dependence of the mode frequencies. The emerging picture describes the acoustic modes as Q-dependent harmonic oscillators whose characteristic frequency is explicitly renormalized in an exact way by the relaxation processes, which also determine, through the widths of both the inelastic and the elastic lines, the whole shape of collective-excitation spectra. PMID:16906814
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Zhiyao; Zhou, Xiaojun; Liang, Rui; Qin, Zujun; Liu, Yong
2009-07-01
Buffer performance of a 2.5 Gb/s bit stream with non-return-to-zero format is investigated based on acoustic excitation by stimulated Brillouin scattering in an As 2Se 3 fiber. The storage process and the retrieval process of the bit stream are separately controlled by a "Write" pulse and a "Read" pulse. The research results show that the output signal-to-noise ratio and the readout efficiency of the buffer are agreeable, and the pulse distortion is low, if both the "Write" and the "Read" pulses are with high enough peak power and spectrum wider than that of the signal pulse. Buffering of a consecutive 10-bit-long 2.5 Gb/s NRZ bit stream has also been demonstrated in the As 2Se 3 fiber with length of only 0.5 m. The storage of a long bit stream, such as the data packet containing about 1000 bits in the telecommunications, is limited by the high loss in the As 2Se 3 fiber. However, the development of the special optical fiber with high Brillouin gain coefficient, long acoustic lifetime and low loss can make this technology applicable for all-optical buffering in high speed optical networks.
Experimental evidence of the effect of heat flux on thomson scattering off ion acoustic waves
Amiranoff; Baton; Huller; Malka; Modena; Mounaix; Galloudec; Rousseaux; Salvati
2000-02-01
Thomson self-scattering measurements are performed in a preionized helium gas jet plasma at different locations along the laser propagation direction. A systematic and important variation of the intensity ratio between the blue and the red ion spectral components is observed, depending on whether the location of the probed region is in front of or behind the focal plane. A simple theoretical calculation of Thomson scattering shows that this behavior can be qualitatively understood in terms of a deformation of the electron distribution function due to the return current correlated with the classical thermal heat flux. PMID:11046481
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voronovich, Alexander G.; Ostashev, Vladimir E.
2003-04-01
In our previous paper [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 2232], we obtained a time dependence of the horizontal refraction angle (HRA) of acoustic signals propagating over a range of about 4000 km in the ocean. This dependence was computed by processing of acoustic signals recorded during the North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory (NPAL) experiment using a ray-type approach. In the present paper, we consider the results obtained in signal processing of the same data using a modal approach. In this approach, the acoustic field is represented as a sum of local acoustic modes with amplitudes depending on a frequency and arrival angle. We obtained a time dependence of HRA for a time interval of about a year. Time evolution of HRA exhibits long-period variations which could be associated with seasonal trends in the sound speed profiles. The results are consistent with those obtained by the ray approach. Different horizontal angles within arrivals were impossible to resolve due to sound scattering by internal waves. A theoretical estimate of the angular width of the acoustic signals in a horizontal plane was obtained. It appears to be consistent with the observed variance of HRA data. [Work supported by ONR.] a)J. A. Colosi, B. D. Cornuelle, B. D. Dushaw, M. A. Dzieciuch, B. M. Howe, J. A. Mercer, R. C. Spindel, and P. F. Worcester.
On linear acoustic solutions of high speed helicopter impulsive noise problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tam, C. K. W.
1983-07-01
The nature of linear acoustic solutions for a helicopter rotor blade with a blunt leading edge operating at high transonic tip Mach number is studied. As a part of this investigation a very efficient computation procedure for helicopter rotor blade thickness noise according to linear theory is developed. Numerical and analytical results reveal that as the blade tip Mach number approaches unity, the solution develops singularities and a radiating discontinuity. It is shown that these characteristic features are caused by the contributions of the higher harmonics which decrease in magnitude only as n exp-1/2 in the limit n tending to infinity. These higher harmonics are generated by the blunt leading edge. The far field wave form at sonic tip Mach number for a blade with a NACA 0012 airfoil section has a singularity of the inverse root type at its front and a logarithmic singularity near its end. Thus caution must be exercised in applying linear acoustic theory to high speed helicopter impulsive noise problems.
Spectral scattering operators in problems of wave diffraction by plane screens
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Litvinenko, L. N.; Prosvirnin, S. L.
The operator method, a version of the semiinversion method used in the theory of diffraction, is examined with reference to two-dimensional stationary problems of electromagnetic wave diffraction by plane screens. Spectral scattering operators are derived for a series of periodic and nonperiodic structures. Practically important problems concerning the diffraction of wave beams, wave propagation in waveguide systems, and diffraction radiation are examined, and a detailed interpretation of results is presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davendra, Donald; Zelinka, Ivan; Senkerik, Roman; Jasek, Roman; Bialic-Davendra, Magdalena
2012-11-01
One of the new emerging application strategies for optimization is the hybridization of existing metaheuristics. The research combines the unique paradigms of solution space sampling of SOMA and memory retention capabilities of Scatter Search for the task of capacitated vehicle routing problem. The new hybrid heuristic is tested on the Taillard sets and obtains good results.
Modelling of the acoustic field of a multi-element HIFU array scattered by human ribs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gélat, Pierre; ter Haar, Gail; Saffari, Nader
2011-09-01
The efficacy of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for the treatment of a range of different cancers, including those of the liver, prostate and breast, has been demonstrated. As a non-invasive focused therapy, HIFU offers considerable advantages over techniques such as chemotherapy and surgical resection in terms of reduced risk of harmful side effects. Despite this, there are a number of significant challenges which currently hinder its widespread clinical application. One of these challenges is the need to transmit sufficient energy through the rib cage to induce tissue necrosis in the required volume whilst minimizing the formation of side lobes. Multi-element random-phased arrays are currently showing great promise in overcoming the limitations of single-element transducers. Nevertheless, successful treatment of a patient with liver tumours requires a thorough understanding of the way in which the ultrasonic pressure field from a HIFU array is scattered by the rib cage. In order to address this, a boundary element approach based on a generalized minimal residual (GMRES) implementation of the Burton-Miller formulation was used in conjunction with phase conjugation techniques to focus the field of a 256-element random HIFU array behind human ribs at locations requiring intercostal and transcostal treatment. Simulations were carried out on a 3D mesh of quadratic pressure patches generated using CT scan anatomical data for adult ribs 9-12 on the right side. The methodology was validated on spherical and cylindrical scatterers. Field calculations were also carried out for idealized ribs, consisting of arrays of strip-like scatterers, demonstrating effects of splitting at the focus. This method has the advantage of fully accounting for the effect of scattering and diffraction in 3D under continuous wave excitation.
Modelling of the acoustic field of a multi-element HIFU array scattered by human ribs.
Gélat, Pierre; Ter Haar, Gail; Saffari, Nader
2011-09-01
The efficacy of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for the treatment of a range of different cancers, including those of the liver, prostate and breast, has been demonstrated. As a non-invasive focused therapy, HIFU offers considerable advantages over techniques such as chemotherapy and surgical resection in terms of reduced risk of harmful side effects. Despite this, there are a number of significant challenges which currently hinder its widespread clinical application. One of these challenges is the need to transmit sufficient energy through the rib cage to induce tissue necrosis in the required volume whilst minimizing the formation of side lobes. Multi-element random-phased arrays are currently showing great promise in overcoming the limitations of single-element transducers. Nevertheless, successful treatment of a patient with liver tumours requires a thorough understanding of the way in which the ultrasonic pressure field from a HIFU array is scattered by the rib cage. In order to address this, a boundary element approach based on a generalized minimal residual (GMRES) implementation of the Burton-Miller formulation was used in conjunction with phase conjugation techniques to focus the field of a 256-element random HIFU array behind human ribs at locations requiring intercostal and transcostal treatment. Simulations were carried out on a 3D mesh of quadratic pressure patches generated using CT scan anatomical data for adult ribs 9-12 on the right side. The methodology was validated on spherical and cylindrical scatterers. Field calculations were also carried out for idealized ribs, consisting of arrays of strip-like scatterers, demonstrating effects of splitting at the focus. This method has the advantage of fully accounting for the effect of scattering and diffraction in 3D under continuous wave excitation.
On multiple scattering in acoustic media: a deterministic Ray Tracing method for random structures.
Brigante, M
2013-03-01
The paper is devoted to computer and experimental simulation of US (ultrasonic) signal propagation in acoustic solids with micro-structure. Any change in the percentage of flaws or pores influences considerably the value of the ultrasonic wave speed. The theoretical analysis is based upon the Ray Tracing algorithm. We calculate numerically the full path of each ray from the transmitter to the receiver, in its multiple reflections between the surfaces of the internal obstacles. The natural experiments are performed in a water basin with some arrays of equal metallic round rods. This simulates the US evaluation of the mechanical properties of concrete. The computer modeling allows us to construct the envelope of the US signal registered at the receiving transducer. Then we simulate the dependence of the wave speed versus porosity. There is a sufficiently good accordance between numerical and experimental results.
Convergence properties of a quadratic approach to the inverse-scattering problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Persico, Raffaele; Soldovieri, Francesco; Pierri, Rocco
2002-12-01
The local-minima question that arises in the framework of a quadratic approach to inverse-scattering problems is investigated. In particular, a sufficient condition for the absence of local minima is given, and some guidelines to ensure the reliability of the algorithm are outlined for the case of data not belonging to the range of the relevant quadratic operator. This is relevant also when an iterated solution procedure based on a quadratic approximation of the electromagnetic scattering at each step is considered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rudenko, O. V.; Gurbatov, S. N.
2016-07-01
Inverse problems of nonlinear acoustics have important applied significance. On the one hand, they are necessary for nonlinear diagnostics of media, materials, manufactured articles, building units, and biological and geological structures. On the other hand, they are needed for creating devices that ensure optimal action of acoustic radiation on a target. However, despite the many promising applications, this direction remains underdeveloped, especially for strongly distorted high-intensity waves containing shock fronts. An example of such an inverse problem is synthesis of the spatiotemporal structure of a field in a radiating system that ensures the highest possible energy density in the focal region. This problem is also related to the urgent problems of localizing wave energy and the theory of strongly nonlinear waves. Below we analyze some quite general and simple inverse nonlinear problems.
Electromagnetic scattering problems -Numerical issues and new experimental approaches of validation
Geise, Robert; Neubauer, Bjoern; Zimmer, Georg
2015-03-10
Electromagnetic scattering problems, thus the question how radiated energy spreads when impinging on an object, are an essential part of wave propagation. Though the Maxwell’s differential equations as starting point, are actually quite simple,the integral formulation of an object’s boundary conditions, respectively the solution for unknown induced currents can only be solved numerically in most cases.As a timely topic of practical importance the scattering of rotating wind turbines is discussed, the numerical description of which is still based on rigorous approximations with yet unspecified accuracy. In this context the issue of validating numerical solutions is addressed, both with reference simulations but in particular with the experimental approach of scaled measurements. For the latter the idea of an incremental validation is proposed allowing a step by step validation of required new mathematical models in scattering theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Røstad, Anders; Kaartvedt, Stein; Aksnes, Dag L.
2016-07-01
We make a comparison of the mesopelagic sound scattering layers (SLs) in two contrasting optical environments; the clear Red Sea and in murkier coastal waters of Norway (Masfjorden). The depth distributions of the SL in Masfjorden are shallower and narrower than those of the Red Sea. This difference in depth distribution is consistent with the hypothesis that the organisms of the SL distribute according to similar light comfort zones (LCZ) in the two environments. Our study suggest that surface and underwater light measurements ranging more than 10 orders of magnitude is required to assess the controlling effects of light on SL structure and dynamics.
Discrete ordinates transport methods for problems with highly forward-peaked scattering
Pautz, S.D.
1998-04-01
The author examines the solutions of the discrete ordinates (S{sub N}) method for problems with highly forward-peaked scattering kernels. He derives conditions necessary to obtain reasonable solutions in a certain forward-peaked limit, the Fokker-Planck (FP) limit. He also analyzes the acceleration of the iterative solution of such problems and offer improvements to it. He extends the analytic Fokker-Planck limit analysis to the S{sub N} equations. This analysis shows that in this asymptotic limit the S{sub N} solution satisfies a pseudospectral discretization of the FP equation, provided that the scattering term is handled in a certain way (which he describes) and that the analytic transport solution satisfies an analytic FP equation. Similar analyses of various spatially discretized S{sub N} equations reveal that they too produce solutions that satisfy discrete FP equations, given the same provisions. Numerical results agree with these theoretical predictions. He defines a multidimensional angular multigrid (ANMG) method to accelerate the iterative solution of highly forward-peaked problems. The analyses show that a straightforward application of this scheme is subject to high-frequency instabilities. However, by applying a diffusive filter to the ANMG corrections he is able to stabilize this method. Fourier analyses of model problems show that the resulting method is effective at accelerating the convergence rate when the scattering is forward-peaked. The numerical results demonstrate that these analyses are good predictors of the actual performance of the ANMG method.
Discrete ordinates transport methods for problems with highly forward-peaked scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pautz, Shawn Daniel
1998-10-01
We examine the solutions of the discrete ordinates (SN) method for problems with highly forward- peaked scattering kernels. We derive conditions necessary to obtain reasonable solutions in a certain forward- peaked limit, the Fokker-Planck (FP) limit. We also analyze the acceleration of the iterative solution of such problems and offer improvements to it. We extend the analytic Fokker-Planck limit analysis to the SN equations. This analysis shows that in this asymptotic limit the SN solution satisfies a pseudospectral discretization of the FP equation, provided that the scattering term is handled in a certain way (which we describe) and that the analytic transport solution satisfies an analytic FP equation. Similar analyses of various spatially discretized SN equations reveal that they too produce solutions that satisfy discrete FP equations, given the same provisions. Numerical results agree with these theoretical predictions. We define a multidimensional angular multigrid (ANMG) method to accelerate the iterative solution of highly forward-peaked problems. Our analyses show that a straightforward application of this scheme is subject to high-frequency instabilities. However, by applying a diffusive filter to the ANMG corrections we are able to stabilize this method. Fourier analyses of model problems show that the resulting method is effective at accelerating the convergence rate when the scattering is forward-peaked. Our numerical results demonstrate that these analyses are good predictors of the actual performance of the ANMG method.
Quantum trajectories in complex space: one-dimensional stationary scattering problems.
Chou, Chia-Chun; Wyatt, Robert E
2008-04-21
One-dimensional time-independent scattering problems are investigated in the framework of the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. The equation for the local approximate quantum trajectories near the stagnation point of the quantum momentum function is derived, and the first derivative of the quantum momentum function is related to the local structure of quantum trajectories. Exact complex quantum trajectories are determined for two examples by numerically integrating the equations of motion. For the soft potential step, some particles penetrate into the nonclassical region, and then turn back to the reflection region. For the barrier scattering problem, quantum trajectories may spiral into the attractors or from the repellers in the barrier region. Although the classical potentials extended to complex space show different pole structures for each problem, the quantum potentials present the same second-order pole structure in the reflection region. This paper not only analyzes complex quantum trajectories and the total potentials for these examples but also demonstrates general properties and similar structures of the complex quantum trajectories and the quantum potentials for one-dimensional time-independent scattering problems. PMID:18433189
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yuxiang; Barnett, Alex H.
2016-11-01
We present a high-order accurate boundary-based solver for three-dimensional (3D) frequency-domain scattering from a doubly-periodic grating of smooth axisymmetric sound-hard or transmission obstacles. We build the one-obstacle solution operator using separation into P azimuthal modes via the FFT, the method of fundamental solutions (with N proxy points lying on a curve), and dense direct least-squares solves; the effort is O (N3 P) with a small constant. Periodizing then combines fast multipole summation of nearest neighbors with an auxiliary global Helmholtz basis expansion to represent the distant contributions, and enforcing quasiperiodicity and radiation conditions on the unit cell walls. Eliminating the auxiliary coefficients, and preconditioning with the one-obstacle solution operator, leaves a well-conditioned square linear system that is solved iteratively. The solution time per incident wave is then O (NP) at fixed frequency. Our scheme avoids singular quadratures, periodic Green's functions, and lattice sums, and its convergence rate is unaffected by resonances within obstacles. We include numerical examples such as scattering from a grating of period 13 λ × 13 λ comprising highly-resonant sound-hard "cups" each needing NP = 64800 surface unknowns, to 10-digit accuracy, in half an hour on a desktop.
Use of edge-based finite elements for solving three dimensional scattering problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chatterjee, A.; Jin, J. M.; Volakis, John L.
1991-01-01
Edge based finite elements are free from drawbacks associated with node based vectorial finite elements and are, therefore, ideal for solving 3-D scattering problems. The finite element discretization using edge elements is checked by solving for the resonant frequencies of a closed inhomogeneously filled metallic cavity. Great improvements in accuracy are observed when compared to the classical node based approach with no penalty in terms of computational time and with the expected absence of spurious modes. A performance comparison between the edge based tetrahedra and rectangular brick elements is carried out and tetrahedral elements are found to be more accurate than rectangular bricks for a given storage intensity. A detailed formulation for the scattering problem with various approaches for terminating the finite element mesh is also presented.
Kılıç, Emre Eibert, Thomas F.
2015-05-01
An approach combining boundary integral and finite element methods is introduced for the solution of three-dimensional inverse electromagnetic medium scattering problems. Based on the equivalence principle, unknown equivalent electric and magnetic surface current densities on a closed surface are utilized to decompose the inverse medium problem into two parts: a linear radiation problem and a nonlinear cavity problem. The first problem is formulated by a boundary integral equation, the computational burden of which is reduced by employing the multilevel fast multipole method (MLFMM). Reconstructed Cauchy data on the surface allows the utilization of the Lorentz reciprocity and the Poynting's theorems. Exploiting these theorems, the noise level and an initial guess are estimated for the cavity problem. Moreover, it is possible to determine whether the material is lossy or not. In the second problem, the estimated surface currents form inhomogeneous boundary conditions of the cavity problem. The cavity problem is formulated by the finite element technique and solved iteratively by the Gauss–Newton method to reconstruct the properties of the object. Regularization for both the first and the second problems is achieved by a Krylov subspace method. The proposed method is tested against both synthetic and experimental data and promising reconstruction results are obtained.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ko, Jae-Hyeon; Ko, Young Ho; Kim, Kwang Joo
2014-06-01
The determination of the equation of state (EOS) of amorphous materials is very important for fundamental understanding of the glass transition and applications as well. Simultaneous observation of both longitudinal and transverse acoustic modes by Brillouin scattering spectroscopy has been one of the major methods to obtain EOS of amorphous materials. However, the transverse acoustic mode is hardly seen from some of the amorphous polymers, which makes it difficult to derive EOS. The temperature and pressure dependences of the acoustic properties of amorphous ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer were measured by using high-pressure Brillouin scattering spectroscopy. The temperature variation induced large changes in the frequency shift and linewidth of the longitudinal acoustic mode due to strong coupling between the structural relaxation process and the propagating density fluctuations. The residual linewidth in the glassy state was attributed to the remnant intramolecular motions of EVA, the activation energy of which was estimated to be ∼3.30 ± 0.27 kcal/mol. The pressure-density relationship of EVA could be obtained for the first time by measuring the refractive index and using the Lorentz-Lorenz equation. The density and the refractive index exhibited monotonic increase up to approximately 12 GPa. The strong reduction of the acoustic damping at low pressures below ∼3 GPa was attributed to the collapsing free volume in EVA. The present study clearly shows that measuring the refractive index by high-pressure Brillouin spectroscopy may be an alternative method to get the EOS of polymeric materials whose transverse acoustic mode is too weak to be observed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mittra, R.; Ko, W. L.; Rahmat-Samii, Y.
1979-01-01
This paper presents a brief review of some recent developments on the use of the spectral-domain approach for deriving high-frequency solutions to electromagnetics scattering and radiation problems. The spectral approach is not only useful for interpreting the well-known Keller formulas based on the geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD), it can also be employed for verifying the accuracy of GTD and other asymptotic solutions and systematically improving the results when such improvements are needed. The problem of plane wave diffraction by a finite screen or a strip is presented as an example of the application of the spectral-domain approach.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ressler, Patrick H.
2002-11-01
A 153 kHz narrowband acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) was used to measure volume backscattering strength ( Sv) during a deepwater oceanographic survey of cetacean and seabird habitat in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Sv was positively related to zooplankton and micronekton biomass (wet displacement volume) in 'sea-truth' net hauls made with a 1 m 2 Multiple Opening-Closing Net Environmental Sensing System (MOCNESS). A subset of these MOCNESS tows was used to explore the relationship between the numerical densities of various taxonomic categories of zooplankton and the ADCP backscatter signal. Crustaceans, small fish, and fragments of non-gas-bearing siphonophores in the net samples all showed significant, positive correlations with the acoustic signal, while other types of gelatinous zooplankton, pteropod and atlantid molluscs, and gas-filled siphonophore floats showed no significant correlation with Sv. Previously published acoustic scattering models for zooplankton were used to calculate expected scattering for several general zooplankton types and sizes for comparison with the field data. Even though gelatinous material often made up a large fraction of the total biomass, crustaceans, small fish, and pteropods were most likely the important scatterers. Since only crustacean and small fish densities were significantly correlated with Sv, it is suggested that Sv at 153 kHz can be used as a relative proxy for the abundance of these organisms in the Gulf of Mexico.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lecoq, D.; Pézerat, C.; Thomas, J.-H.; Bi, W. P.
2014-06-01
An improvement of the Force Analysis Technique (FAT), an inverse method of vibration, is proposed to identify the low wavenumbers including the acoustic component of a turbulent flow that excites a plate. This method is a significant progress since the usual techniques of measurements with flush-mounted sensors are not able to separate the acoustic and the aerodynamic energies of the excitation because the aerodynamic component is too high. Moreover, the main cause of vibration or acoustic radiation of the structure might be due to the acoustic part by a phenomenon of spatial coincidence between the acoustic wavelengths and those of the plate. This underlines the need to extract the acoustic part. In this work, numerical experiments are performed to solve both the direct and inverse problems of vibration. The excitation is a turbulent boundary layer and combines the pressure field of the Corcos model and a diffuse acoustic field. These pressures are obtained by a synthesis method based on the Cholesky decomposition of the cross-spectra matrices and are used to excite a plate. Thus, the application of the inverse problem FAT that requires only the vibration data shows that the method is able to identify and to isolate the acoustic part of the excitation. Indeed, the discretization of the inverse operator (motion equation of the plate) acts as a low-pass wavenumber filter. In addition, this method is simple to implement because it can be applied locally (no need to know the boundary conditions), and measurements can be carried out on the opposite side of the plate without affecting the flow. Finally, an improvement of FAT is proposed. It regularizes optimally and automatically the inverse problem by analyzing the mean quadratic pressure of the reconstructed force distribution. This optimized FAT, in the case of the turbulent flow, has the advantage of measuring the acoustic component up to higher frequencies even in the presence of noise. the aerodynamic component
A whole-space transform formula of cylindrical wave functions for scattering problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Xiaoming
2014-03-01
The theory of elastic wave scattering is a fundamental concept in the study of elastic dynamics and wave motion, and the wave function expansion technique has been widely used in many subjects. To supply the essential tools for solving wave scattering problems induced by an eccentric source or multi-sources as well as multi-scatters, a whole-space transform formula of cylindrical wave functions is presented and its applicability to some simple cases is demonstrated in this study. The transforms of wave functions in cylindrical coordinates can be classified into two basic types: interior transform and exterior transform, and the existing Graf's addition theorem is only suitable for the former. By performing a new replacement between the two coordinates, the exterior transform formula is first deduced. It is then combined with Graf's addition theorem to establish a whole-space transform formula. By using the whole-space transform formula, the scattering solutions by the sources outside and inside a cylindrical cavity are constructed as examples of its application. The effectiveness and advantages of the whole-space transform formula is illustrated by comparison with the approximate model based on a large cycle method. The whole-space transform formula presented herein can be used to perform the transform between two different cylindrical coordinates in the whole space. In addition, its concept and principle are universal and can be further extended to establish the coordinate transform formula of wave functions in other coordinate systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roohani Ghehsareh, Hadi; Kamal Etesami, Seyed; Hajisadeghi Esfahani, Maryam
2016-08-01
In the current work, the electromagnetic (EM) scattering from infinite perfectly conducting cylinders with arbitrary cross sections in both transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) modes is numerically investigated. The problems of TE and TM EM scattering can be mathematically modelled via the magnetic field integral equation (MFIE) and the electric field integral equation (EFIE), respectively. An efficient technique is performed to approximate the solution of these surface integral equations. In the proposed numerical method, compactly supported radial basis functions (RBFs) are employed as the basis functions. The radial and compactly supported properties of these basis functions substantially reduce the computational cost and improve the efficiency of the method. To show the accuracy of the proposed technique, it has been applied to solve three interesting test problems. Moreover, the method is well used to compute the electric current density and also the radar cross section (RCS) for some practical scatterers with different cross section geometries. The reported numerical results through the tables and figures demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed technique.
Dixneuf, Sophie; Rachet, Florent; Chrysos, Michael
2015-02-28
Owing in part to the p orbitals of its filled L shell, neon has repeatedly come on stage for its peculiar properties. In the context of collision-induced Raman spectroscopy, in particular, we have shown, in a brief report published a few years ago [M. Chrysos et al., Phys. Rev. A 80, 054701 (2009)], that the room-temperature anisotropic Raman lineshape of Ne-Ne exhibits, in the far wing of the spectrum, a peculiar structure with an aspect other than a smooth wing (on a logarithmic plot) which contrasts with any of the existing studies, and whose explanation lies in the distinct way in which overlap and exchange interactions interfere with the classical electrostatic ones in making the polarizability anisotropy, α∥ - α⊥. Here, we delve deeper into that study by reporting data for that spectrum up to 450 cm(-1) and for even- and odd-order spectral moments up to M6, as well as quantum lineshapes, generated from SCF, CCSD, and CCSD(T) models for α∥ - α⊥, which are critically compared with the experiment. On account of the knowledge of the spectrum over the augmented frequency domain, we show how the inverse scattering problem can be tackled both effectively and economically, and we report an analytic function for the anisotropy whose quantum lineshape faithfully reproduces our observations. PMID:25725726
Dixneuf, Sophie; Rachet, Florent; Chrysos, Michael
2015-02-28
Owing in part to the p orbitals of its filled L shell, neon has repeatedly come on stage for its peculiar properties. In the context of collision-induced Raman spectroscopy, in particular, we have shown, in a brief report published a few years ago [M. Chrysos et al., Phys. Rev. A 80, 054701 (2009)], that the room-temperature anisotropic Raman lineshape of Ne–Ne exhibits, in the far wing of the spectrum, a peculiar structure with an aspect other than a smooth wing (on a logarithmic plot) which contrasts with any of the existing studies, and whose explanation lies in the distinct way in which overlap and exchange interactions interfere with the classical electrostatic ones in making the polarizability anisotropy, α{sub ∥} − α{sub ⊥}. Here, we delve deeper into that study by reporting data for that spectrum up to 450 cm{sup −1} and for even- and odd-order spectral moments up to M{sub 6}, as well as quantum lineshapes, generated from SCF, CCSD, and CCSD(T) models for α{sub ∥} − α{sub ⊥}, which are critically compared with the experiment. On account of the knowledge of the spectrum over the augmented frequency domain, we show how the inverse scattering problem can be tackled both effectively and economically, and we report an analytic function for the anisotropy whose quantum lineshape faithfully reproduces our observations.
Dixneuf, Sophie; Rachet, Florent; Chrysos, Michael
2015-02-28
Owing in part to the p orbitals of its filled L shell, neon has repeatedly come on stage for its peculiar properties. In the context of collision-induced Raman spectroscopy, in particular, we have shown, in a brief report published a few years ago [M. Chrysos et al., Phys. Rev. A 80, 054701 (2009)], that the room-temperature anisotropic Raman lineshape of Ne-Ne exhibits, in the far wing of the spectrum, a peculiar structure with an aspect other than a smooth wing (on a logarithmic plot) which contrasts with any of the existing studies, and whose explanation lies in the distinct way in which overlap and exchange interactions interfere with the classical electrostatic ones in making the polarizability anisotropy, α∥ - α⊥. Here, we delve deeper into that study by reporting data for that spectrum up to 450 cm(-1) and for even- and odd-order spectral moments up to M6, as well as quantum lineshapes, generated from SCF, CCSD, and CCSD(T) models for α∥ - α⊥, which are critically compared with the experiment. On account of the knowledge of the spectrum over the augmented frequency domain, we show how the inverse scattering problem can be tackled both effectively and economically, and we report an analytic function for the anisotropy whose quantum lineshape faithfully reproduces our observations.
Nair, N V; Shanker, B; Kempel, L
2012-09-01
Boundary integral equations (BIEs) find applications in problems ranging from sonar to medical diagnostics. The two ingredients of the BIE solution technique are (1) representation of the domain and (2) design of approximation spaces to represent physical quantities on the domain. These, in concert, affect accuracy and convergence of the simulation. This paper presents a framework that permits the development of a scheme for refinement (of size and order) in both geometry and function representations. Further, this permits flexibility in the types of basis functions that can be used. Capabilities of the proposed framework are shown via a number of numerical examples.
