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Sample records for acoustic velocity oscillations

  1. Streaming Velocities and the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation Scale.

    PubMed

    Blazek, Jonathan A; McEwen, Joseph E; Hirata, Christopher M

    2016-03-25

    At the epoch of decoupling, cosmic baryons had supersonic velocities relative to the dark matter that were coherent on large scales. These velocities subsequently slow the growth of small-scale structure and, via feedback processes, can influence the formation of larger galaxies. We examine the effect of streaming velocities on the galaxy correlation function, including all leading-order contributions for the first time. We find that the impact on the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) peak is dramatically enhanced (by a factor of ∼5) over the results of previous investigations, with the primary new effect due to advection: if a galaxy retains memory of the primordial streaming velocity, it does so at its Lagrangian, rather than Eulerian, position. Since correlations in the streaming velocity change rapidly at the BAO scale, this advection term can cause a significant shift in the observed BAO position. If streaming velocities impact tracer density at the 1% level, compared to the linear bias, the recovered BAO scale is shifted by approximately 0.5%. This new effect, which is required to preserve Galilean invariance, greatly increases the importance of including streaming velocities in the analysis of upcoming BAO measurements and opens a new window to the astrophysics of galaxy formation.

  2. Acoustic oscillation phenomena in low-velocity steady flow with heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liburdy, J. A.; Wofford, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Thermally driven acoustic oscillations in low-velocity mean flows are investigated. A criterion is developed for marginal stability with respect to a fluid temperature increase; a cylindrical geometry is chosen for flow in a constant-area tube where any circumferential variation is neglected. The range of parameters of concern is limited to conditions resembling cryogenic storage designs proposed for long-term space missions; helium was chosen as the fluid in order to allow comparison with zero flow rate results in half-open tubes.

  3. Performance study of Lagrangian methods: reconstruction of large scale peculiar velocities and baryonic acoustic oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keselman, J. A.; Nusser, A.

    2017-01-01

    NoAM for "No Action Method" is a framework for reconstructing the past orbits of observed tracers of the large scale mass density field. It seeks exact solutions of the equations of motion (EoM), satisfying initial homogeneity and the final observed particle (tracer) positions. The solutions are found iteratively reaching a specified tolerance defined as the RMS of the distance between reconstructed and observed positions. Starting from a guess for the initial conditions, NoAM advances particles using standard N-body techniques for solving the EoM. Alternatively, the EoM can be replaced by any approximation such as Zel'dovich and second order perturbation theory (2LPT). NoAM is suitable for billions of particles and can easily handle non-regular volumes, redshift space, and other constraints. We implement NoAM to systematically compare Zel'dovich, 2LPT, and N-body dynamics over diverse configurations ranging from idealized high-res periodic simulation box to realistic galaxy mocks. Our findings are (i) Non-linear reconstructions with Zel'dovich, 2LPT, and full dynamics perform better than linear theory only for idealized catalogs in real space. For realistic catalogs, linear theory is the optimal choice for reconstructing velocity fields smoothed on scales {buildrel > over {˜}} 5 h^{-1}{Mpc}.(ii) all non-linear back-in-time reconstructions tested here, produce comparable enhancement of the baryonic oscillation signal in the correlation function.

  4. Acoustic velocity meter systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laenen, Antonius

    1985-01-01

    Acoustic velocity meter (AVM) systems operate on the principles that the point-to-point upstream traveltime of an acoustic pulse is longer than the downstream traveltime and that this difference in traveltime can be accurately measured by electronic devices. An AVM system is capable of recording water velocity (and discharge) under a wide range of conditions, but some constraints apply: 1. Accuracy is reduced and performance is degraded if the acoustic path is not a continuous straight line. The path can be bent by reflection if it is too close to a stream boundary or by refraction if it passes through density gradients resulting from variations in either water temperature or salinity. For paths of less than 100 m, a temperature gradient of 0.1' per meter causes signal bending less than 0.6 meter at midchannel, and satisfactory velocity results can be obtained. Reflection from stream boundaries can cause signal cancellation if boundaries are too close to signal path. 2. Signal strength is attenuated by particles or bubbles that absorb, spread, or scatter sound. The concentration of particles or bubbles that can be tolerated is a function of the path length and frequency of the acoustic signal. 3. Changes in streamline orientation can affect system accuracy if the variability is random. 4. Errors relating to signal resolution are much larger for a single threshold detection scheme than for multiple threshold schemes. This report provides methods for computing the effect of various conditions on the accuracy of a record obtained from an AVM. The equipment must be adapted to the site. Field reconnaissance and preinstallation analysis to detect possible problems are critical for proper installation and operation of an AVM system.

  5. Surface acoustic wave stabilized oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, T. E.

    1978-01-01

    A number of 401.2 MHz surface acoustic wave (SAW) controlled oscillators were built and tested. The performance of these oscillators was evaluated for possible use as stable oscillators in communication systems. A short term frequency stability of better than 1 x 10 to the minus 9th power for one second was measured for the SAW oscillators. Long term frequency drift was measured and was found to be dependent on SAW design and packaging. Drift rates ranging from 15 ppm in twenty weeks to 2.5 ppm in twenty weeks were observed. Some further improvement was required. The temperature dependence of the saw oscillators was evaluated and it was concluded that some form of temperature compensation will be necessary to meet the requirements of some communication systems.

  6. Signal velocity in oscillator arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantos, C. E.; Veerman, J. J. P.; Hammond, D. K.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate a system of coupled oscillators on the circle, which arises from a simple model for behavior of large numbers of autonomous vehicles where the acceleration of each vehicle depends on the relative positions and velocities between itself and a set of local neighbors. After describing necessary and sufficient conditions for asymptotic stability, we derive expressions for the phase velocity of propagation of disturbances in velocity through this system. We show that the high frequencies exhibit damping, which implies existence of well-defined signal velocitiesc+ > 0 and c- < 0 such that low frequency disturbances travel through the flock as f+(x - c+t) in the direction of increasing agent numbers and f-(x - c-t) in the other.

  7. Behaviour of a Premixed Flame Subjected to Acoustic Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Shafiq R.; Khan, Waqar A.; Prosser, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a one dimensional premixed laminar methane flame is subjected to acoustic oscillations and studied. The purpose of this analysis is to investigate the effects of acoustic perturbations on the reaction rates of different species, with a view to their respective contribution to thermoacoustic instabilities. Acoustically transparent non reflecting boundary conditions are employed. The flame response has been studied with acoustic waves of different frequencies and amplitudes. The integral values of the reaction rates, the burning velocities and the heat release of the acoustically perturbed flame are compared with the unperturbed case. We found that the flame's sensitivity to acoustic perturbations is greatest when the wavelength is comparable to the flame thickness. Even in this case, the perturbations are stable with time. We conclude that acoustic fields acting on the chemistry do not contribute significantly to the emergence of large amplitude pressure oscillations. PMID:24376501

  8. Acoustic-velocity measurements in materials using a regenerative method

    DOEpatents

    Laine, E.F.

    1982-09-30

    Acoustic energy is propatated through earth material between an electro-acoustic generator and a receiver which converts the received acoustic energy into electrical signals. A closed loop is formed by a variable gain amplifier system connected between the receiver and the generator. The gain of the amplifier system is increased until sustained oscillations are produced in the closed loop. The frequency of the oscillations is measured as an indication of the acoustic propagation velocity through the earth material. The amplifier gain is measured as an indication of the acoustic attenuation through the earth materials. The method is also applicable to the non-destructive testing of structural materials, such as steel, aluminum and concrete.

  9. Acoustic velocity measurements in materials using a regenerative method

    DOEpatents

    Laine, Edwin F.

    1986-01-01

    Acoustic energy is propagated through earth material between an electro-acoustic generator and a receiver which converts the received acoustic energy into electrical signals. A closed loop is formed by a variable gain amplifier system connected between the receiver and the generator. The gain of the amplifier system is increased until sustained oscillations are produced in the closed loop. The frequency of the oscillations is measured as an indication of the acoustic propagation velocity through the earth material. The amplifier gain is measured as an indication of the acoustic attenuation through the earth materials. The method is also applicable to the non-destructive testing of structural materials, such as steel, aluminum and concrete.

  10. Acoustic loading effects on oscillating rod bundles

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    An analytical study of the interaction between an infinite acoustic medium and a cluster of circular rods is described. The acoustic field due to oscillating rods and the acoustic loading on the rods are first solved in a closed form. The acoustic loading is then used as a forcing function for rod responses, and the acousto-elastic couplings are solved simultaneously. Numerical examples are presented for several cases to illustrate the effects of various system parameters on the acoustic reaction force coefficients. The effect of the acoustic loading on the coupled eigenfrequencies are discussed.

  11. Magnetophonon oscillations caused by acoustic phonons in bulk conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raichev, O. E.

    2016-09-01

    The interaction of electrons with acoustic phonons under a magnetic field leads to a remarkable kind of magnetophonon oscillation of transport coefficients, recently discovered in two-dimensional electron systems. The present study shows that similar oscillations exist in bulk conductors and provides a theory of this phenomenon for the case of spherical Fermi surfaces. The resonance peaks occur when the product of the Fermi surface diameter by the sound velocity is a multiple of the cyclotron frequency. Theoretical predictions may facilitate the experimental observation of the phenomenon.

  12. Acoustic Measurement of Potato Cannon Velocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Michael; Courtney, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Potato cannon velocity can be measured with a digitized microphone signal. A microphone is attached to the potato cannon muzzle, and a potato is fired at an aluminum target about 10 m away. Flight time can be determined from the acoustic waveform by subtracting the time in the barrel and time for sound to return from the target. The potato…

  13. Wave velocity dispersion and attenuation in media exhibiting internal oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frehner, Marcel; Steeb, Holger; Schmalholz, Stefan M.

    2010-05-01

    Understanding the dynamical and acoustical behavior of porous and heterogeneous rocks is of great importance in geophysics, e.g. earthquakes, and for various seismic engineering applications, e.g. hydrocarbon exploration. Within a heterogeneous medium oscillations with a characteristic resonance frequency, depending on the mass and internal length of the heterogeneity, can occur. When excited, heterogeneities can self-oscillate with their natural frequency. Another example of internal oscillations is the dynamical behavior of non-wetting fluid blobs or fluid patches in residually saturated pore spaces. Surface tension forces or capillary forces act as the restoring force that drives the oscillation. Whatever mechanism is involved, an oscillatory phenomena within a heterogeneous medium will have an effect on acoustic or seismic waves propagating through such a medium, i.e. wave velocity dispersion and frequency-dependent attenuation. We present two models for media exhibiting internal oscillations and discuss the frequency-dependent wave propagation mechanism. Both models give similar results: (1) The low-frequency (i.e. quasi-static) limit for the phase velocity is identical with the Gassmann-Wood limit and the high-frequency limit is larger than this value and (2) Around the resonance frequency a very strong phase velocity change and the largest attenuation occurs. (1) Model for a homogeneous medium exhibiting internal oscillations We present a continuum model for an acoustic medium exhibiting internal damped oscillations. The obvious application of this model is water containing oscillating gas bubbles, providing the material and model parameters for this study. Two physically based momentum interaction terms between the two inherent constituents are used: (1) A purely elastic term of oscillatory nature that scales with the volume of the bubbles and (2) A viscous term that scales with the specific surface of the bubble. The model is capable of taking into account

  14. PRSA hydrogen tank thermal acoustic oscillation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riemer, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    The power reactant storage assembly (PRSA) hydrogen tank test data were reviewed. Two hundred and nineteen data points illustrating the effect of flow rate, temperature ratio and configuration were identified. The test data were reduced to produce the thermal acoustic oscillation parameters. Frequency and amplitude were determined for model correlation. A comparison of PRSA hydrogen tank test data with the analytical models indicated satisfactory agreement for the supply and poor agreement for the full line.

  15. Local oscillator phase noise limitation on the resolution of acoustic delay line wireless passive sensor measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrétien, N.; Friedt, J.-M.; Martin, G.

    2014-06-01

    The role of the phase noise of a local oscillator driving a pulsed-mode RADAR used for probing surface acoustic wave sensors is investigated. The echo delay, representative of the acoustic velocity, and hence the physical quantity probed by the sensor, is finely measured as a phase. Considering that the intrinsic oscillator phase fluctuation defines the phase noise measurement resolution, we experimentally and theoretically assess the relation between phase noise, measurement range, and measurand resolution.

  16. Damping of thermal acoustic oscillations in hydrogen systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gu, Youfan; Timmerhaus, Klaus D.

    1991-01-01

    Acoustic waves initiated by a large temperature gradient along a tube are defined as thermal acoustic oscillations (TAOs). These oscillations have been damped by introducing such sound absorbing techniques as acoustic filters, resonators, etc.. These devices serve as an acoustic sink that is used to absorb or dissipate the acoustic energy thereby eliminating or damping such oscillations. Several empirical damping techniques, such as attaching a resonator as a side branch or inserting a wire in the tube, have been developed in the past and have provided reasonable success. However, the effect of connecting tube radius, length, and resonator volume on the damping of thermal acoustic oscillations has not been evaluated quantitatively. Further, these methods have not been effective when the oscillating tube radius was relatively large. Detailed theoretical analyses of these techniques including a newly developed method for damping oscillations in a tube of relatively large radius are provided in this presentation.

  17. The Terminal Velocity of a Bubble in an Oscillating Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, L. A.; Kraynik, A. M.; Torczynski, J. R.

    2010-11-01

    A bubble in an acoustic field experiences a net "Bjerknes" force from the nonlinear coupling of its radial oscillations with the oscillating buoyancy force. It is typically assumed that the bubble's net terminal velocity can be found by considering a spherical bubble with the imposed "Bjerknes stresses". We have analyzed the motion of such a bubble using a rigorous perturbation approach and found that one must include a term involving an effective mass flux through the bubble that arises from the time average of the second-order nonlinear terms in the kinematic boundary condition. The importance of this term is governed by the dimensionless parameter α=R^2φ / R^2φ ν . - ν, where R is the bubble radius, φ is the driving frequency, and ν is the liquid kinematic viscosity. If α is large, this term is unimportant, but if α is small, this term is the dominant factor in determining the terminal velocity. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  18. Link Between Resistivity and Acoustic Velocity Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacikoylu, P.; Dvorkin, J. P.

    2005-12-01

    sand/shale model for velocity (the modified lower Hashin-Strikman elastic bound). Keywords: formation factor, acoustic velocity, rock physics relations.

  19. Investigation of micromixing by acoustically oscillated sharp-edges.

    PubMed

    Nama, Nitesh; Huang, Po-Hsun; Huang, Tony Jun; Costanzo, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    Recently, acoustically oscillated sharp-edges have been utilized to achieve rapid and homogeneous mixing in microchannels. Here, we present a numerical model to investigate acoustic mixing inside a sharp-edge-based micromixer in the presence of a background flow. We extend our previously reported numerical model to include the mixing phenomena by using perturbation analysis and the Generalized Lagrangian Mean (GLM) theory in conjunction with the convection-diffusion equation. We divide the flow variables into zeroth-order, first-order, and second-order variables. This results in three sets of equations representing the background flow, acoustic response, and the time-averaged streaming flow, respectively. These equations are then solved successively to obtain the mean Lagrangian velocity which is combined with the convection-diffusion equation to predict the concentration profile. We validate our numerical model via a comparison of the numerical results with the experimentally obtained values of the mixing index for different flow rates. Further, we employ our model to study the effect of the applied input power and the background flow on the mixing performance of the sharp-edge-based micromixer. We also suggest potential design changes to the previously reported sharp-edge-based micromixer to improve its performance. Finally, we investigate the generation of a tunable concentration gradient by a linear arrangement of the sharp-edge structures inside the microchannel.

  20. Investigation of micromixing by acoustically oscillated sharp-edges

    PubMed Central

    Nama, Nitesh; Huang, Po-Hsun; Huang, Tony Jun; Costanzo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Recently, acoustically oscillated sharp-edges have been utilized to achieve rapid and homogeneous mixing in microchannels. Here, we present a numerical model to investigate acoustic mixing inside a sharp-edge-based micromixer in the presence of a background flow. We extend our previously reported numerical model to include the mixing phenomena by using perturbation analysis and the Generalized Lagrangian Mean (GLM) theory in conjunction with the convection-diffusion equation. We divide the flow variables into zeroth-order, first-order, and second-order variables. This results in three sets of equations representing the background flow, acoustic response, and the time-averaged streaming flow, respectively. These equations are then solved successively to obtain the mean Lagrangian velocity which is combined with the convection-diffusion equation to predict the concentration profile. We validate our numerical model via a comparison of the numerical results with the experimentally obtained values of the mixing index for different flow rates. Further, we employ our model to study the effect of the applied input power and the background flow on the mixing performance of the sharp-edge-based micromixer. We also suggest potential design changes to the previously reported sharp-edge-based micromixer to improve its performance. Finally, we investigate the generation of a tunable concentration gradient by a linear arrangement of the sharp-edge structures inside the microchannel. PMID:27158292

  1. Investigation of acoustic streaming patterns around oscillating sharp edges

    PubMed Central

    Nama, Nitesh; Huang, Po-Hsun; Huang, Tony Jun; Costanzo, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Oscillating sharp edges have been employed to achieve rapid and homogeneous mixing in microchannels using acoustic streaming. Here we use a perturbation approach to study the flow around oscillating sharp edges in a microchannel. This work extends prior experimental studies to numerically characterize the effect of various parameters on the acoustically induced flow. Our numerical results match well with the experimental results. We investigated multiple device parameters such as the tip angle, oscillation amplitude, and channel dimensions. Our results indicate that, due to the inherent nonlinearity of acoustic streaming, the channel dimensions could significantly impact the flow patterns and device performance. PMID:24903475

  2. Suppression of Spontaneous Gas Oscillations by Acoustic Self-Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biwa, Tetsushi; Sawada, Yoshiki; Hyodo, Hiroaki; Kato, Soichiro

    2016-10-01

    This paper demonstrates a method of acoustical self-feedback to suppress spontaneous gas oscillations such as those observed in combustors of gas-turbine engines. Whereas a conventional feedback system consists of electromechanical devices, the present method achieves acoustical self-feedback with a hollow tube that connects two positions of the oscillation system. A model oscillator of combustion-driven gas oscillations is designed and built to demonstrate the applicability of the self-feedback concept. Stability analysis through measurements of Q values (quality factor) of oscillations shows that the desired delay time and gain are obtained when the tube length is equal to the odd integer times half the wavelength of the anticipated acoustic oscillations.

  3. Thermal acoustic oscillations, volume 2. [cryogenic fluid storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spradley, L. W.; Sims, W. H.; Fan, C.

    1975-01-01

    A number of thermal acoustic oscillation phenomena and their effects on cryogenic systems were studied. The conditions which cause or suppress oscillations, the frequency, amplitude and intensity of oscillations when they exist, and the heat loss they induce are discussed. Methods of numerical analysis utilizing the digital computer were developed for use in cryogenic systems design. In addition, an experimental verification program was conducted to study oscillation wave characteristics and boiloff rate. The data were then reduced and compared with the analytical predictions.

  4. Coupling between ion-acoustic waves and neutrino oscillations.

    PubMed

    Haas, Fernando; Pascoal, Kellen Alves; Mendonça, José Tito

    2017-01-01

    The work investigates the coupling between ion-acoustic waves and neutrino flavor oscillations in a nonrelativistic electron-ion plasma under the influence of a mixed neutrino beam. Neutrino oscillations are mediated by the flavor polarization vector dynamics in a material medium. The linear dispersion relation around homogeneous static equilibria is developed. When resonant with the ion-acoustic mode, the neutrino flavor oscillations can transfer energy to the plasma exciting a new fast unstable mode in extreme astrophysical scenarios. The growth rate and the unstable wavelengths are determined in typical type II supernova parameters. The predictions can be useful for a new indirect probe on neutrino oscillations in nature.

  5. Coupling between ion-acoustic waves and neutrino oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Fernando; Pascoal, Kellen Alves; Mendonça, José Tito

    2017-01-01

    The work investigates the coupling between ion-acoustic waves and neutrino flavor oscillations in a nonrelativistic electron-ion plasma under the influence of a mixed neutrino beam. Neutrino oscillations are mediated by the flavor polarization vector dynamics in a material medium. The linear dispersion relation around homogeneous static equilibria is developed. When resonant with the ion-acoustic mode, the neutrino flavor oscillations can transfer energy to the plasma exciting a new fast unstable mode in extreme astrophysical scenarios. The growth rate and the unstable wavelengths are determined in typical type II supernova parameters. The predictions can be useful for a new indirect probe on neutrino oscillations in nature.

  6. Thermal Acoustic Oscillation: Causes, Detection, Analysis and Prevention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christie, Robert J.; Hartwig, Jason W.

    2014-01-01

    The presentation discusses the causes of Thermal Acoustic Oscillations, how it can be detected, analyzed and prevented. It also discusses where it can occur, where it doesn't occur and practical mitigation techniques.

  7. Theoretical Estimation of the Acoustic Energy Generation and Absorption Caused by Jet Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kin'ya; Iwagami, Sho; Kobayashi, Taizo; Takami, Toshiya

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the energy transfer between the fluid field and acoustic field caused by a jet driven by an acoustic particle velocity field across it, which is the key to understanding the aerodynamic sound generation of flue instruments, such as the recorder, flute, and organ pipe. Howe's energy corollary allows us to estimate the energy transfer between these two fields. For simplicity, we consider the situation such that a free jet is driven by a uniform acoustic particle velocity field across it. We improve the semi-empirical model of the oscillating jet, i.e., exponentially growing jet model, which has been studied in the field of musical acoustics, and introduce a polynomially growing jet model so as to apply Howe's formula to it. It is found that the relative phase between the acoustic oscillation and jet oscillation, which changes with the distance from the flue exit, determines the quantity of the energy transfer between the two fields. The acoustic energy is mainly generated in the downstream area, but it is consumed in the upstream area near the flue exit in driving the jet. This theoretical examination well explains the numerical calculation of Howe's formula for the two-dimensional flue instrument model in our previous work [http://doi.org/10.1088/0169-5983/46/6/061411, Fluid Dyn. Res. 46, 061411 (2014)] as well as the experimental result of Yoshikawa et al. [http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsv.2012.01.026, J. Sound Vib. 331, 2558 (2012)].

  8. Acoustic manipulation of oscillating spherical bodies: Emergence of axial negative acoustic radiation force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabi, Majid; Mojahed, Alireza

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, emergence of negative axial acoustic radiation force on a rigid oscillating spherical body is investigated for acoustic manipulation purposes. The problem of plane acoustic wave scattering from an oscillating spherical body submerged in an ideal acoustic fluid medium is solved. For the case of oscillating direction collinear with the wave propagation wave number vector (desired path), it has been shown that the acoustic radiation force, as a result of nonlinear acoustic wave interaction with bodies can be expressed as a linear function of incident wave field and the oscillation properties of the oscillator (i.e., amplitude and phase of oscillation). The negative (i.e., pulling effects) and positive (i.e., pushing effects) radiation force situations are divided in oscillation complex plane with a specific frequency-dependant straight line. This characteristic line defines the radiation force cancellation state. In order to investigate the stability of the mentioned manipulation strategy, the case of misaligned oscillation of sphere with the wave propagation direction is studied. The proposed methodology may suggest a novel concept of single-beam acoustic handling techniques based on smart carriers.

  9. Coupling liquids acoustic velocity effects on elastic metallic bioglass properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metiri, W.; Hadjoub, F.; Doghmane, A.; Hadjoub, Z.

    2009-11-01

    The effect of surface acoustic wave, SAW, velocities of coupling liquids on acoustical properties of several bulk metallic glasses, BMG, has been investigated using simulation program based on acoustic microscopy. Thus, we determined variations of critical angles at which the excitation of longitudinal mode, θL and Rayleigh mode, θR occurs as a function of wave velocities in different coupling liquids, Vliq. Linear relations of the form θi =ai0 +βiVliq were deduced. The importance of such formula, used with Snell's law, lies in the direct determination of SAW velocities and consequently mechanical properties of BMGs.

  10. Acoustic and streaming velocity components in a resonant waveguide at high acoustic levels.

    PubMed

    Daru, Virginie; Reyt, Ida; Bailliet, Hélène; Weisman, Catherine; Baltean-Carlès, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Rayleigh streaming is a steady flow generated by the interaction between an acoustic wave and a solid wall, generally assumed to be second order in a Mach number expansion. Acoustic streaming is well known in the case of a stationary plane wave at low amplitude: it has a half-wavelength spatial periodicity and the maximum axial streaming velocity is a quadratic function of the acoustic velocity amplitude at antinode. For higher acoustic levels, additional streaming cells have been observed. Results of laser Doppler velocimetry measurements are here compared to direct numerical simulations. The evolution of axial and radial velocity components for both acoustic and streaming velocities is studied from low to high acoustic amplitudes. Two streaming flow regimes are pointed out, the axial streaming dependency on acoustics going from quadratic to linear. The evolution of streaming flow is different for outer cells and for inner cells. Also, the hypothesis of radial streaming velocity being of second order in a Mach number expansion, is not valid at high amplitudes. The change of regime occurs when the radial streaming velocity amplitude becomes larger than the radial acoustic velocity amplitude, high levels being therefore characterized by nonlinear interaction of the different velocity components.

  11. Cosmological implications of baryon acoustic oscillation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Aubourg, Eric

    2015-12-01

    Here, we derive constraints on cosmological parameters and tests of dark energy models from the combination of baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements with cosmic microwave background (CMB) data and a recent reanalysis of Type Ia supernova (SN) data. Particularly, we take advantage of high-precision BAO measurements from galaxy clustering and the Lyman-α forest (LyaF) in the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). Treating the BAO scale as an uncalibrated standard ruler, BAO data alone yield a high confidence detection of dark energy; in combination with the CMB angular acoustic scale they further imply a nearly flat universe. Adding the CMB-calibrated physical scale of the sound horizon, the combination of BAO and SN data into an “inverse distance ladder” yields a measurement of H0=67.3±1.1 km s-1 Mpc-1, with 1.7% precision. This measurement assumes standard prerecombination physics but is insensitive to assumptions about dark energy or space curvature, so agreement with CMB-based estimates that assume a flat ΛCDM cosmology is an important corroboration of this minimal cosmological model. For constant dark energy (Λ), our BAO+SN+CMB combination yields matter density Ωm=0.301±0.008 and curvature Ωk=-0.003±0.003. When we allow more general forms of evolving dark energy, the BAO+SN+CMB parameter constraints are always consistent with flat ΛCDM values at ≈1σ. And while the overall χ2 of model fits is satisfactory, the LyaF BAO measurements are in moderate (2–2.5σ) tension with model predictions. Models with early dark energy that tracks the dominant energy component at high redshift remain consistent with our expansion history constraints, and they yield a higher H0 and lower matter clustering amplitude, improving agreement with some low redshift observations. Expansion history alone yields an upper limit on the summed mass of neutrino species,

  12. Cosmological implications of baryon acoustic oscillation measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Aubourg, Eric

    2015-12-01

    Here, we derive constraints on cosmological parameters and tests of dark energy models from the combination of baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements with cosmic microwave background (CMB) data and a recent reanalysis of Type Ia supernova (SN) data. Particularly, we take advantage of high-precision BAO measurements from galaxy clustering and the Lyman-α forest (LyaF) in the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). Treating the BAO scale as an uncalibrated standard ruler, BAO data alone yield a high confidence detection of dark energy; in combination with the CMB angular acoustic scale they further imply a nearly flat universe. Adding the CMB-calibratedmore » physical scale of the sound horizon, the combination of BAO and SN data into an “inverse distance ladder” yields a measurement of H0=67.3±1.1 km s-1 Mpc-1, with 1.7% precision. This measurement assumes standard prerecombination physics but is insensitive to assumptions about dark energy or space curvature, so agreement with CMB-based estimates that assume a flat ΛCDM cosmology is an important corroboration of this minimal cosmological model. For constant dark energy (Λ), our BAO+SN+CMB combination yields matter density Ωm=0.301±0.008 and curvature Ωk=-0.003±0.003. When we allow more general forms of evolving dark energy, the BAO+SN+CMB parameter constraints are always consistent with flat ΛCDM values at ≈1σ. And while the overall χ2 of model fits is satisfactory, the LyaF BAO measurements are in moderate (2–2.5σ) tension with model predictions. Models with early dark energy that tracks the dominant energy component at high redshift remain consistent with our expansion history constraints, and they yield a higher H0 and lower matter clustering amplitude, improving agreement with some low redshift observations. Expansion history alone yields an upper limit on the summed mass of neutrino species, Σmν<0.56 eV (95% confidence), improving to Σmν<0.25 eV if we include

  13. Estimating propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Wenyuan; Huizinga, John S.

    2010-03-16

    Techniques are described for estimating the propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor. In particular, techniques which measure and exploit a proper segment of phase frequency response of the surface acoustic wave sensor are described for use as a basis of bacterial detection by the sensor. As described, use of velocity estimation based on a proper segment of phase frequency response has advantages over conventional techniques that use phase shift as the basis for detection.

  14. Observations of sunspot umbral velocity oscillations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatnagar, A.; Livingston, W. C.; Harvey, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Review of sunspot umbral velocity measurements obtained free from any cross talk introduced by photospheric and penumbral scattered light by using lines formed only in the sunspot umbrae and showing no Zeeman effect. The maximum peak-to-peak amplitude of the umbral oscillatory velocity component is found to be of the order of 0.5 km per sec.

  15. Acoustic resonances in cylinder bundles oscillating in a compressibile fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W.H.; Raptis, A.C.

    1984-12-01

    This paper deals with an analytical study on acoustic resonances of elastic oscillations of a group of parallel, circular, thin cylinders in an unbounded volume of barotropic, compressible, inviscid fluid. The perturbed motion of the fluid is assumed due entirely to the flexural oscillations of the cylinders. The motion of the fluid disturbances is first formulated in a three-dimensional wave form and then casted into a two-dimensional Helmholtz equation for the harmonic motion in time and in axial space. The acoustic motion in the fluid and the elastic motion in the cylinders are solved simultaneously. Acoustic resonances were approximately determined from the secular (eigenvalue) equation by the method of successive iteration with the use of digital computers for a given set of the fluid properties and the cylinders' geometry and properties. Effects of the flexural wavenumber and the configuration of and the spacing between the cylinders on the acoustic resonances were thoroughly investigated.

