Nonlinear positron acoustic solitary waves
Tribeche, Mouloud; Aoutou, Kamel; Younsi, Smain; Amour, Rabia
2009-07-15
The problem of nonlinear positron acoustic solitary waves involving the dynamics of mobile cold positrons is addressed. A theoretical work is presented to show their existence and possible realization in a simple four-component plasma model. The results should be useful for the understanding of the localized structures that may occur in space and laboratory plasmas as new sources of cold positrons are now well developed.
Nonextensive dust-acoustic solitary waves
Tribeche, M.; Merriche, A.
2011-03-15
The seminal paper of Mamun et al. [Phys. Plasmas 3, 702 (1996)] is revisited within the theoretical framework of the Tsallis statistical mechanics. The nonextensivity may originate from the correlation or long-range interactions in the dusty plasma. It is found that depending on whether the nonextensive parameter q is positive or negative, the dust-acoustic (DA) soliton exhibits compression for q<0 and rarefaction for q>0. The lower limit of the Mach number for the existence of DA solitary waves is greater (smaller) than its Maxwellian counterpart in the case of superextensivity (subextensivity).
Electron-acoustic solitary waves in a nonextensive plasma
Tribeche, Mouloud; Djebarni, Lyes
2010-12-15
The problem of arbitrary amplitude electron-acoustic solitary waves (EASWs) in a plasma having cold fluid electrons, hot nonextensive electrons, and stationary ions is addressed. It is found that the 'Maxwellianization' process of the hot nonextensive component does not favor the propagation of the EASWs. In contrast to superthermality, nonextensivity makes the electron-acoustic solitary structure less spiky. Our theoretical analysis brings a possibility to develop more refined theories of nonlinear solitary structures in astrophysical plasmas.
Oxygen acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized plasma
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Qian, S.; Lotko, W.; Hudson, M. K.
1989-01-01
Ion-acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized plasma containing an arbitrary mixture of H(+) and O(+) ions are studied. A nonlinear wave equation has been derived from the Poisson-Vlasov equations, including a uniform magnetic field and dissipation due to reflected electrons. When dissipation is ignored, the equation has soliton solutions associated with both oxygen and hydrogen acoustic modes, which can be either rarefactive or compressive depending on the ion concentrations and the electron/ion temperature ratio and, more weakly, on the bulk drifts of the species. If electron reflection is included, the solitary wave can be intensified. Under somewhat restrictive conditions the oxygen solitary wave is rarefactive and propagates with a velocity comparable to that observed by the Viking satellite. The three-dimensional solitons obey a relation of scales parallel to the magnetic field and in the transverse direction. Computer simulations of one-dimensional versions of the nonlinear wave equation are presented.
Propagation of three-dimensional electron-acoustic solitary waves
Shalaby, M.; El-Sherif, L. S.; El-Labany, S. K.; Sabry, R.
2011-06-15
Theoretical investigation is carried out for understanding the properties of three-dimensional electron-acoustic waves propagating in magnetized plasma whose constituents are cold magnetized electron fluid, hot electrons obeying nonthermal distribution, and stationary ions. For this purpose, the hydrodynamic equations for the cold magnetized electron fluid, nonthermal electron density distribution, and the Poisson equation are used to derive the corresponding nonlinear evolution equation, Zkharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation, in the small- but finite- amplitude regime. The ZK equation is solved analytically and it is found that it supports both solitary and blow-up solutions. It is found that rarefactive electron-acoustic solitary waves strongly depend on the density and temperature ratios of the hot-to-cold electron species as well as the nonthermal electron parameter. Furthermore, there is a critical value for the nonthermal electron parameter, which decides whether the electron-acoustic solitary wave's amplitude is decreased or increased by changing various plasma parameters. Importantly, the change of the propagation angles leads to miss the balance between the nonlinearity and dispersion; hence, the localized pulses convert to explosive/blow-up pulses. The relevance of this study to the nonlinear electron-acoustic structures in the dayside auroral zone in the light of Viking satellite observations is discussed.
Dust acoustic solitary waves in a quantum plasma
Ali, S.; Shukla, P.K.
2006-02-15
By employing one-dimensional quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model for a three species quantum plasma, nonlinear properties of dust acoustic solitary waves are studied. For this purpose a Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is derived, incorporating quantum corrections. The quantum mechanical effects are also examined numerically both on the profiles of the amplitude and the width of dust acoustic solitary waves. It is found that the amplitude remains constant but the width shrinks for different values of a dimensionless electron quantum parameter H{sub e}={radical}((Z{sub d0}({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){sup 2}{omega}{sub pd}{sup 2})/m{sub e}m{sub d}C{sub d}{sup 4}), where Z{sub d0} is the dust charge state, ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}) is the Planck constant divided by 2{pi}, {omega}{sub pd} is the dust plasma frequency, m{sub e} (m{sub d}) is the electron (dust) mass, and C{sub d} is the dust acoustic speed.
Transverse Instability of Dust-Acoustic Solitary Waves in Magnetized Dusty Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Congbo; Wang, Linxue; Yang, Xue; Shi, Yuren
2015-04-01
We theoretically investigated the transverse instability of three-dimensional (3D) dust-acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized dusty plasma. First, a 3D nonlinear Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation, which can be used to describe the time-evolution of dust-acoustic solitary waves in magnetized dusty plasmas, is derived by using the reductive perturbation method. Second, we established a numerical scheme to study the transverse instability of the solitary waves described by the ZK equation. It was found that both stable and unstable solitary waves exist. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11047010)
Arbitrary amplitude quantum dust ion-acoustic solitary waves
Tribeche, Mouloud; Ghebache, Siham; Aoutou, Kamel; Zerguini, Taha Houssine
2008-03-15
The one-dimensional quantum hydrodynamic model for a three-species quantum plasma is used to study the quantum counterpart of the well known dust ion-acoustic (DIA) wave. Two cases of physical interest are investigated, namely positive and negative dust charge. It is shown that only rarefactive solitary potentials associated with nonlinear quantum DIA (QDIA) waves involving electron density deeps can exist. The QDIA soliton experiences a spreading and the quantum effects tend to make it wider. Under certain conditions, the soliton enlarges and its pulse shape evolves into a broad central flat-bottomed (or table-bottomed) soliton as a limiting-amplitude member of the QDIA soliton family. Linear stability analysis as well as quasineutral solutions are succinctly outlined. The investigation could be of relevance to astrophysical quantum dusty plasmas.
Experiments on the acoustic solitary wave generated thermoacoustically in a looped tube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimizu, Dai; Sugimoto, Nobumasa
2015-10-01
Emergence of an acoustic solitary wave is demonstrated in a gas-filled, looped tube with an array of Helmholtz resonators connected. The solitary wave is generated thermoacoustically and spontaneously by a pair of stacks positioned diametrically on exactly the opposite side of the loop. The temperature gradient is imposed on both stacks in the same sense along the tube. The stacks made of ceramics and of many square pores are sandwiched by hot and cold heat exchangers. The pressure profile measured and the propagation speed show good agreements with the theoretical ones of the acoustic solitary wave obtained by Sugimoto (J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 99, 1971-1976 (1996)).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Zhenni; Wu, Zhengwei; Li, Chunhua; Yang, Weihong
2014-11-01
A model for the nonlinear properties of obliquely propagating electron acoustic solitary waves in a two-electron populated relativistically quantum magnetized plasma is presented. By using the standard reductive perturbation technique, the Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation is derived and this equation gives the solitary wave solution. It is observed that the relativistic effects, the ratio of the cold to hot electron unperturbed number density and the magnetic field normalized by electron cyclotron frequency significantly influence the solitary structures.
Maitra, Sarit; Banerjee, Gadadhar
2014-11-15
The influence of dust size distribution on the dust ion acoustic solitary waves in a collisional dusty plasma is investigated. It is found that dust size distribution changes the amplitude and width of a solitary wave. A critical wave number is derived for the existence of purely damping mode. A deformed Korteweg-de Vries (dKdV) equation is obtained for the propagation of weakly nonlinear dust ion acoustic solitary waves and the effect of different plasma parameters on the solution of this equation is also presented.
Dust-acoustic Solitary Waves in Dusty Plasma with Non-thermal Ions
Saini, Nareshpal Singh; Gill, Tarsem Singh; Kaur, Harvinder
2005-10-31
In the present research paper, characteristics of dust-acoustic solitary waves in dusty plasma are studied. The dust charge is treated as variable. KdV equation has been derived using reductive perturbation method. The effect of relative number density, relative ion temperature, non-thermal parameter and variable charge has been numerically studied for possibility of both type of dust-acoustic solitary waves.
Large amplitude dust acoustic solitary wave with positively charged dust grain
Ghosh, Samiran; Gupta, M.R.
2006-04-15
Large amplitude solitary waves are investigated in a dusty plasma containing electrons, positive ions, negative ions, and positively charged dust grains [N. D'Angelo, J. Phys. D 37, 860 (2004)] by the Sagdeev potential. Numerical investigations related to Q machine dusty plasma with a positive charge reveal that the nonlinear dust acoustic wave possesses only a supersonic compressive soliton. The range of Mach numbers where such solitary waves exist is also investigated.
Dust ion-acoustic solitary and shock waves due to dust charge fluctuation with vortexlike electrons
Duha, S. S.; Anowar, M. G. M.; Mamun, A. A.
2010-10-15
A rigorous theoretical investigation has been made of the dust ion-acoustic (DIA) solitary and shock waves in an unmagnetized dusty plasma (containing vortexlike electrons, mobile ions, and charge fluctuating static dust) by reductive perturbation method. The effects of dust grain charge fluctuation and vortexlike (trapped) electron are found to modify the properties of the DIA solitary and shock waves significantly. The implications of these results for some space and astrophysical dusty plasma systems, especially planetary ring systems, are briefly mentioned.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hafez, M. G.; Talukder, M. R.
2015-09-01
This work investigates the theoretical and numerical studies on nonlinear propagation of ion acoustic solitary waves (IASWs) in an unmagnetized plasma consisting of nonextensive electrons, Boltzmann positrons and relativistic thermal ions. The Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is derived by using the well known reductive perturbation method. This equation admits the soliton like solitary wave solution. The effects of phase velocity, amplitude of soliton, width of soliton and electrostatic nonlinear propagation of weakly relativistic ion-acoustic solitary waves have been discussed with graphical representation found in the variation of the plasma parameters. The obtained results can be helpful in understanding the features of small but finite amplitude localized relativistic ion-acoustic waves for an unmagnetized three component plasma system in astrophysical compact objects.
Formation of ion acoustic solitary waves upstream of the earth's bow shock. [in solar wind
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pangia, M. J.; Lee, N. C.; Parks, G. K.
1985-01-01
The turbulent plasma development of Lee and Parks is applied to the solar wind approaching the earth's bow shock region. The ponderomotive force contribution is due to ion acoustic waves propagating in the direction of the ambient magnetic field. In this case, the envelope of the ion acoustic wave is shown to satisfy the cubic Schroedinger equation. Modulational instabilities exist for waves in the solar wind, thereby predicting the generation of solitary waves. This analysis further identifies that the ion acoustic waves which exhibit this instability have short wavelengths.
Dust acoustic solitary waves in a charge varying relativistic dusty plasma
Tribeche, Mouloud; Boukhalfa, Soufiane; Zerguini, Taha Houssine
2010-06-15
The problem of nonlinear variable charge dust acoustic solitary waves in dusty plasma with relativistic electrons and ions is addressed. The appropriate relativistic charging currents, derived within the theoretical framework of the orbit-limited motion theory, are used. Our results show that in such a plasma, rarefactive spatially localized dust acoustic waves can exist. Their spatial patterns are significantly modified by the relativistic effects. In particular, it may be noted that relativistic effects make the solitary structure spikier. Our results should help to understand the salient features of coherent nonlinear structures that may occur in relativistic space plasmas.
Dust-acoustic solitary waves in dusty plasmas with non-thermal ions
Asgari, H.; Muniandy, S. V.; Wong, C. S.
2013-02-15
Most studies on dusty plasmas have assumed that electrons and ions follow Maxwellian distributions. However, in the presence of energetic ions, the distribution of ions tends to be non-Maxwellian. It is shown here that the existence of non-thermal ions would increase the phase velocity of a dust-acoustic wave. It is also found that the change in the phase velocity profoundly affects the characteristics of a dust-acoustic solitary wave.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukta, K. N.; Zobaer, M. S.; Roy, N.; Mamun, A. A.
2015-06-01
The nonlinear propagation of dust ion-acoustic (DIA) waves in a unmagnetized collisionless degenerate dense plasma (containing degenerate electron and positron, and classical ion fluids) has been theoretically investigated. The K-dV equation has been derived by employing the reductive perturbation method and by taking into account the effect of different plasma parameters in plasma fluid. The stationary solitary wave solution of K-dV equation is obtained, and numerically analyzed to identify the basic properties of DIA solitary structures. It has been shown that depending on plasma parametric values, the degenerate plasma under consideration supports compressive or rarefactive solitary structures. It has been also found that the effect of pressures on electrons, ions, and positrons significantly modify the basic features of solitary waves that are found to exist in such a plasma system. The relevance of our results in astrophysical objects such as white dwarfs and neutron stars, which are of scientific interest, is discussed briefly.
Ion-acoustic solitary waves in ultra-relativistic degenerate pair-ion plasmas
Rasheed, A.; Tsintsadze, N. L.; Murtaza, G.
2011-11-15
The arbitrary and the small amplitude ion-acoustic solitary waves (IASWs) have been studied. The former is studied by using the Sagdeev pseudo-potential approach in a plasma consisting of the degenerate ultrarelativistic electrons, positrons, and the non-relativistic classical ions. It is seen that only compressive solitary waves can propagate through such plasmas. The numerical calculations show that the region of existence of the ion-acoustic solitary waves depends upon the positron (ion) number density and the plasma thermal temperature. This study is appropriate for applications in inertial confinement fusion laboratory research as well as the study of astrophysical dense objects such as white dwarf and dense neutron stars.
Gas dynamical approach to study dust acoustic solitary waves
Maitra, Sarit; Roychoudhury, Rajkumar
2005-06-15
Dust acoustic nonlinear waves are studied using gas dynamical approach. The structure equation for dust fluid has been obtained using the conservation laws for mass flux and momentum. The role of dust sonic point for the formation of soliton has been discussed. Conditions for the existence of soliton have been derived in terms of collective Mach number, taking into account the dust charge variation.
Small amplitude electron acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized superthermal plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Devanandhan, S.; Singh, S. V.; Lakhina, G. S.; Bharuthram, R.
2015-05-01
The propagation of electron acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized plasma consisting of fluid cold electrons, electron beam and superthermal hot electrons (obeying kappa velocity distribution function) and ion is investigated in a small amplitude limit using reductive perturbation theory. The Korteweg-de-Vries-Zakharov-Kuznetsov (KdV-ZK) equation governing the dynamics of electron acoustic solitary waves is derived. The solution of the KdV-ZK equation predicts the existence of negative potential solitary structures. The new results are: (1) increase of either the beam speed or temperature of beam electrons tends to reduce both the amplitude and width of the electron acoustic solitons, (2) the inclusion of beam speed and temperature pushes the allowed Mach number regime upwards and (3) the soliton width maximizes at certain angle of propagation (αm) and then decreases for α >αm . In addition, increasing the superthermality of the hot electrons also results in reduction of soliton amplitude and width. For auroral plasma parameters observed by Viking, the obliquely propagating electron-acoustic solitary waves have electric field amplitudes in the range (7.8-45) mV/m and pulse widths (0.29-0.44) ms. The Fourier transform of these electron acoustic solitons would result in a broadband frequency spectra with peaks near 2.3-3.5 kHz, thus providing a possible explanation of the broadband electrostatic noise observed during the Burst a.
Dust ion-acoustic solitary waves in a dusty plasma with positive and negative ions
Sayed, F.; Haider, M. M.; Mamun, A. A.; Shukla, P. K.; Eliasson, B.; Adhikary, N.
2008-06-15
Properties of small but finite amplitude dust ion-acoustic (DIA) solitary waves in a dusty plasma composed of inertialess electrons, positive and negative inertial ions, and immobile negative/positive charged dust grains are investigated. By using the multifluid dusty plasma model, the Kortweg-de Vries equation and energy integral for small and large amplitude solitary pulses, are derived. It is found that the presence of the negative ions modifies the properties of the solitary DIA waves, and provides the possibility of positive and negative solitary potential structures to coexist. The present results may be useful for understanding the salient features of localized DIA excitations that may appear in data from forthcoming laboratory experiments and space observations.
Dust-acoustic solitary waves in a four-component adiabatic magnetized dusty plasma
Akhter, T. Mannan, A.; Mamun, A. A.
2013-07-15
Theoretical investigation has been made on obliquely propagating dust-acoustic (DA) solitary waves (SWs) in a magnetized dusty plasma which consists of non-inertial adiabatic electron and ion fluids, and inertial negatively as well as positively charged adiabatic dust fluids. The reductive perturbation method has been employed to derive the Korteweg-de Vries equation which admits a solitary wave solution for small but finite amplitude limit. It has been shown that the basic features (speed, height, thickness, etc.) of such DA solitary structures are significantly modified by adiabaticity of plasma fluids, opposite polarity dust components, and the obliqueness of external magnetic field. The SWs have been changed from compressive to rarefactive depending on the value of {mu} (a parameter determining the number of positive dust present in this plasma model). The present investigation can be of relevance to the electrostatic solitary structures observed in various dusty plasma environments (viz. cometary tails, upper mesosphere, Jupiter's magnetosphere, etc.)
Two-dimensional cylindrical ion-acoustic solitary and rogue waves in ultrarelativistic plasmas
Ata-ur-Rahman; Ali, S.; Moslem, W. M.; Mushtaq, A.
2013-07-15
The propagation of ion-acoustic (IA) solitary and rogue waves is investigated in a two-dimensional ultrarelativistic degenerate warm dense plasma. By using the reductive perturbation technique, the cylindrical Kadomtsev–Petviashvili (KP) equation is derived, which can be further transformed into a Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) equation. The latter admits a solitary wave solution. However, when the frequency of the carrier wave is much smaller than the ion plasma frequency, the KdV equation can be transferred to a nonlinear Schrödinger equation to study the nonlinear evolution of modulationally unstable modified IA wavepackets. The propagation characteristics of the IA solitary and rogue waves are strongly influenced by the variation of different plasma parameters in an ultrarelativistic degenerate dense plasma. The present results might be helpful to understand the nonlinear electrostatic excitations in astrophysical degenerate dense plasmas.
Shalini, Saini, N. S.
2014-10-15
The propagation properties of large amplitude ion acoustic solitary waves (IASWs) are studied in a plasma containing cold fluid ions and multi-temperature electrons (cool and hot electrons) with nonextensive distribution. Employing Sagdeev pseudopotential method, an energy balance equation has been derived and from the expression for Sagdeev potential function, ion acoustic solitary waves and double layers are investigated numerically. The Mach number (lower and upper limits) for the existence of solitary structures is determined. Positive as well as negative polarity solitary structures are observed. Further, conditions for the existence of ion acoustic double layers (IADLs) are also determined numerically in the form of the critical values of q{sub c}, f and the Mach number (M). It is observed that the nonextensivity of electrons (via q{sub c,h}), concentration of electrons (via f) and temperature ratio of cold to hot electrons (via β) significantly influence the characteristics of ion acoustic solitary waves as well as double layers.
El-Labany, S. K.; Behery, E. E.; El-Shamy, E. F.
2013-12-15
The propagation and oblique collision of ion-acoustic (IA) solitary waves in a magnetized dusty electronegative plasma consisting of cold mobile positive ions, Boltzmann negative ions, Boltzmann electrons, and stationary positive/negative dust particles are studied. The extended Poincaré-Lighthill-Kuo perturbation method is employed to derive the Korteweg-de Vries equations and the corresponding expressions for the phase shifts after collision between two IA solitary waves. It turns out that the angle of collision, the temperature and density of negative ions, and the dust density of opposite polarity have reasonable effects on the phase shift. Clearly, the numerical results demonstrated that the IA solitary waves are delayed after the oblique collision. The current finding of this work is applicable in many plasma environments having negative ion species, such as D- and F-regions of the Earth's ionosphere and some laboratory plasma experiments.
Electron-acoustic solitary waves in the presence of a suprathermal electron component
Danehkar, Ashkbiz; Saini, Nareshpal Singh; Kourakis, Ioannis; Hellberg, Manfred A.
2011-07-15
The nonlinear dynamics of electron-acoustic localized structures in a collisionless and unmagnetized plasma consisting of ''cool'' inertial electrons, ''hot'' electrons having a kappa distribution, and stationary ions is studied. The inertialess hot electron distribution thus has a long-tailed suprathermal (non-Maxwellian) form. A dispersion relation is derived for linear electron-acoustic waves. They show a strong dependence of the charge screening mechanism on excess suprathermality (through {kappa}). A nonlinear pseudopotential technique is employed to investigate the occurrence of stationary-profile solitary waves, focusing on how their characteristics depend on the spectral index {kappa}, and the hot-to-cool electron temperature and density ratios. Only negative polarity solitary waves are found to exist, in a parameter region which becomes narrower as deviation from the Maxwellian (suprathermality) increases, while the soliton amplitude at fixed soliton speed increases. However, for a constant value of the true Mach number, the amplitude decreases for decreasing {kappa}.
Tsintsadze, N. L.; Tagviashvili, M. N.; Shah, H. A.; Qureshi, M. N. S.
2015-02-15
We have undertaken the investigation of ion acoustic solitary waves in both weakly and strongly quantized degenerate magnetoplasmas. It is seen that a singular point clearly demarcates the regions of weak and strong quantization due to the ambient magnetic field. The effect of the magnetic field is taken into account via the parameter η{sub 0}=ℏω{sub ce}/ε{sub Fe} and the Mach number, and their effect on the formation of solitary structures is investigated in both cases and some results are presented graphically.
Dust-acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized opposite polarity dust-plasma medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mamun, A. A.; Ferdousi, M.; Sultana, S.
2015-08-01
The basic features of obliquely propagating dust-acoustic (DA) solitary waves (SWs) in a three-component magnetized dusty plasma (containing inertial negatively as well as positively charged dust grains, and nonextensive ions) have been theoretically investigated. The reductive perturbation technique is employed in order to derive the Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV) equation. The stationary solitary wave solution of the K-dV equation, which describes the characteristics of SWs associated with ultra-low-frequency, long wavelength DA waves, is obtained and numerically analyzed. It is observed that the basic characteristics (polarity, amplitude, width, speed, etc) of the DA SWs are significantly modified by the effects of ion nonextensivity, external magnetic field, and angle between the directions of external magnetic field and wave propagation. The findings of this investigation may be used in understanding the wave propagation in space and laboratory plasmas in which dust of opposite polarity coexists.
Chaudhuri, Tushar Kanti; Khan, Manoranjan; Gupta, M. R.; Ghosh, Samiran
2007-10-15
The effects of low dust charging rate compared to the dust oscillation frequency and nonthermal ions on small but finite amplitude nonlinear dust acoustic wave have been investigated. It is seen that because of the low dust charging rate, the nonlinear wave exhibits weakly dissipative solitary wave that is governed by a modified form of the Korteweg-de Vries equation. The solitary wave possesses both rarefactive and compressive soliton solution depending on the values of ion nonthermality parameter a. An analytical solution reveals that because of the simultaneous effects of low dust charging rate and nonthermal ions, the wave amplitude may grow exponentially with time if the ion nonthermality parameter (a) exceeds a critical value provided the ion-electron temperature ratio ({sigma}{sub i}) is less than 0.11.
Dust acoustic solitary wave with variable dust charge: Role of negative ions
Ghosh, Samiran
2005-09-15
The role of negative ions on small but finite amplitude dust acoustic solitary wave including the effects of high and low charging rates of dust grains compared to the dust oscillation frequency in electronegative dusty plasma is investigated. In the case of high charging rate, the solitary wave is governed by Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, but in the case of low charging rate, it is governed by KdV equation with a linear damping term. Numerical investigations reveal that in both cases dust acoustic soliton sharpens (flatens) and soliton width decreases (increases) with the increase of negative-ion number density (temperature). Also, the negative ions reduce the damping rate.
Small amplitude nonlinear electron acoustic solitary waves in weakly magnetized plasma
Dutta, Manjistha; Khan, Manoranjan; Ghosh, Samiran; Roychoudhury, Rajkumar; Chakrabarti, Nikhil
2013-01-15
Nonlinear propagation of electron acoustic waves in homogeneous, dispersive plasma medium with two temperature electron species is studied in presence of externally applied magnetic field. The linear dispersion relation is found to be modified by the externally applied magnetic field. Lagrangian transformation technique is applied to carry out nonlinear analysis. For small amplitude limit, a modified KdV equation is obtained, the modification arising due to presence of magnetic field. For weakly magnetized plasma, the modified KdV equation possesses stable solitary solutions with speed and amplitude increasing temporally. The solutions are valid upto some finite time period beyond which the nonlinear wave tends to wave breaking.
Oblique propagation of ion-acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized electron-positron-ion plasma
Ferdousi, M.; Sultana, S.; Mamun, A. A.
2015-03-15
The properties of obliquely propagating ion-acoustic solitary waves in the presence of ambient magnetic field have been investigated theoretically in an electron-positron-ion nonthermal plasma. The plasma nonthermality is introduced via the q-nonextensive distribution of electrons and positrons. The Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV) and modified K-dV (mK-dV) equations are derived by adopting reductive perturbation method. The solution of K-dV and modified K-dV equation, which describes the solitary wave characteristics in the long wavelength limit, is obtained by steady state approach. It is seen that the electron and positron nonextensivity and external magnetic field (obliqueness) have significant effects on the characteristics of solitary waves. A critical value of nonextensivity is found for which solitary structures transit from positive to negative potential. The findings of this investigation may be used in understanding the wave propagation in laboratory and space plasmas where static external magnetic field is present.
Effect of non-Maxwellian particle trapping and dust grain charging on dust acoustic solitary waves
Rubab, N.; Murtaza, G.; Mushtaq, A.
2006-11-15
The role of adiabatic trapped ions on a small but finite amplitude dust acoustic wave, including the effect of adiabatic dust charge variation, is investigated in an unmagnetized three-component dusty plasma consisting of electrons, ions and massive micron sized negatively charged dust particulates. We have assumed that electrons and ions obey (r,q) velocity distribution while the dust species is treated fluid dynamically. It is found that the dynamics of dust acoustic waves is governed by a modified r dependent Korteweg-de Vries equation. Further, the spectral indices (r,q) affect the charge fluctuation as well as the trapping of electrons and ions and consequently modify the dust acoustic solitary wave.
PIC simulation of compressive and rarefactive dust ion-acoustic solitary waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhong-Zheng; Zhang, Heng; Hong, Xue-Ren; Gao, Dong-Ning; Zhang, Jie; Duan, Wen-Shan; Yang, Lei
2016-08-01
The nonlinear propagations of dust ion-acoustic solitary waves in a collisionless four-component unmagnetized dusty plasma system containing nonextensive electrons, inertial negative ions, Maxwellian positive ions, and negatively charged static dust grains have been investigated by the particle-in-cell method. By comparing the simulation results with those obtained from the traditional reductive perturbation method, it is observed that the rarefactive KdV solitons propagate stably at a low amplitude, and when the amplitude is increased, the prime wave form evolves and then gradually breaks into several small amplitude solitary waves near the tail of soliton structure. The compressive KdV solitons propagate unstably and oscillation arises near the tail of soliton structure. The finite amplitude rarefactive and compressive Gardner solitons seem to propagate stably.
Arbitrary amplitude dust ion acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized suprathermal dusty plasma
Shahmansouri, M.; Alinejad, H.
2012-12-15
The linear and nonlinear dust-ion-acoustic (DIA) wave propagating obliquely with respect to an external magnetic field is studied in a magnetized complex plasma which consists of a cold ion fluid, superthermal electrons, and static dust particles. The propagation properties of two possible modes (in the linear regime) are investigated. It is found that the electron suprathermality and the electron population decrease the phase velocities of both modes, while obliqueness leads to increase of separation between two modes. An energy-like equation derived to describe the nonlinear evolution of DIA solitary waves. The influences of electron suprathermality, obliqueness, and electron population on the existence domain of solitary waves and the soliton characteristics are examined. It is shown that the existence domain of the DIA soliton and its profile are significantly depending on the deviation of electrons from thermodynamic equilibrium, electrons population, and obliqueness. It is also found that the suprathermal plasma supports the DIA solitons with larger amplitude.
Evolution of nonlinear ion-acoustic solitary wave propagation in rotating plasma
Das, G. C.; Nag, Apratim
2006-08-15
A simple unmagnetized plasma rotating around an axis at an angle {theta} with the propagation direction of the acoustic mode has been taken. The nonlinear wave mode has been derived as an equivalent Sagdeev potential equation. A special procedure, known as the tanh method, has been developed to study the nonlinear wave propagation in plasma dynamics. Further, under small amplitude approximation, the nonlinear plasma acoustic mode has been exploited to study the evolution of soliton propagation in the plasma. The main emphasis has been given to the interaction of Coriolis force on the changes of coherent structure of the soliton. The solitary wave solution finds the different nature of solitons called compressive and rarefactive solitons as well as its explosions or collapses along with soliton dynamics and these have been showing exciting observations in exhibiting a narrow wave packet with the generation of high electric pressure and the growth of high energy which, in turn, yields the phenomena of radiating soliton in dynamics.
Dust ion-acoustic solitary waves in a dusty plasma with nonextensive electrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bacha, Mustapha; Tribeche, Mouloud; Shukla, Padma Kant
2012-05-01
The dust-modified ion-acoustic waves of Shukla and Silin are revisited within the theoretical framework of the Tsallis statistical mechanics. Nonextensivity may originate from correlation or long-range plasma interactions. Interestingly, we find that owing to electron nonextensivity, dust ion-acoustic (DIA) solitary waves may exhibit either compression or rarefaction. Our analysis is then extended to include self-consistent dust charge fluctuation. In this connection, the correct nonextensive electron charging current is rederived. The Korteweg-de Vries equation, as well as the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation, is obtained, making use of the reductive perturbation method. The DIA waves are then analyzed for parameters corresponding to space dusty plasma situations.
Acoustic Solitary Waves and Sagdeev Potential Triple Roots
Hellberg, M. A.; Baluku, T. K.; Verheest, F.
2010-12-14
Both KdV theory and the standard pseudopotential theory require that solitons and double layers be explicitly super-acoustic, with the pseudopotential {psi}({phi},M) having a maximum at the origin. Recent studies of a variety of different three-component plasmas have shown that they may support finite amplitude solitons at the true acoustic speed of the plasma configuration, M{sub s}. These are associated with triple roots of the Sagdeev potential, and the usual soliton condition is replaced by {psi}''(0,M){<=}0. Sagdeev potentials for speeds marginally greater than M{sub s} then represent solitons of both polarities, one whose amplitude vanishes at M{sub s}(KdV-like), while the other is necessarily finite at M{sub s}('nonKdV-like'). Such coexistence regions have been observed to be linked to a critical plasma compositional parameter value for which {psi}'''(0,M{sub s}) = 0.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayout, Saliha; Sahu, Biswajit; Tribeche, Mouloud
2015-12-01
A theoretical study on the nonlinear propagation of nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) dust ion-acoustic solitary waves (DIASW) is carried out in a dusty plasma, whose constituents are inertial ions, superthermal electrons, and charge fluctuating stationary dust particles. Using the reductive perturbation theory, a modified Korteweg-de Vries equation is derived. It is shown that the propagation characteristics of the cylindrical and spherical DIA solitary waves significantly differ from those of their one-dimensional counterpart.
Mayout, Saliha; Tribeche, Mouloud; Sahu, Biswajit
2015-12-15
A theoretical study on the nonlinear propagation of nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) dust ion-acoustic solitary waves (DIASW) is carried out in a dusty plasma, whose constituents are inertial ions, superthermal electrons, and charge fluctuating stationary dust particles. Using the reductive perturbation theory, a modified Korteweg-de Vries equation is derived. It is shown that the propagation characteristics of the cylindrical and spherical DIA solitary waves significantly differ from those of their one-dimensional counterpart.
Nonplanar dust acoustic solitary waves in a strongly coupled dusty plasma with superthermal ions
El-Labany, S. K. Zedan, N. A.; El-Taibany, W. F. E-mail: eltaibany@du.edu.eg; El-Shamy, E. F.
2014-12-15
The nonplanar amplitude modulation of dust acoustic (DA) envelope solitary waves in a strongly coupled dusty plasma (SCDP) has been investigated. By using a reductive perturbation technique, a modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) including the effects of geometry, polarization, and ion superthermality is derived. The modulational instability (MI) of the nonlinear DA wave envelopes is investigated in both planar and nonplanar geometries. There are two stable regions for the DA wave propagation strongly affected by polarization and ion superthermality. Moreover, it is found that the nonlinear DA waves in spherical geometry are the more structurally stable. The larger growth rate of the nonlinear DA MI is observed in the cylindrical geometry. The salient characteristics of the MI in the nonplanar geometries cannot be found in the planar one. The DA wave propagation and the NLSE solutions are investigated both analytically and numerically.
Narayan Ghosh, Uday; Chatterjee, Prasanta; Tribeche, Mouloud
2012-11-15
The head-on collisions between nonplanar dust-ion acoustic solitary waves are dealt with by an extended version of Poincare-Lighthill-Kuo perturbation method, for a plasma having stationary dust grains, inertial ions, and nonextensive electrons. The nonplanar geometry modified analytical phase-shift after a head-on collision is derived. It is found that as the nonextensive character of the electrons becomes important, the phase-shift decreases monotonically before levelling-off at a constant value. This leads us to think that nonextensivity may have a stabilizing effect on the phase-shift.
El-Labany, S. K.; Selim, M. M. E-mail: mselim2000@yahoo.com; Al-Abbasy, O. M.; El-Bedwehy, N. A.
2015-02-15
The effects of adiabatic dust grain charge fluctuation and inhomogeneity on the nonlinear properties of dust acoustic (DA) solitary waves are studied. The plasma under consideration is a hot magnetized dusty plasma consisting of negatively charged dust particles, Boltzmann ions, and nonextensive electrons. A modified Zakharov-Kusnetsov equation, which admits a solitary wave solution, is derived using the reductive perturbation theory. It is found that the charge fluctuation of the dust grain modifies the nature of DA solitary structures. The numerical results may be useful to understand phenomena in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas.
Bashir, M. F.; Behery, E. E.; El-Taibany, W. F.
2015-06-15
Employing the reductive perturbation technique, Zakharov–Kuznetzov (ZK) equation is derived for dust acoustic (DA) solitary waves in a magnetized plasma which consists the effects of dust anisotropic pressure, arbitrary charged dust particles, Boltzmann distributed ions, and Kappa distributed superthermal electrons. The ZK solitary wave solution is obtained. Using the small-k expansion method, the stability analysis for DA solitary waves is also discussed. The effects of the dust pressure anisotropy and the electron superthermality on the basic characteristics of DA waves as well as on the three-dimensional instability criterion are highlighted. It is found that the DA solitary wave is rarefactive (compressive) for negative (positive) dust. In addition, the growth rate of instability increases rapidly as the superthermal spectral index of electrons increases with either positive or negative dust grains. A brief discussion for possible applications is included.
The effect of q-distributed electrons on the head-on collision of ion acoustic solitary waves
Ghosh, Uday Narayan; Chatterjee, Prasanta; Roychoudhury, Rajkumar
2012-01-15
The head-on collision of ion acoustic solitary waves (IASWs) in two component plasma comprising nonextensive distributed electrons is investigated. Two opposite directional Kortewg-de-vries (KdV) equations are derived and the phase shift due to collision is obtained using the extended version of Poincare-Lighthill-Kuo method. Different ranges of nonextensive parameter q are considered and their effects on phase shifts are observed. It is found that the presence of nonextensive distributed electrons plays a significant role on the nature of collision of ion acoustic solitary waves.
Han, Jiu-Ning He, Yong-Lin; Luo, Jun-Hua; Nan, Ya-Gong; Han, Zhen-Hai; Dong, Guang-Xing; Duan, Wen-Shan; Li, Jun-Xiu
2014-01-15
With the consideration of the superthermal electron distribution, we present a theoretical investigation about the nonlinear propagation of electron-acoustic solitary and shock waves in a dissipative, nonplanar non-Maxwellian plasma comprised of cold electrons, superthermal hot electrons, and stationary ions. The reductive perturbation technique is used to obtain a modified Korteweg-de Vries Burgers equation for nonlinear waves in this plasma. We discuss the effects of various plasma parameters on the time evolution of nonplanar solitary waves, the profile of shock waves, and the nonlinear structure induced by the collision between planar solitary waves. It is found that these parameters have significant effects on the properties of nonlinear waves and collision-induced nonlinear structure.
Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Mushtaq, A.; Mamun, A. A.
2013-03-15
Dust acoustic solitary waves in a dusty plasma containing dust of opposite polarity (adiabatic positive and negative dust), non-isothermal electrons and ions (following vortex like distribution) are theoretically investigated by employing pseudo-potential approach, which is valid for arbitrary amplitude structures. The propagation of small but finite amplitude solitary structures is also examined by using the reductive perturbation method. The basic properties of large (small) amplitude solitary structures are investigated by analyzing the energy integral (modified Korteweg-de Vries equation). It is shown that the effects of dust polarity, trapping of plasma particles (electrons and ions), and temperatures of dust fluids significantly modify the basic features of the dust-acoustic solitary structures that are found to exist in such an opposite polarity dust-plasma medium. The relevance of the work in opposite polarity dust-plasma, which may occur in cometary tails, upper mesosphere, Jupiter's magnetosphere, is briefly discussed.
Ion-acoustic solitary waves in a fully relativistic ion-electron-positron plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tribeche, Mouloud; Boukhalfa, Soufiane
2011-04-01
A fully and coherent relativistic fluid model derived from the covariant formulation of relativistic fluid equations is used to study ion-acoustic solitary waves in a fully relativistic ion-electron-positron plasma. This approach has the characteristic to be consistent with the relativistic principle and consequently leads to a more general set of equations valid for fully relativistic plasmas with arbitrary Lorentz relativistic factor. Our results may be relevant to cosmic relativistic double- layers and relativistic plasma structures involving energetic plasma flows that may occur in space plasmas. Furthermore, they may complement and provide new insights into recently published results (G. Lu et al. in Astrophys. Space Sci., doi: 10.1007/s10509-010-0363-5, 2010).
Abdelwahed, H. G.; El-Shewy, E. K.
2012-07-15
Nonlinear ion-acoustic solitary waves in a warm collisionless plasma with nonthermal electrons are investigated by a direct analysis of the field equations. The Sagdeev's potential is obtained in terms of ion acoustic speed by simply solving an algebraic equation. It is found that the amplitude and width of the ion-acoustic solitons as well as the parametric regime where the solitons can exist are sensitive to the population of energetic non-thermal electrons. The soliton and double layer solutions are obtained as a small amplitude approximation.
El-Taibany, W.F.; Sabry, R.
2005-08-15
The effect of nonthermal ions and variable dust charge on small-amplitude nonlinear dust-acoustic (DA) waves is investigated. It is found that both compressive and rarefactive solitons exist and depend on the nonthermal parameter a. Using a reductive perturbation theory, a Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation is derived. At critical value of a, a{sub c}, a modified ZK equation with third- and fourth-order nonlinearities, is obtained. Depending on a, the solution of the evolution equation reveals whether there is coexistence of both compressive and rarefactive solitary waves or double layers (DLs) with the possibility of their two kinds. In addition, for certain plasma parameters, the solitary wave disappears and a DL is expected. The variation of dust charge number, wave velocity, and soliton amplitude and its width against system parameters is investigated for the DA solitary waves. It is shown that the incorporation of both the adiabatic dust-charge variation and the nonthermal distributed ions modifies significantly the nature of DA solitary waves and DA DLs. The findings of this investigation may be useful in understanding the ion acceleration mechanisms close to the Moon and also enhances our knowledge on pickup ions around unmagnetized bodies, such as comets, Mars, and Venus.
Landau damping effects on dust-acoustic solitary waves in a dusty negative-ion plasma
Barman, Arnab; Misra, A. P. E-mail: apmisra@gmail.com
2014-07-15
The nonlinear theory of dust-acoustic waves (DAWs) with Landau damping is studied in an unmagnetized dusty negative-ion plasma in the extreme conditions when the free electrons are absent. The cold massive charged dusts are described by fluid equations, whereas the two-species of ions (positive and negative) are described by the kinetic Vlasov equations. A Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation with Landau damping, governing the dynamics of weakly nonlinear and weakly dispersive DAWs, is derived following Ott and Sudan [Phys. Fluids 12, 2388 (1969)]. It is shown that for some typical laboratory and space plasmas, the Landau damping (and the nonlinear) effects are more pronounced than the finite Debye length (dispersive) effects for which the KdV soliton theory is not applicable to DAWs in dusty pair-ion plasmas. The properties of the linear phase velocity, solitary wave amplitudes (in presence and absence of the Landau damping) as well as the Landau damping rate are studied with the effects of the positive ion to dust density ratio (μ{sub pd}) as well as the ratios of positive to negative ion temperatures (σ) and masses (m)
Multidimensional ion-acoustic solitary waves and shocks in quantum plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Misra, A. P.; Sahu, Biswajit
2015-03-01
The nonlinear theory of two-dimensional ion-acoustic (IA) solitary waves and shocks (SWS) is revisited in a dissipative quantum plasma. The effects of dispersion, caused by the charge separation of electrons and ions and the quantum force associated with the Bohm potential for degenerate electrons, as well as, the dissipation due to the ion kinematic viscosity are considered. Using the reductive perturbation technique, a Kadomtsev-Petviashvili-Burgers (KPB)-type equation, which governs the evolution of small-amplitude SWS in quantum plasmas, is derived, and its different solutions are obtained and analyzed. It is shown that the KPB equation can admit either compressive or rarefactive SWS according to when H ≶ 2 / 3, or the particle number density satisfies n0 ≷ 1.3 ×1031cm-3, where H is the ratio of the electron plasmon energy to the Fermi energy densities. Furthermore, the properties of large-amplitude stationary shocks are studied numerically in the case when the wave dispersion due to charge separation is negligible. It is also shown that a transition from monotonic to oscillatory shocks occurs by the effects of the quantum parameter H.
Landau damping effects on dust-acoustic solitary waves in a dusty negative-ion plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barman, Arnab; Misra, A. P.
2014-07-01
The nonlinear theory of dust-acoustic waves (DAWs) with Landau damping is studied in an unmagnetized dusty negative-ion plasma in the extreme conditions when the free electrons are absent. The cold massive charged dusts are described by fluid equations, whereas the two-species of ions (positive and negative) are described by the kinetic Vlasov equations. A Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation with Landau damping, governing the dynamics of weakly nonlinear and weakly dispersive DAWs, is derived following Ott and Sudan [Phys. Fluids 12, 2388 (1969)]. It is shown that for some typical laboratory and space plasmas, the Landau damping (and the nonlinear) effects are more pronounced than the finite Debye length (dispersive) effects for which the KdV soliton theory is not applicable to DAWs in dusty pair-ion plasmas. The properties of the linear phase velocity, solitary wave amplitudes (in presence and absence of the Landau damping) as well as the Landau damping rate are studied with the effects of the positive ion to dust density ratio (μpd) as well as the ratios of positive to negative ion temperatures (σ) and masses (m).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yunliang; Guo, Xiaoyan; Lu, Yanzhen; Wang, Xiaodan
2016-01-01
The combined effects of nonadiabatic dust charge fluctuation and strongly coupled dust particles on the nonlinear propagation of dust acoustic (DA) waves in dusty plasma consisting of nonthermal electrons and trapped ions with vortex-like distribution are presented here. We use generalized viscoelastic hydrodynamic model for dust particles. In the weak nonlinearity limit, a modified Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation with a damping term and a KdV-Burger equation have been derived in the kinetic regime and hydrodynamic regime, respectively. The approximate analytical solitary solution of modified KdV equation is derived in the weak nonadiabatic dust charge variation limit, which shows that the amplitude of DA solitary waves decreases with time. The presence of viscosity due to strong coupling stands for the formation of DA shock waves in the hydrodynamic regime. The results show that the DA shock waves will be oscillating one for weak viscosity and will become monotonic ones for large viscosity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
EL-Shamy, E. F.
2014-08-01
The solitary structures of multi-dimensional ion-acoustic solitary waves (IASWs) have been considered in magnetoplasmas consisting of electron-positron-ion with high-energy (superthermal) electrons and positrons are investigated. Using a reductive perturbation method, a nonlinear Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation is derived. The multi-dimensional instability of obliquely propagating (with respect to the external magnetic field) IASWs has been studied by the small-k (long wavelength plane wave) expansion perturbation method. The instability condition and the growth rate of the instability have been derived. It is shown that the instability criterion and their growth rate depend on the parameter measuring the superthermality, the ion gyrofrequency, the unperturbed positrons-to-ions density ratio, the direction cosine, and the ion-to-electron temperature ratio. Clearly, the study of our model under consideration is helpful for explaining the propagation and the instability of IASWs in space observations of magnetoplasmas with superthermal electrons and positrons.
EL-Shamy, E. F.
2014-08-15
The solitary structures of multi–dimensional ion-acoustic solitary waves (IASWs) have been considered in magnetoplasmas consisting of electron-positron-ion with high-energy (superthermal) electrons and positrons are investigated. Using a reductive perturbation method, a nonlinear Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation is derived. The multi-dimensional instability of obliquely propagating (with respect to the external magnetic field) IASWs has been studied by the small-k (long wavelength plane wave) expansion perturbation method. The instability condition and the growth rate of the instability have been derived. It is shown that the instability criterion and their growth rate depend on the parameter measuring the superthermality, the ion gyrofrequency, the unperturbed positrons-to-ions density ratio, the direction cosine, and the ion-to-electron temperature ratio. Clearly, the study of our model under consideration is helpful for explaining the propagation and the instability of IASWs in space observations of magnetoplasmas with superthermal electrons and positrons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sardar, Sankirtan; Bandyopadhyay, Anup; Das, K. P.
2016-07-01
A three-dimensional KP (Kadomtsev Petviashvili) equation is derived here describing the propagation of weakly nonlinear and weakly dispersive dust ion acoustic wave in a collisionless unmagnetized plasma consisting of warm adiabatic ions, static negatively charged dust grains, nonthermal electrons, and isothermal positrons. When the coefficient of the nonlinear term of the KP-equation vanishes an appropriate modified KP (MKP) equation describing the propagation of dust ion acoustic wave is derived. Again when the coefficient of the nonlinear term of this MKP equation vanishes, a further modified KP equation is derived. Finally, the stability of the solitary wave solutions of the KP and the different modified KP equations are investigated by the small-k perturbation expansion method of Rowlands and Infeld [J. Plasma Phys. 3, 567 (1969); 8, 105 (1972); 10, 293 (1973); 33, 171 (1985); 41, 139 (1989); Sov. Phys. - JETP 38, 494 (1974)] at the lowest order of k, where k is the wave number of a long-wavelength plane-wave perturbation. The solitary wave solutions of the different evolution equations are found to be stable at this order.
Modified ion-acoustic solitary waves in plasmas with field-aligned shear flows
Saleem, H.; Haque, Q.
2015-08-15
The nonlinear dynamics of ion-acoustic waves is investigated in a plasma having field-aligned shear flow. A Korteweg-deVries-type nonlinear equation for a modified ion-acoustic wave is obtained which admits a single pulse soliton solution. The theoretical result has been applied to solar wind plasma at 1 AU for illustration.
Singh, S. V.; Devanandhan, S.; Lakhina, G. S.; Bharuthram, R.
2013-01-15
Obliquely propagating ion-acoustic soliatry waves are examined in a magnetized plasma composed of kappa distributed electrons and fluid ions with finite temperature. The Sagdeev potential approach is used to study the properties of finite amplitude solitary waves. Using a quasi-neutrality condition, it is possible to reduce the set of equations to a single equation (energy integral equation), which describes the evolution of ion-acoustic solitary waves in magnetized plasmas. The temperature of warm ions affects the speed, amplitude, width, and pulse duration of solitons. Both the critical and the upper Mach numbers are increased by an increase in the ion temperature. The ion-acoustic soliton amplitude increases with the increase in superthermality of electrons. For auroral plasma parameters, the model predicts the soliton speed, amplitude, width, and pulse duration, respectively, to be in the range of (28.7-31.8) km/s, (0.18-20.1) mV/m; (590-167) m, and (20.5-5.25) ms, which are in good agreement with Viking observations.
Maitra, Sarit; Roychoudhury, Rajkumar
2005-05-15
Sagdeev's technique is used to study the dust ion-acoustic solitary waves (DIASWs) in a dusty plasma comprising ions, electrons, and charged dust grains taking into account the ion kinematic viscosity. Exact analytical results for the solitary wave solutions were obtained for small amplitude DIASW. The effects of the ion kinematic viscosity and the ion temperature on the feature of DIASW have been investigated.
Nonplanar ion-acoustic solitary waves with superthermal electrons in warm plasma
Eslami, Parvin; Mottaghizadeh, Marzieh; Pakzad, Hamid Reza
2011-07-15
In this paper, we consider an unmagnetized plasma consisting of warm adiabatic ions, superthermal electrons, and thermal positrons. Nonlinear cylindrical and spherical modified Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equations are derived for ion acoustic waves by using reductive perturbation technique. It is observed that an increasing positron concentration decreases the amplitude of the waves. Furthermore, the effects of the superthermal parameter (k) on the ion acoustic waves are found.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kakad, A.; Kakad, B. A.; Omura, Y.
2014-12-01
In recent spacecraft observations, coherent electrostatic solitary wave (ESWs) structures are observed in various regions of the Earth's magnetosphere. Over the years, many researchers have attempted to model these observations in terms of electron/ion acoustic solitary waves by using nonlinear fluid theory/simulations. The ESW structures predicted by fluid models can be inadequate due to its inability in handling kinetic effects. To provide clear view on the application of the fluid and kinetic treatments in modeling the ESWs, we perform both fluid and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of ion acoustic solitary waves (IASWs) and estimate the quantitative differences in their characteristics like speed, amplitude, and width. It is noted that a long time evolution of Gaussian type perturbations in the equilibrium electron and ion densities generated the nonlinear IASW structures in both fluid and PIC simulations. The IASW structures represent vortices of trapped electrons in PIC simulations. We find that the number of trapped electrons in the wave potential is higher for the large amplitude IASW, which are generated by large-amplitude initial density perturbation (IDP). The present fluid and PIC simulation results are in close agreement for small amplitude IDPs, whereas for large IDPs they show discrepancy in the amplitude, width, and speed of the IASW, which is attributed to negligence of kinetic effects in the former approach. The speed of IASW in the fluid simulations increases with the increase of IASW amplitude, while the reverse tendency is seen in the PIC simulation. The present study suggests that the fluid treatment is appropriate to model the IASW observations when the magnitude of phase velocity of IASW is less than the ion acoustic (IA) speed obtained from their linear dispersion relation, whereas when it exceeds IA speed, it is necessary to include the kinetic effects in the model.
Solitary waves in particle beams
Bisognano, J.J.
1996-07-01
Since space charge waves on a particle beam exhibit both dispersive and nonlinear character, solitary waves or solitons are possible. Dispersive, nonlinear wave propagation in high current beams is found to be similar to ion-acoustic waves in plasmas with an analogy between Debye screening and beam pipe shielding. Exact longitudinal solitary wave propagation is found for potentials associated with certain transverse distributions which fill the beam pipe. For weak dispersion, the waves satisfy the Korteweg-deVries (KdV) equation, but for strong dispersion they exhibit breaking. More physically realizable distributions which do not fill the beam pipe are investigated and shown to also satisfy a KdV equation for weak dispersion if averaging over rapid transverse motion is physically justified. Scaling laws are presented to explore likely parameter regimes where these phenomena may be observed experimentally.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sabetkar, Akbar; Dorranian, Davoud
2015-03-01
In this paper, a theoretical investigation has been made of obliquely propagating dust acoustic solitary wave (DASW) structures in a cold magnetized dusty plasma consisting of a negatively charged dust fluid, electrons, and two different types of nonthermal ions. The Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) and modified Zakharov-Kuznetsov (MZK) equations, describing the small but finite amplitude DASWs, are derived using a reductive perturbation method. The combined effects of the external magnetic field, obliqueness (i.e. the propagation angle), and the presence of second component of nonthermal ions, which are found to significantly modify the basic features (viz. amplitude, width, polarity) of DASWs, are explicitly examined. The results show that the external magnetic field, the propagation angle, and the second component of nonthermal ions have strong effects on the properties of dust acoustic solitary structures. The solitary waves may become associated with either positive potential or negative potential in this model. As the angle between the direction of external magnetic field and the propagation direction of solitary wave increases, the amplitude of the solitary wave (for both positive potential and negative potential) increases. With changing this angle, the width of solitary wave shows a maximum. The magnitude of the external magnetic field has no direct effect on the solitary wave amplitude. However, with decreasing the strength of magnetic field, the width of DASW increases.
Amour, Rabia; Tribeche, Mouloud
2010-06-15
A first theoretical work is presented to study variable charge dust acoustic solitons within the theoretical framework of the Tsallis statistical mechanics. Our results reveal that the spatial patterns of the variable charge solitary wave are significantly modified by electron nonextensive effects. In particular, it may be noted that for -11. As the electrons deviate from their thermodynamic equilibrium, the dust grain charge Q{sub d} becomes more negative and the dust grains localization (accumulation) less pronounced. The electrons are locally expelled and pushed out of the region of the soliton's localization. This electron depletion becomes less effective as the electrons evolve far away from their thermal equilibrium. The case q>1 provides qualitatively opposite results: electron nonextensivity makes the solitary structure more spiky. Our results should help in providing a good fit between theoretical and experimental results.
Mushtaq, A.; Shah, H.A.
2006-01-15
By using the generalized (r,q) distribution function, the effect of particle trapping on the linear and nonlinear evolution of an ion-acoustic wave in an electron-ion plasma has been discussed. The spectral indices q and r contribute to the high-energy tails and flatness on top of the distribution function respectively. The generalized Korteweg-de Vries equations with associated solitary wave solutions for different ranges of parameter r are derived by employing a reductive perturbation technique. It is shown that spectral indices r and q affect the trapping of electrons and subsequently the dynamics of the ion acoustic solitary wave significantly.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahman, M. M.; Alam, M. S.; Mamun, A. A.
2015-05-01
Obliquely propagating positron-acoustic solitary waves (PASWs) in a magnetized electron-positron-ion plasma (containing nonthermal hot positrons and electrons, inertial cold positrons, and immobile positive ions) are precisely investigated by deriving the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation. It is found that the characteristics of the PASWs are significantly modified by the effects of external magnetic field, obliqueness, nonthermality of hot positrons and electrons, temperature ratio of hot positrons and electrons, and respective number densities of hot positrons and electrons. The findings of our results can be employed in understanding the localized electrostatic structures and the characteristics of PASWs in various space and laboratory plasmas.
Uddin, M. J. Alam, M. S.; Mamun, A. A.
2015-02-15
Nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) positron-acoustic (PA) Gardner solitary waves (SWs) in an unmagnetized plasma system consisting of immobile positive ions, mobile cold positrons, and superthermal (kappa distributed) hot positrons and electrons are investigated. The modified Gardner equation is derived by using the reductive perturbation technique. The effects of cylindrical and spherical geometries, superthermal parameter of hot positrons and electrons, relative temperature ratios, and relative number density ratios on the PA Gardner SWs are studied by using the numerical simulations. The implications of our results in various space and laboratory plasma environments are briefly discussed.
Qi, Xin; Xu, Yan-xia; Duan, Wen-shan E-mail: lyang@impcas.ac.cn; Zhang, Ling-yu; Yang, Lei E-mail: lyang@impcas.ac.cn
2014-08-15
The head-on collision of two ion acoustic solitary waves in plasmas composed of hot electrons and cold ions has been studied by using the Poincare-Lighthill-Kuo (PLK) perturbation method and one-dimensional Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulation. Then the phase lags of ion acoustic solitary waves (IASWs) obtained from the two approaches have been compared and discussed. It has been found that: if the amplitudes of both the colliding IASWs are small enough, the phase lags obtained from PLK method are in good agreement with those obtained from PIC simulation. As the amplitudes of IASWs increase, the phase lags from PIC simulation become smaller than the analytical ones from PLK method. Besides, the PIC simulation shows the phase lag of an IASW involved in collision depends not only on the characteristics of the wave it collides with but also on itself, which disagrees with the prediction of the PLK method. Finally, the application scopes of the PLK method in studying both the single IASW and the head-on collisions of IASWs have been studied and discussed, and the latter turns out to be more strict.