A Least-Squares Finite Element Method for Electromagnetic Scattering Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, Jie; Jiang, Bo-nan
1996-01-01
The least-squares finite element method (LSFEM) is applied to electromagnetic scattering and radar cross section (RCS) calculations. In contrast to most existing numerical approaches, in which divergence-free constraints are omitted, the LSFF-M directly incorporates two divergence equations in the discretization process. The importance of including the divergence equations is demonstrated by showing that otherwise spurious solutions with large divergence occur near the scatterers. The LSFEM is based on unstructured grids and possesses full flexibility in handling complex geometry and local refinement Moreover, the LSFEM does not require any special handling, such as upwinding, staggered grids, artificial dissipation, flux-differencing, etc. Implicit time discretization is used and the scheme is unconditionally stable. By using a matrix-free iterative method, the computational cost and memory requirement for the present scheme is competitive with other approaches. The accuracy of the LSFEM is verified by several benchmark test problems.
Fall, Mandiaye; Boutami, Salim; Glière, Alain; Stout, Brian; Hazart, Jerome
2013-06-01
A combination of the multilevel fast multipole method (MLFMM) and boundary element method (BEM) can solve large scale photonics problems of arbitrary geometry. Here, MLFMM-BEM algorithm based on a scalar and vector potential formulation, instead of the more conventional electric and magnetic field formulations, is described. The method can deal with multiple lossy or lossless dielectric objects of arbitrary geometry, be they nested, in contact, or dispersed. Several examples are used to demonstrate that this method is able to efficiently handle 3D photonic scatterers involving large numbers of unknowns. Absorption, scattering, and extinction efficiencies of gold nanoparticle spheres, calculated by the MLFMM, are compared with Mie's theory. MLFMM calculations of the bistatic radar cross section (RCS) of a gold sphere near the plasmon resonance and of a silica coated gold sphere are also compared with Mie theory predictions. Finally, the bistatic RCS of a nanoparticle gold-silver heterodimer calculated with MLFMM is compared with unmodified BEM calculations.
Time-Reversal Acoustics and Maximum-Entropy Imaging
Berryman, J G
2001-08-22
Target location is a common problem in acoustical imaging using either passive or active data inversion. Time-reversal methods in acoustics have the important characteristic that they provide a means of determining the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the scattering operator for either of these problems. Each eigenfunction may often be approximately associated with an individual scatterer. The resulting decoupling of the scattered field from a collection of targets is a very useful aid to localizing the targets, and suggests a number of imaging and localization algorithms. Two of these are linear subspace methods and maximum-entropy imaging.
Acoustic integrated extinction
Norris, Andrew N.
2015-01-01
The integrated extinction (IE) is defined as the integral of the scattering cross section as a function of wavelength. Sohl et al. (2007 J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 122, 3206–3210. (doi:10.1121/1.2801546)) derived an IE expression for acoustic scattering that is causal, i.e. the scattered wavefront in the forward direction arrives later than the incident plane wave in the background medium. The IE formula was based on electromagnetic results, for which scattering is causal by default. Here, we derive a formula for the acoustic IE that is valid for causal and non-causal scattering. The general result is expressed as an integral of the time-dependent forward scattering function. The IE reduces to a finite integral for scatterers with zero long-wavelength monopole and dipole amplitudes. Implications for acoustic cloaking are discussed and a new metric is proposed for broadband acoustic transparency. PMID:27547100
The impact of sharp screening on the Coulomb scattering problem in three dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yakovlev, S. L.; Volkov, M. V.; Yarevsky, E.; Elander, N.
2010-06-01
The scattering problem for two particles interacting via the Coulomb potential is examined for the case where the potential has a sharp cut-off at some distance. The problem is solved for two complementary situations, firstly, when the interior part of the Coulomb potential is left in the Hamiltonian and, secondly, when the long-range tail is considered as the potential. The partial wave results are summed up to obtain the wavefunction in three dimensions. It is shown that in the domains where the wavefunction is expected to be proportional to the known solutions, the proportionality is given by an operator acting on the angular part of the wavefunction. The explicit representation for this operator is obtained in the basis of Legendre polynomials. We proposed a driven Schrödinger equation including an inhomogeneous term of the finite range with purely outgoing asymptotics for its solution in the case of the three-dimensional scattering problem with long-range potentials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raczkowska, A.; Gorska, N.
2012-12-01
Puck Bay is an area of high species biodiversity belonging to the Coastal Landscape Park of Baltic Sea Protected Areas (BSPA) and is also included in the list of the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and covered by the protection program "Natura 2000". The underwater meadows of the Puck Bay are important for Europe's natural habitats due to their role in enhancing the productivity of marine ecosystems and providing shelter and optimal feeding conditions for many marine organisms. One of the dominant species comprising the underwater meadows of the Southern Baltic Sea is the seagrass Zostera marina. The spatial extent of underwater seagrass meadows is altered by pollution and eutrophication; therefore, to properly manage the area one must monitor its ecological state. Remote acoustic methods are useful tools for the monitoring of benthic habitats in many marine areas because they are non-invasive and allow researchers to obtain data from a large area in a short period of time. Currently there is a need to apply these methods in the Baltic Sea. Here we present an analysis of the mechanism of scattering of acoustic waves on seagrass in the Southern Baltic Sea based on the numerical modeling of acoustic wave scattering by the biological tissues of plants. The study was conducted by adapting a model developed on the basis of DWBA (Distorted Wave Born Approximation) developed by Stanton and Chu (2005) for fluid-like objects, including the characteristics of the Southern Baltic seagrass. Input data for the model, including the morphometry of seagrass leaves, their angle of inclination and the density plant cover, was obtained through the analysis of biological materials collected in the Puck Bay in the framework of a research project financed by the Polish Government (Development of hydroacoustic methods for studies of underwater meadows of Puck Bay, 6P04E 051 20). On the basis of the developed model, we have analyzed the dependence of the target strength of a single
Scattering by randomly oriented ellipsoids: Application to aerosol and cloud problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Asano, S.; Sato, M.; Hansen, J. E.
1979-01-01
A program was developed for computing the scattering and absorption by arbitrarily oriented and randomly oriented prolate and oblate spheroids. This permits examination of the effect of particle shape for cases ranging from needles through spheres to platelets. Applications of this capability to aerosol and cloud problems are discussed. Initial results suggest that the effect of nonspherical particle shape on transfer of radiation through aerosol layers and cirrus clouds, as required for many climate studies, can be readily accounted for by defining an appropriate effective spherical particle radius.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fishman, S.; Soffer, A.
2016-07-01
We employ the recently developed multi-time scale averaging method to study the large time behavior of slowly changing (in time) Hamiltonians. We treat some known cases in a new way, such as the Zener problem, and we give another proof of the adiabatic theorem in the gapless case. We prove a new uniform ergodic theorem for slowly changing unitary operators. This theorem is then used to derive the adiabatic theorem, do the scattering theory for such Hamiltonians, and prove some classical propagation estimates and asymptotic completeness.
A necessary condition for applying MUSIC algorithm in limited-view inverse scattering problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Taehoon; Park, Won-Kwang
2015-09-01
Throughout various results of numerical simulations, it is well-known that MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm can be applied in the limited-view inverse scattering problems. However, the application is somehow heuristic. In this contribution, we identify a necessary condition of MUSIC for imaging of collection of small, perfectly conducting cracks. This is based on the fact that MUSIC imaging functional can be represented as an infinite series of Bessel function of integer order of the first kind. Numerical experiments from noisy synthetic data supports our investigation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Xiaodong; Agustin Flores Cuautle, Jose Jesus; Kouyate, Mansour; Bernardus Roozen, Nicolaas; Goossens, Jozefien; Menon, Preethy; Kuriakose Malayil, Maju; Salenbien, Robbe; Nair Rajesh, Ravindran; Glorieux, Christ; Griesmar, Pascal; Martinez, Loïc; Serfaty, Stéphane
2016-03-01
The evolution of the elastic and thermal properties of a tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS)-based gel that exhibits an extraordinary ringing effect when enclosed in a bottle is investigated during the sol-gel transition. The results demonstrate the feasibility of three proposed experimental methods for monitoring of gels during their formation. The shear stiffening evolution during gelation is monitored by ringing bottle, resonant acoustic spectroscopy and by an ultrasonic technique using piezo electric excitation and detection. The evolution of the longitudinal modulus and the thermal diffusivity of the gel during stiffening are simultaneously determined by a combined photoacoustic and photothermal method based on heterodyne diffraction detection of impulsive stimulated scattering by, respectively, a propagating acoustic wave grating and a decaying thermal expansion grating that were both thermo elastically generated using a pulsed laser. Also, the feasibility of an inverse photopyroelectric method and a hot ball technique to monitor the thermal transport efficiency and thermal impedance of a forming gel by tracking the thermal conductivity, the thermal diffusivity, and the thermal effusivity is demonstrated. The network polymerization and stiffening during the sol-gel transition in TMOS-gel corresponds with substantial changes in the shear acoustic velocity and in all thermal properties, while the longitudinal acoustic velocity is only weakly affected.
Inverse scattering for an exterior Dirichlet problem. [due to metallic cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hariharan, S. I.
1982-01-01
Scattering caused by a metallic cylinder in the field of a wire carrying a periodic current is studied, with a view to determining the location and shape of the cylinder in light of far field measurements between the cylinder and the wire. The associated direct problem is the exterior Dirichlet problem for the Helmholtz equation in two dimensions, and an improved low frequency estimate for its solution by integral equation methods is shown by inverse scattering calculations to be accurate to this estimate. The far field measurements are related to low frequency boundary integral equations whose solutions may be expressed in terms of a mapping function for the exterior of the unknown curve onto the exterior of a unit disk. The conformal transformation's Laurent expansion coefficients can be related to those of the far field, the first of which leads to the calculation of the distance between the source and the cylinder, while the other coefficients are determined by placing the source in a different location.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, Eric L.; Willsky, Alan S.
1996-01-01
In this paper, we present an approach to the nonlinear inverse scattering problem using the extended Born approximation (EBA) on the basis of methods from the fields of multiscale and statistical signal processing. By posing the problem directly in the wavelet transform domain, regularization is provided through the use of a multiscale prior statistical model. Using the maximum a posteriori (MAP) framework, we introduce the relative Cramér-Rao bound (RCRB) as a tool for analyzing the level of detail in a reconstruction supported by a data set as a function of the physics, the source-receiver geometry, and the nature of our prior information. The MAP estimate is determined using a novel implementation of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm in which the RCRB is used to achieve a substantial reduction in the effective dimensionality of the inversion problem with minimal degradation in performance. Additional reduction in complexity is achieved by taking advantage of the sparse structure of the matrices defining the EBA in scale space. An inverse electrical conductivity problem arising in geophysical prospecting applications provides the vehicle for demonstrating the analysis and algorithmic techniques developed in this paper.
Biswas, Tutul; Ghosh, Tarun Kanti
2013-01-23
We study the interaction between electron and acoustic phonons in a Rashba spin-orbit coupled two-dimensional electron gas using Boltzmann transport theory. Both the deformation potential and piezoelectric scattering mechanisms are considered in the Bloch-Grüneisen (BG) regime as well as in the equipartition (EP) regime. The effect of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction on the temperature dependence of the resistivity in the BG and EP regimes is discussed. We find that the effective exponent of the temperature dependence of the resistivity in the BG regime decreases due to spin-orbit coupling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wyatt, Philip
2009-03-01
The electromagnetic inverse scattering problem suggests that if a homogeneous and non-absorbing object be illuminated with a monochromatic light source and if the far field scattered light intensity is known at sufficient scattering angles, then, in principle, one could derive the dielectric structure of the scattering object. In general, this is an ill-posed problem and methods must be developed to regularize the search for unique solutions. An iterative procedure often begins with a model of the scattering object, solves the forward scattering problem using this model, and then compares these calculated results with the measured values. Key to any such solution is instrumentation capable of providing adequate data. To this end, the development of the first laser based absolute light scattering photometers is described together with their continuing evolution and some of the remarkable discoveries made with them. For particles much smaller than the wavelength of the incident light (e.g. macromolecules), the inverse scattering problems are easily solved. Among the many solutions derived with this instrumentation are the in situ structure of bacterial cells, new drug delivery mechanisms, the development of new vaccines and other biologicals, characterization of wines, the possibility of custom chemotherapy, development of new polymeric materials, identification of protein crystallization conditions, and a variety discoveries concerning protein interactions. A new form of the problem is described to address bioterrorist threats. Over the many years of development and refinement, one element stands out as essential for the successes that followed: the R and D teams were always directed and executed by physics trained theorists and experimentalists. 14 Ph. D. physicists each made his/her unique contribution to the development of these evolving instruments and the interpretation of their results.
Modelling of acoustic radiation problems associated with turbomachinery and rotating blades
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eversman, W.
Finite element methods developed for computational predictions of turbofan and propeller acoustic radiation are presented. Account is taken of the disparate acoustic and geometric scales, the complex geometry, sound propagation in a nonuniformly flowing medium, the presence of a lining, and definition of bounds for calculations which are carried out in an unbounded domain. Density and pressure perturbations in the turbofan inlet are modeled with a linearized momentum equation. The sound radiation is represented by the Fourier components, i.e., angular modes. The same nacelle geometry is used for propeller noise, which requires inclusion of acoustic volume sources and forces. A forced convected wave equation for harmonic driving is obtained by combining continuity, momentum and state equations linearized for acoustic perturbations. The weak formulations for the two types of noise generation are solved by the Galerkin method modified with a frontal solver to reduce the required computer time. Model predictions show good agreement with experimental data for the directivity and amplitude of sound from the bellmouth inlet of the NASA-Langley Spinning Mode Synthesizer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pajewski, L.; Schettini, G.; Frezza, F.
2009-04-01
A spectral-domain method, for the solution of the two-dimensional electromagnetic plane-wave scattering by a finite set of perfectly-conducting or dielectric cylinders buried in a dielectric half-space, has been developed. The scattered field is represented in terms of a superposition of cylindrical waves, and use is made of the plane-wave spectrum to take into account the reflection and transmission of such waves by the interface. The problem is solved for both the near- and the far-field regions, for TM and TE polarizations. In this work we briefly resume the theoretical basis of our approach. For configurations in which more obstacles are buried in the ground, and they are near to one another, we give details about the convergence rate of our method, and about the properties of our algorithms for the integration of cylindrical functions. With our technique it is possible to simulate two-dimensional buried obstacles of general shape, by means of a suitable set of circular-section cylinders: in this paper we show preliminary results of simulations carried out using arrays of same-radius circular cylinders, and of different-radius circular cylinders.
Canonical Acoustics and Its Application to Surface Acoustic Wave on Acoustic Metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Jian Qi
2016-08-01
In a conventional formalism of acoustics, acoustic pressure p and velocity field u are used for characterizing acoustic waves propagating inside elastic/acoustic materials. We shall treat some fundamental problems relevant to acoustic wave propagation alternatively by using canonical acoustics (a more concise and compact formalism of acoustic dynamics), in which an acoustic scalar potential and an acoustic vector potential (Φ ,V), instead of the conventional acoustic field quantities such as acoustic pressure and velocity field (p,u) for characterizing acoustic waves, have been defined as the fundamental variables. The canonical formalism of the acoustic energy-momentum tensor is derived in terms of the acoustic potentials. Both the acoustic Hamiltonian density and the acoustic Lagrangian density have been defined, and based on this formulation, the acoustic wave quantization in a fluid is also developed. Such a formalism of acoustic potentials is employed to the problem of negative-mass-density assisted surface acoustic wave that is a highly localized surface bound state (an eigenstate of the acoustic wave equations). Since such a surface acoustic wave can be strongly confined to an interface between an acoustic metamaterial (e.g., fluid-solid composite structures with a negative dynamical mass density) and an ordinary material (with a positive mass density), it will give rise to an effect of acoustic field enhancement on the acoustic interface, and would have potential applications in acoustic device design for acoustic wave control.
Massively parallel solution of the inverse scattering problem for integrated circuit quality control
Leland, R.W.; Draper, B.L.; Naqvi, S.; Minhas, B.
1997-09-01
The authors developed and implemented a highly parallel computational algorithm for solution of the inverse scattering problem generated when an integrated circuit is illuminated by laser. The method was used as part of a system to measure diffraction grating line widths on specially fabricated test wafers and the results of the computational analysis were compared with more traditional line-width measurement techniques. The authors found they were able to measure the line width of singly periodic and doubly periodic diffraction gratings (i.e. 2D and 3D gratings respectively) with accuracy comparable to the best available experimental techniques. They demonstrated that their parallel code is highly scalable, achieving a scaled parallel efficiency of 90% or more on typical problems running on 1024 processors. They also made substantial improvements to the algorithmics and their original implementation of Rigorous Coupled Waveform Analysis, the underlying computational technique. These resulted in computational speed-ups of two orders of magnitude in some test problems. By combining these algorithmic improvements with parallelism the authors achieve speedups of between a few thousand and hundreds of thousands over the original engineering code. This made the laser diffraction measurement technique practical.
Applications of Quantum Theory of Atomic and Molecular Scattering to Problems in Hypersonic Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Malik, F. Bary
1995-01-01
The general status of a grant to investigate the applications of quantum theory in atomic and molecular scattering problems in hypersonic flow is summarized. Abstracts of five articles and eleven full-length articles published or submitted for publication are included as attachments. The following topics are addressed in these articles: fragmentation of heavy ions (HZE particles); parameterization of absorption cross sections; light ion transport; emission of light fragments as an indicator of equilibrated populations; quantum mechanical, optical model methods for calculating cross sections for particle fragmentation by hydrogen; evaluation of NUCFRG2, the semi-empirical nuclear fragmentation database; investigation of the single- and double-ionization of He by proton and anti-proton collisions; Bose-Einstein condensation of nuclei; and a liquid drop model in HZE particle fragmentation by hydrogen.
Classical Scattering and Block Regularization for the Homogeneous Central Field Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stoica, Cristina
2002-11-01
The present paper offers an alternative point of view of block regularization for the motion of a particle in a central potential field of the form -x-α, where x is the distance between the particle and the source and α some positive real number. Working in the physical space, we consider the scattering angle determined by the path of the particle as a function of angular momentum. We prove that a particle flow is passing over the collision singularity preserving differentiability with respect to initial data if and only if α = 2(1-1/n), n positive integer, n >= 2. This result coincides with the outcome of block regularization applied by McGehee to the same dynamical problem. We discuss that this identity was to expect since both methods target the same physical constraint over the flow.
NORSTAR Project: Norfolk public schools student team for acoustical research
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fortunato, Ronald C.
1987-01-01
Development of the NORSTAR (Norfolk Public Student Team for Acoustical Research) Project includes the definition, design, fabrication, testing, analysis, and publishing the results of an acoustical experiment. The student-run program is based on a space flight organization similar to the Viking Project. The experiment will measure the scattering transfer of momentum from a sound field to spheres in a liquid medium. It is hoped that the experimental results will shed light on a difficult physics problem - the difference in scattering cross section (the overall effect of the sound wave scattering) for solid spheres and hollow spheres of differing wall thicknesses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Ying; Wei, Guangsheng
2016-09-01
The inverse spectral and scattering problems for the radial Schrödinger equation on the half-line {[0,∞)} are considered for a real-valued, integrable potential having a finite first moment. It is shown that the potential is uniquely determined in terms of the mixed spectral or scattering data which consist of the partial knowledge of the potential given on the finite interval {[0,ɛ]} for some {ɛ > 0} and either the amplitude or phase (being equivalent to scattering function) of the Jost function, without bound state data.
Klieber, Christoph; Hecksher, Tina; Pezeril, Thomas; Torchinsky, Darius H; Dyre, Jeppe C; Nelson, Keith A
2013-03-28
This paper presents and discusses the temperature and frequency dependence of the longitudinal and shear viscoelastic response at MHz and GHz frequencies of the intermediate glass former glycerol and the fragile glass former tetramethyl-tetraphenyl-trisiloxane (DC704). Measurements were performed using the recently developed time-domain Brillouin scattering technique, in which acoustic waves are generated optically, propagated through nm thin liquid layers of different thicknesses, and detected optically after transmission into a transparent detection substrate. This allows for a determination of the frequency dependence of the speed of sound and the sound-wave attenuation. When the data are converted into mechanical moduli, a linear relationship between longitudinal and shear acoustic moduli is revealed, which is consistent with the generalized Cauchy relation. In glycerol, the temperature dependence of the shear acoustic relaxation time agrees well with literature data for dielectric measurements. In DC704, combining the new data with data from measurements obtained previously by piezo-ceramic transducers yields figures showing the longitudinal and shear sound velocities at frequencies from mHz to GHz over an extended range of temperatures. The shoving model's prediction for the relaxation time's temperature dependence is fairly well obeyed for both liquids as demonstrated from a plot with no adjustable parameters. Finally, we show that for both liquids the instantaneous shear modulus follows an exponential temperature dependence to a good approximation, as predicted by Granato's interstitialcy model. PMID:23556795
Lattice time-dependent correlated two-electron system approach to scattering problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Odero, Dan Onyango
2000-09-01
This thesis presents a time-dependent approach for the solution of the quantum mechanical three-body problem. The solution presented here is exact in that the approximations are numerical. All the Coulomb interactions between the three particles are taken into account with no approximations. In the time-dependent approach, the quantum mechanical wave functions for the system are obtained at successive times. One of the possible three-body problems is electron-hydrogen scattering. For this case, time- dependent probabilities for exciting the hydrogen atom may be obtained by projecting the states of the target atom onto the time-dependent correlated two-electron wave function. Measurable cross sections for electron impact excitation are obtained at the point where the probabilities are no longer changing with time. The accuracy of this approach is found to be dependent on the total angular momentum. In the lowest total angular momentum, L = 0 case, the angular momentum coupling terms do not contribute and the results compare favorably with those obtained from other methods. However, with increasing total angular momentum, there are numerical instabilities that are associated with the coupling terms. It is found that there is an angular range for the stability of the coupling terms for each total angular momentum. This range greatly reduces with increasing total angular momentum.
The Scatter Search Based Algorithm to Revenue Management Problem in Broadcasting Companies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pishdad, Arezoo; Sharifyazdi, Mehdi; Karimpour, Reza
2009-09-01
The problem under question in this paper which is faced by broadcasting companies is how to benefit from a limited advertising space. This problem is due to the stochastic behavior of customers (advertiser) in different fare classes. To address this issue we propose a mathematical constrained nonlinear multi period model which incorporates cancellation and overbooking. The objective function is to maximize the total expected revenue and our numerical method performs it by determining the sales limits for each class of customer to present the revenue management control policy. Scheduling the advertising spots in breaks is another area of concern and we consider it as a constraint in our model. In this paper an algorithm based on Scatter search is developed to acquire a good feasible solution. This method uses simulation over customer arrival and in a continuous finite time horizon [0, T]. Several sensitivity analyses are conducted in computational result for depicting the effectiveness of proposed method. It also provides insight into better results of considering revenue management (control policy) compared to "no sales limit" policy in which sooner demand will served first.
Dong, Jianping
2014-03-15
The 2D space-fractional Schrödinger equation in the time-independent and time-dependent cases for the scattering problems in the fractional quantum mechanics is studied. We define the Green's functions for the two cases and give the mathematical expression of them in infinite series form and in terms of some special functions. The asymptotic formulas of the Green's functions are also given, and applied to get the approximate wave functions for the fractional quantum scattering problems. These results contain those in the standard (integer) quantum mechanics as special cases, and can be applied to study the complex quantum systems.
Pérez-Arancibia, Carlos; Bruno, Oscar P
2014-08-01
This paper presents high-order integral equation methods for the evaluation of electromagnetic wave scattering by dielectric bumps and dielectric cavities on perfectly conducting or dielectric half-planes. In detail, the algorithms introduced in this paper apply to eight classical scattering problems, namely, scattering by a dielectric bump on a perfectly conducting or a dielectric half-plane, and scattering by a filled, overfilled, or void dielectric cavity on a perfectly conducting or a dielectric half-plane. In all cases field representations based on single-layer potentials for appropriately chosen Green functions are used. The numerical far fields and near fields exhibit excellent convergence as discretizations are refined-even at and around points where singular fields and infinite currents exist.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Chien-Min
Systematically numerical implementations for solving the large-scale electromagnetic problems of microstrip interconnects and rough surface scattering are explored and demonstrated in this dissertation by comparing with the traditional methods. Having circumvented the major difficulties of numerous storage and computational complexity, the proposed methods had validated themselves on the affordable computer platforms whenever both the analytical approaches and conventional numerical methods are not applicable. In use of the Method of Moments, an integro-differential equation is first formulated in terms of surface unknowns related to the boundary conditions. Following Garlerkin's procedures, a matrix equation with a finite discretization of N unknowns is constructed. In the full- wave analysis of microstrip interconnects, Complex Image Method is used to reduce the matrix fill-time while the Mixed-Potential Integral Equation with Rao, Wilton, and Glisson triangular discretization is concerned. The impedance matrix is decomposed into a pair of strong and weak interaction matrix accounting for the separation while the integral kernels are sufficiently approximated. Recalling the Fast Fourier Transform, the weak- interaction contributions are conferred in a canonical grid using the Taylor's series expansion. A Screening Window Wavelet Transform scheme is applied to the strong- interaction matrix for the data compression and high sparsity. Based on Multiresolution Analysis, the Matrix- Vector Multiplication can be efficiently performed by the Subband Filtering Scheme in the wavelet domain. Finally, the Banded or Sparse Matrix Iterative Approach in conjunction with the Conjugate Gradient iterative method is employed to solve for the matrix equation. In addition to investigating the validity of analytical theories, the proposed methods are corroborated to study the backscattering enhancement, conical diffraction, and Stokes parameters in remote sensing and induced surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Witos, Franciszek; Malecki, Ignacy
The authors present selected problems associated with acoustic emission interpreted as a physical phenomenon and as a measurement technique. The authors examine point sources of acoustic emission in isotropic, homogeneous linearly elastic media of different shapes. In the case of an unbounded medium the authors give the analytical form of the stress field and the wave shift field of the acoustic emission. In the case of a medium which is unbounded plate the authors give a form for the equations which is suitable for numerical calculation of the changes over time of selected acoustic emission values. For acoustic emission as a measurement technique, the authors represent the output signal as the resultant of a mechanical input value which describes the source, the transient function of the medium, and the transient function of specific components of the measurement loop. As an effect of this notation, the authors introduce the distinction between an acoustic measurement signal and an acoustic measurement impulse. The authors define the basic parameters of an arbitrary impulse. The authors extensively discuss the signal functions of acoustic emission impulses and acoustic emission signals defined in this article as acoustic emission descriptors (or signal functions of acoustic emission impulses) and advanced acoustic emission descriptors (which are either descriptors associated with acoustic emission applications or the signal functions of acoustic emission signals). The article also contains the results of experimental research on three different problems in which acoustic emission descriptors associated with acoustic emission pulses, acoustic emission applications, and acoustic emission signals are used. These problems are respectively: a problem of the amplitude-load characteristics of acoustic emission pulses in carbon samples subjected to compound uniaxial compression, the use of acoustic emission to predict the durability characteristics of conveyor belts, and
Black Hole Scattering via Spectral Methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clemente, P. C. M.; de Oliveira, H. P.; Rodrigues, E. L.
2013-12-01
We present an alternative method to solve the problem of scattering by a black hole by adapting the spectral code originally developed by Boyd (Comp Phys 4:83, 1990). In order to show the effectiveness and versatility of the algorithm, we solve the scattering by Schwarzschild, standard acoustic, and charged black holes. We recover the partial and total absorption cross sections and, in the case of charged black holes, the conversion factor of eletromagnetic and gravitational waves. We also study the exponential decay of the reflection coefficient, which is a general feature of any scattering problem.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hinton, Yolanda L.
1999-01-01
Acoustic emission (AE) data were acquired during fatigue testing of an aluminum 2024-T4 compact tension specimen using a commercially available AE system. AE signals from crack extension were identified and separated from noise spikes, signals that reflected from the specimen edges, and signals that saturated the instrumentation. A commercially available software package was used to train a statistical pattern recognition system to classify the signals. The software trained a network to recognize signals with a 91-percent accuracy when compared with the researcher's interpretation of the data. Reasons for the discrepancies are examined and it is postulated that additional preprocessing of the AE data to focus on the extensional wave mode and eliminate other effects before training the pattern recognition system will result in increased accuracy.
Xie, Zhinan; Matzen, René; Cristini, Paul; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Martin, Roland
2016-07-01
A time-domain Legendre spectral-element method is described for full-wave simulation of ocean acoustics models, i.e., coupled fluid-solid problems in unbounded or semi-infinite domains, taking into account shear wave propagation in the ocean bottom. The technique can accommodate range-dependent and depth-dependent wave speed and density, as well as steep ocean floor topography. For truncation of the infinite domain, to efficiently absorb outgoing waves, a fluid-solid complex-frequency-shifted unsplit perfectly matched layer is introduced based on the complex coordinate stretching technique. The complex stretching is rigorously taken into account in the derivation of the fluid-solid matching condition inside the absorbing layer, which has never been done before in the time domain. Two implementations are designed: a convolutional formulation and an auxiliary differential equation formulation because the latter allows for implementation of high-order time schemes, leading to reduced numerical dispersion and dissipation, a topic of importance, in particular, in long-range ocean acoustics simulations. The method is validated for a two dimensional fluid-solid Pekeris waveguide and for a three dimensional seamount model, which shows that the technique is accurate and numerically long-time stable. Compared with widely used paraxial absorbing boundary conditions, the perfectly matched layer is significantly more efficient at absorbing both body waves and interface waves.
