Science.gov

Sample records for acoustic shear wave

  1. On acoustic wave generation in uniform shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogoberidze, G.

    2016-07-01

    The linear dynamics of acoustic waves and vortices in uniform shear flow is studied. For flows with very low shear rates, the dynamics of perturbations is adiabatic and can be described by the WKB approximation. However, for flows with moderate and high shear rates the WKB approximation is not appropriate, and alternative analysis shows that two important phenomena occur: acoustic wave over-reflection and wave generation by vortices. The later phenomenon is a known linear mechanisms for sound generation in shear flows, a mechanism that is related to the continuous spectrum that arises in linear shear flow dynamics. A detailed analytical study of these phenomena is performed and the main quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the radiated acoustic field are obtained and analyzed.

  2. High-frequency shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Branch, Darren W

    2013-05-07

    A Love wave sensor uses a single-phase unidirectional interdigital transducer (IDT) on a piezoelectric substrate for leaky surface acoustic wave generation. The IDT design minimizes propagation losses, bulk wave interferences, provides a highly linear phase response, and eliminates the need for impedance matching. As an example, a high frequency (.about.300-400 MHz) surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducer enables efficient excitation of shear-horizontal waves on 36.degree. Y-cut lithium tantalate (LTO) giving a highly linear phase response (2.8.degree. P-P). The sensor has the ability to detect at the pg/mm.sup.2 level and can perform multi-analyte detection in real-time. The sensor can be used for rapid autonomous detection of pathogenic microorganisms and bioagents by field deployable platforms.

  3. High-frequency shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Branch, Darren W

    2014-03-11

    A Love wave sensor uses a single-phase unidirectional interdigital transducer (IDT) on a piezoelectric substrate for leaky surface acoustic wave generation. The IDT design minimizes propagation losses, bulk wave interferences, provides a highly linear phase response, and eliminates the need for impedance matching. As an example, a high frequency (.about.300-400 MHz) surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducer enables efficient excitation of shear-horizontal waves on 36.degree. Y-cut lithium tantalate (LTO) giving a highly linear phase response (2.8.degree. P-P). The sensor has the ability to detect at the pg/mm.sup.2 level and can perform multi-analyte detection in real-time. The sensor can be used for rapid autonomous detection of pathogenic microorganisms and bioagents by field deployable platforms.

  4. Theoretical Analysis of Shear Wave Interference Patterns by Means of Dynamic Acoustic Radiation Forces.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Kenneth

    2011-03-01

    Acoustic radiation forces associated with high intensity focused ultrasound stimulate shear wave propagation allowing shear wave speed and shear viscosity estimation of tissue structures. As wave speeds are meters per second, real time displacement tracking over an extend field-of-view using ultrasound is problematic due to very high frame rate requirements. However, two spatially separated dynamic external sources can stimulate shear wave motion leading to shear wave interference patterns. Advantages are shear waves can be imaged at lower frame rates and local interference pattern spatial properties reflect tissue's viscoelastic properties. Here a theoretical analysis of shear wave interference patterns by means of dynamic acoustic radiation forces is detailed. Using a viscoelastic Green's function analysis, tissue motion due to a pair of focused ultrasound beams and associated radiation forces are presented. Overall, this paper theoretically demonstrates shear wave interference patterns can be stimulated using dynamic acoustic radiation forces and tracked using conventional ultrasound imaging.

  5. [INVITED] Laser generation and detection of ultrafast shear acoustic waves in solids and liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezeril, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the up-to-date findings related to ultrafast shear acoustic waves. Recent progress obtained for the laser generation and detection of picosecond shear acoustic waves in solids and liquids is reviewed. Examples in which the transverse isotropic symmetry of the sample structure is broken in order to permit shear acoustic wave generation through sudden laser heating are described in detail. Alternative photo-induced mechanisms for ultrafast shear acoustic generation in metals, semiconductors, insulators, magnetostrictive, piezoelectric and electrostrictive materials are reviewed as well. With reference to key experiments, an all-optical technique employed to probe longitudinal and shear structural dynamics in the GHz frequency range in ultra-thin liquid films is described. This technique, based on specific ultrafast shear acoustic transducers, has opened new perspectives that will be discussed for ultrafast shear acoustic probing of viscoelastic liquids at the nanometer scale.

  6. Phase Aberration and Attenuation Effects on Acoustic Radiation Force-Based Shear Wave Generation.

    PubMed

    Carrascal, Carolina Amador; Aristizabal, Sara; Greenleaf, James F; Urban, Matthew W

    2016-02-01

    Elasticity is measured by shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) methods using acoustic radiation force to create the shear waves. Phase aberration and tissue attenuation can hamper the generation of shear waves for in vivo applications. In this study, the effects of phase aberration and attenuation in ultrasound focusing for creating shear waves were explored. This includes the effects of phase shifts and amplitude attenuation on shear wave characteristics such as shear wave amplitude, shear wave speed, shear wave center frequency, and bandwidth. Two samples of swine belly tissue were used to create phase aberration and attenuation experimentally. To explore the phase aberration and attenuation effects individually, tissue experiments were complemented with ultrasound beam simulations using fast object-oriented C++ ultrasound simulator (FOCUS) and shear wave simulations using finite-element-model (FEM) analysis. The ultrasound frequency used to generate shear waves was varied from 3.0 to 4.5 MHz. Results: The measured acoustic pressure and resulting shear wave amplitude decreased approximately 40%-90% with the introduction of the tissue samples. Acoustic intensity and shear wave displacement were correlated for both tissue samples, and the resulting Pearson's correlation coefficients were 0.99 and 0.97. Analysis of shear wave generation with tissue samples (phase aberration and attenuation case), measured phase screen, (only phase aberration case), and FOCUS/FEM model (only attenuation case) showed that tissue attenuation affected the shear wave generation more than tissue aberration. Decreasing the ultrasound frequency helped maintain a focused beam for creation of shear waves in the presence of both phase aberration and attenuation.

  7. Modified ion-acoustic solitary waves in plasmas with field-aligned shear flows

    SciTech Connect

    Saleem, H.; Haque, Q.

    2015-08-15

    The nonlinear dynamics of ion-acoustic waves is investigated in a plasma having field-aligned shear flow. A Korteweg-deVries-type nonlinear equation for a modified ion-acoustic wave is obtained which admits a single pulse soliton solution. The theoretical result has been applied to solar wind plasma at 1 AU for illustration.

  8. Modified ion-acoustic solitary waves in plasmas with field-aligned shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleem, H.; Ali, S.; Haque, Q.

    2015-08-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of ion-acoustic waves is investigated in a plasma having field-aligned shear flow. A Koeteweg-deVries-type nonlinear equation for a modified ion-acoustic wave is obtained which admits a single pulse soliton solution. The theoretical result has been applied to solar wind plasma at 1 AU for illustration.

  9. Coupling of an acoustic wave to shear motion due to viscous heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Goree, J.

    2016-07-01

    Viscous heating due to shear motion in a plasma can result in the excitation of a longitudinal acoustic wave, if the shear motion is modulated in time. The coupling mechanism is a thermal effect: time-dependent shear motion causes viscous heating, which leads to a rarefaction that can couple into a longitudinal wave, such as an acoustic wave. This coupling mechanism is demonstrated in an electrostatic three-dimensional (3D) simulation of a dusty plasma, in which a localized shear flow is initiated as a pulse, resulting in a delayed outward propagation of a longitudinal acoustic wave. This coupling effect can be profound in plasmas that exhibit localized viscous heating, such as the dusty plasma we simulated using parameters typical of the PK-4 experiment. We expect that a similar phenomenon can occur with other kinds of plasma waves.

  10. Nonlinear electron acoustic waves in presence of shear magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Manjistha; Khan, Manoranjan; Ghosh, Samiran; Chakrabarti, Nikhil

    2013-12-15

    Nonlinear electron acoustic waves are studied in a quasineutral plasma in the presence of a variable magnetic field. The fluid model is used to describe the dynamics of two temperature electron species in a stationary positively charged ion background. Linear analysis of the governing equations manifests dispersion relation of electron magneto sonic wave. Whereas, nonlinear wave dynamics is being investigated by introducing Lagrangian variable method in long wavelength limit. It is shown from finite amplitude analysis that the nonlinear wave characteristics are well depicted by KdV equation. The wave dispersion arising in quasineutral plasma is induced by transverse magnetic field component. The results are discussed in the context of plasma of Earth's magnetosphere.

  11. Experimental validation of acoustic radiation force induced shear wave interference patterns.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Kenneth; Hah, Zaegyoo; Hazard, Chris; Parker, Kevin J

    2012-01-01

    A novel elasticity imaging system founded on the use of acoustic radiation forces from a dual beam arrangement to generate shear wave interference patterns is described. Acquired pulse-echo data and correlation-based techniques were used to estimate the resultant deformation and to visualize tissue viscoelastic response. The use of normal versus axicon focal configurations was investigated for effects on shear wave generation. Theoretical models were introduced and shown in simulation to accurately predict shear wave propagation and interference pattern properties. In a tissue-mimicking phantom, experimental results are in congruence with theoretical predictions. Using dynamic acoustic radiation force excitation, results confirm that shear wave interference patterns can be produced remotely in a particular tissue region of interest (ROI). Overall, preliminary results are encouraging and the system described may prove feasible for interrogating the viscoelastic properties of normal and diseased tissue types.

  12. Overstability of acoustic waves in strongly magnetized anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic shear flows

    SciTech Connect

    Uchava, E. S.; Shergelashvili, B. M.; Tevzadze, A. G.; Poedts, S.

    2014-08-15

    We present a linear stability analysis of the perturbation modes in anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows with velocity shear and strong magnetic field. Collisionless or weakly collisional plasma is described within the 16-momentum MHD fluid closure model that takes into account not only the effect of pressure anisotropy but also the effect of anisotropic heat fluxes. In this model, the low frequency acoustic wave is revealed into a standard acoustic mode and higher frequency fast thermo-acoustic and lower frequency slow thermo-acoustic waves. It is shown that thermo-acoustic waves become unstable and grow exponentially when the heat flux parameter exceeds some critical value. It seems that velocity shear makes thermo-acoustic waves overstable even at subcritical heat flux parameters. Thus, when the effect of heat fluxes is not profound acoustic waves will grow due to the velocity shear, while at supercritical heat fluxes the flow reveals compressible thermal instability. Anisotropic thermal instability should be also important in astrophysical environments, where it will limit the maximal value of magnetic field that a low density ionized anisotropic flow can sustain.

  13. Comparison with Analytical Solution: Generation and Radiation of Acoustic Waves from a 2-D Shear Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.

    2000-01-01

    An acoustic source inside of a 2-D jet excites an instability wave in the shear layer resulting in sound radiating away from the shear layer. Solve the linearized Euler equations to predict the sound radiation outside of the jet. The jet static pressure is assumed to be constant. The jet flow is parallel and symmetric about the x-axis. Use a symmetry boundary condition along the x-axis.

  14. Measurement of Elastic Properties of Tissue by Shear Wave Propagation Generated by Acoustic Radiation Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marie Tabaru,; Takashi Azuma,; Kunio Hashiba,

    2010-07-01

    Acoustic radiation force (ARF) imaging has been developed as a novel elastography technology to diagnose hepatic disease and breast cancer. The accuracy of shear wave speed estimation, which is one of the applications of ARF elastography, is studied. The Young’s moduli of pig liver and foie gras samples estimated from the shear wave speed were compared with those measured the static Young’s modulus measurement. The difference in the two methods was 8%. Distance attenuation characteristics of the shear wave were also studied using finite element method (FEM) analysis. We found that the differences in the axial and lateral beam widths in pressure and ARF are 16 and 9% at F-number=0.9. We studied the relationship between two branch points in distance attenuation characteristics and the shape of ARF. We found that the maximum measurable length to estimate shear wave speed for one ARF excitation was 8 mm.

  15. Measurement of Elastic Properties of Tissue by Shear Wave Propagation Generated by Acoustic Radiation Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabaru, Marie; Azuma, Takashi; Hashiba, Kunio

    2010-07-01

    Acoustic radiation force (ARF) imaging has been developed as a novel elastography technology to diagnose hepatic disease and breast cancer. The accuracy of shear wave speed estimation, which is one of the applications of ARF elastography, is studied. The Young's moduli of pig liver and foie gras samples estimated from the shear wave speed were compared with those measured the static Young's modulus measurement. The difference in the two methods was 8%. Distance attenuation characteristics of the shear wave were also studied using finite element method (FEM) analysis. We found that the differences in the axial and lateral beam widths in pressure and ARF are 16 and 9% at F-number=0.9. We studied the relationship between two branch points in distance attenuation characteristics and the shape of ARF. We found that the maximum measurable length to estimate shear wave speed for one ARF excitation was 8 mm.

  16. Three-dimensional visualization of shear wave propagation generated by dual acoustic radiation pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, Yuta; Taki, Hirofumi; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    An elastic property of biological soft tissue is an important indicator of the tissue status. Therefore, quantitative and noninvasive methods for elasticity evaluation have been proposed. Our group previously proposed a method using acoustic radiation pressure irradiated from two directions for elastic property evaluation, in which by measuring the propagation velocity of the shear wave generated by the acoustic radiation pressure inside the object, the elastic properties of the object were successfully evaluated. In the present study, we visualized the propagation of the shear wave in a three-dimensional space by the synchronization of signals received at various probe positions. The proposed method succeeded in visualizing the shear wave propagation clearly in the three-dimensional space of 35 × 41 × 4 mm3. These results show the high potential of the proposed method to estimate the elastic properties of the object in the three-dimensional space.

  17. Acoustically induced tissue displacement for shear wave elasticity imaging using MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haworth, Kevin; Kripfgans, Oliver; Steele, Derek; Swanson, Scott; Sutin, Alexander; Sarvazyan, Armen

    2005-09-01

    Palpitation detects tissue abnormalities by exploiting the vast range of elastic properties found in vivo. The method is limited by tactile sensitivity and the inability to probe tissues at depth. Recent efforts seek to remove these limitation by developing a medical imaging modality based on radiation force shear wave excitation. Our approach uses an acoustic source to launch a shear wave in a tissue-mimicking phantom and MRI to record microscopic displacements. Gelatin (10% wt/vol) was used for the tissue-mimicking phantom. Results for in situ elasticity were obtained using an air-backed 10-cm-diam piezoelectric crystal. To correct for future in vivo beam aberrations, we also employ a high-pressure 1-bit time-reversal cavity. Frequency and pulse duration were selected to optimize the TRA system for acoustic output pressure. Shear wave displacements were recorded by MRI in 1-ms time increments in a complete basis that allowed for 3-D reconstruction and analysis. The Lamé coefficients are then derived from the shear wave velocity and attenuation.

  18. Excitation and detection of shear horizontal waves with electromagnetic acoustic transducers for nondestructive testing of plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Qingzeng; Jiao, Jingpin; Hu, Ping; Zhong, Xi; Wu, Bin; He, Cunfu

    2014-03-01

    The fundamental shear horizontal(SH0) wave has several unique features that are attractive for long-range nondestructive testing(NDT). By a careful design of the geometric configuration, electromagnetic acoustic transducers(EMATs) have the capability to generate a wide range of guided wave modes, such as Lamb waves and shear-horizontal(SH) waves in plates. However, the performance of EMATs is influenced by their parameters. To evaluate the performance of periodic permanent magnet(PPM) EMATs, a distributed-line-source model is developed to calculate the angular acoustic field cross-section in the far-field. Numerical analysis is conducted to investigate the performance of such EMATs with different geometric parameters, such as period and number of magnet arrays, and inner and outer coil widths. Such parameters have a great influence on the directivity of the generated SH0 waves that arises mainly in the amplitude and width of both main and side lobes. According to the numerical analysis, these parameters are optimized to obtain better directivity. Optimized PPM EMATs are designed and used for NDT of strip plates. Experimental results show that the lateral boundary of the strip plate has no perceivable influence on SH0-wave propagation, thus validating their used in NDT. The proposed model predicts the radiation pattern of PPM EMATs, and can be used for their parameter optimization.

  19. Generation and Radiation of Acoustic Waves from a 2D Shear Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.

    2000-01-01

    A thin free shear layer containing an inflection point in the mean velocity profile is inherently unstable. Disturbances in the flow field can excite the unstable behavior of a shear layer, if the appropriate combination of frequencies and shear layer thicknesses exists, causing instability waves to grow. For other combinations of frequencies and thicknesses, these instability waves remain neutral in amplitude or decay in the downstream direction. A growing instability wave radiates noise when its phase velocity becomes supersonic relative to the ambient speed of sound. This occurs primarily when the mean jet flow velocity is supersonic. Thus, the small disturbances in the flow, which themselves may generate noise, have generated an additional noise source. It is the purpose of this problem to test the ability of CAA to compute this additional source of noise. The problem is idealized such that the exciting disturbance is a fixed known acoustic source pulsating at a single frequency. The source is placed inside of a 2D jet with parallel flow; hence, the shear layer thickness is constant. With the source amplitude small enough, the problem is governed by the following set of linear equations given in dimensional form.

  20. Shear horizontal surface acoustic waves in a magneto-electro-elastic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskandari, Shahin; Shodja, Hossein M.

    2016-04-01

    Propagation of shear horizontal surface acoustic waves (SHSAWs) within a functionally graded magneto-electro-elastic (FGMEE) half-space was previously presented (Shodja HM, Eskandari S, Eskandari M. J. Eng. Math. 2015, 1-18) In contrast, the current paper considers propagation of SHSAWs in a medium consisting of an FGMEE layer perfectly bonded to a homogeneous MEE substrate. When the FGMEE layer is described by some special inhomogeneity functions - all the MEE properties have the same variation in depth which may or may not be identical to that of the density - we obtain the exact closed-form solution for the MEE fields. Additionally, certain special inhomogeneity functions with monotonically decreasing bulk shear wave velocity in depth are considered, and the associated boundary value problem is solved using power series solution. This problem in the limit as the layer thickness goes to infinity collapses to an FGMEE half-space with decreasing bulk shear wave velocity in depth. It is shown that in such a medium SHSAW does not propagate. Using power series solution we can afford to consider some FGMEE layers of practical importance, where the composition of the MEE obeys a prescribed volume fraction variation. The dispersive behavior of SHSAWs in the presence of such layers is also examined.

  1. Concurrent Visualization of Acoustic Radiation Force Displacement and Shear Wave Propagation with 7T MRI

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Fite, Brett Z.; Mahakian, Lisa M.; Johnson, Sarah M.; Larrat, Benoit; Dumont, Erik; Ferrara, Katherine W.

    2015-01-01

    Manual palpation is a common and very informative diagnostic tool based on estimation of changes in the stiffness of tissues that result from pathology. In the case of a small lesion or a lesion that is located deep within the body, it is difficult for changes in mechanical properties of tissue to be detected or evaluated via palpation. Furthermore, palpation is non-quantitative and cannot be used to localize the lesion. Magnetic Resonance-guided Focused Ultrasound (MRgFUS) can also be used to evaluate the properties of biological tissues non-invasively. In this study, an MRgFUS system combines high field (7T) MR and 3 MHz focused ultrasound to provide high resolution MR imaging and a small ultrasonic interrogation region (~0.5 x 0.5 x 2 mm), as compared with current clinical systems. MR-Acoustic Radiation Force Imaging (MR-ARFI) provides a reliable and efficient method for beam localization by detecting micron-scale displacements induced by ultrasound mechanical forces. The first aim of this study is to develop a sequence that can concurrently quantify acoustic radiation force displacements and image the resulting transient shear wave. Our motivation in combining these two measurements is to develop a technique that can rapidly provide both ARFI and shear wave velocity estimation data, making it suitable for use in interventional radiology. Secondly, we validate this sequence in vivo by estimating the displacement before and after high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation, and we validate the shear wave velocity in vitro using tissue-mimicking gelatin and tofu phantoms. Such rapid acquisitions are especially useful in interventional radiology applications where minimizing scan time is highly desirable. PMID:26439259

  2. High Temperature Shear Horizontal Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer for Guided Wave Inspection.

    PubMed

    Kogia, Maria; Gan, Tat-Hean; Balachandran, Wamadeva; Livadas, Makis; Kappatos, Vassilios; Szabo, Istvan; Mohimi, Abbas; Round, Andrew

    2016-04-22

    Guided Wave Testing (GWT) using novel Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMATs) is proposed for the inspection of large structures operating at high temperatures. To date, high temperature EMATs have been developed only for thickness measurements and they are not suitable for GWT. A pair of water-cooled EMATs capable of exciting and receiving Shear Horizontal (SH₀) waves for GWT with optimal high temperature properties (up to 500 °C) has been developed. Thermal and Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations of the EMAT design have been performed and experimentally validated. The optimal thermal EMAT design, material selection and operating conditions were calculated. The EMAT was successfully tested regarding its thermal and GWT performance from ambient temperature to 500 °C.

  3. High Temperature Shear Horizontal Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer for Guided Wave Inspection

    PubMed Central

    Kogia, Maria; Gan, Tat-Hean; Balachandran, Wamadeva; Livadas, Makis; Kappatos, Vassilios; Szabo, Istvan; Mohimi, Abbas; Round, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Guided Wave Testing (GWT) using novel Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMATs) is proposed for the inspection of large structures operating at high temperatures. To date, high temperature EMATs have been developed only for thickness measurements and they are not suitable for GWT. A pair of water-cooled EMATs capable of exciting and receiving Shear Horizontal (SH0) waves for GWT with optimal high temperature properties (up to 500 °C) has been developed. Thermal and Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations of the EMAT design have been performed and experimentally validated. The optimal thermal EMAT design, material selection and operating conditions were calculated. The EMAT was successfully tested regarding its thermal and GWT performance from ambient temperature to 500 °C. PMID:27110792

  4. Measurement of Plasma Clotting Using Shear Horizontal Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagayama, Tatsuya; Kondoh, Jun; Oonishi, Tomoko; Hosokawa, Kazuya

    2013-07-01

    The monitoring of blood coagulation is important during operation. In this study, a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH-SAW) sensor is applied to monitor plasma clotting. An SH-SAW sensor with a metallized surface for mechanical perturbation detection can detect plasma clotting. As plasma clotting is a gel formation reaction, the SH-SAW sensor detects viscoelastic property changes. On the other hand, an SH-SAW sensor with a free surface for electrical perturbation detection detects only the liquid mixing effect. No electrical property changes due to plasma clotting are obtained using this sensor. A planar electrochemical sensor is also used to monitor plasma clotting. In impedance spectral analysis, plasma clotting is measured. However, in the measurement of time responses, no differences between clotting and nonclotting are obtained. Therefore, the SH-SAW sensor is useful for monitoring plasma clotting.

  5. Detection of cells captured with antigens on shear horizontal surface-acoustic-wave sensors.

    PubMed

    Hao, Hsu-Chao; Chang, Hwan-You; Wang, Tsung-Pao; Yao, Da-Jeng

    2013-02-01

    Techniques to separate cells are widely applied in immunology. The technique to separate a specific antigen on a microfluidic platform involves the use of a shear horizontal surface-acoustic-wave (SH-SAW) sensor. With specific antibodies conjugated onto the surface of the SH-SAW sensors, this technique can serve to identify specific cells in bodily fluids. Jurkat cells, used as a target in this work, provide a model of cells in small abundance (1:1000) for isolation and purification with the ultimate goal of targeting even more dilute cells. T cells were separated from a mixed-cell medium on a chip (Jurkat cells/K562 cells, 1/1000). A novel microchamber was developed to capture cells during the purification, which required a large biosample. Cell detection was demonstrated through the performance of genetic identification on the chip.

  6. Quasi-plane shear wave propagation induced by acoustic radiation force with a focal line region: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Min; Abbott, Derek; Lu, Minhua; Liu, Huafeng

    2016-03-01

    Shear wave propagation speed has been regarded as an attractive indicator for quantitatively measuring the intrinsic mechanical properties of soft tissues. While most existing techniques use acoustic radiation force (ARF) excitation with focal spot region based on linear array transducers, we try to employ a special ARF with a focal line region and apply it to viscoelastic materials to create shear waves. First, a two-dimensional capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer with 64 × 128 fully controllable elements is realised and simulated to generate this special ARF. Then three-dimensional finite element models are developed to simulate the resulting shear wave propagation through tissue phantom materials. Three different phantoms are explored in our simulation study using: (a) an isotropic viscoelastic medium, (b) within a cylindrical inclusion, and (c) a transverse isotropic viscoelastic medium. For each phantom, the ARF creates a quasi-plane shear wave which has a preferential propagation direction perpendicular to the focal line excitation. The propagation of the quasi-plane shear wave is investigated and then used to reconstruct shear moduli sequentially after the estimation of shear wave speed. In the phantom with a transverse isotropic viscoelastic medium, the anisotropy results in maximum speed parallel to the fiber direction and minimum speed perpendicular to the fiber direction. The simulation results show that the line excitation extends the displacement field to obtain a large imaging field in comparison with spot excitation, and demonstrate its potential usage in measuring the mechanical properties of anisotropic tissues. PMID:26768475

  7. Generation and Radiation of Acoustic Waves from a 2-D Shear Layer using the CE/SE Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loh, Ching Y.; Wang, Xiao Y.; Chang, Sin-Chung; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.

    2000-01-01

    In the present work, the generation and radiation of acoustic waves from a 2-D shear layer problem is considered. An acoustic source inside of a 2-D jet excites an instability wave in the shear layer, resulting in sound Mach radiation. The numerical solution is obtained by solving the Euler equations using the space time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) method. Linearization is achieved through choosing a small acoustic source amplitude. The Euler equations are nondimensionalized as instructed in the problem statement. All other conditions are the same except that the Crocco's relation has a slightly different form. In the following, after a brief sketch of the CE/SE method, the numerical results for this problem are presented.

  8. Shear mode bulk acoustic wave resonator based on c-axis oriented AlN thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milyutin, Evgeny; Gentil, Sandrine; Muralt, Paul

    2008-10-01

    A shear mode resonator based on bulk waves trapped in c-axis oriented AlN thin films was fabricated, simulated, and tested. The active 1.55 μm thick AlN layer was deposited on top of an acoustic Bragg reflector composed of SiO2/AlN λ /4 layer pairs. The resonance was excited by means of interdigitated electrodes consisting of 150 nm thick Al lines. Analytical and simulation calculations show that the in-plane electric field excites bulk acoustic wave shear modes that are trapped in such an AlN film slab. The experimental frequency corresponds well to the theoretical one. The evaluated resonance of the fundamental shear mode at 1.86 GHz revealed a coupling of 0.15% and Q-factor of 870 in air and 260 in silicon oil.

  9. Quantitative shear wave optical coherence elastography (SW-OCE) with acoustic radiation force impulses (ARFI) induced by phase array transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Shaozhen; Le, Nhan Minh; Wang, Ruikang K.; Huang, Zhihong

    2015-03-01

    Shear Wave Optical Coherence Elastography (SW-OCE) uses the speed of propagating shear waves to provide a quantitative measurement of localized shear modulus, making it a valuable technique for the elasticity characterization of tissues such as skin and ocular tissue. One of the main challenges in shear wave elastography is to induce a reliable source of shear wave; most of nowadays techniques use external vibrators which have several drawbacks such as limited wave propagation range and/or difficulties in non-invasive scans requiring precisions, accuracy. Thus, we propose linear phase array ultrasound transducer as a remote wave source, combined with the high-speed, 47,000-frame-per-second Shear-wave visualization provided by phase-sensitive OCT. In this study, we observed for the first time shear waves induced by a 128 element linear array ultrasound imaging transducer, while the ultrasound and OCT images (within the OCE detection range) were triggered simultaneously. Acoustic radiation force impulses are induced by emitting 10 MHz tone-bursts of sub-millisecond durations (between 50 μm - 100 μm). Ultrasound beam steering is achieved by programming appropriate phase delay, covering a lateral range of 10 mm and full OCT axial (depth) range in the imaging sample. Tissue-mimicking phantoms with agarose concentration of 0.5% and 1% was used in the SW-OCE measurements as the only imaging samples. The results show extensive improvements over the range of SW-OCE elasticity map; such improvements can also be seen over shear wave velocities in softer and stiffer phantoms, as well as determining the boundary of multiple inclusions with different stiffness. This approach opens up the feasibility to combine medical ultrasound imaging and SW-OCE for high-resolution localized quantitative measurement of tissue biomechanical property.

  10. Shear horizontal surface acoustic wave microsensor for Class A viral and bacterial detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Branch, Darren W.; Huber, Dale L.; Brozik, Susan Marie; Edwards, Thayne L.

    2008-10-01

    The rapid autonomous detection of pathogenic microorganisms and bioagents by field deployable platforms is critical to human health and safety. To achieve a high level of sensitivity for fluidic detection applications, we have developed a 330 MHz Love wave acoustic biosensor on 36{sup o} YX Lithium Tantalate (LTO). Each die has four delay-line detection channels, permitting simultaneous measurement of multiple analytes or for parallel detection of single analyte containing samples. Crucial to our biosensor was the development of a transducer that excites the shear horizontal (SH) mode, through optimization of the transducer, minimizing propagation losses and reducing undesirable modes. Detection was achieved by comparing the reference phase of an input signal to the phase shift from the biosensor using an integrated electronic multi-readout system connected to a laptop computer or PDA. The Love wave acoustic arrays were centered at 330 MHz, shifting to 325-328 MHz after application of the silicon dioxide waveguides. The insertion loss was -6 dB with an out-of-band rejection of 35 dB. The amplitude and phase ripple were 2.5 dB p-p and 2-3{sup o} p-p, respectively. Time-domain gating confirmed propagation of the SH mode while showing suppression of the triple transit. Antigen capture and mass detection experiments demonstrate a sensitivity of 7.19 {+-} 0.74{sup o} mm{sup 2}/ng with a detection limit of 6.7 {+-} 0.40 pg/mm{sup 2} for each channel.

  11. The Acoustic Field Generated by Interaction of a Shear-Layer Instability Wave with the Downstream Lip of a Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerschen, E. J.

    1997-11-01

    High amplitude acoustic resonances may develop in cavities that are exposed to high-speed flows. These resonances arise from a feedback loop which involves a downstream-propagating instability wave in the shear layer across the open face of the cavity, and an upstream-propagating acoustic field inside the cavity. These two wave fields are coupled by the interactions at the edges of the cavity. A theory is presented for the acoustic field generated by the interaction of a shear-layer instability wave with a thin overhanging downstream lip of a cavity. The theory addresses the case of a supersonic free stream and utilizes the vortex-sheet approximation for the shear layer. The linearized unsteady flow is described by a mixed boundary value problem which is solved utilizing the Wiener-Hopf technique. The upstream-propagating acoustic field within the cavity is expressed as a eigenfunction series in terms of the leaky-cavity modes. Results for the pressure distribution along the bottom surface of the cavity are presented for a representative case. For shallow cavities, the feedback to the upstream lip is dominated by the first few leaky-cavity modes.

  12. Shear wave elastography using amplitude-modulated acoustic radiation force and phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thu-Mai; Arnal, Bastien; Song, Shaozhen; Huang, Zhihong; Wang, Ruikang K.; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Investigating the elasticity of ocular tissue (cornea and intraocular lens) could help the understanding and management of pathologies related to biomechanical deficiency. In previous studies, we introduced a setup based on optical coherence tomography for shear wave elastography (SWE) with high resolution and high sensitivity. SWE determines tissue stiffness from the propagation speed of shear waves launched within tissue. We proposed acoustic radiation force to remotely induce shear waves by focusing an ultrasound (US) beam in tissue, similar to several elastography techniques. Minimizing the maximum US pressure is essential in ophthalmology for safety reasons. For this purpose, we propose a pulse compression approach. It utilizes coded US emissions to generate shear waves where the energy is spread over a long emission, and then numerically compressed into a short, localized, and high-energy pulse. We used a 7.5-MHz single-element focused transducer driven by coded excitations where the amplitude is modulated by a linear frequency-swept square wave (1 to 7 kHz). An inverse filter approach was used for compression. We demonstrate the feasibility of performing shear wave elastography measurements in tissue-mimicking phantoms at low US pressures (mechanical index <0.6).

  13. Shear wave elastography using amplitude-modulated acoustic radiation force and phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thu-Mai; Arnal, Bastien; Song, Shaozhen; Huang, Zhihong; Wang, Ruikang K.; O’Donnell, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Investigating the elasticity of ocular tissue (cornea and intraocular lens) could help the understanding and management of pathologies related to biomechanical deficiency. In previous studies, we introduced a setup based on optical coherence tomography for shear wave elastography (SWE) with high resolution and high sensitivity. SWE determines tissue stiffness from the propagation speed of shear waves launched within tissue. We proposed acoustic radiation force to remotely induce shear waves by focusing an ultrasound (US) beam in tissue, similar to several elastography techniques. Minimizing the maximum US pressure is essential in ophthalmology for safety reasons. For this purpose, we propose a pulse compression approach. It utilizes coded US emissions to generate shear waves where the energy is spread over a long emission, and then numerically compressed into a short, localized, and high-energy pulse. We used a 7.5-MHz single-element focused transducer driven by coded excitations where the amplitude is modulated by a linear frequency-swept square wave (1 to 7 kHz). An inverse filter approach was used for compression. We demonstrate the feasibility of performing shear wave elastography measurements in tissue-mimicking phantoms at low US pressures (mechanical index <0.6). PMID:25554970

  14. Factors that influence kidney shear wave speed assessed by acoustic radiation force impulse elastography in patients without kidney pathology.

    PubMed

    Bota, Simona; Bob, Flaviu; Sporea, Ioan; Şirli, Roxana; Popescu, Alina

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to assess kidney shear wave speed by means of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography in patients without kidney pathology ("normal" patients) and to identify the factors that influence it. We analyzed 91 "normal" patients in whom kidney shear wave speed was assessed by means of ARFI elastography. Five valid ARFI elastographic measurements were obtained in all "normal" patients in both kidneys. In univariate analysis, age (r = -0.370, p = 0.003), gender (female vs. male, r = -0.305, p = 0.003) and measurement depth (r = -0.285, p = 0.01) were significantly correlated with kidney shear wave speed values assessed by ARFI elastography, whereas body mass index, kidney length and renal parenchyma thickness were not correlated. In multivariate analysis, only age (p = 0.006) and gender (p = 0.03) were significantly correlated with kidney shear wave speed values. In conclusion, kidney shear wave speed values assessed by ARFI elastography in "normal" patients are influenced mainly by age and gender and less by measurement depth.

  15. Intracardiac Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) and Shear Wave Imaging in Pigs with Focal Infarctions

    PubMed Central

    Hollender, Peter; Bradway, David; Wolf, Patrick; Goswami, Robi; Trahey, Gregg

    2013-01-01

    Four pigs, three with focal infarctions in the apical intraventricular septum (IVS) and/or left ventricular free wall (LVFW), were imaged with an intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) transducer. Custom beam sequences were used to excite the myocardium with focused acoustic radiation force (ARF) impulses and image the subsequent tissue response. Tissue displacement in response to the ARF excitation was calculated with a phase-based estimator, and transverse wave magnitude and velocity were each estimated at every depth. The excitation sequence was repeated rapidly, either in the same location to generate 40 Hz M-Modes at a single steering angle, or with a modulated steering angle to synthesize 2-D displacement magnitude and shear wave velocity images at 17 points in the cardiac cycle. Both types of images were acquired from various views in the right and left ventricles, in and out of infarcted regions. In all animals, ARFI and SWEI estimates indicated diastolic relaxation and systolic contraction in non-infarcted tissues. The M-Mode sequences showed high beat-to-beat spatio-temporal repeatability of the measurements for each imaging plane. In views of noninfarcted tissue in the diseased animals, no significant elastic remodeling was indicated when compared to the control. Where available, views of infarcted tissue were compared to similar views from the control animal. In views of the LVFW, the infarcted tissue presented as stiff and non-contractile compared to the control. In a view of the IVS, no significant difference was seen between infarcted and healthy tissue, while in another view, a heterogeneous infarction was seen presenting itself as non-contractile in systole. PMID:25004538

  16. Shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave phononic device with high density filling material for ultra-low power sensing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, M.; Bhethanabotla, V. R.; Sankaranarayanan, S. K. R. S.

    2014-06-23

    Finite element simulations of a phononic shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor based on ST 90°-X Quartz reveal a dramatic reduction in power consumption. The phononic sensor is realized by artificially structuring the delay path to form an acoustic meta-material comprised of a periodic microcavity array incorporating high-density materials such as tantalum or tungsten. Constructive interference of the scattered and secondary reflected waves at every microcavity interface leads to acoustic energy confinement in the high-density regions translating into reduced power loss. Tantalum filled cavities show the best performance while tungsten inclusions create a phononic bandgap. Based on our simulation results, SAW devices with tantalum filled microcavities were fabricated and shown to significantly decrease insertion loss. Our findings offer encouraging prospects for designing low power, highly sensitive portable biosensors.

  17. Analytic studies of dispersive properties of shear Alfvén and acoustic wave spectra in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Chavdarovski, Ilija; Zonca, Fulvio

    2014-05-15

    The properties of the low frequency shear Alfvén and acoustic wave spectra in toroidal geometry are examined analytically and numerically considering wave particle interactions with magnetically trapped and circulating particles, using the theoretical model described in [I. Chavdarovski and F. Zonca, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 51, 115001 (2009)] and following the framework of the generalized fishbone-like dispersion relation. Effects of trapped particles as well as diamagnetic effects on the frequencies and damping rates of the beta-induced Alfvén eigenmodes, kinetic ballooning modes and beta-induced Alfvén-acoustic eigenmodes are discussed and shown to be crucial to give a proper assessment of mode structure and stability conditions. Present results also demonstrate the mutual coupling of these various branches and suggest that frequency as well as mode polarization are crucial for their identification on the basis of experimental evidence.

  18. Generation and Radiation of Acoustic Waves from a 2-D Shear Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agarwal, Anurag; Morris, Philip J.

    2000-01-01

    A parallel numerical simulation of the radiation of sound from an acoustic source inside a 2-D jet is presented in this paper. This basic benchmark problem is used as a test case for scattering problems that are presently being solved by using the Impedance Mismatch Method (IMM). In this technique, a solid body in the domain is represented by setting the acoustic impedance of each medium, encountered by a wave, to a different value. This impedance discrepancy results in reflected and scattered waves with appropriate amplitudes. The great advantage of the use of this method is that no modifications to a simple Cartesian grid need to be made for complicated geometry bodies. Thus, high order finite difference schemes may be applied simply to all parts of the domain. In the IMM, the total perturbation field is split into incident and scattered fields. The incident pressure is assumed to be known and the equivalent sources for the scattered field are associated with the presence of the scattering body (through the impedance mismatch) and the propagation of the incident field through a non-uniform flow. An earlier version of the technique could only handle uniform flow in the vicinity of the source and at the outflow boundary. Scattering problems in non-uniform mean flow are of great practical importance (for example, scattering from a high lift device in a non-uniform mean flow or the effects of a fuselage boundary layer). The solution to this benchmark problem, which has an acoustic wave propagating through a non-uniform mean flow, serves as a test case for the extensions of the IMM technique.

  19. Excited waves in shear layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechert, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    The generation of instability waves in free shear layers is investigated. The model assumes an infinitesimally thin shear layer shed from a semi-infinite plate which is exposed to sound excitation. The acoustical shear layer excitation by a source further away from the plate edge in the downstream direction is very weak while upstream from the plate edge the excitation is relatively efficient. A special solution is given for the source at the plate edge. The theory is then extended to two streams on both sides of the shear layer having different velocities and densities. Furthermore, the excitation of a shear layer in a channel is calculated. A reference quantity is found for the magnitude of the excited instability waves. For a comparison with measurements, numerical computations of the velocity field outside the shear layer were carried out.

  20. Influences of shear in the ion parallel drift velocity and of inhomogeneous perpendicular electric field on generation of oblique ion acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyasov, Askar; Chernyshov, Alexander; Mogilevsky, Mikhail; Golovchanskaya, Irina; Kozelov, Boris

    2016-03-01

    It is well known that the broadband electrostatic turbulence observed in the topside auroral ionosphere can be identified with electrostatic ion cyclotron and/or oblique ion acoustic waves. Under certain conditions generation of the ion cyclotron modes is inhibited, so that the oblique ion acoustic waves become the prevailing part of the broadband noise. While generation of ion cyclotron waves by the inhomogeneous distribution of energy density (IEDD) instability has been actively studied in recent years, much less attention was paid to the excitation of ion acoustic waves by means of the IEDD instability. In this work, influence of shear in the ion parallel drift velocities and of inhomogeneous perpendicular electric field on generation of nonlocal oblique ion acoustic mode is studied. It is demonstrated that the shear of the ion parallel drift velocities can generate ion acoustic waves. It is shown that this mechanism of instability development provides broadband spectrum in the frequency range around 0.1 of ion gyrofrequency, and thus, this instability can be invoked to explain the observed broadband electrostatic turbulence in the auroral region. Effect of the main background plasma parameters on excitation of oblique ion acoustic waves is analyzed.

  1. Detection of bioagents using a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave biosensor

    DOEpatents

    Larson, Richard S; Hjelle, Brian; Hall, Pam R; Brown, David C; Bisoffi, Marco; Brozik, Susan M; Branch, Darren W; Edwards, Thayne L; Wheeler, David

    2014-04-29

    A biosensor combining the sensitivity of surface acoustic waves (SAW) generated at a frequency of 325 MHz with the specificity provided by antibodies and other ligands for the detection of viral agents. In a preferred embodiment, a lithium tantalate based SAW transducer with silicon dioxide waveguide sensor platform featuring three test and one reference delay lines was used to adsorb antibodies directed against Coxsackie virus B4 or the negative-stranded category A bioagent Sin Nombre virus (SNV). Rapid detection of increasing concentrations of viral particles was linear over a range of order of magnitude for both viruses, and the sensor's selectivity for its target was not compromised by the presence of confounding Herpes Simplex virus type 1 The biosensor was able to delect SNV at doses lower than the load of virus typically found in a human patient suffering from hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS).

  2. Biological investigation using a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave sensor: small "click generated" DNA hybridization detection.

    PubMed

    Zerrouki, Chouki; Fourati, Najla; Lucas, Romain; Vergnaud, Julien; Fougnion, Jean-Marie; Zerrouki, Rachida; Pernelle, Christine

    2010-12-15

    We have used a 104 MHz lithium tantalate (LiTaO(3)) surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor to investigate DNA probes grafting and their further hybridization with natural and click generated (Cg-DNA) oligonucleotides. Natural DNA targets of different strand lengths, tosyl-di(tri, tetra) thymidine and azido-di(tri, tetra) thymidine oligonucleotides were tested. In our case, and besides the follow-up of a 34mer DNA hybridization, we detected complementarity between natural DNA probes and azido-tetra-thymidine for the first time, whereas previous hybridization studies reported a minimal of 10-mer oligonucleotides recognition length. We also demonstrated that contrarily to natural DNA, the synthesized oligonucleotides present stable bonds with complementary DNA strands. Frequency responses of both grafting and hybridization have shown the same shape: an exponential decay with different time constants, (187±1)s and (68±19) s for grafting and hybridization respectively. We have also shown that recognition between DNA strands and tetranucleotide analogues is comparable to natural 34mer DNA bases and presents the same time constant within uncertainties.

  3. Acoustic Waves in Medical Imaging and Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Sarvazyan, Armen P.; Urban, Matthew W.; Greenleaf, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Up until about two decades ago acoustic imaging and ultrasound imaging were synonymous. The term “ultrasonography,” or its abbreviated version “sonography” meant an imaging modality based on the use of ultrasonic compressional bulk waves. Since the 1990s numerous acoustic imaging modalities started to emerge based on the use of a different mode of acoustic wave: shear waves. It was demonstrated that imaging with these waves can provide very useful and very different information about the biological tissue being examined. We will discuss physical basis for the differences between these two basic modes of acoustic waves used in medical imaging and analyze the advantages associated with shear acoustic imaging. A comprehensive analysis of the range of acoustic wavelengths, velocities, and frequencies that have been used in different imaging applications will be presented. We will discuss the potential for future shear wave imaging applications. PMID:23643056

  4. Acoustic waves in medical imaging and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Sarvazyan, Armen P; Urban, Matthew W; Greenleaf, James F

    2013-07-01

    Up until about two decades ago acoustic imaging and ultrasound imaging were synonymous. The term ultrasonography, or its abbreviated version sonography, meant an imaging modality based on the use of ultrasonic compressional bulk waves. Beginning in the 1990s, there started to emerge numerous acoustic imaging modalities based on the use of a different mode of acoustic wave: shear waves. Imaging with these waves was shown to provide very useful and very different information about the biological tissue being examined. We discuss the physical basis for the differences between these two basic modes of acoustic waves used in medical imaging and analyze the advantages associated with shear acoustic imaging. A comprehensive analysis of the range of acoustic wavelengths, velocities and frequencies that have been used in different imaging applications is presented. We discuss the potential for future shear wave imaging applications.

  5. Hepatic and Splenic Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Shear Wave Velocity Elastography in Children with Liver Disease Associated with Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Cañas, Teresa; Maciá, Araceli; Muñoz-Codoceo, Rosa Ana; Fontanilla, Teresa; González-Rios, Patricia; Miralles, María; Gómez-Mardones, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Background. Liver disease associated with cystic fibrosis (CFLD) is the second cause of mortality in these patients. The diagnosis is difficult because none of the available tests are specific enough. Noninvasive elastographic techniques have been proven to be useful to diagnose hepatic fibrosis. Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging is an elastography imaging system. The purpose of the work was to study the utility of liver and spleen ARFI Imaging in the detection of CFLD. Method. 72 patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) were studied and received ARFI imaging in the liver and in the spleen. SWV values were compared with the values of 60 healthy controls. Results. Comparing the SWV values of CFLD with the control healthy group, values in the right lobe were higher in patients with CFLD. We found a SWV RHL cut-off value to detect CFLD of 1.27 m/s with a sensitivity of 56.5% and a specificity of 90.5%. CF patients were found to have higher SWC spleen values than the control group. Conclusions. ARFI shear wave elastography in the right hepatic lobe is a noninvasive technique useful to detect CFLD in our sample of patients. Splenic SWV values are higher in CF patients, without any clinical consequence. PMID:26609528

  6. Imaging feedback for histotripsy by characterizing dynamics of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI)-induced shear waves excited in a treated volume.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tzu-Yin; Hall, Timothy L; Xu, Zhen; Fowlkes, J Brian; Cain, Charles A

    2014-07-01

    Our previous study indicated that shear waves decay and propagate at a lower speed as they propagate into a tissue volume mechanically fractionated by histotripsy. In this paper, we hypothesize that the change in the shear dynamics is related to the degree of tissue fractionation, and can be used to predict histotripsy treatment outcomes. To test this hypothesis, lesions with different degrees of tissue fractionation were created in agar-graphite tissue phantoms and ex vivo kidneys with increasing numbers of therapy pulses, from 0 to 2000 pulses per treatment location. The therapy pulses were 3-cycle 750-kHz focused ultrasound delivered at a peak negative/positive pressure of 17/108 MPa and a repetition rate of 50 Hz. The shear waves were excited by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) focused at the center of the lesion. The spatial and temporal behavior of the propagating shear waves was measured with ultrasound plane wave imaging. The temporal displacement profile at a lateral location 10 mm offset to the shear excitation region was detected with M-mode imaging. The decay and delay of the shear waves were quantitatively characterized on the temporal displacement profile. Results showed significant changes in two characteristics on the temporal displacement profile: the peak-to-peak displacement decayed exponentially with increasing numbers of therapy pulses; the relative time-to-peak displacement increased with increasing numbers of therapy pulses, and appeared to saturate at higher numbers of pulses. Correspondingly, the degree of tissues fractionation, as indicated by the percentage of structurally intact cell nuclei, decreased exponentially with increasing numbers of therapy pulses. Strong linear correlations were found between the two characteristics and the degree of tissue fractionation. These results suggest that the characteristics of the shear temporal displacement profile may provide useful feedback information regarding the treatment outcomes.

  7. Imaging transverse isotropic properties of muscle by monitoring acoustic radiation force induced shear waves using a 2-D matrix ultrasound array.

    PubMed

    Wang, Michael; Byram, Brett; Palmeri, Mark; Rouze, Ned; Nightingale, Kathryn

    2013-09-01

    A 2-D matrix ultrasound array is used to monitor acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) induced shear wave propagation in 3-D in excised canine muscle. From a single acquisition, both the shear wave phase and group velocity can be calculated to estimate the shear wave speed (SWS) along and across the fibers, as well as the fiber orientation in 3-D. The true fiber orientation found using the 3-D radon transform on B-mode volumes of the muscle was used to verify the fiber direction estimated from shear wave data. For the simplified imaging case when the ARFI push can be oriented perpendicular to the fibers, the error in estimating the fiber orientation using phase and group velocity measurements was 3.5 ± 2.6° and 3.4 ± 1.4° (mean ± standard deviation), respectively, over six acquisitions in different muscle samples. For the more general case when the push is oblique to the fibers, the angle between the push and the fibers is found using the dominant orientation of the shear wave displacement magnitude. In 30 acquisitions on six different muscle samples with oblique push angles up to 40°, the error in the estimated fiber orientation using phase and group velocity measurements was 5.4 ± 2.9° and 5.3 ± 3.2°, respectively, after estimating and accounting for the additional unknown push angle. Either the phase or group velocity measurements can be used to estimate fiber orientation and SWS along and across the fibers. Although it is possible to perform these measurements when the push is not perpendicular to the fibers, highly oblique push angles induce lower shear wave amplitudes which can cause inaccurate SWS measurements.

  8. Ultrasonic shear wave couplant

    DOEpatents

    Kupperman, David S.; Lanham, Ronald N.

    1985-01-01

    Ultrasonically testing of an article at high temperatures is accomplished by the use of a compact layer of a dry ceramic powder as a couplant in a method which involves providing an ultrasonic transducer as a probe capable of transmitting shear waves, coupling the probe to the article through a thin compact layer of a dry ceramic powder, propagating a shear wave from the probe through the ceramic powder and into the article to develop echo signals, and analyzing the echo signals to determine at least one physical characteristic of the article.

  9. Ultrasonic shear wave couplant

    DOEpatents

    Kupperman, D.S.; Lanham, R.N.

    1984-04-11

    Ultrasonically testing of an article at high temperatures is accomplished by the use of a compact layer of a dry ceramic powder as a couplant in a method which involves providing an ultrasonic transducer as a probe capable of transmitting shear waves, coupling the probe to the article through a thin compact layer of a dry ceramic powder, propagating a shear wave from the probe through the ceramic powder and into the article to develop echo signals, and analyzing the echo signals to determine at least one physical characteristic of the article.

  10. Kidney Shear Wave Speed Values in Subjects with and without Renal Pathology and Inter-Operator Reproducibility of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Elastography (ARFI) - Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Bob, Flaviu; Bota, Simona; Sporea, Ioan; Sirli, Roxana; Petrica, Ligia; Schiller, Adalbert

    2014-01-01

    Aim to assess the inter-operator reproducibility of kidney shear wave speed, evaluated by means of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) elastography, and the factors which influence it. Methods Our prospective pilot study included 107 subjects with or without kidney pathology in which kidney shear wave speed was evaluated by means of ARFI elastography. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess ARFI elastography reproducibility. Results A strong agreement was obtained between kidney shear wave speed measurements obtained by the two operators: ICC = 0.71 (right kidney) and 0.69 (left kidney). Smaller ICCs were obtained in “healthy subjects”, as compared to patients with kidney diseases (0.68 vs. 0.75), in women as compared with men (0.59 vs. 0.78), in subjects younger than 50 years as compared with those aged at least 50 years (0.63 vs. 0.71), in obese as compared with normal weight and overweight subjects (0.36 vs. 0.66 and 0.78) and in case of measurements depth <4 cm or >6 cm as compared with those performed at a depth of 4–6 cm from the skin (0.32 and 0.60 vs. 0.81). Conclusion ARFI elastography is a reproducible method for kidney shear wave speed assessment. PMID:25426849

  11. Evaluating the Feasibility of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Shear Wave Elasticity Imaging of the Uterine Cervix With an Intracavity Array: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Feltovich, Helen; Homyk, Andrew D.; Carlson, Lindsey C.; Hall, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    The uterine cervix softens, shortens, and dilates throughout pregnancy in response to progressive disorganization of its layered collagen microstructure. This process is an essential part of normal pregnancy, but premature changes are associated with preterm birth. Clinically, there are no reliable noninvasive methods to objectively measure cervical softening or assess cervical microstructure. The goal of these preliminary studies was to evaluate the feasibility of using an intracavity ultrasound array to generate acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) excitations in the uterine cervix through simulation, and to optimize the acoustic radiation force (ARF) excitation for shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) of the tissue stiffness. The cervix is a unique soft tissue target for SWEI because it has significantly greater acoustic attenuation (α = 1.3 to 2.0 dB·cm−1·MHz−1) than other soft tissues, and the pathology being studied tends to lead to an increase in tissue compliance, with healthy cervix being relatively stiff compared with other soft tissues (E ≈ 25 kPa). Additionally, the cervix can only be accessed in vivo using a transvaginal or catheter-based array, which places additional constraints on the excitation focal characteristics that can be used during SWEI. Finite element method (FEM) models of SWEI show that larger-aperture, catheter-based arrays can utilize excitation frequencies up to 7 MHz to generate adequate focal gain up to focal depths 10 to 15 mm deep, with higher frequencies suffering from excessive amounts of near-field acoustic attenuation. Using full-aperture excitations can yield ~40% increases in ARFI-induced displacements, but also restricts the depth of field of the excitation to ~0.5 mm, compared with 2 to 6 mm, which limits the range that can be used for shear wave characterization of the tissue. The center-frequency content of the shear wave particle velocity profiles ranges from 1.5 to 2.5 kHz, depending on the focal

  12. Shear wave transmissivity measurement by color Doppler shear wave imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamakoshi, Yoshiki; Yamazaki, Mayuko; Kasahara, Toshihiro; Sunaguchi, Naoki; Yuminaka, Yasushi

    2016-07-01

    Shear wave elastography is a useful method for evaluating tissue stiffness. We have proposed a novel shear wave imaging method (color Doppler shear wave imaging: CD SWI), which utilizes a signal processing unit in ultrasound color flow imaging in order to detect the shear wave wavefront in real time. Shear wave velocity is adopted to characterize tissue stiffness; however, it is difficult to measure tissue stiffness with high spatial resolution because of the artifact produced by shear wave diffraction. Spatial average processing in the image reconstruction method also degrades the spatial resolution. In this paper, we propose a novel measurement method for the shear wave transmissivity of a tissue boundary. Shear wave wavefront maps are acquired by changing the displacement amplitude of the shear wave and the transmissivity of the shear wave, which gives the difference in shear wave velocity between two mediums separated by the boundary, is measured from the ratio of two threshold voltages required to form the shear wave wavefronts in the two mediums. From this method, a high-resolution shear wave amplitude imaging method that reconstructs a tissue boundary is proposed.

  13. Modeling, design, packing and experimental analysis of liquid-phase shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollard, Thomas B

    Recent advances in microbiology, computational capabilities, and microelectromechanical-system fabrication techniques permit modeling, design, and fabrication of low-cost, miniature, sensitive and selective liquid-phase sensors and lab-on-a-chip systems. Such devices are expected to replace expensive, time-consuming, and bulky laboratory-based testing equipment. Potential applications for devices include: fluid characterization for material science and industry; chemical analysis in medicine and pharmacology; study of biological processes; food analysis; chemical kinetics analysis; and environmental monitoring. When combined with liquid-phase packaging, sensors based on surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) technology are considered strong candidates. For this reason such devices are focused on in this work; emphasis placed on device modeling and packaging for liquid-phase operation. Regarding modeling, topics considered include mode excitation efficiency of transducers; mode sensitivity based on guiding structure materials/geometries; and use of new piezoelectric materials. On packaging, topics considered include package interfacing with SAW devices, and minimization of packaging effects on device performance. In this work novel numerical models are theoretically developed and implemented to study propagation and transduction characteristics of sensor designs using wave/constitutive equations, Green's functions, and boundary/finite element methods. Using developed simulation tools that consider finite-thickness of all device electrodes, transduction efficiency for SAW transducers with neighboring uniform or periodic guiding electrodes is reported for the first time. Results indicate finite electrode thickness strongly affects efficiency. Using dense electrodes, efficiency is shown to approach 92% and 100% for uniform and periodic electrode guiding, respectively; yielding improved sensor detection limits. A numerical sensitivity analysis is presented targeting viscosity

  14. Comparison of ultrasound B-mode, strain imaging, acoustic radiation force impulse displacement and shear wave velocity imaging using real time clinical breast images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manickam, Kavitha; Machireddy, Ramasubba Reddy; Raghavan, Bagyam

    2016-04-01

    It has been observed that many pathological process increase the elastic modulus of soft tissue compared to normal. In order to image tissue stiffness using ultrasound, a mechanical compression is applied to tissues of interest and local tissue deformation is measured. Based on the mechanical excitation, ultrasound stiffness imaging methods are classified as compression or strain imaging which is based on external compression and Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging which is based on force generated by focused ultrasound. When ultrasound is focused on tissue, shear wave is generated in lateral direction and shear wave velocity is proportional to stiffness of tissues. The work presented in this paper investigates strain elastography and ARFI imaging in clinical cancer diagnostics using real time patient data. Ultrasound B-mode imaging, strain imaging, ARFI displacement and ARFI shear wave velocity imaging were conducted on 50 patients (31 Benign and 23 malignant categories) using Siemens S2000 machine. True modulus contrast values were calculated from the measured shear wave velocities. For ultrasound B-mode, ARFI displacement imaging and strain imaging, observed image contrast and Contrast to Noise Ratio were calculated for benign and malignant cancers. Observed contrast values were compared based on the true modulus contrast values calculated from shear wave velocity imaging. In addition to that, student unpaired t-test was conducted for all the four techniques and box plots are presented. Results show that, strain imaging is better for malignant cancers whereas ARFI imaging is superior than strain imaging and B-mode for benign lesions representations.

  15. Shear waves in inhomogeneous, compressible fluids in a gravity field.

    PubMed

    Godin, Oleg A

    2014-03-01

    While elastic solids support compressional and shear waves, waves in ideal compressible fluids are usually thought of as compressional waves. Here, a class of acoustic-gravity waves is studied in which the dilatation is identically zero, and the pressure and density remain constant in each fluid particle. These shear waves are described by an exact analytic solution of linearized hydrodynamics equations in inhomogeneous, quiescent, inviscid, compressible fluids with piecewise continuous parameters in a uniform gravity field. It is demonstrated that the shear acoustic-gravity waves also can be supported by moving fluids as well as quiescent, viscous fluids with and without thermal conductivity. Excitation of a shear-wave normal mode by a point source and the normal mode distortion in realistic environmental models are considered. The shear acoustic-gravity waves are likely to play a significant role in coupling wave processes in the ocean and atmosphere.

  16. Shear waves in inhomogeneous, compressible fluids in a gravity field.

    PubMed

    Godin, Oleg A

    2014-03-01

    While elastic solids support compressional and shear waves, waves in ideal compressible fluids are usually thought of as compressional waves. Here, a class of acoustic-gravity waves is studied in which the dilatation is identically zero, and the pressure and density remain constant in each fluid particle. These shear waves are described by an exact analytic solution of linearized hydrodynamics equations in inhomogeneous, quiescent, inviscid, compressible fluids with piecewise continuous parameters in a uniform gravity field. It is demonstrated that the shear acoustic-gravity waves also can be supported by moving fluids as well as quiescent, viscous fluids with and without thermal conductivity. Excitation of a shear-wave normal mode by a point source and the normal mode distortion in realistic environmental models are considered. The shear acoustic-gravity waves are likely to play a significant role in coupling wave processes in the ocean and atmosphere. PMID:24606251

  17. 4-D ultrafast shear-wave imaging.

    PubMed

    Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Provost, Jean; Deffieux, Thomas; Papadacci, Clément; Imbault, Marion; Pernot, Mathieu; Tanter, Mickael

    2015-06-01

    Over the last ten years, shear wave elastography (SWE) has seen considerable development and is now routinely used in clinics to provide mechanical characterization of tissues to improve diagnosis. The most advanced technique relies on the use of an ultrafast scanner to generate and image shear waves in real time in a 2-D plane at several thousands of frames per second. We have recently introduced 3-D ultrafast ultrasound imaging to acquire with matrix probes the 3-D propagation of shear waves generated by a dedicated radiation pressure transducer in a single acquisition. In this study, we demonstrate 3-D SWE based on ultrafast volumetric imaging in a clinically applicable configuration. A 32 × 32 matrix phased array driven by a customized, programmable, 1024-channel ultrasound system was designed to perform 4-D shear-wave imaging. A matrix phased array was used to generate and control in 3-D the shear waves inside the medium using the acoustic radiation force. The same matrix array was used with 3-D coherent plane wave compounding to perform high-quality ultrafast imaging of the shear wave propagation. Volumetric ultrafast acquisitions were then beamformed in 3-D using a delay-and-sum algorithm. 3-D volumetric maps of the shear modulus were reconstructed using a time-of-flight algorithm based on local multiscale cross-correlation of shear wave profiles in the three main directions using directional filters. Results are first presented in an isotropic homogeneous and elastic breast phantom. Then, a full 3-D stiffness reconstruction of the breast was performed in vivo on healthy volunteers. This new full 3-D ultrafast ultrasound system paves the way toward real-time 3-D SWE. PMID:26067040

  18. Surface Acoustic Wave Microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, Leslie Y.; Friend, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Fluid manipulations at the microscale and beyond are powerfully enabled through the use of 10-1,000-MHz acoustic waves. A superior alternative in many cases to other microfluidic actuation techniques, such high-frequency acoustics is almost universally produced by surface acoustic wave devices that employ electromechanical transduction in wafer-scale or thin-film piezoelectric media to generate the kinetic energy needed to transport and manipulate fluids placed in adjacent microfluidic structures. These waves are responsible for a diverse range of complex fluid transport phenomena - from interfacial fluid vibration and drop and confined fluid transport to jetting and atomization - underlying a flourishing research literature spanning fundamental fluid physics to chip-scale engineering applications. We highlight some of this literature to provide the reader with a historical basis, routes for more detailed study, and an impression of the field's future directions.

  19. Assessment of liver fibrosis with 2-D shear wave elastography in comparison to transient elastography and acoustic radiation force impulse imaging in patients with chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Ludmila; Kasper, Daniela; Fitting, Daniel; Knop, Viola; Vermehren, Annika; Sprinzl, Kathrin; Hansmann, Martin L; Herrmann, Eva; Bojunga, Joerg; Albert, Joerg; Sarrazin, Christoph; Zeuzem, Stefan; Friedrich-Rust, Mireen

    2015-09-01

    Two-dimensional shear wave elastography (2-D SWE) is an ultrasound-based elastography method integrated into a conventional ultrasound machine. It can evaluate larger regions of interest and, therefore, might be better at determining the overall fibrosis distribution. The aim of this prospective study was to compare 2-D SWE with the two best evaluated liver elastography methods, transient elastography and acoustic radiation force impulse (point SWE using acoustic radiation force impulse) imaging, in the same population group. The study included 132 patients with chronic hepatopathies, in which liver stiffness was evaluated using transient elastography, acoustic radiation force impulse imaging and 2-D SWE. The reference methods were liver biopsy for the assessment of liver fibrosis (n = 101) and magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis (n = 31). No significant difference in diagnostic accuracy, assessed as the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), was found between the three elastography methods (2-D SWE, transient elastography, acoustic radiation force impulse imaging) for the diagnosis of significant and advanced fibrosis and liver cirrhosis in the "per protocol" (AUROCs for fibrosis stages ≥2: 0.90, 0.95 and 0.91; for fibrosis stage [F] ≥3: 0.93, 0.95 and 0.94; for F = 4: 0.92, 0.96 and 0.92) and "intention to diagnose" cohort (AUROCs for F ≥2: 0.87, 0.92 and 0.91; for F ≥3: 0.91, 0.93 and 0.94; for F = 4: 0.88, 0.90 and 0.89). Therefore, 2-D SWE, ARFI imaging and transient elastography seem to be comparably good methods for non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis.