Acoustic solitary waves in dusty and/or multi-ion plasmas with cold, adiabatic, and hot constituents
Verheest, Frank; Hellberg, Manfred A.; Kourakis, Ioannis
2008-11-15
Large nonlinear acoustic waves are discussed in a four-component plasma, made up of two superhot isothermal species, and two species with lower thermal velocities, being, respectively, adiabatic and cold. First a model is considered in which the isothermal species are electrons and ions, while the cooler species are positive and/or negative dust. Using a Sagdeev pseudopotential formalism, large dust-acoustic structures have been studied in a systematic way, to delimit the compositional parameter space in which they can be found, without restrictions on the charges and masses of the dust species and their charge signs. Solitary waves can only occur for nonlinear structure velocities smaller than the adiabatic dust thermal velocity, leading to a novel dust-acoustic-like mode based on the interplay between the two dust species. If the cold and adiabatic dust are oppositely charged, only solitary waves exist, having the polarity of the cold dust, their parameter range being limited by infinite compression of the cold dust. However, when the charges of the cold and adiabatic species have the same sign, solitary structures are limited for increasing Mach numbers successively by infinite cold dust compression, by encountering the adiabatic dust sonic point, and by the occurrence of double layers. The latter have, for smaller Mach numbers, the same polarity as the charged dust, but switch at the high Mach number end to the opposite polarity. Typical Sagdeev pseudopotentials and solitary wave profiles have been presented. Finally, the analysis has nowhere used the assumption that the dust would be much more massive than the ions and hence, one or both dust species can easily be replaced by positive and/or negative ions and the conclusions will apply to that plasma model equally well. This would cover a number of different scenarios, such as, for example, very hot electrons and ions, together with a mix of adiabatic ions and dust (of either polarity) or a very hot electron
Internal Solitary Wave Tunnelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sutherland, Bruce; Keating, Scott; Shrivistava, Ishita
2013-11-01
In a two-layer fluid, solitary waves of depression (elevation) propagate in a shallow upper (lower) layer. The transition from depressed to elevated is known to occur as a solitary wave of depression passes over a bottom slope. If impacting a coastline the shoaling waves deposit some energy and partially reflect. Here we consider what happens if a solitary wave passes over a sill or the shoulder of an island. Specifically, through lock-release laboratory experiments, we examine the evolution of a solitary wave of depression incident upon a submerged thin vertical barrier and triangular submarine topography. From the measured interface displacement, we determine the available potential energy associated with the wave. The method of Hilbert transforms is used to subdivide the displacement signal into rightward- and leftward-propagating disturbances, from which we measure the available potential energy of the transmitted and reflected waves. These are used to measure the relative transmission, reflection and deposition of energy in terms of the barrier height and slope, the relative depths of the ambient fluid and the amplitude of the incident wave. Implications for internal wave scattering around Dongsha Atoll in the South China Sea are discussed. Research performed while visiting the University of Alberta under the UARE program.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nazari-Golshan, A.
2016-08-01
Ion-acoustic (IA) solitary wave propagation is investigated by solving the fractional Schamel equation (FSE) in a homogenous system of unmagnetized plasma. This plasma consists of the nonextensive trapped electrons and cold fluid ions. The effects of the nonextensive q-parameter, electron trapping, and fractional parameter have been studied. The FSE is derived by using the semi-inverse and Agrawal's methods. The analytical results show that an increase in the amount of electron trapping and nonextensive q-parameter increases the soliton ion-acoustic amplitude in agreement with the previously obtained results. However, it is vice-versa for the fractional parameter. This feature leads to the fact that the fractional parameter may be used to increase the IA soliton amplitude instead of increasing electron trapping and nonextensive parameters.
Evolution of ion-acoustic solitary waves in Maxwellian dusty plasmas
Das, G. C.; Choudhury, Balen; Bora, M. P.
2010-12-15
The nonlinear wave phenomena in the vicinity of Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation have been derived to study the salient features of solitons in a complex plasma consisting of Maxwellian electrons, ions, and cold dust with the effect of dust charge fluctuation. The reductive perturbation method has been applied to the dynamical system causeway and the derived KdV equation predicts different natures of solitons in complex plasma. The dynamics of the soliton propagation in the considered plasma constituents in ionospheric auroral regions exhibits rarefactive solitons, which is an interesting feature. The dust charge fluctuation by the increasing impact of electrons leads the nonlinear effect to be tending to zero. Because of which, the formation of a narrow solitary wave packet with the generation of high energy becomes possible and results in the phenomena of soliton radiation. In order to probe this further, we derive a modified KdV equation to study soliton propagation which, in turn, indicates the possibility of the shock formation in solitary waves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shahmansouri, M.; Mamun, A. A.
2015-07-01
The effects of strong electrostatic interaction among highly charged dust on multi-dimensional instability of dust-acoustic (DA) solitary waves in a magnetized strongly coupled dusty plasma by small- k perturbation expansion method have been investigated. We found that a Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation governs the evolution of obliquely propagating small amplitude DA solitary waves in such a strongly coupled dusty plasma. The parametric regimes for which the obliquely propagating DA solitary waves become unstable are identified. The basic properties, viz., amplitude, width, instability criterion, and growth rate, of these obliquely propagating DA solitary structures are found to be significantly modified by the effects of different physical strongly coupled dusty plasma parameters. The implications of our results in some space/astrophysical plasmas and some future laboratory experiments are briefly discussed.
Mushtaq, A.; Shah, H.A.
2005-07-15
The purpose of this work is to investigate the linear and nonlinear properties of the ion-acoustic waves (IAW), propagating obliquely to an external magnetic field in a weakly relativistic, rotating, and magnetized electron-positron-ion plasma. The Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation is derived by employing the reductive perturbation technique for this wave in the nonlinear regime. This equation admits the solitary wave solution. The amplitude and width of this solitary wave have been discussed with the effects of obliqueness, relativity, ion temperature, positron concentration, magnetic field, and rotation of the plasma and it is observed that for IAW these parameters affect the propagation properties of solitary waves and these plasmas behave differently from the simple electron-ion plasmas. Likewise, the current density and electric field of these waves are investigated for their dependence on the above-mentioned parameters.
Qi, Xin; Xu, Yan-xia; Duan, Wen-shan; Yang, Lei; Department of Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000
2014-01-15
The dust acoustic solitary waves have been numerically investigated by using one dimensional electrostatic particle-in-cell method. By comparing the numerical results with those obtained from the traditional reductive perturbation method, it is found that there exist the maximum dimensionless amplitude and propagation speed of the dust acoustic solitary wave. And these limitations of the solitary wave are explained by using the Sagdeev potential technique. Furthermore, it is noticed that although ϵ ≪ 1 is required in the reductive perturbation method generally, the reductive perturbation method is also valid for ϵ < 1 in a dusty plasma, which may be extended to branches where the reductive perturbation method is used.
El-Taibany, W.F.; Moslem, Waleed M.
2005-03-01
The nonlinear wave structure of small-amplitude electron-acoustic solitary waves (EASWs) is investigated in a four-component plasma consisting of cold electron fluid, hot electrons obeying vortex-like distribution traversed by a warm electron beam and stationary ions. The streaming velocity of the beam, u{sub o}, plays the dominant role in determining the roots of the linear dispersion relation associated with the system. Using the reductive perturbation theory, the basic set of equations is reduced to a modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation. With the inclusion of higher-order nonlinearity, a linear inhomogeneous mKdV type equation with fifth-order dispersion term is derived and the higher-order solution is obtained using a renormalization method. However, both mKdV and mKdV-type solutions present a positive potential, which corresponds to a hole (hump) in the cold (hot) electron number density. The mKdV-type solution has a smaller energy amplitude and a wider width than that of mKdV solution. The dependence of the energy amplitude, the width, and the velocity on the system parameters is investigated. The findings of this investigation are used to interpret the electrostatic solitary waves observed by the Geotail spacecraft in the plasma sheet boundary layer of the Earth's magnetosphere.
Rahman, O.; Mamun, A. A.
2011-08-15
The nonlinear propagation of dust-ion-acoustic (DIA) waves in a dusty plasma containing trapped electrons following vortex-like distribution, cold mobile ions, and arbitrarily charged static dust is theoretically investigated. The properties of small but finite amplitude DIA solitary waves (SWs) are studied by employing the reductive perturbation technique. It is found that owing to the departure from the Maxwellian electron distribution to a vortex-like one, the dynamics of such DIA SWs is governed by a modified Korteweg-de Vries equation. The basic features (amplitude, width, speed, etc.) of such DIA SWs, which are found to be significantly modified by the vortex-like electron distribution and dust polarity, are also examined. The implications of our results to space and laboratory dusty plasmas are briefly discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tribeche, Mouloud; Mayout, Saliha
2016-07-01
The combined effects of ionization, ion loss and electron suprathermality on dust ion- acoustic solitary waves in a collisional dusty plasma are examined. Carrying out a small but finite amplitude analysis, a damped Korteweg- de Vries (dK-- dV) equation is derived. The damping term decreases with the increase of the spectral index and saturates for Maxwellian electrons. Choosing typical plasma parameters, the analytical approximate solution of the dK- dV equation is numerically analyzed. We first neglect the ionization and ion loss effects and account only for collisions to estimate the relative importance between these damping terms which can act concurrently. Interestingly, we found that as the suprathermal character of the electrons becomes important, the strength of the collisions related dissipation becomes more important and causes the DIA solitary wave amplitude to decay more rapidly. Moreover, the collisional damping may largely prevail over the ionization and ion loss related damping. The latter becomes more effective as the electrons evolve far away from their thermal equilibrium. Our results complement and provide new insights into previously published work on this problem.
Interactions of nonlinear electron-acoustic solitary waves with vortex electron distribution
Demiray, Hilmi
2015-02-15
In the present work, based on a one dimensional model, we consider the head-on-collision of nonlinear electron-acoustic waves in a plasma composed of a cold electron fluid, hot electrons obeying a trapped/vortex-like distribution, and stationary ions. The analysis is based on the use of extended Poincare, Lighthill-Kuo method [C. H. Su and R. M. Mirie, J. Fluid Mech. 98, 509 (1980); R. M. Mirie and C. H. Su, J. Fluid Mech. 115, 475 (1982)]. It is shown that, for the first order approximation, the waves propagating in opposite directions are characterized by modified Korteweg-de Vries equations. In contrary to the results of previous investigations on this subject, we showed that the phase shifts are functions of both amplitudes of the colliding waves. The numerical results indicate that the waves with larger amplitude experience smaller phase shifts. Such a result seems to be plausible from physical considerations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahman, O.
2015-12-01
The nonlinear propagation of dust-ion-acoustic (DIA) solitary waves (SWs) in an unmagnetized four-component dusty plasma containing electrons and negative ions obeying vortex-like (trapped) velocity distribution, cold mobile positive ions and arbitrarily charged stationary dust has been theoretically investigated. The properties of small but finite amplitude DIASWs are studied by employing the reductive perturbation technique. It has been found that owing to the departure from the Maxwellian electron and Maxwellian negative ion distribution to a vortex-like one, the dynamics of such DIASWs is governed by a modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation which admits SW solution under certain conditions. The basic properties (speed, amplitude, width, etc.) of such DIASWs are found to be significantly modified by the presence of trapped electron and trapped negative ions. The implications of our results to space and laboratory dusty electronegative plasmas (DENPs) are briefly discussed.
EL-Labany, S. K.; El-Mahgoub, M. G.; EL-Shamy, E. F.
2012-06-15
The interaction between two planar and nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) quantum electron acoustic solitary waves (QEASWs) in quantum dense electron-ion plasmas has been studied. The extended Poincare-Lighthill-Kuo method is used to obtain planar and nonplanar phase shifts after the interaction of the two QEASWs. The change of phase shifts and trajectories for QEASWs due to the effect of the different geometries, the quantum corrections of diffraction, and the cold electron-to-hot electron number density ratio are discussed. It is shown that the interaction of the QEASWs in planar geometry, cylindrical geometry, and spherical geometry are different. The present investigation may be beneficial to understand the interaction between two planar and nonplanar QEASWs that may occur in the quantum plasmas found in laser-produced plasmas as well as in astrophysical plasmas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
E. K., El-Shewy; M. I. Abo el, Maaty; H. G., Abdelwahed; M. A., Elmessary
2011-01-01
Effect of hot and cold dust charge on the propagation of dust-acoustic waves (DAWs) in unmagnetized plasma having electrons, singly charged ions, hot and cold dust grains has been investigated. The reductive perturbation method is employed to reduce the basic set of fluid equations to the Kortewege-de Vries (KdV) equation. At the critical hot dusty plasma density Nh0, the KdV equation is not appropriate for describing the system. Hence, a set of stretched coordinates is considered to derive the modified KdV equation. It is found that the presence of hot and cold dust charge grains not only significantly modifies the basic properties of solitary structure, but also changes the polarity of the solitary profiles. In the vicinity of the critical hot dusty plasma density Nh0, neither KdV nor mKdV equation is appropriate for describing the DAWs. Therefore, a further modified KdV (fmKdV) equation is derived, which admits both soliton and double layer solutions.
Solitary waves on tensegrity lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fraternali, F.; Senatore, L.; Daraio, C.
2012-06-01
We study the dynamics of lattices formed by masses connected through tensegrity prisms. By employing analytic and numerical arguments, we show that such structures support two limit dynamic regimes controlled by the prisms' properties: (i) in the low-energy (sonic) regime the system supports the formation and propagation of solitary waves which exhibit sech2 shape and (ii) in the high-energy (ultrasonic) regime the system supports atomic-scale localization. Such peculiar features found in periodic arrays of tensegrity structures suggest their use for the creation of new composite materials (here called "tensegrity materials") of potential interest for applications in impact absorption, energy localization and in new acoustic devices.
Various Boussinesq solitary wave solutions
Yates, G.T.
1995-12-31
The generalized Boussinesq (gB) equations have been used to model nonlinear wave evolution over variable topography and wave interactions with structures. Like the KdV equation, the gB equations support a solitary wave solution which propagates without changing shape, and this solitary wave is often used as a primary test case for numerical studies of nonlinear waves using either the gB or other model equations. Nine different approximate solutions of the generalized Boussinesq equations are presented with simple closed form expressions for the wave elevation and wave speed. Each approximates the free propagation of a single solitary wave, and eight of these solutions are newly obtained. The author compares these solutions with the well known KdV solution, Rayleigh`s solution, Laitone`s higher order solution, and ``exact`` numerical integration of the gB equations. Existing experimental data on solitary wave shape and wave speed are compared with these models.
Roy, Kaushik; Saha, Taraknath; Chatterjee, Prasanta
2012-10-15
The effect of ion temperature on the existence of arbitrary amplitude ion-acoustic solitary waves is studied in a two component plasma in presence of a q-nonextensive velocity distributed electrons by using Sagdeev's pseudo potential technique. The range of relevent parameters for which solitons may exist is discussed. It is observed that both q, the nonextensive parameter and the ion temperature {sigma}, play significant roles in the formation and existence of solitons.
Akhter, T.; Hossain, M. M.; Mamun, A. A.
2012-09-15
Dust-acoustic (DA) solitary structures and their multi-dimensional instability in a magnetized dusty plasma (containing inertial negatively and positively charged dust particles, and Boltzmann electrons and ions) have been theoretically investigated by the reductive perturbation method, and the small-k perturbation expansion technique. It has been found that the basic features (polarity, speed, height, thickness, etc.) of such DA solitary structures, and their multi-dimensional instability criterion or growth rate are significantly modified by the presence of opposite polarity dust particles and external magnetic field. The implications of our results in space and laboratory dusty plasma systems have been briefly discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sabetkar, Akbar; Dorranian, Davoud; Dorranian
2014-08-01
The nonlinear Zakharov-Kuznetsov and the modified Zakharov-Kuznetsov equations are derived for dust-acoustic solitary waves (DASWs) in a magnetized four-component dusty plasma system comprising negatively charged cold dust, non-extensive electrons, and two-temperature thermal ions using standard reductive perturbation method. The combined effects of electron non-extensivity, strength of magnetic field, and its obliqueness on the DASWs profile are analyzed. Different ranges of non-extensive q-parameter are considered. Our results show that solitary waves, that their amplitude and width of which depend sensitively on the q-non-extensive parameter, can exist. Due to electron non-extensivity, our dusty plasma model can admit positive potential as well as negative potential solitons. The strength of magnetic field has no effect on the amplitude of solitary waves, whereas its obliqueness affects both amplitude and width of the solitary waves structure. Results show that the amplitude of soliton increases with increasing the velocity of soltion. For any magnitude of q there is an extremum for the direction of the magnetic field at which the width of soliton is maximum.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merriche, Abderrzak; Ait Gougam, Leila; Tribeche, Mouloud
2016-01-01
The problem of the head-on collision of two ion-acoustic solitary waves (IASWs) is addressed in electronegative plasmas with a nonextensive electron velocity distribution. Our plasma model is inspired from the experimental studies of Ichiki et al. (2001). Using the extended Poincare-Lighthill-Kuo (PLK) perturbation method, the phase shifts of the head-on collision are obtained. Analytical and numerical results reveal that the magnitude of the phase shift of the IASWs depends sensitively on the number density ratios μ and υ, the mass ratio σ as well as the nonextensive parameter q. For a given mass ratio σ ≃ 0.27 (Ar+ - SF6-), the magnitude of the phase shift increases with an increase of the nonextensive parameter q. An increase of the electron-to-positive ion density ratio μ lowers the phase shift, a trend which is much perceptible for q > 1. As σ increases [ σ ≃ 0.89 (Xe+ - SF6-) ], the phase shift becomes larger.
Das, K.P.; Majumdar, S.R.; Paul, S.N. ||
1995-05-01
An integrated form of the governing equations in terms of pseudopotential higher-order nonlinear and dispersive effects is obtained by applying the reductive perturbation method for ion-acoustic solitary waves in a collisionless unmagnetized multicomponent plasma having warm ions and two-component nonisothermal electrons. The present method is advantageous because instead of solving an inhomogeneous second-order differential equation at each order, as in the standard procedure, we solve a first-order inhomogeneous equation at each order except at the lowest. The expressions of both Mach number and width of the solitary wave are obtained as a function of the amplitude of the wave for third-order nonlinear and dispersive effects. The variations of potential, width, and Mach number against soliton amplitude are shown graphically, taking into consideration the nonisothermality of two-component electrons in the plasma.
Cylindrical and spherical electron acoustic solitary waves with nonextensive hot electrons
Pakzad, Hamid Reza
2011-08-15
Nonlinear propagation of cylindrical and spherical electron-acoustic solitons in an unmagnetized plasma consisting cold electron fluid, hot electrons obeying a nonextensive distribution and stationary ions, are investigated. For this purpose, the standard reductive perturbation method is employed to derive the cylindrical/spherical Korteweg-de-Vries equation, which governs the dynamics of electron-acoustic solitons. The effects of nonplanar geometry and nonextensive hot electrons on the behavior of cylindrical and spherical electron acoustic solitons are also studied by numerical simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hafez, M. G.; Talukder, M. R.; Hossain Ali, M.
2016-01-01
The Korteweg-de Vries Burgers (KdVB) -like equation is derived to study the characteristics of nonlinear propagation of ion acoustic solitions in a highly relativistic plasma containing relativistic ions and nonextensive distribution of electrons and positrons using the well known reductive perturbation technique. The KdVB-like equation is solved employing the Bernoulli's equation method taking unperturbed positron to electron concentration ratio, electron to positron temperature ratio, strength of nonextensivity, ion kinematic viscosity, and highly relativistic streaming factor. It is found that these parameters significantly modify the structures of the solitonic excitation. The ion acoustic shock profiles are observed due to the influence of ion kinematic viscosity. In the absence of dissipative term to the KdVB equation, compressive and rarefactive solitons are observed in case of superthermality, but only compressive solitons are found for the case of subthermality.
Shahmohammadi, Nafise; Dorranian, Davoud
2015-10-15
Simultaneous effects of dust charge fluctuation and nonthermal ions on the threshold point and growth rate of three-dimensional instability of dust-acoustic solitary waves (DASW) in magnetized dusty plasma have been investigated. In this model, dusty plasma consists of Maxwellian electrons, nonthermal ions, and micron size negatively charged dust particles. Modified Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation for DASW was derived employing a reductive perturbation method and its solitary answer under the influence of dust charge fluctuation and nonthermal ions has been studied. The dispersion relation of DASW has been derived using a small-k perturbation method. Results show that the direction and the magnitude of external magnetic field at which the instability takes place are strongly affected by the rate of dust charge fluctuation and nonthermality of ions. With increasing the number of nonthermal ions, the growth rate of instability decreases, while increasing the dust charge fluctuation increases the growth rate of instability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shahmohammadi, Nafise; Dorranian, Davoud
2015-10-01
Simultaneous effects of dust charge fluctuation and nonthermal ions on the threshold point and growth rate of three-dimensional instability of dust-acoustic solitary waves (DASW) in magnetized dusty plasma have been investigated. In this model, dusty plasma consists of Maxwellian electrons, nonthermal ions, and micron size negatively charged dust particles. Modified Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation for DASW was derived employing a reductive perturbation method and its solitary answer under the influence of dust charge fluctuation and nonthermal ions has been studied. The dispersion relation of DASW has been derived using a small-k perturbation method. Results show that the direction and the magnitude of external magnetic field at which the instability takes place are strongly affected by the rate of dust charge fluctuation and nonthermality of ions. With increasing the number of nonthermal ions, the growth rate of instability decreases, while increasing the dust charge fluctuation increases the growth rate of instability.
Alinejad, H.; Mamun, A. A.
2010-12-15
The combined effects of the flat-topped ion distribution and dust temperature are incorporated in the study of small but finite amplitude dust-acoustic (DA) solitary waves (SWs) as well double layers (DLs) in an unmagnetized dusty plasma. Due to the flat-trapped ions, our plasma model admits only rarefactive localized structures. It is found that the effects of dust temperature and resonant particles significantly modify the criteria for the existence of DA SWs and DLs, as well as significantly modify their basic properties.
Characteristics of ion acoustic solitary waves in a negative ion plasma with superthermal electrons
Rouhani, M. R.; Ebne Abbasi, Z.
2012-11-15
The behavior of ion acoustic solitons in a plasma including positive and negative ions and kappa distributed electrons is studied, using both small amplitude and arbitrary amplitude approaches. The existence regions of compressive and rarefactive solitons will depend on negative to positive ion density ratio ({nu}) and kappa parameter as well as positive to negative ion mass ratio (Q). The numerical analysis of Sagdeev potential shows that for a chosen plasma with fixed Q, the existence regime of compressive solitons is decreased (increased) by increasing density ratio (kappa parameter), while for rarefactive solitons these conditions are quite opposite. Additionally, the possibility of propagation of both compressive and rarefactive subsonic solitons is investigated. It is found that by increasing negative ions, the existence domains of subsonic solitons are decreased, so that in excess of negative ions subsonic solitons will not propagate even at the presence of superthermal electrons. Indeed, there is a critical negative ion density ratio for all values of kappa, above that only supersonic solitons are observed. Furthermore, in addition to the previous results based on Cairns-distributed electrons [R. A. Cairns et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2709 (1995)], which predicted that both compressive and rarefactive solitons can coexist simultaneously, we have also found the regions of {nu} and {kappa} in which either positive or negative potentials are permitted (i.e., not together). This research will be helpful in understanding the properties of space and laboratory plasmas containing negative ions with energetic electrons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayout, Saliha; Gougam, Leila Ait; Tribeche, Mouloud
2016-03-01
The combined effects of ionization, ion loss, and electron suprathermality on dust ion-acoustic solitary waves in a collisional dusty plasma are examined. Carrying out a small but finite amplitude analysis, a damped Korteweg-de Vries (dK-dV) equation is derived. The damping term decreases with the increase of the spectral index and saturates for Maxwellian electrons. Choosing typical plasma parameters, the analytical approximate solution of the dK-dV equation is numerically analyzed. We first neglect the ionization and ion loss effects and account only for collisions to estimate the relative importance between these damping terms which can act concurrently. Interestingly, we found that as the suprathermal character of the electrons becomes important, the strength of the collisions related dissipation becomes more important and causes the dust ion-acoustic solitary wave amplitude to decay more rapidly. Moreover, the collisional damping may largely prevail over the ionization and ion loss related damping. The latter becomes more effective as the electrons evolve far away from their thermal equilibrium. Our results complement and provide new insights into previously published work on this problem.
Solitary waves and homoclinic orbits
Balmforth, N.J.
1994-03-01
The notion that fluid motion often organizes itself into coherent structures has increasingly permeated modern fluid dynamics. Such localized objects appear in laminar flows and persist in turbulent states; from the water on windows on rainy days, to the circulations in planetary atmospheres. This review concerns solitary waves in fluids. More specifically, it centres around the mathematical description of solitary waves in a single spatial dimension. Moreover, it concentrates on strongly dissipative dynamics, rather than integrable systems like the KdV equation. One-dimensional solitary waves, or pulses and fronts as they are also called, are the simplest kinds of coherent structure (at least from a geometrical point of view). Nevertheless, their dynamics can be rich and complicated. In some circumstances this leads to the formation of spatio-temporal chaos in the systems giving birth to the solitary waves, and understanding that phenomenon is one of the major goals in the theory outlined in this review. Unfortunately, such a goal is far from achieved to date, and the author assess its current status and incompleteness.
Solitary waves and rogue waves in a plasma with nonthermal electrons featuring Tsallis distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yue-Yue; Li, Ji-Tao; Dai, Chao-Qing; Chen, Xin-Fen; Zhang, Jie-Fang
2013-11-01
In this Letter, we discuss the electron acoustic (EA) waves in plasmas, which consist of nonthermal hot electrons featuring the Tsallis distribution, and obtain the corresponding governing equation, that is, a nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation. By means of Modulation Instability (MI) analysis of the EA waves, it is found that both electron acoustic solitary wave and rogue wave can exist in such plasmas. Basing on the Darboux transformation method, we derive the analytical expressions of nonlinear solutions of NLS equations, such as single/double solitary wave solutions and single/double rogue wave solutions. The existential regions and amplitude of solitary wave solutions and the rogue wave solutions are influenced by the nonextensive parameter q and nonthermal parameter α. Moreover, the interaction of solitary wave and how to postpone the excitation of rogue wave are also studied.
Alinejad, H.; Mamun, A. A.
2010-12-15
The properties of small but finite amplitude dust ion-acoustic (DIA) solitary waves (SWs) as well double layers (DLs) in a dusty plasma containing warm adiabatic ions, electrons following flat-topped velocity distribution, and arbitrarily (positively or negatively) charged immobile dust are studied. The effects of ion-temperature, resonant electrons, and dust number density are found to significantly modify the criteria for the existence of the DIA SWs and DLs, as well as significantly modify their basic features. It is also shown that the ion-temperature reduces the possibility for the formation of these localized structures, and that their amplitude decreases (increases) with the increase in the negative (positive) dust number density.
Quantum positron acoustic waves
Metref, Hassina; Tribeche, Mouloud
2014-12-15
Nonlinear quantum positron-acoustic (QPA) waves are investigated for the first time, within the theoretical framework of the quantum hydrodynamic model. In the small but finite amplitude limit, both deformed Korteweg-de Vries and generalized Korteweg-de Vries equations governing, respectively, the dynamics of QPA solitary waves and double-layers are derived. Moreover, a full finite amplitude analysis is undertaken, and a numerical integration of the obtained highly nonlinear equations is carried out. The results complement our previously published results on this problem.
Oblique solitary waves in a five component plasma
Sijo, S.; Manesh, M.; Sreekala, G.; Venugopal, C.; Neethu, T. W.; Renuka, G.
2015-12-15
We investigate the influence of a second electron component on oblique dust ion acoustic solitary waves in a five component plasma consisting of positively and negatively charged dust, hydrogen ions, and hotter and colder electrons. Of these, the heavier dust and colder photo-electrons are of cometary origin while the other two are of solar origin; electron components are described by kappa distributions. The K-dV equation is derived, and different attributes of the soliton such as amplitude and width are plotted for parameters relevant to comet Halley. We find that the second electron component has a profound influence on the solitary wave, decreasing both its amplitude and width. The normalized hydrogen density strongly influences the solitary wave by decreasing its width; the amplitude of the solitary wave, however, increases with increasing solar electron temperatures.
Slow electrostatic solitary waves in Earth's plasma sheet boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kakad, Amar; Kakad, Bharati; Anekallu, Chandrasekhar; Lakhina, Gurbax; Omura, Yoshiharu; Fazakerley, Andrew
2016-05-01
We modeled Cluster spacecraft observations of slow electrostatic solitary waves (SESWs) in the Earth's northern plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL) region on the basis of nonlinear fluid theory and fluid simulation. Various plasma parameters observed by the Cluster satellite at the time of the SESWs were examined to investigate the generation process of the SESWs. The nonlinear fluid model shows the coexistence of slow and fast ion acoustic waves and the presence of electron acoustic waves in the PSBL region. The fluid simulations, performed to examine the evolution of these waves in the PSBL region, showed the presence of an extra mode along with the waves supported by the nonlinear fluid theory. This extra mode is identified as the Buneman mode, which is generated by relative drifts of ions and electrons. A detailed investigation of the characteristics of the SESWs reveals that the SESWs are slow ion acoustic solitary waves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shahmoradi, Niloufar; Dorranian, Davoud
2014-06-01
The effect of dust size, mass and charge distributions on the characteristics of nonlinear dust acoustic solitary waves (DASW) in a two-temperature ion dusty plasma has been studied analytically. The mass and electrical charge of dust particles are assumed to be proportional with their size. Plasma is embedded in an external magnetic field with variable direction. Using a reductive perturbation method, the Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation is derived and its solitary answers are extracted. The coefficients of the nonlinear term of the ZK equation are affected strongly by the size of dust particles when the relative size (the ratio of the largest dust radius to smallest dust radius) is less than 2. Both the width and amplitude of DASW increase with increasing relative size. The cyclotron frequency of the dust changes with the relative size of the dust particles. DASW width is influenced by the magnitude as well as direction of the external magnetic field, while its amplitude is independent of the magnitude of the external magnetic field. At each strength of the external magnetic field, there is an optimum magnitude for its direction at which the width of DASW is maximum.
Bulk solitary waves in elastic solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samsonov, A. M.; Dreiden, G. V.; Semenova, I. V.; Shvartz, A. G.
2015-10-01
A short and object oriented conspectus of bulk solitary wave theory, numerical simulations and real experiments in condensed matter is given. Upon a brief description of the soliton history and development we focus on bulk solitary waves of strain, also known as waves of density and, sometimes, as elastic and/or acoustic solitons. We consider the problem of nonlinear bulk wave generation and detection in basic structural elements, rods, plates and shells, that are exhaustively studied and widely used in physics and engineering. However, it is mostly valid for linear elasticity, whereas dynamic nonlinear theory of these elements is still far from being completed. In order to show how the nonlinear waves can be used in various applications, we studied the solitary elastic wave propagation along lengthy wave guides, and remarkably small attenuation of elastic solitons was proven in physical experiments. Both theory and generation for strain soliton in a shell, however, remained unsolved problems until recently, and we consider in more details the nonlinear bulk wave propagation in a shell. We studied an axially symmetric deformation of an infinite nonlinearly elastic cylindrical shell without torsion. The problem for bulk longitudinal waves is shown to be reducible to the one equation, if a relation between transversal displacement and the longitudinal strain is found. It is found that both the 1+1D and even the 1+2D problems for long travelling waves in nonlinear solids can be reduced to the Weierstrass equation for elliptic functions, which provide the solitary wave solutions as appropriate limits. We show that the accuracy in the boundary conditions on free lateral surfaces is of crucial importance for solution, derive the only equation for longitudinal nonlinear strain wave and show, that the equation has, amongst others, a bidirectional solitary wave solution, which lead us to successful physical experiments. We observed first the compression solitary wave in the
Solitary waves in diatomic chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vainchtein, Anna; Starosvetsky, Yuli; Wright, J. Douglas; Perline, Ron
2016-04-01
We consider the mechanism of formation of isolated localized wave structures in the diatomic Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) model. Using a singular multiscale asymptotic analysis in the limit of high mass mismatch between the alternating elements, we obtain the typical slow-fast time scale separation and formulate the Fredholm orthogonality condition approximating a sequence of mass ratios supporting the formation of solitary waves in the general type of diatomic FPU models. This condition is made explicit in the case of a diatomic Toda lattice. Results of numerical integration of the full diatomic Toda lattice equations confirm the formation of these genuinely localized wave structures at special values of the mass ratio that are close to the analytical predictions when the ratio is sufficiently small.
Oblique propagation of dust ion-acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized dusty pair-ion plasma
Misra, A. P. E-mail: apmisra@gmail.com; Barman, Arnab
2014-07-15
We investigate the propagation characteristics of electrostatic waves in a magnetized pair-ion plasma with immobile charged dusts. It is shown that obliquely propagating (OP) low-frequency (in comparison with the negative-ion cyclotron frequency) long-wavelength “slow” and “fast” modes can propagate, respectively, as dust ion-acoustic (DIA) and dust ion-cyclotron (DIC)-like waves. The properties of these modes are studied with the effects of obliqueness of propagation (θ), the static magnetic field, the ratios of the negative to positive ion masses (m), and temperatures (T) as well as the dust to negative-ion number density ratio (δ). Using the standard reductive perturbation technique, we derive a Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation which governs the evolution of small-amplitude OP DIA waves. It is found that the KdV equation admits only rarefactive solitons in plasmas with m well below its critical value m{sub c} (≫ 1) which typically depends on T and δ. It is shown that the nonlinear coefficient of the KdV equation vanishes at m = m{sub c}, i.e., for plasmas with much heavier negative ions, and the evolution of the DIA waves is then described by a modified KdV (mKdV) equation. The latter is shown to have only compressive soliton solution. The properties of both the KdV and mKdV solitons are studied with the system parameters as above, and possible applications of our results to laboratory and space plasmas are briefly discussed.
El-Labany, S. K.; Moslem, Waleed M.; Safy, F. M.
2006-08-15
Nonlinear propagation of dust-acoustic solitary waves (DASWs) in a strong magnetized dusty plasma comprising warm adiabatic variable-charged dust particles, isothermal electrons, and two-temperature ions is investigated. Applying a reductive perturbation theory, a nonlinear Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation for the first-order perturbed potential and a linear inhomogeneous ZK-type equation for the second-order perturbed potential are derived. However, at a certain value of high-temperature ion density, the coefficient of the nonlinear terms of both ZK and ZK-type equations vanishes. Therefore, a new set of expansion physical parameters and stretched coordinates are then used to derive a modified Zakharov-Kuznetsov (mZK) equation for the first-order perturbed potential and a mZK-type equation for the second-order perturbed potential. Stationary solutions of these equations are obtained using a renormalization method. A condition for two-temperature ions assumption is examined for various cosmic dust-laden plasma systems. It is found that this condition is satisfied for Saturn's F ring. The effects of two-temperature ions, magnetic field, and higher-order nonlinearity on the behavior of the DASWs are discussed. To obtain the stability condition of the waves, a method based on energy consideration is used and the condition for stable solitons is derived.
Transversally periodic solitary gravity-capillary waves.
Milewski, Paul A; Wang, Zhan
2014-01-01
When both gravity and surface tension effects are present, surface solitary water waves are known to exist in both two- and three-dimensional infinitely deep fluids. We describe here solutions bridging these two cases: travelling waves which are localized in the propagation direction and periodic in the transverse direction. These transversally periodic gravity-capillary solitary waves are found to be of either elevation or depression type, tend to plane waves below a critical transverse period and tend to solitary lumps as the transverse period tends to infinity. The waves are found numerically in a Hamiltonian system for water waves simplified by a cubic truncation of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann operator. This approximation has been proved to be very accurate for both two- and three-dimensional computations of fully localized gravity-capillary solitary waves. The stability properties of these waves are then investigated via the time evolution of perturbed wave profiles. PMID:24399922
Demiray, Hilmi; Bayındır, Cihan
2015-09-15
In the present work, we consider the propagation of nonlinear electron-acoustic non-planar waves in a plasma composed of a cold electron fluid, hot electrons obeying a trapped/vortex-like distribution, and stationary ions. The basic nonlinear equations of the above described plasma are re-examined in the cylindrical coordinates through the use reductive perturbation method in the long-wave approximation. The modified cylindrical Korteweg-de Vries equation with fractional power nonlinearity is obtained as the evolution equation. Due to the nature of nonlinearity, which is fractional, this evolution equation cannot be reduced to the conventional Korteweg–de Vries equation. An analytical solution to the evolution equation, by use of the method developed by Demiray [Appl. Math. Comput. 132, 643 (2002); Comput. Math. Appl. 60, 1747 (2010)] and a numerical solution by employing a spectral scheme are presented and the results are depicted in a figure. The numerical results reveal that both solutions are in good agreement.
Das, Jayasree; Bandyopadhyay, Anup; Das, K. P.
2007-09-15
The purpose of this paper is to present the recent work of Das et al. [J. Plasma Phys. 72, 587 (2006)] on the existence and stability of the alternative solitary wave solution of fixed width of the combined MKdV-KdV-ZK (Modified Korteweg-de Vries-Korteweg-de Vries-Zakharov-Kuznetsov) equation for the ion-acoustic wave in a magnetized nonthermal plasma consisting of warm adiabatic ions in a more generalized form. Here we derive the alternative solitary wave solution of variable width instead of fixed width of the combined MKdV-KdV-ZK equation along with the condition for its existence and find that this solution assumes the sech profile of the MKdV-ZK (Modified Korteweg-de Vries-Zakharov-Kuznetsov) equation, when the coefficient of the nonlinear term of the KdV-ZK (Korteweg-de Vries-Zakharov-Kuznetsov) equation tends to zero. The three-dimensional stability analysis of the alternative solitary wave solution of variable width of the combined MKdV-KdV-ZK equation shows that the instability condition and the first order growth rate of instability are exactly the same as those of the solitary wave solution (the sech profile) of the MKdV-ZK equation, when the coefficient of the nonlinear term of the KdV-ZK equation tends to zero.
Solitary waves in the granular chain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sen, Surajit; Hong, Jongbae; Bang, Jonghun; Avalos, Edgar; Doney, Robert
2008-06-01
Solitary waves are lumps of energy. We consider the study of dynamical solitary waves, meaning cases where the energy lumps are moving, as opposed to topological solitary waves where the lumps may be static. Solitary waves have been studied in some form or the other for nearly 450 years. Subsequently, there have been many authoritative works on solitary waves. Nevertheless, some of the most recent studies reveal that these peculiar objects are far more complex than what we might have given them credit for. In this review, we introduce the physics of solitary waves in alignments of elastic beads, such as glass beads or stainless steel beads. We show that any impulse propagates as a new kind of highly interactive solitary wave through such an alignment and that the existence of these waves seems to present a need to re-examine the very definition of the concept of equilibrium. We further discuss the possibility of exploiting nonlinear properties of granular alignments to develop exciting technological applications.
Alam, M. S.; Uddin, M. J.; Mamun, A. A.; Masud, M. M.
2014-09-01
Positron-acoustic (PA) solitary waves (SWs) and double layers (DLs) in four-component plasmas consisting of immobile positive ions, mobile cold positrons, and superthermal (kappa distributed) hot positrons and electrons are investigated both numerically and analytically by deriving Korteweg–de Vries (K-dV), modified K-dV (mK-dV), and Gardner equations along with their DLs solutions using the reductive perturbation method. It is examined that depending on the plasma parameters, the K-dV SWs, Gardner SWs, and DLs support either compressive or rarefactive structures, whereas mK-dV SWs support only compressive structure. It is also found that the presence of superthermal (kappa distributed) hot positrons and hot electrons significantly modify the basic features of PA SWs as well as PA DLs. Besides, the critical number density ratio of hot positrons and cold positrons play an important role in the polarity of PA SWs and DLs. The implications of our results in different space as well as laboratory plasma environments are briefly discussed.
Dust-ion-acoustic solitary structure with opposite polarity ions and non-thermal electrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haider, M. M.
2016-02-01
The propagation of dust-ion-acoustic solitary waves in magnetized plasmas containing opposite polarity ions, opposite polarity dusts and non-thermal electrons has been studied. The fluid equations in the system are reduced to a Korteweg-de Vries equation in the limit of small amplitude perturbation. The effect of non-thermal electrons and the opposite polarity of ions and dusts in the solitary waves are presented graphically and numerically.
Ata-ur-Rahman,; Qamar, A.; Masood, W.; Eliasson, B.
2013-09-15
In this paper, small but finite amplitude electrostatic solitary waves in a relativistic degenerate magnetoplasma, consisting of relativistically degenerate electrons and non-degenerate cold ions, are investigated. The Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation is derived employing the reductive perturbation technique and its solitary wave solution is analyzed. It is shown that only compressive electrostatic solitary structures can propagate in such a degenerate plasma system. The effects of plasma number density, ion cyclotron frequency, and direction cosines on the profiles of ion acoustic solitary waves are investigated and discussed at length. The relevance of the present investigation vis-a-vis pulsating white dwarfs is also pointed out.
Sah, O.P.; Goswami, K.S. )
1994-10-01
Considering an unmagnetized plasma consisting of relativistic drifting electrons and nondrifting thermal ions and by using reductive perturbation method, a usual Korteweg--de Vries (KdV) equation and a generalized form of KdV equation are derived. It is found that while the former governs the dynamics of a small-amplitude rarefactive modified electron acoustic (MEA) soliton, the latter governs the dynamics of a weak compressive modified electron acoustic double layer. The influences of relativistic effect on the propagation of such a soliton and double layer are examined. The relevance of this investigation to space plasma is pointed out.
Compressive and rarefactive solitary waves in nonthermal two-component plasmas
Verheest, Frank; Hellberg, Manfred A.
2010-10-15
Using a Sagdeev pseudopotential formalism where nonlinear structures are stationary in a comoving frame, large ion-acoustic solitary waves and double layers have been studied in plasmas with positive ions and nonthermal electrons. The velocity range of positive, compressive solitary waves is limited by the ion density reaching infinite compression, whereas negative, rarefactive solitary waves and double layers can exist when the electron nonthermality exceeds a certain minimum. There are even regions of coexistence, the limits of which can be elucidated by considering the properties of the special Sagdeev pseudopotential at the acoustic speed. In particular, when the compositional parameters and Mach numbers admit only compressive or rarefactive solitary structures, these have to be superacoustic, their amplitude vanishing at the acoustic speed. When both compressive and rarefactive modes can occur, one of them is Korteweg-de Vries (KdV)-like, the other having a non-KdV character, with a finite amplitude at the acoustic speed.
Dust ion acoustic solitary structures in presence of nonthermal electrons and isothermal positrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paul, Ashesh; Bandyopadhyay, Anup
2016-05-01
Arbitrary amplitude dust ion acoustic solitary structures have been investigated in an unmagnetized collisionless dusty plasma consisting of negatively charged static dust grains, adiabatic warm ions, nonthermal electrons and isothermal positrons. A computational scheme has been developed to draw the qualitatively different existence domains or compositional parameter spaces showing the nature of existence of different solitary structures with respect to any parameter of the present plasma system. The present system supports both positive and negative potential double layers, coexistence of solitary waves of both polarities and positive potential supersolitons.
Exact Solitary Water Waves with Vorticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hur, Vera Mikyoung
2008-05-01
The solitary water wave problem is to find steady free surface waves which approach a constant level of depth in the far field. The main result is the existence of a family of exact solitary waves of small amplitude for an arbitrary vorticity. Each solution has a supercritical parameter value and decays exponentially at infinity. The proof is based on a generalized implicit function theorem of the Nash-Moser type. The first approximation to the surface profile is given by the “KdV” equation. With a supercritical value of the surface tension coefficient, a family of small amplitude solitary waves of depression with subcritical parameter values is constructed for an arbitrary vorticity.
Physical Processes Involved In Yellow Sea Solitary Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Warn-Varnas, A.; Chin-Bing, S.; King, D.; Lamb, K.; Hawkins, J.; Teixeira, M.
The study area is located south of the Shandong peninsula. In this area, soliton gener- ation and propagation studies are per formed with the Lamb(1994) model. The model is nonhydrostatic and is formulated in 2 1/2 dimensions for terrain following c oordi- nates. In the area, 20 to 30 m topographic variations over distances of 10 to 20 km are found to occur in the digit al atlas of Choi (1999). The area is shallow with maximum depths ranging from 40 m to 70 m. Along the southern boundary of the region the semi-diurnal tidal strength magnitude varies from .6 m/sec to 1.2 m/sec, Fang(1994). We show that, for sum mer conditions, the existing physical processes associated with the semi-diurnal tidal flow over the topographic variations , in the shelfbreak region, lead to the formation of internal bores in the model simulations. Through acting phys- ical proce sses, the internal bores propagate on and off the shelf. A disintegration process of internal bores into solitary waves occ urs through frequency and ampli- tude dispersion. SAR observations of the area show images containing six events con- sisting of internal bores and solitary waves that travel in a well-defined direction for two and a half days. The origin of the trains appeared to be at a point along a steep topo graphic drop. The SAR observations are used for guiding and tuning the model simulations, by comparing spectra of observed and modeled wavelengths. The tuned model yields wavelengths that are within a factor of 2 of the SAR data. The modeled amp litudes are within a factor of 2 of amplitudes obtained with a two-layer model and the SAR data The signature on the acoustical field of ongoing physical processes through the interaction of the resultant oceanic struct ure with the acoustical field is pursued. Internal bore and solitary wave structures interact with the acoustic field. A re distribution of acoustical energy to higher acoustical modes occurs at some fre- quencies. Mode decomposition of the
Electrostatic Korteweg-deVries solitary waves in a plasma with Kappa-distributed electrons
Choi, C.-R.; Min, K.-W.; Rhee, T.-N.
2011-09-15
The Korteweg-deVries (KdV) equation that describes the evolution of nonlinear ion-acoustic solitary waves in plasmas with Kappa-distributed electrons is derived by using a reductive perturbation method in the small amplitude limit. We identified a dip-type (negative) electrostatic KdV solitary wave, in addition to the hump-type solution reported previously. The two types of solitary waves occupy different domains on the {kappa} (Kappa index)-V (propagation velocity) plane, separated by a curve corresponding to singular solutions with infinite amplitudes. For a given Kappa value, the dip-type solitary wave propagates faster than the hump-type. It was also found that the hump-type solitary waves cannot propagate faster than V = 1.32.
Solitary wave propagation influenced by submerged breakwater
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jin; Zuo, Qi-hua; Wang, Deng-ting; Shukrieva, Shirin
2013-10-01
The form of Boussinesq equation derived by Nwogu (1993) using velocity at an arbitrary distance and surface elevation as variables is used to simulate wave surface elevation changes. In the numerical experiment, water depth was divided into five layers with six layer interfaces to simulate velocity at each layer interface. Besides, a physical experiment was carried out to validate numerical model and study solitary wave propagation. "Water column collapsing" method (WCCM) was used to generate solitary wave. A series of wave gauges around an impervious breakwater were set-up in the flume to measure the solitary wave shoaling, run-up, and breaking processes. The results show that the measured data and simulated data are in good agreement. Moreover, simulated and measured surface elevations were analyzed by the wavelet transform method. It shows that different wave frequencies stratified in the wavelet amplitude spectrum. Finally, horizontal and vertical velocities of each layer interface were analyzed in the process of solitary wave propagation through submerged breakwater.
Asymptotic Linear Stability of Solitary Water Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pego, Robert L.; Sun, Shu-Ming
2016-06-01
We prove an asymptotic stability result for the water wave equations linearized around small solitary waves. The equations we consider govern irrotational flow of a fluid with constant density bounded below by a rigid horizontal bottom and above by a free surface under the influence of gravity neglecting surface tension. For sufficiently small amplitude waves, with waveform well-approximated by the well-known sech-squared shape of the KdV soliton, solutions of the linearized equations decay at an exponential rate in an energy norm with exponential weight translated with the wave profile. This holds for all solutions with no component in (that is, symplectically orthogonal to) the two-dimensional neutral-mode space arising from infinitesimal translational and wave-speed variation of solitary waves. We also obtain spectral stability in an unweighted energy norm.
Self-similar solitary wave family in Bessel lattice
Cai Zebin; Liang Jianchu; Xia Xiongping; Jin Haiqin; Yi Lin; Jiang Yue
2011-05-15
We focus on the formation and propagation of self-similar solitary wave family in Kerr nonlinear media with external Bessel lattice. A novel analytical solitary wave solution to (3+1)-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation with varying coefficients and an external potential is obtained. The components of solitary wave family are differentiated by three quantum parameters. The properties and the stability of the solitary wave family are discussed in detail.
On the use of nonlinear solitary waves for energy harvesting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Kaiyuan; Rizzo, Piervincenzo
2015-04-01
In the last decade there has been an increasing attention on the use of highly- and weakly- nonlinear solitary waves in engineering and physics. These waves can form and travel in nonlinear systems such as one-dimensional chains of spherical particles. One engineering application of solitary waves is the fabrication of acoustic lenses, which are employed in a variety of fields ranging from biomedical imaging and surgery to defense systems and damage detection. In this paper we propose to couple an acoustic lens to a wafer-type lead zirconate titanate transducer (PZT) to harvest energy from the vibration of an object tapping the lens. The lens is composed of a circle array made of chains of particles in contact with a polycarbonate material where the nonlinear waves coalesce into linear waves. The PZT located at the designed focal point converts the mechanical energy carried by the stress wave into electricity to power a load resistor. The performance of the designed harvester is compared to a conventional cantilever beam, and the experimental results show that the power generated with the nonlinear lens has the same order of magnitude of the beam.
Transient Growth in Internal Solitary Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helfrich, Karl; Passaggia, Pierre-Yves; White, Brian
2015-11-01
Internal solitary waves of large amplitude are common in the atmosphere and ocean and play an important role in mixing and transport. While these waves can propagate over long distances, observations suggest they are susceptible to a range of instabilities, which promote breakdown, overturning, and mixing. To gain insight into these instabilities, we consider the optimal transient growth of a family of solitary waves, which are solutions to the Dubreil-Jacotin-Long (DJL) equation for increasing phase speed and varying background stratification. Optimal initial disturbances are computed by means of direct-adjoint iterations of the Navier-Stokes system in the Boussinesq approximation. The most amplified disturbances resemble Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities and are localized near the bottom of the wave, where the Richardson number is minimum, and are maximized for short time horizons. The optimal transient growth of these perturbations is shown to increase with the phase speed. Implications for breakdown and mixing will be discussed.
Ghosh, S. S.; Sekar Iyengar, A. N.
2014-08-15
It is observed that the presence of a minority component of cooler electrons in a three component plasma plays a deterministic role in the evolution of solitary waves, double layers, or the newly discovered structures called supersolitons. The inclusion of the cooler component of electrons in a single electron plasma produces sharp increase in nonlinearity in spite of a decrease in the overall energy of the system. The effect maximizes at certain critical value of the number density of the cooler component (typically 15%–20%) giving rise to a hump in the amplitude variation profile. For larger amplitudes, the hump leads to a forbidden region in the ambient cooler electron concentration which dissociates the overall existence domain of solitary wave solutions in two distinct parameter regime. It is observed that an inclusion of the cooler component of electrons as low as < 1% affects the plasma system significantly resulting in compressive double layers. The solution is further affected by the cold to hot electron temperature ratio. In an adequately hotter bulk plasma (i.e., moderately low cold to hot electron temperature ratio), the parameter domain of compressive double layers is bounded by a sharp discontinuity in the corresponding amplitude variation profile which may lead to supersolitons.
Frustrated Brownian Motion of Nonlocal Solitary Waves
Folli, V.; Conti, C.
2010-05-14
We investigate the evolution of solitary waves in a nonlocal medium in the presence of disorder. By using a perturbational approach, we show that an increasing degree of nonlocality may largely hamper the Brownian motion of self-trapped wave packets. The result is valid for any kind of nonlocality and in the presence of nonparaxial effects. Analytical predictions are compared with numerical simulations based on stochastic partial differential equations.
The width of the solitary wave in dusty plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malekolkalami, Behrooz; Alipanah, Amjad
2016-01-01
The Sagdeev potential method is employed to compute the width of the ion-acoustic solitary wave propagated in a dusty plasma containing three components (dust-ion-electron). The results indicate that the width is a continuous function over the allowable ranges of plasma parameters. The complexity of the resulting equations is an obstacle to the expression of the width function in an explicit form in terms of the parameters. Thus, computer algebra is needed to plot the graph of the width function versus the parameters, which helps us to understand the width changes as the parameters change.
Mushtaq, A.; Shah, H.A.; Rubab, N.; Murtaza, G.
2006-06-15
The characteristics of obliquely propagating Dust Acoustic Waves (DAWs) in rotating and magnetized dusty plasma in the dayside tropical mesosphere are examined by incorporating adiabatic dust charge fluctuations. A Korteweg-de Vries equation is derived, which may support a nonlinear dust acoustic wave on a very slow time scale. The meteoritic dust in mesospheric plasmas on the dayside is charged positively due to photo- and thermionic emissions. The dynamics of the DAW with electronic, ionic, thermionic, and photoelectric currents along with obliqueness and effective gyrofrequency are studied. It is observed that the amplitude of the soliton depends directly on the obliqueness {theta} and dust charge variation, respectively, while the width is modified inversely with these parameters. It is also observed that the effective gyrofrequency modifies the width inversely.
Dust acoustic solitary and shock excitations in a Thomas-Fermi magnetoplasma
Rahim, Z.; Qamar, A.; Ali, S.
2014-07-15
The linear and nonlinear properties of dust-acoustic waves are investigated in a collisionless Thomas-Fermi magnetoplasma, whose constituents are electrons, ions, and negatively charged dust particles. At dust time scale, the electron and ion number densities follow the Thomas-Fermi distribution, whereas the dust component is described by the classical fluid equations. A linear dispersion relation is analyzed to show that the wave frequencies associated with the upper and lower modes are enhanced with the variation of dust concentration. The effect of the latter is seen more strongly on the upper mode as compared to the lower mode. For nonlinear analysis, we obtain magnetized Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equations involving the dust-acoustic solitary waves in the framework of reductive perturbation technique. Furthermore, the shock wave excitations are also studied by allowing dissipation effects in the model, leading to the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdVB) and ZKB equations. The analysis reveals that the dust-acoustic solitary and shock excitations in a Thomas-Fermi plasma are strongly influenced by the plasma parameters, e.g., dust concentration, dust temperature, obliqueness, magnetic field strength, and dust fluid viscosity. The present results should be important for understanding the solitary and shock excitations in the environments of white dwarfs or supernova, where dust particles can exist.
Dust acoustic solitary and shock excitations in a Thomas-Fermi magnetoplasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahim, Z.; Ali, S.; Qamar, A.
2014-07-01
The linear and nonlinear properties of dust-acoustic waves are investigated in a collisionless Thomas-Fermi magnetoplasma, whose constituents are electrons, ions, and negatively charged dust particles. At dust time scale, the electron and ion number densities follow the Thomas-Fermi distribution, whereas the dust component is described by the classical fluid equations. A linear dispersion relation is analyzed to show that the wave frequencies associated with the upper and lower modes are enhanced with the variation of dust concentration. The effect of the latter is seen more strongly on the upper mode as compared to the lower mode. For nonlinear analysis, we obtain magnetized Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equations involving the dust-acoustic solitary waves in the framework of reductive perturbation technique. Furthermore, the shock wave excitations are also studied by allowing dissipation effects in the model, leading to the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdVB) and ZKB equations. The analysis reveals that the dust-acoustic solitary and shock excitations in a Thomas-Fermi plasma are strongly influenced by the plasma parameters, e.g., dust concentration, dust temperature, obliqueness, magnetic field strength, and dust fluid viscosity. The present results should be important for understanding the solitary and shock excitations in the environments of white dwarfs or supernova, where dust particles can exist.