Xie, Zhinan; Matzen, René; Cristini, Paul; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Martin, Roland
2016-07-01
A time-domain Legendre spectral-element method is described for full-wave simulation of ocean acoustics models, i.e., coupled fluid-solid problems in unbounded or semi-infinite domains, taking into account shear wave propagation in the ocean bottom. The technique can accommodate range-dependent and depth-dependent wave speed and density, as well as steep ocean floor topography. For truncation of the infinite domain, to efficiently absorb outgoing waves, a fluid-solid complex-frequency-shifted unsplit perfectly matched layer is introduced based on the complex coordinate stretching technique. The complex stretching is rigorously taken into account in the derivation of the fluid-solid matching condition inside the absorbing layer, which has never been done before in the time domain. Two implementations are designed: a convolutional formulation and an auxiliary differential equation formulation because the latter allows for implementation of high-order time schemes, leading to reduced numerical dispersion and dissipation, a topic of importance, in particular, in long-range ocean acoustics simulations. The method is validated for a two dimensional fluid-solid Pekeris waveguide and for a three dimensional seamount model, which shows that the technique is accurate and numerically long-time stable. Compared with widely used paraxial absorbing boundary conditions, the perfectly matched layer is significantly more efficient at absorbing both body waves and interface waves. PMID:27475142
Nakayama, Masaaki Ohno, Tatsuya; Furukawa, Yoshiaki
2015-04-07
We have systematically investigated the photoluminescence (PL) dynamics of free excitons in GaAs/Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As single quantum wells, focusing on the energy relaxation process due to exciton–acoustic-phonon scattering under non-resonant and weak excitation conditions as a function of GaAs-layer thickness from 3.6 to 12.0 nm and temperature from 30 to 50 K. The free exciton characteristics were confirmed by observation that the PL decay time has a linear dependence with temperature. We found that the free exciton PL rise rate, which is the reciprocal of the rise time, is inversely linear with the GaAs-layer thickness and linear with temperature. This is consistent with a reported theoretical study of the exciton–acoustic-phonon scattering rate in the energy relaxation process in quantum wells. Consequently, it is conclusively verified that the PL rise rate is dominated by the exciton–acoustic-phonon scattering rate. In addition, from quantitative analysis of the GaAs-layer thickness and temperature dependences, we suggest that the PL rise rate reflects the number of exciton–acoustic-phonon scattering events.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hariharan, S. I.
1985-01-01
Elliptic and hyperbolic problems in unbounded regions are considered. These problems, when one wants to solve them numerically, have the difficulty of prescribing boundary conditions at infinity. Computationally, one needs a finite region in which to solve these problems. The corresponding conditions at infinity imposed on the finite distance boundaries should dictate the boundary conditions at infinity and be accurate with respect to the interior numerical scheme. The treatment of these boundary conditions for wave-like equations is discussed.
Goryachev, Maxim; Creedon, Daniel L; Galliou, Serge; Tobar, Michael E
2013-08-23
The confinement of high frequency phonons approaching 1 GHz is demonstrated in phonon-trapping acoustic cavities at cryogenic temperatures using a low-coupled network approach. The frequency range is extended by nearly an order of magnitude, with excitation at greater than the 200th overtone achieved for the first time. Such a high frequency operation reveals Rayleigh-type phonon scattering losses due to highly diluted lattice impurities and corresponding glasslike behavior, with a maximum Q(L)×f product of 8.6×10(17) at 3.8 K and 4×10(17) at 15 mK. This suggests a limit on the Q×f product due to unavoidable crystal disorder. Operation at 15 mK is high enough in frequency that the average phonon occupation number is less than unity, with a loaded quality factor above half a billion. This work represents significant progress towards the utilization of such acoustic cavities for hybrid quantum systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zimmerman, Robert A.; Biggs, Douglas C.
1999-03-01
The acoustic backscatter intensity (ABI) reflected from epipelagic zooplankton communities in the central Gulf of Mexico was measured during June 1995 with a vessel-mounted, narrowband-153-kHz acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). Horizontal and vertical variations in ABI were documented in three kinds of mesoscale hydrographic features commonly found in the Gulf of Mexico: the warm-core Loop Current (LC), a warm-core Loop Current eddy (LCE), and a cold-core region that separated the two warm-core features. Since new nitrogen domes close to surface waters in cold-core features whereas surface waters of warm-core features are nutrient depleted, the cold-core region was expected to have higher biological stocks as a result of locally higher primary production. Both ABI and net tow data confirmed that the cold-core region was in fact a zone of local aggregation of zooplankton and micronekton. During both day and night, ABI when integrated for the upper 50 and 100 m in the cold-core region was significantly greater than in the LC or in the LCE, and ABI was positively correlated with standing stock biomass taken by the net tows. Further investigations into the biological differences between Gulf of Mexico divergence and convergence regimes are warranted, and the ADCP will be a useful tool for examination of the distribution of sound scatterers in such features.
Acoustic Suppression Systems and Related Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kolaini, Ali R. (Inventor); Kern, Dennis L. (Inventor)
2013-01-01
An acoustic suppression system for absorbing and/or scattering acoustic energy comprising a plurality of acoustic targets in a containment is described, the acoustic targets configured to have resonance frequencies allowing the targets to be excited by incoming acoustic waves, the resonance frequencies being adjustable to suppress acoustic energy in a set frequency range. Methods for fabricating and implementing the acoustic suppression system are also provided.
The problem of scattering in fibre-fed VPH spectrographs and possible solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ellis, S. C.; Saunders, Will; Betters, Chris; Croom, Scott
2014-07-01
All spectrographs unavoidably scatter light. Scattering in the spectral direction is problematic for sky subtraction, since atmospheric spectral lines are blurred. Scattering in the spatial direction is problematic for fibre fed spectrographs, since it limits how closely fibres can be packed together. We investigate the nature of this scattering and show that the scattering wings have both a Lorentzian component, and a shallower (1/r) component. We investigate the causes of this from a theoretical perspective, and argue that for the spectral PSF the Lorentzian wings are in part due to the profile of the illumination of the pupil of the spectrograph onto the diffraction grating, whereas the shallower component is from bulk scattering. We then investigate ways to mitigate the diffractive scattering by apodising the pupil. In the ideal case of a Gaussian apodised pupil, the scattering can be significantly improved. Finally we look at realistic models of the spectrograph pupils of fibre fed spectrographs with a centrally obstructed telescope, and show that it is possible to apodise the pupil through non-telecentric injection into the fibre.
Andrade, F.M.; Silva, E.O.; Pereira, M.
2013-12-15
In this work the bound state and scattering problems for a spin- 1/2 particle undergone to an Aharonov–Bohm potential in a conical space in the nonrelativistic limit are considered. The presence of a δ-function singularity, which comes from the Zeeman spin interaction with the magnetic flux tube, is addressed by the self-adjoint extension method. One of the advantages of the present approach is the determination of the self-adjoint extension parameter in terms of physics of the problem. Expressions for the energy bound states, phase-shift and S matrix are determined in terms of the self-adjoint extension parameter, which is explicitly determined in terms of the parameters of the problem. The relation between the bound state and zero modes and the failure of helicity conservation in the scattering problem and its relation with the gyromagnetic ratio g are discussed. Also, as an application, we consider the spin- 1/2 Aharonov–Bohm problem in conical space plus a two-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator. -- Highlights: •Planar dynamics of a spin- 1/2 neutral particle. •Bound state for Aharonov–Bohm systems. •Aharonov–Bohm scattering. •Helicity nonconservation. •Determination of the self-adjoint extension parameter.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gedney, Stephen D.; Mittra, Raj
1990-01-01
The enhancement of the computational efficiency of the body of revolution (BOR) scattering problem is discused with a view to making it practical for solving large-body problems. The problem of EM scattering by a perfectly conducting BOR is considered, although the methods can be extended to multilayered dielectric bodies as well. Typically, the generation of the elements of the moment method matrix consumes a major portion of the computational time. It is shown how this time can be significantly reduced by manipulating the expression for the matrix elements to permit efficient FFT computation. A technique for extracting the singularity of the Green function that appears within the integrands of the matrix diagonal is also presented, further enhancing the usefulness of the FFT. The computation time can thus be improved by at least an order of magnitude for large bodies in comparison to that for previous algorithms.
Everyone's Models of Light Scattering by Planetary Regoliths have Major Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piatek, J. L.; Hapke, B. W.; Nelson, R. M.; Smythe, W. D.; Hale, A. S.
2003-05-01
The physics of scattering of electromagnetic waves by planetary regoliths and other media in which the particles are in contact has been thought to be relatively well understood when the particles are larger than the wavelength. However, this is not true when the particles are comparable with or smaller than the wavelength. We have measured the scattering parameters of well-sorted suites of planetary regolith analogs whose particles ranged from larger to smaller than the wavelength. The particle compositions were Al2O3, Fe2O3 and CaCO3 and the wavelength was 633 nm. We measured the variation of reflectance as the phase angle varied from 0.05 to 140 degrees. From these datasets the following scattering parameters were deduced: the single scattering albedo, single scattering phase function, transport mean free path, and scattering, absorption and extinction coefficients. The results and conclusions of this study are as follows. (1) A scattering model based on the equation of radiative transfer was empirically able to quantitatively describe the variation of intensity with angle for each sample. Thus, such models can be used to characterize scattering from regoliths even when the particles are smaller than the wavelength. (2) The scattering parameters were remarkably insensitive to particle size (with the exception of the single scattering albedo, which for absorbing particles decreased as particle size increased). These results are consistent with previous laboratory studies [1,2], but show in addition that the lack of large size effects are not confined to the opposition effect. These findings are contrary to current theoretical models, which predict large size effects. (3) These results imply that the particles composing the medium are NOT the fundamental scattering units of the medium. Thus, a basic assumption made by virtually all regolith scattering models appears to be incorrect. Our understanding of scattering by regoliths appears to be incomplete even when
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bezrukovs, Valerijs; Bezrukovs, Vladislavs; Levins, Nikolajs
2011-01-01
Interest in the use of renewable energy in Latvia is increasing every year. Government support and availability of large unpopulated areas on the coast makes the use of these lands for the placement of large wind power plants (WPP) attractive. The key factors that determine the choice of the location of WPP are reliable information about distribution of the resource of wind energy in this area and the influence of wind turbines on the environment. The paper presents the results of years-long observations on the density fluctuations of wind energy at heights of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anand, Akash; Pandey, Ambuj; Rathish Kumar, B. V.; Paul, Jagabandhu
2016-04-01
This text proposes a fast, rapidly convergent Nyström method for the solution of the Lippmann-Schwinger integral equation that mathematically models the scattering of time-harmonic acoustic waves by inhomogeneous obstacles, while allowing the material properties to jump across the interface. The method works with overlapping coordinate charts as a description of the given scatterer. In particular, it employs "partitions of unity" to simplify the implementation of high-order quadratures along with suitable changes of parametric variables to analytically resolve the singularities present in the integral operator to achieve desired accuracies in approximations. To deal with the discontinuous material interface in a high-order manner, a specialized quadrature is used in the boundary region. The approach further utilizes an FFT based strategy that uses equivalent source approximations to accelerate the evaluation of large number of interactions that arise in the approximation of the volumetric integral operator and thus achieves a reduced computational complexity of O (Nlog N) for an N-point discretization. A detailed discussion on the solution methodology along with a variety of numerical experiments to exemplify its performance are presented in this paper.
The Fast Scattering Code (FSC): Validation Studies and Program Guidelines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tinetti, Ana F.; Dunn, Mark H.
2011-01-01
The Fast Scattering Code (FSC) is a frequency domain noise prediction program developed at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to simulate the acoustic field produced by the interaction of known, time harmonic incident sound with bodies of arbitrary shape and surface impedance immersed in a potential flow. The code uses the equivalent source method (ESM) to solve an exterior 3-D Helmholtz boundary value problem (BVP) by expanding the scattered acoustic pressure field into a series of point sources distributed on a fictitious surface placed inside the actual scatterer. This work provides additional code validation studies and illustrates the range of code parameters that produce accurate results with minimal computational costs. Systematic noise prediction studies are presented in which monopole generated incident sound is scattered by simple geometric shapes - spheres (acoustically hard and soft surfaces), oblate spheroids, flat disk, and flat plates with various edge topologies. Comparisons between FSC simulations and analytical results and experimental data are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krivchikov, A. I.; Yushchenko, A. N.; Manzhelii, V. G.; Korolyuk, O. A.; Bermejo, F. J.; Fernández-Perea, R.; Cabrillo, C.; González, M. A.
2006-08-01
The thermal conductivity of all three disordered solid phases of ethyl alcohol has been measured. That for the orientationally disordered bcc phase is found to be remarkably close to that for the structurally amorphous solid, especially at low temperatures. The results, which emphasize the role of orientational disorder in phonon scattering, are discussed with the aid of computer simulations on single-crystalline models of both bcc and monoclinic crystals.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hohage, Thorsten
1997-10-01
Convergence and logarithmic convergence rates of the iteratively regularized Gauss - Newton method in a Hilbert space setting are proven provided a logarithmic source condition is satisfied. This method is applied to an inverse potential and an inverse scattering problem, and the source condition is interpreted as a smoothness condition in terms of Sobolev spaces for the case where the domain is a circle. Numerical experiments yield convergence and convergence rates of the form expected by our general convergence theorem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Şenyiğit, M.
2016-09-01
The half-space albedo problem has been solved for a combination of Rayleigh and isotropic scattering using HN method which is developed for the neutron transport studies. The numerical results are compared with exact values obtained using variational method and Chandrasekhar's equation for the {H}-matrix. The analytical solutions of HN method are easy to handle in comparison with the other methods. The numerical results are in good agreement with previous works in literature.
Monitoring Induced Seismicity with Acoustic-Emission Sensors : The Calibration Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plenkers, K.; Kwiatek, G.
2012-12-01
We study the effect that an uncalibrated acoustic-emission (AE) sensor has on source parameters using data of the JAGUARS project. The JAGUARS project recorded mining-induced seismicity in Mponeng Gold mine in Carletonville, South Africa in the frequency range 1 kHz < f < 180 kHz combining AE-sensors and accelerometers. Advanced monitoring of induced seismicity in underground structures sometimes includes today the use of high-frequency (f >> 1 kHz) AE monitoring systems. High-frequency monitoring allows the detection of seismic fractures on the centimeter scale and provides therefore important information about the migration of instabilities in the rock. Whereas the temporal-spatial analysis of seismic events recorded with AE sensors provides stable results, the analysis of source parameters including the estimation of magnitudes remains more challenging, because AE sensors are normally not well calibrated and exploit resonance frequencies to allow for high sensitivity. In our study the AE sensors are first calibrated in the frequency range 1kHz to 17 kHz relative to the well calibrated accelerometer. The calibration is possible due to the close employment of both sensor types, which allows to extract the sensor response (including the coupling effect) using signal deconvolution. We estimate three main resonance frequencies at about 2.5 kHz, 6 kHz and 10 kHz. Furthermore we calculate the directivity effect of the AE-sensor that influences the amplitude of the signal by up to - 15 dB. Second, we calculate the effect of the instrument response on the calculation of magnitude, magnitude-frequency distribution and static source parameters. We study magnitudes, magitude-frequency distributions and static source parameters using both the calibrated sensors, as well as the uncalibrated AE sensors. We show the significant uncertainty that is indroduced owing to the AE sensor response and conclude that source parameters often have high uncertainties and are not reliable
Spectral element method-based parabolic equation for EM-scattering problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Zi; Fan, Zhen-Hong; Chen, Ru-Shan
2016-01-01
The traditional parabolic equation (PE) method is based on the finite difference (FD) scheme. However, the scattering object cannot be well approximated for complex geometries. As a result, a large number of meshes are needed to discretize the complex scattering objects. In this paper, the spectral element method is introduced to better approximate the complex geometry in each transverse plane, while the FD scheme is used along the paraxial direction. This proposed algorithm begins with expanding the reduced scattered fields with the Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre polynomials and testing them by the Galerkin's method in each transverse plane. Then, the calculation can be taken plane by plane along the paraxial direction. Numerical results demonstrate that the accuracy can be improved by the proposed method with larger meshes when compared with the traditional PE method.
Engineering acoustic lenses with help from evolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ha˚Kansson, Andreas; Sánchez-Dehesa, José; Sánchis, Lorenzo
2001-05-01
Optimization engineering through evolutionary algorithms have proven to be very efficient, especially in hard problems containing a large set of optimization parameters. Like evolution this family of algorithms is able to tackle enormous complex problems with fairly simple means. Here, a simple genetic algorithm [J. H. Holland, Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1975)] is used in conjunction with the multiple scattering theory [L. Sánchis et al., Phys. Rev. B 67, 035422 (2003)] to fabricate a new generation of acoustic devices based on a discrete number of cylindrical scatterers. In particular, acoustic lenses [F. Cervera et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 023902 (2002)] with flat surfaces have been designed to focus the sound in a fixed focal point for one or multiple frequencies. Each scatterer is carefully placed using the optimization method within the preset boundary conditions, to maximize the pressure contribution in the chosen focal spot. With this method acoustic lenses with very low f-numbers of the order 0.3 and with amplifications over 12 dB have been estimated using a reduced number of scatterers (~60). Preliminary results obtained from the experimental realization of the designed devices confirm our predictions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akhmanov, S. A.; Gusev, V. É.
1992-03-01
The experimental results in the field of laser generation of acoustic pulses of duration less than 1 ns are reviewed. The various physical mechanisms of optoacoustic conversion are analyzed theoretically. Possibilities are shown for shortening the duration of optoacoustic pulses by increasing the intensity of the laser exposure. The prospects of initiating ultrashort, strong shock pulses with high-power femtosecond light pulses, are discussed.
Ronacher, B; Franz, A; Wohlgemuth, S; Hennig, R M
2004-04-01
Object recognition and classification by sensory pathways is rooted in spike trains provided by sensory neurons. Nervous systems had to evolve mechanisms to extract information about relevant object properties, and to separate these from spurious features. In this review, problems caused by spike train variability and counterstrategies are exemplified for the processing of acoustic signals in orthopteran insects. Due to size limitations of their nervous system we expect to find solutions that are stripped to the computational basics. A key feature of auditory systems is temporal resolution, which is likely limited by spike train variability. Basic strategies to reduce such variability are to integrate over time, or to average across several neurons. The first strategy is constrained by its possible interference with temporal resolution. Grasshoppers do not seem to explore temporal integration much, in spite of the repetitive structure of their songs, which invites for 'multiple looks' at the signal. The benefits of averaging across neurons depend on uncorrelated responses, a factor that may be crucial for the performance and evolution of small nervous systems. In spite of spike train variability the temporal information necessary for the recognition of conspecifics is preserved to a remarkable degree in the auditory pathway.
Buscombe, Daniel D.; Grams, Paul E.; Kaplinski, Matt A.
2014-01-01
In this, the second of a pair of papers on the statistical signatures of riverbed sediment in high-frequency acoustic backscatter, spatially explicit maps of the stochastic geometries (length- and amplitude-scales) of backscatter are related to patches of riverbed surfaces composed of known sediment types, as determined by geo-referenced underwater video observations. Statistics of backscatter magnitudes alone are found to be poor discriminators between sediment types. However, the variance of the power spectrum, and the intercept and slope from a power-law spectral form (termed the spectral strength and exponent, respectively) successfully discriminate between sediment types. A decision-tree approach was able to classify spatially heterogeneous patches of homogeneous sands, gravels (and sand-gravel mixtures), and cobbles/boulders with 95, 88, and 91% accuracy, respectively. Application to sites outside the calibration, and surveys made at calibration sites at different times, were plausible based on observations from underwater video. Analysis of decision trees built with different training data sets suggested that the spectral exponent was consistently the most important variable in the classification. In the absence of theory concerning how spatially variable sediment surfaces scatter high-frequency sound, the primary advantage of this data-driven approach to classify bed sediment over alternatives is that spectral methods have well understood properties and make no assumptions about the distributional form of the fluctuating component of backscatter over small spatial scales.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buscombe, D.; Grams, P. E.; Kaplinski, M. A.
2014-12-01
In this, the second of a pair of papers on the statistical signatures of riverbed sediment in high-frequency acoustic backscatter, spatially explicit maps of the stochastic geometries (length and amplitude scales) of backscatter are related to patches of riverbed surfaces composed of known sediment types, as determined by georeferenced underwater video observations. Statistics of backscatter magnitudes alone are found to be poor discriminators between sediment types. However, the variance of the power spectrum and the intercept and slope from a power law spectral form (termed the spectral strength and exponent, respectively) successfully discriminate between sediment types. A decision tree approach was able to classify spatially heterogeneous patches of homogeneous sands, gravels (and sand-gravel mixtures), and cobbles/boulders with 95, 88, and 91% accuracy, respectively. Application to sites outside the calibration and surveys made at calibration sites at different times were plausible based on observations from underwater video. Analysis of decision trees built with different training data sets suggested that the spectral exponent was consistently the most important variable in the classification. In the absence of theory concerning how spatially variable sediment surfaces scatter high-frequency sound, the primary advantage of this data-driven approach to classify bed sediment over alternatives is that spectral methods have well-understood properties and make no assumptions about the distributional form of the fluctuating component of backscatter over small spatial scales.
Towards a Resolution of the Proton Form Factor Problem: New Electron and Positron Scattering Data
Adikaram, D.; Rimal, D.; Weinstein, L. B.; Raue, B.; Khetarpal, P.; Bennett, R.; Arrington, J.; Brooks, W.; Adhikari, K.; Afanasev, A.; et al
2015-02-10
There is a significant discrepancy between the values of the proton electric form factor, GpE, extracted using unpolarized and polarized electron scattering. Calculations predict that small two-photon exchange (TPE) contributions can significantly affect the extraction of GpE from the unpolarized electron-proton cross sections. We determined the TPE contribution by measuring the ratio of positron-proton to electron-proton elastic scattering cross sections using a simultaneous, tertiary electron-positron beam incident on a liquid hydrogen target and detecting the scattered particles in the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector. This novel technique allowed us to cover a wide range in virtual photon polarization (epsilon) and momentummore » transfer (Q2) simultaneously, as well as to cancel luminosity-related systematic errors. The cross section ratio increases with decreasing ε at Q2=1.45 GeV2. This measurement is consistent with the size of the form factor discrepancy at Q2≈1.75 GeV2 and with hadronic calculations including nucleon and Delta intermediate states, which have been shown to resolve the discrepancy up to 2-3 GeV2.« less
Towards a Resolution of the Proton Form Factor Problem: New Electron and Positron Scattering Data
Adikaram, D.; Rimal, D.; Weinstein, L. B.; Raue, B.; Khetarpal, P.; Bennett, R.; Arrington, J.; Brooks, W.; Adhikari, K.; Afanasev, A.; Amaryan, M.; Anderson, M.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A.; Bono, J.; Boiarinov, S.; Briscoe, W.; Burkert, V.; Carman, D.; Careccia, S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J.; Fradi, A.; Garillon, B.; Gilfoyle, G.; Giovanetti, K.; Girod, F.; Goetz, J.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R.; Griffioen, K.; Guegan, B.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D.; Ishkhanov, B.; Jenkins, D.; Jiang, H.; Jo, H.; Joo, K.; Joosten, S.; Kalantarians, N.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H.; MacGregor, I.; Markov, N.; Mattione, P.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Mestayer, M.; Meyer, C.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R.; Moody, C.; Moutarde, H.; Movsisyan, A.; Camacho, C. Munoz; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabati, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R.; Seder, E.; Sharabian, Y.; Simonyan, A.; Skorodumina, I.; Smith, E.; Smith, G.; Sober, D.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Tian, Ye; Trivedi, A.; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N.; Watts, D.; Wei, X.; Wood, M.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z.; Zonta, I.
2015-02-10
There is a significant discrepancy between the values of the proton electric form factor, GpE, extracted using unpolarized and polarized electron scattering. Calculations predict that small two-photon exchange (TPE) contributions can significantly affect the extraction of GpE from the unpolarized electron-proton cross sections. We determined the TPE contribution by measuring the ratio of positron-proton to electron-proton elastic scattering cross sections using a simultaneous, tertiary electron-positron beam incident on a liquid hydrogen target and detecting the scattered particles in the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector. This novel technique allowed us to cover a wide range in virtual photon polarization (epsilon) and momentum transfer (Q2) simultaneously, as well as to cancel luminosity-related systematic errors. The cross section ratio increases with decreasing ε at Q2=1.45 GeV2. This measurement is consistent with the size of the form factor discrepancy at Q2≈1.75 GeV2 and with hadronic calculations including nucleon and Delta intermediate states, which have been shown to resolve the discrepancy up to 2-3 GeV2.
Towards a resolution of the proton form factor problem: new electron and positron scattering data.
Adikaram, D; Rimal, D; Weinstein, L B; Raue, B; Khetarpal, P; Bennett, R P; Arrington, J; Brooks, W K; Adhikari, K P; Afanasev, A V; Amaryan, M J; Anderson, M D; Anefalos Pereira, S; Avakian, H; Ball, J; Battaglieri, M; Bedlinskiy, I; Biselli, A S; Bono, J; Boiarinov, S; Briscoe, W J; Burkert, V D; Carman, D S; Careccia, S; Celentano, A; Chandavar, S; Charles, G; Colaneri, L; Cole, P L; Contalbrigo, M; Crede, V; D'Angelo, A; Dashyan, N; De Vita, R; De Sanctis, E; Deur, A; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Dupre, R; Egiyan, H; El Alaoui, A; El Fassi, L; Elouadrhiri, L; Eugenio, P; Fedotov, G; Fegan, S; Filippi, A; Fleming, J A; Fradi, A; Garillon, B; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Goetz, J T; Gohn, W; Golovatch, E; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guegan, B; Guidal, M; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Hanretty, C; Harrison, N; Hattawy, M; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Hughes, S M; Hyde, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkhanov, B S; Jenkins, D; Jiang, H; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Joosten, S; Kalantarians, N; Keller, D; Khandaker, M; Kim, A; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Koirala, S; Kubarovsky, V; Kuhn, S E; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y; MacGregor, I J D; Markov, N; Mattione, P; Mayer, M; McKinnon, B; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mirazita, M; Mokeev, V; Montgomery, R A; Moody, C I; Moutarde, H; Movsisyan, A; Camacho, C Munoz; Nadel-Turonski, P; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Park, K; Pasyuk, E; Peña, C; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Puckett, A J R; Ripani, M; Rizzo, A; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Roy, P; Sabatié, F; Salgado, C; Schott, D; Schumacher, R A; Seder, E; Sharabian, Y G; Simonyan, A; Skorodumina, I; Smith, E S; Smith, G D; Sober, D I; Sokhan, D; Sparveris, N; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Strauch, S; Sytnik, V; Taiuti, M; Tian, Ye; Trivedi, A; Ungaro, M; Voskanyan, H; Voutier, E; Walford, N K; Watts, D P; Wei, X; Wood, M H; Zachariou, N; Zana, L; Zhang, J; Zhao, Z W; Zonta, I
2015-02-13
There is a significant discrepancy between the values of the proton electric form factor, G(E)(p), extracted using unpolarized and polarized electron scattering. Calculations predict that small two-photon exchange (TPE) contributions can significantly affect the extraction of G(E)(p) from the unpolarized electron-proton cross sections. We determined the TPE contribution by measuring the ratio of positron-proton to electron-proton elastic scattering cross sections using a simultaneous, tertiary electron-positron beam incident on a liquid hydrogen target and detecting the scattered particles in the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector. This novel technique allowed us to cover a wide range in virtual photon polarization (ϵ) and momentum transfer (Q(2)) simultaneously, as well as to cancel luminosity-related systematic errors. The cross section ratio increases with decreasing ϵ at Q(2)=1.45 GeV(2). This measurement is consistent with the size of the form factor discrepancy at Q(2)≈1.75 GeV(2) and with hadronic calculations including nucleon and Δ intermediate states, which have been shown to resolve the discrepancy up to 2-3 GeV(2).
Towards a Resolution of the Proton Form Factor Problem: New Electron and Positron Scattering Data
Adikaram, D.; Rimal, D.; Weinstein, L. B.; Raue, B.; Khetarpal, P.; Bennett, R. P.; Arrington, J.; Brooks, W. K.; Adhikari, K. P.; Afanasev, A. V.; Dupre, R.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Hafidi, K.; Moody, C. I.
2015-02-10
There is a significant discrepancy between the values of the proton electric form factor, G(E)(p), extracted using unpolarized and polarized electron scattering. Calculations predict that small two-photon exchange (TPE) contributions can significantly affect the extraction of G(E)(p). from the unpolarized electron-proton cross sections. We determined the TPE contribution by measuring the ratio of positron-proton to electron-proton elastic scattering cross sections using a simultaneous, tertiary electron-positron beam incident on a liquid hydrogen target and detecting the scattered particles in the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector. This novel technique allowed us to cover a wide range in virtual photon polarization (epsilon) and momentum transfer (Q(2)) simultaneously, as well as to cancel luminosity-related systematic errors. The cross section ratio increases with decreasing epsilon at Q(2) = 1.45 GeV2. This measurement is consistent with the size of the form factor discrepancy at Q(2) approximate to 1.75 GeV2 and with hadronic calculations including nucleon and Delta intermediate states, which have been shown to resolve the discrepancy up to 2-3 GeV2.
Localized acoustic surface modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farhat, Mohamed; Chen, Pai-Yen; Bağcı, Hakan
2016-04-01
We introduce the concept of localized acoustic surface modes. We demonstrate that they are induced on a two-dimensional cylindrical rigid surface with subwavelength corrugations under excitation by an incident acoustic plane wave. Our results show that the corrugated rigid surface is acoustically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with uniform mass density that can be represented using a Drude-like model. This, indeed, suggests that plasmonic-like acoustic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including sensing, imaging, and cloaking.