  20. Monolithic bulk shear-wave acousto-optic tunable filter.

    PubMed

    Gnewuch, Harald; Pannell, Christopher N

    2002-12-01

    We demonstrate a monolithic bulk shear-wave acousto-optic tunable filter combining a piezoelectric transducer array and the acoustic interaction medium in a single crystal. An X-propagating acoustic longitudinal wave is excited in the "crossed-field" scheme by an rf-Ey-field in a chirped acoustic superlattice formed by domain-inversion in lithium niobate (LiNbO3). The acoustic longitudinal wave is efficiently (97.5%) converted at a mechanically free boundary into a Y-propagating acoustic slow-shear wave that couples collinearly propagating e- and o-polarized optical waves. A relative conversion efficiency of 80%/W was measured at 980 nm. PMID:12546145

  1. Analysis of binary mixtures of aqueous aromatic hydrocarbons with low-phase-noise shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave sensors using multielectrode transducer designs.

    PubMed

    Bender, Florian; Mohler, Rachel E; Ricco, Antonio J; Josse, Fabien

    2014-11-18

    The present work investigates a compact sensor system that provides rapid, real-time, in situ measurements of the identities and concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons at parts-per-billion concentrations in water through the combined use of kinetic and thermodynamic response parameters. The system uses shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH-SAW) sensors operating directly in the liquid phase. The 103 MHz SAW sensors are coated with thin sorbent polymer films to provide the appropriate limits of detection as well as partial selectivity for the analytes of interest, the BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes), which are common indicators of fuel and oil accidental releases in groundwater. Particular emphasis is placed on benzene, a known carcinogen and the most challenging BTEX analyte with regard to both regulated levels and its solubility properties. To demonstrate the identification and quantification of individual compounds in multicomponent aqueous samples, responses to binary mixtures of benzene with toluene as well as ethylbenzene were characterized at concentrations below 1 ppm (1 mg/L). The use of both thermodynamic and kinetic (i.e., steady-state and transient) responses from a single polymer-coated SH-SAW sensor enabled identification and quantification of the two BTEX compounds in binary mixtures in aqueous solution. The signal-to-noise ratio was improved, resulting in lower limits of detection and improved identification at low concentrations, by designing and implementing a type of multielectrode transducer pattern, not previously reported for chemical sensor applications. The design significantly reduces signal distortion and root-mean-square (RMS) phase noise by minimizing acoustic wave reflections from electrode edges, thus enabling limits of detection for BTEX analytes of 9-83 ppb (calculated from RMS noise); concentrations of benzene in water as low as ~100 ppb were measured directly. Reliable quantification of BTEX

  2. Quantum positron acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Metref, Hassina; Tribeche, Mouloud

    2014-12-15

    Nonlinear quantum positron-acoustic (QPA) waves are investigated for the first time, within the theoretical framework of the quantum hydrodynamic model. In the small but finite amplitude limit, both deformed Korteweg-de Vries and generalized Korteweg-de Vries equations governing, respectively, the dynamics of QPA solitary waves and double-layers are derived. Moreover, a full finite amplitude analysis is undertaken, and a numerical integration of the obtained highly nonlinear equations is carried out. The results complement our previously published results on this problem.

  3. Method of making a piezoelectric shear wave resonator

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Jin S.; Lakin, Kenneth M.; Landin, Allen R.

    1987-02-03

    An acoustic shear wave resonator comprising a piezoelectric film having its C-axis substantially inclined from the film normal such that the shear wave coupling coefficient significantly exceeds the longitudinal wave coupling coefficient, whereby the film is capable of shear wave resonance, and means for exciting said film to resonate. The film is prepared by deposition in a dc planar magnetron sputtering system to which a supplemental electric field is applied. The resonator structure may also include a semiconductor material having a positive temperature coefficient of resonance such that the resonator has a temperature coefficient of resonance approaching 0 ppm/.degree.C.

  4. Piezoelectric shear wave resonator and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Wang, J.S.; Lakin, K.M.; Landin, A.R.

    1983-10-25

    An acoustic shear wave resonator comprising a piezoelectric film having its C-axis substantially inclined from the film normal such that the shear wave coupling coefficient significantly exceeds the longitudinal wave coupling coefficient, whereby the film is capable of shear wave resonance, and means for exciting said film to resonate. The film is prepared by deposition in a dc planar magnetron sputtering system to which a supplemental electric field is applied. The resonator structure may also include a semiconductor material having a positive temperature coefficient of resonance such that the resonator has a temperature coefficient of resonance approaching 0 ppM//sup 0/C.

  5. Piezoelectric shear wave resonator and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Jin S.; Lakin, Kenneth M.; Landin, Allen R.

    1988-01-01

    An acoustic shear wave resonator comprising a piezoelectric film having its C-axis substantially inclined from the film normal such that the shear wave coupling coefficient significantly exceeds the longitudinal wave coupling coefficient, whereby the film is capable of shear wave resonance, and means for exciting said film to resonate. The film is prepared by deposition in a dc planar magnetron sputtering system to which a supplemental electric field is applied. The resonator structure may also include a semiconductor material having a positive temperature coefficient of resonance such that the resonator has a temperature coefficient of resonance approaching 0 ppm/.degree.C.

  6. Piezoelectric shear wave resonator and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Wang, J.S.; Lakin, K.M.; Landin, A.R.

    1985-05-20

    An acoustic shear wave resonator comprising a piezoelectric film having its C-axis substantially inclined from the film normal such that the shear wave coupling coefficient significantly exceeds the longitudinal wave coupling coefficient, whereby the film is capable of shear wave resonance, and means for exciting said film to resonate. The film is prepared by deposition in a dc planar magnetron sputtering system to which a supplemental electric field is applied. The resonator structure may also include a semiconductor material having a positive temperature coefficient of resonance such that the resonator has a temperature coefficient of resonance approaching 0 ppM//sup 0/C.

  7. Shear wave elastography with a new reliability indicator

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive methods for liver stiffness assessment have been introduced over recent years. Of these, two main methods for estimating liver fibrosis using ultrasound elastography have become established in clinical practice: shear wave elastography and quasi-static or strain elastography. Shear waves are waves with a motion perpendicular (lateral) to the direction of the generating force. Shear waves travel relatively slowly (between 1 and 10 m/s). The stiffness of the liver tissue can be assessed based on shear wave velocity (the stiffness increases with the speed). The European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology has published Guidelines and Recommendations that describe these technologies and provide recommendations for their clinical use. Most of the data available to date has been published using the Fibroscan (Echosens, France), point shear wave speed measurement using an acoustic radiation force impulse (Siemens, Germany) and 2D shear wave elastography using the Aixplorer (SuperSonic Imagine, France). More recently, also other manufacturers have introduced shear wave elastography technology into the market. A comparison of data obtained using different techniques for shear wave propagation and velocity measurement is of key interest for future studies, recommendations and guidelines. Here, we present a recently introduced shear wave elastography technology from Hitachi and discuss its reproducibility and comparability to the already established technologies. PMID:27679731

  8. Shear wave elastography with a new reliability indicator.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Christoph F; Dong, Yi

    2016-09-01

    Non-invasive methods for liver stiffness assessment have been introduced over recent years. Of these, two main methods for estimating liver fibrosis using ultrasound elastography have become established in clinical practice: shear wave elastography and quasi-static or strain elastography. Shear waves are waves with a motion perpendicular (lateral) to the direction of the generating force. Shear waves travel relatively slowly (between 1 and 10 m/s). The stiffness of the liver tissue can be assessed based on shear wave velocity (the stiffness increases with the speed). The European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology has published Guidelines and Recommendations that describe these technologies and provide recommendations for their clinical use. Most of the data available to date has been published using the Fibroscan (Echosens, France), point shear wave speed measurement using an acoustic radiation force impulse (Siemens, Germany) and 2D shear wave elastography using the Aixplorer (SuperSonic Imagine, France). More recently, also other manufacturers have introduced shear wave elastography technology into the market. A comparison of data obtained using different techniques for shear wave propagation and velocity measurement is of key interest for future studies, recommendations and guidelines. Here, we present a recently introduced shear wave elastography technology from Hitachi and discuss its reproducibility and comparability to the already established technologies. PMID:27679731

  9. Shear wave elastography with a new reliability indicator

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive methods for liver stiffness assessment have been introduced over recent years. Of these, two main methods for estimating liver fibrosis using ultrasound elastography have become established in clinical practice: shear wave elastography and quasi-static or strain elastography. Shear waves are waves with a motion perpendicular (lateral) to the direction of the generating force. Shear waves travel relatively slowly (between 1 and 10 m/s). The stiffness of the liver tissue can be assessed based on shear wave velocity (the stiffness increases with the speed). The European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology has published Guidelines and Recommendations that describe these technologies and provide recommendations for their clinical use. Most of the data available to date has been published using the Fibroscan (Echosens, France), point shear wave speed measurement using an acoustic radiation force impulse (Siemens, Germany) and 2D shear wave elastography using the Aixplorer (SuperSonic Imagine, France). More recently, also other manufacturers have introduced shear wave elastography technology into the market. A comparison of data obtained using different techniques for shear wave propagation and velocity measurement is of key interest for future studies, recommendations and guidelines. Here, we present a recently introduced shear wave elastography technology from Hitachi and discuss its reproducibility and comparability to the already established technologies.

  10. Shear wave elastography with a new reliability indicator.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Christoph F; Dong, Yi

    2016-09-01

    Non-invasive methods for liver stiffness assessment have been introduced over recent years. Of these, two main methods for estimating liver fibrosis using ultrasound elastography have become established in clinical practice: shear wave elastography and quasi-static or strain elastography. Shear waves are waves with a motion perpendicular (lateral) to the direction of the generating force. Shear waves travel relatively slowly (between 1 and 10 m/s). The stiffness of the liver tissue can be assessed based on shear wave velocity (the stiffness increases with the speed). The European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology has published Guidelines and Recommendations that describe these technologies and provide recommendations for their clinical use. Most of the data available to date has been published using the Fibroscan (Echosens, France), point shear wave speed measurement using an acoustic radiation force impulse (Siemens, Germany) and 2D shear wave elastography using the Aixplorer (SuperSonic Imagine, France). More recently, also other manufacturers have introduced shear wave elastography technology into the market. A comparison of data obtained using different techniques for shear wave propagation and velocity measurement is of key interest for future studies, recommendations and guidelines. Here, we present a recently introduced shear wave elastography technology from Hitachi and discuss its reproducibility and comparability to the already established technologies.

  11. Shear wavelength estimation based on inverse filtering and multiple-point shear wave generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazaki, Tomoaki; Kondo, Kengo; Yamakawa, Makoto; Shiina, Tsuyoshi

    2016-07-01

    Elastography provides important diagnostic information because tissue elasticity is related to pathological conditions. For example, in a mammary gland, higher grade malignancies yield harder tumors. Estimating shear wave speed enables the quantification of tissue elasticity imaging using time-of-flight. However, time-of-flight measurement is based on an assumption about the propagation direction of a shear wave which is highly affected by reflection and refraction, and thus might cause an artifact. An alternative elasticity estimation approach based on shear wavelength was proposed and applied to passive configurations. To determine the elasticity of tissue more quickly and more accurately, we proposed a new method for shear wave elasticity imaging that combines the shear wavelength approach and inverse filtering with multiple shear wave sources induced by acoustic radiation force (ARF). The feasibility of the proposed method was verified using an elasticity phantom with a hard inclusion.

  12. Ion acoustic traveling waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, G. M.; Burrows, R. H.; Ao, X.; Zank, G. P.; Zank

    2014-04-01

    Models for traveling waves in multi-fluid plasmas give essential insight into fully nonlinear wave structures in plasmas, not readily available from either numerical simulations or from weakly nonlinear wave theories. We illustrate these ideas using one of the simplest models of an electron-proton multi-fluid plasma for the case where there is no magnetic field or a constant normal magnetic field present. We show that the traveling waves can be reduced to a single first-order differential equation governing the dynamics. We also show that the equations admit a multi-symplectic Hamiltonian formulation in which both the space and time variables can act as the evolution variable. An integral equation useful for calculating adiabatic, electrostatic solitary wave signatures for multi-fluid plasmas with arbitrary mass ratios is presented. The integral equation arises naturally from a fluid dynamics approach for a two fluid plasma, with a given mass ratio of the two species (e.g. the plasma could be an electron-proton or an electron-positron plasma). Besides its intrinsic interest, the integral equation solution provides a useful analytical test for numerical codes that include a proton-electron mass ratio as a fundamental constant, such as for particle in cell (PIC) codes. The integral equation is used to delineate the physical characteristics of ion acoustic traveling waves consisting of hot electron and cold proton fluids.

  13. Thickness-shear and thickness-twist modes in an AT-cut quartz acoustic wave filter.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zinan; Qian, Zhenghua; Wang, Bin; Yang, Jiashi

    2015-04-01

    We studied thickness-shear and thickness-twist vibrations of a monolithic, two-pole crystal filter made from a plate of AT-cut quartz. The scalar differential equations derived by Tiersten and Smythe for electroded and unelectroded quartz plates were employed which are valid for both the fundamental and the overtone modes. Exact solutions for the free vibration resonant frequencies and modes were obtained from the equations. For a structurally symmetric filter, the modes can be separated into symmetric and antisymmetric ones. Trapped modes with vibrations mainly under the electrodes were found. The effect of the distance between the two pairs of electrodes was examined.

  14. Guided acoustic wave inspection system

    DOEpatents

    Chinn, Diane J.

    2004-10-05

    A system for inspecting a conduit for undesirable characteristics. A transducer system induces guided acoustic waves onto said conduit. The transducer system detects the undesirable characteristics of the conduit by receiving guided acoustic waves that contain information about the undesirable characteristics. The conduit has at least two sides and the transducer system utilizes flexural modes of propagation to provide inspection using access from only the one side of the conduit. Cracking is detected with pulse-echo testing using one transducer to both send and receive the guided acoustic waves. Thinning is detected in through-transmission testing where one transducer sends and another transducer receives the guided acoustic waves.

  15. [Propagation of shear waves in the muscle tissue].

    PubMed

    Afanas'eva, D A; Tsaturian, A K

    2010-01-01

    A mathematical model of the propagation of acoustic shear waves in muscle tissue is considered. The muscle is modelled by an incompressible transversely isotropic viscoelastic continuum with quasi-one-dimensional active tension. Two types of shear waves in an infinite medium have been established. The waves of the second type (transverse) propagate without attenuation even when myofibril viscosity is taken into account. A problem of standing transverse waves in a rectangular layer has been investigated numerically. The values of the problem parameters have been found for which the active tension or muscle tonus is easily estimated from the characteristics of standing waves. This value is informative for the diagnosis of muscle state.

  16. A shear horizontal surface wave in magnetoelectric materials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinxi; Fang, Daining; Liu, Xiangling

    2007-07-01

    We show that a semi-infinite magnetoelectric (ME) material adjoining a vacuum sustains the propagation of a shear horizontal wave accompanied by electromagnetic waves. The ME material is assumed to possess hexagonal (6 mm) symmetry. The expression for the phase velocity of this wave is obtained explicitly. The result is helpful for applications of piezoelectric-piezomagnetic composites to acoustic wave and microwave devices.

  17. Dust-Acoustic Waves: Visible Sound Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Merlino, Robert L.

    2009-11-10

    A historical overview of some of the early theoretical and experimental work on dust acoustic waves is given. The basic physics of the dust acoustic wave and some of the theoretical refinements that have been made, including the effects of collisions, plasma absorption, dust charge fluctuations, particle drifts and strong coupling effects are discussed. Some recent experimental findings and outstanding problems are also presented.

  18. Shear waves in vegetal tissues at ultrasonic frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fariñas, M. D.; Sancho-Knapik, D.; Peguero-Pina, J. J.; Gil-Pelegrín, E.; Gómez Álvarez-Arenas, T. E.

    2013-03-01

    Shear waves are investigated in leaves of two plant species using air-coupled ultrasound. Magnitude and phase spectra of the transmission coefficient around the first two orders of the thickness resonances (normal and oblique incidence) have been measured. A bilayer acoustic model for plant leaves (comprising the palisade parenchyma and the spongy mesophyll) is proposed to extract, from measured spectra, properties of these tissues like: velocity and attenuation of longitudinal and shear waves and hence Young modulus, rigidity modulus, and Poisson's ratio. Elastic moduli values are typical of cellular solids and both, shear and longitudinal waves exhibit classical viscoelastic losses. Influence of leaf water content is also analyzed.

  19. Shear-Alfven Waves in Gyrokinetic Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    W.W.Lee; J.L.V.Lewandowski; T.S. Hahm; Z. Lin

    2000-10-18

    It is found that the thermal fluctuation level of the shear-Alfven waves in a gyrokinetic plasma decreases with plasma b(* cs2/uA2), where cs is the ion acoustic speed and uA is the Alfven velocity. This unique thermodynamic property based on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem is verified in this paper using a new gyrokinetic particle simulation scheme, which splits the particle distribution function into the equilibrium part as well as the adiabatic and nonadiabatic parts.

  20. Detection of cellular damage by hydrogen peroxide using SV40-T2 cells on shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH-SAW) sensor.

    PubMed

    Higashiyama, Takumi; Katsuyama, Akihiro; Otori, Hideki; Kamimura, Toru; Uehara, Atsushi; Kainuma, Miho; Takumi, Ryo; Kudo, Yukako; Ebina, Masayuki; Mochitate, Katsumi; Kon, Tasuku; Furuya, Yasubumi; Kikuchi, Hideaki

    2014-08-01

    The rat lung epithelial cell line SV40-T2 was used to develop a cellular biosensing system to assay for environmental toxicants. The novel approach on which this system is based involves direct attachment of cultured rat or human cells onto a cell-adhesive matrix on the device through which shear horizontal surface acoustic waves (SH-SAW) are transmitted using 50 MHz SAW resonator. This novel design enables sensitive monitoring of changes of the electrophysical characteristics of cells, such as their conductivity and relative permittivity. A time-dependent change of phase of SAW and change of insertion loss (change of amplitude) were observed when the cells were treated with 0.5 or 1.0 mM H2O2. The change of insertion loss was biphasic, with an early phase (1-3 h) and a late phase (3-6 h). The late phase coincided with the destruction of cell-cell tight junctions detected by measurement of the transepithelial electrical resistance and paracellular permeability; in contrast, the early phase coincided with the destruction of intracellular actin filaments by H2O2. The early-phase effect of H2O2 on phase shift may be attributable to the change of intracellular permittivity by a change of cellular polarity. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed the disappearance of zonula occludens protein 1 from the region of cell-cell contact. These results suggest the correlation between the change of insertion loss as an SAW parameter and the destruction of tight junctions of the cells on the SH-SAW device in the late phase.

  1. Measuring Acoustic Nonlinearity by Collinear Mixing Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M.; Tang, G.; Jacobs, L. J.; Qu, J.

    2011-06-01

    It is well known that the acoustic nonlinearity parameter β is correlated to fatigue damage in metallic materials. Various methods have been developed to measure β. One of the most often used methods is the harmonic generation technique, in which β is obtained by measuring the magnitude of the second order harmonic waves. An inherent weakness of this method is the difficulty in distinguishing material nonlinearity from the nonlinearity of the measurement system. In this paper, we demonstrate the possibility of using collinear mixing waves to measure β. The wave mixing method is based on the interaction between two incident waves in a nonlinear medium. Under certain conditions, such interactions generate a third wave of different frequency. This generated third wave is also called resonant wave, because its amplitude is unbounded if the medium has no attenuation. Such resonant waves are less sensitive to the nonlinearity of the measurement system, and have the potential to identify the source location of the nonlinearity. In this work, we used a longitudinal wave and a shear wave as the incident waves. The resonant shear wave is measured experimentally on samples made of aluminum and steel, respectively. Numerical simulations of the tests were also performed using a finite difference method.

  2. Surface acoustic wave microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xiaoyun; Li, Peng; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Stratton, Zackary S.; Nama, Nitesh; Guo, Feng; Slotcavage, Daniel; Mao, Xiaole; Shi, Jinjie; Costanzo, Francesco; Huang, Tony Jun

    2014-01-01

    The recent introduction of surface acoustic wave (SAW) technology onto lab-on-a-chip platforms has opened a new frontier in microfluidics. The advantages provided by such SAW microfluidics are numerous: simple fabrication, high biocompatibility, fast fluid actuation, versatility, compact and inexpensive devices and accessories, contact-free particle manipulation, and compatibility with other microfluidic components. We believe that these advantages enable SAW microfluidics to play a significant role in a variety of applications in biology, chemistry, engineering, and medicine. In this review article, we discuss the theory underpinning SAWs and their interactions with particles and the contacting fluids in which they are suspended. We then review the SAW-enabled microfluidic devices demonstrated to date, starting with devices that accomplish fluid mixing and transport through the use of travelling SAW; we follow that by reviewing the more recent innovations achieved with standing SAW that enable such actions as particle/cell focusing, sorting, and patterning. Finally, we look forward and appraise where the discipline of SAW microfluidics could go next. PMID:23900527

  3. Surface acoustic wave microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaoyun; Li, Peng; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Stratton, Zackary S; Nama, Nitesh; Guo, Feng; Slotcavage, Daniel; Mao, Xiaole; Shi, Jinjie; Costanzo, Francesco; Huang, Tony Jun

    2013-09-21

    The recent introduction of surface acoustic wave (SAW) technology onto lab-on-a-chip platforms has opened a new frontier in microfluidics. The advantages provided by such SAW microfluidics are numerous: simple fabrication, high biocompatibility, fast fluid actuation, versatility, compact and inexpensive devices and accessories, contact-free particle manipulation, and compatibility with other microfluidic components. We believe that these advantages enable SAW microfluidics to play a significant role in a variety of applications in biology, chemistry, engineering and medicine. In this review article, we discuss the theory underpinning SAWs and their interactions with particles and the contacting fluids in which they are suspended. We then review the SAW-enabled microfluidic devices demonstrated to date, starting with devices that accomplish fluid mixing and transport through the use of travelling SAW; we follow that by reviewing the more recent innovations achieved with standing SAW that enable such actions as particle/cell focusing, sorting and patterning. Finally, we look forward and appraise where the discipline of SAW microfluidics could go next.

  4. Canonical Acoustics and Its Application to Surface Acoustic Wave on Acoustic Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jian Qi

    2016-08-01

    In a conventional formalism of acoustics, acoustic pressure p and velocity field u are used for characterizing acoustic waves propagating inside elastic/acoustic materials. We shall treat some fundamental problems relevant to acoustic wave propagation alternatively by using canonical acoustics (a more concise and compact formalism of acoustic dynamics), in which an acoustic scalar potential and an acoustic vector potential (Φ ,V), instead of the conventional acoustic field quantities such as acoustic pressure and velocity field (p,u) for characterizing acoustic waves, have been defined as the fundamental variables. The canonical formalism of the acoustic energy-momentum tensor is derived in terms of the acoustic potentials. Both the acoustic Hamiltonian density and the acoustic Lagrangian density have been defined, and based on this formulation, the acoustic wave quantization in a fluid is also developed. Such a formalism of acoustic potentials is employed to the problem of negative-mass-density assisted surface acoustic wave that is a highly localized surface bound state (an eigenstate of the acoustic wave equations). Since such a surface acoustic wave can be strongly confined to an interface between an acoustic metamaterial (e.g., fluid-solid composite structures with a negative dynamical mass density) and an ordinary material (with a positive mass density), it will give rise to an effect of acoustic field enhancement on the acoustic interface, and would have potential applications in acoustic device design for acoustic wave control.

  5. Excitation of fundamental shear horizontal wave by using face-shear (d36) piezoelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Hongchen; Dong, Shuxiang; Li, Faxin

    2016-05-01

    The fundamental shear horizontal (SH0) wave in plate-like structures is extremely useful for non-destructive testing (NDT) and structural health monitoring (SHM) as it is non-dispersive. However, currently, the SH0 wave is usually excited by electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMAT) whose energy conversion efficiency is fairly low. The face-shear ( d 36 ) mode piezoelectrics is more promising for SH0 wave excitation, but this mode cannot appear in conventional piezoelectric ceramics. Recently, by modifying the symmetry of poled PbZr1-xTixO3 (PZT) ceramics via ferroelastic domain engineering, we realized the face-shear d 36 mode in both soft and hard PZT ceramics. In this work, we further improved the face-shear properties of PZT-4 and PZT-5H ceramics via lateral compression under elevated temperature. It was found that when bonded on a 1 mm-thick aluminum plate, the d 36 type PZT-4 exhibited better face-shear performance than PZT-5H. We then successfully excite SH0 wave in the aluminum plate using a face-shear PZT-4 square patch and receive the wave using a face-shear 0.72[Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]-0.28[PbTiO3] (PMN-PT) patch. The frequency response and directionality of the excited SH0 wave were also investigated. The SH0 wave can be dominated over the Lamb waves (S0 and A0 waves) from 160 kHz to 280 kHz. The wave amplitude reaches its maxima along the two main directions (0° and 90°). The amplitude can keep over 80% of the maxima when the deviate angle is less than 30°, while it vanishes quickly at the 45° direction. The excited SH0 wave using piezoelectric ceramics could be very promising in the fields of NDT and SHM.

  6. Marble Ageing Characterization by Acoustic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudani, Mohamed El; Wilkie-Chancellier, Nicolas; Martinez, Loïc; Hébert, Ronan; Rolland, Olivier; Forst, Sébastien; Vergès-Belmin, Véronique; Serfaty, Stéphane

    In cultural heritage, statue marble characterization by acoustic waves is a well-known non-destructive method. Such investigations through the statues by time of flight method (TOF) point out sound speeds decrease with ageing. However for outdoor stored statues as the ones in the gardens of Chateau de Versailles, ageing affects mainly the surface of the Carrara marble. The present paper proposes an experimental study of the marble acoustic properties variations during accelerated laboratory ageing. The surface degradation of the marble is reproduced in laboratory for 29 mm thick marble samples by using heating/cooling thermal cycles on one face of a marble plate. Acoustic waves are generated by 1 MHz central frequency contact transducers excited by a voltage pulse placed on both sides of the plate. During the ageing and by using ad hoc transducers, the marble samples are characterized in transmission, along their volume by shear, compressional TOF measurements and along their surface by Rayleigh waves measurements. For Rayleigh waves, both TOF by transducers and laser vibrometry methods are used to detect the Rayleigh wave. The transmission measurements point out a deep decrease of the waves speeds in conjunction with a dramatic decrease of the maximum frequency transmitted. The marble acts as a low pass filter whose characteristic frequency cut decreases with ageing. This pattern occurs also for the Rayleigh wave surface measurements. The speed change in conjunction with the bandwidth translation is shown to be correlated to the material de-structuration during ageing. With a similar behavior but reversed in time, the same king of phenomena have been observed trough sol-gel materials during their structuration from liquid to solid state (Martinez, L. et all (2004). "Chirp-Z analysis for sol-gel transition monitoring". Ultrasonics, 42(1), 507-510.). A model is proposed to interpret the acoustical measurements

  7. Linear coupling of acoustic and cyclotron waves in plasma flows

    SciTech Connect

    Rogava, Andria; Gogoberidze, Grigol

    2005-05-15

    It is found that in magnetized electrostatic plasma flows the velocity shear couples ion-acoustic waves with ion-cyclotron waves and leads, under favorable conditions, to their efficient reciprocal transformations. It is shown that in a two-dimensional setup this coupling has a remarkable feature: it is governed by equations that are mathematically equal to the ones describing coupling of sound waves with internal gravity waves [Rogava and Mahajan, Phys. Rev. E 55, 1185 (1997)] in neutral fluids. For flows with low shearing rates a fully analytic, quantitative description of the coupling efficiency, based on a noteworthy quantum-mechanical analogy, is given and transformation coefficients are calculated.

  8. Coded excitation plane wave imaging for shear wave motion detection.

    PubMed

    Song, Pengfei; Urban, Matthew W; Manduca, Armando; Greenleaf, James F; Chen, Shigao

    2015-07-01

    Plane wave imaging has greatly advanced the field of shear wave elastography thanks to its ultrafast imaging frame rate and the large field-of-view (FOV). However, plane wave imaging also has decreased penetration due to lack of transmit focusing, which makes it challenging to use plane waves for shear wave detection in deep tissues and in obese patients. This study investigated the feasibility of implementing coded excitation in plane wave imaging for shear wave detection, with the hypothesis that coded ultrasound signals can provide superior detection penetration and shear wave SNR compared with conventional ultrasound signals. Both phase encoding (Barker code) and frequency encoding (chirp code) methods were studied. A first phantom experiment showed an approximate penetration gain of 2 to 4 cm for the coded pulses. Two subsequent phantom studies showed that all coded pulses outperformed the conventional short imaging pulse by providing superior sensitivity to small motion and robustness to weak ultrasound signals. Finally, an in vivo liver case study on an obese subject (body mass index = 40) demonstrated the feasibility of using the proposed method for in vivo applications, and showed that all coded pulses could provide higher SNR shear wave signals than the conventional short pulse. These findings indicate that by using coded excitation shear wave detection, one can benefit from the ultrafast imaging frame rate and large FOV provided by plane wave imaging while preserving good penetration and shear wave signal quality, which is essential for obtaining robust shear elasticity measurements of tissue.

  9. Dual shear wave induced laser speckle contrast signal and the improvement in shear wave speed measurement

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sinan; Cheng, Yi; Eckersley, Robert J; Elson, Daniel S; Tang, Meng-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Shear wave speed is quantitatively related to tissue viscoelasticity. Previously we reported shear wave tracking at centimetre depths in a turbid optical medium using laser speckle contrast detection. Shear wave progression modulates displacement of optical scatterers and therefore modulates photon phase and changes the laser speckle patterns. Time-resolved charge-coupled device (CCD)-based speckle contrast analysis was used to track shear waves and measure the time-of-flight of shear waves for speed measurement. In this manuscript, we report a new observation of the laser speckle contrast difference signal for dual shear waves. A modulation of CCD speckle contrast difference was observed and simulation reproduces the modulation pattern, suggesting its origin. Both experimental and simulation results show that the dual shear wave approach generates an improved definition of temporal features in the time-of-flight optical signal and an improved signal to noise ratio with a standard deviation less than 50% that of individual shear waves. Results also show that dual shear waves can correct the bias of shear wave speed measurement caused by shear wave reflections from elastic boundaries. PMID:26114021

  10. Multi-reflective acoustic wave device

    DOEpatents

    Andle, Jeffrey C.

    2006-02-21

    An acoustic wave device, which utilizes multiple localized reflections of acoustic wave for achieving an infinite impulse response while maintaining high tolerance for dampening effects, is disclosed. The device utilized a plurality of electromechanically significant electrodes disposed on most of the active surface. A plurality of sensors utilizing the disclosed acoustic wave mode device are also described.

  11. The many faces of shear Alfven waves

    SciTech Connect

    Gekelman, W.; Vincena, S.; Van Compernolle, B.; Morales, G. J.; Maggs, J. E.; Pribyl, P.; Carter, T. A.

    2011-05-15

    One of the fundamental waves in magnetized plasmas is the shear Alfven wave. This wave is responsible for rearranging current systems and, in fact all low frequency currents in magnetized plasmas are shear waves. It has become apparent that Alfven waves are important in a wide variety of physical environments. Shear waves of various forms have been a topic of experimental research for more than fifteen years in the large plasma device (LAPD) at UCLA. The waves were first studied in both the kinetic and inertial regimes when excited by fluctuating currents with transverse dimension on the order of the collisionless skin depth. Theory and experiment on wave propagation in these regimes is presented, and the morphology of the wave is illustrated to be dependent on the generation mechanism. Three-dimensional currents associated with the waves have been mapped. The ion motion, which closes the current across the magnetic field, has been studied using laser induced fluorescence. The wave propagation in inhomogeneous magnetic fields and density gradients is presented as well as effects of collisions and reflections from boundaries. Reflections may result in Alfvenic field line resonances and in the right conditions maser action. The waves occur spontaneously on temperature and density gradients as hybrids with drift waves. These have been seen to affect cross-field heat and plasma transport. Although the waves are easily launched with antennas, they may also be generated by secondary processes, such as Cherenkov radiation. This is the case when intense shear Alfven waves in a background magnetoplasma are produced by an exploding laser-produced plasma. Time varying magnetic flux ropes can be considered to be low frequency shear waves. Studies of the interaction of multiple ropes and the link between magnetic field line reconnection and rope dynamics are revealed. This manuscript gives us an overview of the major results from these experiments and provides a modern

  12. Dust acoustic vortices in an inhomogeneous quantum magnetoplasma with dissipation and sheared dust flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masood, W.; Mirza, Arshad M.; Nargis, Shahida

    2008-10-01

    Linear and nonlinear properties of quantum dust acoustic waves are studied in a nonuniform, dissipative quantum plasma with sheared dust flow parallel to the ambient magnetic field, using the quantum hydrodynamic model. It is shown that the shear dust flow parallel to the external magnetic field can drive the quantum dust-acoustic wave unstable provided it has a negative slope. Stationary solutions of the nonlinear equations that govern the quantum dust-acoustic waves are also obtained. It is found that electrostatic monopolar, dipolar, and vortex street-type solutions can appear in such a plasma. It is observed that the inclusion of dust, quantum statistical, and Bohm potential terms significantly modify the scale lengths of these nonlinear structures. The relevance of the present investigation with regard to the dense astrophysical environments is also pointed out.

  13. Gasoline identifier based on SH0 plate acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Iren E; Zaitsev, Boris D; Seleznev, Eugenii P; Verona, Enrico

    2016-08-01

    The present paper is devoted to the development of gasoline identifier based on zero order shear-horizontal (SH0) acoustic wave propagating in piezoelectric plate. It has been found that the permittivity of gasoline is increased when its octane number rises. The development of such identifier is experimentally demonstrated to be possible. PMID:27125559

  14. Gasoline identifier based on SH0 plate acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Iren E; Zaitsev, Boris D; Seleznev, Eugenii P; Verona, Enrico

    2016-08-01

    The present paper is devoted to the development of gasoline identifier based on zero order shear-horizontal (SH0) acoustic wave propagating in piezoelectric plate. It has been found that the permittivity of gasoline is increased when its octane number rises. The development of such identifier is experimentally demonstrated to be possible.

  15. Probe Oscillation Shear Elastography (PROSE): A High Frame-Rate Method for Two-Dimensional Ultrasound Shear Wave Elastography.

    PubMed

    Mellema, Daniel C; Song, Pengfei; Kinnick, Randall R; Urban, Matthew W; Greenleaf, James F; Manduca, Armando; Chen, Shigao

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE) utilizes the propagation of induced shear waves to characterize the shear modulus of soft tissue. Many methods rely on an acoustic radiation force (ARF) "push beam" to generate shear waves. However, specialized hardware is required to generate the push beams, and the thermal stress that is placed upon the ultrasound system, transducer, and tissue by the push beams currently limits the frame-rate to about 1 Hz. These constraints have limited the implementation of ARF to high-end clinical systems. This paper presents Probe Oscillation Shear Elastography (PROSE) as an alternative method to measure tissue elasticity. PROSE generates shear waves using a harmonic mechanical vibration of an ultrasound transducer, while simultaneously detecting motion with the same transducer under pulse-echo mode. Motion of the transducer during detection produces a "strain-like" compression artifact that is coupled with the observed shear waves. A novel symmetric sampling scheme is proposed such that pulse-echo detection events are acquired when the ultrasound transducer returns to the same physical position, allowing the shear waves to be decoupled from the compression artifact. Full field-of-view (FOV) two-dimensional (2D) shear wave speed images were obtained by applying a local frequency estimation (LFE) technique, capable of generating a 2D map from a single frame of shear wave motion. The shear wave imaging frame rate of PROSE is comparable to the vibration frequency, which can be an order of magnitude higher than ARF based techniques. PROSE was able to produce smooth and accurate shear wave images from three homogeneous phantoms with different moduli, with an effective frame rate of 300 Hz. An inclusion phantom study showed that increased vibration frequencies improved the accuracy of inclusion imaging, and allowed targets as small as 6.5 mm to be resolved with good contrast (contrast-to-noise ratio ≥ 19 dB) between the target and

  16. Probe Oscillation Shear Elastography (PROSE): A High Frame-Rate Method for Two-Dimensional Ultrasound Shear Wave Elastography.

    PubMed

    Mellema, Daniel C; Song, Pengfei; Kinnick, Randall R; Urban, Matthew W; Greenleaf, James F; Manduca, Armando; Chen, Shigao

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE) utilizes the propagation of induced shear waves to characterize the shear modulus of soft tissue. Many methods rely on an acoustic radiation force (ARF) "push beam" to generate shear waves. However, specialized hardware is required to generate the push beams, and the thermal stress that is placed upon the ultrasound system, transducer, and tissue by the push beams currently limits the frame-rate to about 1 Hz. These constraints have limited the implementation of ARF to high-end clinical systems. This paper presents Probe Oscillation Shear Elastography (PROSE) as an alternative method to measure tissue elasticity. PROSE generates shear waves using a harmonic mechanical vibration of an ultrasound transducer, while simultaneously detecting motion with the same transducer under pulse-echo mode. Motion of the transducer during detection produces a "strain-like" compression artifact that is coupled with the observed shear waves. A novel symmetric sampling scheme is proposed such that pulse-echo detection events are acquired when the ultrasound transducer returns to the same physical position, allowing the shear waves to be decoupled from the compression artifact. Full field-of-view (FOV) two-dimensional (2D) shear wave speed images were obtained by applying a local frequency estimation (LFE) technique, capable of generating a 2D map from a single frame of shear wave motion. The shear wave imaging frame rate of PROSE is comparable to the vibration frequency, which can be an order of magnitude higher than ARF based techniques. PROSE was able to produce smooth and accurate shear wave images from three homogeneous phantoms with different moduli, with an effective frame rate of 300 Hz. An inclusion phantom study showed that increased vibration frequencies improved the accuracy of inclusion imaging, and allowed targets as small as 6.5 mm to be resolved with good contrast (contrast-to-noise ratio ≥ 19 dB) between the target and

  17. Millimeter Waves: Acoustic and Electromagnetic

    PubMed Central

    Ziskin, Marvin C.

    2012-01-01

    This article is the presentation I gave at the D'Arsonval Award Ceremony on June 14, 2011 at the Bioelectromagnetics Society Annual Meeting in Halifax, Nova Scotia. It summarizes my research activities in acoustic and electromagnetic millimeter waves over the past 47 years. My earliest research involved acoustic millimeter waves, with a special interest in diagnostic ultrasound imaging and its safety. For the last 21 years my research expanded to include electromagnetic millimeter waves, with a special interest in the mechanisms underlying millimeter wave therapy. Millimeter wave therapy has been widely used in the former Soviet Union with great reported success for many diseases, but is virtually unknown to Western physicians. I and the very capable members of my laboratory were able to demonstrate that the local exposure of skin to low intensity millimeter waves caused the release of endogenous opioids, and the transport of these agents by blood flow to all parts of the body resulted in pain relief and other beneficial effects. PMID:22926874

  18. Millimeter waves: acoustic and electromagnetic.

    PubMed

    Ziskin, Marvin C

    2013-01-01

    This article is the presentation I gave at the D'Arsonval Award Ceremony on June 14, 2011 at the Bioelectromagnetics Society Annual Meeting in Halifax, Nova Scotia. It summarizes my research activities in acoustic and electromagnetic millimeter waves over the past 47 years. My earliest research involved acoustic millimeter waves, with a special interest in diagnostic ultrasound imaging and its safety. For the last 21 years my research expanded to include electromagnetic millimeter waves, with a special interest in the mechanisms underlying millimeter wave therapy. Millimeter wave therapy has been widely used in the former Soviet Union with great reported success for many diseases, but is virtually unknown to Western physicians. I and the very capable members of my laboratory were able to demonstrate that the local exposure of skin to low intensity millimeter waves caused the release of endogenous opioids, and the transport of these agents by blood flow to all parts of the body resulted in pain relief and other beneficial effects.

  19. Continuous wave laser for wind shear detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Loren

    1991-01-01

    Details of the design and development of a continuous-wave heterodyne carbon dioxide laser which has wind shear detection capabilities are given in viewgraph form. The goal of the development was to investigate the lower cost CW (rather than pulsed) lidar option for look-ahead wind shear detection from aircraft. The device has potential utility for ground based wind shear detection at secondary airports where the high cost of a Terminal Doppler Weather Radar system is not justifiable.

  20. Mesoscale variations in acoustic signals induced by atmospheric gravity waves.

    PubMed

    Chunchuzov, Igor; Kulichkov, Sergey; Perepelkin, Vitaly; Ziemann, Astrid; Arnold, Klaus; Kniffka, Anke

    2009-02-01

    The results of acoustic tomographic monitoring of the coherent structures in the lower atmosphere and the effects of these structures on acoustic signal parameters are analyzed in the present study. From the measurements of acoustic travel time fluctuations (periods 1 min-1 h) with distant receivers, the temporal fluctuations of the effective sound speed and wind speed are retrieved along different ray paths connecting an acoustic pulse source and several receivers. By using a coherence analysis of the fluctuations near spatially distanced ray turning points, the internal wave-associated fluctuations are filtered and their spatial characteristics (coherences, horizontal phase velocities, and spatial scales) are estimated. The capability of acoustic tomography in estimating wind shear near ground is shown. A possible mechanism describing the temporal modulation of the near-ground wind field by ducted internal waves in the troposphere is proposed.

  1. Tests Of Shear-Flow Model For Acoustic Impedance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrot, Tony L.; Watson, Willie R.; Jones, Michael G.

    1992-01-01

    Tests described in report conducted to validate two-dimensional shear-flow analytical model for determination of acoustic impedance of acoustic liner in grazing-incidence, grazing-flow environment by use of infinite-waveguide method. Tests successful for both upstream and downstream propagations. Work has potential for utility in testing of engine ducts in commercial aircraft.

  2. Surface acoustic wave oxygen sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collman, James P.; Oglesby, Donald M.; Upchurch, Billy T.; Leighty, Bradley D.; Zhang, Xumu; Herrmann, Paul C.

    1994-01-01

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW) device that responds to oxygen pressure was developed by coating a 158 MHz quartz surface acoustic wave (SAW) device with an oxygen binding agent. Two types of coatings were used. One type was prepared by dissolving an oxygen binding agent in a toluene solution of a copolymer containing the axial ligand. A second type was prepared with an oxygen binding porphyrin solution containing excess axial ligand without a polymer matrix. In the polymer based coatings, the copolymer served to provide the axial ligand to the oxygen binding agent and as a coating matrix on the surface of the SAW device. The oxygen sensing SAW device has been shown to bind oxygen following a Langmuir isotherm and may be used to measure the equilibrium constant of the oxygen binding compound in the coating matrix.

  3. Nonlinear positron acoustic solitary waves

    SciTech Connect

    Tribeche, Mouloud; Aoutou, Kamel; Younsi, Smain; Amour, Rabia

    2009-07-15

    The problem of nonlinear positron acoustic solitary waves involving the dynamics of mobile cold positrons is addressed. A theoretical work is presented to show their existence and possible realization in a simple four-component plasma model. The results should be useful for the understanding of the localized structures that may occur in space and laboratory plasmas as new sources of cold positrons are now well developed.

  4. Longitudinal shear wave and transverse dilatational wave in solids.

    PubMed

    Catheline, S; Benech, N

    2015-02-01

    Dilatation wave involves compression and extension and is known as the curl-free solution of the elastodynamic equation. Shear wave on the contrary does not involve any change in volume and is the divergence-free solution. This letter seeks to examine the elastodynamic Green's function through this definition. By separating the Green's function in divergence-free and curl-free terms, it appears first that, strictly speaking, the longitudinal wave is not a pure dilatation wave and the transverse wave is neither a pure shear wave. Second, not only a longitudinal shear wave but also a transverse dilatational wave exists. These waves are shown to be a part of the solution known as coupling terms. Their special motion is carefully described and illustrated.

  5. Magnetized stratified rotating shear waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salhi, A.; Lehner, T.; Godeferd, F.; Cambon, C.

    2012-02-01

    We present a spectral linear analysis in terms of advected Fourier modes to describe the behavior of a fluid submitted to four constraints: shear (with rate S), rotation (with angular velocity Ω), stratification, and magnetic field within the linear spectral theory or the shearing box model in astrophysics. As a consequence of the fact that the base flow must be a solution of the Euler-Boussinesq equations, only radial and/or vertical density gradients can be taken into account. Ertel's theorem no longer is valid to show the conservation of potential vorticity, in the presence of the Lorentz force, but a similar theorem can be applied to a potential magnetic induction: The scalar product of the density gradient by the magnetic field is a Lagrangian invariant for an inviscid and nondiffusive fluid. The linear system with a minimal number of solenoidal components, two for both velocity and magnetic disturbance fields, is eventually expressed as a four-component inhomogeneous linear differential system in which the buoyancy scalar is a combination of solenoidal components (variables) and the (constant) potential magnetic induction. We study the stability of such a system for both an infinite streamwise wavelength (k1=0, axisymmetric disturbances) and a finite one (k1≠0, nonaxisymmetric disturbances). In the former case (k1=0), we recover and extend previous results characterizing the magnetorotational instability (MRI) for combined effects of radial and vertical magnetic fields and combined effects of radial and vertical density gradients. We derive an expression for the MRI growth rate in terms of the stratification strength, which indicates that purely radial stratification can inhibit the MRI instability, while purely vertical stratification cannot completely suppress the MRI instability. In the case of nonaxisymmetric disturbances (k1≠0), we only consider the effect of vertical stratification, and we use Levinson's theorem to demonstrate the stability of the

  6. Magnetized stratified rotating shear waves.

    PubMed

    Salhi, A; Lehner, T; Godeferd, F; Cambon, C

    2012-02-01

    We present a spectral linear analysis in terms of advected Fourier modes to describe the behavior of a fluid submitted to four constraints: shear (with rate S), rotation (with angular velocity Ω), stratification, and magnetic field within the linear spectral theory or the shearing box model in astrophysics. As a consequence of the fact that the base flow must be a solution of the Euler-Boussinesq equations, only radial and/or vertical density gradients can be taken into account. Ertel's theorem no longer is valid to show the conservation of potential vorticity, in the presence of the Lorentz force, but a similar theorem can be applied to a potential magnetic induction: The scalar product of the density gradient by the magnetic field is a Lagrangian invariant for an inviscid and nondiffusive fluid. The linear system with a minimal number of solenoidal components, two for both velocity and magnetic disturbance fields, is eventually expressed as a four-component inhomogeneous linear differential system in which the buoyancy scalar is a combination of solenoidal components (variables) and the (constant) potential magnetic induction. We study the stability of such a system for both an infinite streamwise wavelength (k(1) = 0, axisymmetric disturbances) and a finite one (k(1) ≠ 0, nonaxisymmetric disturbances). In the former case (k(1) = 0), we recover and extend previous results characterizing the magnetorotational instability (MRI) for combined effects of radial and vertical magnetic fields and combined effects of radial and vertical density gradients. We derive an expression for the MRI growth rate in terms of the stratification strength, which indicates that purely radial stratification can inhibit the MRI instability, while purely vertical stratification cannot completely suppress the MRI instability. In the case of nonaxisymmetric disturbances (k(1) ≠ 0), we only consider the effect of vertical stratification, and we use Levinson's theorem to demonstrate the

  7. Pseudo-continuous-wave acoustic instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, J. S.; Stone, F. D.

    1978-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive, and portable ultrasonic device accurately measures acoustic properties of liquids, gases, and solids, using pseudo-continuous wave responses from samples to measure change in resonant frequency or amplitude in acoustic signal.

  8. 3D mapping of elastic modulus using shear wave optical micro-elastography

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jiang; Qi, Li; Miao, Yusi; Ma, Teng; Dai, Cuixia; Qu, Yueqiao; He, Youmin; Gao, Yiwei; Zhou, Qifa; Chen, Zhongping

    2016-01-01

    Elastography provides a powerful tool for histopathological identification and clinical diagnosis based on information from tissue stiffness. Benefiting from high resolution, three-dimensional (3D), and noninvasive optical coherence tomography (OCT), optical micro-elastography has the ability to determine elastic properties with a resolution of ~10 μm in a 3D specimen. The shear wave velocity measurement can be used to quantify the elastic modulus. However, in current methods, shear waves are measured near the surface with an interference of surface waves. In this study, we developed acoustic radiation force (ARF) orthogonal excitation optical coherence elastography (ARFOE-OCE) to visualize shear waves in 3D. This method uses acoustic force perpendicular to the OCT beam to excite shear waves in internal specimens and uses Doppler variance method to visualize shear wave propagation in 3D. The measured propagation of shear waves agrees well with the simulation results obtained from finite element analysis (FEA). Orthogonal acoustic excitation allows this method to measure the shear modulus in a deeper specimen which extends the elasticity measurement range beyond the OCT imaging depth. The results show that the ARFOE-OCE system has the ability to noninvasively determine the 3D elastic map. PMID:27762276

  9. Manipulate acoustic waves by impedance matched acoustic metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ying; Mei, Jun; Aljahdali, Rasha

    We design a type of acoustic metasurface, which is composed of carefully designed slits in a rigid thin plate. The effective refractive indices of different slits are different but the impedances are kept the same as that of the host medium. Numerical simulations show that such a metasurface can redirect or reflect a normally incident wave at different frequencies, even though it is impedance matched to the host medium. We show that the underlying mechanisms can be understood by using the generalized Snell's law, and a unified analytic model based on mode-coupling theory. We demonstrate some simple realization of such acoustic metasurface with real materials. The principle is also extended to the design of planar acoustic lens which can focus acoustic waves. Manipulate acoustic waves by impedance matched acoustic metasurfaces.

  10. Estimation of viscoelastic parameters in Prony series from shear wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jae-Wook; Hong, Jung-Wuk; Lee, Hyoung-Ki; Choi, Kiwan

    2016-06-01

    When acquiring accurate ultrasonic images, we must precisely estimate the mechanical properties of the soft tissue. This study investigates and estimates the viscoelastic properties of the tissue by analyzing shear waves generated through an acoustic radiation force. The shear waves are sourced from a localized pushing force acting for a certain duration, and the generated waves travel horizontally. The wave velocities depend on the mechanical properties of the tissue such as the shear modulus and viscoelastic properties; therefore, we can inversely calculate the properties of the tissue through parametric studies.

  11. Seismic shear waves as Foucault pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snieder, Roel; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph; Ruigrok, Elmer; Shiomi, Katsuhiko

    2016-03-01

    Earth's rotation causes splitting of normal modes. Wave fronts and rays are, however, not affected by Earth's rotation, as we show theoretically and with observations made with USArray. We derive that the Coriolis force causes a small transverse component for P waves and a small longitudinal component for S waves. More importantly, Earth's rotation leads to a slow rotation of the transverse polarization of S waves; during the propagation of S waves the particle motion behaves just like a Foucault pendulum. The polarization plane of shear waves counteracts Earth's rotation and rotates clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere. The rotation rate is independent of the wave frequency and is purely geometric, like the Berry phase. Using the polarization of ScS and ScS2 waves, we show that the Foucault-like rotation of the S wave polarization can be observed. This can affect the determination of source mechanisms and the interpretation of observed SKS splitting.

  12. A new method for shear wave speed estimation in shear wave elastography.

    PubMed

    Engel, Aaron J; Bashford, Gregory R

    2015-12-01

    Visualization of mechanical properties of tissue can aid in noninvasive pathology diagnosis. Shear wave elastography (SWE) measures the elastic properties of soft tissues by estimation of local shear wave propagation speed. In this paper, a new robust method for estimation of shear wave speed is introduced which has the potential for simplifying continuous filtering and real-time elasticity processing. Shear waves were generated by external mechanical excitation and imaged at a high frame rate. Three homogeneous phantoms of varying elastic moduli and one inclusion phantom were imaged. Waves propagating in separate directions were filtered and shear wave speed was estimated by inversion of the 1-D first-order wave equation. Final 2-D shear wave speed maps were constructed by weighted averaging of estimates from opposite traveling directions. Shear wave speed results for phantoms with gelatin concentrations of 5%, 7%, and 9% were 1.52 ± 0.10 m/s, 1.86 ± 0.10 m/s, and 2.37 ± 0.15 m/s, respectively, which were consistent with estimates computed from three other conventional methods, as well as compression tests done with a commercial texture analyzer. The method was shown to be able to reconstruct a 2-D speed map of an inclusion phantom with good image quality and variance comparable to conventional methods. Suggestions for further work are given.

  13. Measurement of sound speed vs. depth in South Pole ice: pressure waves and shear waves

    SciTech Connect

    IceCube Collaboration; Klein, Spencer

    2009-06-04

    We have measured the speed of both pressure waves and shear waves as a function of depth between 80 and 500 m depth in South Pole ice with better than 1% precision. The measurements were made using the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS), an array of transmitters and sensors deployed in the ice at the South Pole in order to measure the acoustic properties relevant to acoustic detection of astrophysical neutrinos. The transmitters and sensors use piezoceramics operating at {approx}5-25 kHz. Between 200 m and 500 m depth, the measured profile is consistent with zero variation of the sound speed with depth, resulting in zero refraction, for both pressure and shear waves. We also performed a complementary study featuring an explosive signal propagating vertically from 50 to 2250 m depth, from which we determined a value for the pressure wave speed consistent with that determined for shallower depths, higher frequencies, and horizontal propagation with the SPATS sensors. The sound speed profile presented here can be used to achieve good acoustic source position and emission time reconstruction in general, and neutrino direction and energy reconstruction in particular. The reconstructed quantities could also help separate neutrino signals from background.

  14. Finite Difference Modeling of Wave Progpagation in Acoustic TiltedTI Media

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Linbin; Rector III, James W.; Hoversten, G. Michael

    2005-03-21

    Based on an acoustic assumption (shear wave velocity is zero) and a dispersion relation, we derive an acoustic wave equation for P-waves in tilted transversely isotropic (TTI) media (transversely isotropic media with a tilted symmetry axis). This equation has fewer parameters than an elastic wave equation in TTI media and yields an accurate description of P-wave traveltimes and spreading-related attenuation. Our TTI acoustic wave equation is a fourth-order equation in time and space. We demonstrate that the acoustic approximation allows the presence of shear waves in the solution. The substantial differences in traveltime and amplitude between data created using VTI and TTI assumptions is illustrated in examples.

  15. Estimation of seabed shear-wave velocity profiles using shear-wave source data.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hefeng; Nguyen, Thanh-Duong; Duffaut, Kenneth

    2013-07-01

    This paper estimates seabed shear-wave velocity profiles and their uncertainties using interface-wave dispersion curves extracted from data generated by a shear-wave source. The shear-wave source generated a seismic signature over a frequency range between 2 and 60 Hz and was polarized in both in-line and cross-line orientations. Low-frequency Scholte- and Love-waves were recorded. Dispersion curves of the Scholte- and Love-waves for the fundamental mode and higher-order modes are extracted by three time-frequency analysis methods. Both the vertically and horizontally polarized shear-wave velocity profiles in the sediment are estimated by the Scholte- and Love-wave dispersion curves, respectively. A Bayesian approach is utilized for the inversion. Differential evolution, a global search algorithm is applied to estimate the most-probable shear-velocity models. Marginal posterior probability profiles are computed by Metropolis-Hastings sampling. The estimated vertically and horizontally polarized shear-wave velocity profiles fit well with the core and in situ measurements. PMID:23862796

  16. Shear surface waves in phononic crystals.

    PubMed

    Kutsenko, A A; Shuvalov, A L

    2013-02-01

    The existence of shear horizontal (SH) surface waves in two-dimensional periodic phononic crystals with an asymmetric depth-dependent profile is theoretically reported. Examples of dispersion spectra with bandgaps for subsonic and supersonic SH surface waves are demonstrated. The link between the effective (quasistatic) speeds of the SH bulk and surface waves is established. Calculation and analysis is based on the integral form of a projector on the subspace of evanescent modes which means no need for their explicit finding. This method can be extended to the vector waves and the three-dimensional case.

  17. Study of acoustic emission signals during fracture shear deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostapchuk, A. A.; Pavlov, D. V.; Markov, V. K.; Krasheninnikov, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    We study acoustic manifestations of different regimes of shear deformation of a fracture filled with a thin layer of granular material. It is established that the observed acoustic portrait is determined by the structure of the fracture at the mesolevel. Joint analysis of the activity of acoustic pulses and their spectral characteristics makes it possible to construct the pattern of internal evolutionary processes occurring in the thin layer of the interblock contact and consider the fracture deformation process as the evolution of a self-organizing system.

  18. Probing Acoustic Nonlinearity by Mixing Surface Acoustic Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, David Howard; Telschow, Kenneth Louis

    2000-07-01

    Measurement methods aimed at determining material properties through nonlinear wave propagation are sensitive to artifacts caused by background nonlinearities inherent in the ultrasonic generation and detection methods. The focus of this paper is to describe our investigation of nonlinear mixing of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) as a means to decrease sensitivity to background nonlinearity and increase spatial sensitivity to acoustic nonlinearity induced by material microstructure.

  19. Shear wave velocities of unconsolidated shallow sediments in the Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Myung W.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate shear-wave velocities for shallow sediments are important for a variety of seismic applications such as inver-sion and amplitude versus offset analysis. During the U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II, shear-wave velocities were measured at six wells in the Gulf of Mexico using the logging-while-drilling SonicScope acoustic tool. Because the tool measurement point was only 35 feet from the drill bit, the adverse effect of the borehole condition, which is severe for the shallow unconsolidated sediments in the Gulf of Mexico, was mini-mized and accurate shear-wave velocities of unconsolidated sediments were measured. Measured shear-wave velocities were compared with the shear-wave velocities predicted from the compressional-wave velocities using empirical formulas and the rock physics models based on the Biot-Gassmann theory, and the effectiveness of the two prediction methods was evaluated. Although the empirical equation derived from measured shear-wave data is accurate for predicting shear-wave velocities for depths greater than 500 feet in these wells, the three-phase Biot-Gassmann-theory -based theory appears to be optimum for predicting shear-wave velocities for shallow unconsolidated sediments in the Gulf of Mexico.

  20. Surface acoustic wave stabilized oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, T. E.; Lee, D. L.; Leja, I.

    1979-01-01

    Four areas of surface acoustic wave (SAW) controlled oscillators were investigated and a number of 401.2 MHz oscillators were constructed that showed improved performance. Aging studies on SAW devices packaged in HC36/U cold weld enclosures produced frequency drifts as low as 0.4 ppm in 35 weeks and drift rates well under 0.5 ppm/year. Temperature compensation circuits have substantially improved oscillator temperature stability, with a deviation of + or - 4 ppm observed over the range -45 C to + 40 C. High efficiency amplifiers were constructed for SAW oscillators and a dc to RF efficiency of 44 percent was obtained for an RF output of 25 mW. Shock and vibration tests were made on four oscillators and all survived 500 G shock pulses unchanged. Only when white noise vibration (20 Hz to 2000 Hz) levels of 20 G's rms were applied did some of the devices fail.

  1. Swimming using surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Bourquin, Yannyk; Cooper, Jonathan M

    2013-01-01

    Microactuation of free standing objects in fluids is currently dominated by the rotary propeller, giving rise to a range of potential applications in the military, aeronautic and biomedical fields. Previously, surface acoustic waves (SAWs) have been shown to be of increasing interest in the field of microfluidics, where the refraction of a SAW into a drop of fluid creates a convective flow, a phenomenon generally known as SAW streaming. We now show how SAWs, generated at microelectronic devices, can be used as an efficient method of propulsion actuated by localised fluid streaming. The direction of the force arising from such streaming is optimal when the devices are maintained at the Rayleigh angle. The technique provides propulsion without any moving parts, and, due to the inherent design of the SAW transducer, enables simple control of the direction of travel. PMID:23431358

  2. Swimming using surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Bourquin, Yannyk; Cooper, Jonathan M

    2013-01-01

    Microactuation of free standing objects in fluids is currently dominated by the rotary propeller, giving rise to a range of potential applications in the military, aeronautic and biomedical fields. Previously, surface acoustic waves (SAWs) have been shown to be of increasing interest in the field of microfluidics, where the refraction of a SAW into a drop of fluid creates a convective flow, a phenomenon generally known as SAW streaming. We now show how SAWs, generated at microelectronic devices, can be used as an efficient method of propulsion actuated by localised fluid streaming. The direction of the force arising from such streaming is optimal when the devices are maintained at the Rayleigh angle. The technique provides propulsion without any moving parts, and, due to the inherent design of the SAW transducer, enables simple control of the direction of travel.

  3. Swimming Using Surface Acoustic Waves

    PubMed Central

    Bourquin, Yannyk; Cooper, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Microactuation of free standing objects in fluids is currently dominated by the rotary propeller, giving rise to a range of potential applications in the military, aeronautic and biomedical fields. Previously, surface acoustic waves (SAWs) have been shown to be of increasing interest in the field of microfluidics, where the refraction of a SAW into a drop of fluid creates a convective flow, a phenomenon generally known as SAW streaming. We now show how SAWs, generated at microelectronic devices, can be used as an efficient method of propulsion actuated by localised fluid streaming. The direction of the force arising from such streaming is optimal when the devices are maintained at the Rayleigh angle. The technique provides propulsion without any moving parts, and, due to the inherent design of the SAW transducer, enables simple control of the direction of travel. PMID:23431358

  4. Surface acoustic wave stabilized oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, T. E.

    1978-01-01

    A number of 401.2 MHz surface acoustic wave (SAW) controlled oscillators were built and tested. The performance of these oscillators was evaluated for possible use as stable oscillators in communication systems. A short term frequency stability of better than 1 x 10 to the minus 9th power for one second was measured for the SAW oscillators. Long term frequency drift was measured and was found to be dependent on SAW design and packaging. Drift rates ranging from 15 ppm in twenty weeks to 2.5 ppm in twenty weeks were observed. Some further improvement was required. The temperature dependence of the saw oscillators was evaluated and it was concluded that some form of temperature compensation will be necessary to meet the requirements of some communication systems.

  5. Single-sided Marchenko focusing of compressional and shear waves.

    PubMed

    Wapenaar, Kees

    2014-12-01

    In time-reversal acoustics, waves recorded at the boundary of a strongly scattering medium are sent back into the medium to focus at the original source position. This requires that the medium can be accessed from all sides. We discuss a focusing method for media that can be accessed from one side only. We show how complex focusing functions, emitted from the top surface into the medium, cause independent foci for compressional and shear waves. The focused fields are isotropic and act as independent virtual sources for these wave types inside the medium. We foresee important applications in nondestructive testing of construction materials and seismological monitoring of processes inside the Earth. PMID:25615213

  6. Temperature-controlled acoustic surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cselyuszka, Norbert; Sečujski, Milan; Engheta, Nader; Crnojević-Bengin, Vesna

    2016-10-01

    Conventional approaches to the control of acoustic waves propagating along boundaries between fluids and hard grooved surfaces are limited to the manipulation of surface geometry. Here we demonstrate for the first time, through theoretical analysis, numerical simulation as well as experimentally, that the velocity of acoustic surface waves, and consequently the direction of their propagation as well as the shape of their wave fronts, can be controlled by varying the temperature distribution over the surface. This significantly increases the versatility of applications such as sound trapping, acoustic spectral analysis and acoustic focusing, by providing a simple mechanism for modifying their behavior without any change in the geometry of the system. We further discuss that the dependence between the behavior of acoustic surface waves and the temperature of the fluid can be exploited conversely as well, which opens a way for potential application in the domain of temperature sensing.

  7. Fan-structure waves in shear ruptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, Boris

    2016-04-01

    This presentation introduces a recently identified shear rupture mechanism providing a paradoxical feature of hard rocks - the possibility of shear rupture propagation through the highly confined intact rock mass at shear stress levels significantly less than frictional strength. According to the fan-mechanism the shear rupture propagation is associated with consecutive creation of small slabs in the fracture tip which, due to rotation caused by shear displacement of the fracture interfaces, form a fan-structure representing the fracture head. The fan-head combines such unique features as: extremely low shear resistance (below the frictional strength), self-sustaining stress intensification in the rupture tip (providing easy formation of new slabs), and self-unbalancing conditions in the fan-head (making the failure process inevitably spontaneous and violent). An important feature of the fan-mechanism is the fact that for the initial formation of the fan-structure an enhanced local shear stress is required, however, after completion of the fan-structure it can propagate as a dynamic wave through intact rock mass at shear stresses below the frictional strength. Paradoxically low shear strength of pristine rocks provided by the fan-mechanism determines the correspondingly low transient strength of the lithosphere, which favours generation of new earthquake faults in the intact rock mass adjoining pre-existing faults in preference to frictional stick-slip instability along these faults. The new approach reveals an alternative role of pre-existing faults in earthquake activity: they represent local stress concentrates in pristine rock adjoining the fault where special conditions for the fan-mechanism nucleation are created, while further dynamic propagation of the new fault (earthquake) occurs at low field stresses even below the frictional strength.