Nonexistence of the solitary-wave solutions of the Sakuma-Nishiguchi equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lou, Sen-Yue
1992-10-01
Making a qualitative analysis, we prove that no nonsingular solitary-wave solution exists for the Sakuma-Nishiguchi equation utt-c2uxx-Muxxxx +N(u2xx)xx=0 [Phys. Rev. B 41, 12 117 (1990)], which describes surface acoustic waves in a semi-infinite layered medium with a free surface. From this, we conclude that the solitary-wave solutions obtained by Sakuma and Nishiguchi using the weak-nonlinearity approximation and by Huang using a function-series-solution approach [Phys. Rev. B 44, 3377 (1991)] do not pertain to this model equation.
Solitary and freak waves in a dusty plasma with negative ions
Abdelsalam, U. M.; Moslem, W. M.; Khater, A. H.; Shukla, P. K.
2011-09-15
It is shown that solitary and freak waves can propagate in a dusty plasma composed of positive and negative ions, as well as nonextensive electrons. The evolution of the solitary waves is described by the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. However, when the frequency of the carrier wave is much smaller than the ion plasma frequency then the KdV equation is also used to study the nonlinear evolution of modulationally unstable modified ion-acoustic wavepackets through the derivation of the nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS) equation. In order to show that the characteristics of the solitary and freak waves are influenced by the plasma parameters, the relevant numerical analysis of the appropriate nonlinear solutions is presented. The relevance of the present investigation to nonlinear waves in astrophysical plasma environments is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehdipoor, M.; Neirameh, A.
2012-01-01
The nonlinear propagation of ion acoustic waves in an ideal plasmas containing degenerate electrons is investigated. The Korteweg-de-Vries (K-dV) equation is derived for ion acoustic waves by using reductive perturbation method. The analytical traveling wave solutions of the K-dV equation investigated, through the ( G'/ G)-expansion method. These traveling wave solutions are expressed by hyperbolic function, trigonometric functions are rational functions. When the parameters are taken special values, the solitary waves are derived from the traveling waves. Also, numerically the effect different parameters on these solitary waves investigated and it is seen that exist only the compressive solitary waves in Thomas-Fermi plasmas.
Solitary waves in asymmetric electron-positron-ion plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Ding; Li, Zi-Liang; Xie, Bai-Song
2015-10-01
> By solving the coupled equations of the electromagnetic field and electrostatic potential, we investigate solitary waves in an asymmetric electron-positron plasma and/or electron-positron-ion plasmas with delicate features. It is found that the solutions of the coupled equations can capture multipeak structures of solitary waves in the case of cold plasma, which are left out by using the long-wavelength approximation. By considering the effect of ion motion with respect to non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic temperature plasmas, we find that the ions' mobility can lead to larger-amplitude solitary waves; especially, this becomes more obvious for a high-temperature plasma. The effects of asymmetric temperature between electrons and positrons and the ion fraction on the solitary waves are also studied and presented. It is shown that the amplitudes of solitary waves decrease with positron temperature in asymmetric temperature electron-positron plasmas and decrease also with ion concentration.
Impact induced solitary wave propagation through a woodpile structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kore, R.; Waychal, A.; Agarwal, S.; Yadav, P.; Uddin, Ahsan; Sahoo, N.; Shelke, A.
2016-02-01
In this paper, we investigate solitary wave propagation through a one-dimensional woodpile structure excited by low and high velocity impact. Woodpile structures are a sub-class of granular metamaterial, which supports propagation of nonlinear waves. Hertz contact law governs the behavior of the solitary wave propagation through the granular media. Towards an experimental study, a woodpile structure was fabricated by orthogonally stacking cylindrical rods. A shock tube facility has been developed to launch an impactor on the woodpile structure at a velocity of 30 m s-1. Embedded granular chain sensors were fabricated to study the behavior of the solitary wave. The impact induced stress wave is studied to investigate solitary wave parameters, i.e. contact force, contact time, and solitary wave velocity. With the aid of the experimental setup, numerical simulations, and a theoretical solution based on the long wavelength approximation, formation of the solitary wave in the woodpile structure is validated to a reasonable degree of accuracy. The nondispersive and compact supported solitary waves traveling at sonic wave velocity offer unique properties that could be leveraged for application in nondestructive testing and structural health monitoring.
Electrostatic solitary ion waves in dense electron-positron-ion magnetoplasma
Jehan, Nusrat; Salahuddin, M.; Mahmood, S.; Mirza, Arshad M.
2009-04-15
The nonlinear coupled ion-acoustic and ion-cyclotron waves propagating obliquely to the external magnetic field in dense collisionless electron-positron-ion magnetoplasma are investigated using Sagdeev potential method. A semiclassical approach is used. Electrons and positrons are treated as degenerate Fermi gases described by Thomas-Fermi density distribution and ions behave as classical gas. It is found that the presence of degenerate positrons in a dense Thomas-Fermi plasma significantly modifies the structure of solitary waves by restricting the electrostatic potential to a certain maximum value which depends upon the concentration of positrons in the system. It is also noted that only subsonic humplike solitary waves can exist and for a given angle of propagation, the presence of degenerate positrons diminishes the amplitude as well as width of the solitary wave.
Acoustic and electromagnetic waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, Douglas Samuel
Theoretical models of EM and acoustic wave propagation are presented in an introductory text intended for intermediate-level science and engineering students. Chapters are devoted to the mathematical representation of acoustic and EM fields, the special theory of relativity, radiation, resonators, waveguide theory, refraction, surface waves, scattering by smooth objects, diffraction by edges, and transient waves. The mathematical tools required for the analysis (Bessel, Legendre, Mathieu, parabolic-cylinder, and spheroidal functions; tensor calculus; and the asymptotic evaluation of integrals) are covered in appendices.
Surface Acoustic Wave Microfluidics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yeo, Leslie Y.; Friend, James R.
2014-01-01
Fluid manipulations at the microscale and beyond are powerfully enabled through the use of 10-1,000-MHz acoustic waves. A superior alternative in many cases to other microfluidic actuation techniques, such high-frequency acoustics is almost universally produced by surface acoustic wave devices that employ electromechanical transduction in wafer-scale or thin-film piezoelectric media to generate the kinetic energy needed to transport and manipulate fluids placed in adjacent microfluidic structures. These waves are responsible for a diverse range of complex fluid transport phenomena - from interfacial fluid vibration and drop and confined fluid transport to jetting and atomization - underlying a flourishing research literature spanning fundamental fluid physics to chip-scale engineering applications. We highlight some of this literature to provide the reader with a historical basis, routes for more detailed study, and an impression of the field's future directions.
Solitary Wave in One-dimensional Buckyball System at Nanoscale
Xu, Jun; Zheng, Bowen; Liu, Yilun
2016-01-01
We have studied the stress wave propagation in one-dimensional (1-D) nanoscopic buckyball (C60) system by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and quantitative modeling. Simulation results have shown that solitary waves are generated and propagating in the buckyball system through impacting one buckyball at one end of the buckyball chain. We have found the solitary wave behaviors are closely dependent on the initial temperature and impacting speed of the buckyball chain. There are almost no dispersion and dissipation of the solitary waves (stationary solitary wave) for relatively low temperature and high impacting speed. While for relatively high temperature and low impacting speed the profile of the solitary waves is highly distorted and dissipated after propagating several tens of buckyballs. A phase diagram is proposed to describe the effect of the temperature and impacting speed on the solitary wave behaviors in buckyball system. In order to quantitatively describe the wave behavior in buckyball system, a simple nonlinear-spring model is established, which can describe the MD simulation results at low temperature very well. The results presented in this work may lay a solid step towards the further understanding and manipulation of stress wave propagation and impact energy mitigation at nanoscale. PMID:26891624
Solitary Wave in One-dimensional Buckyball System at Nanoscale.
Xu, Jun; Zheng, Bowen; Liu, Yilun
2016-01-01
We have studied the stress wave propagation in one-dimensional (1-D) nanoscopic buckyball (C60) system by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and quantitative modeling. Simulation results have shown that solitary waves are generated and propagating in the buckyball system through impacting one buckyball at one end of the buckyball chain. We have found the solitary wave behaviors are closely dependent on the initial temperature and impacting speed of the buckyball chain. There are almost no dispersion and dissipation of the solitary waves (stationary solitary wave) for relatively low temperature and high impacting speed. While for relatively high temperature and low impacting speed the profile of the solitary waves is highly distorted and dissipated after propagating several tens of buckyballs. A phase diagram is proposed to describe the effect of the temperature and impacting speed on the solitary wave behaviors in buckyball system. In order to quantitatively describe the wave behavior in buckyball system, a simple nonlinear-spring model is established, which can describe the MD simulation results at low temperature very well. The results presented in this work may lay a solid step towards the further understanding and manipulation of stress wave propagation and impact energy mitigation at nanoscale. PMID:26891624
Solitary waves and other long-wave phenomena
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Hongqiu
This thesis studies solitary waves and other propagating disturbances with long wave-length and small amplitude. The KdV equation ut + ux + uux + uxxx = 0 and the RLW equation ut + ux + uux - uxxt = 0 are frequently used to model one-way propagation of inviscid water waves in a channel or long-crested waves in shallow water. The same principles which underlie their derivation also lead to the equation ut + ux + uux + uxtt = 0. Unlike the aforementioned two equations, the initial- value problem for this equation is somewhat subtle. Especially if used as a model for surface water waves, it relies strongly on the way the initial data is imposed. In particular, the analysis presented here shows clearly that formally small terms are not necessarily small and provides a somewhat surprising theory of comparison between the three equations. The Benjamin equation ut + ux - /alpha Lux + uux /pm /beta uxxx = 0 describes internal waves propagating on the interface between a shallow layer of fluid resting upon a heavier, deep layer. Surface tension effect are not ignored if the constant /beta > 0 while frequency dispersion brought on by finite-wavelength effects appear when /alpha > 0. The operator L is a Fourier multiplier defined in terms of Fourier transforms by /widehat[Lv](/xi) = /vert /xi/vert / v(/xi). Two techniques are used to deal with existence of solitary waves for this equation, namely, degree theory of positive operators and the concentration-compactness principle. These solitary-wave solutions decay to zero algebraically instead of exponentially at infinity because of the lack of smoothness of the symbol of L. These methods are extended to various other interesting systems of nonlinear dispersive wave equations, including the regularized Boussinesq and the Gear-Grimshaw systems. The essay concludes with a study of travelling-wave solutions of the generalized KdV-Burgers equation ut + upux - /mu uxx + uxxx = 0, which describes nonlinear dispersive waves suffering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shah, M. G.; Rahman, M. M.; Hossen, M. R.; Mamun, A. A.
2016-02-01
A theoretical investigation on heavy ion-acoustic (HIA) solitary and shock structures has been accomplished in an unmagnetized multispecies plasma consisting of inertialess kappa-distributed superthermal electrons, Boltzmann light ions, and adiabatic positively charged inertial heavy ions. Using the reductive perturbation technique, the nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) Kortewg-de Vries (KdV) and Burgers equations have been derived. The solitary and shock wave solutions of the KdV and Burgers equations, respectively, have been numerically analyzed. The effects of superthermality of electrons, adiabaticity of heavy ions, and nonplanar geometry, which noticeably modify the basic features (viz. polarity, amplitude, phase speed, etc.) of small but finite amplitude HIA solitary and shock structures, have been carefully investigated. The HIA solitary and shock structures in nonplanar geometry have been found to distinctly differ from those in planar geometry. Novel features of our present attempt may contribute to the physics of nonlinear electrostatic perturbation in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas.
Solitary waves in twist-opening models of DNA dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaeta, Giuseppe; Venier, Laura
2008-07-01
We analyze traveling solitary wave solutions in the Barbi-Cocco-Peyrard twist-opening model of nonlinear DNA dynamics. We identify conditions, involving an interplay of physical parameters and asymptotic behavior, for such solutions to exist, and provide first-order ordinary differential equations whose solutions give the required solitary waves; these are not solvable in analytical terms, but are easily integrated numerically. The conditions for existence of solitary waves are not satisfied for trivial asymptotic behavior and physical values of the parameters, i.e., the Barbi-Cocco-Peyrard model admits only solitary wave solutions that entail a global modification of the molecule; this is compared with the situation met in another recently formulated class of DNA models with two degrees of freedom per site.
Large amplitude solitary waves in a warm magnetoplasma with kappa distributed electrons
El-Tantawy, S. A.; El-Bedwehy, N. A.; Abd El-Razek, H. N.; Mahmood, S.
2013-02-15
The large amplitude nonlinear ion acoustic solitary wave propagating obliquely to an external magnetic field in a magnetized plasma with kappa distributed electrons and warm ions is investigated through deriving energy-balance-like expression involving a Sagdeev potential. Analytical and numerical calculations of the values of Mach number reveal that both of subsonic and supersonic electrostatic solitary structures can exist in this system. The influence on the soliton characteristics of relevant physical parameters such as the Mach number, the superthermal parameter, the directional cosine, the ratio of ion-to-electron temperature, and the ion gyrofrequency has been investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Heng; Duan, Wen-Shan; Qi, Xin; Yang, Lei
2016-02-01
Head-on collision and overtaking collision between a KdV solitary wave and an envelope solitary wave are first studied in present paper by using Particle-in-cell (PIC) method in a dusty plasma. There are phase shifts of the KdV solitary wave in both head-on collision and the overtaking collision, while no phase shift is found for the envelop solitary wave in any cases. The remarkable difference between head-on collision and the overtaking collision is that the phase shift of KdV solitary wave increases as amplitude of KdV solitary wave increases in head-on collision, while it decreases as amplitude of the KdV solitary wave increases in the overtaking collision. It is found that the maximum amplitude during the collision process is less than sum of two amplitudes of both solitary waves, but is larger than either of the amplitude.
Zhang, Heng; Duan, Wen-Shan; Qi, Xin; Yang, Lei
2016-01-01
Head-on collision and overtaking collision between a KdV solitary wave and an envelope solitary wave are first studied in present paper by using Particle-in-cell (PIC) method in a dusty plasma. There are phase shifts of the KdV solitary wave in both head-on collision and the overtaking collision, while no phase shift is found for the envelop solitary wave in any cases. The remarkable difference between head-on collision and the overtaking collision is that the phase shift of KdV solitary wave increases as amplitude of KdV solitary wave increases in head-on collision, while it decreases as amplitude of the KdV solitary wave increases in the overtaking collision. It is found that the maximum amplitude during the collision process is less than sum of two amplitudes of both solitary waves, but is larger than either of the amplitude. PMID:26868526
Zhang, Heng; Duan, Wen-Shan; Qi, Xin; Yang, Lei
2016-01-01
Head-on collision and overtaking collision between a KdV solitary wave and an envelope solitary wave are first studied in present paper by using Particle-in-cell (PIC) method in a dusty plasma. There are phase shifts of the KdV solitary wave in both head-on collision and the overtaking collision, while no phase shift is found for the envelop solitary wave in any cases. The remarkable difference between head-on collision and the overtaking collision is that the phase shift of KdV solitary wave increases as amplitude of KdV solitary wave increases in head-on collision, while it decreases as amplitude of the KdV solitary wave increases in the overtaking collision. It is found that the maximum amplitude during the collision process is less than sum of two amplitudes of both solitary waves, but is larger than either of the amplitude. PMID:26868526
Positive and necklace solitary waves on bounded domains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fibich, G.; Shpigelman, D.
2016-02-01
We present new solitary wave solutions of the two-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation on bounded domains (such as rectangles, circles, and annuli). These multi-peak "necklace" solitary waves consist of several identical positive profiles ("pearls"), such that adjacent "pearls" have opposite signs. They are stable at low powers, but become unstable at powers well below the critical power for collapse Pcr. This is in contrast with the ground-state ("single-pearl") solitary waves on bounded domains, which are stable at any power below Pcr. On annular domains, the ground state solitary waves are radial at low powers, but undergo a symmetry breaking at a threshold power well below Pcr. As in the case of convex bounded domains, necklace solitary waves on the annulus are stable at low powers and become unstable at powers well below Pcr. Unlike on convex bounded domains, however, necklace solitary waves on the annulus have a second stability regime at powers well above Pcr. For example, when the ratio of the inner to outer radii is 1:2, four-pearl necklaces are stable when their power is between 3.1Pcr and 3.7Pcr. This finding opens the possibility to propagate localized laser beams with substantially more power than was possible until now. The instability of necklace solitary waves is excited by perturbations that break the antisymmetry between adjacent pearls, and is manifested by power transfer between pearls. In particular, necklace instability is unrelated to collapse. In order to compute numerically the profile of necklace solitary waves on bounded domains, we introduce a non-spectral variant of Petviashvili's renormalization method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gokhberg, M. B.
1983-07-01
Experiments devoted to acoustic action on the atmosphere-magnetosphere-ionosphere system using ground based strong explosions are reviewed. The propagation of acoustic waves was observed by ground observations over 2000 km in horizontal direction and to an altitude of 200 km. Magnetic variations up to 100 nT were detected by ARIEL-3 satellite near the epicenter of the explosion connected with the formation of strong field aligned currents in the magnetosphere. The enhancement of VLF emission at 800 km altitude is observed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Jiu-Ning; Luo, Jun-Hua; Li, Jun-Xiu
2014-01-01
The nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic solitary and shock waves in a dissipative, nonplanar quantum plasma comprised of electrons, positrons, and ions are studied. A modified Korteweg-de Vries Burgers equation is derived in the limit of low frequency and long wavelength by taking into account the kinematic viscosity among the plasma constituents. It is shown that this plasma system supports the propagation of both compressive and rarefactive nonlinear waves. The effects of variation of various plasma parameters on the time evolution of nonplanar solitary waves, the profile of shock waves, and the nonlinear structure induced by the collision of solitary waves are discussed. It is found that these parameters have significant effects on the properties of nonlinear waves in cylindrical and spherical geometries, and these effects for compressive and rarefactive nonlinear waves are obviously different.
Nonlinear electron-acoustic waves in quantum plasma
Sah, O. P.; Manta, J.
2009-03-15
The nonlinear wave structure of electron-acoustic waves (EAWs) is investigated in a three component unmagnetized dense quantum plasma consisting of two distinct groups of electrons (one inertial cold electron, and other inertialess hot electrons) and immobile ions. By employing one dimensional quantum hydrodynamic model and standard reductive perturbation technique, a Korteweg-de-Vries equation governing the dynamics of EAWs is derived. Both compressive and rarefactive solitons along with periodical potential structures are found to exist for various ranges of dimensionless quantum parameter H. The quantum mechanical effects are also examined numerically on the profiles of the amplitude and the width of electron-acoustic solitary waves. It is observed that both the amplitude and the width of electron-acoustic solitary waves are significantly affected by the parameter H. The relevance of the present investigation to the astrophysical ultradense plasmas is also discussed.
Breeding and solitary wave behavior of dunes.
Durán, O; Schwämmle, V; Herrmann, H
2005-08-01
Beautiful dune patterns can be found in deserts and along coasts due to the instability of a plain sheet of sand under the action of the wind. Barchan dunes are highly mobile aeolian dunes found in areas of low sand availability and unidirectional wind fields. Up to now modelization mainly focused on single dunes or dune patterns without regarding the mechanisms of dune interactions. We study the case when a small dune bumps into a bigger one. Recently Schwämmle and Herrmann [Nature (London) 426, 610 (2003)] and Katsuki [(e-print cond-mat 0403312)] have shown that under certain circumstances dunes can behave like solitary waves. This means that they can "cross" each other which has been questioned by many researchers before. In other cases we observe coalescence--i.e., both dunes merge into one--breeding--i.e., the creation of three baby dunes at the center and horns of a Barchan dune--or budding--i.e., the small dune, after "crossing" the big one, is unstable and splits into two new dunes. PMID:16196557
Solitary kinetic Alfven waves in dusty plasmas
Li Yangfang; Wu, D. J.; Morfill, G. E.
2008-08-15
Solitary kinetic Alfven waves in dusty plasmas are studied by considering the dust charge variation. The effect of the dust charge-to-mass ratio on the soliton solution is discussed. The Sagdeev potential is derived analytically with constant dust charge and then calculated numerically by taking the dust charge variation into account. We show that the dust charge-to-mass ratio plays an important role in the soliton properties. The soliton solutions are comprised of two branches. One branch is sub-Alfvenic and the soliton velocity is obviously smaller than the Alfven speed. The other branch is super-Alfvenic and the soliton velocity is very close to or greater than the Alfven speed. Both compressive and rarefactive solitons can exist. For the sub-Alfvenic branch, the rarefactive soliton is bell-shaped and it is much narrower than the compressive one. However, for the super-Alfvenic branch, the compressive soliton is bell-shaped and narrower, and the rarefactive one is broadened. When the charge-to-mass ratio of the dust grains is sufficiently high, the width of the rarefactive soliton, in the super-Alfvenic branch, will broaden extremely and a electron depletion will be observed. It is also shown that the bell-shaped soliton can transition to a cusped structure when the velocity is sufficiently high.
Banerjee, Gadadhar; Maitra, Sarit
2015-04-15
Sagdeev's pseudopotential method is used to study small as well as arbitrary amplitude dust acoustic solitons in a dusty plasma with kappa distributed electrons and ions with dust grains having power law size distribution. The existence of potential well solitons has been shown for suitable parametric region. The criterion for existence of soliton is derived in terms of upper and lower limit for Mach numbers. The numerical results show that the size distribution can affect the existence as well as the propagation characteristics of the dust acoustic solitons. The effect of kappa distribution is also highlighted.
Solitary Waves of the MRLW Equation by Variational Iteration Method
Hassan, Saleh M.; Alamery, D. G.
2009-09-09
In a recent publication, Soliman solved numerically the modified regularized long wave (MRLW) equation by using the variational iteration method (VIM). In this paper, corrected numerical results have been computed, plotted, tabulated, and compared with not only the exact analytical solutions but also the Adomian decomposition method results. Solitary wave solutions of the MRLW equation are exactly obtained as a convergent series with easily computable components. Propagation of single solitary wave, interaction of two and three waves, and also birth of solitons have been discussed. Three invariants of motion have been evaluated to determine the conservation properties of the problem.
Solitary wave dynamics in shallow water over periodic topography.
Nakoulima, Ousseynou; Zahibo, Narcisse; Pelinovsky, Efim; Talipova, Tatiana; Kurkin, Andrey
2005-09-01
The problem of long-wave scattering by piecewise-constant periodic topography is studied both for a linear solitary-like wave pulse, and for a weakly nonlinear solitary wave [Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) soliton]. If the characteristic length of the topographic irregularities is larger than the pulse length, the solution of the scattering problem is obtained analytically for a leading wave in the framework of linear shallow-water theory. The wave decrement in the case of the small height of the topographic irregularities is proportional to delta2, where delta is the relative height of the topographic obstacles. An analytical approximate solution is also obtained for the weakly nonlinear problem when the length of the irregularities is larger than the characteristic nonlinear length scale. In this case, the Korteweg-de Vries equation is solved for each piece of constant depth by using the inverse scattering technique; the solutions are matched at each step by using linear shallow-water theory. The weakly nonlinear solitary wave decays more significantly than the linear solitary pulse. Solitary wave dynamics above a random seabed is also discussed, and the results obtained for random topography (including experimental data) are in reasonable agreement with the calculations for piecewise topography. PMID:16253002
Nonlinear Dirac equation solitary waves in external fields.
Mertens, Franz G; Quintero, Niurka R; Cooper, Fred; Khare, Avinash; Saxena, Avadh
2012-10-01
We consider nonlinear Dirac equations (NLDE's) in the 1+1 dimension with scalar-scalar self-interaction g2/κ+1(Ψ[over ¯]Ψ)κ+1 in the presence of various external electromagnetic fields. We find exact solutions for special external fields and we study the behavior of solitary-wave solutions to the NLDE in the presence of a wide variety of fields in a variational approximation depending on collective coordinates which allows the position, width, and phase of these waves to vary in time. We find that in this approximation the position q(t) of the center of the solitary wave obeys the usual behavior of a relativistic point particle in an external field. For time-independent external fields, we find that the energy of the solitary wave is conserved but not the momentum, which becomes a function of time. We postulate that, similarly to the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE), a sufficient dynamical condition for instability to arise is that dP(t)/dq[over ̇](t)<0. Here P(t) is the momentum of the solitary wave, and q[over ̇] is the velocity of the center of the wave in the collective coordinate approximation. We found for our choices of external potentials that we always have dP(t)/dq[over ̇](t)>0, so, when instabilities do occur, they are due to a different source. We investigate the accuracy of our variational approximation using numerical simulations of the NLDE and find that, when the forcing term is small and we are in a regime where the solitary wave is stable, that the behavior of the solutions of the collective coordinate equations agrees very well with the numerical simulations. We found that the time evolution of the collective coordinates of the solitary wave in our numerical simulations, namely the position of the average charge density and the momentum of the solitary wave, provide good indicators for when the solitary wave first becomes unstable. When these variables stop being smooth functions of time (t), then the solitary wave starts to distort
Shoaling of internal solitary waves at the ASIAEX site in the South China Sea
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Warn-Varnas, A.; Lamb, K.
2012-04-01
The interaction of barotropic tides with Luzon Strait topography generates westward propagating internal bores and solitary waves trains which eventually shoal and dissipate on the western side of the South China Sea. Numerical simulations of this shoaling process at the site of the Asian Seas International Acoustic Experiment (ASIAEX) have been undertaken in order to investigate the sensitivity of the shoaling process on a variety of environmental factors. The model parameters of the Luzon Strait region are tuned to yield solitary wave trains similar to those observed in the ASIAEX experiments. The sensitivity to details of the stratification, bathymetry, deep water depth and initial wave amplitude as well as the effects of dissipation in a bottom boundary layer are considered. On the slope secondary solitary waves are generated which propagate towards the shelf. In the vicinity of the shelf break a leading square-shaped wave of depression forms which is followed by a series of square-shaped waves of elevation in inviscid simulation. The presence of a bottom boundary significantly modifies the waves trailing the leading depression resulting in the emergence of many more smaller waves. Comparison against the measurements of Orr and Mignerey (2003) are conducted.
Orbital stability of solitary waves for Kundu equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Weiguo; Qin, Yinghao; Zhao, Yan; Guo, Boling
In this paper, we consider the Kundu equation which is not a standard Hamiltonian system. The abstract orbital stability theory proposed by Grillakis et al. (1987, 1990) cannot be applied directly to study orbital stability of solitary waves for this equation. Motivated by the idea of Guo and Wu (1995), we construct three invariants of motion and use detailed spectral analysis to obtain orbital stability of solitary waves for Kundu equation. Since Kundu equation is more complex than the derivative Schrödinger equation, we utilize some techniques to overcome some difficulties in this paper. It should be pointed out that the results obtained in this paper are more general than those obtained by Guo and Wu (1995). We present a sufficient condition under which solitary waves are orbitally stable for 2c+sυ<0, while Guo and Wu (1995) only considered the case 2c+sυ>0. We obtain the results on orbital stability of solitary waves for the derivative Schrödinger equation given by Colin and Ohta (2006) as a corollary in this paper. Furthermore, we obtain orbital stability of solitary waves for Chen-Lee-Lin equation and Gerdjikov-Ivanov equation, respectively.
Arbitrary Amplitude DIA and DA Solitary Waves in Adiabatic Dusty Plasmas
Mamun, A. A.; Jahan, N.; Shukla, P. K.
2008-10-15
The dust-ion-acoustic (DIA) as well as the dust-acoustic (DA) solitary waves (SWs) in an adiabatic dusty plasma are investigated by the pseudo-potential approach which is valid for arbitrary amplitude SWs. The role of the adiabaticity of electrons and ions in modifying the basic features (polarity, speed, amplitude and width) of arbitrary amplitude DIA and DA SWs are explicitly examined. It is found that the effects of the adiabaticity of electrons and ions significantly modify the basic features (polarity, speed, amplitude and width) of the DIA and DA SWs. The implications of our results in space and laboratory dusty plasmas are briefly discussed.
Properties of materials using acoustic waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Apfel, R. E.
1984-10-01
Our goal of characterizing materials using acoustic waves was forwarded through a number of projects: (1) We have refined our modulated radiation pressure technique for characterizing the interfaces between liquids so that we can automatically track changes in interfacial tension over time due to contaminants, surfactants, etc. (2) We have improved and simplified our acoustic scattering apparatus for measuring distributions of the properties of microparticle samples, which will allow us to distinguish particulates in liquids by size, compressibility, and density. (3) We are continuing work on theoretical approaches to nonlinear acoustics which should permit us to cast problems with geometric and other complexities into a manageable form. (4) Our studies of cavitation have enabled us to derive an analytic expression which predicts the acoustic pressure threshold for cavitation at the micrometer scale - where surface tension effects are important. This work has relevance to the consideration of possible bioeffects from diagnostic ultrasound. (5) Other projects include the calibration of hydrophones using acoustically levitated samples, and the investigation of solitary waves of the sort discovered by Wu, Keolian and Rudnick.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Jinkyu; Silvestro, Claudio; Sangiorgio, Sophia N.; Borkowski, Sean L.; Ebramzadeh, Edward; De Nardo, Luigi; Daraio, Chiara
2012-01-01
We propose a new biomedical sensing technique based on highly nonlinear solitary waves to assess orthopaedic implant stability in a nondestructive and efficient manner. We assemble a granular crystal actuator consisting of a one-dimensional tightly packed array of spherical particles, to generate acoustic solitary waves. Via direct contact with the specimen, we inject acoustic solitary waves into a biomedical prosthesis, and we nondestructively evaluate the mechanical integrity of the bone-prosthesis interface, studying the properties of the waves reflected from the contact zone between the granular crystal and the implant. The granular crystal contains a piezoelectric sensor to measure the travelling solitary waves, which allows it to function also as a sensor. We perform a feasibility study using total hip arthroplasty (THA) samples made of metallic stems implanted in artificial composite femurs using polymethylmethacrylate for fixation. We first evaluate the sensitivity of the proposed granular crystal sensor to various levels of prosthesis insertion into the composite femur. Then, we impose a sequence of harsh mechanical loading on the THA samples to degrade the mechanical integrity at the stem-cement interfaces, using a femoral load simulator that simulates aggressive, accelerated physiological loading. We investigate the implant stability via the granular crystal sensor-actuator during testing. Preliminary results suggest that the reflected waves respond sensitively to the degree of implant fixation. In particular, the granular crystal sensor-actuator successfully detects implant loosening at the stem-cement interface following violent cyclic loading. This study suggests that the granular crystal sensor and actuator has the potential to detect metal-cement defects in a nondestructive manner for orthopaedic applications.
Guided acoustic wave inspection system
Chinn, Diane J.
2004-10-05
A system for inspecting a conduit for undesirable characteristics. A transducer system induces guided acoustic waves onto said conduit. The transducer system detects the undesirable characteristics of the conduit by receiving guided acoustic waves that contain information about the undesirable characteristics. The conduit has at least two sides and the transducer system utilizes flexural modes of propagation to provide inspection using access from only the one side of the conduit. Cracking is detected with pulse-echo testing using one transducer to both send and receive the guided acoustic waves. Thinning is detected in through-transmission testing where one transducer sends and another transducer receives the guided acoustic waves.
Solitary waves in the nonlinear Dirac equation with arbitrary nonlinearity.
Cooper, Fred; Khare, Avinash; Mihaila, Bogdan; Saxena, Avadh
2010-09-01
We consider the nonlinear Dirac equations (NLDE's) in 1+1 dimension with scalar-scalar self interaction g{2}/k+1(ΨΨ){k+1} , as well as a vector-vector self interaction g{2}/k+1(Ψγ{μ}ΨΨγ{μ}Ψ){1/2(k+1)} . We find the exact analytic form for solitary waves for arbitrary k and find that they are a generalization of the exact solutions for the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) and reduce to these solutions in a well defined nonrelativistic limit. We perform the nonrelativistic reduction and find the 1/2m correction to the NLSE, valid when |ω-m|<2m , where ω is the frequency of the solitary wave in the rest frame. We discuss the stability and blowup of solitary waves assuming the modified NLSE is valid and find that they should be stable for k<2 . PMID:21230200
On existence of solitary waves in unmagnetized neutral hot pair plasma
Xie, Bai-Song; Li, Zi-Liang; Lu, Ding; Sang, Hai-Bo
2013-11-15
Whether the solitary waves exist in unmagnetized neutral hot pair plasma is considered. It is found that for small electrons and positrons longitudinal momentum the solitary waves do not exist under the quasi-static approximation.
Solitary wave evolution in a magnetized inhomogeneous plasma under the effect of ionization
Jyoti; Malik, Hitendra K.
2011-10-15
A modified form of Korteweg-deVries (KdV) equation appropriate to nonlinear ion acoustic solitary waves in an inhomogeneous plasma is derived in the presence of an external magnetic field and constant ionization in the plasma. This equation differs from usual version of the KdV equation because of the inclusion of two terms arising due to ionization and density gradient present in the plasma. In this plasma, only the compressive solitary waves are found to propagate corresponding to the fast and slow modes. The amplitude of the solitary wave increases with an enhancement in the ionization for the fast mode as well as for the slow mode. The effect of magnetic field is to enhance the width of the solitary structure. The amplitude is found to increase (decrease) with an enhancement in charge number of the ions for the fast (slow) mode. The tailing structure becomes more (less) prominent with the rise in ion drift velocity for the case of fast (slow) mode.
Statistical Thermodynamic Approach to Vibrational Solitary Waves in Acetanilide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasconcellos, Áurea R.; Mesquita, Marcus V.; Luzzi, Roberto
1998-03-01
We analyze the behavior of the macroscopic thermodynamic state of polymers, centering on acetanilide. The nonlinear equations of evolution for the populations and the statistically averaged field amplitudes of CO-stretching modes are derived. The existence of excitations of the solitary wave type is evidenced. The infrared spectrum is calculated and compared with the experimental data of Careri et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 104 (1983)], resulting in a good agreement. We also consider the situation of a nonthermally highly excited sample, predicting the occurrence of a large increase in the lifetime of the solitary wave excitation.
Solitary electrostatic waves are possible in unmagnetized symmetric pair plasmas
Dubinov, Alexander E.; Dubinova, Irina D.; Gordienko, Victor A.
2006-08-15
A possibility of stationary solitary electrostatic waves with large amplitude in symmetric unmagnetized symmetric pair plasmas (e{sup -}e{sup +} plasma, C{sub 60}{sup -}C{sub 60}{sup +} plasma or e{sup -}h{sup +} plasma) is proven. The main idea of the work is a thermodynamic unequilibrium of plasma species which may be created in low-density ideal pair plasmas. Ranges of parameters (Mach number M and a nonequilibrium degree {tau}=T{sub +}/T{sub -}) which lead to the possibility of solitary waves are found.
Adiabatic trapping in coupled kinetic Alfven-acoustic waves
Shah, H. A.; Ali, Z.; Masood, W.
2013-03-15
In the present work, we have discussed the effects of adiabatic trapping of electrons on obliquely propagating Alfven waves in a low {beta} plasma. Using the two potential theory and employing the Sagdeev potential approach, we have investigated the existence of arbitrary amplitude coupled kinetic Alfven-acoustic solitary waves in both the sub and super Alfvenic cases. The results obtained have been analyzed and presented graphically and can be applied to regions of space where the low {beta} assumption holds true.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Manpreet; Singh Saini, Nareshpal; Ghai, Yashika; Kaur, Nimardeep
2016-07-01
Dusty plasma is a fully or partially ionized gas which contain micron or sub-micron sized dust particles. These dust particles can be positively or negatively charged, depending upon the mechanism of charging . Dusty plasma is often observed in most of the space and astrophysical plasma environments. Presence of these dust particles can modify the dispersion properties of waves in the plasma and can introduce several new wave modes, e.g., dust acoustic (DA) waves, dust-ion acoustic (DIA) waves, dust-acoustic shock waves etc. In this investigation we have studied the small amplitude dust acoustic waves in an unmagnetized plasma comprising of electrons, positively charged ions, negatively charged hot as well as cold dust. Electrons and ions are described by superthermal distribution which is more appropriate for modeling space and astrophysical plasmas. Kadomtsev- Petviashvili (KP) equation has been derived using reductive perturbation technique. Positive as well as negative potential structures are observed, depending upon some critical values of parameters. Amplitude and width of dust acoustic solitary waves are modified by varying these parameters such as superthermality of electrons and ions, direction of propagation of the wave, relative concentration of hot and cold dust particles etc. This study may be helpful in understanding the formation and dynamics of nonlinear structures in various space and astrophysical plasma environments such Saturn's F-rings.
Dust-Acoustic Waves: Visible Sound Waves
Merlino, Robert L.
2009-11-10
A historical overview of some of the early theoretical and experimental work on dust acoustic waves is given. The basic physics of the dust acoustic wave and some of the theoretical refinements that have been made, including the effects of collisions, plasma absorption, dust charge fluctuations, particle drifts and strong coupling effects are discussed. Some recent experimental findings and outstanding problems are also presented.
Exact and explicit solitary wave solutions to some nonlinear equations
Jiefang Zhang
1996-08-01
Exact and explicit solitary wave solutions are obtained for some physically interesting nonlinear evolutions and wave equations in physics and other fields by using a special transformation. These equations include the KdV-Burgers equation, the MKdV-Burgers equation, the combined KdV-MKdV equation, the Newell-Whitehead equation, the dissipative {Phi}{sup 4}-model equation, the generalized Fisher equation, and the elastic-medium wave equation.
Superluminal propagation of solitary kinklike waves in amplifying media.
Janowicz, Maciej; Mostowski, Jan
2006-04-01
It is shown that solitary-wave, kinklike structures can propagate superluminally in two- and four-level amplifying media with strongly damped oscillations of coherences. This is done by solving analytically the Maxwell-Bloch equations in the kinetic limit. It is also shown that the true wave fronts--unlike the pseudo wave fronts of the kinks--must propagate with velocity c, so that no violation of special relativity is possible. The conditions of experimental verification are discussed. PMID:16711948
Ali Shan, S.; El-Tantawy, S. A.; Moslem, W. M.
2013-08-15
Arbitrary amplitude ion-acoustic waves in an unmagnetized plasma consisting of cold positive ions, superthermal electrons, and positrons beam are reported. The basic set of fluid equations is reduced to an energy-balance like equation. The latter is numerically analyzed to examine the existence regions for solitary and shock waves. It is found that only solitary waves can propagate, however, the model cannot support shocks. The effects of superthermality and beam parameters (via, positrons concentration and streaming velocity) on the existence region, as well as solitary wave profile have been discussed.
Interaction of two solitary waves in quantum electron-positron-ion plasma
Xu Yanxia; Lin Maimai; Shi Yuren; Duan Wenshan; Liu Zongming; Chen Jianmin
2011-05-15
The collision between two ion-acoustic solitary waves with arbitrary colliding angle {theta} in an unmagnetized, ultracold quantum three-component e-p-i plasma has been investigated. By using the extended Poincare-Lighthill-Kuo (PLK) perturbation method, we obtain the KdV equations and the analytical phase shifts after the collision of two solitary waves in this three-component plasma. The effects of the quantum parameter H, the ratio of Fermi positron temperature to Fermi electron temperature {sigma}, the ratio of Fermi positron number density to Fermi electron number density {mu}, and the ratio of Fermi ion temperature to Fermi electron temperature {rho} on the phase shifts are studied. It is found that these parameters can significantly influence the phase shifts of the solitons.
Interaction of highly nonlinear solitary waves with linear elastic media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Jinkyu; Silvestro, Claudio; Khatri, Devvrath; de Nardo, Luigi; Daraio, Chiara
2011-04-01
We study the interaction of highly nonlinear solitary waves propagating in granular crystals with an adjacent linear elastic medium. We investigate the effects of interface dynamics on the reflection of incident waves and on the formation of primary and secondary reflected waves. Experimental tests are performed to correlate the linear medium geometry, materials, and mass with the formation and propagation of reflected waves. We compare the experimental results with theoretical analysis based on the long-wavelength approximation and with numerical predictions obtained from discrete particle models. Experimental results are found to be in agreement with theoretical analysis and numerical simulations. This preliminary study establishes the foundation for utilizing reflected solitary waves as novel information carriers in nondestructive evaluation of elastic material systems.
Interaction of highly nonlinear solitary waves with linear elastic media.
Yang, Jinkyu; Silvestro, Claudio; Khatri, Devvrath; De Nardo, Luigi; Daraio, Chiara
2011-04-01
We study the interaction of highly nonlinear solitary waves propagating in granular crystals with an adjacent linear elastic medium. We investigate the effects of interface dynamics on the reflection of incident waves and on the formation of primary and secondary reflected waves. Experimental tests are performed to correlate the linear medium geometry, materials, and mass with the formation and propagation of reflected waves. We compare the experimental results with theoretical analysis based on the long-wavelength approximation and with numerical predictions obtained from discrete particle models. Experimental results are found to be in agreement with theoretical analysis and numerical simulations. This preliminary study establishes the foundation for utilizing reflected solitary waves as novel information carriers in nondestructive evaluation of elastic material systems. PMID:21599325
Gaussian solitary waves and compactons in Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattices with Hertzian potentials.
James, Guillaume; Pelinovsky, Dmitry
2014-05-01
We consider a class of fully nonlinear Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) lattices, consisting of a chain of particles coupled by fractional power nonlinearities of order α>1. This class of systems incorporates a classical Hertzian model describing acoustic wave propagation in chains of touching beads in the absence of precompression. We analyse the propagation of localized waves when α is close to unity. Solutions varying slowly in space and time are searched with an appropriate scaling, and two asymptotic models of the chain of particles are derived consistently. The first one is a logarithmic Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation and possesses linearly orbitally stable Gaussian solitary wave solutions. The second model consists of a generalized KdV equation with Hölder-continuous fractional power nonlinearity and admits compacton solutions, i.e. solitary waves with compact support. When [Formula: see text], we numerically establish the asymptotically Gaussian shape of exact FPU solitary waves with near-sonic speed and analytically check the pointwise convergence of compactons towards the limiting Gaussian profile. PMID:24808748
Gaussian solitary waves and compactons in Fermi–Pasta–Ulam lattices with Hertzian potentials
James, Guillaume; Pelinovsky, Dmitry
2014-01-01
We consider a class of fully nonlinear Fermi–Pasta–Ulam (FPU) lattices, consisting of a chain of particles coupled by fractional power nonlinearities of order α>1. This class of systems incorporates a classical Hertzian model describing acoustic wave propagation in chains of touching beads in the absence of precompression. We analyse the propagation of localized waves when α is close to unity. Solutions varying slowly in space and time are searched with an appropriate scaling, and two asymptotic models of the chain of particles are derived consistently. The first one is a logarithmic Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) equation and possesses linearly orbitally stable Gaussian solitary wave solutions. The second model consists of a generalized KdV equation with Hölder-continuous fractional power nonlinearity and admits compacton solutions, i.e. solitary waves with compact support. When , we numerically establish the asymptotically Gaussian shape of exact FPU solitary waves with near-sonic speed and analytically check the pointwise convergence of compactons towards the limiting Gaussian profile. PMID:24808748
Dynamic transport of suspended sediment by solitary wave: Experimental study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
cho, JaeNam; Kim, DongHyun; Hwang, KyuNam; Lee, SeungOh
2016-04-01
Solitary waves are able to transport a large amount of suspended sediment when approaching on the beach, which sometimes causes - serious beach erosion, especially in the east and south coastal lines in Korea. But it has rarely been known about the method how to evaluate or estimate the amount of beach erosion caused by solitary waves. Experimental assessment is necessary to comprehend the process of sediment transport on a slope. The prismatic rectangular channel is 12 m long, 0.8 m wide, and 0.75 m high. A sluice gate is applied at prismatic channel in order to produce the solitary waves. Upstream water depth is more than channel water depth and the sluice gate is suddenly opened to simulate conditions of solitary waves. A sand slope with a 1/6 and a sediment thickness is 0.03 m. The experimental sediments are used anthracite (d_50=1.547 mm ,C_u=1.38) and Jumoonjin sand (d_50=0.627 mm ,C_u=1.68). Specific laboratory equipment are designed to collect suspended sediment samples at the same time along the wave propagation at 5 points with evenly space. Each amount of sampling is approximately 25 ml and they are completely dried in oven over 24 hours according to the USGS (Guideline and standard techniques and method 3-C4). Two video cameras (Model No. : Sony, HDR-XR550) are mounted for capturing images at top and side-view when the processes of solitary wave and run up/down on slope. Also, this study are analyzed the correlation between Suspended sediment concentration and turbidity. Also, this study are analyzed the correlation between suspended sediment concentration and turbidity. Turbidity is used to verify suspended sediment concentration. Dimensionless analyses of experimental results carried out in this study. One dimensionless parameter is expressed with pressure of solitary wave on a slope to suspended sediment concentration, which is concerned about lifting force. The other is relate to drag force presenting with run up/down velocity on a slope and
Numerical simulation of mass transport in internal solitary waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salloum, Maher; Knio, Omar M.; Brandt, Alan
2012-01-01
A computational study of mass transport by large-amplitude, mode-2 internal solitary waves propagating on a pycnocline between two layers of different densities was conducted. The numerical model is based on the simulation of a vorticity-based formulation of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in the Boussinesq limit. Numerical experiments are conducted of the collapse of an initially mixed region, which leads to the generation of a train of internal solitary waves. The peak wave amplitude, a, is achieved by the leading wave, which encloses an intrusional bulge. The wave amplitude decays as it moves away from the collapsing mixing region. When the amplitude drops below a critical value, the wave is no longer able to transport mass and sharp-nosed intrusion is left behind. Mass transport by the leading wave, and by the trailing wave train and intrusion, is analyzed by tracking the motion of Lagrangian particles initially concentrated in the mixed region. Results indicate that for moderate wave amplitudes, a gradual decay in the wave amplitude occurs as the wave propagates, but the structure of the bulge is essentially maintained during this process. In contrast, for large-amplitude waves, the motion around the bulge is substantially more complex, exhibiting periodic shedding of vortex structures in the wake of the bulge and entrainment of external fluid into its core. It is shown that these motions have substantial impact on mass transport by the wave train, which is quantified through detailed analysis of the Lagrangian particle distributions.
Solitary and shock waves in magnetized electron-positron plasma
Lu, Ding; Li, Zi-Liang; Abdukerim, Nuriman; Xie, Bai-Song
2014-02-15
An Ohm's law for electron-positron (EP) plasma is obtained. In the framework of EP magnetohydrodynamics, we investigate nonrelativistic nonlinear waves' solutions in a magnetized EP plasma. In the collisionless limit, quasistationary propagating solitary wave structures for the magnetic field and the plasma density are obtained. It is found that the wave amplitude increases with the Mach number and the Alfvén speed. However, the dependence on the plasma temperature is just the opposite. Moreover, for a cold EP plasma, the existence range of the solitary waves depends only on the Alfvén speed. For a hot EP plasma, the existence range depends on the Alfvén speed as well as the plasma temperature. In the presence of collision, the electromagnetic fields and the plasma density can appear as oscillatory shock structures because of the dissipation caused by the collisions. As the collision frequency increases, the oscillatory shock structure becomes more and more monotonic.
Existence and Stability of Relativistic Solitary Waves in Warm Plasmas
Maza-Palacios, Marco A.; Herrera-Velazquez, J. Julio E.
2006-12-04
A variational mehod for one dimensional relativistic solitons is established, within the two fluid model framework, including finite temperature effects. Our starting point is a Lagrangian for a two species fluid plasma, which allows the deduction of the conserved quantities of the system by means of Noether's theorem, as well as the model equations. At a first stage, travelling wave solutions are studied with the usual shape of envelope solitary waves. It is found that bounded travelling waves (bright solitons) exist for most velocities, if both ions and electrons are assumed to be relativistic, except for a window at small values of v/c. In order to study their stability, we obtain the evolution equations of the solitary wave parameters, along those of radiation.
Localized finite-amplitude disturbances and selection of solitary waves
Kliakhandler; Porubov; Velarde
2000-10-01
It turns out that evolution of localized finite-amplitude disturbances in perturbed KdV equation is qualitatively different compared with conventional small-amplitude initial conditions. Namely, relatively fast solitary waves, with one and the same amplitude and velocity, are formed ahead of conventional chaotic-like irregular structures. The amplitude and velocity of the waves, obtained from the asymptotic theory, are in excellent agreement with numerics. PMID:11089043
Solitary and periodic waves in two-fluid magnetohydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gavrikov, M. B.; Kudryashov, N. A.; Petrov, B. A.; Savelyev, V. V.; Sinelshchikov, D. I.
2016-09-01
A system of equations of two-fluid magnetohydrodynamics is studied. An ordinary differential equation describing traveling waves in an ideal cold quasi-neutral plasma is obtained in the case of quasi-stationary electromagnetic field. The Painlevé analysis of this equation is carried out and the general solution of the equation is constructed in terms of the Weierstrass elliptic function. Solitary and periodic wave solutions for the components of magnetic field are found and analyzed.
Alfvénic Solitary and Shock Waves in Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shukla, Padma Kant; Eliasson, Bengt; Stenflo, Lennart
We present a review of nonlinear Alfvénic solitary and shock waves in a magnetized electron-ion plasma. The dynamics of these nonlinear dispersive Alfvén waves is governed by the two-fluid equations, coupled with Faraday's and Ampère's laws. First, we demonstrate the existence of large amplitude compressional Alfvénic solitary and shock waves propagating across the external magnetic field in a warm electron-ion magnetoplasma. It is found that these nonlinear structures can exist in well defined speed ranges above the Alfvén speed, and their widths are several times larger than the electron skin depths. Second, we study the formation of nonlinear slow magnetosonic solitary (SMS) waves propagating almost perpendicular to the external magnetic field direction. The propagation speed of the SMS waves is below the Alfvén speed and their width is a few ion skin depth in a collisionless magnetoplasma. The nonlinear dispersive Alfvén waves, as discussed here, can be associated with localized electromagnetic field excitations in magnetized laboratory and space plasmas that are composed of magnetized electrons and ions.
Generation, propagation, and breaking of internal solitary waves.
Grue, John
2005-09-01
Tidal, two-layer flow over topography generates a kink of the interface separating an upstream interfacial elevation from a depression above the topography. Upstream undular bores and solitary waves of large amplitude are generated from the interfacial kink. The waves propagate upstream when the tide turns. Interfacial simulations of this kind of generation process fit with the observations at Knight Inlet in British Columbia, in the Sulu Sea experiment, and undular bores generated by internal tides in the Strait of Gibraltar. Fully nonlinear interfacial computations compare successfully with experimental observations of solitary waves in the laboratory and in the field for wave amplitudes ranging from small to maximal values. The waves exhibit only minor sensitivity to a finite thickness of the pycnocline. Analytical solitary waves are recaptured in the small amplitude limit. Shear-induced breaking appears first in the top part of the pycnocline and is expressed in terms of the Richardson number. Convective breaking in the top part of the water column occurs beyond a threshold amplitude when a pronounced stratification continues all the way to the ocean surface. PMID:16253005
Nonlinear localized dust acoustic waves in a charge varying dusty plasma with nonthermal ions
Tribeche, Mouloud; Amour, Rabia
2007-10-15
A numerical investigation is presented to show the existence, formation, and possible realization of large-amplitude dust acoustic (DA) solitary waves in a charge varying dusty plasma with nonthermal ions. These nonlinear localized structures are self-consistent solutions of the collisionless Vlasov equation with a population of fast particles. The spatial patterns of the variable charge DA solitary wave are significantly modified by the nonthermal effects. The results complement and provide new insights into previously published results on this problem.
Salient features of solitary waves in dusty plasma under the influence of Coriolis force
Das, G. C.; Nag, Apratim
2007-08-15
The main interest is to study the nonlinear acoustic wave in rotating dusty plasma augmented through the derivation of a modified Sagdeev potential equation. Small rotation causes the interaction of Coriolis force in the dynamical system, and leads to the complexity in the derivation of the nonlinear wave equation. As a result, the finding of solitary wave propagation in dusty plasma ought to be of merit. However, the nonlinear wave equation has been successfully solved by the use of the hyperbolic method. Main emphasis has been given to the changes on the evolution and propagation of soliton, and the variation caused by the dusty plasma constituents as well as by the Coriolis force have been highlighted. Some interesting nonlinear wave behavior has been found which can be elaborately studied for the interest of laboratory and space plasmas. Further, to support the theoretical investigations, numeric plasma parameters have been taken for finding the inherent features of solitons.
On the energetic stability of solitary water waves.
Mielke, Alexander
2002-10-15
We study solutions of the water-wave problem for a fluid layer of finite depth in the presence of gravity and surface tension. We use the canonical Hamiltonian formulation by Zakharov in terms of the surface elevation and the trace of the velocity potential on the surface. With a new continuity result for the Dirichlet-Neumann operator in terms of the surface as a function in H(1)(R), we show conditional energetic stability of the trivial solution in certain regions of the parameter space. In the same region we obtain stability of solitary waves under the additional assumption that the second variation of the energy has only one negative eigenvalue. The latter assumption is shown to be fulfilled for the small-amplitude solitary waves first constructed by Amick & Kirchgässner. PMID:12804235
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bourgault, D.; Morsilli, M.; Richards, C.; Neumeier, U.; Kelley, D. E.
2014-01-01
Two-dimensional, nonlinear and nonhydrostatic field-scale numerical simulations are used to examine the resuspension, dispersal and transport of mud-like sediment caused by the shoaling and breaking of long internal solitary waves on uniform slopes. The patterns of erosion and transport are both examined, in a series of test cases with varying conditions. Shoreward sediment movement is mainly within boluses, while seaward movement is within intermediate nepheloid layers. Several relationships between properties of the suspended sediment and control parameters are determined such as the horizontal extent of the nehpeloid layers, the total mass of resuspended sediment and the point of maximum bed erosion. The numerical results provide a plausible explanation for acoustic backscatter patterns observed during and after the shoaling of internal solitary wavetrains in a natural coastal environment. The results may be useful in the interpretation of some sedimentary structures, and suggest an effective mechanism for offshore dispersal of muddy sediments.
Surface acoustic wave microfluidics
Ding, Xiaoyun; Li, Peng; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Stratton, Zackary S.; Nama, Nitesh; Guo, Feng; Slotcavage, Daniel; Mao, Xiaole; Shi, Jinjie; Costanzo, Francesco; Huang, Tony Jun
2014-01-01
The recent introduction of surface acoustic wave (SAW) technology onto lab-on-a-chip platforms has opened a new frontier in microfluidics. The advantages provided by such SAW microfluidics are numerous: simple fabrication, high biocompatibility, fast fluid actuation, versatility, compact and inexpensive devices and accessories, contact-free particle manipulation, and compatibility with other microfluidic components. We believe that these advantages enable SAW microfluidics to play a significant role in a variety of applications in biology, chemistry, engineering, and medicine. In this review article, we discuss the theory underpinning SAWs and their interactions with particles and the contacting fluids in which they are suspended. We then review the SAW-enabled microfluidic devices demonstrated to date, starting with devices that accomplish fluid mixing and transport through the use of travelling SAW; we follow that by reviewing the more recent innovations achieved with standing SAW that enable such actions as particle/cell focusing, sorting, and patterning. Finally, we look forward and appraise where the discipline of SAW microfluidics could go next. PMID:23900527
Airy-type solitary wave in highly noninstantaneous Kerr media.
Deng, Fu; Hong, Weiyi; Deng, Dongmei
2016-07-11
We investigate the dynamics of a decelerating Airy pulse in the highly noninstantaneous Kerr media. It is found that the deceleration of the Airy pulse can be counteracted by the highly noninstantaneous nonlinearity. When the power of the pulse is specifically chosen, the deceleration of the Airy pulse can be totally restrained, and an Airy-type solitary wave is observed within several dispersion lengths. PMID:27410868
Solitary waves in elongated clouds of strongly interacting bosons
Oegren, M.; Kavoulakis, G.M.; Jackson, A.D.
2005-08-15
We examine the propagation of solitary waves in elongated clouds of trapped bosonic atoms as the confinement, the strength of the interatomic interaction, and the atom density are varied. We identify three different physical regimes and develop a general formalism that allows us to interpolate between them. Finally we pay special attention to the transition to the Tonks-Girardeau limit of strongly interacting bosons.