Acoustic velocity meter systems
Laenen, Antonius
1985-01-01
Acoustic velocity meter (AVM) systems operate on the principles that the point-to-point upstream traveltime of an acoustic pulse is longer than the downstream traveltime and that this difference in traveltime can be accurately measured by electronic devices. An AVM system is capable of recording water velocity (and discharge) under a wide range of conditions, but some constraints apply: 1. Accuracy is reduced and performance is degraded if the acoustic path is not a continuous straight line. The path can be bent by reflection if it is too close to a stream boundary or by refraction if it passes through density gradients resulting from variations in either water temperature or salinity. For paths of less than 100 m, a temperature gradient of 0.1' per meter causes signal bending less than 0.6 meter at midchannel, and satisfactory velocity results can be obtained. Reflection from stream boundaries can cause signal cancellation if boundaries are too close to signal path. 2. Signal strength is attenuated by particles or bubbles that absorb, spread, or scatter sound. The concentration of particles or bubbles that can be tolerated is a function of the path length and frequency of the acoustic signal. 3. Changes in streamline orientation can affect system accuracy if the variability is random. 4. Errors relating to signal resolution are much larger for a single threshold detection scheme than for multiple threshold schemes. This report provides methods for computing the effect of various conditions on the accuracy of a record obtained from an AVM. The equipment must be adapted to the site. Field reconnaissance and preinstallation analysis to detect possible problems are critical for proper installation and operation of an AVM system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahn, Chi Young; Jeon, Kiwan; Park, Won-Kwang
2015-06-01
This study analyzes the well-known MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm to identify unknown support of thin penetrable electromagnetic inhomogeneity from scattered field data collected within the so-called multi-static response matrix in limited-view inverse scattering problems. The mathematical theories of MUSIC are partially discovered, e.g., in the full-view problem, for an unknown target of dielectric contrast or a perfectly conducting crack with the Dirichlet boundary condition (Transverse Magnetic-TM polarization) and so on. Hence, we perform further research to analyze the MUSIC-type imaging functional and to certify some well-known but theoretically unexplained phenomena. For this purpose, we establish a relationship between the MUSIC imaging functional and an infinite series of Bessel functions of integer order of the first kind. This relationship is based on the rigorous asymptotic expansion formula in the existence of a thin inhomogeneity with a smooth supporting curve. Various results of numerical simulation are presented in order to support the identified structure of MUSIC. Although a priori information of the target is needed, we suggest a least condition of range of incident and observation directions to apply MUSIC in the limited-view problem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajabi, Majid; Mojahed, Alireza
2016-11-01
In this paper, emergence of negative axial acoustic radiation force on a rigid oscillating spherical body is investigated for acoustic manipulation purposes. The problem of plane acoustic wave scattering from an oscillating spherical body submerged in an ideal acoustic fluid medium is solved. For the case of oscillating direction collinear with the wave propagation wave number vector (desired path), it has been shown that the acoustic radiation force, as a result of nonlinear acoustic wave interaction with bodies can be expressed as a linear function of incident wave field and the oscillation properties of the oscillator (i.e., amplitude and phase of oscillation). The negative (i.e., pulling effects) and positive (i.e., pushing effects) radiation force situations are divided in oscillation complex plane with a specific frequency-dependant straight line. This characteristic line defines the radiation force cancellation state. In order to investigate the stability of the mentioned manipulation strategy, the case of misaligned oscillation of sphere with the wave propagation direction is studied. The proposed methodology may suggest a novel concept of single-beam acoustic handling techniques based on smart carriers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, Jie; Wen, Ji-Hong; Zhao, Hong-Gang; Yin, Jian-Fei; Yang, Hai-Bin
2015-08-01
Locally resonant sonic materials, due to their ability to control the propagation of low-frequency elastic waves, have become a promising option for underwater sound absorption materials. In this paper, the finite element method is used to investigate the absorption characteristics of a viscoelastic panel periodically embedded with a type of infinite-long non-coaxially cylindrical locally resonant scatterers (LRSs). The effect of the core position in the coating layer of the LRS on the low-frequency (500 Hz-3000 Hz) sound absorption property is investigated. With increasing the longitudinal core eccentricity e, there occur few changes in the absorptance at the frequencies below 1500 Hz, however, the absorptance above 1500 Hz becomes gradually better and the valid absorption (with absorptance above 0.8) frequency band (VAFB) of the viscoelastic panel becomes accordingly broader. The absorption mechanism is revealed by using the displacement field maps of the viscoelastic panel and the steel slab. The results show two typical resonance modes. One is the overall resonance mode (ORM) caused by steel backing, and the other is the core resonance mode (CRM) caused by LRS. The absorptance of the viscoelastic panel by ORM is induced mainly by the vibration of the steel slab and affected little by core position. On the contrary, with increasing the core eccentricity, the CRM shifts toward high frequency band and decouples with the ORM, leading to two separate absorption peaks and the broadened VAFB of the panel. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51275519).
Zhang, Yan-jun; Zhang, Shu-guo; Fu, Guang-wei; Li, Da; Liu, Yin; Bi, Wei-hong
2012-04-01
This paper presents a novel algorithm which blends optimize particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm according to the probability. This novel algorithm can be used for Pseudo-Voigt type of Brillouin scattering spectrum to improve the degree of fitting and precision of shift extraction. This algorithm uses PSO algorithm as the main frame. First, PSO algorithm is used in global search, after a certain number of optimization every time there generates a random probability rand (0, 1). If rand (0, 1) is less than or equal to the predetermined probability P, the optimal solution obtained by PSO algorithm will be used as the initial value of LM algorithm. Then LM algorithm is used in local depth search and the solution of LM algorithm is used to replace the previous PSO algorithm for optimal solutions. Again the PSO algorithm is used for global search. If rand (0, 1) was greater than P, PSO algorithm is still used in search, waiting the next optimization to generate random probability rand (0, 1) to judge. Two kinds of algorithms are alternatively used to obtain ideal global optimal solution. Simulation analysis and experimental results show that the new algorithm overcomes the shortcomings of single algorithm and improves the degree of fitting and precision of frequency shift extraction in Brillouin scattering spectrum, and fully prove that the new method is practical and feasible.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hagelberg, Frank
2004-03-01
In this contribution, we address the problem how to determine accurately the nonadiabatic content of any given dynamic process involving molecular motion. More specifically, we generate a dynamic electronic wave function using Electron Nuclear Dynamics (END) theory^2 and cast this wave function into the language of electronic excitations. This is achieved by adiabatic transport of an electronic basis along the classical nuclear trajectories of the studied molecular system. This basis is chosen as the static UHF molecular ground state determinant of the system in conjunction with all determinants that arise from the ground state by single, double and triple substitutions. Projecting the dynamic wave function into this basis, we arrive at a natural distinction between adiabatic and nonadiabatic components of the motion considered. We will discuss this concept by the examples of various scattering problems, among them the interaction of proton projectiles with methylene targets. ^2E. Deumens et al., Rev. Mod. Phys. 1994, 66, 917.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bowen, Patrick T.; Urzhumov, Yaroslav A.
2016-04-01
Acoustic metamaterial structures with discrete and continuous rotational symmetries attract interest of theorists and engineers due to the relative simplicity of their design and fabrication. They are also likely candidates for omnidirectional acoustic cloaking and other transformation-acoustical novelties. In this paper, we employ a stratified description of such structures, and develop the theory and an efficient symbolic/numerical algorithm for analyzing the scattering properties of such structures immersed in homogeneous fluid environments. The algorithm calculates the partial scattering amplitudes and the related scattering phases for an arbitrary layered distribution of acoustic material properties. The efficiency of the algorithm enables us to find approximate solutions to certain inverse scattering problems through quasi-global optimization. The scattering problems addressed here are the three forms of cloaking: (1) extinction cross-section suppression, the canonical form of cloaking, (2) monostatic sonar invisibility (backscattering suppression), and (3) acoustic force cloaking (transport cross-section suppression). We also address the efficiency-bandwidth tradeoff and design approximate cloaks with wider bandwidth using a new optimization formulation.
An overview of acoustic telemetry
Drumheller, D.S.
1992-01-01
Acoustic telemetry has been a dream of the drilling industry for the past 50 years. It offers the promise of data rates which are one-hundred times greater than existing technology. Such a system would open the door to true logging-while-drilling technology and bring enormous profits to its developers. The basic idea is to produce an encoded sound wave at the bottom of the well, let it propagate up the steel drillpipe, and extract the data from the signal at the surface. Unfortunately, substantial difficulties arise. The first difficult problem is to produce the sound wave. Since the most promising transmission wavelengths are about 20 feet, normal transducer efficiencies are quire low. Compounding this problem is the structural complexity of the bottomhole assembly and drillstring. For example, the acoustic impedance of the drillstring changes every 30 feet and produces an unusual scattering pattern in the acoustic transmission. This scattering pattern causes distortion of the signal and is often confused with signal attenuation. These problems are not intractable. Recent work has demonstrated that broad frequency bands exist which are capable of transmitting data at rates up to 100 bits per second. Our work has also identified the mechanism which is responsible for the observed anomalies in the patterns of signal attenuation. Furthermore in the past few years a body of experience has been developed in designing more efficient transducers for application to metal waveguides. The direction of future work is clear. New transducer designs which are more efficient and compatible with existing downhole power supplies need to be built and tested; existing field test data need to be analyzed for transmission bandwidth and attenuation; and the new and less expensive methods of collecting data on transmission path quality need to be incorporated into this effort. 11 refs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simons, Neil Richard Samuel
In this thesis the development and application of general purpose computer simulation techniques for macroscopic electromagnetic phenomena are investigated. These techniques are applicable to a wide variety of practical problems pertaining to: Electromagnetic Compatibility and Interference, Radar-Cross-Section, and the analysis and design of antennas. The goal of this research is to examine methods that are applicable to a wide variety of problems rather than specialized approaches that are only useful for specific problems. A brief review of the computational electromagnetics literature indicates two general types of methods are applicable. These are numerical approximation of integral-equation formulations and numerical approximation of differential-equation formulations. Because of their relative efficiency for inhomogeneous geometries, the direction of the thesis proceeds with numerical approximations to differential-equation based formulations. The differential-equation based numerical methods include various finite-difference, finite-element, finite -volume, and transmission line matrix methods. A literature review and overview of these numerical methods is provided. The goal of the overview is to provide the capability for the classification for existing and future differential equation based numerical methods to identify relative advantages and disadvantages. Extensions to the two-dimensional transmission line matrix method are presented. The extensions are intended to provide some of the flexibility traditionally associated with finite-difference and finite-element methods. Three new two-dimensional models are presented. Two of the new models utilize triangular rather than the usual rectangular spatial discretization. The third model introduces the capability of higher-order spatial accuracy. The efficiency and application of the new models are discussed. The development of two general-purpose electromagnetic simulation programs is presented. Both are
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Derosa, S.; Cavaliere, M.
1989-02-01
A finite element computer code is used to examine the acoustic fields in typical aircraft cabins. Nastran and Patran codes are used because of their versatility and worldwide utilization. Experimental results and comparison with analytical methods are presented. The interactions between the vibrating structure and the induced pressure field in the cavity fluid are demonstrated.
Underwater acoustic omnidirectional absorber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naify, Christina J.; Martin, Theodore P.; Layman, Christopher N.; Nicholas, Michael; Thangawng, Abel L.; Calvo, David C.; Orris, Gregory J.
2014-02-01
Gradient index media, which are designed by varying local element properties in given geometry, have been utilized to manipulate acoustic waves for a variety of devices. This study presents a cylindrical, two-dimensional acoustic "black hole" design that functions as an omnidirectional absorber for underwater applications. The design features a metamaterial shell that focuses acoustic energy into the shell's core. Multiple scattering theory was used to design layers of rubber cylinders with varying filling fractions to produce a linearly graded sound speed profile through the structure. Measured pressure intensity agreed with predicted results over a range of frequencies within the homogenization limit.
Rayleigh scattering of a spherical sound wave.
Godin, Oleg A
2013-02-01
Acoustic Green's functions for a homogeneous medium with an embedded spherical obstacle arise in analyses of scattering by objects on or near an interface, radiation by finite sources, sound attenuation in and scattering from clouds of suspended particles, etc. An exact solution of the problem of diffraction of a monochromatic spherical sound wave on a sphere is given by an infinite series involving products of Bessel functions and Legendre polynomials. In this paper, a simple, closed-form solution is obtained for scattering by a sphere with a radius that is small compared to the wavelength. Soft, hard, impedance, and fluid obstacles are considered. The solution is valid for arbitrary positions of the source and receiver relative to the scatterer. Low-frequency scattering is shown to be rather sensitive to boundary conditions on the surface of the obstacle. Low-frequency asymptotics of the scattered acoustic field are extended to transient incident waves. The asymptotic expansions admit an intuitive interpretation in terms of image sources and reduce to classical results in appropriate limiting cases.
Reconstructed imaging of acoustic cloak using time-lapse reversal method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Chen; Cheng, Ying; Xu, Jian-yi; Li, Bo; Liu, Xiao-jun
2014-08-01
We proposed and investigated a solution to the inverse acoustic cloak problem, an anti-stealth technology to make cloaks visible, using the time-lapse reversal (TLR) method. The TLR method reconstructs the image of an unknown acoustic cloak by utilizing scattered acoustic waves. Compared to previous anti-stealth methods, the TLR method can determine not only the existence of a cloak but also its exact geometric information like definite shape, size, and position. Here, we present the process for TLR reconstruction based on time reversal invariance. This technology may have potential applications in detecting various types of cloaks with different geometric parameters.
Numerical Techniques for Scattering from Submerged Objects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Werby, M. F.; Tango, G. J.; Gaunaurd, G. C.
1985-01-01
To represent the final results in terms of matrices, one expands all appropriate physical quantities in terms of partial wave basis states. This includes expansions for the incident and scattered fields and the surface quantities. The method then utilizes the Huygen-Poincare integral representation for both the exterior and interior solutions, leading to the required matrix equations. One thus deals with matrix equations, the complexity of which depends on the nature of the problem. It is shown that in general a transition matrix T can be obtained relating the incident field A with the scattered field f having the form T = PQ(-1), where f = TA. The structure of Q can be quite complicated and can itself be composed of other matrix inversions such as arise from layered objects. Recent improvements in this method appropriate for a variety of physical problems are focused on, and on their implementation. Results are outlined from scattering simulations for very elongated submerged objects and resonance scattering from elastic solids and shells. The final improvement concerns eigenfunction expansions of surface terms, arising from solution of the interior problem, obtained via a preconditioning technique. This effectively reduces the problem to that of obtaining eigenvalues of a Hermitian operator. This formalism is reviewed for scattering from targets that are rigid, sound-soft, acoustic, elastic solids, elastic shells, and elastic layered objects. Two sets of the more interesting results are presented. The first concerns scattering from elongated objects, and the second to thin elastic spheroids.
A new solution to the problem of scattering of a plane wave by a multilayer confocal spheroid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farafonov, V. G.
2013-03-01
We have constructed a solution to the problem of scattering by a nonconfocal multilayer particle. The main difficulty was to join expansions constructed in two spheroidal systems on either side of each boundary. As a result of a detailed consideration of relations between scalar wave spheroidal and spherical functions, we have succeeded in finding a representation of the former in terms of the latter and vice versa. In the final form, the joining of solutions is described by only one matrix, which depends on coefficients of representations of angle spheroidal functions in terms of associated Legendre functions of the first kind. Since the problem has been solved using an approach that involves the method of extended boundary conditions, the dimension of the system for numerical determining unknown coefficients is equal to the number of terms that are taken into account in field expansions and does not depend on the number of particle layers. Previously performed numerical calculations for confocal particles have shown a very high efficiency of the algorithm not only for particles that are close to spheres in shape, but also for strongly prolate and strongly oblate spheroids. In addition, the algorithm makes it possible to calculate optical properties of particles that have dozens of layers.
Kozier, K. S.
2006-07-01
This paper examines the sensitivity of MCNP5 k{sub eff} results to various deuterium data files for a simple benchmark problem consisting of an 8.4-cm radius sphere of uranium surrounded by an annulus of deuterium at the nuclide number density corresponding to heavy water. This study was performed to help clarify why {Delta}k{sub eff} values of about 10 mk are obtained when different ENDF/B deuterium data files are used in simulations of critical experiments involving solutions of high-enrichment uranyl fluoride in heavy water, while simulations of low-leakage, heterogeneous critical lattices of natural-uranium fuel rods in heavy water show differences of <1 mk. The benchmark calculations were performed as a function of deuterium reflector thickness for several uranium compositions using deuterium ACE files derived from ENDF/B-VII.b1 (release beta 1), ENDF/B-VI.4 and JENDL-3.3, which differ primarily in the energy/angle distributions for elastic scattering <3.2 MeV. Calculations were also performed using modified ACE files having equiprobable cosine bin values in the centre-of-mass reference frame in a progressive manner with increasing energy. It was found that the {Delta}k{sub eff} values increased with deuterium reflector thickness and uranium enrichment. The studies using modified ACE files indicate that most of the reactivity differences arise at energies <1 MeV; hence, this energy range should be given priority if new scattering distribution measurements are undertaken. (authors)
Pelivanov, Ivan M; Belov, Sergej A; Solomatin, Vladimir S; Khokhlova, Tanya D; Karabutov, Aleksander A
2006-12-31
The problem of opto-acoustic (AO) diagnostics of light scattering and absorption in biological media is considered. The objects under study were milk, bovine and porcine liver, and bovine muscle tissue. The forward and backward schemes for recording acoustic signals were used in experiments. The spatial distribution of the light intensity was measured for each biological medium from the temporal profile of the excited OA pulse and the absorption coefficient and reduced scattering coefficient were determined. Opto-acoustic signals were excited by a 1064-nm pulsed Nd:YAG laser and a tunable Ti:sapphire laser at 779 nm. It is shown that the proposed method can be used for obtaining a priori information on a biological medium in problems of optical and AO tomography. (special issue devoted to multiple radiation scattering in random media)
Metzler, Adam M; Collis, Jon M
2013-04-01
Shallow-water environments typically include sediments containing thin or low-shear layers. Numerical treatments of these types of layers require finer depth grid spacing than is needed elsewhere in the domain. Thin layers require finer grids to fully sample effects due to elasticity within the layer. As shear wave speeds approach zero, the governing system becomes singular and fine-grid spacing becomes necessary to obtain converged solutions. In this paper, a seismo-acoustic parabolic equation solution is derived utilizing modified difference formulas using Galerkin's method to allow for variable-grid spacing in depth. Propagation results are shown for environments containing thin layers and low-shear layers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonnet-Ben Dhia, A.-S.; Carvalho, C.; Chesnel, L.; Ciarlet, P.
2016-10-01
We investigate in a 2D setting the scattering of time-harmonic electromagnetic waves by a plasmonic device, represented as a non-dissipative bounded and penetrable obstacle with a negative permittivity. Using the T-coercivity approach, we first prove that the problem is well-posed in the classical framework Hloc1 if the negative permittivity does not lie in some critical interval whose definition depends on the shape of the device. When the latter has corners, for values inside the critical interval, unusual strong singularities for the electromagnetic field can appear. In that case, well-posedness is obtained by imposing a radiation condition at the corners to select the outgoing black-hole plasmonic wave, that is the one which carries energy towards the corners. A simple and systematic criterion is given to define what is the outgoing solution. Finally, we propose an original numerical method based on the use of Perfectly Matched Layers at the corners. We emphasize that it is necessary to design an ad hoc technique because the field is too singular to be captured with standard finite element methods.
Dynamics of acoustically levitated disk samples.
Xie, W J; Wei, B
2004-10-01
The acoustic levitation force on disk samples and the dynamics of large water drops in a planar standing wave are studied by solving the acoustic scattering problem through incorporating the boundary element method. The dependence of levitation force amplitude on the equivalent radius R of disks deviates seriously from the R3 law predicted by King's theory, and a larger force can be obtained for thin disks. When the disk aspect ratio gamma is larger than a critical value gamma(*) ( approximately 1.9 ) and the disk radius a is smaller than the critical value a(*) (gamma) , the levitation force per unit volume of the sample will increase with the enlargement of the disk. The acoustic levitation force on thin-disk samples ( gammaacoustic field for stable levitation of a large water drop is to adjust the reflector-emitter interval H slightly above the resonant interval H(n) . The simulation shows that the drop is flattened and the central parts of its top and bottom surface become concave with the increase of sound pressure level, which agrees with the experimental observation. The main frequencies of the shape oscillation under different sound pressures are slightly larger than the Rayleigh frequency because of the large shape deformation. The simulated translational frequencies of the vertical vibration under normal gravity condition agree with the theoretical analysis. PMID:15600551
Dynamics of acoustically levitated disk samples
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, W. J.; Wei, B.
2004-10-01
The acoustic levitation force on disk samples and the dynamics of large water drops in a planar standing wave are studied by solving the acoustic scattering problem through incorporating the boundary element method. The dependence of levitation force amplitude on the equivalent radius R of disks deviates seriously from the R3 law predicted by King’s theory, and a larger force can be obtained for thin disks. When the disk aspect ratio γ is larger than a critical value γ*(≈1.9) and the disk radius a is smaller than the critical value a*(γ) , the levitation force per unit volume of the sample will increase with the enlargement of the disk. The acoustic levitation force on thin-disk samples (γ⩽γ*) can be formulated by the shape factor f(γ,a) when a⩽a*(γ) . It is found experimentally that a necessary condition of the acoustic field for stable levitation of a large water drop is to adjust the reflector-emitter interval H slightly above the resonant interval Hn . The simulation shows that the drop is flattened and the central parts of its top and bottom surface become concave with the increase of sound pressure level, which agrees with the experimental observation. The main frequencies of the shape oscillation under different sound pressures are slightly larger than the Rayleigh frequency because of the large shape deformation. The simulated translational frequencies of the vertical vibration under normal gravity condition agree with the theoretical analysis.
An Overview of Acoustic Telemetry
Drumheller, D.S.
1992-03-24
Acoustic telemetry has been a dream of the drilling industry for the past 50 years. It offers the promise of data rates which are one-hundred times greater than existing technology. Such a system would open the door to true logging-while-drilling technology and bring enormous profits to its developers. The oil and gas industry has led in most of the attempts to develop this type of telemetry system; however, very substantial efforts have also been made through government sponsored work in the geothermal industry. None of these previous attempts have lead to a commercial telemetry system. Conceptually, the problem looks easy. The basic idea is to produce an encoded sound wave at the bottom of the well, let it propagate up the steel drillpipe, and extract the data from the signal at the surface. Unfortunately, substantial difficulties arise. The first difficult problem is to produce the sound wave. Since the most promising transmission wavelengths are about 20 feet, normal transducer efficiencies are quite low. Compounding this problem is the structural complexity of the bottomhole assembly and drillstring. For example, the acoustic impedance of the drillstring changes every 30 feet and produces an unusual scattering pattern in the acoustic transmission. This scattering pattern causes distortion of the signal and is often confused with signal attenuation. These problems are not intractable. Recent work has demonstrated that broad frequency bands exist which are capable of transmitting data at rates up to 100 bits per second. Our work has also identified the mechanism which is responsible for the observed anomalies in the patterns of signal attenuation. Furthermore in the past few years a body of experience has been developed in designing more efficient transducers for application to metal Waveguides. The direction of future work is clear. New transducer designs which are more efficient and compatible with existing downhole power supplies need to be built and tested
Spherical wave scattering by slender bodies.
Van Nhieu, M T
1993-01-01
The problem of the scattering of a spherical acoustic wave by rigid slender bodies of revolution is investigated theoretically from a formalism based on the matched asymptotic expansion method. It is an extension of a formulation that was originally derived for incident plane waves with the so-called slender-body approximation. Simple and practical formulas are obtained for the scattered pressure in the near- and far-fields: they are valid at low and medium frequencies when the reduced wavenumber Ka is less or of the order of unity. Computations of the monostatic and bistatic angular distributions for a spheroid are presented to illustrate the sensitivity of the scattered field with respect to the distance source and observation point.
Improving Acoustics in American Schools.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nelson, Peggy B.
2000-01-01
This introductory article to a clinical forum describes the following seven articles that discuss the problem of noisy classrooms and resulting reduction in learning, basic principles of noise and reverberation measurements in classrooms, solutions to the problem of poor classroom acoustics, and the development of a classroom acoustics standard.…
Method and apparatus for generating acoustic energy
Guerrero, Hector N.
2002-01-01
A method and apparatus for generating and emitting amplified coherent acoustic energy. A cylindrical transducer is mounted within a housing, the transducer having an acoustically open end and an acoustically closed end. The interior of the transducer is filled with an active medium which may include scattering nuclei. Excitation of the transducer produces radially directed acoustic energy in the active medium, which is converted by the dimensions of the transducer, the acoustically closed end thereof, and the scattering nuclei, to amplified coherent acoustic energy directed longitudinally within the transducer. The energy is emitted through the acoustically open end of the transducer. The emitted energy can be used for, among other things, effecting a chemical reaction or removing scale from the interior walls of containment vessels.
Acoustical standards in engineering acoustics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burkhard, Mahlon D.
2001-05-01
The Engineering Acoustics Technical Committee is concerned with the evolution and improvement of acoustical techniques and apparatus, and with the promotion of new applications of acoustics. As cited in the Membership Directory and Handbook (2002), the interest areas include transducers and arrays; underwater acoustic systems; acoustical instrumentation and monitoring; applied sonics, promotion of useful effects, information gathering and transmission; audio engineering; acoustic holography and acoustic imaging; acoustic signal processing (equipment and techniques); and ultrasound and infrasound. Evident connections between engineering and standards are needs for calibration, consistent terminology, uniform presentation of data, reference levels, or design targets for product development. Thus for the acoustical engineer standards are both a tool for practices, for communication, and for comparison of his efforts with those of others. Development of many standards depends on knowledge of the way products are put together for the market place and acoustical engineers provide important input to the development of standards. Acoustical engineers and members of the Engineering Acoustics arm of the Society both benefit from and contribute to the Acoustical Standards of the Acoustical Society.
Numerical Techniques in Acoustics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baumeister, K. J. (Compiler)
1985-01-01
This is the compilation of abstracts of the Numerical Techniques in Acoustics Forum held at the ASME's Winter Annual Meeting. This forum was for informal presentation and information exchange of ongoing acoustic work in finite elements, finite difference, boundary elements and other numerical approaches. As part of this forum, it was intended to allow the participants time to raise questions on unresolved problems and to generate discussions on possible approaches and methods of solution.
An acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor that develops on the nerve that connects the ear to the brain. The tumor ... press against the brain, becoming life-threatening. Acoustic neuroma can be difficult to diagnose, because the symptoms ...
A fast directional algorithm for high-frequency electromagnetic scattering
Tsuji, Paul; Ying Lexing
2011-06-20
This paper is concerned with the fast solution of high-frequency electromagnetic scattering problems using the boundary integral formulation. We extend the O(N log N) directional multilevel algorithm previously proposed for the acoustic scattering case to the vector electromagnetic case. We also detail how to incorporate the curl operator of the magnetic field integral equation into the algorithm. When combined with a standard iterative method, this results in an almost linear complexity solver for the combined field integral equations. In addition, the butterfly algorithm is utilized to compute the far field pattern and radar cross section with O(N log N) complexity.
Generation and Radiation of Acoustic Waves from a 2-D Shear Layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Agarwal, Anurag; Morris, Philip J.
2000-01-01
A parallel numerical simulation of the radiation of sound from an acoustic source inside a 2-D jet is presented in this paper. This basic benchmark problem is used as a test case for scattering problems that are presently being solved by using the Impedance Mismatch Method (IMM). In this technique, a solid body in the domain is represented by setting the acoustic impedance of each medium, encountered by a wave, to a different value. This impedance discrepancy results in reflected and scattered waves with appropriate amplitudes. The great advantage of the use of this method is that no modifications to a simple Cartesian grid need to be made for complicated geometry bodies. Thus, high order finite difference schemes may be applied simply to all parts of the domain. In the IMM, the total perturbation field is split into incident and scattered fields. The incident pressure is assumed to be known and the equivalent sources for the scattered field are associated with the presence of the scattering body (through the impedance mismatch) and the propagation of the incident field through a non-uniform flow. An earlier version of the technique could only handle uniform flow in the vicinity of the source and at the outflow boundary. Scattering problems in non-uniform mean flow are of great practical importance (for example, scattering from a high lift device in a non-uniform mean flow or the effects of a fuselage boundary layer). The solution to this benchmark problem, which has an acoustic wave propagating through a non-uniform mean flow, serves as a test case for the extensions of the IMM technique.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor)
2006-01-01
The invention relates to a sealing device having an acoustic resonator. The acoustic resonator is adapted to create acoustic waveforms to generate a sealing pressure barrier blocking fluid flow from a high pressure area to a lower pressure area. The sealing device permits noncontacting sealing operation. The sealing device may include a resonant-macrosonic-synthesis (RMS) resonator.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor)
2006-01-01
The invention relates to a sealing device having an acoustic resonator. The acoustic resonator is adapted to create acoustic waveforms to generate a sealing pressure barrier blocking fluid flow from a high pressure area to a lower pressure area. The sealing device permits noncontacting sealing operation. The sealing device may include a resonant-macrosonic-synthesis (RMS) resonator.
Xia, H. Patterson, R.; Feng, Y.; Shrestha, S.; Conibeer, G.