  8. Protein adsorption to organosiloxane surfaces studied by acoustic wave sensor.

    PubMed

    Cavic, B A; Thompson, M

    1998-10-01

    Surfaces of the two organosiloxanes, polymercaptopropylmethylsiloxane and octaphenylcyclotetrasiloxane, were prepared on the gold electrodes of thickness-shear mode acoustic wave sensors. Compounds containing the siloxane bond are important in the fabrication of medical implants. The flow-through adsorption of the proteins: human serum albumin, alpha-chymotripsinogen A, cytochrome c, fibrinogen, hemoglobin, immunoglobulin G and apo-transferrin to the two siloxane surfaces and a gold electrode were detected by acoustic network analysis. With the exception of minor wash-off by buffer flow, the adsorption of all proteins to the three surfaces is irreversible. Differences observed for the magnitudes of adsorption for the various cases are ascribed to the role played by molecular interactions at the liquid/solid interface. The results confirm that changes in series resonant frequencies caused by macromolecular adsorption differ significantly from the widely accepted "mass based" model usually employed to characterize the response of this type of acoustic wave device.

  9. Surface acoustic wave dust deposition monitor

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, G.E.; Smith, N.S. Jr.

    1988-02-12

    A system is disclosed for using the attenuation of surface acoustic waves to monitor real time dust deposition rates on surfaces. The system includes a signal generator, a tone-burst generator/amplifier connected to a transmitting transducer for converting electrical signals into acoustic waves. These waves are transmitted through a path defining means adjacent to a layer of dust and then, in turn, transmitted to a receiving transducer for changing the attenuated acoustic wave to electrical signals. The signals representing the attenuated acoustic waves may be amplified and used in a means for analyzing the output signals to produce an output indicative of the dust deposition rates and/or values of dust in the layer. 8 figs.

  10. Granular Shear Zone Formation: Acoustic Emission Measurements and Fiber-bundle Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michlmayr, Gernot; Or, Dani

    2013-04-01

    We couple the acoustic emissions method with conceptual models of granular material behavior for investigation of granular shear zone formation and to assess eminence of landslide hazard. When granular materials are mechanically loaded or sheared, they tend to produce discrete events of force network restructuring, and frictional interaction at grain contacts. Such abrupt perturbations within the granular lattice release part of the elastic energy stored in the strained material. Elastic waves generated by such events can be measured as acoustic emissions (AE) and may be used as surrogates for intermittent structural transitions associated with shear zone formation. To experimentally investigate the connection between granular shearing and acoustic signals we performed an array of strain-controlled shear-frame tests using glass beads. AE were measured with two different systems operating at two frequency ranges. High temporal resolution measurements of the shear stresses revealed the presence of small fluctuations typically associated with low-frequency (< 20 kHz) acoustic bursts. Shear stress jumps and linked acoustic signals give account of discrete events of grain network rearrangements and obey characteristic exponential frequency-size distributions. We found that statistical features of force jumps and AE events depend on mechanical boundary conditions and evolve during the straining process. Activity characteristics of high-frequency (> 30 kHz) AE events is linked to friction between grains. To interpret failure associated AE signals, we adapted a conceptual fiber-bundle model (FBM) that describes some of the salient statistical features of failure and associated energy production. Using FBMs for the abrupt mechanical response of the granular medium and an associated grain and force chain AE generation model provides us with a full description of the mechanical-acoustical granular shearing process. Highly resolved AE may serve as a diagnostic tool not only

  11. Shear wave velocities in the earth's mantle.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, R.; Kovach, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Direct measurement of the travel time gradient for S waves together with travel time data are used to derive a shear velocity model for the earth's mantle. In order to satisfy the data it is necessary to discard the usual assumption of lateral homogeneity below shallow depths. A shear velocity differential is proposed for a region between western North America and areas of the Pacific Ocean. Distinctive features of the velocity model for the upper mantle beneath western North America are a low-velocity zone centered at 100 km depth and zones of high velocity gradient beginning at 400, 650, and 900 km.

  12. Ion heating via turbulent ion acoustic waves.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. J.; Coroniti, F. V.

    1972-01-01

    The ion acoustic turbulence in the turbulent-heating experiment reported is excited by the ion-ion beam instability. Graphs are presented, showing the spatial evolution of the parallel ion beam energy and the spatial evolution of the ion acoustic turbulent wave spectrum. The observed characteristics of test waves in a turbulent beam-plasma imply that wave saturation is a dynamic balance between the emission of waves by the beam and the destruction or damping of wave coherence by the turbulent diffusion of particle orbits.

  13. Shear-wave splitting near Guam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jiakang

    1992-08-01

    Polarities of shear waves from intermediate-focus events underneath Guam are studied. For records from a group of ten events, shear-wave splitting with faster-arriving E-W components are observed. This event group occurred within, or above, one geographic portion of the Wadati-Benioff zone, with depths ranging between 57 and 148 km. Ray tracing calculations were performed for 3-D and 1-D velocity models constructed for the region to determine expected S-wave polarities and ray patterns, as well as their sensitivities to variations in velocity structure. These were used to infer the probable existence of intrinsic anisotropy at depth and to determine the location and magnitude of anisotropy which can explain the observed shear-wave splitting. The most probable location of the anisotropy is beneath the crust and above, or partially within, the subducting slab. Assuming a maximum depth range of 10-120 km for the location of the anisotropy, its amount is about 1%, which may be viewed as a lower bound. Plausible causes of the anisotropy include mantle flow and thin, sheet-like channels filled with lava, or water vapor migrating upward from the subducting slab.

  14. Coupling of dust acoustic and shear mode through velocity shear in a strongly coupled dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Garai, S. Janaki, M. S.; Chakrabarti, N.

    2015-07-15

    In the strongly coupled limit, the generalized hydrodynamic model shows that a dusty plasma, acquiring significant rigidity, is able to support a “shear” like mode. It is being demonstrated here that in presence of velocity shear gradient, this shear like mode gets coupled with the dust acoustic mode which is generated by the compressibility effect of the dust fluid due to the finite temperatures of the dust, electron, and ion fluids. In the local analysis, the dispersion relation shows that velocity shear gradient not only couples the two modes but is also responsible for the instabilities of that coupled mode which is confirmed by nonlocal analysis with numerical techniques.

  15. Chromospheric heating by acoustic shock waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Stuart D.

    1993-01-01

    Work by Anderson & Athay (1989) suggests that the mechanical energy required to heat the quiet solar chromosphere might be due to the dissipation of weak acoustic shocks. The calculations reported here demonstrate that a simple picture of chromospheric shock heating by acoustic waves propagating upward through a model solar atmosphere, free of both magnetic fields and local inhomogeneities, cannot reproduce their chromospheric model. The primary reason is the tendency for vertically propagating acoustic waves in the range of allowed periods to dissipate too low in the atmosphere, providing insufficient residual energy for the middle chromosphere. The effect of diverging magnetic fields and the corresponding expanding acoustic wavefronts on the mechanical dissipation length is then discussed as a means of preserving a quasi-acoustic heating hypothesis. It is argued that this effect, in a canopy that overlies the low chromosphere, might preserve the acoustic shock hypothesis consistent with the chromospheric radiation losses computed by Anderson & Athay.

  16. Acoustic excitation: A promising new means of controlling shear layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. R.; Mckinzie, D. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques have long been sought for the controlled modification of turbulent shear layers, such as in jets, wakes, boundary layers, and separated flows. Relatively recently published results of laboratory experiments have established that coherent structures exist within turbulent flows. These results indicate that even apparently chaotic flow fields can contain deterministic, nonrandom elements. Even more recently published results show that deliberate acoustic excitation of these coherent structures has a significant effect on the mixing characteristics of shear layers. Therefore, we have initiated a research effort to develop both an understanding of the interaction mechanisms and the ability to use it to favorably modify various shear layers. Acoustic excitation circumvents the need for pumping significant flow rates, as required by suction or blowing. Control of flows by intentional excitation of natural flow instabilities involves new and largely unexplored phenomena and offers considerable potential for improving component performance. Nonintrusive techniques for flow field control may permit much more efficient, flexible propulsion systems and aircraft designs, including means of stall avoidance and recovery. The techniques developed may also find application in many other areas where mixing is important, such as reactors, continuous lasers, rocket engines, and fluidic devices. It is the objective of this paper to examine some potential applications of the acoustic excitation technique to various shear layer flows of practical aerospace systems.

  17. Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device

    DOEpatents

    Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady, Ihab F.; McCormick, Frederick; Fleming, James G.; Fleming, legal representative, Carol

    2010-11-23

    A microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device comprises a periodic two-dimensional array of scatterers embedded within the matrix material membrane, wherein the scatterer material has a density and/or elastic constant that is different than the matrix material and wherein the periodicity of the array causes destructive interference of the acoustic wave within an acoustic bandgap. The membrane can be suspended above a substrate by an air or vacuum gap to provide acoustic isolation from the substrate. The device can be fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. Such microfabricated bulk wave phononic bandgap devices are useful for acoustic isolation in the ultrasonic, VHF, or UHF regime (i.e., frequencies of order 1 MHz to 10 GHz and higher, and lattice constants of order 100 .mu.m or less).

  18. Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device

    DOEpatents

    Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady, Ihab F.; McCormick, Frederick; Fleming, James G.; Fleming, Carol

    2010-06-08

    A microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device comprises a periodic two-dimensional array of scatterers embedded within the matrix material membrane, wherein the scatterer material has a density and/or elastic constant that is different than the matrix material and wherein the periodicity of the array causes destructive interference of the acoustic wave within an acoustic bandgap. The membrane can be suspended above a substrate by an air or vacuum gap to provide acoustic isolation from the substrate. The device can be fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. Such microfabricated bulk wave phononic bandgap devices are useful for acoustic isolation in the ultrasonic, VHF, or UHF regime (i.e., frequencies of order 1 MHz to 10 GHz and higher, and lattice constants of order 100 .mu.m or less).

  19. A New Wave of Acoustics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Robert

    1981-01-01

    Surveys 50 years of acoustical studies by discussing selected topics including the ear, nonlinear representations, underwater sound, acoustical diagnostics, absorption, electrolytes, phonons, magnetic interaction, and superfluidity and the five sounds. (JN)

  20. Dynamics of coupled light waves and electron-acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Shukla, P K; Stenflo, L; Hellberg, M

    2002-08-01

    The nonlinear interaction between coherent light waves and electron-acoustic waves in a two-electron plasma is considered. The interaction is governed by a pair of equations comprising a Schrödinger-like equation for the light wave envelope and a driven (by the light pressure) electron-acoustic wave equation. The newly derived nonlinear equations are used to study the formation and dynamics of envelope light wave solitons and light wave collapse. The implications of our investigation to space and laser-produced plasmas are pointed out.

  1. Acoustic and elastic waves in metamaterials for underwater applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titovich, Alexey S.

    Elastic effects in acoustic metamaterials are investigated. Water-based periodic arrays of elastic scatterers, sonic crystals, suffer from low transmission due to the impedance and index mismatch of typical engineering materials with water. A new type of acoustic metamaterial element is proposed that can be tuned to match the acoustic properties of water in the quasi-static regime. The element comprises a hollow elastic cylindrical shell fitted with an optimized internal substructure consisting of a central mass supported by an axisymmetric distribution of elastic stiffeners, which dictate the shell's effective bulk modulus and density. The derived closed form scattering solution for this system shows that the subsonic flexural waves excited in the shell by the attachment of stiffeners are suppressed by including a sufficiently large number of such stiffeners. As an example of refraction-based wave steering, a cylindrical-to-plane wave lens is designed by varying the bulk modulus in the array according to the conformal mapping of a unit circle to a square. Elastic shells provide rich scattering properties, mainly due to their ability to support highly dispersive flexural waves. Analysis of flexural-borne waves on a pair of shells yields an analytical expression for the width of a flexural resonance, which is then used with the theory of multiple scattering to accurately predict the splitting of the resonance frequency. This analysis leads to the discovery of the acoustic Poisson-like effect in a periodic wave medium. This effect redirects an incident acoustic wave by 90° in an otherwise acoustically transparent sonic crystal. An unresponsive "deaf" antisymmetric mode locked to band gap boundaries is unlocked by matching Bragg scattering with a quadrupole flexural resonance of the shell. The dynamic effect causes normal unidirectional wave motion to strongly couple to perpendicular motion, analogous to the quasi-static Poisson effect in solids. The Poisson

  2. The acoustic signature of bubbles fragmenting in sheared flow.

    PubMed

    Deane, Grant B; Stokes, M Dale

    2006-12-01

    Measurements of the sound of bubbles fragmenting in fluid shear are presented and analyzed. The frequency, amplitude, and decay rate of the acoustic emissions from 1.8-mm-radius bubbles fragmenting between opposed fluid jets have been determined. A broad band of frequencies (1.8 to 30 kHz) is observed with peak pressure amplitudes in the range of 0.03 to 2 Pa. While the peak pressure amplitudes show no significant scaling with frequency, the frequency dependence of the decay rates is consistent with the sum of thermal and acoustic radiation losses.

  3. Waves in Turbulent Stably Stratified Shear Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobitz, F. G.; Rogers, M. M.; Ferziger, J. H.; Parks, John W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Two approaches for the identification of internal gravity waves in sheared and unsheared homogeneous stratified turbulence are investigated. First, the phase angle between the vertical velocity and density fluctuations is considered. It was found, however, that a continuous distribution of the phase angle is present in weakly and strongly stratified flow. Second, a projection onto the solution of the linearized inviscid equations of motion of unsheared stratified flow is investigated. It was found that a solution of the fully nonlinear viscous Navier-Stokes equations can be represented by the linearized inviscid solution. The projection yields a decomposition into vertical wave modes and horizontal vortical modes.

  4. Horizontal Shear Wave Imaging of Large Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Quarry, M J

    2007-09-05

    When complete the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be the world's largest and most energetic laser and will be capable of achieving for the first time fusion ignition in the laboratory. Detecting optics features within the laser beamlines and sizing them at diameters of 0.1 mm to 10 mm allows timely decisions concerning refurbishment and will help with the routine operation of the system. Horizontally polarized shear waves at 10 MHz were shown to accurately detect, locate, and size features created by laser operations from 0.5 mm to 8 mm by placing sensors at the edge of the optic. The shear wave technique utilizes highly directed beams. The outer edge of an optic can be covered with shear wave transducers on four sides. Each transducer sends a pulse into the optic and any damage reflects the pulse back to the transmitter. The transducers are multiplexed, and the collected time waveforms are enveloped and replicated across the width of the element. Multiplying the data sets from four directions produces a map of reflected amplitude to the fourth power, which images the surface of the optic. Surface area can be measured directly from the image, and maximum depth was shown to be correlated to maximum amplitude of the reflected waveform.

  5. Writing magnetic patterns with surface acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Weiyang; Buford, Benjamin; Jander, Albrecht; Dhagat, Pallavi

    2014-05-07

    A novel patterning technique that creates magnetization patterns in a continuous magnetostrictive film with surface acoustic waves is demonstrated. Patterns of 10 μm wide stripes of alternating magnetization and a 3 μm dot of reversed magnetization are written using standing and focusing acoustic waves, respectively. The magnetization pattern is size-tunable, erasable, and rewritable by changing the magnetic field and acoustic power. This versatility, along with its solid-state implementation (no moving parts) and electronic control, renders it as a promising technique for application in magnetic recording, magnonic signal processing, magnetic particle manipulation, and spatial magneto-optical modulation.

  6. Electrostatic drift-wave instability in a nonuniform quantum magnetoplasma with parallel velocity shear flows

    SciTech Connect

    Tariq, Sabeen; Mirza, Arshad M.; Masood, W.

    2010-10-15

    The propagation of high and low frequency (in comparison with the cyclotron frequency) electrostatic drift-waves is investigated in a nonuniform, dense magnetoplasma (composed of electrons and ions), in the presence of parallel shear flow, by employing the quantum magnetohydrodynamic (QMHD) model. Using QMHD model, a new set of equations is presented in order to investigate linear properties of electrostatic drift-waves with sheared plasma flows for dense plasmas. In this regard, dispersion relations for coupled electron-thermal and drift-ion acoustic modes are derived and several interesting limiting cases are discussed. For instance, it is found that sheared ion flow parallel to the external magnetic field can drive the quantum drift-ion acoustic wave unstable, etc. The present investigation may have relevance in dense astrophysical environments where quantum effects are significant.

  7. Tunable damper for an acoustic wave guide

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, S.C.

    1982-10-21

    A damper for tunably damping acoustic waves in an ultrasonic waveguide is provided which may be used in a hostile environment such as a nuclear reactor. The area of the waveguide, which may be a selected size metal rod in which acoustic waves are to be damped, is wrapped, or surrounded, by a mass of stainless steel wool. The wool wrapped portion is then sandwiched between tuning plates, which may also be stainless steel, by means of clamping screws which may be adjusted to change the clamping force of the sandwiched assembly along the waveguide section. The plates are preformed along their length in a sinusoidally bent pattern with a period approximately equal to the acoustic wavelength which is to be damped. The bent pattern of the opposing plates are in phase along their length relative to their sinusoidal patterns so that as the clamping screws are tightened a bending stress is applied to the waveguide at 180/sup 0/ intervals along the damping section to oppose the acoustic wave motions in the waveguide and provide good coupling of the wool to the guide. The damper is tuned by selectively tightening the clamping screws while monitoring the amplitude of the acoustic waves launched in the waveguide. It may be selectively tuned to damp particular acoustic wave modes (torsional or extensional, for example) and/or frequencies while allowing others to pass unattenuated.

  8. Tunable damper for an acoustic wave guide

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Samuel C.

    1984-01-01

    A damper for tunably damping acoustic waves in an ultrasonic waveguide is provided which may be used in a hostile environment such as a nuclear reactor. The area of the waveguide, which may be a selected size metal rod in which acoustic waves are to be damped, is wrapped, or surrounded, by a mass of stainless steel wool. The wool wrapped portion is then sandwiched between tuning plates, which may also be stainless steel, by means of clamping screws which may be adjusted to change the clamping force of the sandwiched assembly along the waveguide section. The plates are preformed along their length in a sinusoidally bent pattern with a period approximately equal to the acoustic wavelength which is to be damped. The bent pattern of the opposing plates are in phase along their length relative to their sinusoidal patterns so that as the clamping screws are tightened a bending stress is applied to the waveguide at 180.degree. intervals along the damping section to oppose the acoustic wave motions in the waveguide and provide good coupling of the wool to the guide. The damper is tuned by selectively tightening the clamping screws while monitoring the amplitude of the acoustic waves launched in the waveguide. It may be selectively tuned to damp particular acoustic wave modes (torsional or extensional, for example) and/or frequencies while allowing others to pass unattenuated.

  9. Ion Acoustic Waves in Ultracold Neutral Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, J.; McQuillen, P.; Killian, T. C.

    2010-08-06

    We photoionize laser-cooled atoms with a laser beam possessing spatially periodic intensity modulations to create ultracold neutral plasmas with controlled density perturbations. Laser-induced fluorescence imaging reveals that the density perturbations oscillate in space and time, and the dispersion relation of the oscillations matches that of ion acoustic waves, which are long-wavelength, electrostatic, density waves.

  10. High speed all optical shear wave imaging optical coherence elastography (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Shaozhen; Hsieh, Bao-Yu; Wei, Wei; Shen, Tueng; O'Donnell, Matthew; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-03-01

    Optical Coherence Elastography (OCE) is a non-invasive testing modality that maps the mechanical property of soft tissues with high sensitivity and spatial resolution using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PhS-OCT). Shear wave OCE (SW-OCE) is a leading technique that relies on the speed of propagating shear waves to provide a quantitative elastography. Previous shear wave imaging OCT techniques are based on repeated M-B scans, which have several drawbacks such as long acquisition time and repeated wave stimulations. Recent developments of Fourier domain mode-locked high-speed swept-source OCT system has enabled enough speed to perform KHz B-scan rate OCT imaging. Here we propose ultra-high speed, single shot shear wave imaging to capture single-shot transient shear wave propagation to perform SW-OCE. The frame rate of shear wave imaging is 16 kHz, at A-line rate of ~1.62 MHz, which allows the detection of high-frequency shear wave of up to 8 kHz. The shear wave is generated photothermal-acoustically, by ultra-violet pulsed laser, which requires no contact to OCE subjects, while launching high frequency shear waves that carries rich localized elasticity information. The image acquisition and processing can be performed at video-rate, which enables real-time 3D elastography. SW-OCE measurements are demonstrated on tissue-mimicking phantoms and porcine ocular tissue. This approach opens up the feasibility to perform real-time 3D SW-OCE in clinical applications, to obtain high-resolution localized quantitative measurement of tissue biomechanical property.

  11. Explosion Shear Wave Generation and Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, G. E.; Stevens, J. L.; Xu, H.

    2004-12-01

    We use observations of explosion-generated Lg together with three separate types of numerical models to determine how underground nuclear explosions generate shear wave phases. This question is fundamental to how Lg phases are interpreted for use in explosion yield estimation and earthquake/explosion discrimination. A simple point explosion in a uniform medium generates no shear waves, so the Lg phase is generated entirely by non-spherical components of the source and conversions through reflections and scattering. Our results indicate that the most important sources of high frequency explosion shear waves are P to S conversions at the free surface and S waves generated directly by a realistic distributed explosion source including nonlinear effects due to the free surface and gravity. In addition, Rg scattering may contribute to lower frequency Lg. Near source S is observed on both radial and tangential component records from a diverse set of explosion data. The data sets include 1) Degelen Mountain explosions recorded at distances less than 100 km and corresponding recordings at Borovoye (BOR) at 650 km; 2) recordings from Russian deep seismic sounding experiments; 3) Nevada Test Site (NTS) explosion sources including the Nonproliferation Experiment (NPE) and nuclear tests covering a range of source depths and media properties. We model the overburied NPE, and underburied and overburied Degelen explosions, using point sources and two-dimensional nonlinear finite difference calculations to quantify the source effects. We use energy conservation to determine an upper bound on Rg to Lg scattering. Results indicate that Rg to Lg scattering may be important at frequencies less than 1 Hz, and in Lg coda, but is less than Lg generated directly by the explosion at higher frequencies. We use 2D and 3D finite difference calculations, using the known topography and velocity structure at Degelen Mt. and lateral heterogeneities within the crust, to estimate the effect of

  12. Classical acoustic waves in damped media.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, E L; Mauriz, P W

    2003-05-01

    A Green function technique is employed to investigate the propagation of classical damped acoustic waves in complex media. The calculations are based on the linear response function approach, which is very convenient to deal with this kind of problem. Both the displacement and the gradient displacement Green functions are determined. All deformations in the media are supposed to be negligible, so the motions considered here are purely acoustic waves. The damping term gamma is included in a phenomenological way into the wave vector expression. By using the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, the power spectrum of the acoustic waves is also derived and has interesting properties, the most important of them being a possible relation with the analysis of seismic reflection data.

  13. Microwave acoustics handbook. Volume 4: Bulk wave velocities: Numerical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slobodnik, A. J., Jr.; Delmonico, R. T.; Conway, E. D.

    1980-06-01

    Information useful for the design of acoustic delay lines, resonators, and other miniature, low-cost devices for use in communications and electronic sensing is given. Numerical data on bulk acoustic wave velocities and power flow angles are given for longitudinal, and two shear waves for various orientations of the following single crystalline materials: Ba2NaNb5O15, Bi12/geO20, CdS, Diamond, Eu3Fe5O15, GaAs, Gadolinium Gallium Garnet, Germanium, InSb, InAs, Lead Molybdate, PbS, LiNbO3, LiTaO3, MgO, Quartz, Rutile, Sapphire, Silicon, Spinel, TeO2, YAG, YGaG, YIG, and ZnO. This present volume is intended to be used as a supplement to Volume 3 whenever accurate numerical data is required rather than the more convenient graphical information.

  14. Surface wave acoustics of granular packing under gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, Eric; Andreotti, Bruno; Bonneau, Lenaic

    2009-06-18

    Due to the non-linearity of Hertzian contacts, the speed of sound in granular matter increases with pressure. For a packing under gravity and in the presence of a free surface, bulk acoustic waves cannot propagate due to the inherent refraction toward the surface (the mirage effect). Thus, only modes corresponding to surface waves (Raleigh-Hertz modes) are able to propagate the acoustic signal. First, based on a non-linear elasticity model, we describe the main features associated to these surface waves. We show that under gravity, a granular packing is from the acoustic propagation point of view an index gradient waveguide that selects modes of two distinct families i.e. the sagittal and transverse waves localized in the vicinity of the free surface. A striking feature of these surface waves is the multi-modal propagation: for both transverse and sagittal waves, we show the existence of a infinite but discrete series of propagating modes. In each case, we determine the mode shape and and the corresponding dispersion relation. In the case of a finite size system, a geometric waveguide is superimposed to the index gradient wave guide. In this later case, the dispersion relations are modified by the appearance of a cut-off frequency that scales with depth. The second part is devoted to an experimental study of surface waves propagating in a granular packing confined in a long channel. This set-up allows to tune a monomodal emission by taking advantage of the geometric waveguide features combined with properly designed emitters. For both sagittal and transverses waves, we were able to isolate a single mode (the fundamental one) and to plot the dispersion relation. This measurements agree well with the Hertzian scaling law as predicted by meanfield models. Furthermore, it allows us to determine quantitatively relations on the elastic moduli. However, we observe that our data yield a shear modulus abnormally weak when compared to several meanfield predictions.

  15. The radiation of sound by the instability waves of a compressible plane turbulent shear layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, C. K. W.; Morris, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of acoustic radiation generated by instability waves of a compressible plane turbulent shear layer is solved. The solution provided is valid up to the acoustic far-field region. It represents a significant improvement over the solution obtained by classical hydrodynamic-stability theory which is essentially a local solution with the acoustic radiation suppressed. The basic instability-wave solution which is valid in the shear layer and the near-field region is constructed in terms of an asymptotic expansion using the method of multiple scales. This solution accounts for the effects of the slightly divergent mean flow. It is shown that the multiple-scales asymptotic expansion is not uniformly valid far from the shear layer. Continuation of this solution into the entire upper half-plane is described. The extended solution enables the near- and far-field pressure fluctuations associated with the instability wave to be determined. Numerical results show that the directivity pattern of acoustic radiation into the stationary medium peaks at 20 degrees to the axis of the shear layer in the downstream direction for supersonic flows. This agrees qualitatively with the observed noise-directivity patterns of supersonic jets.

  16. Exciton transport by surface acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, J.; Hey, R.; Santos, P. V.

    2007-05-01

    Long-range acoustic transport of excitons in GaAs quantum wells (QWs) is demonstrated. The mobile strain field of a surface acoustic wave creates a dynamic lateral type I modulation of the conduction and valence bands in a double-quantum-well (DQW) structure. This mobile potential modulation transports long-living indirect excitons in the DQW over several hundreds of μm.

  17. Acoustic-wave sensor for ambient monitoring of a photoresist-stripping agent

    DOEpatents

    Pfeifer, K.B.; Hoyt, A.E.; Frye, G.C.

    1998-08-18

    The acoustic-wave sensor is disclosed. The acoustic-wave sensor is designed for ambient or vapor-phase monitoring of a photoresist-stripping agent such as N-methylpyrrolidinone (NMP), ethoxyethylpropionate (EEP) or the like. The acoustic-wave sensor comprises an acoustic-wave device such as a surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) device, a flexural-plate-wave (FPW) device, an acoustic-plate-mode (APM) device, or a thickness-shear-mode (TSM) device (also termed a quartz crystal microbalance or QCM) having a sensing region on a surface thereof. The sensing region includes a sensing film for sorbing a quantity of the photoresist-stripping agent, thereby altering or shifting a frequency of oscillation of an acoustic wave propagating through the sensing region for indicating an ambient concentration of the agent. According to preferred embodiments of the invention, the acoustic-wave device is a SAW device; and the sensing film comprises poly(vinylacetate), poly(N-vinylpyrrolidinone), or poly(vinylphenol). 3 figs.

  18. Acoustic-wave sensor for ambient monitoring of a photoresist-stripping agent

    DOEpatents

    Pfeifer, Kent B.; Hoyt, Andrea E.; Frye, Gregory C.

    1998-01-01

    The acoustic-wave sensor. The acoustic-wave sensor is designed for ambient or vapor-phase monitoring of a photoresist-stripping agent such as N-methylpyrrolidinone (NMP), ethoxyethylpropionate (EEP) or the like. The acoustic-wave sensor comprises an acoustic-wave device such as a surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) device, a flexural-plate-wave (FPW) device, an acoustic-plate-mode (APM) device, or a thickness-shear-mode (TSM) device (also termed a quartz crystal microbalance or QCM) having a sensing region on a surface thereof. The sensing region includes a sensing film for sorbing a quantity of the photoresist-stripping agent, thereby altering or shifting a frequency of oscillation of an acoustic wave propagating through the sensing region for indicating an ambient concentration of the agent. According to preferred embodiments of the invention, the acoustic-wave device is a SAW device; and the sensing film comprises poly(vinylacetate), poly(N-vinylpyrrolidinone), or poly(vinylphenol).

  19. From supersonic shear wave imaging to full-field optical coherence shear wave elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahas, Amir; Tanter, Mickaël; Nguyen, Thu-Mai; Chassot, Jean-Marie; Fink, Mathias; Claude Boccara, A.

    2013-12-01

    Elasticity maps of tissue have proved to be particularly useful in providing complementary contrast to ultrasonic imaging, e.g., for cancer diagnosis at the millimeter scale. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) offers an endogenous contrast based on singly backscattered optical waves. Adding complementary contrast to OCT images by recording elasticity maps could also be valuable in improving OCT-based diagnosis at the microscopic scale. Static elastography has been successfully coupled with full-field OCT (FF-OCT) in order to realize both micrometer-scale sectioning and elasticity maps. Nevertheless, static elastography presents a number of drawbacks, mainly when stiffness quantification is required. Here, we describe the combination of two methods: transient elastography, based on speed measurements of shear waves induced by ultrasonic radiation forces, and FF-OCT, an en face OCT approach using an incoherent light source. The use of an ultrafast ultrasonic scanner and an ultrafast camera working at 10,000 to 30,000 images/s made it possible to follow shear wave propagation with both modalities. As expected, FF-OCT is found to be much more sensitive than ultrafast ultrasound to tiny shear vibrations (a few nanometers and micrometers, respectively). Stiffness assessed in gel phantoms and an ex vivo rat brain by FF-OCT is found to be in good agreement with ultrasound shear wave elastography.

  20. Imaging of Acoustic Waves in Sand

    SciTech Connect

    Deason, Vance Albert; Telschow, Kenneth Louis; Watson, Scott Marshall

    2003-08-01

    There is considerable interest in detecting objects such as landmines shallowly buried in loose earth or sand. Various techniques involving microwave, acoustic, thermal and magnetic sensors have been used to detect such objects. Acoustic and microwave sensors have shown promise, especially if used together. In most cases, the sensor package is scanned over an area to eventually build up an image or map of anomalies. We are proposing an alternate, acoustic method that directly provides an image of acoustic waves in sand or soil, and their interaction with buried objects. The INEEL Laser Ultrasonic Camera utilizes dynamic holography within photorefractive recording materials. This permits one to image and demodulate acoustic waves on surfaces in real time, without scanning. A video image is produced where intensity is directly and linearly proportional to surface motion. Both specular and diffusely reflecting surfaces can be accomodated and surface motion as small as 0.1 nm can be quantitatively detected. This system was used to directly image acoustic surface waves in sand as well as in solid objects. Waves as frequencies of 16 kHz were generated using modified acoustic speakers. These waves were directed through sand toward partially buried objects. The sand container was not on a vibration isolation table, but sat on the lab floor. Interaction of wavefronts with buried objects showed reflection, diffraction and interference effects that could provide clues to location and characteristics of buried objects. Although results are preliminary, success in this effort suggests that this method could be applied to detection of buried landmines or other near-surface items such as pipes and tanks.

  1. Utility of Shear Wave Elastography for Diagnosing Chronic Autoimmune Thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Fukuhara, Takahiro; Matsuda, Eriko; Izawa, Shoichiro; Fujiwara, Kazunori; Kitano, Hiroya

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the utility of shear wave elastography (SWE) using acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) for diagnosing chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (CAT) and to verify the effect of fibrotic thyroid tissue on shear wave velocity (SWV). The subjects were 229 patients with 253 normal thyroid lobes (controls) and 150 CAT lobes. The SWV for CAT (2.47 ± 0.57 m/s) was significantly higher than that for controls (1.59 ± 0.41 m/s) (P < 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve for CAT was 0.899, and the SWV cut-off value was 1.96 m/s. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy were 87.4%, 78.7%, and 85.1%, respectively. Levels of anti-thyroperoxidase antibodies and thyroid isthmus thickness were correlated with tissue stiffness in CAT. However, there was no correlation between levels of anti-thyroglobulin antibodies and tissue stiffness. Quantitative SWE is useful for diagnosing CAT, and it is possible that SWE can be used to evaluate the degree of fibrosis in patients with CAT. PMID:26257979

  2. Topological charge pump by surface acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Zheng; Shi-Ping, Feng; Shi-Jie, Yang

    2016-06-01

    Quantized electron pumping by the surface acoustic wave across barriers created by a sequence of split metal gates is interpreted from the viewpoint of topology. The surface acoustic wave serves as a one-dimensional periodical potential whose energy spectrum possesses the Bloch band structure. The time-dependent phase plays the role of an adiabatic parameter of the Hamiltonian which induces a geometrical phase. The pumping currents are related to the Chern numbers of the filled bands below the Fermi energy. Based on this understanding, we predict a novel effect of quantized but non-monotonous current plateaus simultaneously pumped by two homodromous surface acoustic waves. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11374036) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB821403).

  3. Active micromixer using surface acoustic wave streaming

    SciTech Connect

    Branch; Darren W. , Meyer; Grant D. , Craighead; Harold G.

    2011-05-17

    An active micromixer uses a surface acoustic wave, preferably a Rayleigh wave, propagating on a piezoelectric substrate to induce acoustic streaming in a fluid in a microfluidic channel. The surface acoustic wave can be generated by applying an RF excitation signal to at least one interdigital transducer on the piezoelectric substrate. The active micromixer can rapidly mix quiescent fluids or laminar streams in low Reynolds number flows. The active micromixer has no moving parts (other than the SAW transducer) and is, therefore, more reliable, less damaging to sensitive fluids, and less susceptible to fouling and channel clogging than other types of active and passive micromixers. The active micromixer is adaptable to a wide range of geometries, can be easily fabricated, and can be integrated in a microfluidic system, reducing dead volume. Finally, the active micromixer has on-demand on/off mixing capability and can be operated at low power.

  4. Standing shear waves in anisotropic viscoelastic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krit, T.; Golubkova, I.; Andreev, V.

    2015-10-01

    We studied standing shear waves in anisotropic resonator represented by a rectangular parallelepiped (layer) fixed without slipping between two wooden plates of finite mass. The viscoelastic layer with edges of 70 mm × 40 mm × 15 mm was made of a rubber-like polymer plastisol with rubber bands inside. The bands were placed vertical between the top and the bottom plate. Mechanical properties of the plastisol itself were carefully measured previously. It was found that plastisol shows a cubic nonlinear behavior, i.e. the stress-strain curve could be represented as: σ = μɛ + βμɛ3, where ɛ stands for shear strain and σ is an applied shear stress. The value of shear modulus μ depends on frequency and was found to be several kilopascals which is common for such soft solids. Nonlinear parameter β is frequency dependent too and varies in range from tenths to unity at 1-100 Hz frequency range, decreasing with frequency growth. Stretching the rubber bands inside the layer leads to change of elastic properties in resonator. Such effect could be noticed due to frequency response of the resonator. The numerical model of the resonator was based on finite elements method (FEM) and performed in MatLab. The resonator was cut in hundreds of right triangular prisms. Each prism was provided with viscoelastic properties of the layer except for the top prisms provided with the wooden plate properties and the prisms at the site of the rubber bands provided with the rubber properties. The boundary conditions on each prism satisfied the requirements that resonator is inseparable and all its boundaries but bottom are free. The bottom boundary was set to move horizontally with constant acceleration amplitude. It was shown numerically that the resonator shows anisotropic behavior expressed in different frequency response to oscillations applied to a bottom boundary in different directions.

  5. Shear Horizontal Wave Propagation Speed in Mylar Sheet and Coated Paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leppänen, M.; Karppinen, T.; Hæggström, E.; Stor-Pellinen, J.

    2006-03-01

    Soft plate-like membranes find application e.g. as pill or paper coatings, bio-filter membranes, and gas seals in food products. For these applications the integrity and the mechanical properties of the membrane are important. Mechanical properties of these products can be determined by stretching or bending tests, but such methods can damage these fragile products. We propose a rapid nondestructive acoustic method to estimate mechanical film characteristics with shear horizontal (in-plane shear) waves. A 23 kHz, 1-cycle square signal was excited into a thin foil with a piezoceramic pickup and received with an inductive pickup. The SNR (power) was 20 dB in 1 kHz -50 kHz bandwidth. This actuation-detection scheme can be used to excite in-plane longitudinal, shear and even elliptic waves in a thin foil. The method was validated by measuring in-plane shear wave and longitudinal wave time-of-flight TOF at different actuator-receiver separations and calculating the corresponding longitudinal and shear modulus. The samples were Mylar® sheet and coated paper. The anisotropy of MOE for Mylar sheet was close to the manufacturer specifications. For coated paper a maximum shear modulus anisotropy of 5% and a shear modulus dependence on temperature of 0.7 MPa/°C were found. Laser doppler vibrometry showed that the excited waves were confined in-plane.

  6. Computationally efficient parabolic equation solutions to seismo-acoustic problems involving thin or low-shear elastic layers.

    PubMed

    Metzler, Adam M; Collis, Jon M

    2013-04-01

    Shallow-water environments typically include sediments containing thin or low-shear layers. Numerical treatments of these types of layers require finer depth grid spacing than is needed elsewhere in the domain. Thin layers require finer grids to fully sample effects due to elasticity within the layer. As shear wave speeds approach zero, the governing system becomes singular and fine-grid spacing becomes necessary to obtain converged solutions. In this paper, a seismo-acoustic parabolic equation solution is derived utilizing modified difference formulas using Galerkin's method to allow for variable-grid spacing in depth. Propagation results are shown for environments containing thin layers and low-shear layers.

  7. Shear Wave Splitting Beneath the Galapagos Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, F. R.; Burkett, P. G.; Hooft, E. E.; Toomey, D. R.; Solomon, S. C.; Silver, P. G.

    2004-12-01

    We report measurements of teleseismic shear wave splitting in the Galápagos Archipelago. The inferred lateral variations in azimuthal anisotropy allow us to examine the dynamics of an evolving hotspot-ridge system. The data are from SKS and SKKS phases, as well as S waves from deep sources, recorded by a relatively dense network of 10 portable broadband seismometers deployed from 1999 to 2003 for the IGUANA (Imaging Galápagos Upwelling and Neotectonics of the Archipelago) experiment and from the GSN broadband station in Santa Cruz (PAYG). We find a delay time between fast and slow shear waves of 0.4 to 0.9 s and fast polarization directions of N85-90° E beneath five stations at the leading and southern edge of the archipelago. Despite clear seismic signals, we did not find any anisotropy at the six stations located in the interior of the archipelago. For those stations that show shear wave splitting, there is an increase in the delay time toward the expected location of the Galápagos hotspot at the western edge of the archipelago. With the exception of Española, fast polarization directions (N85-90° E) are close to the current direction of absolute plate motion of the overlying Nazca plate (N91° E). The lack of azimuthal anisotropy in the interior of the archipelago is interpreted as an absence of strongly oriented mantle fabric beneath these stations. The apparent isotropy in this dynamic region, where we expect considerable mantle strain, is surprising. It is not likely that the olivine a-axis is oriented vertically beneath the interior of the archipelago as the Galápagos plume is thought to lie at the western edge. It is also unlikely that there are two layers of perpendicularly-oriented anisotropy which are solely confined to the center of the archipelago. However, there appears to be some correlation between the region of apparent isotropy and a zone of anomalously low upper mantle velocities imaged beneath Santiago and Marchena from surface waves by

  8. Linking the viscous grain-shearing mechanism of wave propagation in marine sediments to fractional calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Vikash; Holm, Sverre

    2016-04-01

    An analogy is drawn between the diffusion-wave equations derived from the fractional Kelvin-Voigt model and those obtained from Buckingham's grain-shearing (GS) model [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 2796-2815 (2000)] of wave propagation in saturated, unconsolidated granular materials. The material impulse response function from the GS model is found to be similar to the power-law memory kernel which is inherent in the framework of fractional calculus. The compressional wave equation and shear wave equation derived from the GS model turn out to be the Kelvin-Voigt fractional-derivative wave equation and the fractional diffusion-wave equation respectively. Also, a physical interpretation of the characteristic fractional-order present in the Kelvin-Voigt fractional derivative wave equation and time-fractional diffusion-wave equation is inferred from the GS model. The shear wave equation from the GS model predicts both diffusion and wave propagation in the fractional framework. The overall goal is intended to show that fractional calculus is not just a mathematical framework which can be used to curve-fit the complex behavior of materials, but rather it can be justified from real physical process of grain-shearing as well.

  9. Brillouin light scattering from surface acoustic waves in a subwavelength-diameter optical fibre

    PubMed Central

    Beugnot, Jean-Charles; Lebrun, Sylvie; Pauliat, Gilles; Maillotte, Hervé; Laude, Vincent; Sylvestre, Thibaut

    2014-01-01

    Brillouin scattering in optical fibres is a fundamental interaction between light and sound with important implications ranging from optical sensors to slow and fast light. In usual optical fibres, light both excites and feels shear and longitudinal bulk elastic waves, giving rise to forward-guided acoustic wave Brillouin scattering and backward-stimulated Brillouin scattering. In a subwavelength-diameter optical fibre, the situation changes dramatically, as we here report with the first experimental observation of Brillouin light scattering from surface acoustic waves. These Rayleigh-type surface waves travel the wire surface at a specific velocity of 3,400 m s−1 and backscatter the light with a Doppler shift of about 6 GHz. As these acoustic resonances are sensitive to surface defects or features, surface acoustic wave Brillouin scattering opens new opportunities for various sensing applications, but also in other domains such as microwave photonics and nonlinear plasmonics. PMID:25341638

  10. Analysis shear wave velocity structure obtained from surface wave methods in Bornova, Izmir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pamuk, Eren; Özdaǧ, Özkan Cevdet; Akgün, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    Properties of the soil from the bedrock is necessary to describe accurately and reliably for the reduction of earthquake damage. Because seismic waves change their amplitude and frequency content owing to acoustic impedance difference between soil and bedrock. Firstly, shear wave velocity and depth information of layers on bedrock is needed to detect this changing. Shear wave velocity can be obtained using inversion of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves obtained from surface wave methods (MASW- the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves, ReMi-Refraction Microtremor, SPAC-Spatial Autocorrelation). While research depth is limeted in active source study, a passive source methods are utilized for deep depth which is not reached using active source methods. ReMi method is used to determine layer thickness and velocity up to 100 m using seismic refraction measurement systems.The research carried out up to desired depth depending on radius using SPAC which is utilized easily in conditions that district using of seismic studies in the city. Vs profiles which are required to calculate deformations in under static and dynamic loads can be obtained with high resolution using combining rayleigh wave dispersion curve obtained from active and passive source methods. In the this study, Surface waves data were collected using the measurements of MASW, ReMi and SPAC at the İzmir Bornova region. Dispersion curves obtained from surface wave methods were combined in wide frequency band and Vs-depth profiles were obtained using inversion. Reliability of the resulting soil profiles were provided by comparison with theoretical transfer function obtained from soil paremeters and observed soil transfer function from Nakamura technique and by examination of fitting between these functions. Vs values are changed between 200-830 m/s and engineering bedrock (Vs>760 m/s) depth is approximately 150 m.

  11. Broadband acoustic cloak for ultrasound waves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu; Xia, Chunguang; Fang, Nicholas

    2011-01-14

    Invisibility devices based on coordinate transformation have opened up a new field of considerable interest. We present here the first practical realization of a low-loss and broadband acoustic cloak for underwater ultrasound. This metamaterial cloak is constructed with a network of acoustic circuit elements, namely, serial inductors and shunt capacitors. Our experiment clearly shows that the acoustic cloak can effectively bend the ultrasound waves around the hidden object, with reduced scattering and shadow. Because of the nonresonant nature of the building elements, this low-loss (∼6  dB/m) cylindrical cloak exhibits invisibility over a broad frequency range from 52 to 64 kHz. Furthermore, our experimental study indicates that this design approach should be scalable to different acoustic frequencies and offers the possibility for a variety of devices based on coordinate transformation.

  12. Acoustic wave levitation: Handling of components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandaele, Vincent; Delchambre, Alain; Lambert, Pierre

    2011-06-01

    Apart from contact micromanipulation, there exists a large variety of levitation techniques among which standing wave levitation will be proposed as a way to handle (sub)millimetric components. This paper will compare analytical formulas to calculate the order of magnitude of the levitation force. It will then describe digital simulation and experimental levitation setup. Stable levitation of various components (cardboard, steel washer, ball, ceramic capacity, water droplet) was shown along 5 degrees of freedom: The only degree of freedom that could not be mastered was the rotation about the symmetry axis of the acoustic field. More importantly, the present work will show the modification of the orientation of the radial force component in the presence of an object disturbing the acoustic field. This property can be used as a new feeding strategy as it means that levitating components are spontaneously pushed toward grippers in an acoustic plane standing wave.

  13. Acoustic-Gravity Waves from Bolide Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revelle, Douglas O.

    2008-06-01

    We have developed a new approach to modeling the acoustic-gravity wave (AGW) radiation from bolide sources. This first effort involves entry modeling of bolide sources that have available satellite data through procedures developed in ReVelle (Earth Moon Planets 95, 441-476, 2004a; in: A. Milani, G. Valsecchi, D. Vokrouhlicky (eds) NEO Fireball Diversity: Energetics-based Entry Modeling and Analysis Techniques, Near-earth Objects: Our Celestial Neighbors (IAU S236), 2007b). Results from the entry modeling are directly coupled to AGW production through line source blast wave theory for the initial wave amplitude and period at x=10 (at 10 blast wave radii and perpendicular to the trajectory). The second effort involves the prediction of the formation and or dominance of the propagation of the atmospheric Lamb, edge-wave composite mode in a viscous fluid (Pierce, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 35, 1798-1807, 1963) as a function of the source energy, horizontal range and source altitude using the Lamb wave frequency that was deduced directly during the entry modeling and that is used as a surrogate for the source energy. We have also determined that Lamb wave production by bolides at close range decreases dramatically as either the source energy decreases or the source altitude increases. Finally using procedures in Gill ( Atmospheric-Ocean Dynamics, 1982) and in Tolstoy ( Wave Propagation, 1973), we have analyzed two simple dispersion relationships and have calculated the expected dispersion for the Lamb edge-wave mode and for the excited, propagating internal acoustic waves. Finally, we have used the above formalism to fully evaluate these techniques for four large bolides, namely: the Tunguska bolide of June 30, 1908; the Revelstoke bolide of March 31, 1965; the Crete bolide of June 6, 2002 and the Antarctic bolide of September 3, 2004. Due to page limitations, we will only present results in detail for the Revelstoke bolide.

  14. Fluid Effects on Shear Waves in FInely Layered Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, J G

    2004-05-21

    Although there are five effective shear moduli for any layered VTI medium, one and only one effective shear modulus for the layered system contains all the dependence of pore fluids on the elastic or poroelastic constants that can be observed in vertically polarized shear waves. Pore fluids can increase the magnitude the shear energy stored by this modulus by a term that ranges from the smallest to the largest shear moduli of the VTI system. But, since there are five shear moduli in play, the increase in shear energy overall is reduced by a factor of about 5 in general. We can therefore give definite bounds on the maximum increase of shear modulus, being about 20% of the permitted range, when gas is fully replaced by liquid. An attendant increase of density (depending on porosity and fluid density) by approximately 5 to 10% partially offsets the effect of this shear modulus increase. Thus, an increase of shear wave speed on the order of 5 to 10% is shown to be possible when circumstances are favorable - i.e., when the shear modulus fluctuations are large (resulting in strong anisotropy), and the medium behaves in an undrained fashion due to fluid trapping. At frequencies higher than seismic (such as sonic and ultrasonic waves for well-logging or laboratory experiments), short response times also produce the requisite undrained behavior and, therefore, fluids also affect shear waves at high frequencies by increasing rigidity.

  15. Shear-mediated contributions to the effective properties of soft acoustic metamaterials including negative index.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Derek Michael; Pinfield, Valerie J

    2015-01-01

    Here we show that, for sub-wavelength particles in a fluid, viscous losses due to shear waves and their influence on neighbouring particles significantly modify the effective acoustic properties, and thereby the conditions at which negative acoustic refraction occurs. Building upon earlier single particle scattering work, we adopt a multiple scattering approach to derive the effective properties (density, bulk modulus, wavenumber). We show,through theoretical prediction, the implications for the design of "soft" (ultrasonic) metamaterials based on locally-resonant sub-wavelength porous rubber particles, through selection of particle size and concentration, and demonstrate tunability of the negative speed zones by modifying the viscosity of the suspending medium. For these lossy materials with complex effective properties, we confirm the use of phase angles to define the backward propagation condition in preference to "single-" and "double-negative" designations. PMID:26686414

  16. Shear-mediated contributions to the effective properties of soft acoustic metamaterials including negative index

    PubMed Central

    Forrester, Derek Michael; Pinfield, Valerie J.

    2015-01-01

    Here we show that, for sub-wavelength particles in a fluid, viscous losses due to shear waves and their influence on neighbouring particles significantly modify the effective acoustic properties, and thereby the conditions at which negative acoustic refraction occurs. Building upon earlier single particle scattering work, we adopt a multiple scattering approach to derive the effective properties (density, bulk modulus, wavenumber). We show,through theoretical prediction, the implications for the design of “soft” (ultrasonic) metamaterials based on locally-resonant sub-wavelength porous rubber particles, through selection of particle size and concentration, and demonstrate tunability of the negative speed zones by modifying the viscosity of the suspending medium. For these lossy materials with complex effective properties, we confirm the use of phase angles to define the backward propagation condition in preference to “single-” and “double-negative” designations. PMID:26686414

  17. On System-Dependent Sources of Uncertainty and Bias in Ultrasonic Quantitative Shear-Wave Imaging.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yufeng; Rouze, Ned C; Palmeri, Mark L; Nightingale, Kathryn R

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasonic quantitative shear-wave imaging methods have been developed over the last decade to estimate tissue elasticity by measuring the speed of propagating shear waves following acoustic radiation force excitation. This work discusses eight sources of uncertainty and bias arising from ultrasound system-dependent parameters in ultrasound shear-wave speed (SWS) measurements. Each of the eight sources of error is discussed in the context of a linear, isotropic, elastic, homogeneous medium, combining previously reported analyses with Field II simulations, full-wave 2-D acoustic propagation simulations, and experimental studies. Errors arising from both spatial and temporal sources lead to errors in SWS measurements. Arrival time estimation noise, speckle bias, hardware fluctuations, and phase aberration cause uncertainties (variance) in SWS measurements, while pulse repetition frequency (PRF) and beamforming errors, as well as coupling medium sound speed mismatch, cause biases in SWS measurements (accuracy errors). Calibration of the sources of bias is an important step in the development of shear-wave imaging systems. In a well-calibrated system, where the sources of bias are minimized, and averaging over a region of interest (ROI) is employed to reduce the sources of uncertainty, an SWS error can be expected. PMID:26886980

  18. Acoustic transducer for acoustic microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Khuri-Yakub, B.T.; Chou, C.H.

    1990-03-20

    A shear acoustic transducer-lens system is described in which a shear polarized piezoelectric material excites shear polarized waves at one end of a buffer rod having a lens at the other end which excites longitudinal waves in a coupling medium by mode conversion at selected locations on the lens. 9 figs.

  19. Acoustic transducer for acoustic microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T.; Chou, Ching H.

    1990-01-01

    A shear acoustic transducer-lens system in which a shear polarized piezoelectric material excites shear polarized waves at one end of a buffer rod having a lens at the other end which excites longitudinal waves in a coupling medium by mode conversion at selected locations on the lens.

  20. Validity of measurement of shear modulus by ultrasound shear wave elastography in human pennate muscle.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Naokazu; Hirata, Kosuke; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Yoshitake, Yasuhide

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound shear wave elastography is becoming a valuable tool for measuring mechanical properties of individual muscles. Since ultrasound shear wave elastography measures shear modulus along the principal axis of the probe (i.e., along the transverse axis of the imaging plane), the measured shear modulus most accurately represents the mechanical property of the muscle along the fascicle direction when the probe's principal axis is parallel to the fascicle direction in the plane of the ultrasound image. However, it is unclear how the measured shear modulus is affected by the probe angle relative to the fascicle direction in the same plane. The purpose of the present study was therefore to examine whether the angle between the principal axis of the probe and the fascicle direction in the same plane affects the measured shear modulus. Shear modulus in seven specially-designed tissue-mimicking phantoms, and in eleven human in-vivo biceps brachii and medial gastrocnemius were determined by using ultrasound shear wave elastography. The probe was positioned parallel or 20° obliquely to the fascicle across the B-mode images. The reproducibility of shear modulus measurements was high for both parallel and oblique conditions. Although there was a significant effect of the probe angle relative to the fascicle on the shear modulus in human experiment, the magnitude was negligibly small. These findings indicate that the ultrasound shear wave elastography is a valid tool for evaluating the mechanical property of pennate muscles along the fascicle direction. PMID:25853777

  1. Validity of measurement of shear modulus by ultrasound shear wave elastography in human pennate muscle.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Naokazu; Hirata, Kosuke; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Yoshitake, Yasuhide

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound shear wave elastography is becoming a valuable tool for measuring mechanical properties of individual muscles. Since ultrasound shear wave elastography measures shear modulus along the principal axis of the probe (i.e., along the transverse axis of the imaging plane), the measured shear modulus most accurately represents the mechanical property of the muscle along the fascicle direction when the probe's principal axis is parallel to the fascicle direction in the plane of the ultrasound image. However, it is unclear how the measured shear modulus is affected by the probe angle relative to the fascicle direction in the same plane. The purpose of the present study was therefore to examine whether the angle between the principal axis of the probe and the fascicle direction in the same plane affects the measured shear modulus. Shear modulus in seven specially-designed tissue-mimicking phantoms, and in eleven human in-vivo biceps brachii and medial gastrocnemius were determined by using ultrasound shear wave elastography. The probe was positioned parallel or 20° obliquely to the fascicle across the B-mode images. The reproducibility of shear modulus measurements was high for both parallel and oblique conditions. Although there was a significant effect of the probe angle relative to the fascicle on the shear modulus in human experiment, the magnitude was negligibly small. These findings indicate that the ultrasound shear wave elastography is a valid tool for evaluating the mechanical property of pennate muscles along the fascicle direction.

  2. Acoustic wave-equation-based earthquake location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Ping; Yang, Dinghui; Liu, Qinya; Yang, Xu; Harris, Jerry

    2016-04-01

    We present a novel earthquake location method using acoustic wave-equation-based traveltime inversion. The linear relationship between the location perturbation (δt0, δxs) and the resulting traveltime residual δt of a particular seismic phase, represented by the traveltime sensitivity kernel K(t0, xs) with respect to the earthquake location (t0, xs), is theoretically derived based on the adjoint method. Traveltime sensitivity kernel K(t0, xs) is formulated as a convolution between the forward and adjoint wavefields, which are calculated by numerically solving two acoustic wave equations. The advantage of this newly derived traveltime kernel is that it not only takes into account the earthquake-receiver geometry but also accurately honours the complexity of the velocity model. The earthquake location is obtained by solving a regularized least-squares problem. In 3-D realistic applications, it is computationally expensive to conduct full wave simulations. Therefore, we propose a 2.5-D approach which assumes the forward and adjoint wave simulations within a 2-D vertical plane passing through the earthquake and receiver. Various synthetic examples show the accuracy of this acoustic wave-equation-based earthquake location method. The accuracy and efficiency of the 2.5-D approach for 3-D earthquake location are further verified by its application to the 2004 Big Bear earthquake in Southern California.

  3. Horizontal shear wave scattering from a nonwelded interface observed by magnetic resonance elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papazoglou, S.; Hamhaber, U.; Braun, J.; Sack, I.

    2007-02-01

    A method based on magnetic resonance elastography is presented that allows measuring the weldedness of interfaces between soft tissue layers. The technique exploits the dependence of shear wave scattering at elastic interfaces on the frequency of vibration. Experiments were performed on gel phantoms including differently welded interfaces. Plane wave excitation parallel to the planar interface with corresponding motion sensitization enabled the observation of only shear-horizontal (SH) wave scattering. Spatio-temporal filtering was applied to calculate scattering coefficients from the amplitudes of the incident, transmitted and reflected SH-waves in the vicinity of the interface. The results illustrate that acoustic wave scattering in soft tissues is largely dependent on the connectivity of interfaces, which is potentially interesting for imaging tissue mechanics in medicine and biology.

  4. Extraordinary transmission of gigahertz surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Mezil, Sylvain; Chonan, Kazuki; Otsuka, Paul H; Tomoda, Motonobu; Matsuda, Osamu; Lee, Sam H; Wright, Oliver B

    2016-09-19

    Extraordinary transmission of waves, i.e. a transmission superior to the amount predicted by geometrical considerations of the aperture alone, has to date only been studied in the bulk. Here we present a new class of extraordinary transmission for waves confined in two dimensions to a flat surface. By means of acoustic numerical simulations in the gigahertz range, corresponding to acoustic wavelengths λ ~ 3-50 μm, we track the transmission of plane surface acoustic wave fronts between two silicon blocks joined by a deeply subwavelength bridge of variable length with or without an attached cavity. Several resonant modes of the structure, both one- and two-dimensional in nature, lead to extraordinary acoustic transmission, in this case with transmission efficiencies, i.e. intensity enhancements, up to ~23 and ~8 in the two respective cases. We show how the cavity shape and bridge size influence the extraordinary transmission efficiency. Applications include new metamaterials and subwavelength imaging.

  5. Extraordinary transmission of gigahertz surface acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezil, Sylvain; Chonan, Kazuki; Otsuka, Paul H.; Tomoda, Motonobu; Matsuda, Osamu; Lee, Sam H.; Wright, Oliver B.

    2016-09-01

    Extraordinary transmission of waves, i.e. a transmission superior to the amount predicted by geometrical considerations of the aperture alone, has to date only been studied in the bulk. Here we present a new class of extraordinary transmission for waves confined in two dimensions to a flat surface. By means of acoustic numerical simulations in the gigahertz range, corresponding to acoustic wavelengths λ ~ 3–50 μm, we track the transmission of plane surface acoustic wave fronts between two silicon blocks joined by a deeply subwavelength bridge of variable length with or without an attached cavity. Several resonant modes of the structure, both one- and two-dimensional in nature, lead to extraordinary acoustic transmission, in this case with transmission efficiencies, i.e. intensity enhancements, up to ~23 and ~8 in the two respective cases. We show how the cavity shape and bridge size influence the extraordinary transmission efficiency. Applications include new metamaterials and subwavelength imaging.

  6. Extraordinary transmission of gigahertz surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Mezil, Sylvain; Chonan, Kazuki; Otsuka, Paul H; Tomoda, Motonobu; Matsuda, Osamu; Lee, Sam H; Wright, Oliver B

    2016-01-01

    Extraordinary transmission of waves, i.e. a transmission superior to the amount predicted by geometrical considerations of the aperture alone, has to date only been studied in the bulk. Here we present a new class of extraordinary transmission for waves confined in two dimensions to a flat surface. By means of acoustic numerical simulations in the gigahertz range, corresponding to acoustic wavelengths λ ~ 3-50 μm, we track the transmission of plane surface acoustic wave fronts between two silicon blocks joined by a deeply subwavelength bridge of variable length with or without an attached cavity. Several resonant modes of the structure, both one- and two-dimensional in nature, lead to extraordinary acoustic transmission, in this case with transmission efficiencies, i.e. intensity enhancements, up to ~23 and ~8 in the two respective cases. We show how the cavity shape and bridge size influence the extraordinary transmission efficiency. Applications include new metamaterials and subwavelength imaging. PMID:27640998

  7. Extraordinary transmission of gigahertz surface acoustic waves

    PubMed Central

    Mezil, Sylvain; Chonan, Kazuki; Otsuka, Paul H.; Tomoda, Motonobu; Matsuda, Osamu; Lee, Sam H.; Wright, Oliver B.

    2016-01-01

    Extraordinary transmission of waves, i.e. a transmission superior to the amount predicted by geometrical considerations of the aperture alone, has to date only been studied in the bulk. Here we present a new class of extraordinary transmission for waves confined in two dimensions to a flat surface. By means of acoustic numerical simulations in the gigahertz range, corresponding to acoustic wavelengths λ ~ 3–50 μm, we track the transmission of plane surface acoustic wave fronts between two silicon blocks joined by a deeply subwavelength bridge of variable length with or without an attached cavity. Several resonant modes of the structure, both one- and two-dimensional in nature, lead to extraordinary acoustic transmission, in this case with transmission efficiencies, i.e. intensity enhancements, up to ~23 and ~8 in the two respective cases. We show how the cavity shape and bridge size influence the extraordinary transmission efficiency. Applications include new metamaterials and subwavelength imaging. PMID:27640998

  8. Acoustic spin pumping in magnetoelectric bulk acoustic wave resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polzikova, N. I.; Alekseev, S. G.; Pyataikin, I. I.; Kotelyanskii, I. M.; Luzanov, V. A.; Orlov, A. P.

    2016-05-01

    We present the generation and detection of spin currents by using magnetoelastic resonance excitation in a magnetoelectric composite high overtone bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonator (HBAR) formed by a Al-ZnO-Al-GGG-YIG-Pt structure. Transversal BAW drives magnetization oscillations in YIG film at a given resonant magnetic field, and the resonant magneto-elastic coupling establishes the spin-current generation at the Pt/YIG interface. Due to the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) this BAW-driven spin current is converted to a dc voltage in the Pt layer. The dependence of the measured voltage both on magnetic field and frequency has a resonant character. The voltage is determined by the acoustic power in HBAR and changes its sign upon magnetic field reversal. We compare the experimentally observed amplitudes of the ISHE electrical field achieved by our method and other approaches to spin current generation that use surface acoustic waves and microwave resonators for ferromagnetic resonance excitation, with the theoretically expected values.

  9. Acoustic-gravity waves, theory and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadri, Usama; Farrell, William E.; Munk, Walter

    2015-04-01

    Acoustic-gravity waves (AGW) propagate in the ocean under the influence of both the compressibility of sea water and the restoring force of gravity. The gravity dependence vanishes if the wave vector is normal to the ocean surface, but becomes increasingly important as the wave vector acquires a horizontal tilt. They are excited by many sources, including non-linear surface wave interactions, disturbances of the ocean bottom (submarine earthquakes and landslides) and underwater explosions. In this introductory lecture on acoustic-gravity waves, we describe their properties, and their relation to organ pipe modes, to microseisms, and to deep ocean signatures by short surface waves. We discuss the generation of AGW by underwater earthquakes; knowledge of their behaviour with water depth can be applied for the early detection of tsunamis. We also discuss their generation by the non-linear interaction of surface gravity waves, which explains the major role they play in transforming energy from the ocean surface to the crust, as part of the microseisms phenomenon. Finally, they contribute to horizontal water transport at depth, which might affect benthic life.

  10. Nonlinear acoustic wave propagation in atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hariharan, S. I.

    1985-01-01

    A model problem that simulates an atmospheric acoustic wave propagation situation that is nonlinear is considered. The model is derived from the basic Euler equations for the atmospheric flow and from the regular perturbations for the acoustic part. The nonlinear effects are studied by obtaining two successive linear problems in which the second one involves the solution of the first problem. Well posedness of these problems is discussed and approximations of the radiation boundary conditions that can be used in numerical simulations are presented.

  11. Nonlinear acoustic wave propagation in atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hariharan, S. I.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper a model problem is considered that simulates an atmospheric acoustic wave propagation situation that is nonlinear. The model is derived from the basic Euler equations for the atmospheric flow and from the regular perturbations for the acoustic part. The nonlinear effects are studied by obtaining two successive linear problems in which the second one involves the solution of the first problem. Well-posedness of these problems is discussed and approximations of the radiation boundary conditions that can be used in numerical simulations are presented.

  12. Generation mechanism for electron acoustic solitary waves

    SciTech Connect

    Kakad, A. P.; Singh, S. V.; Reddy, R. V.; Lakhina, G. S.; Tagare, S. G.; Verheest, F.