Self-similar solitary waves in Bessel optical lattices
Xu Siliu; Liang Jianchu; Yi Lin
2010-01-15
An analytical solitary wave solution to the generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equation (NLSE) with varying coefficients in Bessel optical lattices is obtained based on the self-similar method. Our results indicate that a new family of Bessel (BSL) self-similar spatial solitons can be formed in the Kerr nonlinear media in the confined cylindrical symmetric geometry in sizes. These soliton profiles are rather stable, independent of propagation distance.
Current structure of strongly nonlinear interfacial solitary waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semin, Sergey; Kurkina, Oxana; Kurkin, Andrey; Talipova, Tatiana; Pelinovsky, Efim; Churaev, Egor
2015-04-01
The characteristics of highly nonlinear solitary internal waves (solitons) in two-layer flow are computed within the fully nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations with use of numerical model of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MITgcm). The verification and adaptation of the model is based on the data from laboratory experiments [Carr & Davies, 2006]. The present paper also compares the results of our calculations with the computations performed in the framework of the fully nonlinear Bergen Ocean Model [Thiem et al, 2011]. The comparison of the computed soliton parameters with the predictions of the weakly nonlinear theory based on the Gardner equation is given. The occurrence of reverse flow in the bottom layer directly behind the soliton is confirmed in numerical simulations. The trajectories of Lagrangian particles in the internal soliton on the surface, on the interface and near the bottom are computed. The results demonstrated completely different trajectories at different depths of the model area. Thus, in the surface layer is observed the largest displacement of Lagrangian particles, which can be more than two and a half times larger than the characteristic width of the soliton. Located at the initial moment along the middle pycnocline fluid particles move along the elongated vertical loop at a distance of not more than one third of the width of the solitary wave. In the bottom layer of the fluid moves in the opposite direction of propagation of the internal wave, but under the influence of the reverse flow, when the bulk of the velocity field of the soliton ceases to influence the trajectory, it moves in the opposite direction. The magnitude of displacement of fluid particles in the bottom layer is not more than the half-width of the solitary wave. 1. Carr, M., and Davies, P.A. The motion of an internal solitary wave of depression over a fixed bottom boundary in a shallow, two-layer fluid. Phys. Fluids, 2006, vol. 18, No. 1, 1 - 10. 2. Thiem, O., Carr
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lamb, K. G.; Warn-Varnas, A.
2015-05-01
The interaction of barotropic tides with Luzon Strait topography generates some of the world's largest internal solitary waves which eventually shoal and dissipate on the western side of the northern South China Sea. Two-dimensional numerical simulations of the shoaling of a single internal solitary wave at the site of the Asian Seas International Acoustic Experiment (ASIAEX) have been undertaken in order to investigate the sensitivity of the shoaling process to the stratification and the underlying bathymetry and to explore the influence of rotation. The bulk of the simulations are inviscid; however, exploratory simulations using a vertical eddy-viscosity confined to a near bottom layer, along with a no-slip boundary condition, suggest that viscous effects may become important in water shallower than about 200 m. A shoaling solitary wave fissions into several waves. At depths of 200-300 m the front of the leading waves become nearly parallel to the bottom and develop a very steep back as has been observed. The leading waves are followed by waves of elevation (pedestals) that are conjugate to the waves of depression ahead and behind them. Horizontal resolutions of at least 50 m are required to simulate these well. Wave breaking was found to occur behind the second or third of the leading solitary waves, never at the back of the leading wave. Comparisons of the shoaling of waves started at depths of 1000 and 3000 m show significant differences and the shoaling waves can be significantly non-adiabatic even at depths greater than 2000 m. When waves reach a depth of 200 m, their amplitudes can be more than 50% larger than the largest possible solitary wave at that depth. The shoaling behaviour is sensitive to the presence of small-scale features in the bathymetry: a 200 m high bump at 700 m depth can result in the generation of many mode-two waves and of higher mode waves. Sensitivity to the stratification is considered by using three stratifications based on summer
Canonical Acoustics and Its Application to Surface Acoustic Wave on Acoustic Metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Jian Qi
2016-08-01
In a conventional formalism of acoustics, acoustic pressure p and velocity field u are used for characterizing acoustic waves propagating inside elastic/acoustic materials. We shall treat some fundamental problems relevant to acoustic wave propagation alternatively by using canonical acoustics (a more concise and compact formalism of acoustic dynamics), in which an acoustic scalar potential and an acoustic vector potential (Φ ,V), instead of the conventional acoustic field quantities such as acoustic pressure and velocity field (p,u) for characterizing acoustic waves, have been defined as the fundamental variables. The canonical formalism of the acoustic energy-momentum tensor is derived in terms of the acoustic potentials. Both the acoustic Hamiltonian density and the acoustic Lagrangian density have been defined, and based on this formulation, the acoustic wave quantization in a fluid is also developed. Such a formalism of acoustic potentials is employed to the problem of negative-mass-density assisted surface acoustic wave that is a highly localized surface bound state (an eigenstate of the acoustic wave equations). Since such a surface acoustic wave can be strongly confined to an interface between an acoustic metamaterial (e.g., fluid-solid composite structures with a negative dynamical mass density) and an ordinary material (with a positive mass density), it will give rise to an effect of acoustic field enhancement on the acoustic interface, and would have potential applications in acoustic device design for acoustic wave control.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Groeskamp, Sjoerd; Nauw, Janine J.; Maas, Leo R. M.
2011-11-01
Despite vigorous tidal and wind mixing, observations in an estuarine tidal inlet in the Wadden Sea show that during part of the tidal cycle, vertical stratification and internal waves may still develop. Acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) and conductivity, temperature, depth observations, collected over the past 6 years at 13 h anchor stations (ASs), reveal that these occur especially during slack tide, when there is little wind and large freshwater discharge from nearby Lake IJssel. Measurements with a moored ADCP show that in the same tidal phase, strong cross-channel circulation develops, which may suddenly reverse circulation sense due to passing density fronts. In the vertically stratified phase that follows after the front passage, propagating mode-one solitary internal waves are observed. These are resonantly generated during decelerating tidal ebb currents when the (shear) flow passes a transcritical regime (Froude number equal to 1). A combination of photographs (including one from the International Space Station), bathymetric data, and ASs data leads to the discovery of yet another source of internal waves in this area, produced during slackening tide by propagating lee waves that develop over a deep trench. We suggest that both the cross-channel circulation as well as the (solitary) internal waves may locally be of importance for the (re)distribution and transport of sediments and nutrients and may influence tidally averaged transports.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wengrove, M. E.; Foster, D. L.
2014-12-01
In field environments, bottom roughness transformation have been observed in response to extreme storm events, flooding, and tsunamis. Bottom roughness transformation is considered to be instances when an observed stable bed state (e.g. ripples) rapidly transforms into an alternate stable state (e.g. flat bed). This type of extreme change is observed when forcing mechanisms due to shear stress and pressure gradients reach significant magnitude and duration. This research utilizes a full scale wave laboratory environment (O.H. Hinsdale Large Wave Flume at Oregon State University) over a sandy substrate to closely investigate bottom boundary layer dynamics coupled with observations of extreme morphologic change from a rippled to a flat bed. The observational array includes two millimeter scale resolution profiling ADVs (Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter), a PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) used to estimate velocity fields as well as morphologic evolution, porewater pressure sensors, and multiple single point ADVs and wave gages. An emphasis is made towards investigating the effects of solitary waves (i.e. tsunamis) upon events of extreme morphologic change, both isolated as well as introduced into bimodal wave groups. Additionally, observations demonstrate that instances of roughness flattening and then rebuilding occurring within sets of irregular waves (i.e. storm events). During instances of rapid bed flattening boundary layer streaming is observed in coincidence with estimates of excess applied bed stress and exceedance of critical Shields parameter for sediment motion. Additionally, during extreme flattening, measured pressure gradients indicate conditions for pressure gradient induced sediment transport, supported by the porewater pressure sensor data and the estimated Sleath parameter.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sepulveda, Nicasio
1987-01-01
A two-layer inviscid incompressible fluid system of intermediate depth is considered. A multiple-scales perturbation technique is applied to the basic equations and boundary conditions for a two-layer fluid system to derive a system of weakly nonlinear partial integrodifferential equations governing the resonant interaction between a surface gravity wave packet and an internal gravity wave at an intermediate depth, providing a bridge between the existing shallow and deep fluid theories. The convolution integral term in these equations accounts for the dispersion in the lower-layer fluid. An iterative fast Fourier transform scheme is developed to find solitary wave solutions to this system of equations. The overtaking collision of two pairs of solitary waves, simulated using a spectral method, is found to be inelastic. It is found that the amplitude of the solitary waves changes slightly after the collision. The phase shifts these solitary waves undergo was calculated numerically.
Shah, Asif; Mahmood, S.; Haque, Q.
2011-11-15
Electrostatic ion acoustic solitary waves are studied in a plasma system comprising of relativistic ions, kappa distributed electrons, and positrons. The increase in the relativistic streaming factor and positron and electron kappa parameters cause the soliton amplitude to thrive. However, the soliton amplitude diminishes as the positron concentration is increased in the system. Our results are general and may be helpful, in understanding nonlinear phenomena in the presence of kappa distibuted electrons, positrons, and relativistically streaming ions.
Nonparaxial solitary waves in anisotropic dielectrics
Alberucci, Alessandro; Assanto, Gaetano
2011-03-15
We account for the vectorial character of electromagnetic waves in the study of nonlinear self-action and transverse localization in dielectric anisotropic media. With reference to uniaxials, we address spatial solitons propagating in the nonparaxial regime in the presence of an arbitrary degree of nonlocality, going from the standard Kerr response to the highly nonlocal case, unveiling various effects, including transverse profile asymmetry and bending of the trajectory, as well as a weak effective nonlocality even in local media.
Envelope solitary waves exist and collide head-on without phase shift in a dusty plasma
Zhang, Heng; Qi, Xin; Duan, Wen-Shan; Yang, Lei
2015-01-01
The rarefactive KdV solitary waves in a dusty plasma have been extensively studied analytically and found experimentally in the previous works. Though the envelope solitary wave described by a nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) has been proposed by using the reductive perturbation method, it is first verified by using the particle-in-cell (PIC) numerical method in this paper. Surprisingly, there is no phase shift after the head on collision between two envelope solitary waves, while it is sure that there are phase shifts of two colliding KdV solitary waves after head on collision. PMID:26383642
Envelope solitary waves exist and collide head-on without phase shift in a dusty plasma.
Zhang, Heng; Qi, Xin; Duan, Wen-Shan; Yang, Lei
2015-01-01
The rarefactive KdV solitary waves in a dusty plasma have been extensively studied analytically and found experimentally in the previous works. Though the envelope solitary wave described by a nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) has been proposed by using the reductive perturbation method, it is first verified by using the particle-in-cell (PIC) numerical method in this paper. Surprisingly, there is no phase shift after the head on collision between two envelope solitary waves, while it is sure that there are phase shifts of two colliding KdV solitary waves after head on collision. PMID:26383642
A new model for algebraic Rossby solitary waves in rotation fluid and its solution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yao-Deng; Yang, Hong-Wei; Gao, Yu-Fang; Yin, Bao-Shu; Feng, Xing-Ru
2015-09-01
A generalized Boussinesq equation that includes the dissipation effect is derived to describe a kind of algebraic Rossby solitary waves in a rotating fluid by employing perturbation expansions and stretching transformations of time and space. Using this equation, the conservation laws of algebraic Rossby solitary waves are discussed. It is found that the mass, the momentum, the energy, and the velocity of center of gravity of the algebraic solitary waves are conserved in the propagation process. Finally, the analytical solution of the equation is generated. Based on the analytical solution, the properties of the algebraic solitary waves and the dissipation effect are discussed. The results point out that, similar to classic solitary waves, the dissipation can cause the amplitude and the speed of solitary waves to decrease; however, unlike classic solitary waves, the algebraic solitary waves can split during propagation and the decrease of the detuning parameter can accelerate the occurrence of the solitary waves fission phenomenon. Project supported by the Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environment and Disaster Prevention and Mitigation Project, China (Grant No. 2012010), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41205082 and 41476019), the Special Funds for Theoretical Physics of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11447205), and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD), China.
Stability of negative solitary waves for an integrable modified Camassa-Holm equation
Yin Jiuli; Tian Lixin; Fan Xinghua
2010-05-15
In this paper, we prove that the modified Camassa-Holm equation is Painleve integrable. We also study the orbital stability problem of negative solitary waves for this integrable equation. It is shown that the negative solitary waves are stable for arbitrary wave speed of propagation.
Solitary waves of permanent form in a deep fluid with weak shear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Derzho, Oleg G.; Velarde, Manuel G.
1995-06-01
The Benjamin-Davis-Acrivos-Ono equation is generalized to account for finite, large amplitude solitary waves in a sheared deep fluid. It is shown how fine structure of stratification and weak noncritical shear in such geophysical flows do affect length (shape), wave (phase) velocity, and even stability of finite amplitude solitary waves.
ARE PULSING SOLITARY WAVES RUNNING INSIDE THE SUN?
Wolff, Charles L.
2012-09-10
A precise sequence of frequencies-detected four independent ways-is interpreted as a system of solitary waves below the Sun's convective envelope. Six future observational or theoretical tests of this idea are suggested. Wave properties (rotation rates, radial energy distribution, nuclear excitation strength) follow from conventional dynamics of global oscillation modes after assuming a localized nuclear term strong enough to perturb and hold mode longitudes into alignments that form 'families'. To facilitate future tests, more details are derived for a system of two dozen solitary waves 2 {<=} l {<=} 25. Wave excitation by {sup 3}He and {sup 14}C burning is complex. It spikes by factors M{sub 1} {<=} 10{sup 3} when many waves overlap in longitude but its long-time average is M{sub 2} {<=} 10. Including mixing can raise overall excitation to {approx}50 times that in a standard solar model. These spikes cause tiny phase shifts that tend to pull wave rotation rates toward their ideal values {proportional_to}[l(l + 1)]{sup -1}. A system like this would generate some extra nuclear energy in two spots at low latitude on opposite sides of the Sun. Each covers about 20 Degree-Sign of longitude. Above a certain wave amplitude, the system starts giving distinctly more nuclear excitation to some waves (e.g., l = 9, 14, and 20) than to neighboring l values. The prominence of l = 20 has already been reported. This transition begins at temperature amplitudes {Delta}T/T = 0.03 in the solar core for a typical family of modes, which corresponds to {delta}T/T {approx} 0.001 for one of its many component oscillation modes.
Polarized seismic and solitary waves run-up at the sea bed
Dennis, L. C.C.; Zainal, A. A.; Faisal, S. Y.
2012-09-26
The polarization effects in hydrodynamics are studied. Hydrodynamic equation for the nonlinear wave is used along with the polarized solitary waves and seismic waves act as initial waves. The model is then solved by Fourier spectral and Runge-Kutta 4 methods, and the surface plot is drawn. The output demonstrates the inundation behaviors. Consequently, the polarized seismic waves along with the polarized solitary waves tend to generate dissimilar inundation which is more disastrous.
The solitary wave of asexual evolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rouzine, Igor M.; Wakeley, John; Coffin, John M.
2003-01-01
Using a previously undescribed approach, we develop an analytic model that predicts whether an asexual population accumulates advantageous or deleterious mutations over time and the rate at which either process occurs. The model considers a large number of linked identical loci, or nucleotide sites; assumes that the selection coefficient per site is much less than the mutation rate per genome; and includes back and compensating mutations. Using analysis and Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate the accuracy of our results over almost the entire range of population sizes. Two limiting cases of our results, when either deleterious or advantageous mutations can be neglected, correspond to the Fisher-Muller effect and Muller's ratchet, respectively. By comparing predictions of our model (no recombination) to those of simple single-locus models (strong recombination), we show that the accumulation of advantageous mutations is slowed by linkage over a broad, finite range of population size. This supports the view of Fisher and Muller, who argued in the 1930s that progressive evolution of organisms is slowed because loci at which beneficial mutations can occur are often linked together on the same chromosome. These results follow from our main finding, that distribution of sequences over the mutation number evolves as a traveling wave whose speed and width depend on population size and other parameters. The model explains a logarithmic dependence of steady-state fitness on the population size reported recently for an RNA virus.
On the Synchronization of Acoustic Gravity Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lonngren, Karl E.; Bai, Er-Wei
Using the model proposed by Stenflo, we demonstrate that acoustic gravity waves found in one region of space can be synchronized with acoustic gravity waves found in another region of space using techniques from modern control theory.
Solitary wave behavior in sand dunes observed from space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vermeesch, P.
2011-11-01
Although the dynamics of individual barchan dunes are well understood, their interactions are the subject of ongoing scientific interest and debate. Numerical and analog model predictions of shape-preserving binary dune collisions have been hard to test due to the long timescales over which such processes typically occur. This paper documents ten binary dune collisions in a 45-year time sequence of satellite images from the Bodélé Depression in Chad. The observations confirm that when two barchan dunes collide, a transfer of mass occurs so that one dune appears to travel through the other unscathed, like a solitary wave.
Stratification parameters and dispersion of internal solitary waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perevalova, E. G.; Makarenko, N. I.
2016-06-01
A theoretical model of internal solitary waves of large amplitude in a weakly stratified fluid is considered. It is assumed that the background density profile depends linearly or exponentially on the fluid depth. It is demonstrated that inverse problem on determining fine-scale structure of the density profile by a known curve of amplitude dispersion is reduced to solving a linear Fredholm integral equation of the first kind having special form of the kernel. The one-to-one correspondence between the density coefficient and the dispersion function is established in the case of analytical stratification.
Solitary waves and double layers in a dusty electronegative plasma
Mamun, A. A.; Shukla, P. K.; Eliasson, B.
2009-10-15
A dusty electronegative plasma containing Boltzmann electrons, Boltzmann negative ions, cold mobile positive ions, and negatively charged stationary dust has been considered. The basic features of arbitrary amplitude solitary waves (SWs) and double layers (DLs), which have been found to exist in such a dusty electronegative plasma, have been investigated by the pseudopotential method. The small amplitude limit has also been considered in order to study the small amplitude SWs and DLs analytically. It has been shown that under certain conditions, DLs do not exist, which is in good agreement with the experimental observations of Ghim and Hershkowitz [Y. Ghim (Kim) and N. Hershkowitz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 151503 (2009)].
Solitary waves in two-dimensional dusty plasma crystal: Effects of weak magnetic field
Ghosh, Samiran; Gupta, M. R.
2010-03-15
It is shown that in the presence of weak magnetic field, the dust lattice solitary wave in two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal dusty plasma crystal is governed by a gyration-modified 2D Korteweg-de Vries equation due to the action of Lorentz force on the dust particles. Numerical solutions reveal that only for weak magnetic field an apparently single hump solitary wave solution exist. But, for strong magnetic field dust lattice solitary wave becomes unstable showing repetitive solitary hump of increasing magnitude with time.
Nonlinear electrostatic solitary waves in electron-positron plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lazarus, I. J.; Bharuthram, R.; Moolla, S.; Singh, S. V.; Lakhina, G. S.
2016-02-01
The generation of nonlinear electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) is explored in a magnetized four component two-temperature electron-positron plasma. Fluid theory is used to derive a set of nonlinear equations for the ESWs, which propagate obliquely to an external magnetic field. The electric field structures are examined for various plasma parameters and are shown to yield sinusoidal, sawtooth and bipolar waveforms. It is found that an increase in the densities of the electrons and positrons strengthen the nonlinearity while the periodicity and nonlinearity of the wave increases as the cool-to-hot temperature ratio increases. Our results could be useful in understanding nonlinear propagation of waves in astrophysical environments and related laboratory experiments.
Multi-reflective acoustic wave device
Andle, Jeffrey C.
2006-02-21
An acoustic wave device, which utilizes multiple localized reflections of acoustic wave for achieving an infinite impulse response while maintaining high tolerance for dampening effects, is disclosed. The device utilized a plurality of electromechanically significant electrodes disposed on most of the active surface. A plurality of sensors utilizing the disclosed acoustic wave mode device are also described.
Higher Order Corrections for Shallow-Water Solitary Waves: Elementary Derivation and Experiments
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Halasz, Gabor B.
2009-01-01
We present an elementary method to obtain the equations of the shallow-water solitary waves in different orders of approximation. The first two of these equations are solved to get the shapes and propagation velocities of the corresponding solitary waves. The first-order equation is shown to be equivalent to the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation,…
Electrostatic Solitary Waves (ESWs) observed by Kaguya near the Moon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashimoto, K.; Hashitani, M.; Omura, Y.; Kasahara, Y.; Kojima, H.; Ono, T.; Tsunakawa, H.
2010-12-01
In KAGUYA (SELENE) LRS[1], WFC-L [2] observes waveforms of plasma waves in 100Hz-100kHz and a lot of electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) have been observed. Some results have been reported [3]. Although orthogonal dipole antennas are generally used in the observations, sometimes a pair of monopole antennas were used. We reports observations mainly by the latter antennas. The velocities and spatial scales of ESWs are evaluated from waveforms observed in the monopole mode. Generally their velocities are from several 100km/s to several 1000km/s. Their spatial scales are several 10m and the potential depths were less than 0.05 eV. Their velocities are very slow near the wake boundaries. The ESW waveforms have often components perpendicular to the background magnetic field and the potential structure has a component perpendicular to the background magnetic field. This means that these waves were observed close the source regions. Acknowledgments: The SELENE project has been organized by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The authors express their thanks to all members of the SELENE project team. References [1] Y. Kasahara, Y. Goto, K. Hashimoto, T. Imachi, A. Kumamoto, T. Ono, and H. Matsumoto, Plasma Wave Observation Using Waveform Capture in the Lunar Radar Sounder on board the SELENE Spacecraft, Earth, Planets and Space, 60, 341-351, 2008. [2] K. Hashimoto, M. Hashitani, Y. Kasahara, Y. Omura, M.N. Nishino, Y. Saito, S. Yokota, T. Ono, H. Tsunakawa, H. Shibuya, M. Matsushima, H. Shimizu, and F. Takahashi, Electrostatic solitary waves associated with magnetic anomalies and wake boundary of the Moon observed by KAGUYA, accepted for publication in Geophys. Res. Lett., 2010.
Numerical simulations of shoaling internal solitary waves of elevation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Chengzhu; Subich, Christopher; Stastna, Marek
2016-07-01
We present high-resolution, two- and three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of large amplitude internal solitary waves of elevation on the laboratory scale, shoaling onto and over a small-amplitude shelf. The three-dimensional, mapped coordinate, spectral collocation method used for the simulations allows for accurate modelling of both the shoaling waves and the bottom boundary layer. The shoaling of the waves is characterized by the formation of a quasi-trapped core which undergoes a spatially growing stratified shear instability at its edge and a lobe-cleft instability in its nose. Both of these instabilities develop and three-dimensionalize concurrently, leading to strong bottom shear stress. We explore significant regions of Schmidt and Reynolds number space and demonstrate that the formation of shear instabilities during shoaling is robust and should be readily observable in a number of standard laboratory setups. In the experiments with a corrugated bottom boundary, boundary layer separation is found inside each of the corrugations during shoaling. This more complex boundary layer phenomenology precludes the formation of the lobe-cleft instability almost completely and hence provides a different mechanism for fluid and material exchange across the bottom boundary layer. Our analyses suggest that all of these wave-induced instabilities can lead to enhanced turbulence in the water column and increased shear stress on the bottom boundary. Through the generation and evolution of these instabilities, the shoaling of internal solitary waves of elevation is likely to provide systematic mechanisms for material mixing, cross-boundary layer transport, and sediment resuspension.
Producing undistorted acoustic sine waves.
Boutin, Henri; Smith, John; Wolfe, Joe
2014-04-01
A simple digital method is described that can produce an undistorted acoustic sine wave using an amplifier and loudspeaker having considerable intrinsic distortion, a common situation at low frequencies and high power. The method involves, first, using a pure sine wave as the input and measuring the distortion products. An iterative procedure then progressively adds harmonics with appropriate amplitude and phase to cancel any distortion products. The method is illustrated by producing a pure 52 Hz sine wave at 107 dB sound pressure level with harmonic distortion reduced over the audible range to >65 dB below the fundamental. PMID:25234964
Solitary Waves in the Western Equatorial Pacific Ocean
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pinkel, R.; Merrifield, M.; McPhaden, M.; Picaut, J.; Rutledge, S.; Siegel, D.; Washburn, L.
1997-01-01
During the spring tides of early January and February 1993, groups of solitary internal waves were observed propagating through the Intensive Flux Array of the TOGA COARE experiment. The waves appear to originate near the islands of Nugarba (3 deg S 30 deg S - 154 deg 30'E). They travel north-eastward at 2.5-3 m/s, closely coupled with the semi-diurnal baroclinic tide. Peak amplitudes exceed 60 m. Velocities are in excess of .8 m/s. Sea-surface vertical displacements of order.3 m can be inferred directly from the lateral acceleration of surface waters. The Equatorial Undercurrent is displaced by soliton passage but apparently is unaffected otherwise. The intrinsic shear of the solitary crests is small compared to ambient equatorial shears. The crests, while not themselves unstable, are effective at triggering instabilities on the background flow. The motions potentially contribute 10-15 Watts/sq m to the flux of heat into the mixed layer.
Solitary waves: a possible mechanism for rapid fluid transport in low permeability porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Appold, Martin; Joshi, Ajit
2014-05-01
Elastic porous media in which the rate of fluid pressure generation is high relative to the rate of fluid pressure diffusion and whose permeabilities are a sensitive function of effective stress may generate solitary waves manifest as discrete pulses of elevated pore pressure and porosity that can travel at velocities that are orders of magnitude greater than the velocities of the pore fluids in the background Darcian flow regime. Solitary waves may thus be important vehicles for fluid transport through porous media whose permeabilities are otherwise too low to allow significant rates of flow. Solitary waves have been hypothesized for diverse geologic settings and processes, including magmatic hydrothermal ore formation, magma transport, fault slip in accretionary wedges and at transform plate boundaries, and primary hydrocarbon migration in sedimentary basins. The present study has focused on solitary waves as agents of oil and methane transport through numerical simulation of their origin and behavior. The results show solitary waves to have limited capacity for transporting oil for several reasons: (1) the rate of fluid pressure generation by typical mechanisms like compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon formation is too low to allow solitary waves to form unless permeability is exceptionally low (10-24 to 10-25 m2), (2) solitary waves are only able to ascend no more than 1-2 km before dissipating to ambient pressure and porosity values, (3) the waves are too small and the frequency of their formation is too low to account for the amount of oil observed in the reservoirs that they have been hypothesized to feed. Solitary waves have been found to be more effective at transporting methane because of its lower density and viscosity compared to oil, provided that a mechanism for rapid pressure generation exists and permeabilities are very low. If those conditions exist, then solitary waves can ascend over two kilometers at rates on the order of 100's of meters
Arbitrary amplitude ion-acoustic waves in a multicomponent plasma with superthermal species
El-Tantawy, S. A.; Moslem, W. M.
2011-11-15
Properties of fully nonlinear ion-acoustic waves in a multicomponent plasma consisting of warm positive ions, superthermal electrons, as well as positrons, and dust impurities have been investigated. By using the hydrodynamic model for ions and superthermal electron/positron distribution, a Sagdeev potential has been derived. Existence conditions for large amplitude solitary and shock waves are presented. In order to show that the characteristics of the solitary and shock waves are influenced by the plasma parameters, the relevant numerical analysis of the Sagdeev potential is presented. The nonlinear structures, as predicted here, may be associated with the electrostatic perturbations in interstellar medium.
The quantum dusty magnetosonic solitary wave in magnetized plasma
Wang Yunliang; Qiu Hong; Wang Fengping; Lu Yanzhen; Zhou Zhongxiang
2012-01-15
The effects of quantum statistic and quantum diffraction on the weakly two-dimensional fast quantum dusty magnetosonic wave propagating perpendicular to the external magnetic field are investigated by considering the inertialess electron, inertialess ion, and inertial cold dust in the low frequency limit. A Kadomstev-Petviashvili equation is derived for the magnetosonic solitary wave by using reductive perturbation method. The results show that the amplitude of soliton increases with the increasing of quantum diffraction effects of both electrons and ions, while the amplitude of the soliton decreases with the increasing of the quantum statistic effects. By using the numerical investigations, the interaction law of the nontrivial line-solitons with rich web structure in the interaction area among the line-solitons is studied by the Wronskian determinant method, which shows that there is no exchange of the energy, the momentum, and the angular momentum in the interaction.
Solitary and shock waves in discrete double power law materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herbold, Eric; Nesterenko, Vitali
2007-06-01
A novel strongly nonlinear metamaterial is composed using a periodic arrangement of toroidal rings between plates. The toroids are considered massless strongly nonlinear springs where the force versus displacement relationship is described by two additive power-law relationships. In these systems the nonlinearity is due to the dramatic change of the contact plane, which starts as an arbitrarily thin circle then increases in thickness with increasing compression. Solitary and shock waves are examined numerically and experimentally using three different types of polymer or rubber o-rings allowing mitigation of higher amplitude shock impulses in comparison with granular systems. In these systems a train of pulses can consist of two separate groups related to two strongly nonlinear regimes with different values of exponents, depending on the amplitude. In experiments two types of shock waves (monotonic or oscillatory) were observed depending on the type of o-rings.
Incomplete Similarity of Internal Solitary Waves with Trapped Core
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maderych, V.; Jung, K. T.; Terletska, K.; Brovchenko, I.; Talipova, T.
2014-12-01
The dynamics and internal structure of internal solitary waves with trapped core propagating in a thin pycnocline near the bottom or surface for a wide range of wave amplitude and stratification are studied numerically in the frame of the Navier-Stokes equations for the laboratory and ocean scales. It is shown that the most important characteristics of the dynamics of waves are the local Froude number Frm, calculated as the ratio of the maximum local velocity to the phase velocity of the waves, the minimum Richardson number Rimin and the effective Reynolds number Reeff , defined as the ratio the product of the phase velocity c of the waves and the wave amplitude a to the kinematic viscosity. Depending on the parameter values Frm and Rimin three main classes of ISW propagating in the pycnocline layer over or under homogeneous deep layer can be identified: (i) the weakly nonlinear waves at Rimin >1, Frm < 1; (ii) the stable strongly nonlinear waves with trapped cores at Rimin 0.15 and Frm ~1.2; and (iii) the unstable strongly nonlinear waves at Rimin <0.1 and Frm ~ 1.25. On the whole, the results of experiments and numerical simulations showed complete similarity in all range of the phase velocity and wavelength at large Reeff . The experimental and computed dependence of horizontal size of the trapped core on the height of the trapped core also demonstrate self-similarity of the trapped core shape. However, incomplete similarity of Rimin is found when dependence on viscosity remains at large Reeff which implies the viscosity effect on the stability of ISW. This dependence is approximated by power law Rimin~(a / h)-1.19 Reeff -1.19. With time a wave damping occurs, thus Rimin is growing following this self-similar dependence.
Self-similarity of solitary waves on inertia-dominated falling liquid films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Denner, Fabian; Pradas, Marc; Charogiannis, Alexandros; Markides, Christos N.; van Wachem, Berend G. M.; Kalliadasis, Serafim
2016-03-01
We propose consistent scaling of solitary waves on inertia-dominated falling liquid films, which accurately accounts for the driving physical mechanisms and leads to a self-similar characterization of solitary waves. Direct numerical simulations of the entire two-phase system are conducted using a state-of-the-art finite volume framework for interfacial flows in an open domain that was previously validated against experimental film-flow data with excellent agreement. We present a detailed analysis of the wave shape and the dispersion of solitary waves on 34 different water films with Reynolds numbers Re =20 -120 and surface tension coefficients σ =0.0512 -0.072 N m-1 on substrates with inclination angles β =19∘-90∘ . Following a detailed analysis of these cases we formulate a consistent characterization of the shape and dispersion of solitary waves, based on a newly proposed scaling derived from the Nusselt flat film solution, that unveils a self-similarity as well as the driving mechanism of solitary waves on gravity-driven liquid films. Our results demonstrate that the shape of solitary waves, i.e., height and asymmetry of the wave, is predominantly influenced by the balance of inertia and surface tension. Furthermore, we find that the dispersion of solitary waves on the inertia-dominated falling liquid films considered in this study is governed by nonlinear effects and only driven by inertia, with surface tension and gravity having a negligible influence.
Numerical study of interfacial solitary waves propagating under an elastic sheet
Wang, Zhan; Părău, Emilian I.; Milewski, Paul A.; Vanden-Broeck, Jean-Marc
2014-01-01
Steady solitary and generalized solitary waves of a two-fluid problem where the upper layer is under a flexible elastic sheet are considered as a model for internal waves under an ice-covered ocean. The fluid consists of two layers of constant densities, separated by an interface. The elastic sheet resists bending forces and is mathematically described by a fully nonlinear thin shell model. Fully localized solitary waves are computed via a boundary integral method. Progression along the various branches of solutions shows that barotropic (i.e. surface modes) wave-packet solitary wave branches end with the free surface approaching the interface. On the other hand, the limiting configurations of long baroclinic (i.e. internal) solitary waves are characterized by an infinite broadening in the horizontal direction. Baroclinic wave-packet modes also exist for a large range of amplitudes and generalized solitary waves are computed in a case of a long internal mode in resonance with surface modes. In contrast to the pure gravity case (i.e without an elastic cover), these generalized solitary waves exhibit new Wilton-ripple-like periodic trains in the far field. PMID:25104909
Numerical study of interfacial solitary waves propagating under an elastic sheet.
Wang, Zhan; Părău, Emilian I; Milewski, Paul A; Vanden-Broeck, Jean-Marc
2014-08-01
Steady solitary and generalized solitary waves of a two-fluid problem where the upper layer is under a flexible elastic sheet are considered as a model for internal waves under an ice-covered ocean. The fluid consists of two layers of constant densities, separated by an interface. The elastic sheet resists bending forces and is mathematically described by a fully nonlinear thin shell model. Fully localized solitary waves are computed via a boundary integral method. Progression along the various branches of solutions shows that barotropic (i.e. surface modes) wave-packet solitary wave branches end with the free surface approaching the interface. On the other hand, the limiting configurations of long baroclinic (i.e. internal) solitary waves are characterized by an infinite broadening in the horizontal direction. Baroclinic wave-packet modes also exist for a large range of amplitudes and generalized solitary waves are computed in a case of a long internal mode in resonance with surface modes. In contrast to the pure gravity case (i.e without an elastic cover), these generalized solitary waves exhibit new Wilton-ripple-like periodic trains in the far field. PMID:25104909
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haider, M. M.; Rahman, O.
2016-07-01
An attempt has been made to study the multi-dimensional instability of dust-ion-acoustic (DIA) solitary waves (SWs) in magnetized multi-ion plasmas containing opposite polarity ions, opposite polarity dusts and non-thermal electrons. First of all, we have derived Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation to study the DIA SWs in this case using reductive perturbation method as well as its solution. Small-k perturbation technique was employed to find out the instability criterion and growth rate of such a wave which can give a guideline in understanding the space and laboratory plasmas, situated in the D-region of the Earth's ionosphere, mesosphere, and solar photosphere, as well as the microelectronics plasma processing reactors.
Nonlinear ion-acoustic waves in a degenerate plasma with nuclei of heavy elements
Hossen, M. A. Mamun, A. A.
2015-10-15
The ion-acoustic (IA) solitary waves propagating in a fully relativistic degenerate dense plasma (containing relativistic degenerate electron and ion fluids, and immobile nuclei of heavy elements) have been theoretically investigated. The relativistic hydrodynamic model is used to derive the Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV) equation by the reductive perturbation method. The stationary solitary wave solution of this K-dV equation is obtained to characterize the basic features of the IA solitary structures that are found to exist in such a degenerate plasma. It is found that the effects of electron dynamics, relativistic degeneracy of the plasma fluids, stationary nuclei of heavy elements, etc., significantly modify the basic properties of the IA solitary structures. The implications of this results in astrophysical compact objects like white dwarfs are briefly discussed.
Nonlinear ion-acoustic waves in a degenerate plasma with nuclei of heavy elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hossen, M. A.; Mamun, A. A.
2015-10-01
The ion-acoustic (IA) solitary waves propagating in a fully relativistic degenerate dense plasma (containing relativistic degenerate electron and ion fluids, and immobile nuclei of heavy elements) have been theoretically investigated. The relativistic hydrodynamic model is used to derive the Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV) equation by the reductive perturbation method. The stationary solitary wave solution of this K-dV equation is obtained to characterize the basic features of the IA solitary structures that are found to exist in such a degenerate plasma. It is found that the effects of electron dynamics, relativistic degeneracy of the plasma fluids, stationary nuclei of heavy elements, etc., significantly modify the basic properties of the IA solitary structures. The implications of this results in astrophysical compact objects like white dwarfs are briefly discussed.
Internal solitary waves in the Mozambique Channel: Observations and interpretation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
da Silva, J. C. B.; New, A. L.; Magalhaes, J. M.
2009-05-01
This paper presents new results showing that the Sofala shelf in the Mozambique Channel (20°S, 36°E) is a previously unknown "hot spot" for the generation of internal tides and internal waves. We investigate available Envisat advanced synthetic aperture radar imagery of the region, which is capable of showing the surface signatures of the internal waves. This is complemented by modeling of the ray pathways of internal tidal energy propagation, and of the P. G. Baines (1982) barotropic body force, which drives the generation of internal tides near the shelf break. The hot spot region is localized between 20° and 21°S because of the particular nature of the bathymetry there. Farther north and south, the forcing is reduced and insufficient to generate internal solitary waves in the synthetic aperture radar images. The analysis reveals two distinct types of internal wave trains that are observed traveling oceanward away from the shelf break, and we suggest that these result from direct generation at the shelf break and from "local" generation at about 80 km from the shelf break, respectively, because of the surfacing of internal tidal rays at the thermocline. Finally, we have investigated seasonal differences in the wave patterns, which penetrate more extensively into the channel during the southern summer and appear slightly farther to the south during the southern winter. We also conclude that the local generation process is more likely to occur during the winter when the stratification is reduced.
Electrostatic solitary waves in dusty pair-ion plasmas
Misra, A. P.; Adhikary, N. C.
2013-10-15
The propagation of electrostatic waves in an unmagnetized collisionless pair-ion plasma with immobile positively charged dusts is studied for both large- and small-amplitude perturbations. Using a two-fluid model for pair-ions, it is shown that there appear two linear ion modes, namely the “fast” and “slow” waves in dusty pair-ion plasmas. The properties of these wave modes are studied with different mass (m) and temperature (T) ratios of negative to positive ions, as well as the effects of immobile charged dusts (δ). For large-amplitude waves, the pseudopotential approach is performed, whereas the standard reductive perturbation technique is used to study the small-amplitude Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) solitons. The profiles of the pseudopotential, the large amplitude solitons as well as the dynamical evolution of KdV solitons, are numerically studied with the system parameters as above. It is found that the pair-ion plasmas with positively charged dusts support the propagation of solitary waves (SWs) with only the negative potential. The results may be useful for the excitation of SWs in laboratory dusty pair-ion plasmas, electron-free industrial plasmas as well as for observation in space plasmas where electron density is negligibly small compared to that of negative ions.
Surface acoustic wave oxygen sensor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Collman, James P.; Oglesby, Donald M.; Upchurch, Billy T.; Leighty, Bradley D.; Zhang, Xumu; Herrmann, Paul C.
1994-01-01
A surface acoustic wave (SAW) device that responds to oxygen pressure was developed by coating a 158 MHz quartz surface acoustic wave (SAW) device with an oxygen binding agent. Two types of coatings were used. One type was prepared by dissolving an oxygen binding agent in a toluene solution of a copolymer containing the axial ligand. A second type was prepared with an oxygen binding porphyrin solution containing excess axial ligand without a polymer matrix. In the polymer based coatings, the copolymer served to provide the axial ligand to the oxygen binding agent and as a coating matrix on the surface of the SAW device. The oxygen sensing SAW device has been shown to bind oxygen following a Langmuir isotherm and may be used to measure the equilibrium constant of the oxygen binding compound in the coating matrix.
Solitary travelling auto-waves in fractional reaction-diffusion systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Datsko, Bohdan; Gafiychuk, Vasyl; Podlubny, Igor
2015-06-01
In this article we study properties of solitary auto-waves in nonlinear fractional reaction-diffusion systems. As an example, the generalised FitzHugh-Nagumo model with time-fractional derivatives is considered. By a linear stability analysis and computer simulation it is shown that the order of the fractional derivative can substantially change the properties of solitary auto-waves and significantly enrich nonlinear system dynamics. The main properties of solitary travelling wave solutions, including the shape of the waves, the domain of their existence, as well as the parameters of their propagation in fractional reaction-diffusion systems, are investigated.
Features of fluid flows in strongly nonlinear internal solitary waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semin, S.; Kurkina, O.; Kurkin, A.; Talipova, T.; Pelinovsky, E.; Churaev, E.
2014-12-01
The characteristics of highly nonlinear solitary internal waves (solitons) are calculated within the fully nonlinear numerical model of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The verification and adaptation of the model is based on the data from laboratory experiments. The present paper also compares the results of our calculations with the calculations performed in the framework of the fully nonlinear Bergen Ocean Model. The comparison of the computed soliton parameters with the predictions of the weakly nonlinear theory based on the Gardner equation is given. The occurrence of reverse flow in the bottom layer directly behind the soliton is confirmed in the numerical simulations. The trajectories of Lagrangian particles in the internal soliton on the surface, on the pycnocline and near the bottom are computed.
Seasonal variation of solitary wave properties in Lake Constance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Preusse, M.; Freistühler, H.; Peeters, F.
2012-04-01
The properties of internal solitary waves (ISWs) depend on the stratification of the water body. In most climatic regions the stratification in lakes and oceans varies during the year, and hence the properties of the ISWs can also be expected to change over the seasons. On the basis of a long-term temperature time series recorded over 6 years, this paper investigates seasonal changes in the characteristic properties of ISWs in Lake Überlingen, a subbasin of Lake Constance. A large number of ISWs with amplitudes ranging from 3 m to 30 m were identified. More than 15% of the leading ISWs of a wave train were associated with density inversions, often indicating shear instabilities or trapped cores. For all waves the propagation depth and the value of a nonlinearity index nlp providing the degree of nonlinearity were determined, propagation depth being the rest height of the isotherm undergoing maximum displacement and nlp the ratio between wave amplitude and propagation depth. The index nlp was found to be a good parameter for predicting the occurrence of inversions. The statistical analysis of the wave properties derived from the observations revealed that the degree of nonlinearity of the ISWs changes with season. Complementary to the statistical analysis, the seasonally averaged ISW properties were compared with wave prototypes obtained numerically from the Dubreil-Jacotin-Long (DJL) and the stratified Korteweg-deVries (KdV) models. The simulations indicate that the typical stratification and its seasonal variation are responsible for the degree and the seasonality of nonlinearity of the ISWs.
Acoustic Waves in Medical Imaging and Diagnostics
Sarvazyan, Armen P.; Urban, Matthew W.; Greenleaf, James F.
2013-01-01
Up until about two decades ago acoustic imaging and ultrasound imaging were synonymous. The term “ultrasonography,” or its abbreviated version “sonography” meant an imaging modality based on the use of ultrasonic compressional bulk waves. Since the 1990s numerous acoustic imaging modalities started to emerge based on the use of a different mode of acoustic wave: shear waves. It was demonstrated that imaging with these waves can provide very useful and very different information about the biological tissue being examined. We will discuss physical basis for the differences between these two basic modes of acoustic waves used in medical imaging and analyze the advantages associated with shear acoustic imaging. A comprehensive analysis of the range of acoustic wavelengths, velocities, and frequencies that have been used in different imaging applications will be presented. We will discuss the potential for future shear wave imaging applications. PMID:23643056
Reflection properties of gravito-acoustic waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jovanović, Gordana
2016-03-01
We derive the dispersion equation for gravito-acoustic waves in an isothermal gravitationally stratified nonmagnetized atmosphere. In this model, with constant sound speed, it is possible to derive analytically the equations for gravito-acoustic waves. The large value of the viscous Reynolds number in the solar atmosphere imply that the dissipative terms in HD (hydrodynamics) equations are negligible. We consider the plane boundary z = 0 between two isothermal atmosphere regions and using the boundary conditions we derive the equation for the reflection coeffcient of gravito-acoustic waves. For the frequencies much greater than acoustic cutoff frequency, the reflection coefficient of the acoustic waves modified by gravity is the same as in the case of the pure acoustic waves. Reflection coefficient for the gravity waves is very high, R ≈ 1.
Investigation of co-travelling solitary wave collisions in a granular chain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anzel, Paul; Daraio, Chiara
2012-04-01
We present investigations into the collision of co-travelling solitary waves in a granular chain. Impulses are injected into the system by means of a piezo stack and the results are compared to a numerical model of discrete masses connected by non-linear springs. Similar to other solitary wave-carrying systems, a phase shift in both interacting solitary waves is observed due to their collision. Additionally, the formation of small secondary waves is observed in both numerical and experimental results. Insight into solitary wave interactions will be important for high-frequency excitation of a granular crystal, which may allow for improved Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) and Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) methods.
Coupling between whistler waves and slow-mode solitary waves
Tenerani, A.; Califano, F.; Pegoraro, F.; Le Contel, O.
2012-05-15
The interplay between electron- and ion-scale phenomena is of general interest for both laboratory and space plasma physics. In this paper, we investigate the linear coupling between whistler waves and slow magnetosonic solitons through two-fluid numerical simulations. Whistler waves can be trapped in the presence of inhomogeneous external fields such as a density hump or hole where they can propagate for times much longer than their characteristic time scale, as shown by laboratory experiments and space measurements. Space measurements have detected whistler waves also in correspondence to magnetic holes, i.e., to density humps with magnetic field minima extending on ion-scales. This raises the interesting question of how ion-scale structures can couple to whistler waves. Slow magnetosonic solitons share some of the main features of a magnetic hole. Using the ducting properties of an inhomogeneous plasma as a guide, we present a numerical study of whistler waves that are trapped and transported inside propagating slow magnetosonic solitons.
Solitary Waves, Magma Migration and Dome Building Eruptions at Mt. St. Helens, Washington
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryan, M. P.; Stanley, B.; Plasker, M.
2007-12-01
Solitary waves have first-order attributes that include shape and volume conserving packets of fluid that migrate with characteristic wavelengths, amplitudes, wave numbers, and pulse durations. To ascend through dike-like, magma-filled fractures or sub-circular conduits, the solitary wave pulse duration is directly proportional to the conduit wall region viscosity and inversely proportional to the density contrast that drives the flow. Solitary waves are produced by the collapse of conduit wall rocks following the passage of a magma batch. The 1980-current eruptions at Mt. St. Helens display a variable time-series in their erupted volumes, as well as lava dome \\(or spine\\) heights / volumes and vent flow rates. Inter-eruption repose periods, however, have often shown broad regularity over extended periods. The rhythmic 'beat' of eruptive episodes within a long-lived series and their roughly regular repose periods arises directly from the solitary wave migration mechanism. Composite domes are suggested to be the products of solitary wave incremental additions of dacite, as in the 1980-1983 composite dome resulting from at least 9 such solitary wave-controlled additions. The 18 May 1980 dacite cryptodome may now be interpreted as a composite of several solitary wave-based intrusions leading to the climatic eruption volume. Domes may be either solitary or composite but are built up of one or several batches of evolving magma that ascend individually from the 8 to 1 km depth storage reservoir as solitary waves. Analytical calculations of wave speed, wave length, batch volume, parcel shapes and repose periods reveal the dependence on material properties appropriate for Mt. St. Helens intrusions and dome-building eruptions. Predicted solitary wave volumes and flow rates are in good agreement with observed values for dacitic dome and spine-building eruptions from 1980-1986 and from 2004-2007. Conduit dimensions are inferred to vary over the range R=2 to R=20 m. Magma
Mushtaq, A.; Saeed, R.; Haque, Q.
2011-04-15
Linear and nonlinear coupled electrostatic drift and ion acoustic waves are studied in inhomogeneous, collisional pair ion-electron plasma. The Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdVB) equation for a medium where both dispersion and dissipation are present is derived. An attempt is made to obtain exact solution of KdVB equation by using modified tanh-coth method for arbitrary velocity of nonlinear drift wave. Another exact solution for KdVB is obtained, which gives a structure of shock wave. Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and Burgers equations are derived in limiting cases with solitary and monotonic shock solutions, respectively. Effects of species density, magnetic field, obliqueness, and the acoustic to drift velocity ratio on the solitary and shock solutions are investigated. The results discussed are useful in understanding of low frequency electrostatic waves at laboratory pair ion plasmas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rafat, A.; Rahman, M. M.; Alam, M. S.; Mamun, A. A.
2016-08-01
Obliquely propagating electron-acoustic solitary waves (EASWs) in a magnetized electron-positron-ion plasma (containing nonextensive hot electrons and positrons, inertial cold electrons, and immobile positive ions) are precisely investigated by deriving the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation. It is found that the basic features (viz. polarity, amplitude, width, phase speed, etc.) of the EASWs are significantly modified by the effects of the external magnetic field, obliqueness of the system, nonextensivity of hot positrons and electrons, ratio of the hot electron temperature to the hot positron temperature, and ratio of the cold electron number density to the hot positron number density. The findings of our results can be employed in understanding the localized electrostatic structures and the characteristics of EASWs in various astrophysical plasmas.
Bypass transition of the bottom boundary layer under solitary wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadek, Mahmoud; Diamessis, Peter; Parras, Luis; Liu, Philip
2015-11-01
The transition to turbulence in the bottom boundary layer (BBL) flow driven by a soliton-like pressure gradient in an oscillating water tunnel (an approximation for the BBL under solitary waves) is investigated using hydrodynamic linear stability theory and DNS. As observed in the laboratory experiment by Sumer et al. (2010), two possible transition scenarios exist. The first scenario is associated with the classical transition resulting from the breakdown of the exponentially growing 2-D Tollmien-Schlichting waves. The alternative scenario; i.e., bypass transition; takes place through formation of localized turbulent spots. The investigation of the latter transition scenario is performed in two steps. The first step consists of reformulating the linear stability analysis in the non-modal framework for the purpose of finding the optimum disturbance characteristics which lead to the formation of those turbulent spots. In the second step, the computed optimum noise structure is inserted in the 3D DNS in order to induce the formation of the turbulent spots and effectively simulate the bypass transition observed experimentally.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arif Hasan, M.; Nemat-Nasser, Sia
2016-04-01
We focus on solitary waves generated in arrays of lightly contacting spherical elastic granules by shock forces of steep rise and slow decay durations and establish a priori: (i) whether the peak value of the resulting solitary wave would be greater than, equal to, or less than the peak value of the input shock force; (ii) the magnitude of the peak value of the solitary waves; (iii) the magnitude of the linear momentum in each solitary wave; (iv) the magnitude of the linear momentum added to the remaining granules if the first granule is ejected; and (v) a quantitative estimate of the effect of the granules' radius, density, and stiffness on force amplification or mitigation. We have supported the analytical results by direct numerical simulations.
Integrability: mathematical methods for studying solitary waves theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wazwaz, Abdul-Majid
2014-03-01
In recent decades, substantial experimental research efforts have been devoted to linear and nonlinear physical phenomena. In particular, studies of integrable nonlinear equations in solitary waves theory have attracted intensive interest from mathematicians, with the principal goal of fostering the development of new methods, and physicists, who are seeking solutions that represent physical phenomena and to form a bridge between mathematical results and scientific structures. The aim for both groups is to build up our current understanding and facilitate future developments, develop more creative results and create new trends in the rapidly developing field of solitary waves. The notion of the integrability of certain partial differential equations occupies an important role in current and future trends, but a unified rigorous definition of the integrability of differential equations still does not exist. For example, an integrable model in the Painlevé sense may not be integrable in the Lax sense. The Painlevé sense indicates that the solution can be represented as a Laurent series in powers of some function that vanishes on an arbitrary surface with the possibility of truncating the Laurent series at finite powers of this function. The concept of Lax pairs introduces another meaning of the notion of integrability. The Lax pair formulates the integrability of nonlinear equation as the compatibility condition of two linear equations. However, it was shown by many researchers that the necessary integrability conditions are the existence of an infinite series of generalized symmetries or conservation laws for the given equation. The existence of multiple soliton solutions often indicates the integrability of the equation but other tests, such as the Painlevé test or the Lax pair, are necessary to confirm the integrability for any equation. In the context of completely integrable equations, studies are flourishing because these equations are able to describe the
Are There Optical Solitary Wave Solutions in Linear Media with Group Velocity Dispersion?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, Zhonghao; Zhou, Guosheng
1996-01-01
A generalized exact optical bright solitary wave solution in a three dimensional dispersive linear medium is presented. The most interesting property of the solution is that it can exist in the normal group-velocity-dispersion (GVD) region. In addition, another peculiar feature is that it may achieve a condition of 'zero-dispersion' to the media so that a solitary wave of arbitrarily small amplitude may be propagated with no dependence on is pulse width.
Galerkin Spectral Method for the 2D Solitary Waves of Boussinesq Paradigm Equation
Christou, M. A.; Christov, C. I.
2009-10-29
We consider the 2D stationary propagating solitary waves of the so-called Boussinesq Paradigm equation. The fourth- order elliptic boundary value problem on infinite interval is solved by a Galerkin spectral method. An iterative procedure based on artificial time ('false transients') and operator splitting is used. Results are obtained for the shapes of the solitary waves for different values of the dispersion parameters for both subcritical and supercritical phase speeds.
Robust acoustic wave manipulation of bubbly liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gumerov, N. A.; Akhatov, I. S.; Ohl, C.-D.; Sametov, S. P.; Khazimullin, M. V.; Gonzalez-Avila, S. R.
2016-03-01
Experiments with water-air bubbly liquids when exposed to acoustic fields of frequency ˜100 kHz and intensity below the cavitation threshold demonstrate that bubbles ˜30 μm in diameter can be "pushed" away from acoustic sources by acoustic radiation independently from the direction of gravity. This manifests formation and propagation of acoustically induced transparency waves (waves of the bubble volume fraction). In fact, this is a collective effect of bubbles, which can be described by a mathematical model of bubble self-organization in acoustic fields that matches well with our experiments.
Surface solitary waves and solitons. [in solar atmosphere and solar wind magnetic structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hollweg, J. V.; Roberts, B.
1984-01-01
The solar atmosphere and solar wind are magnetically structured. The structuring can include tangential discontinuities, which can support surface waves. Such waves can be dispersive. This means that dispersion and nonlinearity can balance in such a way that solitary waves (or solitons) can result. This general point is illustrated by a two-dimensional nonlinear analysis which explicitly demonstrates the presence of long-wavelength solitary waves propagating on tangential discontinuities. If the waves are only weakly nonlinear, then they obey the Korteweg-de Vries equation and are true solitons.
Solitary waves and chaotic twisting in a PDE model of Faraday resonance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Decent, S. P.
1997-08-01
Standing solitary waves and twisting waves which result from parametric excitation in a narrow rectangular water tank are discussed. We derive a generalized Schrödinger equation, extending the Lagrangian method of Miles [J. Fluid Mech. 148 (1984) 451]. The effects of damping and forcing terms third-order in the wave amplitude, and also the fifth-order conservative frequency shift are investigated. In particular, it is found that constant-phase stationary solitary waves no longer exist when cubic damping and cubic forcing are non-zero: in this case a non-constant phase stationary solution is found which results in a modification of the shape of the standing solitary wave. We also find that non-zero cubic damping can, in some circumstances, give rise to a time-modulated solitary wave and/or coexistent solitary wave solutions. It is also demonstrated that these nonlinear terms greatly effect mode competition between twisting waves, and can cause the twisting waves to evolve chaotically.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Selim, M. M.; El-Depsy, A.; El-Shamy, E. F.
2015-12-01
Properties of nonlinear ion-acoustic travelling waves propagating in a three-dimensional multicomponent magnetoplasma system composed of positive ions, negative ions and superthermal electrons are considered. Using the reductive perturbation technique (RPT), the Zkharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation is derived. The bifurcation theory of planar dynamical systems is applied to investigate the existence of the solitary wave solutions and the periodic travelling wave solutions of the resulting ZK equation. It is found that both compressive and rarefactive nonlinear ion-acoustic travelling waves strongly depend on the external magnetic field, the unperturbed positive-to-negative ions density ratio, the direction cosine of the wave propagation vector with the Cartesian coordinates, as well as the superthermal electron parameter. The present model may be useful for describing the formation of nonlinear ion-acoustic travelling wave in certain astrophysical scenarios, such as the D and F-regions of the Earth's ionosphere.