2014-08-11
The rates of charge carrier relaxation by phonon emission are of substantial importance in the field of hot carrier solar cell, primarily in investigation of mechanisms to slow down hot carrier cooling. In this work, energy and momentum resolved deformation potentials relevant to electron-phonon scattering are computed for wurtzite InN and GaN as well as an InN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) superlattice using ab-initio methods. These deformation potentials reveal important features such as discontinuities across the electronic bandgap of the materials and variations over tens of eV. The energy dependence of the deformation potential is found to be very similar for wurtzite nitrides despite differences between the In and Ga pseudopotentials and their corresponding electronic band structures. Charge carrier relaxation by this mechanism is expected to be minimal for electrons within a few eV of the conduction band edge. However, hole scattering at energies more accessible to excitation by solar radiation is possible between heavy and light hole states. Moderate reductions in overall scattering rates are observed in MQW relative to the bulk nitride materials.
Vertical spatial coherence model for a transient signal forward-scattered from the sea surface
Yoerger, E.J.; McDaniel, S.T.
1996-01-01
The treatment of acoustic energy forward scattered from the sea surface, which is modeled as a random communications scatter channel, is the basis for developing an expression for the time-dependent coherence function across a vertical receiving array. The derivation of this model uses linear filter theory applied to the Fresnel-corrected Kirchhoff approximation in obtaining an equation for the covariance function for the forward-scattered problem. The resulting formulation is used to study the dependence of the covariance on experimental and environmental factors. The modeled coherence functions are then formed for various geometrical and environmental parameters and compared to experimental data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Collins, Jeffery D.; Volakis, John L.
1989-01-01
A new technique is presented for computing the scattering by 2-D structures of arbitrary composition. The proposed solution approach combines the usual finite element method with the boundary integral equation to formulate a discrete system. This is subsequently solved via the conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm. A particular characteristic of the method is the use of rectangular boundaries to enclose the scatterer. Several of the resulting boundary integrals are therefore convolutions and may be evaluated via the fast Fourier transform (FFT) in the implementation of the CG algorithm. The solution approach offers the principle advantage of having O(N) memory demand and employs a 1-D FFT versus a 2-D FFT as required with a traditional implementation of the CGFFT algorithm. The speed of the proposed solution method is compared with that of the traditional CGFFT algorithm, and results for rectangular bodies are given and shown to be in excellent agreement with the moment method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Dunyou; Zhu, Wei; Zhang, John Z. H.; Kouri, Donald J.
1997-07-01
In this paper, we present the RPD (reactant-product decoupling) approach to the calculation of final-state distribution in photodissociation of H2O in three-dimensional space. Although the RPD approach was recently developed for bimolecular state-to-state reactive scattering calculations, its application to photodissociation dynamics is very attractive. Specifically in photodissociation, the interaction (reactant) component wavefunction ψr (which in the present case of photodissociation is replaced by the interaction component ψint) is nonzero only in the strong interaction region, which greatly simplifies the numerical calculation for ψint in comparison to that for ψr in a full bimolecular reactive scattering calculation. In the following report, the time-dependent implementation of the RPD approach to the photodissociation of H2O in three dimensions is given and the calculated rovibrational state distributions of the OH fragment are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vagh, Hardik A.; Baghai-Wadji, Alireza
2008-12-01
Current technological challenges in materials science and high-tech device industry require the solution of boundary value problems (BVPs) involving regions of various scales, e.g. multiple thin layers, fibre-reinforced composites, and nano/micro pores. In most cases straightforward application of standard variational techniques to BVPs of practical relevance necessarily leads to unsatisfactorily ill-conditioned analytical and/or numerical results. To remedy the computational challenges associated with sub-sectional heterogeneities various sophisticated homogenization techniques need to be employed. Homogenization refers to the systematic process of smoothing out the sub-structural heterogeneities, leading to the determination of effective constitutive coefficients. Ordinarily, homogenization involves a sophisticated averaging and asymptotic order analysis to obtain solutions. In the majority of the cases only zero-order terms are constructed due to the complexity of the processes involved. In this paper we propose a constructive scheme for obtaining homogenized solutions involving higher order terms, and thus, guaranteeing higher accuracy and greater robustness of the numerical results. We present
Monsefi, Farid; Carlsson, Linus; Silvestrov, Sergei; Rančić, Milica; Otterskog, Magnus
2014-12-10
To solve the electromagnetic scattering problem in two dimensions, the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method is used. The order of convergence of the FDTD algorithm, solving the two-dimensional Maxwell’s curl equations, is estimated in two different computer implementations: with and without an obstacle in the numerical domain of the FDTD scheme. This constitutes an electromagnetic scattering problem where a lumped sinusoidal current source, as a source of electromagnetic radiation, is included inside the boundary. Confined within the boundary, a specific kind of Absorbing Boundary Condition (ABC) is chosen and the outside of the boundary is in form of a Perfect Electric Conducting (PEC) surface. Inserted in the computer implementation, a semi-norm has been applied to compare different step sizes in the FDTD scheme. First, the domain of the problem is chosen to be the free-space without any obstacles. In the second part of the computer implementations, a PEC surface is included as the obstacle. The numerical instability of the algorithms can be rather easily avoided with respect to the Courant stability condition, which is frequently used in applying the general FDTD algorithm.
Airborne chemistry: acoustic levitation in chemical analysis.
Santesson, Sabina; Nilsson, Staffan
2004-04-01
This review with 60 references describes a unique path to miniaturisation, that is, the use of acoustic levitation in analytical and bioanalytical chemistry applications. Levitation of small volumes of sample by means of a levitation technique can be used as a way to avoid solid walls around the sample, thus circumventing the main problem of miniaturisation, the unfavourable surface-to-volume ratio. Different techniques for sample levitation have been developed and improved. Of the levitation techniques described, acoustic or ultrasonic levitation fulfils all requirements for analytical chemistry applications. This technique has previously been used to study properties of molten materials and the equilibrium shape()and stability of liquid drops. Temperature and mass transfer in levitated drops have also been described, as have crystallisation and microgravity applications. The airborne analytical system described here is equipped with different and exchangeable remote detection systems. The levitated drops are normally in the 100 nL-2 microL volume range and additions to the levitated drop can be made in the pL-volume range. The use of levitated drops in analytical and bioanalytical chemistry offers several benefits. Several remote detection systems are compatible with acoustic levitation, including fluorescence imaging detection, right angle light scattering, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Applications include liquid/liquid extractions, solvent exchange, analyte enrichment, single-cell analysis, cell-cell communication studies, precipitation screening of proteins to establish nucleation conditions, and crystallisation of proteins and pharmaceuticals. PMID:14762640
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Zhaoju; Gao, Fei; Shi, Xihang; Lin, Xiao; Gao, Zhen; Chong, Yidong; Zhang, Baile
2015-03-01
The manipulation of acoustic wave propagation in fluids has numerous applications, including some in everyday life. Acoustic technologies frequently develop in tandem with optics, using shared concepts such as waveguiding and metamedia. It is thus noteworthy that an entirely novel class of electromagnetic waves, known as "topological edge states," has recently been demonstrated. These are inspired by the electronic edge states occurring in topological insulators, and possess a striking and technologically promising property: the ability to travel in a single direction along a surface without backscattering, regardless of the existence of defects or disorder. Here, we develop an analogous theory of topological fluid acoustics, and propose a scheme for realizing topological edge states in an acoustic structure containing circulating fluids. The phenomenon of disorder-free one-way sound propagation, which does not occur in ordinary acoustic devices, may have novel applications for acoustic isolators, modulators, and transducers.
Yang, Zhaoju; Gao, Fei; Shi, Xihang; Lin, Xiao; Gao, Zhen; Chong, Yidong; Zhang, Baile
2015-03-20
The manipulation of acoustic wave propagation in fluids has numerous applications, including some in everyday life. Acoustic technologies frequently develop in tandem with optics, using shared concepts such as waveguiding and metamedia. It is thus noteworthy that an entirely novel class of electromagnetic waves, known as "topological edge states," has recently been demonstrated. These are inspired by the electronic edge states occurring in topological insulators, and possess a striking and technologically promising property: the ability to travel in a single direction along a surface without backscattering, regardless of the existence of defects or disorder. Here, we develop an analogous theory of topological fluid acoustics, and propose a scheme for realizing topological edge states in an acoustic structure containing circulating fluids. The phenomenon of disorder-free one-way sound propagation, which does not occur in ordinary acoustic devices, may have novel applications for acoustic isolators, modulators, and transducers.
Scattering of radiation in collisionless dusty plasmas
Tolias, P.; Ratynskaia, S.
2013-04-15
Scattering of electromagnetic waves in collisionless dusty plasmas is studied in the framework of a multi-component kinetic model. The investigation focuses on the spectral distribution of the scattered radiation. Pronounced dust signatures are identified in the coherent spectrum due to scattering from the shielding cloud around the dust grains, dust acoustic waves, and dust-ion acoustic waves. The magnitude and shape of the scattered signal near these spectral regions are determined with the aid of analytical expressions and its dependence on the dust parameters is investigated. The use of radiation scattering as a potential diagnostic tool for dust detection is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Tae Hyun; Ko, Jae-Hyeon; Kojima, Seiji
2013-03-01
Relaxor-based ferroelectric Pb[(Mg1/3Nb2/3)1-x Tix]O3 (PMN-xPT) single crystals have attracted great attention because of their exceptionally strong piezoelectric properties. This peculiar characteristic was attributed to the rotation of polarization directions and structural complexity. In this study, the phase transition behaviors of PMN-17PT single crystals have been investigated under an electric field applied along [001] by micro-Brillouin scattering. PMN-17PT single crystals were grown by the modified Bridgeman method. The two (001) surfaces were Au-coated to apply the electric field, and the coating was thin enough to allow the incident beam to transmit without much loss. The electric field of different values was applied to the sample along the [001] direction, and the Brillouin scattering spectrum was measured under both field-heating (FH) and field-cooling (FC) conditions. The electric field of 1kV/cm induced a new longitudinal acoustic (LA) mode component along with a broad Brillouin peak evolving continuously from the paraelectric phase during both FC and FH processes. This was attributed to the remnant polar nanoregions that were not aligned under the electric field due to quenched random fields. However, the splitting of the LA mode did not appear when the electric field was over 2kV/cm indicating a clear structural phase transition. This research was supported in part by the Marubun Research Promotion Foundation and Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2010-0010497).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ting, L.; Keller, J. B.
1977-01-01
The radiation of sound through the open end of a cylindrical or conical pipe of any cross section, or through a hole in a plane wall, is analyzed theoretically. The scattering of a sound wave by the end of a rod or slab is also treated. Only the case in which the wavelength is large compared with a typical radial dimension of the opening or of the end is considered. The method of matched asymptotic expansions is employed. Results on end corrections and reflection coefficients previously obtained by Helmholtz (1860), Rayleigh (1945), and Bazer and Karp (1954), using intuitive arguments, are recovered and verified. Agreement is found with the exact results of Levine and Schwinger (1948) and Vainstein (1948), as well as with the small radial-dimension/wavelength results of Lesser and Lewis (1972), in the cases they treated. In addition various new results are obtained.
Quadratic eigenvalue problems.
Walsh, Timothy Francis; Day, David Minot
2007-04-01
In this report we will describe some nonlinear eigenvalue problems that arise in the areas of solid mechanics, acoustics, and coupled structural acoustics. We will focus mostly on quadratic eigenvalue problems, which are a special case of nonlinear eigenvalue problems. Algorithms for solving the quadratic eigenvalue problem will be presented, along with some example calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Li; Wen, Ji-Hong; Yu, Dian-Long; Lu, Zhi-Miao; Wen, Xi-Sen
2014-09-01
Acoustic cloak based on coordinate transformation is of great topical interest and has promise in potential applications such as sound transparency and insulation. The frequency response of acoustic cloaks with a quantity of discrete homogeneous layers is analyzed by the acoustic scattering theory. The effect of coordinate transformation function on the acoustic total scattering cross section is discussed to achieve low scattering with only a few layers of anisotropic metamaterials. Also, the physics of acoustic wave interaction with the interfaces between the discrete layers inside the cloak shell is discussed. These results provide a better way of designing a multilayered acoustic cloak with fewer layers.
A broadband polygonal cloak for acoustic wave designed with linear coordinate transformation.
Zhu, Rongrong; Zheng, Bin; Ma, Chu; Xu, Jun; Fang, Nicholas; Chen, Hongsheng
2016-07-01
Previous acoustic cloaks designed with transformation acoustics always involve inhomogeneous material. In this paper, a design of acoustic polygonal cloak is proposed using linear polygonal transformation method. The designed acoustic polygonal cloak has homogeneous and anisotropic parameters, which is much easier to realize in practice. Furthermore, a possible acoustic metamaterial structure to realize the cloak is proposed. Simulation results on the real structure show that the metamaterial acoustic cloak is effective to reduce the scattering of the object. PMID:27475135
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gough, Colin
This chapter provides an introduction to the physical and psycho-acoustic principles underlying the production and perception of the sounds of musical instruments. The first section introduces generic aspects of musical acoustics and the perception of musical sounds, followed by separate sections on string, wind and percussion instruments.
Norris, Andrew N
2009-02-01
Acoustic metafluids are defined as the class of fluids that allow one domain of fluid to acoustically mimic another, as exemplified by acoustic cloaks. It is shown that the most general class of acoustic metafluids are materials with anisotropic inertia and the elastic properties of what are known as pentamode materials. The derivation uses the notion of finite deformation to define the transformation of one region to another. The main result is found by considering energy density in the original and transformed regions. Properties of acoustic metafluids are discussed, and general conditions are found which ensure that the mapped fluid has isotropic inertia, which potentially opens up the possibility of achieving broadband cloaking. PMID:19206861
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crum, Lawrence; Beach, Kirk; Carter, Stephen; Chandler, Wayne; Curra, Francesco; Kaczkowski, Peter; Keilman, George; Khokhlova, Vera; Martin, Roy; Mourad, Pierre; Vaezy, Shahram
2000-07-01
In cases of severe injury, physicians speak of a "golden hour"—a brief grace period in which quickly applied, proper therapy can save the life of the patient. Much of this mortality results from exsanguination, i.e., bleeding to death—often from internal hemorrhage. The inability of a paramedic to treat breaches in the vascular system deep within the body or to stem the loss of blood from internal organs is a major reason for the high level of mortality associated with blunt trauma. We have undertaken an extensive research program to treat the problem of internal bleeding. Our approach is as follows: (a) We use scanning ultrasound to identify internal bleeding and hemorrhage, (b) we use ultrasound imaging to locate specific breaches in the vascular system, both from damaged vessels and gross damage to the capillary bed, and (c) we use High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) to treat the damaged region and to induce hemostasis. We present a general review of this research with some emphasis on the role of nonlinear acoustics.
Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device
Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady, Ihab F.; McCormick, Frederick; Fleming, James G.; Fleming, legal representative, Carol
2010-11-23
A microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device comprises a periodic two-dimensional array of scatterers embedded within the matrix material membrane, wherein the scatterer material has a density and/or elastic constant that is different than the matrix material and wherein the periodicity of the array causes destructive interference of the acoustic wave within an acoustic bandgap. The membrane can be suspended above a substrate by an air or vacuum gap to provide acoustic isolation from the substrate. The device can be fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. Such microfabricated bulk wave phononic bandgap devices are useful for acoustic isolation in the ultrasonic, VHF, or UHF regime (i.e., frequencies of order 1 MHz to 10 GHz and higher, and lattice constants of order 100 .mu.m or less).
Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device
Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady, Ihab F.; McCormick, Frederick; Fleming, James G.; Fleming, Carol
2010-06-08
A microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device comprises a periodic two-dimensional array of scatterers embedded within the matrix material membrane, wherein the scatterer material has a density and/or elastic constant that is different than the matrix material and wherein the periodicity of the array causes destructive interference of the acoustic wave within an acoustic bandgap. The membrane can be suspended above a substrate by an air or vacuum gap to provide acoustic isolation from the substrate. The device can be fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. Such microfabricated bulk wave phononic bandgap devices are useful for acoustic isolation in the ultrasonic, VHF, or UHF regime (i.e., frequencies of order 1 MHz to 10 GHz and higher, and lattice constants of order 100 .mu.m or less).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Won-Kwang
2015-02-01
Multi-frequency subspace migration imaging techniques are usually adopted for the non-iterative imaging of unknown electromagnetic targets, such as cracks in concrete walls or bridges and anti-personnel mines in the ground, in the inverse scattering problems. It is confirmed that this technique is very fast, effective, robust, and can not only be applied to full- but also to limited-view inverse problems if a suitable number of incidents and corresponding scattered fields are applied and collected. However, in many works, the application of such techniques is heuristic. With the motivation of such heuristic application, this study analyzes the structure of the imaging functional employed in the subspace migration imaging technique in two-dimensional full- and limited-view inverse scattering problems when the unknown targets are arbitrary-shaped, arc-like perfectly conducting cracks located in the two-dimensional homogeneous space. In contrast to the statistical approach based on statistical hypothesis testing, our approach is based on the fact that the subspace migration imaging functional can be expressed by a linear combination of the Bessel functions of integer order of the first kind. This is based on the structure of the Multi-Static Response (MSR) matrix collected in the far-field at nonzero frequency in either Transverse Magnetic (TM) mode (Dirichlet boundary condition) or Transverse Electric (TE) mode (Neumann boundary condition). The investigation of the expression of imaging functionals gives us certain properties of subspace migration and explains why multi-frequency enhances imaging resolution. In particular, we carefully analyze the subspace migration and confirm some properties of imaging when a small number of incident fields are applied. Consequently, we introduce a weighted multi-frequency imaging functional and confirm that it is an improved version of subspace migration in TM mode. Various results of numerical simulations performed on the far
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Ronald A.
2001-05-01
Robert Apfel believed in the creative application of acoustics technology to difficult problems in biomedical sensing. Much of his work in this area focused on material characterization, with the intention of effecting diagnosis. His early work in blood cell characterization employed acoustic levitation to measure the bulk mechanical properties of human red blood cells. This subsequently paved the way to the use of high-frequency acoustic scattering to yield the compressibility and density of individual blood cells. Technology developed in this later effort was then adapted to the very difficult problem of transient micro-cavitation detection, and the active cavitation detector (ACD) was born. This paper traces this line of work from its origins and, in the process, serves to celebrate Bob Apfel's peerless ingenuity and irrepressible creativity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vorobyov, A. M.; Abdurashidov, T. O.; Bakulev, V. L.; But, A. B.; Kuznetsov, A. B.; Makaveev, A. T.
2015-04-01
The present work experimentally investigates suppression of acoustic fields generated by supersonic jets of the rocket-launch vehicles at the initial period of launch by water injection. Water jets are injected to the combined jet along its perimeter at an angle of 0° and 60°. The solid rocket motor with the rocket-launch vehicles simulator case is used at tests. Effectiveness of reduction of acoustic loads on the rocket-launch vehicles surface by way of creation of water barrier was proved. It was determined that injection angle of 60° has greater effectiveness to reduce pressure pulsation levels.
Acoustic network event classification using swarm optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burman, Jerry
2013-05-01
Classifying acoustic signals detected by distributed sensor networks is a difficult problem due to the wide variations that can occur in the transmission of terrestrial, subterranean, seismic and aerial events. An acoustic event classifier was developed that uses particle swarm optimization to perform a flexible time correlation of a sensed acoustic signature to reference data. In order to mitigate the effects from interference such as multipath, the classifier fuses signatures from multiple sensors to form a composite sensed acoustic signature and then automatically matches the composite signature with reference data. The approach can classify all types of acoustic events but is particularly well suited to explosive events such as gun shots, mortar blasts and improvised explosive devices that produce an acoustic signature having a shock wave component that is aperiodic and non-linear. The classifier was applied to field data and yielded excellent results in terms of reconstructing degraded acoustic signatures from multiple sensors and in classifying disparate acoustic events.
Finite element solution of transient fluid-structure interaction problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Everstine, Gordon C.; Cheng, Raymond S.; Hambric, Stephen A.
1991-01-01
A finite element approach using NASTRAN is developed for solving time-dependent fluid-structure interaction problems, with emphasis on the transient scattering of acoustic waves from submerged elastic structures. Finite elements are used for modeling both structure and fluid domains to facilitate the graphical display of the wave motion through both media. For the liquid, the use of velocity potential as the fundamental unknown results in a symmetric matrix equation. The approach is illustrated for the problem of transient scattering from a submerged elastic spherical shell subjected to an incident tone burst. The use of an analogy between the equations of elasticity and the wave equation of acoustics, a necessary ingredient to the procedure, is summarized.
[Acoustic characteristics of classrooms].
Koszarny, Zbigniew; Chyla, Andrzej
2003-01-01
Quality and usefulness of school rooms for transmission of verbal information depends on the two basic parameters: form and quantity of the reverberation time, and profitable line measurements of school rooms from the acoustic point of view. An analysis of the above-mentioned parameters in 48 class rooms and two gymnasiums in schools, which were built in different periods, shows that the most important problem is connected with too long reverberation time and inappropriate acoustic proportions. In schools built in the 1970s, the length of reverberation time is mostly within a low frequency band, while in schools built contemporarily, the maximum length of disappearance time takes place in a quite wide band of 250-2000 Hz. This exceeds optimal values for that kind of rooms at least twice, and five times in the newly built school. A long reverberation time is connected with a low acoustic absorption of school rooms. Moreover, school rooms are characterised by inappropriate acoustic proportions. The classrooms, in their relation to the height, are too long and too wide. It is connected with deterioration of the transmission of verbal information. The data show that this transmission is unequal. Automatically, it leads to a speech disturbance and difficulties with understanding. There is the need for adaptation of school rooms through increase of an acoustic absorption.
Acoustic trauma is a common cause of sensory hearing loss . Damage to the hearing mechanisms within the inner ... Symptoms include: Partial hearing loss that most often involves ... The hearing loss may slowly get worse. Noises, ringing in ...
... slow growing tumor which arise primarily from the vestibular portion of the VIII cranial nerve and lie ... you have a "brain tumor" called acoustic neuroma (vestibular schwannoma). You think you are the only one ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Creasey, D. J.
1981-01-01
Summarizes the history of underwater acoustics and describes related research studies and teaching activities at the University of Birmingham (England). Also includes research studies on transducer design and mathematical techniques. (SK)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuttruff, Heinrich; Mommertz, Eckard
The traditional task of room acoustics is to create or formulate conditions which ensure the best possible propagation of sound in a room from a sound source to a listener. Thus, objects of room acoustics are in particular assembly halls of all kinds, such as auditoria and lecture halls, conference rooms, theaters, concert halls or churches. Already at this point, it has to be pointed out that these conditions essentially depend on the question if speech or music should be transmitted; in the first case, the criterion for transmission quality is good speech intelligibility, in the other case, however, the success of room-acoustical efforts depends on other factors that cannot be quantified that easily, not least it also depends on the hearing habits of the listeners. In any case, absolutely "good acoustics" of a room do not exist.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iwinski, Z. R.; Rosenberg, Leonard; Spruch, Larry
1984-01-01
Measurements of σγ for 3He(α,γ)7Be, central to the solar ν problem, disagree. In a direct capture model, the normalization constants N32 and N12 of the P32 and P12 bound state wave functions of 7Be at large 3He-α separations determine σγ. N32 and N12 are given by (simpler) measurements of σγ at a higher energy E, or, as here, by analytic continuation of the 3He-α p32 and p12 phase shifts, δ(E). The method has been successfully tested on calculations of Tang et al. Better measurements of δ(E) are called for. [NUCLEAR REACTIONS 3He(α,γ)7Be, E<300 keV, 3He(α,α)3He, E<4 MeV, effective range function, analytic continuation technique, bound state energies, and normalization.
Tao, Liang; McCurdy, C.W.; Rescigno, T.N.
2008-11-25
We show how to combine finite elements and the discrete variable representation in prolate spheroidal coordinates to develop a grid-based approach for quantum mechanical studies involving diatomic molecular targets. Prolate spheroidal coordinates are a natural choice for diatomic systems and have been used previously in a variety of bound-state applications. The use of exterior complex scaling in the present implementation allows for a transparently simple way of enforcing Coulomb boundary conditions and therefore straightforward application to electronic continuum problems. Illustrative examples involving the bound and continuum states of H2+, as well as the calculation of photoionization cross sections, show that the speed and accuracy of the present approach offer distinct advantages over methods based on single-center expansions.
Kouri, Donald J.; Vijay, Amrendra; Zhang, Haiyan; Zhang, Jingfeng; Hoffman, David K.
2007-05-01
A method and system for solving the inverse acoustic scattering problem using an iterative approach with consideration of half-off-shell transition matrix elements (near-field) information, where the Volterra inverse series correctly predicts the first two moments of the interaction, while the Fredholm inverse series is correct only for the first moment and that the Volterra approach provides a method for exactly obtaining interactions which can be written as a sum of delta functions.
Standoff photo acoustic spectroscopy
Van Neste, Charles W; Senesac, Larry R; Thundat, Thomas George
2008-01-01
Here, we demonstrate a variation of photoacoustic spectroscopy that can be used for obtaining spectroscopic information of surface adsorbed chemicals in a standoff fashion. Pulsed light scattered from a target excites an acoustic resonator and the variation of the resonance amplitude as a function of illumination wavelength yields a representation of the absorption spectrum of the target. We report sensitive and selective detection of surface adsorbed compounds such as tributyl phosphate and residues of explosives such as trinitrotoluene at standoff distances ranging from 0.5-20 m, with a detection limit on the order of 100 ng/cm{sup 2}.
Scattering in optical materials
Musikant, S.
1983-01-01
Topics discussed include internal scattering and surface scattering, environmental effects, and various applications. Papers are presented on scattering in ZnSe laser windows, the far-infrared reflectance spectra of optical black coatings, the effects of standard optical shop practices on scattering, and the damage susceptibility of ring laser gyro class optics. Attention is also given to the infrared laser stimulated desorption of pyridine from silver surfaces, to electrically conductive black optical paint, to light scattering from an interface bubble, and to the role of diagnostic testing in identifying and resolving dimensional stability problems in electroplated laser mirrors.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Komatsu, Sahoko; Nakahachi, Takayuki; Ogino, Kazuo; Kamio, Yoko
2016-01-01
Auditory hyper-reactivity is a common sensory-perceptual abnormality in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which interrupts behavioral adaptation. We investigated acoustic startle response (ASR) modulations in 17 children with ASD and 27 with typical development (TD). Compared to TD, children with ASD had larger ASR magnitude to weak stimuli and…
PORTABLE ACOUSTIC MONITORING PACKAGE (PAMP)
John L. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Patrick Browning
2004-07-20
The Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP) has been designed to record and monitor the acoustic signal in natural gas transmission lines. In particular the three acoustic signals associated with a line leak. The system is portable ({approx}30 lbs) and is designed for line pressures up to 1000 psi. It has become apparent that cataloging of the various background acoustic signals in natural gas transmission line is very important if a system to identify leak signals is to be developed. The low-pressure (0-200 psig) laboratory test phase has been completed and a number of field trials have been conducted. Before the cataloging phase could begin, a few problems identified in field trials identified had to be corrected such as: (1) Decreased microphone sensitivity at line pressures above 250 psig. (2) The inability to deal with large data sets collected when cataloging the variety of signals in a transmission line. (3) The lack of an available online acoustic calibration system. These problems have been solved and the WVU PAMP is now fully functional over the entire pressure range found in the Natural Gas transmission lines in this region. Field portability and reliability have been greatly improved. Data collection and storage have also improved to the point were the full acoustic spectrum of acoustic signals can be accurately cataloged, recorded and described.
Acoustic Poisson-like effect in periodic structures.
Titovich, Alexey S; Norris, Andrew N
2016-06-01
Redirection of acoustic energy by 90° is shown to be possible in an otherwise acoustically transparent sonic crystal. An unresponsive "deaf" antisymmetric mode is excited by matching Bragg scattering with a quadrupole scatterer resonance. The dynamic effect causes normal unidirectional wave motion to strongly couple to perpendicular motion, analogous to the quasi-static Poisson effect in solids. The Poisson-like effect is demonstrated using the first flexural resonance in cylindrical shells of elastic solids. Simulations for a finite array of acrylic shells that are impedance and index matched to water show dramatic acoustic energy redirection in an otherwise acoustically transparent medium. PMID:27369161
Axisymmetric scattering of scalar waves by spheroids.
Lekner, John; Boyack, Rufus
2011-06-01
A phase shift formulation of scattering by oblate and prolate spheroids is presented, in parallel with the partial-wave theory of scattering by spherical obstacles. The crucial step is application of a finite Legendre transform to the Helmholtz equation in spheroidal coordinates. In the long-wavelength limit the spheroidal analog of the spherical scattering length immediately gives the cross section. Analytical results are readily obtained for scattering of Schrödinger particle waves by impenetrable spheroids, and for scattering of sound waves by acoustically soft spheroidal objects. The method is restricted to scattering by spheroids whose symmetry axis is coincident with the direction of the incident plane wave. PMID:21682372
Axisymmetric scattering of scalar waves by spheroids.
Lekner, John; Boyack, Rufus
2011-06-01
A phase shift formulation of scattering by oblate and prolate spheroids is presented, in parallel with the partial-wave theory of scattering by spherical obstacles. The crucial step is application of a finite Legendre transform to the Helmholtz equation in spheroidal coordinates. In the long-wavelength limit the spheroidal analog of the spherical scattering length immediately gives the cross section. Analytical results are readily obtained for scattering of Schrödinger particle waves by impenetrable spheroids, and for scattering of sound waves by acoustically soft spheroidal objects. The method is restricted to scattering by spheroids whose symmetry axis is coincident with the direction of the incident plane wave.
Fogel, Ronen; Seshia, Ashwin A.