    2007-05-15

    Nonlinear electron acoustic solitary waves (EASWs) are studied in a collisionless and unmagnetized plasma consisting of cold background electrons, cold beam electrons, and two different temperature ion species. Using pseudopotential analysis, the properties of arbitrary amplitude EASWs are investigated. The present model supports compressive as well as rarefactive electron acoustic solitary structures. Furthermore, there is an interesting possibility of the coexistence of compressive and rarefactive solitary structures in a specific plasma parameter range. The application of our results in interpreting the salient features of the broadband electrostatic noise in the plasma sheet boundary layer is discussed.

  13. Acoustic Remote Sensing of Rogue Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Wade; Kadri, Usama

    2016-04-01

    We propose an early warning system for approaching rogue waves using the remote sensing of acoustic-gravity waves (AGWs) - progressive sound waves that propagate at the speed of sound in the ocean. It is believed that AGWs are generated during the formation of rogue waves, carrying information on the rogue waves at near the speed of sound, i.e. much faster than the rogue wave. The capability of identifying those special sound waves would enable detecting rogue waves most efficiently. A lot of promising work has been reported on AGWs in the last few years, part of which in the context of remote sensing as an early detection of tsunami. However, to our knowledge none of the work addresses the problem of rogue waves directly. Although there remains some uncertainty as to the proper definition of a rogue wave, there is little doubt that they exist and no one can dispute the potential destructive power of rogue waves. An early warning system for such extreme waves would become a demanding safety technology. A closed form expression was developed for the pressure induced by an impulsive source at the free surface (the Green's function) from which the solution for more general sources can be developed. In particular, we used the model of the Draupner Wave of January 1st, 1995 as a source and calculated the induced AGW signature. In particular we studied the AGW signature associated with a special feature of this wave, and characteristic of rogue waves, of the absence of any local set-down beneath the main crest and the presence of a large local set-up.

  14. Spatial variations in Achilles tendon shear wave speed

    PubMed Central

    DeWall, Ryan J.; Slane, Laura C.; Lee, Kenneth S.; Thelen, Darryl G.

    2014-01-01

    Supersonic shear imaging (SSI) is an ultrasound imaging modality that can provide insight into tissue mechanics by measuring shear wave propagation speed, a property that depends on tissue elasticity. SSI has previously been used to characterize the increase in Achilles tendon shear wave speed that occurs with loading, an effect attributable to the strain-stiffening behavior of the tissue. However, little is known about how shear wave speed varies spatially, which is important, given the anatomical variation that occurs between the calcaneus insertion and the gastrocnemius musculotendon junction. The purpose of this study was to investigate spatial variations in shear wave speed along medial and lateral paths of the Achilles tendon for three different ankle postures: resting ankle angle (R, i.e. neutral), plantarflexed (P; R − 15 deg), and dorsiflexed (D; R + 15 deg). We observed significant spatial and posture variations in tendon shear wave speed in ten healthy young adults. Shear wave speeds in the Achilles free tendon averaged 12 ± 1.2 m/s in a resting position, but decreased to 7.2 ± 1.8 m/s with passive plantarflexion. Distal tendon shear wave speeds often reached the maximum tracking limit (16.3 m/s) of the system when the ankle was in the passively dorsiflexed posture (+15 deg from R). At a fixed posture, shear wave speeds decreased significantly from the free tendon to the gastrocnemius musculotendon junction, with slightly higher speeds measured on the medial side than on the lateral side. Shear wave speeds were only weakly correlated with the thickness and depth of the tendon, suggesting that the distal-to-proximal variations may reflect greater compliance in the aponeurosis relative to the free tendon. The results highlight the importance of considering both limb posture and transducer positioning when using SSI for biomechanical and clinical assessments of the Achilles tendon. PMID:24933528

  15. ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR WAVES IN PLANETS WITH ATMOSPHERIC SUPERROTATION. I. ACOUSTIC AND INERTIA-GRAVITY WAVES

    SciTech Connect

    Peralta, J.; López-Valverde, M. A.; Imamura, T.; Read, P. L.; Luz, D.; Piccialli, A.

    2014-07-01

    This paper is the first of a two-part study devoted to developing tools for a systematic classification of the wide variety of atmospheric waves expected on slowly rotating planets with atmospheric superrotation. Starting with the primitive equations for a cyclostrophic regime, we have deduced the analytical solution for the possible waves, simultaneously including the effect of the metric terms for the centrifugal force and the meridional shear of the background wind. In those cases when the conditions for the method of the multiple scales in height are met, these wave solutions are also valid when vertical shear of the background wind is present. A total of six types of waves have been found and their properties were characterized in terms of the corresponding dispersion relations and wave structures. In this first part, only waves that are direct solutions of the generic dispersion relation are studied—acoustic and inertia-gravity waves. Concerning inertia-gravity waves, we found that in the cases of short horizontal wavelengths, null background wind, or propagation in the equatorial region, only pure gravity waves are possible, while for the limit of large horizontal wavelengths and/or null static stability, the waves are inertial. The correspondence between classical atmospheric approximations and wave filtering has been examined too, and we carried out a classification of the mesoscale waves found in the clouds of Venus at different vertical levels of its atmosphere. Finally, the classification of waves in exoplanets is discussed and we provide a list of possible candidates with cyclostrophic regimes.

  16. Triad resonance between gravity and vorticity waves in vertical shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drivas, Theodore D.; Wunsch, Scott

    2016-07-01

    Weakly nonlinear theory is used to explore the effect of vertical shear on surface gravity waves in three dimensions. An idealized piecewise-linear shear profile motivated by wind-driven profiles and ambient currents in the ocean is used. It is shown that shear may mediate weakly nonlinear resonant triad interactions between gravity and vorticity waves. The triad results in energy exchange between gravity waves of comparable wavelengths propagating in different directions. For realistic ocean shears, shear-mediated energy exchange may occur on timescales of minutes for shorter wavelengths, but slows as the wavelength increases. Hence this triad mechanism may contribute to the larger angular spreading (relative to wind direction) for shorter wind-waves observed in the oceans.

  17. Quantitative shear-wave optical coherence elastography with a programmable phased array ultrasound as the wave source.

    PubMed

    Song, Shaozhen; Le, Nhan Minh; Huang, Zhihong; Shen, Tueng; Wang, Ruikang K

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to implement a beam-steering ultrasound as the wave source for shear-wave optical coherence elastography (SW-OCE) to achieve an extended range of elastic imaging of the tissue sample. We introduce a linear phased array ultrasound transducer (LPAUT) as the remote and programmable wave source and a phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography (OCT) as the sensitive shear-wave detector. The LPAUT is programmed to launch acoustic radiation force impulses (ARFI) focused at desired locations within the range of OCT imaging, upon which the elasticity map of the entire OCT B-scan cross section is recovered by spatial compounding of the elastic maps derived from each launch of AFRIs. We also propose a directional filter to separate the shear-wave propagation at different directions in order to reduce the effect of tissue heterogeneity on the shear-wave propagation within tissue. The feasibility of this proposed approach is then demonstrated by determining the stiffness of tissue-mimicking phantoms with agarose concentrations of 0.5% and 1% and also by imaging the Young's modulus of retinal and choroidal tissues within a porcine eye ball ex vivo. The approach opens up opportunities to combine medical ultrasound imaging and SW-OCE for high-resolution localized quantitative assessment of tissue biomechanical property.

  18. Shear wave splitting and shear wave splitting tomography of the southern Puna plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calixto, Frank J.; Robinson, Danielle; Sandvol, Eric; Kay, Suzanne; Abt, David; Fischer, Karen; Heit, Ben; Yuan, Xiaohui; Comte, Diana; Alvarado, Patricia

    2014-11-01

    We have investigated the seismic anisotropy beneath the Central Andean southern Puna plateau by applying shear wave splitting analysis and shear wave splitting tomography to local S waves and teleseismic SKS, SKKS and PKS phases. Overall, a very complex pattern of fast directions throughout the southern Puna plateau region and a circular pattern of fast directions around the region of the giant Cerro Galan ignimbrite complex are observed. In general, teleseismic lag times are much greater than those for local events which are interpreted to reflect a significant amount of sub and inner slab anisotropy. The complex pattern observed from shear wave splitting analysis alone is the result of a complex 3-D anisotropic structure under the southern Puna plateau. Our application of shear wave splitting tomography provides a 3-D model of anisotropy in the southern Puna plateau that shows different patterns depending on the driving mechanism of upper-mantle flow and seismic anisotropy. The trench parallel a-axes in the continental lithosphere above the slab east of 68W may be related to deformation of the overriding continental lithosphere since it is under compressive stresses which are orthogonal to the trench. The more complex pattern below the Cerro Galan ignimbrite complex and above the slab is interpreted to reflect delamination of continental lithosphere and upwelling of hot asthenosphere. The a-axes beneath the Cerro Galan, Cerro Blanco and Carachi Pampa volcanic centres at 100 km depth show some weak evidence for vertically orientated fast directions, which could be due to vertical asthenospheric flow around a delaminated block. Additionally, our splitting tomographic model shows that there is a significant amount of seismic anisotropy beneath the slab. The subslab mantle west of 68W shows roughly trench parallel horizontal a-axes that are probably driven by slab roll back and the relatively small coupling between the Nazca slab and the underlying mantle. In

  19. Quantitative imaging of nonlinear shear modulus by combining static elastography and shear wave elastography.

    PubMed

    Latorre-Ossa, Heldmuth; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; De Brosses, Emilie; Tanter, Mickaël

    2012-04-01

    The study of new tissue mechanical properties such as shear nonlinearity could lead to better tissue characterization and clinical diagnosis. This work proposes a method combining static elastography and shear wave elastography to derive the nonlinear shear modulus by applying the acoustoelasticity theory in quasi-incompressible soft solids. Results demonstrate that by applying a moderate static stress at the surface of the investigated medium, and by following the quantitative evolution of its shear modulus, it is possible to accurately and quantitatively recover the local Landau (A) coefficient characterizing the shear nonlinearity of soft tissues.

  20. Excitation of instability waves in a two-dimensional shear layer by sound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, C. K. W.

    1978-01-01

    The excitation of instability waves in a plane compressible shear layer by sound waves is studied. The problem is formulated mathematically as an inhomogeneous boundary-value problem. A general solution for abitrary incident sound wave is found by first constructing the Green's function of the problem. Numerical values of the coupling constants between incident sound waves and excited instability waves for a range of flow Mach number are calculated. The effect of the angle of incidence in the case of a beam of acoustic waves is analyzed. It is found that for moderate subsonic Mach numbers a narrow beam aiming at an angle between 50 to 80 deg to the flow direction is most effective in exciting instability waves.

  1. Support minimized inversion of acoustic and elastic wave scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Safaeinili, A.

    1994-04-24

    This report discusses the following topics on support minimized inversion of acoustic and elastic wave scattering: Minimum support inversion; forward modelling of elastodynamic wave scattering; minimum support linearized acoustic inversion; support minimized nonlinear acoustic inversion without absolute phase; and support minimized nonlinear elastic inversion.

  2. Wireless Multiplexed Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Sensor is a new technology for obtaining multiple, real-time measurements under extreme environmental conditions. This project plans to develop a wireless multiplexed sensor system that uses SAW sensors, with no batteries or semiconductors, that are passive and rugged, can operate down to cryogenic temperatures and up to hundreds of degrees C, and can be used to sense a wide variety of parameters over reasonable distances (meters).

  3. The Foley Acoustic Wave Front Slides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2004-04-01

    In 1912 Arthur L. Foley of Indiana University published an article in Physical Review about his technique for photographing acoustic wave fronts. Subsequently, the Central Scientific Company published a series of glass lantern slides of his illustrations. These have been unavailable for about 60 years. Here I discuss how Foley made his slides and give examples of use to the present-day physics teacher.

  4. Radio wave propagation and acoustic sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singal, S. P.

    Radio wave propagation of the decimetric and centimetric waves depends to a large extent on the boundary layer meteorological conditions which give rise to severe fadings, very often due to multipath propagation. Sodar is one of the inexpensive remote sensing techniques which can be employed to probe the boundary layer structure. In the paper a historical perspective has been given of the simultaneously conducted studies on radio waves and sodar at various places. The radio meteorological information needed for propagation studies has been clearly spelt out and conditions of a ray path especially in the presence of a ducting layer have been defined as giving rise to fading or signal enhancement conditions. Finally the potential of the sodar studies to obtain information about the boundary layer phenomena has been stressed, clearly spelling out the use of acoustic sounding in radio wave propagation studies.

  5. Nonlinear ion acoustic waves scattered by vortexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Yuji; Yoshida, Zensho

    2016-09-01

    The Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) hierarchy is the archetype of infinite-dimensional integrable systems, which describes nonlinear ion acoustic waves in two-dimensional space. This remarkably ordered system resides on a singular submanifold (leaf) embedded in a larger phase space of more general ion acoustic waves (low-frequency electrostatic perturbations). The KP hierarchy is characterized not only by small amplitudes but also by irrotational (zero-vorticity) velocity fields. In fact, the KP equation is derived by eliminating vorticity at every order of the reductive perturbation. Here, we modify the scaling of the velocity field so as to introduce a vortex term. The newly derived system of equations consists of a generalized three-dimensional KP equation and a two-dimensional vortex equation. The former describes 'scattering' of vortex-free waves by ambient vortexes that are determined by the latter. We say that the vortexes are 'ambient' because they do not receive reciprocal reactions from the waves (i.e., the vortex equation is independent of the wave fields). This model describes a minimal departure from the integrable KP system. By the Painlevé test, we delineate how the vorticity term violates integrability, bringing about an essential three-dimensionality to the solutions. By numerical simulation, we show how the solitons are scattered by vortexes and become chaotic.

  6. Propagation characteristics of acoustic waves in snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capelli, Achille; Kapil, Jagdish Chandra; Reiweger, Ingrid; Schweizer, Jürg; Or, Dani

    2015-04-01

    Acoustic emission analysis is a promising technique for monitoring snow slope stability with potential for application in early warning systems for avalanches. Current research efforts focus on identification and localization of acoustic emission features preceding snow failure and avalanches. However, our knowledge of sound propagation characteristics in snow is still limited. A review of previous studies showed that significant gaps exist and that the results of the various studies are partly contradictory. Furthermore, sound velocity and attenuation have been determined for the frequency range below 10 kHz, while recent snow failure experiments suggest that the peak frequency is in the ultrasound range between 30 kHz to 500 kHz. We therefore studied the propagation of pencil lead fracture (PLF) signals through snow in the ultrasound frequency range. This was achieved by performing laboratory experiments with columns of artificially produced snow of varying density and temperature. The attenuation constant was obtained by varying the size of the columns to eliminate possible influences of the snow-sensor coupling. The attenuation constant was measured for the entire PLF burst signal and for single frequency components. The propagation velocity was calculated from the arrival time of the acoustic signal. We then modelled the sound propagation for our experimental setup using Biot's model for wave propagation in porous media. The Model results were in good agreement with our experimental results. For the studied samples, the acoustic signals propagated as fast and slow longitudinal waves, but the main part of the energy was carried by the slow waves. The Young's modulus of our snow samples was determined from the sound velocity. This is highly relevant, as the elastic properties of snow are not well known.

  7. Optimized shear wave generation using hybrid beamforming methods.

    PubMed

    Nabavizadeh, Alireza; Greenleaf, James F; Fatemi, Mostafa; Urban, Matthew W

    2014-01-01

    Elasticity imaging is a medical imaging modality that measures tissue elasticity as an aid in the diagnosis of certain diseases. Shear wave-based methods have been developed to perform elasticity measurements in soft tissue. These methods often use the radiation force mechanism of focused ultrasound to induce shear waves in soft tissue such as liver, kidney, breast, thyroid and skeletal muscle. The efficiency of the ultrasound beam in producing broadband extended shear waves in soft tissue is very important to the widespread use of this modality. Hybrid beamforming combines two types of focusing, conventional spherical focusing and axicon focusing, to produce a beam for generating a shear wave that has increased depth-of-field (DOF) so that measurements can be made with a shear wave with a consistent wave front. Spherical focusing is used in many applications to achieve high lateral resolution, but has low DOF. Axicon focusing, with a cone-shaped transducer, can provide good lateral resolution with large DOF. We describe our linear aperture design and beam optimization performed using angular spectrum simulations. We performed a large parametric simulation study in which we varied the focal depth for the spherical focusing portion of the aperture, the numbers of elements devoted to the spherical and axicon focusing portions of the aperture and the opening angle used for axicon focusing. The hybrid beamforming method was experimentally tested in two phantoms, and shear wave speed measurement accuracy and DOF for each hybrid beam were evaluated. We compared our results with those for shear waves generated using only spherical focusing. The results of this study indicate that hybrid beamforming is capable of producing a beam with increased DOF over which accurate shear wave speed measurements can be made for different-size apertures and at different focal depths.

  8. Convertion Shear Wave Velocity to Standard Penetration Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madun, A.; Tajuddin, S. A. A.; Abdullah, M. E.; Abidin, M. H. Z.; Sani, S.; Siang, A. J. L. M.; Yusof, M. F.

    2016-07-01

    Multichannel Analysis Surface Wave (MASW) measurement is one of the geophysics exploration techniques to determine the soil profile based on shear wave velocity. Meanwhile, borehole intrusive technique identifies the changes of soil layer based on soil penetration resistance, i.e. standard penetration test-number of blows (SPT-N). Researchers across the world introduced many empirical conversions of standard penetration test blow number of borehole data to shear wave velocity or vice versa. This is because geophysics test is a non-destructive and relatively fast assessment, and thus should be promoted to compliment the site investigation work. These empirical conversions of shear wave velocity to SPT-N blow can be utilised, and thus suitable geotechnical parameters for design purposes can be achieved. This study has demonstrated the conversion between MASW and SPT-N value. The study was conducted at the university campus and Sejagung Sri Medan. The MASW seismic profiles at the University campus test site and Sejagung were at a depth of 21 m and 13 m, respectively. The shear wave velocities were also calculated empirically using SPT-N value, and thus both calculated and measured shear wave velocities were compared. It is essential to note that the MASW test and empirical conversion always underestimate the actual shear wave velocity of hard layer or rock due to the effect of soil properties on the upper layer.

  9. Twisted electron-acoustic waves in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aman-ur-Rehman, Ali, S.; Khan, S. A.; Shahzad, K.

    2016-08-01

    In the paraxial limit, a twisted electron-acoustic (EA) wave is studied in a collisionless unmagnetized plasma, whose constituents are the dynamical cold electrons and Boltzmannian hot electrons in the background of static positive ions. The analytical and numerical solutions of the plasma kinetic equation suggest that EA waves with finite amount of orbital angular momentum exhibit a twist in its behavior. The twisted wave particle resonance is also taken into consideration that has been appeared through the effective wave number qeff accounting for Laguerre-Gaussian mode profiles attributed to helical phase structures. Consequently, the dispersion relation and the damping rate of the EA waves are significantly modified with the twisted parameter η, and for η → ∞, the results coincide with the straight propagating plane EA waves. Numerically, new features of twisted EA waves are identified by considering various regimes of wavelength and the results might be useful for transport and trapping of plasma particles in a two-electron component plasma.

  10. Scattering of obliquely incident shear waves from a cylindrical cavity.

    PubMed

    Aldrin, John C; Blodgett, Mark P; Lindgren, Eric A; Steffes, Gary J; Knopp, Jeremy S

    2011-06-01

    Prior work has proposed the use of ultrasonic angle-beam shear wave techniques to detect cracks of varying angular location around fastener sites by generating and detecting creeping waves. To better understand the nature of the scattering problem and quantify the role of creeping waves in fastener site inspections, a 3D analytical model was developed for the propagation and scattering of an obliquely incident plane shear wave from a cylindrical cavity with arbitrary shear wave polarization. The generation and decay of the spiral creeping waves was found to be dependent on both the angle of incidence and polarization of the plane shear wave. A difference between the angle of displacement in 3D and the direction of propagation for the spiral creeping wave was observed and attributed to differences in the curvature of the cavity surface for the tangential and vertical (z) directions. Using the model, practical insight was presented on measuring the displacement response in the far-field from the hole. Both analytical and experimental results highlighted the value of the diffracted and leaky spiral creeping wave signals for nondestructive evaluation of a crack located on the cavity. Last, array and signal processing methods are discussed to improve the resolution of the weaker creeping wave signals in the presence of noise.

  11. Manipulating the Magnetization of a Nanomagnet with Surface Acoustic Waves: Spin-Rotation Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudnovsky, Eugene M.; Jaafar, Reem

    2016-03-01

    We show that the magnetic moment of a nanoparticle embedded in the surface of a solid can be switched by surface acoustic waves in the GHz frequency range via a universal mechanism that does not depend on the structure of the particle and the structure of the substrate. It is based upon the generation of the effective ac magnetic field in the coordinate frame of the nanoparticle by the shear deformation of the surface due to surface acoustic waves. The magnetization reversal occurs via a consecutive absorption of surface phonons of the controlled variable frequency. We derive analytical equations governing this process and solve them numerically for the practical range of parameters.

  12. Acoustic field distribution of sawtooth wave with nonlinear SBE model

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiaozhou Zhang, Lue; Wang, Xiangda; Gong, Xiufen

    2015-10-28

    For precise prediction of the acoustic field distribution of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy with an ellipsoid transducer, the nonlinear spheroidal beam equations (SBE) are employed to model acoustic wave propagation in medium. To solve the SBE model with frequency domain algorithm, boundary conditions are obtained for monochromatic and sawtooth waves based on the phase compensation. In numerical analysis, the influence of sinusoidal wave and sawtooth wave on axial pressure distributions are investigated.

  13. Electron Acoustic Waves in Pure Ion Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderegg, F.; Affolter, M.; Driscoll, C. F.; O'Neil, T. M.; Valentini, F.

    2012-10-01

    Electron Acoustic Waves (EAWs) are the low-frequency branch of near-linear Langmuir (plasma) waves: the frequency is such that the complex dielectric function (Dr, Di) has Dr= 0; and ``flattening'' of f(v) near the wave phase velocity vph gives Di=0 and eliminates Landau damping. Here, we observe standing axisymmetric EAWs in a pure ion column.footnotetextF. Anderegg, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 095001 (2009). At low excitation amplitudes, the EAWs have vph˜1.4 v, in close agreement with near-linear theory. At moderate excitation strengths, EAW waves are observed over a range of frequencies, with 1.3 v < vph< 2.1 v. Here, the final wave frequency may differ from the excitation frequency since the excitation modifies f (v); and recent theory analyzes frequency shifts from ``corners'' of a plateau at vph.footnotetextF. Valentini et al., arXiv:1206.3500v1. Large amplitude EAWs have strong phase-locked harmonic content, and experiments will be compared to same-geometry simulations, and to simulations of KEENfootnotetextB. Afeyan et al., Proc. Inertial Fusion Sci. and Applications 2003, A.N.S. Monterey (2004), p. 213. waves in HEDLP geometries.

  14. Acoustic clouds: Standing sound waves around a black hole analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benone, Carolina L.; Crispino, Luís C. B.; Herdeiro, Carlos; Radu, Eugen

    2015-05-01

    Under certain conditions sound waves in fluids experience an acoustic horizon with analogue properties to those of a black hole event horizon. In particular, a draining bathtub-like model can give rise to a rotating acoustic horizon and hence a rotating black hole (acoustic) analogue. We show that sound waves, when enclosed in a cylindrical cavity, can form stationary waves around such rotating acoustic holes. These acoustic perturbations display similar properties to the scalar clouds that have been studied around Kerr and Kerr-Newman black holes; thus they are dubbed acoustic clouds. We make the comparison between scalar clouds around Kerr black holes and acoustic clouds around the draining bathtub explicit by studying also the properties of scalar clouds around Kerr black holes enclosed in a cavity. Acoustic clouds suggest the possibility of testing, experimentally, the existence and properties of black hole clouds, using analog models.

  15. A pitfall in shallow shear-wave refraction surveying

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Park, C.B.; Wightman, E.; Nigbor, R.

    2002-01-01

    The shallow shear-wave refraction method works successfully in an area with a series of horizontal layers. However, complex near-surface geology may not fit into the assumption of a series of horizontal layers. That a plane SH-wave undergoes wave-type conversion along an interface in an area of nonhorizontal layers is theoretically inevitable. One real example shows that the shallow shear-wave refraction method provides velocities of a converted wave rather than an SH- wave. Moreover, it is impossible to identify the converted wave by refraction data itself. As most geophysical engineering firms have limited resources, an additional P-wave refraction survey is necessary to verify if velocities calculated from a shear-wave refraction survey are velocities of converted waves. The alternative at this time may be the surface wave method, which can provide reliable S-wave velocities, even in an area of velocity inversion (a higher velocity layer underlain by a lower velocity layer). ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Vehicle exhaust gas chemical sensors using acoustic wave resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Cernosek, R.W.; Small, J.H.; Sawyer, P.S.; Bigbie, J.R.; Anderson, M.T.

    1998-03-01

    Under Sandia`s Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program, novel acoustic wave-based sensors were explored for detecting gaseous chemical species in vehicle exhaust streams. The need exists for on-line, real-time monitors to continuously analyze the toxic exhaust gases -- nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrocarbons (HC) -- for determining catalytic converter efficiency, documenting compliance to emission regulations, and optimizing engine performance through feedback control. In this project, the authors adapted existing acoustic wave chemical sensor technology to the high temperature environment and investigated new robust sensor materials for improving gas detection sensitivity and selectivity. This report describes one new sensor that has potential use as an exhaust stream residual hydrocarbon monitor. The sensor consists of a thickness shear mode (TSM) quartz resonator coated with a thin mesoporous silica layer ion-exchanged with palladium ions. When operated at temperatures above 300 C, the high surface area film catalyzes the combustion of the hydrocarbon vapors in the presence of oxygen. The sensor acts as a calorimeter as the exothermic reaction slightly increases the temperature, stressing the sensor surface, and producing a measurable deviation in the resonator frequency. Sensitivities as high as 0.44 (ppm-{Delta}f) and (ppm-gas) have been measured for propylene gas, with minimum detectable signals of < 50 ppm of propylene at 500 C.

  17. Dispersion of interface waves in sediments with power-law shear speed profiles. I. Exact and approximate analytical results.

    PubMed

    Godin, O A; Chapman, D M

    2001-10-01

    In the upper tens of meters of ocean bottom, unconsolidated marine sediments consisting of clay, silt, or fine sand with high porosity are "almost incompressible" in the sense that the shear wave velocity is much smaller than the compressional wave velocity. The shear velocity has very large gradients close to the ocean floor leading to strong coupling of compressional and shear waves in such "soft" sediments. The weak compressibility opens an avenue for developing a theory of elastic wave propagation in continuously stratified soft sediments that fully accounts for the coupling. Elastic waves in soft sediments consist of "fast" waves propagating with velocities close to the compressional velocity and "slow" waves propagating with velocities on the order of the shear velocity. For the slow waves, the theory predicts the existence of surface waves at the ocean-sediment boundary. In the important special case of the power-law depth-dependence of shear rigidity, phase and group velocities of the interface waves are shown to scale as a certain power of frequency. An explicit, exact solution was obtained for the surface waves in sediments characterized by constant density and a linear increase of shear rigidity with depth, that is, for the case of shear speed proportional to the square root of the depth below the sediment-water interface. Asymptotic and perturbation techniques were used to extend the result to more general environments. Theoretical dispersion relations agreed well with numerical simulations and available experimental data and, as demonstrated in a companion paper [D. M. F. Chapman and O. A. Godin, J. Acoust. Soc. Am 110, 1908 (2001)] led to a simple and robust inversion of interface wave travel times for shear velocity profiles in the sediment.

  18. Dual-mode acoustic wave biosensors microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auner, Gregory W.; Shreve, Gina; Ying, Hao; Newaz, Golam; Hughes, Chantelle; Xu, Jianzeng

    2003-04-01

    We have develop highly sensitive and selective acoustic wave biosensor arrays with signal analysis systems to provide a fingerprint for the real-time identification and quantification of a wide array of bacterial pathogens and environmental health hazards. We have developed an unique highly sensitive dual mode acoustic wave platform prototype that, when combined with phage based selective detection elements, form a durable bacteria sensor. Arrays of these new real-time biosensors are integrated to form a biosensor array on a chip. This research and development program optimizes advanced piezoelectric aluminum nitride wide bandgap semiconductors, novel micromachining processes, advanced device structures, selective phage displays development and immobilization techniques, and system integration and signal analysis technology to develop the biosensor arrays. The dual sensor platform can be programmed to sense in a gas, vapor or liquid environment by switching between acoustic wave resonate modes. Such a dual mode sensor has tremendous implications for applications involving monitoring of pathogenic microorganisms in the clinical setting due to their ability to detect airborne pathogens. This provides a number of applications including hospital settings such as intensive care or other in-patient wards for the reduction of nosocomial infections and maintenance of sterile environments in surgical suites. Monitoring for airborn pathogen transmission in public transportation areas such as airplanes may be useful for implementation of strategies for redution of airborn transmission routes. The ability to use the same sensor in the liquid sensing mode is important for tracing the source of airborn pathogens to local liquid sources. Sensing of pathogens in saliva will be useful for sensing oral pathogens and support of decision-making strategies regarding prevention of transmission and support of treatment strategies.

  19. Surface acoustic wave propagation in graphene film

    SciTech Connect

    Roshchupkin, Dmitry Plotitcyna, Olga; Matveev, Viktor; Kononenko, Oleg; Emelin, Evgenii; Irzhak, Dmitry; Ortega, Luc; Zizak, Ivo; Erko, Alexei; Tynyshtykbayev, Kurbangali; Insepov, Zinetula

    2015-09-14

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation in a graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals was studied at the BESSY II synchrotron radiation source. Talbot effect enabled the visualization of the SAW propagation on the crystal surface with the graphene film in a real time mode, and high-resolution x-ray diffraction permitted the determination of the SAW amplitude in the graphene/piezoelectric crystal system. The influence of the SAW on the electrical properties of the graphene film was examined. It was shown that the changing of the SAW amplitude enables controlling the magnitude and direction of current in graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals.

  20. Nonextensive dust-acoustic solitary waves

    SciTech Connect

    Tribeche, M.; Merriche, A.

    2011-03-15

    The seminal paper of Mamun et al. [Phys. Plasmas 3, 702 (1996)] is revisited within the theoretical framework of the Tsallis statistical mechanics. The nonextensivity may originate from the correlation or long-range interactions in the dusty plasma. It is found that depending on whether the nonextensive parameter q is positive or negative, the dust-acoustic (DA) soliton exhibits compression for q<0 and rarefaction for q>0. The lower limit of the Mach number for the existence of DA solitary waves is greater (smaller) than its Maxwellian counterpart in the case of superextensivity (subextensivity).

  1. Twisted dust acoustic waves in dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, P. K.

    2012-08-15

    We examine linear dust acoustic waves (DAWs) in a dusty plasma with strongly correlated dust grains, and discuss possibility of a twisted DA vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM). For our purposes, we use the Boltzmann distributed electron and ion density perturbations, the dust continuity and generalized viscoelastic dust momentum equations, and Poisson's equation to obtain a dispersion relation for the modified DAWs. The effects of the polarization force, strong dust couplings, and dust charge fluctuations on the DAW spectrum are examined. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the DAW can propagate as a twisted vortex beam carrying OAM. A twisted DA vortex structure can trap and transport dust particles in dusty plasmas.

  2. Acoustic Wave Correlation of Elementary Deformation Events in a Low-Stability Crystal Lattice of FCC-Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, S. V.; Plotnikov, V. A.; Potekaev, A. I.; Grinkevich, L. S.

    2015-04-01

    A discrete pattern of the low-frequency acoustic emission spectrum under conditions of high-temperature plastic deformation of aluminum is analyzed. It is attributed to re-distribution of vibrational energy of the primary acoustic signal over resonant vibrations of standing waves of the resonators. In a low-stability crystal medium, standing-wave oscillations initiate elementary deformation displacements in a certain material volume. The linear dimensions of this volume are related to the length of the standing wave, thus determining the macroscopic scale of correlation. The correlated deformation displacements in turn generate acoustic signals, whose interference results in the formation of a single acoustic signal of abnormally high amplitude. In a low-stability state of the crystal lattice, activation of the elementary plastic shears could result from a combined action of static forces, thermal fluctuations and dynamic forces of standing acoustic waves.

  3. Surface Generated Acoustic Wave Biosensors for the Detection of Pathogens: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-Gaso, María-Isabel; March-Iborra, Carmen; Montoya-Baides, Ángel; Arnau-Vives, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    This review presents a deep insight into the Surface Generated Acoustic Wave (SGAW) technology for biosensing applications, based on more than 40 years of technological and scientific developments. In the last 20 years, SGAWs have been attracting the attention of the biochemical scientific community, due to the fact that some of these devices - Shear Horizontal Surface Acoustic Wave (SH-SAW), Surface Transverse Wave (STW), Love Wave (LW), Flexural Plate Wave (FPW), Shear Horizontal Acoustic Plate Mode (SH-APM) and Layered Guided Acoustic Plate Mode (LG-APM) - have demonstrated a high sensitivity in the detection of biorelevant molecules in liquid media. In addition, complementary efforts to improve the sensing films have been done during these years. All these developments have been made with the aim of achieving, in a future, a highly sensitive, low cost, small size, multi-channel, portable, reliable and commercially established SGAW biosensor. A setup with these features could significantly contribute to future developments in the health, food and environmental industries. The second purpose of this work is to describe the state-of-the-art of SGAW biosensors for the detection of pathogens, being this topic an issue of extremely importance for the human health. Finally, the review discuses the commercial availability, trends and future challenges of the SGAW biosensors for such applications. PMID:22346725

  4. Measurement of Oblique Impact-generated Shear Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, J. M.; Schultz, P. H.

    2001-01-01

    Experimental strain measurements reveal that oblique impacts can generate shear waves with displacements as large as those in the P-wave. Large oblique impacts may thus be more efficient sources of surface disruption than vertical impacts. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. Simulating acoustic waves in spotted stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papini, Emanuele; Birch, Aaron C.; Gizon, Laurent; Hanasoge, Shravan M.

    2015-05-01

    Acoustic modes of oscillation are affected by stellar activity, however it is unclear how starspots contribute to these changes. Here we investigate the nonmagnetic effects of starspots on global modes with angular degree ℓ ≤ 2 in highly active stars, and characterize the spot seismic signature on synthetic light curves. We perform 3D time-domain simulations of linear acoustic waves to study their interaction with a model starspot. We model the spot as a 3D change in the sound speed stratification with respect to a convectively stable stellar background, built from solar Model S. We perform a parametric study by considering different depths and perturbation amplitudes. Exact numerical simulations allow the investigation of the wavefield-spot interaction beyond first order perturbation theory. The interaction of the axisymmetric modes with the starspot is strongly nonlinear. As mode frequency increases, the frequency shifts for radial modes exceed the value predicted by linear theory, while the shifts for the ℓ = 2,m = 0 modes are smaller than predicted by linear theory, with avoided-crossing-like patterns forming between the m = 0 and m = 1 mode frequencies. The nonlinear behavior increases with increasing spot amplitude and/or decreasing depth. Linear theory still reproduces the correct shifts for nonaxisymmetric modes. In the nonlinear regime the mode eigenfunctions are not pure spherical harmonics, but rather a mixture of different spherical harmonics. This mode mixing, together with the frequency changes, may lead to misidentification of the modes in the observed acoustic power spectra.

  6. Microfluidic plug steering using surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Sesen, Muhsincan; Alan, Tuncay; Neild, Adrian

    2015-07-21

    Digital microfluidic systems, in which isolated droplets are dispersed in a carrier medium, offer a method to study biological assays and chemical reactions highly efficiently. However, it's challenging to manipulate these droplets in closed microchannel devices. Here, we present a method to selectively steer plugs (droplets with diameters larger than the channel's width) at a specially designed Y-junction within a microfluidic chip. The method makes use of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) impinging on a multiphase interface in which an acoustic contrast is present. As a result, the liquid-liquid interface is subjected to acoustic radiation forces. These forces are exploited to steer plugs into selected branches of the Y-junction. Furthermore, the input power can be finely tuned to split a plug into two uneven plugs. The steering of plugs as a whole, based on plug volume and velocity is thoroughly characterized. The results indicate that there is a threshold plug volume after which the steering requires elevated electrical energy input. This plug steering method can easily be integrated to existing lab-on-a-chip devices and it offers a robust and active plug manipulation technique in closed microchannels.

  7. Microfluidic plug steering using surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Sesen, Muhsincan; Alan, Tuncay; Neild, Adrian

    2015-07-21

    Digital microfluidic systems, in which isolated droplets are dispersed in a carrier medium, offer a method to study biological assays and chemical reactions highly efficiently. However, it's challenging to manipulate these droplets in closed microchannel devices. Here, we present a method to selectively steer plugs (droplets with diameters larger than the channel's width) at a specially designed Y-junction within a microfluidic chip. The method makes use of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) impinging on a multiphase interface in which an acoustic contrast is present. As a result, the liquid-liquid interface is subjected to acoustic radiation forces. These forces are exploited to steer plugs into selected branches of the Y-junction. Furthermore, the input power can be finely tuned to split a plug into two uneven plugs. The steering of plugs as a whole, based on plug volume and velocity is thoroughly characterized. The results indicate that there is a threshold plug volume after which the steering requires elevated electrical energy input. This plug steering method can easily be integrated to existing lab-on-a-chip devices and it offers a robust and active plug manipulation technique in closed microchannels. PMID:26079216

  8. Porous silicon bulk acoustic wave resonator with integrated transducer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We report that porous silicon acoustic Bragg reflectors and AlN-based transducers can be successfully combined and processed in a commercial solidly mounted resonator production line. The resulting device takes advantage of the unique acoustic properties of porous silicon in order to form a monolithically integrated bulk acoustic wave resonator. PMID:22776697

  9. A conductive liquid-based surface acoustic wave device.

    PubMed

    Nam, Jeonghun; Lim, Chae Seung

    2016-10-01

    Surface acoustic wave-based microfluidic devices are popular for fluid and particle manipulation because of their noninvasiveness, low energy consumption, and easy integration with other systems. However, they have been limited by the use of patterned metal electrodes on a piezoelectric substrate, which requires expensive and complicated fabrication processes. Herein, we show a simpler and more cost-effective method for generating surface acoustic waves using eutectic gallium indium as a conductive liquid which can replace conventional patterned metal electrodes. We also demonstrate the comparable performance for acoustic streaming and mixing using conductive liquid-based surface acoustic wave devices. PMID:27528442

  10. A conductive liquid-based surface acoustic wave device.

    PubMed

    Nam, Jeonghun; Lim, Chae Seung

    2016-10-01

    Surface acoustic wave-based microfluidic devices are popular for fluid and particle manipulation because of their noninvasiveness, low energy consumption, and easy integration with other systems. However, they have been limited by the use of patterned metal electrodes on a piezoelectric substrate, which requires expensive and complicated fabrication processes. Herein, we show a simpler and more cost-effective method for generating surface acoustic waves using eutectic gallium indium as a conductive liquid which can replace conventional patterned metal electrodes. We also demonstrate the comparable performance for acoustic streaming and mixing using conductive liquid-based surface acoustic wave devices.

  11. Wave envelopes method for description of nonlinear acoustic wave propagation.

    PubMed

    Wójcik, J; Nowicki, A; Lewin, P A; Bloomfield, P E; Kujawska, T; Filipczyński, L

    2006-07-01

    A novel, free from paraxial approximation and computationally efficient numerical algorithm capable of predicting 4D acoustic fields in lossy and nonlinear media from arbitrary shaped sources (relevant to probes used in medical ultrasonic imaging and therapeutic systems) is described. The new WE (wave envelopes) approach to nonlinear propagation modeling is based on the solution of the second order nonlinear differential wave equation reported in [J. Wójcik, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 104 (1998) 2654-2663; V.P. Kuznetsov, Akust. Zh. 16 (1970) 548-553]. An incremental stepping scheme allows for forward wave propagation. The operator-splitting method accounts independently for the effects of full diffraction, absorption and nonlinear interactions of harmonics. The WE method represents the propagating pulsed acoustic wave as a superposition of wavelet-like sinusoidal pulses with carrier frequencies being the harmonics of the boundary tone burst disturbance. The model is valid for lossy media, arbitrarily shaped plane and focused sources, accounts for the effects of diffraction and can be applied to continuous as well as to pulsed waves. Depending on the source geometry, level of nonlinearity and frequency bandwidth, in comparison with the conventional approach the Time-Averaged Wave Envelopes (TAWE) method shortens computational time of the full 4D nonlinear field calculation by at least an order of magnitude; thus, predictions of nonlinear beam propagation from complex sources (such as phased arrays) can be available within 30-60 min using only a standard PC. The approximate ratio between the computational time costs obtained by using the TAWE method and the conventional approach in calculations of the nonlinear interactions is proportional to 1/N2, and in memory consumption to 1/N where N is the average bandwidth of the individual wavelets. Numerical computations comparing the spatial field distributions obtained by using both the TAWE method and the conventional approach

  12. Wave envelopes method for description of nonlinear acoustic wave propagation.

    PubMed

    Wójcik, J; Nowicki, A; Lewin, P A; Bloomfield, P E; Kujawska, T; Filipczyński, L

    2006-07-01

    A novel, free from paraxial approximation and computationally efficient numerical algorithm capable of predicting 4D acoustic fields in lossy and nonlinear media from arbitrary shaped sources (relevant to probes used in medical ultrasonic imaging and therapeutic systems) is described. The new WE (wave envelopes) approach to nonlinear propagation modeling is based on the solution of the second order nonlinear differential wave equation reported in [J. Wójcik, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 104 (1998) 2654-2663; V.P. Kuznetsov, Akust. Zh. 16 (1970) 548-553]. An incremental stepping scheme allows for forward wave propagation. The operator-splitting method accounts independently for the effects of full diffraction, absorption and nonlinear interactions of harmonics. The WE method represents the propagating pulsed acoustic wave as a superposition of wavelet-like sinusoidal pulses with carrier frequencies being the harmonics of the boundary tone burst disturbance. The model is valid for lossy media, arbitrarily shaped plane and focused sources, accounts for the effects of diffraction and can be applied to continuous as well as to pulsed waves. Depending on the source geometry, level of nonlinearity and frequency bandwidth, in comparison with the conventional approach the Time-Averaged Wave Envelopes (TAWE) method shortens computational time of the full 4D nonlinear field calculation by at least an order of magnitude; thus, predictions of nonlinear beam propagation from complex sources (such as phased arrays) can be available within 30-60 min using only a standard PC. The approximate ratio between the computational time costs obtained by using the TAWE method and the conventional approach in calculations of the nonlinear interactions is proportional to 1/N2, and in memory consumption to 1/N where N is the average bandwidth of the individual wavelets. Numerical computations comparing the spatial field distributions obtained by using both the TAWE method and the conventional approach

  13. Experimental verification of nanofluid shear-wave reconversion in ultrasonic fields.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Derek Michael; Huang, Jinrui; Pinfield, Valerie J; Luppé, Francine

    2016-03-14

    Here we present the verification of shear-mediated contributions to multiple scattering of ultrasound in suspensions. Acoustic spectroscopy was carried out with suspensions of silica of differing particle sizes and concentrations in water to find the attenuation at a broad range of frequencies. As the particle sizes approach the nanoscale, commonly used multiple scattering models fail to match experimental results. We develop a new model, taking into account shear mediated contributions, and find excellent agreement with the attenuation spectra obtained using two types of spectrometer. The results determine that shear-wave phenomena must be considered in ultrasound characterisation of nanofluids at even relatively low concentrations of scatterers that are smaller than one micrometre in diameter. PMID:26763173

  14. Observation of self-excited acoustic vortices in defect-mediated dust acoustic wave turbulence.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ya-Yi; I, Lin

    2014-07-01

    Using the self-excited dust acoustic wave as a platform, we demonstrate experimental observation of self-excited fluctuating acoustic vortex pairs with ± 1 topological charges through spontaneous waveform undulation in defect-mediated turbulence for three-dimensional traveling nonlinear longitudinal waves. The acoustic vortex pair has helical waveforms with opposite chirality around the low-density hole filament pair in xyt space (the xy plane is the plane normal to the wave propagation direction). It is generated through ruptures of sequential crest surfaces and reconnections with their trailing ruptured crest surfaces. The initial rupture is originated from the amplitude reduction induced by the formation of the kinked wave crest strip with strong stretching through the undulation instability. Increasing rupture causes the separation of the acoustic vortex pair after generation. A similar reverse process is followed for the acoustic vortex annihilating with the opposite-charged acoustic vortex from the same or another pair generation.

  15. Wave-current interaction, experiments with controlled uniform shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Bruno; Touboul, Julien; Rey, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Vertically varying currents have a non negligible impact on the propagation of waves. Even though the analytical aspect of the interaction between wave and sheared current is being an active subject of research, experimental data remain rare. Here, the effects of a uniformly shear were investigated in the 10 m long by 0.3 m wide wave flume of the Université de Toulon, France. The main difficulty of the study was to produce several conditions of current with constant shear (du/dz = cst) that would persist along the channel. This was achieved by using curved wire screens upstream the channel (Dunn and Tavoularis, 2007). The geometry and properties of the screens were adjusted to deflect the streamline towards the channel bed or the free surface in order to change the velocity profile. The study focused on regular wave propagating against the current for several wave frequencies and amplitudes. Properties of the free surface and flow velocity are discussed for current with positive and negative shear in order to quantify the influence of the current on the waves. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The DGA (Direction Générale de l'Armement, France) is acknowledged for its financial support through the ANR grant N° ANR-13-ASTR-0007.

  16. Shear wave propagation in anisotropic soft tissues and gels.

    PubMed

    Namani, Ravi; Bayly, Philip V

    2009-01-01

    The propagation of shear waves in soft tissue can be visualized by magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) to characterize tissue mechanical properties. Dynamic deformation of brain tissue arising from shear wave propagation may underlie the pathology of blast-induced traumatic brain injury. White matter in the brain, like other biological materials, exhibits a transversely isotropic structure, due to the arrangement of parallel fibers. Appropriate mathematical models and well-characterized experimental systems are needed to understand wave propagation in these structures. In this paper we review the theory behind waves in anisotropic, soft materials, including small-amplitude waves superimposed on finite deformation of a nonlinear hyperelastic material. Some predictions of this theory are confirmed in experimental studies of a soft material with controlled anisotropy: magnetically-aligned fibrin gel. PMID:19963987

  17. Terrane-controlled crustal shear wave splitting in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okaya, David; Christensen, Nikolas I.; Ross, Zachary E.; Wu, Francis T.

    2016-01-01

    Taiwan is the result of arc-continent collision associated with the convergence of the Philippine Sea plate with the eastern Eurasian plate continental margin. The locus of deformation is found in eastern Taiwan in the form of mountain building (Central Range) with underlying thickened lithosphere. Rapid tectonic exhumation in the Central Range has uncovered low-to-high-grade metamorphic rocks marked by steep cleavage. We carried out a crustal seismic anisotropy study across Taiwan, producing a database of over 27,000 local earthquake shear wave splitting measurements. Additionally, we carried out rock physics measurements of metamorphic outcrop samples to quantify shear wave rock anisotropy. We produced a map of station-averaged splitting measurements across Taiwan. Patterns of fast shear wave directions correlate with tectonic terranes produced by plate convergence. Deformation-related mineral-preferred orientation in the metamorphic rocks produces a significant amount of the crustal anisotropy in the Taiwan collision zone.

  18. Lithology and shear-wave velocity in Memphis, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, J.; Waldron, B.; Schweig, E.; Hwang, H.; Webbers, A.; Van Arsdale, R.; Tucker, K.; Williams, R.; Street, R.; Mayne, P.; Stephenson, W.; Odum, J.; Cramer, C.; Updike, R.; Hutson, S.; Bradley, M.

    2003-01-01

    We have derived a new three-dimensional model of the lithologic structure beneath the city of Memphis, Tennessee, and examined its correlation with measured shear-wave velocity profiles. The correlation is sufficiently high that the better-constrained lithologic model may be used as a proxy for shear-wave velocities, which are required to calculate site-amplification for new seismic hazard maps for Memphis. The lithologic model and its uncertainties are derived from over 1200 newly compiled well and boring logs, some sampling to 500 m depth, and a moving-least-squares algorithm. Seventy-six new shear-wave velocity profiles have been measured and used for this study, most sampling to 30 m depth or less. All log and velocity observations are publicly available via new web sites.

  19. Could linear hysteresis contribute to shear wave losses in tissues?

    PubMed

    Parker, Kevin J

    2015-04-01

    For nearly 100 y in the study of cyclical motion in materials, a particular phenomenon called "linear hysteresis" or "ideal hysteretic damping" has been widely observed. More recently in the field of shear wave elastography, the basic mechanisms underlying shear wave losses in soft tissues are in question. Could linear hysteresis play a role? An underlying theoretical question must be answered: Is there a real and causal physical model that is capable of producing linear hysteresis over a band of shear wave frequencies used in diagnostic imaging schemes? One model that can approximately produce classic linear hysteresis behavior, by examining a generalized Maxwell model with a specific power law relaxation spectrum, is described here. This provides a theoretical plausibility for the phenomenon as a candidate for models of tissue behavior.

  20. Wave-particle transport by weak electrostatic flow shear fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, S. P.; Schwartz, S. J.

    1981-01-01

    A description is presented of the first consistent theoretical treatment of transport due to weak electrostatic fluctuations from microinstabilities driven by a shear in plasma flow parallel to a uniform magnetic field. The model used considers electrostatic fluctuations in a Vlasov plasma with sheared bulk velocity parallel to a uniform magnetic field. The linear stability theory for the model has been studied by Gary and Schwartz (1980). In the current investigation, a calculation is performed of the wave-particle transport associated with the electrostatic flow shear instability.

  1. Optical coherence tomography detection of shear wave propagation in inhomogeneous tissue equivalent phantoms and ex-vivo carotid artery samples

    PubMed Central

    Razani, Marjan; Luk, Timothy W.H.; Mariampillai, Adrian; Siegler, Peter; Kiehl, Tim-Rasmus; Kolios, Michael C.; Yang, Victor X.D.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we explored the potential of measuring shear wave propagation using optical coherence elastography (OCE) in an inhomogeneous phantom and carotid artery samples based on a swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. Shear waves were generated using a piezoelectric transducer transmitting sine-wave bursts of 400 μs duration, applying acoustic radiation force (ARF) to inhomogeneous phantoms and carotid artery samples, synchronized with a swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) imaging system. The phantoms were composed of gelatin and titanium dioxide whereas the carotid artery samples were embedded in gel. Differential OCT phase maps, measured with and without the ARF, detected the microscopic displacement generated by shear wave propagation in these phantoms and samples of different stiffness. We present the technique for calculating tissue mechanical properties by propagating shear waves in inhomogeneous tissue equivalent phantoms and carotid artery samples using the ARF of an ultrasound transducer, and measuring the shear wave speed and its associated properties in the different layers with OCT phase maps. This method lays the foundation for future in-vitro and in-vivo studies of mechanical property measurements of biological tissues such as vascular tissues, where normal and pathological structures may exhibit significant contrast in the shear modulus. PMID:24688822

  2. Wave-wave interactions and deep ocean acoustics.

    PubMed

    Guralnik, Z; Bourdelais, J; Zabalgogeazcoa, X; Farrell, W E

    2013-10-01

    Deep ocean acoustics, in the absence of shipping and wildlife, is driven by surface processes. Best understood is the signal generated by non-linear surface wave interactions, the Longuet-Higgins mechanism, which dominates from 0.1 to 10 Hz, and may be significant for another octave. For this source, the spectral matrix of pressure and vector velocity is derived for points near the bottom of a deep ocean resting on an elastic half-space. In the absence of a bottom, the ratios of matrix elements are universal constants. Bottom effects vitiate the usual "standing wave approximation," but a weaker form of the approximation is shown to hold, and this is used for numerical calculations. In the weak standing wave approximation, the ratios of matrix elements are independent of the surface wave spectrum, but depend on frequency and the propagation environment. Data from the Hawaii-2 Observatory are in excellent accord with the theory for frequencies between 0.1 and 1 Hz, less so at higher frequencies. Insensitivity of the spectral ratios to wind, and presumably waves, is indeed observed in the data.

  3. Acoustic wave characterization of silicon phononic crystal plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Duan; Jiang, Wanli; Xu, Dehui; Xiong, Bin; Wang, Yuelin

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, characterization of megahertz Lamb waves in a silicon phononic crystal based asymmetry filter by laser Doppler vibrometer is demonstrated. The acoustic power from a piezoelectric substrate was transmitted into the silicon superstrate by fluid coupling method, and measured results show that the displacement amplitude of the acoustic wave in the superstrate was approximately one fifth of that in the piezoelectric substrate. Effect of the phononic bandgap on the propagation of Lamb wave in the silicon superstrate is also measured, and the result shows that the phononic crystal structure could reflect part of the acoustic waves back.

  4. Ion-acoustic cnoidal waves in a quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmood, S.; Haas, F.

    2014-10-15

    Nonlinear ion-acoustic cnoidal wave structures are studied in an unmagnetized quantum plasma. Using the reductive perturbation method, a Korteweg-de Vries equation is derived for appropriate boundary conditions and nonlinear periodic wave solutions are obtained. The corresponding analytical solution and numerical plots of the ion-acoustic cnoidal waves and solitons in the phase plane are presented using the Sagdeev pseudo-potential approach. The variations in the nonlinear potential of the ion-acoustic cnoidal waves are studied at different values of quantum parameter H{sub e} which is the ratio of electron plasmon energy to electron Fermi energy defined for degenerate electrons. It is found that both compressive and rarefactive ion-acoustic cnoidal wave structures are formed depending on the value of the quantum parameter. The dependence of the wavelength and frequency on nonlinear wave amplitude is also presented.

  5. Effect of Forcing Function on Nonlinear Acoustic Standing Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finkheiner, Joshua R.; Li, Xiao-Fan; Raman, Ganesh; Daniels, Chris; Steinetz, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Nonlinear acoustic standing waves of high amplitude have been demonstrated by utilizing the effects of resonator shape to prevent the pressure waves from entering saturation. Experimentally, nonlinear acoustic standing waves have been generated by shaking an entire resonating cavity. While this promotes more efficient energy transfer than a piston-driven resonator, it also introduces complicated structural dynamics into the system. Experiments have shown that these dynamics result in resonator forcing functions comprised of a sum of several Fourier modes. However, previous numerical studies of the acoustics generated within the resonator assumed simple sinusoidal waves as the driving force. Using a previously developed numerical code, this paper demonstrates the effects of using a forcing function constructed with a series of harmonic sinusoidal waves on resonating cavities. From these results, a method will be demonstrated which allows the direct numerical analysis of experimentally generated nonlinear acoustic waves in resonators driven by harmonic forcing functions.

  6. Raising Photoemission Efficiency with Surface Acoustic Waves

    SciTech Connect

    A. Afanasev, F. Hassani, C.E. Korman, V.G. Dudnikov, R.P. Johnson, M. Poelker, K.E.L. Surles-Law

    2012-07-01

    We are developing a novel technique that may help increase the efficiency and reduce costs of photoelectron sources used at electron accelerators. The technique is based on the use of Surface Acoustic Waves (SAW) in piezoelectric materials, such as GaAs, that are commonly used as photocathodes. Piezoelectric fields produced by the traveling SAW spatially separate electrons and holes, reducing their probability of recombination, thereby enhancing the photoemission quantum efficiency of the photocathode. Additional advantages could be increased polarization provided by the enhanced mobility of charge carriers that can be controlled by the SAW and the ionization of optically-generated excitons resulting in the creation of additional electron-hole pairs. It is expected that these novel features will reduce the cost of accelerator operation. A theoretical model for photoemission in the presence of SAW has been developed, and experimental tests of the technique are underway.

  7. Effect of initial stress on propagation behaviors of shear horizontal waves in piezoelectric/piezomagnetic layered cylinders.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X; Qian, Z H; Zhang, S; Liu, J X

    2015-12-01

    An analytical approach is taken to investigate shear horizontal wave (SH wave) propagation in layered cylinder with initial stress, where a piezomagnetic (PM) material thin layer is bonded to a piezoelectric (PE) cylinder. Two different material combinations are taken into account, and the phase velocities of the SH waves are numerically calculated for the magnetically open and short cases, respectively. It is found that the initial stress, the thickness ratio and the material performance have a great influence on the phase velocity. The results obtained in this paper can offer fundamental significance to the application of PE/PM composite media or structure for the acoustic wave and microwave technologies.

  8. Ionospheric acoustic and gravity waves associated with midlatitude thunderstorms

    SciTech Connect

    Lay, Erin H.; Shao, Xuan -Min; Kendrick, Alexander K.; Carrano, Charles S.

    2015-07-30

    Acoustic waves with periods of 2–4 min and gravity waves with periods of 6–16 min have been detected at ionospheric heights (25–350 km) using GPS total electron content measurements. The area disturbed by these waves and the wave amplitudes have been associated with underlying thunderstorm activity. A statistical study comparing Next Generation Weather Radar thunderstorm measurements with ionospheric acoustic and gravity waves in the midlatitude U.S. Great Plains region was performed for the time period of May–July 2005. An increase of ionospheric acoustic wave disturbed area and amplitude is primarily associated with large thunderstorms (mesoscale convective systems). Ionospheric gravity wave disturbed area and amplitude scale with thunderstorm activity, with even small storms (i.e., individual storm cells) producing an increase of gravity waves.

  9. Reverberant Acoustic Testing and Direct Field Acoustic Testing Acoustic Standing Waves and their Impact on Structural Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolaini, Ali R.; Doty, Benjamin; Chang, Zensheu

    2012-01-01

    The aerospace industry has been using two methods of acoustic testing to qualify flight hardware: (1) Reverberant Acoustic Test (RAT), (2) Direct Field Acoustic Test (DFAT). The acoustic field obtained by RAT is generally understood and assumed to be diffuse, expect below Schroeder cut-of frequencies. DFAT method of testing has some distinct advantages over RAT, however the acoustic field characteristics can be strongly affected by test setup such as the speaker layouts, number and location of control microphones and control schemes. In this paper the following are discussed based on DEMO tests performed at APL and JPL: (1) Acoustic wave interference patterns and acoustic standing waves, (2) The structural responses in RAT and DFAT.

  10. Acoustic-wave sensor apparatus for analyzing a petroleum-based composition and sensing solidification of constituents therein

    DOEpatents

    Spates, J.J.; Martin, S.J.; Mansure, A.J.

    1997-08-26

    An acoustic-wave sensor apparatus and method are disclosed. The apparatus for analyzing a normally liquid petroleum-based composition includes at least one acoustic-wave device in contact with the petroleum-based composition for sensing or detecting the presence of constituents (e.g. paraffins or petroleum waxes) therein which solidify upon cooling of the petroleum-based composition below a cloud-point temperature. The acoustic-wave device can be a thickness-shear-mode device (also termed a quartz crystal microbalance), a surface-acoustic-wave device, an acoustic-plate-mode device or a flexural plate-wave device. Embodiments of the present invention can be used for measuring a cloud point, a pour point and/or a freeze point of the petroleum-based composition, and for determining a temperature characteristic of each point. Furthermore, measurements with the acoustic-wave sensor apparatus can be made off-line by using a sample having a particular petroleum-based composition; or in-situ with the petroleum-based composition contained within a pipeline or storage tank. The acoustic-wave sensor apparatus has uses in many different petroleum technology areas, including the recovery, transport, storage, refining and use of petroleum and petroleum-based products. 7 figs.

  11. Acoustic-wave sensor apparatus for analyzing a petroleum-based composition and sensing solidification of constituents therein

    DOEpatents

    Spates, James J.; Martin, Stephen J.; Mansure, Arthur J.

    1997-01-01

    An acoustic-wave sensor apparatus and method. The apparatus for analyzing a normally liquid petroleum-based composition includes at least one acoustic-wave device in contact with the petroleum-based composition for sensing or detecting the presence of constituents (e.g. paraffins or petroleum waxes) therein which solidify upon cooling of the petroleum-based composition below a cloud-point temperature. The acoustic-wave device can be a thickness-shear-mode device (also termed a quartz crystal mircrobalance), a surface-acoustic-wave device, an acoustic-plate-mode device or a flexural plate-wave device. Embodiments of the present invention can be used for measuring a cloud point, a pour point and/or a freeze point of the petroleum-based composition, and for determining a temperature characteristic of each point. Furthermore, measurements with the acoustic-wave sensor apparatus can be made off-line by using a sample having a particular petroleum-based composition; or in-situ with the petroleum-based composition contained within a pipeline or storage tank. The acoustic-wave sensor apparatus has uses in many different petroleum technology areas, including the recover transport, storage, refining and use of petroleum and petroleum-based products.

  12. Shear wave elastography using phase sensitive optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Shaozhen; Huang, Zhihong; Nguyen, Thu-Mai; Wong, Emily Y.; Arnal, Bastien; O'Donnell, Matthew; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2014-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides high spatial resolution and sensitivity that are ideal for imaging the cornea and lens. Quantifying the biomechanical properties of these tissues could add clinically valuable information. Thus, we propose a dynamic elastography method combining OCT detection and a mechanical actuator to map the shear modulus of soft tissues. We used a piezoelectric actuator driven in the kHz range and we used phase-sensitive OCT (PhS-OCT) to track the resulting shear waves at an equivalent frame rate of 47 kHz. We mapped the shear wave speed of anesthetized mice cornea using monochromatic excitations. We found a significant difference between a group of knock-out (3.92 +/- 0.35 m/s, N=4) and wild-type mice (5.04 +/- 0.51 m/s, N=3). These preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of using PhS-OCT to perform in vivo shear wave elastography of the cornea. We then implemented a shear pulse compression approach on ex vivo human cornea. For that purpose, frequency- modulated excitations were used and the resulting displacement field was digitally compressed in a short broadband pulse with a 7 dB gain in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).

  13. Stiffener bond line monitoring using ultrasonic shear guided waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Z.; Castaings, M.; Lowe, M. J. S.; Fromme, P.; Biateau, C.

    2012-05-01

    Adhesively bonded stiffeners are employed in aerospace applications to increase structural stiffness. The potential of shear guided wave modes for the verification of adhesion and bond line thickness in difficult to access regions has been investigated. The properties of guided wave modes propagating along a T-shaped stiffener bonded to an aluminium plate were calculated using the Semi-Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) method. Shear modes were identified as well suited with energy concentrated at the stiffener and bond line, limiting energy radiation into the plate and thus achieving increased inspection length. The influence of bond line properties and thickness was investigated from SAFE and 3D Finite Element calculations and a significant influence of the epoxy shear (Coulomb) modulus on the phase velocity found. Experiments were conducted during the curing of an epoxy adhesive, bonding a stiffener to the plate with bond strength and stiffness increasing over time. The excited shear mode was measured using a laser interferometer. The measured phase velocity changed significantly during curing. The frequency dependency matches well with the SAFE calculations for a variation of the Coulomb's modulus of the adhesive layer. The potential of the shear guided wave mode for bond line inspection and monitoring has been shown.

  14. A Hammer-Impact, Aluminum, Shear-Wave Seismic Source

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Seth S.

    2007-01-01

    Near-surface seismic surveys often employ hammer impacts to create seismic energy. Shear-wave surveys using horizontally polarized waves require horizontal hammer impacts against a rigid object (the source) that is coupled to the ground surface. I have designed, built, and tested a source made out of aluminum and equipped with spikes to improve coupling. The source is effective in a variety of settings, and it is relatively simple and inexpensive to build.

  15. Density gradient effects on transverse shear driven lower hybrid waves

    SciTech Connect

    DuBois, Ami M.; Thomas, Edward; Amatucci, William E.; Ganguli, Gurudas

    2014-06-15

    Shear driven instabilities are commonly observed in the near-Earth space, particularly in boundary layer plasmas. When the shear scale length (L{sub E}) is much less than the ion gyro-radius (ρ{sub i}) but greater than the electron gyro-radius (ρ{sub e}), the electrons are magnetized in the shear layer, but the ions are effectively un-magnetized. The resulting shear driven instability, the electron-ion hybrid (EIH) instability, is investigated in a new interpenetrating plasma configuration in the Auburn Linear EXperiment for Instability Studies. In order to understand the dynamics of magnetospheric boundary layers, the EIH instability is studied in the presence of a density gradient located at the boundary layer between two plasmas. This paper reports on a recent experiment in which electrostatic lower hybrid waves are identified as the EIH instability, and the effect of a density gradient on the instability properties are investigated.

  16. Ionospheric acoustic and gravity waves associated with midlatitude thunderstorms

    DOE PAGES

    Lay, Erin H.; Shao, Xuan -Min; Kendrick, Alexander K.; Carrano, Charles S.