  16. Acoustic Bloch oscillations in a two-dimensional phononic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhaojian; Peng, Shasha; Cai, Feiyan; Ke, Manzhu; Liu, Zhengyou

    2007-11-01

    We report the observation of acoustic Bloch oscillations at megahertz frequency in a two-dimensional phononic crystal. By creating periodically arrayed cavities with a decreasing gradient in width along one direction in the phononic crystal, acoustic Wannier-Stark ladders are created in the frequency domain. The oscillatory motion of an incident Gaussian pulse inside the sample is demonstrated by both simulation and experiment.

  17. Acoustic streaming produced by a cylindrical bubble undergoing volume and translational oscillations in a microfluidic channel.

    PubMed

    Doinikov, Alexander A; Combriat, Thomas; Thibault, Pierre; Marmottant, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    A theoretical model is developed for acoustic streaming generated by a cylindrical bubble confined in a fluid channel between two planar elastic walls. The bubble is assumed to undergo volume and translational oscillations. The volume oscillation is caused by an imposed acoustic pressure field and generates the bulk scattered wave in the fluid gap and Lamb-type surface waves propagating along the fluid-wall interfaces. The translational oscillation is induced by the velocity field of an external sound source such as another bubble or an oscillatory fluid flow. The acoustic streaming is assumed to result from the interaction of the volume and the translational modes of the bubble oscillations. The general solutions for the linear equations of fluid motion and the equations of acoustic streaming are calculated with no restrictions on the ratio between the viscous penetration depth and the bubble size. Approximate solutions for the limit of low viscosity are provided as well. Simulations of streamline patterns show that the geometry of the streaming resembles flows generated by a source dipole, while the vortex orientation is governed by the driving frequency, bubble size, and the distance of the bubble from the source of translational excitation. Experimental verification of the developed theory is performed using data for streaming generated by bubble pairs.

  18. Acoustic streaming produced by a cylindrical bubble undergoing volume and translational oscillations in a microfluidic channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doinikov, Alexander A.; Combriat, Thomas; Thibault, Pierre; Marmottant, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    A theoretical model is developed for acoustic streaming generated by a cylindrical bubble confined in a fluid channel between two planar elastic walls. The bubble is assumed to undergo volume and translational oscillations. The volume oscillation is caused by an imposed acoustic pressure field and generates the bulk scattered wave in the fluid gap and Lamb-type surface waves propagating along the fluid-wall interfaces. The translational oscillation is induced by the velocity field of an external sound source such as another bubble or an oscillatory fluid flow. The acoustic streaming is assumed to result from the interaction of the volume and the translational modes of the bubble oscillations. The general solutions for the linear equations of fluid motion and the equations of acoustic streaming are calculated with no restrictions on the ratio between the viscous penetration depth and the bubble size. Approximate solutions for the limit of low viscosity are provided as well. Simulations of streamline patterns show that the geometry of the streaming resembles flows generated by a source dipole, while the vortex orientation is governed by the driving frequency, bubble size, and the distance of the bubble from the source of translational excitation. Experimental verification of the developed theory is performed using data for streaming generated by bubble pairs.

  19. Efficient construction of mock catalogs for baryon acoustic oscillation surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunayama, Tomomi; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Heitmann, Katrin; Habib, Salman; Rangel, Esteban

    2016-05-01

    Precision measurements of the large scale structure of the Universe require large numbers of high fidelity mock catalogs to accurately assess, and account for, the presence of systematic effects. We introduce and test a scheme for generating mock catalogs rapidly using suitably derated N-body simulations. Our aim is to reproduce the large scale structure and the gross properties of dark matter halos with high accuracy, while sacrificing the details of the halo's internal structure. By adjusting global and local time-steps in an N-body code, we demonstrate that we recover halo masses to better than 0.5% and the power spectrum to better than 1% both in real and redshift space for k=1hMpc-1, while requiring a factor of 4 less CPU time. We also calibrate the redshift spacing of outputs required to generate simulated light cones. We find that outputs separated by Δ z=0.05 allow us to interpolate particle positions and velocities to reproduce the real and redshift space power spectra to better than 1% (out to k=1hMpc-1). We apply these ideas to generate a suite of simulations spanning a range of cosmologies, motivated by the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) but broadly applicable to future large scale structure surveys including eBOSS and DESI. As an initial demonstration of the utility of such simulations, we calibrate the shift in the baryonic acoustic oscillation peak position as a function of galaxy bias with higher precision than has been possible so far. This paper also serves to document the simulations, which we make publicly available.

  20. Acoustic velocities of two-phase mixtures of cryogenic fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griggs, E. I.; Winter, E. R. F.; Schoenhals, R. J.; Hendricks, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    Calculated values of the acoustic velocity are presented for single-component and two-component, two-phase mixtures. Three different analytic models were employed. For purposes of comparison, all three models were used in making acoustic-velocity calculations for single-component, equivalent bubbly two-phase mixtures (with insoluble gas) of oxygen and helium and hydrogen and helium. In all cases the results are shown graphically so that the effects of variation in quality or void fraction, temperature and pressure are illustrated.

  1. Study of multilayered insulation pipe penetration. Thermal acoustic oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovin, J. K.

    1974-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the net heat leak to a source of liquid nitrogen caused by a metal penetration through the blanket of multilayer insulation. The conditions under which the tests were conducted are described. A graph of the theoretical and experimental temperature distribution is developed for comparison. The variables involved in the computer program to process the data are defined. A study was conducted to develop analytical methods for predicting the effect and magnitudes of thermoacoustic oscillations on the penetration heat leak to cryogens. The oscillations develop as a result of large thermal gradients imposed on a compressible fluid. The predominant amplitudes and frequencies of the thermal acoustic oscillations were investigated.

  2. Quantum ion-acoustic wave oscillations in metallic nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Moradi, Afshin

    2015-05-15

    The low-frequency electrostatic waves in metallic nanowires are studied using the quantum hydrodynamic model, in which the electron and ion components of the system are regarded as a two-species quantum plasma system. The Poisson equation as well as appropriate quantum boundary conditions give the analytical expressions of dispersion relations of the surface and bulk quantum ion-acoustic wave oscillations.

  3. How does non-linear dynamics affect the baryon acoustic oscillation?

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, Naonori S.; Spergel, David N. E-mail: dns@astro.princeton.edu

    2014-02-01

    We study the non-linear behavior of the baryon acoustic oscillation in the power spectrum and the correlation function by decomposing the dark matter perturbations into the short- and long-wavelength modes. The evolution of the dark matter fluctuations can be described as a global coordinate transformation caused by the long-wavelength displacement vector acting on short-wavelength matter perturbation undergoing non-linear growth. Using this feature, we investigate the well known cancellation of the high-k solutions in the standard perturbation theory. While the standard perturbation theory naturally satisfies the cancellation of the high-k solutions, some of the recently proposed improved perturbation theories do not guarantee the cancellation. We show that this cancellation clarifies the success of the standard perturbation theory at the 2-loop order in describing the amplitude of the non-linear power spectrum even at high-k regions. We propose an extension of the standard 2-loop level perturbation theory model of the non-linear power spectrum that more accurately models the non-linear evolution of the baryon acoustic oscillation than the standard perturbation theory. The model consists of simple and intuitive parts: the non-linear evolution of the smoothed power spectrum without the baryon acoustic oscillations and the non-linear evolution of the baryon acoustic oscillations due to the large-scale velocity of dark matter and due to the gravitational attraction between dark matter particles. Our extended model predicts the smoothing parameter of the baryon acoustic oscillation peak at z = 0.35 as ∼ 7.7Mpc/h and describes the small non-linear shift in the peak position due to the galaxy random motions.

  4. Acoustic gas oscillations in coaxial tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenova, E. V.; Larionov, V. M.; Iovleva, O. V.

    2017-01-01

    Pulsating combustion is one of the possible solutions to improve energy efficiency of combustors that use hydrocarbon fuels. In this paper analysis of gas oscillations in coaxial tubes is provided. An influence of geometric parameters of the combustion chamber and the resonance tube on the installation frequency is considered.

  5. Correlation between spin structure oscillations and domain wall velocities

    PubMed Central

    Bisig, André; Stärk, Martin; Mawass, Mohamad-Assaad; Moutafis, Christoforos; Rhensius, Jan; Heidler, Jakoba; Büttner, Felix; Noske, Matthias; Weigand, Markus; Eisebitt, Stefan; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Van Waeyenberge, Bartel; Stoll, Hermann; Schütz, Gisela; Kläui, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic sensing and logic devices based on the motion of magnetic domain walls rely on the precise and deterministic control of the position and the velocity of individual magnetic domain walls in curved nanowires. Varying domain wall velocities have been predicted to result from intrinsic effects such as oscillating domain wall spin structure transformations and extrinsic pinning due to imperfections. Here we use direct dynamic imaging of the nanoscale spin structure that allows us for the first time to directly check these predictions. We find a new regime of oscillating domain wall motion even below the Walker breakdown correlated with periodic spin structure changes. We show that the extrinsic pinning from imperfections in the nanowire only affects slow domain walls and we identify the magnetostatic energy, which scales with the domain wall velocity, as the energy reservoir for the domain wall to overcome the local pinning potential landscape. PMID:23978905

  6. Correlation between spin structure oscillations and domain wall velocities.

    PubMed

    Bisig, André; Stärk, Martin; Mawass, Mohamad-Assaad; Moutafis, Christoforos; Rhensius, Jan; Heidler, Jakoba; Büttner, Felix; Noske, Matthias; Weigand, Markus; Eisebitt, Stefan; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Van Waeyenberge, Bartel; Stoll, Hermann; Schütz, Gisela; Kläui, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic sensing and logic devices based on the motion of magnetic domain walls rely on the precise and deterministic control of the position and the velocity of individual magnetic domain walls in curved nanowires. Varying domain wall velocities have been predicted to result from intrinsic effects such as oscillating domain wall spin structure transformations and extrinsic pinning due to imperfections. Here we use direct dynamic imaging of the nanoscale spin structure that allows us for the first time to directly check these predictions. We find a new regime of oscillating domain wall motion even below the Walker breakdown correlated with periodic spin structure changes. We show that the extrinsic pinning from imperfections in the nanowire only affects slow domain walls and we identify the magnetostatic energy, which scales with the domain wall velocity, as the energy reservoir for the domain wall to overcome the local pinning potential landscape.

  7. Vertical vibration and shape oscillation of acoustically levitated water drops

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, D. L.; Xie, W. J.; Yan, N.; Wei, B.

    2014-09-08

    We present the vertical harmonic vibration of levitated water drops within ultrasound field. The restoring force to maintain such a vibration mode is provided by the resultant force of acoustic radiation force and drop gravity. Experiments reveal that the vibration frequency increases with the aspect ratio for drops with the same volume, which agrees with the theoretical prediction for those cases of nearly equiaxed drops. During the vertical vibration, the floating drops undergo the second order shape oscillation. The shape oscillation frequency is determined to be twice the vibration frequency.

  8. A numerical method for acoustic oscillations in tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, John M.

    1988-01-01

    A numerical method to obtain the neutral curve for the onset of acoustic oscillations in a helium-filled tube is described. Such oscillations can cause a serious heat loss in the plumbing associated with liquid helium dewars. The problem is modelled by a second-order, ordinary differential eigenvalue problem for the pressure perturbation. The numerical method to find the eigenvalues and track the resulting points along the neutral curve is tailored to this problem. The results show that a tube with a uniform temperature gradient along it is much more stable than one where the temperature suddenly jumps from the cold to the hot value in the middle of the tube.

  9. Baryon acoustic oscillation intensity mapping of dark energy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tzu-Ching; Pen, Ue-Li; Peterson, Jeffrey B; McDonald, Patrick

    2008-03-07

    The expansion of the Universe appears to be accelerating, and the mysterious antigravity agent of this acceleration has been called "dark energy." To measure the dynamics of dark energy, baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) can be used. Previous discussions of the BAO dark energy test have focused on direct measurements of redshifts of as many as 10(9) individual galaxies, by observing the 21 cm line or by detecting optical emission. Here we show how the study of acoustic oscillation in the 21 cm brightness can be accomplished by economical three-dimensional intensity mapping. If our estimates gain acceptance they may be the starting point for a new class of dark energy experiments dedicated to large angular scale mapping of the radio sky, shedding light on dark energy.

  10. Baryon Acoustic Oscillation Intensity Mapping of Dark Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Tzu-Ching; Pen, Ue-Li; Peterson, Jeffrey B.; McDonald, Patrick

    2008-03-01

    The expansion of the Universe appears to be accelerating, and the mysterious antigravity agent of this acceleration has been called “dark energy.” To measure the dynamics of dark energy, baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) can be used. Previous discussions of the BAO dark energy test have focused on direct measurements of redshifts of as many as 109 individual galaxies, by observing the 21 cm line or by detecting optical emission. Here we show how the study of acoustic oscillation in the 21 cm brightness can be accomplished by economical three-dimensional intensity mapping. If our estimates gain acceptance they may be the starting point for a new class of dark energy experiments dedicated to large angular scale mapping of the radio sky, shedding light on dark energy.

  11. Flow velocity measurement with the nonlinear acoustic wave scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Didenkulov, Igor; Pronchatov-Rubtsov, Nikolay

    2015-10-28

    A problem of noninvasive measurement of liquid flow velocity arises in many practical applications. To this end the most often approach is the use of the linear Doppler technique. The Doppler frequency shift of signal scattered from the inhomogeneities distributed in a liquid relatively to the emitted frequency is proportional to the sound frequency and velocities of inhomogeneities. In the case of very slow flow one needs to use very high frequency sound. This approach fails in media with strong sound attenuation because acoustic wave attenuation increases with frequency and there is limit in increasing sound intensity, i.e. the cavitation threshold. Another approach which is considered in this paper is based on the method using the difference frequency Doppler Effect for flows with bubbles. This method is based on simultaneous action of two high-frequency primary acoustic waves with closed frequencies on bubbles and registration of the scattered by bubbles acoustic field at the difference frequency. The use of this method is interesting since the scattered difference frequency wave has much lower attenuation in a liquid. The theoretical consideration of the method is given in the paper. The experimental examples confirming the theoretical equations, as well as the ability of the method to be applied in medical diagnostics and in technical applications on measurement of flow velocities in liquids with strong sound attenuation is described. It is shown that the Doppler spectrum form depends on bubble concentration velocity distribution in the primary acoustic beams crossing zone that allows one to measure the flow velocity distribution.

  12. Numerical calculations of velocity and pressure distribution around oscillating airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bratanow, T.; Ecer, A.; Kobiske, M.

    1974-01-01

    An analytical procedure based on the Navier-Stokes equations was developed for analyzing and representing properties of unsteady viscous flow around oscillating obstacles. A variational formulation of the vorticity transport equation was discretized in finite element form and integrated numerically. At each time step of the numerical integration, the velocity field around the obstacle was determined for the instantaneous vorticity distribution from the finite element solution of Poisson's equation. The time-dependent boundary conditions around the oscillating obstacle were introduced as external constraints, using the Lagrangian Multiplier Technique, at each time step of the numerical integration. The procedure was then applied for determining pressures around obstacles oscillating in unsteady flow. The obtained results for a cylinder and an airfoil were illustrated in the form of streamlines and vorticity and pressure distributions.

  13. Downwash-velocity potential method for oscillating surfaces.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haviland, J. K.; Yoo, Y. S.

    1973-01-01

    The application of the downwash-velocity potential method to the case of oscillating surfaces is developed, and calculated forces are given on rectangular airfoils of aspect ratio two rotating about midchord in subsonic flows. These are compared with other results published in the literature for reduced frequencies up to nine-tenths, and for Mach numbers up to nine-tenths. The concept of 'aerodynamic elements' is presented, the computed results representing three possible types of rectangular element.

  14. Oscillating load-induced acoustic emission in laboratory experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ponomarev, Alexander; Lockner, David A.; Stroganova, S.; Stanchits, S.; Smirnov, V.

    2010-01-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of acoustic emission (AE) were studied. A pre-fractured cylinder of granite was loaded in a triaxial machine at 160 MPa confining pressure until stick-slip events occurred. The experiments were conducted at a constant strain rate of 10−7 s−1 that was modulated by small-amplitude sinusoidal oscillations with periods of 175 and 570 seconds. Amplitude of the oscillations was a few percent of the total load and was intended to simulate periodic loading observed in nature (e.g., earth tides or other sources). An ultrasonic acquisition system with 13 piezosensors recorded acoustic emissions that were generated during deformation of the sample. We observed a correlation between AE response and sinusoidal loading. The effect was more pronounced for higher frequency of the modulating force. A time-space spectral analysis for a “point” process was used to investigate details of the periodic AE components. The main result of the study was the correlation of oscillations of acoustic activity synchronized with the applied oscillating load. The intensity of the correlated AE activity was most pronounced in the “aftershock” sequences that followed large-amplitude AE events. We suggest that this is due to the higher strain-sensitivity of the failure area when the sample is in a transient, unstable mode. We also found that the synchronization of AE activity with the oscillating external load nearly disappeared in the period immediately after the stick-slip events and gradually recovered with further loading.

  15. Measurements of acoustic particle velocity in a coaxial duct and its application to a traveling-wave thermoacoustic heat engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morii, Jun; Biwa, Tetsushi; Yazaki, Taichi

    2014-09-01

    We present theoretical solutions, based on linear acoustic theory, for axial acoustic particle velocity in an annular region of a coaxial duct. The solutions are expressed in terms of two non-dimensional parameters h/δν and R; h and δν, respectively, represent the half of the spacing between two concentric ducts and the characteristic length given by kinematic viscosity of the gas and angular frequency of acoustic oscillations, and R is the radius ratio of the ducts. The validity of the solutions was verified by direct measurements using a laser Doppler velocimeter. The present results are applied to measurements of the acoustic power distribution in a traveling wave thermoacoustic engine with a coaxial duct, which provides experimental evidence for acoustic power feedback in the coaxial duct.

  16. Measurements of acoustic particle velocity in a coaxial duct and its application to a traveling-wave thermoacoustic heat engine.

    PubMed

    Morii, Jun; Biwa, Tetsushi; Yazaki, Taichi

    2014-09-01

    We present theoretical solutions, based on linear acoustic theory, for axial acoustic particle velocity in an annular region of a coaxial duct. The solutions are expressed in terms of two non-dimensional parameters h/δ(ν) and R; h and δ(ν), respectively, represent the half of the spacing between two concentric ducts and the characteristic length given by kinematic viscosity of the gas and angular frequency of acoustic oscillations, and R is the radius ratio of the ducts. The validity of the solutions was verified by direct measurements using a laser Doppler velocimeter. The present results are applied to measurements of the acoustic power distribution in a traveling wave thermoacoustic engine with a coaxial duct, which provides experimental evidence for acoustic power feedback in the coaxial duct.

  17. Acoustic equations of state for simple lattice Boltzmann velocity sets.

    PubMed

    Viggen, Erlend Magnus

    2014-07-01

    The lattice Boltzmann (LB) method typically uses an isothermal equation of state. This is not sufficient to simulate a number of acoustic phenomena where the equation of state cannot be approximated as linear and constant. However, it is possible to implement variable equations of state by altering the LB equilibrium distribution. For simple velocity sets with velocity components ξ(iα)∈(-1,0,1) for all i, these equilibria necessarily cause error terms in the momentum equation. These error terms are shown to be either correctable or negligible at the cost of further weakening the compressibility. For the D1Q3 velocity set, such an equilibrium distribution is found and shown to be unique. Its sound propagation properties are found for both forced and free waves, with some generality beyond D1Q3. Finally, this equilibrium distribution is applied to a nonlinear acoustics simulation where both mechanisms of nonlinearity are simulated with good results. This represents an improvement on previous such simulations and proves that the compressibility of the method is still sufficiently strong even for nonlinear acoustics.

  18. On Mode Correlation of Solar Acoustic Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Heon-Young

    2009-09-01

    In helioseismology it is normally assumed that p-mode oscillations are excited in a statistically independent fashion. Unfortunately, however, this issue is not clearly settled down in that two experiments exist, which apparently look in discrepancy. That is, Appourchaux et al.~(2000) looked at bin-to-bin correlation and found no evidence that the assumption is invalid. On the other hand, Roth (2001) reported that p-mode pairs with nearby frequencies tend to be anti-correlated, possibly by a mode-coupling effect. This work is motivated by an idea that one may test if there exists an excess of anticorrelated power variations of pairs of solar p-modes. We have analyzed a 72-day MDI spherical-harmonic time series to examine temporal variations of p-mode power and their correlation. The power variation is computed by a running-window method after the previous study by Roth (2001), and then distribution function of power correlation between mode pairs is produced. We have confirmed Roth's result that there is an excess of anti-correlated p-mode pairs with nearby frequencies. On the other hand, the amount of excess was somewhat smaller than the previous study. Moreover, the distribution function does not exhibit significant change when we paired modes with non-nearby frequencies, implying that the excess is not due to mode coupling. We conclude that the origin of this excess of anticorrelations may not be a solar physical process, by pointing out the possibility of statistical bias playing the central role in producing the excess.

  19. Electromagnetically actuated micromanipulator using an acoustically oscillating bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, J. O.; Yang, J. S.; Lee, S. J.; Rhee, K.; Chung, S. K.

    2011-11-01

    A novel non-invasive micromanipulation technique has been developed where a microrobot swimming in an aqueous medium manipulates micro-objects, through electromagnetic actuation using an acoustically oscillating bubble attached to the microrobot as a grasping tool. This micromanipulation concept was experimentally verified; an investigation of electromagnetic actuation and acoustic excitation was also performed. Two-dimensional propulsion of a magnetic piece was demonstrated through electromagnetic actuation, using three pairs of electric coils surrounding the water chamber, and confirming that the propulsion speed of the magnetic piece was linearly proportional to the applied current intensity. Micro-object manipulation was separately demonstrated using an air bubble with glass beads (80 µm diameter) and a steel ball (800 µm diameter) in an aqueous medium. Upon acoustic excitation of the bubble by a piezo-actuator around its resonant frequency, the generated radiation force attracted and captured the neighboring glass beads and steel ball. The grasping force was indirectly measured by exposing the glass beads captured by the oscillating bubble to a stream generated by an auto-syringe pump in a mini-channel. By measuring the maximum speed of the streaming flow when the glass beads detached from the oscillating bubble and flowed downstream, the grasping force was calculated as 50 nN, based on Stokes' drag approximation. Finally, a fish egg was successfully manipulated with the integration of electromagnetic actuation and acoustic excitation, using a mini-robot consisting of a millimeter-sized magnetic piece with a bubble attached to its bottom. This novel micromanipulation may be an efficient tool for both micro device assembly and single-cell manipulation.

  20. Temperature response of turbulent premixed flames to inlet velocity oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayoola, B.; Hartung, G.; Armitage, C. A.; Hult, J.; Cant, R. S.; Kaminski, C. F.

    2009-01-01

    Flame-turbulence interactions are at the heart of modern combustion research as they have a major influence on efficiency, stability of operation and pollutant emissions. The problem remains a formidable challenge, and predictive modelling and the implementation of active control measures both rely on further fundamental measurements. Model burners with simple geometry offer an opportunity for the isolation and detailed study of phenomena that take place in real-world combustors, in an environment conducive to the application of advanced laser diagnostic tools. Lean premixed combustion conditions are currently of greatest interest since these are able to provide low NO x and improved increased fuel economy, which in turn leads to lower CO2 emissions. This paper presents an experimental investigation of the response of a bluff-body-stabilised flame to periodic inlet fluctuations under lean premixed turbulent conditions. Inlet velocity fluctuations were imposed acoustically using loudspeakers. Spatially resolved heat release rate imaging measurements, using simultaneous planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of OH and CH2O, have been performed to explore the periodic heat release rate response to various acoustic forcing amplitudes and frequencies. For the first time we use this method to evaluate flame transfer functions and we compare these results with chemiluminescence measurements. Qualitative thermometry based on two-line OH PLIF was also used to compare the periodic temperature distribution around the flame with the periodic fluctuation of local heat release rate during acoustic forcing cycles.

  1. The Acoustic Simple Harmonic Oscillator: Experimental Verification and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matteson, Sam

    2009-04-01

    In his famous volume, The Sensations of Tone, published in 1877, Hermann Helmholtz introduced a resonator that was central to his investigations of acoustics. This talk revisits the device that Helmholtz described and examines it as a manifestation of an acoustic simple harmonic oscillator (SHO). The presentation demonstrates that an enclosed volume which communicates with the outside world via a narrow tube exhibits a single strong frequency response in analogy to a mechanical SHO, along with weaker resonances of the air in the short pipe that comprises the ``neck.'' The investigations, furthermore, report results of a straightforward experiment that confirms the SHO model (with damping) and that is very accessible to undergraduate students using inexpensive equipment and internet-obtainable freeware. The current work also extends the analysis to include applications of the Helmholtz Resonator to several folk instruments, namely, the ocarina, whistling, and the ``bottle band.''

  2. Experimental Acoustic Velocity Measurements in a Tidally Affected Stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storm, J.B.; ,

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) constructed a continuous steamgaging station on the tidally affected Escatawpa River at Interstate 10 near Orange Grove, Mississippi, in August 2001. The gage collects water quantity parameters of stage and stream velocity, and water quality parameters of water temperature, specific conductance, and salinity. Data are transmitted to the local USGS office via the GOES satellite and are presented on a near real-time web page. Due to tidal effects, the stream has multiple flow regimes which include downstream, bi-directional, and reverse flows. Advances in acoustic technology have made it possible to gage streams of this nature where conventional methods have been unsuccessful. An experimental mount was designed in an attempt to recognize, describe, and quantify these flow regimes by using acoustic Doppler equipment.

  3. Thermal Acoustic Oscillation: Causes, Detection, Analysis, and Prevention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christie, R. J.; Hartwig, J. W.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal Acoustic Oscillations (TAO) can occur in cryogenic systems and produce significant sources of heat. This source of heat can increase the boil off rate of cryogenic propellants in spacecraft storage tanks and reduce mission life. This paper discusses the causes of TAO, how it can be detected, what analyses can be done to predict it, and how to prevent it from occurring.The paper provides practical insight into what can aggravate instability, practical methods for mitigation, and when TAO does not occur. A real life example of a cryogenic system with an unexpected heat source is discussed, along with how TAO was confirmed and eliminated.

  4. Helioseismology and asteroseismology: looking for gravitational waves in acoustic oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, Ilídio; Silk, Joseph E-mail: ilopes@uevora.pt

    2014-10-10

    Current helioseismology observations allow the determination of the frequencies and surface velocity amplitudes of solar acoustic modes with exceptionally high precision. In some cases, the frequency accuracy is better than one part in a million. We show that there is a distinct possibility that quadrupole acoustic modes of low order could be excited by gravitational waves (GWs), if the GWs have a strain amplitude in the range 10{sup –20} h {sub –20} with h {sub –20} ∼ 1 or h {sub –20} ∼ 10{sup 3}, as predicted by several types of GW sources, such as galactic ultracompact binaries or extreme mass ratio inspirals and coalescence of black holes. If the damping rate at low order is 10{sup –3}η {sub N} μHz, with η {sub N} ∼ 10{sup –3}-1, as inferred from the theory of stellar pulsations, then GW radiation will lead to a maximum rms surface velocity amplitude of quadrupole modes of the order of h{sub −20}η{sub N}{sup −1}∼ 10{sup –9}-10{sup –3} cm s{sup –1}, on the verge of what is currently detectable via helioseismology. The frequency and sensitivity range probed by helioseismological acoustic modes overlap with, and complement, the capabilities of eLISA for the brightest resolved ultracompact galactic binaries.

  5. Diffraction correction for precision surface acoustic wave velocity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz M., Alberto; Nagy, Peter B.

    2002-09-01

    Surface wave dispersion measurements can be used to nondestructively characterize shot-peened, laser shock-peened, burnished, and otherwise surface-treated specimens. In recent years, there have been numerous efforts to separate the contribution of surface roughness from those of near-surface material variations, such as residual stress, texture, and increased dislocation density. As the accuracy of the dispersion measurements was gradually increased using state-of-the-art laser-ultrasonic scanning and sophisticated digital signal processing methods, it was recognized that a perceivable dispersive effect, similar to the one found on rough shot-peened specimens, is exhibited by untreated smooth surfaces as well. This dispersion effect is on the order of 0.1%, that is significantly higher than the experimental error associated with the measurements and comparable to the expected velocity change produced by near-surface compressive residual stresses in metals below their yield point. This paper demonstrates that the cause of this apparent dispersion is the diffraction of the surface acoustic wave (SAW) as it travels over the surface of the specimen. The results suggest that a diffraction correction may be introduced to increase the accuracy of surface wave dispersion measurements. A simple diffraction correction model was developed for surface waves and this correction was subsequently validated by laser-interferometric velocity measurements on aluminum specimens. copyright 2002 Acoustical Society of America.

  6. Long-Lived, Coherent Acoustic Phonon Oscillations in GaN Single Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, S.; Geiser, P.; Jun, J.; Karpinski, J.; Park, J.-R.; Sobolewski, R.

    2006-01-31

    We report on coherent acoustic phonon (CAP) oscillations studied in high-quality bulk GaN single crystals with a two-color femtosecond optical pump-probe technique. Using a far-above-the-band gap ultraviolet excitation (~270 nm wavelength) and a near-infrared probe beam (~810 nm wavelength), the long-lived, CAP transients were observed within a 10 ns time-delay window between the pump and probe pulses, with a dispersionless (proportional to the probe-beam wave vector) frequency of ~45 GHz. The measured CAP attenuation corresponded directly to the absorption of the probe light in bulk GaN, indicating that the actual (intrinsic) phonon-wave attenuation in our crystals was significantly smaller than the measured 65.8 cm^-1 value. The velocity of the phonon propagation was equal to the velocity of sound in GaN.