Rogue wave variational modelling through the interaction of two solitary waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gidel, Floriane; Bokhove, Onno
2016-04-01
The extreme and unexpected characteristics of Rogue waves have made them legendary for centuries. It is only on the 1st of January 1995 that these mariners' tales started to raise scientist's curiosity, when such a wave was recorded in the North Sea; a sudden wall of water hit the Draupner offshore platform, more than twice higher than the other waves, providing evidence of the existence of rogue or freak waves. Since then, studies have shown that these surface gravity waves of high amplitude (at least twice the height of the other sea waves [Dyste et al., 2008]) appear in non-linear dispersive water motion [Drazin and Johnson, 1989], at any depth, and have caused a lot of damage in recent years [Nikolkina and Didenkulova, 2011 ]. So far, most of the studies have tried to determine their probability of occurrence, but no conclusion has been achieved yet, which means that we are currently unenable to predict or avoid these monster waves. An accurate mathematical and numerical water-wave model would enable simulation and observation of this external forcing on boats and offshore structures and hence reduce their threat. In this work, we aim to model rogue waves through a soliton splash generated by the interaction of two solitons coming from different channels at a specific angle. Kodama indeed showed that one way to produce extreme waves is through the intersection of two solitary waves, or one solitary wave and its oblique reflection on a vertical wall [Yeh, Li and Kodama, 2010 ]. While he modelled Mach reflection from Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) theory, we aim to model rogue waves from the three-dimensional potential flow equations and/or their asymptotic equivalent described by Benney and Luke [Benney and Luke, 1964]. These theories have the advantage to allow wave propagation in several directions, which is not the case with KP equations. The initial solitary waves are generated by removing a sluice gate in each channel. The equations are derived through a
Spike-like solitary waves in incompressible boundary layers driven by a travelling wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Peihua; Zhang, Jiazhong; Wang, Wei
2016-06-01
Nonlinear waves produced in an incompressible boundary layer driven by a travelling wave are investigated, with damping considered as well. As one of the typical nonlinear waves, the spike-like wave is governed by the driven-damped Benjamin-Ono equation. The wave field enters a completely irregular state beyond a critical time, increasing the amplitude of the driving wave continuously. On the other hand, the number of spikes of solitary waves increases through multiplication of the wave pattern. The wave energy grows in a sequence of sharp steps, and hysteresis loops are found in the system. The wave energy jumps to different levels with multiplication of the wave, which is described by winding number bifurcation of phase trajectories. Also, the phenomenon of multiplication and hysteresis steps is found when varying the speed of driving wave as well. Moreover, the nature of the change of wave pattern and its energy is the stability loss of the wave caused by saddle-node bifurcation.
Internal solitary waves with a weakly stratified critical layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caillol, P.; Grimshaw, R. H. J.
2012-05-01
Motivated by observations of solitary waves in the ocean and atmosphere, this paper considers the evolution of long weakly nonlinear internal waves in an incompressible Boussinesq fluid. The motion is restricted to the vertical plane. The basic state consists of stable horizontal shear flow and density stratification. On a long time scale, the waves evolve and reach a quasi-steady régime where weak nonlinearity and weak dispersion are in balance. In many circumstances, this régime is described by a Korteweg-de-Vries equation. However, when the linear long-wave speed equals the basic flow velocity at a certain height, the critical level, the traditional assumption of weak nonlinearity breaks down due to the appearance of a singularity in the leading-order modal equation, implying a strong modification of the flow in the so-called critical layer. Since the relevant geophysical flows have high Reynolds and Péclet numbers, we invoke nonlinear effects to resolve this singularity. Viscosity and thermal conductivity are considered small but finite. Their presence renders the nonlinear-critical-layer solution unique. Crucially, the density stratification degree is assumed small at the critical level; this has the consequence that the leading-order singularity is then identical to that in an unstratified flow. Thus the asymptotic methodology employed previously for that case can be adapted to this present study. In this critical layer, the flow is fully nonlinear but laminar and quasi-steady, with a strong rearrangement of the buoyancy and vorticity contours. This inner flow is matched at the edges of the critical layer with the outer flow. The final outcome for spatially localized solutions is an integro-differential evolution equation, whose form depends on the critical-layer shape, and especially on the wave polarity, that is, depression or elevation. For a steady travelling wave, this evolution equation when expressed in terms of the streamfunction amplitude is not a
Spherical ion acoustic waves in pair ion plasmas with nonthermal electrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Selim, M. M.
2016-04-01
Propagation of nonplanar ion acoustic waves in a plasma composed of negative and positive ions and nonthermally distributed electrons is investigated using reductive perturbation theory. The spherical Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (SKP) equation which describes the dynamics of the nonlinear spherical ion acoustic waves is derived. It is found that compressive and rarefactive ion-acoustic solitary wave characteristics significantly depend on the density and mass ratios of the positive to negative ions, the nonthermal electron parameter, and the geometry factor. The possible regions for the existence of spherical ion acoustic waves are defined precisely for typical parameters of (H+, O2 -) and (H+, H-) plasmas in the D and F-regions of the Earth's ionosphere, as well as for laboratory plasma (Ar+, F-).
Eulerian Simulation of Acoustic Waves Over Long Range in Realistic Environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chitta, Subhashini; Steinhoff, John
2015-11-01
In this paper, we describe a new method for computation of long-range acoustics. The approach is a hybrid of near and far-field methods, and is unique in its Eulerian treatment of the far-field propagation. The near-field generated by any existing method to project an acoustic solution onto a spherical surface that surrounds a source. The acoustic field on this source surface is then extended to an arbitrarily large distance in an inhomogeneous far-field. This would normally require an Eulerian solution of the wave equation. However, conventional Eulerian methods have prohibitive grid requirements. This problem is overcome by using a new method, ``Wave Confinement'' (WC) that propagates wave-identifying phase fronts as nonlinear solitary waves that live on grid indefinitely. This involves modification of wave equation by the addition of a nonlinear term without changing the basic conservation properties of the equation. These solitary waves can then be used to ``carry'' the essential integrals of the acoustic wave. For example, arrival time, centroid position and other properties that are invariant as the wave passes a grid point. Because of this property the grid can be made as coarse as necessary, consistent with overall accuracy to resolve atmospheric/ground variations. This work is being funded by the U.S. Army under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program (contract number: # W911W6-12-C-0036). The authors would like to thank Dr. Frank Caradonna and Dr. Ben W. Sim for this support.
Two kinds of peaked solitary waves of the KdV, BBM and Boussinesq equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, ShiJun
2012-12-01
It is well-known that the celebrated Camassa-Holm equation has the peaked solitary waves, which have been not reported for other mainstream models of shallow water waves. In this letter, the closed-form solutions of peaked solitary waves of the KdV equation, the BBM equation and the Boussinesq equation are given for the first time. All of them have either a peakon or an anti-peakon. Each of them exactly satisfies the corresponding Rankine-Hogoniot jump condition and could be understood as weak solution. Therefore, the peaked solitary waves might be common for most of shallow water wave models, no matter whether or not they are integrable and/or admit breaking-wave solutions.
Effect of Dust Grains on Solitary Kinetic Alfven Wave
Li Yangfang; Wu, D. J.; Morfill, G. E.
2008-09-07
Solitary kinetic Alfven wave has been studied in dusty plasmas. The effect of the dust charge-to-mass ratio is considered. We derive the Sagdeev potential for the soliton solutions based on the hydrodynamic equations. A singularity in the Sagdeev potential is found and this singularity results in a bell-shaped soliton. The soliton solutions comprise two branches. One branch is sub-Alfvenic and the soliton velocities are much smaller than the Alfven speed. The other branch is super-Alfvenic and the soliton velocities are very close to or greater than the Alfven speed. Both compressive and rarefactive solitons can exist in each branch. For the sub-Alfvenic branch, the rarefactive soliton is a bell shape curve which is much narrower than the compressive one. In the super-Alfvenic branch, however, the compressive soliton is bell-shaped and the rarefactive one is broadened. We also found that the super-Alfvenic solitons can develop to other structures. When the charge-to-mass ratio of the dust grains is sufficiently high, the width of the rarefactive soliton will increase extremely and an electron density depletion will be observed. When the velocity is much higher than the Alfven speed, the bell-shaped soliton will transit to a cusped structure.
Integrability: mathematical methods for studying solitary waves theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wazwaz, Abdul-Majid
2014-03-01
In recent decades, substantial experimental research efforts have been devoted to linear and nonlinear physical phenomena. In particular, studies of integrable nonlinear equations in solitary waves theory have attracted intensive interest from mathematicians, with the principal goal of fostering the development of new methods, and physicists, who are seeking solutions that represent physical phenomena and to form a bridge between mathematical results and scientific structures. The aim for both groups is to build up our current understanding and facilitate future developments, develop more creative results and create new trends in the rapidly developing field of solitary waves. The notion of the integrability of certain partial differential equations occupies an important role in current and future trends, but a unified rigorous definition of the integrability of differential equations still does not exist. For example, an integrable model in the Painlevé sense may not be integrable in the Lax sense. The Painlevé sense indicates that the solution can be represented as a Laurent series in powers of some function that vanishes on an arbitrary surface with the possibility of truncating the Laurent series at finite powers of this function. The concept of Lax pairs introduces another meaning of the notion of integrability. The Lax pair formulates the integrability of nonlinear equation as the compatibility condition of two linear equations. However, it was shown by many researchers that the necessary integrability conditions are the existence of an infinite series of generalized symmetries or conservation laws for the given equation. The existence of multiple soliton solutions often indicates the integrability of the equation but other tests, such as the Painlevé test or the Lax pair, are necessary to confirm the integrability for any equation. In the context of completely integrable equations, studies are flourishing because these equations are able to describe the
A Schamel equation for ion acoustic waves in superthermal plasmas
Williams, G. Kourakis, I.; Verheest, F.; Hellberg, M. A.; Anowar, M. G. M.
2014-09-15
An investigation of the propagation of ion acoustic waves in nonthermal plasmas in the presence of trapped electrons has been undertaken. This has been motivated by space and laboratory plasma observations of plasmas containing energetic particles, resulting in long-tailed distributions, in combination with trapped particles, whereby some of the plasma particles are confined to a finite region of phase space. An unmagnetized collisionless electron-ion plasma is considered, featuring a non-Maxwellian-trapped electron distribution, which is modelled by a kappa distribution function combined with a Schamel distribution. The effect of particle trapping has been considered, resulting in an expression for the electron density. Reductive perturbation theory has been used to construct a KdV-like Schamel equation, and examine its behaviour. The relevant configurational parameters in our study include the superthermality index κ and the characteristic trapping parameter β. A pulse-shaped family of solutions is proposed, also depending on the weak soliton speed increment u{sub 0}. The main modification due to an increase in particle trapping is an increase in the amplitude of solitary waves, yet leaving their spatial width practically unaffected. With enhanced superthermality, there is a decrease in both amplitude and width of solitary waves, for any given values of the trapping parameter and of the incremental soliton speed. Only positive polarity excitations were observed in our parametric investigation.
A Schamel equation for ion acoustic waves in superthermal plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, G.; Verheest, F.; Hellberg, M. A.; Anowar, M. G. M.; Kourakis, I.
2014-09-01
An investigation of the propagation of ion acoustic waves in nonthermal plasmas in the presence of trapped electrons has been undertaken. This has been motivated by space and laboratory plasma observations of plasmas containing energetic particles, resulting in long-tailed distributions, in combination with trapped particles, whereby some of the plasma particles are confined to a finite region of phase space. An unmagnetized collisionless electron-ion plasma is considered, featuring a non-Maxwellian-trapped electron distribution, which is modelled by a kappa distribution function combined with a Schamel distribution. The effect of particle trapping has been considered, resulting in an expression for the electron density. Reductive perturbation theory has been used to construct a KdV-like Schamel equation, and examine its behaviour. The relevant configurational parameters in our study include the superthermality index κ and the characteristic trapping parameter β. A pulse-shaped family of solutions is proposed, also depending on the weak soliton speed increment u0. The main modification due to an increase in particle trapping is an increase in the amplitude of solitary waves, yet leaving their spatial width practically unaffected. With enhanced superthermality, there is a decrease in both amplitude and width of solitary waves, for any given values of the trapping parameter and of the incremental soliton speed. Only positive polarity excitations were observed in our parametric investigation.
Swimming using surface acoustic waves.
Bourquin, Yannyk; Cooper, Jonathan M
2013-01-01
Microactuation of free standing objects in fluids is currently dominated by the rotary propeller, giving rise to a range of potential applications in the military, aeronautic and biomedical fields. Previously, surface acoustic waves (SAWs) have been shown to be of increasing interest in the field of microfluidics, where the refraction of a SAW into a drop of fluid creates a convective flow, a phenomenon generally known as SAW streaming. We now show how SAWs, generated at microelectronic devices, can be used as an efficient method of propulsion actuated by localised fluid streaming. The direction of the force arising from such streaming is optimal when the devices are maintained at the Rayleigh angle. The technique provides propulsion without any moving parts, and, due to the inherent design of the SAW transducer, enables simple control of the direction of travel. PMID:23431358
Acoustic wave coupled magnetoelectric effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, J. S.; Zhang, N.
2016-07-01
Magnetoelectric (ME) coupling by acoustic waveguide was developed. Longitudinal and transversal ME effects of larger than 44 and 6 (V cm-1 Oe-1) were obtained with the waveguide-coupled ME device, respectively. Several resonant points were observed in the range of frequency lower than 47 kHz. Analysis showed that the standing waves in the waveguide were responsible for those resonances. The frequency and size dependence of the ME effects were investigated. A resonant condition about the geometrical size of the waveguide was obtained. Theory and experiments showed the resonant frequencies were closely influenced by the diameter and length of the waveguide. A series of double-peak curves of longitudinal magnetoelectric response were obtained, and their significance was discussed initially.
Surface acoustic wave stabilized oscillators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parker, T. E.
1978-01-01
A number of 401.2 MHz surface acoustic wave (SAW) controlled oscillators were built and tested. The performance of these oscillators was evaluated for possible use as stable oscillators in communication systems. A short term frequency stability of better than 1 x 10 to the minus 9th power for one second was measured for the SAW oscillators. Long term frequency drift was measured and was found to be dependent on SAW design and packaging. Drift rates ranging from 15 ppm in twenty weeks to 2.5 ppm in twenty weeks were observed. Some further improvement was required. The temperature dependence of the saw oscillators was evaluated and it was concluded that some form of temperature compensation will be necessary to meet the requirements of some communication systems.
Surface acoustic wave stabilized oscillators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parker, T. E.; Lee, D. L.; Leja, I.
1979-01-01
Four areas of surface acoustic wave (SAW) controlled oscillators were investigated and a number of 401.2 MHz oscillators were constructed that showed improved performance. Aging studies on SAW devices packaged in HC36/U cold weld enclosures produced frequency drifts as low as 0.4 ppm in 35 weeks and drift rates well under 0.5 ppm/year. Temperature compensation circuits have substantially improved oscillator temperature stability, with a deviation of + or - 4 ppm observed over the range -45 C to + 40 C. High efficiency amplifiers were constructed for SAW oscillators and a dc to RF efficiency of 44 percent was obtained for an RF output of 25 mW. Shock and vibration tests were made on four oscillators and all survived 500 G shock pulses unchanged. Only when white noise vibration (20 Hz to 2000 Hz) levels of 20 G's rms were applied did some of the devices fail.
Swimming Using Surface Acoustic Waves
Bourquin, Yannyk; Cooper, Jonathan M.
2013-01-01
Microactuation of free standing objects in fluids is currently dominated by the rotary propeller, giving rise to a range of potential applications in the military, aeronautic and biomedical fields. Previously, surface acoustic waves (SAWs) have been shown to be of increasing interest in the field of microfluidics, where the refraction of a SAW into a drop of fluid creates a convective flow, a phenomenon generally known as SAW streaming. We now show how SAWs, generated at microelectronic devices, can be used as an efficient method of propulsion actuated by localised fluid streaming. The direction of the force arising from such streaming is optimal when the devices are maintained at the Rayleigh angle. The technique provides propulsion without any moving parts, and, due to the inherent design of the SAW transducer, enables simple control of the direction of travel. PMID:23431358
Nonlinear positron-acoustic waves in fully relativistic degenerate plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hossen, M. A.; Mamun, A. A.
2016-03-01
The nonlinear positron-acoustic (PA) waves propagating in a fully relativistic electron-positron-ion (EPI) plasma (containing degenerate electrons and positrons, and immobile heavy ions) have been theoretically investigated. A fully relativistic hydrodynamic model, which is consistent with the relativistic principle has been used, and the reductive perturbation method is employed to derive the dynamical Korteweg-de Vries equation. The dynamics of electrons as well as positrons, and the presence of immobile heavy ions are taken into account. It is found that the effects of relativistic degeneracy of electrons and positrons, static heavy ions, plasma particles velocity, enthalpy, etc have significantly modified the basic properties of the PA solitary waves propagating in the fully relativistic EPI plasmas. The application of the results of our present work in astrophysical compact objects such as white dwarfs and neutron stars, etc are briefly discussed.
Oba, Roger; Finette, Steven
2002-02-01
Results of a computer simulation study are presented for acoustic propagation in a shallow water, anisotropic ocean environment. The water column is characterized by random volume fluctuations in the sound speed field that are induced by internal gravity waves, and this variability is superimposed on a dominant summer thermocline. Both the internal wave field and resulting sound speed perturbations are represented in three-dimensional (3D) space and evolve in time. The isopycnal displacements consist of two components: a spatially diffuse, horizontally isotropic component and a spatially localized contribution from an undular bore (i.e., a solitary wave packet or solibore) that exhibits horizontal (azimuthal) anisotropy. An acoustic field is propagated through this waveguide using a 3D parabolic equation code based on differential operators representing wide-angle coverage in elevation and narrow-angle coverage in azimuth. Transmission loss is evaluated both for fixed time snapshots of the environment and as a function of time over an ordered set of snapshots which represent the time-evolving sound speed distribution. Horizontal acoustic coherence, also known as transverse or cross-range coherence, is estimated for horizontally separated points in the direction normal to the source-receiver orientation. Both transmission loss and spatial coherence are computed at acoustic frequencies 200 and 400 Hz for ranges extending to 10 km, a cross-range of 1 km, and a water depth of 68 m. Azimuthal filtering of the propagated field occurs for this environment, with the strongest variations appearing when propagation is parallel to the solitary wave depressions of the thermocline. A large anisotropic degradation in horizontal coherence occurs under the same conditions. Horizontal refraction of the acoustic wave front is responsible for the degradation, as demonstrated by an energy gradient analysis of in-plane and out-of-plane energy transfer. The solitary wave packet is
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oba, Roger; Finette, Steven
2002-02-01
Results of a computer simulation study are presented for acoustic propagation in a shallow water, anisotropic ocean environment. The water column is characterized by random volume fluctuations in the sound speed field that are induced by internal gravity waves, and this variability is superimposed on a dominant summer thermocline. Both the internal wave field and resulting sound speed perturbations are represented in three-dimensional (3D) space and evolve in time. The isopycnal displacements consist of two components: a spatially diffuse, horizontally isotropic component and a spatially localized contribution from an undular bore (i.e., a solitary wave packet or solibore) that exhibits horizontal (azimuthal) anisotropy. An acoustic field is propagated through this waveguide using a 3D parabolic equation code based on differential operators representing wide-angle coverage in elevation and narrow-angle coverage in azimuth. Transmission loss is evaluated both for fixed time snapshots of the environment and as a function of time over an ordered set of snapshots which represent the time-evolving sound speed distribution. Horizontal acoustic coherence, also known as transverse or cross-range coherence, is estimated for horizontally separated points in the direction normal to the source-receiver orientation. Both transmission loss and spatial coherence are computed at acoustic frequencies 200 and 400 Hz for ranges extending to 10 km, a cross-range of 1 km, and a water depth of 68 m. Azimuthal filtering of the propagated field occurs for this environment, with the strongest variations appearing when propagation is parallel to the solitary wave depressions of the thermocline. A large anisotropic degradation in horizontal coherence occurs under the same conditions. Horizontal refraction of the acoustic wave front is responsible for the degradation, as demonstrated by an energy gradient analysis of in-plane and out-of-plane energy transfer. The solitary wave packet is
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Satyavir; Bharuthram, Ramashwar
2016-07-01
Small amplitude electron acoustic solitary waves are studied in a magnetized plasma consisting of hot electrons following Cairn's type non-thermal distribution function and fluid cool electrons, cool ions and an electron beam. Using reductive perturbation technique, the Korteweg-de-Vries-Zakharov-Kuznetsov (KdV-ZK) equation is derived to describe the nonlinear evolution of electron acoustic waves. It is observed that the presence of non-thermal electrons plays an important role in determining the existence region of solitary wave structures. Theoretical results of this work is used to model the electrostatic solitary structures observed by Viking satellite. Detailed investigation of physical parameters such as non-thermality of hot electrons, beam electron velocity and temperature, obliquity on the existence regime of solitons will be discussed.
The propagation of a solitary wave over seabed mud of the Voigt model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, YueZhang; Zhu, KeQin
2012-01-01
In shallow water, seabed mud can dissipate the energy of surface gravity waves effectively. In this paper, solitary wave attenuation induced by seabed mud is studied based on a two-layered system, in which the water is assumed to be inviscid and the mud layer is described by the Voigt model. A set of Boussinesq-type equations suitable for solitary waves over the mud of the Voigt model is established, by combining the perturbation analysis and the Laplace transformation. Degenerating into the case of Newtonian model, our Boussinesq-type equations are equivalent to those of Liu and Chan (2007), while the term indicating mud influence is greatly simplified. Based on the equations, the attenuation of solitary waves is studied. An evolution equation of wave amplitude is obtained and the development of mud velocity profiles is discussed. The modal analysis shows that the first mode always dominates mud dynamics. The results are also compared with those of the Maxwell model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saha, Asit; Pal, Nikhil; Saha, Tapash; Ghorui, M. K.; Chatterjee, Prasanta
2016-06-01
Bifurcations and chaotic behaviors of dust acoustic traveling waves in magnetoplasmas with nonthermal ions featuring Cairns-Tsallis distribution is investigated on the framework of the further modified Kadomtsev-Petviashili (FMKP) equation. The FMKP equation is derived employing the reductive perturbation technique (RPT). Bifurcations of dust acoustic traveling waves of the FMKP equation is presented. Using the bifurcation theory of planar dynamical systems, two new analytical traveling wave solutions for solitary and periodic waves are derived depending on the parameters α , α _1, q, l and U. Considering an external periodic perturbation, the chaotic behavior of dust acoustic traveling waves is investigated through quasiperiodic route to chaos. The parameter q significantly affects the chaotic behavior of the perturbed FMKP equation.
Head-on collision of large amplitude internal solitary waves of the first mode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Terletska, Kateryna; Maderich, Vladimir; Brovchenko, Igor; Jung, Kyung Tae; Talipova, Tatiana
2016-04-01
The dynamics and energetics of a frontal collision of internal solitary waves of depression and elevation of moderate and large amplitudes propagating in a two-layer stratified fluid are studied numerically in frame of the Navier-Stokes equations. It was considered symmetric and asymmetric head-on collisions. We propose the dimensionless characteristic of the wave collision ξ that is the ratio of the wave steepnesses. Wave runup normalized on the amplitude of incoming wave as function of the waves steepness is proposed. Interval 0<ξ<1 corresponds to the smaller wave in the case of asymmetric collision, ξ=1 correspond to the symmetric collision and ξ>1 corresponds to the larger wave in the case of asymmetric collision. Results of modeling were compared with the results of laboratory experiments [1]. It was shown that the frontal collision of internal solitary waves of moderate amplitude leads to a small phase shift and to the generation of dispersive wavetrain trailing behind transmitted solitary wave. The phase shift grows with increasing amplitudes of the interacting waves and approaches the limiting value when amplitudes of the waves are equal to the upper/lower layer for waves of depression/elevation. The deviation of the maximum wave height during collision from the twice the amplitude are maximal when wave amplitudes are equal to the upper/lower layer for waves of depression/elevation, then it decays with growth of amplitudes of interacting waves. It was found that the interaction of waves of large amplitude leads to the shear instability and the formation of Kelvin - Helmholtz vortices in the interface layer, however, subsequently waves again become stable. References [1] R.-C. Hsu, M. H. Cheng, C.-Y. Chen, Potential hazards and dynamical analysis of interfacial solitary wave interactions. Nat Hazards. 65 (2013) 255-278
Nonlinear theory of ion-acoustic waves in an electron-positron-ion plasma
Dubinov, A. E.; Sazonkin, M. A.
2009-01-15
An analytical nonlinear gasdynamic theory of ion-acoustic waves in an e-p-i plasma is developed for the case in which all the plasma components in the wave undergo polytropic compression and rarefaction. An exact solution to the basic equations is found and analyzed by the Bernoulli pseudopotential method. The parameter range in which periodic waves can propagate and the range in which solitary waves (solitons) exist are determined. It is shown that the propagation velocity of a solitary is always higher than the linear ion sound velocity. The profiles of all the physical quantities in both subsonic and supersonic waves are calculated. The results obtained agree well with both the data from other papers and particular limiting cases.
Large amplitude solitary waves in ion-beam plasmas with charged dust impurities
Misra, A. P.; Adhikary, N. C.
2011-12-15
The nonlinear propagation of large amplitude dust ion-acoustic (DIA) solitary waves (SWs) in an ion-beam plasma with stationary charged dusts is investigated. For typical plasma parameters relevant for experiments [Y. Nakamura and K. Komatsuda, J. Plasma Phys. 60, 69 (1998)], when the beam speed is larger than the DIA speed ({nu}{sub b0} > or approx. 1.7c{sub s}), three stable waves, namely, the ''fast'' and ''slow'' ion-beam modes and the plasma DIA wave, are shown to exist. These modes can propagate as SWs in the beam plasmas. However, in the other regime (c{sub s} < {nu}{sub b0} < 1.7c{sub s}), one of the beam modes when coupled to the DIA mode may become unstable. The SWs with positive (negative) potential may exist when the difference of the nonlinear wave speed (M) and the beam speed is such that 1.2 < or approx. M - {nu}{sub b0} < or approx. 1.6 (M - {nu}{sub b0} > or approx. 1.6). Furthermore, for real density perturbations, the wave potential ( > 0) is found to be limited by a critical value which typically depends on M, {nu}{sub b0} as well as the ion/beam temperature. The conditions for the existence of DIA solitons are obtained, and their properties are analyzed numerically in terms of the system parameters. While the system supports both the compressive and rarefactive large amplitude SWs, the small amplitude solitons exist only of the compressive type. The theoretical results may be useful for observation of soliton excitations in laboratory ion-beam driven plasmas as well as in space plasmas where the charged dusts play as impurities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Dong-Ning; Qi, Xin; Hong, Xue-Ren; Yang, Xue; Duan, Wen-Shan; Yang, Lei; Yang
2014-06-01
Numerical and theoretical investigations are carried out for the stability of the dust acoustic waves (DAWs) under the transverse perturbation in a two-ion temperature magnetized and collisionless dusty plasma. The Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation, modified ZK equation, and Extended ZK (EZK) equation of the DAWs are given by using the reductive perturbation technique. The cut-off frequency is obtained by applying higher-order transverse perturbations to the soliton solution of the EZK equation. The propagation velocity of solitary waves, the real cut-off frequency, as well as the growth rate of the higher-order perturbation to the solitary wave are obtained.
Surface acoustic wave dust deposition monitor
Fasching, G.E.; Smith, N.S. Jr.
1988-02-12
A system is disclosed for using the attenuation of surface acoustic waves to monitor real time dust deposition rates on surfaces. The system includes a signal generator, a tone-burst generator/amplifier connected to a transmitting transducer for converting electrical signals into acoustic waves. These waves are transmitted through a path defining means adjacent to a layer of dust and then, in turn, transmitted to a receiving transducer for changing the attenuated acoustic wave to electrical signals. The signals representing the attenuated acoustic waves may be amplified and used in a means for analyzing the output signals to produce an output indicative of the dust deposition rates and/or values of dust in the layer. 8 figs.
RANS-VOF solver for solitary wave run-up on a circular cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Hong-jian; Wan, De-cheng
2015-04-01
Simulation of solitary wave run-up on a vertical circular cylinder is carried out in a viscous numerical wave tank developed based on the open source codes OpenFOAM. An incompressible two-phase flow solver naoe-FOAM-SJTU is used to solve the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with the SST k- ω turbulence model. The PISO algorithm is utilized for the pressure-velocity coupling. The air-water interface is captured via Volume of Fluid (VOF) technique. The present numerical model is validated by simulating the solitary wave run-up and reflected against a vertical wall, and solitary wave run-up on a vertical circular cylinder. Comparisons between numerical results and available experimental data show satisfactory agreement. Furthermore, simulations are carried out to study the solitary wave run-up on the cylinder with different incident wave height H and different cylinder radius a. The relationships of the wave run-up height with the incident wave height H, cylinder radius a are analyzed. The evolutions of the scattering free surface and vortex shedding are also presented to give a better understanding of the process of nonlinear wave-cylinder interaction.
Influence of ionization on reflection of solitary waves in a magnetized plasma
Jyoti,; Malik, Hitendra K.; Kumar, Ravinder; Dahiya, Raj P.
2013-09-15
The reflection of nonlinear solitary waves is studied in a nonuniform, magnetized plasma diffusing from an ionization source along the magnetic field lines. Contribution of the ionization term is included in the continuity equation. The behavior of solitary waves is governed by modified form of Korteweg–de Vries equation (called mKdV equation). In order to investigate the reflection of solitary waves, the mKdV equations for the right and left going waves are derived, and solved by finding new transformations coupled at the point of reflection, for obtaining the expression of reflection coefficient. Contrary to the case of usual inhomogeneous plasma, the present analysis shows that a combination of usual sech{sup 2} structure and tanh structure (called the tail of soliton) arises due to the influence of ionization term. Interestingly, this tailing structure disappears after the reflection of the soliton and hence, the soliton is downshifted prominently.
Bulk strain solitary waves in bonded layered polymeric bars with delamination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dreiden, G. V.; Khusnutdinova, K. R.; Samsonov, A. M.; Semenova, I. V.
2012-09-01
We report the registration of delamination induced variations in the dynamics of bulk strain solitary waves in layered polymeric bars with the glassy and rubber-like adhesives, for the layers made of the same material. The key phenomenon in a layered structure with the glassy bonding is the delamination caused fission of a single incident soliton into a wave train of solitons, with the detectable increase in the amplitude of the leading solitary wave. The significant feature of bulk strain solitons in structures bonded with the rubber-like adhesive is the generation of radiating solitary waves, whilst co-propagating ripples disappear in the delaminated area. The observed variations may be used for the detection of delamination in lengthy layered structures.
Numerical simulations of the local generation of internal solitary waves in the Bay of Biscay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grisouard, N.; Staquet, C.
2010-10-01
Oceanic observations from the Bay of Biscay, Portugal, Mozambique Channel and Mascarene Ridge have provided evidence of the generation of internal solitary waves due to an internal tidal beam impinging on the thermocline from below - a process referred to as "local generation". Here we present two-dimensional numerical simulations with a fully nonlinear nonhydrostatic model of situations that are relevant for the Bay of Biscay in summer. We show that a beam impinging on a thermocline initially at rest can induce a displacement of the isopycnals, large enough for internal solitary waves to be generated. These internal solitary waves however differ from those observed in the Bay of Biscay through their amplitude and distance between wave trains. We then show that the latter feature is recovered when the background flow around the thermocline as found in the Bay of Biscay is included in the forcing, thereby yielding a more accurate view on the local generation mechanism.
Analysis of solitary wave impulses in granular chains using ultrasonic excitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, J.; Hutchins, D. A.; Akanji, O.; Thomas, P. J.; Davis, L. A. J.; Harput, S.; Gelat, P.; Freear, S.; Saffari, N.
2016-06-01
The propagation of broad bandwidth solitary wave impulses, generated within granular chains by narrow bandwidth ultrasonic excitation, is studied in detail. Theoretical predictions are compared to experimental results. It is demonstrated that the observed effects result from a sum of a solitary wave traveling out from the source with a wave that reflects from the far end of the chain. It is shown that this combination, when used with an excitation in the form of a long-duration tone burst, encourages the generation of multiple impulses with a characteristic periodicity. This study shows that the properties of the chain structure and the excitation can be adjusted so as to generate ultrasonic solitary wave impulses with a high amplitude and known frequency content, which are of interest in applications such as biomedical ultrasound.
Chromospheric heating by acoustic shock waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jordan, Stuart D.
1993-01-01
Work by Anderson & Athay (1989) suggests that the mechanical energy required to heat the quiet solar chromosphere might be due to the dissipation of weak acoustic shocks. The calculations reported here demonstrate that a simple picture of chromospheric shock heating by acoustic waves propagating upward through a model solar atmosphere, free of both magnetic fields and local inhomogeneities, cannot reproduce their chromospheric model. The primary reason is the tendency for vertically propagating acoustic waves in the range of allowed periods to dissipate too low in the atmosphere, providing insufficient residual energy for the middle chromosphere. The effect of diverging magnetic fields and the corresponding expanding acoustic wavefronts on the mechanical dissipation length is then discussed as a means of preserving a quasi-acoustic heating hypothesis. It is argued that this effect, in a canopy that overlies the low chromosphere, might preserve the acoustic shock hypothesis consistent with the chromospheric radiation losses computed by Anderson & Athay.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beyer, Robert
1981-01-01
Surveys 50 years of acoustical studies by discussing selected topics including the ear, nonlinear representations, underwater sound, acoustical diagnostics, absorption, electrolytes, phonons, magnetic interaction, and superfluidity and the five sounds. (JN)
Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device
Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady, Ihab F.; McCormick, Frederick; Fleming, James G.; Fleming, Carol
2010-06-08
A microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device comprises a periodic two-dimensional array of scatterers embedded within the matrix material membrane, wherein the scatterer material has a density and/or elastic constant that is different than the matrix material and wherein the periodicity of the array causes destructive interference of the acoustic wave within an acoustic bandgap. The membrane can be suspended above a substrate by an air or vacuum gap to provide acoustic isolation from the substrate. The device can be fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. Such microfabricated bulk wave phononic bandgap devices are useful for acoustic isolation in the ultrasonic, VHF, or UHF regime (i.e., frequencies of order 1 MHz to 10 GHz and higher, and lattice constants of order 100 .mu.m or less).
Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device
Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady, Ihab F.; McCormick, Frederick; Fleming, James G.; Fleming, legal representative, Carol
2010-11-23
A microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device comprises a periodic two-dimensional array of scatterers embedded within the matrix material membrane, wherein the scatterer material has a density and/or elastic constant that is different than the matrix material and wherein the periodicity of the array causes destructive interference of the acoustic wave within an acoustic bandgap. The membrane can be suspended above a substrate by an air or vacuum gap to provide acoustic isolation from the substrate. The device can be fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. Such microfabricated bulk wave phononic bandgap devices are useful for acoustic isolation in the ultrasonic, VHF, or UHF regime (i.e., frequencies of order 1 MHz to 10 GHz and higher, and lattice constants of order 100 .mu.m or less).
New Travelling Solitary Wave and Periodic Solutions of the Generalized Kawahara Equation
Chen Huaitang; Yin Huicheng
2007-09-06
A simple elliptic equation method is used for constructing exact trevelling wave solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations(PDEs) in a unified way. With the aid of Maple, more new travelling solitary wave and periodic solutions are obtained for the generalized Kawahara equation.
Altitude distributions of upward flowing ion beams and solitary wave structures in the Viking data
Maelkki, A.; Lundin, R.
1994-10-01
The authors present a study of correlations between accelerated ion beam structures in the auroral zones, and the appearance of solitary waves, or weak double layers. The data is studied as a function of altitude in the stratosphere. They observe a clear correlation between the wave structures and the accelerated ion beams. They discuss several possible interpretations of this correlation.
On the resonant generation of breaking, mode-2 solitary-like waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stastna, M.; Peltier, R.
2004-05-01
The weakly nonlinear theory of the resonant generation of internal solitary waves by temporally varying background currents over small amplitude topography (i.e as recently discussed by Wang and Redekopp, Dyn. Atm. Oceans, vol. 33, pg. 263) shows no preference for mode-1 waves over higher mode waves. In this talk we discuss numerical modeling efforts we have undertaken to resonantly generate mode-2 solitary-like waves. After briefly reviewing the reasons why mode-2 waves cannot, in general, be truly solitary we show examples of mode-2 wave generation for a stratification typical of the coastal ocean. We demonstrate that for certain physically reasonable situations the energy lost to a mode-1 tail is of secondary importance, when compared to the changes in the wave shape due to the existence of a highly active core. We discuss diagnostics based on weakly nonlinear theory that can be employed to diagnose whether a given situation (stratification and background current) can reasonably be expected to yield resonantly generated mode-2 solitary-like waves.
Linear stability of multiple internal solitary waves in fluids of great depth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuno, Y.; Kaup, D. J.
1997-02-01
The linear stability of the multiple solitary wave solution of the Benjamin-Ono (BO) equation is studied analytically. By establishing the completeness relation for the eigenfunctions of the BO equation linearized about multisoliton solutions, we solve the initial value problem for this system. We find that the wave under consideration is stable against infinitesimal perturbations.
Solitary and periodic wave solutions of the Majda-Biello system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adem, Abdullahi Rashid
2016-05-01
In this paper, we present the exact solutions of the Majda-Biello system. This system describes the nonlinear interaction of long-wavelength equatorial Rossby waves and barotropic Rossby waves with a substantial midlatitude projection, in the presence of suitable horizontally and vertically sheared zonal mean flows. The methods used to construct the exact solutions are the Kudryashov method and Jacobi elliptic function method. These two methods yield solitary wave solutions and periodic wave solutions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hussain, S.; Ali Shan, S.; Akhtar, N.; Masud, M. M.
2014-08-01
A rigorous theoretical investigation is carried out in analyzing the excitation of electrostatic ion acoustic (IA) solitary wave (SW) structures in two dimensional negative ion magneto-plasmas with superthermal electrons (following κ type distribution). The Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation is derived by employing the well known reductive perturbation method, and the analytical solution of ZK equation assists to find out the SW profiles along with their properties. The consequences of different plasma parameters (regarding our considered plasma system) variation on SW structures has been studied. It is found that magnetic field intensity, superthermal parameter κ and temperature of positive and negative ions as well as their densities significantly modify the basic characteristics (amplitude, width, etc.) of the SW waves. A comparison of the SW structures is also presented when the electrons are Maxwellian to when they are superthermal. The relevance of the findings of this work with astrophysical plasmas is briefly pointed out.
Dynamic Motions of Ion Acoustic Waves in Plasmas with Superthermal Electrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saha, Asit; Chatterjee, Prasanta; Wong, C. S.
2015-12-01
The dynamic motions of ion acoustic waves an unmagnetized plasma with superthermal ( q-nonextensive) electrons are investigated employing the bifurcation theory of planar dynamical systems through direct approach. Using traveling wave transformation and initial conditions, basic equations are transformed to a planar dynamical system. Using numerical computations, all possible phase portraits of the dynamical system are presented. Corresponding to homoclinic and periodic orbits of the phase portraits, two new analytical forms of solitary and periodic wave solutions are derived depending on the nonextensive parameter q and speed v of the traveling wave. Considering an external periodic perturbation, the quasiperiodic and chaotic motions of ion acoustic waves are presented. Depending upon different ranges of nonextensive parameter q, the effect of q is shown on quasiperiodic and chaotic motions of ion acoustic waves with fixed value of v. It is seen that the unperturbed dynamical system has the solitary and periodic wave solutions, but the perturbed dynamical system has the quasiperiodic and chaotic motions with same values of parameters q and v.
DNS prediction of the properties of solitary waves running down a vertically falling film
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, P.-K.; Bontozoglou, V.; Chakraborty, S.; Ruyer-Quil, C.
2011-11-01
The present work computes the properties of stationary, traveling wave by solving the Navier-Stokes equation using the Galerkin finite element method. Solitary-like waves are derived by considering a long enough computational domain and necessarily a strong mesh refinement in the vicinity of the solitary wave in order that the properties of the wave converge asymptotically to the true solitary limit. The solitary wave can be characterized by its maximum height, and phase speed in terms of the modified Reynolds number, δ =3 4 / 3 Re 11 / 9 Ka - 1 / 3 . Both the wave height and the phase speed curves exhibit inflection points in the transition region, then maxima at intermediate values of δ, and finally a drop to a plateau at high enough δ. These are unique characteristics of the full second-order model by Ruyer-Quil and Manneville. In particular, the behavior deep in high δ limit shows that (i) the phase speed tends asymptotically to a value almost unaffected by Ka , and (ii) the wave height increases roughly linearly with Ka , which underlines the stabilizing effect of viscous diffusion at low Kapitsa numbers. Research partially supported by the EU/FP7-ITN-MULTIFLOW.
Quantum corrections to nonlinear ion acoustic wave with Landau damping
Mukherjee, Abhik; Janaki, M. S.; Bose, Anirban
2014-07-15
Quantum corrections to nonlinear ion acoustic wave with Landau damping have been computed using Wigner equation approach. The dynamical equation governing the time development of nonlinear ion acoustic wave with semiclassical quantum corrections is shown to have the form of higher KdV equation which has higher order nonlinear terms coming from quantum corrections, with the usual classical and quantum corrected Landau damping integral terms. The conservation of total number of ions is shown from the evolution equation. The decay rate of KdV solitary wave amplitude due to the presence of Landau damping terms has been calculated assuming the Landau damping parameter α{sub 1}=√(m{sub e}/m{sub i}) to be of the same order of the quantum parameter Q=ℏ{sup 2}/(24m{sup 2}c{sub s}{sup 2}L{sup 2}). The amplitude is shown to decay very slowly with time as determined by the quantum factor Q.
Damping Solitary Wave in a Three-Dimensional Rectangular Geometry Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Yanqiu; Li, Gun; Duan, Wenshan
2016-02-01
The solitary waves of a viscous plasma confined in a cuboid under the three types of boundary condition are theoretically investigated in the present paper. By introducing a three-dimensional rectangular geometry and employing the reductive perturbation theory, a quasi-KdV equation is derived in the viscous plasma and a damping solitary wave is obtained. It is found that the damping rate increases as the viscosity coefficient increases, or increases as the length and width of the rectangle decrease, for all kinds of boundary condition. Nevertheless, the magnitude of the damping rate is dominated by the types of boundary condition. We thus observe the existence of a damping solitary wave from the fact that its amplitude disappears rapidly for a → 0 and b → 0, or v‧ → + ∞. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 91026005, 11275156, 11047010, 61162017)
A mechanical analog of the two-bounce resonance of solitary waves: Modeling and experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goodman, Roy H.; Rahman, Aminur; Bellanich, Michael J.; Morrison, Catherine N.
2015-04-01
We describe a simple mechanical system, a ball rolling along a specially-designed landscape, which mimics the well-known two-bounce resonance in solitary wave collisions, a phenomenon that has been seen in countless numerical simulations but never in the laboratory. We provide a brief history of the solitary wave problem, stressing the fundamental role collective-coordinate models played in understanding this phenomenon. We derive the equations governing the motion of a point particle confined to such a surface and then design a surface on which to roll the ball, such that its motion will evolve under the same equations that approximately govern solitary wave collisions. We report on physical experiments, carried out in an undergraduate applied mathematics course, that seem to exhibit the two-bounce resonance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kodaira, Tsubasa; Waseda, Takuji
2013-04-01
We have conducted ADCP and CTD measurements from 31/8/2010 to 2/9/2010 at the Miyake Island, located approximately 180 km south of Tokyo. The Kuroshio Current approached the island in this period, and the PALSAR image showed parabolic bright line upstream of the island. This bright line may be a surface signature of large amplitude internal solitary wave. Although our measurements did not explicitly show evidence of the internal solitary wave, critical condition might have been satisfied because of the Kuroshio Current and strong seasonal thermocline. To discover the generation mechanism of the large amplitude internal solitary wave at the Miyake Island, we have conducted non-hydrostatic numerical simulation with the MITgcm. A simple box domain, with open boundaries at all sides, is used. The island is simplified to circular cylinder or Gaussian Bell whose radius is 3km at ocean surface level. The size of the domain is 40kmx40kmx500m for circular cylinder cases and 80kmx80kmx500m for Gaussian bell cases. By looking at our CTD data, we have chosen for initial and boundary conditions a tanh function for vertical temperature profile. Salinity was kept constant for simplicity. Vertical density profile is also described by tanh function because we adopt linear type of equation of state. Vertical velocity profile is constant or linearly changed with depth; the vertical mean speed corresponds to the linear phase speed of the first baroclinic mode obtained by solving the eigen-value problem. With these configurations, we have conducted two series of simulations: shear flow through cylinder and uniform flow going through Gaussian Bell topography. Internal solitary waves were generated in front of the cylinder for the first series of simulations with shear flow. The generated internal waves almost purely consisted of 1st baroclinic component. Their intensities were linearly related with upstream vertical shear strength. As the internal solitary wave became larger, its width
Writing magnetic patterns with surface acoustic waves
Li, Weiyang; Buford, Benjamin; Jander, Albrecht; Dhagat, Pallavi
2014-05-07
A novel patterning technique that creates magnetization patterns in a continuous magnetostrictive film with surface acoustic waves is demonstrated. Patterns of 10 μm wide stripes of alternating magnetization and a 3 μm dot of reversed magnetization are written using standing and focusing acoustic waves, respectively. The magnetization pattern is size-tunable, erasable, and rewritable by changing the magnetic field and acoustic power. This versatility, along with its solid-state implementation (no moving parts) and electronic control, renders it as a promising technique for application in magnetic recording, magnonic signal processing, magnetic particle manipulation, and spatial magneto-optical modulation.
Collaborative Research: Dynamics of Electrostatic Solitary Waves on Current Layers
Pickett, Jolene S.
2012-10-31
The research carried out under the subject grant has provided insight into the generation of Electrostatic Solitary Waves (ESWs), which are nonlinear structures observed in space plasma data. These ESWs, appearing as pulses in the electric field time series data, represent the presence of several hundred meters to kilometer size positive potential structures, similar to champagne bubbles, where the electrons have been depleted, and which travel along Earth's magnetic field lines. The laboratory experiments carried out at the UCLA LAPD under the grant allowed us the opportunity to change various plasma and field conditions within the plasma device, and experiment with injection of suprathermal electron beams, in order to create ESWs. This then allowed us to determine the most likely method of generation of the ESWs. By comparing the properties of the ESWs observed in the LAPD to those observed in space and the plasma and field conditions under which those ESWs were observed in both locations, we were able to evaluate various ESW generation mechanisms. The findings of the laboratory experiments are that ESWs are generated through a lower hybrid instability. The ESWs observed in Earth's auroral current regions have similar characteristics to those generated by the laboratory when referenced to basic plasma and field characteristics, leading us to the conclusion that the lower hybrid drift instability is certainly a possibility for generation of the ESWs, at least in the auroral (northern/southern lights) regions. Due to space instrumentation insufficiencies and the limitations on telemetry, and thus poor time resolution, it is not possible to determine absolutely what generates these bubbles in space, but the laboratory experiments and supporting simulations have helped us to further our understanding of the processes under which they are generated. The public benefits from the findings of this research because the research is focused on current layers around Earth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Padhye, Nikhil Subhash
1998-12-01
Relabeling symmetries of the Lagranian action are found for the ideal, compressible fluid and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). These give rise to conservation laws of potential vorticity (Ertel's theorem) and helicity in the ideal fluid, cross helicity in MHD, and a conservation law for an ideal fluid with three thermodynamic variables. The symmetry that gives rise to Ertel's theorem is generated by an infinite parameter group, and leads to a generalized Bianchi identity. The existence of a more general symmetry is also shown, with dependence on time and space derivatives of the fields, and corresponds to a family of conservation laws associated with the potential vorticity. In the Hamiltonian formalism, Casimir invariants of the noncanonical formulation are directly constructed from the symmetries of the reduction map from Lagrangian to Eulerian variables. Casimir invariants of MHD include a gauge-dependent family of invariants that incorporates magnetic helicity as a special case. Novel examples of finite dimensional, noncanonical Hamiltonian dynamics are also presented: the equations for a magnetic field line flow with a symmetry direction, and Frenet formulas that describe a curve in 3-space. In the study of Lyapunov stability of ion-acoustic waves, existence of negative energy perturbations is found at short wavelengths. The effect of adiabatic, ionic pressure on ion-acoustic waves is investigated, leading to explicit solitary and nonlinear periodic wave solutions for the adiabatic exponent γ = 3. In particular, solitary waves are found to exist at any wave speed above Mach number one, without an upper cutoff speed. Negative energy perturbations are found to exist despite the addition of pressure, which prevents the establishment of Lyapunov stability, however the stability of ion-acoustic waves is established in the KdV limit, in a manner far simpler than the proof of KdV soliton stability. It is also shown that the KdV free energy (Benjamin, 1972) is recovered
Rehman, M. A.; Qureshi, M. N. S.; Shah, H. A.; Masood, W.
2015-10-15
Nonlinear circularly polarized Alfvén waves are studied in magnetized nonrelativistic, relativistic, and ultrarelativistic degenerate Fermi plasmas. Using the quantum hydrodynamic model, Zakharov equations are derived and the Sagdeev potential approach is used to investigate the properties of the electromagnetic solitary structures. It is seen that the amplitude increases with the increase of electron density in the relativistic and ultrarelativistic cases but decreases in the nonrelativistic case. Both right and left handed waves are considered, and it is seen that supersonic, subsonic, and super- and sub-Alfvénic solitary structures are obtained for different polarizations and under different relativistic regimes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kichigin, G. N.
2016-01-01
Solutions describing solitary fast magnetosonic (FMS) waves (FMS solitons) in cold magnetized plasma are obtained by numerically solving two-fluid hydrodynamic equations. The parameter domain within which steady-state solitary waves can propagate is determined. It is established that the Mach number for rarefaction FMS solitons is always less than unity. The restriction on the propagation velocity leads to the limitation on the amplitudes of the magnetic field components of rarefaction solitons. It is shown that, as the soliton propagates in plasma, the transverse component of its magnetic field rotates and makes a complete turn around the axis along which the soliton propagates.
Relativistic breather-type solitary waves with linear polarization in cold plasmas.
Sánchez-Arriaga, G; Siminos, E; Saxena, V; Kourakis, I
2015-03-01
Linearly polarized solitary waves, arising from the interaction of an intense laser pulse with a plasma, are investigated. Localized structures, in the form of exact numerical nonlinear solutions of the one-dimensional Maxwell-fluid model for a cold plasma with fixed ions, are presented. Unlike stationary circularly polarized solitary waves, the linear polarization gives rise to a breather-type behavior and a periodic exchange of electromagnetic energy and electron kinetic energy at twice the frequency of the wave. A numerical method based on a finite-differences scheme allows us to compute a branch of solutions within the frequency range Ωmin<Ω<ωpe, where ωpe and Ωmin are the electron plasma frequency and the frequency value for which the plasma density vanishes locally, respectively. A detailed description of the spatiotemporal structure of the waves and their main properties as a function of Ω is presented. Small-amplitude oscillations appearing in the tail of the solitary waves, a consequence of the linear polarization and harmonic excitation, are explained with the aid of the Akhiezer-Polovin system. Direct numerical simulations of the Maxwell-fluid model show that these solitary waves propagate without change for a long time. PMID:25871219
Tunable damper for an acoustic wave guide
Rogers, S.C.
1984-06-05
A damper for tunably damping acoustic waves in an ultrasonic waveguide is provided which may be used in a hostile environment such as a nuclear reactor. The area of the waveguide, which may be a selected size metal rod in which acoustic waves are to be damped, is wrapped, or surrounded, by a mass of stainless steel wool. The wool wrapped portion is then sandwiched between tuning plates, which may also be stainless steel, by means of clamping screws which may be adjusted to change the clamping force of the sandwiched assembly along the waveguide section. The plates are preformed along their length in a sinusoidally bent pattern with a period approximately equal to the acoustic wavelength which is to be damped. The bent pattern of the opposing plates are in phase along their length relative to their sinusoidal patterns so that as the clamping screws are tightened a bending stress is applied to the waveguide at 180/sup 0/ intervals along the damping section to oppose the acoustic wave motions in the waveguide and provide good coupling of the wool to the guide. The damper is tuned by selectively tightening the clamping screws while monitoring the amplitude of the acoustic waves launched in the waveguide. It may be selectively tuned to damp particular acoustic wave modes (torsional or extensional, for example) and/or frequencies while allowing others to pass unattenuated.
Tunable damper for an acoustic wave guide
Rogers, Samuel C.
1984-01-01
A damper for tunably damping acoustic waves in an ultrasonic waveguide is provided which may be used in a hostile environment such as a nuclear reactor. The area of the waveguide, which may be a selected size metal rod in which acoustic waves are to be damped, is wrapped, or surrounded, by a mass of stainless steel wool. The wool wrapped portion is then sandwiched between tuning plates, which may also be stainless steel, by means of clamping screws which may be adjusted to change the clamping force of the sandwiched assembly along the waveguide section. The plates are preformed along their length in a sinusoidally bent pattern with a period approximately equal to the acoustic wavelength which is to be damped. The bent pattern of the opposing plates are in phase along their length relative to their sinusoidal patterns so that as the clamping screws are tightened a bending stress is applied to the waveguide at 180.degree. intervals along the damping section to oppose the acoustic wave motions in the waveguide and provide good coupling of the wool to the guide. The damper is tuned by selectively tightening the clamping screws while monitoring the amplitude of the acoustic waves launched in the waveguide. It may be selectively tuned to damp particular acoustic wave modes (torsional or extensional, for example) and/or frequencies while allowing others to pass unattenuated.
Tunable damper for an acoustic wave guide
Rogers, S.C.
1982-10-21
A damper for tunably damping acoustic waves in an ultrasonic waveguide is provided which may be used in a hostile environment such as a nuclear reactor. The area of the waveguide, which may be a selected size metal rod in which acoustic waves are to be damped, is wrapped, or surrounded, by a mass of stainless steel wool. The wool wrapped portion is then sandwiched between tuning plates, which may also be stainless steel, by means of clamping screws which may be adjusted to change the clamping force of the sandwiched assembly along the waveguide section. The plates are preformed along their length in a sinusoidally bent pattern with a period approximately equal to the acoustic wavelength which is to be damped. The bent pattern of the opposing plates are in phase along their length relative to their sinusoidal patterns so that as the clamping screws are tightened a bending stress is applied to the waveguide at 180/sup 0/ intervals along the damping section to oppose the acoustic wave motions in the waveguide and provide good coupling of the wool to the guide. The damper is tuned by selectively tightening the clamping screws while monitoring the amplitude of the acoustic waves launched in the waveguide. It may be selectively tuned to damp particular acoustic wave modes (torsional or extensional, for example) and/or frequencies while allowing others to pass unattenuated.
El-Labany, S. K. Zedan, N. A.; El-Taibany, W. F. E-mail: eltaibany@du.edu.eg
2015-07-15
Cylindrical and spherical amplitude modulations of dust acoustic (DA) solitary wave envelopes in a strongly coupled dusty plasma containing nonthermal distributed ions are studied. Employing a reductive perturbation technique, a modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation including the geometrical effect is derived. The influences of nonthermal ions, polarization force, and the geometries on the modulational instability conditions are analyzed and the possible rogue wave structures are discussed in detail. It is found that the spherical DA waves are more structurally stable to perturbations than the cylindrical ones. Possible applications of these theoretical findings are briefly discussed.
El-Labany, S.K.; El-Shamy, E.F.
2005-04-15
The nonlinear properties of solitary waves structures in a hot magnetized dusty plasma consisting of isothermal hot electrons, nonisothermal ions, and high negatively charged massive dust grains are reported. A modified Korteweg-de Vries (modified KdV) equation, which admits a solitary waves solution, for small but finite amplitude, is derived using a reductive perturbation theory. A nonisothermal ion distribution provides the possibility of existence of rarefactive solitary waves. On the other hand, the dynamics of solitary waves at a critical ion density is governed by KdV equation. The modification in the amplitude and width of the solitary waves structures due to the inclusion of obliqueness and external magnetic field are also investigated.