2016-01-01
Resonant and acoustic wave devices have been researched for several decades for application in the gravimetric sensing of a variety of biological and chemical analytes. These devices operate by coupling the measurand (e.g. analyte adsorption) as a modulation in the physical properties of the acoustic wave (e.g. resonant frequency, acoustic velocity, dissipation) that can then be correlated with the amount of adsorbed analyte. These devices can also be miniaturized with advantages in terms of cost, size and scalability, as well as potential additional features including integration with microfluidics and electronics, scaled sensitivities associated with smaller dimensions and higher operational frequencies, the ability to multiplex detection across arrays of hundreds of devices embedded in a single chip, increased throughput and the ability to interrogate a wider range of modes including within the same device. Additionally, device fabrication is often compatible with semiconductor volume batch manufacturing techniques enabling cost scalability and a high degree of precision and reproducibility in the manufacturing process. Integration with microfluidics handling also enables suitable sample pre-processing/separation/purification/amplification steps that could improve selectivity and the overall signal-to-noise ratio. Three device types are reviewed here: (i) bulk acoustic wave sensors, (ii) surface acoustic wave sensors, and (iii) micro/nano-electromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) sensors. PMID:27365040
Fogel, Ronen; Limson, Janice; Seshia, Ashwin A
2016-06-30
Resonant and acoustic wave devices have been researched for several decades for application in the gravimetric sensing of a variety of biological and chemical analytes. These devices operate by coupling the measurand (e.g. analyte adsorption) as a modulation in the physical properties of the acoustic wave (e.g. resonant frequency, acoustic velocity, dissipation) that can then be correlated with the amount of adsorbed analyte. These devices can also be miniaturized with advantages in terms of cost, size and scalability, as well as potential additional features including integration with microfluidics and electronics, scaled sensitivities associated with smaller dimensions and higher operational frequencies, the ability to multiplex detection across arrays of hundreds of devices embedded in a single chip, increased throughput and the ability to interrogate a wider range of modes including within the same device. Additionally, device fabrication is often compatible with semiconductor volume batch manufacturing techniques enabling cost scalability and a high degree of precision and reproducibility in the manufacturing process. Integration with microfluidics handling also enables suitable sample pre-processing/separation/purification/amplification steps that could improve selectivity and the overall signal-to-noise ratio. Three device types are reviewed here: (i) bulk acoustic wave sensors, (ii) surface acoustic wave sensors, and (iii) micro/nano-electromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) sensors. PMID:27365040
Scattering measurements on natural and model trees
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rogers, James C.; Lee, Sung M.
1990-01-01
The acoustical back scattering from a simple scale model of a tree has been experimentally measured. The model consisted of a trunk and six limbs, each with 4 branches; no foliage or twigs were included. The data from the anechoic chamber measurements were then mathematically combined to construct the effective back scattering from groups of trees. Also, initial measurements have been conducted out-of-doors on a single tree in an open field in order to characterize its acoustic scattering as a function of azimuth angle. These measurements were performed in the spring, prior to leaf development. The data support a statistical model of forest scattering; the scattered signal spectrum is highly irregular but with a remarkable general resemblance to the incident signal spectrum. Also, the scattered signal's spectra showed little dependence upon scattering angle.
Lakhin, V. P.; Sorokina, E. A. E-mail: vilkiae@gmail.com; Ilgisonis, V. I.; Konovaltseva, L. V.
2015-12-15
A set of reduced linear equations for the description of low-frequency perturbations in toroidally rotating plasma in axisymmetric tokamak is derived in the framework of ideal magnetohydrodynamics. The model suitable for the study of global geodesic acoustic modes (GGAMs) is designed. An example of the use of the developed model for derivation of the integral conditions for GGAM existence and of the corresponding dispersion relation is presented. The paper is dedicated to the memory of academician V.D. Shafranov.
Least-Squares Spectral Element Solutions to the CAA Workshop Benchmark Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, Wen H.; Chan, Daniel C.
1997-01-01
This paper presents computed results for some of the CAA benchmark problems via the acoustic solver developed at Rocketdyne CFD Technology Center under the corporate agreement between Boeing North American, Inc. and NASA for the Aerospace Industry Technology Program. The calculations are considered as benchmark testing of the functionality, accuracy, and performance of the solver. Results of these computations demonstrate that the solver is capable of solving the propagation of aeroacoustic signals. Testing of sound generation and on more realistic problems is now pursued for the industrial applications of this solver. Numerical calculations were performed for the second problem of Category 1 of the current workshop problems for an acoustic pulse scattered from a rigid circular cylinder, and for two of the first CAA workshop problems, i. e., the first problem of Category 1 for the propagation of a linear wave and the first problem of Category 4 for an acoustic pulse reflected from a rigid wall in a uniform flow of Mach 0.5. The aim for including the last two problems in this workshop is to test the effectiveness of some boundary conditions set up in the solver. Numerical results of the last two benchmark problems have been compared with their corresponding exact solutions and the comparisons are excellent. This demonstrates the high fidelity of the solver in handling wave propagation problems. This feature lends the method quite attractive in developing a computational acoustic solver for calculating the aero/hydrodynamic noise in a violent flow environment.
THz Acoustic Spectroscopy by using Double Quantum Wells and Ultrafast Optical Spectroscopy.
Wei, Fan Jun; Yeh, Yu-Hsiang; Sheu, Jinn-Kong; Lin, Kung-Hsuan
2016-01-01
GaN is a pivotal material for acoustic transducers and acoustic spectroscopy in the THz regime, but its THz phonon properties have not been experimentally and comprehensively studied. In this report, we demonstrate how to use double quantum wells as a THz acoustic transducer for measuring generated acoustic phonons and deriving a broadband acoustic spectrum with continuous frequencies. We experimentally investigated the sub-THz frequency dependence of acoustic attenuation (i.e., phonon mean-free paths) in GaN, in addition to its physical origins such as anharmonic scattering, defect scattering, and boundary scattering. A new upper limit of attenuation caused by anharmonic scattering, which is lower than previously reported values, was obtained. Our results should be noteworthy for THz acoustic spectroscopy and for gaining a fundamental understanding of heat conduction. PMID:27346494
THz Acoustic Spectroscopy by using Double Quantum Wells and Ultrafast Optical Spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Fan Jun; Yeh, Yu-Hsiang; Sheu, Jinn-Kong; Lin, Kung-Hsuan
2016-06-01
GaN is a pivotal material for acoustic transducers and acoustic spectroscopy in the THz regime, but its THz phonon properties have not been experimentally and comprehensively studied. In this report, we demonstrate how to use double quantum wells as a THz acoustic transducer for measuring generated acoustic phonons and deriving a broadband acoustic spectrum with continuous frequencies. We experimentally investigated the sub-THz frequency dependence of acoustic attenuation (i.e., phonon mean-free paths) in GaN, in addition to its physical origins such as anharmonic scattering, defect scattering, and boundary scattering. A new upper limit of attenuation caused by anharmonic scattering, which is lower than previously reported values, was obtained. Our results should be noteworthy for THz acoustic spectroscopy and for gaining a fundamental understanding of heat conduction.
THz Acoustic Spectroscopy by using Double Quantum Wells and Ultrafast Optical Spectroscopy
Wei, Fan Jun; Yeh, Yu-Hsiang; Sheu, Jinn-Kong; Lin, Kung-Hsuan
2016-01-01
GaN is a pivotal material for acoustic transducers and acoustic spectroscopy in the THz regime, but its THz phonon properties have not been experimentally and comprehensively studied. In this report, we demonstrate how to use double quantum wells as a THz acoustic transducer for measuring generated acoustic phonons and deriving a broadband acoustic spectrum with continuous frequencies. We experimentally investigated the sub-THz frequency dependence of acoustic attenuation (i.e., phonon mean-free paths) in GaN, in addition to its physical origins such as anharmonic scattering, defect scattering, and boundary scattering. A new upper limit of attenuation caused by anharmonic scattering, which is lower than previously reported values, was obtained. Our results should be noteworthy for THz acoustic spectroscopy and for gaining a fundamental understanding of heat conduction. PMID:27346494
Acoustic Interaction Forces and Torques Acting on Suspended Spheres in an Ideal Fluid.
Lopes, J Henrique; Azarpeyvand, Mahdi; Silva, Glauber T
2016-01-01
In this paper, the acoustic interaction forces and torques exerted by an arbitrary time-harmonic wave on a set of N objects suspended in an inviscid fluid are theoretically analyzed. We utilize the partial-wave expansion method with translational addition theorem and re-expansion of multipole series to solve the related multiple scattering problem. We show that the acoustic interaction force and torque can be obtained using the farfield radiation force and torque formulas. To exemplify the method, we calculate the interaction forces exerted by an external traveling and standing plane wave on an arrangement of two and three olive-oil droplets in water. The droplets' radii are comparable to the wavelength (i.e., Mie scattering regime). The results show that the acoustic interaction forces present an oscillatory spatial distribution which follows the pattern formed by interference between the external and rescattered waves. In addition, acoustic interaction torques arise on the absorbing droplets whenever a nonsymmetric wavefront is formed by the external and rescattered waves' interference.
Coherent acoustic phonons in nanostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dekorsy, T.; Taubert, R.; Hudert, F.; Bartels, A.; Habenicht, A.; Merkt, F.; Leiderer, P.; Köhler, K.; Schmitz, J.; Wagner, J.
2008-02-01
Phonons are considered as a most important origin of scattering and dissipation for electronic coherence in nanostructures. The generation of coherent acoustic phonons with femtosecond laser pulses opens the possibility to control phonon dynamics in amplitude and phase. We demonstrate a new experimental technique based on two synchronized femtosecond lasers with GHz repetition rate to study the dynamics of coherently generated acoustic phonons in semiconductor heterostructures with high sensitivity. High-speed synchronous optical sampling (ASOPS) enables to scan a time-delay of 1 ns with 100 fs time resolution with a frequency in the kHz range without a moving part in the set-up. We investigate the dynamics of coherent zone-folded acoustic phonons in semiconductor superlattices (GaAs/AlAs and GaSb/InAs) and of coherent vibration of metallic nanostructures of non-spherical shape using ASOPS.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zetner, P. W.; Trajmar, S.; Csanak, G.; Clark, R. E. H.
1989-01-01
Measurements of superelastic scattering of electrons by laser-excited Ba-138(...6s6p1P1) atoms were carried out. An asymmetry observed has been explained using a model of scattering from a target with finite dimensions. This model employed coherence parameters which were calculated in the distorted-wave approximation. The results indicated that the interpretation of coherence experiments in terms of scattering from a pointlike target can lead to serious errors in the deduction of coherence parameters at low scattering angles.
Scattering from impedance gratings and surface wave formation.
Zhu, Wenhao; Stinson, Michael R; Daigle, Gilles A
2002-05-01
The scattering problem of acoustic plane waves from comb-like impedance gratings on a rigid surface has been investigated in this paper. A rigorous analytic approach for homogeneous plane-wave incidence is presented based on the periodicity of the grating structure, in which the problem was solved as a mixed boundary value problem and the scattered field was represented by the tangent velocity difference across a partition wall of the grating. A singular integral equation has been derived for the tangent velocity difference, which can directly be solved with the Gauss-Chebyshev procedure. The resulting solution consists of a series of Bloch-Floquet waves (plane bulk wave and surface wave modes) with explicit expressions for the expansion coefficients. When the grating period is much less than the incident wavelength (ka < 1), the grating structure is equivalent to a plane impedance surface and no surface waves can be excited with homogeneous plane-wave incidence. When the grating period is comparable to the incident wavelength, resonance phenomena are predicted under certain conditions and surface waves can form, even with homogeneous plane-wave incidence. The dispersion relation for surface waves has also been examined. The impedance effects of the grating on the reflection and diffraction waves as well as on the dispersion and formation of surface waves have been studied, with the acoustically hard grating being the special case of the general impedance grating.
Scattering of flexural waves from a hole in a thin plate with an internal beam.
Climente, A; Norris, Andrew N; Sánchez-Dehesa, José
2015-01-01
The scattering of flexural waves by a hole in a thin plate traversed by a beam is modeled here by coupling the Kirchhoff-Love and the Euler-Bernoulli theories. A closed form expression is obtained for the transfer matrix (T-matrix) relating the incident wave to the scattered cylindrical waves. For this purpose, a general method has been developed, based on an analogous impedance method for acoustic waves, for calculating the T-matrix for flexural wave scattering problems. The T-matrix for the problem considered displays a simple structure, composed of distinct sub-matrices which decouple the inside and the outside fields. The conservation of energy principle and numerical comparisons with a commercial finite element simulator have been used to prove the theory.
Microwave-acoustic phasoscopy for tissue characterization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Fei; Zheng, Yuanjin; Wang, Dongfang
2012-07-01
In this letter, we present a method named microwave-acoustic phasoscopy (MAPC) by collecting both scattered microwave energy and microwave-induced thermoacoustic wave energy for tissue characterization. Different from conventional amplitude and spectrum analysis, we propose to evaluate the microwave-acoustic phase for tissue characterization. Theoretical analysis and experiment verification are performed to show a good agreement. Four different biological tissues are well differentiated in phase region using the proposed MAPC. This attempt of exploring intrinsic relationship between scattered microwave and induced thermoacoustic signals simultaneously provides phase contrast for tissue characterization, showing significant potential in developing phase-contrast imaging prototype based on MAPC theory.
Acoustic transducer for acoustic microscopy
Khuri-Yakub, B.T.; Chou, C.H.
1990-03-20
A shear acoustic transducer-lens system is described in which a shear polarized piezoelectric material excites shear polarized waves at one end of a buffer rod having a lens at the other end which excites longitudinal waves in a coupling medium by mode conversion at selected locations on the lens. 9 figs.
Acoustic transducer for acoustic microscopy
Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T.; Chou, Ching H.
1990-01-01
A shear acoustic transducer-lens system in which a shear polarized piezoelectric material excites shear polarized waves at one end of a buffer rod having a lens at the other end which excites longitudinal waves in a coupling medium by mode conversion at selected locations on the lens.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cohen, Michael; Grossberg, Stephen
1994-09-01
This project is developing autonomous neural network models for the real-time perception and production of acoustic and speech signals. Our SPINET pitch model was developed to take realtime acoustic input and to simulate the key pitch data. SPINET was embedded into a model for auditory scene analysis, or how the auditory system separates sound sources in environments with multiple sources. The model groups frequency components based on pitch and spatial location cues and resonantly binds them within different streams. The model simulates psychophysical grouping data, such as how an ascending, tone groups with a descending tone even if noise exists at the intersection point, and how a tone before and after a noise burst is perceived to continue through the noise. These resonant streams input to working memories, wherein phonetic percepts adapt to global speech rate. Computer simulations quantitatively generate the experimentally observed category boundary shifts for voiced stop pairs that have the same or different place of articulation, including why the interval to hear a double (geminate) stop is twice as long as that to hear two different stops. This model also uses resonant feedback, here between list categories and working memory.
Acoustic Inversion in Optoacoustic Tomography: A Review
Rosenthal, Amir; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Razansky, Daniel
2013-01-01
Optoacoustic tomography enables volumetric imaging with optical contrast in biological tissue at depths beyond the optical mean free path by the use of optical excitation and acoustic detection. The hybrid nature of optoacoustic tomography gives rise to two distinct inverse problems: The optical inverse problem, related to the propagation of the excitation light in tissue, and the acoustic inverse problem, which deals with the propagation and detection of the generated acoustic waves. Since the two inverse problems have different physical underpinnings and are governed by different types of equations, they are often treated independently as unrelated problems. From an imaging standpoint, the acoustic inverse problem relates to forming an image from the measured acoustic data, whereas the optical inverse problem relates to quantifying the formed image. This review focuses on the acoustic aspects of optoacoustic tomography, specifically acoustic reconstruction algorithms and imaging-system practicalities. As these two aspects are intimately linked, and no silver bullet exists in the path towards high-performance imaging, we adopt a holistic approach in our review and discuss the many links between the two aspects. Four classes of reconstruction algorithms are reviewed: time-domain (so called back-projection) formulae, frequency-domain formulae, time-reversal algorithms, and model-based algorithms. These algorithms are discussed in the context of the various acoustic detectors and detection surfaces which are commonly used in experimental studies. We further discuss the effects of non-ideal imaging scenarios on the quality of reconstruction and review methods that can mitigate these effects. Namely, we consider the cases of finite detector aperture, limited-view tomography, spatial under-sampling of the acoustic signals, and acoustic heterogeneities and losses. PMID:24772060
A survey of the physical optics inverse scattering identity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bojarski, N. N.
1982-09-01
An inverse scattering identity relating the characteristic function of a scatterer to the three-dimensional spatial Fourier transform of the augmented far field scattering amplitude is derived by applying the physical optics approximation to the acoustic and electromagnetic direct scattering integral representation. Because this identity requires full scattering data for all frequencies and aspect angles, an integral equation is developed for incomplete scattering data which solves for the unknown characteristic function of the scatterer in terms of the known incomplete scattering data. A regularized analytic closed form solution to this integral equation is obtained, and synthesized numerico-experimental results verifying the solution are presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schlegel, R. G.
1982-01-01
It is important for industry and NASA to assess the status of acoustic design technology for predicting and controlling helicopter external noise in order for a meaningful research program to be formulated which will address this problem. The prediction methodologies available to the designer and the acoustic engineer are three-fold. First is what has been described as a first principle analysis. This analysis approach attempts to remove any empiricism from the analysis process and deals with a theoretical mechanism approach to predicting the noise. The second approach attempts to combine first principle methodology (when available) with empirical data to formulate source predictors which can be combined to predict vehicle levels. The third is an empirical analysis, which attempts to generalize measured trends into a vehicle noise prediction method. This paper will briefly address each.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beach, Kirk W.; Dunmire, Barbrina
Medical acoustics can be subdivided into diagnostics and therapy. Diagnostics are further separated into auditory and ultrasonic methods, and both employ low amplitudes. Therapy (excluding medical advice) uses ultrasound for heating, cooking, permeablizing, activating and fracturing tissues and structures within the body, usually at much higher amplitudes than in diagnostics. Because ultrasound is a wave, linear wave physics are generally applicable, but recently nonlinear effects have become more important, even in low-intensity diagnostic applications.
Dust-Acoustic Waves: Visible Sound Waves
Merlino, Robert L.
2009-11-10
A historical overview of some of the early theoretical and experimental work on dust acoustic waves is given. The basic physics of the dust acoustic wave and some of the theoretical refinements that have been made, including the effects of collisions, plasma absorption, dust charge fluctuations, particle drifts and strong coupling effects are discussed. Some recent experimental findings and outstanding problems are also presented.
An efficient model for coupling structural vibrations with acoustic radiation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frendi, Abdelkader; Maestrello, Lucio; Ting, LU
1993-01-01
The scattering of an incident wave by a flexible panel is studied. The panel vibration is governed by the nonlinear plate equations while the loading on the panel, which is the pressure difference across the panel, depends on the reflected and transmitted waves. Two models are used to calculate this structural-acoustic interaction problem. One solves the three dimensional nonlinear Euler equations for the flow-field coupled with the plate equations (the fully coupled model). The second uses the linear wave equation for the acoustic field and expresses the load as a double integral involving the panel oscillation (the decoupled model). The panel oscillation governed by a system of integro-differential equations is solved numerically and the acoustic field is then defined by an explicit formula. Numerical results are obtained using the two models for linear and nonlinear panel vibrations. The predictions given by these two models are in good agreement but the computational time needed for the 'fully coupled model' is 60 times longer than that for 'the decoupled model'.
Entropy rate defined by internal wave scattering in long-range propagation.
Morozov, Andrey K; Colosi, John A
2015-09-01
The reduction of information capacity of the ocean sound channel due to scattering by internal waves is a potential problem for acoustic communication, navigation, and remote sensing over long ranges. In spite of recent progress in research on acoustic signal scattering by random internal waves and the fact that random internal waves are ubiquitous in the world oceans, there is no clear understanding of how these waves influence data communication performance. The entropy decrease resulting from scattering by internal waves is an important measure of information loss. Here a rigorous calculation of the entropy is carried out using second moment transport theory equations with random sound-speed perturbations obeying the Garrett-Munk internal-wave model. It is shown that full-wave rate of entropy is of the same order of magnitude as the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy and Lyapunov exponents for the relevant ray trajectories. The correspondence between full-wave and ray entropies suggests a correspondence between full-wave scattering and ray chaos near statistical saturation. The relatively small level of entropy rate during propagation through the random internal-wave field shows that scattering by internal waves is likely not an essential limitation for data rate and channel capacity. PMID:26428774
Low frequency sound scattering from spherical assemblages of bubbles using effective medium theory.
Hahn, Thomas R
2007-12-01
The determination of the acoustic field scattered by an underwater assembly of gas bubbles or similar resonant monopole scatterers is of considerable theoretical and practical interest. This problem is addressed from a theoretical point of view within the framework of the effective medium theory for the case of spherically shaped assemblages. Although being valid more generally, the effective medium theory is an ideal instrument to study multiple scattering effects such as low frequency collective resonances, acoustically coupled breathing modes of the entire assembly. Explicit expressions for the scattering amplitude and cross sections are derived, as well as closed form expressions for the resonance frequency and spectral shape of the fundamental collective mode utilizing analytical S-matrix methods. This approach allows, in principle, a simultaneous inversion for the assembly radius and void fraction directly from the scattering cross sections. To demonstrate the validity of the approach, the theory is applied to the example of idealized, spherically shaped schools of swim bladder bearing fish. The analytic results of the theory are compared to numerical first-principle benchmark computations and excellent agreement is found, even for densely packed schools and frequencies across the bladder resonance.
Entropy rate defined by internal wave scattering in long-range propagation.
Morozov, Andrey K; Colosi, John A
2015-09-01
The reduction of information capacity of the ocean sound channel due to scattering by internal waves is a potential problem for acoustic communication, navigation, and remote sensing over long ranges. In spite of recent progress in research on acoustic signal scattering by random internal waves and the fact that random internal waves are ubiquitous in the world oceans, there is no clear understanding of how these waves influence data communication performance. The entropy decrease resulting from scattering by internal waves is an important measure of information loss. Here a rigorous calculation of the entropy is carried out using second moment transport theory equations with random sound-speed perturbations obeying the Garrett-Munk internal-wave model. It is shown that full-wave rate of entropy is of the same order of magnitude as the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy and Lyapunov exponents for the relevant ray trajectories. The correspondence between full-wave and ray entropies suggests a correspondence between full-wave scattering and ray chaos near statistical saturation. The relatively small level of entropy rate during propagation through the random internal-wave field shows that scattering by internal waves is likely not an essential limitation for data rate and channel capacity.
Fano resonance scatterings in waveguides with impedance boundary conditions.
Xiong, Lei; Bi, Wenping; Aurégan, Yves
2016-02-01
The resonance scattering theory is used to study the sound propagation in a waveguide with a portion of its wall lined by a locally reacting material. The objective is to understand the effects of the mode coupling in the lined portion on the transmission. It is shown that a zero in the transmission is present when a real resonance frequency of the open system, i.e., the lined portion of the waveguide that is coupled to the two semi-infinite rigid ducts, is equal to the incident frequency. This transmission zero occurs as a Fano resonance-due to the excitation of a trapped mode in the open system. The trapped mode is formed by the interferences of two neighbored modes with complex resonance frequencies. It is also linked to the avoided crossing of eigenvalues of these two modes that occurs near an exceptional point (a subject that has attracted much attention in recent years in different physical domains). The real and complex resonance frequencies of the open system are determined by an equivalent eigenvalue problem of matrix Heff, which describes the eigenvalue problem defined in the finite lined portion (scattering region). With the aid of the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of matrix Heff, the usual acoustic resonance scattering formula can be extended to describe the coupling effects between the scattering region and the rigid parts of the waveguide. PMID:26936558
Some Sound Advice or a Short Course in School Acoustics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McCandless, David
1977-01-01
The two major areas of acoustical problems are room acoustics and noise control. Some parameters of these areas are identified to illustrate that the best acoustical solutions occur in comprehensive planning at the very beginning of a project. (Author/MLF)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heyman, J. S.
1984-01-01
Acoustically-energized water jet aids in plaque breakdown. Acoustic Wand includes acoustic transducer 1/4 wave plate, and tapered cone. Together elements energize solution of water containing mild abrasive injected into mouth to help prevent calculous buildup.
Arctic acoustics ultrasonic modeling studies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chamuel, Jacques R.
1990-03-01
A unique collection of laboratory ultrasonic modeling results are presented revealing and characterizing hidden pulsed seismoacoustic wave phenomena from 3-D range dependent liquid/solid boundaries. The research succeeded in isolating and identifying low frequency (10 to 500 Hz) transmission loss mechanisms and provided physical insight into Arctic acoustic problems generally beyond the state-of-the-art of theoretical and numerical analysis. The ultrasonic modeling studies dealt with controversial issues and existing discrepancies on seismo-acoustic waves at water/ice interface, sea ice thickness determination, low frequency transmission loss, and bottom leaky Rayleigh waves. The areas investigated include leaky Rayleigh waves at water/ice interface, leaky flexural waves in floating ice plates, effects of dry/wet cracks in sea ice on plate waves and near grazing acoustic waves, edge waves in floating plates, low frequency backscatter from ice keel width resonances, conversion of underwater acoustic waves into plate waves by keels, nondispersive flexural wave along apex of small angle solid wedge, Scholte and leaky Rayleigh waves along apex of immersed 90 ice wedge, backscatter from trailing edge of floes, floating plate resonances associated with near-grazing underwater acoustic waves, acoustic coupling between adjacent floes, and multiple bottom leaky Rayleigh wave components in water layer over solid bottom.
Acoustical evaluation of preschool classrooms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Wonyoung; Hodgson, Murray
2003-10-01
An investigation was made of the acoustical environments in the Berwick Preschool, Vancouver, in response to complaints by the teachers. Reverberation times (RT), background noise levels (BNL), and in-class sound levels (Leq) were measured for acoustical evaluation in the classrooms. With respect to the measured RT and BNL, none of the classrooms in the preschool were acceptable according to the criteria relevant to this study. A questionnaire was administered to the teachers to assess their subjective responses to the acoustical and nonacoustical environments of the classrooms. Teachers agreed that the nonacoustical environments in the classrooms were fair, but that the acoustical environments had problems. Eight different classroom configurations were simulated to improve the acoustical environments, using the CATT room acoustical simulation program. When the surface absorption was increased, both the RT and speech levels decreased. RASTI was dependent on the volumes of the classrooms when the background noise levels were high; however, it depended on the total absorption of the classrooms when the background noise levels were low. Ceiling heights are critical as well. It is recommended that decreasing the volume of the classrooms is effective. Sound absorptive materials should be added to the walls or ceiling.
Worcester, Peter F; Dzieciuch, Matthew A; Mercer, James A; Andrew, Rex K; Dushaw, Brian D; Baggeroer, Arthur B; Heaney, Kevin D; D'Spain, Gerald L; Colosi, John A; Stephen, Ralph A; Kemp, John N; Howe, Bruce M; Van Uffelen, Lora J; Wage, Kathleen E
2013-10-01
A series of experiments conducted in the Philippine Sea during 2009-2011 investigated deep-water acoustic propagation and ambient noise in this oceanographically and geologically complex region: (i) the 2009 North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory (NPAL) Pilot Study/Engineering Test, (ii) the 2010-2011 NPAL Philippine Sea Experiment, and (iii) the Ocean Bottom Seismometer Augmentation of the 2010-2011 NPAL Philippine Sea Experiment. The experimental goals included (a) understanding the impacts of fronts, eddies, and internal tides on acoustic propagation, (b) determining whether acoustic methods, together with other measurements and ocean modeling, can yield estimates of the time-evolving ocean state useful for making improved acoustic predictions, (c) improving our understanding of the physics of scattering by internal waves and spice, (d) characterizing the depth dependence and temporal variability of ambient noise, and (e) understanding the relationship between the acoustic field in the water column and the seismic field in the seafloor. In these experiments, moored and ship-suspended low-frequency acoustic sources transmitted to a newly developed distributed vertical line array receiver capable of spanning the water column in the deep ocean. The acoustic transmissions and ambient noise were also recorded by a towed hydrophone array, by acoustic Seagliders, and by ocean bottom seismometers.
Worcester, Peter F; Dzieciuch, Matthew A; Mercer, James A; Andrew, Rex K; Dushaw, Brian D; Baggeroer, Arthur B; Heaney, Kevin D; D'Spain, Gerald L; Colosi, John A; Stephen, Ralph A; Kemp, John N; Howe, Bruce M; Van Uffelen, Lora J; Wage, Kathleen E
2013-10-01
A series of experiments conducted in the Philippine Sea during 2009-2011 investigated deep-water acoustic propagation and ambient noise in this oceanographically and geologically complex region: (i) the 2009 North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory (NPAL) Pilot Study/Engineering Test, (ii) the 2010-2011 NPAL Philippine Sea Experiment, and (iii) the Ocean Bottom Seismometer Augmentation of the 2010-2011 NPAL Philippine Sea Experiment. The experimental goals included (a) understanding the impacts of fronts, eddies, and internal tides on acoustic propagation, (b) determining whether acoustic methods, together with other measurements and ocean modeling, can yield estimates of the time-evolving ocean state useful for making improved acoustic predictions, (c) improving our understanding of the physics of scattering by internal waves and spice, (d) characterizing the depth dependence and temporal variability of ambient noise, and (e) understanding the relationship between the acoustic field in the water column and the seismic field in the seafloor. In these experiments, moored and ship-suspended low-frequency acoustic sources transmitted to a newly developed distributed vertical line array receiver capable of spanning the water column in the deep ocean. The acoustic transmissions and ambient noise were also recorded by a towed hydrophone array, by acoustic Seagliders, and by ocean bottom seismometers. PMID:24116529
Fast wideband acoustical holography.