  7. Phased-array vector velocity estimation using transverse oscillations.

    PubMed

    Pihl, Michael J; Marcher, Jonne; Jensen, Jorgen A

    2012-12-01

    A method for estimating the 2-D vector velocity of blood using a phased-array transducer is presented. The approach is based on the transverse oscillation (TO) method. The purposes of this work are to expand the TO method to a phased-array geometry and to broaden the potential clinical applicability of the method. A phased-array transducer has a smaller footprint and a larger field of view than a linear array, and is therefore more suited for, e.g., cardiac imaging. The method relies on suitable TO fields, and a beamforming strategy employing diverging TO beams is proposed. The implementation of the TO method using a phased-array transducer for vector velocity estimation is evaluated through simulation and flow-rig measurements are acquired using an experimental scanner. The vast number of calculations needed to perform flow simulations makes the optimization of the TO fields a cumbersome process. Therefore, three performance metrics are proposed. They are calculated based on the complex TO spectrum of the combined TO fields. It is hypothesized that the performance metrics are related to the performance of the velocity estimates. The simulations show that the squared correlation values range from 0.79 to 0.92, indicating a correlation between the performance metrics of the TO spectrum and the velocity estimates. Because these performance metrics are much more readily computed, the TO fields can be optimized faster for improved velocity estimation of both simulations and measurements. For simulations of a parabolic flow at a depth of 10 cm, a relative (to the peak velocity) bias and standard deviation of 4% and 8%, respectively, are obtained. Overall, the simulations show that the TO method implemented on a phased-array transducer is robust with relative standard deviations around 10% in most cases. The flow-rig measurements show similar results. At a depth of 9.5 cm using 32 emissions per estimate, the relative standard deviation is 9% and the relative bias is -9

  8. Measuring the speed of light with baryon acoustic oscillations.

    PubMed

    Salzano, Vincenzo; Dąbrowski, Mariusz P; Lazkoz, Ruth

    2015-03-13

    In this Letter, we describe a new method to use baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) to derive a constraint on the possible variation of the speed of light. The method relies on the fact that there is a simple relation between the angular diameter distance (D(A)) maximum and the Hubble function (H) evaluated at the same maximum-condition redshift, which includes speed of light c. We note the close analogy of the BAO probe with a laboratory experiment: here we have D(A) which plays the role of a standard (cosmological) ruler, and H^{-1}, with the dimension of time, as a (cosmological) clock. We evaluate if current or future missions such as Euclid can be sensitive enough to detect any variation of c.

  9. Velocity measurements in whole blood using acoustic resolution photoacoustic Doppler

    PubMed Central

    Brunker, Joanna; Beard, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic resolution photoacoustic Doppler velocimetry promises to overcome the spatial resolution and depth penetration limitations of current blood flow measuring methods. Despite successful implementation using blood-mimicking fluids, measurements in blood have proved challenging, thus preventing in vivo application. A common explanation for this difficulty is that whole blood is insufficiently heterogeneous relative to detector frequencies of tens of MHz compatible with deep tissue photoacoustic measurements. Through rigorous experimental measurements we provide new insight that refutes this assertion. We show for the first time that, by careful choice of the detector frequency and field-of-view, and by employing novel signal processing methods, it is possible to make velocity measurements in whole blood using transducers with frequencies in the tens of MHz range. These findings have important implications for the prospects of making deep tissue measurements of blood flow relevant to the study of microcirculatory abnormalities associated with cancer, diabetes, atherosclerosis and other conditions. PMID:27446707

  10. Acoustic Oscillations in Main-Sequence Stars: HD155543

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, J. A.; Pérez Hernández, F.; Roca Cortés, T.

    High-speed photometric techniques have been found useful as a way to study the acoustic mode signature in low main sequence stars. In this work, the discovery of solar-like oscillations associated to the presence of acoustic modes of pulsation in the F2V star HD155543, located outside of the instability strip, is reported. This finding has been obtained through an analysis of a long series of data (184 hours) obtained in 20 nights of observation with two twin three channel photometers attached to two 1.5 m telescopes sited at two observatories, simultaneously: Teide (OT) at Tenerife (Spain) and San Pedro Mártir (SPM) at Baja California Norte (Mexico). The major results yielded have been: the range of frequencies where p-modes signal is present (1 to 3 mHz); an upper limit of 20 µmag for the amplitude of the modes; the mean spacing between modes of equal degree l and consecutive order n, v o = 97.3 ± 0.6 µHz and two possible values of D o, 1.4 or 1.8 µHz. The values of these parameters agree, within the resolution, with those yielded by standard computed models of main sequence stars compatible with the luminosity and effective temperature already known for HD155543. These results open new perspectives for astero-seismology in the near future.

  11. Acoustically levitated dancing drops: Self-excited oscillation to chaotic shedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Po-Cheng; I, Lin

    2016-02-01

    We experimentally demonstrate self-excited oscillation and shedding of millimeter-sized water drops, acoustically levitated in a single-node standing waves cavity, by decreasing the steady acoustic wave intensity below a threshold. The perturbation of the acoustic field by drop motion is a possible source for providing an effective negative damping for sustaining the growing amplitude of the self-excited motion. Its further interplay with surface tension, drop inertia, gravity and acoustic intensities, select various self-excited modes for different size of drops and acoustic intensity. The large drop exhibits quasiperiodic motion from a vertical mode and a zonal mode with growing coupling, as oscillation amplitudes grow, until falling on the floor. For small drops, chaotic oscillations constituted by several broadened sectorial modes and corresponding zonal modes are self-excited. The growing oscillation amplitude leads to droplet shedding from the edges of highly stretched lobes, where surface tension no longer holds the rapid expanding flow.

  12. Acoustically levitated dancing drops: Self-excited oscillation to chaotic shedding.

    PubMed

    Lin, Po-Cheng; I, Lin

    2016-02-01

    We experimentally demonstrate self-excited oscillation and shedding of millimeter-sized water drops, acoustically levitated in a single-node standing waves cavity, by decreasing the steady acoustic wave intensity below a threshold. The perturbation of the acoustic field by drop motion is a possible source for providing an effective negative damping for sustaining the growing amplitude of the self-excited motion. Its further interplay with surface tension, drop inertia, gravity and acoustic intensities, select various self-excited modes for different size of drops and acoustic intensity. The large drop exhibits quasiperiodic motion from a vertical mode and a zonal mode with growing coupling, as oscillation amplitudes grow, until falling on the floor. For small drops, chaotic oscillations constituted by several broadened sectorial modes and corresponding zonal modes are self-excited. The growing oscillation amplitude leads to droplet shedding from the edges of highly stretched lobes, where surface tension no longer holds the rapid expanding flow.

  13. Effects of acoustic wave resonance oscillation on immobilized enzyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Tomoya; Inoue, Yasunobu

    2014-03-01

    In aiming at developing a new method to artificially activate enzyme catalysts immobilized on surface, the effects of resonance oscillation of bulk acoustic waves were studied. Glucose oxidase (GOD) was immobilized by a covalent coupling method on a ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) device that was able to generate thickness-extensional resonance oscillation (TERO). Glucose oxidation by the GOD enzyme was studied in a microreactor. The generation of TERO immediately increased the catalytic activity of immobilized GOD by a factor of 2-3. With turn-off of TERO, no significant activity decrease occurred, and 80-90% of the enhanced activity was maintained while the reaction proceeded. The almost complete reversion of the activity to the original low level before TERO generation was observed when the immobilized GOD was exposed to a glucose substrate-free solution. These results indicated that the presence of glucose substrate was essential for TERO-induced GOD activation and preservation of the increased activity level. The influences of reaction temperature, glucose concentration, pH, and rf electric power on the TERO activation showed that TERO strengthened the interactions of the immobilized enzyme with glucose substrate and hence promoted the formation of an activation complex.

  14. An Analysis of Consolidation Grouting Effect of Bedrock Based on its Acoustic Velocity Increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Lu, Wen-bo; Zhang, Wen-ju; Yan, Peng; Zhou, Chuang-bing

    2015-05-01

    Acoustic velocity is an important parameter to evaluate the mechanical properties of fractured rock masses. Based on the in situ acoustic velocity measurement data of ~20 hydropower stations in China, we assessed the acoustic velocity increase of rock masses as a result of consolidation grouting in different geological conditions, such as fault sites, weathered areas and excavation-induced damage zones. We established an empirical relationship between the acoustic velocity of rock masses before and after consolidation grouting, and examined the correlation between acoustic velocity and deformation modulus. A case study is presented about a foundation consolidation grouting project for an intake tower of Pubugou Hydropower Station. The results show that different types of rock masses possess distinct ranges for resultant acoustic velocity increase by consolidation grouting. Under a confidence interval of 95 %, the ranges of the increasing rate of acoustic velocity in a faulted zone, weathered zone, and excavation-induced damage zone are observed to be 12.7-43.1, 12.3-31.2, and 6.9-14.5 %, respectively. The acoustic velocity before grouting and its increasing rate can be used to predict the effectiveness of consolidation grouting.

  15. Enhanced Damping for Capillary Bridge Oscillation Using Velocity Feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, Wei; Thiessen, David B.; Marston, Philip L.

    2004-01-01

    The stability of cylindrical liquid bridges in reduced gravity is affected by ambient vibrations of the spacecraft. Such vibrations are expected to excite capillary modes of the bridge. The lowest-order unstable mode is particularly susceptible to vibration as the length of the bridge approaches the stability limit. This low-order mode is known as the (2,0) mode and is an axisymmetric varicose mode of one wavelength in the axial direction. In this work, an optical system is used to detect the (2,0)-mode amplitude. The derivative of the error signal produced by this detector is used to produce the appropriate voltages on a pair of ring electrodes which are concentric with the bridge. A mode-coupled Maxwell stress profile is thus generated in proportional to the modal velocity. Depending on the sign of the gain, the damping of the capillary oscillation can be either increased or decreased. This effect has been demonstrated in Plateau-tank experiments. Increasing the damping of the capillary modes on free liquid surfaces in space could be beneficial for containerless processing and other novel technologies.

  16. Enhanced Damping for Capillary Bridge Oscillation Using Velocity Feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, Wei; Thiessen, David B.; Marston, Philip L.

    2004-01-01

    The stability of cylindrical liquid bridges in reduced gravity is affected by ambient vibrations of the spacecraft. Such vibrations are expected to excite capillary modes of the bridge. The lowest-order unstable mode is particularly susceptible to vibration as the length of the bridge approaches the stability limit. This low-order mode is known as the (2,0) mode and is an axisymmetric varicose mode of one wavelength in the axial direction. In this work, an optical system is used to detect the (2,0)-mode amplitude. The derivative of the error signal produced by this detector is used to produce the appropriate voltages on a pair of ring electrodes which are concentric with the bridge. A mode-coupled Maxwell stress profile is thus generated in proportional to the modal velocity. Depending on the sign of the gain, the damping of the capillary oscillation can be either increased or decreased. This effect has been demonstrated in Plateau-tank experiments. Increasing the damping of the capillary modes on free liquid surfaces in space could be beneficial for containerless processing and other novel technologies. [work supported by NASA

  17. Combination and simultaneous resonances of gas bubbles oscillating in liquids under dual-frequency acoustic excitation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuning; Zhang, Yuning; Li, Shengcai

    2017-03-01

    The multi-frequency acoustic excitation has been employed to enhance the effects of oscillating bubbles in sonochemistry for many years. In the present paper, nonlinear dynamic oscillations of bubble under dual-frequency acoustic excitation are numerically investigated within a broad range of parameters. By investigating the power spectra and the response curves of oscillating bubbles, two unique features of bubble oscillations under dual-frequency excitation (termed as "combination resonance" and "simultaneous resonance") are revealed and discussed. Specifically, the amplitudes of the combination resonances are quantitatively compared with those of other traditional resonances (e.g. main resonances, harmonics). The influences of several paramount parameters (e.g., the bubble radius, the acoustic pressure amplitude, the energy allocation between two component waves) on nonlinear bubble oscillations are demonstrated.

  18. Experimental and theoretical demonstration of acoustic Bloch oscillations in porous silicon structures

    SciTech Connect

    Lazcano, Z.; Arriaga, J.; Aliev, G. N.

    2014-04-21

    We report the theoretical calculations and the experimental demonstration of acoustic Bloch oscillations and Wannier-Stark ladders in linear tilted multilayer structures based on porous silicon. The considered structures consist of layers with constant porosity alternated by layers with a linear gradient in the parameter η=1/v{sub L}{sup 2} along the growth direction in order to tilt the acoustic band gap. The purpose of this gradient is to mimic the tilted electronic miniband structure of a superlattice semiconductor under an external electric field. In this way, acoustic Wannier-Stark ladders of equidistant modes are formed and they were experimentally confirmed in the transmission spectrum around 1.2 GHz. Their frequency separation defines the period of the acoustic Bloch oscillations. We fabricated three different structures with the same thicknesses but different values in the η parameter to observe the effect on the period of the Bloch oscillations. We measured the acoustic transmission spectra in the frequency domain, and by using the Fourier transform, we obtained the transmission in the time domain. The transmission spectra of the fabricated samples show acoustic Bloch oscillations with periods of 27, 24, and 19 ns. The experimental results are in good agreement with the transfer matrix calculations. The observed phenomenon is the acoustic counterpart of the well known electronic Bloch oscillations.

  19. Simultaneous realization of negative group velocity, fast and slow acoustic waves in a metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-juan; Xue, Cheng; Fan, Li; Zhang, Shu-yi; Chen, Zhe; Ding, Jin; Zhang, Hui

    2016-06-01

    An acoustic metamaterial is designed based on a simple and compact structure of one string of side pipes arranged along a waveguide, in which diverse group velocities are achieved. Owing to Fabry-Perot resonance of the side pipes, a negative phase time is achieved, and thus, acoustic waves transmitting with negative group velocities are produced near the resonant frequency. In addition, both fast and slow acoustic waves are also observed in the vicinity of the resonance frequency. The extraordinary group velocities can be explained based on spectral rephasing induced by anomalous dispersion on the analogy of Lorentz dispersion in electromagnetic waves.

  20. The Rhythm of Perception: Entrainment to Acoustic Rhythms Induces Subsequent Perceptual Oscillation.

    PubMed

    Hickok, Gregory; Farahbod, Haleh; Saberi, Kourosh

    2015-07-01

    Acoustic rhythms are pervasive in speech, music, and environmental sounds. Recent evidence for neural codes representing periodic information suggests that they may be a neural basis for the ability to detect rhythm. Further, rhythmic information has been found to modulate auditory-system excitability, which provides a potential mechanism for parsing the acoustic stream. Here, we explored the effects of a rhythmic stimulus on subsequent auditory perception. We found that a low-frequency (3 Hz), amplitude-modulated signal induces a subsequent oscillation of the perceptual detectability of a brief nonperiodic acoustic stimulus (1-kHz tone); the frequency but not the phase of the perceptual oscillation matches the entrained stimulus-driven rhythmic oscillation. This provides evidence that rhythmic contexts have a direct influence on subsequent auditory perception of discrete acoustic events. Rhythm coding is likely a fundamental feature of auditory-system design that predates the development of explicit human enjoyment of rhythm in music or poetry.

  1. MASS-DEPENDENT BARYON ACOUSTIC OSCILLATION SIGNAL AND HALO BIAS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Qiao; Zhan Hu

    2013-05-10

    We characterize the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) feature in halo two-point statistics using N-body simulations. We find that nonlinear damping of the BAO signal is less severe for halos in the mass range we investigate than for dark matter. The amount of damping depends weakly on the halo mass. The correlation functions show a mass-dependent drop of the halo clustering bias below roughly 90 h {sup -1} Mpc, which coincides with the scale of the BAO trough. The drop of bias is 4% for halos with mass M > 10{sup 14} h {sup -1} M{sub Sun} and reduces to roughly 2% for halos with mass M > 10{sup 13} h {sup -1} M{sub Sun }. In contrast, halo biases in simulations without BAO change more smoothly around 90 h {sup -1} Mpc. In Fourier space, the bias of M > 10{sup 14} h {sup -1} M{sub Sun} halos decreases smoothly by 11% from wavenumber k = 0.012 h Mpc{sup -1} to 0.2 h Mpc{sup -1}, whereas that of M > 10{sup 13} h {sup -1} M{sub Sun} halos decreases by less than 4% over the same range. By comparing the halo biases in pairs of otherwise identical simulations, one with and the other without BAO, we also observe a modulation of the halo bias. These results suggest that precise calibrations of the mass-dependent BAO signal and scale-dependent bias on large scales would be needed for interpreting precise measurements of the two-point statistics of clusters or massive galaxies in the future.

  2. Cosmological implications of different baryon acoustic oscillation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuang; Hu, YaZhou; Li, Miao

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we explore the cosmological implications of different baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) data, including the BAO data extracted by using the spherically averaged one-dimensional galaxy clustering (GC) statistics (hereafter BAO1) and the BAO data obtained by using the anisotropic two-dimensional GC statistics (hereafter BAO2). To make a comparison, we also take into account the case without BAO data (hereafter NO BAO). Firstly, making use of these BAO data, as well as the SNLS3 type Ia supernovae sample and the Planck distance priors data, we give the cosmological constraints of the ΛCDM, the wCDM, and the Chevallier-Polarski-Linder (CPL) model. Then, we discuss the impacts of different BAO data on cosmological consquences, including its effects on parameter space, equation of state (EoS), figure of merit (FoM), deceleration-acceleration transition redshift, Hubble parameter H( z), deceleration parameter q( z), statefinder hierarchy S 3 (1)( z), S 4 (1)( z) and cosmic age t( z). We find that: (1) NO BAO data always give a smallest fractional matter density Ω m0, a largest fractional curvature density Ωk0 and a largest Hubble constant h; in contrast, BAO1 data always give a largest Ω m0, a smallest Ω k0 and a smallest h. (2) For the wCDM and the CPL model, NO BAO data always give a largest EoS w; in contrast, BAO2 data always give a smallest w. (3) Compared with the case of BAO1, BAO2 data always give a slightly larger FoM, and thus can give a cosmological constraint with a slightly better accuracy. (4) The impacts of different BAO data on the cosmic evolution and the comic age are very small, and cannot be distinguished by using various dark energy diagnoses and the cosmic age data.

  3. On measuring the absolute scale of baryon acoustic oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Will

    2012-10-01

    The baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature in the distribution of galaxies provides a fundamental standard ruler which is widely used to constrain cosmological parameters. In most analyses, the comoving length of the ruler is inferred from a combination of cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations and theory. However, this inferred length may be biased by various non-standard effects in early universe physics; this can lead to biased inferences of cosmological parameters such as H0, Ωm and w, so it would be valuable to measure the absolute BAO length by combining a galaxy redshift survey and a suitable direct low-z distance measurement. One obstacle is that low-redshift BAO surveys mainly constrain the ratio rS/DV(z), where DV is a dilation scale which is not directly observable by standard candles. Here, we find a new approximation DV(z)≃34DL(43z)(1+43z)-1(1-0.02455 z3+0.0105 z4) which connects DV to the standard luminosity distance DL at a somewhat higher redshift; this is shown to be very accurate (relative error <0.2 per cent) for all Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe compatible Friedmann models at z < 0.4, with very weak dependence on cosmological parameters H0, Ωm, Ωk, w. This provides a route to measure the absolute BAO length using only observations at z ≲ 0.3, including Type Ia supernovae, and potentially future H0-free physical distance indicators such as gravitational lenses or gravitational wave standard sirens. This would provide a zero-parameter check of the standard cosmology at 103 ≲ z ≲ 105, and can constrain the number of relativistic species Neff with fewer degeneracies than the CMB.

  4. Measuring baryon acoustic oscillations from the clustering of voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yu; Zhao, Cheng; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Tao, Charling

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the necessary methodology to optimally measure the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) signal from voids, based on galaxy redshift catalogues. To this end, we study the dependence of the BAO signal on the population of voids classified by their sizes. We find for the first time the characteristic features of the correlation function of voids including the first robust detection of BAOs in mock galaxy catalogues. These show an anti-correlation around the scale corresponding to the smallest size of voids in the sample (the void exclusion effect), and dips at both sides of the BAO peak, which can be used to determine the significance of the BAO signal without any priori model. Furthermore, our analysis demonstrates that there is a scale-dependent bias for different populations of voids depending on the radius, with the peculiar property that the void population with the largest BAO significance corresponds to tracers with approximately zero bias on the largest scales. We further investigate the methodology on an additional set of 1000 realistic mock galaxy catalogues reproducing the SDSS-III/BOSS CMASS DR11 data, to control the impact of sky mask and radial selection function. Our solution is based on generating voids from randoms including the same survey geometry and completeness, and a post-processing cleaning procedure in the holes and at the boundaries of the survey. The methodology and optimal selection of void populations validated in this work have been used to perform the first BAO detection from voids in observations, presented in a companion paper.

  5. The BOSS-WiggleZ overlap region - I. Baryon acoustic oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beutler, Florian; Blake, Chris; Koda, Jun; Marín, Felipe A.; Seo, Hee-Jong; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2016-01-01

    We study the large-scale clustering of galaxies in the overlap region of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) CMASS sample and the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. We calculate the auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions in the overlap region of the two data sets and detect a Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) signal in each of them. The BAO measurement from the cross-correlation function represents the first such detection between two different galaxy surveys. After applying density-field reconstruction we report distance-scale measurements D_V r_s^fid / r_s = (1970 ± 45, 2132 ± 65, 2100 ± 200) Mpc from CMASS, the cross-correlation and WiggleZ, respectively. The distance scales derived from the two data sets are consistent, and are also robust against switching the displacement fields used for reconstruction between the two surveys. We use correlated mock realizations to calculate the covariance between the three BAO constraints. This approach can be used to construct a correlation matrix, permitting for the first time a rigorous combination of WiggleZ and CMASS BAO measurements. Using a volume-scaling technique, our result can also be used to combine WiggleZ and future CMASS DR12 results. Finally, we show that the relative velocity effect, a possible source of systematic uncertainty for the BAO technique, is consistent with zero for our samples.

  6. Modeling solar oscillation power spectra. II. Parametric model of spectral lines observed in Doppler-velocity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Vorontsov, Sergei V.; Jefferies, Stuart M. E-mail: stuartj@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2013-11-20

    We describe a global parametric model for the observed power spectra of solar oscillations of intermediate and low degree. A physically motivated parameterization is used as a substitute for a direct description of mode excitation and damping as these mechanisms remain poorly understood. The model is targeted at the accurate fitting of power spectra coming from Doppler-velocity measurements and uses an adaptive response function that accounts for both the vertical and horizontal components of the velocity field on the solar surface and for possible instrumental and observational distortions. The model is continuous in frequency, can easily be adapted to intensity measurements, and extends naturally to the analysis of high-frequency pseudomodes (interference peaks at frequencies above the atmospheric acoustic cutoff).

  7. Effect of wind tunnel acoustic modes on linear oscillating cascade aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffum, D. H.; Fleeter, S.

    1994-01-01

    The aerodynamics of a biconvex airfoil cascade oscillating in torsion is investigated using the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. For subsonic flow and reduced frequencies as large as 0.9, airfoil surface unsteady pressures resulting from oscillation of one of the airfoils are measured using flush-mounted high-frequency-response pressure transducers. The influence coefficient data are examined in detail and then used to predict the unsteady aerodynamics of a cascade oscillating at various interblade phase angles. These results are correlated with experimental data obtained in the traveling-wave mode of oscillation and linearized analysis predictions. It is found that the unsteady pressure disturbances created by an oscillating airfoil excite wind tunnel acoustic modes, which have detrimental effects on the experimental results. Acoustic treatment is proposed to rectify this problem.

  8. Effect of wind tunnel acoustic modes on linear oscillating cascade aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffum, Daniel H.; Fleeter, Sanford

    1993-01-01

    The aerodynamics of a biconvex airfoil cascade oscillating in torsion is investigated using the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. For subsonic flow and reduced frequencies as large as 0.9, airfoil surface unsteady pressures resulting from oscillation of one of the airfoils are measured using flush-mounted high-frequency-response pressure transducers. The influence coefficient data are examined in detail and then used to predict the unsteady aerodynamics of a cascade oscillating at various interblade phase angles. These results are correlated with experimental data obtained in the traveling-wave mode of oscillation and linearized analysis predictions. It is found that the unsteady pressure disturbances created by an oscillating airfoil excite wind tunnel acoustic modes which have detrimental effects on the experimental data. Acoustic treatment is proposed to rectify this problem.

  9. Feasibility of using acoustic velocity meters for estimating highly organic suspended-solids concentrations in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patino, Eduardo

    1996-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted at the Levee 4 canal site below control structure G-88 in the Everglades agricultural area in northwestern Broward County, Florida, to study the relation of acoustic attenuation to suspended-solids concentrations. Acoustic velocity meter and temperature data were obtained with concurrent water samples analyzed for suspended-solids concentrations. Two separate acoustic velocity meter frequencies were used, 200 and 500 kilohertz, to determine the sensitivity of acoustic attenuation to frequency for the measured suspended-solids concentration range. Suspended-solids concentrations for water samples collected at the Levee 4 canal site from July 1993 to September 1994 ranged from 22 to 1,058 milligrams per liter, and organic content ranged from about 30 to 93 percent. Regression analyses showed that attenuation data from the acoustic velocity meter (automatic gain control) and temperature data alone do not provide enough information to adequately describe the concentrations of suspended solids. However, if velocity is also included as one of the independent variables in the regression model, a satisfactory correlation can be obtained. Thus, it is feasible to use acoustic velocity meter instrumentation to estimate suspended-solids concentrations in streams, even when suspended solids are primarily composed of organic material. Using the most comprehensive data set available for the study (500 kiloherz data), the best fit regression model produces a standard error of 69.7 milligrams per liter, with actual errors ranging from 2 to 128 milligrams per liter. Both acoustic velocity meter transmission frequencies of 200 and 500 hilohertz produced similar results, suggesting that transducers of either frequency could be used to collect attenuation data at the study site. Results indicate that calibration will be required for each acoustic velocity meter system to the unique suspended-solids regime existing at each site. More robust solutions may

  10. Estimation of spatiotemporal variation of acoustic velocity in ocean and its modeling for GPS/Acoustic seafloor positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, S.; Tadokoro, K.; Ikuta, R.; Watanabe, T.; Okuda, T.; Sayanagi, K.; Miyata, K.; Nagao, T.

    2009-12-01

    We have been developing an observation system with the GPS/Acoustic combination technique for monitoring of seafloor crustal deformation. We installed two sets of triangular array of acoustic transponders as geodetic reference sites on the Suruga trough, central Japan, where the Philippine Sea plate is subducting beneath the Eurasian plate at a rate of 2 cm/yr. In our campaign observation, we measured ranges to acoustic transponders from an on-board acoustic transducer whose position was determined by kinematic GPS. Repeated our campaign observations can reveal directly seafloor crustal deformation in focal area of subduction zone. Present analysis method simultaneously estimates temporal variation of acoustic velocity and positions of acoustic transponders assuming the horizontally-layered structure of acoustic velocity. However, actual structure might have stable spatial variation due to oceanic current and internal wave. The stable spatial variation causes bias error on the positioning. For reduction of the bias error and shortening observation time, we should measure and/or estimate the spatial variation of acoustic velocity. In this presentation, for an investigation of horizontal scales of the spatial variation of acoustic velocity, we estimated spectrum of oceanic internal wave using by continuous measurements of temperature and pressure in ocean. In addition, we evaluate a new seafloor positioning method which simultaneously estimates spatiotemporal variation of acoustic velocity through numerical experiments. The continuous measurements in parallel with acoustic ranging were conducted by mooring temperature and pressure sensors attached rope with an interval of 50 m. The continuous measurements were made for five hours with a sampling interval of three seconds in each day in August and October 2008. For reduction of measurement noise, we carried out two-dimensional B-spline fitting of temperature and pressure with ABIC minimization. By the fitting, we

  11. Velocity-induced neutrino oscillation and its possible implications for long baseline neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banik, Amit Dutta; Majumdar, Debasish

    2015-12-01

    If the three types of active neutrinos possess different maximum attainable velocities and the neutrino eigenstates in the velocity basis are different from those in the flavor (and mass) basis, then this will induce a flavor oscillation in addition to the normal mass-flavor oscillation. Here we study such an oscillation scenario in three neutrino framework including also the matter effect and apply our results to demonstrate its consequences for long baseline (LBL) neutrinos. We also predict the possible signatures in terms of yields in a possible LBL neutrino experiment.

  12. Measuring Ultrasonic Acoustic Velocity in a Thin Sheet of Graphite Epoxy Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    A method for measuring the acoustic velocity in a thin sheet of a graphite epoxy composite (GEC) material was investigated. This method uses two identical acoustic-emission (AE) sensors, one to transmit and one to receive. The delay time as a function of distance between sensors determines a bulk velocity. A lightweight fixture (balsa wood in the current implementation) provides a consistent method of positioning the sensors, thus providing multiple measurements of the time delay between sensors at different known distances. A linear fit to separation, x, versus delay time, t, will yield an estimate of the velocity from the slope of the line.

  13. Numerical investigation of amplitude-dependent dynamic response in acoustic metamaterials with nonlinear oscillators.

    PubMed

    Manimala, James M; Sun, C T

    2016-06-01

    The amplitude-dependent dynamic response in acoustic metamaterials having nonlinear local oscillator microstructures is studied using numerical simulations on representative discrete mass-spring models. Both cubically nonlinear hardening and softening local oscillator cases are considered. Single frequency, bi-frequency, and wave packet excitations at low and high amplitude levels were used to interrogate the models. The propagation and attenuation characteristics of harmonic waves in a tunable frequency range is found to correspond to the amplitude and nonlinearity-dependent shifts in the local resonance bandgap for such nonlinear acoustic metamaterials. A predominant shift in the propagated wave spectrum towards lower frequencies is observed. Moreover, the feasibility of amplitude and frequency-dependent selective filtering of composite signals consisting of individual frequency components which fall within propagating or attenuating regimes is demonstrated. Further enrichment of these wave manipulation mechanisms in acoustic metamaterials using different combinations of nonlinear microstructures presents device implications for acoustic filters and waveguides.