Ion Acoustic Waves in Ultracold Neutral Plasmas
Castro, J.; McQuillen, P.; Killian, T. C.
2010-08-06
We photoionize laser-cooled atoms with a laser beam possessing spatially periodic intensity modulations to create ultracold neutral plasmas with controlled density perturbations. Laser-induced fluorescence imaging reveals that the density perturbations oscillate in space and time, and the dispersion relation of the oscillations matches that of ion acoustic waves, which are long-wavelength, electrostatic, density waves.
Ion acoustic shock waves in degenerate plasmas
Akhtar, N.; Hussain, S.
2011-07-15
Korteweg de Vries Burgers equation for negative ion degenerate dissipative plasma has been derived using reductive perturbation technique. The quantum hydrodynamic model is used to study the quantum ion acoustic shock waves. The effects of different parameters on quantum ion acoustic shock waves are studied. It is found that quantum parameter, electrons Fermi temperature, temperature of positive and negative ions, mass ratio of positive to negative ions, viscosity, and density ratio have significant impact on the shock wave structure in negative ion degenerate plasma.
A Comparative Study on Three Different Transducers for the Measurement of Nonlinear Solitary Waves
Ni, Xianglei; Cai, Luyao; Rizzo, Piervincenzo
2013-01-01
In the last decade there has been an increasing interest in the use of highly- and weakly- nonlinear solitary waves in engineering and physics. Nonlinear solitary waves can form and travel in nonlinear systems such as one-dimensional chains of particles, where they are conventionally generated by the mechanical impact of a striker and are measured either by using thin transducers embedded in between two half-particles or by a force sensor placed at the chain's base. These waves have a constant spatial wavelength and their speed, amplitude, and duration can be tuned by modifying the particles' material or size, or the velocity of the striker. In this paper we propose two alternative sensing configurations for the measurements of solitary waves propagating in a chain of spherical particles. One configuration uses piezo rods placed in the chain while the other exploits the magnetostrictive property of ferromagnetic materials. The accuracy of these two sensing systems on the measurement of the solitary wave's characteristics is assessed by comparing experimental data to the numerical prediction of a discrete particle model and to the experimental measurements obtained by means of a conventional transducer. The results show very good agreement and the advantages and limitations of the new sensors are discussed. PMID:23334611
Controlled formation and reflection of a bright solitary matter-wave
Marchant, A. L.; Billam, T. P.; Wiles, T. P.; Yu, M. M. H.; Gardiner, S. A.; Cornish, S. L.
2013-01-01
Bright solitons are non-dispersive wave solutions, arising in a diverse range of nonlinear, one-dimensional systems, including atomic Bose–Einstein condensates with attractive interactions. In reality, cold-atom experiments can only approach the idealized one-dimensional limit necessary for the realization of true solitons. Nevertheless, it remains possible to create bright solitary waves, the three-dimensional analogue of solitons, which maintain many of the key properties of their one-dimensional counterparts. Such solitary waves offer many potential applications and provide a rich testing ground for theoretical treatments of many-body quantum systems. Here we report the controlled formation of a bright solitary matter-wave from a Bose–Einstein condensate of 85Rb, which is observed to propagate over a distance of ∼1.1 mm in 150 ms with no observable dispersion. We demonstrate the reflection of a solitary wave from a repulsive Gaussian barrier and contrast this to the case of a repulsive condensate, in both cases finding excellent agreement with theoretical simulations using the three-dimensional Gross–Pitaevskii equation. PMID:23673650
Paul, A.; Mandal, G.; Amin, M. R.; Mamun, A. A.
2013-10-15
The nonlinear propagation of dust-acoustic (DA) waves in an unmagnetized dusty plasma consisting of nonthermal electrons, vortex-like (trapped) distributed ions and mobile negative dust have been investigated by employing the reductive perturbation technique. The effects of nonthermal electrons and trapped ions are found to modify the properties of the DA solitary waves.
Solitary waves and stable analysis for the quintic discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jinliang; Liu, Zhiguo; Li, Siwei; Wang, Mingliang
2012-07-01
The quintic discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (QDNLS) is an important model for describing the propagation of discrete self-trapped beams in an array of weakly coupled nonlinear optical waveguides. In this paper, the QDNLS is studied and bright solitons, dark solitons, alternating phase solitons, trigonometric function periodic wave solutions and rational wave solutions with arbitrary parameters are obtained using the extended G'/G-expansion method. The linear stability of the bright soliton, the dark soliton and the rational wave solution is analyzed using the perturbation method, and the conditions that stable solitary wave solutions satisfy are presented. The stable solitary wave solutions to the QDNLS are useful in understanding the complicated physical phenomena described by QDNLS.
Nonlinear ion-acoustic cnoidal waves in a dense relativistic degenerate magnetoplasma.
El-Shamy, E F
2015-03-01
The complex pattern and propagation characteristics of nonlinear periodic ion-acoustic waves, namely, ion-acoustic cnoidal waves, in a dense relativistic degenerate magnetoplasma consisting of relativistic degenerate electrons and nondegenerate cold ions are investigated. By means of the reductive perturbation method and appropriate boundary conditions for nonlinear periodic waves, a nonlinear modified Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is derived and its cnoidal wave is analyzed. The various solutions of nonlinear ion-acoustic cnoidal and solitary waves are presented numerically with the Sagdeev potential approach. The analytical solution and numerical simulation of nonlinear ion-acoustic cnoidal waves of the nonlinear modified KdV equation are studied. Clearly, it is found that the features (amplitude and width) of nonlinear ion-acoustic cnoidal waves are proportional to plasma number density, ion cyclotron frequency, and direction cosines. The numerical results are applied to high density astrophysical situations, such as in superdense white dwarfs. This research will be helpful in understanding the properties of compact astrophysical objects containing cold ions with relativistic degenerate electrons. PMID:25871222
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayata, K.; Koshiba, M.
1995-11-01
We show analytically that inclusion of contributions from third-order nonlinearities in a theoretical model for optical parametric interactions derived from second-order nonlinearities makes possible the prediction of various kinds of stationary solitary-wave solution. Specifically these waves consist of hyperbolic (bright and dark types), algebraic (bright and dark types), and kink/antikink types. In the limit of vanishing third-order nonlinearities the first solitary-wave family (hyperbolic type) is reduced to solitary waves already reported. Effects of dissipations including one- and two-photon absorption are discussed as well. Copyright (c) 1995 Optical Society of America
Non-linear solitary sound waves in lipid membranes and their possible role in biological signaling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shrivastava, Shamit
Biological macromolecules self-assemble under entropic forces to form a dynamic 2D interfacial medium where the elastic properties arise from the curvature of the entropic potential of the interface. Elastic interfaces should be capable of propagating localized perturbations analogous to sound waves. However, (1) the existence and (2) the possible role of such waves in affecting biological functions remain unexplored. Both these aspects of "sound" as a signaling mechanism in biology are explored experimentally on mixed monolayers of lipids-fluorophores-proteins at the air/water interface as a model biological interface. This study shows - for the first time - that the nonlinear susceptibility near a thermodynamic transition in a lipid monolayer results in nonlinear solitary sound waves that are of 'all or none' nature. The state dependence of the nonlinear propagation is characterized by studying the velocity-amplitude relationship and results on distance dependence, effect of geometry and collision of solitary waves are presented. Given that the lipid bilayers and real biological membranes have such nonlinearities in their susceptibility diagrams, similar solitary phenomenon should be expected in biological membranes. In fact the observed characteristics of solitary sound waves such as, their all or none nature, a biphasic pulse shape with a long tail and optp-mechano-electro-thermal coupling etc. are strikingly similar to the phenomenon of nerve pulse propagation as observed in single nerve fibers. Finally given the strong correlation between the activity of membrane bound enzymes and the susceptibility and the fact that the later varies within a single solitary pulse, a new thermodynamic basis for biological signaling is proposed. The state of the interface controls both the nature of sound propagation and its impact on incorporated enzymes and proteins. The proof of concept is demonstrated for acetylcholine esterase embedded in a lipid monolayer, where the
Stability of the solitary wave solutions to a coupled BBM system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Hongqiu; Wang, Xiaojun
2016-07-01
In this work, we present a stability criteria for the solitary wave solutions to a BBM system that contains coupled nonlinear terms. Using the idea by Bona, Chen and Karakashian [5] and exploiting the accurate point spectrum information of the associated Schrödinger operator, we improve the stability results previously gotten by Pereira [15].
Solitary waves in mixtures of Bose gases confined in annular traps
Smyrnakis, J.; Magiropoulos, M.; Kavoulakis, G. M.; Jackson, A. D.
2010-06-15
A two-component Bose-Einstein condensate that is confined in a one-dimensional ring potential supports solitary-wave solutions, which we evaluate analytically in the limit of a large ring. The derived solutions are shown to be unique. The corresponding dispersion relation that generalizes the case of a single-component system shows interesting features.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smyrnakis, J.; Magiropoulos, M.; Kavoulakis, G. M.; Jackson, A. D.
2013-01-01
We derive solitary-wave solutions within the mean-field approximation in quasi-one-dimensional binary mixtures of Bose-Einstein condensates under periodic boundary conditions, for the case of an effective repulsive interatomic interaction. The particular gray-bright solutions that give the global energy minima are determined. Their characteristics and the associated dispersion relation are derived.
Is DNA a nonlinear dynamical system where solitary conformational waves are possible?
Yakushevich, L V
2001-09-01
DNA is considered as a nonlinear dynamical system in which solitary conformational waves can be excited. The history of the approach, the main results, and arguments in favour and against are presented. Perspectives are discussed pertaining to studies of DNA's nonlinear properties. PMID:11568475
Exciton transport by surface acoustic waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rudolph, J.; Hey, R.; Santos, P. V.
2007-05-01
Long-range acoustic transport of excitons in GaAs quantum wells (QWs) is demonstrated. The mobile strain field of a surface acoustic wave creates a dynamic lateral type I modulation of the conduction and valence bands in a double-quantum-well (DQW) structure. This mobile potential modulation transports long-living indirect excitons in the DQW over several hundreds of μm.
Imaging of Acoustic Waves in Sand
Deason, Vance Albert; Telschow, Kenneth Louis; Watson, Scott Marshall
2003-08-01
There is considerable interest in detecting objects such as landmines shallowly buried in loose earth or sand. Various techniques involving microwave, acoustic, thermal and magnetic sensors have been used to detect such objects. Acoustic and microwave sensors have shown promise, especially if used together. In most cases, the sensor package is scanned over an area to eventually build up an image or map of anomalies. We are proposing an alternate, acoustic method that directly provides an image of acoustic waves in sand or soil, and their interaction with buried objects. The INEEL Laser Ultrasonic Camera utilizes dynamic holography within photorefractive recording materials. This permits one to image and demodulate acoustic waves on surfaces in real time, without scanning. A video image is produced where intensity is directly and linearly proportional to surface motion. Both specular and diffusely reflecting surfaces can be accomodated and surface motion as small as 0.1 nm can be quantitatively detected. This system was used to directly image acoustic surface waves in sand as well as in solid objects. Waves as frequencies of 16 kHz were generated using modified acoustic speakers. These waves were directed through sand toward partially buried objects. The sand container was not on a vibration isolation table, but sat on the lab floor. Interaction of wavefronts with buried objects showed reflection, diffraction and interference effects that could provide clues to location and characteristics of buried objects. Although results are preliminary, success in this effort suggests that this method could be applied to detection of buried landmines or other near-surface items such as pipes and tanks.
Self-induced transparency solitary waves in a doped nonlinear photonic band gap material
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aközbek, Neşet; John, Sajeev
1998-09-01
We derive the properties of self-induced transparency (SIT) solitary waves in a one-dimensional periodic structure doped uniformly with resonance two-level atoms. In our model, the electromagnetic field is treated classically and the dopant atoms are described quantum mechanically. The resulting solitary waves take the form of ultrashort (picosecond) laser pulses which propagate near the band edge of the nonlinear photonic band gap (PBG) material doped with rare-earth atoms such as erbium. Solitary wave formation involves the combined effects of group velocity dispersion (GVD), nonresonant Kerr nonlinearity, and resonant interaction with dopant atoms. We derive the general Maxwell-Bloch equations for a nonlinear PBG system and then demonstrate the existence of elementary solitary wave solutions for frequencies far outside the gap where GVD effects are negligible and for frequencies near the photonic band edge where GVD effects are crucial. We find two distinct new types of propagating SIT solitary wave pulses. Far from Bragg resonance, we recapture the usual McCall-Hahn soliton with hyperbolic secant profile when the nonlinear Kerr coefficient χ(3)=0. However, when the host nonresonant Kerr coefficient is nonzero, we obtain the first new type of soliton. In this case, the optical soliton envelope function deviates from the hyperbolic secant profile and pulse propagation requires nontrivial phase modulation (chirping). We derive the dependence of the solitary wave structure on the Kerr coefficient χ(3), the resonance impurity atom density, and the detuning of the average laser frequency from the atomic transition. When the laser frequency and the atomic transition frequencies are near the photonic band edge we obtain the second type of soliton. To illustrate the second type of soliton we consider two special cases. In the first case, GVD facilitates the propagation of an unchirped SIT-gap soliton moving at a velocity fixed by the material's parameters. The soliton
Topological charge pump by surface acoustic waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yi, Zheng; Shi-Ping, Feng; Shi-Jie, Yang
2016-06-01
Quantized electron pumping by the surface acoustic wave across barriers created by a sequence of split metal gates is interpreted from the viewpoint of topology. The surface acoustic wave serves as a one-dimensional periodical potential whose energy spectrum possesses the Bloch band structure. The time-dependent phase plays the role of an adiabatic parameter of the Hamiltonian which induces a geometrical phase. The pumping currents are related to the Chern numbers of the filled bands below the Fermi energy. Based on this understanding, we predict a novel effect of quantized but non-monotonous current plateaus simultaneously pumped by two homodromous surface acoustic waves. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11374036) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB821403).
Potential wells for classical acoustic waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Shi; Lin, ShuYu; Mo, RunYang; Fu, ZhiQiang
2014-01-01
The acceleration theorem of Bloch waves is utilized to construct random potential wells for classical acoustic waves in systems composed of alternating `cavities' and `couplers'. One prominent advantage of this method is these `cavities' and `couplers' are all monolayer structures. It allows forming more compact classical potential wells, which leads to the miniaturization of acoustic devices. We systematically investigate properties of harmonic, tangent, hyperbolic function, and square classical potential wells in quasi-periodic superlattices. Results show these classical potential wells are analogues of quantum potential wells. Thus some technologies and concepts in quantum potential well fields may be generalized to classical acoustic wave fields. In addition, some abnormal cases regarding forming classical potential wells are also found.
Active micromixer using surface acoustic wave streaming
Branch; Darren W. , Meyer; Grant D. , Craighead; Harold G.
2011-05-17
An active micromixer uses a surface acoustic wave, preferably a Rayleigh wave, propagating on a piezoelectric substrate to induce acoustic streaming in a fluid in a microfluidic channel. The surface acoustic wave can be generated by applying an RF excitation signal to at least one interdigital transducer on the piezoelectric substrate. The active micromixer can rapidly mix quiescent fluids or laminar streams in low Reynolds number flows. The active micromixer has no moving parts (other than the SAW transducer) and is, therefore, more reliable, less damaging to sensitive fluids, and less susceptible to fouling and channel clogging than other types of active and passive micromixers. The active micromixer is adaptable to a wide range of geometries, can be easily fabricated, and can be integrated in a microfluidic system, reducing dead volume. Finally, the active micromixer has on-demand on/off mixing capability and can be operated at low power.
Self-trapping of scalar and vector dipole solitary waves in Kerr media
Zhong Weiping; Belic, Milivoj R.; Assanto, Gaetano; Malomed, Boris A.; Huang Tingwen
2011-04-15
We report solutions for expanding dipole-type optical solitary waves in two-dimensional Kerr media with the self-focusing nonlinearity, using exact analytical (Hirota) and numerical methods. Such localized beams carry intrinsic vorticity and exhibit symmetric shapes for both scalar and vector solitary modes. When vector beams are close to the scalar limit, simulations demonstrate their stability over propagation distances exceeding 50 diffraction lengths. In fact, the continuous expansion helps the vortical beams avoid the instability against the splitting, collapse, or decay, making them 'convectively stable' patterns.
Phase-modulated solitary waves controlled by a boundary condition at the bottom.
Mukherjee, Abhik; Janaki, M S
2014-06-01
A forced Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is derived to describe weakly nonlinear, shallow-water surface wave propagation over nontrivial bottom boundary condition. We show that different functional forms of bottom boundary conditions self-consistently produce different forced KdV equations as the evolution equations for the free surface. Solitary wave solutions have been analytically obtained where phase gets modulated controlled by bottom boundary condition, whereas amplitude remains constant. PMID:25019847
Stable solitary waves in super dense plasmas at external magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghaani, Azam; Javidan, Kurosh; Sarbishaei, Mohsen
2015-07-01
Propagation of localized waves in a Fermi-Dirac distributed super dense matter at the presence of strong external magnetic fields is studied using the reductive perturbation method. We have shown that stable solitons can be created in such non-relativistic fluids in the presence of an external magnetic field. Such solitary waves are governed by the Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation. Properties of solitonic solutions are studied in media with different values of background mass density and strength of magnetic field.
Stability of the train of N solitary waves for the two-component Camassa-Holm shallow water system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xingxing
2016-06-01
Considered herein is the integrable two-component Camassa-Holm shallow water system derived in the context of shallow water theory, which admits blow-up solutions and the solitary waves interacting like solitons. Using modulation theory, and combining the almost monotonicity of a local version of energy with the argument on the stability of a single solitary wave, we prove that the train of N solitary waves, which are sufficiently decoupled, is orbitally stable in the energy space H1 (R) ×L2 (R).
Wave-Induced Pressure Under an Internal Solitary Wave and Its Impact at the Bed
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rivera, Gustavo; Diamesis, Peter; Jenkins, James; Berzi, Diego
2015-11-01
The bottom boundary layer (BBL) under a mode-1 internal solitary wave (ISW) of depression propagating against an oncoming model barotropic current is examined using 2-D direct numerical simulation based on a spectral multidomain penalty method model. Particular emphasis is placed on the diffusion into the bed of the pressure field driven by the wake and any near-bed instabilities produced under specific conditions. To this end, a spectral nodal Galerkin approach is used for solving the diffusion equation for the wave-induced pressure. At sufficiently high ISW amplitude, the BBL undergoes a global instability which produces intermittent vortex shedding from within the separation bubble in the lee of the wave. The interplay between the bottom shear stress field and pressure perturbations during vortex ejection events and the subsequent evolution of the vortices is examined. The potential for bed failure upon the passage of the ISW trough and implications for resuspension of bottom particulate matter are both discussed in the context of specific sediment transport models.
Linear and nonlinear heavy ion-acoustic waves in a strongly coupled plasma
Ema, S. A. Mamun, A. A.; Hossen, M. R.
2015-09-15
A theoretical study on the propagation of linear and nonlinear heavy ion-acoustic (HIA) waves in an unmagnetized, collisionless, strongly coupled plasma system has been carried out. The plasma system is assumed to contain adiabatic positively charged inertial heavy ion fluids, nonextensive distributed electrons, and Maxwellian light ions. The normal mode analysis is used to study the linear behaviour. On the other hand, the well-known reductive perturbation technique is used to derive the nonlinear dynamical equations, namely, Burgers equation and Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV) equation. They are also numerically analyzed in order to investigate the basic features of shock and solitary waves. The adiabatic effects on the HIA shock and solitary waves propagating in such a strongly coupled plasma are taken into account. It has been observed that the roles of the adiabatic positively charged heavy ions, nonextensivity of electrons, and other plasma parameters arised in this investigation have significantly modified the basic features (viz., polarity, amplitude, width, etc.) of the HIA solitary/shock waves. The findings of our results obtained from this theoretical investigation may be useful in understanding the linear as well as nonlinear phenomena associated with the HIA waves both in space and laboratory plasmas.
Linear and nonlinear heavy ion-acoustic waves in a strongly coupled plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ema, S. A.; Hossen, M. R.; Mamun, A. A.
2015-09-01
A theoretical study on the propagation of linear and nonlinear heavy ion-acoustic (HIA) waves in an unmagnetized, collisionless, strongly coupled plasma system has been carried out. The plasma system is assumed to contain adiabatic positively charged inertial heavy ion fluids, nonextensive distributed electrons, and Maxwellian light ions. The normal mode analysis is used to study the linear behaviour. On the other hand, the well-known reductive perturbation technique is used to derive the nonlinear dynamical equations, namely, Burgers equation and Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV) equation. They are also numerically analyzed in order to investigate the basic features of shock and solitary waves. The adiabatic effects on the HIA shock and solitary waves propagating in such a strongly coupled plasma are taken into account. It has been observed that the roles of the adiabatic positively charged heavy ions, nonextensivity of electrons, and other plasma parameters arised in this investigation have significantly modified the basic features (viz., polarity, amplitude, width, etc.) of the HIA solitary/shock waves. The findings of our results obtained from this theoretical investigation may be useful in understanding the linear as well as nonlinear phenomena associated with the HIA waves both in space and laboratory plasmas.
A centre manifold approach to solitary waves in a sheared, stably stratified fluid layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zimmerman, W. B.; Velarde, M. G.
The centre manifold approach is used to derive an approximate equation for nonlinear waves propagating in a sheared, stably stratified fluid layer. The evolution equation matches limiting forms derived by other methods, including the inviscid, long wave approximation leading to the Korteweg- deVries equation. The model given here allows large modulations of the height of the waveguide. This permits the crude modelling of shear layer instabilities at the upper material surface of the waveguide which excite solitary internal waves in the waveguide. An energy argument is used to support the existence of these waves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saha, Asit; Chatterjee, Prasanta
2015-11-01
The qualitative structures of electron-acoustic waves are investigated in an unmagnetized plasma containing cold electron fluid, q-nonextensive hot electrons and stationary ions. Applying the phase plane analysis, we present all phase portraits of the dynamical system and corresponding solitary- and periodic-wave solutions. Considering an external periodic perturbation, we study the chaotic structure of the perturbed dynamical system. The non-extensive parameter ( q), the ratio between hot electron and cold electron number density at equilibrium ( α) and speed of the traveling wave ( v) play crucial roles for electron-acoustic solitary, periodic and chaotic structures. The results may have relevance in laboratory plasmas as well as space plasma environments.
Acoustic waves superimposed on incompressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hodge, Steve
1990-01-01
The use of incompressible approximations in deriving solutions to the Lighthill wave equation was investigated for problems where an analytical solution could be found. A particular model problem involves the determination of the sound field of a spherical oscillating bubble in an ideal fluid. It is found that use of incompressible boundary conditions leads to good approximations in the important region of high acoustic wave number.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yang Yang; Liu, Shi Wei; Yang, Qiong; Zhang, Zhen Bin; Duan, Wen Shan; Yang, Lei
2016-07-01
The paper work relates to Nesterenko's problem to further study the solitary wave when the strong external force acts on the granular chain. We also study the problem under the long-wavelength approximation and find that such kind of solitary wave in system with the initial prestress can be described by the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. It is found that the results of analytical and numerical are in an excellent agreement. Furthermore, we study the scattering of the KdV solitary wave in different granular materials both in theoretical and numerical methods. It is found that the numbers and the amplitudes of both the reflected and the transmitted waves depend not only on the amplitude of the incident solitary wave but also on the variations of both sides of the discontinuity such as the mass, Young's modulus or radius of the grains.
Acoustic wave levitation: Handling of components
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vandaele, Vincent; Delchambre, Alain; Lambert, Pierre
2011-06-01
Apart from contact micromanipulation, there exists a large variety of levitation techniques among which standing wave levitation will be proposed as a way to handle (sub)millimetric components. This paper will compare analytical formulas to calculate the order of magnitude of the levitation force. It will then describe digital simulation and experimental levitation setup. Stable levitation of various components (cardboard, steel washer, ball, ceramic capacity, water droplet) was shown along 5 degrees of freedom: The only degree of freedom that could not be mastered was the rotation about the symmetry axis of the acoustic field. More importantly, the present work will show the modification of the orientation of the radial force component in the presence of an object disturbing the acoustic field. This property can be used as a new feeding strategy as it means that levitating components are spontaneously pushed toward grippers in an acoustic plane standing wave.
Wave Phenomena in an Acoustic Resonant Chamber
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, Mary E.; And Others
1974-01-01
Discusses the design and operation of a high Q acoustical resonant chamber which can be used to demonstrate wave phenomena such as three-dimensional normal modes, Q values, densities of states, changes in the speed of sound, Fourier decomposition, damped harmonic oscillations, sound-absorbing properties, and perturbation and scattering problems.…
Acoustic-Gravity Waves from Bolide Sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Revelle, Douglas O.
2008-06-01
We have developed a new approach to modeling the acoustic-gravity wave (AGW) radiation from bolide sources. This first effort involves entry modeling of bolide sources that have available satellite data through procedures developed in ReVelle (Earth Moon Planets 95, 441-476, 2004a; in: A. Milani, G. Valsecchi, D. Vokrouhlicky (eds) NEO Fireball Diversity: Energetics-based Entry Modeling and Analysis Techniques, Near-earth Objects: Our Celestial Neighbors (IAU S236), 2007b). Results from the entry modeling are directly coupled to AGW production through line source blast wave theory for the initial wave amplitude and period at x=10 (at 10 blast wave radii and perpendicular to the trajectory). The second effort involves the prediction of the formation and or dominance of the propagation of the atmospheric Lamb, edge-wave composite mode in a viscous fluid (Pierce, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 35, 1798-1807, 1963) as a function of the source energy, horizontal range and source altitude using the Lamb wave frequency that was deduced directly during the entry modeling and that is used as a surrogate for the source energy. We have also determined that Lamb wave production by bolides at close range decreases dramatically as either the source energy decreases or the source altitude increases. Finally using procedures in Gill ( Atmospheric-Ocean Dynamics, 1982) and in Tolstoy ( Wave Propagation, 1973), we have analyzed two simple dispersion relationships and have calculated the expected dispersion for the Lamb edge-wave mode and for the excited, propagating internal acoustic waves. Finally, we have used the above formalism to fully evaluate these techniques for four large bolides, namely: the Tunguska bolide of June 30, 1908; the Revelstoke bolide of March 31, 1965; the Crete bolide of June 6, 2002 and the Antarctic bolide of September 3, 2004. Due to page limitations, we will only present results in detail for the Revelstoke bolide.
Marble Ageing Characterization by Acoustic Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boudani, Mohamed El; Wilkie-Chancellier, Nicolas; Martinez, Loïc; Hébert, Ronan; Rolland, Olivier; Forst, Sébastien; Vergès-Belmin, Véronique; Serfaty, Stéphane
In cultural heritage, statue marble characterization by acoustic waves is a well-known non-destructive method. Such investigations through the statues by time of flight method (TOF) point out sound speeds decrease with ageing. However for outdoor stored statues as the ones in the gardens of Chateau de Versailles, ageing affects mainly the surface of the Carrara marble. The present paper proposes an experimental study of the marble acoustic properties variations during accelerated laboratory ageing. The surface degradation of the marble is reproduced in laboratory for 29 mm thick marble samples by using heating/cooling thermal cycles on one face of a marble plate. Acoustic waves are generated by 1 MHz central frequency contact transducers excited by a voltage pulse placed on both sides of the plate. During the ageing and by using ad hoc transducers, the marble samples are characterized in transmission, along their volume by shear, compressional TOF measurements and along their surface by Rayleigh waves measurements. For Rayleigh waves, both TOF by transducers and laser vibrometry methods are used to detect the Rayleigh wave. The transmission measurements point out a deep decrease of the waves speeds in conjunction with a dramatic decrease of the maximum frequency transmitted. The marble acts as a low pass filter whose characteristic frequency cut decreases with ageing. This pattern occurs also for the Rayleigh wave surface measurements. The speed change in conjunction with the bandwidth translation is shown to be correlated to the material de-structuration during ageing. With a similar behavior but reversed in time, the same king of phenomena have been observed trough sol-gel materials during their structuration from liquid to solid state (Martinez, L. et all (2004). "Chirp-Z analysis for sol-gel transition monitoring". Ultrasonics, 42(1), 507-510.). A model is proposed to interpret the acoustical measurements
Nonlinear structure of ion-acoustic waves in completely degenerate electron-positron and ion plasma
Rasheed, A.; Tsintsadze, N. L.; Murtaza, G.
2010-07-15
A rigorous theoretical investigation has been made of fully nonlinear ion-acoustic waves in nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic, collisionless, unmagnetized plasma containing of degenerate electrons and positrons, and classical cold ions. In both (nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic) regimes the electrons and positrons are assumed to follow the corresponding Fermi distribution while the ions are described by the hydrodynamic equations. An energy balancelike equation involving a Sagdeev-type pseudopotential is derived separately for both the regimes. In addition, stationary periodic and solitary waves are also investigated for the two cases. The present work would be helpful to understand the excitation of nonlinear ion-acoustic waves in a degenerate plasma such as in superdense white dwarfs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Xi-Yang; Tian, Bo; Sun, Wen-Rong; Wang, Ming; Wang, Yun-Po
2015-11-01
In this paper, we investigate a Bogoyavlenskii-Kadomtsev-Petviashili equation, which can be used to describe the propagation of nonlinear waves in physics, biology and electrical networks. We find that the equation is Painlevé integrable. With symbolic computation, Hirota bilinear forms, solitary waves and multi-front waves are derived. Elastic collisions between/among the two and three solitary waves are graphically discussed, where the waves maintain their shapes, amplitudes and velocities after the collision only with some phase shifts. Inelastic collisions among the multi-front waves are discussed, where the front waves coalesce into one larger front wave in their collision region.
Wang Yunliang; Guo Chunxia; Ni Xiaodong; Qian Ping; Shen Jiang; Jiang Xiangqian; Zhou Zhongxiang
2010-11-15
The effects of nonadiabatic dust charge fluctuation on the nonlinear propagation of the dust ion acoustic (DIA) waves in the dusty plasma with positively charged dust grains have been investigated. By using the reductive perturbation technique, a three-dimensional modified nonlinear Schroedinger equation (mNLSE) governing the nonlinear envelope DIA waves was derived and the approximate solitary wave solution of the mNLSE was also obtained in the weak effect of nonadiabatic dust charge fluctuation limit, which shows that the amplitude of the DIA solitary wave exponentially decreases with time due to the collisionless dissipation caused by the nonadiabatic dust charge variation. The frequency, instability growth rate, and the critical modulational wave number of the small amplitude modulation are all dependent on photoelectron generated by ultraviolet irradiation and time due to the presence of nonadiabatic dust charge variation. The transverse perturbation plays an important role in the modulational instability region.
Acoustic wave-equation-based earthquake location
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tong, Ping; Yang, Dinghui; Liu, Qinya; Yang, Xu; Harris, Jerry
2016-04-01
We present a novel earthquake location method using acoustic wave-equation-based traveltime inversion. The linear relationship between the location perturbation (δt0, δxs) and the resulting traveltime residual δt of a particular seismic phase, represented by the traveltime sensitivity kernel K(t0, xs) with respect to the earthquake location (t0, xs), is theoretically derived based on the adjoint method. Traveltime sensitivity kernel K(t0, xs) is formulated as a convolution between the forward and adjoint wavefields, which are calculated by numerically solving two acoustic wave equations. The advantage of this newly derived traveltime kernel is that it not only takes into account the earthquake-receiver geometry but also accurately honours the complexity of the velocity model. The earthquake location is obtained by solving a regularized least-squares problem. In 3-D realistic applications, it is computationally expensive to conduct full wave simulations. Therefore, we propose a 2.5-D approach which assumes the forward and adjoint wave simulations within a 2-D vertical plane passing through the earthquake and receiver. Various synthetic examples show the accuracy of this acoustic wave-equation-based earthquake location method. The accuracy and efficiency of the 2.5-D approach for 3-D earthquake location are further verified by its application to the 2004 Big Bear earthquake in Southern California.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Eunho; Restuccia, Francesco; Yang, Jinkyu; Daraio, Chiara
2015-12-01
We experimentally and numerically investigate a diagnostic method for detecting hidden delamination in composite panels, using highly nonlinear solitary waves. Solitary waves are a type of nonlinear waves with strong energy intensity and non-distortive nature, which can be controllably generated in one-dimensional granular crystals. In this study, we use granular crystals as a combined sensor and actuator to detect hidden delamination in carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite panels. Specifically, we locally excite a CFRP composite specimen using the granular crystal as an actuator and measure the reflected waves that carry the specimen’s diagnostic information using the same device as a sensor. We first investigate the effect of the panel’s boundary conditions on the response of the reflected solitary waves. We then investigate the interactions of a solitary wave with delamination hidden in the CFRP composite specimen. Lastly, we define a damage index based on the solitary waves’ responses to identify the location of the hidden delamination in the CFRP composite panel. The solitary wave-based diagnostic method can provide unique merits, such as portable and fast sensing of composites’ hidden damage, thereby with the potential of being used for hot spot monitoring of composite-based structures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Uday Narayan; Chatterjee, Prasanta; Roychoudhury, Rajkumar
2015-07-01
Recently Gun Li et al. discussed "Effects of damping solitary wave in a viscosity bounded plasma" [Phys. Plasmas 21, 022118 (2014)]. The paper contains some serious errors which have been pointed out in this Comment.
Ghosh, Uday Narayan Chatterjee, Prasanta; Roychoudhury, Rajkumar
2015-07-15
Recently Gun Li et al. discussed “Effects of damping solitary wave in a viscosity bounded plasma” [Phys. Plasmas 21, 022118 (2014)]. The paper contains some serious errors which have been pointed out in this Comment.
Acoustic spin pumping in magnetoelectric bulk acoustic wave resonator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Polzikova, N. I.; Alekseev, S. G.; Pyataikin, I. I.; Kotelyanskii, I. M.; Luzanov, V. A.; Orlov, A. P.
2016-05-01
We present the generation and detection of spin currents by using magnetoelastic resonance excitation in a magnetoelectric composite high overtone bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonator (HBAR) formed by a Al-ZnO-Al-GGG-YIG-Pt structure. Transversal BAW drives magnetization oscillations in YIG film at a given resonant magnetic field, and the resonant magneto-elastic coupling establishes the spin-current generation at the Pt/YIG interface. Due to the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) this BAW-driven spin current is converted to a dc voltage in the Pt layer. The dependence of the measured voltage both on magnetic field and frequency has a resonant character. The voltage is determined by the acoustic power in HBAR and changes its sign upon magnetic field reversal. We compare the experimentally observed amplitudes of the ISHE electrical field achieved by our method and other approaches to spin current generation that use surface acoustic waves and microwave resonators for ferromagnetic resonance excitation, with the theoretically expected values.
Solitary waves of Bose-Einstein-condensed atoms confined in finite rings
Smyrnakis, J.; Magiropoulos, M.; Kavoulakis, G. M.; Jackson, A. D.
2010-08-15
Motivated by recent progress in trapping Bose-Einstein-condensed atoms in toroidal potentials, we examine solitary-wave solutions of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation subject to periodic boundary conditions. When the circumference of the ring is much larger than the size of the wave, the density profile is well approximated by that of an infinite ring; however, the density and the velocity of propagation cannot vanish simultaneously. When the size of the ring becomes comparable to the size of the wave, the density variation becomes sinusoidal and the velocity of propagation saturates to a constant value.
Acoustic-gravity waves, theory and application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kadri, Usama; Farrell, William E.; Munk, Walter
2015-04-01
Acoustic-gravity waves (AGW) propagate in the ocean under the influence of both the compressibility of sea water and the restoring force of gravity. The gravity dependence vanishes if the wave vector is normal to the ocean surface, but becomes increasingly important as the wave vector acquires a horizontal tilt. They are excited by many sources, including non-linear surface wave interactions, disturbances of the ocean bottom (submarine earthquakes and landslides) and underwater explosions. In this introductory lecture on acoustic-gravity waves, we describe their properties, and their relation to organ pipe modes, to microseisms, and to deep ocean signatures by short surface waves. We discuss the generation of AGW by underwater earthquakes; knowledge of their behaviour with water depth can be applied for the early detection of tsunamis. We also discuss their generation by the non-linear interaction of surface gravity waves, which explains the major role they play in transforming energy from the ocean surface to the crust, as part of the microseisms phenomenon. Finally, they contribute to horizontal water transport at depth, which might affect benthic life.
Nonlinear acoustic wave propagation in atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hariharan, S. I.
1985-01-01
A model problem that simulates an atmospheric acoustic wave propagation situation that is nonlinear is considered. The model is derived from the basic Euler equations for the atmospheric flow and from the regular perturbations for the acoustic part. The nonlinear effects are studied by obtaining two successive linear problems in which the second one involves the solution of the first problem. Well posedness of these problems is discussed and approximations of the radiation boundary conditions that can be used in numerical simulations are presented.
Nonlinear holography for acoustic wave detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bortolozzo, U.; Dolfi, D.; Huignard, J. P.; Molin, S.; Peigné, A.; Residori, S.
2015-03-01
A liquid crystal medium is used to perform nonlinear dynamic holography and is coupled with multimode optical fibers for optical sensing applications. Thanks to the adaptive character of the nonlinear holography, and to the sensitivity of the multimode fibers, we demonstrate that the system is able to perform efficient acoustic wave detection even with noisy signals. The detection limit is estimated and multimode versus monomode optical fiber are compared. Finally, a wavelength multiplexing protocol is implemented for the spatial localization of the acoustic disturbances.
Nonlinear acoustic wave propagation in atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hariharan, S. I.
1986-01-01
In this paper a model problem is considered that simulates an atmospheric acoustic wave propagation situation that is nonlinear. The model is derived from the basic Euler equations for the atmospheric flow and from the regular perturbations for the acoustic part. The nonlinear effects are studied by obtaining two successive linear problems in which the second one involves the solution of the first problem. Well-posedness of these problems is discussed and approximations of the radiation boundary conditions that can be used in numerical simulations are presented.
Guo, Shimin Mei, Liquan; Zhang, Zhengqiang
2015-05-15
Nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic waves is investigated in a one-dimensional, unmagnetized plasma consisting of positive ions, negative ions, and nonthermal electrons featuring Tsallis distribution that is penetrated by a negative-ion-beam. The classical Gardner equation is derived to describe nonlinear behavior of ion-acoustic waves in the considered plasma system via reductive perturbation technique. We convert the classical Gardner equation into the time-fractional Gardner equation by Agrawal's method, where the time-fractional term is under the sense of Riesz fractional derivative. Employing variational iteration method, we construct solitary wave solutions of the time-fractional Gardner equation with initial condition which depends on the nonlinear and dispersion coefficients. The effect of the plasma parameters on the compressive and rarefactive ion-acoustic solitary waves is also discussed in detail.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Shimin; Mei, Liquan; Zhang, Zhengqiang
2015-05-01
Nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic waves is investigated in a one-dimensional, unmagnetized plasma consisting of positive ions, negative ions, and nonthermal electrons featuring Tsallis distribution that is penetrated by a negative-ion-beam. The classical Gardner equation is derived to describe nonlinear behavior of ion-acoustic waves in the considered plasma system via reductive perturbation technique. We convert the classical Gardner equation into the time-fractional Gardner equation by Agrawal's method, where the time-fractional term is under the sense of Riesz fractional derivative. Employing variational iteration method, we construct solitary wave solutions of the time-fractional Gardner equation with initial condition which depends on the nonlinear and dispersion coefficients. The effect of the plasma parameters on the compressive and rarefactive ion-acoustic solitary waves is also discussed in detail.
Chaotic scattering in solitary wave interactions: A singular iterated-map description
Goodman, Roy H.
2008-06-15
We derive a family of singular iterated maps--closely related to Poincare maps--that describe chaotic interactions between colliding solitary waves. The chaotic behavior of such solitary-wave collisions depends on the transfer of energy to a secondary mode of oscillation, often an internal mode of the pulse. This map allows us to go beyond previous analyses and to understand the interactions in the case when this mode is excited prior to the first collision. The map is derived using Melnikov integrals and matched asymptotic expansions and generalizes a ''multipulse'' Melnikov integral. It allows one to find not only multipulse heteroclinic orbits, but exotic periodic orbits. The maps exhibit singular behavior, including regions of infinite winding. These maps are shown to be singular versions of the conservative Ikeda map from laser physics and connections are made with problems from celestial mechanics and fluid mechanics.
Chaotic scattering in solitary wave interactions: a singular iterated-map description.
Goodman, Roy H
2008-06-01
We derive a family of singular iterated maps--closely related to Poincare maps--that describe chaotic interactions between colliding solitary waves. The chaotic behavior of such solitary-wave collisions depends on the transfer of energy to a secondary mode of oscillation, often an internal mode of the pulse. This map allows us to go beyond previous analyses and to understand the interactions in the case when this mode is excited prior to the first collision. The map is derived using Melnikov integrals and matched asymptotic expansions and generalizes a "multipulse" Melnikov integral. It allows one to find not only multipulse heteroclinic orbits, but exotic periodic orbits. The maps exhibit singular behavior, including regions of infinite winding. These maps are shown to be singular versions of the conservative Ikeda map from laser physics and connections are made with problems from celestial mechanics and fluid mechanics. PMID:18601480
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xiaodan; Wang, Yunliang; Liu, Tielu; Zhang, Fan
2016-06-01
> Two-dimensional nonlinear magnetosonic solitary and shock waves propagating perpendicular to the applied magnetic field are presented in quantum electron-positron-ion plasmas with strongly coupled classical ions and weakly coupled quantum electrons and positrons. The generalized viscoelastic hydrodynamic model is used for the ions and a quantum hydrodynamic model is introduced for the electrons and positrons. In the weakly nonlinear limit, a modified Kadomstev-Petviashvili (KP) equation with a damping term and a KP-Burgers equation have been derived in the kinetic regime and hydrodynamic regime, respectively. The analytical and numerical solutions of the modified KP and KP-Burgers equations are also presented and analysed with the typical parameters of a white dwarf star and pulsar magnetosphere, which show that the quantum plasma beta and the variation of positron number density have remarkable effects on the propagation of magnetosonic solitary and shock waves.
Propagation of optical spatial solitary waves in bias-free nematic-liquid-crystal cells
Minzoni, Antonmaria A.; Sciberras, Luke W.; Worthy, Annette L.; Smyth, Noel F.
2011-10-15
The propagation of a bulk optical solitary wave in a rectangular cell filled with a nematic liquid crystal--a nematicon--is mathematically modelled. In order to overcome the Freedricksz threshold the cell walls are rubbed to pretilt the nematic. A modulation theory, based on a Lagrangian formulation, is developed for the (2+1)-dimensional propagation of the solitary wave beam down the cell. This modulation theory is based on two different formulations of the director distribution. The relative advantages and disadvantages of these two methods are discussed. A previously unexplored method based on images is found to possess significant advantages. Excellent agreement with full numerical solutions of the nematicon equations is found for both methods. Finally, the implications of the results obtained for some widely used approximations to the nematicon equations are discussed, particularly their use in comparisons with experimental results.
Weakly nonlinear kink-type solitary waves in a fully relativistic plasma
Tribeche, Mouloud; Boukhalfa, Soufiane; Zerguini, Taha Houssine
2010-08-15
A fully and coherent relativistic fluid model derived from the covariant formulation of relativistic fluid equations is used to study small but finite amplitude solitary waves. This approach has the characteristic to be consistent with the relativistic principle and consequently leads to a more general set of equations valid for fully relativistic plasmas with arbitrary Lorentz relativistic factor. A kink-solitary wave solution is outlined. Due to electron relativistic effect, the localized structure may experience either a spreading or a compression. This latter phenomenon (compression) becomes less effective and less noticeable as the relativistic character of the ions becomes important. Our results may be relevant to cosmic relativistic double-layers and relativistic plasma structures that involve energetic plasma flows.
Stability and Instability of the KDV Solitary Wave Under the KP-I Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rousset, Frederic; Tzvetkov, Nikolay
2012-07-01
We consider the KP-I and gKP-I equations in {{{R}} × ({{R}}/2π{{Z}})}. We prove that the KdV soliton with subcritical speed 0 < c < c* is orbitally stable under the global KP-I flow constructed by Ionescu and Kenig (Ann Math Stud 163:181-211, 2007). For supercritical speeds c > c*, in the spirit of the work by Duyckaerts and Merle (GAFA 18:1787-1840, 2009), we sharpen our previous instability result and construct a global solution which is different from the solitary wave and its translates and which converges to the solitary wave as time goes to infinity. This last result also holds for the gKP-I equation.
Acoustic Remote Sensing of Rogue Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parsons, Wade; Kadri, Usama
2016-04-01
We propose an early warning system for approaching rogue waves using the remote sensing of acoustic-gravity waves (AGWs) - progressive sound waves that propagate at the speed of sound in the ocean. It is believed that AGWs are generated during the formation of rogue waves, carrying information on the rogue waves at near the speed of sound, i.e. much faster than the rogue wave. The capability of identifying those special sound waves would enable detecting rogue waves most efficiently. A lot of promising work has been reported on AGWs in the last few years, part of which in the context of remote sensing as an early detection of tsunami. However, to our knowledge none of the work addresses the problem of rogue waves directly. Although there remains some uncertainty as to the proper definition of a rogue wave, there is little doubt that they exist and no one can dispute the potential destructive power of rogue waves. An early warning system for such extreme waves would become a demanding safety technology. A closed form expression was developed for the pressure induced by an impulsive source at the free surface (the Green's function) from which the solution for more general sources can be developed. In particular, we used the model of the Draupner Wave of January 1st, 1995 as a source and calculated the induced AGW signature. In particular we studied the AGW signature associated with a special feature of this wave, and characteristic of rogue waves, of the absence of any local set-down beneath the main crest and the presence of a large local set-up.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin-Yuan, Li; Nian-Qiao, Fang; Ji, Zhang; Yu-Long, Xue; Xue-Mu, Wang; Xiao-Bo, Yuan
2016-04-01
In the past few decades, the (1+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation had been derived for envelope Rossby solitary waves in a line by employing the perturbation expansion method. But, with the development of theory, we note that the (1+1)-dimensional model cannot reflect the evolution of envelope Rossby solitary waves in a plane. In this paper, by constructing a new (2+1)-dimensional multiscale transform, we derive the (2+1)-dimensional dissipation nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DNLS) to describe envelope Rossby solitary waves under the influence of dissipation which propagate in a plane. Especially, the previous researches about envelope Rossby solitary waves were established in the zonal area and could not be applied directly to the spherical earth, while we adopt the plane polar coordinate and overcome the problem. By theoretical analyses, the conservation laws of (2+1)-dimensional envelope Rossby solitary waves as well as their variation under the influence of dissipation are studied. Finally, the one-soliton and two-soliton solutions of the (2+1)-dimensional NLS equation are obtained with the Hirota method. Based on these solutions, by virtue of the chirp concept from fiber soliton communication, the chirp effect of envelope Rossby solitary waves is discussed, and the related impact factors of the chirp effect are given. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41406018).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Vivek Kumar; Goyal, Amit
2016-05-01
We explore the modulational instability and existence of dark, bright solitary wave solutions in negative index-materials (NIMs) modeled by generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation with competing cubic-quintic and higher-order nonlinearities with dispersive permittivity and permeability. Parameter domains are delineated in which these ultrashort pulses exist in NIMs. Unlike the ordinary materials, these novel excitations occur for different signs of dispersion, Kerr and non-Kerr nonlinearities.
Properties of materials using acoustic waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Apfel, R. E.
1985-10-01
Our goal of characterizing materials using acoustic waves was forwarded through a number of projects: (1) We have derived a theory, and tested it on tissues, for predicting the composition of composite materials using mixture rules, such as the one we derived for the nonlinear parameter two years ago; (2) We have published one article and another is in review on our use of modulated acoustic radiation pressure on levitated drops to characterize interfaces with and without surfactants. We have begun to study in a systematic way the nonlinear dynamics of drops, including drop fission: (3) we have improved apparatus for 30 MHz ultrasonic scattering from microparticles (approx. micron size), which should allow us to discriminate between different microparticles in a liquid; (4) We have begun to study the nonlinear mechanics of hydrodynamic solitons in cylindrical (2-d) geometry; and (5) We have been studying the use of acoustic levitation for transducer calibration.
Ion Acceleration in a Solitary Wave by Laser Pulse with Ramping-up Amplitude
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Min-Qing; Tripathi, Vipin; Liu, Chuan-Sheng; Shao, Xi; Liu, Tung-Chang; Su, Jao-Jang; Sheng, Zheng-Ming
2012-10-01
Recent work by Jung et al. demonstrated experimentally the acceleration of mono-energetic ion beam by solitary waves generated and maintained by laser light with ramping-up amplitude.footnotetextD. Jung, L. Yin, B.J. Albright, D.C. Gautier, R. H"orlein, D. Kiefer, A. Henig, R. Johnson, S. Letzring, S. Palaniyappan, R. Shah, T. Shimada, X.Q. Yan, K.J. Bowers, T. Tajima, J.C. Fern'andez, D. Habs, and B.M. Hegelich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107,115002(2011). Theoretical model is developed in this work to study the formation of the solitary wave and effects of the radiation pressure force on a soliton in the accelerating plasma. 2D Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations are performed to compare and validate the theory. Differences in generating and maintaining solitary wave for laser with and without ramping-up amplitude are also investigated. We will also investigate effects of radiation pressure acceleration of plasma with near critical density.
On the orbital stability of Gaussian solitary waves in the log-KdV equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carles, Rémi; Pelinovsky, Dmitry
2014-12-01
We consider the logarithmic Korteweg-de Vries (log-KdV) equation, which models solitary waves in anharmonic chains with Hertzian interaction forces. By using an approximating sequence of global solutions of the regularized generalized KdV equation in H^1({R}) with conserved L2 norm and energy, we construct a weak global solution of the log-KdV equation in a subset of H^1({R}) . This construction yields conditional orbital stability of Gaussian solitary waves of the log-KdV equation, provided that uniqueness and continuous dependence of the constructed solution holds. Furthermore, we study the linearized log-KdV equation at the Gaussian solitary wave and prove that the associated linearized operator has a purely discrete spectrum consisting of simple purely imaginary eigenvalues in addition to the double zero eigenvalue. The eigenfunctions, however, do not decay like Gaussian functions but have algebraic decay. Using numerical approximations, we show that the Gaussian initial data do not spread out but produce visible radiation at the left slope of the Gaussian-like pulse in the time evolution of the linearized log-KdV equation.
Electromagnetic envelope solitary waves with transverse perturbation in a plasma
Borhanian, J.
2013-04-15
The system of fluid-Maxwell equations governing the two-dimensional dynamics of electromagnetic waves in a plasma is analyzed by means of multiple scale perturbation method. It is shown that the evolution of the amplitude of wave field is governed by a two-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equation. The stability of bright envelope solitons is studied using the variational method. It is found that the development of transverse periodic perturbations on bright solitons is faster for a plasma with near critical density. Dynamics of electromagnetic bright solitons is investigated in the long-wave approximation. Our model predicts the appearance of collapse of electromagnetic waves in plasmas and describes the collapse dynamics at initial stages.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Qunshu; Hobbs, Richard; Zheng, Chan; Biescas, Berta; Caiado, Camila
2016-06-01
Marine seismic reflection technique is used to observe the strong ocean dynamic process of nonlinear internal solitary waves (ISWs or solitons) in the near-surface water. Analysis of ISWs is problematical because of their transient nature and limitations of classical physical oceanography methods. This work explores a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach to recover the temperature and salinity of ISW field using the seismic reflectivity data and in situ hydrographic data. The MCMC approach is designed to directly sample the posterior probability distributions of temperature and salinity which are the solutions of the system under investigation. The principle improvement is the capability of incorporating uncertainties in observations and prior models which then provide quantified uncertainties in the output model parameters. We tested the MCMC approach on two acoustic reflectivity data sets one synthesized from a CTD cast and the other derived from multichannel seismic reflections. This method finds the solutions faithfully within the significantly narrowed confidence intervals from the provided priors. Combined with a low frequency initial model interpreted from seismic horizons of ISWs, the MCMC method is used to compute the finescale temperature, salinity, acoustic velocity, and density of ISW field. The statistically derived results are equivalent to the conventional linearized inversion method. However, the former provides us the quantified uncertainties of the temperature and salinity along the whole section whilst the latter does not. These results are the first time ISWs have been mapped with sufficient detail for further analysis of their dynamic properties.
Wireless Multiplexed Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors Project
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Youngquist, Robert C.
2014-01-01
Wireless Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Sensor is a new technology for obtaining multiple, real-time measurements under extreme environmental conditions. This project plans to develop a wireless multiplexed sensor system that uses SAW sensors, with no batteries or semiconductors, that are passive and rugged, can operate down to cryogenic temperatures and up to hundreds of degrees C, and can be used to sense a wide variety of parameters over reasonable distances (meters).
Support minimized inversion of acoustic and elastic wave scattering
Safaeinili, A.
1994-04-24
This report discusses the following topics on support minimized inversion of acoustic and elastic wave scattering: Minimum support inversion; forward modelling of elastodynamic wave scattering; minimum support linearized acoustic inversion; support minimized nonlinear acoustic inversion without absolute phase; and support minimized nonlinear elastic inversion.
Two-dimensional s-polarized solitary waves in relativistic plasmas. I. The fluid plasma model
Sanchez-Arriaga, G.; Lefebvre, E.
2011-09-15
The properties of two-dimensional linearly s-polarized solitary waves are investigated by fluid-Maxwell equations and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. These self-trapped electromagnetic waves appear during laser-plasma interactions, and they have a dominant electric field component E{sub z}, normal to the plane of the wave, that oscillates at a frequency below the electron plasma frequency {omega}{sub pe}. A set of equations that describe the waves are derived from the plasma fluid model in the case of cold or warm plasma and then solved numerically. The main features, including the maximum value of the vector potential amplitude, the total energy, the width, and the cavitation radius are presented as a function of the frequency. The amplitude of the vector potential increases monotonically as the frequency of the wave decreases, whereas the width reaches a minimum value at a frequency of the order of 0.82 {omega}{sub pe}. The results are compared with a set of PIC simulations where the solitary waves are excited by a high-intensity laser pulse.
Acceleration of the Fast Solar Wind by Solitary Waves in Coronal Holes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ofman, Leon
2000-01-01
The purpose of this investigation is to develop a new model for the acceleration of the fast solar wind by nonlinear, time-dependent multidimensional MHD simulations of waves in solar coronal holes. Preliminary computational studies indicate that solitary-like waves are generated in coronal holes nonlinearly by torsional Alfven waves. These waves in addition to thermal conduction may contribute considerably to the accelerate the solar wind. Specific goals of this proposal are to investigate the generation of nonlinear solitary-like waves and their effect on solar wind acceleration by numerical 2.5D MHD simulation of coronal holes with a broad range of plasma and wave parameters; to study the effect of random disturbances at the base of a solar coronal hole on the fast solar wind acceleration with a more advanced 2.5D MHD model and to compare the results with the available observations; to extend the study to a full 3D MHD simulation of fast solar wind acceleration with a more realistic model of a coronal hole and solar boundary conditions. The ultimate goal of the three year study is to model the fast solar wind in a coronal hole, based on realistic boundary conditions in a coronal hole near the Sun, and the coronal hole structure (i.e., density, temperature, and magnetic field geometry) that will become available from the recently launched SOHO spacecraft.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, C.; Chen, X.
A numerical study of the propagation and transformation of large amplitude second mode concave internal solitary waves (ISWs) over a slope-shelf topography is presented. A fully nonlinear and non-hydrostatic numerical model is employed and solved. The fluid stratification, amplitude of the incident wave, and inclination of the bottom topography are taken close to those in the northern South China Sea (SCS), where the continental slope and shelf span quite a large area. It is found that the incoming wave adjusts permanently to the changing depth in deep water without essential changes of the wave profile until it gets close to the shelf break, where the frontal face becomes flatter and the rear face steeper. A very steep wave structure is formed at the leading edge just after the wave passes by the shelf break. This steep structure does not progress into a new soliton of concave type, but slopes more and more gently. The trailing edge of the initial concave wave becomes steeper and steeper and gradually develops into a packet of convex ISWs. Finally the rear convex wave packet catches up with the frontal concave wave. The two wave systems then "merge" and travel forward steadily with almost permanent profile. No events of wave breaking occur with the model configuration close to the realistic slope-shelf of the northern SCS. Finally, amplitudes of the incident wave and inclination of the slope are varied, and different scenarios take place before and after the wave reaches the shelf break.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murav'eva, O. V.; Len'kov, S. V.; Murashov, S. A.