Hald, Jørgen
2016-04-01
Patch near-field acoustical holography methods like statistically optimized near-field acoustical holography and equivalent source method are limited to relatively low frequencies, where the average array-element spacing is less than half of the acoustic wavelength, while beamforming provides useful resolution only at medium-to-high frequencies. With adequate array design, both methods can be used with the same array. But for holography to provide good low-frequency resolution, a small measurement distance is needed, whereas beamforming requires a larger distance to limit sidelobe issues. The wideband holography method of the present paper was developed to overcome that practical conflict. Only a single measurement is needed at a relatively short distance and a single result is obtained covering the full frequency range. The method uses the principles of compressed sensing: A sparse sound field representation is assumed with a chosen set of basis functions, a measurement is taken with an irregular array, and the inverse problem is solved with a method that enforces sparsity in the coefficient vector. Instead of using regularization based on the 1-norm of the coefficient vector, an iterative solution procedure is used that promotes sparsity. The iterative method is shown to provide very similar results in most cases and to be computationally much more efficient. PMID:27106299
Linear and Nonlinear Time Reverse Acoustics in Geomaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sutin, A.; Johnson, P. A.; Tencate, J.
2004-12-01
Linear and Nonlinear Time Reverse Acoustics in Geomaterials P. A. Johnson, A.Sutin and J. TenCate Time Reversal Acoustics (TRA) is one of the most interesting topics to have emerged in modern acoustics in the last 40 years. Much of the seminal research in this area has been carried out by the group at the Laboratoire Ondes et Acoustique at the University of Paris 7, who have demonstrated the ability and robustness of TRA (using Time Reversal Mirrors) to provide spatial control and focusing of an ultrasonic beam (e.g. Fink, 1999). The ability to obtain highly focused signals with TRA has numerous applications, including lithotripsy, ultrasonic brain surgery, nondestructive evaluation and underwater acoustic communication. Notably, the study of time reversal in solids and in the earth is still relatively new. The problem is fundamentally different from the purely acoustic one due to the excitation and propagation of both compressional (bulk) and shear waves as well as the scattering and potentially high dissipation of the medium. We conducted series of TRA experiments in different solids using direct-coupled transducers on solids in tandem with a large bandwidth laser vibrometer detector. A typical time reversal experiment was carried out using the following steps (Sutin et al. 2004a). Laboratory experiments were conducted in different geomaterials of different shapes and sizes, including Carrera marble, granite and Berea sandstone. We observed that, in spite of potentially huge numbers of wave conversions (e.g., compressional to shear, shear to compressional, compressional/shear to surface waves, etc.) for each reflection at each free surface, time reversal still provides significant spatial and temporal focusing in these different geophysical materials. The typical size of the focal area is approximately equivalent to the shear wavelength and the focal area, but becomes larger with increasing wave attenuation (Sutin et al. 2004a; Delsanto et al., 2003)). The TR
Introduction to Acoustical Energy. Learning Activity.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shackelford, Ray; Johnson, Steve
1998-01-01
This technology education activity will allow the students to observe acoustical energy and will put them in a problem-solving situation where they must use the movement of a sound-activated diaphragm to perform another activity. (Author)
Poor Marks for Classroom Acoustics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Herbert, R. Kring
1999-01-01
Discusses the problem of low acoustical performance in many of today's K-12 classrooms and its impact on student learning. The following three primary types of classroom noise and their control are explored: reverberation; climate control system noise; and noise from outside the classroom. (GR)
Scattering fidelity in elastodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorin, T.; Seligman, T. H.; Weaver, R. L.
2006-01-01
The recent introduction of the concept of scattering fidelity causes us to revisit the experiment by Lobkis and Weaver [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 254302 (2003)]. There, the “distortion” of the coda of an acoustic signal is measured under temperature changes. This quantity is, in fact, the negative logarithm of scattering fidelity. We reanalyze their experimental data for two samples, and we find good agreement with random matrix predictions for the standard fidelity. Usually, one may expect such an agreement for chaotic systems, only. While the first sample may indeed be assumed chaotic, for the second sample, a perfect cuboid, such an agreement is surprising. For the first sample, the random matrix analysis yields perturbation strengths compatible with semiclassical predictions. For the cuboid, the measured perturbation strengths are by a common factor of (5)/(3) too large. Apart from that, the experimental curves for the distortion are well reproduced.
Numerical predictions in acoustics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hardin, Jay C.
1992-01-01
Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) involves the calculation of the sound produced by a flow as well as the underlying flowfield itself from first principles. This paper describes the numerical challenges of CAA and recent research efforts to overcome these challenges. In addition, it includes the benefits of CAA in removing restrictions of linearity, single frequency, constant parameters, low Mach numbers, etc. found in standard acoustic analyses as well as means for evaluating the validity of these numerical approaches. Finally, numerous applications of CAA to both classical as well as modern problems of concern to the aerospace industry are presented.
Quantum positron acoustic waves
Metref, Hassina; Tribeche, Mouloud
2014-12-15
Nonlinear quantum positron-acoustic (QPA) waves are investigated for the first time, within the theoretical framework of the quantum hydrodynamic model. In the small but finite amplitude limit, both deformed Korteweg-de Vries and generalized Korteweg-de Vries equations governing, respectively, the dynamics of QPA solitary waves and double-layers are derived. Moreover, a full finite amplitude analysis is undertaken, and a numerical integration of the obtained highly nonlinear equations is carried out. The results complement our previously published results on this problem.
Numerical predictions in acoustics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hardin, Jay C.
Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) involves the calculation of the sound produced by a flow as well as the underlying flowfield itself from first principles. This paper describes the numerical challenges of CAA and recent research efforts to overcome these challenges. In addition, it includes the benefits of CAA in removing restrictions of linearity, single frequency, constant parameters, low Mach numbers, etc. found in standard acoustic analyses as well as means for evaluating the validity of these numerical approaches. Finally, numerous applications of CAA to both classical as well as modern problems of concern to the aerospace industry are presented.
Drumheller, D.S.
1997-12-30
An acoustic transducer is described comprising a one-piece hollow mandrel into the outer surface of which is formed a recess with sides perpendicular to the central axis of the mandrel and separated by a first distance and with a bottom parallel to the central axis and within which recess are a plurality of washer-shaped discs of a piezoelectric material and at least one disc of a temperature-compensating material with the discs being captured between the sides of the recess in a pre-stressed interference fit, typically at 2,000 psi of compressive stress. The transducer also includes a power supply and means to connect to a measurement device. The transducer is intended to be used for telemetry between a measurement device located downhole in an oil or gas well and the surface. The transducer is of an construction that is stronger with fewer joints that could leak fluids into the recess holding the piezoelectric elements than is found in previous acoustic transducers. 4 figs.
Drumheller, Douglas S.
1997-01-01
An acoustic transducer comprising a one-piece hollow mandrel into the outer surface of which is formed a recess with sides perpendicular to the central axis of the mandrel and separated by a first distance and with a bottom parallel to the central axis and within which recess are a plurality of washer-shaped discs of a piezoelectric material and at least one disc of a temperature-compensating material with the discs being captured between the sides of the recess in a pre-stressed interference fit, typically at 2000 psi of compressive stress. The transducer also includes a power supply and means to connect to a measurement device. The transducer is intended to be used for telemetry between a measurement device located downhole in an oil or gas well and the surface. The transducer is of an construction that is stronger with fewer joints that could leak fluids into the recess holding the piezoelectric elements than is found in previous acoustic transducers.
Acoustic-Liner Admittance in a Duct
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watson, W. R.
1986-01-01
Method calculates admittance from easily obtainable values. New method for calculating acoustic-liner admittance in rectangular duct with grazing flow based on finite-element discretization of acoustic field and reposing of unknown admittance value as linear eigenvalue problem on admittance value. Problem solved by Gaussian elimination. Unlike existing methods, present method extendable to mean flows with two-dimensional boundary layers as well. In presence of shear, results of method compared well with results of Runge-Kutta integration technique.
Frequency Domain Calculations Of Acoustic Propagation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lockard, David P.
2004-01-01
Two complex geometry problems are solved using the linearized Euler equations. The impedance mismatch method1 is used to impose the solid surfaces without the need to use a body-fitted grid. The problem is solved in the frequency domain to avoid long run times. Although the harmonic assumption eliminates all time dependence, a pseudo-time term is added to allow conventional iterative methods to be employed. A Jameson type, Runge-Kutta scheme is used to advance the solution in pseudo time. The spatial operator is based on a seven-point, sixth-order finite difference. Constant coefficient, sixth-derivative artificial dissipation is used throughout the domain. A buffer zone technique employing a complex frequency to damp all waves near the boundaries is used to minimize reflections. The results show that the method is capable of capturing the salient features of the scattering, but an excessive number of grid points are required to resolve the phenomena in the vicinity of the solid bodies because the wavelength of the acoustics is relatively short compared with the size of the bodies. Smoothly transitioning into the immersed boundary condition alleviates the difficulties, but a fine mesh is still required.
Pevernagie, Dirk; Aarts, Ronald M; De Meyer, Micheline
2010-04-01
Snoring is a prevalent disorder affecting 20-40% of the general population. The mechanism of snoring is vibration of anatomical structures in the pharyngeal airway. Flutter of the soft palate accounts for the harsh aspect of the snoring sound. Natural or drug-induced sleep is required for its appearance. Snoring is subject to many influences such as body position, sleep stage, route of breathing and the presence or absence of sleep-disordered breathing. Its presentation may be variable within or between nights. While snoring is generally perceived as a social nuisance, rating of its noisiness is subjective and, therefore, inconsistent. Objective assessment of snoring is important to evaluate the effect of treatment interventions. Moreover, snoring carries information relating to the site and degree of obstruction of the upper airway. If evidence for monolevel snoring at the site of the soft palate is provided, the patient may benefit from palatal surgery. These considerations have inspired researchers to scrutinize the acoustic characteristics of snoring events. Similarly to speech, snoring is produced in the vocal tract. Because of this analogy, existing techniques for speech analysis have been applied to evaluate snoring sounds. It appears that the pitch of the snoring sound is in the low-frequency range (<500 Hz) and corresponds to a fundamental frequency with associated harmonics. The pitch of snoring is determined by vibration of the soft palate, while nonpalatal snoring is more 'noise-like', and has scattered energy content in the higher spectral sub-bands (>500 Hz). To evaluate acoustic properties of snoring, sleep nasendoscopy is often performed. Recent evidence suggests that the acoustic quality of snoring is markedly different in drug-induced sleep as compared with natural sleep. Most often, palatal surgery alters sound characteristics of snoring, but is no cure for this disorder. It is uncertain whether the perceived improvement after palatal surgery, as
On observing acoustic backscattering from salinity turbulence.
Goodman, Louis; Sastre-Cordova, Marcos M
2011-08-01
It has been hypothesized that at sufficiently high levels of oceanic salinity turbulence it should be possible to observe acoustic backscattering. However, there have been limited in situ measurements to confirm this hypothesis. Using an autonomous underwater vehicle equipped with upward and downward looking 1.2 MHz acoustic Doppler current profilers and with turbulence and fine scale sensors, measurements were performed in a region of intense turbulence and a strong salinity gradient. The approach taken was to correlate variations in the backscattered acoustic intensity, I, with a theoretical acoustic backscattering cross section per volume for salinity turbulence, σ(s), to obtain an estimated scattering cross section per volume, σ(e). Results indicated that of order 50% of the observed region was characterized by salinity turbulence induced backscattering. PMID:21877785
On observing acoustic backscattering from salinity turbulence.
Goodman, Louis; Sastre-Cordova, Marcos M
2011-08-01
It has been hypothesized that at sufficiently high levels of oceanic salinity turbulence it should be possible to observe acoustic backscattering. However, there have been limited in situ measurements to confirm this hypothesis. Using an autonomous underwater vehicle equipped with upward and downward looking 1.2 MHz acoustic Doppler current profilers and with turbulence and fine scale sensors, measurements were performed in a region of intense turbulence and a strong salinity gradient. The approach taken was to correlate variations in the backscattered acoustic intensity, I, with a theoretical acoustic backscattering cross section per volume for salinity turbulence, σ(s), to obtain an estimated scattering cross section per volume, σ(e). Results indicated that of order 50% of the observed region was characterized by salinity turbulence induced backscattering.
Broadband acoustic cloak for ultrasound waves.
Zhang, Shu; Xia, Chunguang; Fang, Nicholas
2011-01-14
Invisibility devices based on coordinate transformation have opened up a new field of considerable interest. We present here the first practical realization of a low-loss and broadband acoustic cloak for underwater ultrasound. This metamaterial cloak is constructed with a network of acoustic circuit elements, namely, serial inductors and shunt capacitors. Our experiment clearly shows that the acoustic cloak can effectively bend the ultrasound waves around the hidden object, with reduced scattering and shadow. Because of the nonresonant nature of the building elements, this low-loss (∼6 dB/m) cylindrical cloak exhibits invisibility over a broad frequency range from 52 to 64 kHz. Furthermore, our experimental study indicates that this design approach should be scalable to different acoustic frequencies and offers the possibility for a variety of devices based on coordinate transformation.
Amarantov, S. V.
2009-04-15
The simplest doubly connected surface of revolution (torus) is used as an example to demonstrate the possibility of stable reconstruction a three-dimensional homogeneous body defined by a unit potential U(r) using a spherically averaged small-angle scattering (SAS) curve I(s). Annealing Monte Carlo simulations are performed without using prior information about nanoparticle shape and size. Exact and approximate expressions are obtained for the form factor of a torus. It is shown graphically that the exact and approximate SAS form-factor curves agree for an experimentally accessible scattering region. Examples are given.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaushik, Dinesh K.; Baysal, Oktay
1997-01-01
Accurate computation of acoustic wave propagation may be more efficiently performed when their dispersion relations are considered. Consequently, computational algorithms which attempt to preserve these relations have been gaining popularity in recent years. In the present paper, the extensions to one such scheme are discussed. By solving the linearized, 2-D Euler and Navier-Stokes equations with such a method for the acoustic wave propagation, several issues were investigated. Among them were higher-order accuracy, choice of boundary conditions and differencing stencils, effects of viscosity, low-storage time integration, generalized curvilinear coordinates, periodic series, their reflections and interference patterns from a flat wall and scattering from a circular cylinder. The results were found to be promising en route to the aeroacoustic simulations of realistic engineering problems.
Induced Compton-scattering effects in radiation-transport approximations
Gibson, D.R. Jr.
1982-02-01
The method of characteristics is used to solve radiation transport problems with induced Compton scattering effects included. The methods used to date have only addressed problems in which either induced Compton scattering is ignored, or problems in which linear scattering is ignored. Also, problems which include both induced Compton scattering and spatial effects have not been considered previously. The introduction of induced scattering into the radiation transport equation results in a quadratic nonlinearity. Methods are developed to solve problems in which both linear and nonlinear Compton scattering are important. Solutions to scattering problems are found for a variety of initial photon energy distributions.
Drumheller, Douglas S.
2000-01-01
An active acoustic transducer tool for use down-hole applications. The tool includes a single cylindrical mandrel including a shoulder defining the boundary of a narrowed portion over which is placed a sandwich-style piezoelectric tranducer assembly. The piezoelectric transducer assembly is prestressed by being placed in a thermal interference fit between the shoulder of the mandrel and the base of an anvil which is likewise positioned over the narrower portion of the mandrel. In the preferred embodiment, assembly of the tool is accomplished using a hydraulic jack to stretch the mandrel prior to emplacement of the cylindrical sandwich-style piezoelectric transducer assembly and anvil. After those elements are positioned and secured, the stretched mandrel is allowed to return substantially to its original (pre-stretch) dimensions with the result that the piezoelectric transducer elements are compressed between the anvil and the shoulder of the mandrel.
Swift, Gregory W.; Martin, Richard A.; Radenbaugh, Ray
1990-01-01
An acoustic cryocooler with no moving parts is formed from a thermoacoustic driver (TAD) driving a pulse tube refrigerator (PTR) through a standing wave tube. Thermoacoustic elements in the TAD are spaced apart a distance effective to accommodate the increased thermal penetration length arising from the relatively low TAD operating frequency in the range of 15-60 Hz. At these low operating frequencies, a long tube is required to support the standing wave. The tube may be coiled to reduce the overall length of the cryocooler. One or two PTR's are located on the standing wave tube adjacent antinodes in the standing wave to be driven by the standing wave pressure oscillations. It is predicted that a heat input of 1000 W at 1000 K will maintian a cooling load of 5 W at 80 K.
Multipath correlations in underwater acoustic communication channels.
Huang, S H; Yang, T C; Huang, Chen-Fen
2013-04-01
Uncorrelated scattering (US), which assumes that multipath arrivals undergo uncorrelated scattering and are thus uncorrelated, has been the standard model for digital communications including underwater acoustic communications. This paper examines the cross-correlation of multipath arrivals based on at-sea data with different temporal coherence time, assuming quasi-stationary statistics. It is found that multipath arrivals are highly cross-correlated when the channel is temporally coherent, and are uncorrelated when the channel is temporally incoherent. A theoretical model based on the path phase rates and relative-phase fluctuations is used to explain experimentally observed phenomena, assuming the path amplitudes vary slowly compared with the phases. The implications of correlated scattering for underwater acoustic communication channel tracking are discussed.
Drumheller, Douglas Schaeffer; Kuszmaul, Scott S.
2003-08-01
Broadcasting messages through the earth is a daunting task. Indeed, broadcasting a normal telephone conversion through the earth by wireless means is impossible with todays technology. Most of us don't care, but some do. Industries that drill into the earth need wireless communication to broadcast navigation parameters. This allows them to steer their drill bits. They also need information about the natural formation that they are drilling. Measurements of parameters such as pressure, temperature, and gamma radiation levels can tell them if they have found a valuable resource such as a geothermal reservoir or a stratum bearing natural gas. Wireless communication methods are available to the drilling industry. Information is broadcast via either pressure waves in the drilling fluid or electromagnetic waves in the earth and well tubing. Data transmission can only travel one way at rates around a few baud. Given that normal Internet telephone modems operate near 20,000 baud, these data rates are truly very slow. Moreover, communication is often interrupted or permanently blocked by drilling conditions or natural formation properties. Here we describe a tool that communicates with stress waves traveling through the steel drill pipe and production tubing in the well. It's based on an old idea called Acoustic Telemetry. But what we present here is more than an idea. This tool exists, it's drilled several wells, and it works. Currently, it's the first and only acoustic telemetry tool that can withstand the drilling environment. It broadcasts one way over a limited range at much faster rates than existing methods, but we also know how build a system that can communicate both up and down wells of indefinite length.
Methods for reconstructing acoustic quantities based on acoustic pressure measurements.
Wu, Sean F
2008-11-01
This paper presents an overview of the acoustic imaging methods developed over the past three decades that enable one to reconstruct all acoustic quantities based on the acoustic pressure measurements taken around a target source at close distances. One such method that has received the most attention is known as near-field acoustical holography (NAH). The original NAH relies on Fourier transforms that are suitable for a surface containing a level of constant coordinate in a source-free region. Other methods are developed to reconstruct the acoustic quantities in three-dimensional space and on an arbitrary three-dimensional source surface. Note that there is a fine difference between Fourier transform based NAH and other methods that is largely overlooked. The former can offer a wave number spectrum, thus enabling visualization of various structural waves of different wavelengths that travel on the surface of a structure; the latter cannot provide such information, which is critical to acquire an in-depth understanding of the interrelationships between structural vibrations and sound radiation. All these methods are discussed in this paper, their advantages and limitations are compared, and the need for further development to analyze the root causes of noise and vibration problems is discussed.
Optical scattering methods applicable to drops and bubbles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marston, Philip L.
1990-01-01
An overview of optical scattering properties of drops and bubbles is presented. The properties lead to unconventional methods for optically monitoring the size or shape of a scatterer and are applicable to acoustically levitated objects. Several of the methods are applicable to the detection and measurement of small amplitude oscillations. Relevant optical phenomena include: (1) rainbows; (2) diffraction catastrophes from spheroids; (3) critical angle scattering; (4) effects of coatings; (5) glory scattering; and (6) optical levitation.
Phononic Molecules Studied by Raman Scattering
Lanzillotti-Kimura, N. D.; Fainstein, A.; Jusserand, B.; Lemaitre, A.
2010-01-04
An acoustic nanocavity can confine phonons in such a way that they act like electrons in an atom. By combining two of these phononic-atoms, it is possible to form a phononic 'molecule', with acoustic modes that are similar to the electronic states in a hydrogen molecule. We report Raman scattering experiments performed in a monolithic structure formed by a phononic molecule embedded in an optical cavity. The acoustic mode splitting becomes evident through both the amplification and change of selection rules induced by the optical cavity confinement. The results are in perfect agreement with photoelastic model simulations.
Brillouin scattering self-cancellation.
Florez, O; Jarschel, P F; Espinel, Y A V; Cordeiro, C M B; Mayer Alegre, T P; Wiederhecker, G S; Dainese, P
2016-01-01
The interaction between light and acoustic phonons is strongly modified in sub-wavelength confinement, and has led to the demonstration and control of Brillouin scattering in photonic structures such as nano-scale optical waveguides and cavities. Besides the small optical mode volume, two physical mechanisms come into play simultaneously: a volume effect caused by the strain-induced refractive index perturbation (known as photo-elasticity), and a surface effect caused by the shift of the optical boundaries due to mechanical vibrations. As a result, proper material and structure engineering allows one to control each contribution individually. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the perfect cancellation of Brillouin scattering arising from Rayleigh acoustic waves by engineering a silica nanowire with exactly opposing photo-elastic and moving-boundary effects. This demonstration provides clear experimental evidence that the interplay between the two mechanisms is a promising tool to precisely control the photon-phonon interaction, enhancing or suppressing it. PMID:27283092
Brillouin scattering self-cancellation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Florez, O.; Jarschel, P. F.; Espinel, Y. A. V.; Cordeiro, C. M. B.; Mayer Alegre, T. P.; Wiederhecker, G. S.; Dainese, P.
2016-06-01
The interaction between light and acoustic phonons is strongly modified in sub-wavelength confinement, and has led to the demonstration and control of Brillouin scattering in photonic structures such as nano-scale optical waveguides and cavities. Besides the small optical mode volume, two physical mechanisms come into play simultaneously: a volume effect caused by the strain-induced refractive index perturbation (known as photo-elasticity), and a surface effect caused by the shift of the optical boundaries due to mechanical vibrations. As a result, proper material and structure engineering allows one to control each contribution individually. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the perfect cancellation of Brillouin scattering arising from Rayleigh acoustic waves by engineering a silica nanowire with exactly opposing photo-elastic and moving-boundary effects. This demonstration provides clear experimental evidence that the interplay between the two mechanisms is a promising tool to precisely control the photon-phonon interaction, enhancing or suppressing it.
Brillouin scattering self-cancellation
Florez, O.; Jarschel, P. F.; Espinel, Y. A. V.; Cordeiro, C. M. B.; Mayer Alegre, T. P.; Wiederhecker, G. S.; Dainese, P.
2016-01-01
The interaction between light and acoustic phonons is strongly modified in sub-wavelength confinement, and has led to the demonstration and control of Brillouin scattering in photonic structures such as nano-scale optical waveguides and cavities. Besides the small optical mode volume, two physical mechanisms come into play simultaneously: a volume effect caused by the strain-induced refractive index perturbation (known as photo-elasticity), and a surface effect caused by the shift of the optical boundaries due to mechanical vibrations. As a result, proper material and structure engineering allows one to control each contribution individually. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the perfect cancellation of Brillouin scattering arising from Rayleigh acoustic waves by engineering a silica nanowire with exactly opposing photo-elastic and moving-boundary effects. This demonstration provides clear experimental evidence that the interplay between the two mechanisms is a promising tool to precisely control the photon–phonon interaction, enhancing or suppressing it. PMID:27283092
Thomson scattering from laser plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glenzer, S. H.; Alley, W. E.; Estabrook, K. G.; de Groot, J. S.; Haines, M. G.; Hammer, J. H.; Jadaud, J.-P.; MacGowan, B. J.; Moody, J. D.; Rozmus, W.; Suter, L. J.; Weiland, T. L.; Williams, E. A.
1999-05-01
Thomson scattering has recently been introduced as a fundamental diagnostic of plasma conditions and basic physical processes in dense, inertial confinement fusion plasmas. Experiments at the Nova laser facility [E. M. Campbell et al., Laser Part. Beams 9, 209 (1991)] have demonstrated accurate temporally and spatially resolved characterization of densities, electron temperatures, and average ionization levels by simultaneously observing Thomson scattered light from ion acoustic and electron plasma (Langmuir) fluctuations. In addition, observations of fast and slow ion acoustic waves in two-ion species plasmas have also allowed an independent measurement of the ion temperature. These results have motivated the application of Thomson scattering in closed-geometry inertial confinement fusion hohlraums to benchmark integrated radiation-hydrodynamic modeling of fusion plasmas. For this purpose a high energy 4ω probe laser was implemented recently allowing ultraviolet Thomson scattering at various locations in high-density gas-filled hohlraum plasmas. In particular, the observation of steep electron temperature gradients indicates that electron thermal transport is inhibited in these gas-filled hohlraums. Hydrodynamic calculations which include an exact treatment of large-scale magnetic fields are in agreement with these findings. Moreover, the Thomson scattering data clearly indicate axial stagnation in these hohlraums by showing a fast rise of the ion temperature. Its timing is in good agreement with calculations indicating that the stagnating plasma will not deteriorate the implosion of the fusion capsules in ignition experiments.
Rutherford scattering of electron vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van Boxem, Ruben; Partoens, Bart; Verbeeck, Johan
2014-03-01
By considering a cylindrically symmetric generalization of a plane wave, the first-order Born approximation of screened Coulomb scattering unfolds two new dimensions in the scattering problem: transverse momentum and orbital angular momentum of the incoming beam. In this paper, the elastic Coulomb scattering amplitude is calculated analytically for incoming Bessel beams. This reveals novel features occurring for wide-angle scattering and quantitative insights for small-angle vortex scattering. The result successfully generalizes the well-known Rutherford formula, incorporating transverse and orbital angular momentum into the formalism.
Effect of centerbody scattering on propeller noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glegg, Stewart A. L.
1991-01-01
This paper describes how the effect of acoustic scattering from the hub or centerbody of a propeller will affect the far-field noise levels. A simple correction to Gutin's formula for steady loading noise is given. This is a maximum for the lower harmonics but has a negligible effect on the higher frequency components that are important subjectively. The case of a blade vortex interaction is also considered, and centerbody scattering is shown to have a significant effect on the acoustic far field.
Boundary element analysis of sound scattered by a moving surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Myers, M. K.; Hausmann, J. S.
1990-10-01
A solution for the acoustic field scattered from a uniformly moving rigid body in the presence of a harmonic incident source has been obtained using a boundary integral method. A derivation of the Kirchhoff formula given by Farassat and Myers (1988) for moving surfaces forms the basis for the analysis, and the development of a boundary integral method for the solution of scattering problems from moving rigid bodies is described. Finite elements are used in conjunction with the Galerkin method in order to solve the integral equation that results from the Kirchhoff formula when the observer point is placed on the moving body surface. Once appropriate surface field values are known they are inserted back into the formula in order to predict the field scattered off the body. Tests, including the so called superposition method, are carried out in order to validate the technique and to establish some confidence in its accuracy. Application of the superposition method to moving bodies is presented, and results of the two approaches are discussed. Sample calculations of scattering from a simple body are presented to illustrate the effects of variations in relevant parameters.
Observation of Marine Animals Using Underwater Acoustic Camera
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iida, Kohji; Takahashi, Rika; Tang, Yong; Mukai, Tohru; Sato, Masanori
2006-05-01
An underwater acoustic camera enclosed in a pressure-resistant case was constructed to observe underwater marine animals. This enabled the measurement of the size, shape, and behavior of living marine animals in the detection range up to 240 cm. The transducer array of the acoustic camera was driven by 3.5 MHz ultrasonic signals, and B-mode acoustic images were obtained. Observations were conducted for captive animals in a water tank and for natural animals in a field. The captive animals, including fish, squid and jellyfish, were observed, and a three-dimensional internal structure of animals was reconstructed using multiple acoustical images. The most important contributors of acoustic scattering were the swimbladder and vertebra of bladdered fish, and the liver and reproductive organs of invertebrate animals. In a field experiment, the shape, size, and swimming behavior of wild animals were observed. The possibilities and limitations of the underwater acoustic camera for fishery applications were discussed.
Nonlinear acoustic wave propagation in atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hariharan, S. I.
1985-01-01
A model problem that simulates an atmospheric acoustic wave propagation situation that is nonlinear is considered. The model is derived from the basic Euler equations for the atmospheric flow and from the regular perturbations for the acoustic part. The nonlinear effects are studied by obtaining two successive linear problems in which the second one involves the solution of the first problem. Well posedness of these problems is discussed and approximations of the radiation boundary conditions that can be used in numerical simulations are presented.
Nonlinear acoustic wave propagation in atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hariharan, S. I.
1986-01-01
In this paper a model problem is considered that simulates an atmospheric acoustic wave propagation situation that is nonlinear. The model is derived from the basic Euler equations for the atmospheric flow and from the regular perturbations for the acoustic part. The nonlinear effects are studied by obtaining two successive linear problems in which the second one involves the solution of the first problem. Well-posedness of these problems is discussed and approximations of the radiation boundary conditions that can be used in numerical simulations are presented.