  14. Complete velocity distribution in river cross-sections measured by acoustic instruments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, R.T.; Gartner, J.W.; ,

    2003-01-01

    To fully understand the hydraulic properties of natural rivers, velocity distribution in the river cross-section should be studied in detail. The measurement task is not straightforward because there is not an instrument that can measure the velocity distribution covering the entire cross-section. Particularly, the velocities in regions near the free surface and in the bottom boundary layer are difficult to measure, and yet the velocity properties in these regions play the most significant role in characterizing the hydraulic properties. To further characterize river hydraulics, two acoustic instruments, namely, an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP), and a "BoogieDopp" (BD) were used on fixed platforms to measure the detailed velocity profiles across the river. Typically, 20 to 25 stations were used to represent a river cross-section. At each station, water velocity profiles were measured independently and/or concurrently by an ADCP and a BD. The measured velocity properties were compared and used in computation of river discharge. In a tow-tank evaluation of a BD, it has been confirmed that BD is capable of measuring water velocity at about 11 cm below the free-surface. Therefore, the surface velocity distribution across the river was extracted from the BD velocity measurements and used to compute the river discharge. These detailed velocity profiles and the composite velocity distribution were used to assess the validity of the classic theories of velocity distributions, conventional river discharge measurement methods, and for estimates of channel bottom roughness.

  15. Acoustic reconstruction of the velocity field in a furnace using a characteristic flow model.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanqin; Zhou, Huaichun; Chen, Shiying; Zhang, Yindi; Wei, Xinli; Zhao, Jinhui

    2012-06-01

    An acoustic method can provide a noninvasive, efficient and full-field reconstruction of aerodynamic fields in a furnace. A simple yet reasonable model is devised for reconstruction of a velocity field in a cross section of a tangential furnace from acoustic measurements based on typical physical characteristics of the field. The solenoidal component of the velocity field is modeled by a curved surface, derived by rotating a curve of Gaussian distribution, determined by six characteristic parameters, while the nonrotational component is governed by a priori knowledge. Thus the inverse problem is translated into determination of the characteristic parameters using a set of acoustic projection data. First numerical experiments were undertaken to simulate the acoustic measurement, so as to preliminarily validate the effectiveness of the model. Based on this, physical experiments under different operating conditions were performed in a pilot-scale setup to provide a further test. Hot-wire anemometry and strip floating were applied to compare with acoustic measurements. The acoustic measurements provided satisfactory consistency with both of these approaches. Nevertheless, for a field with a relatively large magnitude of air velocities, the acoustic measurement can give more reliable reconstructions. Extension of the model to measurements of hot tangential furnaces is also discussed.

  16. Hydrocarbon saturation determination using acoustic velocities obtained through casing

    DOEpatents

    Moos, Daniel

    2010-03-09

    Compressional and shear velocities of earth formations are measured through casing. The determined compressional and shear velocities are used in a two component mixing model to provides improved quantitative values for the solid, the dry frame, and the pore compressibility. These are used in determination of hydrocarbon saturation.

  17. Design Guidelines for Avoiding Thermo-Acoustic Oscillations in Helium Piping Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Prabhat Kumar; Rabehl, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Thermo-acoustic oscillations are a commonly observed phenomenon in helium cryogenic systems, especially in tubes connecting hot and cold areas. The open ends of these tubes are connected to the lower temperature (typically at 4.2 K), and the closed ends of these tubes are connected to the high temperature (300K). Cryogenic instrumentation installations provide ideal conditions for these oscillations to occur due to the steep temperature gradient along the tubing. These oscillations create errors in measurements as well as an undesirable heat load to the system. The work presented here develops engineering guidelines to design oscillation-free helium piping. This work also studies the effect of different piping inserts and shows how the proper geometrical combinations have to be chosen to avoid thermo-oscillations. The effect of an 80 K intercept is also studied and shows that thermo-oscillations can be dampened by placing the intercept at an appropriate location.

  18. Imaging of Acoustically Coupled Oscillations Due to Flow Past a Shallow Cavity: Effect of Cavity Length Scale

    SciTech Connect

    P. Oshkai; M. Geveci; D. Rockwell; M. Pollack

    2002-12-12

    Flow-acoustic interactions due to fully turbulent inflow past a shallow axisymmetric cavity mounted in a pipe are investigated using a technique of high-image-density particle image velocimetry in conjunction with unsteady pressure measurements. This imaging leads to patterns of velocity, vorticity, streamline topology, and hydrodynamic contributions to the acoustic power integral. Global instantaneous images, as well as time-averaged images, are evaluated to provide insight into the flow physics during tone generation. Emphasis is on the manner in which the streamwise length scale of the cavity alters the major features of the flow structure. These image-based approaches allow identification of regions of the unsteady shear layer that contribute to the instantaneous hydrodynamic component of the acoustic power, which is necessary to maintain a flow tone. In addition, combined image analysis and pressure measurements allow categorization of the instantaneous flow patterns that are associated with types of time traces and spectra of the fluctuating pressure. In contrast to consideration based solely on pressure spectra, it is demonstrated that locked-on tones may actually exhibit intermittent, non-phase-locked images, apparently due to low damping of the acoustic resonator. Locked-on flow tones (without modulation or intermittency), locked-on flow tones with modulation, and non-locked-on oscillations with short-term, highly coherent fluctuations are defined and represented by selected cases. Depending on which of,these regimes occur, the time-averaged Q (quality)-factor and the dimensionless peak pressure are substantially altered.

  19. An acoustic travel time method for continuous velocity monitoring in shallow tidal streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razaz, Mahdi; Kawanisi, Kiyosi; Nistor, Ioan; Sharifi, Soroosh

    2013-08-01

    Long-term variations of streamflow in a tidal channel were measured using a Fluvial Acoustic Tomography (FAT) system through one transmission path. FAT is an innovative acoustic technology that utilizes the time-of-travel method to determine velocity between two points from multiple ray paths that traverse the entire cross-section of stream. Due to high spatial variability of flow distribution stationary ADCP measurements were not likely to yield true section-averaged flow velocity and moving-boat ADCP method was therefore used to provide reference data. As such, two short-term moving boat ADCP campaigns were carried out by the authors. In the first campaign, a couple of acoustic stations were added to the FAT system in order to resolve flow angularity in addition to the mean velocity. Comparing the FAT results with corresponding ADCP section-averaged flow direction and velocity indicated remarkable consistency. Second campaign was designed to capture the influence of salt wedge intrusion on the sound propagation pattern. It was found that FAT velocity measurements bias high if acoustic stations lay inside the cooler freshwater layer. Ray-tracing hindcasts suggest that installing acoustic stations inside the salt wedge may significantly improve function of output of the system. Comparing salinities evaluated from long-term FAT travel time records with nodal salinity measurements provided by conductivity-temperature sensors reveals the potential ability of FAT in measuring salt flux.

  20. On the correlation of plume centerline velocity decay of turbulent acoustically excited jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonglahn, Uwe H.

    1987-01-01

    Acoustic excitation was shown to alter the velocity decay and spreading characteristics of jet plumes by modifying the large-scale structures in the plume shear layer. The present work consists of reviewing and analyzing available published and unpublished experimental data in order to determine the importance and magnitude of the several variables that contribute to plume modification by acoustic excitation. Included in the study were consideration of the effects of internal and external acoustic excitation, excitation Strouhal number, acoustic excitation level, nozzle size, and flow conditions. The last include jet Mach number and jet temperature. The effects of these factors on the plume centerline velocity decay are then summarized in an overall empirical correlation.

  1. Fine Structure of Solar Acoustic Oscillations Due to Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goode, P. R.; Dziembowski, W.

    1984-01-01

    The nature of the fine structure of high order, low degree five minute period solar oscillations following from various postulated forms of spherical rotation is predicted. The first and second order effects of rotation are included.

  2. Baryon acoustic oscillations in 2D: Modeling redshift-space power spectrum from perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Taruya, Atsushi; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Saito, Shun

    2010-09-15

    We present an improved prescription for the matter power spectrum in redshift space taking proper account of both nonlinear gravitational clustering and redshift distortion, which are of particular importance for accurately modeling baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs). Contrary to the models of redshift distortion phenomenologically introduced but frequently used in the literature, the new model includes the corrections arising from the nonlinear coupling between the density and velocity fields associated with two competitive effects of redshift distortion, i.e., Kaiser and Finger-of-God effects. Based on the improved treatment of perturbation theory for gravitational clustering, we compare our model predictions with the monopole and quadrupole power spectra of N-body simulations, and an excellent agreement is achieved over the scales of BAOs. Potential impacts on constraining dark energy and modified gravity from the redshift-space power spectrum are also investigated based on the Fisher-matrix formalism, particularly focusing on the measurements of the Hubble parameter, angular diameter distance, and growth rate for structure formation. We find that the existing phenomenological models of redshift distortion produce a systematic error on measurements of the angular diameter distance and Hubble parameter by 1%-2%, and the growth-rate parameter by {approx}5%, which would become non-negligible for future galaxy surveys. Correctly modeling redshift distortion is thus essential, and the new prescription for the redshift-space power spectrum including the nonlinear corrections can be used as an accurate theoretical template for anisotropic BAOs.

  3. Precise tailoring of acoustic velocity in optical fibers by hydrogenation and UV exposure.

    PubMed

    Kong, Fanting; Dong, Liang

    2012-12-03

    Tailoring of acoustic properties in solids has many potential applications in both acoustics, i.e. acoustic gratings and waveguides, and photon-phonon interactions, i.e. stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). One immediate application is in the area of SBS suppression in optical fibers. We demonstrate, for the first time, a post-processing technique where hydrogen is diffused in to a fiber core and then locally and permanently bonded to core glass by a subsequent UV exposure. It is discovered that local acoustic velocity can be altered by as much as ~2% this way, with strong potential for much further improvements with an increased hydrogen pressure. It is also found that the large change in acoustic velocity is primarily due to a reduction in bulk modulus, possibly as a result of network bonds being broken up by the addition of OH bonds. It is possible to use this technique to precisely tailor acoustic velocity along a fiber for more optimized SBS suppression in a fiber amplifier. Change in Brillouin Stokes frequency of ~320MHz at 1.064μm was observed.

  4. Resonant mode interactions and the bifurcation of combustion-driven acoustic oscillations in resonance tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Margolis, S.B. . Combustion Research Facility)

    1994-12-01

    Acoustic oscillations in practical combustion devices such as pulse combustors and rocket motors, whether desirable or not, are properly interpreted as combustion instabilities. A nonlinear stability analysis of the corresponding fluid motions than shows that the nonsteady behavior is governed by infinitely coupled systems of nonlinear evolution equations for the amplitudes of the classical acoustic modes. However, under certain conditions, it has been conjectured that relatively low-order truncations can give qualitatively correct physical results. In the present work, one particular model of a pulse combustor is considered, and a parameter regime in the neighborhood of a primary acoustic bifurcation where either one or a pair of purely longitudinal acoustic modes achieves a positive linear growth rate is focused upon. In the first case, it is formally shown that a decoupling occurs such that a two-mode approximation consisting of the linearly unstable mode and its first resonant harmonic completely determines the dynamics of the oscillation. In the later case, it is again demonstrated that a decoupling occurs, and although mode interactions require the retention of additional modes besides the two linearly unstable modes and their first resonant harmonics, a relatively low-order dynamical system still governs the bifurcation behavior. The presence of two linearly unstable modes is then shown to lead to more complicated dynamics, including the stable secondary bifurcation of a multiperiodic acoustic oscillation from one of the single-period primary branches.

  5. A Void Fraction Characterisation by Low Frequency Acoustic Velocity Measurements in Microbubble Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavaro, Matthieu

    Low frequency acoustic velocity measurements have been applied for the characterization of microbubble clouds generated in water. This method, based on the Wood's model (1941) links the acoustic velocity throughout a two-phase medium to its void fraction value. Low frequency means below resonance frequencies of the bubbles inside the cloud. An original bench was developed to allow the qualification of this method. The experiments conducted allowed us to characterize void fraction values between 10-3 and 10-7. The radii of the studied microbubbles are between a few micrometers and a hundred micrometers.

  6. Reflection and transmission of acoustical waves from a layer with space-dependent velocity.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinmetz, G. G.; Singh, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    The refraction of acoustical waves by a moving medium layer is theoretically treated and the reflection and transmission coefficients are determined. The moving-medium-layer velocity is uniform but with a space dependence in one direction. A partitioning of the moving medium layer into constant-velocity sublayers is introduced and numerical results for a three-sublayer approximation of Poiseuille flow are presented. The degenerate case of a single constant-velocity layer is also treated theoretically and numerically. The numerical results show the reflection and transmission coefficients as functions of the peak moving-medium-layer normalized velocity for several angles of incidence.

  7. Acoustic Velocity Of The Sediments Offshore Southwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, C.; Liu, C.; Huang, P.

    2004-12-01

    Along the Manila Trench south of 21øXN, deep-sea sediments are being underthrusted beneath the Taiwan accretionary prism which is composed of the Kaoping Slope and Hengchun Ridge. Offshore southwestern Taiwan, foreland sediments and Late Miocene strata of the Tainan Basin are being accreted onto the fold-and thrust belt of the syn-collision accretionary wedge of the Kaoping Slope. The Kaoping Slope consists of thick Neogene to Recent siliciclastics deformed by fold-and-thrust structures and mud diapers. These Pliocene-Quaternary sediments deposited in the Kaoping Shelf and upper slope area are considered to be paleo-channel deposits confined by NNE-SSW trend mud diapiric structure. Seismic P-wave velocities of the sediment deposited in the Kaoping Shelf and Kaoping Slope area are derived from mutichannel seismic reflection data and wide-angle reflection and refraction profiles collected by sonobuoys. Sediment velocity structures constrained from mutichannel seismic reflection data using velocity spectrum analysis method and that derived from sonobuoy data using tau-sum inversion method are compared, and they both provide consistent velocity structures. Seismic velocities were analyzed along the seismic profile from the surface to maximum depths of about 2.0 km below the seafloor. Our model features a sediment layer1 with 400 ms in thickness and a sediment layer2 with 600 ms in thickness. For the shelf sediments, we observe a linear interval velocity trend of V=1.53+1.91T in layer1, and V=1.86+0.87T in layer2, where T is the one way travel time within the layer. For the slop sediment, the trend of V=1.47+1.93T in layer1, and V=1.70+1.55T in layer2. The layer1¡¦s velocities gradients are similar between the shelf (1.91 km/sec2) and the slope(1.93 km/sec2). It means layer1 distributes over the slope and shelf widely. The result of the sediment velocity gradients in this area are in good agreement with that reported for the south Atlantic continental margins.

  8. Precise radial velocities. II - A possible detection of oscillations or running waves in Aldebaran and Arcturus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. A.

    1983-02-01

    Reticon observations of Aldebaran and Arcturus were performed to detect any minute radial velocity modulations which could characterize the convective stellar envelopes. The observing procedure consisted of referencing small apparent shifts of the detected stellar lines near the 6300 A wavelength to telluric O2 lines in the stellar spectrum. Only radial velocity changes were sought, rather than absolute radial velocities. Measurements for the radial velocities of both stars were calculated to an accuracy within 7 m/sec. A quasiperiodicity within 16 minutes of 110 minutes was found for Aldebaran, and within 28 minutes of 97 minutes for Arcturus. The possibility of the observed global oscillations being similar to the 5-min oscillations present in the solar system sun are discussed, and further measurements are recommended.

  9. Acoustic and vibration performance evaluations of a velocity sensing hull array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cray, Benjamin A.; Christman, Russell A.

    1996-04-01

    Acoustic and vibration measurements were conducted at the Naval Undersea Warfare Center's Seneca Lake Facility to investigate the in situ signal response of a linear array of velocity sensors (sensors that measure either acoustic particle acceleration, velocity, or displacement have generically been denoted as velocity sensors) on a coating. The coating used at Seneca Lake consisted of air-voided elastomeric tiles with an overall coating thickness of approximately 3 inches. The accelerometer array and coating were mounted on the Seneca Lake Hull Fixture, which measures 33 feet lengthwise with an arc length of 20 feet. The fixture weighs approximately 30 tons. Specifically, measurements of in situ sensitivity, velocity reduction, reflection gain, array beam response, and equivalent planewave self-noise levels are presented.

  10. Accurate group velocity estimation for unmanned aerial vehicle-based acoustic atmospheric tomography.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Kevin J; Finn, Anthony

    2017-02-01

    Acoustic atmospheric tomography calculates temperature and wind velocity fields in a slice or volume of atmosphere based on travel time estimates between strategically located sources and receivers. The technique discussed in this paper uses the natural acoustic signature of an unmanned aerial vehicle as it overflies an array of microphones on the ground. The sound emitted by the aircraft is recorded on-board and by the ground microphones. The group velocities of the intersecting sound rays are then derived by comparing these measurements. Tomographic inversion is used to estimate the temperature and wind fields from the group velocity measurements. This paper describes a technique for deriving travel time (and hence group velocity) with an accuracy of 0.1% using these assets. This is shown to be sufficient to obtain highly plausible tomographic inversion results that correlate well with independent SODAR measurements.

  11. Baryon acoustic oscillations in 2D. II. Redshift-space halo clustering in N-body simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimichi, Takahiro; Taruya, Atsushi

    2011-08-01

    We measure the halo power spectrum in redshift space from cosmological N-body simulations, and test the analytical models of redshift distortions particularly focusing on the scales of baryon acoustic oscillations. Remarkably, the measured halo power spectrum in redshift space exhibits a large-scale enhancement in amplitude relative to the real-space clustering, and the effect becomes significant for the massive or highly biased halo samples. These findings cannot be simply explained by the so-called streaming model frequently used in the literature. By contrast, a physically motivated perturbation theory model developed in the previous paper reproduces the halo power spectrum very well, and the model combining a simple linear scale-dependent bias can accurately characterize the clustering anisotropies of halos in two dimensions, i.e., line-of-sight and its perpendicular directions. The results highlight the significance of nonlinear coupling between density and velocity fields associated with two competing effects of redshift distortions, i.e., Kaiser and Finger-of-God effects, and a proper account of this effect would be important in accurately characterizing the baryon acoustic oscillations in two dimensions.

  12. Laser and acoustic Doppler techniques for the measurement of fluid velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    An overview of current laser and acoustic Doppler techniques is presented. Results obtained by Doppler anemometry and conventional sensors are compared. Comparisons include simultaneous velocity measurements by hot wire and a three-dimensional laser anemometer made in a gaseous pipe flow as well as direct comparisons of atmospheric velocities measured with propeller and cup anemometry. Scanning techniques are also discussed. Conclusions and recommendations for future work are presented.

  13. Design guidelines for avoiding thermo-acoustic oscillations in helium piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Prabhat Kumar; Rabehl, Roger

    2015-04-02

    Thermo-acoustic oscillations are a commonly observed phenomenon in helium cryogenic systems, especially in tubes connecting hot and cold areas. The open ends of these tubes are connected to the lower temperature (typically at 4.5 K), and the closed ends of these tubes are connected to the high temperature (300 K). Cryogenic instrumentation installations provide ideal conditions for these oscillations to occur due to the steep temperature gradient along the tubing. These oscillations create errors in measurements as well as an undesirable heat load to the system. The work presented here develops engineering guidelines to design oscillation-free helium piping. This work also studies the effect of different piping inserts and shows how the proper geometrical combinations have to be chosen to avoid thermo-acoustic oscillations. The effect of an 80 K intercept is also studied and shows that thermo-oscillations can be dampened by placing the intercept at an appropriate location. As a result, the design of helium piping based on the present work is also verified with the experimental results available in open literature.

  14. Design guidelines for avoiding thermo-acoustic oscillations in helium piping systems

    DOE PAGES

    Gupta, Prabhat Kumar; Rabehl, Roger

    2015-04-02

    Thermo-acoustic oscillations are a commonly observed phenomenon in helium cryogenic systems, especially in tubes connecting hot and cold areas. The open ends of these tubes are connected to the lower temperature (typically at 4.5 K), and the closed ends of these tubes are connected to the high temperature (300 K). Cryogenic instrumentation installations provide ideal conditions for these oscillations to occur due to the steep temperature gradient along the tubing. These oscillations create errors in measurements as well as an undesirable heat load to the system. The work presented here develops engineering guidelines to design oscillation-free helium piping. This workmore » also studies the effect of different piping inserts and shows how the proper geometrical combinations have to be chosen to avoid thermo-acoustic oscillations. The effect of an 80 K intercept is also studied and shows that thermo-oscillations can be dampened by placing the intercept at an appropriate location. As a result, the design of helium piping based on the present work is also verified with the experimental results available in open literature.« less

  15. Full bandwidth calibration procedure for acoustic probes containing a pressure and particle velocity sensor.

    PubMed

    Basten, Tom G H; de Bree, Hans-Elias

    2010-01-01

    Calibration of acoustic particle velocity sensors is still difficult due to the lack of standardized sensors to compare with. Recently it is shown by Jacobsen and Jaud [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 120, 830-837 (2006)] that it is possible to calibrate a sound pressure and particle velocity sensor in free field conditions at higher frequencies. This is done by using the known acoustic impedance at a certain distance of a spherical loudspeaker. When the sound pressure is measured with a calibrated reference microphone, the particle velocity can be calculated from the known impedance and the measured pressure. At lower frequencies, this approach gives unreliable results. The method is now extended to lower frequencies by measuring the acoustic pressure inside the spherical source. At lower frequencies, the sound pressure inside the sphere is proportional to the movement of the loudspeaker membrane. If the movement is known, the particle velocity in front of the loudspeaker can be derived. This low frequency approach is combined with the high frequency approach giving a full bandwidth calibration procedure which can be used in free field conditions using a single calibration setup. The calibration results are compared with results obtained with a standing wave tube.

  16. Coherent acoustic oscillations of nanoscale Au triangles and pyramids: influence of size and substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taubert, R.; Hudert, F.; Bartels, A.; Merkt, F.; Habenicht, A.; Leiderer, P.; Dekorsy, T.

    2007-10-01

    We investigate the impulsively excited acoustic dynamics of nanoscale Au triangles of different sizes and thicknesses on silicon and glass substrates. We employ high-speed asynchronous optical sampling in order to study the damping of the acoustic vibrations with high sensitivity in the time domain. From the observed damping dynamics we deduce the reflection coefficient of acoustic energy from the gold-substrate interface. The observed damping times of coherent acoustic vibrations are found to be significantly longer than expected from the acoustic impedance mismatch for an ideal gold-substrate interface, hence pointing towards a reduced coupling strength. The strength of the coupling can be determined quantitatively. For Au triangles with large lateral size-to-thickness ratio, i.e. a small aspect ratio, the acoustic dynamics is dominated by a thickness oscillation similar to that of a closed film. For triangles with large aspect ratio the coherent acoustic excitation consists of a superposition of different three-dimensional modes which exhibit different damping times.

  17. Acoustic beam control in biomimetic projector via velocity gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiaowei; Zhang, Yu; Cao, Wenwu; Dong, Erqian; Song, Zhongchang; Li, Songhai; Tang, Liguo; Zhang, Sai

    2016-07-01

    A biomimetic projector (BioP) based on computerized tomography of pygmy sperm whale's biosonar system has been designed using gradient-index (GRIN) material. The directivity of this BioP device was investigated as function of frequency and the velocity gradient of the GRIN material. A strong beam control over a broad bandwidth at the subwavelength scale has been achieved. Compared with a bare subwavelength source, the main lobe pressure of the BioP is about five times as high and the angular resolution is one order of magnitude better. Our results indicate that this BioP has excellent application potential in miniaturized underwater sonars.

  18. Optical velocity meter based on Ramsey oscillations in a double-grating setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preclíková, J.; Kozák, M.; Fregenal, D.; Hansen, J. P.

    2014-04-01

    We propose a method for measuring velocities of atoms or molecules in a gas phase based on time-resolved laser experiments. Two intensity gratings of electromagnetic field with variable time delay τ are created by interfering of four laser pulses. Using first-order perturbation theory, we show that such arrangement can be used for measuring particle velocities, which have an optical transition to a long-living excited state. It is shown that the optical Ramsey oscillations obtain a characteristic modulation that reflects the distribution of velocities.

  19. Accurate thermoelastic tensor and acoustic velocities of NaCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcondes, Michel L.; Shukla, Gaurav; da Silveira, Pedro; Wentzcovitch, Renata M.

    2015-12-01

    Despite the importance of thermoelastic properties of minerals in geology and geophysics, their measurement at high pressures and temperatures are still challenging. Thus, ab initio calculations are an essential tool for predicting these properties at extreme conditions. Owing to the approximate description of the exchange-correlation energy, approximations used in calculations of vibrational effects, and numerical/methodological approximations, these methods produce systematic deviations. Hybrid schemes combining experimental data and theoretical results have emerged as a way to reconcile available information and offer more reliable predictions at experimentally inaccessible thermodynamics conditions. Here we introduce a method to improve the calculated thermoelastic tensor by using highly accurate thermal equation of state (EoS). The corrective scheme is general, applicable to crystalline solids with any symmetry, and can produce accurate results at conditions where experimental data may not exist. We apply it to rock-salt-type NaCl, a material whose structural properties have been challenging to describe accurately by standard ab initio methods and whose acoustic/seismic properties are important for the gas and oil industry.

  20. Accurate thermoelastic tensor and acoustic velocities of NaCl

    SciTech Connect

    Marcondes, Michel L.; Shukla, Gaurav; Silveira, Pedro da; Wentzcovitch, Renata M.

    2015-12-15

    Despite the importance of thermoelastic properties of minerals in geology and geophysics, their measurement at high pressures and temperatures are still challenging. Thus, ab initio calculations are an essential tool for predicting these properties at extreme conditions. Owing to the approximate description of the exchange-correlation energy, approximations used in calculations of vibrational effects, and numerical/methodological approximations, these methods produce systematic deviations. Hybrid schemes combining experimental data and theoretical results have emerged as a way to reconcile available information and offer more reliable predictions at experimentally inaccessible thermodynamics conditions. Here we introduce a method to improve the calculated thermoelastic tensor by using highly accurate thermal equation of state (EoS). The corrective scheme is general, applicable to crystalline solids with any symmetry, and can produce accurate results at conditions where experimental data may not exist. We apply it to rock-salt-type NaCl, a material whose structural properties have been challenging to describe accurately by standard ab initio methods and whose acoustic/seismic properties are important for the gas and oil industry.

  1. Surface Acoustic Wave Microwave Oscillator and Frequency Synthesizer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    AD-A086 336 TRW DEFENSE AND SPACE SYSTEMS GROUP REDONDO BEACH CA F/ A /5 SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVE MICROWA VE OSC ILLATOR AND FR EQUENCY SYNTME--ETC(U...DEVELOPMENT COMMAND FORT MONMOUTH, NEW JERSEY 07703 HISAŕ 78 UNCLASSIFIED 6 URTSfaceIO A si WHS ae Micowvef scilltr nermepteOt󈧫 BEFORE COEPETINFOR RE~~~ a ...D OKUI UBRj~ ~~n SpaReT ParkWCAIO OP T05HIS A .11eu.0t13..... IINCLASSTFTF[ gCUNTY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAOI(Whin DEla AIRIm Fminimum frequency step

  2. Acoustic oscillations and elastic moduli of single gold nanorods.

    PubMed

    Zijlstra, Peter; Tchebotareva, Anna L; Chon, James W M; Gu, Min; Orrit, Michel

    2008-10-01

    We present the first acoustic vibration measurements of single gold nanorods with well-characterized dimensions and crystal structure. The nanorods have an average size of 90 nm x 30 nm and display two vibration modes, the breathing mode and the extensional mode. Correlation between the dimensions obtained from electron microscope images and the vibrational frequencies of the same particle allows us to determine the elastic moduli for each individual nanorod. Contrary to previous reports on ensembles of gold nanorods, we find that the single particle elastic moduli agree well with bulk values.

  3. Measurement of acoustic glitches in solar-type stars from oscillation frequencies observed by Kepler

    SciTech Connect

    Mazumdar, A.; Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G.; Cunha, M. S.; Ballot, J.; Antia, H. M.; Basu, S.; Houdek, G.; Silva Aguirre, V.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Metcalfe, T. S.; Mathur, S.; García, R. A.; Verner, G. A.; Chaplin, W. J.; Sanderfer, D. T.; Seader, S. E.; Smith, J. C.

    2014-02-10

    For the very best and brightest asteroseismic solar-type targets observed by Kepler, the frequency precision is sufficient to determine the acoustic depths of the surface convective layer and the helium ionization zone. Such sharp features inside the acoustic cavity of the star, which we call acoustic glitches, create small oscillatory deviations from the uniform spacing of frequencies in a sequence of oscillation modes with the same spherical harmonic degree. We use these oscillatory signals to determine the acoustic locations of such features in 19 solar-type stars observed by the Kepler mission. Four independent groups of researchers utilized the oscillation frequencies themselves, the second differences of the frequencies and the ratio of the small and large separation to locate the base of the convection zone and the second helium ionization zone. Despite the significantly different methods of analysis, good agreement was found between the results of these four groups, barring a few cases. These results also agree reasonably well with the locations of these layers in representative models of the stars. These results firmly establish the presence of the oscillatory signals in the asteroseismic data and the viability of several techniques to determine the location of acoustic glitches inside stars.