2016-01-01
A theory of propagation of torsional waves excited by an electromagnetic-acoustic transducer in a pipe is proposed. This theory takes into account the excitation parameters, geometry, viscosity, and the elastic characteristics of an object. The main testing parameters (the frequency and geometry of the transducer) that determine the possibilities of guided-wave testing of pipelines of various dimensions using torsional waves are theoretically substantiated.
Isomorphic surface acoustic waves on multilayer structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hunt, William D.
2001-03-01
There has been growing interest in recent years over the investigation of bulk acoustic waves (BAWs) which propagate along certain directions in anisotropic crystals with a minimum of diffraction. One application of these BAWs is for multichannel acousto-optic devices. The fact that the beams propagate with the minimum diffraction implies that the channels in such a device can be closely packed. Since surface acoustic waves (SAWs) are constrained to be within roughly one acoustic wavelength from the surface, the possibility exists to deposit thin films of isotropic or anisotropic material on the substrate and embue the aggregate multilayer structure with properties not present in the beginning substrate material. The characteristic investigated in this article is the velocity anisotropy which, as is known, predominates SAW diffraction. Specifically, we present a method whereby self-collimating SAWs can be generated on surfaces even though the substrate material itself does not exhibit this behavior. We discuss the particular case of a ZnO layer on (001)-cut <110>-propagating GaAs for which a fair amount of slowness surface data exists. Finally, using angular spectrum of plane waves diffraction theory, we present data which substantiate the claim that self-collimating can more accurately be viewed as isomorphic because the SAW beam profile can propagate without changing its shape.
Nonlinear ion acoustic waves scattered by vortexes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohno, Yuji; Yoshida, Zensho
2016-09-01
The Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) hierarchy is the archetype of infinite-dimensional integrable systems, which describes nonlinear ion acoustic waves in two-dimensional space. This remarkably ordered system resides on a singular submanifold (leaf) embedded in a larger phase space of more general ion acoustic waves (low-frequency electrostatic perturbations). The KP hierarchy is characterized not only by small amplitudes but also by irrotational (zero-vorticity) velocity fields. In fact, the KP equation is derived by eliminating vorticity at every order of the reductive perturbation. Here, we modify the scaling of the velocity field so as to introduce a vortex term. The newly derived system of equations consists of a generalized three-dimensional KP equation and a two-dimensional vortex equation. The former describes 'scattering' of vortex-free waves by ambient vortexes that are determined by the latter. We say that the vortexes are 'ambient' because they do not receive reciprocal reactions from the waves (i.e., the vortex equation is independent of the wave fields). This model describes a minimal departure from the integrable KP system. By the Painlevé test, we delineate how the vorticity term violates integrability, bringing about an essential three-dimensionality to the solutions. By numerical simulation, we show how the solitons are scattered by vortexes and become chaotic.
Radio wave propagation and acoustic sounding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singal, S. P.
Radio wave propagation of the decimetric and centimetric waves depends to a large extent on the boundary layer meteorological conditions which give rise to severe fadings, very often due to multipath propagation. Sodar is one of the inexpensive remote sensing techniques which can be employed to probe the boundary layer structure. In the paper a historical perspective has been given of the simultaneously conducted studies on radio waves and sodar at various places. The radio meteorological information needed for propagation studies has been clearly spelt out and conditions of a ray path especially in the presence of a ducting layer have been defined as giving rise to fading or signal enhancement conditions. Finally the potential of the sodar studies to obtain information about the boundary layer phenomena has been stressed, clearly spelling out the use of acoustic sounding in radio wave propagation studies.
Solitary and transitional waves in pressure-driven two-layer microchannel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sisoev, G. M.; Bennett, C. J.
2014-04-01
Similar to the case of the gravity-driven flow (Sisoev and Bennett 2013 Fluid Dyn. Res. 45 015503) we use the integral method to derive evolution equations modeling a pressure-driven two-layer flow of immiscible viscous fluids in a plane microchannel. It is shown that the system possesses a vast set of steady-traveling solitary and transitional waves. Analysis of the phase trajectories of the relevant dynamical system indicates the existence of families of steady-traveling periodic waves.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maxworthy, T.; Redekopp, L. G.; Weidman, P. D.
1978-01-01
Further evidence is presented that strengthens the case for the interpretation of many features in the Jovian atmosphere as solitary Rossby waves (solitons). These include: a mechanism whereby such waves can evolve from the instability of the basic shear flows; further interpretation of the interaction between observed features, and comparison with calculations of the interaction between planetary solitons of a restricted class; and calculations of soliton morphology for a type of shear flow other than the type considered originally by Maxworthy and Redekopp (1976).
Two-dimensional instability of the bottom boundary layer under a solitary wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadek, Mahmoud M.; Parras, Luis; Diamessis, Peter J.; Liu, Philip L.-F.
2015-04-01
The objective of this paper is to establish a detailed map for the temporal instability of the bottom boundary layer (BBL) flow driven by a soliton-like wave induced pressure gradient in a U-tube-shaped tunnel, which serves as an approximation to the BBL under surface solitary waves. Both linear stability analysis and fully nonlinear two-dimensional simulations using high-order numerical methods have been carried out. The process of delineation of the stability regions as a function of boundary layer thickness-based Reynolds number of the temporally evolving base flow, Reδ, consists of two parts. In the first part, we assess the lower limit of the Reδ range within which the standard, quasi-steady, linear stability analysis is applicable when considering individual base flow profiles sampled during its transient evolution. Below this limit, transient linear stability analysis serves as a more accurate predictor of the stability properties of the base flow. In the second step, above the Reδ limit where the BBL is determined to be linearly unstable, the base flow is further classified as unconditionally stable, conditionally unstable, or unconditionally unstable in terms of its sensitivity to the amplitude and the insertion time of perturbations. Two distinct modes of instability exist in this case: post- and pre-flow-reversal modes. At a moderate value of Reδ, both modes are first observed in the wave deceleration phase. The post flow reversal mode dominates for relatively low Re and it is the one observed in Sumer et al. ["Coherent structures in wave boundary layers. Part 2. Solitary motion," J. Fluid Mech. 646, 207 (2010)]. For Re above a threshold value of the base flow in the unconditionally unstable regime, the pre-flow reversal mode, which is longer in wavelength than its post-reversal counterpart, becomes dominant. In the same regime, the threshold Reδ value above which instability is observed in the acceleration phase of the wave is also identified. In
A relativistic solitary wave in electron-positron ion plasma
Berezhiani, V.I.; Mahajan, S.M. |
1994-03-01
The nonlinear propagation of circularly polarized electromagnetic (CPEM) waves with relativistically strong amplitude in an unmagnetized cold electron-positron ion plasma is investigated. The possibility of finding soliton solutions in such a plasma is explored. In one- and two-dimensions it is shown that the presence of a small fraction of massive ions in the plasma leads to stable localized solutions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mushtaq, A.; Shah, Attaullah; Shah
2013-10-01
The coupled drift-ion acoustic (DIA) waves in an inhomogeneous magnetoplasma having negative and positive ions can be driven by the parallel sheared flows in the presence of Cairns distributed non-thermal electrons. The coupled DIA waves can become unstable due to shear flows. The conditions of modes instability are discussed with effects of non-thermal electrons. These are the excited modes and start interactions among themselves. The interaction is governed by the Hasegawa-Mima equations with analytical solutions in the form of a vortex chain and dipolar vortex. On the other hand, for scalar nonlinearity the Kortweg deVries-type equation is obtained with solitary wave solution. Possible application of the work to the space and laboratory plasmas are highlighted.
Propagation characteristics of acoustic waves in snow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Capelli, Achille; Kapil, Jagdish Chandra; Reiweger, Ingrid; Schweizer, Jürg; Or, Dani
2015-04-01
Acoustic emission analysis is a promising technique for monitoring snow slope stability with potential for application in early warning systems for avalanches. Current research efforts focus on identification and localization of acoustic emission features preceding snow failure and avalanches. However, our knowledge of sound propagation characteristics in snow is still limited. A review of previous studies showed that significant gaps exist and that the results of the various studies are partly contradictory. Furthermore, sound velocity and attenuation have been determined for the frequency range below 10 kHz, while recent snow failure experiments suggest that the peak frequency is in the ultrasound range between 30 kHz to 500 kHz. We therefore studied the propagation of pencil lead fracture (PLF) signals through snow in the ultrasound frequency range. This was achieved by performing laboratory experiments with columns of artificially produced snow of varying density and temperature. The attenuation constant was obtained by varying the size of the columns to eliminate possible influences of the snow-sensor coupling. The attenuation constant was measured for the entire PLF burst signal and for single frequency components. The propagation velocity was calculated from the arrival time of the acoustic signal. We then modelled the sound propagation for our experimental setup using Biot's model for wave propagation in porous media. The Model results were in good agreement with our experimental results. For the studied samples, the acoustic signals propagated as fast and slow longitudinal waves, but the main part of the energy was carried by the slow waves. The Young's modulus of our snow samples was determined from the sound velocity. This is highly relevant, as the elastic properties of snow are not well known.
Electrostatic solitary waves in a magnetized dusty plasma
Maharaj, S. K.; Bharuthram, R.; Singh, S. V.; Lakhina, G. S.; Pillay, S. R.
2008-11-15
The nonlinear evolution of driven low-frequency electrostatic waves is investigated in a three-component magnetized dusty plasma comprised of a warm dust fluid, electrons, and ions. Electrons as well as ions are considered to have Boltzmann distributions. The fluid equations for the dust along with the quasineutrality condition are used to obtain a single nonlinear differential equation for the electric field. Periodic solutions of the nonlinear differential equation yield sinusoidal, sawtooth and bipolar structures which are similar to nonlinear structures supported in electron-ion plasmas. Results of our findings are applied to Saturn's rings.
Mass transport by mode-2 internal solitary-like waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deepwell, David; Stastna, Marek
2016-05-01
We present the first three-dimensional numerical simulations of the mass transport capabilities of mode-2 waves formed by a lock-release mechanism with both single and double pycnocline stratifications. Single pycnoclines and double pycnoclines with a small spacing between the pycnocline centres were found to exhibit large Lee instabilities which formed during the collapse of the intermediate density region. These instabilities led to the generation of vorticity dipoles across the mid-depth, and thereby contributed to the reduction in the mass transported by the wave. A double pycnocline with a separation of approximately 12% of the depth between the two pycnocline centres was found to transport a passive tracer optimally for the longest time-period. Increasing Schmidt number correlated with increasing mass transport, while decreasing the tracer diffusivity led to increasing mass transport, but only when a trapped core existed. Contrasted two-dimensional simulations reveal that in certain cases, most noticeably the optimal transport case, the mass transport is significantly different from the corresponding three-dimensional simulation.
Classification of regimes of internal solitary waves transformation over a shelf-slope topography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Terletska, Kateryna; Maderich, Vladimir; Talipova, Tatiana; Brovchenko, Igor; Jung, Kyung Tae
2015-04-01
The internal waves shoal and dissipate as they cross abrupt changes of the topography in the coastal ocean, estuaries and in the enclosed water bodies. They can form near the coast internal bores propagating into the shallows and re-suspend seabed pollutants that may have serious ecological consequences. Internal solitary waves (ISW) with trapped core can transport masses of water and marine organisms for some distance. The transport of cold, low-oxygen waters results in nutrient pumping. These facts require development of classification of regimes of the ISWs transformation over a shelf-slope topography to recognize 'hot spots' of wave energy dissipation on the continental shelf. A new classification of regimes of internal solitary wave interaction with the shelf-slope topography in the framework of two-layer fluid is proposed. We introduce a new three-dimensional diagram based on parameters α ,β , γ. Here α is the nondimensional wave amplitude normalized on the thermocline thickness α = ain/h1 (α > 0), β is the blocking parameter introduced in (Talipova et al., 2013) that is the ratio of the height of the bottom layer on the the shelf step h2+ to the incident wave amplitude ain, β = h2+/ain (β > -3), and γ is the parameter inverse to the slope inclination (γ > 0.01). Two mechanisms are important during wave shoaling: (i) wave breaking resulting in mixing and (ii) changing of the polarity of the initial wave of depression on the slope. Range of the parameters at which wave breaking occurs can be defined using the criteria, obtained empirically (Vlasenko and Hutter, 2002). In the three-dimensional diagram this criteria is represented by the surface f1(β,γ) = 0 that separates the region of parameters where breaking takes place from the region without breaking. The polarity change surface f2(α,β) = 0 is obtained from the condition of equality of the depth of upper layer h1 to the depth of the lower layer h2. In the two-layer stratification waves of
Observed type-a and type-b internal solitary waves in South China Sea
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, X.; Qian, H.; Zhao, W.; Tian, J.
2011-12-01
A 143-day long mooring observation was conducted in the deep basin of the South China Sea, from which 139 internal solitary waves (ISWs) were observed, comprising 51 type-a ISWs and 88 type-b ISWs. The propagation directions of these ISWs showed that the middle and southern part of the east ridge at the Luzon Strait was their source. The analyses of the arrival time of ISWs based on long time observation show that type-a and type-b waves were generated by K1 and M2 tide separately. Furthermore, type-a wave groups always changed into type-b waves at the end of them, but type-b wave groups changed into type-a waves just occurred occasionally. Generation mechanism analyses indicate that both of type-a wave groups and the following type-b waves are generated by lee wave mechanism, while the type-b wave groups evolved from M2 internal tide.
Compressional Alfvénic rogue and solitary waves in magnetohydrodynamic plasmas
Panwar, Anuraj; Rizvi, H.; Ryu, C. M.
2013-08-15
Generation of compressional Alfvénic rogue and solitary waves in magnetohydrodynamic plasmas is investigated. Dispersive effect caused by non-ideal electron inertia currents perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field can balance the nonlinear steepening of waves leading to the formation of a soliton. The reductive perturbation method is used to obtain a Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) equation describing the evolution of the solitary wave. The height of a soliton is proportional to the soliton speed “U” and inversely proportional to plasma “β” (ratio of plasma thermal pressure to pressure of the confining magnetic field) and the width of soliton is proportional to the electron inertial length. KdV equation is used to study the nonlinear evolution of modulationally unstable compressional Alfvénic wavepackets via the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The characteristics of rogue wave influenced by plasma “β” and the electron inertial length are described.
Kinetic Alfvén solitary and rogue waves in superthermal plasmas
Bains, A. S.; Li, Bo Xia, Li-Dong
2014-03-15
We investigate the small but finite amplitude solitary Kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs) in low β plasmas with superthermal electrons modeled by a kappa-type distribution. A nonlinear Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation describing the evolution of KAWs is derived by using the standard reductive perturbation method. Examining the dependence of the nonlinear and dispersion coefficients of the KdV equation on the superthermal parameter κ, plasma β, and obliqueness of propagation, we show that these parameters may change substantially the shape and size of solitary KAW pulses. Only sub-Alfvénic, compressive solitons are supported. We then extend the study to examine kinetic Alfvén rogue waves by deriving a nonlinear Schrödinger equation from the KdV equation. Rational solutions that form rogue wave envelopes are obtained. We examine how the behavior of rogue waves depends on the plasma parameters in question, finding that the rogue envelopes are lowered with increasing electron superthermality whereas the opposite is true when the plasma β increases. The findings of this study may find applications to low β plasmas in astrophysical environments where particles are superthermally distributed.
Stability of solitary waves in the nonlinear Dirac equation with arbitrary nonlinearity.
Shao, Sihong; Quintero, Niurka R; Mertens, Franz G; Cooper, Fred; Khare, Avinash; Saxena, Avadh
2014-09-01
We consider the nonlinear Dirac equation in 1 + 1 dimension with scalar-scalar self interaction g(2)/κ+1(̅ΨΨ)(κ+1) and with mass m. Using the exact analytic form for rest frame solitary waves of the form Ψ(x,t)=ψ(x)e(-iωt) for arbitrary κ, we discuss the validity of various approaches to understanding stability that were successful for the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. In particular we study the validity of a version of Derrick's theorem and the criterion of Bogolubsky as well as the Vakhitov-Kolokolov criterion, and find that these criteria yield inconsistent results. Therefore, we study the stability by numerical simulations using a recently developed fourth-order operator splitting integration method. For different ranges of κ we map out the stability regimes in ω. We find that all stable nonlinear Dirac solitary waves have a one-hump profile, but not all one-hump waves are stable, while all waves with two humps are unstable. We also find that the time t(c), it takes for the instability to set in, is an exponentially increasing function of ω and t(c) decreases monotonically with increasing κ. PMID:25314512
An Evans-function approach to spectral stability of internal solitary waves in stratified fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klaiber, Andreas
2015-11-01
Frequently encountered in nature, internal solitary waves in stratified fluids have been investigated experimentally, theoretically, and numerically. Mathematically, these waves are exact solutions of the incompressible 2D Euler equations. Contrasting with a rich existence theory and the development of methods for their computation, their stability analysis has hardly received attention at a rigorous mathematical level. This paper proposes a new approach to the investigation of stability of internal solitary waves in a continuously stratified fluid and carries out the following four steps of this approach: (I) to formulate the eigenvalue problem as an infinite-dimensional spatial-dynamical system, (II) to introduce finite-dimensional truncations of the spatial-dynamics description, (III) to demonstrate that each truncation, of any order, permits a well-defined Evans function, (IV) to prove absence of small zeros of the Evans function in the small-amplitude limit. The latter notably implies the low-frequency spectral stability of small-amplitude waves to arbitrarily high truncation order.
Guo Shimin; Wang Hongli; Mei Liquan
2012-06-15
By combining the effects of bounded cylindrical geometry, azimuthal and axial perturbations, the nonlinear dust acoustic waves (DAWs) in an unmagnetized plasma consisting of negatively charged dust grains, nonextensive ions, and nonextensive electrons are studied in this paper. Using the reductive perturbation method, a (3 + 1)-dimensional variable-coefficient cylindrical Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation describing the nonlinear propagation of DAWs is derived. Via the homogeneous balance principle, improved F-expansion technique and symbolic computation, the exact traveling and solitary wave solutions of the KdV equation are presented in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. Moreover, the effects of the plasma parameters on the solitary wave structures are discussed in detail. The obtained results could help in providing a good fit between theoretical analysis and real applications in space physics and future laboratory plasma experiments where long-range interactions are present.
Electron Acoustic Waves in Pure Ion Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderegg, F.; Affolter, M.; Driscoll, C. F.; O'Neil, T. M.; Valentini, F.
2012-10-01
Electron Acoustic Waves (EAWs) are the low-frequency branch of near-linear Langmuir (plasma) waves: the frequency is such that the complex dielectric function (Dr, Di) has Dr= 0; and ``flattening'' of f(v) near the wave phase velocity vph gives Di=0 and eliminates Landau damping. Here, we observe standing axisymmetric EAWs in a pure ion column.footnotetextF. Anderegg, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 095001 (2009). At low excitation amplitudes, the EAWs have vph˜1.4 v, in close agreement with near-linear theory. At moderate excitation strengths, EAW waves are observed over a range of frequencies, with 1.3 v < vph< 2.1 v. Here, the final wave frequency may differ from the excitation frequency since the excitation modifies f (v); and recent theory analyzes frequency shifts from ``corners'' of a plateau at vph.footnotetextF. Valentini et al., arXiv:1206.3500v1. Large amplitude EAWs have strong phase-locked harmonic content, and experiments will be compared to same-geometry simulations, and to simulations of KEENfootnotetextB. Afeyan et al., Proc. Inertial Fusion Sci. and Applications 2003, A.N.S. Monterey (2004), p. 213. waves in HEDLP geometries.
Acoustic field distribution of sawtooth wave with nonlinear SBE model
Liu, Xiaozhou Zhang, Lue; Wang, Xiangda; Gong, Xiufen
2015-10-28
For precise prediction of the acoustic field distribution of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy with an ellipsoid transducer, the nonlinear spheroidal beam equations (SBE) are employed to model acoustic wave propagation in medium. To solve the SBE model with frequency domain algorithm, boundary conditions are obtained for monochromatic and sawtooth waves based on the phase compensation. In numerical analysis, the influence of sinusoidal wave and sawtooth wave on axial pressure distributions are investigated.
Thomas, Edward Jr.; Fisher, Ross; Merlino, Robert L.
2007-12-15
An experiment has been performed to study the behavior of dust acoustic waves driven at high frequencies (f>100 Hz), extending the range of previous work. In this study, two previously unreported phenomena are observed--interference effects between naturally excited dust acoustic waves and driven dust acoustic waves, and the observation of finite dust temperature effects on the dispersion relation.
Dual-mode acoustic wave biosensors microarrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Auner, Gregory W.; Shreve, Gina; Ying, Hao; Newaz, Golam; Hughes, Chantelle; Xu, Jianzeng
2003-04-01
We have develop highly sensitive and selective acoustic wave biosensor arrays with signal analysis systems to provide a fingerprint for the real-time identification and quantification of a wide array of bacterial pathogens and environmental health hazards. We have developed an unique highly sensitive dual mode acoustic wave platform prototype that, when combined with phage based selective detection elements, form a durable bacteria sensor. Arrays of these new real-time biosensors are integrated to form a biosensor array on a chip. This research and development program optimizes advanced piezoelectric aluminum nitride wide bandgap semiconductors, novel micromachining processes, advanced device structures, selective phage displays development and immobilization techniques, and system integration and signal analysis technology to develop the biosensor arrays. The dual sensor platform can be programmed to sense in a gas, vapor or liquid environment by switching between acoustic wave resonate modes. Such a dual mode sensor has tremendous implications for applications involving monitoring of pathogenic microorganisms in the clinical setting due to their ability to detect airborne pathogens. This provides a number of applications including hospital settings such as intensive care or other in-patient wards for the reduction of nosocomial infections and maintenance of sterile environments in surgical suites. Monitoring for airborn pathogen transmission in public transportation areas such as airplanes may be useful for implementation of strategies for redution of airborn transmission routes. The ability to use the same sensor in the liquid sensing mode is important for tracing the source of airborn pathogens to local liquid sources. Sensing of pathogens in saliva will be useful for sensing oral pathogens and support of decision-making strategies regarding prevention of transmission and support of treatment strategies.
Solitary waves and nonlinear dynamic coherent structures in magnetic metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tankeyev, A. P.; Smagin, V. V.; Borich, M. A.; Zhuravlev, A. S.
2009-03-01
Within the framework of the extended nonlinear Schrödinger equation (ENSE), two types of nonlinear states of magnetization in a ferromagnet-dielectric-metal metamagnetic structure have been obtained and investigated. These states have an internal structure; e.g., a periodic sequence of compound solitons is formed by kink-antikink pairs (shock waves), and coherent periodic breather structures are formed by “bright” quasi-solitons. Conditions have been found under which the envelope of these states is described by a modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation. It is shown that the compound solitons are described by an mKdV equation with repulsion, and the breather structures, by an mKdV equation with attraction. It is shown also that the characteristic properties of the solutions are determined by the sign of the group-velocity dispersion rather than by the sign of the group velocity itself. The results obtained can be used for searching new nonlinear dynamic coherent structures, e.g., compound solitons and breathers in high-dispersion magnetic metamaterials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diorio, J. D.; Watkins, N.; Zuech, J.; Duncan, J. H.
2008-11-01
There have been several recent numerical investigations that have shown the existence of three-dimensional nonlinear solitary surface wave patterns that propagate with speeds less than the minimum wave phase speed prescribed by linear theory (23 cm/s for clean water). In the present study, wave patterns were generated by translating a small-diameter region of high pressure across a water surface. The high-pressure region was created by forcing air through a small-diameter vertically oriented tube attached to a carriage that propelled it horizontally at speeds near 23 cm/s. The wave pattern was measured with a cinematic LIF technique. It was found that a steady solitary wave pattern can exist at speeds below the linear-theory minimum phase speed, while for speeds above the minimum, a pattern of gravity-capillary waves was produced. The solitary wave pattern, which only appeared when the pressure forcing was large, dissipated rapidly when the forcing was turned off. The streamwise dimension of the solitary wave was much smaller than the transverse dimension.
Simulation of dust-acoustic waves
Winske, D.; Murillo, M.S.; Rosenberg, M.
1998-12-01
The authors use molecular dynamics (MD) and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation methods to investigate the dispersion relation of dust-acoustic waves in a one-dimensional, strongly coupled (Coulomb coupling parameter = {Lambda} = ratio of the Coulomb energy to the thermal energy = 120) dusty plasma. They study both cases where the dust is represented by a small number of simulation particles that form into a regular array structure (crystal limit) as well as where the dust is represented by a much larger number of particles (fluid limit).
Surface acoustic wave propagation in graphene film
Roshchupkin, Dmitry Plotitcyna, Olga; Matveev, Viktor; Kononenko, Oleg; Emelin, Evgenii; Irzhak, Dmitry; Ortega, Luc; Zizak, Ivo; Erko, Alexei; Tynyshtykbayev, Kurbangali; Insepov, Zinetula
2015-09-14
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation in a graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals was studied at the BESSY II synchrotron radiation source. Talbot effect enabled the visualization of the SAW propagation on the crystal surface with the graphene film in a real time mode, and high-resolution x-ray diffraction permitted the determination of the SAW amplitude in the graphene/piezoelectric crystal system. The influence of the SAW on the electrical properties of the graphene film was examined. It was shown that the changing of the SAW amplitude enables controlling the magnitude and direction of current in graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals.
Acoustic gravity waves: A computational approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hariharan, S. I.; Dutt, P. K.
1987-01-01
This paper discusses numerical solutions of a hyperbolic initial boundary value problem that arises from acoustic wave propagation in the atmosphere. Field equations are derived from the atmospheric fluid flow governed by the Euler equations. The resulting original problem is nonlinear. A first order linearized version of the problem is used for computational purposes. The main difficulty in the problem as with any open boundary problem is in obtaining stable boundary conditions. Approximate boundary conditions are derived and shown to be stable. Numerical results are presented to verify the effectiveness of these boundary conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noguchi, Y.; Yamada, T.; Otomori, M.; Izui, K.; Nishiwaki, S.
2015-11-01
This letter presents an acoustic metasurface that converts longitudinal acoustic waves into transverse elastic waves in an acoustic-elastic coupled system. Metasurface configurations are obtained by a level set-based topology optimization method, and we describe the mechanism that changes the direction of the wave motion. Numerical examples of 2D problems with prescribed frequencies of incident acoustic waves are provided, and transverse elastic wave amplitudes are maximized by manipulating the propagation of the acoustic waves. Frequency analysis reveals that each of the different metasurface designs obtained for different wavelengths of incident waves provides peak response at the target frequency.
Choi, C.-R.; Min, K.-W.; Woo, M.-H.; Ryu, C.-M.
2010-09-15
The existence condition for bump and dip type, as well as double layer (DL), solutions of electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) in a nonthermal electron plasma with heavy ions is investigated by a pseudopotential method. It is found that the nonthermality of electrons determines the existence of the DL solution and that the amplitude of ESWs is enhanced by the density of heavy ions. When the heavy ion density is beyond a certain critical value, ESWs and DLs cannot exist. It is also found that both the lower and upper critical Mach numbers are reduced by the presence of heavy ions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Malaspina, David M.; Newman, David L.; Wilson, Lynn Bruce; Goetz, Keith; Kellogg, Paul J.; Kerstin, Kris
2013-01-01
A strong spatial association between bipolar electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) and magnetic current sheets (CSs) in the solar wind is reported here for the first time. This association requires that the plasma instabilities (e.g., Buneman, electron two stream) which generate ESWs are preferentially localized to solar wind CSs. Distributions of CS properties (including shear angle, thickness, solar wind speed, and vector magnetic field change) are examined for differences between CSs associated with ESWs and randomly chosen CSs. Possible mechanisms for producing ESW-generating instabilities at solar wind CSs are considered, including magnetic reconnection.
Nonlinear, Statistical and Applied Physics of Solitary Wave-like Objects in Granular Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Diankang; Ávalos, Edgar; Doney, Robert L.; Simion, Robert P.; Sokolow, Adam; Sen, Surajit
2009-06-01
We consider a simple problem that of a horizontal alignment of identical grains, and insure that the grains are in gentle mutual contact and held between two rigid fixed end walls. Grain-grain interactions are intrinsically nonlinear according to the Hertz law and hence no sound waves can propagate through this alignment. The discussions here concern the solitary wave nature of propagation of any perturbation and its subsequent dispersion in the same vein as we probe the dispersion of a perturbation in linear response theory in statistical physics. We show that a perturbed granular alignment exhibits both decaying and growing solitary waves and can indeed reach an equilibrium-like state. We suggest that this equilibrium-like state may not be the equilibrium state commonly reached in thermodynamics and statistical physics. Moving beyond the effort to develop a deeper understanding of the energy transport problem in granular systems, we discuss a new application of a granular alignment system, that of driven granular alignments that show rich nonlinear dynamics and can turn out to be technologically meaningful entities.
Bottom shear stress and pressure perturbations under an internal solitary wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rivera, Gustavo; Diamessis, Peter
2014-11-01
The bottom boundary layer (BBL) under a mode-1 internal solitary wave (ISW) of depression propagating against an oncoming model barotropic current is examined using 2-D direct numerical simulation based on a spectral multidomain penalty method model. Use of a postprocessing projection onto a modified set of divergence-free basis functions enables investigation of wave-based Reynolds numbers within the range [105 ,106 ] . At sufficiently high ISW amplitude, the BBL undergoes a global instability which produces intermittent vortex shedding from within the separation bubble in the lee of the wave. The interplay between the bottom shear stress field and pressure perturbations during vortex ejection events and the subsequent evolution of the vortices is the focus of this presentation. Implications for resuspension of bottom particulate matter are discussed in the context of specific sediment transport models. Support from the Cornell Sloan Diversity Fellowship program is gratefully acknowledged.
Porous silicon bulk acoustic wave resonator with integrated transducer
2012-01-01
We report that porous silicon acoustic Bragg reflectors and AlN-based transducers can be successfully combined and processed in a commercial solidly mounted resonator production line. The resulting device takes advantage of the unique acoustic properties of porous silicon in order to form a monolithically integrated bulk acoustic wave resonator. PMID:22776697
Wave envelopes method for description of nonlinear acoustic wave propagation.
Wójcik, J; Nowicki, A; Lewin, P A; Bloomfield, P E; Kujawska, T; Filipczyński, L
2006-07-01
A novel, free from paraxial approximation and computationally efficient numerical algorithm capable of predicting 4D acoustic fields in lossy and nonlinear media from arbitrary shaped sources (relevant to probes used in medical ultrasonic imaging and therapeutic systems) is described. The new WE (wave envelopes) approach to nonlinear propagation modeling is based on the solution of the second order nonlinear differential wave equation reported in [J. Wójcik, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 104 (1998) 2654-2663; V.P. Kuznetsov, Akust. Zh. 16 (1970) 548-553]. An incremental stepping scheme allows for forward wave propagation. The operator-splitting method accounts independently for the effects of full diffraction, absorption and nonlinear interactions of harmonics. The WE method represents the propagating pulsed acoustic wave as a superposition of wavelet-like sinusoidal pulses with carrier frequencies being the harmonics of the boundary tone burst disturbance. The model is valid for lossy media, arbitrarily shaped plane and focused sources, accounts for the effects of diffraction and can be applied to continuous as well as to pulsed waves. Depending on the source geometry, level of nonlinearity and frequency bandwidth, in comparison with the conventional approach the Time-Averaged Wave Envelopes (TAWE) method shortens computational time of the full 4D nonlinear field calculation by at least an order of magnitude; thus, predictions of nonlinear beam propagation from complex sources (such as phased arrays) can be available within 30-60 min using only a standard PC. The approximate ratio between the computational time costs obtained by using the TAWE method and the conventional approach in calculations of the nonlinear interactions is proportional to 1/N2, and in memory consumption to 1/N where N is the average bandwidth of the individual wavelets. Numerical computations comparing the spatial field distributions obtained by using both the TAWE method and the conventional approach
The structure and stability of mode-2 internal solitary-like waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carr, Magda; Davies, Peter; Hoebers, Ruud
2015-04-01
Recent observational examples of Mode-2 internal solitary-like waves (ISWs) in the ocean (e.g. Yang et al., 2009; Schroyer et al., 2010) have motivated modelling studies. The present laboratory study investigates the structure and stability of mode-2 ISWs. A rank-ordered train of mode-2 ISWs is generated using a lock release configuration. The pycnocline is centred either on the mid-depth of the water column (the 0% offset case) or it is offset in the positive vertical direction by a fraction of 5%, 10% or 20% of the total fluid depth. It is found that offsetting the pycnocline has little effect on the basic wave properties but it does significantly affect wave stability. Instability takes the form of small K-H-like billows in the rear of the wave and small scale overturning in the core of the wave. In the 0% offset case, instability occurs on both the upper and lower interfaces of the pycnocline and is similar in extent and vigour over the two interfaces. As the offset percentage is increased, however, instability is more pronounced on the lower interface with little or no evidence of instability being observed on the upper interface. In the 20% offset case a mode-1 tail is associated with the wave and the wave characteristics resemble qualitatively the recent field observations of Shroyer et al., (2010).
Louis, H; Tlidi, M; Louvergneaux, E
2016-07-11
We perform a statistical analysis of the optical solitary wave propagation in an ultra-slow stochastic non-local focusing Kerr medium such as liquid crystals. Our experimental results show that the localized beam trajectory presents a dynamical random walk whose beam position versus the propagation distance z depicts two different kind of evolutions A power law is found for the beam position standard deviation during the first stage of propagation. It obeys approximately z^{3}/^{2} up to ten times the power threshold for solitary wave generation. PMID:27410886
Louis, H; Tlidi, M; Louvergneaux, E
2016-07-11
We perform a statistical analysis of the optical solitary wave propagation in an ultra-slow stochastic non-local focusing Kerr medium such as liquid crystals. Our experimental results show that the localized beam trajectory presents a dynamical random walk whose beam position versus the propagation distance z depicts two different kind of evolutions A power law is found for the beam position standard deviation during the first stage of propagation. It obeys approximately z^{3}/^{2} up to ten times the power threshold for solitary wave generation. PMID:27410887
Persistent currents supported by solitary waves in toroidal Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muñoz Mateo, A.; Gallemí, A.; Guilleumas, M.; Mayol, R.
2015-06-01
We analyze the nucleation of persistent currents in Bose-Einstein condensates of ultracold gases confined in a ring. This phenomenon has been recently investigated in an experiment [S. Eckel, J. G. Lee, F. Jendrzejewski, N. Murray, C. W. Clark, C. J. Lobb, W. D. Phillips, M. Edwards, and G. K. Campbell, Nature (London) 506, 200 (2014), 10.1038/nature12958], where hysteresis loops have been observed in the activation of quantized persistent currents by rotating weak links. In this work, we demonstrate the existence of three-dimensional stationary currents with nonquantized angular momentum. They are generated by families of solitary waves that exhibit a continuous variation in the angular momentum and provide a bridge between different winding numbers. We show that the size of hysteresis loops is determined by the range of existence within the weak link region of solitary waves which configure the energy barrier preventing phase slips. The barrier vanishes when the critical rotation leads winding number and solitonic states to a matching configuration. At this point, Landau and Feynman criteria for phase slips meet: the fluid flow reaches the local speed of sound, and stationary vortex lines (which are the building blocks of multidimensional solitons) can be excited inside the system.
Reorientational versus Kerr dark and gray solitary waves using modulation theory.
Assanto, Gaetano; Marchant, T R; Minzoni, Antonmaria A; Smyth, Noel F
2011-12-01
We develop a modulation theory model based on a Lagrangian formulation to investigate the evolution of dark and gray optical spatial solitary waves for both the defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation and the nematicon equations describing nonlinear beams, nematicons, in self-defocusing nematic liquid crystals. Since it has an exact soliton solution, the defocusing NLS equation is used as a test bed for the modulation theory applied to the nematicon equations, which have no exact solitary wave solution. We find that the evolution of dark and gray NLS solitons, as well as nematicons, is entirely driven by the emission of diffractive radiation, in contrast to the evolution of bright NLS solitons and bright nematicons. Moreover, the steady nematicon profile is nonmonotonic due to the long-range nonlocality associated with the perturbation of the optic axis. Excellent agreement is obtained with numerical solutions of both the defocusing NLS and nematicon equations. The comparisons for the nematicon solutions raise a number of subtle issues relating to the definition and measurement of the width of a dark or gray nematicon. PMID:22304206
Generation of undular bores in the shelves of slowly-varying solitary waves.
El, G. A.; Grimshaw, R. H. J.
2002-12-01
We study the long-time evolution of the trailing shelves that form behind solitary waves moving through an inhomogeneous medium, within the framework of the variable-coefficient Korteweg-de Vries equation. We show that the nonlinear evolution of the shelf leads typically to the generation of an undular bore and an expansion fan, which form apart but start to overlap and nonlinearly interact after a certain time interval. The interaction zone expands with time and asymptotically as time goes to infinity occupies the whole perturbed region. Its oscillatory structure strongly depends on the sign of the inhomogeneity gradient of the variable background medium. We describe the nonlinear evolution of the shelves in terms of exact solutions to the KdV-Whitham equations with natural boundary conditions for the Riemann invariants. These analytic solutions, in particular, describe the generation of small "secondary" solitary waves in the trailing shelves, a process observed earlier in various numerical simulations. (c) 2002 American Institute of Physics. PMID:12779625
Deng, Wen; Nasrollahi, Amir; Rizzo, Piervincenzo; Li, Kaiyuan
2015-01-01
In the study presented in this article we investigated the feasibility and the reliability of a transducer design for the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of the stiffness of structural materials. The NDE method is based on the propagation of highly nonlinear solitary waves (HNSWs) along a one-dimensional chain of spherical particles that is in contact with the material to be assessed. The chain is part of a built-in system designed and assembled to excite and detect HNSWs, and to exploit the dynamic interaction between the particles and the material to be inspected. This interaction influences the time-of-flight and the amplitude of the solitary pulses reflected at the transducer/material interface. The results of this study show that certain features of the waves are dependent on the modulus of elasticity of the material and that the built-in system is reliable. In the future the proposed NDE method may provide a cost-effective tool for the rapid assessment of materials’ modulus. PMID:26703617
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Triki, Houria; Azzouzi, Faiçal; Grelu, Philippe
2013-11-01
We consider a high-order nonlinear Schrödinger (HNLS) equation with third- and fourth-order dispersions, quintic non-Kerr terms, self steepening, and self-frequency-shift effects. The model applies to the description of ultrashort optical pulse propagation in highly nonlinear media. We propose a complex envelope function ansatz composed of single bright, single dark and the product of bright and dark solitary waves that allows us to obtain analytically different shapes of solitary wave solutions. Parametric conditions for the existence and uniqueness of such solitary waves are presented. The solutions comprise fundamental solitons, kink and anti-kink solitons, W-shaped, dipole, tripole, and fifth-order solitons. In addition, we found a new type of solitary wave solution that takes the shape of N, illustrating the potentially rich set of solitary wave solutions of the HNLS equation. Finally, the stability of the solutions is checked by direct numerical simulation.
Forced generation of solitary waves in a rotating fluid and their stability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Wooyoung
The primary objective of this graduate research is to study forced generation of solitary waves in a rotating fluid and their stability properties. For axisymmetric flow of a non-uniformly rotating fluid within a long cylindrical tube, an analysis is presented to predict the periodic generation of upstream-advancing vortex solitons by axisymmetric disturbance steadily moving with a transcritical velocity as a forcing agent. The phenomenon is simulated using the forced Korteweg-de Vries (fKdV) equation to model the amplitude function of the Stokes stream function for describing this family of rotating flows of an inviscid and incompressible fluid. The numerical results for the weakly nonlinear and weakly dispersive wave motion show that a sequence of well-defined axisymmetrical recirculating eddies is periodically produced and emitted to radiate upstream of the disturbance, soon becoming permanent in the form as a procession of vortex solitons, which we call vortons. Two primary flows, the Rankine vortex and the Burgers vortex, are adopted to exhibit in detail the process of producing the upstream vortons by the critical motion of a slender body moving along the central axis, with the Burgers vortex being found the more effective of the two in the generation of vortons. To investigate the evolution of free or forced waves within a tube of non-uniform radius, a new forced KdV equation is derived which models the variable geometry with variable coefficients. A set of section-mean conservation laws is derived specially for this class of rotational tube flows of an inviscid and incompressible fluid, in both differential and integral forms. A new aspect of stability theory is analyzed for possible instabilities of the axisymmetric solitary waves subject to non-axisymmetric disturbances. The present linear analysis based on the model equation involving the bending mode shows that the axisymmetric solitary wave is neutrally stable with respect to small bending mode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pickett, J. S.; Chen, L.-J.; Santolík, O.; Grimald, S.; Lavraud, B.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Lefebvre, B.; Fazakerley, A.; Lakhina, G. S.; Ghosh, S. S.; Grison, B.; Décréau, P. M. E.; Gurnett, D. A.; Torbert, R.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Dandouras, I.; Lucek, E.
2009-06-01
Electrostatic Solitary Waves (ESWs) have been observed by several spacecraft in the current layers of Earth's magnetosphere since 1982. ESWs are manifested as isolated pulses (one wave period) in the high time resolution waveform data obtained on these spacecraft. They are thus nonlinear structures generated out of nonlinear instabilities and processes. We report the first observations of ESWs associated with the onset of a super-substorm that occurred on 24 August 2005 while the Cluster spacecraft were located in the magnetotail at around 18-19 RE and moving northward from the plasma sheet to the lobes. These ESWs were detected in the waveform data of the WBD plasma wave receiver on three of the Cluster spacecraft. The majority of the ESWs were detected about 5 min after the super-substorm onset during which time 1) the PEACE electron instrument detected significant field-aligned electron fluxes from a few 100 eV to 3.5 keV, 2) the EDI instrument detected bursts of field-aligned electron currents, 3) the FGM instrument detected substantial magnetic fluctuations and the presence of Alfvén waves, 4) the STAFF experiment detected broadband electric and magnetic waves, ion cyclotron waves and whistler mode waves, and 5) CIS detected nearly comparable densities of H+ and O+ ions and a large tailward H+ velocity. We compare the characteristics of the ESWs observed during this event to those created in the laboratory at the University of California-Los Angeles Plasma Device (LAPD) with an electron beam. We find that the time durations of both space and LAPD ESWs are only slightly larger than the respective local electron plasma periods, indicating that electron, and not ion, dynamics are responsible for generation of the ESWs. We have discussed possible mechanisms for generating the ESWs in space, including the beam and kinetic Buneman type instabilities and the acoustic instabilities. Future studies will examine these mechanisms in more detail using the space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Chun-Long; Qiang, Ji-Ye; Wang, Shao-Hua
2010-12-01
In the paper, the variable separation approach, homoclinic test technique and bilinear method are successfully extended to a (1 + 1)-dimensional Caudry—Dodd—Gibbon—Sawada—Kortera (CDGSK) system, respectively. Based on the derived exact solutions, some significant types of localized excitations such as standing waves, periodic waves, solitary waves are simultaneously derived from the (1 + 1)-dimensional Caudry—Dodd—Gibbon—Sawada—Kortera system by entrancing appropriate parameters.
Complex solitary waves and soliton trains in KdV and mKdV equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Modak, Subhrajit; Singh, Akhil Pratap; Panigrahi, Prasanta Kumar
2016-06-01
We demonstrate the existence of complex solitary wave and periodic solutions of the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equations. The solutions of the KdV (mKdV) equation appear in complex-conjugate pairs and are even (odd) under the simultaneous actions of parity (𝓟) and time-reversal (𝓣) operations. The corresponding localized solitons are hydrodynamic analogs of Bloch soliton in magnetic system, with asymptotically vanishing intensity. The 𝓟𝓣-odd complex soliton solution is shown to be iso-spectrally connected to the fundamental sech2 solution through supersymmetry. Physically, these complex solutions are analogous to the experimentally observed grey solitons of non-liner Schödinger equation, governing the dynamics of shallow water waves and hence may also find physical verification.
Seismic, satellite, and site observations of internal solitary waves in the NE South China Sea
Tang, Qunshu; Wang, Caixia; Wang, Dongxiao; Pawlowicz, Rich
2014-01-01
Internal solitary waves (ISWs) in the NE South China Sea (SCS) are tidally generated at the Luzon Strait. Their propagation, evolution, and dissipation processes involve numerous issues still poorly understood. Here, a novel method of seismic oceanography capable of capturing oceanic finescale structures is used to study ISWs in the slope region of the NE SCS. Near-simultaneous observations of two ISWs were acquired using seismic and satellite imaging, and water column measurements. The vertical and horizontal length scales of the seismic observed ISWs are around 50 m and 1–2 km, respectively. Wave phase speeds calculated from seismic observations, satellite images, and water column data are consistent with each other. Observed waveforms and vertical velocities also correspond well with those estimated using KdV theory. These results suggest that the seismic method, a new option to oceanographers, can be further applied to resolve other important issues related to ISWs. PMID:24948180
Kinetic Alfven solitary waves in a magnetized plasma with superthermal electrons
Panwar, A. E-mail: ryu201@postech.ac.kr Ryu, C. M. E-mail: ryu201@postech.ac.kr; Bains, A. S. E-mail: ryu201@postech.ac.kr
2015-09-15
A study of the ion Larmor radius effects on the solitary kinetic Alfven waves (SKAWs) in a magnetized plasma with superthermal electrons is presented by employing the kinetic theory. The linear dispersion relation of SKAW is shown to depend on the superthermal parameter κ, ion to electron temperature ratio, and the angle of wave propagation. Using the Sagdeev potential approach, the energy balance equation has been derived to study the dynamics of SKAWs. The effects of various plasma parameters are investigated for the propagation of SKAWs. It is shown that only compressive solitons can exist and in the Maxwellian limit our results are in good agreement with previous studies. Further, the characteristics of small amplitude SKAWs are investigated. Present study could be useful for the understanding of SKAWs in a low β plasma in astrophysical environment, where particle distributions are superthermal in nature.
Seismic, satellite, and site observations of internal solitary waves in the NE South China Sea.
Tang, Qunshu; Wang, Caixia; Wang, Dongxiao; Pawlowicz, Rich
2014-01-01
Internal solitary waves (ISWs) in the NE South China Sea (SCS) are tidally generated at the Luzon Strait. Their propagation, evolution, and dissipation processes involve numerous issues still poorly understood. Here, a novel method of seismic oceanography capable of capturing oceanic finescale structures is used to study ISWs in the slope region of the NE SCS. Near-simultaneous observations of two ISWs were acquired using seismic and satellite imaging, and water column measurements. The vertical and horizontal length scales of the seismic observed ISWs are around 50 m and 1-2 km, respectively. Wave phase speeds calculated from seismic observations, satellite images, and water column data are consistent with each other. Observed waveforms and vertical velocities also correspond well with those estimated using KdV theory. These results suggest that the seismic method, a new option to oceanographers, can be further applied to resolve other important issues related to ISWs. PMID:24948180
Nonlinear surface acoustic waves in cubic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumon, Ronald Edward
Model equations developed by Hamilton, Il'inskii, and Zabolotskaya [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105, 639-651 (1999)] are used to perform theoretical and numerical studies of nonlinear surface acoustic waves in a variety of nonpiezoelectric cubic crystals. The basic theory underlying the model equations is outlined, quasilinear solutions of the equations are derived, and expressions are developed for the shock formation distance and nonlinearity coefficient. A time-domain equation corresponding to the frequency-domain model equations is derived and shown to reduce to a time-domain equation introduced previously for Rayleigh waves [E. A. Zabolotskaya, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 91, 2569-2575 (1992)]. Numerical calculations are performed to predict the evolution of initially monofrequency surface waves in the (001), (110), and (111) planes of the crystals RbCl, KCl, NaCl, CaF2, SrF2, BaF2, C (diamond), Si, Ge, Al, Ni, Cu in the moverline 3m point group, and the crystals Cs-alum, NH4- alum, and K-alum in the moverline 3 point group. The calculations are based on measured second- and third- order elastic constants taken from the literature. Nonlinearity matrix elements which describe the coupling strength of harmonic interactions are shown to provide a powerful tool for characterizing waveform distortion. Simulations in the (001) and (110) planes show that in certain directions the velocity waveform distortion may change in sign, generation of one or more harmonies may be suppressed and shock formation postponed, or energy may be transferred rapidly to the highest harmonics and shock formation enhanced. Simulations in the (111) plane show that the nonlinearity matrix elements are generally complex-valued, which may lead to asymmetric distortion and the appearance of low frequency oscillations near the peaks and shocks in the velocity waveforms. A simple transformation based on the phase of the nonlinearity matrix is shown to provide a reasonable approximation of asymmetric waveform
Large-eddy simulation of the generation and propagation of internal solitary waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Hai; Wang, LingLing; Tang, HongWu
2014-06-01
A modified large-eddy simulation model, the dynamic coherent eddy model (DCEM) is employed to simulate the generation and propagation of internal solitary waves (ISWs) of both depression and elevation type, with wave amplitudes ranging from small, medium to large scales. The simulation results agree well with the existing experimental data. The generation process of ISWs is successfully captured by the DCEM method. Shear instabilities and diapycnal mixing in the initial wave generation phase are observed. The dissipation rate is not equal at different locations of an ISW. ISW-induced velocity field is analyzed in the present study. The structure of the bottom boundary layer (BBL) of internal wave packets is found to be different from that of a single ISW. A reverse boundary jet instead of a separation bubble exists behind the leading internal wave while separation bubbles appear in other parts of the wave-induced velocity field. The boundary jet flow resulting from the adverse pressure gradients has distinctive dynamics compared with free shear jets.
Acceleration of the Fast Solar Wind by Solitary Waves in Coronal Holes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ofman, Leon
2001-01-01
The purpose of this investigation is to develop a new model for the acceleration of the fast solar wind by nonlinear. time-dependent multidimensional MHD simulations of waves in solar coronal holes. Preliminary computational studies indicate that nonlinear waves are generated in coronal holes by torsional Alfv\\'{e}n waves. These waves in addition to thermal conduction may contribute considerably to the accelerate the solar wind. Specific goals of this proposal are to investigate the generation of nonlinear solitary-like waves and their effect on solar wind acceleration by numerical 2.5D MHD simulation of coronal holes with a broad range of plasma and wave parameters; to study the effect of random disturbances at the base of a solar coronal hole on the fast solar wind acceleration with a more advanced 2.5D MHD model and to compare the results with the available observations; to extend the study to a full 3D MHD simulation of fast solar wind acceleration with a more realistic model of a coronal hole and solar boundary conditions. The ultimate goal of the three year study is to model the, fast solar wind in a coronal hole, based on realistic boundary conditions in a coronal hole near the Sun, and the coronal hole structure (i.e., density, temperature. and magnetic field geometry,) that will become available from the recently launched SOHO spacecraft.
Application of the SPH method to solitary wave impact on an offshore platform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, K.; IJzermans, R. H. A.; Jones, B. D.; Thyagarajan, A.; van Beest, B. W. H.; Williams, J. R.
2016-04-01
This paper investigates the interaction between large waves and floating offshore structures. Here, the fluid-structure interaction is considered using the weakly compressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method. To ensure the applicability of this method, we validate its prediction for fluid forces and rigid-body motion against two sets of experimental data. These are impact due to dam break, and wave induced motion of a floating cube. For the dam break problem, the SPH method is used to predict impact forces on a rectangular column located downstream. In the second case of a floating cube, the SPH method simulates the motion of a buoyant cube under the action of induced waves, where a wall placed upstream of the cube is displaced sinusoidally to induce waves. In both cases, the SPH framework implemented is able to accurately reproduce the experimental results. Following validation, we apply this framework to simulation of a toy model of a tension-leg platform upon impact of a large solitary wave. This analysis shows that the platform may be pulled into the water by stretched tension legs, where the extension of the tension legs also governs the rotational behavior of the platform. The result also indicates that a tension-leg platform is very unlikely to topple over during the arrival of an extreme wave.
Confined aquifer as wave-guide and its responses to geo-acoustic waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jian, Wen-Bin; Chen, Bao-Ren; Lu, Hua-Fu
1997-05-01
On the basis of the hydro-geological model of a confined aquifer, the propagation mechanism of geo-acoustic waves along the confined aquifer outlined as a plate wave-guide is proposed. The harmonic frequency equation for geo-acoustic propagation along confined aquifer as waveguide is derived from Biot theory. The basic frequency of the confined aquifer with a deep well for geo-acoustic observation, located at Juxian county, Shandong province, China, is 35.0 Hz. By Wigner distribution of geo-acoustic signals observed at Juxian geo-acoustic well, the frequencies of geo-acoustics are basically the integral multiple of the basic frequency. The results show that the responses of the confined aquifer to geo-acoustic waves are characterized by frequency selection and frequency dependence. Only the waves whose frequency f is the integral multiple of basic frequency can propagate as guide waves in the aquifer, that is, the aquifer responds to the waves.
Vlasov Simulation of Electrostatic Solitary Structures in Multi-Component Plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Umeda, Takayuki; Ashour-Abdalla, Maha; Pickett, Jolene S.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.
2012-01-01
Electrostatic solitary structures have been observed in the Earth's magnetosheath by the Cluster spacecraft. Recent theoretical work has suggested that these solitary structures are modeled by electron acoustic solitary waves existing in a four-component plasma system consisting of core electrons, two counter-streaming electron beams, and one species of background ions. In this paper, the excitation of electron acoustic waves and the formation of solitary structures are studied by means of a one-dimensional electrostatic Vlasov simulation. The present result first shows that either electron acoustic solitary waves with negative potential or electron phase-space holes with positive potential are excited in four-component plasma systems. However, these electrostatic solitary structures have longer duration times and higher wave amplitudes than the solitary structures observed in the magnetosheath. The result indicates that a high-speed and small free energy source may be needed as a fifth component. An additional simulation of a five-component plasma consisting of a stable four-component plasma and a weak electron beam shows the generation of small and fast electron phase-space holes by the bump-on-tail instability. The physical properties of the small and fast electron phase-space holes are very similar to those obtained by the previous theoretical analysis. The amplitude and duration time of solitary structures in the simulation are also in agreement with the Cluster observation.
Generation of currents in the solar atmosphere by acoustic waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riutov, D. D.; Riutova, M. P.
The novel mechanism presented for current and magnetic field generation by acoustic-wave fluxes in solar plasmas is especially potent in the region where acoustic-wave damping is due to such nonlinear effects as weak-shock formation. An evaluation is made of the significance of this effect for the solar atmosphere, under the proviso that this treatment is restricted to effects due to the usual acoustic waves. Wave absorption is governed by the classical collisional effects of thermal conductivity, viscosity, and ohmic losses.
Chirped solitary pulses for a nonic nonlinear Schrödinger equation on a continuous-wave background
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Triki, Houria; Porsezian, K.; Choudhuri, Amitava; Dinda, P. Tchofo
2016-06-01
A class of derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation with cubic-quintic-septic-nonic nonlinear terms describing the propagation of ultrashort optical pulses through a nonlinear medium with higher-order Kerr responses is investigated. An intensity-dependent chirp ansatz is adopted for solving the two coupled amplitude-phase nonlinear equations of the propagating wave. We find that the dynamics of field amplitude in this system is governed by a first-order nonlinear ordinary differential equation with a tenth-degree nonlinear term. We demonstrate that this system allows the propagation of a very rich variety of solitary waves (kink, dark, bright, and gray solitary pulses) which do not coexist in the conventional nonlinear systems that have appeared so far in the literature. The stability of the solitary wave solution under some violation on the parametric conditions is investigated. Moreover, we show that, unlike conventional systems, the nonlinear Schrödinger equation considered here meets the special requirements for the propagation of a chirped solitary wave on a continuous-wave background, involving a balance among group velocity dispersion, self-steepening, and higher-order nonlinearities of different nature.
Magnetoelectric coupling by acoustic wave guide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, X. Y.; Liu, J.; Zhang, N.