    2015-07-30

    Acoustic waves with periods of 2–4 min and gravity waves with periods of 6–16 min have been detected at ionospheric heights (25–350 km) using GPS total electron content measurements. The area disturbed by these waves and the wave amplitudes have been associated with underlying thunderstorm activity. A statistical study comparing Next Generation Weather Radar thunderstorm measurements with ionospheric acoustic and gravity waves in the midlatitude U.S. Great Plains region was performed for the time period of May–July 2005. An increase of ionospheric acoustic wave disturbed area and amplitude is primarily associated with large thunderstorms (mesoscale convective systems). Ionospheric gravity wavemore » disturbed area and amplitude scale with thunderstorm activity, with even small storms (i.e., individual storm cells) producing an increase of gravity waves.« less

  17. Irregular Reflection of Acoustical Shock Waves and von Neumann Paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskar, S.; Coulouvrat, F.; Marchiano, R.

    2006-05-01

    We investigate the reflection of weak acoustical shock waves grazing over a rigid surface. We define a critical parameter and examine the different types of reflection structure depending on this parameter. The study of the step shock is then extended to both N-waves and periodic saw-tooth waves, which are more realistic from an acoustical point of view. The numerical simulations reveal new reflection structures for these two waves which are not observed for step shocks. The results of the model are finally compared for periodic saw-tooth waves to ultrasonic experiments.

  18. Role of the geodesic acoustic mode shearing feedback loop in transport bifurcations and turbulence spreading

    SciTech Connect

    Miki, K.; Diamond, P. H.

    2010-03-15

    A theory of the effect of the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) on turbulence is presented. Two synergistic issues are elucidated: namely, the physics of the zonal flow modulation and its role in the L-H transition, and the role of the GAM wave group propagation in turbulence spreading. Using a wavekinetic modulational analysis, the response of the turbulence intensity field to the GAM is calculated. This analysis differs from previous studies of zero-frequency zonal flows since it accounts for resonance between the drift wave group speed and the GAM strain field, which induces secularity. This mechanism is referred to as secular stochastic shearing. Finite real frequency and radial group velocity are intrinsic to the GAM, so its propagation can induce nonlocal phenomena at the edge and pedestal regions. To understand the effect of the GAM on turbulence and transition dynamics, a predator-prey model incorporating the dynamics of both turbulence and the GAMs is constructed and analyzed for stability around fixed points. Three possible states are identified, namely, an L-modelike stationary state, a reduced turbulence state, and a GAM limit-cycle state. The system is attracted to the state with the minimum turbulence level.

  19. Shear wave arrival time estimates correlate with local speckle pattern.

    PubMed

    Mcaleavey, Stephen A; Osapoetra, Laurentius O; Langdon, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    We present simulation and phantom studies demonstrating a strong correlation between errors in shear wave arrival time estimates and the lateral position of the local speckle pattern in targets with fully developed speckle. We hypothesize that the observed arrival time variations are largely due to the underlying speckle pattern, and call the effect speckle bias. Arrival time estimation is a key step in quantitative shear wave elastography, performed by tracking tissue motion via cross-correlation of RF ultrasound echoes or similar methods. Variations in scatterer strength and interference of echoes from scatterers within the tracking beam result in an echo that does not necessarily describe the average motion within the beam, but one favoring areas of constructive interference and strong scattering. A swept-receive image, formed by fixing the transmit beam and sweeping the receive aperture over the region of interest, is used to estimate the local speckle pattern. Metrics for the lateral position of the speckle are found to correlate strongly (r > 0.7) with the estimated shear wave arrival times both in simulations and in phantoms. Lateral weighting of the swept-receive pattern improved the correlation between arrival time estimates and speckle position. The simulations indicate that high RF echo correlation does not equate to an accurate shear wave arrival time estimate-a high correlation coefficient indicates that motion is being tracked with high precision, but the location tracked is uncertain within the tracking beam width. The presence of a strong on-axis speckle is seen to imply high RF correlation and low bias. The converse does not appear to be true-highly correlated RF echoes can still produce biased arrival time estimates. The shear wave arrival time bias is relatively stable with variations in shear wave amplitude and sign (-20 μm to 20 μm simulated) compared with the variation with different speckle realizations obtained along a given tracking

  20. Creating and studying ion acoustic waves in ultracold neutral plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Killian, T. C.; Castro, J.; McQuillen, P.; O'Neil, T. M.

    2012-05-15

    We excite ion acoustic waves in ultracold neutral plasmas by imprinting density modulations during plasma creation. Laser-induced fluorescence is used to observe the density and velocity perturbations created by the waves. The effect of expansion of the plasma on the evolution of the wave amplitude is described by treating the wave action as an adiabatic invariant. After accounting for this effect, we determine that the waves are weakly damped, but the damping is significantly faster than expected for Landau damping.

  1. Ultrafast microfluidics using surface acoustic waves

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Leslie Y.; Friend, James R.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that surface acoustic waves (SAWs), nanometer amplitude Rayleigh waves driven at megahertz order frequencies propagating on the surface of a piezoelectric substrate, offer a powerful method for driving a host of extremely fast microfluidic actuation and micro∕bioparticle manipulation schemes. We show that sessile drops can be translated rapidly on planar substrates or fluid can be pumped through microchannels at 1–10 cm∕s velocities, which are typically one to two orders quicker than that afforded by current microfluidic technologies. Through symmetry-breaking, azimuthal recirculation can be induced within the drop to drive strong inertial microcentrifugation for micromixing and particle concentration or separation. Similar micromixing strategies can be induced in the same microchannel in which fluid is pumped with the SAW by merely changing the SAW frequency to rapidly switch the uniform through-flow into a chaotic oscillatory flow by exploiting superpositioning of the irradiated sound waves from the sidewalls of the microchannel. If the flow is sufficiently quiescent, the nodes of the transverse standing wave that arises across the microchannel also allow for particle aggregation, and hence, sorting on nodal lines. In addition, the SAW also facilitates other microfluidic capabilities. For example, capillary waves excited at the free surface of a sessile drop by the SAW underneath it can be exploited for micro∕nanoparticle collection and sorting at nodal points or lines at low powers. At higher powers, the large accelerations off the substrate surface as the SAW propagates across drives rapid destabilization of the drop free surface giving rise to inertial liquid jets that persist over 1–2 cm in length or atomization of the entire drop to produce 1–10 μm monodispersed aerosol droplets, which can be exploited for ink-jet printing, mass spectrometry interfacing, or pulmonary drug delivery. The atomization of polymer∕protein solutions

  2. Amplitude-modulated ultrasound radiation force combined with phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography for shear wave elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thu-Mai; Song, Shaozhen; Arnal, Bastien; Wong, Emily Y.; Shen, Tueng T.; Wang, Ruikang K.; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    Tissue stiffness can be measured from the propagation speed of shear waves. Acoustic radiation force (ARF) can generate shear waves by focusing ultrasound in tissue for ~100 μs. Safety considerations and electronics abilities limit ultrasound pressures. We previously presented shear wave elastography combining ARF and phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PhS-OCT) [1]. Here, we use amplitude-modulated ARF to enhance shear wave signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at low pressures. Experiments were performed on tissue-mimicking phantoms. ARF was applied using a single-element transducer, driven by a 7.5 MHz, 3-ms, sine wave modulated in amplitude by a linear-swept frequency (1 to 7 kHz). Pressures between 1 to 3 MPa were tested. Displacements were tracked using PhS-OCT and numerically compressed using pulse compression methods detailed in previous work [2]. SNR was compared to that of 200-μs bursts. Stiffness maps were reconstructed using time-of-flight computations. 200-μs bursts give barely detectable displacements at 1 MPa (3.7 dB SNR). Pulse compression gives 36.2 dB at 1.5 MPa. In all cases with detectable displacements, shear wave speeds were determined in 5%-gelatin and 10%-gelatin phantoms and compared to literature values. Applicability to ocular tissues (cornea, intraocular lens) is under investigation.

  3. An omnidirectional shear-horizontal guided wave EMAT for a metallic plate.

    PubMed

    Seung, Hong Min; Park, Chung Il; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-07-01

    We propose a new electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) for generation and measurement of omnidirectional shear-horizontal (SH) guided waves in metallic plates. The proposed EMAT requires a magnetic circuit configuration that allows omnidirectional SH wave transduction. It consists of a pair of ring-type permanent magnets that supply static magnetic fluxes and a specially wound coil that induces eddy currents. The Lorentz force acting along the circumferential direction is induced by the vertical static magnetic flux and the radial eddy current in a plate, resulting in omnidirectional SH wave generation. To maximize the transducer output at given excitation frequencies, optimal EMAT configurations are determined by numerical simulations and validated by experiments. The omnidirectivity of the proposed EMAT is also confirmed by the simulations and experiments. PMID:27058629

  4. Waveform inversion of acoustic waves for explosion yield estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Rodgers, A.

    2016-07-01

    We present a new waveform inversion technique to estimate the energy of near-surface explosions using atmospheric acoustic waves. Conventional methods often employ air blast models based on a homogeneous atmosphere, where the acoustic wave propagation effects (e.g., refraction and diffraction) are not taken into account, and therefore, their accuracy decreases with increasing source-receiver distance. In this study, three-dimensional acoustic simulations are performed with a finite difference method in realistic atmospheres and topography, and the modeled acoustic Green's functions are incorporated into the waveform inversion for the acoustic source time functions. The strength of the acoustic source is related to explosion yield based on a standard air blast model. The technique was applied to local explosions (<10 km) and provided reasonable yield estimates (<˜30% error) in the presence of realistic topography and atmospheric structure. The presented method can be extended to explosions recorded at far distance provided proper meteorological specifications.

  5. False Paradoxes of Superposition in Electric and Acoustic Waves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Richard C.

    1980-01-01

    Corrected are several misconceptions concerning the apparently "missing" energy that results when acoustic or electromagnetic waves cancel by destructive interference and the wave impedance reflected to the sources of the wave energy changes so that the input power is reduced. (Author/CS)

  6. Effect of acoustic field parameters on arc acoustic binding during ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding.

    PubMed

    Xie, Weifeng; Fan, Chenglei; Yang, Chunli; Lin, Sanbao

    2016-03-01

    As a newly developed arc welding method, power ultrasound has been successfully introduced into arc and weld pool during ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding process. The advanced process for molten metals can be realized by utilizing additional ultrasonic field. Under the action of the acoustic wave, the plasma arc as weld heat source is regulated and its characteristics make an obvious change. Compared with the conventional arc, the ultrasonic wave-assisted arc plasma is bound significantly and becomes brighter. To reveal the dependence of the acoustic binding force on acoustic field parameters, a two-dimensional acoustic field model for ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding device is established. The influences of the radiator height, the central pore radius, the radiator radius, and curvature radius or depth of concave radiator surface are discussed using the boundary element method. Then the authors analyze the resonant mode by this relationship curve between acoustic radiation power and radiator height. Furthermore, the best acoustic binding ability is obtained by optimizing the geometric parameters of acoustic radiator. In addition, three concave radiator surfaces including spherical cap surface, paraboloid of revolution, and rotating single curved surface are investigated systematically. Finally, both the calculation and experiment suggest that, to obtain the best acoustic binding ability, the ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding setup should be operated under the first resonant mode using a radiator with a spherical cap surface, a small central pore, a large section radius and an appropriate curvature radius.

  7. Effect of acoustic field parameters on arc acoustic binding during ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding.

    PubMed

    Xie, Weifeng; Fan, Chenglei; Yang, Chunli; Lin, Sanbao

    2016-03-01

    As a newly developed arc welding method, power ultrasound has been successfully introduced into arc and weld pool during ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding process. The advanced process for molten metals can be realized by utilizing additional ultrasonic field. Under the action of the acoustic wave, the plasma arc as weld heat source is regulated and its characteristics make an obvious change. Compared with the conventional arc, the ultrasonic wave-assisted arc plasma is bound significantly and becomes brighter. To reveal the dependence of the acoustic binding force on acoustic field parameters, a two-dimensional acoustic field model for ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding device is established. The influences of the radiator height, the central pore radius, the radiator radius, and curvature radius or depth of concave radiator surface are discussed using the boundary element method. Then the authors analyze the resonant mode by this relationship curve between acoustic radiation power and radiator height. Furthermore, the best acoustic binding ability is obtained by optimizing the geometric parameters of acoustic radiator. In addition, three concave radiator surfaces including spherical cap surface, paraboloid of revolution, and rotating single curved surface are investigated systematically. Finally, both the calculation and experiment suggest that, to obtain the best acoustic binding ability, the ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding setup should be operated under the first resonant mode using a radiator with a spherical cap surface, a small central pore, a large section radius and an appropriate curvature radius. PMID:26558995

  8. Anisotropic Swirling Surface Acoustic Waves from Inverse Filtering for On-Chip Generation of Acoustic Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaud, Antoine; Thomas, Jean-Louis; Charron, Eric; Bussonnière, Adrien; Bou Matar, Olivier; Baudoin, Michael

    2015-09-01

    From radio-electronics signal analysis to biological sample actuation, surface acoustic waves (SAWs) are involved in a multitude of modern devices. However, only the most simple standing or progressive waves such as plane and focused waves have been explored so far. In this paper, we expand the SAW toolbox with a wave family named "swirling surface acoustic waves" which are the 2D anisotropic analogue of bulk acoustic vortices. Similarly to their 3D counterpart, they appear as concentric structures of bright rings with a phase singularity in their center resulting in a central dark spot. After the rigorous mathematical definition of these waves, we synthesize them experimentally through the inverse filtering technique revisited for surface waves. For this purpose, we design a setup combining arrays of interdigitated transducers and a multichannel electronic that enables one to synthesize any prescribed wave field compatible with the anisotropy of the substrate in a region called the "acoustic scene." This work opens prospects for the design of integrated acoustic vortex generators for on-chip selective acoustic tweezing.

  9. Mechanical spectra of glass-forming liquids. II. Gigahertz-frequency longitudinal and shear acoustic dynamics in glycerol and DC704 studied by time-domain Brillouin scattering.

    PubMed

    Klieber, Christoph; Hecksher, Tina; Pezeril, Thomas; Torchinsky, Darius H; Dyre, Jeppe C; Nelson, Keith A

    2013-03-28

    This paper presents and discusses the temperature and frequency dependence of the longitudinal and shear viscoelastic response at MHz and GHz frequencies of the intermediate glass former glycerol and the fragile glass former tetramethyl-tetraphenyl-trisiloxane (DC704). Measurements were performed using the recently developed time-domain Brillouin scattering technique, in which acoustic waves are generated optically, propagated through nm thin liquid layers of different thicknesses, and detected optically after transmission into a transparent detection substrate. This allows for a determination of the frequency dependence of the speed of sound and the sound-wave attenuation. When the data are converted into mechanical moduli, a linear relationship between longitudinal and shear acoustic moduli is revealed, which is consistent with the generalized Cauchy relation. In glycerol, the temperature dependence of the shear acoustic relaxation time agrees well with literature data for dielectric measurements. In DC704, combining the new data with data from measurements obtained previously by piezo-ceramic transducers yields figures showing the longitudinal and shear sound velocities at frequencies from mHz to GHz over an extended range of temperatures. The shoving model's prediction for the relaxation time's temperature dependence is fairly well obeyed for both liquids as demonstrated from a plot with no adjustable parameters. Finally, we show that for both liquids the instantaneous shear modulus follows an exponential temperature dependence to a good approximation, as predicted by Granato's interstitialcy model. PMID:23556795

  10. High-temperature bulk acoustic wave sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritze, Holger

    2011-01-01

    Piezoelectric crystals like langasite (La3Ga5SiO14, LGS) and gallium orthophosphate (GaPO4) exhibit piezoelectrically excited bulk acoustic waves at temperatures of up to at least 1450 °C and 900 °C, respectively. Consequently, resonant sensors based on those materials enable new sensing approaches. Thereby, resonant high-temperature microbalances are of particular interest. They correlate very small mass changes during film deposition onto resonators or gas composition-dependent stoichiometry changes of thin films already deposited onto the resonators with the resonance frequency shift of such devices. Consequently, the objective of the work is to review the high-temperature properties, the operation limits and the measurement principles of such resonators. The electromechanical properties of high-temperature bulk acoustic wave resonators such as mechanical stiffness, piezoelectric and dielectric constant, effective viscosity and electrical conductivity are described using a one-dimensional physical model and determined accurately up to temperatures as close as possible to their ultimate limit. Insights from defect chemical models are correlated with the electromechanical properties of the resonators. Thereby, crucial properties for stable operation as a sensor under harsh conditions are identified to be the formation of oxygen vacancies and the bulk conductivity. Operation limits concerning temperature, oxygen partial pressure and water vapor pressure are given. Further, application-relevant aspects such as temperature coefficients, temperature compensation and mass sensitivity are evaluated. In addition, approximations are introduced which make the exact model handy for routine data evaluation. An equivalent electrical circuit for high-temperature resonator devices is derived based on the one-dimensional physical model. Low- and high-temperature approximations are introduced. Thereby, the structure of the equivalent circuit corresponds to the Butterworth

  11. Stick-slip instabilities in sheared granular flow: The role of friction and acoustic vibrations.

    PubMed

    Lieou, Charles K C; Elbanna, Ahmed E; Langer, J S; Carlson, J M

    2015-08-01

    We propose a theory of shear flow in dense granular materials. A key ingredient of the theory is an effective temperature that determines how the material responds to external driving forces such as shear stresses and vibrations. We show that, within our model, friction between grains produces stick-slip behavior at intermediate shear rates, even if the material is rate strengthening at larger rates. In addition, externally generated acoustic vibrations alter the stick-slip amplitude, or suppress stick-slip altogether, depending on the pressure and shear rate. We construct a phase diagram that indicates the parameter regimes for which stick-slip occurs in the presence and absence of acoustic vibrations of a fixed amplitude and frequency. These results connect the microscopic physics to macroscopic dynamics and thus produce useful information about a variety of granular phenomena, including rupture and slip along earthquake faults, the remote triggering of instabilities, and the control of friction in material processing.

  12. Shear-induced force fluctuations and acoustic emissions in granular material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michlmayr, Gernot; Cohen, Denis; Or, Dani

    2013-12-01

    We conducted a series of strain-controlled experiments to study the characteristics of a shear zone forming in dense flow of confined dry granular media. The primary objective was to link force fluctuations due to jamming and force network reformation with episodic release of elastic energy as passively monitored by acoustic emission sensors. Under constant deformation rate, the shear stress exhibits a characteristic sawtooth behavior reflecting the strong influence of micromechanical processes on the macroscopic stress-strain behavior. Measured shear stress jumps were highly correlated with low-frequency (< 20 kHz) acoustic emission events. High-frequency (30 kHz-80 kHz) acoustic signals that were measured with different sensors appear to be directly linked to continual grain-scale interactions (e.g., friction, rolling). A conceptual mechanical fiber bundle model (FBM) was used to represent dynamics at the shear zone of large granular assemblies. The model was capable of reproducing the dynamics of stress jumps and associated elastic energy release events. The combination of acoustic emission (AE) measurements and FBM framework offers new insights into the behavior of shear failure and enhances capabilities for resolving grain-scale mechanical processes and for predicting rapid mass movement such as shallow landslides and debris flows.

  13. Measurements of frequency dependent shear wave attenuation in sedimentary basins using induced earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Tom; Wegler, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    Modeling of peak ground velocity caused by induced earthquakes requires detailed knowledge about seismic attenuation properties of the subsurface. Especially shear wave attenuation is important, because shear waves usually show the largest amplitude in high frequency seismograms. We report intrinsic and scattering attenuation coefficients of shear waves near three geothermal reservoirs in Germany for frequencies between 2 Hz and 50 Hz. The geothermal plants are located in the sedimentary basins of the upper Rhine graben (Insheim and Landau) and the Molasse basin (Unterhaching). The method optimizes the fit between Green's functions for the acoustic, isotropic radiative transfer theory and observed energy densities of induced earthquakes. The inversion allows the determination of scattering and intrinsic attenuation, site corrections, and spectral source energies for the investigated frequency bands. We performed the inversion at the three sites for events with a magnitude between 0.7 and 2. We determined a transport mean free path of 70 km for Unterhaching. For Landau and Insheim the transport mean free path depends on frequency. It ranges from 2 km (at 2 Hz) to 30 km (at 40 Hz) for Landau and from 9 km to 50 km for Insheim. The quality factor for intrinsic attenuation is constant for frequencies smaller than 10 Hz at all three sites. It is around 100 for Unterhaching and 200 for Landau and Insheim with higher values above 10 Hz.

  14. Nonlinear propagation and control of acoustic waves in phononic superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Noé; Mehrem, Ahmed; Picó, Rubén; García-Raffi, Lluís M.; Sánchez-Morcillo, Víctor J.

    2016-05-01

    The propagation of intense acoustic waves in a one-dimensional phononic crystal is studied. The medium consists in a structured fluid, formed by a periodic array of fluid layers with alternating linear acoustic properties and quadratic nonlinearity coefficient. The spacing between layers is of the order of the wavelength, therefore Bragg effects such as band gaps appear. We show that the interplay between strong dispersion and nonlinearity leads to new scenarios of wave propagation. The classical waveform distortion process typical of intense acoustic waves in homogeneous media can be strongly altered when nonlinearly generated harmonics lie inside or close to band gaps. This allows the possibility of engineer a medium in order to get a particular waveform. Examples of this include the design of media with effective (e.g., cubic) nonlinearities, or extremely linear media (where distortion can be canceled). The presented ideas open a way towards the control of acoustic wave propagation in nonlinear regime. xml:lang="fr"

  15. Estimating propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Wenyuan; Huizinga, John S.

    2010-03-16

    Techniques are described for estimating the propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor. In particular, techniques which measure and exploit a proper segment of phase frequency response of the surface acoustic wave sensor are described for use as a basis of bacterial detection by the sensor. As described, use of velocity estimation based on a proper segment of phase frequency response has advantages over conventional techniques that use phase shift as the basis for detection.

  16. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) vibration sensors.

    PubMed

    Filipiak, Jerzy; Solarz, Lech; Steczko, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    In the paper a feasibility study on the use of surface acoustic wave (SAW) vibration sensors for electronic warning systems is presented. The system is assembled from concatenated SAW vibration sensors based on a SAW delay line manufactured on a surface of a piezoelectric plate. Vibrations of the plate are transformed into electric signals that allow identification of the sensor and localization of a threat. The theoretical study of sensor vibrations leads us to the simple isotropic model with one degree of freedom. This model allowed an explicit description of the sensor plate movement and identification of the vibrating sensor. Analysis of frequency response of the ST-cut quartz sensor plate and a damping speed of its impulse response has been conducted. The analysis above was the basis to determine the ranges of parameters for vibrating plates to be useful in electronic warning systems. Generally, operation of electronic warning systems with SAW vibration sensors is based on the analysis of signal phase changes at the working frequency of delay line after being transmitted via two circuits of concatenated four-terminal networks. Frequencies of phase changes are equal to resonance frequencies of vibrating plates of sensors. The amplitude of these phase changes is proportional to the amplitude of vibrations of a sensor plate. Both pieces of information may be sent and recorded jointly by a simple electrical unit.

  17. Surface acoustic wave devices for sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Liu; Xiao, Chen; Hualin, Cai; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Xiangguang, Tian; Luqi, Tao; Yi, Yang; Tianling, Ren

    2016-02-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices have been widely used in different fields and will continue to be of great importance in the foreseeable future. These devices are compact, cost efficient, easy to fabricate, and have a high performance, among other advantages. SAW devices can work as filters, signal processing units, sensors and actuators. They can even work without batteries and operate under harsh environments. In this review, the operating principles of SAW sensors, including temperature sensors, pressure sensors, humidity sensors and biosensors, will be discussed. Several examples and related issues will be presented. Technological trends and future developments will also be discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 60936002, 61025021, 61434001, 61574083), the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (No. 2015CB352100), the National Key Project of Science and Technology (No. 2011ZX02403-002) and the Special Fund for Agroscientific Research in the Public Interest of China (No. 201303107). M.A.M is additionally supported by the Postdoctoral Fellowship (PDF) program of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (CPSF).

  18. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) vibration sensors.

    PubMed

    Filipiak, Jerzy; Solarz, Lech; Steczko, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    In the paper a feasibility study on the use of surface acoustic wave (SAW) vibration sensors for electronic warning systems is presented. The system is assembled from concatenated SAW vibration sensors based on a SAW delay line manufactured on a surface of a piezoelectric plate. Vibrations of the plate are transformed into electric signals that allow identification of the sensor and localization of a threat. The theoretical study of sensor vibrations leads us to the simple isotropic model with one degree of freedom. This model allowed an explicit description of the sensor plate movement and identification of the vibrating sensor. Analysis of frequency response of the ST-cut quartz sensor plate and a damping speed of its impulse response has been conducted. The analysis above was the basis to determine the ranges of parameters for vibrating plates to be useful in electronic warning systems. Generally, operation of electronic warning systems with SAW vibration sensors is based on the analysis of signal phase changes at the working frequency of delay line after being transmitted via two circuits of concatenated four-terminal networks. Frequencies of phase changes are equal to resonance frequencies of vibrating plates of sensors. The amplitude of these phase changes is proportional to the amplitude of vibrations of a sensor plate. Both pieces of information may be sent and recorded jointly by a simple electrical unit. PMID:22247694

  19. Linear coupling of planetary scale waves in ionospheric zonal shear winds: Generation of fast magnetic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanishvili, R.; Chagelishvili, G.; Uchava, E.; Kharshiladze, O.

    2016-04-01

    Our goal is to gain new insight into the physics of wave dynamics in ionospheric zonal shear flows. We study the shear flow non-normality induced linear coupling of planetary scale (slow) modified Rossby waves and westward propagating fast magnetized (Khantadze) waves using an approach different from the existing one to the linear wave dynamics. The performed analysis allows us to separate from each other different physical processes, grasp their interplay, and, by this way, construct the basic physics of the linear coupling of the slow and fast waves in an ionospheric zonal flow with linear shear of mean velocity, U0=(S y ,0 ) . It should be noted from the beginning that we consider incompressible flow and the classified "slow" and "fast" waves are not connected with the similarly labeled magnetosonic waves in compressible heliosphere. We show that: the modified Rossby waves generate fast magnetized waves due to the coupling for a quite wide range of ionospheric and shear flow parameters; the linear transient processes are highly anisotropic in wavenumber plane; the generation of the magnetized waves/oscillations is most efficient/optimal for S ≃0.1 (S is the shear rate normalized to the combination of the angular velocity and latitude, Ω0 cos θ0 ); the streamwise wave number of the optimally generated magnetized wave harmonics decreases (the length scale increases) with increasing the Hall parameter, α. At the end, we discuss nonlinear consequences of the described anisotropic linear dynamics—they should lead to an anisotropy of nonlinear cascade processes (in wavenumber plane). In turn, an interplay of the analyzed quite strong transient growth of the fast magnetic waves with anisotropic nonlinear processes should ensure self-sustenance of (stochastic or regular) magnetic perturbations.

  20. Nanoliter-droplet acoustic streaming via ultra high frequency surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Shilton, Richie J; Travagliati, Marco; Beltram, Fabio; Cecchini, Marco

    2014-08-01

    The relevant length scales in sub-nanometer amplitude surface acoustic wave-driven acoustic streaming are demonstrated. We demonstrate the absence of any physical limitations preventing the downscaling of SAW-driven internal streaming to nanoliter microreactors and beyond by extending SAW microfluidics up to operating frequencies in the GHz range. This method is applied to nanoliter scale fluid mixing.

  1. Instability of subharmonic resonances in magnetogravity shear waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salhi, A.; Nasraoui, S.

    2013-12-01

    We study analytically the instability of the subharmonic resonances in magnetogravity waves excited by a (vertical) time-periodic shear for an inviscid and nondiffusive unbounded conducting fluid. Due to the fact that the magnetic potential induction is a Lagrangian invariant for magnetohydrodynamic Euler-Boussinesq equations, we show that plane-wave disturbances are governed by a four-dimensional Floquet system in which appears, among others, the parameter ɛ representing the ratio of the periodic shear amplitude to the vertical Brunt-Väisälä frequency N3. For sufficiently small ɛ and when the magnetic field is horizontal, we perform an asymptotic analysis of the Floquet system following the method of Lebovitz and Zweibel [Astrophys. J. 609, 301 (2004), 10.1086/420972]. We determine the width and the maximal growth rate of the instability bands associated with subharmonic resonances. We show that the instability of subharmonic resonance occurring in gravity shear waves has a maximal growth rate of the form Δm=(3√3 /16)ɛ. This instability persists in the presence of magnetic fields, but its growth rate decreases as the magnetic strength increases. We also find a second instability involving a mixing of hydrodynamic and magnetic modes that occurs for all magnetic field strengths. We also elucidate the similarity between the effect of a vertical magnetic field and the effect of a vertical Coriolis force on the gravity shear waves considering axisymmetric disturbances. For both cases, plane waves are governed by a Hill equation, and, when ɛ is sufficiently small, the subharmonic instability band is determined by a Mathieu equation. We find that, when the Coriolis parameter (or the magnetic strength) exceeds N3/2, the instability of the subharmonic resonance vanishes.

  2. Instability of subharmonic resonances in magnetogravity shear waves.

    PubMed

    Salhi, A; Nasraoui, S

    2013-12-01

    We study analytically the instability of the subharmonic resonances in magnetogravity waves excited by a (vertical) time-periodic shear for an inviscid and nondiffusive unbounded conducting fluid. Due to the fact that the magnetic potential induction is a Lagrangian invariant for magnetohydrodynamic Euler-Boussinesq equations, we show that plane-wave disturbances are governed by a four-dimensional Floquet system in which appears, among others, the parameter ɛ representing the ratio of the periodic shear amplitude to the vertical Brunt-Väisälä frequency N(3). For sufficiently small ɛ and when the magnetic field is horizontal, we perform an asymptotic analysis of the Floquet system following the method of Lebovitz and Zweibel [Astrophys. J. 609, 301 (2004)]. We determine the width and the maximal growth rate of the instability bands associated with subharmonic resonances. We show that the instability of subharmonic resonance occurring in gravity shear waves has a maximal growth rate of the form Δ(m)=(3√[3]/16)ɛ. This instability persists in the presence of magnetic fields, but its growth rate decreases as the magnetic strength increases. We also find a second instability involving a mixing of hydrodynamic and magnetic modes that occurs for all magnetic field strengths. We also elucidate the similarity between the effect of a vertical magnetic field and the effect of a vertical Coriolis force on the gravity shear waves considering axisymmetric disturbances. For both cases, plane waves are governed by a Hill equation, and, when ɛ is sufficiently small, the subharmonic instability band is determined by a Mathieu equation. We find that, when the Coriolis parameter (or the magnetic strength) exceeds N(3)/2, the instability of the subharmonic resonance vanishes. PMID:24483566

  3. Instability of subharmonic resonances in magnetogravity shear waves.

    PubMed

    Salhi, A; Nasraoui, S

    2013-12-01

    We study analytically the instability of the subharmonic resonances in magnetogravity waves excited by a (vertical) time-periodic shear for an inviscid and nondiffusive unbounded conducting fluid. Due to the fact that the magnetic potential induction is a Lagrangian invariant for magnetohydrodynamic Euler-Boussinesq equations, we show that plane-wave disturbances are governed by a four-dimensional Floquet system in which appears, among others, the parameter ɛ representing the ratio of the periodic shear amplitude to the vertical Brunt-Väisälä frequency N(3). For sufficiently small ɛ and when the magnetic field is horizontal, we perform an asymptotic analysis of the Floquet system following the method of Lebovitz and Zweibel [Astrophys. J. 609, 301 (2004)]. We determine the width and the maximal growth rate of the instability bands associated with subharmonic resonances. We show that the instability of subharmonic resonance occurring in gravity shear waves has a maximal growth rate of the form Δ(m)=(3√[3]/16)ɛ. This instability persists in the presence of magnetic fields, but its growth rate decreases as the magnetic strength increases. We also find a second instability involving a mixing of hydrodynamic and magnetic modes that occurs for all magnetic field strengths. We also elucidate the similarity between the effect of a vertical magnetic field and the effect of a vertical Coriolis force on the gravity shear waves considering axisymmetric disturbances. For both cases, plane waves are governed by a Hill equation, and, when ɛ is sufficiently small, the subharmonic instability band is determined by a Mathieu equation. We find that, when the Coriolis parameter (or the magnetic strength) exceeds N(3)/2, the instability of the subharmonic resonance vanishes.

  4. Diffraction of picosecond bulk longitudinal and shear waves in micron thick films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audoin, B.; Perton, M.; Chigarev, N.; Rossignol, C.

    2008-01-01

    Investigation of thin metallic film properties by means of picosecond ultrasonics [C. Thomsen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 989 (1984)] has been under the scope of several studies. Generation of longitudinal and shear waves [T. Pézeril et al., Phys. Rev. B 73, 132301 (2006); O. Matsuda et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 095501 (2004)] with a wave vector normal to the film free surface has been demonstrated. Such measurements cannot provide complete information about properties of anisotropic films. Extreme focusing of a laser pump beam (≈0.5 μm) on the sample surface has recently allowed us to provide evidence of picosecond acoustic diffraction in thin metallic films (≈1 μm) [C. Rossignol et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 166106 (2005)]. The resulting longitudinal and shear wavefronts propagate at group velocity through the bulk of the film. To interpret the received signals, source directivity diagrams are calculated taking into account material anisotropy, optical penetration, and laser beam width on the sample surface. It is shown that acoustic diffraction increases with optical penetration, so competing with the increasing of directivity caused by beam width. Reflection with mode conversion at the film-substrate interface is discussed.

  5. Acoustic waves in gases with strong pressure gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorumski, William E.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of strong pressure gradients on the acoustic modes (standing waves) of a rectangular cavity is investigated analytically. When the cavity response is represented by a sum of modes, each mode is found to have two resonant frequencies. The lower frequency is near the Viaesaela-Brundt frequency, which characterizes the buoyant effect, and the higher frequency is above the ordinary acoustic resonance frequency. This finding shows that the propagation velocity of the acoustic waves is increased due to the pressure gradient effect.

  6. Flow profiling of a surface-acoustic-wave nanopump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttenberg, Z.; Rathgeber, A.; Keller, S.; Rädler, J. O.; Wixforth, A.; Kostur, M.; Schindler, M.; Talkner, P.

    2004-11-01

    The flow profile in a capillary gap and the pumping efficiency of an acoustic micropump employing surface acoustic waves is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Ultrasonic surface waves on a piezoelectric substrate strongly couple to a thin liquid layer and generate a quadrupolar streaming pattern within the fluid. We use fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy as complementary tools to investigate the resulting flow profile. The velocity was found to depend on the applied power approximately linearly and to decrease with the inverse third power of the distance from the ultrasound generator on the chip. The found properties reveal acoustic streaming as a promising tool for the controlled agitation during microarray hybridization.

  7. Measuring the linear and nonlinear elastic properties of brain tissue with shear waves and inverse analysis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi; Li, Guoyang; Qian, Lin-Xue; Liang, Si; Destrade, Michel; Cao, Yanping

    2015-10-01

    We use supersonic shear wave imaging (SSI) technique to measure not only the linear but also the nonlinear elastic properties of brain matter. Here, we tested six porcine brains ex vivo and measured the velocities of the plane shear waves induced by acoustic radiation force at different states of pre-deformation when the ultrasonic probe is pushed into the soft tissue. We relied on an inverse method based on the theory governing the propagation of small-amplitude acoustic waves in deformed solids to interpret the experimental data. We found that, depending on the subjects, the resulting initial shear modulus [Formula: see text] varies from 1.8 to 3.2 kPa, the stiffening parameter [Formula: see text] of the hyperelastic Demiray-Fung model from 0.13 to 0.73, and the third- [Formula: see text] and fourth-order [Formula: see text] constants of weakly nonlinear elasticity from [Formula: see text]1.3 to [Formula: see text]20.6 kPa and from 3.1 to 8.7 kPa, respectively. Paired [Formula: see text] test performed on the experimental results of the left and right lobes of the brain shows no significant difference. These values are in line with those reported in the literature on brain tissue, indicating that the SSI method, combined to the inverse analysis, is an efficient and powerful tool for the mechanical characterization of brain tissue, which is of great importance for computer simulation of traumatic brain injury and virtual neurosurgery.

  8. Shear waves in an inhomogeneous strongly coupled dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Janaki, M. S.; Banerjee, D.; Chakrabarti, N.

    2011-09-15

    The properties of electrostatic transverse shear waves propagating in a strongly coupled dusty plasma with an equilibrium density gradient are examined using the generalized hydrodynamic (GH) equation. In the usual kinetic limit, the resulting equation has similarity to zero energy Schrodinger's equation. This has helped in obtaining some exact eigenmode solutions in both Cartesian and cylindrical geometries for certain nontrivial density profiles. The corresponding velocity profiles and the discrete eigenfrequencies are obtained for several interesting situations and their physics discussed.

  9. Shear flow induced wave couplings in the solar wind

    SciTech Connect

    Poedts, S.; Rogava, A.D. |; Mahajan, S.M. |

    1998-01-01

    A sheared background flow in a plasma induces coupling between different MHD wave modes, resulting in their mutual transformations with corresponding energy redistributing between the modes. In this way, the energy can be transfered from one wave mode to the other, but energy can also be added to or extracted from the background flow. In the present paper it is investigated whether the wave coupling and energy transfer mechanisms can operate under solar wind conditions. It is shown that this is indeed the case. Hence, the long-period waves observed in the solar wind at r > 0.3 AU might be generated by much faster periodic oscillations in the photosphere of the Sun. Other possible consequences for observable beat phenomena in the wind and the acceleration of the solar wind particles are also discussed.

  10. Laboratory measurements of compressional and shear wave speeds through methane hydrate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waite, W.F.; Helgerud, M.B.; Nur, A.; Pinkston, J.C.; Stern, L.A.; Kirby, S.H.; Durham, W.B.

    2000-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of compressional and shear wave speeds through polycrystalline methane hydrate have been made. Methane hydrate, grown directly in a wave speed measurement chamber, was uniaxially compacted to a final porosity below 2%. At 277 K, the compacted material had a compressional wave speed of 3650 ?? 50 m/s. The shear wave speed, measured simultaneously, was 1890 ?? 30 m/s. From these wave speed measurements, we derive V(p)/V(s), Poisson's ratio, bulk, shear, and Young's moduli.

  11. Shear wave focusing for three-dimensional sonoelastography.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhe; Taylor, Lawrence S; Rubens, Deborah J; Parker, Kevin J

    2002-01-01

    A new vibration scheme is shown to provide localized vibration fields for three-dimensional sonoelastography imaging. The theoretical vibration distributions of double strip loads vibrating normally to the surface of a semi-infinite elastic space are calculated. A localization or focusing of shear waves inbetween the double-strip loads is predicted. Experimentally, two parallel rigid rectangular cross-section bars are mounted on an electromagnetic shaker. Driven by the signal source, the bars vibrate against the surface of a tissue-mimicking phantom. The double-bar source is also used to propagate shear wave into an ex vivo prostate phantom with a 6 mm "tumor" in it. A combination of high frequencies (400-600 Hz) is used to drive the double-bar applicator. In the phantom experiments, a shear wave focal zone with higher vibration amplitude and uniformity predicted by the theory was confirmed. The position of the focal zone is controllable when adjusting the separation of the bars as the theory shows. When this vibration scheme was used in a prostate phantom experiment, high-resolution tumor images with clear boundaries are obtained. The parallel bar is an ideal applicator to create more uniform vibration within a controllable localized volume. The field has uniformity especially in the direction along the bars. PMID:11831818

  12. Shear-driven Dynamo Waves in the Fully Nonlinear Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongkitiwanichakul, P.; Nigro, G.; Cattaneo, F.; Tobias, S. M.

    2016-07-01

    Large-scale dynamo action is well understood when the magnetic Reynolds number (Rm) is small, but becomes problematic in the astrophysically relevant large Rm limit since the fluctuations may control the operation of the dynamo, obscuring the large-scale behavior. Recent works by Tobias & Cattaneo demonstrated numerically the existence of large-scale dynamo action in the form of dynamo waves driven by strongly helical turbulence and shear. Their calculations were carried out in the kinematic regime in which the back-reaction of the Lorentz force on the flow is neglected. Here, we have undertaken a systematic extension of their work to the fully nonlinear regime. Helical turbulence and large-scale shear are produced self-consistently by prescribing body forces that, in the kinematic regime, drive flows that resemble the original velocity used by Tobias & Cattaneo. We have found four different solution types in the nonlinear regime for various ratios of the fluctuating velocity to the shear and Reynolds numbers. Some of the solutions are in the form of propagating waves. Some solutions show large-scale helical magnetic structure. Both waves and structures are permanent only when the kinetic helicity is non-zero on average.

  13. Tissue mimicking materials for the detection of prostate cancer using shear wave elastography: A validation study

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Rui; Huang, Zhihong; Varghese, Tomy; Nabi, Ghulam

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Quantification of stiffness changes may provide important diagnostic information and aid in the early detection of cancers. Shear wave elastography is an imaging technique that assesses tissue stiffness using acoustic radiation force as an alternate to manual palpation reported previously with quasistatic elastography. In this study, the elastic properties of tissue mimicking materials, including agar, polyacrylamide (PAA), and silicone, are evaluated with an objective to determine material characteristics which resemble normal and cancerous prostate tissue. Methods: Acoustic properties and stiffness of tissue mimicking phantoms were measured using compressional mechanical testing and shear wave elastography using supersonic shear imaging. The latter is based on the principles of shear waves generated using acoustic radiation force. The evaluation included tissue mimicking materials (TMMs) within the prostate at different positions and sizes that could mimic cancerous and normal prostate tissue. Patient data on normal and prostate cancer tissues quantified using biopsy histopathology were used to validate the findings. Pathologist reports on histopathology were blinded to mechanical testing and elastographic findings. Results: Young's modulus values of 86.2 ± 4.5 and 271.5 ± 25.7 kPa were obtained for PAA mixed with 2% Al2O3 particles and silicone, respectively. Young's modulus of TMMs from mechanical compression testing showed a clear trend of increasing stiffness with an increasing percentage of agar. The silicone material had higher stiffness values when compared with PAA with Al2O3. The mean Young's modulus value in cancerous tissue was 90.5 ± 4.5 kPa as compared to 93.8 ± 4.4 and 86.2 ± 4.5 kPa obtained with PAA with 2% Al2O3 phantom at a depth of 52.4 and 36.6 mm, respectively. Conclusions: PAA mixed with Al2O3 provides the most suitable tissue mimicking material for prostate cancer tumor material, while agar could form the surrounding

  14. Transient displacement induced in shear wave elastography: comparison between analytical results and ultrasound measurements.

    PubMed

    Elkateb Hachemi, M; Callé, S; Remenieras, J P

    2006-12-22

    It is now accepted that an effective way to investigate the elastic properties of soft tissues is to generate a localized transient acoustic radiation force and to follow the associated displacements in the time/space domain. Shear waves induced by this stress field are particularly interesting in this kind of medium because they are governed by the shear elastic modulus mu, which is directly linked to the Young modulus, and spatial distribution and temporal evolution of the transient motion induced must therefore be obtained in detail. We report here a model based on the elastodynamic Green's function formalism to describe these displacements. 3D simulation of radiation force in homogenous elastic media was performed and the displacement curves computed at different radial distances for different temporal force profiles. Amplitude and duration of displacement were found to be reliable parameters to characterize the elastic properties of the medium. Experimental measurements were performed in a homogeneous agar-gelatin tissue-mimicking phantom, and two transducers were used to generate the radiation force and follow the induced displacements. Displacements obtained from different lateral locations around the applied force axis were then used to reconstruct the shear-wave propagation in a scan plane as a function of time. The experimental displacements/curves agreed with the theoretical profiles obtained by the elastodynamic Green's function formalism.

  15. The impact of hepatic pressurization on liver shear wave speed estimates in constrained versus unconstrained conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotemberg, V.; Palmeri, M.; Nightingale, R.; Rouze, N.; Nightingale, K.

    2012-01-01

    Increased hepatic venous pressure can be observed in patients with advanced liver disease and congestive heart failure. This elevated portal pressure also leads to variation in acoustic radiation-force-derived shear wave-based liver stiffness estimates. These changes in stiffness metrics with hepatic interstitial pressure may confound stiffness-based predictions of liver fibrosis stage. The underlying mechanism for this observed stiffening behavior with pressurization is not well understood and is not explained with commonly used linear elastic mechanical models. An experiment was designed to determine whether the stiffness increase exhibited with hepatic pressurization results from a strain-dependent hyperelastic behavior. Six excised canine livers were subjected to variations in interstitial pressure through cannulation of the portal vein and closure of the hepatic artery and hepatic vein under constrained conditions (in which the liver was not free to expand) and unconstrained conditions. Radiation-force-derived shear wave speed estimates were obtained and correlated with pressure. Estimates of hepatic shear stiffness increased with changes in interstitial pressure over a physiologically relevant range of pressures (0-35 mmHg) from 1.5 to 3.5 m s-1. These increases were observed only under conditions in which the liver was free to expand while pressurized. This behavior is consistent with hyperelastic nonlinear material models that could be used in the future to explore methods for estimating hepatic interstitial pressure noninvasively.

  16. Shear wave velocity structure in West Java, Indonesia as inferred from surface wave dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anggono, Titi; Syuhada

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the crust and upper mantle of West Java, Indonesia by measuring the group velocity dispersion of surface waves. We analyzed waveform from four teleseismic earthquake recorded at three 3-component broadband seismometers. We analyzed fundamental mode of Rayleigh and Love waves from vertical, radial, and transverse components using multiple filter technique. We inverted the measured group velocity to obtain shear wave velocity profile down to 200 km depth. We observed low shear wave velocity zone at depth of about 20 km. Shear velocity reduction is estimated to be 18% compared to the upper and lower velocity layer. The low velocity zone might be associated with the subducting slab of Indo-Australian Plate as similar characteristics of low velocity zones also observed at other subducting regions.

  17. Application of surface acoustic wave devices to radio telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strasilla, U.

    1983-01-01

    Three experimental Surface Acoustic Wave Resonators (SAWR) are developed and evaluated. A desired center frequency is obtained by correct spacing of the Inter-Digital Transducers (IDT). Transmitting and receiving IDT's must be close for adequate coupling and a sufficient number of reflectors are required to create a high quality standing wave. A review of oscillator theory is given and current technology evaluated.

  18. Quantum ion-acoustic wave oscillations in metallic nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Moradi, Afshin

    2015-05-15

    The low-frequency electrostatic waves in metallic nanowires are studied using the quantum hydrodynamic model, in which the electron and ion components of the system are regarded as a two-species quantum plasma system. The Poisson equation as well as appropriate quantum boundary conditions give the analytical expressions of dispersion relations of the surface and bulk quantum ion-acoustic wave oscillations.

  19. Surface wave patterns on acoustically levitated viscous liquid alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Z. Y.; Yan, N.; Geng, D. L.; Wei, B.

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate two different kinds of surface wave patterns on viscous liquid alloys, which are melted and solidified under acoustic levitation condition. These patterns are consistent with the morphologies of standing capillary waves and ensembles of oscillons, respectively. The rapid solidification of two-dimensional liquid alloy surfaces may hold them down.

  20. Nonlinear scattering of acoustic waves by vibrating obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piquette, J. C.

    1983-06-01

    The problem of the generation of sum- and difference-frequency waves produced via the scattering of an acoustic wave by an obstacle whose surface vibrates harmonically was studied both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical approach involved solving the nonlinear wave equation, subject to appropriate boundary conditions, by the use of a perturbation expansion of the fields and a Green's function method. In addition to ordinary rigid-body scattering, Censor predicted nongrowing waves at frequencies equal to the sum and to the difference of the frequencies of the primary waves. The solution to the nonlinear wave equation also yields scattered waves at the sum and difference frequencies. However, the nonlinearity of the medium causes these waves to grow with increasing distance from the scatter's surface and, after a very small distance, dominate those predicted by Censor. The simple-source formulation of the second-order nonlinear wave equation for a lossless fluid medium has been derived for arbitrary primary wave fields. This equation was used to solve the problem of nonlinear scattering of acoustic waves by a vibrating obstacle for three geometries: (1) a plane-wave scattering by a vibrating plane, (2) cylindrical-wave scattering by a vibrating cylinder, and (3) plane-wave scattering by a vibrating cylinder. Successful experimental validation of the theory was inhibited by previously unexpected levels of nonlinearity in the hydrophones used. Such high levels of hydrophone nonlinearity appeared in hydrophones that, by their geometry of construction, were expected to be fairly linear.

  1. INTERFERENCE FRINGES OF SOLAR ACOUSTIC WAVES AROUND SUNSPOTS

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Dean-Yi; Zhao Hui; Yang, Ming-Hsu; Liang, Zhi-Chao

    2012-10-20

    Solar acoustic waves are scattered by a sunspot due to the interaction between the acoustic waves and the sunspot. The sunspot, excited by the incident wave, generates the scattered wave. The scattered wave is added to the incident wave to form the total wave around the sunspot. The interference fringes between the scattered wave and the incident wave are visible in the intensity of the total wave because the coherent time of the incident wave is of the order of a wave period. The strength of the interference fringes anti-correlates with the width of temporal spectra of the incident wave. The separation between neighboring fringes increases with the incident wavelength and the sunspot size. The strength of the fringes increases with the radial order n of the incident wave from n = 0 to n = 2, and then decreases from n = 2 to n = 5. The interference fringes play a role analogous to holograms in optics. This study suggests the feasibility of using the interference fringes to reconstruct the scattered wavefields of the sunspot, although the quality of the reconstructed wavefields is sensitive to the noise and errors in the interference fringes.

  2. Linear and nonlinear acoustic wave propagation in the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hariharan, S. I.; Yu, Ping

    1988-01-01

    The investigation of the acoustic wave propagation theory and numerical implementation for the situation of an isothermal atmosphere is described. A one-dimensional model to validate an asymptotic theory and a 3-D situation to relate to a realistic situation are considered. In addition, nonlinear wave propagation and the numerical treatment are included. It is known that the gravitational effects play a crucial role in the low frequency acoustic wave propagation. They propagate large distances and, as such, the numerical treatment of those problems become difficult in terms of posing boundary conditions which are valid for all frequencies.

  3. Thermo-acoustic engineering of silicon microresonators via evanescent waves

    SciTech Connect

    Tabrizian, R.; Ayazi, F.

    2015-06-29

    A temperature-compensated silicon micromechanical resonator with a quadratic temperature characteristic is realized by acoustic engineering. Energy-trapped resonance modes are synthesized by acoustic coupling of propagating and evanescent extensional waves in waveguides with rectangular cross section. Highly different temperature sensitivity of propagating and evanescent waves is used to engineer the linear temperature coefficient of frequency. The resulted quadratic temperature characteristic has a well-defined turn-over temperature that can be tailored by relative energy distribution between propagating and evanescent acoustic fields. A 76 MHz prototype is implemented in single crystal silicon. Two high quality factor and closely spaced resonance modes, created from efficient energy trapping of extensional waves, are excited through thin aluminum nitride film. Having different evanescent wave constituents and energy distribution across the device, these modes show different turn over points of 67 °C and 87 °C for their quadratic temperature characteristic.

  4. Standing wave pressure fields generated in an acoustic levitation chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, Andrew; Allen, John S.; Kruse, Dustin E.; Dayton, Paul A.; Kargel, Christian M.; Insana, Michael F.

    2001-05-01

    We are developing an acoustic levitation chamber for measuring adhesion force strengths among biological cells. Our research has four phases. Phase I, presented here, is concerned with the design and construction of a chamber for trapping cell-sized microbubbles with known properties in acoustic standing waves, and examines the theory that describes the standing wave field. A cylindrical chamber has been developed to generate a stable acoustic standing wave field. The pressure field was mapped using a 0.4-mm needle hydrophone, and experiments were performed using 100 micron diameter unencapsulated air bubbles, 9 micron diameter isobutane-filled microbubbles, and 3 micron diameter decafluorobutane (C4F10)-filled microbubbles, confirming that the net radiation force from the standing wave pressure field tends to band the microbubbles at pressure antinodes, in accordance with theory.

  5. Thermo-acoustic engineering of silicon microresonators via evanescent waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabrizian, R.; Ayazi, F.

    2015-06-01

    A temperature-compensated silicon micromechanical resonator with a quadratic temperature characteristic is realized by acoustic engineering. Energy-trapped resonance modes are synthesized by acoustic coupling of propagating and evanescent extensional waves in waveguides with rectangular cross section. Highly different temperature sensitivity of propagating and evanescent waves is used to engineer the linear temperature coefficient of frequency. The resulted quadratic temperature characteristic has a well-defined turn-over temperature that can be tailored by relative energy distribution between propagating and evanescent acoustic fields. A 76 MHz prototype is implemented in single crystal silicon. Two high quality factor and closely spaced resonance modes, created from efficient energy trapping of extensional waves, are excited through thin aluminum nitride film. Having different evanescent wave constituents and energy distribution across the device, these modes show different turn over points of 67 °C and 87 °C for their quadratic temperature characteristic.

  6. Acoustic waves in random ensembles of magnetic fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutova, M.P.

    1995-10-10

    To analyze the observational data and provide the appropriate diagnostic procedure for photospheric manifestation of solar oscillations it is necessary to take into account strong inhomogeneity of solar atmosphere with respect to distribution of magnetic fields. We study the collective phenomena in the propagation of acoustic waves and unsteady wave-packets through quite regions, sunspots and plages, including time-dependent response of these regions to solar oscillations, the energy transfer mechanisms, frequency shift effects and reradiation of the acoustic waves in higher layers of atmosphere. We show that the dynamics of differently magnetized regions, their dispersion properties, and their response to the propagation of acoustic waves are completely different. We describe the effects caused by the specific distribution and randomness of magnetic flux tubes, which can be observed and which can provide the tools for diagnostic goals.

  7. Tunable thin film bulk acoustic wave resonators with improved Q-factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobiev, A.; Gevorgian, S.

    2010-05-01

    The tunable solidly mounted Ba0.25Sr0.75TiO3 (BSTO) thin film bulk acoustic wave resonators (TFBARs) with improved Q-factor are fabricated and characterized. The BSTO films are grown by magnetron sputtering at temperature 600 °C and extremely low sputter gas pressure 2 mTorr using on-axis configuration. The measured TFBARs Q-factor is more than 250 and mechanical Q-factor is more than 350 at 5 GHz resonance frequency. The improvement in the Q-factor is associated with reduction in the BSTO film grain misorientation. The latter is responsible for generation of shear waves leaking through the Bragg reflector and corresponding acoustic loss.

  8. Separation of acoustic waves in isentropic flow perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Henke, Christian

    2015-04-15

    The present contribution investigates the mechanisms of sound generation and propagation in the case of highly-unsteady flows. Based on the linearisation of the isentropic Navier–Stokes equation around a new pathline-averaged base flow, it is demonstrated for the first time that flow perturbations of a non-uniform flow can be split into acoustic and vorticity modes, with the acoustic modes being independent of the vorticity modes. Therefore, we can propose this acoustic perturbation as a general definition of sound. As a consequence of the splitting result, we conclude that the present acoustic perturbation is propagated by the convective wave equation and fulfils Lighthill’s acoustic analogy. Moreover, we can define the deviations of the Navier–Stokes equation from the convective wave equation as “true” sound sources. In contrast to other authors, no assumptions on a slowly varying or irrotational flow are necessary. Using a symmetry argument for the conservation laws, an energy conservation result and a generalisation of the sound intensity are provided. - Highlights: • First splitting of non-uniform flows in acoustic and non-acoustic components. • These result leads to a generalisation of sound which is compatible with Lighthill’s acoustic analogy. • A closed equation for the generation and propagation of sound is given.

  9. Broadband enhanced transmission of acoustic waves through serrated metal gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Dong-Xiang; Fan, Ren-Hao; Deng, Yu-Qiang; Peng, Ru-Wen; Wang, Mu; Jiangnan University Collaboration

    In this talk, we present our studies on broadband properties of acoustic waves through metal gratings. We have demonstrated that serrated metal gratings, which introduce gradient coatings, can give rise to broadband transmission enhancement of acoustic waves. Here, we have experimentally and theoretically studied the acoustic transmission properties of metal gratings with or without serrated boundaries. The average transmission is obviously enhanced for serrated metal gratings within a wide frequency range, while the Fabry-Perot resonance is significantly suppressed. An effective medium hypothesis with varying acoustic impedance is proposed to analyze the mechanism, which was verified through comparison with finite-element simulation. The serrated boundary supplies gradient mass distribution and gradient normal acoustic impedance, which could efficiently reduce the boundary reflection. Further, by increasing the region of the serrated boundary, we present a broadband high-transmission grating for wide range of incident angle. Our results may have potential applications to broadband acoustic imaging, acoustic sensing and new acoustic devices. References: [1] Dong-Xiang Qi, Yu-Qiang Deng, Di-Hu Xu, Ren-Hao Fan, Ru-Wen Peng, Ze-Guo Chen, Ming-Hui Lu, X. R. Huang and Mu Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 011906 (2015); [2] Dong-Xiang Qi, Ren-Hao Fan, Ru-Wen Peng, Xian-Rong Huang, Ming-Hui Lu, Xu Ni, Qing Hu, and Mu Wang, Applied Physics Letters 101, 061912 (2012).

  10. Magnetic resonance elastography of slow and fast shear waves illuminates differences in shear and tensile moduli in anisotropic tissue.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J L; Tweten, D J; Benegal, A N; Walker, C H; Portnoi, T E; Okamoto, R J; Garbow, J R; Bayly, P V

    2016-05-01

    Mechanical anisotropy is an important property of fibrous tissues; for example, the anisotropic mechanical properties of brain white matter may play a key role in the mechanics of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The simplest anisotropic material model for small deformations of soft tissue is a nearly incompressible, transversely isotropic (ITI) material characterized by three parameters: minimum shear modulus (µ), shear anisotropy (ϕ=µ1µ-1) and tensile anisotropy (ζ=E1E2-1). These parameters can be determined using magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) to visualize shear waves, if the angle between the shear-wave propagation direction and fiber direction is known. Most MRE studies assume isotropic material models with a single shear (µ) or tensile (E) modulus. In this study, two types of shear waves, "fast" and "slow", were analyzed for a given propagation direction to estimate anisotropic parameters µ, ϕ, and ζ in two fibrous soft materials: turkey breast ex vivo and aligned fibrin gels. As expected, the speed of slow shear waves depended on the angle between fiber direction and propagation direction. Fast shear waves were observed when the deformations due to wave motion induced stretch in the fiber direction. Finally, MRE estimates of anisotropic mechanical properties in turkey breast were compared to estimates from direct mechanical tests. PMID:26920505

  11. Modeling explosion generated Scholte waves in sandy sediments with power law dependent shear wave speed.

    PubMed

    Soloway, Alexander G; Dahl, Peter H; Odom, Robert I

    2015-10-01

    Experimental measurements of Scholte waves from underwater explosions collected off the coast of Virginia Beach, VA in shallow water are presented. It is shown here that the dispersion of these explosion-generated Scholte waves traveling in the sandy seabed can be modeled using a power-law dependent shear wave speed profile and an empirical source model that determines the pressure time-series at 1 m from the source as a function of TNT-equivalent charge weight.

  12. An EMAT-based shear horizontal (SH) wave technique for adhesive bond inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arun, K.; Dhayalan, R.; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Maxfield, Bruce; Peres, Patrick; Barnoncel, David

    2012-05-01

    The evaluation of adhesively bonded structures has been a challenge over the several decades that these structures have been used. Applications within the aerospace industry often call for particularly high performance adhesive bonds. Several techniques have been proposed for the detection of disbonds and cohesive weakness but a reliable NDE method for detecting interfacial weakness (also sometimes called a kissing bond) has been elusive. Different techniques, including ultrasonic, thermal imaging and shearographic methods, have been proposed; all have had some degree of success. In particular, ultrasonic methods, including those based upon shear and guided waves, have been explored for the assessment of interfacial bond quality. Since 3-D guided shear horizontal (SH) waves in plates have predominantly shear displacement at the plate surfaces, we conjectured that SH guided waves should be influenced by interfacial conditions when they propagate between adhesively bonded plates of comparable thickness. This paper describes a new technique based on SH guided waves that propagate within and through a lap joint. Through mechanisms we have yet to fully understand, the propagation of an SH wave through a lap joint gives rise to a reverberation signal that is due to one or more reflections of an SH guided wave mode within that lap joint. Based upon a combination of numerical simulations and measurements, this method shows promise for detecting and classifying interfacial bonds. It is also apparent from our measurements that the SH wave modes can discriminate between adhesive and cohesive bond weakness in both Aluminum-Epoxy-Aluminum and Composite-Epoxy-Composite lap joints. All measurements reported here used periodic permanent magnet (PPM) Electro-Magnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMATs) to generate either or both of the two lowest order SH modes in the plates that comprise the lap joint. This exact configuration has been simulated using finite element (FE) models to

  13. Acoustic tweezers via sub–time-of-flight regime surface acoustic waves

    PubMed Central

    Collins, David J.; Devendran, Citsabehsan; Ma, Zhichao; Ng, Jia Wei; Neild, Adrian; Ai, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Micrometer-scale acoustic waves are highly useful for refined optomechanical and acoustofluidic manipulation, where these fields are spatially localized along the transducer aperture but not along the acoustic propagation direction. In the case of acoustic tweezers, such a conventional acoustic standing wave results in particle and cell patterning across the entire width of a microfluidic channel, preventing selective trapping. We demonstrate the use of nanosecond-scale pulsed surface acoustic waves (SAWs) with a pulse period that is less than the time of flight between opposing transducers to generate localized time-averaged patterning regions while using conventional electrode structures. These nodal positions can be readily and arbitrarily positioned in two dimensions and within the patterning region itself through the imposition of pulse delays, frequency modulation, and phase shifts. This straightforward concept adds new spatial dimensions to which acoustic fields can be localized in SAW applications in a manner analogous to optical tweezers, including spatially selective acoustic tweezers and optical waveguides. PMID:27453940

  14. A shear wave ground surface vibration technique for the detection of buried pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muggleton, J. M.; Papandreou, B.

    2014-07-01

    A major UK initiative, entitled 'Mapping the Underworld' aims to develop and prove the efficacy of a multi-sensor device for accurate remote buried utility service detection, location and, where possible, identification. One of the technologies to be incorporated in the device is low-frequency vibro-acoustics; the application of this technology for detecting buried infrastructure, in particular pipes, is currently being investigated. Here, a shear wave ground vibration technique for detecting buried pipes is described. For this technique, shear waves are generated at the ground surface, and the resulting ground surface vibrations measured. Time-extended signals are employed to generate the illuminating wave. Generalized cross-correlation functions between the measured ground velocities and a reference measurement adjacent to the excitation are calculated and summed using a stacking method to generate a cross-sectional image of the ground. To mitigate the effects of other potential sources of vibration in the vicinity, the excitation signal can be used as an additional reference when calculating the cross-correlation functions. Measurements have been made at two live test sites to detect a range of buried pipes. Successful detection of the pipes was achieved, with the use of the additional reference signal proving beneficial in the noisier of the two environments.

  15. Finite-amplitude waves in inviscid shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, D. W.; Saffman, P. G.

    1982-08-01

    This paper examines the existence and properties of steady finite-amplitude waves of cats-eye form superposed on a unidirectional inviscid, incompressible shear flow. The problem is formulated as the solution of nonlinear Poisson equations for the stream function with boundary conditions on the unknown edges of the cats-eyes. The dependence of vorticity on stream function is assumed outside the cats-eyes to be as in the undisturbed flow, and uniform unknown vorticity is assumed inside. It is argued on the basis of a finite difference discretization that the problem is determinate, and numerical solutions are obtained for Couette-Poiseuille channel flow. These are compared with the predictions of a weakly nonlinear theory based on the approach of Benney and Bergeron (1969) and Davis (1969). The phase speed of the waves is found to be linear in the wave amplitude.