  4. Quantum beats in conductance oscillations in graphene-based asymmetric double velocity wells and electrostatic wells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Lei; Li, Yu-Xian; Zhang, Ying-Tao; Liu, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-14

    The transport properties in graphene-based asymmetric double velocity well (Fermi velocity inside the well less than that outside the well) and electrostatic well structures are investigated using the transfer matrix method. The results show that quantum beats occur in the oscillations of the conductance for asymmetric double velocity wells. The beating effect can also be found in asymmetric double electrostatic wells, but only if the widths of the two wells are different. The beat frequency for the asymmetric double well is exactly equal to the frequency difference between the oscillation rates in two isolated single wells with the same structures as the individual wells in the double well structure. A qualitative interpretation is proposed based on the fact that the resonant levels depend upon the sizes of the quantum wells. The beating behavior can provide a new way to identify the symmetry of double well structures.

  5. Laser photoacoustic technique for ultrasonic surface acoustic wave velocity evaluation on porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, K.; Tu, S. J.; Gao, L.; Xu, J.; Li, S. D.; Yu, W. C.; Liao, H. H.

    2016-10-01

    A laser photoacoustic technique has been developed to evaluate the surface acoustic wave (SAW) velocity of porcelain. A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm was focused by a cylindrical lens to initiate broadband SAW impulses, which were detected by an optical fiber interferometer with high spatial resolution. Multiple near-field surface acoustic waves were observed on the sample surface at various locations along the axis perpendicular to the laser line source as the detector moved away from the source in the same increments. The frequency spectrum and dispersion curves were obtained by operating on the recorded waveforms with cross-correlation and FFT. The SAW phase velocities of the porcelain of the same source are similar while they are different from those of different sources. The marked differences of Rayleigh phase velocities in our experiment suggest that this technique has the potential for porcelain identification.

  6. Shallow Bulk Acoustic Wave (SBAW) Devices and Oscillators.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    millimeter adapter for the automatic network analyzer. The two phase-locked sources would be implemented as SBAW phase-locked oscillators at 7 GHz, followed ...GHz device was designed with the parameters shown in Fig. 4-18s to be replicated as devices using a Shipley resist on AT quartz, followed by ion milling...Width 0.4 um Aperture Width 100 x Number of Fingers/Transducer 1001 Center-to-Center Separation of Transducers 1000 1m Distance Between Transducers 200

  7. On the dynamics and acoustics of cloud cavitation on an oscillating hydrofoil

    SciTech Connect

    McKenney, E.A.; Brennen, C.E.

    1994-12-31

    Observations have been made of the growth and collapse of surface and cloud cavitation on a finite aspect ratio hydrofoil oscillating in pitch. The cavitation was recorded using both still and high-speed motion picture photography, and the variations with cavitation number and reduced frequency of oscillation were investigated. The noise generated by the cavity collapse was also measured and analyzed. The acoustic signals associated with individual cavity collapse events have been synchronized with the motion pictures, providing insights into the correspondence between the flow structures involved in the cavity collapse process and the sound generated by them.

  8. Oscillating bubble as a sensor of low frequency electro-acoustic signals in electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Tankovsky, N; Baerner, K; Barey, Dooa Abdel

    2006-08-16

    Small air-bubble deformations, caused by electro-acoustic signals generated in electrolytic solutions have been detected by angle-modulation of a refracted He-Ne laser beam. The observed electromechanical resonance at low frequency, below 100 Hz, has proved to be directly related to the oscillations of characteristic ion-doped water structures when driven by an external electric field. The presence of structure-breaking or structure-making ions modifies the water structure, which varies the mechanical losses of the oscillating system and can be registered as changes in the width of the observed resonance curves.

  9. Texture in steel plates revealed by laser ultrasonic surface acoustic waves velocity dispersion analysis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Anmin; Wang, Xiaochen; Glorieux, Christ; Yang, Quan; Dong, Feng; He, Fei; Wang, Yanlong; Sermeus, Jan; Van der Donck, Tom; Shu, Xuedao

    2017-02-24

    A photoacoustic, laser ultrasonics based approach in an Impulsive Stimulated Scattering (ISS) implementation was used to investigate the texture in polycrystalline metal plates. The angular dependence of the 'polycrystalline' surface acoustic wave (SAW) velocity measured along regions containing many grains was experimentally determined and compared with simulated results that were based on the angular dependence of the 'single grain' SAW velocity within single grains and the grain orientation distribution. The polycrystalline SAW velocities turn out to vary with texture. The SAW velocities and their angular variations for {110} texture were found to be larger than that the ones for {111} texture or the strong γ fiber texture. The SAW velocities for {001} texture were larger than for {111} texture, but with almost the same angular dependence. The results infer the feasibility to apply angular SAW angular dispersion measurements by laser ultrasonics for on-line texture monitoring.

  10. Poisson's ratio from polarization of acoustic zero-group velocity Lamb mode.

    PubMed

    Baggens, Oskar; Ryden, Nils

    2015-07-01

    Poisson's ratio of an isotropic and free elastic plate is estimated from the polarization of the first symmetric acoustic zero-group velocity Lamb mode. This polarization is interpreted as the ratio of the absolute amplitudes of the surface normal and surface in-plane components of the acoustic mode. Results from the evaluation of simulated datasets indicate that the presented relation, which links the polarization and Poisson's ratio, can be extended to incorporate plates with material damping. Furthermore, the proposed application of the polarization is demonstrated in a practical field case, where an increased accuracy of estimated nominal thickness is obtained.

  11. FE Modelling of the Fluid-Structure-Acoustic Interaction for the Vocal Folds Self-Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Švancara, Pavel; Horáček, J.; Hrůza, V.

    The flow induced self-oscillation of the human vocal folds in interaction with acoustic processes in the simplified vocal tract model was explored by three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model. Developed FE model includes vocal folds pretension before phonation, large deformations of the vocal fold tissue, vocal folds contact, fluid-structure interaction, morphing the fluid mesh according the vocal folds motion (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian approach), unsteady viscous compressible airflow described by the Navier-Stokes equations and airflow separation during the glottis closure. Iterative partitioned approach is used for modelling the fluid-structure interaction. Computed results prove that the developed model can be used for simulation of the vocal folds self-oscillation and resulting acoustic waves. The developed model enables to numerically simulate an influence of some pathological changes in the vocal fold tissue on the voice production.

  12. Mass transfer from a sphere in an oscillating flow with zero mean velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Colin K.; Lyman, Frederic A.

    1990-01-01

    A pseudospectral numerical method is used for the solution of the Navier-Stokes and mass transport equations for a sphere in a sinusoidally oscillating flow with zero mean velocity. The flow is assumed laminar and axisymmetric about the sphere's polar axis. Oscillating flow results were obtained for Reynolds numbers (based on the free-stream oscillatory flow amplitude) between 1 and 150, and Strouhal numbers between 1 and 1000. Sherwood numbers were computed and their dependency on the flow frequency and amplitude discussed. An assessment of the validity of the quasi-steady assumption for mass transfer is based on these results.

  13. Acoustic wave velocity behavior for some Jurassic carbonate samples, north Sinai, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Sayed, Nahla A.; Abuseda, Hesham; Kassab, Mohamed A.

    2015-11-01

    Seismic data of reservoir rocks use for understand of risk reduction. Acoustic laboratory measurements have been carried out for 75 carbonate rock samples for both dry and fully saturated collected from Jurassic deposits exposed in the north Sinai at Gebel El-Maghara. This study has been carried out to know more about the behavior of compression wave velocity and shear wave velocity in carbonate rock samples for both dry and fully saturated conditions and to investigate the effect of porosity, permeability and density on both dry and fully saturated acoustic velocities. The compressional wave velocities at dry and fully saturated carbonate rock samples increased with increasing the bulk density and decreasing the porosity, while the porosity decreasing with increasing bulk density, the relationships between the porosity as well as shear wave velocity in dry and fully saturated are in cloud points, with no clear relationships. The relationships between the permeability and both the compressional wave and the shear wave velocities at dry and fully saturated cases could not be identified. The statistical analyses indicate that the compressional wave in the fully saturated is higher than the compressional wave in dry case. The compressional wave velocity of the fully saturated carbonate rock samples were strongly correlated with the compressional wave velocity of the dry rock samples and the derived equation can be used for prediction of the compressional wave velocity of fully saturated rock from the compressional wave velocity of dry rock. The shear wave of the fully saturated carbonate rock samples is a fair correlated with the shear wave of the dry rock samples.

  14. Effect of acoustic radiation on the stability of spherical bubble oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumerov, Nail A.

    1998-07-01

    A recent analysis of the stability of spherical bubble oscillations shows that the high order shape modes are parametrically unstable with respect to small but finite perturbations [Z. C. Feng and L. G. Leal, J. Fluid Mech. 266, 209 (1994)]. Using a heuristic approach it is shown here that the acoustic radiation due to the liquid compressibility plays an important role in stabilization of the high frequency modes and overall stability of the bubble spherical shape.

  15. An Acoustic Levitation Technique for the Study of Nonlinear Oscillations of Gas Bubbles in Liquids.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-15

    alcohol and a mixture of glycerine and water (33-1/3% glycerine by volume) were the two liquids used in this research. Bubbles were levitated near the...bubble can be trapped over a - -range of positions near a pressure antinode as a result of the balancing of these two forces. * The acoustic...then used to investigate the nonlinear oscillations of the bubble over a range of sizes. The bubbles were studied in two liq- uids: isopropyl alcohol

  16. Surface Acoustic-Wave-Induced Magnetoresistance Oscillations in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, John P.; Kennett, Malcolm P.; Cooper, Nigel R.; Fal'Ko, Vladimir I.

    2004-07-01

    We study the geometrical commensurability oscillations imposed on the resistivity of 2D electrons in a perpendicular magnetic field by a propagating surface acoustic wave (SAW). We show that, for ω<ωc, this effect contains an anisotropic dynamical classical contribution increasing the resistivity and a nonequilibrium quantum contribution isotropically decreasing the resistivity, and we predict zero-resistance states associated with geometrical commensurability at large SAW amplitude.

  17. Imaging of Acoustically Coupled Oscillations Due to Flow Past a Shallow Cavity: Effect of Cavity Length Scale

    SciTech Connect

    P Oshkai; M Geveci; D Rockwell; M Pollack

    2004-05-24

    Flow-acoustic interactions due to fully turbulent inflow past a shallow axisymmetric cavity mounted in a pipe, which give rise to flow tones, are investigated using a technique of high-image-density particle image velocimetry in conjunction with unsteady pressure measurements. This imaging leads to patterns of velocity, vorticity, streamline topology, and hydrodynamic contributions to the acoustic power integral. Global instantaneous images, as well as time-averaged images, are evaluated to provide insight into the flow physics during tone generation. Emphasis is on the manner in which the streamwise length scale of the cavity alters the major features of the flow structure. These image-based approaches allow identification of regions of the unsteady shear layer that contribute to the instantaneous hydrodynamic component of the acoustic power, which is necessary to maintain a flow tone. In addition, combined image analysis and pressure measurements allow categorization of the instantaneous flow patterns that are associated with types of time traces and spectra of the fluctuating pressure. In contrast to consideration based solely on pressure spectra, it is demonstrated that locked-on tones may actually exhibit intermittent, non-phase-locked images, apparently due to low damping of the acoustic resonator. Locked-on flow tones (without modulation or intermittency), locked-on flow tones with modulation, and non-locked-on oscillations with short-term, highly coherent fluctuations are defined and represented by selected cases. Depending on which of these regimes occur, the time-averaged Q (quality)-factor and the dimensionless peak pressure are substantially altered.

  18. The determination of the acoustic parameters of volcanic rocks from compressional velocity measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carroll, R.D.

    1969-01-01

    A statistical analysis was made of the relationship of various acoustic parameters of volcanic rocks to compressional wave velocities for data obtained in a volcanic region in Nevada. Some additional samples, chiefly granitic rocks, were also included in the study to extend the range of parameters and the variety of siliceous rock types sampled. Laboratory acoustic measurements obtained on 62 dry core samples were grouped with similar measurements obtained from geophysical logging devices at several depth intervals in a hole from which 15 of the core samples had been obtained. The effects of lithostatic and hydrostatic load on changing the rock acoustic parameters measured in the hole were noticeable when compared with the laboratory measurements on the same core. The results of the analyses determined by grouping all of the data, however, indicate that dynamic Young's, shear and bulk modulus, shear velocity, shear and compressional characteristic impedance, as well as amplitude and energy reflection coefficients may be reliably estimated on the basis of the compressional wave velocities of the rocks investigated. Less precise estimates can be made of density based on the rock compressional velocity. The possible extension of these relationships to include many siliceous rocks is suggested. ?? 1969.

  19. Errors in acoustic doppler profiler velocity measurements caused by flow disturbance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, D.S.; Abad, J.D.; Garcia, C.M.; Gartner, J.W.; Garcia, M.H.; Oberg, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    Acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) are commonly used to measure streamflow and water velocities in rivers and streams. This paper presents laboratory, field, and numerical model evidence of errors in ADCP measurements caused by flow disturbance. A state-of-the-art three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic model is validated with and used to complement field and laboratory observations of flow disturbance and its effect on measured velocities. Results show that near the instrument, flow velocities measured by the ADCP are neither the undisturbed stream velocity nor the velocity of the flow field around the ADCP. The velocities measured by the ADCP are biased low due to the downward flow near the upstream face of the ADCP and upward recovering flow in the path of downstream transducer, which violate the flow homogeneity assumption used to transform beam velocities into Cartesian velocity components. The magnitude of the bias is dependent on the deployment configuration, the diameter of the instrument, and the approach velocity, and was observed to range from more than 25% at 5cm from the transducers to less than 1% at about 50cm from the transducers for the scenarios simulated. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  20. Phase tunability of group velocity by modulated-pump-forced coherent population oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Arrieta-Yanez, Francisco; Melle, Sonia; Calderon, Oscar G.; Anton, M. A.; Carreno, F.

    2009-07-15

    We propose a technique to obtain slow and fast light propagations based on coherent population oscillations forced by a modulated pump. This mechanism produces an enhancement of 1 order of magnitude of the delay or advancement of light signals. The relative phase between the pumps to the signal fields is used as a knob for changing light propagation from ultraslow group velocities to negative group velocities. The experimental realization of the phenomenon was carried out in an erbium-doped fiber amplifier at room temperature.

  1. Cosmic sound: Measuring the Universe with baryonic acoustic oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hütsi, Gert

    2006-05-01

    matter power spectrum one is able to put constraints on several cosmological parameters. In this thesis we have investigated the prospects for the future wide-field SZ cluster surveys to detect the acoustic scale in the matter power spectrum, specifically concentrating on the possibilities for constraining the properties of the DE. The core part of the thesis is concerned with a power spectrum analysis of the SDSS Luminous Red Galaxy (LRG) sample. We have been able to detect acoustic features in the redshift-space power spectrum of LRGs down to scales of ~ 0.2 hMpc^{-1}, which approximately corresponds to the seventh peak in the CMB angular spectrum. Using this power spectrum measurement along with the measured size of the sound horizon, we have carried out the maximum likelihood cosmological parameter estimation using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques. The precise measurement of the low redshift sound horizon in combination with the CMB data has enabled us to measure, under some simplifying assumptions, the Hubble constant with a high precision: H_0 = 70.8 {+1.9} {-1.8} km/s/Mpc. Also we have shown that a decelerating expansion of the Universe is ruled out at more than 5-sigma confidence level.

  2. Gulf stream velocity structure through combined inversion of hydrographic and acoustic Doppler data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, S. D.

    1986-01-01

    Near-surface velocities from an acoustic Doppler instrument are used in conjunction with CTD/O2 data to produce estimates of the absolute flow field off Cape Hatteras. The data set consists of two transects across the Gulf Stream made by the R/V Endeavor cruise EN88 in August 1982. An inverse procedure is applied which makes use of both the acoustic Doppler data and property conservation constraints. Velocity sections at approximately 73 deg. W and 71 deg. W are presented with formal errors of 1-2 cm/s. The net Gulf Stream transports are estimated to be 116 + or - 2 Sv across the south leg and 161 + or - 4 Sv across the north. A Deep Western Boundary Current transport of 4 + or - 1 Sv is also estimated. While these values do not necessarily represent the mean, they are accurate estimates of the synoptic flow field in the region.

  3. Liquid mercury sound velocity measurements under high pressure and high temperature by picosecond acoustics in a diamond anvils cell.

    PubMed

    Decremps, F; Belliard, L; Couzinet, B; Vincent, S; Munsch, P; Le Marchand, G; Perrin, B

    2009-07-01

    Recent improvements to measure ultrasonic sound velocities of liquids under extreme conditions are described. Principle and feasibility of picosecond acoustics in liquids embedded in a diamond anvils cell are given. To illustrate the capability of these advances in the sound velocity measurement technique, original high pressure and high temperature results on the sound velocity of liquid mercury up to 5 GPa and 575 K are given. This high pressure technique will certainly be useful in several fundamental and applied problems in physics and many other fields such as geophysics, nonlinear acoustics, underwater sound, petrology or physical acoustics.

  4. Visualizing flow fields using acoustic Doppler current profilers and the Velocity Mapping Toolbox

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, P. Ryan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this fact sheet is to provide examples of how the U.S. Geological Survey is using acoustic Doppler current profilers for much more than routine discharge measurements. These instruments are capable of mapping complex three-dimensional flow fields within rivers, lakes, and estuaries. Using the Velocity Mapping Toolbox to process the ADCP data allows detailed visualization of the data, providing valuable information for a range of studies and applications.

  5. Nonreciprocal acoustics and dynamics in the in-plane oscillations of a geometrically nonlinear lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Koroleva, I.; Manevitch, L. I.; Bergman, L. A.; Vakakis, A. F.

    2016-09-01

    We study the dynamics and acoustics of a nonlinear lattice with fixed boundary conditions composed of a finite number of particles coupled by linear springs, undergoing in-plane oscillations. The source of the strongly nonlinearity of this lattice is geometric effects generated by the in-plane stretching of the coupling linear springs. It has been shown that in the limit of low energy the lattice gives rise to a strongly nonlinear acoustic vacuum, which is a medium with zero speed of sound as defined in classical acoustics. The acoustic vacuum possesses strongly nonlocal coupling effects and an orthogonal set of nonlinear standing waves [or nonlinear normal modes (NNMs)] with mode shapes identical to those of the corresponding linear lattice; in contrast to the linear case, however, all NNMs except the one with the highest wavelength are unstable. In addition, the lattice supports two types of waves, namely, nearly linear sound waves (termed "L waves") corresponding to predominantly axial oscillations of the particles and strongly nonlinear localized propagating pulses (termed "N L pulses") corresponding to predominantly transverse oscillating wave packets of the particles with localized envelopes. We show the existence of nonlinear nonreciprocity phenomena in the dynamics and acoustics of the lattice. Two opposite cases are examined in the limit of low energy. The first gives rise to nonreciprocal dynamics and corresponds to collective, spatially extended transverse loading of the lattice leading to the excitation of individual, predominantly transverse NNMs, whereas the second case gives rise to nonreciprocal acoutics by considering the response of the lattice to spatially localized, transverse impulse or displacement excitations. We demonstrate intense and recurring energy exchanges between a directly excited NNM and other NNMs with higher wave numbers, so that nonreciprocal energy exchanges from small-to-large wave numbers are established. Moreover, we show the

  6. Nonreciprocal acoustics and dynamics in the in-plane oscillations of a geometrically nonlinear lattice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Koroleva, I; Manevitch, L I; Bergman, L A; Vakakis, A F

    2016-09-01

    We study the dynamics and acoustics of a nonlinear lattice with fixed boundary conditions composed of a finite number of particles coupled by linear springs, undergoing in-plane oscillations. The source of the strongly nonlinearity of this lattice is geometric effects generated by the in-plane stretching of the coupling linear springs. It has been shown that in the limit of low energy the lattice gives rise to a strongly nonlinear acoustic vacuum, which is a medium with zero speed of sound as defined in classical acoustics. The acoustic vacuum possesses strongly nonlocal coupling effects and an orthogonal set of nonlinear standing waves [or nonlinear normal modes (NNMs)] with mode shapes identical to those of the corresponding linear lattice; in contrast to the linear case, however, all NNMs except the one with the highest wavelength are unstable. In addition, the lattice supports two types of waves, namely, nearly linear sound waves (termed "L waves") corresponding to predominantly axial oscillations of the particles and strongly nonlinear localized propagating pulses (termed "NL pulses") corresponding to predominantly transverse oscillating wave packets of the particles with localized envelopes. We show the existence of nonlinear nonreciprocity phenomena in the dynamics and acoustics of the lattice. Two opposite cases are examined in the limit of low energy. The first gives rise to nonreciprocal dynamics and corresponds to collective, spatially extended transverse loading of the lattice leading to the excitation of individual, predominantly transverse NNMs, whereas the second case gives rise to nonreciprocal acoutics by considering the response of the lattice to spatially localized, transverse impulse or displacement excitations. We demonstrate intense and recurring energy exchanges between a directly excited NNM and other NNMs with higher wave numbers, so that nonreciprocal energy exchanges from small-to-large wave numbers are established. Moreover, we show the

  7. Underwater patch near-field acoustical holography based on particle velocity and vector hydrophone array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bo; Yang, DeSen; Li, SiChun; Sun, Yu; Mo, ShiQi; Shi, ShengGuo

    2012-11-01

    One-step patch near-field acoustical holography (PNAH) is a powerful tool for identifying noise sources from the partially known sound pressure field. The acoustical property to be reconstructed on the surface of interest is related to the partially measured pressure on the hologram surface in terms of sampling and bandlimiting matrices, which cost more in computation. A one-step procedure based on measuring of the normal component of the particle velocity is described, including the mathematical formulation. The numerical simulation shows that one-step PNAH based on particle velocity can obtain more accurately reconstructed results and it is also less sensitive to noise than the method based on pressure. These findings are confirmed by an underwater near-field acoustical holography experiment conducted with a vector hydrophone array. The experimental results have illustrated the high performance of one-step PNAH based on particle velocity in the reconstruction of sound field and the advantages of a vector hydrophone array in an underwater near-field measurement.

  8. Frequency-shift vibro-acoustic modulation driven by low-frequency broadband excitations in a bistable cantilever oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qingbo; Xu, Yanyan; Lu, Siliang; Shao, Yong

    2017-03-01

    This paper reports a frequency-shift vibro-acoustic modulation (VAM) effect in a bistable microcracked cantilever oscillator. Low-frequency broadband excitations induced a VAM effect with a shifted modulation frequency through involving a microcracked metal beam in a bistable oscillator model. We used nonlinear dynamics equations and principles to describe the mechanism of a bistable oscillator whose natural frequency varied as the oscillation amplitude increased. We demonstrated this frequency-shift VAM effect using a prototype bistable oscillator model designed to efficiently detect microcracks in solid materials via the VAM effect using ambient vibration excitations.

  9. Exploring bubble oscillation and mass transfer enhancement in acoustic-assisted liquid-liquid extraction with a microfluidic device

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yuliang; Chindam, Chandraprakash; Nama, Nitesh; Yang, Shikuan; Lu, Mengqian; Zhao, Yanhui; Mai, John D.; Costanzo, Francesco; Huang, Tony Jun

    2015-01-01

    We investigated bubble oscillation and its induced enhancement of mass transfer in a liquid-liquid extraction process with an acoustically-driven, bubble-based microfluidic device. The oscillation of individually trapped bubbles, of known sizes, in microchannels was studied at both a fixed frequency, and over a range of frequencies. Resonant frequencies were analytically identified and were found to be in agreement with the experimental observations. The acoustic streaming induced by the bubble oscillation was identified as the cause of this enhanced extraction. Experiments extracting Rhodanmine B from an aqueous phase (DI water) to an organic phase (1-octanol) were performed to determine the relationship between extraction efficiency and applied acoustic power. The enhanced efficiency in mass transport via these acoustic-energy-assisted processes was confirmed by comparisons against a pure diffusion-based process. PMID:26223474

  10. Exploring bubble oscillation and mass transfer enhancement in acoustic-assisted liquid-liquid extraction with a microfluidic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yuliang; Chindam, Chandraprakash; Nama, Nitesh; Yang, Shikuan; Lu, Mengqian; Zhao, Yanhui; Mai, John D.; Costanzo, Francesco; Huang, Tony Jun

    2015-07-01

    We investigated bubble oscillation and its induced enhancement of mass transfer in a liquid-liquid extraction process with an acoustically-driven, bubble-based microfluidic device. The oscillation of individually trapped bubbles, of known sizes, in microchannels was studied at both a fixed frequency, and over a range of frequencies. Resonant frequencies were analytically identified and were found to be in agreement with the experimental observations. The acoustic streaming induced by the bubble oscillation was identified as the cause of this enhanced extraction. Experiments extracting Rhodanmine B from an aqueous phase (DI water) to an organic phase (1-octanol) were performed to determine the relationship between extraction efficiency and applied acoustic power. The enhanced efficiency in mass transport via these acoustic-energy-assisted processes was confirmed by comparisons against a pure diffusion-based process.

  11. Electro-opto-mechanical radio-frequency oscillator driven by guided acoustic waves in standard single-mode fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    London, Yosef; Diamandi, Hilel Hagai; Zadok, Avi

    2017-04-01

    An opto-electronic radio-frequency oscillator that is based on forward scattering by the guided acoustic modes of a standard single-mode optical fiber is proposed and demonstrated. An optical pump wave is used to stimulate narrowband, resonant guided acoustic modes, which introduce phase modulation to a co-propagating optical probe wave. The phase modulation is converted to an intensity signal at the output of a Sagnac interferometer loop. The intensity waveform is detected, amplified, and driven back to modulate the optical pump. Oscillations are achieved at a frequency of 319 MHz, which matches the resonance of the acoustic mode that provides the largest phase modulation of the probe wave. Oscillations at the frequencies of competing acoustic modes are suppressed by at least 40 dB. The linewidth of the acoustic resonance is sufficiently narrow to provide oscillations at a single longitudinal mode of the hybrid cavity. Competing longitudinal modes are suppressed by at least 38 dB as well. Unlike other opto-electronic oscillators, no radio-frequency filtering is required within the hybrid cavity. The frequency of oscillations is entirely determined by the fiber opto-mechanics.

  12. Rayleigh criterion and acoustic energy balance in unconfined self-sustained oscillating flames

    SciTech Connect

    Durox, D.; Schuller, T.; Noiray, N.; Birbaud, A.L.; Candel, S.

    2008-11-15

    Instabilities of confined combustion systems are often discussed in terms of the Rayleigh criterion, which provides a necessary condition for unstable operation and is commonly used to distinguish driving and damping regions. The analysis is also carried out in some cases by making use of an acoustic energy balance in which the Rayleigh term acts as a source. The case of unconfined flames is less well documented but of importance in practical systems used in heating and drying. This study is motivated by problems of self-sustained oscillations of radiant burners for domestic or industrial processes and of various other types of open flames. Application of the Rayleigh criterion and of the balance of acoustic energy to oscillations arising in such unconfined systems is examined. The objective is to see if the Rayleigh condition is fulfilled and to show how the different perturbed variables are linked to each other to develop an unstable oscillation. These issues are investigated by experiments in two geometries. The first case relates to a single ''V''- or ''M''-shaped flame formed by a burner behaving like a Helmholtz resonator. The second geometry features a collection of conical flames (CCF) established by a multipoint injector. This system is fed by a manifold that features a set of plane modes and resonates like an organ pipe at frequencies corresponding to odd multiples of the quarter wave. The Rayleigh criterion and a related result written in the form of an acoustic energy balance are used to define conditions of instability. A link is established between the pressure signal radiated by the burner and the total heat release rate perturbation yielding the phase lag between these two variables and providing conditions for unstable operation. Systematic experiments carried out in the two burner geometries and model predictions are in good agreement indicating that the Rayleigh source term is positive and that the criterion is well fulfilled by the wavefield

  13. Rayleigh criterion and acoustic energy balance in unconfined self-sustained oscillating flames

    SciTech Connect

    Durox, D.; Schuller, T.; Noiray, N.; Birbaud, A.L.; Candel, S.

    2009-01-15

    Instabilities of confined combustion systems are often discussed in terms of the Rayleigh criterion, which provides a necessary condition for unstable operation and is commonly used to distinguish driving and damping regions. The analysis is also carried out in some cases by making use of an acoustic energy balance in which the Rayleigh term acts as a source. The case of unconfined flames is less well documented but of importance in practical systems used in heating and drying. This study is motivated by problems of self-sustained oscillations of radiant burners for domestic or industrial processes and of various other types of open flames. Application of the Rayleigh criterion and of the balance of acoustic energy to oscillations arising in such unconfined systems is examined. The objective is to see if the Rayleigh condition is fulfilled and to show how the different perturbed variables are linked to each other to develop an unstable oscillation. These issues are investigated by experiments in two geometries. The first case relates to a single ''V''- or ''M''-shaped flame formed by a burner behaving like a Helmholtz resonator. The second geometry features a collection of conical flames (CCF) established by a multipoint injector. This system is fed by a manifold that features a set of plane modes and resonates like an organ pipe at frequencies corresponding to odd multiples of the quarter wave. The Rayleigh criterion and a related result written in the form of an acoustic energy balance are used to define conditions of instability. A link is established between the pressure signal radiated by the burner and the total heat release rate perturbation yielding the phase lag between these two variables and providing conditions for unstable operation. Systematic experiments carried out in the two burner geometries and model predictions are in good agreement indicating that the Rayleigh source term is positive and that the criterion is well fulfilled by the wavefield

  14. The measurement of geodesic acoustic mode magnetic field oscillations in J-TEXT tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, T.; Wu, J.; Shen, H. G.; Deng, T. J.; Liu, A. D.; Xie, J. L.; Li, H.; Liu, W. D.; Yu, C. X.; Sun, Y.; Liu, H.; Chen, Z. P.; Zhuang, G.