2016-04-01
Magnetoelectric (ME) coupling by acoustic waveguide was developed. A very strong axial ME response was observed. The dependences of the sample size and the frequency of the ac field on the ME coupling were investigated. Several resonant points were observed in the frequency range applied (<50 kHz). Analysis shows that the standing waves transmitted in the waveguide were responsible for those resonances. And the resonant frequencies were closely influenced by the geometrical size of the waveguide. A resonant condition related to the size of the sample was obtained. The axial (or longitudinal) and transversal ME coefficients were observed to be up to 62 and 6 (V cm-1 Oe-1) at resonant points, respectively, indicating that the axial ME effect in this device was much higher than its transversal ones. A series of double-peak curves of axial ME coefficient versus magnetic field were observed. The significance of the double-peak curves was discussed.
Raising Photoemission Efficiency with Surface Acoustic Waves
A. Afanasev, F. Hassani, C.E. Korman, V.G. Dudnikov, R.P. Johnson, M. Poelker, K.E.L. Surles-Law
2012-07-01
We are developing a novel technique that may help increase the efficiency and reduce costs of photoelectron sources used at electron accelerators. The technique is based on the use of Surface Acoustic Waves (SAW) in piezoelectric materials, such as GaAs, that are commonly used as photocathodes. Piezoelectric fields produced by the traveling SAW spatially separate electrons and holes, reducing their probability of recombination, thereby enhancing the photoemission quantum efficiency of the photocathode. Additional advantages could be increased polarization provided by the enhanced mobility of charge carriers that can be controlled by the SAW and the ionization of optically-generated excitons resulting in the creation of additional electron-hole pairs. It is expected that these novel features will reduce the cost of accelerator operation. A theoretical model for photoemission in the presence of SAW has been developed, and experimental tests of the technique are underway.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bagheri, Abdollah
The in-situ measurement of thermal stress in civil and mechanical structures may prevent structural anomalies such as unexpected buckling. In the first half of the dissertation, we present a study where highly nonlinear solitary waves (HNSWs) were utilized to measure axial stress in slender beams. HNSWs are compact non-dispersive waves that can form and travel in nonlinear systems such as one-dimensional chains of particles. The effect of the axial stress acting in a beam on the propagation of HNSWs was studied. We found that certain features of the solitary waves enable the measurement of the stress. In general, most guided ultrasonic waves (GUWs)-based health monitoring approaches for structural waveguides are based on the comparison of testing data to baseline data. In the second half of the dissertation, we present a study where some baseline-free signal processing algorithms were presented and applied to numerical and experimental data for the structural health monitoring (SHM) of underwater or dry structures. The algorithms are based on one or more of the following: continuous wavelet transform, empirical mode decomposition, Hilbert transform, competitive optimization algorithm, probabilistic methods. Moreover, experimental data were also processed to extract some features from the time, frequency, and joint time-frequency domains. These features were then fed to a supervised learning algorithm based on artificial neural networks to classify the types of defect. The methods were validated using the numerical model of a plate and a pipe, and the experimental study of a plate in water. In experiment, the propagation of ultrasonic waves was induced by means of laser pulses or transducer and detected with an array of immersion transducers. The results demonstrated that the algorithms are effective, robust against noise, and able to localize and classify the damage.
Ion-acoustic cnoidal waves in a quantum plasma
Mahmood, S.; Haas, F.
2014-10-15
Nonlinear ion-acoustic cnoidal wave structures are studied in an unmagnetized quantum plasma. Using the reductive perturbation method, a Korteweg-de Vries equation is derived for appropriate boundary conditions and nonlinear periodic wave solutions are obtained. The corresponding analytical solution and numerical plots of the ion-acoustic cnoidal waves and solitons in the phase plane are presented using the Sagdeev pseudo-potential approach. The variations in the nonlinear potential of the ion-acoustic cnoidal waves are studied at different values of quantum parameter H{sub e} which is the ratio of electron plasmon energy to electron Fermi energy defined for degenerate electrons. It is found that both compressive and rarefactive ion-acoustic cnoidal wave structures are formed depending on the value of the quantum parameter. The dependence of the wavelength and frequency on nonlinear wave amplitude is also presented.
Dual output acoustic wave sensor for molecular identification
Frye, G.C.; Martin, S.J.
1990-10-03
The invention comprises a method for the identification and quantification of sorbed chemical species onto a coating of a device capable of generating and receiving an acoustic wave, by measuring the changes in the velocity of the acoustic wave resulting from the sorption of the chemical species into the coating as the wave travels through the coating and by measuring the changes in the attenuation of an acoustic wave resulting from the sorption of the chemical species into the coating as the wave travels through the coating. The inventive method further correlates the magnitudes of the changes of velocity with respect to changes of the attenuation of the acoustic wave to identify the sorbed chemical species. The absolute magnitudes of the velocity changes or the absolute magnitude of the attenuation changes are used to determine the concentration of the identified chemical species.
Evolution of higher order nonlinear equation for the dust ion-acoustic waves in nonextensive plasma
Yasmin, S.; Asaduzzaman, M.; Mamun, A. A.
2012-10-15
There are three different types of nonlinear equations, namely, Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV), modified K-dV (mK-dV), and mixed modified K-dV (mixed mK-dV) equations, for the nonlinear propagation of the dust ion-acoustic (DIA) waves. The effects of electron nonextensivity on DIA solitary waves propagating in a dusty plasma (containing negatively charged stationary dust, inertial ions, and nonextensive q distributed electrons) are examined by solving these nonlinear equations. The basic features of mixed mK-dV (higher order nonlinear equation) solitons are found to exist beyond the K-dV limit. The properties of mK-dV solitons are compared with those of mixed mK-dV solitons. It is found that both positive and negative solitons are obtained depending on the q (nonextensive parameter).
Ionospheric acoustic and gravity waves associated with midlatitude thunderstorms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lay, Erin H.; Shao, Xuan-Min; Kendrick, Alexander K.; Carrano, Charles S.
2015-07-01
Acoustic waves with periods of 2-4 min and gravity waves with periods of 6-16 min have been detected at ionospheric heights (250-350 km) using GPS total electron content measurements. The area disturbed by these waves and the wave amplitudes have been associated with underlying thunderstorm activity. A statistical study comparing Next Generation Weather Radar thunderstorm measurements with ionospheric acoustic and gravity waves in the midlatitude U.S. Great Plains region was performed for the time period of May-July 2005. An increase of ionospheric acoustic wave disturbed area and amplitude is primarily associated with large thunderstorms (mesoscale convective systems). Ionospheric gravity wave disturbed area and amplitude scale with thunderstorm activity, with even small storms (i.e., individual storm cells) producing an increase of gravity waves.
Ionospheric acoustic and gravity waves associated with midlatitude thunderstorms
Lay, Erin H.; Shao, Xuan -Min; Kendrick, Alexander K.; Carrano, Charles S.
2015-07-30
Acoustic waves with periods of 2–4 min and gravity waves with periods of 6–16 min have been detected at ionospheric heights (25–350 km) using GPS total electron content measurements. The area disturbed by these waves and the wave amplitudes have been associated with underlying thunderstorm activity. A statistical study comparing Next Generation Weather Radar thunderstorm measurements with ionospheric acoustic and gravity waves in the midlatitude U.S. Great Plains region was performed for the time period of May–July 2005. An increase of ionospheric acoustic wave disturbed area and amplitude is primarily associated with large thunderstorms (mesoscale convective systems). Ionospheric gravity wave disturbed area and amplitude scale with thunderstorm activity, with even small storms (i.e., individual storm cells) producing an increase of gravity waves.
Experimental investigation of sediment resuspension beneath internal solitary waves of depression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aghsaee, Payam; Boegman, Leon
2015-05-01
Internal solitary waves (ISWs) of depression are common features of coastal environments and believed to resuspend sediments where they shoal. In this study, the sediment resupension process associated with ISWs propagating over a flat bed was investigated in the laboratory. The first-ever profile measurements of the three-dimensional instantaneous velocity field beneath the ISWs revealed that resuspension occurs during burst like vertical velocity events, which lift sediments into the water column, in the adverse pressure gradient region beneath the trailing part of the wave. Resuspension was not observed when the wave-induced viscous bed stress was maximal directly beneath the ISW trough. Prediction of wave-induced resuspension was, therefore, unsuccessful using a traditional viscous bed stress-based Shields diagram. A parameterization for ISW-induced resuspension is proposed as a function of the maximum instantaneous vertical velocity in the bursts wmax. Here we have replaced the viscous bed stress with τISW=ρ2wmax2, where τISW is the instantaneous resuspending bed stress and ρ2 is the near-bed fluid density. From these results, it is possible for field-oceanographers to predict the occurrence of ISW-induced resuspension from the bulk wave and stratifications characteristics in a two-layer stratification. Further research is required to extend the parameterization to larger Reynolds numbers at field-scale.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kolaini, Ali R.; Doty, Benjamin; Chang, Zensheu
2012-01-01
The aerospace industry has been using two methods of acoustic testing to qualify flight hardware: (1) Reverberant Acoustic Test (RAT), (2) Direct Field Acoustic Test (DFAT). The acoustic field obtained by RAT is generally understood and assumed to be diffuse, expect below Schroeder cut-of frequencies. DFAT method of testing has some distinct advantages over RAT, however the acoustic field characteristics can be strongly affected by test setup such as the speaker layouts, number and location of control microphones and control schemes. In this paper the following are discussed based on DEMO tests performed at APL and JPL: (1) Acoustic wave interference patterns and acoustic standing waves, (2) The structural responses in RAT and DFAT.
Wind, waves, and acoustic background levels at Station ALOHA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duennebier, Fred K.; Lukas, Roger; Nosal, Eva-Marie; Aucan, JéRome; Weller, Robert A.
2012-03-01
Frequency spectra from deep-ocean near-bottom acoustic measurements obtained contemporaneously with wind, wave, and seismic data are described and used to determine the correlations among these data and to discuss possible causal relationships. Microseism energy appears to originate in four distinct regions relative to the hydrophone: wind waves above the sensors contribute microseism energy observed on the ocean floor; a fraction of this local wave energy propagates as seismic waves laterally, and provides a spatially integrated contribution to microseisms observed both in the ocean and on land; waves in storms generate microseism energy in deep water that travels as seismic waves to the sensor; and waves reflected from shorelines provide opposing waves that add to the microseism energy. Correlations of local wind speed with acoustic and seismic spectral time series suggest that the local Longuet-Higgins mechanism is visible in the acoustic spectrum from about 0.4 Hz to 80 Hz. Wind speed and acoustic levels at the hydrophone are poorly correlated below 0.4 Hz, implying that the microseism energy below 0.4 Hz is not typically generated by local winds. Correlation of ocean floor acoustic energy with seismic spectra from Oahu and with wave spectra near Oahu imply that wave reflections from Hawaiian coasts, wave interactions in the deep ocean near Hawaii, and storms far from Hawaii contribute energy to the seismic and acoustic spectra below 0.4 Hz. Wavefield directionality strongly influences the acoustic spectrum at frequencies below about 2 Hz, above which the acoustic levels imply near-isotropic surface wave directionality.
Propagation of plate acoustic waves in contact with fluid medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghatadi Suraji, Nagaraj
The characteristics of acoustic waves propagating in thin piezoelectric plates in the presence of a fluid medium contacting one or both of the plate surfaces are investigated. If the velocity of plate wave in the substrate is greater than velocity of bulk wave in the fluid, then a plate acoustic wave (PAW) traveling in the substrate will radiate a bulk acoustic wave (BAW) in the fluid. It is found that, under proper conditions, efficient conversion of energy from plate acoustic waves to bulk acoustic waves and vice versa can be obtained. For example, using the fundamental anti symmetric plate wave mode (A0 mode) propagating in a lithium niobate substrate and water as the fluid, total mode conversion loss (PAW to BAW and back from BAW to PAW) of less than 3 dB has been obtained. This mode conversion principle can be used to realize miniature, high efficiency transducers for use in ultrasonic flow meters. Similar type of transducer based on conversion of energy from surface acoustic wave (SAW) to bulk acoustic wave (BAW) has been developed previously. The use of plate waves has several advantages. Since the energy of plate waves is present on both plate surfaces, the inter digital transducer (IDT) can be on the surface opposite from that which is in contact with the fluid. This protects the IDT from possible damage due to the fluid and also simplifies the job of making electrical connections to the IDT. Another advantage is that one has wider choice of substrate materials with plate waves than is the case with SAWs. Preliminary calculations indicate that the mode conversion principle can also be used to generate and detect ultrasonic waves in air. This has potential applications for realizing transducers for use in non-contact ultrasonic's. The design of an ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) chip containing an amplifier and frequency counter for use with ultrasonic transducers is also presented in this thesis.
Ionospheric acoustic and gravity waves associated with midlatitude thunderstorms
Lay, Erin H.; Shao, Xuan -Min; Kendrick, Alexander K.; Carrano, Charles S.
2015-07-30
Acoustic waves with periods of 2–4 min and gravity waves with periods of 6–16 min have been detected at ionospheric heights (25–350 km) using GPS total electron content measurements. The area disturbed by these waves and the wave amplitudes have been associated with underlying thunderstorm activity. A statistical study comparing Next Generation Weather Radar thunderstorm measurements with ionospheric acoustic and gravity waves in the midlatitude U.S. Great Plains region was performed for the time period of May–July 2005. An increase of ionospheric acoustic wave disturbed area and amplitude is primarily associated with large thunderstorms (mesoscale convective systems). Ionospheric gravity wavemore » disturbed area and amplitude scale with thunderstorm activity, with even small storms (i.e., individual storm cells) producing an increase of gravity waves.« less
A solitary wave-based sensor to monitor the setting of fresh concrete.
Rizzo, Piervincenzo; Ni, Xianglei; Nassiri, Somayeh; Vandenbossche, Julie
2014-01-01
We present a proof-of-principle study about the use of a sensor for the nondestructive monitoring of strength development in hydrating concrete. The nondestructive evaluation technique is based on the propagation of highly nonlinear solitary waves (HNSWs), which are non-dispersive mechanical waves that can form and travel in highly nonlinear systems, such as one-dimensional particle chains. A built-in transducer is adopted to excite and detect the HNSWs. The waves are partially reflected at the transducer/concrete interface and partially transmitted into the concrete. The time-of-flight and the amplitude of the waves reflected at the interface are measured and analyzed with respect to the hydration time, and correlated to the initial and final set times established by the penetration test (ASTM C 403). The results show that certain features of the HNSWs change as the concrete curing progresses indicating that it has the potential of being an efficient, cost-effective tool for monitoring strengths/stiffness development. PMID:25025549
A Solitary Wave-Based Sensor to Monitor the Setting of Fresh Concrete
Rizzo, Piervincenzo; Ni, Xianglei; Nassiri, Somayeh; Vandenbossche, Julie
2014-01-01
We present a proof-of-principle study about the use of a sensor for the nondestructive monitoring of strength development in hydrating concrete. The nondestructive evaluation technique is based on the propagation of highly nonlinear solitary waves (HNSWs), which are non-dispersive mechanical waves that can form and travel in highly nonlinear systems, such as one-dimensional particle chains. A built-in transducer is adopted to excite and detect the HNSWs. The waves are partially reflected at the transducer/concrete interface and partially transmitted into the concrete. The time-of-flight and the amplitude of the waves reflected at the interface are measured and analyzed with respect to the hydration time, and correlated to the initial and final set times established by the penetration test (ASTM C 403). The results show that certain features of the HNSWs change as the concrete curing progresses indicating that it has the potential of being an efficient, cost-effective tool for monitoring strengths/stiffness development. PMID:25025549
Controlling acoustic-wave propagation through material anisotropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tehranian, Aref; Amirkhizi, Alireza V.; Irion, Jeffrey; Isaacs, Jon; Nemat-Nasser, Sia
2009-03-01
Acoustic-wave velocity is strongly direction dependent in an anisotropic medium. This can be used to design composites with preferred acoustic-energy transport characteristics. In a unidirectional fiber-glass composite, for example, the preferred direction corresponds to the fiber orientation which is associated with the highest stiffness and which can be used to guide the momentum and energy of the acoustic waves either away from or toward a region within the material, depending on whether one wishes to avoid or harvest the corresponding stress waves. The main focus of this work is to illustrate this phenomenon using numerical simulations and then check the results experimentally.
Relationship between dust acoustic waves in two and three dimensions
Piel, A.; Goree, J.
2006-10-15
Low frequency electrostatic waves are investigated for a monolayer suspension of dust particles that are shielded by an ambient plasma of three-dimensional extension. The dispersion of the resulting dust acoustic surface waves is compared with dust acoustic waves in three dimensions and with lattice modes in two dimensions. It is found that the wave dispersion is determined by shielding of electric fields by electrons and ions on either side of the dust monolayer; this differs from previously studied cases of charged sheets in a vacuum. The phase velocity of these surface waves suggests the definition of a proper dust plasma frequency for monolayer systems.
Relationship between dust acoustic waves in two and three dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piel, A.; Goree, J.
2006-10-01
Low frequency electrostatic waves are investigated for a monolayer suspension of dust particles that are shielded by an ambient plasma of three-dimensional extension. The dispersion of the resulting dust acoustic surface waves is compared with dust acoustic waves in three dimensions and with lattice modes in two dimensions. It is found that the wave dispersion is determined by shielding of electric fields by electrons and ions on either side of the dust monolayer; this differs from previously studied cases of charged sheets in a vacuum. The phase velocity of these surface waves suggests the definition of a proper dust plasma frequency for monolayer systems.
Dissipative kinetic Alfvén solitary waves resulting from viscosity
Choi, C.-R.; Kang, S.-B.; Min, K.-W.; Woo, M.-H.; Hwang, J.; Park, Y.-D.
2013-11-15
Nonlinear small-amplitude kinetic Alfvén solitary waves (KASWs) are investigated with their “anomalous” kinetic viscosity effect on electrons. It is found that the structure of a hump-type KASW solution develops into a shock-type (or double layer) KASW solution for large amplitude KASWs when viscosity exists. For small amplitude KASWs, the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation with an approximate pseudopotential was solved, and it is found that the hump-type KASWs develop into oscillating shock-type (kink-type) KASWs. It is also found that the oscillating scale of this structure is related to the propagation velocity and plasma beta, while the damping scale is inversely proportional to the viscosity.
Class of solitary wave solutions of the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation
Atre, Rajneesh; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.; Agarwal, G. S.
2006-05-15
We present a large family of exact solitary wave solutions of the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation, with time-varying scattering length and gain or loss, in both expulsive and regular parabolic confinement regimes. The consistency condition governing the soliton profiles is shown to map onto a linear Schroedinger eigenvalue problem, thereby enabling one to find analytically the effect of a wide variety of temporal variations in the control parameters, which are experimentally realizable. Corresponding to each solvable quantum mechanical system, one can identify a soliton configuration. These include soliton trains in close analogy to experimental observations of Strecker et al. [Nature (London) 417, 150 (2002)], spatiotemporal dynamics, solitons undergoing rapid amplification, collapse and revival of condensates, and analytical expression of two-soliton bound states, to name a few.
Class of solitary wave solutions of the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation.
Atre, Rajneesh; Panigrahi, Prasanta K; Agarwal, G S
2006-05-01
We present a large family of exact solitary wave solutions of the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation, with time-varying scattering length and gain or loss, in both expulsive and regular parabolic confinement regimes. The consistency condition governing the soliton profiles is shown to map onto a linear Schrödinger eigenvalue problem, thereby enabling one to find analytically the effect of a wide variety of temporal variations in the control parameters, which are experimentally realizable. Corresponding to each solvable quantum mechanical system, one can identify a soliton configuration. These include soliton trains in close analogy to experimental observations of Streckeret al. [Nature (London) 417, 150 (2002)], spatiotemporal dynamics, solitons undergoing rapid amplification, collapse and revival of condensates, and analytical expression of two-soliton bound states, to name a few. PMID:16803061
Quantum reflection of bright solitary matter waves from a narrow attractive potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marchant, A. L.; Billam, T. P.; Yu, M. M. H.; Rakonjac, A.; Helm, J. L.; Polo, J.; Weiss, C.; Gardiner, S. A.; Cornish, S. L.
2016-02-01
We report the observation of quantum reflection from a narrow attractive potential using bright solitary matter waves formed from a 85Rb Bose-Einstein condensate. We create the attractive potential using a tightly focused, red-detuned laser beam, and observe reflection of up to 25% of the atoms, along with the confinement of atoms at the position of the beam. We show that the observed reflected fraction is much larger than theoretical predictions for a simple Gaussian potential well. A more detailed model of bright soliton propagation, accounting for the generic presence of small subsidiary intensity maxima in the red-detuned beam, suggests that these small intensity maxima are the cause of this enhanced reflection.
Stability of Solitary Waves and Vortices in a 2D Nonlinear Dirac Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cuevas-Maraver, Jesús; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G.; Saxena, Avadh; Comech, Andrew; Lan, Ruomeng
2016-05-01
We explore a prototypical two-dimensional massive model of the nonlinear Dirac type and examine its solitary wave and vortex solutions. In addition to identifying the stationary states, we provide a systematic spectral stability analysis, illustrating the potential of spinor solutions to be neutrally stable in a wide parametric interval of frequencies. Solutions of higher vorticity are generically unstable and split into lower charge vortices in a way that preserves the total vorticity. These conclusions are found not to be restricted to the case of cubic two-dimensional nonlinearities but are found to be extended to the case of quintic nonlinearity, as well as to that of three spatial dimensions. Our results also reveal nontrivial differences with respect to the better understood nonrelativistic analogue of the model, namely the nonlinear Schrödinger equation.
Tribeche, Mouloud; Boumezoued, Ghania
2008-05-15
The effect of nonthermal electrons with excess of fast energetic electrons on large amplitude electrostatic solitary waves is investigated in a charge varying dusty plasma. The correct nonthermal electron charging is investigated based on the orbit-motion-limited approach. It is found that the nonlinear localized potential structure shrinks when the electrons deviate from isothermality. The dust particles are locally expelled and pushed out the region of the soliton localization as the electrons evolve far away from their thermodynamic equilibrium. Under certain conditions, the dust charge fluctuation may provide an alternate physical mechanism causing anomalous dissipation, the strength of which becomes important and may prevail over that of dispersion as the value of the electron nonthermal parameter {alpha} increases.
Stability of Solitary Waves and Vortices in a 2D Nonlinear Dirac Model.
Cuevas-Maraver, Jesús; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G; Saxena, Avadh; Comech, Andrew; Lan, Ruomeng
2016-05-27
We explore a prototypical two-dimensional massive model of the nonlinear Dirac type and examine its solitary wave and vortex solutions. In addition to identifying the stationary states, we provide a systematic spectral stability analysis, illustrating the potential of spinor solutions to be neutrally stable in a wide parametric interval of frequencies. Solutions of higher vorticity are generically unstable and split into lower charge vortices in a way that preserves the total vorticity. These conclusions are found not to be restricted to the case of cubic two-dimensional nonlinearities but are found to be extended to the case of quintic nonlinearity, as well as to that of three spatial dimensions. Our results also reveal nontrivial differences with respect to the better understood nonrelativistic analogue of the model, namely the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. PMID:27284659
Kumar Samanta, Utpal; Saha, Asit; Chatterjee, Prasanta
2013-05-15
Bifurcations of nonlinear propagation of ion acoustic waves (IAWs) in a magnetized plasma whose constituents are cold ions and kappa distributed electron are investigated using a two component plasma model. The standard reductive perturbation technique is used to derive the Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation for IAWs. By using the bifurcation theory of planar dynamical systems to this ZK equation, the existence of solitary wave solutions and periodic travelling wave solutions is established. All exact explicit solutions of these travelling waves are determined. The results may have relevance in dense space plasmas.
Ultrafast microfluidics using surface acoustic waves
Yeo, Leslie Y.; Friend, James R.
2009-01-01
We demonstrate that surface acoustic waves (SAWs), nanometer amplitude Rayleigh waves driven at megahertz order frequencies propagating on the surface of a piezoelectric substrate, offer a powerful method for driving a host of extremely fast microfluidic actuation and micro∕bioparticle manipulation schemes. We show that sessile drops can be translated rapidly on planar substrates or fluid can be pumped through microchannels at 1–10 cm∕s velocities, which are typically one to two orders quicker than that afforded by current microfluidic technologies. Through symmetry-breaking, azimuthal recirculation can be induced within the drop to drive strong inertial microcentrifugation for micromixing and particle concentration or separation. Similar micromixing strategies can be induced in the same microchannel in which fluid is pumped with the SAW by merely changing the SAW frequency to rapidly switch the uniform through-flow into a chaotic oscillatory flow by exploiting superpositioning of the irradiated sound waves from the sidewalls of the microchannel. If the flow is sufficiently quiescent, the nodes of the transverse standing wave that arises across the microchannel also allow for particle aggregation, and hence, sorting on nodal lines. In addition, the SAW also facilitates other microfluidic capabilities. For example, capillary waves excited at the free surface of a sessile drop by the SAW underneath it can be exploited for micro∕nanoparticle collection and sorting at nodal points or lines at low powers. At higher powers, the large accelerations off the substrate surface as the SAW propagates across drives rapid destabilization of the drop free surface giving rise to inertial liquid jets that persist over 1–2 cm in length or atomization of the entire drop to produce 1–10 μm monodispersed aerosol droplets, which can be exploited for ink-jet printing, mass spectrometry interfacing, or pulmonary drug delivery. The atomization of polymer∕protein solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
A. M., El-Hanbaly; E. K., El-Shewy; Elgarayhi, A.; A. I., Kassem
2015-11-01
The nonlinear properties of small amplitude electron-acoustic (EA) solitary and shock waves in a homogeneous system of unmagnetized collisionless plasma with nonextensive distribution for hot electrons have been investigated. A reductive perturbation method used to obtain the Kadomstev-Petviashvili-Burgers equation. Bifurcation analysis has been discussed for non-dissipative system in the absence of Burgers term and reveals different classes of the traveling wave solutions. The obtained solutions are related to periodic and soliton waves and their behavior are shown graphically. In the presence of the Burgers term, the EXP-function method is used to solve the Kadomstev-Petviashvili-Burgers equation and the obtained solution is related to shock wave. The obtained results may be helpful in better conception of waves propagation in various space plasma environments as well as in inertial confinement fusion laboratory plasmas.
Waveform inversion of acoustic waves for explosion yield estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, K.; Rodgers, A.
2016-07-01
We present a new waveform inversion technique to estimate the energy of near-surface explosions using atmospheric acoustic waves. Conventional methods often employ air blast models based on a homogeneous atmosphere, where the acoustic wave propagation effects (e.g., refraction and diffraction) are not taken into account, and therefore, their accuracy decreases with increasing source-receiver distance. In this study, three-dimensional acoustic simulations are performed with a finite difference method in realistic atmospheres and topography, and the modeled acoustic Green's functions are incorporated into the waveform inversion for the acoustic source time functions. The strength of the acoustic source is related to explosion yield based on a standard air blast model. The technique was applied to local explosions (<10 km) and provided reasonable yield estimates (<˜30% error) in the presence of realistic topography and atmospheric structure. The presented method can be extended to explosions recorded at far distance provided proper meteorological specifications.
False Paradoxes of Superposition in Electric and Acoustic Waves.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Levine, Richard C.
1980-01-01
Corrected are several misconceptions concerning the apparently "missing" energy that results when acoustic or electromagnetic waves cancel by destructive interference and the wave impedance reflected to the sources of the wave energy changes so that the input power is reduced. (Author/CS)
Kenmogne, Fabien; Yemélé, David
2013-10-01
The modulational instability (MI) phenomenon in the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) extended by two different nonlinear dispersion terms and the gradient term is investigated. We find that the possibility of instability of plane waves depends on the sign of the nonlinear dispersion parameters with regard to the linear dispersion coefficient. In contrast to the basic NLSE, the system may exhibit instability in the defocusing media for amplitude exceeding a critical value depending on the magnitude of the nonlinear dispersion. An additional feature, namely the higher order or the infinite gain band, absent in the NLSE case, may appear and in which MI induces the birth of the nonlinear localized wave (NLW) of different carrier wave numbers. The result of the qualitative investigations of the system's dynamics indicates the existence of the NLW, such as peak, bright, dark, and compact dark solitary waves which can be well predicted by the MI criteria. In addition the nonlinear dispersion induces the existence of a pair of bright-dark solitary waves which is usually exhibited by the coupled NLSEs only, and the pairs of peak-dark and compact dark-bright solitary waves. PMID:24229297
Xie, Weifeng; Fan, Chenglei; Yang, Chunli; Lin, Sanbao
2016-03-01
As a newly developed arc welding method, power ultrasound has been successfully introduced into arc and weld pool during ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding process. The advanced process for molten metals can be realized by utilizing additional ultrasonic field. Under the action of the acoustic wave, the plasma arc as weld heat source is regulated and its characteristics make an obvious change. Compared with the conventional arc, the ultrasonic wave-assisted arc plasma is bound significantly and becomes brighter. To reveal the dependence of the acoustic binding force on acoustic field parameters, a two-dimensional acoustic field model for ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding device is established. The influences of the radiator height, the central pore radius, the radiator radius, and curvature radius or depth of concave radiator surface are discussed using the boundary element method. Then the authors analyze the resonant mode by this relationship curve between acoustic radiation power and radiator height. Furthermore, the best acoustic binding ability is obtained by optimizing the geometric parameters of acoustic radiator. In addition, three concave radiator surfaces including spherical cap surface, paraboloid of revolution, and rotating single curved surface are investigated systematically. Finally, both the calculation and experiment suggest that, to obtain the best acoustic binding ability, the ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding setup should be operated under the first resonant mode using a radiator with a spherical cap surface, a small central pore, a large section radius and an appropriate curvature radius. PMID:26558995
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riaud, Antoine; Thomas, Jean-Louis; Charron, Eric; Bussonnière, Adrien; Bou Matar, Olivier; Baudoin, Michael
2015-09-01
From radio-electronics signal analysis to biological sample actuation, surface acoustic waves (SAWs) are involved in a multitude of modern devices. However, only the most simple standing or progressive waves such as plane and focused waves have been explored so far. In this paper, we expand the SAW toolbox with a wave family named "swirling surface acoustic waves" which are the 2D anisotropic analogue of bulk acoustic vortices. Similarly to their 3D counterpart, they appear as concentric structures of bright rings with a phase singularity in their center resulting in a central dark spot. After the rigorous mathematical definition of these waves, we synthesize them experimentally through the inverse filtering technique revisited for surface waves. For this purpose, we design a setup combining arrays of interdigitated transducers and a multichannel electronic that enables one to synthesize any prescribed wave field compatible with the anisotropy of the substrate in a region called the "acoustic scene." This work opens prospects for the design of integrated acoustic vortex generators for on-chip selective acoustic tweezing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carr, M.; Davies, P. A.; Hoebers, R. P.
2015-04-01
The structure and stability of mode-2 internal solitary-like waves is investigated experimentally. A rank-ordered train of mode-2 internal solitary waves is generated using a lock release configuration. The pycnocline is centred either on the mid-depth of the water column (the 0% offset case) or it is offset in the positive vertical direction by a fraction of 5%, 10%, or 20% of the total fluid depth. It is found that offsetting the pycnocline has little effect on the basic wave properties (e.g., wave speed, wave amplitude, and wavelength) but it does significantly affect wave stability. Instability takes the form of small K-H-like billows in the rear of the wave and small scale overturning in the core of the wave. In the 0% offset case, instability occurs on both the upper and lower interfaces of the pycnocline and is similar in extent and vigour over the two interfaces. As the offset percentage is increased, however, instability is more pronounced on the lower interface with little or no evidence of instability being observed on the upper interface. In the 20% offset case, a mode-1 tail is associated with the wave and the wave characteristics resemble qualitatively the recent field observations of Shroyer et al. ["Mode 2 waves on the continental shelf: Ephemeral components of the nonlinear internal wavefield," J. Geophys. Res. 115, C07001, doi:10.1029/2009JC005605 (2010)].
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Feng-Jiao; Ding, Jian-Wen; Yan, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Deng-Long
2009-05-01
Taking into account both gain/loss and time-dependent atomic scattering length, this paper analytically derives an exact bright solitary wave in a cigar-shaped attractive condensate in the presence of an expulsive parabolic potential. Due to the balance of the scattering length and gain/loss, the bright solitary wave is shown to have constant amplitude. Especially, it is found that the bright solitary wave is accelerated by expulsive force, whose velocity can be modulated by changing the axial and transverse angular frequencies. The results are in good agreement with the experimental observations by Khaykovich et al (2002 Science 296 1290).
Nonlinear propagation and control of acoustic waves in phononic superlattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiménez, Noé; Mehrem, Ahmed; Picó, Rubén; García-Raffi, Lluís M.; Sánchez-Morcillo, Víctor J.
2016-05-01
The propagation of intense acoustic waves in a one-dimensional phononic crystal is studied. The medium consists in a structured fluid, formed by a periodic array of fluid layers with alternating linear acoustic properties and quadratic nonlinearity coefficient. The spacing between layers is of the order of the wavelength, therefore Bragg effects such as band gaps appear. We show that the interplay between strong dispersion and nonlinearity leads to new scenarios of wave propagation. The classical waveform distortion process typical of intense acoustic waves in homogeneous media can be strongly altered when nonlinearly generated harmonics lie inside or close to band gaps. This allows the possibility of engineer a medium in order to get a particular waveform. Examples of this include the design of media with effective (e.g., cubic) nonlinearities, or extremely linear media (where distortion can be canceled). The presented ideas open a way towards the control of acoustic wave propagation in nonlinear regime. xml:lang="fr"
Characterization of energy trapping in a bulk acoustic wave resonator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kokkonen, Kimmo; Meltaus, Johanna; Pensala, Tuomas; Kaivola, Matti
2010-12-01
Acoustic wave fields both within the active electrode area of a solidly mounted 1.8 GHz bulk acoustic wave resonator, and around it in the surrounding region, are measured using a heterodyne laser interferometer. Plate-wave dispersion diagrams for both regions are extracted from the measurement data. The experimental dispersion data reveal the cutoff frequencies of the acoustic vibration modes in the region surrounding the resonator, and, therefore, the energy trapping range of the resonator can readily be determined. The measured dispersion properties of the surrounding region, together with the abruptly diminishing amplitude of the dispersion curves in the resonator, signal the onset of acoustic leakage from the resonator. This information is important for verifying and further developing the simulation tools used for the design of the resonators. Experimental wave field images, dispersion diagrams for both regions, and the threshold for energy leakage are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pickett, J. S.; Christopher, I. W.; Grison, B.; Grimald, S.; Santolík, O.; Décréau, P. M. E.; Lefebvre, B.; Engebretson, M. J.; Kistler, L. M.; Constantinescu, D.; Chen, L.-J.; Omura, Y.; Lakhina, G. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Dandouras, I.; Lucek, E.
2011-01-01
We present the results of a study of Electrostatic Solitary Waves (ESWs) in which propagation of a series of noncyclical ESWs is observed from one Cluster spacecraft to another over distances as great as tens of km and time lags as great as a few tens of ms. This propagation study was conducted for locations near the magnetopause on the magnetosheath side. Propagation was found primarily toward the earth with speeds on the order of 1500 to 2400 km/s. The sizes of the ESWs obtained from these velocities were on the order of 1 km along the magnetic field direction and several tens of km perpendicular. These results are consistent with measurements on single spacecraft in which the ESW propagation is observed with time lags of only ˜0.1 ms. Our results thus show the stability of ESWs over time periods much greater than their own characteristic pulse durations of a few 100s of microseconds. We present also the results of a study of ESW modulation at the magnetopause on the earthward side. We found that ESWs were modulated at ˜1.3 Hz, consistent with a Pc1 wave which was observed concurrently. During this time, tens of eV electron beams are present. We propose a Buneman type instability in which the E″″ component of the Pc1 waves provides a mechanism for accelerating electrons, resulting in the generation of the ESWs modulated at the Pc1 frequency.
Dust kinetic Alfvén solitary and rogue waves in a superthermal dusty plasma
Saini, N. S. Singh, Manpreet; Bains, A. S.
2015-11-15
Dust kinetic Alfvén solitary waves (DKASWs) have been examined in a low-β dusty plasma comprising of negatively charged dust grains, superthermal electrons, and ions. A nonlinear Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation has been derived using the reductive perturbation method. The combined effects of superthermality of charged particles (via κ), plasma β, obliqueness of propagation (θ), and dust concentration (via f) on the shape and size of the DKASWs have been examined. Only negative potential (rarefactive) structures are observed. Further, characteristics of dust kinetic Alfvén rogue waves (DKARWs), by deriving the non-linear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) from the KdV equation, are studied. Rational solutions of NLSE show that rogue wave envelopes are supported by this plasma model. It is observed that the influence of various plasma parameters (superthermality, plasma β, obliqueness, and dust concentration) on the characteristics of the DKARWs is very significant. This fundamental study may be helpful in understanding the formation of coherent nonlinear structures in space and astrophysical plasma environments where superthermal particles are present.
Dust kinetic Alfvén solitary and rogue waves in a superthermal dusty plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saini, N. S.; Singh, Manpreet; Bains, A. S.
2015-11-01
Dust kinetic Alfvén solitary waves (DKASWs) have been examined in a low-β dusty plasma comprising of negatively charged dust grains, superthermal electrons, and ions. A nonlinear Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation has been derived using the reductive perturbation method. The combined effects of superthermality of charged particles (via κ), plasma β, obliqueness of propagation (θ), and dust concentration (via f) on the shape and size of the DKASWs have been examined. Only negative potential (rarefactive) structures are observed. Further, characteristics of dust kinetic Alfvén rogue waves (DKARWs), by deriving the non-linear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) from the KdV equation, are studied. Rational solutions of NLSE show that rogue wave envelopes are supported by this plasma model. It is observed that the influence of various plasma parameters (superthermality, plasma β, obliqueness, and dust concentration) on the characteristics of the DKARWs is very significant. This fundamental study may be helpful in understanding the formation of coherent nonlinear structures in space and astrophysical plasma environments where superthermal particles are present.
Estimating propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor
Xu, Wenyuan; Huizinga, John S.
2010-03-16
Techniques are described for estimating the propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor. In particular, techniques which measure and exploit a proper segment of phase frequency response of the surface acoustic wave sensor are described for use as a basis of bacterial detection by the sensor. As described, use of velocity estimation based on a proper segment of phase frequency response has advantages over conventional techniques that use phase shift as the basis for detection.
Spectral solution of acoustic wave-propagation problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kopriva, David A.
1990-01-01
The Chebyshev spectral collocation solution of acoustic wave propagation problems is considered. It is shown that the phase errors decay exponentially fast and that the number of points per wavelength is not sufficient to estimate the phase accuracy. Applications include linear propagation of a sinusoidal acoustic wavetrain in two space dimensions, and the interaction of a sound wave with the bow shock formed by placing a cylinder in a uniform Mach 4 supersonic free stream.
Surface acoustic wave devices for sensor applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bo, Liu; Xiao, Chen; Hualin, Cai; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Xiangguang, Tian; Luqi, Tao; Yi, Yang; Tianling, Ren
2016-02-01
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices have been widely used in different fields and will continue to be of great importance in the foreseeable future. These devices are compact, cost efficient, easy to fabricate, and have a high performance, among other advantages. SAW devices can work as filters, signal processing units, sensors and actuators. They can even work without batteries and operate under harsh environments. In this review, the operating principles of SAW sensors, including temperature sensors, pressure sensors, humidity sensors and biosensors, will be discussed. Several examples and related issues will be presented. Technological trends and future developments will also be discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 60936002, 61025021, 61434001, 61574083), the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (No. 2015CB352100), the National Key Project of Science and Technology (No. 2011ZX02403-002) and the Special Fund for Agroscientific Research in the Public Interest of China (No. 201303107). M.A.M is additionally supported by the Postdoctoral Fellowship (PDF) program of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (CPSF).
Nozzleless Spray Cooling Using Surface Acoustic Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ang, Kar Man; Yeo, Leslie; Friend, James; Hung, Yew Mun; Tan, Ming Kwang
2015-11-01
Due to its reliability and portability, surface acoustic wave (SAW) atomization is an attractive approach for the generation of monodispersed microdroplets in microfluidics devices. Here, we present a nozzleless spray cooling technique via SAW atomization with key advantage of downward scalability by simply increasing the excitation frequency. With generation of micron size droplets through surface destabilization using SAW, the clogging issues commonly encountered by spraying nozzle can be neutralized. Using deionised water, cooling is improved when the atomization rate is increased and the position of the device is optimized such that the atomized droplets can be easily seeded into the upstream of the flow circulation. Cooling is further improved with the use of nanofluids; a suspension of nanoparticles in water. By increasing nanoparticle mass concentration from 1% to 3%, cooling is enhanced due to the deposition and formation of nanoparticle clusters on heated surface and eventually increase the surface area. However, further increase the concentration to 10% reduces the cooling efficiency due to drastic increase in viscosity μ that leads to lower atomization rate which scales as ṁ ~μ - 1 / 2 .
Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Vibration Sensors
Filipiak, Jerzy; Solarz, Lech; Steczko, Grzegorz
2011-01-01
In the paper a feasibility study on the use of surface acoustic wave (SAW) vibration sensors for electronic warning systems is presented. The system is assembled from concatenated SAW vibration sensors based on a SAW delay line manufactured on a surface of a piezoelectric plate. Vibrations of the plate are transformed into electric signals that allow identification of the sensor and localization of a threat. The theoretical study of sensor vibrations leads us to the simple isotropic model with one degree of freedom. This model allowed an explicit description of the sensor plate movement and identification of the vibrating sensor. Analysis of frequency response of the ST-cut quartz sensor plate and a damping speed of its impulse response has been conducted. The analysis above was the basis to determine the ranges of parameters for vibrating plates to be useful in electronic warning systems. Generally, operation of electronic warning systems with SAW vibration sensors is based on the analysis of signal phase changes at the working frequency of delay line after being transmitted via two circuits of concatenated four-terminal networks. Frequencies of phase changes are equal to resonance frequencies of vibrating plates of sensors. The amplitude of these phase changes is proportional to the amplitude of vibrations of a sensor plate. Both pieces of information may be sent and recorded jointly by a simple electrical unit. PMID:22247694
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) vibration sensors.
Filipiak, Jerzy; Solarz, Lech; Steczko, Grzegorz
2011-01-01
In the paper a feasibility study on the use of surface acoustic wave (SAW) vibration sensors for electronic warning systems is presented. The system is assembled from concatenated SAW vibration sensors based on a SAW delay line manufactured on a surface of a piezoelectric plate. Vibrations of the plate are transformed into electric signals that allow identification of the sensor and localization of a threat. The theoretical study of sensor vibrations leads us to the simple isotropic model with one degree of freedom. This model allowed an explicit description of the sensor plate movement and identification of the vibrating sensor. Analysis of frequency response of the ST-cut quartz sensor plate and a damping speed of its impulse response has been conducted. The analysis above was the basis to determine the ranges of parameters for vibrating plates to be useful in electronic warning systems. Generally, operation of electronic warning systems with SAW vibration sensors is based on the analysis of signal phase changes at the working frequency of delay line after being transmitted via two circuits of concatenated four-terminal networks. Frequencies of phase changes are equal to resonance frequencies of vibrating plates of sensors. The amplitude of these phase changes is proportional to the amplitude of vibrations of a sensor plate. Both pieces of information may be sent and recorded jointly by a simple electrical unit. PMID:22247694
Analyses of electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) observed by Kaguya near the Moon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashimoto, K.; Hashitani, M.; Omura, Y.; Kasahara, Y.; Kojima, H.; Ono, T.; Tsunakawa, H.
2011-12-01
In KAGUYA (SELENE) LRS [1], WFC-L [2] observes waveforms of plasma waves in 100Hz-100kHz and a lot of electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) have been observed. Some results were reported [3]. Although the orthogonal dipole antennas are generally used in the observations, sometimes a pair of monopole antennas were used. We analyze observations mainly by the latter antennas in the present study. Observed waveforms are fitted to ideal ESW waveforms. The waveforms observed by the monopole mode are susceptive to noises and generally they are not similar each other. Since the waveforms observed by the dipole mode are less affected by noises, we re-analyzed the data by fitting these waveforms to the ideal ESW waveforms. The observed ESWs have often components perpendicular to the background magnetic field. This means that the ESW potential structure has two dimensions and they are observed near the generation regions. The propagation velocity, the potential width, the potential depth, etc. of each ESW are also evaluated by comparing the waveforms observed by the monopole antennas. The data fitted to the dipole waveforms are used as references. Acknowledgments: The SELENE project has been organized by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The authors express their thanks to all members of the SELENE project team. References [1] Takayuki Ono, Atsushi Kumamoto, Yasushi Yamaguchi, Atsushi Yamaji, Takao Kobayashi, Yoshiya Kasahara, and Hiroshi Oya, Instrumentation and observation target of the Lunar Radar Sounder (LRS) experiment on-board the SELENE spacecraft, Earth Planets Space, 60, 321-332, 2008. [2] Y. Kasahara, Y. Goto, K. Hashimoto, T. Imachi, A. Kumamoto, T. Ono, and H. Matsumoto, Plasma Wave Observation Using Waveform Capture in the Lunar Radar Sounder on board the SELENE Spacecraft, Earth, Planets and Space, 60, 341-351, 2008. [3] K. Hashimoto, M. Hashitani, Y. Kasahara, Y. Omura, M.N. Nishino, Y. Saito, S. Yokota, T. Ono, H. Tsunakawa, H. Shibuya, M
Acoustic wave generation by microwaves and applications to nondestructive evaluation.
Hosten, Bernard; Bacon, Christophe; Guilliorit, Emmanuel
2002-05-01
Although acoustic wave generation by electromagnetic waves has been widely studied in the case of laser-generated ultrasounds, the literature on acoustic wave generation by thermal effects due to electromagnetic microwaves is very sparse. Several mechanisms have been suggested to explain the phenomenon of microwave generation, i.e. radiation pressure, electrostriction or thermal expansion. Now it is known that the main cause is the thermal expansion due to the microwave absorption. This paper will review the recent advances in the theory and experiments that introduce a new way to generate ultrasonic waves without contact for the purpose of nondestructive evaluation and control. The unidirectional theory based on Maxwell's equations, heat equation and thermoviscoelasticity predicts the generation of acoustic waves at interfaces and inside stratified materials. Acoustic waves are generated by a pulsed electromagnetic wave or a burst at a chosen frequency such that materials can be excited with a broad or narrow frequency range. Experiments show the generation of acoustic waves in water, viscoelastic polymers and composite materials shaped as rod and plates. From the computed and measured accelerations at interfaces, the viscoelastic and electromagnetic properties of materials such as polymers and composites can be evaluated (NDE). Preliminary examples of non-destructive testing applications are presented. PMID:12159977
Dossmann, Yvan; Paci, Alexandre; Auclair, Francis; Lepilliez, Mathieu; Cid, Emmanuel
2014-05-15
Internal solitary waves (ISWs) are large amplitude stable waves propagating in regions of high density gradients such as the ocean pycnocline. Their dynamics has often been investigated in two-dimensional approaches, however, their three-dimensional evolution is still poorly known. Experiments have been conducted in the large stratified water tank of CNRM-GAME to study the generation of ISWs in two academic configurations inspired by oceanic regimes. First, ultrasonic probes are used to measure the interfacial displacement in the two configurations. In the primary generation case for which the two layers are of constant density, the generation of ISWs is investigated in two series of experiments with varying amplitude and forcing frequency. In the secondary generation case for which the lower layer is stratified, the generation of ISWs from the impact of an internal wave beam on the pycnocline and their subsequent dynamics is studied. The dynamics of ISWs in these two regimes accords well with analytical approaches and numerical simulations performed in analogous configurations. Then, recent developments of a stereo correlation technique are used to describe the three-dimensional structure of propagating ISWs. In the primary generation configuration, small transverse effects are observed in the course of the ISW propagation. In the secondary generation configuration, larger transverse structures are observed in the interfacial waves dynamics. The interaction between interfacial troughs and internal waves propagating in the lower stratified layer are a possible cause for the generation of these structures. The magnitude of these transverse structures is quantified with a nondimensional parameter in the two configurations. They are twice as large in the secondary generation case as in the primary generation case.
Surface spin-electron acoustic waves in magnetically ordered metals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andreev, Pavel A.; Kuz'menkov, L. S.
2016-05-01
Degenerate plasmas with motionless ions show existence of three surface waves: the Langmuir wave, the electromagnetic wave, and the zeroth sound. Applying the separated spin evolution quantum hydrodynamics to half-space plasma, we demonstrate the existence of the surface spin-electron acoustic wave (SSEAW). We study dispersion of the SSEAW. We show that there is hybridization between the surface Langmuir wave and the SSEAW at rather small spin polarization. In the hybridization area, the dispersion branches are located close to each other. In this area, there is a strong interaction between these waves leading to the energy exchange. Consequently, generating the Langmuir waves with the frequencies close to hybridization area we can generate the SSEAWs. Thus, we report a method of creation of the spin-electron acoustic waves.
Acoustic waves in gases with strong pressure gradients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zorumski, William E.
1989-01-01
The effect of strong pressure gradients on the acoustic modes (standing waves) of a rectangular cavity is investigated analytically. When the cavity response is represented by a sum of modes, each mode is found to have two resonant frequencies. The lower frequency is near the Viaesaela-Brundt frequency, which characterizes the buoyant effect, and the higher frequency is above the ordinary acoustic resonance frequency. This finding shows that the propagation velocity of the acoustic waves is increased due to the pressure gradient effect.
Spatiotemporal chaos and the dynamics of coupled Langmuir and ion-acoustic waves in plasmas.
Banerjee, S; Misra, A P; Shukla, P K; Rondoni, L
2010-04-01
A simulation study is performed to investigate the dynamics of coupled Langmuir waves (LWs) and ion-acoustic waves (IAWs) in an unmagnetized plasma. The effects of dispersion due to charge separation and the density nonlinearity associated with the IAWs are considered to modify the properties of Langmuir solitons, as well as to model the dynamics of relatively large amplitude wave envelopes. It is found that the Langmuir wave electric field, indeed, increases by the effect of ion-wave nonlinearity (IWN). Use of a low-dimensional model, based on three Fourier modes, shows that a transition to temporal chaos is possible, when the length scale of the linearly excited modes is larger than that of the most unstable ones. The chaotic behaviors of the unstable modes are identified by the analysis of Lyapunov exponent spectra. The space-time evolution of the coupled LWs and IAWs shows that the IWN can cause the excitation of many unstable harmonic modes and can lead to strong IAW emission. This occurs when the initial wave field is relatively large or the length scale of IAWs is larger than the soliton characteristic size. Numerical simulation also reveals that many solitary patterns can be excited and generated through the modulational instability of unstable harmonic modes. As time goes on, these solitons are seen to appear in the spatially partial coherence state due to the free ion-acoustic radiation as well as in the state of spatiotemporal chaos due to collision and fusion in the stochastic motion. The latter results in the redistribution of initial wave energy into a few modes with small length scales, which may lead to the onset of Langmuir turbulence in laboratory as well as space plasmas. PMID:20481845
Saha, Asit E-mail: prasantachatterjee1@rediffmail.com; Pal, Nikhil; Chatterjee, Prasanta E-mail: prasantachatterjee1@rediffmail.com
2014-10-15
The dynamic behavior of ion acoustic waves in electron-positron-ion magnetoplasmas with superthermal electrons and positrons has been investigated in the framework of perturbed and non-perturbed Kadomtsev-Petviashili (KP) equations. Applying the reductive perturbation technique, we have derived the KP equation in electron-positron-ion magnetoplasma with kappa distributed electrons and positrons. Bifurcations of ion acoustic traveling waves of the KP equation are presented. Using the bifurcation theory of planar dynamical systems, the existence of the solitary wave solutions and the periodic traveling wave solutions has been established. Two exact solutions of these waves have been derived depending on the system parameters. Then, using the Hirota's direct method, we have obtained two-soliton and three-soliton solutions of the KP equation. The effect of the spectral index κ on propagations of the two-soliton and the three-soliton has been shown. Considering an external periodic perturbation, we have presented the quasi periodic behavior of ion acoustic waves in electron-positron-ion magnetoplasmas.
Collaborative research: Dynamics of electrostatic solitary waves and their effects on current layers
Chen, Li-Jen
2014-04-18
The project has accomplished the following achievements including the goals outlined in the original proposal. Generation and measurements of Debye-scale electron holes in laboratory: We have generated by beam injections electron solitary waves in the LAPD experiments. The measurements were made possible by the fabrication of the state-of-the-art microprobes at UCLA to measure Debye-scale electric fields [Chiang et al., 2011]. We obtained a result that challenged the state of knowledge about electron hole generation. We found that the electron holes were not due to two-stream instability, but generated by a current-driven instability that also generated whistler-mode waves [Lefebvre et al., 2011, 2010b]. Most of the grant supported a young research scientist Bertrand Lefebvre who led the dissemination of the laboratory experimental results. In addition to two publications, our work relevant to the laboratory experiments on electron holes has resulted in 7 invited talks [Chen, 2007, 2009; Pickett et al., 2009a; Lefebvre et al., 2010a; Pickett et al., 2010; Chen et al., 2011c, b] (including those given by the co-I Jolene Pickett) and 2 contributed talks [Lefebvre et al., 2009b, a]. Discovery of elecctron phase-space-hole structure in the reconnection electron layer: Our theoretical analyses and simulations under this project led to the discovery of an inversion electric field layer whose phase-space signature is an electron hole within the electron diffusion layer in 2D anti-parallel reconnection [Chen et al., 2011a]. We carried out particle tracing studies to understand the electron orbits that result in the phase-space hole structure. Most importantly, we showed that the current density in the electron layer is limited in collisionless reconnection with negligible guide field by the cyclotron turning of meandering electrons. Comparison of electrostatic solitary waves in current layers observed by Cluster and in LAPD: We compared the ESWs observed in a supersubstorm
Electrostatic solitary waves and plasma environment near the moon observed by KAGUYA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashimoto, K.; Omura, Y.; Kasahara, Y.; Kojima, H.; Saito, Y.; Nishino, M. N.; Ono, T.; Tsunakawa, H.
2012-12-01
WFC-L subsystem[1] of KAGUYA (SELENE)/LRS[2], observes waveforms of plasma waves in 100Hz-100kHz and a lot of electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) have been observed[3]. Although the orthogonal dipole antennas are generally used in the observations, sometimes a pair of monopole antennas were used. We analyze the ESW and the plasma environment around the observed regions. Observed waveforms are fitted to ideal ESW waveforms parallel to the magnetic field and the perpendicular component. The propagation velocities and the potential scales are also evaluated in the case of the monopole observations. Particle data by PACE[4] are also evaluated near the regions where ESW's are observed like, in the solar wind, above the magnetic anomalies, in the wake boundaries, and inside the wake. The ESWs, the plasma environments, the magnetic fields, and their relations will be discussed. References [1] Y. Kasahara, et al., Earth, Planets and Space, 60, 341-351, 2008. [2] T. Ono, et al., Space Science Reviews, 154, Nos. 1-4, 145-192, DOI:10.1007/s11214-010-9673-8, 2010 [3] K. Hashimoto, et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L19204, doi:10.1029/2010GL044529, 2010. [4] Y. Saito, et al., Space Science Reviews, Vol. 154, No. 1-4, 265-303, 2010.
An extreme internal solitary wave event observed in the northern South China Sea
Huang, Xiaodong; Chen, Zhaohui; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Zhiwei; Zhou, Chun; Yang, Qingxuan; Tian, Jiwei
2016-01-01
With characteristics of large amplitude and strong current, internal solitary wave (ISW) is a major hazard to marine engineering and submarine navigation; it also has significant impacts on marine ecosystems and fishery activity. Among the world oceans, ISWs are particular active in the northern South China Sea (SCS). In this spirit, the SCS Internal Wave Experiment has been conducted since March 2010 using subsurface mooring array. Here, we report an extreme ISW captured on 4 December 2013 with a maximum amplitude of 240 m and a peak westward current velocity of 2.55 m/s. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the strongest ISW of the world oceans on record. Full-depth measurements also revealed notable impacts of the extreme ISW on deep-ocean currents and thermal structures. Concurrent mooring measurements near Batan Island showed that the powerful semidiurnal internal tide generation in the Luzon Strait was likely responsible for the occurrence of the extreme ISW event. Based on the HYCOM data-assimilation product, we speculate that the strong stratification around Batan Island related to the strengthening Kuroshio may have contributed to the formation of the extreme ISW. PMID:27444063