  16. Effect of nonadiabaticity of dust charge variation on dust acoustic waves: generation of dust acoustic shock waves.

    PubMed

    Gupta, M R; Sarkar, S; Ghosh, S; Debnath, M; Khan, M

    2001-04-01

    The effect of nonadiabaticity of dust charge variation arising due to small nonzero values of tau(ch)/tau(d) has been studied where tau(ch) and tau(d) are the dust charging and dust hydrodynamical time scales on the nonlinear propagation of dust acoustic waves. Analytical investigation shows that the propagation of a small amplitude wave is governed by a Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) Burger equation. Notwithstanding the soliton decay, the "soliton mass" is conserved, but the dissipative term leads to the development of a noise tail. Nonadiabaticity generated dissipative effect causes the generation of a dust acoustic shock wave having oscillatory behavior on the downstream side. Numerical investigations reveal that the propagation of a large amplitude dust acoustic shock wave with dust density enhancement may occur only for Mach numbers lying between a minimum and a maximum value whose dependence on the dusty plasma parameters is presented. PMID:11308955

  17. Dissipation of acoustic-gravity waves: an asymptotic approach.

    PubMed

    Godin, Oleg A

    2014-12-01

    Acoustic-gravity waves in the middle and upper atmosphere and long-range propagation of infrasound are strongly affected by air viscosity and thermal conductivity. To characterize the wave dissipation, it is typical to consider idealized environments, which admit plane-wave solutions. Here, an asymptotic approach is developed that relies instead on the assumption that spatial variations of environmental parameters are gradual. It is found that realistic assumptions about the atmosphere lead to rather different predictions for wave damping than do the plane-wave solutions. A modification to the Sutherland-Bass model of infrasound absorption is proposed. PMID:25480091

  18. Dissipation of acoustic-gravity waves: an asymptotic approach.

    PubMed

    Godin, Oleg A

    2014-12-01

    Acoustic-gravity waves in the middle and upper atmosphere and long-range propagation of infrasound are strongly affected by air viscosity and thermal conductivity. To characterize the wave dissipation, it is typical to consider idealized environments, which admit plane-wave solutions. Here, an asymptotic approach is developed that relies instead on the assumption that spatial variations of environmental parameters are gradual. It is found that realistic assumptions about the atmosphere lead to rather different predictions for wave damping than do the plane-wave solutions. A modification to the Sutherland-Bass model of infrasound absorption is proposed.

  19. In vivo quantification of the shear modulus of the human Achilles tendon during passive loading using shear wave dispersion analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfenstein-Didier, C.; Andrade, R. J.; Brum, J.; Hug, F.; Tanter, M.; Nordez, A.; Gennisson, J.-L.

    2016-03-01

    The shear wave velocity dispersion was analyzed in the Achilles tendon (AT) during passive dorsiflexion using a phase velocity method in order to obtain the tendon shear modulus (C 55). Based on this analysis, the aims of the present study were (i) to assess the reproducibility of the shear modulus for different ankle angles, (ii) to assess the effect of the probe locations, and (iii) to compare results with elasticity values obtained with the supersonic shear imaging (SSI) technique. The AT shear modulus (C 55) consistently increased with the ankle dorsiflexion (N  =  10, p  <  0.05). Furthermore, the technique showed a very good reproducibility (all standard error of the mean values  <10.7 kPa and all coefficient of variation (CV) values  ⩽0.05%). In addition, independently from the ankle dorsiflexion, the shear modulus was significantly higher in the proximal location compared to the more distal one. The shear modulus provided by SSI was always lower than C55 and the difference increased with the ankle dorsiflexion. However, shear modulus values provided by both methods were highly correlated (R  =  0.84), indicating that the conventional shear wave elastography technique (SSI technique) can be used to compare tendon mechanical properties across populations. Future studies should determine the clinical relevance of the shear wave dispersion analysis, for instance in the case of tendinopathy or tendon tear.

  20. Electron-acoustic solitary waves in a nonextensive plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Tribeche, Mouloud; Djebarni, Lyes

    2010-12-15

    The problem of arbitrary amplitude electron-acoustic solitary waves (EASWs) in a plasma having cold fluid electrons, hot nonextensive electrons, and stationary ions is addressed. It is found that the 'Maxwellianization' process of the hot nonextensive component does not favor the propagation of the EASWs. In contrast to superthermality, nonextensivity makes the electron-acoustic solitary structure less spiky. Our theoretical analysis brings a possibility to develop more refined theories of nonlinear solitary structures in astrophysical plasmas.

  1. The behavior of acoustic waves in the lakes bottom sediments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, Pavel; Nourgaliev, Danis; Yasonov, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Seismic studies are used for various tasks, such as the study of the bottom sediments properties, finding sunken objects, reconstruction the reservoir history, etc. Multiple acoustic waves are an enormous obstacle in obtaining full seismic record. Multiples from the bottom of a body of water (the surface of the base of water and the rock or sediment beneath it) and the air-water surface are common in lake seismic data. Multiple reflections on the seismic cross-sections are usually located on the double distance from the air/water surface. However, sometime multiple reflections from liquid deposits cannot be generated or they reflected from the deeper horizons. It is observed the phenomenon of changes in reflectance of the water/weakly consolidated sediments acoustic boundary under the influence of the acoustic wave. This phenomenon lies in the fact that after the first acoustic impact and reflection of acoustic wave for some time the reflectance of this boundary remains close to 0. This event on a cross-section can explain by the short-term changes in the properties of bottom sediments under the influence of shock? acoustic wave, with a further reduction of these properties to the next wave generation (generation period of 2 seconds). Perhaps in these deposits occurs thixotropic process. The paper presents the seismic acoustic cross-sections of Lake Balkhash (Kazakhstan), Turgoyak (Russia). The work was carried out according to the Russia Government's Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University, supported by the grant provided to the Kazan State University for performing the state program in the field of scientific research, and partially supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic research (grants № 14-05-00785, 16-35-00452).

  2. Picosecond Surface Acoustic Waves Using A Suboptical Wavelength Absorption Grating

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, David Howard; Telschow, Kenneth Louis

    2002-10-01

    We have demonstrated laser generation and detection of Rayleigh surface acoustic waves (SAW’s) with acoustic wavelengths that are smaller than the optical wavelength of both the excitation and the detection beams. SAW generation was achieved using electron beam lithography to modulate the surface reflectivity and hence the lateral thermal gradients on a suboptical wavelength scale. The generation and detection characteristics of two material systems were investigated (aluminum absorption gratings on Si and GaAs substrates). The polarization sensitive absorption characteristics of the suboptical wavelength lithographic grating were exploited in order to explore various acoustic generation and detection schemes.

  3. Controllable optical transparency using an acoustic standing-wave device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, Kamran; El-Zahab, Bilal

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, a suspended-particle device with controllable light transmittance was developed based on acoustic stimuli. Using a glass compartment and carbon particle suspension in an organic solvent, the device responded to acoustic stimulation by alignment of particles. The alignment of light-absorbing carbon particles afforded an increase in light transmittance as high as 84.5% and was controllable based on the control of the frequency and amplitude of the acoustic waves. The device also demonstrated alignment memory rendering it energy-efficient.

  4. Mapping tissue shear modulus on Thiel soft-embalmed mouse skin with shear wave optical coherence elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Shaozhen; Joy, Joyce; Wang, Ruikang K.; Huang, Zhihong

    2015-03-01

    A quantitative measurement of the mechanical properties of biological tissue is a useful assessment of its physiologic conditions, which may aid medical diagnosis and treatment of, e.g., scleroderma and skin cancer. Traditional elastography techniques such as magnetic resonance elastography and ultrasound elastography have limited scope of application on skin due to insufficient spatial resolution. Recently, dynamic / transient elastography are attracting more applications with the advantage of non-destructive measurements, and revealing the absolute moduli values of tissue mechanical properties. Shear wave optical coherence elastography (SW-OCE) is a novel transient elastography method, which lays emphasis on the propagation of dynamic mechanical waves. In this study, high speed shear wave imaging technique was applied to a range of soft-embalmed mouse skin, where 3 kHz shear waves were launched with a piezoelectric actuator as an external excitation. The shear wave velocity was estimated from the shear wave images, and used to recover a shear modulus map in the same OCT imaging range. Results revealed significant difference in shear modulus and structure in compliance with gender, and images on fresh mouse skin are also compared. Thiel embalming technique is also proven to present the ability to furthest preserve the mechanical property of biological tissue. The experiment results suggest that SW-OCE is an effective technique for quantitative estimation of skin tissue biomechanical status.

  5. Acoustic waves switch based on meta-fluid phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xue-Feng

    2012-08-01

    The acoustic waves switch based on meta-fluid phononic crystals (MEFL PCs) is theoretically investigated. The MEFL PCs consist of fluid matrix and fluid-like inclusions with extremely anisotropic-density. The dispersion relations are calculated via the plane wave expansion method, which are in good agreement with the transmitted sound pressure level spectra obtained by the finite element method. The results show that the width of absolute band gap in MEFL PCs depends sensitively upon the orientation of the extremely anisotropic-density inclusions and reaches maximum at the rotating angle of 45°, with the gap position nearly unchanged. Also, the inter-mode conversion inside anisotropic-density inclusions can be ignored due to large acoustic mismatch. The study gives a possibility to realize greater flexibility and stronger effects in tuning the acoustic band gaps, which is very significant in the enhanced control over sound waves and has potential applications in ultrasonic imaging and therapy.

  6. Surface acoustic wave devices for harsh environment wireless sensing

    DOE PAGES

    Greve, David W.; Chin, Tao -Lun; Zheng, Peng; Ohodnicki, Paul; Baltrus, John; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    2013-05-24

    In this study, langasite surface acoustic wave devices can be used to implement harsh environment wireless sensing of gas concentration and temperature. This paper reviews prior work on the development of langasite surface acoustic wave devices, followed by a report of recent progress toward the implementation of oxygen gas sensors. Resistive metal oxide films can be used as the oxygen sensing film, although development of an adherent barrier layer will be necessary with the sensing layers studied here to prevent interaction with the langasite substrate. Experimental results are presented for the performance of a langasite surface acoustic wave oxygen sensormore » with tin oxide sensing layer, and these experimental results are correlated with direct measurements of the sensing layer resistivity.« less

  7. Surface Acoustic Wave Devices for Harsh Environment Wireless Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Greve, David W.; Chin, Tao-Lun; Zheng, Peng; Ohodnicki, Paul; Baltrus, John; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    2013-01-01

    Langasite surface acoustic wave devices can be used to implement harsh-environment wireless sensing of gas concentration and temperature. This paper reviews prior work on the development of langasite surface acoustic wave devices, followed by a report of recent progress toward the implementation of oxygen gas sensors. Resistive metal oxide films can be used as the oxygen sensing film, although development of an adherent barrier layer will be necessary with the sensing layers studied here to prevent interaction with the langasite substrate. Experimental results are presented for the performance of a langasite surface acoustic wave oxygen sensor with tin oxide sensing layer, and these experimental results are correlated with direct measurements of the sensing layer resistivity. PMID:23708273

  8. Surface acoustic wave devices for harsh environment wireless sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Greve, David W.; Chin, Tao -Lun; Zheng, Peng; Ohodnicki, Paul; Baltrus, John; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    2013-05-24

    In this study, langasite surface acoustic wave devices can be used to implement harsh environment wireless sensing of gas concentration and temperature. This paper reviews prior work on the development of langasite surface acoustic wave devices, followed by a report of recent progress toward the implementation of oxygen gas sensors. Resistive metal oxide films can be used as the oxygen sensing film, although development of an adherent barrier layer will be necessary with the sensing layers studied here to prevent interaction with the langasite substrate. Experimental results are presented for the performance of a langasite surface acoustic wave oxygen sensor with tin oxide sensing layer, and these experimental results are correlated with direct measurements of the sensing layer resistivity.

  9. Nonlinear Wave-particle Interaction and Particle Trapping in Large Amplitude Dust Acoustic Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Mei-Chu; Teng, Lee-Wen; Lin, I.

    2011-11-29

    Large amplitude dust acoustic wave can be self-excited by the strong downward ion flow in a dusty plasma liquid formed by negatively charged dusts suspended in a weakly ionized low pressure discharge. In this work, we investigate experimentally the wave-particle phase space dynamics of the large amplitude dust acoustic wave by connecting the Lagrangian and Eulerian views, through directly tracking particle motion and measuring local dust density fluctuations. The microscopic pictures of wave steepening and breaking, resonant particle-wave crest trapping, and the absence of trough trapping observed in our experiment are constructed.

  10. Global approach for transient shear wave inversion based on the adjoint method: a comprehensive 2D simulation study.

    PubMed

    Arnal, B; Pinton, G; Garapon, P; Pernot, M; Fink, M; Tanter, M

    2013-10-01

    Shear wave imaging (SWI) maps soft tissue elasticity by measuring shear wave propagation with ultrafast ultrasound acquisitions (10 000 frames s(-1)). This spatiotemporal data can be used as an input for an inverse problem that determines a shear modulus map. Common inversion methods are local: the shear modulus at each point is calculated based on the values of its neighbour (e.g. time-of-flight, wave equation inversion). However, these approaches are sensitive to the information loss such as noise or the lack of the backscattered signal. In this paper, we evaluate the benefits of a global approach for elasticity inversion using a least-squares formulation, which is derived from full waveform inversion in geophysics known as the adjoint method. We simulate an acoustic waveform in a medium with a soft and a hard lesion. For this initial application, full elastic propagation and viscosity are ignored. We demonstrate that the reconstruction of the shear modulus map is robust with a non-uniform background or in the presence of noise with regularization. Compared to regular local inversions, the global approach leads to an increase of contrast (∼+3 dB) and a decrease of the quantification error (∼+2%). We demonstrate that the inversion is reliable in the case when there is no signal measured within the inclusions like hypoechoic lesions which could have an impact on medical diagnosis.

  11. Effect of Thermal Conduction on Acoustic Waves in Coronal Loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdan, T. J.

    2006-05-01

    The influence of classical (Spitzer) thermal conduction on longitudinal acoustic waves in a coronal loop is determined through an idealized but exactly solvable model. The model consists of an isothermal, stratified (constant gravity) atmosphere in which a monochromatic acoustic wave, traveling in the direction of decreasing density, is imposed throughout the lower half of the atmosphere. Based on the linearized equations of motion, the complete steady state (t-->∞) solution is obtained. In addition to the imposed driving wave, the solution also contains reflected and transmitted acoustic and thermal conduction waves. The mode transformation and mixing occurs in the vicinity of the atmospheric layer where the gas pressure passes through a critical value set by the magnitude of the thermal conduction and other model parameters. For 5 minute waves in a million degree loop, this critical pressure is on the order of 8×10-4 in cgs units. Since the apex gas pressure of many coronal loops of current interest is thought to be comfortably in excess of this value, mode mixing and transformation is not likely to be a relevant factor for understanding acoustic waves in these structures. On the other hand, enhanced thermal conductivity as a result of plasma instabilities, for example, could revive the importance of this mechanism for coronal loops. If this mixing layer is present, the calculations show that the pair of thermal conduction waves invariably gains the overwhelming majority of the energy flux of the incoming acoustic wave. This energy is rapidly dissipated in the neighborhood of the mixing layer.

  12. Observations of acoustic surface waves in outdoor sound propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Donald G.

    2003-05-01

    Acoustic surface waves have been detected propagating outdoors under natural conditions. Two critical experimental conditions were employed to ensure the conclusive detection of these waves. First, acoustic pulses rather than a continuous wave source allowed an examination of the waveform shape and avoided the masking of wave arrivals. Second, a snow cover provided favorable ground impedance conditions for surface waves to exist. The acoustic pulses were generated by blank pistol shots fired 1 m above the snow. The resultant waveforms were measured using a vertical array of six microphones located 60 m away from the source at heights between 0.1 and 4.75 m. A strong, low frequency ``tail'' following the initial arrival was recorded near the snow surface. This tail, and its exponential decay with height (z) above the surface (~e-αz), are diagnostic features of surface waves. The measured attenuation coefficient α was 0.28 m-1. The identification of the surface wave is confirmed by comparing the measured waveforms with waveforms predicted by the theoretical evaluation of the explicit surface wave pole term using residue theory.

  13. Effect of gas adsorption on acoustic wave propagation in MFI zeolite membrane materials: experiment and molecular simulation.

    PubMed

    Manga, Etoungh D; Blasco, Hugues; Da-Costa, Philippe; Drobek, Martin; Ayral, André; Le Clezio, Emmanuel; Despaux, Gilles; Coasne, Benoit; Julbe, Anne

    2014-09-01

    The present study reports on the development of a characterization method of porous membrane materials which consists of considering their acoustic properties upon gas adsorption. Using acoustic microscopy experiments and atomistic molecular simulations for helium adsorbed in a silicalite-1 zeolite membrane layer, we showed that acoustic wave propagation could be used, in principle, for controlling the membranes operando. Molecular simulations, which were found to fit experimental data, showed that the compressional modulus of the composite system consisting of silicalite-1 with adsorbed He increases linearly with the He adsorbed amount while its shear modulus remains constant in a large range of applied pressures. These results suggest that the longitudinal and Rayleigh wave velocities (VL and VR) depend on the He adsorbed amount whereas the transverse wave velocity VT remains constant. PMID:25089584

  14. Effect of gas adsorption on acoustic wave propagation in MFI zeolite membrane materials: experiment and molecular simulation.

    PubMed

    Manga, Etoungh D; Blasco, Hugues; Da-Costa, Philippe; Drobek, Martin; Ayral, André; Le Clezio, Emmanuel; Despaux, Gilles; Coasne, Benoit; Julbe, Anne

    2014-09-01

    The present study reports on the development of a characterization method of porous membrane materials which consists of considering their acoustic properties upon gas adsorption. Using acoustic microscopy experiments and atomistic molecular simulations for helium adsorbed in a silicalite-1 zeolite membrane layer, we showed that acoustic wave propagation could be used, in principle, for controlling the membranes operando. Molecular simulations, which were found to fit experimental data, showed that the compressional modulus of the composite system consisting of silicalite-1 with adsorbed He increases linearly with the He adsorbed amount while its shear modulus remains constant in a large range of applied pressures. These results suggest that the longitudinal and Rayleigh wave velocities (VL and VR) depend on the He adsorbed amount whereas the transverse wave velocity VT remains constant.

  15. Hammering Yucca Flat, Part Two: Shear-Wave Velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlay, T. S.; Abbott, R. E.; Knox, H. A.; Tang, D. G.; James, S. R.; Haney, M. M.; Hampshire, J. B., II

    2015-12-01

    In preparation for the next phase of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE), we conducted an active-source seismic survey of Yucca Flat, Nevada, on the Nevada National Security Site. Results from this survey will be used to inform the geologic models associated with the SPE project. For this study, we used a novel 13,000 kilogram weight-drop seismic source to interrogate an 18-km North-South transect of Yucca Flat. Source points were spaced every 200 meters and were recorded by 350 to 380 3-component 2-Hz geophones with variable spacings of 10, 20, and 100 meters. We utilized the Refraction-Microtremor (ReMi) technique to create multiple 1D dispersion curves, which were then inverted for shear-wave velocity profiles using the Dix inversion method (Tsai and Haney, 2015). Each of these 1D velocity models was subsequently stitched together to create a 2D profile over the survey area. The dispersion results indicate a general decrease in surface-wave phase velocity to the south. This result is supported by slower shear-wave velocity sediments and increasing basin depth towards the survey's southern extent. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  16. Shear wave induced resonance elastography of spherical masses with polarized torsional waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadj Henni, Anis; Schmitt, Cédric; Trop, Isabelle; Cloutier, Guy

    2012-03-01

    Shear wave induced resonance (SWIR) is a technique for dynamic ultrasound elastography of confined mechanical inclusions. It was developed for breast tumor imaging and tissue characterization. This method relies on the polarization of torsional shear waves modeled with the Helmholtz equation in spherical coordinates. To validate modeling, an invitro set-up was used to measure and image the first three eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes of a soft sphere. A preliminary invivo SWIR measurement on a breast fibroadenoma is also reported. Results revealed the potential of SWIR elastography to detect and mechanically characterize breast lesions for early cancer detection.

  17. ML shear wave velocity tomography for the Iranian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheri-Peyrov, Mehdi; Ghods, Abdolreza; Abbasi, Madjid; Bergman, Eric; Sobouti, Farhad

    2016-04-01

    Iranian Plateau reflects several different tectonic styles of collision, and large-scale strike-slip faults. We calculate a high-resolution 2-D ML shear velocity map for the Iranian Plateau to detect lateral crustal thickness changes associated with different tectonic boundaries. The ML velocity is very sensitive to strong lateral variations of crustal thickness and varies between the velocity of Lg and Sn phases. Our data set consists of 65 795 ML amplitude velocity measurements from 2531 precisely relocated events recorded by Iranian networks in the period 1996-2014. Using a constrained least-squares inversion scheme, we inverted the ML velocities for a 2-D shear velocity map of Iran. Our results show that the Zagros and South Caspian Basin (SCB) have shear wave velocities close to the Sn phase, and are thus Lg-blocking regions. High velocities in the High Zagros and the Simply Folded Belt imply significant crustal undulations within these zones. We note that in the central and south Zagros, the velocity border between the Zagros and central Iran is not coincident with the Zagros suture line that marks underthrusting of the Arabian plate beneath central Iran. The low plains of Gilan and Gorgan to the south of the Caspian Sea show high shear velocities similar to the SCB, implying that they are either underlain by an oceanic type crust or a transitional crust with a strong lateral crustal thickness gradient. The Lut block is an Lg-passing block implying that it is not surrounded by any sudden crustal thickness changes along its borders with central Iran. In the Alborz, NW Iran, Kopeh-Dagh, Binalud and most of the central Iran, low shear velocity near the Lg velocity is attributed to smooth or minor Moho undulations within these regions.

  18. Effects of acoustic waves on stick-slip in granular media and implications for earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, P.A.; Savage, H.; Knuth, M.; Gomberg, J.; Marone, C.

    2008-01-01

    It remains unknown how the small strains induced by seismic waves can trigger earthquakes at large distances, in some cases thousands of kilometres from the triggering earthquake, with failure often occurring long after the waves have passed. Earthquake nucleation is usually observed to take place at depths of 10-20 km, and so static overburden should be large enough to inhibit triggering by seismic-wave stress perturbations. To understand the physics of dynamic triggering better, as well as the influence of dynamic stressing on earthquake recurrence, we have conducted laboratory studies of stick-slip in granular media with and without applied acoustic vibration. Glass beads were used to simulate granular fault zone material, sheared under constant normal stress, and subject to transient or continuous perturbation by acoustic waves. Here we show that small-magnitude failure events, corresponding to triggered aftershocks, occur when applied sound-wave amplitudes exceed several microstrain. These events are frequently delayed or occur as part of a cascade of small events. Vibrations also cause large slip events to be disrupted in time relative to those without wave perturbation. The effects are observed for many large-event cycles after vibrations cease, indicating a strain memory in the granular material. Dynamic stressing of tectonic faults may play a similar role in determining the complexity of earthquake recurrence. ??2007 Nature Publishing Group.

  19. Effects of acoustic waves on stick-slip in granular media and implications for earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Paul A; Savage, Heather; Knuth, Matt; Gomberg, Joan; Marone, Chris

    2008-01-01

    It remains unknown how the small strains induced by seismic waves can trigger earthquakes at large distances, in some cases thousands of kilometres from the triggering earthquake, with failure often occurring long after the waves have passed. Earthquake nucleation is usually observed to take place at depths of 10-20 km, and so static overburden should be large enough to inhibit triggering by seismic-wave stress perturbations. To understand the physics of dynamic triggering better, as well as the influence of dynamic stressing on earthquake recurrence, we have conducted laboratory studies of stick-slip in granular media with and without applied acoustic vibration. Glass beads were used to simulate granular fault zone material, sheared under constant normal stress, and subject to transient or continuous perturbation by acoustic waves. Here we show that small-magnitude failure events, corresponding to triggered aftershocks, occur when applied sound-wave amplitudes exceed several microstrain. These events are frequently delayed or occur as part of a cascade of small events. Vibrations also cause large slip events to be disrupted in time relative to those without wave perturbation. The effects are observed for many large-event cycles after vibrations cease, indicating a strain memory in the granular material. Dynamic stressing of tectonic faults may play a similar role in determining the complexity of earthquake recurrence.

  20. Error in Estimates of Tissue Material Properties from Shear Wave Dispersion Ultrasound Vibrometry

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Matthew W.; Chen, Shigao; Greenleaf, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Shear wave velocity measurements are used in elasticity imaging to find the shear elasticity and viscosity of tissue. A technique called shear wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (SDUV) has been introduced to use the dispersive nature of shear wave velocity to locally estimate the material properties of tissue. Shear waves are created using a multifrequency ultrasound radiation force, and the propagating shear waves are measured a few millimeters away from the excitation point. The shear wave velocity is measured using a repetitive pulse-echo method and Kalman filtering to find the phase of the harmonic shear wave at 2 different locations. A viscoelastic Voigt model and the shear wave velocity measurements at different frequencies are used to find the shear elasticity (μ1) and viscosity (μ2) of the tissue. The purpose of this paper is to report the accuracy of the SDUV method over a range of different values of μ1 and μ2. A motion detection model of a vibrating scattering medium was used to analyze measurement errors of vibration phase in a scattering medium. To assess the accuracy of the SDUV method, we modeled the effects of phase errors on estimates of shear wave velocity and material properties while varying parameters such as shear stiffness and viscosity, shear wave amplitude, the distance between shear wave measurements (Δr), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the ultrasound pulse-echo method, and the frequency range of the measurements. We performed an experiment in a section of porcine muscle to evaluate variation of the aforementioned parameters on the estimated shear wave velocity and material property measurements and to validate the error prediction model. The model showed that errors in the shear wave velocity and material property estimates were minimized by maximizing shear wave amplitude, pulse-echo SNR, Δr, and the bandwidth used for shear wave measurements. The experimental model showed optimum performance could be obtained for Δr = 3-6 mm

  1. Estimation of near-surface shear-wave velocity by inversion of Rayleigh waves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Park, C.B.

    1999-01-01

    The shear-wave (S-wave) velocity of near-surface materials (soil, rocks, pavement) and its effect on seismic-wave propagation are of fundamental interest in many groundwater, engineering, and environmental studies. Rayleigh-wave phase velocity of a layered-earth model is a function of frequency and four groups of earth properties: P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity, density, and thickness of layers. Analysis of the Jacobian matrix provides a measure of dispersion-curve sensitivity to earth properties. S-wave velocities are the dominant influence on a dispersion curve in a high-frequency range (>5 Hz) followed by layer thickness. An iterative solution technique to the weighted equation proved very effective in the high-frequency range when using the Levenberg-Marquardt and singular-value decomposition techniques. Convergence of the weighted solution is guaranteed through selection of the damping factor using the Levenberg-Marquardt method. Synthetic examples demonstrated calculation efficiency and stability of inverse procedures. We verify our method using borehole S-wave velocity measurements.Iterative solutions to the weighted equation by the Levenberg-Marquardt and singular-value decomposition techniques are derived to estimate near-surface shear-wave velocity. Synthetic and real examples demonstrate the calculation efficiency and stability of the inverse procedure. The inverse results of the real example are verified by borehole S-wave velocity measurements.

  2. A metasurface carpet cloak for electromagnetic, acoustic and water waves.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yihao; Wang, Huaping; Yu, Faxin; Xu, Zhiwei; Chen, Hongsheng

    2016-01-29

    We propose a single low-profile skin metasurface carpet cloak to hide objects with arbitrary shape and size under three different waves, i.e., electromagnetic (EM) waves, acoustic waves and water waves. We first present a metasurface which can control the local reflection phase of these three waves. By taking advantage of this metasurface, we then design a metasurface carpet cloak which provides an additional phase to compensate the phase distortion introduced by a bump, thus restoring the reflection waves as if the incident waves impinge onto a flat mirror. The finite element simulation results demonstrate that an object can be hidden under these three kinds of waves with a single metasurface cloak.

  3. A metasurface carpet cloak for electromagnetic, acoustic and water waves

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yihao; Wang, Huaping; Yu, Faxin; Xu, Zhiwei; Chen, Hongsheng

    2016-01-01

    We propose a single low-profile skin metasurface carpet cloak to hide objects with arbitrary shape and size under three different waves, i.e., electromagnetic (EM) waves, acoustic waves and water waves. We first present a metasurface which can control the local reflection phase of these three waves. By taking advantage of this metasurface, we then design a metasurface carpet cloak which provides an additional phase to compensate the phase distortion introduced by a bump, thus restoring the reflection waves as if the incident waves impinge onto a flat mirror. The finite element simulation results demonstrate that an object can be hidden under these three kinds of waves with a single metasurface cloak. PMID:26822429

  4. A metasurface carpet cloak for electromagnetic, acoustic and water waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yihao; Wang, Huaping; Yu, Faxin; Xu, Zhiwei; Chen, Hongsheng

    2016-01-01

    We propose a single low-profile skin metasurface carpet cloak to hide objects with arbitrary shape and size under three different waves, i.e., electromagnetic (EM) waves, acoustic waves and water waves. We first present a metasurface which can control the local reflection phase of these three waves. By taking advantage of this metasurface, we then design a metasurface carpet cloak which provides an additional phase to compensate the phase distortion introduced by a bump, thus restoring the reflection waves as if the incident waves impinge onto a flat mirror. The finite element simulation results demonstrate that an object can be hidden under these three kinds of waves with a single metasurface cloak.

  5. A metasurface carpet cloak for electromagnetic, acoustic and water waves.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yihao; Wang, Huaping; Yu, Faxin; Xu, Zhiwei; Chen, Hongsheng

    2016-01-01

    We propose a single low-profile skin metasurface carpet cloak to hide objects with arbitrary shape and size under three different waves, i.e., electromagnetic (EM) waves, acoustic waves and water waves. We first present a metasurface which can control the local reflection phase of these three waves. By taking advantage of this metasurface, we then design a metasurface carpet cloak which provides an additional phase to compensate the phase distortion introduced by a bump, thus restoring the reflection waves as if the incident waves impinge onto a flat mirror. The finite element simulation results demonstrate that an object can be hidden under these three kinds of waves with a single metasurface cloak. PMID:26822429

  6. Precessional magnetization switching by a surface acoustic wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thevenard, L.; Camara, I. S.; Majrab, S.; Bernard, M.; Rovillain, P.; Lemaître, A.; Gourdon, C.; Duquesne, J.-Y.

    2016-04-01

    Precessional switching allows subnanosecond and deterministic reversal of magnetic data bits. It relies on triggering a large-angle, highly nonlinear precession of magnetic moments around a bias field. Here we demonstrate that a surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagating on a magnetostrictive semiconducting material produces an efficient torque that induces precessional switching. This is evidenced by Kerr microscopy and acoustic behavior analysis in a (Ga,Mn)(As,P) thin film. Using SAWs should therefore allow remote and wave control of individual magnetic bits at potentially GHz frequencies.

  7. A surface acoustic wave /SAW/ charge transfer imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanicolauo, N. A.; Lin, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    An 80 MHz, 2-microsecond surface acoustic wave charge transfer device (SAW-CTD) has been fabricated in which surface acoustic waves are used to create traveling longitudinal electric fields in the silicon substrate and to replace the multiphase clocks of charge coupled devices. The traveling electric fields create potential wells which will carry along charges that may be stored in the wells; the charges may be injected into the wells by light. An optical application is proposed where the SAW-CTD structure is used in place of a conventional interline transfer design.

  8. Surface acoustic wave/silicon monolithic sensor/processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowel, S. T.; Kornreich, P. G.; Nouhi, A.; Kilmer, R.; Fathimulla, M. A.; Mehter, E.

    1983-01-01

    A new technique for sputter deposition of piezoelectric zinc oxide (ZnO) is described. An argon-ion milling system was converted to sputter zinc oxide films in an oxygen atmosphere using a pure zinc oxide target. Piezoelectric films were grown on silicon dioxide and silicon dioxide overlayed with gold. The sputtered films were evaluated using surface acoustic wave measurements, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and resistivity measurements. The effect of the sputtering conditions on the film quality and the result of post-deposition annealing are discussed. The application of these films to the generation of surface acoustic waves is also discussed.

  9. Anisotropic diffraction of bulk acoustic wave beams in lithium niobate.

    PubMed

    Naumenko, Natalya F; Chizhikov, Sergey I; Molchanov, Vladimir Ya; Yushkov, Konstantin B

    2015-12-01

    The formalism of planar diffraction tensor was applied to the analysis of anisotropy of bulk acoustic wave diffraction and to build a full map of anisotropic diffractional coefficients for three bulk acoustic wave modes propagating in lithium niobate. For arbitrary propagation direction the diffractional coefficients derived allow estimation of ultrasonic beam divergence in far-field. Analysis of obtained data revealed that the maxima of acousto-optic figure of merit for anisotropic diffraction in the YZ plane correspond to moderate diffractional spreading of the beams exceeding isotropic diffraction 2-3 times. PMID:26150402

  10. Switching in multicore fibers using flexural acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Gil M; Muga, Nelson J; Rocha, Ana M; Pinto, Armando N

    2015-10-01

    We propose an in-line wavelength selective core switch for multicore fiber (MCF) transmission systems, based on the acousto-optic effect. A theoretical model addressing the interaction between flexural acoustic waves and the optical signal in MCFs is developed. We show that an optical signal propagating in a particular core can be switched to any other core or distributed over all the cores. By tuning the acoustic wave amplitude, we can adjust the amount of optical power transferred between the cores. PMID:26480145

  11. Nonlinear physics of shear Alfvén waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zonca, Fulvio; Chen, Liu

    2014-02-01

    Shear Alfvén waves (SAW) play fundamental roles in thermonuclear plasmas of fusion interest, since they are readily excited by energetic particles in the MeV range as well as by the thermal plasma components. Thus, understanding fluctuation induced transport in burning plasmas requires understanding nonlinear SAW physics. There exist two possible routes to nonlinear SAW physics: (i) wave-wave interactions and the resultant spectral energy transfer; (ii) nonlinear wave-particle interactions of SAW instabilities with energetic particles. Within the first route, it is advantageous to understand and describe nonlinear processes in term of proximity of the system to the Alfvénic state, where wave-wave interactions are minimized due to the cancellation of Reynolds and Maxwell stresses. Here, various wave-wave nonlinear dynamics are elucidated in terms of how they break the Alfvénic state. In particular, we discuss the qualitative and quantitative modification of the SAW parametric decay process due to finite ion compressibility and finite ion Larmor radius. We also show that toroidal geometry plays a crucial role in the nonlinear excitation of zonal structures by Alfvén eigenmodes. Within the second route, the coherent nonlinear dynamics of structures in the energetic particle phase space, by which secular resonant particle transport can occur on meso- and macro-scales, must be addressed and understood. These "nonlinear equilibria" or "phase-space zonal structures" dynamically evolve on characteristic (fluctuation induced) turbulent transport time scales, which are generally of the same order of the nonlinear time scale of the underlying fluctuations. In this work, we introduce the general structure of nonlinear Schrödinger equations with complex integro-differential nonlinear terms, which govern these physical processes. To elucidate all these aspects, theoretical analyses are presented together with numerical simulation results.

  12. Nonlinear physics of shear Alfvén waves

    SciTech Connect

    Zonca, Fulvio; Chen, Liu

    2014-02-12

    Shear Alfvén waves (SAW) play fundamental roles in thermonuclear plasmas of fusion interest, since they are readily excited by energetic particles in the MeV range as well as by the thermal plasma components. Thus, understanding fluctuation induced transport in burning plasmas requires understanding nonlinear SAW physics. There exist two possible routes to nonlinear SAW physics: (i) wave-wave interactions and the resultant spectral energy transfer; (ii) nonlinear wave-particle interactions of SAW instabilities with energetic particles. Within the first route, it is advantageous to understand and describe nonlinear processes in term of proximity of the system to the Alfvénic state, where wave-wave interactions are minimized due to the cancellation of Reynolds and Maxwell stresses. Here, various wave-wave nonlinear dynamics are elucidated in terms of how they break the Alfvénic state. In particular, we discuss the qualitative and quantitative modification of the SAW parametric decay process due to finite ion compressibility and finite ion Larmor radius. We also show that toroidal geometry plays a crucial role in the nonlinear excitation of zonal structures by Alfvén eigenmodes. Within the second route, the coherent nonlinear dynamics of structures in the energetic particle phase space, by which secular resonant particle transport can occur on meso- and macro-scales, must be addressed and understood. These 'nonlinear equilibria' or 'phase-space zonal structures' dynamically evolve on characteristic (fluctuation induced) turbulent transport time scales, which are generally of the same order of the nonlinear time scale of the underlying fluctuations. In this work, we introduce the general structure of nonlinear Schrödinger equations with complex integro-differential nonlinear terms, which govern these physical processes. To elucidate all these aspects, theoretical analyses are presented together with numerical simulation results.

  13. Particle-Wave Micro-Dynamics in Nonlinear Self-Excited Dust Acoustic Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C.-Y.; Teng, L.-W.; Liao, C.-T.; I Lin

    2008-09-07

    The large amplitude dust acoustic wave can be self-excited in a low-pressure dusty plasma. In the wave, the nonlinear wave-particle interaction determines particle motion, which in turn determines the waveform and wave propagation. In this work, the above behaviors are investigated by directly tracking particle motion through video-microscopy. A Lagrangian picture for the wave dynamics is constructed. The wave particle interaction associated with the transition from ordered to disordered particle oscillation, the wave crest trapping and wave heating are demonstrated and discussed.

  14. Explicit wave action conservation for water waves on vertically sheared flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Brenda; Toledo, Yaron; Shrira, Victor

    2016-04-01

    Water waves almost always propagate on currents with a vertical structure such as currents directed towards the beach accompanied by an under-current directed back toward the deep sea or wind-induced currents which change magnitude with depth due to viscosity effects. On larger scales they also change their direction due to the Coriolis force as described by the Ekman spiral. This implies that the existing wave models, which assume vertically-averaged currents, is an approximation which is far from realistic. In recent years, ocean circulation models have significantly improved with the capability to model vertically-sheared current profiles in contrast with the earlier vertically-averaged current profiles. Further advancements have coupled wave action models to circulation models to relate the mutual effects between the two types of motion. Restricting wave models to vertically-averaged non-turbulent current profiles is obviously problematic in these cases and the primary goal of this work is to derive and examine a general wave action equation which accounts for these shortcoming. The formulation of the wave action conservation equation is made explicit by following the work of Voronovich (1976) and using known asymptotic solutions of the boundary value problem which exploit the smallness of the current magnitude compared to the wave phase velocity and/or its vertical shear and curvature. The adopted approximations are shown to be sufficient for most of the conceivable applications. This provides correction terms to the group velocity and wave action definition accounting for the shear effects, which are fitting for application to operational wave models. In the limit of vanishing current shear, the new formulation reduces to the commonly used Bretherton & Garrett (1968) no-shear wave action equation where the invariant is calculated with the current magnitude taken at the free surface. It is shown that in realistic oceanic conditions, the neglect of the vertical

  15. Seismic Waves in Finely Layered VTI Media: Poroelasticity, Thomsen Parameters, and Fluid Effects on Shear Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, J G

    2004-02-24

    Layered earth models are well justified by experience, and provide a simple means of studying fairly general behavior of the elastic and poroelastic characteristics of seismic waves in the earth. Thomsen's anisotropy parameters for weak elastic and poroelastic anisotropy are now commonly used in exploration, and can be conveniently expressed in terms of the layer averages of Backus. Since our main interest is usually in the fluids underground, it would be helpful to have a set of general equations relating the Thomsen parameters as directly as possible to the fluid properties. This end can be achieved in a rather straightforward fashion for these layered earth models, and the present paper develops and then discusses these relations. Furthermore, it is found that, although there are five effective shear moduli for any layered VTI medium, one and only one effective shear modulus for the layered system contains all the dependence of pore fluids on the elastic or poroelastic constants that can be observed in vertically polarized shear waves in VTI media. The effects of the pore fluids on this effective shear modulus can be substantial - an increase of shear wave speed on the order of 10% is shown to be possible when circumstances are favorable -when the medium behaves in an undrained fashion, and the shear modulus fluctuations are large (resulting in strong anisotropy). These effects are expected to be seen at higher frequencies such as sonic and ultrasonic waves for well-logging or laboratory experiments, or at seismic wave frequencies for low permeability regions of reservoirs, prior to hydrofracing. Results presented are strictly for velocity analysis.

  16. The upper mantle shear wave velocity structure of East Africa derived from Rayleigh wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, J.; Nyblade, A.; Adams, A. N.; Weeraratne, D. S.; Mulibo, G.; Tugume, F.

    2012-12-01

    An expanded model of the three-dimensional shear wave velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath East Africa has been developed using data from the latest phases of the AfricaArray East African Seismic Experiment in conjunction with data from preceding studies. The combined dataset consists of 331 events recorded on a total of 95 seismic stations spanning Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia and Malawi. In this latest study, 149 events were used to determine fundamental mode Rayleigh wave phase velocities at periods ranging from 20 to 182 seconds using the two-plane-wave method. These were subsequently combined with the similarly processed published measurements and inverted for an updated upper mantle three-dimensional shear wave velocity model. Newly imaged features include a substantial fast anomaly in eastern Zambia that may have exerted a controlling influence on the evolution of the Western Rift Branch. Furthermore, there is a suggestion that the Eastern Rift Branch trends southeastward offshore eastern Tanzania.

  17. An experimental phantom study on the effect of calcifications on ultrasound shear wave elastography.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Adriana; Bayat, Mahdi; Denis, Max; Mehrmohammadi, Mohammad; Fatemi, Mostafa; Alizad, Azra

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of single macrocalcifications and groups of microcalcifications on shear wave elastography. Supersonic shear imaging (SSI) and comb-push ultrasound shear elastography (CUSE) were performed on three sets of phantoms to investigate how calcifications of different sizes and distributions influence measured elasticity. Our results demonstrate that the presence of large isolated macrocalcifications and highly concentrated clusters of microcalcifications can introduce areas with apparent high elasticity when they are evaluated by shear wave elastography. PMID:26737132

  18. Chromospheric Heating by Acoustic Waves Compared to Radiative Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobotka, M.; Heinzel, P.; Švanda, M.; Jurčák, J.; del Moro, D.; Berrilli, F.

    2016-07-01

    Acoustic and magnetoacoustic waves are among the possible candidate mechanisms that heat the upper layers of the solar atmosphere. A weak chromospheric plage near the large solar pore NOAA 11005 was observed on 2008 October 15, in the Fe i 617.3 nm and Ca ii 853.2 nm lines of the Interferometric Bidimemsional Spectrometer attached to the Dunn Solar Telescope. In analyzing the Ca ii observations (with spatial and temporal resolutions of 0.″4 and 52 s) the energy deposited by acoustic waves is compared to that released by radiative losses. The deposited acoustic flux is estimated from the power spectra of Doppler oscillations measured in the Ca ii line core. The radiative losses are calculated using a grid of seven one-dimensional hydrostatic semi-empirical model atmospheres. The comparison shows that the spatial correlation of the maps of radiative losses and acoustic flux is 72%. In a quiet chromosphere, the contribution of acoustic energy flux to radiative losses is small, only about 15%. In active areas with a photospheric magnetic-field strength between 300 and 1300 G and an inclination of 20°-60°, the contribution increases from 23% (chromospheric network) to 54% (a plage). However, these values have to be considered as lower limits and it might be possible that the acoustic energy flux is the main contributor to the heating of bright chromospheric network and plages.

  19. Waveform inversion of acoustic waves for explosion yield estimation

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, K.; Rodgers, A. J.

    2016-07-08

    We present a new waveform inversion technique to estimate the energy of near-surface explosions using atmospheric acoustic waves. Conventional methods often employ air blast models based on a homogeneous atmosphere, where the acoustic wave propagation effects (e.g., refraction and diffraction) are not taken into account, and therefore, their accuracy decreases with increasing source-receiver distance. In this study, three-dimensional acoustic simulations are performed with a finite difference method in realistic atmospheres and topography, and the modeled acoustic Green's functions are incorporated into the waveform inversion for the acoustic source time functions. The strength of the acoustic source is related to explosionmore » yield based on a standard air blast model. The technique was applied to local explosions (<10 km) and provided reasonable yield estimates (<~30% error) in the presence of realistic topography and atmospheric structure. In conclusion, the presented method can be extended to explosions recorded at far distance provided proper meteorological specifications.« less

  20. Linear models of acoustic waves in sunspot umbrae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurman, J. B.; Leibacher, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    The two-dimensional, linear hydrodynamics of quiet solar and umbral model atmospheres in a plane-parallel, adiabatic approximation are investigated. The 5.5-8.5 mHz oscillations observed in umbral chromospheres and transition regions are interpreted as acoustic waves propagating parallel, or nearly parallel, to the temperature gradient. These waves are not totally internally reflected by the steep temperature gradient and, thus, are not trapped. Partial reflections, however, are effective in modulating the transmission as a function of frequency. The resonant transmission mechanism of Zugzda, Locans, and Staude (1983) is found to produce a spectrum of resonances in the transmission of acoustic waves in any atmosphere with a temperature minimum. Since the observed umbral oscillations display power in only a narrow range of frequencies, characteristics of the umbral models, wave propagation, and observations that would tend to suppress the higher frequency resonances are examined.

  1. Chromospheric extents predicted by time-dependent acoustic wave models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuntz, Manfred

    1990-01-01

    Theoretical models for chromospheric structures of late-type giant stars are computed, including the time-dependent propagation of acoustic waves. Models with short-period monochromatic shock waves as well as a spectrum of acoustic waves are discussed, and the method is applied to the stars Arcturus, Aldebaran, and Betelgeuse. Chromospheric extent, defined as the monotonic decrease with height of the time-averaged electron densities, are found to be 1.12, 1.13, and 1.22 stellar radii for the three stars, respectively; this corresponds to a time-averaged electron density of 10 to the 7th/cu cm. Predictions of the extended chromospheric obtained using a simple scaling law agree well with those obtained by the time-dependent wave models; thus, the chromospheres of all stars for which the scaling law is valid consist of the same number of pressure scale heights.

  2. Reflection and Transmission of Acoustic Waves at Semiconductor - Liquid Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, J. N.; Sharma, A.

    2011-09-01

    The study of reflection and transmission characteristics of acoustic waves at the interface of a semiconductor halfspace underlying an inviscid liquid has been carried out. The reflection and transmission coefficients of reflected and transmitted waves have been obtained for quasi-longitudinal (qP) wave incident at the interface from fluid to semiconductor. The numerical computations of reflection and transmission coefficients have been carried out with the help of Gauss elimination method by using MATLAB programming for silicon (Si), germanium (Ge) and silicon nitride (Si3N4) semiconductors. In order to interpret and compare, the computer simulated results are plotted graphically. The study may be useful in semiconductors, seismology and surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices in addition to engines of the space shuttles.

  3. Time-Accurate Simulations and Acoustic Analysis of Slat Free-Shear-Layer. Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Singer, Bart A.; Lockard, David P.

    2002-01-01

    Unsteady computational simulations of a multi-element, high-lift configuration are performed. Emphasis is placed on accurate spatiotemporal resolution of the free shear layer in the slat-cove region. The excessive dissipative effects of the turbulence model, so prevalent in previous simulations, are circumvented by switching off the turbulence-production term in the slat cove region. The justifications and physical arguments for taking such a step are explained in detail. The removal of this excess damping allows the shear layer to amplify large-scale structures, to achieve a proper non-linear saturation state, and to permit vortex merging. The large-scale disturbances are self-excited, and unlike our prior fully turbulent simulations, no external forcing of the shear layer is required. To obtain the farfield acoustics, the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation is evaluated numerically using the simulated time-accurate flow data. The present comparison between the computed and measured farfield acoustic spectra shows much better agreement for the amplitude and frequency content than past calculations. The effect of the angle-of-attack on the slat's flow features radiated acoustic field are also simulated presented.

  4. Mechanical back-action of a spin-wave resonance in a magnetoelastic thin film on a surface acoustic wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowtham, P. G.; Labanowski, D.; Salahuddin, S.

    2016-07-01

    Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) traveling on the surface of a piezoelectric crystal can, through the magnetoelastic interaction, excite traveling spin-wave resonance in a magnetic film deposited on the substrate. This spin-wave resonance in the magnetic film creates a time-ynamic surface stress of magnetoelastic origin that acts back on the surface of the piezoelectric and modifies the SAW propagation. Unlike previous analyses that treat the excitation as a magnon-phonon polariton, here the magnetoelastic film is treated as a perturbation modifying boundary conditions on the SAW. We use acoustical perturbation theory to find closed-form expressions for the back-action surface stress and strain fields and the resultant SAW velocity shifts and attenuation. We demonstrate that the shear stres fields associated with this spin-wave back-action also generate effective surface currents on the piezoelectric both in phase and out of phase with the driving SAW potential. Characterization of these surface currents and their applications in determination of the magnetoelastic coupling are discussed. The perturbative calculation is carried out explicitly to first order (a regime corresponding to many experimental situations of current interest) and we provide a sketch of the implications of the theory at higher order.

  5. Coherence of acoustic modes propagating through shallow water internal waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouseff, Daniel; Turgut, Altan; Wolf, Stephen N.; Finette, Steve; Orr, Marshall H.; Pasewark, Bruce H.; Apel, John R.; Badiey, Mohsen; Chiu, Ching-Sang; Headrick, Robert H.; Lynch, James F.; Kemp, John N.; Newhall, Arthur E.; von der Heydt, Keith; Tielbuerger, Dirk

    2002-04-01

    The 1995 Shallow Water Acoustics in a Random Medium (SWARM) experiment [Apel et al., IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 22, 445-464 (1997)] was conducted off the New Jersey coast. The experiment featured two well-populated vertical receiving arrays, which permitted the measured acoustic field to be decomposed into its normal modes. The decomposition was repeated for successive transmissions allowing the amplitude of each mode to be tracked. The modal amplitudes were observed to decorrelate with time scales on the order of 100 s [Headrick et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107(1), 201-220 (2000)]. In the present work, a theoretical model is proposed to explain the observed decorrelation. Packets of intense internal waves are modeled as coherent structures moving along the acoustic propagation path without changing shape. The packets cause mode coupling and their motion results in a changing acoustic interference pattern. The model is consistent with the rapid decorrelation observed in SWARM. The model also predicts the observed partial recorrelation of the field at longer time scales. The model is first tested in simple continuous-wave simulations using canonical representations for the internal waves. More detailed time-domain simulations are presented mimicking the situation in SWARM. Modeling results are compared to experimental data.

  6. Nonlinear coupling of acoustic and shear mode in a strongly coupled dusty plasma with a density dependent viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garai, S.; Janaki, M. S.; Chakrabarti, N.

    2016-09-01

    The nonlinear propagation of low frequency waves, in a collisionless, strongly coupled dusty plasma (SCDP) with a density dependent viscosity, has been studied with a proper Galilean invariant generalized hydrodynamic (GH) model. The well known reductive perturbation technique (RPT) has been employed in obtaining the solutions of the longitudinal and transverse perturbations. It has been found that the nonlinear propagation of the acoustic perturbations govern with the modified Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation and are decoupled from the sheared fluctuations. In the regions, where transversal gradients of the flow exists, coupling between the longitudinal and transverse perturbations occurs due to convective nonlinearity which is true for the homogeneous case also. The results, obtained here, can have relative significance to astrophysical context as well as in laboratory plasmas.

  7. Shear Wave Splitting Observations Beneath Uturuncu Volcano, Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, N. E.; Christensen, D. H.; Moore-Driskell, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    Anisotropy in the upper mantle is often associated with mantle flow direction through the lattice preferred orientation of anisotropic minerals such as olivine in the upper mantle material. The flow of the mantle around subduction zones can be particularly complex, and thus difficult to explain. Because of its relationship to anisotropy, analysis of shear wave splitting measurements can help to answer questions regarding the upper mantle flow that surrounds subducting slabs. Here we present SK(K)S shear wave splitting measurements from a temporary broadband network (PLUTONS) of 33 stations deployed from April 2009 to October 2012 on the Altiplano plateau around Uturuncu volcano in Bolivia. The stations are spaced 10-20 km apart, providing a high spatial resolution of the region of the mantle directly below Uturuncu volcano. Despite the lack of numerous splitting results to analyze, preliminary measurements indicate a relatively consistent pattern of fast-polarization directions in a NW-SE orientation of about N80ºW. We think that it is likely that these observations come from anisotropy in the mantle wedge above the subducting Nazca plate indicating a direction of flow in the mantle wedge that is sub-parallel to the subduction direction of the Nazca plate. Although W-E flow beneath the subducting Nazca plate cannot be completely ruled out, these results appear to be consistent with the simple model of two-dimensional corner flow in the mantle wedge and slab-entrained mantle flow beneath the slab.

  8. Shear Wave Speed Estimation in the Human Uterine Cervix

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Lindsey C.; Feltovich, Helen; Palmeri, Mark L.; Dahl, Jeremy J.; del Rio, Alejandro Munoz; Hall, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Our goals were to explore the spatial variability within the cervix and the sensitivity of shear wave speeds (SWS) to assess softness/stiffness differences in ripened (softened) versus unripened tissue. Methods We obtained SWS estimates from hysterectomy specimens (n=22), a subset of which were ripened (n = 13). Multiple measurements were made longitudinally along the cervical canal on both the anterior and posterior sides of the cervix. Statistical tests of differences in the proximal vs. distal, anterior vs. posterior, and ripened vs. unripened cervix were performed with individual two-sample t-tests and a linear mixed model. Results We discovered that SWS estimates monotonically increase from distal to proximal longitudinally along the cervix, that they also vary in the anterior compared to the posterior cervix, and that they are significantly different in ripened vs. unripened cervical tissue. Specifically, the mid position SWS estimates for the unripened group were 3.45±0.95 m/s (anterior) and 3.56±0.92 m/s (posterior), and 2.11±0.45 m/s (anterior) and 2.68±0.57 m/s (posterior) for the ripened (p<0.001). Conclusions We propose that shear wave speed estimation may be a valuable research and, ultimately, diagnostic tool for objective quantification of cervical stiffness/softness. PMID:23836486

  9. Downhole electro-hydraulic vertical shear wave seismic source

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, J.H.

    1993-07-20

    A downhole electro-hydraulic vertical shear wave seismic source to be lowered into a wellbore is described comprising: a source cylindrical housing; a reaction mass means for generating seismic shear waves, said reaction mass means having an actuator with an actuator piston and actuator cylinder and located internal to said source cylindrical housing to isolate said actuator from wellbore fluid and pressure, said reaction mass including transversely formed holes through which hydraulic cylinders connected to contact pads pass, said holes having a significantly larger diameter than said hydraulic cylinders; a clamping means to clamp said source cylindrical housing to the wellbore, said clamping means including two serrated pads radiused to match an inside diameter of casing located in said wellbore and hydraulic cylinders having internal compact stacks of spring washers for retraction for actuating said serrated pads; a compact and soft urethane spring for suspending said reaction mass; and a threaded guide rod passing vertically through said urethane spring to allow spring compression to be adjusted until said actuator piston is precisely centered with no differential hydraulic pressure across said actuator piston.

  10. Ion-Acoustic Waves in Self-Gravitaing Dusty Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Nagendra; Kumar, Vinod; Kumar, Anil

    2008-09-07

    The propagation and damping of low frequency ion-acoustic waves in steady state, unmagnetised, self-gravitating dusty plasma are studied taking into account two important damping mechanisms creation damping and Tromso damping. It is found that imaginary part of wave number is independent of frequency in case of creation damping. But when we consider the case of creation and Tromso damping together, an additional contribution to damping appears with the increase in frequency attributed to Tromso effect.

  11. Dust acoustic shock waves in two temperatures charged dusty grains

    SciTech Connect

    El-Shewy, E. K.; Abdelwahed, H. G.; Elmessary, M. A.

    2011-11-15

    The reductive perturbation method has been used to derive the Korteweg-de Vries-Burger equation and modified Korteweg-de Vries-Burger for dust acoustic shock waves in a homogeneous unmagnetized plasma having electrons, singly charged ions, hot and cold dust species with Boltzmann distributions for electrons and ions in the presence of the cold (hot) dust viscosity coefficients. The behavior of the shock waves in the dusty plasma has been investigated.

  12. Ion-acoustic solitary waves in relativistic plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Das, G.C.; Paul, S.N.

    1985-03-01

    This is a sequel to our earlier study on ion-acoustic waves studied through the augmentation to a modified Korteweg--deVries (K--dV) equation. We have derived a K--dV equation in a plasma, taking account of weakly relativistic effects, and the result shows that the solitary wave does exhibit the relativistic effect in the presence of ion streaming.

  13. S-Band Shallow Bulk Acoustic Wave (SBAW) microwave source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Techniques necessary to fabricate a high performance S-band microwave single source using state-of-the-art shallow bulk acoustic wave (SBAW) were explored. The bulk wave structures of the AlN/Al 2O3 were investigated for both the R plane and basal plane of sapphire. A 1.072 GHz SBAW delay line and oscillators were developed. A method of selecting and setting oscillator output frequency by selecting substrate orientation angle was also established.

  14. Interaction of acoustic waves generated by coupled plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuschieri, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    When two substructures are coupled, the acoustic field generated by the motion of each of the substructures will interact with the motion of the other substructure. This would be the case of a structure enclosing an acoustic cavity. A technique to model the interaction of the generated sound fields from the two components of a coupled structure, and the influence of this interaction on the vibration of the structural components is presented. Using a mobility power flow approach, each element of the substructure is treated independently both when developing the structural response and when determining the acoustic field generated by this component. The presence of the other substructural components is introduced by assuming these components to be rigid baffles. The excitation of one of the substructures is assumed to be by an incident acoustic wave which is dependent of the motion of the substructure. The sound field generated by the motion of the substructure is included in the solution of the response.

  15. Standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW)-based cell washing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sixing; Ding, Xiaoyun; Mao, Zhangming; Chen, Yuchao; Nama, Nitesh; Guo, Feng; Li, Peng; Wang, Lin; Cameron, Craig E.; Huang, Tony Jun

    2014-01-01

    Cell/bead washing is an indispensable sample preparation procedure used in various cell studies and analytical processes. In this article, we report a standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW)-based microfluidic device for cell and bead washing in a continuous flow. In our approach, the acoustic radiation force generated in a SSAW field is utilized to actively extract cells or beads from their original medium. A unique configuration of tilted-angle standing surface acoustic wave (taSSAW) is employed in our device, enabling us to wash beads with >98% recovery rate and >97% washing efficiency. We also demonstrate the functionality of our device by preparing high-purity (>97%) white blood cells from lysed blood samples through cell washing. Our SSAW-based cell/bead washing device has the advantages of label-free manipulation, simplicity, high biocompatibility, high recovery rate, and high washing efficiency. It can be useful for many lab-on-a-chip applications. PMID:25372273

  16. Numerical modelling of nonlinear full-wave acoustic propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Velasco-Segura, Roberto Rendón, Pablo L.

    2015-10-28

    The various model equations of nonlinear acoustics are arrived at by making assumptions which permit the observation of the interaction with propagation of either single or joint effects. We present here a form of the conservation equations of fluid dynamics which are deduced using slightly less restrictive hypothesis than those necessary to obtain the well known Westervelt equation. This formulation accounts for full wave diffraction, nonlinearity, and thermoviscous dissipative effects. A two-dimensional, finite-volume method using Roe’s linearisation has been implemented to obtain numerically the solution of the proposed equations. This code, which has been written for parallel execution on a GPU, can be used to describe moderate nonlinear phenomena, at low Mach numbers, in domains as large as 100 wave lengths. Applications range from models of diagnostic and therapeutic HIFU, to parametric acoustic arrays and nonlinear propagation in acoustic waveguides. Examples related to these applications are shown and discussed.

  17. Yellow Sea ocean-acoustic solitary wave modeling studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warn-Varnas, A. C.; Chin-Bing, S. A.; King, D. B.; Hawkins, J. A.; Lamb, K. G.; Teixeira, M.

    2005-08-01

    This study is in an area south of the Shandong peninsula, near the region where Zhou et al. (1991) observed anomalous drops in acoustical intensity. Solitary wave generation and propagation simulations are performed using the Lamb (1994) nonhydrostatic model. The model simulations show that, for summer conditions, the existing semi-diurnal tidal flow over the topographic variations formed internal bores and solitary waves. For the Shandong area, we analyzed summer observations from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) that tracked solitary wave trains from their surface roughness signatures. The images contained seven events consisting of internal bores and solitary waves that traveled in a well-defined direction for 2.5 days. The origin of the trains appeared at a well-defined point along a steep topographic drop. The SAR observations guided and tuned the model simulations, by comparing spectra of observed and modeled wavelengths. The tuned model yields wavelengths within factors of 2, or less, of those derived from SAR data. Wavelength and amplitude dispersion analysis showed two dispersion regimes. Modeled phase speeds were at the lower limit of phase speeds deduced from SAR data, from about 0.8 to 1.0 m/s. Acoustical intensity calculations in the presence of solitary wave trains will be undertaken in a subsequent paper using a parabolic equation acoustical model along the path of solitary wave train propagation.

  18. Improved Shear Wave Motion Detection Using Pulse-Inversion Harmonic Imaging With a Phased Array Transducer.

    PubMed

    Pengfei Song; Heng Zhao; Urban, Matthew W; Manduca, Armando; Pislaru, Sorin V; Kinnick, Randall R; Pislaru, Cristina; Greenleaf, James F; Shigao Chen

    2013-12-01

    Ultrasound tissue harmonic imaging is widely used to improve ultrasound B-mode imaging quality thanks to its effectiveness in suppressing imaging artifacts associated with ultrasound reverberation, phase aberration, and clutter noise. In ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE), because the shear wave motion signal is extracted from the ultrasound signal, these noise sources can significantly deteriorate the shear wave motion tracking process and consequently result in noisy and biased shear wave motion detection. This situation is exacerbated in in vivo SWE applications such as heart, liver, and kidney. This paper, therefore, investigated the possibility of implementing harmonic imaging, specifically pulse-inversion harmonic imaging, in shear wave tracking, with the hypothesis that harmonic imaging can improve shear wave motion detection based on the same principles that apply to general harmonic B-mode imaging. We first designed an experiment with a gelatin phantom covered by an excised piece of pork belly and show that harmonic imaging can significantly improve shear wave motion detection by producing less underestimated shear wave motion and more consistent shear wave speed measurements than fundamental imaging. Then, a transthoracic heart experiment on a freshly sacrificed pig showed that harmonic imaging could robustly track the shear wave motion and give consistent shear wave speed measurements of the left ventricular myocardium while fundamental imaging could not. Finally, an in vivo transthoracic study of seven healthy volunteers showed that the proposed harmonic imaging tracking sequence could provide consistent estimates of the left ventricular myocardium stiffness in end-diastole with a general success rate of 80% and a success rate of 93.3% when excluding the subject with Body Mass Index higher than 25. These promising results indicate that pulse-inversion harmonic imaging can significantly improve shear wave motion tracking and thus potentially

  19. Time-Accurate Simulations and Acoustic Analysis of Slat Free-Shear Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Singer, Bart A.; Berkman, Mert E.

    2001-01-01

    A detailed computational aeroacoustic analysis of a high-lift flow field is performed. Time-accurate Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computations simulate the free shear layer that originates from the slat cusp. Both unforced and forced cases are studied. Preliminary results show that the shear layer is a good amplifier of disturbances in the low to mid-frequency range. The Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings equation is solved to determine the acoustic field using the unsteady flow data from the RANS calculations. The noise radiated from the excited shear layer has a spectral shape qualitatively similar to that obtained from measurements in a corresponding experimental study of the high-lift system.

  20. Monolithic ZnO SAW (Surface Acoustic Waves) structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunshor, R. L.; Pierret, R. F.

    1983-07-01

    ZnO-on-silicon surface acoustic wave devices have been fabricated and tested. Electronic erasure of a stored correlator reference was demonstrated, the effect of laser annealing on propagation loss was examined, preliminary ageing studies were performed, and a conceptually new mode conversion resonator configuration was reported.

  1. Corrigendum and addendum. Modeling weakly nonlinear acoustic wave propagation

    DOE PAGES

    Christov, Ivan; Christov, C. I.; Jordan, P. M.

    2014-12-18

    This article presents errors, corrections, and additions to the research outlined in the following citation: Christov, I., Christov, C. I., & Jordan, P. M. (2007). Modeling weakly nonlinear acoustic wave propagation. The Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics, 60(4), 473-495.

  2. Thermal Acoustic Waves from Wall with Temporal Temperature Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, G.; Tsukamoto, M.; Sakurai, A.

    2011-05-01

    Although phenomenon of thermo-acoustic wave has been known for many years in some familiar experiences such as "singing flame" from Bunsen burner, recent trends of utilizing it for the industrial applications urge the understandings of basic details of the phenomenon itself. Here we consider, in this connection, the problem of acoustic wave generation from a particular heat source of solid wall whose temperature changes with time and the phenomenon of temperature change by standing wave oscillating in closed tube. For these we set a hollow tube whose temperature at its one end wall changes with time, and compute flow field inside using the molecular kinetic model, which is found to be more convenient for the boundary value fitting than the ordinary acoustic theory system to this problem. In practice, we use the Boltzmann equation with the BGK approximation, and compute two cases above in monotonic and sinusoidal temperature changes with time. Results of both cases show propagating density wave from the wall almost in acoustic velocity to the first case and the temperature decreases in average to the second case.