    2014-10-01

    Geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) magnetic field oscillations have been investigated using three-dimension magnetic probe and Langmuir probe arrays in the edge of J-TEXT tokamak. The probe arrays are placed on the two top windows of tokamak, separated toroidally. Inside the LCFS, GAM shows apparent oscillations in floating potential. In contrast, GAM magnetic field oscillations are not significant in raw magnetic fields signals. Using toroidal correlation technique, the GAM magnetic field oscillations are distinguished from ambient magnetic field. The amplitudes of three dimension GAM magnetic field fluctuations, as well as the dependence with local plasma parameters such as safety factor and plasma beta, are coincident with theoretical predictions. And its toroidal symmetry mode structure, i.e. n = 0, is identified. Furthermore, the GAM current sheet, in which GAM oscillates, is firstly verified with magnetic probes arrays in different radial positions, which may help us to understand the radial structure of GAM. Supported by NNSFC (Nos. 10990210, 10990211, 10335060, 10905057 and 11375188), CPSF (No. 20080440104), YIF (No. WK2030040019) and KIPCAS (No. kjcx-yw-n28).

  15. Measurement of velocities with an acoustic velocity meter, one side-looking and two upward-looking acoustic Doppler current profilers in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oberg, Kevin A.; Duncker, James J.

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, a prototype 300 kHz, side-looking Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) was deployed in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC) at Romeoville, Illinois. Additionally, two upward-looking ADCP's were deployed in the same acoustic path as the side-looking ADCP and in the reach defined by the upstream and downstream acoustic velocity meter (AVM) paths. All three ADCP's were synchronized to the AVM clock at the gaging station so that data were sampled simultaneously. The three ADCP's were deployed for six weeks measuring flow velocities from 0.0 to 2.5 ft/s. Velocities measured by each ADCP were compared to AVM path velocities and to velocities measured by the other ADCP's.

  16. Properties of the Solar Acoustic Source Inferred from Nonadiabatic Oscillation Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachter, R.; Kosovichev, A. G.

    2005-07-01

    Severino et al. suggested in 2001 that observed power and cross spectra of medium-degree p-modes in velocity and intensity can be described by splitting the solar background noise into correlated, coherent, and uncoherent components. We account for the nonadiabatic nature of solar oscillations by including the perturbations of the radiative energy flux in our model for the oscillations. Our calculations show the potential to explain the observations without the ad hoc phase differences between velocity and intensity oscillations introduced in the model of Severino et al. The phases and amplitudes of the correlated noise components are obtained by fitting our nonadiabatic model to the SOHO MDI power and cross spectra. These parameters provide information about the p-mode excitation process. We show that the type and location of the source can not be uniquely determined by the properties of the resonant p-modes in power and cross spectra of velocity and intensity oscillations. However, we obtain estimates for the phases and amplitudes of the correlated noise, which we interpret in terms of isolated rapid downdrafts in intergranular lanes. This idea is supported by three-dimensional simulations of the upper solar convection zone.

  17. Acoustic landmarks drive delta-theta oscillations to enable speech comprehension by facilitating perceptual parsing.

    PubMed

    Doelling, Keith B; Arnal, Luc H; Ghitza, Oded; Poeppel, David

    2014-01-15

    A growing body of research suggests that intrinsic neuronal slow (<10 Hz) oscillations in auditory cortex appear to track incoming speech and other spectro-temporally complex auditory signals. Within this framework, several recent studies have identified critical-band temporal envelopes as the specific acoustic feature being reflected by the phase of these oscillations. However, how this alignment between speech acoustics and neural oscillations might underpin intelligibility is unclear. Here we test the hypothesis that the 'sharpness' of temporal fluctuations in the critical band envelope acts as a temporal cue to speech syllabic rate, driving delta-theta rhythms to track the stimulus and facilitate intelligibility. We interpret our findings as evidence that sharp events in the stimulus cause cortical rhythms to re-align and parse the stimulus into syllable-sized chunks for further decoding. Using magnetoencephalographic recordings, we show that by removing temporal fluctuations that occur at the syllabic rate, envelope-tracking activity is reduced. By artificially reinstating these temporal fluctuations, envelope-tracking activity is regained. These changes in tracking correlate with intelligibility of the stimulus. Together, the results suggest that the sharpness of fluctuations in the stimulus, as reflected in the cochlear output, drive oscillatory activity to track and entrain to the stimulus, at its syllabic rate. This process likely facilitates parsing of the stimulus into meaningful chunks appropriate for subsequent decoding, enhancing perception and intelligibility.

  18. Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler Surveys of Velocity Downstream of Albeni Falls Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, William A.; Titzler, P. Scott; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.; Kallio, Sara E.; Bellgraph, Brian J.

    2010-09-30

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Seattle District, is studying the potential to locate fish bypass systems at Albeni Falls Dam. The USACE requested Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to survey velocity magnitude and direction in the dam tailrace. The empirical data collected will be used to support future numerical modeling, physical modeling, and evaluation of fish bypass system alternatives. In May 2010, PNNL conducted velocity surveys of the Albeni Falls Dam using a boat-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler. The surveys were conducted over three days (May 25 through 27). During the survey period, total river discharge at the dam varied between 30.2 and 31.0 kcfs. A small amount of spill discharge, 2 kcfs, was present on two days (May 26 and 27). This report presents data plots showing measured velocity direction and magnitude averaged over the entire depth and over 5-ft depth increments from 5 to 30 ft.

  19. Acoustic and aerodynamic performance investigation of inverted velocity profile coannular plug nozzles. [variable cycle engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, P. R.; Blozy, J. T.; Staid, P. S.

    1981-01-01

    The results of model scale parametric static and wind tunnel aerodynamic performance tests on unsuppressed coannular plug nozzle configurations with inverted velocity profile are discussed. The nozzle configurations are high-radius-ratio coannular plug nozzles applicable to dual-stream exhaust systems typical of a variable cycle engine for Advanced Supersonic Transport application. In all, seven acoustic models and eight aerodynamic performance models were tested. The nozzle geometric variables included outer stream radius ratio, inner stream to outer stream ratio, and inner stream plug shape. When compared to a conical nozzle at the same specific thrust, the results of the static acoustic tests with the coannular nozzles showed noise reductions of up to 7 PNdB. Extensive data analysis showed that the overall acoustic results can be well correlated using the mixed stream velocity and the mixed stream density. Results also showed that suppression levels are geometry and flow regulation dependent with the outer stream radius ratio, inner stream-to-outer stream velocity ratio and inner stream velocity ratio and inner stream plug shape, as the primary suppression parameters. In addition, high-radius ratio coannular plug nozzles were found to yield shock associated noise level reductions relative to a conical nozzle. The wind tunnel aerodynamic tests showed that static and simulated flight thrust coefficient at typical takeoff conditions are quite good - up to 0.98 at static conditions and 0.974 at a takeoff Mach number of 0.36. At low inner stream flow conditions significant thrust loss was observed. Using an inner stream conical plug resulted in 1% to 2% higher performance levels than nozzle geometries using a bent inner plug.

  20. Acoustic resolution photoacoustic Doppler velocity measurements in fluids using time-domain cross-correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunker, J.; Beard, P.

    2013-03-01

    Blood flow measurements have been demonstrated using the acoustic resolution mode of photoacoustic sensing. This is unlike previous flowmetry methods using the optical resolution mode, which limits the maximum penetration depth to approximately 1mm. Here we describe a pulsed time correlation photoacoustic Doppler technique that is inherently flexible, lending itself to both resolution modes. Doppler time shifts are quantified via cross-correlation of pairs of photoacoustic waveforms generated in moving absorbers using pairs of laser light pulses, and the photoacoustic waves detected using an ultrasound transducer. The acoustic resolution mode is employed by using the transducer focal width, rather than the large illuminated volume, to define the lateral spatial resolution. The use of short laser pulses allows depth-resolved measurements to be obtained with high spatial resolution, offering the prospect of mapping flow within microcirculation. Whilst our previous work has been limited to a non-fluid phantom, we now demonstrate measurements in more realistic blood-mimicking phantoms incorporating fluid suspensions of microspheres flowing along an optically transparent tube. Velocities up to 110 mm/s were measured with accuracies approaching 1% of the known velocities, and resolutions of a few mm/s. The velocity range and resolution are scalable with excitation pulse separation, but the maximum measurable velocity was considerably smaller than the value expected from the detector focal beam width. Measurements were also made for blood flowing at velocities up to 13.5 mm/s. This was for a sample reduced to 5% of the normal haematocrit; increasing the red blood cell concentration limited the maximum measurable velocity so that no results were obtained for concentrations greater than 20% of a physiologically realistic haematocrit. There are several possible causes for this limitation; these include the detector bandwidth and irregularities in the flow pattern. Better

  1. Suppressed Alpha Oscillations Predict Intelligibility of Speech and its Acoustic Details

    PubMed Central

    Weisz, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Modulations of human alpha oscillations (8–13 Hz) accompany many cognitive processes, but their functional role in auditory perception has proven elusive: Do oscillatory dynamics of alpha reflect acoustic details of the speech signal and are they indicative of comprehension success? Acoustically presented words were degraded in acoustic envelope and spectrum in an orthogonal design, and electroencephalogram responses in the frequency domain were analyzed in 24 participants, who rated word comprehensibility after each trial. First, the alpha power suppression during and after a degraded word depended monotonically on spectral and, to a lesser extent, envelope detail. The magnitude of this alpha suppression exhibited an additional and independent influence on later comprehension ratings. Second, source localization of alpha suppression yielded superior parietal, prefrontal, as well as anterior temporal brain areas. Third, multivariate classification of the time–frequency pattern across participants showed that patterns of late posterior alpha power allowed best for above-chance classification of word intelligibility. Results suggest that both magnitude and topography of late alpha suppression in response to single words can indicate a listener's sensitivity to acoustic features and the ability to comprehend speech under adverse listening conditions. PMID:22100354

  2. NONLINEAR BEHAVIOR OF BARYON ACOUSTIC OSCILLATIONS IN REDSHIFT SPACE FROM THE ZEL'DOVICH APPROXIMATION

    SciTech Connect

    McCullagh, Nuala; Szalay, Alexander S.

    2015-01-10

    Baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) are a powerful probe of the expansion history of the universe, which can tell us about the nature of dark energy. In order to accurately characterize the dark energy equation of state using BAO, we must understand the effects of both nonlinearities and redshift space distortions on the location and shape of the acoustic peak. In a previous paper, we introduced a novel approach to second order perturbation theory in configuration space using the Zel'dovich approximation, and presented a simple result for the first nonlinear term of the correlation function. In this paper, we extend this approach to redshift space. We show how to perform the computation and present the analytic result for the first nonlinear term in the correlation function. Finally, we validate our result through comparison with numerical simulations.

  3. Measuring the distance-redshift relation with the baryon acoustic oscillations of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veropalumbo, A.; Marulli, F.; Moscardini, L.; Moresco, M.; Cimatti, A.

    2016-05-01

    We analyse the largest spectroscopic samples of galaxy clusters to date, and provide observational constraints on the distance-redshift relation from baryon acoustic oscillations. The cluster samples considered in this work have been extracted from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey at three median redshifts, z = 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5. The number of objects is 12 910, 42 215 and 11 816, respectively. We detect the peak of baryon acoustic oscillations for all the three samples. The derived distance constraints are rs/DV(z = 0.2) = 0.18 ± 0.01, rs/DV(z = 0.3) = 0.124 ± 0.004 and rs/DV(z = 0.5) = 0.080 ± 0.002. Combining these measurements with the sound horizon scale measured from the cosmic microwave background, we obtain robust constraints on cosmological parameters. Our results are in agreement with the standard Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model. Specifically, we constrain the Hubble constant in a ΛCDM model, H_0 = 64_{-8}^{+17} km s^{-1} Mpc^{-1} , the density of curvature energy, in the oΛCDM context, Ω _K = -0.01_{-0.33}^{+0.34}, and finally the parameter of the dark energy equation of state in the wCDM case, w = -1.06_{-0.52}^{+0.49}. This is the first time the distance-redshift relation has been constrained using only the peak of baryon acoustic oscillations of galaxy clusters.

  4. Preliminary investigation of acoustic oscillations in an H2-O2 fired Hall generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, B.

    1981-01-01

    Burner pressure oscillations and interelectrode voltage oscillations measured in an open-cycle supersonic flow Hall generator are presented. The ionized gas for the channel was supplied by seeding the approximately 1 lb/sec of hydrogen-oxygen combustion products with cesium. Since both the burner and the channel were located within magnetic fields exceeding 4 Tesla during operation, an infinite probe pressure measurement technique was used to measure burner pressure oscillations. Calibration of the burner pressure transducer using a resonance tube technique is presented. Evidence is presented for the existence of the first longitudinal mode of oscillations (5000 Hz) within the burner. Interelectrode voltage oscillations were simultaneously measured at two separate axial stations. The magnitude change and the phase shift between the two signals was interpreted as a decaying magnetoacoustic wave driven by the burner that propagates at local gas plus sonic velocities. The amplitude of the electrical voltage oscillations at the start of the power producing region of the channel varied with the magnetic field. This variation is compared with the results of a simple perturbation analysis. Arguments are presented for using an unsteady model for analyzing wave processes in channels.

  5. Solar oscillation parameters: simultaneous velocity-intensity spectral & cross-spectral fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barban, Caroline; Hill, Frank

    2003-02-01

    We use the Severino et al. (2001) model for simultaneously fitting four spectra: V (velocity) and I (intensity) power, I-V phase difference and I-V coherence to observational data. We show that this model allows us to reproduce well the observed spectra for l = 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50 at low and intermediate frequencies. At high frequencies, the contamination of the spectrum by leaks may prevent fitting the data with the model. A study of the fit parameters as a function of frequency shows the well-known behavior of the mode amplitude and width, but additional modes are needed for a physical interpretation of all fit parameters. Comparing the oscillation parameters from the multi-spectral fitting and from using only the V spectra shows that the oscillation frequency differs by at most 0.1 μHz.

  6. A single-layer, planar, optofluidic switch powered by acoustically driven, oscillating microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Po-Hsun; Ian Lapsley, Michael; Ahmed, Daniel; Chen, Yuchao; Wang, Lin; Jun Huang, Tony

    2012-10-01

    Merging acoustofluidic mixing with optofluidic integration, we have demonstrated a single-layer, planar, optofluidic switch that is driven by acoustically excited oscillating microbubbles. The device was found to have a switching speed of 5 Hz, an insertion loss of 6.02 dB, and an extinction ratio of 28.48 dB. With its simplicity, low fluid consumption, and compatibility with other microfluidic devices, our design could lead to a line of inexpensive, yet effective optical switches for many lab-on-a-chip applications.

  7. Aerodynamic and acoustic investigation of inverted velocity profile coannular exhaust nozzle models and development of aerodynamic and acoustic prediction procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, R. S.; Nelson, D. P.; Stevens, B. S.

    1979-01-01

    Five co-annular nozzle models, covering a systematic variation of nozzle geometry, were tested statically over a range of exhaust conditions including inverted velocity profile (IVP) (fan to primary stream velocity ratio 1) and non IVP profiles. Fan nozzle pressure ratio (FNPR) was varied from 1.3 to 4.1 at primary nozzle pressure ratios (PNPR) of 1.53 and 2.0. Fan stream temperatures of 700 K (1260 deg R) and 1089 K(1960 deg R) were tested with primary stream temperatures of 700 K (1260 deg R), 811 K (1460 deg R), and 1089 K (1960 deg R). At fan and primary stream velocities of 610 and 427 m/sec (2000 and 1400 ft/sec), respectively, increasing fan radius ratio from 0.69 to 0.83 reduced peak perceived noise level (PNL) 3 dB, and an increase in primary radius ratio from 0 to 0.81 (fan radius ratio constant at 0.83) reduced peak PNL an additional 1.0 dB. There were no noise reductions at a fan stream velocity of 853 m/sec (2800 ft/sec). Increasing fan radius ratio from 0.69 to 0.83 reduced nozzle thrust coefficient 1.2 to 1.5% at a PNPR of 1.53, and 1.7 to 2.0% at a PNPR of 2.0. The developed acoustic prediction procedure collapsed the existing data with standard deviation varying from + or - 8 dB to + or - 7 dB. The aerodynamic performance prediction procedure collapsed thrust coefficient measurements to within + or - .004 at a FNPR of 4.0 and a PNPR of 2.0.

  8. Application of acoustic tomography to reconstruct the horizontal flow velocity field in a shallow river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razaz, Mahdi; Kawanisi, Kiyosi; Kaneko, Arata; Nistor, Ioan

    2015-12-01

    A novel acoustic tomographic measurement system capable of resolving sound travel time in extremely shallow rivers is introduced and the results of an extensive field measurements campaign are presented and further discussed. Acoustic pulses were transmitted over a wide frequency band of 20-35 kHz between eight transducers for about a week in a meandering reach of theBāsen River, Hiroshima, Japan. The purpose of the field experiment was validating the concept of acoustic tomography in rivers for visualizing current fields. The particular novelty of the experiment resides in its unusual tomographic features: subbasin scale (100 m × 270 m) and shallowness (0.5-3.0 m) of the physical domain, frequency of the transmitted acoustic signals (central frequency of 30 kHz), and the use of small sampling intervals (105 s). Inverse techniques with no a priori statistical information were used to estimate the depth-average current velocity components from differential travel times. Zeroth-order Tikhonov regularization, in conjunction with L-curve method deployed to stabilize the solution and to determine the weighting factor appearing in the inverse analysis. Concurrent direct environmental measurements were provided in the form of ADCP readings close to the right and left bank. Very good agreement found between along-channel velocities larger than 0.2 m/s obtained from the two techniques. Inverted quantities were, however, underestimated, perhaps due to vicinity of the ADCPs to the banks and strong effect of river geometry on the readings. In general, comparing the visualized currents with direct nodal measurements illustrate the plausibility of the tomographically reconstructed flow structures.

  9. Solar cycle variations in the powers and damping rates of low-degree solar acoustic oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broomhall, A.-M.; Pugh, C. E.; Nakariakov, V. M.

    2015-12-01

    Helioseismology uses the Sun's natural resonant oscillations to study the solar interior. The properties of the solar oscillations are sensitive to the Sun'2019;s magnetic activity cycle. Here we examine variations in the powers, damping rates, and energy supply rates of the most prominent acoustic oscillations in unresolved, Sun-as-a-star data, obtained by the Birmingham Solar Oscillations Network (BiSON) during solar cycles 22, 23, and the first half of 24. The variations in the helioseismic parameters are compared to the 10.7 cm flux, a well-known global proxy of solar activity. As expected the oscillations are most heavily damped and the mode powers are at a minimum at solar activity maximum. The 10.7 cm flux was linearly regressed using the fractional variations of damping rates and powers observed during cycle 23. In general, good agreement is found between the damping rates and the 10.7 cm flux. However, the linearly regressed 10.7 cm flux and fractional variation in powers diverge in cycles 22 and 24, indicating that the relationship between the mode powers and the 10.7 cm flux is not consistent from one cycle to the next. The energy supply rate of the oscillations, which is usually approximately constant, also decreases at this time. We have determined that this discrepancy is not because of the first-order bias introduced by an increase in the level of background noise or gaps in the data. Although we cannot categorically rule out an instrumental origin, the divergence observed in cycle 24, when the data were of high quality and the data coverage was over 80%, raises the possibility that the effect may be solar in origin.

  10. Velocity lag of solid particles in oscillating gases and in gases passing through normal shock waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, B. R.; Seasholtz, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    The velocity lag of micrometer size spherical particles is theoretically determined for gas particle mixtures passing through a stationary normal shock wave and also for particles embedded in an oscillating gas flow. The particle sizes and densities chosen are those considered important for laser Doppler velocimeter applications. The governing equations for each flow system are formulated. The deviation from Stokes flow caused by inertial, compressibility, and rarefaction effects is accounted for in both flow systems by use of an empirical drag coefficient. Graphical results are presented which characterize particle tracking as a function of system parameters.

  11. Group-velocity-matched optical parametric oscillator in tilted quasi-phase-matched gratings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei Quan

    2006-07-10

    An achromatic phase-matching scheme is reported for an optical parametric oscillator in tilted quasi-phase-matched gratings. The spectral angular dispersion is introduced in interaction waves such that each wave component satisfies the two-dimensional (noncollinear) quasi-phase matching. This is equivalent to simultaneous quasi-phase matching and group-velocity matching for ultrashort pulses. The phase-matching bandwidth for 10 mm periodically poled KTP increases by a factor of 12 at lambdas = 1.7 microm compared with one-dimensional quasi-phase matching. The effective interaction length will increase as a result of the matching.

  12. Asymptotic solutions for shocked resonant acoustic oscillations between concentric spheres and coaxial cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seymour, Brian R.; Mortell, Michael P.; Amundsen, David E.

    2012-02-01

    For resonant oscillations of a gas in a straight tube with a closed end, shocks form and all harmonics are generated, see Chester ["Resonant oscillations in a closed tube," J. Fluid Mech. 18, 44 (1964)], 10.1017/S0022112064000040. When the gas is confined between two concentric spheres or coaxial cylinders, the radially symmetric resonant oscillations may be continuous or shocked. For a fixed small Mach number of the input, the flow is continuous for sufficiently small L, defined as the ratio of the inner radius to the difference of the radii, see Seymour et al. ["Resonant oscillations of an inhomogeneous gas between concentric spheres," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 467, 2149 (2011)], 10.1098/rspa.2010.0576. However, shocks appear in the resonant flow for either larger values of L or larger input Mach number. A nonlinear geometric acoustics approximation is used to analyse the shocked motion of the gas when L ≫ 1. This approximation and the exact numerical solution are compared for the shocked wave profiles and shock strengths, and the approximation is valid for surprisingly small values of L. The flow in the plane wave case for a straight tube is recovered in the limit L → ∞ for both the spherical and cylindrical cases, providing a check on the results. The shocked solutions given here complement those continuous solutions previously derived from a dominant first mode approximation.

  13. Acoustic saturation in bubbly cavitating flow adjacent to an oscillating wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colonius, T.; d'Auria, F.; Brennen, C. E.

    2000-11-01

    Bubbly cavitating flow generated by the normal oscillation of a wall bounding a semi-infinite domain of fluid is computed using a continuum two-phase flow model. Bubble dynamics are computed, on the microscale, using the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. A Lagrangian finite volume scheme and implicit adaptive time marching are employed to accurately resolve bubbly shock waves and other steep gradients in the flow. The one-dimensional, unsteady computations show that when the wall oscillation frequency is much smaller than the bubble natural frequency, the power radiated away from the wall is limited by an acoustic saturation effect (the radiated power becomes independent of the amplitude of vibration), which is similar to that found in a pure gas. That is, for large enough vibration amplitude, nonlinear steepening of the generated waves leads to shocking of the wave train, and the dissipation associated with the jump conditions across each shock limits the radiated power. In the model, damping of the bubble volume oscillations is restricted to a simple "effective" viscosity. For wall oscillation frequency less than the bubble natural frequency, the saturation amplitude of the radiated field is nearly independent of any specific damping mechanism. Finally, implications for noise radiation from cavitating flows are discussed.

  14. Acoustic bed velocity and bed load dynamics in a large sand bed river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaeuman, D.; Jacobson, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    Development of a practical technology for rapid quantification of bed load transport in large rivers would represent a revolutionary advance for sediment monitoring and the investigation of fluvial dynamics. Measurement of bed load motion with acoustic Doppler current profiles (ADCPs) has emerged as a promising approach for evaluating bed load transport. However, a better understanding of how ADCP data relate to conditions near the stream bed is necessary to make the method practical for quantitative applications. In this paper, we discuss the response of ADCP bed velocity measurements, defined as the near-bed sediment velocity detected by the instrument's bottom-tracking feature, to changing sediment-transporting conditions in the lower Missouri River. Bed velocity represents a weighted average of backscatter from moving bed load particles and spectral reflections from the immobile bed. The ratio of bed velocity to mean bed load particle velocity depends on the concentration of the particles moving in the bed load layer, the bed load layer thickness, and the backscatter strength from a unit area of moving particles relative to the echo strength from a unit area of unobstructed bed. A model based on existing bed load transport theory predicted measured bed velocities from hydraulic and grain size measurements with reasonable success. Bed velocities become more variable and increase more rapidly with shear stress when the transport stage, defined as the ratio of skin friction to the critical shear stress for particle entrainment, exceeds a threshold of about 17. This transition in bed velocity response appears to be associated with the appearance of longer, flatter bed forms at high transport stages.

  15. Acoustic Enhancement of Sleep Slow Oscillations and Concomitant Memory Improvement in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Papalambros, Nelly A; Santostasi, Giovanni; Malkani, Roneil G; Braun, Rosemary; Weintraub, Sandra; Paller, Ken A; Zee, Phyllis C

    2017-01-01

    Acoustic stimulation methods applied during sleep in young adults can increase slow wave activity (SWA) and improve sleep-dependent memory retention. It is unknown whether this approach enhances SWA and memory in older adults, who generally have reduced SWA compared to younger adults. Additionally, older adults are at risk for age-related cognitive impairment and therefore may benefit from non-invasive interventions. The aim of this study was to determine if acoustic stimulation can increase SWA and improve declarative memory in healthy older adults. Thirteen participants 60-84 years old completed one night of acoustic stimulation and one night of sham stimulation in random order. During sleep, a real-time algorithm using an adaptive phase-locked loop modeled the phase of endogenous slow waves in midline frontopolar electroencephalographic recordings. Pulses of pink noise were delivered when the upstate of the slow wave was predicted. Each interval of five pulses ("ON interval") was followed by a pause of approximately equal length ("OFF interval"). SWA during the entire sleep period was similar between stimulation and sham conditions, whereas SWA and spindle activity were increased during ON intervals compared to matched periods during the sham night. The increases in SWA and spindle activity were sustained across almost the entire five-pulse ON interval compared to matched sham periods. Verbal paired-associate memory was tested before and after sleep. Overnight improvement in word recall was significantly greater with acoustic stimulation compared to sham and was correlated with changes in SWA between ON and OFF intervals. Using the phase-locked-loop method to precisely target acoustic stimulation to the upstate of sleep slow oscillations, we were able to enhance SWA and improve sleep-dependent memory storage in older adults, which strengthens the theoretical link between sleep and age-related memory integrity.

  16. Acoustic Enhancement of Sleep Slow Oscillations and Concomitant Memory Improvement in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Papalambros, Nelly A.; Santostasi, Giovanni; Malkani, Roneil G.; Braun, Rosemary; Weintraub, Sandra; Paller, Ken A.; Zee, Phyllis C.

    2017-01-01

    Acoustic stimulation methods applied during sleep in young adults can increase slow wave activity (SWA) and improve sleep-dependent memory retention. It is unknown whether this approach enhances SWA and memory in older adults, who generally have reduced SWA compared to younger adults. Additionally, older adults are at risk for age-related cognitive impairment and therefore may benefit from non-invasive interventions. The aim of this study was to determine if acoustic stimulation can increase SWA and improve declarative memory in healthy older adults. Thirteen participants 60–84 years old completed one night of acoustic stimulation and one night of sham stimulation in random order. During sleep, a real-time algorithm using an adaptive phase-locked loop modeled the phase of endogenous slow waves in midline frontopolar electroencephalographic recordings. Pulses of pink noise were delivered when the upstate of the slow wave was predicted. Each interval of five pulses (“ON interval”) was followed by a pause of approximately equal length (“OFF interval”). SWA during the entire sleep period was similar between stimulation and sham conditions, whereas SWA and spindle activity were increased during ON intervals compared to matched periods during the sham night. The increases in SWA and spindle activity were sustained across almost the entire five-pulse ON interval compared to matched sham periods. Verbal paired-associate memory was tested before and after sleep. Overnight improvement in word recall was significantly greater with acoustic stimulation compared to sham and was correlated with changes in SWA between ON and OFF intervals. Using the phase-locked-loop method to precisely target acoustic stimulation to the upstate of sleep slow oscillations, we were able to enhance SWA and improve sleep-dependent memory storage in older adults, which strengthens the theoretical link between sleep and age-related memory integrity. PMID:28337134

  17. Acoustic wave velocities in two-dimensional composite structures based on acousto-optical crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mal'neva, P. V.; Trushin, A. S.

    2015-04-01

    Sound velocities in two-dimensional composite structures based on isotropic and anisotropic acousto-optical crystals have been determined by numerical simulations. The isotropic materials are represented by fused quartz (SiO2) and flint glass, while anisotropic materials include tetragonal crystals of paratellurite (TeO2) and rutile (TiO2) and a trigonal crystal of tellurium (Te). It is established that the acoustic anisotropy of periodic composite structures strongly depends on both the chemical composition and geometric parameters of components.

  18. Measurements of the bulk and interfacial velocity profiles in oscillating Newtonian and Maxwellian fluids.

    PubMed

    Torralba, M; Castrejón-Pita, J R; Castrejón-Pita, A A; Huelsz, G; del Río, J A; Ortín, J

    2005-07-01

    We present the dynamic velocity profiles of a Newtonian fluid (glycerol) and a viscoelastic Maxwell fluid (CPyCl-NaSal in water) driven by an oscillating pressure gradient in a vertical cylindrical pipe. The frequency range explored has been chosen to include the first three resonance peaks of the dynamic permeability of the viscoelastic-fluid--pipe system. Three different optical measurement techniques have been employed. Laser Doppler anemometry has been used to measure the magnitude of the velocity at the center of the liquid column. Particle image velocimetry and optical deflectometry are used to determine the velocity profiles at the bulk of the liquid column and at the liquid-air interface respectively. The velocity measurements in the bulk are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions of a linear theory. The results, however, show dramatic differences in the dynamic behavior of Newtonian and viscoelastic fluids, and demonstrate the importance of resonance phenomena in viscoelastic fluid flows, biofluids in particular, in confined geometries.