Inverse scattering for an exterior Dirichlet program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hariharan, S. I.
1981-01-01
Scattering due to a metallic cylinder which is in the field of a wire carrying a periodic current is considered. The location and shape of the cylinder is obtained with a far field measurement in between the wire and the cylinder. The same analysis is applicable in acoustics in the situation that the cylinder is a soft wall body and the wire is a line source. The associated direct problem in this situation is an exterior Dirichlet problem for the Helmholtz equation in two dimensions. An improved low frequency estimate for the solution of this problem using integral equation methods is presented. The far field measurements are related to the solutions of boundary integral equations in the low frequency situation. These solutions are expressed in terms of mapping function which maps the exterior of the unknown curve onto the exterior of a unit disk. The coefficients of the Laurent expansion of the conformal transformations are related to the far field coefficients. The first far field coefficient leads to the calculation of the distance between the source and the cylinder.
Bykov, A V; Kirillin, M Yu; Priezzhev, A V; Myllylae, Risto
2006-12-31
The possibility of using spatially resolved reflectometry (SRR) at a wavelength of 820 nm to detect changes in the optical properties of a highly scattering layered random medium simulating a biological tissue caused by changes in the glucose level is analysed. Model signals from a three-layer biological tissue phantom consisting of two skin layers and a blood layer located between them are obtained by the Monte-Carlo method. It was assumed that variations in the glucose level induce variations in the optical parameters of the blood layer and the bottom skin layer. To analyse the trajectories of photons forming the SRR signal, their scattering maps are obtained. The ratio of the photon path in layers sensitive to the glucose level to the total path in the medium was used as a parameter characterising these trajectories. The relative change in the reflected signal caused by a change in the glucose concentration is analysed depending on the distance between a probe radiation source and a detector. It is shown that the maximum relative change in the signal (about 7%) takes place for the source - detector separation in the range from 0.3 to 0.5 mm depending on the model parameters. (special issue devoted to multiple radiation scattering in random media)
Acoustic Mechanical Feedthroughs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sherrit, Stewart; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea
2013-01-01
Electromagnetic motors can have problems when operating in extreme environments. In addition, if one needs to do mechanical work outside a structure, electrical feedthroughs are required to transport the electric power to drive the motor. In this paper, we present designs for driving rotary and linear motors by pumping stress waves across a structure or barrier. We accomplish this by designing a piezoelectric actuator on one side of the structure and a resonance structure that is matched to the piezoelectric resonance of the actuator on the other side. Typically, piezoelectric motors can be designed with high torques and lower speeds without the need for gears. One can also use other actuation materials such as electrostrictive, or magnetostrictive materials in a benign environment and transmit the power in acoustic form as a stress wave and actuate mechanisms that are external to the benign environment. This technology removes the need to perforate a structure and allows work to be done directly on the other side of a structure without the use of electrical feedthroughs, which can weaken the structure, pipe, or vessel. Acoustic energy is pumped as a stress wave at a set frequency or range of frequencies to produce rotary or linear motion in a structure. This method of transferring useful mechanical work across solid barriers by pumping acoustic energy through a resonant structure features the ability to transfer work (rotary or linear motion) across pressure or thermal barriers, or in a sterile environment, without generating contaminants. Reflectors in the wall of barriers can be designed to enhance the efficiency of the energy/power transmission. The method features the ability to produce a bi-directional driving mechanism using higher-mode resonances. There are a variety of applications where the presence of a motor is complicated by thermal or chemical environments that would be hostile to the motor components and reduce life and, in some instances, not be
Sonification of acoustic emission data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raith, Manuel; Große, Christian
2014-05-01
While loading different specimens, acoustic emissions appear due to micro crack formation or friction of already existing crack edges. These acoustic emissions can be recorded using suitable ultrasonic transducers and transient recorders. The analysis of acoustic emissions can be used to investigate the mechanical behavior of different specimens under load. Our working group has undertaken several experiments, monitored with acoustic emission techniques. Different materials such as natural stone, concrete, wood, steel, carbon composites and bone were investigated. Also the experimental setup has been varied. Fire-spalling experiments on ultrahigh performance concrete and pullout experiments on bonded anchors have been carried out. Furthermore uniaxial compression tests on natural stone and animal bone had been conducted. The analysis tools include not only the counting of events but the analysis of full waveforms. Powerful localization algorithms and automatic onset picking techniques (based on Akaikes Information Criterion) were established to handle the huge amount of data. Up to several thousand events were recorded during experiments of a few minutes. More sophisticated techniques like moment tensor inversion have been established on this relatively small scale as well. Problems are related to the amount of data but also to signal-to-noise quality, boundary conditions (reflections) sensor characteristics and unknown and changing Greens functions of the media. Some of the acoustic emissions recorded during these experiments had been transferred into audio range. The transformation into the audio range was done using Matlab. It is the aim of the sonification to establish a tool that is on one hand able to help controlling the experiment in-situ and probably adjust the load parameters according to the number and intensity of the acoustic emissions. On the other hand sonification can help to improve the understanding of acoustic emission techniques for training
Acoustic source for generating an acoustic beam
Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian
2016-05-31
An acoustic source for generating an acoustic beam includes a housing; a plurality of spaced apart piezo-electric layers disposed within the housing; and a non-linear medium filling between the plurality of layers. Each of the plurality of piezoelectric layers is configured to generate an acoustic wave. The non-linear medium and the plurality of piezo-electric material layers have a matching impedance so as to enhance a transmission of the acoustic wave generated by each of plurality of layers through the remaining plurality of layers.
Surface contributions to scattered sound power using non-negative intensity.
Liu, Daipei; Peters, Herwig; Marburg, Steffen; Kessissoglou, Nicole
2016-08-01
Non-negative intensity is used to identify the surface areas of a structure that contributes to the scattered sound power. In the acoustic near field, the scattered sound power is predicted using non-negative intensity, as well as the scattered acoustic intensity integrated directly over the scatterer's surface area. In the acoustic far field, the scattered acoustic intensity and the scattered sound power are evaluated for three different receiver surface areas, corresponding to a sphere representing a far-field area that fully circumscribes the scatterer, and two hemispherical surfaces that correspond to partial far-field areas that do not fully circumscribe the scatterer. Back-calculated non-negative intensity that defines the sound scattered from the full or partial far-field receiver surface areas is also calculated and compared to the non-negative intensity obtained directly from the surface of the scatterer. To illustrate the numerical technique, the scattered acoustic intensity and scattered sound power of a rigid sphere, a rigid cylinder, and a rigid hemispherical shell are examined. PMID:27586749
Holographic interpretation of acoustic black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ge, Xian-Hui; Sun, Jia-Rui; Tian, Yu; Wu, Xiao-Ning; Zhang, Yun-Long
2015-10-01
With the attempt to find the holographic description of the usual acoustic black holes in fluid, we construct an acoustic black hole formed in the d -dimensional fluid located at the timelike cutoff surface of a neutral black brane in asymptotically AdSd +1 spacetime; the bulk gravitational dual of the acoustic black hole is presented at the first order of the hydrodynamic fluctuation. Moreover, the Hawking-like temperature of the acoustic black hole horizon is showed to be connected to the Hawking temperature of the real anti-de Sitter (AdS) black brane in the bulk, and the duality between the phonon scattering in the acoustic black hole and the sound channel quasinormal mode propagating in the bulk perturbed AdS black brane is extracted. We thus point out that the acoustic black hole appearing in fluid, which was originally proposed as an analogous model to simulate Hawking radiation of the real black hole, is not merely an analogy, it can indeed be used to describe specific properties of the real AdS black holes, in the spirit of the fluid/gravity duality.
... Acoustic Neuroma An acoustic neuroma, also called a vestibular schwannoma, is a rare benign tumor of the ... Acoustic Neuroma? An acoustic neuroma, known as a vestibular schwannoma, is a benign (non-cancerous) growth that ...
Acoustic Faraday rotation in Weyl semimetals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Donghao; Shi, Junren
We investigate the phonon problems in Weyl semimetals, from which both the phonon Berry curvature and the phonon Damping could be obtained. We show that even without a magnetic field, the degenerate transverse acoustic modes could also be split due to the adiabatic curvature. In three dimensional case, acoustic Faraday rotation shows up. And furthermore, since the attenuation procedure could distinguish the polarized mode, single circularly polarized acoustic wave could be realized. We study the mechanism in the novel time reversal symmetry broken Weyl semimetal. New effects rise because of the linear dispersion, which give enlightenment in the measurement of this new kind of three-dimensional material.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buzyalis, R. R.; Dementjev, Aleksandr S.; Deringas, A. L.; Kabelka, V. I.; Kosenko, E. K.; Milyauskas, A. A.
1988-08-01
Typical parametric oscillations were observed in a laser with a stimulated Raman scattering compressor. This laser generated pulses of ~ 15 ps duration at a wavelength of 0.63 μm and the width of the spectrum was ~ 0.7 cm- 1. The parametric radiation was tunable within the range 1-1.5 μm. A study was made of the statistical properties of the generation process. The energy stability of the pulses generated in such an optical parametric oscillator was twice as high as in the case when pumping was provided by a picosecond YAG:Nd laser with passive mode locking.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
MacKenzie, Anne I.; Rao, Sadasiva M.; Baginski, Michael E.
2007-01-01
A pair of basis functions is presented for the surface integral, method of moment solution of scattering by arbitrarily-shaped, three-dimensional dielectric bodies. Equivalent surface currents are represented by orthogonal unit pulse vectors in conjunction with triangular patch modeling. The electric field integral equation is employed with closed geometries for dielectric bodies; the method may also be applied to conductors. Radar cross section results are shown for dielectric bodies having canonical spherical, cylindrical, and cubic shapes. Pulse basis function results are compared to results by other methods.
Schwab, Hans-Martin; Beckmann, Martin F; Schmitz, Georg
2016-04-01
Photoacoustic imaging aims to visualize light absorption properties of biological tissue by receiving a sound wave that is generated inside the observed object as a result of the photoacoustic effect. In clinical applications, the strong light absorption in human skin is a major problem. When high amplitude photoacoustic waves that originate from skin absorption propagate into the tissue, they are reflected back by acoustical scatterers and the reflections contribute to the received signal. The artifacts associated with these reflected waves are referred to as clutter or skin echo and limit the applicability of photoacoustic imaging for medical applications severely. This study seeks to exploit the acoustic tissue information gained by plane wave ultrasound measurements with a linear array in order to correct for reflections in the photoacoustic image. By deriving a theory for clutter waves in k-space and a matching inversion approach, photoacoustic measurements compensated for clutter are shown to be recovered. PMID:27446669
Schwab, Hans-Martin; Beckmann, Martin F; Schmitz, Georg
2016-04-01
Photoacoustic imaging aims to visualize light absorption properties of biological tissue by receiving a sound wave that is generated inside the observed object as a result of the photoacoustic effect. In clinical applications, the strong light absorption in human skin is a major problem. When high amplitude photoacoustic waves that originate from skin absorption propagate into the tissue, they are reflected back by acoustical scatterers and the reflections contribute to the received signal. The artifacts associated with these reflected waves are referred to as clutter or skin echo and limit the applicability of photoacoustic imaging for medical applications severely. This study seeks to exploit the acoustic tissue information gained by plane wave ultrasound measurements with a linear array in order to correct for reflections in the photoacoustic image. By deriving a theory for clutter waves in k-space and a matching inversion approach, photoacoustic measurements compensated for clutter are shown to be recovered.
Schwab, Hans-Martin; Beckmann, Martin F.; Schmitz, Georg
2016-01-01
Photoacoustic imaging aims to visualize light absorption properties of biological tissue by receiving a sound wave that is generated inside the observed object as a result of the photoacoustic effect. In clinical applications, the strong light absorption in human skin is a major problem. When high amplitude photoacoustic waves that originate from skin absorption propagate into the tissue, they are reflected back by acoustical scatterers and the reflections contribute to the received signal. The artifacts associated with these reflected waves are referred to as clutter or skin echo and limit the applicability of photoacoustic imaging for medical applications severely. This study seeks to exploit the acoustic tissue information gained by plane wave ultrasound measurements with a linear array in order to correct for reflections in the photoacoustic image. By deriving a theory for clutter waves in k-space and a matching inversion approach, photoacoustic measurements compensated for clutter are shown to be recovered. PMID:27446669
Coupled BE/FE/BE approach for scattering from fluid-filled structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Everstine, Gordon C.; Cheng, Raymond S.
1990-01-01
NASHUA is a coupled finite element/boundary element capability built around NASTRAN for calculating the low frequency far-field acoustic pressure field radiated or scattered by an arbitrary, submerged, three-dimensional, elastic structure subjected to either internal time-harmonic mechanical loads or external time-harmonic incident loadings. Described here are the formulation and use of NASHUA for solving such structural acoustics problems when the structure is fluid-filled. NASTRAN is used to generate the structural finite element model and to perform most of the required matrix operations. Both fluid domains are modeled using the boundary element capability in NASHUA, whose matrix formulation (and the associated NASTRAN DMAP) for evacuated structures can be used with suitable interpretation of the matrix definitions. After computing surface pressures and normal velocities, far-field pressures are evaluated using an asymptotic form of the Helmholtz exterior integral equation. The proposed numerical approach is validated by comparing the acoustic field scattered from a submerged fluid-filled spherical thin shell to that obtained with a series solution, which is also derived here.
Nonlinear acoustics - History and outlook
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rott, N.
1980-08-01
A historical review of the development of nonlinear acoustics before the epoch beginning with Riemann is presented followed by a review of the more recent developments of the last 20 years, including a cinematical view of nonlinear acoustic waves. The review emphasizes the works of Poisson and his equations and solutions of particle and wave velocity as well as Stoke's theory of sound. Attention is given to the developments of the last two decades through an examination of Lagrange and Chester problems, such as the transition of Euler coordinates into Lagrange coordinates and equations. The nonlinear theory of resonance is discussed by describing a closed tube resonance problem where periodic excitation through a piston characterizes wave movements.
... Watch and Wait Radiation Microsurgery Acoustic Neuroma Decision Tree Questions for Your Physician Questions to Ask Yourself ... Watch and Wait Radiation Microsurgery Acoustic Neuroma Decision Tree Questions for Your Physician Questions to Ask Yourself ...
Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video
... Watch and Wait Radiation Microsurgery Acoustic Neuroma Decision Tree Questions for Your Physician Questions to Ask Yourself ... Watch and Wait Radiation Microsurgery Acoustic Neuroma Decision Tree Questions for Your Physician Questions to Ask Yourself ...
Finite element prediction of vibro-acoustic environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hipol, Philip J.
1989-09-01
An efficient analytical methodology has been developed with the finite element method which may be used to predict the low frequency vibro-acoustic environment within an aerospace flight vehicle. This methodology includes general purpose capabilities for solving problems involving the effects of structure/acoustic interaction and random excitation pressure fields. Computational efficiency is enhanced by decoupling the structure from the acoustic volume, and taking advantage of reciprocity in the random vibration and vibro-acoustic formulations. The application of the analytical methodology to an example problem found good agreement with previous research, demonstrating the feasibility of the methodology described herein.
Nonlinear Transport and Noise Properties of Acoustic Phonons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walczak, Kamil
We examine heat transport carried by acoustic phonons in molecular junctions composed of organic molecules coupled to two thermal baths of different temperatures. The phononic heat flux and its dynamical noise properties are analyzed within the scattering (Landauer) formalism with transmission probability function for acoustic phonons calculated within the method of atomistic Green's functions (AGF technique). The perturbative computational scheme is used to determine nonlinear corrections to phononic heat flux and its noise power spectral density with up to the second order terms with respect to temperature difference. Our results show the limited applicability of ballistic Fourier's law and fluctuation-dissipation theorem to heat transport in quantum systems. We also derive several noise-signal relations applicable to nanoscale heat flow carried by phonons, but valid for electrons as well. We also discuss the extension of the perturbative transport theory to higher order terms in order to address a huge variety of problems related to nonlinear thermal effects which may occur at nanoscale and at strongly non-equilibrium conditions with high-intensity heat fluxes. This work was supported by Pace University Start-up Grant.
Acoustic emission and the plasticity of crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pawelek, Andrzej; Malecki, Ignacy
This treatise is mainly devoted to a discussion of the application of acoustic emission in basic research on the plastic deformation mechanisms of metal and alloy single crystals. The acoustic emission method also provides the possibility of obtaining additional information on the nature of these mechanisms. Knowledge of the basic relationships between acoustic emission and deformation mechanisms will also facilitate the use of acoustic emission in industrial conditions (for industrial process control and for early problem detection). The material contained in this article is divided into three sections. The first section discusses the basic types of plastic deformation mechanisms in metal single crystals with simple crystal structures. The rest of this section is devoted to the problem of locating deformations, which is currently one of the most important problems in plastic deformation mechanics. The next section is based on extant literature and presents experiment data on measurements of acoustic emission during the plastic deformation of single crystals. The authors also use the results of their own research in a discussion of the most frequently encountered models and theoretical concepts concerning the causes of acoustic emission during the plastic deformation of crystals. The final section describes the basic mathematics behind these concepts and a brief attempt to assess the consistency of theoretical results and extant experimental results.
Acoustic emission frequency discrimination
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sugg, Frank E. (Inventor); Graham, Lloyd J. (Inventor)
1988-01-01
In acoustic emission nondestructive testing, broadband frequency noise is distinguished from narrow banded acoustic emission signals, since the latter are valid events indicative of structural flaws in the material being examined. This is accomplished by separating out those signals which contain frequency components both within and beyond (either above or below) the range of valid acoustic emission events. Application to acoustic emission monitoring during nondestructive bond verification and proof loading of undensified tiles on the Space Shuttle Orbiter is considered.
Acoustic cloaking transformations from attainable material properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Urzhumov, Yaroslav; Ghezzo, Fabrizia; Hunt, John; Smith, David R.
2010-07-01
We propose a general methodology and a set of practical recipes for the construction of ultra-broadband acoustic cloaks—structures that can render themselves and a concealed object undetectable by means of acoustic scattering. The acoustic cloaks presented here are designed and function analogously to electromagnetic cloaks. However, acoustic cloaks in a fluid medium do not suffer the bandwidth limitations imposed on their electromagnetic counterparts by the finite speed of light in vacuum. In the absence of specific metamaterials having arbitrary combinations of quasi-static speed of sound and mass density, we explore the flexibility of continuum transformations that produce approximate cloaking solutions. We show that an imperfect, eikonal acoustic cloak (that is, one which is not impedance matched but is valid in the geometrical optics regime) with negligible dispersion can be designed using a simple layered geometry. Since a practical cloaking device will probably be composed of combinations of solid materials rather than fluids, it is necessary to consider the full elastic properties of such media, which support shear waves in addition to the compression waves associated with the acoustic regime. We perform a systematic theoretical and numerical investigation of the role of shear waves in elastic cloaking devices. We find that for elastic metamaterials with Poisson's ratio ν>0.49, shear waves do not alter the cloaking effect. Such metamaterials can be built from nearly incompressible rubbers (with ν≈0.499) and fluids. We expect this finding to have applications in other acoustic devices based on the form-invariance of the scalar acoustic wave equation.
Nonlinear positron acoustic solitary waves
Tribeche, Mouloud; Aoutou, Kamel; Younsi, Smain; Amour, Rabia
2009-07-15
The problem of nonlinear positron acoustic solitary waves involving the dynamics of mobile cold positrons is addressed. A theoretical work is presented to show their existence and possible realization in a simple four-component plasma model. The results should be useful for the understanding of the localized structures that may occur in space and laboratory plasmas as new sources of cold positrons are now well developed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oviatt, Eric; Patsiaouris, Konstantinos; Denardo, Bruce
2009-11-01
A sound source of finite size produces a diverging traveling wave in an unbounded fluid. A rigid body that is small compared to the wavelength experiences an attractive radiation force (toward the source). An attractive force is also exerted on the fluid itself. The effect can be demonstrated with a styrofoam ball suspended near a loudspeaker that is producing sound of high amplitude and low frequency (for example, 100 Hz). The behavior can be understood and roughly calculated as a time-averaged Bernoulli effect. A rigorous scattering calculation yields a radiation force that is within a factor of two of the Bernoulli result. For a spherical wave, the force decreases as the inverse fifth power of the distance from the source. Applications of the phenomenon include ultrasonic filtration of liquids and the growth of supermassive black holes that emit sound waves in a surrounding plasma. An experiment is being conducted in an anechoic chamber with a 1-inch diameter aluminum ball that is suspended from an analytical balance. Directly below the ball is a baffled loudspeaker that exerts an attractive force that is measured by the balance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crum, Lawrence A.
2003-04-01
Acoustic cavitation is a phenomenon that occurs on microsecond time scales and micron length scales, yet, it has many macroscopic manifestations. Accordingly, it is often difficult, at least for the author, to form realistic physical descriptions of the specific mechanisms through which it expresses itself in our macroscopic world. For example, there are still many who believe that cavitation erosion is due to the shock wave that is emitted by bubble implosion, rather than the liquid jet created on asymmetric collapse...and they may be right. Over the years, the author has accumulated a number of movies and high-speed photographs of cavitation activity, which he uses to form his own visual references. In the time allotted, he will show a number of these movies and photographs and discuss their relevance to existing technological problems. A limited number of CDs containing the presented materials will be available to interested individuals. [Work supported in part by the NIH, USAMRMC, and the ONR.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dremin, I. M.
2013-01-01
Colliding high-energy hadrons either produce new particles or scatter elastically with their quantum numbers conserved and no other particles produced. We consider the latter case here. Although inelastic processes dominate at high energies, elastic scattering contributes considerably (18-25%) to the total cross section. Its share first decreases and then increases at higher energies. Small-angle scattering prevails at all energies. Some characteristic features can be seen that provide information on the geometrical structure of the colliding particles and the relevant dynamical mechanisms. The steep Gaussian peak at small angles is followed by the exponential (Orear) regime with some shoulders and dips, and then by a power-law decrease. Results from various theoretical approaches are compared with experimental data. Phenomenological models claiming to describe this process are reviewed. The unitarity condition predicts an exponential fall for the differential cross section with an additional substructure to occur exactly between the low momentum transfer diffraction cone and a power-law, hard parton scattering regime under high momentum transfer. Data on the interference of the Coulomb and nuclear parts of amplitudes at extremely small angles provide the value of the real part of the forward scattering amplitude. The real part of the elastic scattering amplitude and the contribution of inelastic processes to the imaginary part of this amplitude (the so-called overlap function) are also discussed. Problems related to the scaling behavior of the differential cross section are considered. The power-law regime at highest momentum transfer is briefly described.
Navy Applications of High-Frequency Acoustics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cox, Henry
2004-11-01
Although the emphasis in underwater acoustics for the last few decades has been in low-frequency acoustics, motivated by long range detection of submarines, there has been a continuing use of high-frequency acoustics in traditional specialized applications such as bottom mapping, mine hunting, torpedo homing and under ice navigation. The attractive characteristics of high-frequency sonar, high spatial resolution, wide bandwidth, small size and relatively low cost must be balanced against the severe range limitation imposed by attenuation that increases approximately as frequency-squared. Many commercial applications of acoustics are ideally served by high-frequency active systems. The small size and low cost, coupled with the revolution in small powerful signal processing hardware has led to the consideration of more sophisticated systems. Driven by commercial applications, there are currently available several commercial-off-the-shelf products including acoustic modems for underwater communication, multi-beam fathometers, side scan sonars for bottom mapping, and even synthetic aperture side scan sonar. Much of the work in high frequency sonar today continues to be focused on specialized applications in which the application is emphasized over the underlying acoustics. Today's vision for the Navy of the future involves Autonomous Undersea Vehicles (AUVs) and off-board ASW sensors. High-frequency acoustics will play a central role in the fulfillment of this vision as a means of communication and as a sensor. The acoustic communication problems for moving AUVs and deep sensors are discussed. Explicit relationships are derived between the communication theoretic description of channel parameters in terms of time and Doppler spreads and ocean acoustic parameters, group velocities, phase velocities and horizontal wavenumbers. Finally the application of synthetic aperture sonar to the mine hunting problems is described.
Tutorial on architectural acoustics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaw, Neil; Talaske, Rick; Bistafa, Sylvio
2002-11-01
This tutorial is intended to provide an overview of current knowledge and practice in architectural acoustics. Topics covered will include basic concepts and history, acoustics of small rooms (small rooms for speech such as classrooms and meeting rooms, music studios, small critical listening spaces such as home theatres) and the acoustics of large rooms (larger assembly halls, auditoria, and performance halls).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1978-01-01
Exterior and interior noise problems are addressed both from the physics and engineering as well as the human factors point of view. The role of technology in closing the gap between what the customers and regulating agencies would like to have and what is available is explored. Noise regulation concepts, design, operations and testing for noise control, helicopter noise prediction, and research tools and measurements are among the topics covered.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwenke, David W.; Truhlar, Donald G.
1990-01-01
The Generalized Newton Variational Principle for 3D quantum mechanical reactive scattering is briefly reviewed. Then three techniques are described which improve the efficiency of the computations. First, the fact that the Hamiltonian is Hermitian is used to reduce the number of integrals computed, and then the properties of localized basis functions are exploited in order to eliminate redundant work in the integral evaluation. A new type of localized basis function with desirable properties is suggested. It is shown how partitioned matrices can be used with localized basis functions to reduce the amount of work required to handle the complex boundary conditions. The new techniques do not introduce any approximations into the calculations, so they may be used to obtain converged solutions of the Schroedinger equation.
Oshchepkov, S; Isaka, H
1997-11-20
We propose a new method of particle size retrieval for mixed-phase and ice crystal clouds. The method enables us to identify each component of a bicomponent cloud composed of water droplets and ice crystals and to retrieve a size distribution separately for each cloud component. We explore the method's capability by using sythetic multiangular data of scattered-light intensity. We model cloud microphysical characteristics by assuming two noninteracting cloud components, such as liquid or supercooled droplets and cubic or hexagonal ice crystals, with regular simple geometrical shapes as first approximation. The sensitivity of the method is tested for different relative concentrations of the cloud components that are varied over a wide range. First, we investigate the applicability limit of the single-component cloud approximation in retrieving particle size distributions of a bicomponent cloud. Second, we test the method to retrieve size distributions simultaneously for both components in mixed-phase clouds, and we discuss the conditions of its applicability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Liang; Huang, Ting-Zhu; Jing, Yan-Fei; Zhang, Yong
2010-02-01
The incomplete Cholesky (IC) factorization preconditioning technique is applied to the Krylov subspace methods for solving large systems of linear equations resulted from the use of edge-based finite element method (FEM). The construction of the preconditioner is based on the fact that the coefficient matrix is represented in an upper triangular compressed sparse row (CSR) form. An efficient implementation of the IC factorization is described in detail for complex symmetric matrices. With some ordering schemes our IC algorithm can greatly reduce the memory requirement as well as the iteration numbers. Numerical tests on harmonic analysis for plane wave scattering from a metallic plate and a metallic sphere coated by a lossy dielectric layer show the efficiency of this method.
Hybrid CFD/CAA Modeling for Liftoff Acoustic Predictions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Strutzenberg, Louise L.; Liever, Peter A.
2011-01-01
This paper presents development efforts at the NASA Marshall Space flight Center to establish a hybrid Computational Fluid Dynamics and Computational Aero-Acoustics (CFD/CAA) simulation system for launch vehicle liftoff acoustics environment analysis. Acoustic prediction engineering tools based on empirical jet acoustic strength and directivity models or scaled historical measurements are of limited value in efforts to proactively design and optimize launch vehicles and launch facility configurations for liftoff acoustics. CFD based modeling approaches are now able to capture the important details of vehicle specific plume flow environment, identifY the noise generation sources, and allow assessment of the influence of launch pad geometric details and sound mitigation measures such as water injection. However, CFD methodologies are numerically too dissipative to accurately capture the propagation of the acoustic waves in the large CFD models. The hybrid CFD/CAA approach combines the high-fidelity CFD analysis capable of identifYing the acoustic sources with a fast and efficient Boundary Element Method (BEM) that accurately propagates the acoustic field from the source locations. The BEM approach was chosen for its ability to properly account for reflections and scattering of acoustic waves from launch pad structures. The paper will present an overview of the technology components of the CFD/CAA framework and discuss plans for demonstration and validation against test data.
Experimental verification of acoustic trace wavelength enhancement.
Cray, Benjamin A
2015-12-01
Directivity is essentially a measure of a sonar array's beamwidth that can be obtained in a spherically isotropic ambient noise field; narrow array mainbeam widths are more directive than broader mainbeam widths. For common sonar systems, the directivity factor (or directivity index) is directly proportional to the ratio of an incident acoustic trace wavelength to the sonar array's physical length (which is always constrained). Increasing this ratio, by creating additional trace wavelengths for a fixed array length, will increase array directivity. Embedding periodic structures within an array generates Bragg scattering of the incident acoustic plane wave along the array's surface. The Bragg scattered propagating waves are shifted in a precise manner and create shorter wavelength replicas of the original acoustic trace wavelength. These replicated trace wavelengths (which contain identical signal arrival information) increase an array's wavelength to length ratio and thus directivity. Therefore, a smaller array, in theory, can have the equivalent directivity of a much larger array. Measurements completed in January 2015 at the Naval Undersea Warfare Center's Acoustic Test Facility, in Newport, RI, verified, near perfectly, these replicated, shorter, trace wavelengths. PMID:26723331