  3. Using Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) for Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) to Evaluate Ground Stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, J. A.; Fratta, D.; Wang, H. F.; Lord, N. E.; Chalari, A.; Karaulanov, R.; Nigbor, R. L.; Lancelle, C.; Castongia, E.

    2014-12-01

    Since its introduction by Park, et al. (1999), Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) has become an invaluable geophysical technique for geotechnical site investigation. The technique is primarily focused on developing 2-D and 3-D shear stiffness vs. depth images of the near surface. MASW involves measuring surfaces waves of various frequencies produced by a seismic source, such as a sledgehammer or vibroseis source, which is evaluated to determine the velocity of the shear waves propagating through the subsurface at shallow depths. Traditionally, this technique relies on a long string of geophones as receivers. However, our study utilized a Distributed Acoustic Sensor array to detect ground motion caused by passing surface waves at a spatial resolution of one meter. The purpose of this investigation is to compare the effectiveness of using a DAS array for MASW data collection instead of traditional geophones. Data were collected at the Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation's Garner Valley Downhole Array site (NEES's GVDA). Various time-frequency filtering and moving window cross correlation (MWCC) techniques were examined for extracting the surface wave dispersion. The results were found to be in good agreement with those previously obtained by Stokoe et al. (2004).

  4. Analyzing the Impact of Increasing Mechanical Index and Energy Deposition on Shear Wave Speed Reconstruction in Human Liver.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yufeng; Palmeri, Mark L; Rouze, Ned C; Rosenzweig, Stephen J; Abdelmalek, Manal F; Nightingale, Kathryn R

    2015-07-01

    Shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) has found success in liver fibrosis staging. This work evaluates hepatic SWEI measurement success as a function of push pulse energy using two mechanical index (MI) values (1.6 and 2.2) over a range of pulse durations. Shear wave speed (SWS) was measured in the livers of 26 study subjects with known or potential chronic liver diseases. Each measurement consisted of eight SWEI sequences, each with different push energy configurations. The rate of successful SWS estimation was linearly proportional to the push energy. SWEI measurements with higher push energy were successful in patients for whom standard push energy levels failed. The findings also suggest that liver capsule depth could be used prospectively to identify patients who would benefit from elevated output. We conclude that there is clinical benefit to using elevated acoustic output for hepatic SWS measurement in patients with deeper livers.

  5. Subwavelength acoustic focusing by surface-wave-resonance enhanced transmission in doubly negative acoustic metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xiaoming; Badreddine Assouar, M. Oudich, Mourad

    2014-11-21

    We present analytical and numerical analyses of a yet unseen lensing paradigm that is based on a solid metamaterial slab in which the wave excitation source is attached. We propose and demonstrate sub-diffraction-limited acoustic focusing induced by surface resonant states in doubly negative metamaterials. The enhancement of evanescent waves across the metamaterial slab produced by their resonant coupling to surface waves is evidenced and quantitatively determined. The effect of metamaterial parameters on surface states, transmission, and wavenumber bandwidth is clearly identified. Based on this concept consisting of a wave source attached on the metamaterial, a high resolution of λ/28.4 is obtained with the optimum effective physical parameters, opening then an exciting way to design acoustic metamaterials for ultrasonic focused imaging.

  6. Impact of Acoustic Standing Waves on Structural Responses: Reverberant Acoustic Testing (RAT) vs. Direct Field Acoustic Testing (DFAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolaini, Ali R.; Doty, Benjamin; Chang, Zensheu

    2012-01-01

    Loudspeakers have been used for acoustic qualification of spacecraft, reflectors, solar panels, and other acoustically responsive structures for more than a decade. Limited measurements from some of the recent speaker tests used to qualify flight hardware have indicated significant spatial variation of the acoustic field within the test volume. Also structural responses have been reported to differ when similar tests were performed using reverberant chambers. To address the impact of non-uniform acoustic field on structural responses, a series of acoustic tests were performed using a flat panel and a 3-ft cylinder exposed to the field controlled by speakers and repeated in a reverberant chamber. The speaker testing was performed using multi-input-single-output (MISO) and multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) control schemes with and without the test articles. In this paper the spatial variation of the acoustic field due to acoustic standing waves and their impacts on the structural responses in RAT and DFAT (both using MISO and MIMO controls for DFAT) are discussed in some detail.

  7. Wave propagation in a viscous fluid with a pipeline shear mean flow and application for ultrasonic flow meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yong; Huang, Yiyong; Chen, Xiaoqian

    2013-11-01

    This paper deals with the problem of wave propagation in a compressible viscous fluid confined by a rigid-walled circular pipeline in the presence of a shear mean flow. On the assumption of isentropic and axisymmetric wave propagation, the convected acoustic equations are mathematically deduced from the conservations of continuity and momentum, leading to a set of coupled second-order differential equations with respect of the acoustic pressure and velocity components in radial and axial directions. A solution based on the Fourier-Bessel theory, which is complete and orthogonal in Lebesgue space, is introduced to transform the differential equations to an infinite set of homogeneous algebraic equations, thus the wave number can be calculated due to the existence condition of a non-trivial solution. After the discussion of the method's convergence, the cut-off frequency of the wave mode is theoretically analyzed. Furthermore, wave attenuation of the first four wave modes due to fluid viscosity is numerically studied in the presence of the laminar and turbulent flow profiles. Meanwhile, the measurement performance of an ultrasonic flow meter based on the difference of downstream and upstream wave propagations is parametrically addressed.

  8. Fabrication, Operation and Flow Visualization in Surface-acoustic-wave-driven Acoustic-counterflow Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Travagliati, Marco; Shilton, Richie; Beltram, Fabio; Cecchini, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) can be used to drive liquids in portable microfluidic chips via the acoustic counterflow phenomenon. In this video we present the fabrication protocol for a multilayered SAW acoustic counterflow device. The device is fabricated starting from a lithium niobate (LN) substrate onto which two interdigital transducers (IDTs) and appropriate markers are patterned. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel cast on an SU8 master mold is finally bonded on the patterned substrate. Following the fabrication procedure, we show the techniques that allow the characterization and operation of the acoustic counterflow device in order to pump fluids through the PDMS channel grid. We finally present the procedure to visualize liquid flow in the channels. The protocol is used to show on-chip fluid pumping under different flow regimes such as laminar flow and more complicated dynamics characterized by vortices and particle accumulation domains. PMID:24022515

  9. Streaming flow from ultrasound contrast agents by acoustic waves in a blood vessel model.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eunjin; Chung, Sang Kug; Rhee, Kyehan

    2015-09-01

    To elucidate the effects of streaming flow on ultrasound contrast agent (UCA)-assisted drug delivery, streaming velocity fields from sonicated UCA microbubbles were measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) in a blood vessel model. At the beginning of ultrasound sonication, the UCA bubbles formed clusters and translated in the direction of the ultrasound field. Bubble cluster formation and translation were faster with 2.25MHz sonication, a frequency close to the resonance frequency of the UCA. Translation of bubble clusters induced streaming jet flow that impinged on the vessel wall, forming symmetric vortices. The maximum streaming velocity was about 60mm/s at 2.25MHz and decreased to 15mm/s at 1.0MHz for the same acoustic pressure amplitude. The effect of the ultrasound frequency on wall shear stress was more noticeable. Maximum wall shear stress decreased from 0.84 to 0.1Pa as the ultrasound frequency decreased from 2.25 to 1.0MHz. The maximum spatial gradient of the wall shear stress also decreased from 1.0 to 0.1Pa/mm. This study showed that streaming flow was induced by bubble cluster formation and translation and was stronger upon sonication by an acoustic wave with a frequency near the UCA resonance frequency. Therefore, the secondary radiant force, which is much stronger at the resonance frequency, should play an important role in UCA-assisted drug delivery.

  10. Generation of remote adaptive torsional shear waves with an octagonal phased array to enhance displacements and reduce variability of shear wave speeds: comparison with quasi-plane shear wavefronts.

    PubMed

    Ouared, Abderrahmane; Montagnon, Emmanuel; Cloutier, Guy

    2015-10-21

    A method based on adaptive torsional shear waves (ATSW) is proposed to overcome the strong attenuation of shear waves generated by a radiation force in dynamic elastography. During the inward propagation of ATSW, the magnitude of displacements is enhanced due to the convergence of shear waves and constructive interferences. The proposed method consists in generating ATSW fields from the combination of quasi-plane shear wavefronts by considering a linear superposition of displacement maps. Adaptive torsional shear waves were experimentally generated in homogeneous and heterogeneous tissue mimicking phantoms, and compared to quasi-plane shear wave propagations. Results demonstrated that displacement magnitudes by ATSW could be up to 3 times higher than those obtained with quasi-plane shear waves, that the variability of shear wave speeds was reduced, and that the signal-to-noise ratio of displacements was improved. It was also observed that ATSW could cause mechanical inclusions to resonate in heterogeneous phantoms, which further increased the displacement contrast between the inclusion and the surrounding medium. This method opens a way for the development of new noninvasive tissue characterization strategies based on ATSW in the framework of our previously reported shear wave induced resonance elastography (SWIRE) method proposed for breast cancer diagnosis.

  11. Generation of remote adaptive torsional shear waves with an octagonal phased array to enhance displacements and reduce variability of shear wave speeds: comparison with quasi-plane shear wavefronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouared, Abderrahmane; Montagnon, Emmanuel; Cloutier, Guy

    2015-10-01

    A method based on adaptive torsional shear waves (ATSW) is proposed to overcome the strong attenuation of shear waves generated by a radiation force in dynamic elastography. During the inward propagation of ATSW, the magnitude of displacements is enhanced due to the convergence of shear waves and constructive interferences. The proposed method consists in generating ATSW fields from the combination of quasi-plane shear wavefronts by considering a linear superposition of displacement maps. Adaptive torsional shear waves were experimentally generated in homogeneous and heterogeneous tissue mimicking phantoms, and compared to quasi-plane shear wave propagations. Results demonstrated that displacement magnitudes by ATSW could be up to 3 times higher than those obtained with quasi-plane shear waves, that the variability of shear wave speeds was reduced, and that the signal-to-noise ratio of displacements was improved. It was also observed that ATSW could cause mechanical inclusions to resonate in heterogeneous phantoms, which further increased the displacement contrast between the inclusion and the surrounding medium. This method opens a way for the development of new noninvasive tissue characterization strategies based on ATSW in the framework of our previously reported shear wave induced resonance elastography (SWIRE) method proposed for breast cancer diagnosis.

  12. Surface acoustic wave mode conversion resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, S. J.; Gunshor, R. L.; Melloch, M. R.; Datta, S.; Pierret, R. F.

    1983-08-01

    The fact that a ZnO-on-Si structure supports two distinct surface waves, referred to as the Rayleigh and the Sezawa modes, if the ZnO layer is sufficiently thick is recalled. A description is given of a unique surface wave resonator that operates by efficiently converting between the two modes at the resonant frequency. Since input and output coupling is effected through different modes, the mode conversion resonator promises enhanced out-of-band signal rejection. A Rayleigh wave traversing the resonant cavity in one direction is reflected as a Sezawa wave. It is pointed out that the off-resonance rejection of the mode conversion resonator could be enhanced by designing the transducers to minimize the level of cross coupling between transducers and propagating modes.

  13. The role of viscosity estimation for oil-in-gelatin phantom in shear wave based ultrasound elastography.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Dong, Changfeng; Yin, Yin; Chen, Xin; Guo, Yanrong; Zheng, Yi; Shen, Yuanyuan; Wang, Tianfu; Zhang, Xinyu; Chen, Siping

    2015-02-01

    Shear wave based ultrasound elastography utilizes mechanical excitation or acoustic radiation force to induce shear waves in deep tissue. The tissue response is monitored to obtain elasticity information about the tissue. During the past two decades, tissue elasticity has been extensively studied and has been used in clinical disease diagnosis. However, biological soft tissues are viscoelastic in nature. Therefore, they should be simultaneously characterized in terms of elasticity and viscosity. In this study, two shear wave-based elasticity imaging methods, shear wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (SDUV) and acoustic radiation force impulsive (ARFI) imaging, were compared. The discrepancy between the measurements obtained by the two methods was analyzed, and the role of viscosity was investigated. To this end, four types of gelatin phantoms containing 0%, 20%, 30% and 40% castor oil were fabricated to mimic different viscosities of soft tissue. For the SDUV method, the shear elasticity μ1 was 3.90 ± 0.27 kPa, 4.49 ± 0.16 kPa, 2.41 ± 0.33 kPa and 1.31 ± 0.09 kPa; and the shear viscosity μ2 was 1.82 ± 0.31 Pa•s, 2.41 ± 0.35 Pa•s, 2.65 ± 0.13 Pa•s and 2.89 ± 0.14 Pa•s for 0%, 20%, 30% and 40% oil, respectively in both cases. For the ARFI measurements, the shear elasticity μ was 7.30 ± 0.20 kPa, 8.20 ± 0.31 kPa, 7.42 ± 0.21 kPa and 5.90 ± 0.36 kPa for 0%, 20%, 30% and 40% oil, respectively. The SDUV results demonstrated that the elasticity first increased from 0% to 20% oil and then decreased for the 30% and 40% oil. The viscosity decreased consistently as the concentration of castor oil increased from 0% to 40%. The elasticity measured by ARFI showed the same trend as that of the SDUV but exceeded the results measured by SDUV. To clearly validate the impact of viscosity on the elasticity estimation, an independent measurement of the elasticity and viscosity by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was conducted on these four types of gelatin

  14. Nanometer stepping drives of surface acoustic wave motor.

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, Takashi; Kurosawa, Minoru Kuribayashi; Asai, Katsuhiko

    2003-04-01

    High resolution (from nanometer to subnanometer) stepping drives of a surface acoustic wave motor are presented. It was shown that step displacement was easily controlled by adjusting a number of driving waves, using a steel ball slider equipped with permanent magnet for preload. By means of this open loop control, the step displacement was controlled from centimeter-order to submicrometer-order. In this paper, using a silicon slider equipped with a ball bearing linear guide, the stepping motions of a surface acoustic wave motor were investigated. A laser interferometer equipped with a 2-picometer resolution displacement demodulator was introduced. Motions of the slider ranging from several hundreds of nanometers to several nanometers in each step displacement were observed. Reduction of the driving waves down to 25 cycles, under a 100 Vpeak driving voltage and a 30 N preload condition, generated about 2 nm stepping motion using our experimental setup under an open loop condition. We also demonstrated subnanometer step movements. These experimental results indicated that the surface acoustic wave motor has an ability of subnanometer positioning with a centimeter-level stroke. PMID:12744393

  15. Synchronization of self-excited dust acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suranga Ruhunusiri, W. D.; Goree, John

    2012-10-01

    Synchronization is a nonlinear phenomenon where a self-excited oscillation, like a wave in a plasma, interacts with an external driving, resulting in an adjustment of the oscillation frequency. Dust acoustic wave synchronization has been experimentally studied previously in laboratory and in microgravity conditions, e.g. [Pilch PoP 2009] and [Menzel PRL 2010]. We perform a laboratory experiment to study synchronization of self-excited dust acoustic waves. An rf glow discharge argon plasma is formed by applying a low power radio frequency voltage to a lower electrode. A 3D dust cloud is formed by levitating 4.83 micron microspheres inside a glass box placed on the lower electrode. Dust acoustic waves are self-excited with a natural frequency of 22 Hz due to an ion streaming instability. A cross section of the dust cloud is illuminated by a vertical laser sheet and imaged from the side with a digital camera. To synchronize the waves, we sinusoidally modulate the overall ion density. Differently from previous experiments, we use a driving electrode that is separate from the electrode that sustains the plasma, and we characterize synchronization by varying both driving amplitude and frequency.

  16. Shear Wave Generation by Explosions in Anisotropic Crystalline Rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers-Martinez, M. A.; Sammis, C. G.; Stroujkova, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    The use of seismic waves to discriminate between earthquakes and underground explosions is complicated by the observation that explosions routinely radiate strong S waves. Whether these S waves are primarily generated by non-linear processes at the source, or by mode conversions and scattering along the path remains an open question. It has been demonstrated that S waves are generated at the source by any mechanism that breaks the spherical symmetry of the explosion. Examples of such mechanisms include tectonic shear stress, spall, and anisotropy in the emplacement medium. Many crystalline rock massifs are transversely isotropic because they contain aligned fractures over a range of scales from microfractures at the grain scale (called the rift) to regional sets of joints. In this study we use a micromechanical damage mechanics to model the fracture damage patterns and seismic radiation generated by explosions in a material in which the initial distribution of fractures has a preferred direction. Our simulations are compared with a set of field experiments in a granite quarry in Barre, VT conducted by New England Research and Weston Geophysical. Barre granite has a strong rift plane of aligned microfractures. Our model captures two important results of these field studies: 1) the spatial extent of rock fracture and generation of S waves depends on the burn-rate of the explosion and 2) the resultant damage is anisotropic with most damage occurring in the preferred direction of the microfractures (the rift plane in the granite). The physical reason damage is enhanced in the rift direction is that the mode I stress intensity factor is large for each fracture in the array of parallel fractures in the rift plane. Tensile opening on the rift plane plus sliding on the preexisting fractures make strong non-spherical contributions to the moment tensor in the far-field.

  17. Surface acoustic wave depth profiling of a functionally graded material

    SciTech Connect

    Goossens, Jozefien; Leclaire, Philippe; Xu Xiaodong; Glorieux, Christ; Martinez, Loic; Sola, Antonella; Siligardi, Cristina; Cannillo, Valeria; Van der Donck, Tom; Celis, Jean-Pierre

    2007-09-01

    The potential and limitations of Rayleigh wave spectroscopy to characterize the elastic depth profile of heterogeneous functional gradient materials are investigated by comparing simulations of the surface acoustic wave dispersion curves of different profile-spectrum pairs. This inverse problem is shown to be quite ill posed. The method is then applied to extract information on the depth structure of a glass-ceramic (alumina) functionally graded material from experimental data. The surface acoustic wave analysis suggests the presence of a uniform coating region consisting of a mixture of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and glass, with a sharp transition between the coating and the substrate. This is confirmed by scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive x-ray analysis.

  18. Langasite Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors: Fabrication and Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Peng; Greve, David W.; Oppenheim, Irving J.; Chin, Tao-Lun; Malone, Vanessa

    2012-02-01

    We report on the development of harsh-environment surface acoustic wave sensors for wired and wireless operation. Surface acoustic wave devices with an interdigitated transducer emitter and multiple reflectors were fabricated on langasite substrates. Both wired and wireless temperature sensing was demonstrated using radar-mode (pulse) detection. Temperature resolution of better than ±0.5°C was achieved between 200°C and 600°C. Oxygen sensing was achieved by depositing a layer of ZnO on the propagation path. Although the ZnO layer caused additional attenuation of the surface wave, oxygen sensing was accomplished at temperatures up to 700°C. The results indicate that langasite SAW devices are a potential solution for harsh-environment gas and temperature sensing.

  19. Propagation of acoustic waves in the partly ionized interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalov, S. V.

    2014-07-01

    The properties of linear acoustic waves propagating in the interstellar medium, which is a mixture of electron-proton plasma and hydrogen atoms, are studied analytically. The plasma component interacts with hydrogen atoms through resonant charge exchange between the atoms and protons. To make the problem tractable, only short-wavelength disturbances are considered. Namely, the wavelength is assumed to be small as compared with the mean free path of atoms with respect to charge exchange. It is shown that short waves are damped out due to the charge exchange process, and the magnitude of decrement increases with the cross-section for charge exchange, number density of atoms and sound speed. In the first approximation, decrement does not depend on the wavelength, and acoustic waves are dispersionless. The advantage of our model is fully kinetic treatment of the interstellar atom motion.

  20. Optimization of Surface Acoustic Wave-Based Rate Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fangqian; Wang, Wen; Shao, Xiuting; Liu, Xinlu; Liang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The optimization of an surface acoustic wave (SAW)-based rate sensor incorporating metallic dot arrays was performed by using the approach of partial-wave analysis in layered media. The optimal sensor chip designs, including the material choice of piezoelectric crystals and metallic dots, dot thickness, and sensor operation frequency were determined theoretically. The theoretical predictions were confirmed experimentally by using the developed SAW sensor composed of differential delay line-oscillators and a metallic dot array deposited along the acoustic wave propagation path of the SAW delay lines. A significant improvement in sensor sensitivity was achieved in the case of 128° YX LiNbO3, and a thicker Au dot array, and low operation frequency were used to structure the sensor. PMID:26473865

  1. Single crystal metal wedges for surface acoustic wave propagation

    DOEpatents

    Fisher, E.S.

    1980-05-09

    An ultrasonic testing device has been developed to evaluate flaws and inhomogeneities in the near-surface region of a test material. A metal single crystal wedge is used to generate high frequency Rayleigh surface waves in the test material surface by conversion of a slow velocity, bulk acoustic mode in the wedge into a Rayleigh wave at the metal-wedge test material interface. Particular classes of metals have been found to provide the bulk acoustic modes necessary for production of a surface wave with extremely high frequency and angular collimation. The high frequency allows flaws and inhomogeneities to be examined with greater resolution. The high degree of angular collimation for the outgoing ultrasonic beam permits precision angular location of flaws and inhomogeneities in the test material surface.

  2. Single crystal metal wedges for surface acoustic wave propagation

    DOEpatents

    Fisher, Edward S.

    1982-01-01

    An ultrasonic testing device has been developed to evaluate flaws and inhomogeneities in the near-surface region of a test material. A metal single crystal wedge is used to generate high frequency Rayleigh surface waves in the test material surface by conversion of a slow velocity, bulk acoustic mode in the wedge into a Rayleigh wave at the metal-wedge test material interface. Particular classes of metals have been found to provide the bulk acoustic modes necessary for production of a surface wave with extremely high frequency and angular collimation. The high frequency allows flaws and inhomogeneities to be examined with greater resolution. The high degree of angular collimation for the outgoing ultrasonic beam permits precision angular location of flaws and inhomogeneities in the test material surface.

  3. Separation of acoustic waves in isentropic flow perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henke, Christian

    2015-04-01

    The present contribution investigates the mechanisms of sound generation and propagation in the case of highly-unsteady flows. Based on the linearisation of the isentropic Navier-Stokes equation around a new pathline-averaged base flow, it is demonstrated for the first time that flow perturbations of a non-uniform flow can be split into acoustic and vorticity modes, with the acoustic modes being independent of the vorticity modes. Therefore, we can propose this acoustic perturbation as a general definition of sound. As a consequence of the splitting result, we conclude that the present acoustic perturbation is propagated by the convective wave equation and fulfils Lighthill's acoustic analogy. Moreover, we can define the deviations of the Navier-Stokes equation from the convective wave equation as "true" sound sources. In contrast to other authors, no assumptions on a slowly varying or irrotational flow are necessary. Using a symmetry argument for the conservation laws, an energy conservation result and a generalisation of the sound intensity are provided.

  4. An SU-8 liquid cell for surface acoustic wave biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, Laurent A.; Friedt, Jean-Michel; Bartic, Carmen; Campitelli, Andrew

    2004-08-01

    One significant challenge facing biosensor development is packaging. For surface acoustic wave based biosensors, packaging influences the general sensing performance. The acoustic wave is generated and received thanks to interdigital transducers and the separation between the transducers defines the sensing area. Liquids used in biosensing experiments lead to an attenuation of the acoustic signal while in contact with the transducers. We have developed a liquid cell based on photodefinable epoxy SU-8 that prevents the presence of liquid on the transducers, has a small disturbance effect on the propagation of the acoustic wave, does not interfere with the biochemical sensing event, and leads to an integrated sensor system with reproducible properties. The liquid cell is achieved in two steps. In a first step, the SU-8 is precisely patterned around the transducers to define 120 μm thick walls. In a second step and after the dicing of the sensors, a glass capping is placed manually and glued on top of the SU-8 walls. This design approach is an improvement compared to the more classical solution consisting of a pre-molded cell that must be pressed against the device in order to avoid leaks, with negative consequences on the reproducibility of the experimental results. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by protein adsorption monitoring. The packaging materials do not interfere with the biomolecules and have a high chemical resistance. For future developments, wafer level bonding of the quartz capping onto the SU-8 walls is envisioned.

  5. Acoustic wave reflection from thermal gradient regions in a gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarau, Calin; Otugen, Volkan; Sheverev, Valeri; Vradis, George

    2003-11-01

    Acoustic wave reflection from thermal gradient regions in a gas Calin Tarau, Volkan Otugen, Valery Sheverev and George Vradis Polytechnic University Six Metrotech Center Brooklyn, NY 11201 Temperature gradients in a gas medium can cause reflection and refraction of acoustic waves. For large incidence angles and sharp temperature gradients, sound reflection from the high (or low) temperature zone can be significant. The present report evaluates the effectiveness of using small regions of hot gas inside an ambient environment as a sound barrier. The behavior of sound wave in the two extreme cases where the acoustic wavelength is either much larger or much smaller than the gradient region is well known. In the latter case, the reflection coefficient tends to be negligible while the maximum reflection is obtained for the former situation. The present is the intermediate case where Ü l L (Ü and L are the acoustic wavelength and length of gradient region, respectively). The compressible unsteady Euler's equations together with the perfect gas state equation are solved using higher order (both time and space) finite volume approach. The numerical results are compared with previous theoretical analysis and recent experimental results of sound propagation through glow discharge.

  6. Propagation of three-dimensional electron-acoustic solitary waves

    SciTech Connect

    Shalaby, M.; El-Sherif, L. S.; El-Labany, S. K.; Sabry, R.

    2011-06-15

    Theoretical investigation is carried out for understanding the properties of three-dimensional electron-acoustic waves propagating in magnetized plasma whose constituents are cold magnetized electron fluid, hot electrons obeying nonthermal distribution, and stationary ions. For this purpose, the hydrodynamic equations for the cold magnetized electron fluid, nonthermal electron density distribution, and the Poisson equation are used to derive the corresponding nonlinear evolution equation, Zkharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation, in the small- but finite- amplitude regime. The ZK equation is solved analytically and it is found that it supports both solitary and blow-up solutions. It is found that rarefactive electron-acoustic solitary waves strongly depend on the density and temperature ratios of the hot-to-cold electron species as well as the nonthermal electron parameter. Furthermore, there is a critical value for the nonthermal electron parameter, which decides whether the electron-acoustic solitary wave's amplitude is decreased or increased by changing various plasma parameters. Importantly, the change of the propagation angles leads to miss the balance between the nonlinearity and dispersion; hence, the localized pulses convert to explosive/blow-up pulses. The relevance of this study to the nonlinear electron-acoustic structures in the dayside auroral zone in the light of Viking satellite observations is discussed.

  7. The Velocity and Attenuation of Acoustic Emission Waves in SiC/SiC Composites Loaded in Tension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, Gregory N.; Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The behavior of acoustic waves produced by microfracture events and from pencil lead breaks was studied for two different silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide matrix composites. The two composite systems both consisted of Hi-Nicalon (trademark) fibers and carbon interfaces but had different matrix compositions that led to considerable differences in damage accumulation and acoustic response. This behavior was primarily due to an order of magnitude difference in the interfacial shear stress for the two composite systems. Load/unload/reload tensile tests were performed and measurements were made over the entire stress range in order to determine the stress-dependence of acoustic activity for increasing damage states. It was found that using the extensional wave velocities from acoustic emission (AE) events produced from pencil lead breaks performed outside of the transducers enabled accurate measurements of the stiffness of the composite. The extensional wave velocities changed as a function of the damage state and the stress where the measurement was taken. Attenuation for AE waveforms from the pencil lead breaks occurred only for the composite possessing the lower interfacial shear stress and only at significantly high stresses. At zero stress after unloading from a peak stress, no attenuation occurred for this composite because of crack closure. For the high interfacial stress composite no attenuation was discernable at peak or zero stress over the entire stress-range of the composite. From these observations, it is believed that attenuation of AE waveforms is dependent on the magnitude of matrix crack opening.

  8. Shear Wave Splitting Analysis of Aftershocks of the 2013 Mw6.6 Lushan Earthquake, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Zhang, H.

    2013-12-01

    Shear wave splits into faster and slower shear waves that are nearly perpendicular when it travels through an anisotropic medium. There are two important parameters of shear wave splitting, one is the fast polarization direction of the fast shear wave and the other one is the time delay of the slow shear wave. The mechanisms for anisotropy in the upper crust can be divided into two categories. The first category is stress-induced anisotropy related to alignment of cracks in response to the in situ stress field. The second category is structural anisotropy associated with aligned planar features such as fault zone fabrics, sedimentary bedding planes and aligned minerals. We can characterize anisotropy around fault zone by shear wave splitting analysis. We used cross-correlation method for the shear wave splitting analysis. Since the faster shear wave and the slower shear wave are from the same source, they will correlate well after the time delay correction. We rotated two horizontal seismograms at a 10 increment of azimuth α from 00 to 1800. For each α, the cross-correlation coefficients between the two orthogonal seismograms are calculated for a range of time delays τ. When the absolute value of cross-correlation coefficient reaches a maximum, the corresponding values of α and τ are chosen as the fast polarization direction of the faster shear wave and the time delay of the slower shear wave, respectively. We chose 200 aftershocks observed at a temporary array consisting of 29 stations in the Lushan region. Shear wave arrivals were first picked for setting up the time window for the shear wave splitting analysis using the cross-correlation method. Because these 200 events are shallower than 20km, we can infer that the shear wave splitting is caused by crustal anisotropy. The rose diagram of the fast polarization directions of the fast shear waves showed two major directions. One is nearly parallel to the south-north trending fault system in this region, and

  9. A surface-acoustic-wave-based cantilever bio-sensor.

    PubMed

    De Simoni, Giorgio; Signore, Giovanni; Agostini, Matteo; Beltram, Fabio; Piazza, Vincenzo

    2015-06-15

    A scalable surface-acoustic-wave- (SAW-) based cantilevered device for portable bio-chemical sensing applications is presented. Even in the current, proof-of-principle implementation this architecture is shown to outperform commercial quartz-crystal microbalances in terms of sensitivity. Adhesion of analytes on a functionalized surface of the cantilever shifts the resonant frequency of a SAW-generating transducer due to the stress-induced variation of the speed of surface acoustic modes. We discuss the relevance of this approach for diagnostics applications based on miniaturized devices.

  10. Drift-wave transport in the velocity shear layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosalem, K. C.; Roberto, M.; Caldas, I. L.

    2016-07-01

    Particle drift driven by electrostatic wave fluctuations is numerically computed to describe the transport in a gradient velocity layer at the tokamak plasma edge. We consider an equilibrium plasma in large aspect ratio approximation with E × B flow and specified toroidal plasma velocity, electric field, and magnetic field profiles. A symplectic map, previously derived for infinite coherent time modes, is used to describe the transport dependence on the electric, magnetic, and plasma velocity shears. We also show that resonant perturbations and their correspondent islands in the Poincaré maps are much affected by the toroidal velocity profiles. Moreover, shearless transport barriers, identified by extremum values of the perturbed rotation number profiles of the invariant curves, allow chaotic trajectories trapped into the plasma. We investigate the influence of the toroidal plasma velocity profile on these shearless transport barriers.

  11. Gamma-ray bursts from sheared Alfven waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melia, Fulvio; Fatuzzo, Marco

    1991-01-01

    The physical process by which sheared Alfven waves can accelerate electrons to a Lorentz factor of 10,000 to 100,000 within 5 km of the stellar surface is applied to a study of gamma-ray bursts, taking both resonant and nonresonant scattering into account. Several very encouraging features of the model are discussed. Although the field is oscillatory, virtually all the charges are ejected from the system, resulting in very little backheating of the stellar surface. The particle number density is accounted for naturally in terms of BA0 and m, which in principle are known from the physical manifestation of the agent causing the crustal disturbance. The resulting gamma-ray spectrum compares very favorably with the observation. The model restricts the geometry of the emission region, in the sense that only the Compton upscattering of soft photons from a warm polar cap can produce the correct spectral shape.

  12. Shear-layer acoustic radiation in an excited subsonic jet: experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Vincent; Bailly, Christophe; Juvé, Daniel

    2005-10-01

    The subharmonic acoustic radiation of a tone excited subsonic jet shear-layer has been investigated experimentally. Two jet velocities U=20 mṡs and U=40 mṡs were studied. For U=20 mṡs, the natural boundary-layer at the nozzle exit is laminar. When the perturbation is applied, the fluctuations of the first and the second subharmonics of the excitation frequency are detected in the shear-layer. In addition, the first subharmonic near pressure field along the spreading jet is constituted of two strong maxima of sinusoidal shape. The far-field directivity pattern displays two lobes separated by an extinction angle θ at around 85° from the jet axis. These observations follow the results of Bridges about the vortex pairing noise. On the other hand, for U=40 mṡs, the initial boundary-layer is transitional and only the first subharmonic is observed in the presence of the excitation. The near pressure field is of Gaussian shape in the jet periphery and the acoustic far-field is superdirective as observed by Laufer and Yen. The state of the initial shear-layer seems to be the key feature to distinguish these two different radiation patterns. To cite this article: V. Fleury et al., C. R. Mecanique 333 (2005).

  13. Observed features of acoustic gravity waves in the heterosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorenko, A. K.; Kryuchkov, E. I.

    2014-01-01

    According to measurements on the Dynamic Explorer 2 satellite, features of the propagation of acoustic gravity waves (AGWs) in the multicomponent upper atmosphere have been investigated. In the altitude range 250-400 km in wave concentration variations of some atmospheric gases, amplitude and phase differences have been observed. Using the approach proposed in this paper, in different gases, AGW variations have been divided into components associated with elastic compression, adiabatic expansion, and the vertical background distribution. The amplitude and phase differences observed in different gases are explained on the basis of analyzing these components. It is shown how to use this effect in order to determine the wave propagation, the vertical displacement of the volume element, the wave frequency, and the spatial distribution of the wave energy density.

  14. Making structured metals transparent for ultrabroadband electromagnetic waves and acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Ren-Hao; Peng, Ru-Wen; Huang, Xian-Rong; Wang, Mu

    2015-07-15

    In this review, we present our recent work on making structured metals transparent for broadband electromagnetic waves and acoustic waves via excitation of surface waves. First, we theoretically show that one-dimensional metallic gratings can become transparent and completely antireflective for extremely broadband electromagnetic waves by relying on surface plasmons or spoof surface plasmons. Second, we experimentally demonstrate that metallic gratings with narrow slits are highly transparent for broadband terahertz waves at oblique incidence and high transmission efficiency is insensitive to the metal thickness. Further, we significantly develop oblique metal gratings transparent for broadband electromagnetic waves (including optical waves and terahertz ones) under normal incidence. In the third, we find the principles of broadband transparency for structured metals can be extended from one-dimensional metallic gratings to two-dimensional cases. Moreover, similar phenomena are found in sonic artificially metallic structures, which present the transparency for broadband acoustic waves. These investigations provide guidelines to develop many novel materials and devices, such as transparent conducting panels, antireflective solar cells, and other broadband metamaterials and stealth technologies. - Highlights: • Making structured metals transparent for ultrabroadband electromagnetic waves. • Non-resonant excitation of surface plasmons or spoof surface plasmons. • Sonic artificially metallic structures transparent for broadband acoustic waves.

  15. Inverse Scattering Problems for Acoustic Waves in AN Inhomogeneous Medium.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedzierawski, Andrzej Wladyslaw

    1990-01-01

    This dissertation considers the inverse scattering problem of determining either the absorption of sound in an inhomogeneous medium or the surface impedance of an obstacle from a knowledge of the far-field patterns of the scattered fields corresponding to many incident time -harmonic plane waves. First, we consider the inverse problem in the case when the scattering object is an inhomogeneous medium with complex refraction index having compact support. Our approach to this problem is the orthogonal projection method of Colton-Monk (cf. The inverse scattering problem for time acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium, Quart. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 41 (1988), 97-125). After that, we prove the analogue of Karp's Theorem for the scattering of acoustic waves through an inhomogeneous medium with compact support. We then generalize some of these results to the case when the inhomogeneous medium is no longer of compact support. If the acoustic wave penetrates the inhomogeneous medium by only a small amount then the inverse medium problem leads to the inverse obstacle problem with an impedance boundary condition. We solve the inverse impedance problem of determining the surface impedance of an obstacle of known shape by using both the methods of Kirsch-Kress and Colton-Monk (cf. R. Kress, Linear Integral Equations, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1989).

  16. A frequency selective acoustic transducer for directional Lamb wave sensing.

    PubMed

    Senesi, Matteo; Ruzzene, Massimo

    2011-10-01

    A frequency selective acoustic transducer (FSAT) is proposed for directional sensing of guided waves. The considered FSAT design is characterized by a spiral configuration in wavenumber domain, which leads to a spatial arrangement of the sensing material producing output signals whose dominant frequency component is uniquely associated with the direction of incoming waves. The resulting spiral FSAT can be employed both for directional sensing and generation of guided waves, without relying on phasing and control of a large number of channels. The analytical expression of the shape of the spiral FSAT is obtained through the theoretical formulation for continuously distributed active material as part of a shaped piezoelectric device. Testing is performed by forming a discrete array through the points of the measurement grid of a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer. The discrete array approximates the continuous spiral FSAT geometry, and provides the flexibility to test several configurations. The experimental results demonstrate the strong frequency dependent directionality of the spiral FSAT and suggest its application for frequency selective acoustic sensors, to be employed for the localization of broadband acoustic events, or for the directional generation of Lamb waves for active interrogation of structural health. PMID:21973344

  17. Analysis of Measured and Simulated Supraglottal Acoustic Waves.

    PubMed

    Fraile, Rubén; Evdokimova, Vera V; Evgrafova, Karina V; Godino-Llorente, Juan I; Skrelin, Pavel A

    2016-09-01

    To date, although much attention has been paid to the estimation and modeling of the voice source (ie, the glottal airflow volume velocity), the measurement and characterization of the supraglottal pressure wave have been much less studied. Some previous results have unveiled that the supraglottal pressure wave has some spectral resonances similar to those of the voice pressure wave. This makes the supraglottal wave partially intelligible. Although the explanation for such effect seems to be clearly related to the reflected pressure wave traveling upstream along the vocal tract, the influence that nonlinear source-filter interaction has on it is not as clear. This article provides an insight into this issue by comparing the acoustic analyses of measured and simulated supraglottal and voice waves. Simulations have been performed using a high-dimensional discrete vocal fold model. Results of such comparative analysis indicate that spectral resonances in the supraglottal wave are mainly caused by the regressive pressure wave that travels upstream along the vocal tract and not by source-tract interaction. On the contrary and according to simulation results, source-tract interaction has a role in the loss of intelligibility that happens in the supraglottal wave with respect to the voice wave. This loss of intelligibility mainly corresponds to spectral differences for frequencies above 1500 Hz. PMID:26377510

  18. On the interaction of deep water waves and exponential shear currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jun; Cang, Jie; Liao, Shi-Jun

    2009-05-01

    A train of periodic deep-water waves propagating on a steady shear current with a vertical distribution of vorticity is investigated by an analytic method, namely the homotopy analysis method (HAM). The magnitude of the vorticity varies exponentially with the magnitude of the stream function, while remaining constant on a particular streamline. The so-called Dubreil-Jacotin transformation is used to transfer the original exponentially nonlinear boundary-value problem in an unknown domain into an algebraically nonlinear boundary-value problem in a known domain. Convergent series solutions are obtained not only for small amplitude water waves on a weak current but also for large amplitude waves on a strong current. The nonlinear wave-current interaction is studied in detail. It is found that an aiding shear current tends to enlarge the wave phase speed, sharpen the wave crest, but shorten the maximum wave height, while an opposing shear current has the opposite effect. Besides, the amplitude of waves and fluid velocity decay over the depth more quickly on an aiding shear current but more slowly on an opposing shear current than that of waves on still water. Furthermore, it is found that Stokes criteria of wave breaking is still valid for waves on a shear current: a train of propagating waves on a shear current breaks as the fiuid velocity at crest equals the wave phase speed. Especially, it is found that the highest waves on an opposing shear current are even higher and steeper than that of waves on still water. Mathematically, this analytic method is rather general in principle and can be employed to solve many types of nonlinear partial differential equations with variable coefficients in science, finance and engineering.

  19. Optically tunable acoustic wave band-pass filter

    SciTech Connect

    Swinteck, N.; Lucas, P.; Deymier, P. A.

    2014-12-15

    The acoustic properties of a hybrid composite that exhibits both photonic and phononic behavior are investigated numerically with finite-element and finite-difference time-domain simulations. The structure is constituted of a periodic array of photonic resonant cavities embedded in a background superlattice. The resonant cavities contain a photo-elastic chalcogenide glass that undergoes atomic-scale structural reorganization when irradiated with light having energy close to its band-gap. Photo-excitation of the chalcogenide glass changes its elastic properties and, consequently, augments the acoustic transmission spectrum of the composite. By modulating the intensity of light irradiating the hybrid photonic/phononic structure, the position and spectral width of phonon passing-bands can be controlled. This demonstration offers the technological platform for optically-tunable acoustic wave band-pass filters.

  20. Optically tunable acoustic wave band-pass filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinteck, N.; Lucas, P.; Deymier, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    The acoustic properties of a hybrid composite that exhibits both photonic and phononic behavior are investigated numerically with finite-element and finite-difference time-domain simulations. The structure is constituted of a periodic array of photonic resonant cavities embedded in a background superlattice. The resonant cavities contain a photo-elastic chalcogenide glass that undergoes atomic-scale structural reorganization when irradiated with light having energy close to its band-gap. Photo-excitation of the chalcogenide glass changes its elastic properties and, consequently, augments the acoustic transmission spectrum of the composite. By modulating the intensity of light irradiating the hybrid photonic/phononic structure, the position and spectral width of phonon passing-bands can be controlled. This demonstration offers the technological platform for optically-tunable acoustic wave band-pass filters.

  1. Standing wave acoustic levitation on an annular plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandemir, Mehmet Hakan; Çalışkan, Mehmet

    2016-11-01

    In standing wave acoustic levitation technique, a standing wave is formed between a source and a reflector. Particles can be attracted towards pressure nodes in standing waves owing to a spring action through which particles can be suspended in air. This operation can be performed on continuous structures as well as in several numbers of axes. In this study an annular acoustic levitation arrangement is introduced. Design features of the arrangement are discussed in detail. Bending modes of the annular plate, known as the most efficient sound generation mechanism in such structures, are focused on. Several types of bending modes of the plate are simulated and evaluated by computer simulations. Waveguides are designed to amplify waves coming from sources of excitation, that are, transducers. With the right positioning of the reflector plate, standing waves are formed in the space between the annular vibrating plate and the reflector plate. Radiation forces are also predicted. It is demonstrated that small particles can be suspended in air at pressure nodes of the standing wave corresponding to a particular bending mode.

  2. Modelling the impulse diffraction field of shear waves in transverse isotropic viscoelastic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatelin, Simon; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Bernal, Miguel; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2015-05-01

    The generation of shear waves from an ultrasound focused beam has been developed as a major concept for remote palpation using shear wave elastography (SWE). For muscular diagnostic applications, characteristics of the shear wave profile will strongly depend on characteristics of the transducer as well as the orientation of muscular fibers and the tissue viscoelastic properties. The numerical simulation of shear waves generated from a specific probe in an anisotropic viscoelastic medium is a key issue for further developments of SWE in fibrous soft tissues. In this study we propose a complete numerical tool allowing 3D simulation of a shear wave front in anisotropic viscoelastic media. From the description of an ultrasonic transducer, the shear wave source is simulated by using Field’s II software and shear wave propagation described by using the Green’s formalism. Finally, the comparison between simulations and experiments are successively performed for both shear wave velocity and dispersion profile in a transverse isotropic hydrogel phantom, in vivo forearm muscle and in vivo biceps brachii.

  3. Modelling the impulse diffraction field of shear waves in transverse isotropic viscoelastic medium.

    PubMed

    Chatelin, Simon; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Bernal, Miguel; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2015-05-01

    The generation of shear waves from an ultrasound focused beam has been developed as a major concept for remote palpation using shear wave elastography (SWE). For muscular diagnostic applications, characteristics of the shear wave profile will strongly depend on characteristics of the transducer as well as the orientation of muscular fibers and the tissue viscoelastic properties. The numerical simulation of shear waves generated from a specific probe in an anisotropic viscoelastic medium is a key issue for further developments of SWE in fibrous soft tissues. In this study we propose a complete numerical tool allowing 3D simulation of a shear wave front in anisotropic viscoelastic media. From the description of an ultrasonic transducer, the shear wave source is simulated by using Field's II software and shear wave propagation described by using the Green's formalism. Finally, the comparison between simulations and experiments are successively performed for both shear wave velocity and dispersion profile in a transverse isotropic hydrogel phantom, in vivo forearm muscle and in vivo biceps brachii.

  4. Laser-generated acoustic wave studies on tattoo pigment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, Lorna M.; Dickinson, Mark R.; King, Terence A.

    1996-01-01

    A Q-switched alexandrite laser (180 ns at 755 nm) was used to irradiate samples of agar embedded with red, black and green tattoo dyes. The acoustic waves generated in the samples were detected using a PVDF membrane hydrophone and compared to theoretical expectations. The laser pulses were found to generate acoustic waves in the black and green samples but not in the red pigment. Pressures of up to 1.4 MPa were produced with irradiances of up to 96 MWcm-2 which is comparable to the irradiances used to clear pigment embedded in skin. The pressure gradient generated across pigment particles was approximately 1.09 X 1010 Pam-1 giving a pressure difference of 1.09 +/- 0.17 MPa over a particle with mean diameter 100 micrometers . This is not sufficient to permanently damage skin which has a tensile strength of 7.4 MPa.

  5. High-Temperature Piezoelectric Crystals for Acoustic Wave Sensor Applications.

    PubMed

    Zu, Hongfei; Wu, Huiyan; Wang, Qing-Ming

    2016-03-01

    In this review paper, nine different types of high-temperature piezoelectric crystals and their sensor applications are overviewed. The important materials' properties of these piezoelectric crystals including dielectric constant, elastic coefficients, piezoelectric coefficients, electromechanical coupling coefficients, and mechanical quality factor are discussed in detail. The determination methods of these physical properties are also presented. Moreover, the growth methods, structures, and properties of these piezoelectric crystals are summarized and compared. Of particular interest are langasite and oxyborate crystals, which exhibit no phase transitions prior to their melting points ∼ 1500 °C and possess high electrical resistivity, piezoelectric coefficients, and mechanical quality factor at ultrahigh temperature ( ∼ 1000 °C). Finally, some research results on surface acoustic wave (SAW) and bulk acoustic wave (BAW) sensors developed using this high-temperature piezoelectric crystals are discussed.

  6. HF Doppler observations of acoustic waves excited by the earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichinose, T.; Takagi, K.; Tanaka, T.; Okuzawa, T.; Shibata, T.; Sato, Y.; Nagasawa, C.; Ogawa, T.

    1985-01-01

    Ionospheric disturbances caused by the earthquake of a relatively small and large epicentral distance have been detected by a network of HF-Doppler sounders in central Japan and Kyoto station, respectively. The HF-Doppler data of a small epicentral distance, together with the seismic data, have been used to formulate a mechanism whereby ionospheric disturbances are produced by the Urakawa-Oki earthquake in Japan. Comparison of the dynamic spectra of these data has revealed experimentally that the atmosphere acts as a low-pass filter for upward-propagating acoustic waves. By surveying the earthquakes for which the magnitude M is larger than 6.0, researchers found the ionospheric effect in 16 cases of 82 seismic events. As almost all these effects have occurred in the daytime, it is considered that it may result from the filtering effect of the upward-propagating acoustic waves.

  7. Comparison of Transmission Line Methods for Surface Acoustic Wave Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William; Atkinson, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) technology is low cost, rugged, lightweight, extremely low power and can be used to develop passive wireless sensors. For these reasons, NASA is investigating the use of SAW technology for Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace structures. To facilitate rapid prototyping of passive SAW sensors for aerospace applications, SAW models have been developed. This paper reports on the comparison of three methods of modeling SAWs. The three models are the Impulse Response Method (a first order model), and two second order matrix methods; the conventional matrix approach, and a modified matrix approach that is extended to include internal finger reflections. The second order models are based upon matrices that were originally developed for analyzing microwave circuits using transmission line theory. Results from the models are presented with measured data from devices. Keywords: Surface Acoustic Wave, SAW, transmission line models, Impulse Response Method.

  8. High-Temperature Piezoelectric Crystals for Acoustic Wave Sensor Applications.

    PubMed

    Zu, Hongfei; Wu, Huiyan; Wang, Qing-Ming

    2016-03-01

    In this review paper, nine different types of high-temperature piezoelectric crystals and their sensor applications are overviewed. The important materials' properties of these piezoelectric crystals including dielectric constant, elastic coefficients, piezoelectric coefficients, electromechanical coupling coefficients, and mechanical quality factor are discussed in detail. The determination methods of these physical properties are also presented. Moreover, the growth methods, structures, and properties of these piezoelectric crystals are summarized and compared. Of particular interest are langasite and oxyborate crystals, which exhibit no phase transitions prior to their melting points ∼ 1500 °C and possess high electrical resistivity, piezoelectric coefficients, and mechanical quality factor at ultrahigh temperature ( ∼ 1000 °C). Finally, some research results on surface acoustic wave (SAW) and bulk acoustic wave (BAW) sensors developed using this high-temperature piezoelectric crystals are discussed. PMID:26886982

  9. Impact of Acoustic Standing Waves on Structural Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolaini, Ali R.

    2014-01-01

    For several decades large reverberant chambers and most recently direct field acoustic testing have been used in the aerospace industry to test larger structures with low surface densities such as solar arrays and reflectors to qualify them and to detect faults in the design and fabrication. It has been reported that in reverberant chamber and direct acoustic testing, standing acoustic modes may strongly couple with the fundamental structural modes of the test hardware (Reference 1). In this paper results from a recent reverberant chamber acoustic test of a composite reflector are discussed. These results provide further convincing evidence of the acoustic standing wave and structural modes coupling phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to alert test organizations to this phenomenon so that they can account for the potential increase in structural responses and ensure that flight hardware undergoes safe testing. An understanding of the coupling phenomenon may also help minimize the over and/or under testing that could pose un-anticipated structural and flight qualification issues.

  10. High-Temperature Surface-Acoustic-Wave Transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Xiaoliang; Tittmann, Bernhard R.

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft-engine rotating equipment usually operates at high temperature and stress. Non-invasive inspection of microcracks in those components poses a challenge for the non-destructive evaluation community. A low-profile ultrasonic guided wave sensor can detect cracks in situ. The key feature of the sensor is that it should withstand high temperatures and excite strong surface wave energy to inspect surface/subsurface cracks. As far as the innovators know at the time of this reporting, there is no existing sensor that is mounted to the rotor disks for crack inspection; the most often used technology includes fluorescent penetrant inspection or eddy-current probes for disassembled part inspection. An efficient, high-temperature, low-profile surface acoustic wave transducer design has been identified and tested for nondestructive evaluation of structures or materials. The development is a Sol-Gel bismuth titanate-based surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) sensor that can generate efficient surface acoustic waves for crack inspection. The produced sensor is very thin (submillimeter), and can generate surface waves up to 540 C. Finite element analysis of the SAW transducer design was performed to predict the sensor behavior, and experimental studies confirmed the results. One major uniqueness of the Sol-Gel bismuth titanate SAW sensor is that it is easy to implement to structures of various shapes. With a spray coating process, the sensor can be applied to surfaces of large curvatures. Second, the sensor is very thin (as a coating) and has very minimal effect on airflow or rotating equipment imbalance. Third, it can withstand temperatures up to 530 C, which is very useful for engine applications where high temperature is an issue.

  11. Acceleration of acoustical emission precursors preceding failure in sheared granular material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, P. A.; Kaproth, B. M.; Scuderi, M.; Ferdowsi, B.; Griffa, M.; Carmeliet, J.; Guyer, R. A.; Le Bas, P.; Trugman, D.; Ben Naim, E.; Daub, E. G.; Marone, C.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquake precursor observations are becoming progressively more widespread as instrumentation improves, in particular for interplate earthquakes (e.g., Bouchon et al., Nature Geoscience, 2013). One question regarding precursor behavior is whether or not they are due to a triggering cascade where one precursor triggers the next, or if they are independent events resulting from slow slip. We investigate this topic in order to characterize the physics of precursors, by applying laboratory experiments of sheared granular media in a bi-axial configuration. We sheared layers of glass beads under applied normal loads of 2-8 MPa, shearing rates of 5-10 μm/s at room temperature and humidity. We show that above ~ 3 MPa load, precursors are manifest by an exponential increase in time of the acoustic emission (AE), with an additional acceleration of event rate leading to the primary stick-slip failure event. The recorded AE are clearly correlated with small drops in shear stress during slow slip prior to the main stick-slip failure. Event precursors take place where the material is still modestly dilating, yet while the macroscopic frictional strength is no longer increasing. The precursors are of order 100x smaller in recorded strain amplitude than the stick-slip events. We are currently working on statistical methods to determine whether or not the precursors are triggered cascades. [reference: Bouchon et al., (2013) Nature Geoscience 6, 299-302 doi:10.1038/ngeo1770].

  12. Surface acoustic wave probe implant for predicting epileptic seizures

    DOEpatents

    Gopalsami, Nachappa; Kulikov, Stanislav; Osorio, Ivan; Raptis, Apostolos C.

    2012-04-24

    A system and method for predicting and avoiding a seizure in a patient. The system and method includes use of an implanted surface acoustic wave probe and coupled RF antenna to monitor temperature of the patient's brain, critical changes in the temperature characteristic of a precursor to the seizure. The system can activate an implanted cooling unit which can avoid or minimize a seizure in the patient.

  13. Space manufacturing of surface acoustic wave devices, appendix D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sardella, G.

    1973-01-01

    Space manufacturing of transducers in a vibration free environment is discussed. Fabrication of the masks, and possible manufacturing of the surface acoustic wave components aboard a space laboratory would avoid the inherent ground vibrations and the frequency limitation imposed by a seismic isolator pad. The manufacturing vibration requirements are identified. The concepts of space manufacturing are analyzed. A development program for manufacturing transducers is recommended.

  14. Modelling study of challenges in sinkhole detection with shear wave reflection seismics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burschil, Thomas; Krawczyk, CharLotte M.

    2016-04-01

    The detection of cavities with reflection seismics is a difficult task even if high impedance contrasts are assumed. Especially the shear wave reflection method with a higher resolution potential trough lower velocities and short wavelength has come into focus of investigation. But shear wave propagation fails if material exists that partially has no shear strength. The shear wave does not propagate into or through those voids. Here, we evaluate the influence of a possible fracture zone above a cavity. We simulate shear wave propagation with finite difference modelling for two reference models, with and without cavity, and various sets of input models with a fracture zone above the cavity. Reflections and multiples of the reference models image the subsidence structure and the cavity. For the fracture input models, we implemented a fracture network, derived from numerical crack propagation modelling (Schneider-Löbens et al., 2015). The cracks possess the minimum possible aperture of one grid point (i.e. 0.1 m) and no shear stiffness. The seismic modelling exhibits that the shear wave does not pass through the fracture zone and shadows the subjacent cavity. Sequences of randomly discontinuous cracks, cf. displacement discontinuity model with zero crack stiffness, approximate partially seismic connected rock on both sides of the crack. The amount of these seismic pathways determines whether a reflection of the cavity can be detected at the surface or not. Cracks with higher aperture, e.g. two or three grid points, need a higher amount of intact rock/defective cracks, since more connected grid points are necessary to create seismic pathways. Furthermore, it turns out that the crack filling is important for shear wave transmission. While a mineralized fracture zone, implemented with high velocity, facilitate shear wave propagation, water or air-filled cracks avoid shear wave transmission. Crack orientation affects the shear wave propagation through the geometry. A

  15. Wavefield Analysis of Rayleigh Waves for Near-Surface Shear-Wave Velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chong

    2011-12-01

    Shear (S)-wave velocity is a key property of near-surface materials and is the fundamental parameter for many environmental and engineering geophysical studies. Directly acquiring accurate S-wave velocities from a seismic shot gather is usually difficult due to the poor signal-to-noise ratio. The relationship between Rayleigh-wave phase velocity and frequency has been widely utilized to estimate the S-wave velocities in shallow layers using the multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) technique. Hence, Rayleigh wave is a main focus of most near-surface seismic studies. Conventional dispersion analysis of Rayleigh waves assumes that the earth is laterally homogeneous and the free surface is horizontally flat, which limits the application of surface-wave methods to only 1D earth models or very smooth 2D models. In this study I extend the analysis of Rayleigh waves to a 2D domain by employing the 2D full elastic wave equation so as to address the lateral heterogeneity problem. I first discuss the accurate simulation of Rayleigh waves through finite-difference method and the boundary absorbing problems in the numerical modeling with a high Poisson's ratio (> 0.4), which is a unique near-surface problem. Then I develop an improved vacuum formulation to generate accurate synthetic seismograms focusing on Rayleigh waves in presence of surface topography and internal discontinuities. With these solutions to forward modeling of Rayleigh waves, I evaluate the influence of surface topography to conventional dispersion analysis in 2D and 3D domains by numerical investigations. At last I examine the feasibility of inverting waveforms of Rayleigh waves for shallow S-wave velocities using a genetic algorithm. Results of the study show that Rayleigh waves can be accurately simulated in near surface using the improved vacuum formulation. Spurious reflections during the numerical modeling can be efficiently suppressed by the simplified multiaxial perfectly matched layers. The

  16. Decay of transverse acoustic waves in a pulsed gas laser

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarny, V.A.

    1980-11-01

    The long-term characteristics of transverse acoustic waves in the cavity of a pulsed gaseous laser were studied by analyzing them in a straight duct configuration with nonlinear techniques used in sonic boom problems. A decaying sawtooth waveform containing a shockwave reverberated in the cavity transverse to the flow direction. In the asymptotic decay, the relative pressure perturbation of the wave varies as the 2/5 power of the product of the relative overpressure from the pulse and the speed of sound in the gas.

  17. Volumetric measurements of a spatially growing dust acoustic wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jeremiah D.

    2012-11-01

    In this study, tomographic particle image velocimetry (tomo-PIV) techniques are used to make volumetric measurements of the dust acoustic wave (DAW) in a weakly coupled dusty plasma system in an argon, dc glow discharge plasma. These tomo-PIV measurements provide the first instantaneous volumetric measurement of a naturally occurring propagating DAW. These measurements reveal over the measured volume that the measured wave mode propagates in all three spatial dimensional and exhibits the same spatial growth rate and wavelength in each spatial direction.

  18. Fluid Effects on Shear for Seismic Waves in Finely Layered Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, J G

    2004-07-22

    Although there are five effective shear moduli for any layered VTI medium, one and only one effective shear modulus of the layered system (namely the uniaxial shear) contains all the dependence of pore fluids on the elastic or poroelastic constants that can be observed in vertically polarized shear waves. Pore fluids can increase the magnitude the shear energy stored in this modulus by an amount that ranges from the smallest to the largest effective shear moduli of the VTI system. But, since there are five shear moduli in play, the overall increase in shear energy due to fluids is reduced by a factor of about 5 in general. We can therefore give definite bounds on the maximum increase of overall shear modulus, being about 20% of the allowed range as liquid is fully substituted for gas. An attendant increase of density (depending on porosity and fluid density) by approximately 5 to 10% decreases the shear wave speed and, thereby, partially offsets the effect of this shear modulus increase. The final result is an increase of shear wave speed on the order of 5 to 10%. This increase is shown to be possible under most favorable circumstances - i.e. when the shear modulus fluctuations are large (resulting in strong anisotropy) and the medium behaves in an undrained fashion due to fluid trapping. At frequencies higher than seismic (such as sonic and ultrasonic waves for well-logging or laboratory experiments), resulting short response times also produce the requisite undrained behavior and, therefore, fluids also affect shear waves at high frequencies by increasing rigidity.

  19. Surface acoustic waves enhance neutrophil killing of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Loike, John D; Plitt, Anna; Kothari, Komal; Zumeris, Jona; Budhu, Sadna; Kavalus, Kaitlyn; Ray, Yonatan; Jacob, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms are structured communities of bacteria that play a major role in the pathogenicity of bacteria and are the leading cause of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections on indwelling catheters and medical prosthetic devices. Failure to resolve these biofilm infections may necessitate the surgical removal of the prosthetic device which can be debilitating and costly. Recent studies have shown that application of surface acoustic waves to catheter surfaces can reduce the incidence of infections by a mechanism that has not yet been clarified. We report here the effects of surface acoustic waves (SAW) on the capacity of human neutrophils to eradicate S. epidermidis bacteria in a planktonic state and within biofilms. Utilizing a novel fibrin gel system that mimics a tissue-like environment, we show that SAW, at an intensity of 0.3 mW/cm(2), significantly enhances human neutrophil killing of S. epidermidis in a planktonic state and within biofilms by enhancing human neutrophil chemotaxis in response to chemoattractants. In addition, we show that the integrin CD18 plays a significant role in the killing enhancement observed in applying SAW. We propose from out data that this integrin may serve as mechanoreceptor for surface acoustic waves enhancing neutrophil chemotaxis and killing of bacteria.

  20. EXCITATION OF ACOUSTIC WAVES BY VORTICES IN THE QUIET SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Kitiashvili, I. N.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Mansour, N. N.; Wray, A. A.

    2011-02-01

    The five-minute oscillations are one of the basic properties of solar convection. Observations show a mixture of a large number of acoustic wave fronts propagating from their sources. We investigate the process of acoustic waves excitation from the point of view of individual events, by using a realistic three-dimensional radiative hydrodynamic simulation of the quiet Sun. The results show that the excitation events are related to the dynamics of vortex tubes (or swirls) in intergranular lanes of solar convection. These whirlpool-like flows are characterized by very strong horizontal velocities (7-11 km s{sup -1}) and downflows ({approx}7 km s{sup -1}), and are accompanied by strong decreases of temperature, density, and pressure at the surface and 0.5-1 Mm below the surface. High-speed whirlpool flows can attract and capture other vortices. According to our simulation results the processes of vortex interaction, such as vortex annihilation, can cause excitation of acoustic waves on the Sun.

  1. Energy scavenging system by acoustic wave and integrated wireless communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Albert

    The purpose of the project was developing an energy-scavenging device for other bio implantable devices. Researchers and scientist have studied energy scavenging method because of the limitation of traditional power source, especially for bio-implantable devices. In this research, piezoelectric power generator that activates by acoustic wave, or music was developed. Follow by power generator, a wireless communication also integrated with the device for monitoring the power generation. The Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) bimorph cantilever with a proof mass at the free end tip was studied to convert acoustic wave to power. The music or acoustic wave played through a speaker to vibrate piezoelectric power generator. The LC circuit integrated with the piezoelectric material for purpose of wireless monitoring power generation. However, wireless monitoring can be used as wireless power transmission, which means the signal received via wireless communication also can be used for power for other devices. Size of 74 by 7 by 7cm device could generate and transmit 100mVp from 70 mm distance away with electrical resonant frequency at 420.2 kHz..

  2. RADIATIVE HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF ACOUSTIC WAVES IN SUNSPOTS

    SciTech Connect

    Bard, S.; Carlsson, M.

    2010-10-10

    We investigate the formation and evolution of the Ca II H line in a sunspot. The aim of our study is to establish the mechanisms underlying the formation of the frequently observed brightenings of small regions of sunspot umbrae known as 'umbral flashes'. We perform fully consistent NLTE radiation hydrodynamic simulations of the propagation of acoustic waves in sunspot umbrae and conclude that umbral flashes result from increased emission of the local solar material during the passage of acoustic waves originating in the photosphere and steepening to shock in the chromosphere. To quantify the significance of possible physical mechanisms that contribute to the formation of umbral flashes, we perform a set of simulations on a grid formed by different wave power spectra, different inbound coronal radiation, and different parameterized chromospheric heating. Our simulations show that the waves with frequencies in the range 4.5-7.0 mHz are critical to the formation of the observed blueshifts of umbral flashes while waves with frequencies below 4.5 mHz do not play a role despite their dominance in the photosphere. The observed emission in the Ca II H core between flashes only occurs in the simulations that include significant inbound coronal radiation and/or extra non-radiative chromospheric heating in addition to shock dissipation.