  19. Blood flow velocity in the popliteal vein using transverse oscillation ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechsgaard, Thor; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Brandt, Andreas Hjelm; Holbek, Simon; Lönn, Lars; Strandberg, Charlotte; Bækgaard, Niels; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2016-04-01

    Chronic venous disease is a common condition leading to varicose veins, leg edema, post-thrombotic syndrome and venous ulcerations. Ultrasound (US) is the main modality for examination of venous disease. Color Doppler and occasionally spectral Doppler US (SDUS) are used for evaluation of the venous flow. Peak velocities measured by SDUS are rarely used in a clinical setting for evaluating chronic venous disease due to inadequate reproducibility mainly caused by the angle dependency of the estimate. However, estimations of blood velocities are of importance in characterizing venous disease. Transverse Oscillation US (TOUS), a non-invasive angle independent method, has been implemented on a commercial scanner. TOUS's advantage compared to SDUS is a more elaborate visualization of complex flow. The aim of this study was to evaluate, whether TOUS perform equal to SDUS for recording velocities in the veins of the lower limbs. Four volunteers were recruited for the study. A standardized flow was provoked with a cuff compression-decompression system placed around the lower leg. The average peak velocity in the popliteal vein of the four volunteers was 151.5 cm/s for SDUS and 105.9 cm/s for TOUS (p <0.001). The average of the peak velocity standard deviations (SD) were 17.0 cm/s for SDUS and 13.1 cm/s for TOUS (p <0.005). The study indicates that TOUS estimates lower peak velocity with improved SD when compared to SDUS. TOUS may be a tool for evaluation of venous disease providing quantitative measures for the evaluation of venous blood flow.

  20. On loading velocity oscillations during dynamic tensile testing with flying wheel systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erice, Borja; Roth, Christian; Gary, Gerard; Mohr, Dirk

    2015-09-01

    Flying Wheels (FW) provide a space-saving alternative to Split Hopkinson Bar (SHB) systems for generating the loading pulse for intermediate and high strain rate material testing. This is particularly attractive in view of performing ductile fracture experiments at intermediate strain rates that require a several milliseconds long loading pulse. More than 50 m long Hopkinson bars are required in that case, whereas the same kinetic energy (for a given loading velocity) can be stored in rather compact flying wheels (e.g. diameter of less than 1.5 m). To gain more insight into the loading capabilities of FW tensile testing systems, a simple analytical model is presented to analyze the loading history applied by a FW system. It is found that due to the presence of a puller bar that transmits the tensile load from the rotating wheel to the specimen, the loading velocity applied onto the specimen oscillates between about zero and twice the tangential loading speed applied by the FW. The theoretical and numerical evaluation for a specific 1.1 m diameter FW system revealed that these oscillations occur at a frequency in the kHz range, thereby questioning the approximate engineering assumption of a constant strain rate in FW tensile experiments at strain rates of the order of 100/s.

  1. Effect of Anisotropic Velocity Structure on Acoustic Emission Source Location during True-Triaxial Deformation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghofrani Tabari, Mehdi; Goodfellow, Sebastian; Young, R. Paul

    2016-04-01

    Although true-triaxial testing (TTT) of rocks is now more extensive worldwide, stress-induced heterogeneity due to the existence of several loading boundary effects is not usually accounted for and simplified anisotropic models are used. This study focuses on the enhanced anisotropic velocity structure to improve acoustic emission (AE) analysis for an enhanced interpretation of induced fracturing. Data from a TTT on a cubic sample of Fontainebleau sandstone is used in this study to evaluate the methodology. At different stages of the experiment the True-Triaxial Geophysical Imaging Cell (TTGIC), armed with an ultrasonic and AE monitoring system, performed several velocity surveys to image velocity structure of the sample. Going beyond a hydrostatic stress state (poro-elastic phase), the rock sample went through a non-dilatational elastic phase, a dilatational non-damaging elasto-plastic phase containing initial AE activity and finally a dilatational and damaging elasto-plastic phase up to the failure point. The experiment was divided into these phases based on the information obtained from strain, velocity and AE streaming data. Analysis of the ultrasonic velocity survey data discovered that a homogeneous anisotropic core in the center of the sample is formed with ellipsoidal symmetry under the standard polyaxial setup. Location of the transducer shots were improved by implementation of different velocity models for the sample starting from isotropic and homogeneous models going toward anisotropic and heterogeneous models. The transducer shot locations showed a major improvement after the velocity model corrections had been applied especially at the final phase of the experiment. This location improvement validated our velocity model at the final phase of the experiment consisting lower-velocity zones bearing partially saturated fractures. The ellipsoidal anisotropic velocity model was also verified at the core of the cubic rock specimen by AE event location of

  2. Surface acoustic BLOCH oscillations, the Wannier-Stark ladder, and Landau-Zener tunneling in a solid.

    PubMed

    de Lima, M M; Kosevich, Yu A; Santos, P V; Cantarero, A

    2010-04-23

    We present the experimental observation of Bloch oscillations, the Wannier-Stark ladder, and Landau-Zener tunneling of surface acoustic waves in perturbed grating structures on a solid substrate. A model providing a quantitative description of our experimental observations, including multiple Landau-Zener transitions of the anticrossed surface acoustic Wannier-Stark states, is developed. The use of a planar geometry for the realization of the Bloch oscillations and Landau-Zener tunneling allows a direct access to the elastic field distribution. The vertical surface displacement has been measured by interferometry.

  3. Baryon acoustic oscillations from the SDSS DR10 galaxies angular correlation function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, G. C.; Bernui, A.; Benetti, M.; Carvalho, J. C.; Alcaniz, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    The 2-point angular correlation function w (θ ) (2PACF), where θ is the angular separation between pairs of galaxies, provides the transversal baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) signal almost model independently. In this paper we use 409 337 luminous red galaxies in the redshift range z =[0.440 ,0.555 ] obtained from the tenth data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR10) to estimate θBAO(z ) from the 2PACF at six redshift shells. Since noise and systematics can hide the BAO signature in the w -θ plane, we also discuss some criteria to localize the acoustic bump. We identify two sources of model dependence in the analysis, namely, the value of the acoustic scale from cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements and the correction in the θBAO(z ) position due to projection effects. Constraints on the dark energy equation-of-state parameter w (z ) from the θBAO(z ) diagram are derived, as well as from a joint analysis with current CMB measurements. We find that the standard Λ CDM model as well as some of its extensions are in good agreement with these θBAO(z ) measurements.

  4. Particle velocity gradient based acoustic mode beamforming for short linear vector sensor arrays.

    PubMed

    Gur, Berke

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, a subtractive beamforming algorithm for short linear arrays of two-dimensional particle velocity sensors is described. The proposed method extracts the highly directional acoustic modes from the spatial gradients of the particle velocity field measured at closely spaced sensors along the array. The number of sensors in the array limits the highest order of modes that can be extracted. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations indicate that the acoustic mode beamformer achieves directivity comparable to the maximum directivity that can be obtained with differential microphone arrays of equivalent aperture. When compared to conventional delay-and-sum beamformers for pressure sensor arrays, the proposed method achieves comparable directivity with 70%-85% shorter apertures. Moreover, the proposed method has additional capabilities such as high front-back (port-starboard) discrimination, frequency and steer direction independent response, and robustness to correlated ambient noise. Small inter-sensor spacing that results in very compact apertures makes the proposed beamformer suitable for space constrained applications such as hearing aids and short towed arrays for autonomous underwater platforms.

  5. Ultrasonic database development for the acoustic inspection device: the velocity-attenuation measurement system (VAMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, Aaron A.; Burghard, Brion J.; Valencia, Juan D.; Samuel, Todd J.; Doctor, S. R.

    2004-08-01

    The inspection of sealed containers is a critical task for personnel charged with enforcing government policies, maintaining public safety, and ensuring national security. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a portable, handheld acoustic inspection device (AID) that provides non-invasive container interrogation and material identification capabilities. The AID technology has been deployed worldwide and user's are providing feedback and requesting additional capabilities and functionality. Recently, PNNL has developed a laboratory-based system for automated, ultrasonic characterization of fluids to support database development for the AID. Using pulse-echo ultrasound, ultrasonic pulses are launched into a container or bulk-solid commodity. The return echoes from these pulses are analyzed in terms of time-of-flight and frequency content (as a function of temperature) to extract physical property measurements (acoustic velocity and attenuation) of the material under test. These measured values are then compared to a tailored database of materials and fluids property data acquired using the Velocity-Attenuation Measurement System (VAMS). This bench-top platform acquires key ultrasonic property measurements as a function of temperature and frequency. This paper describes the technical basis for operation of the VAMS, recent enhancements to the measurement algorithms for both the VAMS and AID technologies, and new measurement data from laboratory testing and performance demonstration activities. Applications for homeland security and counter terrorism, law enforcement, drug-interdiction and fuel transportation compliance activities will be discussed.

  6. Measurement of surface acoustic wave velocity using a variable-line-focus polyurea thin-film ultrasonic transducer.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Takahiro; Nakazawa, Marie; Tabaru, Masaya; Nakamura, Kentaro; Ueha, Sadayuki

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents the novel measurement method of the surface acoustic wave velocity by the variable-line- focus transducer using a polyurea piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer. First, a multiresonant polyurea thin-film ultrasonic transducer is fabricated by the vapor deposition polymerization process using 2 monomers. Second, the measurement system of surface acoustic wave velocity modified from the V(z) curve method is established. The system uses the fabricated polyurea thin film as a variable-line-focus transducer at the 30-MHz resonance frequency. The focal length is changed by varying the radius of curvature of the film transducer. To estimate the surface acoustic wave velocities from the measured data theoretically, the photographs of the transducer bent shapes are taken by using a digital microscope, and the bent transducer curvature is modeled by the 7th-order polynomial. To examine the performances of the variable-line-focus transducer, the surface acoustic wave velocities of an aluminum and a synthesized silica glass specimen have been measured. The measured surface acoustic velocities showed good agreement with the reference values.

  7. Acoustic velocity and attenuation of unconsolidated sands: An experimental and modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhuping

    I have developed a sonic frequency apparatus (1--10 kHz) that utilizes resonance to measure the acoustic velocities and attenuation of both extensional and torsional waves in unconsolidated materials (e.g., sands, clays and sediments) under hydrostatic confinement. The basic equations and methodology for correcting these effects are given and applied to a dry Monterey sand to determine the shear and Young's moduli and attenuation over an effective pressure range of 0--9 MPa. Comparison of my measured data with theoretical granular contact models gives insight into the seismic wave propagation in unconsolidated sands. The effects of water saturation and pressure on the velocity and attenuation of seismic waves in unconsolidated sands are investigated using the newly-designed apparatus and methodology in the laboratory. Two kinds of pore fluid distribution are achieved with water injection and de-gassing methods, and an X-ray CT scanner is used to obtain the images of pore fluid distribution. There is not significant difference in velocities for the different pore fluid distributions. Measured velocities are in favorable agreement with theoretical predictions based on Gassmann's equations. At all effective pressures, V P of the fully-water-saturated sand is larger than that of the dry sand, implying that water in pore space stiffens the rock, causing an increase in the rock's bulk modulus. For the partially-saturated sand, the attenuation of compressional wave is larger than that of torsional wave, and both of them increase with water saturation. The effects of pore fluid saturation and distribution on seismic velocities are further studied based on numerical simulations of seismic wave propagation in fluid-saturated porous media. The calculated results indicate that numerical modeling based on Biot theory gives the same compressional velocity VP as Gassmann's equations if the pore fluids are mixed in such a fine scale that the induced pore pressure increments can

  8. River habitat quality from river velocities measured using acoustic Doppler current profiler.

    PubMed

    Shields, F Douglas; Rigby, J R

    2005-10-01

    Prior research has demonstrated the utility of metrics based on spatial velocity gradients to characterize and describe stream habitat, with higher gradients generally indicative of higher levels of physical heterogeneity and thus habitat quality. However, detailed velocity data needed to compute these metrics are difficult to obtain. Acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP) may be used to rapidly collect detailed representations of river velocity fields. Herein we demonstrate use of ADCP to obtain ecologically relevant data and compute associated metrics. Data were collected from four reaches of the Little Tallahatchie River in northern Mississippi. Sampled reaches were selected to observe velocity regimes associated with three distinctly different conditions: downstream from a major flow obstruction (a low weir), downstream from the apices of each of two bends, and within an extremely long, straight reach created by channelization. Three-dimensional velocity data sets from each site were used to compute metrics of habitat quality proposed by others. A habitat metric based on the presence of rotational flow in the vertical plane proved to be the best discriminator among conditions within the sampled reaches. Two of four habitat quality metrics computed from these measured velocities were greatest for the sharpest meander bend. ADCP hold great potential for study of riverine physical aquatic habitats, particularly at the reach scale. Additional work is needed to develop generally applicable field protocols and data reduction tools. Specifically, guidelines for ADCP settings and configuration appropriate for a range of riverine site conditions must be developed. Advances in instrumentation are needed to allow collection of information in closer proximity to the free surface and solid boundaries.

  9. Applications of velocity potential function to acoustic duct propagation and radiation from inlets using finite element theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.; Majjigi, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    A finite element velocity potential program was developed to study acoustic wave propagation in complex geometries. For irrotational flows, relatively low sound frequencies, and plane wave input, the finite element solutions showed significant effects of inlet curvature and flow gradients on the attenuation of a given acoustic liner in a realistic variable area turbofan inlet. The velocity potential approach can not be used to estimate the effects of rotational flow on acoustic propagation, since the potential acoustic disturbances propagate at the speed of the media in sheared flow. Approaches are discussed that are being considered for extending the finite element solution to include the far field, as well as the internal portion of the duct. A new matrix partitioning approach is presented that can be incorporated in previously developed programs to allow the finite element calculation to be marched into the far field. The partitioning approach provided a large reduction in computer storage and running times.

  10. Application of acoustic velocity meters for gaging discharge of three low-velocity tidal streams in the St. Johns River basin, northeast Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloat, J.V.; Gain, W.S.

    1995-01-01

    Index-velocity data collected with acoustic velocity meters, stage data, and cross-sectional area data were used to calculate discharge at three low-velocity, tidal streamflow stations in north-east Florida. Discharge at three streamflow stations was computed as the product of the channel cross-sectional area and the mean velocity as determined from an index velocity measured in the stream using an acoustic velocity meter. The tidal streamlflow stations used in the study were: Six Mile Creek near Picolata, Fla.; Dunns Creek near Satsuma, Fla.; and the St. Johns River at Buffalo Bluff. Cross-sectional areas at the measurement sections ranged from about 3,000 square feet at Six Mile Creek to about 18,500 square feet at St. Johns River at Buffalo Bluff. Physical characteristics for all three streams were similar except for drainage area. The topography primarily is low-relief, swampy terrain; stream velocities ranged from about -2 to 2 feet per second; and the average change in stage was about 1 foot. Instantaneous discharge was measured using a portable acoustic current meter at each of the three streams to develop a relation between the mean velocity in the stream and the index velocity measured by the acoustic velocity meter. Using least-squares linear regression, a simple linear relation between mean velocity and index velocity was determined. Index velocity was the only significant linear predictor of mean velocity for Six Mile Creek and St. Johns River at Buffalo Bluff. For Dunns Creek, both index velocity and stage were used to develop a multiple-linear predictor of mean velocity. Stage-area curves for each stream were developed from bathymetric data. Instantaneous discharge was computed by multiplying results of relations developed for cross-sectional area and mean velocity. Principal sources of error in the estimated discharge are identified as: (1) instrument errors associated with measurement of stage and index velocity, (2) errors in the representation of

  11. Comparison of index velocity measurements made with a horizontal acoustic Doppler current profiler

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, P. Ryan; Johnson, Kevin K.; Duncker, James J.

    2012-01-01

    The State of Illinois' annual withdrawal from Lake Michigan is limited by a U.S. Supreme Court decree, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is responsible for monitoring flows in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC) near Lemont, Illinois as a part of the Lake Michigan Diversion Accounting overseen by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Chicago District. Every 5 years, a technical review committee consisting of practicing engineers and academics is convened to review the U.S. Geological Survey's streamgage practices in the CSSC near Lemont, Illinois. The sixth technical review committee raised a number of questions concerning the flows and streamgage practices in the CSSC near Lemont and this report provides answers to many of those questions. In addition, it is the purpose of this report to examine the index velocity meters in use at Lemont and determine whether the acoustic velocity meter (AVM), which is now the primary index velocity meter, can be replaced by the horizontal acoustic Doppler current profiler (H-ADCP), which is currently the backup meter. Application of the AVM and H-ADCP to index velocity measurements in the CSSC near Lemont, Illinois, has produced good ratings to date. The site is well suited to index velocity measurements in spite of the large range of velocities and highly unsteady flows at the site. Flow variability arises from a range of sources: operation of the waterway through control structures, lockage-generated disturbances, commercial and recreational traffic, industrial withdrawals and discharges, natural inflows, seiches, and storm events. The influences of these factors on the index velocity measurements at Lemont is examined in detail in this report. Results of detailed data comparisons and flow analyses show that use of bank-mounted instrumentation such as the AVM and H-ADCP appears to be the best option for index velocity measurement in the CSSC near Lemont. Comparison of the rating curves for the AVM and H-ADCP demonstrates

  12. Studying the impact of air/brine displacement on acoustic velocities in carbonates. El Amin Mokhtar and Sandra Vega

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtar, E.; Vega, D.

    2012-12-01

    The impact of air/brine displacement on acoustic velocities of carbonate rocks is not fully comprehended yet. In order to improve our understanding of this effect, we conducted laboratory measurements of porosity and acoustic velocities (Vp and Vs) under both dry and brine saturated conditions at ambient pressure and temperature. The core plug samples in this study were collected from a hydrocarbon reservoir in the Middle East. A petrographic analysis was also performed on thin sections taken from the core plugs using a microscope and a digital camera. The aim of this analysis was to study depositional facies and the extent of diagenetic overprint that caused the observed variations in rock fabrics. Cross-plots were generated to analyze the trends of behavior between acoustic velocities and porosities taking into account the influence of different rock fabrics, in both dry and brine saturated samples. Acoustic velocities of brine saturated samples were higher than velocities of dry samples, as expected. However, their differences also respond to both, total porosity and carbonate rock fabrics. This result can be attributed to the different carbonate pore structures and rock frames formed during deposition and diagenesis. Similarly, the Vp/Vs ratio cross-plots display an increase in Vp/Vs ratios for the brine saturated samples compared to the dry ones. In conclusion, differences in acoustic velocities between dry and brine saturated carbonate rocks seem to be highly effected by porosity, rock fabric, and fluid content. This information can help to better understand the differences in acoustic response between gas and brine saturated zones in well logs and seismic.

  13. Low-frequency acoustic pressure, velocity, and intensity thresholds in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and white whale (Delphinapterus leucas).

    PubMed

    Finneran, James J; Carder, Donald A; Ridgway, Sam H

    2002-01-01

    The relative contributions of acoustic pressure and particle velocity to the low-frequency, underwater hearing abilities of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and white whale (Delphinapterus leucas) were investigated by measuring (masked) hearing thresholds while manipulating the relationship between the pressure and velocity. This was accomplished by varying the distance within the near field of a single underwater sound projector (experiment I) and using two underwater sound projectors and an active sound control system (experiment II). The results of experiment I showed no significant change in pressure thresholds as the distance between the subject and the sound source was changed. In contrast, velocity thresholds tended to increase and intensity thresholds tended to decrease as the source distance decreased. These data suggest that acoustic pressure is a better indicator of threshold, compared to particle velocity or mean active intensity, in the subjects tested. Interpretation of the results of experiment II (the active sound control system) was difficult because of complex acoustic conditions and the unknown effects of the subject on the generated acoustic field; however, these data also tend to support the results of experiment I and suggest that odontocete thresholds should be reported in units of acoustic pressure, rather than intensity.

  14. Low-frequency acoustic pressure, velocity, and intensity thresholds in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and white whale (Delphinapterus leucas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finneran, James J.; Carder, Donald A.; Ridgway, Sam H.

    2002-01-01

    The relative contributions of acoustic pressure and particle velocity to the low-frequency, underwater hearing abilities of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and white whale (Delphinapterus leucas) were investigated by measuring (masked) hearing thresholds while manipulating the relationship between the pressure and velocity. This was accomplished by varying the distance within the near field of a single underwater sound projector (experiment I) and using two underwater sound projectors and an active sound control system (experiment II). The results of experiment I showed no significant change in pressure thresholds as the distance between the subject and the sound source was changed. In contrast, velocity thresholds tended to increase and intensity thresholds tended to decrease as the source distance decreased. These data suggest that acoustic pressure is a better indicator of threshold, compared to particle velocity or mean active intensity, in the subjects tested. Interpretation of the results of experiment II (the active sound control system) was difficult because of complex acoustic conditions and the unknown effects of the subject on the generated acoustic field; however, these data also tend to support the results of experiment I and suggest that odontocete thresholds should be reported in units of acoustic pressure, rather than intensity.

  15. Cosmic distance-duality relation test using type Ia supernovae and the baryon acoustic oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Puxun; Li, Zhengxiang; Liu, Xiaoliang; Yu, Hongwei

    2015-07-01

    A check of the validity of the distance-duality relation (DDR) is necessary since a violation of one of the assumptions underlying this relation might be possible. In this paper, we test the DDR by combining the Union2.1 type Ia supernovae (SNIa) and five angular diameter distance data from the baryonic acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements. We find that the DDR is consistent with the observations at the 2 σ confidence level (CL) for the case of the Hubble constant h =0.7 , and the consistency is improved to be 1 σ CL when h =0.7 is replaced by the latest constraint from the Planck satellite, i.e., h =0.678 , or h is marginalized. Our results show that the BAO measurement is a very powerful tool to test the DDR. With more and more BAO data being released in the future, we are expecting a better validity check of the DDR.

  16. Prediction of thermal acoustic oscillations (TAOs) in the CLAES solid CO2/neon system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spradley, I. E.; Yuan, S. W. K.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented of a study initiated to investigate the possibility that the existence of thermal acoustic oscillations (TAOs) in the Cryogenic Limb Atmospheric Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) neon plumbing system ground configuration could be the cause of higher-than-predicted heat rates measured during thermal ground testing. Tests were conducted between warm boundary temperatures ranging from 40 to 100 K, which simulated the actual test conditions of the CLAES CO2/neon system. TAOs were observed between 6 and 106 Torr, which agreed with the analytical predictions, and verified the possible existence of TAOs in the CLAES system during ground testing. The presence of TAOs was eventually confirmed in the CLAES system during a subsequent thermal test and were determined to have caused the higher heat rates measured during the prior thermal test.

  17. Experimental and analytical study of thermal acoustic oscillations. [in the transfer and storage of cryogens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spradley, L. W.; Dean, W. G.; Karu, Z. S.

    1976-01-01

    The thermal acoustic oscillations (TAO) data base was expanded by running a large number of tubes over a wide range of parameters known to affect the TAO phenomenon. These parameters include tube length, wall thickness, diameter, material, insertion length and length-to-diameter ratio. Emphasis was placed on getting good boiloff data. A large quantity of data was obtained, reduced, correlated and analyzed and is presented. Also presented are comparisons with previous types of correlations. These comparisons show that the boiloff data did not correlate with intensity. The data did correlate in the form used by Rott, that is boiloff versus TAO pressure squared times frequency to the one-half power. However, this latter correlation required a different set of correlation constants, slope and intercept, for each tube tested.

  18. THE BARYON ACOUSTIC OSCILLATION BROADBAND AND BROAD-BEAM ARRAY: DESIGN OVERVIEW AND SENSITIVITY FORECASTS

    SciTech Connect

    Pober, Jonathan C.; Parsons, Aaron R.; McQuinn, Matthew; Ali, Zaki; DeBoer, David R.; McDonald, Patrick; Aguirre, James E.; Bradley, Richard F.; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Morales, Miguel F.

    2013-03-15

    This work describes a new instrument optimized for a detection of the neutral hydrogen 21 cm power spectrum between redshifts of 0.5 and 1.5: the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation Broadband and Broad-beam (BAOBAB) array. BAOBAB will build on the efforts of a first generation of 21 cm experiments that are targeting a detection of the signal from the Epoch of Reionization at z {approx} 10. At z {approx} 1, the emission from neutral hydrogen in self-shielded overdense halos also presents an accessible signal, since the dominant, synchrotron foreground emission is considerably fainter than at redshift 10. The principle science driver for these observations are baryon acoustic oscillations in the matter power spectrum which have the potential to act as a standard ruler and constrain the nature of dark energy. BAOBAB will fully correlate dual-polarization antenna tiles over the 600-900 MHz band with a frequency resolution of 300 kHz and a system temperature of 50 K. The number of antennas will grow in staged deployments, and reconfigurations of the array will allow for both traditional imaging and high power spectrum sensitivity operations. We present calculations of the power spectrum sensitivity for various array sizes, with a 35 element array measuring the cosmic neutral hydrogen fraction as a function of redshift, and a 132 element system detecting the BAO features in the power spectrum, yielding a 1.8% error on the z {approx} 1 distance scale, and, in turn, significant improvements to constraints on the dark energy equation of state over an unprecedented range of redshifts from {approx}0.5 to 1.5.

  19. Surface acoustic wave velocity of gold films deposited on silicon substrates at different temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Salas, E.; Jimenez Rioboo, R. J.; Prieto, C.; Every, A. G.

    2011-07-15

    Au thin films have been deposited by DC magnetron sputtering on Si (001) substrates at different substrate temperatures, ranging from 200 K to 450 K. With increasing temperature, the expected crystallinity and morphology of the Au thin film are clearly improved, as shown by x ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy experiments. Parallel to this, the surface acoustic wave propagation velocity shows a clear enhancement toward the ideal values obtained from numerical simulations of a Au thin film on Si (001) substrate. Moreover, a very thin and slightly rough interlayer between the Si (001) substrate and the Au thin film is developed for temperatures above 350 K. The composition and nature of this interlayer is not known. This interlayer may be responsible for the steep change in the structural and elastic properties of the Au thin films at the higher temperatures and possibly also for an improvement of the adhesion properties of the Au on the Si (001) substrate.

  20. Galaxy bias and its effects on the Baryon acoustic oscillations measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, Kushal T.; Seo, Hee -Jong; Eckel, Jonathan; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Metchnik, Marc; Pinto, Philip; Xu, Xiaoying

    2011-05-31

    The baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature in the clustering of matter in the universe serves as a robust standard ruler and hence can be used to map the expansion history of the universe. We use high force resolution simulations to analyze the effects of galaxy bias on the measurements of the BAO signal. We apply a variety of Halo Occupation Distributions (HODs) and produce biased mass tracers to mimic different galaxy populations. We investigate whether galaxy bias changes the non-linear shifts on the acoustic scale relative to the underlying dark matter distribution presented by Seo et al. (2009). For the less biased HOD models (b < 3), we do not detect any shift in the acoustic scale relative to the no-bias case, typically 0.10% ± 0.10%. However, the most biased HOD models (b > 3) show a shift at moderate significance (0.79% ± 0.31% for the most extreme case). We test the one-step reconstruction technique introduced by Eisenstein et al. (2007) in the case of realistic galaxy bias and shot noise. The reconstruction scheme increases the correlation between the initial and final (z = 1) density fields achieving an equivalent level of correlation at nearly twice the wavenumber after reconstruction. Reconstruction reduces the shifts and errors on the shifts. We find that after reconstruction the shifts from the galaxy cases and the dark matter case are consistent with each other and with no shift. The 1σ systematic errors on the distance measurements inferred from our BAO measurements with various HODs after reconstruction are about 0.07%-0.15%.

  1. Quasar-Lyman α forest cross-correlation from BOSS DR11: Baryon Acoustic Oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Font-Ribera, Andreu; Kirkby, David; Blomqvist, Michael; Busca, Nicolas; Aubourg, Éric; Bautista, Julian; Ross, Nicholas P.; Bailey, Stephen; Beutler, Florian; Carithers, Bill; Slosar, Anže; Rich, James; Delubac, Timothée; Bhardwaj, Vaishali; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Brinkmann, Jon; Brownstein, Joel R.; Dawson, Kyle S.; and others

    2014-05-01

    We measure the large-scale cross-correlation of quasars with the Lyα forest absorption, using over 164,000 quasars from Data Release 11 of the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We extend the previous study of roughly 60,000 quasars from Data Release 9 to larger separations, allowing a measurement of the Baryonic Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) scale along the line of sight c/(H(z = 2.36)r{sub s}) = 9.0±0.3 and across the line of sight D{sub A}(z = 2.36)/r{sub s} = 10.8±0.4, consistent with CMB and other BAO data. Using the best fit value of the sound horizon from Planck data (r{sub s} = 147.49 Mpc), we can translate these results to a measurement of the Hubble parameter of H(z = 2.36) = 226±8 km s{sup −1} Mpc{sup −1} and of the angular diameter distance of D{sub A}(z = 2.36) = 1590±60 Mpc. The measured cross-correlation function and an update of the code to fit the BAO scale (baofit) are made publicly available.

  2. Measuring the 2D baryon acoustic oscillation signal of galaxies in WiggleZ: cosmological constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinton, Samuel R.; Kazin, Eyal; Davis, Tamara M.; Blake, Chris; Brough, Sarah; Colless, Matthew; Couch, Warrick J.; Drinkwater, Michael J.; Glazebrook, Karl; Jurek, Russell J.; Parkinson, David; Pimbblet, Kevin A.; Poole, Gregory B.; Pracy, Michael; Woods, David

    2017-02-01

    We present results from the 2D anisotropic baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) signal present in the final data set from the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. We analyse the WiggleZ data in two ways: first using the full shape of the 2D correlation function and secondly focusing only on the position of the BAO peak in the reconstructed data set. When fitting for the full shape of the 2D correlation function we use a multipole expansion to compare with theory. When we use the reconstructed data we marginalize over the shape and just measure the position of the BAO peak, analysing the data in wedges separating the signal along the line of sight from that parallel to the line of sight. We verify our method with mock data and find the results to be free of bias or systematic offsets. We also redo the pre-reconstruction angle-averaged (1D) WiggleZ BAO analysis with an improved covariance and present an updated result. The final results are presented in the form of Ωc h2, H(z), and DA(z) for three redshift bins with effective redshifts z = 0.44, 0.60, and 0.73. Within these bins and methodologies, we recover constraints between 5 and 22 per cent error. Our cosmological constraints are consistent with flat ΛCDM cosmology and agree with results from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey.