  3. Ion acoustic shock wave in collisional equal mass plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Adak, Ashish; Ghosh, Samiran; Chakrabarti, Nikhil

    2015-10-15

    The effect of ion-ion collision on the dynamics of nonlinear ion acoustic wave in an unmagnetized pair-ion plasma has been investigated. The two-fluid model has been used to describe the dynamics of both positive and negative ions with equal masses. It is well known that in the dynamics of the weakly nonlinear wave, the viscosity mediates wave dissipation in presence of weak nonlinearity and dispersion. This dissipation is responsible for the shock structures in pair-ion plasma. Here, it has been shown that the ion-ion collision in presence of collective phenomena mediated by the plasma current is the source of dissipation that causes the Burgers' term which is responsible for the shock structures in equal mass pair-ion plasma. The dynamics of the weakly nonlinear wave is governed by the Korteweg-de Vries Burgers equation. The analytical and numerical investigations revealed that the ion acoustic wave exhibits both oscillatory and monotonic shock structures depending on the frequency of ion-ion collision parameter. The results have been discussed in the context of the fullerene pair-ion plasma experiments.

  4. Characteristics of acoustic gravity waves obtained from Dynasonde data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrea, Cǎtǎlin; Zabotin, Nikolay; Bullett, Terrence; Fuller-Rowell, Tim; Fang, Tzu-Wei; Codrescu, Mihail

    2016-04-01

    Traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) are ubiquitous in the thermosphere-ionosphere and are often assumed to be caused by acoustic gravity waves (AGWs). This study performs an analysis of the TID and AGW activity above Wallops Island, VA, during October 2013. The variations in electron density and ionospheric tilts obtained with the Dynasonde technique are used as primary indicators of wave activity. The temporal and spectral characteristics of the data are discussed in detail, using also results of the Whole Atmosphere Model (WAM) and the Global Ionosphere Plasmasphere Model (GIP). The full set of propagation parameters (frequency, and the vertical, zonal and meridional wave vector components) of the TIDs is determined over the 160-220 km height range. A test of the self-consistency of these results within the confines of the theoretical AGW dispersion relation is devised. This is applied to a sample data set of 24 October 2013. A remarkable agreement has been achieved for wave periods between 52 and 21 min, for which we can rigorously claim the TIDs are caused by underlying acoustic gravity waves. The Wallops Island Dynasonde can operate for extended periods at a 2 min cadence, allowing determination of the statistical distributions of propagation parameters. A dominant population of TIDs is identified in the frequency band below 1 mHz, and for it, the distributions of the horizontal wavelengths, vertical wavelengths, and horizontal phase speeds are obtained.

  5. Dual mode acoustic wave sensor for precise pressure reading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Xiaojing; Kropelnicki, Piotr; Wang, Yong; Randles, Andrew Benson; Chuan Chai, Kevin Tshun; Cai, Hong; Gu, Yuan Dong

    2014-09-01

    In this letter, a Microelectromechanical system acoustic wave sensor, which has a dual mode (lateral field exited Lamb wave mode and surface acoustic wave (SAW) mode) behavior, is presented for precious pressure change read out. Comb-like interdigital structured electrodes on top of piezoelectric material aluminium nitride (AlN) are used to generate the wave modes. The sensor membrane consists of single crystalline silicon formed by backside-etching of the bulk material of a silicon on insulator wafer having variable device thickness layer (5 μm-50 μm). With this principle, a pressure sensor has been fabricated and mounted on a pressure test package with pressure applied to the backside of the membrane within a range of 0 psi to 300 psi. The temperature coefficient of frequency was experimentally measured in the temperature range of -50 °C to 300 °C. This idea demonstrates a piezoelectric based sensor having two modes SAW/Lamb wave for direct physical parameter—pressure readout and temperature cancellation which can operate in harsh environment such as oil and gas exploration, automobile and aeronautic applications using the dual mode behavior of the sensor and differential readout at the same time.

  6. Ion acoustic shock wave in collisional equal mass plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adak, Ashish; Ghosh, Samiran; Chakrabarti, Nikhil

    2015-10-01

    The effect of ion-ion collision on the dynamics of nonlinear ion acoustic wave in an unmagnetized pair-ion plasma has been investigated. The two-fluid model has been used to describe the dynamics of both positive and negative ions with equal masses. It is well known that in the dynamics of the weakly nonlinear wave, the viscosity mediates wave dissipation in presence of weak nonlinearity and dispersion. This dissipation is responsible for the shock structures in pair-ion plasma. Here, it has been shown that the ion-ion collision in presence of collective phenomena mediated by the plasma current is the source of dissipation that causes the Burgers' term which is responsible for the shock structures in equal mass pair-ion plasma. The dynamics of the weakly nonlinear wave is governed by the Korteweg-de Vries Burgers equation. The analytical and numerical investigations revealed that the ion acoustic wave exhibits both oscillatory and monotonic shock structures depending on the frequency of ion-ion collision parameter. The results have been discussed in the context of the fullerene pair-ion plasma experiments.

  7. Acoustic Wave Stimulated Enhanced Oil Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichmann, Sven; Giese, Rüdiger; Amro, Mohammed

    2013-04-01

    High demand and the finite oil deposits will be a problem in the future. To temper the impact of a shortage in crude oil, a lot of research in the field of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is worldwide ongoing. Using seismic waves to stimulate recovery of oil is known as seismic-EOR. The development of a stimulation procedure using seismic sources and the evaluation of the obtained data in a real oil field is the aim of the project WAVE.O.R. The project is funded by the German scientific society for oil, gas and coal (DGMK). The Technical University of Freiberg (TUBAF) and the German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ) in Potsdam developed a flooding cell connected with magnetostrictive actuators as sources for seismic energy. This device is eligible to survey the impact of different seismic stimulation parameter like frequency, alignment, amplitude and rock characteristics on oil recovery. The obtained laboratory data of flooding experiments using seismic waves were analyzed for key features like water breakthrough point, oil recovery and oil fraction. New approach has been developed, which consists of the connection of a principal component analysis with a clustering algorithm. This new technique allows us a better understanding and thus prediction of the recovery behavior of oil bearing sediments. The experiments show promising possibilities to enhance oil recovery with seismic stimulation. Especially the combination of different frequencies between 100 Hz and 4000 Hz had a positive impact on oil recovery. The responsible mechanisms were identified and discussed. Data obtained with the laboratory device will be applied in a field test using a borehole device developed by the GFZ in the project "Seismic Prediction While Drilling" (SPWD). For this purpose experiments are conducted to obtain the radiation pattern of the seismic sources used by the SPWD device in a borehole. In addition, the development of a control setup for the 1-D actuator array is an aim of the

  8. Influence of surface acoustic waves induced acoustic streaming on the kinetics of electrochemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tietze, Sabrina; Schlemmer, Josefine; Lindner, Gerhard

    2013-12-01

    The kinetics of electrochemical reactions is controlled by diffusion processes of charge carriers across a boundary layer between the electrode and the electrolyte, which result in a shielding of the electric field inside the electrolyte and a concentration gradient across this boundary layer. In accumulators the diffusion rate determines the rather long time needed for charging, which is a major drawback for electric mobility. This diffusion boundary can be removed by acoustic streaming in the electrolyte induced by surface acoustic waves propagating of the electrode, which results in an increase of the charging current and thus in a reduction of the time needed for charging. For a quantitative study of the influence of acoustic streaming on the charge transport an electropolishing cell with vertically oriented copper electrodes and diluted H3PO4-Propanol electrolytes were used. Lamb waves with various excitation frequencies were exited on the anode with different piezoelectric transducers, which induced acoustic streaming in the overlaying electrolytic liquid. An increase of the polishing current of up to approximately 100 % has been obtained with such a set-up.

  9. Acoustic and Cavitation Fields of Shock Wave Therapy Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitnis, Parag V.; Cleveland, Robin O.

    2006-05-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is considered a viable treatment modality for orthopedic ailments. Despite increasing clinical use, the mechanisms by which ESWT devices generate a therapeutic effect are not yet understood. The mechanistic differences in various devices and their efficacies might be dependent on their acoustic and cavitation outputs. We report acoustic and cavitation measurements of a number of different shock wave therapy devices. Two devices were electrohydraulic: one had a large reflector (HMT Ossatron) and the other was a hand-held source (HMT Evotron); the other device was a pneumatically driven device (EMS Swiss DolorClast Vet). Acoustic measurements were made using a fiber-optic probe hydrophone and a PVDF hydrophone. A dual passive cavitation detection system was used to monitor cavitation activity. Qualitative differences between these devices were also highlighted using a high-speed camera. We found that the Ossatron generated focused shock waves with a peak positive pressure around 40 MPa. The Evotron produced peak positive pressure around 20 MPa, however, its acoustic output appeared to be independent of the power setting of the device. The peak positive pressure from the DolorClast was about 5 MPa without a clear shock front. The DolorClast did not generate a focused acoustic field. Shadowgraph images show that the wave propagating from the DolorClast is planar and not focused in the vicinity of the hand-piece. All three devices produced measurable cavitation with a characteristic time (cavitation inception to bubble collapse) that varied between 95 and 209 μs for the Ossatron, between 59 and 283 μs for the Evotron, and between 195 and 431 μs for the DolorClast. The high-speed camera images show that the cavitation activity for the DolorClast is primarily restricted to the contact surface of the hand-piece. These data indicate that the devices studied here vary in acoustic and cavitation output, which may imply that the

  10. Guided wave opto-acoustic device

    DOEpatents

    Jarecki, Jr., Robert L.; Rakich, Peter Thomas; Camacho, Ryan; Shin, Heedeuk; Cox, Jonathan Albert; Qiu, Wenjun; Wang, Zheng

    2016-02-23

    The various technologies presented herein relate to various hybrid phononic-photonic waveguide structures that can exhibit nonlinear behavior associated with traveling-wave forward stimulated Brillouin scattering (forward-SBS). The various structures can simultaneously guide photons and phonons in a suspended membrane. By utilizing a suspended membrane, a substrate pathway can be eliminated for loss of phonons that suppresses SBS in conventional silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides. Consequently, forward-SBS nonlinear susceptibilities are achievable at about 3000 times greater than achievable with a conventional waveguide system. Owing to the strong phonon-photon coupling achievable with the various embodiments, potential application for the various embodiments presented herein cover a range of radiofrequency (RF) and photonic signal processing applications. Further, the various embodiments presented herein are applicable to applications operating over a wide bandwidth, e.g. 100 MHz to 50 GHz or more.

  11. Ion acoustic and dust acoustic waves at finite size of plasma particles

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, Pavel A. Kuz'menkov, L. S.

    2015-03-15

    We consider the influence of the finite size of ions on the properties of classic plasmas. We focus our attention at the ion acoustic waves for electron-ion plasmas. We also consider the dusty plasmas where we account the finite size of ions and particles of dust and consider the dispersion of dust acoustic waves. The finite size of particles is a classical effect as well as the Coulomb interaction. The finite size of particles considerably contributes to the properties of the dense plasmas in the small wavelength limit. Low temperature dense plasmas, revealing the quantum effects, are also affected by the finite size of plasma particles. Consequently, it is important to consider the finite size of ions in the quantum plasmas as well.

  12. Ambient Noise Surface Wave Tomography for Geotechnical Monitoring Using "Large N" Distributed Acoustic Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Lindsey, N.; Martin, E. R.; Wagner, A. M.; Robertson, M.; Bjella, K.; Gelvin, A.; Ulrich, C.; Wu, Y.; Freifeld, B. M.; Daley, T. M.; Dou, S.

    2015-12-01

    Surface wave tomography using ambient noise sources has found broad application at the regional scale but has not been adopted fully for geotechnical applications despite the abundance of noise sources in this context. The recent development of Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) provides a clear path for inexpensively recording high spatial resolution (< 1m sampling) surface wave data in the context of infrastructure monitoring over significant spatial domains (10s of km). Infrastructure monitoring is particularly crucial in the context of high-latitude installations where a changing global climate can trigger reductions in soil strength due to permafrost thaw. DAS surface wave monitoring systems, particularly those installed in/near transport corridors and coupled to ambient noise inversion algorithms, could be a critical "early warning" system to detect zones of decreased shear strength before failure. We present preliminary ambient noise tomography results from a 1.3 km continuously recording subsurface DAS array used to record traffic noise next to an active road in Fairbanks, AK. The array, depolyed at the Farmer's Loop Permafrost Test Station, was designed as a narrow 2D array and installed via trenching at ~30 cm. We develop a pre-processing and QC approach to analyze the large resulting volume of data, equivalent to a 1300 geophone array sampled at 1 khz. We utilize automated dispersion analysis and a quasi-2D MC inversion to generate a shear wave velocity profile underneath the road in a region of discontinuous permafrost. The results are validated against a high-resolution ERT survey as well as direct-push data on ice content. We also compare vintages of ambient noise DAS data to evaluate the short-term repeatability of the technique in the face of changing noise environments. The resulting dataset demonstrates the utility of using DAS for real-time shear-modulus monitoring in support of critical infrastructure.

  13. Comparing shear-wave velocity profiles inverted from multichannel surface wave with borehole measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Park, C.B.; Hunter, J.A.; Harris, J.B.; Ivanov, J.

    2002-01-01

    Recent field tests illustrate the accuracy and consistency of calculating near-surface shear (S)-wave velocities using multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW). S-wave velocity profiles (S-wave velocity vs. depth) derived from MASW compared favorably to direct borehole measurements at sites in Kansas, British Columbia, and Wyoming. Effects of changing the total number of recording channels, sampling interval, source offset, and receiver spacing on the inverted S-wave velocity were studied at a test site in Lawrence, Kansas. On the average, the difference between MASW calculated Vs and borehole measured Vs in eight wells along the Fraser River in Vancouver, Canada was less than 15%. One of the eight wells was a blind test well with the calculated overall difference between MASW and borehole measurements less than 9%. No systematic differences were observed in derived Vs values from any of the eight test sites. Surface wave analysis performed on surface data from Wyoming provided S-wave velocities in near-surface materials. Velocity profiles from MASW were confirmed by measurements based on suspension log analysis. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Shear wave splitting and upper mantle anisotropy beneath Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, M. D.; van der Hilst, R. D.

    2003-12-01

    Shear wave birefringence is a consequence of seismic anisotropy and is often used, with constraints from mineral physics, to characterize the pattern of upper mantle deformation. In the context of a subduction zone, however, the relationship between measured shear wave splitting parameters (φ , δ t) and geodynamical processes is not straightforward. The three-dimensional pattern of anisotropy in a subduction zone may reflect processes such as corner flow in the mantle wedge, flow around the slab edge, back-arc extension, and motion of the overriding plate. This relationship may be further complicated by complex slab morphology, by the presence of frozen anisotropy in the slab itself, and by the presence of volatiles such as water. In this study, we take advantage of dense station coverage in Japan and use seismic phases covering a wide range of incidence angles, incoming polarization angles, and backazimuths. We take advantage of the good data coverage needed to consider complexities in structure such as multiple anisotropic layers, dipping symmetry axes, and small-scale lateral variations in anisotropic properties. We utilize data from the Japanese F-net network, which comprises 65 broadband seismic stations. We have compiled a database of approximately 1500 splitting measurements of S, SKS, and SKKS phases at F-net stations, and investigate the variations of measured splitting parameters with incoming polarization angle and incidence angle. In the southern part of the array, along the Ryukyu arc, we find that fast directions are consistently trench-parallel, with splitting times of 1 second or more. Moving northward along the array, the measured splitting patterns become more complicated, with significant variations in apparent splitting parameters that indicate complex anisotropic structure. Additionally, measured fast directions vary significantly over short length scales, and stations separated by less than 100 km often exhibit very different splitting

  15. Regional variations in shear wave anisotropy beneath western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, C.; Cassidy, J.; Hyndman, R.; Bostock, M.

    2003-04-01

    We have examined shear wave splitting of SKS phases at 25 broadband stations in western North America to constrain regional trends in anisotropy at the Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) and adjacent regions. At most stations, well-constrained shear wave splitting parameters (delay time and fast direction) were obtained for data from a wide range of azimuths. Delay times of 1.0 to 1.5 s indicate a mantle source for the anisotropy, most likely strain-induced lattice preferred orientation of anisotropic mantle minerals. The fast directions at the CSZ are in good agreement with models for mantle deformation associated with subduction. Within the forearc, fast directions at stations above the Juan de Fuca Plate are parallel to the subduction direction (N70E), suggesting deformation in the mantle beneath the plate due to plate motion. Above the Explorer Plate at the northern end of the CSZ, fast directions are N30E. This may reflect either the more northerly subduction direction of that plate, or a transition from subduction-related deformation to along-margin flow parallel to the transcurrent Queen Charlotte Fault to the north. At four stations in the central backarc, fast directions are parallel to the Juan de Fuca-North America convergence direction, consistent with models of subduction-induced mantle wedge flow. No clear splitting was observed at the two most northern backarc stations, indicating little to no horizontal anisotropy beneath these stations, possibly due to vertical mantle flow around the northern edge of the subducted plate. At a station near the western edge of the North America craton, the splitting parameters show significant azimuthal variations with a 90° periodicity, characteristic of multiple layers of anisotropy. The observations were fit using a two-layer model with an upper anisotropic layer with a fast direction of N12E and delay time of 1.4 s, and a lower layer with a fast direction of N81E and delay time of 2.0 s. The North America craton is

  16. A comparison of four geophysical methods for determining the shear wave velocity of soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, N.; Thitimakorn, T.; Ismail, A.; Hoffman, D.

    2007-01-01

    The Missouri Department of Transportation (MoDOT) routinely acquires seismic cone penetrometer (SCPT) shear wave velocity control as part of the routine investigation of soils within the Mississippi Embayment. In an effort to ensure their geotechnical investigations are as effective and efficient as possible, the SCPT tool and several available alternatives (crosshole [CH]; multichannel analysis of surface waves [MASW]; and refraction microtremor [ReMi]) were evaluated and compared on the basis of field data acquired at two test sites in southeast Missouri. These four methods were ranked in terms of accuracy, functionality, cost, other considerations, and overall utility. It is concluded that MASW data are generally more reliable than SCPT data, comparable to quality ReMi data, and only slightly less accurate than CH data. However, the other advantages of MASW generally make it a superior choice over the CH, SCPT, and ReMi methods for general soil classification purposes to depths of 30 m. MASW data are less expensive than CH data and SCPT data and can normally be acquired in areas inaccessible to drill and SCPT rigs. In contrast to the MASW tool, quality ReMi data can be acquired only in areas where there are interpretable levels of "passive" acoustic energy and only when the geophone array is aligned with the source(s) of such energy.

  17. Shear horizontal feature guided ultrasonic waves in plate structures with 90° transverse bends.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xudong; Manogharan, Prabhakaran; Fan, Zheng; Rajagopal, Prabhu

    2016-02-01

    Antisymmetric and symmetric Lamb-type feature guided waves (FGW) have recently been shown to exist in small angle plate bends. This paper reports Semi-Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) method simulations revealing the existence of a new family of Shear Horizontal (SHB) type of FGW mode in 90° bends in plate structures. Mode shapes and velocity dispersion curves are extracted, demonstrating the SH-like nature of a bend-confined mode identified in studies of power flow across the bend. The SHB mode is shown to have reduced attenuation in the higher frequency range, making it an ideal choice for high-resolution inspection of such bends. Further modal studies examine the physical basis for mode confinement, and argue that this is strongly related to FGW phenomena reported earlier, and also linked to the curvature at the bend region. Wedge acoustic waves discussed widely in literature are shown as arising from surface-limiting of the SHB mode at higher frequencies. The results are validated by experiments and supported by 3D Finite Element (FE) simulations. PMID:26409768

  18. Shear horizontal feature guided ultrasonic waves in plate structures with 90° transverse bends.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xudong; Manogharan, Prabhakaran; Fan, Zheng; Rajagopal, Prabhu

    2016-02-01

    Antisymmetric and symmetric Lamb-type feature guided waves (FGW) have recently been shown to exist in small angle plate bends. This paper reports Semi-Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) method simulations revealing the existence of a new family of Shear Horizontal (SHB) type of FGW mode in 90° bends in plate structures. Mode shapes and velocity dispersion curves are extracted, demonstrating the SH-like nature of a bend-confined mode identified in studies of power flow across the bend. The SHB mode is shown to have reduced attenuation in the higher frequency range, making it an ideal choice for high-resolution inspection of such bends. Further modal studies examine the physical basis for mode confinement, and argue that this is strongly related to FGW phenomena reported earlier, and also linked to the curvature at the bend region. Wedge acoustic waves discussed widely in literature are shown as arising from surface-limiting of the SHB mode at higher frequencies. The results are validated by experiments and supported by 3D Finite Element (FE) simulations.

  19. Interfacial destabilization and atomization driven by surface acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Aisha; Yeo, Leslie Y.; Friend, James R.

    2008-07-01

    Surface acoustic wave atomization is a rapid means for generating micron and submicron aerosol droplets. Little, however, is understood about the mechanisms by which these droplets form due to the complex hydrodynamic processes that occur across widely varying length and time scales. Through experiments, scaling theory, and simple numerical modeling, we elucidate the interfacial destabilization mechanisms that lead to droplet formation. Using a millimeter-order fluid drop exposed to surface acoustic waves as it sits atop a single-crystal lithium niobate piezoelectric substrate, large aerosol droplets on the length scale of the parent drop dimension are ejected through a whipping and pinch-off phenomenon, which occurs at the asymmetrically formed crest of the drop due to leakage of acoustic radiation at the Rayleigh angle. Smaller micron order droplets, on the other hand, are formed due to the axisymmetric breakup of cylindrical liquid jets that are ejected as a consequence of interfacial destabilization. The 10μm droplet dimension correlates with the jet radius and the instability wavelength, both determined from a simple scaling argument involving a viscous-capillary dominant force balance. The results are further supported by numerical solution of the evolution equation governing the interfacial profile of a sessile drop along which an acoustic pressure wave is imposed. Viscous and capillary forces dominate in the bulk of the parent drop, but inertia is dominant in the ejected jets and within a thin boundary layer adjacent to the substrate where surface and interfacial accelerations are large. With the specific exception of parent drops that spread into thin films with thicknesses on the order of the boundary layer dimension prior to atomization, the free surface of the drop is always observed to vibrate at the capillary-viscous resonance frequency—even if the exciting frequency of the surface acoustic wave is several orders of magnitude larger—contrary to

  20. Switchable and Tunable Ferroelectric Bulk Acoustic Wave Resonators and Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saddik, George Nabih

    Ferroelectric materials such as barium titanate (BaTiO 3 or BTO), strontium titanate (SrTiO3 or STO), and their solid solution barium strontium titanate (BaxSr1-xTiO 3 or BST) have been under investigation for over 50 years. BTO, STO, and BST are high-k dielectric materials, with a field dependent permittivity and a perovskite crystal structure. At room temperature BTO is a ferroelectric with a ferroelectric to paraelectric transition temperature of about 116°C (Curie temperature), while STO has no ferroelectric phase. The formation of a solid solution between BTO and STO allows for the engineering of the Curie temperature; the Curie temperature decreses as the mole ratio of barium decreases. Extensive research went into understanding the properties of BST and developing RF circuits such as tunable capacitors, tunable matching networks, tunable filters, phase shifters and harmonic generators. BST tunable capacitors have always had anomalous resonances in the one port scattering parameter measurements, although they are very small they degrade the quality factor of the device, and research went into reducing these resonances as much as possible. The goal of this thesis is to investigate these anomalous resonances and exploit them into RF devices and circuits. Careful investigation showed that these resonances were field induced piezoelectric resonance. Piezoelectric materials such as AlN, ZnO, and PZT are used in many applications, such as resonators, and filters. Thin film bulk acoustic wave resonators (FBAR) have been in use by research and industry since the early 1980s, and in high volume production for cell phone duplexers since early 2000s. FBAR filters and duplexers have several advantages over surface acoustic wave (SAW) and ceramic devices such as high quality factors necessary for sharp filter skirts, small size, high performance, and ease of integration. There are two approaches to designing bulk acoustic wave resonators. The first is an FBAR where a

  1. Simultaneous multipoint acoustic emission sensing using fibre acoustic wave grating sensors with identical spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jung-Ryul; Lee, Seung-Seok; Yoon, Dong-Jin

    2008-08-01

    This paper introduces the development of a simultaneous multipoint acoustic emission (AE) sensing system using a narrowband tuneable laser with high power and fibre acoustic wave grating sensors (FAWGSs). The demodulation technique is the same as that used in existing methods where the narrowband laser peak is tuned to one mid-reflection point in the main lobe of a fibre Bragg grating (FBG) spectrum. However, the sensor head is changed to an FAWGS for which a FBG is installed in a strain-free configuration so that it can detect AE waves in a structure not directly but in the form of a fibre-guided acoustic wave. Therefore since the structural strain cannot make the Bragg wavelength change, multiple FBGs with identical spectrum can be connected with multiple optical paths realized by equal light intensity dividers. The possible temperature difference between the multiple FAWGSs is passively resolved by using short FBGs which provide a wider operating temperature region. Consequently, we can resolve the problem that the FBG spectrum is easily deviated from the lasing wavelength because of the strain. In addition, the simultaneous multipoint sensing capability based on a single laser improves the cost-performance ratio of the optical system as well as reducing the structural inspection time, and enabling in situ health monitoring of real structures exposed to large and dynamic strains. The feasibility of the system is demonstrated in typical applications of in situ structural health monitoring based on AE techniques.

  2. Analysis and measurement of the modulation transfer function of harmonic shear wave induced phase encoding imaging.

    PubMed

    McAleavey, Stephen A

    2014-05-01

    Shear wave induced phase encoding (SWIPE) imaging generates ultrasound backscatter images of tissue-like elastic materials by using traveling shear waves to encode the lateral position of the scatters in the phase of the received echo. In contrast to conventional ultrasound B-scan imaging, SWIPE offers the potential advantages of image formation without beam focusing or steering from a single transducer element, lateral resolution independent of aperture size, and the potential to achieve relatively high lateral resolution with low frequency ultrasound. Here a Fourier series description of the phase modulated echo signal is developed, demonstrating that echo harmonics at multiples of the shear wave frequency reveal target k-space data at identical multiples of the shear wavenumber. Modulation transfer functions of SWIPE imaging systems are calculated for maximum shear wave acceleration and maximum shear constraints, and compared with a conventionally focused aperture. The relative signal-to-noise ratio of the SWIPE method versus a conventionally focused aperture is found through these calculations. Reconstructions of wire targets in a gelatin phantom using 1 and 3.5 MHz ultrasound and a cylindrical shear wave source are presented, generated from the fundamental and second harmonic of the shear wave modulation frequency, demonstrating weak dependence of lateral resolution with ultrasound frequency.

  3. 3-D FDTD simulation of shear waves for evaluation of complex modulus imaging.

    PubMed

    Orescanin, Marko; Wang, Yue; Insana, Michael

    2011-02-01

    The Navier equation describing shear wave propagation in 3-D viscoelastic media is solved numerically with a finite differences time domain (FDTD) method. Solutions are formed in terms of transverse scatterer velocity waves and then verified via comparison to measured wave fields in heterogeneous hydrogel phantoms. The numerical algorithm is used as a tool to study the effects on complex shear modulus estimation from wave propagation in heterogeneous viscoelastic media. We used an algebraic Helmholtz inversion (AHI) technique to solve for the complex shear modulus from simulated and experimental velocity data acquired in 2-D and 3-D. Although 3-D velocity estimates are required in general, there are object geometries for which 2-D inversions provide accurate estimations of the material properties. Through simulations and experiments, we explored artifacts generated in elastic and dynamic-viscous shear modulus images related to the shear wavelength and average viscosity.

  4. Flow velocity measurement with the nonlinear acoustic wave scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didenkulov, Igor; Pronchatov-Rubtsov, Nikolay

    2015-10-01

    A problem of noninvasive measurement of liquid flow velocity arises in many practical applications. To this end the most often approach is the use of the linear Doppler technique. The Doppler frequency shift of signal scattered from the inhomogeneities distributed in a liquid relatively to the emitted frequency is proportional to the sound frequency and velocities of inhomogeneities. In the case of very slow flow one needs to use very high frequency sound. This approach fails in media with strong sound attenuation because acoustic wave attenuation increases with frequency and there is limit in increasing sound intensity, i.e. the cavitation threshold. Another approach which is considered in this paper is based on the method using the difference frequency Doppler Effect for flows with bubbles. This method is based on simultaneous action of two high-frequency primary acoustic waves with closed frequencies on bubbles and registration of the scattered by bubbles acoustic field at the difference frequency. The use of this method is interesting since the scattered difference frequency wave has much lower attenuation in a liquid. The theoretical consideration of the method is given in the paper. The experimental examples confirming the theoretical equations, as well as the ability of the method to be applied in medical diagnostics and in technical applications on measurement of flow velocities in liquids with strong sound attenuation is described. It is shown that the Doppler spectrum form depends on bubble concentration velocity distribution in the primary acoustic beams crossing zone that allows one to measure the flow velocity distribution.

  5. Flow velocity measurement with the nonlinear acoustic wave scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Didenkulov, Igor; Pronchatov-Rubtsov, Nikolay

    2015-10-28

    A problem of noninvasive measurement of liquid flow velocity arises in many practical applications. To this end the most often approach is the use of the linear Doppler technique. The Doppler frequency shift of signal scattered from the inhomogeneities distributed in a liquid relatively to the emitted frequency is proportional to the sound frequency and velocities of inhomogeneities. In the case of very slow flow one needs to use very high frequency sound. This approach fails in media with strong sound attenuation because acoustic wave attenuation increases with frequency and there is limit in increasing sound intensity, i.e. the cavitation threshold. Another approach which is considered in this paper is based on the method using the difference frequency Doppler Effect for flows with bubbles. This method is based on simultaneous action of two high-frequency primary acoustic waves with closed frequencies on bubbles and registration of the scattered by bubbles acoustic field at the difference frequency. The use of this method is interesting since the scattered difference frequency wave has much lower attenuation in a liquid. The theoretical consideration of the method is given in the paper. The experimental examples confirming the theoretical equations, as well as the ability of the method to be applied in medical diagnostics and in technical applications on measurement of flow velocities in liquids with strong sound attenuation is described. It is shown that the Doppler spectrum form depends on bubble concentration velocity distribution in the primary acoustic beams crossing zone that allows one to measure the flow velocity distribution.

  6. Determination of hydrocarbon levels in water via laser-induced acoustics wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidin, Noriah; Hossenian, Raheleh; Duralim, Maisarah; Krishnan, Ganesan; Marsin, Faridah Mohd; Nughro, Waskito; Zainal, Jasman

    2016-04-01

    Hydrocarbon contamination in water is a major environmental concern in terms of foreseen collapse of the natural ecosystem. Hydrocarbon level in water was determined by generating acoustic wave via an innovative laser-induced breakdown in conjunction with high-speed photographic coupling with piezoelectric transducer to trace acoustic wave propagation. A Q-switched Nd:YAG (40 mJ) was focused in cuvette-filled hydrocarbon solution at various concentrations (0-2000 ppm) to induce optical breakdown, shock wave generation and later acoustic wave propagation. A nitro-dye (ND) laser (10 mJ) was used as a flash to illuminate and frozen the acoustic wave propagation. Lasers were synchronised using a digital delay generator. The image of acoustic waves was grabbed and recorded via charged couple device (CCD) video camera at the speed of 30 frames/second with the aid of Matrox software version 9. The optical delay (0.8-10.0 μs) between the acoustic wave formation and its frozen time is recorded through photodetectors. A piezo-electric transducer (PZT) was used to trace the acoustic wave (sound signal), which cascades to a digital oscilloscope. The acoustic speed is calculated from the ratio of acoustic wave radius (1-8 mm) and optical time delay. Acoustic wave speed is found to linearly increase with hydrocarbon concentrations. The acoustic signal generation at higher hydrocarbon levels in water is attributed to supplementary mass transfer and impact on the probe. Integrated high-speed photography with transducer detection system authenticated that the signals indeed emerged from the laser-induced acoustic wave instead of photothermal processes. It is established that the acoustic wave speed in water is used as a fingerprint to detect the hydrocarbon levels.

  7. Synchronization of the dust acoustic wave under microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhunusiri, W. D. Suranga; Goree, J.

    2013-10-01

    Synchronization is a nonlinear phenomenon where a self-excited oscillation, like a wave in a plasma, interacts with an external driving, resulting in an adjustment of the oscillation frequency. To prepare for experiments under microgravity conditions using the PK-4 facility on the International Space Station, we perform a laboratory experiment to observe synchronization of the self-excited dust acoustic wave. An rf glow discharge argon plasma is formed by applying a low power radio frequency voltage to a lower electrode. A 3D dust cloud is formed by levitating 4.83 micron microspheres inside a glass box placed on the lower electrode. The dust acoustic wave is self-excited with a natural frequency of 22 Hz due to an ion streaming instability. A cross section of the dust cloud is illuminated by a vertical laser sheet and imaged from the side with a digital camera. To synchronize the wave, we sinusoidally modulate the overall ion density. Differently from previous experiments, we use a driving electrode that is separate from the electrode that sustains the plasma, and we characterize synchronization by varying both driving amplitude and frequency. Supported by NASA's Physical Science Research Program.

  8. Wave-Particle Interactions in Electron Acoustic Waves in Pure Ion Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Anderegg, F.; Driscoll, C. F.; Dubin, D. H. E.; O'Neil, T. M.

    2009-03-06

    Electron acoustic waves (EAW) with a phase velocity less than twice the plasma thermal velocity are observed on pure ion plasma columns. At low excitation amplitudes, the EAW frequencies agree with theory, but at moderate excitation the EAW is more frequency variable than typical Langmuir waves, and at large excitations resonance is observed over a broad range. Laser induced fluorescence measurements of the wave-coherent ion velocity distribution show phase reversals and wave-particle trapping plateaus at {+-}v{sub ph}, as expected, and corroborate the unusual role of kinetic pressure in the EAW.

  9. Plane-wave analysis of solar acoustic-gravity waves: A (slightly) new approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogart, Richard S.; Sa, L. A. D.; Duvall, Thomas L., Jr.; Haber, Deborah A.; Toomre, Juri; Hill, Frank

    1995-01-01

    The plane-wave decomposition of the acoustic-gravity wave effects observed in the photosphere provides a computationally efficient technique that probes the structure of the upper convective zone and boundary. In this region, the flat sun approximation is considered as being reasonably accurate. A technique to be used for the systematic plane-wave analysis of Michelson Doppler imager data, as part of the solar oscillations investigation, is described. Estimates of sensitivity are presented, and the effects of using different planar mappings are discussed. The technique is compared with previous approaches to the three dimensional plane-wave problem.

  10. Surface and downhole shear wave seismic methods for thick soil site investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, J.A.; Benjumea, B.; Harris, J.B.; Miller, R.D.; Pullan, S.E.; Burns, R.A.; Good, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    Shear wave velocity-depth information is required for predicting the ground motion response to earthquakes in areas where significant soil cover exists over firm bedrock. Rather than estimating this critical parameter, it can be reliably measured using a suite of surface (non-invasive) and downhole (invasive) seismic methods. Shear wave velocities from surface measurements can be obtained using SH refraction techniques. Array lengths as large as 1000 m and depth of penetration to 250 m have been achieved in some areas. High resolution shear wave reflection techniques utilizing the common midpoint method can delineate the overburden-bedrock surface as well as reflecting boundaries within the overburden. Reflection data can also be used to obtain direct estimates of fundamental site periods from shear wave reflections without the requirement of measuring average shear wave velocity and total thickness of unconsolidated overburden above the bedrock surface. Accurate measurements of vertical shear wave velocities can be obtained using a seismic cone penetrometer in soft sediments, or with a well-locked geophone array in a borehole. Examples from thick soil sites in Canada demonstrate the type of shear wave velocity information that can be obtained with these geophysical techniques, and show how these data can be used to provide a first look at predicted ground motion response for thick soil sites. ?? 2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  11. Shear wave elasticity imaging of cervical lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Kunwar S S; Cho, Carmen C M; Tong, Cina S L; Yuen, Edmund H Y; Ahuja, Anil T

    2012-02-01

    A pilot study of real-time shear wave ultrasound elastography (SWE) for cervical lymphadenopathy in routine clinical practice was conducted on 55 nodes undergoing conventional ultrasound (US) with US-guided needle aspiration for cytology. Elastic moduli of stiffest regions in nodes were measured on colour-coded elastograms, which were correlated with cytology. Malignant nodes (n = 31, 56.4%) were stiffer (median 25.0 kPa, range 6.9-278.9 kPa) than benign nodes (median 21.4 kPa, range 8.9-30.2 kPa) (p = 0.008, Mann Whitney U test). A cut-off of 30.2 kPa attained highest accuracy of 61.8%, corresponding to 41.9% sensitivity, 100% specificity and 0.77 area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Qualitatively, elastograms of benign nodes were homogeneously soft; malignant nodes were homogeneously soft or markedly heterogeneous with some including regions lacking elasticity signal. SWE is feasible for neck nodes. It appears unsuitable for cancer screening but may detect a subset of malignant nodes. The cause of spatial heterogeneity of malignant nodes on SWE is yet to be established.

  12. Shear Wave Splitting Across Eastern, Western and Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyblade, A.; Ramirez, C.; Bagley, B. C.; Mulibo, G. D.; Tugume, F.; Wysession, M. E.; Wiens, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    The expansion of the AfricaArray network across eastern, western and southern Africa, in conjunction with seismic data from many PASSCAL deployments over the past 20 years, is helping to fill in major gaps in the global coverage of shear wave splitting measurements. New results from stations in Ghana, Nigeria, Mozambique, Botswana, Angola, Namibia and South Africa are presented in this study that when combined with previously published measurements help to map the pattern of seismic anisotropy over much of the African continent. A general pattern of fast polarization directions, characterized by NE orientations, is found, and superimposed on this subcontinental-scale pattern is local and regional variability, most notably around the Archean Tanzania craton in eastern Africa. The subcontinental-scale pattern, as well as local and regional variations in this pattern, are interpreted in terms of large-scale mantle flow from the African Superplume, fossil anisotropy in the lithosphere, and shape anisotropy in magmatic regions of the East African rift system.

  13. Gravitational, shear and matter waves in Kantowski-Sachs cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Keresztes, Zoltán; Gergely, László Á.; Forsberg, Mats; Bradley, Michael; Dunsby, Peter K.S. E-mail: forsberg.mats.a.b@gmail.com E-mail: peter.dunsby@uct.ac.za

    2015-11-01

    A general treatment of vorticity-free, perfect fluid perturbations of Kantowski-Sachs models with a positive cosmological constant are considered within the framework of the 1+1+2 covariant decomposition of spacetime. The dynamics is encompassed in six evolution equations for six harmonic coefficients, describing gravito-magnetic, kinematic and matter perturbations, while a set of algebraic expressions determine the rest of the variables. The six equations further decouple into a set of four equations sourced by the perfect fluid, representing forced oscillations and two uncoupled damped oscillator equations. The two gravitational degrees of freedom are represented by pairs of gravito-magnetic perturbations. In contrast with the Friedmann case one of them is coupled to the matter density perturbations, becoming decoupled only in the geometrical optics limit. In this approximation, the even and odd tensorial perturbations of the Weyl tensor evolve as gravitational waves on the anisotropic Kantowski-Sachs background, while the modes describing the shear and the matter density gradient are out of phase dephased by π /2 and share the same speed of sound.

  14. Surface modification on acoustic wave biosensors for enhanced specificity.

    PubMed

    Onen, Onursal; Ahmad, Asad A; Guldiken, Rasim; Gallant, Nathan D

    2012-01-01

    Changes in mass loading on the surface of acoustic biosensors result in output frequency shifts which provide precise measurements of analytes. Therefore, to detect a particular biomarker, the sensor delay path must be judiciously designed to maximize sensitivity and specificity. B-cell lymphoma 2 protein (Bcl-2) found in urine is under investigation as a biomarker for non-invasive early detection of ovarian cancer. In this study, surface chemistry and biofunctionalization approaches were evaluated for their effectiveness in presenting antibodies for Bcl-2 capture while minimizing non-specific protein adsorption. The optimal combination of sequentially adsorbing protein A/G, anti-Bcl-2 IgG and Pluronic F127 onto a hydrophobic surface provided the greatest signal-to-noise ratio and enabled the reliable detection of Bcl-2 concentrations below that previously identified for early stage ovarian cancer as characterized by a modified ELISA method. Finally, the optimal surface modification was applied to a prototype acoustic device and the frequency shift for a range of Bcl-2 concentration was quantified to demonstrate the effectiveness in surface acoustic wave (SAW)-based detection applications. The surface functionalization approaches demonstrated here to specifically and sensitively detect Bcl-2 in a working ultrasonic MEMS biosensor prototype can easily be modified to detect additional biomarkers and enhance other acoustic biosensors.

  15. Modeling Nonlinear Acoustic Standing Waves in Resonators: Theory and Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raman, Ganesh; Li, Xiaofan; Finkbeiner, Joshua

    2004-01-01

    The overall goal of the cooperative research with NASA Glenn is to fundamentally understand, computationally model, and experimentally validate non-linear acoustic waves in enclosures with the ultimate goal of developing a non-contact acoustic seal. The longer term goal is to transition the Glenn acoustic seal innovation to a prototype sealing device. Lucas and coworkers are credited with pioneering work in Resonant Macrosonic Synthesis (RMS). Several Patents and publications have successfully illustrated the concept of Resonant Macrosonic Synthesis. To utilize this concept in practical application one needs to have an understanding of the details of the phenomenon and a predictive tool that can examine the waveforms produced within resonators of complex shapes. With appropriately shaped resonators one can produce un-shocked waveforms of high amplitude that would result in very high pressures in certain regions. Our goal is to control the waveforms and exploit the high pressures to produce an acoustic seal. Note that shock formation critically limits peak-to-peak pressure amplitudes and also causes excessive energy dissipation. Proper shaping of the resonator is thus critical to the use of this innovation.

  16. Shear wave reflectivity and physical properties of the southern Appalachian Thorn Hill Paleozoic sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, J.E.; Christensen, N.I. . Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The physical properties of a sequence of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks have been examined in detail, with an emphasis on laboratory measurements of density, shear wave velocity, shear wave splitting, and Vp/Vs ratios. Seismic properties of 147 cores from 49 rock samples collected from the thorn hill sedimentary sequence of eastern Tennessee are examined in terms of implications for future seismic studies in the southern Appalachians. The shear wave velocities of these rocks are strongly influenced by the relatively high shear wave velocity of quartz. Shear wave velocity anisotropy is present in most of the lithologic groups: it is highest in the shales while being almost insignificant in the dolostones. The related phenomenon of shear wave splitting occurs to some degree in all of the lithologies studied and at high pressures originates from mineral orientation. Compressional to shear velocity (Vp/Vs) ratios of approximately 1.82 (dolostones) and 1.95 (limestones) effectively characterize the carbonates while other lithologies display wider ranges of Vp/Vs, primarily due to the influence of accessory minerals such as quartz. Densities of the sample suite range from 2.34 g/cm[sup 3] (shale) to 2.86 g/cm[sup 3] (dolostone). Normal incidence shear and compressional wave synthetic seismograms of the entire Thorn Hill section indicate that three zones of high amplitude reflections would be seen on reflection records obtained over this 3,327 meter thick sequence. differences are seen at some interfaces in the Mississippian-Devonian interval, which are more reflective to shear waves, and in the Ordovician Martinsburg Formation, which appears more reflective to compressional waves.

  17. Dust acoustic solitary waves in a quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, S.; Shukla, P.K.

    2006-02-15

    By employing one-dimensional quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model for a three species quantum plasma, nonlinear properties of dust acoustic solitary waves are studied. For this purpose a Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is derived, incorporating quantum corrections. The quantum mechanical effects are also examined numerically both on the profiles of the amplitude and the width of dust acoustic solitary waves. It is found that the amplitude remains constant but the width shrinks for different values of a dimensionless electron quantum parameter H{sub e}={radical}((Z{sub d0}({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){sup 2}{omega}{sub pd}{sup 2})/m{sub e}m{sub d}C{sub d}{sup 4}), where Z{sub d0} is the dust charge state, ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}) is the Planck constant divided by 2{pi}, {omega}{sub pd} is the dust plasma frequency, m{sub e} (m{sub d}) is the electron (dust) mass, and C{sub d} is the dust acoustic speed.

  18. Microwave acoustics handbook. Volume 3: Bulk wave velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slobodnik, A. J., Jr.; Delmonico, R. T.; Conway, E. D.

    1980-05-01

    Information useful for the design of acoustic delay lines, resonators, and other miniature, low cost, reliable devices for use in communications and electronic sensing is given in this report. Computations of bulk acoustic wave velocities, power flow angles, and coupling to electric fields are plotted for various orientations of the following single crystalline materials: Ba2NaNb5O15, Bi12GeO20, CdS, Diamond, Eu3Fe5O15, Gadolinium Gallium Garnet, GaAs, Germanium, InSb, InAs, Lead Molybdate, PbS, LiNbO3, LiTaO3, MgO, Quartz, Rutile, Sapphire, Silicon, Spinel, TeO2, YAG, YGaG, YIG, and ZnO. Particular cuts of interest, including cases for common metals, are then chosen for more detailed numerical calculations of mechanical and electrical parameters governing acoustic wave propagation in these media. A list of material constants is also included.

  19. Longitudinal elastic wave propagation characteristics of inertant acoustic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Prateek P.; Manimala, James M.

    2016-06-01

    Longitudinal elastic wave propagation characteristics of acoustic metamaterials with various inerter configurations are investigated using their representative one-dimensional discrete element lattice models. Inerters are dynamic mass-amplifying mechanical elements that are activated by a difference in acceleration across them. They have a small device mass but can provide a relatively large dynamic mass presence depending on accelerations in systems that employ them. The effect of introducing inerters both in local attachments and in the lattice was examined vis-à-vis the propagation characteristics of locally resonant acoustic metamaterials. A simple effective model based on mass, stiffness, or their combined equivalent was used to establish dispersion behavior and quantify attenuation within bandgaps. Depending on inerter configurations in local attachments or in the lattice, both up-shift and down-shift in the bandgap frequency range and their extent are shown to be possible while retaining static mass addition to the host structure to a minimum. Further, frequency-dependent negative and even extreme effective-stiffness regimes are encountered. The feasibility of employing tuned combinations of such mass-delimited inertant configurations to engineer acoustic metamaterials that act as high-pass filters without the use of grounded elements or even as complete longitudinal wave inhibitors is shown. Potential device implications and strategies for practical applications are also discussed.

  20. The propagation of horizontally polarized shear waves in plates bordered with viscous liquid.

    PubMed

    Gitis, Alexander; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2016-09-01

    Requirements for ultrasonic horizontally polarized shear waves based viscosity sensors and their applicability for continuous in-line measurement are presented and discussed. The results reveal, that sensors using non-piezoelectric plates as well as wave guides and sensing surface have application-oriented advantages in corrosive and hot liquids. For such non-piezoelectric plate sensors, the dispersion relations are found and the linking equation among propagation velocity as well as attenuation coefficient and Newtonian liquid parameters are obtained. The findings show that in presence of viscous liquids the propagation parameters of horizontally polarized shear waves (HPSW) in non-piezoelectric plate change and a viscosity depending attenuation occurs. It is shown that the measurement sensitivity, in physical terms, of the investigated device highly depends on plate thickness, shear wave impedance of the plate material, and the shear wave impedance of the ambient liquid. Further, reasonable geometrical optimizations and suited plate materials are discussed. PMID:27423968

  1. Determination of particle size distributions from acoustic wave propagation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Spelt, P.D.; Norato, M.A.; Sangani, A.S.; Tavlarides, L.L.

    1999-05-01

    The wave equations for the interior and exterior of the particles are ensemble averaged and combined with an analysis by Allegra and Hawley [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. {bold 51}, 1545 (1972)] for the interaction of a single particle with the incident wave to determine the phase speed and attenuation of sound waves propagating through dilute slurries. The theory is shown to compare very well with the measured attenuation. The inverse problem, i.e., the problem of determining the particle size distribution given the attenuation as a function of frequency, is examined using regularization techniques that have been successful for bubbly liquids. It is shown that, unlike the bubbly liquids, the success of solving the inverse problem is limited since it depends strongly on the nature of particles and the frequency range used in inverse calculations. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Observation of multifractal intermittent dust-acoustic-wave turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Ya-Yi; Chang, Mei-Chu; I, Lin

    2012-10-01

    Intermittent dust acoustic wave turbulence self-excited by downward ion flow in dissipative dusty plasma is experimentally observed and investigated. The power spectra of the temporal dust density fluctuation show distinct bumps in the low-frequency regime and power-law scaling in the high-frequency regime. The structure-function analysis demonstrates the multifractal dynamics of the wave turbulence. Decreasing dissipation by decreasing neutral pressure leads to a more turbulent state with a less distinct low-frequency bump in the power spectrum, more stretched non-Gaussian tails in the histogram of the wave-height increment at a small time interval τ, and a higher degree of multifractality. The loss of long time memory with increasing τ for a more turbulent state causes a change from the distribution with stretched non-Gaussian tails to Gaussian with increasing τ.

  3. Ion acoustic solitary waves in magneto-rotating plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushtaq, A.

    2010-08-01

    Propagation of an ion acoustic wave (IAW) in a magnetized electron-ion plasma, which is rotating around an axis at an angle θ with the direction of magnetic field, is studied by incorporating the effects of trapped and untrapped electron distributions. Employing the perturbation scheme, Korteweg-deVries and Schamel's modified KdV equations are derived for the small angle θ which may support the nonlinear IAW on a slow time scale of ion motion. The amplitude and width of the solitary wave in both cases (trapped and untrapped electrons) have been discussed with the effects of oblique rotation and external magnetic field. It is shown that the nonlinear effects considerably influence the propagation of waves in rotating plasmas.

  4. Langasite Surface Acoustic Wave Gas Sensors: Modeling and Verification

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Peng; Greve, David W; Oppenheim, Irving J

    2013-01-01

    We report finite element simulations of the effect of conductive sensing layers on the surface wave velocity of langasite substrates. The simulations include both the mechanical and electrical influences of the conducting sensing layer. We show that three-dimensional simulations are necessary because of the out-of-plane displacements of the commonly used (0, 138.5, 26.7) Euler angle. Measurements of the transducer input admittance in reflective delay-line devices yield a value for the electromechanical coupling coefficient that is in good agreement with the three-dimensional simulations on bare langasite substrate. The input admittance measurements also show evidence of excitation of an additional wave mode and excess loss due to the finger resistance. The results of these simulations and measurements will be useful in the design of surface acoustic wave gas sensors.

  5. Attenuation of 7 GHz surface acoustic waves on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongyao; Cahill, David G.

    2016-09-01

    We measured the attenuation of GHz frequency surface acoustic waves (SAWs) on the Si (001) surface using an optical pump-probe technique at temperatures between 300 and 600 K. SAWs are generated and detected by a 700 nm Al grating fabricated by nanoimprint lithography. The grating for SAW generation is separated from the grating for SAW detection by ≈150 μ m . The amplitude of SAWs is attenuated by coupling to bulk waves created by the Al grating, diffraction due to the finite size of the source, and the intrinsic relaxational Akhiezer damping of elastic waves in Si. Thermal phonon relaxation time and Grüneisen parameters are fitted using temperature-dependent measurement. The f Q product of a hypothetical micromechanical oscillator limited by Akhiezer damping at this frequency is ˜3 ×1013 Hz.

  6. Asymmetric wave transmission in a diatomic acoustic/elastic metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bing; Tan, K. T.

    2016-08-01

    Asymmetric acoustic/elastic wave transmission has recently been realized using nonlinearity, wave diffraction, or bias effects, but always at the cost of frequency distortion, direction shift, large volumes, or external energy. Based on the self-coupling of dual resonators, we propose a linear diatomic metamaterial, consisting of several small-sized unit cells, to realize large asymmetric wave transmission in low frequency domain (below 1 kHz). The asymmetric transmission mechanism is theoretically investigated, and numerically verified by both mass-spring and continuum models. This passive system does not require any frequency conversion or external energy, and the asymmetric transmission band can be theoretically predicted and mathematically controlled, which extends the design concept of unidirectional transmission devices.

  7. Surface acoustic load sensing using a face-shear PIN-PMN-PT single-crystal resonator.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungrim; Zhang, Shujun; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2012-11-01

    Pb(In(0.5)Nb(0.5))O(3)-Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-PbTiO(3) (PIN-PMN-PT) resonators for surface acoustic load sensing are presented in this paper. Different acoustic loads are applied to thickness mode, thickness-shear mode, and face-shear mode resonators, and the electrical impedances at resonance and anti-resonance frequencies are recorded. More than one order of magnitude higher sensitivity (ratio of electrical impedance change to surface acoustic impedance change) at the resonance is achieved for the face-shear-mode resonator compared with other resonators with the same dimensions. The Krimholtz, Leedom, and Matthaei (KLM) model is used to verify the surface acoustic loading effect on the electrical impedance spectrum of face-shear PIN-PMN-PT single-crystal resonators. The demonstrated high sensitivity of face-shear mode resonators to surface loads is promising for a broad range of applications, including artificial skin, biological and chemical sensors, touch screens, and other touch-based sensors. PMID:23192819

  8. Underwater acoustic wave generation by filamentation of terawatt ultrashort laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Jukna, Vytautas; Jarnac, Amélie; Milián, Carles; Brelet, Yohann; Carbonnel, Jérôme; André, Yves-Bernard; Guillermin, Régine; Sessarego, Jean-Pierre; Fattaccioli, Dominique; Mysyrowicz, André; Couairon, Arnaud; Houard, Aurélien

    2016-06-01

    Acoustic signals generated by filamentation of ultrashort terawatt laser pulses in water are characterized experimentally. Measurements reveal a strong influence of input pulse duration on the shape and intensity of the acoustic wave. Numerical simulations of the laser pulse nonlinear propagation and the subsequent water hydrodynamics and acoustic wave generation show that the strong acoustic emission is related to the mechanism of superfilamention in water. The elongated shape of the plasma volume where energy is deposited drives the far-field profile of the acoustic signal, which takes the form of a radially directed pressure wave with a single oscillation and a very broad spectrum.

  9. Underwater acoustic wave generation by filamentation of terawatt ultrashort laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Jukna, Vytautas; Jarnac, Amélie; Milián, Carles; Brelet, Yohann; Carbonnel, Jérôme; André, Yves-Bernard; Guillermin, Régine; Sessarego, Jean-Pierre; Fattaccioli, Dominique; Mysyrowicz, André; Couairon, Arnaud; Houard, Aurélien

    2016-06-01

    Acoustic signals generated by filamentation of ultrashort terawatt laser pulses in water are characterized experimentally. Measurements reveal a strong influence of input pulse duration on the shape and intensity of the acoustic wave. Numerical simulations of the laser pulse nonlinear propagation and the subsequent water hydrodynamics and acoustic wave generation show that the strong acoustic emission is related to the mechanism of superfilamention in water. The elongated shape of the plasma volume where energy is deposited drives the far-field profile of the acoustic signal, which takes the form of a radially directed pressure wave with a single oscillation and a very broad spectrum. PMID:27415357

  10. Shear flow of angular grains: Acoustic effects and nonmonotonic rate dependence of volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieou, Charles K. C.; Elbanna, Ahmed E.; Langer, J. S.; Carlson, J. M.

    2014-09-01

    Naturally occurring granular materials often consist of angular particles whose shape and frictional characteristics may have important implications on macroscopic flow rheology. In this paper, we provide a theoretical account for the peculiar phenomenon of autoacoustic compaction—nonmonotonic variation of shear band volume with shear rate in angular particles—recently observed in experiments. Our approach is based on the notion that the volume of a granular material is determined by an effective-disorder temperature known as the compactivity. Noise sources in a driven granular material couple its various degrees of freedom and the environment, causing the flow of entropy between them. The grain-scale dynamics is described by the shear-transformation-zone theory of granular flow, which accounts for irreversible plastic deformation in terms of localized flow defects whose density is governed by the state of configurational disorder. To model the effects of grain shape and frictional characteristics, we propose an Ising-like internal variable to account for nearest-neighbor grain interlocking and geometric frustration and interpret the effect of friction as an acoustic noise strength. We show quantitative agreement between experimental measurements and theoretical predictions and propose additional experiments that provide stringent tests on the new theoretical elements.

  11. Shear Wave Generation and Modeling Ground Motion From a Source Physics Experiment (SPE) Underground Explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitarka, Arben; Mellors, Robert; Rodgers, Arthur; Vorobiev, Oleg; Ezzedine, Souheil; Matzel, Eric; Ford, Sean; Walter, Bill; Antoun, Tarabay; Wagoner, Jeffery; Pasyanos, Mike; Petersson, Anders; Sjogreen, Bjorn

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the excitation and propagation of far-field (epicentral distance larger than 20 m) seismic waves by analyzing and modeling ground motion from an underground chemical explosion recorded during the Source Physics Experiment (SPE), Nevada. The far-field recorded ground motion is characterized by complex features, such as large azimuthal variations in P- and S-wave amplitudes, as well as substantial energy on the tangential component of motion. Shear wave energy is also observed on the tangential component of the near-field motion (epicentral distance smaller than 20 m) suggesting that shear waves were generated at or very near the source. These features become more pronounced as the waves propagate away from the source. We address the shear wave generation during the explosion by modeling ground motion waveforms recorded in the frequency range 0.01-20 Hz, at distances of up to 1 km. We used a physics based approach that combines hydrodynamic modeling of the source with anelastic modeling of wave propagation in order to separate the contributions from the source and near-source wave scattering on shear motion generation. We found that wave propagation scattering caused by the near-source geological environment, including surface topography, contributes to enhancement of shear waves generated from the explosion source. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25946/ NST11-NCNS-TM-EXP-PD15.

  12. Theoretical study of the anisotropic diffraction of light waves by acoustic waves in lithium niobate crystals.

    PubMed

    Rouvaen, J M; Waxin, G; Gazalet, M G; Bridoux, E

    1990-03-20

    The anisotropic diffraction of light by high frequency longitudinal ultrasonic waves in the tangential phase matching configuration may present some definite advantages over the same interaction using transverse acoustic waves. A systematic search for favorable crystal cuts in lithium niobate was worked out. The main results of this study are reported here; they enable the choice of the best configuration for a given operating center frequency.

  13. Contactless remote induction of shear waves in soft tissues using a transcranial magnetic stimulation device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasland-Mongrain, Pol; Miller-Jolicoeur, Erika; Tang, An; Catheline, Stefan; Cloutier, Guy

    2016-03-01

    This study presents the first observation of shear waves induced remotely within soft tissues. It was performed through the combination of a transcranial magnetic stimulation device and a permanent magnet. A physical model based on Maxwell and Navier equations was developed. Experiments were performed on a cryogel phantom and a chicken breast sample. Using an ultrafast ultrasound scanner, shear waves of respective amplitudes of 5 and 0.5 μm were observed. Experimental and numerical results were in good agreement. This study constitutes the framework of an alternative shear wave elastography method.

  14. Spatial correlation of shear-wave velocity within San Francisco Bay Sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, E.M.; Baise, L.G.; Kayen, R.E.

    2006-01-01

    Sediment properties are spatially variable at all scales, and this variability at smaller scales influences high frequency ground motions. We show that surface shear-wave velocity is highly correlated within San Francisco Bay Area sediments using shear-wave velocity measurements from 210 seismic cone penetration tests. We use this correlation to estimate the surface sediment velocity structure using geostatistics. We find that the variance of the estimated shear-wave velocity is reduced using ordinary kriging, and that including this velocity structure in 2D ground motion simulations of a moderate sized earthquake improves the accuracy of the synthetics. Copyright ASCE 2006.

  15. Rescaled Local Interaction Simulation Approach for Shear Wave Propagation Modelling in Magnetic Resonance Elastography.

    PubMed

    Hashemiyan, Z; Packo, P; Staszewski, W J; Uhl, T

    2016-01-01

    Properties of soft biological tissues are increasingly used in medical diagnosis to detect various abnormalities, for example, in liver fibrosis or breast tumors. It is well known that mechanical stiffness of human organs can be obtained from organ responses to shear stress waves through Magnetic Resonance Elastography. The Local Interaction Simulation Approach is proposed for effective modelling of shear wave propagation in soft tissues. The results are validated using experimental data from Magnetic Resonance Elastography. These results show the potential of the method for shear wave propagation modelling in soft tissues. The major advantage of the proposed approach is a significant reduction of computational effort. PMID:26884808

  16. Rescaled Local Interaction Simulation Approach for Shear Wave Propagation Modelling in Magnetic Resonance Elastography

    PubMed Central

    Packo, P.; Staszewski, W. J.; Uhl, T.

    2016-01-01

    Properties of soft biological tissues are increasingly used in medical diagnosis to detect various abnormalities, for example, in liver fibrosis or breast tumors. It is well known that mechanical stiffness of human organs can be obtained from organ responses to shear stress waves through Magnetic Resonance Elastography. The Local Interaction Simulation Approach is proposed for effective modelling of shear wave propagation in soft tissues. The results are validated using experimental data from Magnetic Resonance Elastography. These results show the potential of the method for shear wave propagation modelling in soft tissues. The major advantage of the proposed approach is a significant reduction of computational effort. PMID:26884808

  17. Nonlinear shear wave in a non Newtonian visco-elastic medium

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, D.; Janaki, M. S.; Chakrabarti, N.

    2012-06-15

    An analysis of nonlinear transverse shear wave has been carried out on non-Newtonian viscoelastic liquid using generalized hydrodynamic model. The nonlinear viscoelastic behavior is introduced through velocity shear dependence of viscosity coefficient by well known Carreau-Bird model. The dynamical feature of this shear wave leads to the celebrated Fermi-Pasta-Ulam problem. Numerical solution has been obtained which shows that initial periodic solutions reoccur after passing through several patterns of periodic waves. A possible explanation for this periodic solution is given by constructing modified Korteweg de Vries equation. This model has application from laboratory to astrophysical plasmas as well as in biological systems.

  18. Absorption of surface acoustic waves by topological insulator thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Li, L. L.; Xu, W.

    2014-08-11

    We present a theoretical study on the absorption of the surface acoustic waves (SAWs) by Dirac electrons in topological insulator (TI) thin films (TITFs). We find that due to momentum and energy conservation laws, the absorption of the SAWs in TITFs can only be achieved via intra-band electronic transitions. The strong absorption can be observed up to sub-terahertz frequencies. With increasing temperature, the absorption intensity increases significantly and the cut-off frequency is blue-shifted. More interestingly, we find that the absorption of the SAWs by the TITFs can be markedly enhanced by the tunable subgap in the Dirac energy spectrum of the TI surface states. Such a subgap is absent in conventional two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) and in the gapless Dirac 2DEG such as graphene. This study is pertinent to the exploration of the acoustic properties of TIs and to potential application of TIs as tunable SAW devices working at hypersonic frequencies.

  19. Visualization of Surface Acoustic Waves in Thin Liquid Films

    PubMed Central

    Rambach, R. W.; Taiber, J.; Scheck, C. M. L.; Meyer, C.; Reboud, J.; Cooper, J. M.; Franke, T.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that the propagation path of a surface acoustic wave (SAW), excited with an interdigitated transducer (IDT), can be visualized using a thin liquid film dispensed onto a lithium niobate (LiNbO3) substrate. The practical advantages of this visualization method are its rapid and simple implementation, with many potential applications including in characterising acoustic pumping within microfluidic channels. It also enables low-cost characterisation of IDT designs thereby allowing the determination of anisotropy and orientation of the piezoelectric substrate without the requirement for sophisticated and expensive equipment. Here, we show that the optical visibility of the sound path critically depends on the physical properties of the liquid film and identify heptane and methanol as most contrast rich solvents for visualization of SAW. We also provide a detailed theoretical description of this effect. PMID:26917490

  20. Visualization of Surface Acoustic Waves in Thin Liquid Films.

    PubMed

    Rambach, R W; Taiber, J; Scheck, C M L; Meyer, C; Reboud, J; Cooper, J M; Franke, T

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that the propagation path of a surface acoustic wave (SAW), excited with an interdigitated transducer (IDT), can be visualized using a thin liquid film dispensed onto a lithium niobate (LiNbO3) substrate. The practical advantages of this visualization method are its rapid and simple implementation, with many potential applications including in characterising acoustic pumping within microfluidic channels. It also enables low-cost characterisation of IDT designs thereby allowing the determination of anisotropy and orientation of the piezoelectric substrate without the requirement for sophisticated and expensive equipment. Here, we show that the optical visibility of the sound path critically depends on the physical properties of the liquid film and identify heptane and methanol as most contrast rich solvents for visualization of SAW. We also provide a detailed theoretical description of this effect. PMID:26917490