  3. Measuring the 2D baryon acoustic oscillation signal of galaxies in WiggleZ: cosmological constraints.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Samuel R; Kazin, Eyal; Davis, Tamara M; Blake, Chris; Brough, Sarah; Colless, Matthew; Couch, Warrick J; Drinkwater, Michael J; Glazebrook, Karl; Jurek, Russell J; Parkinson, David; Pimbblet, Kevin A; Poole, Gregory B; Pracy, Michael; Woods, David

    2017-02-01

    We present results from the 2D anisotropic baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) signal present in the final data set from the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. We analyse the WiggleZ data in two ways: first using the full shape of the 2D correlation function and secondly focusing only on the position of the BAO peak in the reconstructed data set. When fitting for the full shape of the 2D correlation function we use a multipole expansion to compare with theory. When we use the reconstructed data we marginalize over the shape and just measure the position of the BAO peak, analysing the data in wedges separating the signal along the line of sight from that parallel to the line of sight. We verify our method with mock data and find the results to be free of bias or systematic offsets. We also redo the pre-reconstruction angle-averaged (1D) WiggleZ BAO analysis with an improved covariance and present an updated result. The final results are presented in the form of Ω c  h(2), H(z), and DA (z) for three redshift bins with effective redshifts z = 0.44, 0.60, and 0.73. Within these bins and methodologies, we recover constraints between 5 and 22 per cent error. Our cosmological constraints are consistent with flat ΛCDM cosmology and agree with results from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey.

  4. Measuring the 2D baryon acoustic oscillation signal of galaxies in WiggleZ: cosmological constraints

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, Samuel R.; Kazin, Eyal; Davis, Tamara M.; Blake, Chris; Brough, Sarah; Colless, Matthew; Couch, Warrick J.; Drinkwater, Michael J.; Glazebrook, Karl; Jurek, Russell J.; Parkinson, David; Pimbblet, Kevin A.; Poole, Gregory B.; Pracy, Michael; Woods, David

    2016-01-01

    We present results from the 2D anisotropic baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) signal present in the final data set from the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. We analyse the WiggleZ data in two ways: first using the full shape of the 2D correlation function and secondly focusing only on the position of the BAO peak in the reconstructed data set. When fitting for the full shape of the 2D correlation function we use a multipole expansion to compare with theory. When we use the reconstructed data we marginalize over the shape and just measure the position of the BAO peak, analysing the data in wedges separating the signal along the line of sight from that parallel to the line of sight. We verify our method with mock data and find the results to be free of bias or systematic offsets. We also redo the pre-reconstruction angle-averaged (1D) WiggleZ BAO analysis with an improved covariance and present an updated result. The final results are presented in the form of Ωc h2, H(z), and DA(z) for three redshift bins with effective redshifts z = 0.44, 0.60, and 0.73. Within these bins and methodologies, we recover constraints between 5 and 22 per cent error. Our cosmological constraints are consistent with flat ΛCDM cosmology and agree with results from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. PMID:28066154

  5. Numerical performance analysis of acoustic Doppler velocity profilers in the wake of an axial-flow marine hydrokinetic turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, Marshall C.; Harding, Samuel F.; Romero Gomez, Pedro DJ

    2015-09-01

    The use of acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) for the characterization of flow conditions in the vicinity of both experimental and full scale marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines is becoming increasingly prevalent. The computation of a three dimensional velocity measurement from divergent acoustic beams requires the assumption that the flow conditions are homogeneous between all beams at a particular axial distance from the instrument. In the near wake of MHK devices, the mean fluid motion is observed to be highly spatially dependent as a result of torque generation and energy extraction. This paper examines the performance of ADCP measurements in such scenarios through the modelling of a virtual ADCP (VADCP) instrument in the velocity field in the wake of an MHK turbine resolved using unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This is achieved by sampling the CFD velocity field at equivalent locations to the sample bins of an ADCP and performing the coordinate transformation from beam coordinates to instrument coordinates and finally to global coordinates. The error in the mean velocity calculated by the VADCP relative to the reference velocity along the instrument axis is calculated for a range of instrument locations and orientations. The stream-wise velocity deficit and tangential swirl velocity caused by the rotor rotation lead to significant misrepresentation of the true flow velocity profiles by the VADCP, with the most significant errors in the transverse (cross-flow) velocity direction.

  6. Frequency Scaling for Evaluation of Shale and Mudstone Properties from Acoustic Velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez-Rivera, R.; Willson, S. M.; Nakagawa, S.; Magnar-Ness, O.

    2001-12-01

    In subsurface oil and gas exploration, seismic wave (stress wave) measurement is one of the most important tools for determining the properties of overburden and predicting reservoir conditions such as pore pressure, fracture gradient, and stress distribution. To achieve detailed and reliable knowledge of the reservoir, an integrated analysis can be performed on the seismic properties of rocks measured at different scales ranging from laboratory core, boreholes (well logging) and reservoir itself (surface seismic). However, particularly for sedimentary rocks containing a large amount of clay minerals, such integration is not a straightforward task because of velocity dispersion that makes waves of different frequencies travel at different velocities. The ultimate goal of this study is to devise a methodology for frequency scaling based on laboratory measurements of wave propagation at different frequency ranges. To this end, we have examined the mechanical and acoustic (seismic) properties of strongly dispersive sedimentary rocks. Shales were selected as principal rocks of interest for their predominance in the overburden and the direct impact on the well construction cost. Two types of shales were cored from outcrops(Pierre I and Mancos) and tested under varying conditions of loading (hydrostatic versus uniaxial-strain), orientation to bedding (parallel, perpendicular and oblique). Wave measurements were conducted under four ranges of frequency: Static and quasi-static (seismic frequency, approximately 7 Hz) data was obtained from high-accuracy, low-speed stress-strain measurements, and sonic data (0.4 kHz-9 kHz) was obtained from gas-confined resonant bar tests. For ultrasonic data (150 kHz-1 MHz), a frequency-domain phase analysis was applied to compute frequency-dependent phase and group velocities. Over these ranges, both Pierre and Mancos shales showed a smooth and monotonic increase in compressional and shear wave velocities with frequency. Strong velocity

  7. Experimental investigation of acoustic self-oscillation influence on decay process for underexpanded supersonic jet in submerged space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, V. Yu.; Arefyev, K. Yu.; Ilchenko, M. A.

    2016-07-01

    Intensification of mixing between the gaseous working body ejected through a jet nozzle with ambient medium is an important scientific and technical problem. Effective mixing can increase the total efficiency of power and propulsion apparatuses. The promising approach, although poorly studied, is generation of acoustic self-oscillation inside the jet nozzle: this impact might enhance the decay of a supersonic jet and improve the mixing parameters. The paper presents peculiar properties of acoustic self-excitation in jet nozzle. The paper presents results of experimental study performed for a model injector with a set of plates placed into the flow channel, enabling the excitation of acoustic self-oscillations. The study reveals the regularity of under-expanded supersonic jet decay in submerged space for different flow modes. Experimental data support the efficiency of using the jet nozzle with acoustic self-oscillation in application to the systems of gas fuel supply. Experimental results can be used for designing new power apparatuses for aviation and space industry and for process plants.

  8. Investigation of the nonlinear response of turbulent premixed flames to imposed inlet velocity oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Armitage, C.A.; Mastorakos, E.; Cant, R.S.; Balachandran, R.

    2006-08-15

    Acoustically forced lean premixed turbulent bluff-body stabilized flames are investigated using turbulent combustion CFD. The calculations simulate aspects of the experimental investigation by Balachandran et al. [R. Balachandran, B. Ayoola, C. Kaminski, A. Dowling, E. Mastorakos, Combust. Flame 143 (2005) 37-55] and focus on the amplitude dependence of the flame response. For the frequencies of interest in this investigation an unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) approach is appropriate. The combustion is represented using a modified laminar flamelet approach with an algebraic representation of the flame surface density. The predictions are compared with flame surface density (FSD) and OH* chemiluminescence measurements. In the experiments the response of the flame has been quantified by means of a number of single-frequency, amplitude-dependent transfer functions. The predicted flame shape and position are in good agreement with the experiment. The dynamic response of the flame to inlet velocity forcing is also well captured by the calculations. At moderate frequencies nonlinear behavior of the transfer functions is observed as the forcing amplitude is increased. In the experiments this nonlinearity was attributed in part to the rollup of the reacting shear layer into vortices and in part to the collision of the inner and outer flame sheets. This transition to nonlinearity is also observed in the transfer functions obtained from the predictions. Furthermore, the vortex shedding and flame-sheet collapse may be seen in snapshots of the predicted flow field taken throughout the forcing cycle. The URANS methodology successfully predicts the behavior of the forced premixed turbulent flames and captures the effects of saturation in the transfer function of the response of the heat release to velocity fluctuations. (author)

  9. An Approximate Solution to the Equation of Motion for Large-Angle Oscillations of the Simple Pendulum with Initial Velocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannessen, Kim

    2010-01-01

    An analytic approximation of the solution to the differential equation describing the oscillations of a simple pendulum at large angles and with initial velocity is discussed. In the derivation, a sinusoidal approximation has been applied, and an analytic formula for the large-angle period of the simple pendulum is obtained, which also includes…

  10. Acoustic and Slow Sausage Oscillations in the Stratified Solar Photosphere: Hinode Observations and Phase Relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsap, Y. T.; Stepanov, A. V.; Kopylova, Y. G.

    2016-11-01

    Based on the linearized magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations within the framework of the thin flux tube approximation, the phase relationships between the disturbed quantities of evanescent acoustic and slow sausage MHD modes excited in the adiabatically stratified solar atmosphere are considered. It has been shown that the sign of the phase differences (equal to ±π/2) between the velocity and other disturbed quantities such as pressure, density, magnetic field, and temperature, depends on the wave frequency ω. The obtained phase relationships agree well with SOT/ Hinode observations obtained by Fujimura and Tsuneta ( Astrophys. J. 702, 1443, 2009) when ω≈ωc, where ωc is the cutoff frequency. The role of various modes excited in the solar atmosphere in the light of the chromospheric and coronal heating problems are discussed.

  11. Resolving the source of the solar acoustic oscillations: What will be possible with DKIST?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rast, Mark; Martinez Pillet, Valentin

    2016-05-01

    The solar p-modes are likely excited by small-scale convective dynamics in the solar photosphere, but the detailed source properties are not known. Theoretical models differ and observations are yet unable to differentiate between them. Resolving the underlying source events is more than a curiosity. It is important to the veracity of global helioseismic measurements (including local spectral methods such as ring diagram analysis) because global p-mode line shapes and thus accurate frequency determinations depend critically on the relationship between intensity and velocity during the excitation events. It is also fundamental to improving the accuracy of the local time-distance measurements because in these kernel calculations depend on knowledge of the source profile and the properties of the excitation noise. The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) will have the spatial resolution and spectral range needed to resolve the solar acoustic excitation events in both time and space (horizontally and with height) using multi-wavelength observations. Inversions to determine the dynamic and thermodynamic evolution of the discrete small-scale convective events that serve as acoustic sources may also be possible, though determination of the pressure fluctuations associated with the sources is a challenge. We describe the DKIST capabilities anticipated and the preliminary work needed to prepare for them.

  12. Reliability of Phase Velocity Measurements of Flexural Acoustic Waves in the Human Tibia In-Vivo

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Axial-transmission acoustics have shown to be a promising technique to measure individual bone properties and detect bone pathologies. With the ultimate goal being the in-vivo application of such systems, quantification of the key aspects governing the reliability is crucial to bring this method towards clinical use. Materials and Methods This work presents a systematic reliability study quantifying the sources of variability and their magnitudes of in-vivo measurements using axial-transmission acoustics. 42 healthy subjects were measured by an experienced operator twice per week, over a four-month period, resulting in over 150000 wave measurements. In a complementary study to assess the influence of different operators performing the measurements, 10 novice operators were trained, and each measured 5 subjects on a single occasion, using the same measurement protocol as in the first part of the study. Results The estimated standard error for the measurement protocol used to collect the study data was ∼ 17 m/s (∼ 4% of the grand mean) and the index of dependability, as a measure of reliability, was Φ = 0.81. It was shown that the method is suitable for multi-operator use and that the reliability can be improved efficiently by additional measurements with device repositioning, while additional measurements without repositioning cannot improve the reliability substantially. Phase velocity values were found to be significantly higher in males than in females (p < 10−5) and an intra-class correlation coefficient of r = 0.70 was found between the legs of each subject. Conclusions The high reliability of this non-invasive approach and its intrinsic sensitivity to mechanical properties opens perspectives for the rapid and inexpensive clinical assessment of bone pathologies, as well as for monitoring programmes without any radiation exposure for the patient. PMID:27015093

  13. Density, ultrasound velocity, acoustic impedance, reflection and absorption coefficient determination of liquids via multiple reflection method.

    PubMed

    Hoche, S; Hussein, M A; Becker, T

    2015-03-01

    The accuracy of density, reflection coefficient, and acoustic impedance determination via multiple reflection method was validated experimentally. The ternary system water-maltose-ethanol was used to execute a systematic, temperature dependent study over a wide range of densities and viscosities aiming an application as inline sensor in beverage industries. The validation results of the presented method and setup show root mean square errors of: 1.201E-3 g cm(-3) (±0.12%) density, 0.515E-3 (0.15%) reflection coefficient and 1.851E+3 kg s(-1) m(-2) (0.12%) specific acoustic impedance. The results of the diffraction corrected absorption showed an average standard deviation of only 0.12%. It was found that the absorption change shows a good correlation to concentration variations and may be useful for laboratory analysis of sufficiently pure liquids. The main part of the observed errors can be explained by the observed noise, temperature variation and the low signal resolution of 50 MHz. In particular, the poor signal-to-noise ratio of the second reflector echo was found to be a main accuracy limitation. Concerning the investigation of liquids the unstable properties of the reference material PMMA, due to hygroscopicity, were identified to be an additional, unpredictable source of uncertainty. While dimensional changes can be considered by adequate methodology, the impact of the time and temperature dependent water absorption on relevant reference properties like the buffer's sound velocity and density could not be considered and may explain part of the observed deviations.

  14. Phase shift between respiratory oscillations in cerebral blood flow velocity and arterial blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Uryga, Agnieszka; Placek, Michał M; Wachel, Paweł; Szczepański, Tomasz; Czosnyka, Marek; Kasprowicz, Magdalena

    2017-02-01

    We aim to investigate whether phase shift between respiratory oscillations in cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) is associated with changes in cerebral autoregulation (CA) or reflects the mechano-elastic properties of the cerebrovascular bed. The relationships between respiratory phase shift and slow wave phase shift versus cerebrovascular time constant (the product of cerebrovascular resistance and compliance) and the index of CA (Mx) were analyzed during breathing at 6, 10, and 15 breaths min(-1) in 39 volunteers. With increasing respiratory rate the time constant, Mx, and respiratory phase shift decreased, whereas slow wave phase shift increased. The time constant correlated moderately strongly with the respiratory phase shift (R  =  0.49, p [Formula: see text] 0.001) and did not correlate with the slow wave phase shift. The slow wave phase shift was significantly associated with Mx (R  =  -0.46, p [Formula: see text] 0.001). The respiratory phase shift more accurately reflects the mechano-elastic properties of the cerebrovascular bed, whereas CA is better described by the slow wave phase shift.

  15. Redshift weights for baryon acoustic oscillations: application to mock galaxy catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Fangzhou; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; White, Martin; Ross, Ashley J.; Zhao, Gongbo

    2016-09-01

    Large redshift surveys capable of measuring the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) signal have proven to be an effective way of measuring the distance-redshift relation in cosmology. Building off the work in Zhu et al., we develop a technique to directly constrain the distance-redshift relation from BAO measurements without splitting the sample into redshift bins. We apply the redshift weighting technique in Zhu et al. to the clustering of galaxies from 1000 Quick particle mesh (QPM) mock simulations after reconstruction and achieve a 0.75 per cent measurement of the angular diameter distance DA at z = 0.64 and the same precision for Hubble parameter H at z = 0.29. These QPM mock catalogues mimic the clustering and noise level of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey Data Release 12 (DR12). We compress the correlation functions in the redshift direction on to a set of weighted correlation functions. These estimators give unbiased DA and H measurements across the entire redshift range of the combined sample. We demonstrate the effectiveness of redshift weighting in improving the distance and Hubble parameter estimates. Instead of measuring at a single `effective' redshift as in traditional analyses, we report our DA and H measurements at all redshifts. The measured fractional error of DA ranges from 1.53 per cent at z = 0.2 to 0.75 per cent at z = 0.64. The fractional error of H ranges from 0.75 per cent at z = 0.29 to 2.45 per cent at z = 0.7. Our measurements are consistent with a Fisher forecast to within 10-20 per cent depending on the pivot redshift. We further show the results are robust against the choice of fiducial cosmologies, galaxy bias models, and redshift-space distortions streaming parameters.

  16. Constraint on the growth factor of the cosmic structure from the damping of the baryon acoustic oscillation signature

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Gen; Sato, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Huetsi, Gert

    2009-12-15

    We determine a constraint on the growth factor by measuring the damping of the baryon acoustic oscillations in the matter power spectrum using the Sloan digital sky survey luminous red galaxy sample. We obtain an effective upper limit on {sigma}{sub 8}D{sub 1}(z=0.3) using the damping of the baryon acoustic oscillation signature, where {sigma}{sub 8} is the root mean square overdensity in a sphere of radius 8h{sup -1} Mpc and D{sub 1}(z) is the growth factor at redshift z. The above result assumes that other parameters are fixed and the cosmology is taken to be a spatially flat cold dark matter universe with the cosmological constant.

  17. Cause and solution for false upstream boat velocities measured with a StreamPro acoustic doppler current profiler

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, David S.; Rehmel, Mike S.; Wagner, Chad R.

    2007-01-01

    In 2003, Teledyne RD Instruments introduced the StreamPro acoustic Doppler current profiler which does not include an internal compass. During stationary moving-bed tests the StreamPro often tends to swim or kite from the end of the tether (the instrument rotates then moves laterally in the direction of the rotation). Because the StreamPro does not have an internal compass, it cannot account for the rotation. This rotation and lateral movement of the StreamPro on the end of the tether generates a false upstream velocity, which cannot be easily distinguished from a moving-bed bias velocity. A field test was completed to demonstrate that this rotation and lateral movement causes a false upstream boat velocity. The vector dot product of the boat velocity and the unit vector of the depth-averaged water velocity is shown to be an effective method to account for the effect of the rotation and lateral movement.

  18. Effects of Variations of Parallel Angular Velocity and Vorticity on the Oscillations of Compressible Homogeneous Rotating Ellipsoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chia, T. T.; Pung, S. Y.

    1995-07-01

    Earlier work on the oscillations of an ellipsoid is extended to investigate the behaviour of a nonequilibrium compressible homogeneous rotating gaseous ellipsoid, with the components of the velocity field as linear functions of the coordinates, and with parallel angular velocity and uniform vorticity. The dynamical behaviour of the ellipsoid is obtained by numerically integrating the relevant differential equations for different values of the initial angular velocity and vorticity. This behaviour is displayed by the (a 1,a 2) and (a 1,a 3) phase plots, where thea i's (i = 1, 2, 3) are the semi-diameters, and by the graphs ofa 1,a 2,a 3, the volume, and the angular velocity as functions of time. The dynamical behaviour of the nonequilibrium ellipsoid depends on the deviation of the angular momentum from its equilibrium value; for larger deviations, the oscillations are more nonperiodic with larger amplitudes. An initially ellipsoidal configuration always remains ellipsoidal, but it cannot become spheroidal about its rotation axis, though it may become spheroidal instantaneously about either one of the other two principal axes. For an ellipsoid approaching axisymmetry about its axis of rotation, the angular velocity can suddenly increase by a large amount. Thus if an astrophysical object can be modelled by a nonequilibrium ellipsoid, it may occasionally undergo sudden large increases of angular velocity.

  19. Supernova and baryon acoustic oscillation constraints on (new) polynomial dark energy parametrizations: current results and forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sendra, Irene; Lazkoz, Ruth

    2012-05-01

    In this work we introduce two new polynomial parametrizations of dark energy and explore their correlation properties. The parameters to fit are the equation-of-state values at z= 0 and z= 0.5, which have naturally low correlation and have already been shown to improve the popular Chevallier-Polarski-Linder (CPL) parametrization. We test our models with low-redshift astronomical probes: type Ia supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), in the form of both current and synthetic data. Specifically, we present simulations of measurements of the radial and transversal BAO scales similar to those expected in a BAO high-precision spectroscopic redshift survey such as EUCLID. According to the Bayesian deviance information criterion (DIC), which penalizes large errors and correlations, we show that our models perform better than the CPL reparametrization proposed by Wang (in terms of z= 0 and z= 0.5). This is due to the combination of lower correlation and smaller relative errors. The same holds for a frequentist perspective: the figure-of-merit is larger for our parametrizations.

  20. Improved Forecasts for the Baryon Acoustic Oscillations and Cosmological Distance Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hee-Jong; Eisenstein, Daniel J.

    2007-08-01

    We present the cosmological distance errors achievable using the baryonic acoustic oscillations as a standard ruler. We begin from a Fisher matrix formalism that is upgraded from earlier Seo and Eisenstein work. We isolate the information from the baryonic peaks by excluding distance information from other less robust sources. Meanwhile, we accommodate the Lagrangian displacement distribution into the Fisher matrix calculation to reflect the gradual loss of information in scale and in time due to nonlinear growth, nonlinear bias, and nonlinear redshift distortions. We then show that we can contract the multidimensional Fisher matrix calculations into a two-dimensional or even one-dimensional formalism with physically motivated approximations. We present the resulting fitting formula for the cosmological distance errors from galaxy redshift surveys as a function of survey parameters and nonlinearity, which saves us going through the 12 dimensional Fisher matrix calculations. Finally, we show excellent agreement between the distance error estimates from the revised Fisher matrix and the precision on the distance scale recovered from N-body simulations.

  1. The Alcock Paczy'nski test with Baryon Acoustic Oscillations: systematic effects for future surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepori, Francesca; Di Dio, Enea; Viel, Matteo; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Durrer, Ruth

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the Alcock Paczy'nski (AP) test applied to the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) feature in the galaxy correlation function. By using a general formalism that includes relativistic effects, we quantify the importance of the linear redshift space distortions and gravitational lensing corrections to the galaxy number density fluctuation. We show that redshift space distortions significantly affect the shape of the correlation function, both in radial and transverse directions, causing different values of galaxy bias to induce offsets up to 1% in the AP test. On the other hand, we find that the lensing correction around the BAO scale modifies the amplitude but not the shape of the correlation function and therefore does not introduce any systematic effect. Furthermore, we investigate in details how the AP test is sensitive to redshift binning: a window function in transverse direction suppresses correlations and shifts the peak position toward smaller angular scales. We determine the correction that should be applied in order to account for this effect, when performing the test with data from three future planned galaxy redshift surveys: Euclid, the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) and the Square Kilometer Array (SKA).

  2. Small scale aspects of warm dark matter: Power spectra and acoustic oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Boyanovsky, Daniel; Wu Jun

    2011-02-15

    We provide a semianalytic derivation of approximate evolution equations for density perturbations of warm dark matter candidates that decoupled while relativistic with arbitrary distribution functions, their solutions at small scales, and a simple numerical implementation that yields their transfer functions and power spectra. Density perturbations evolve through three stages: radiation domination when the particle is relativistic and nonrelativistic and matter domination. An early integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect during the first stage leads to an enhancement of density perturbations and a plateau in the transfer function for k < or approx. k{sub fs}, the free-streaming wave vector. An effective fluid description emerges at small scales which includes the effects of free streaming in initial conditions and inhomogeneities. The transfer function features warm dark matter acoustic oscillations at scales k > or approx. 2k{sub fs}. A simple analytic interpolation of the power spectra between large and small scales and a numerical implementation valid for arbitrary distribution functions is provided. As an application we study the power spectra for two models of sterile neutrinos with m{approx}keV produced nonresonantly and compare our results to those obtained from Boltzmann codes.

  3. Acoustic emission monitoring of low velocity impact damage in graphite/epoxy laminates during tensile loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Bradford H.

    1992-01-01

    An acoustic emission (AE) system was set up in a linear location data acquisition mode to monitor the tensile loading of eight-ply quasi-isotropic graphite/epoxy specimens containing low velocity impact damage. The impact damage was induced using an instrumented drop weight tower. During impact, specimens were supported by either an aluminum plate or a membrane configuration. Cross-sectional examinations revealed that the aluminum plate configuration resulted in primarily matrix cracking and back surface fiber failure. The membrane support resulted in only matrix cracking and delamination damage. Penetrant enhanced radiography and immersion ultrasonics were used in order to assess the amount of impact damage in each tensile specimen. During tensile loading, AE reliably detected and located the damage sites which included fiber failure. All specimens with areas of fiber breakage ultimately failed at the impact site. AE did not reliably locate damage which consisted of only delaminations and matrix cracking. Specimens with this type of damage did not ultimately fail at the impact site. In summary, AE demonstrated the ability to increase the reliability of structural proof tests; however, the successful use of this technique requires extensive baseline testing.

  4. Dynamic behavior of acoustic metamaterials and metaconfigured structures with local oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manimala, James Mathew

    Dynamic behavior of acoustic metamaterials (AM) and metaconfigured structures (MCS) with various oscillator-type microstructures or local attachments was investigated. AM derive their unusual elastic wave manipulation capabilities not just from material constituents but more so from engineered microstructural configurations. Depending on the scale of implementation, these "microstructures" may be deployed as microscopic inclusions in metacomposites or even as complex endo-structures within load-bearing exo-structures in MCS. The frequency-dependent negative effective-mass exhibited by locally resonant microstructures when considered as a single degree of freedom system was experimentally verified using a structure with an internal mass-spring resonator. AM constructed by incorporating resonators in a host material display spatial attenuation of harmonic stress waves within a tunable bandgap frequency range. An apparent damping coefficient was derived to compare the degree of attenuation achieved in these wholly elastic AM to equivalent conventionally damped models illustrating their feasibility as stiff structures that simultaneously act as effective damping elements. Parametric studies were performed using simulations to design and construct MCS with attached resonators for dynamic load mitigation applications. 98% payload isolation at resonance (7 Hz) was experimentally attained using a low-frequency vibration isolator with tip-loaded cantilever beam resonators. Pendulum impact tests on a resonator stack substantiated a peak transmitted stress reduction of about 60% and filtering of the resonator frequencies in the transmitted spectrum. Drop-tower tests were done to gauge the shock mitigation performance of an AM-inspired infrastructural building-block with internal resonators. Proof-of-concept experiments using an array of multifunctional resonators demonstrate the possibility of integrating energy harvesting and transducer capabilities. Stress wave attenuation

  5. A Preliminary Evaluation of Near-Transducer Velocities Collected with Low-Blank Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gartner, J.W.; Ganju, N.K.; ,

    2002-01-01

    Many streams and rivers for which the US Geological Survey must provide discharge measurements are too shallow to apply existing acoustic Doppler current profiler techniques for flow measurements of satisfactory quality. Because the same transducer is used for both transmitting and receiving acoustic signals in most Doppler current profilers, some small time delay is required for acoustic "ringing" to be damped out of transducers before meaningful measurements can be made. The result of that time delay is that velocity measurements cannot be made close to the transducer thus limiting the usefulness of these instruments in shallow regions. Manufacturers and users are constantly striving for improvements to acoustic instruments which would permit useful discharge measurements in shallow rivers and streams that are still often measured with techniques and instruments more than a century old. One promising area of advance appeared to be reduction of time delay (blank) required between transmitting and receiving signals during acoustic velocity measurements. Development of a low- or zero-blank transducer by RD Instruments3 held promise that velocity measurements could be made much closer to the transducer and thus in much shallower water. Initial experience indicates that this is not the case; limitation of measurement quality appears to be related to the physical presence of the transducer itself within the flow field. The limitation may be the result of changes to water flow pattern close to the transducer rather than transducer ringing characteristics as a function of blanking distance. Results of field experiments are discussed that support this conclusion and some minimum measurement distances from transducer are suggested based on water current speed and ADCP sample modes.

  6. Comments on inferring the properties of the solar acoustic sources by modeling the velocity and/or intensity fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jefferies, Stuart M.; Moretti, Pier-Francesco; Oliviero, Maurizio; Giebink, Cynthia

    2003-02-01

    We model the observed velocity and intensity power spectra and the intensity-velocity cross-spectrum using an updated version of the Severino et al. (2001) model that includes the effects of the acoustic source. We find that in order to accurately describe the data it is necessary to include a correlated background component in both the V and I signals at low frequencies, and in the I signal at high frequencies. Preliminary results show that even using the new model we can not uniquely determine the phase that is related to the acoustic source depth at low frequencies, or the amplitudes and phases of the individual correlated background signals. It appears that further physical or observational constraints are needed before we can obtain this information.

  7. Velocity profiles, Reynolds stresses and bed roughness from an autonomous field deployed Acoustic Doppler Velocity Profiler in a mixed sediment tidal estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Boyle, Louise; Thorne, Peter; Cooke, Richard; Cohbed Team

    2014-05-01

    Estuaries are among some of the most important global landscapes in terms of population density, ecology and economy. Understanding the dynamics of these natural mixed sediment environments is of particular interest amid growing concerns over sea level rise, climate variations and estuarine response to these changes. Many predictors exist for bed form formation and sand transport in sandy coastal zones; however less work has been published on mixed sediments. This paper details a field study which forms part of the COHBED project aiming to increase understanding of bed forms in a biotic mixed sediment estuarine environment. The study was carried out in the Dee Estuary, in the eastern Irish Sea between England and Wales from the 21st May to 4th June 2013. A state of the art instrumentation frame, known as SEDbed, was deployed at three sites of differing sediment properties and biological makeup within the intertidal zone of the estuary. The SEDbed deployment consisted of a suite of optical and acoustic instrumentation, including an Acoustic Doppler Velocity Profiler (ADVP), Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) and a three dimensional acoustic ripple profiler, 3D-ARP. Supplementary field samples and measurements were recorded alongside the frame during each deployment. This paper focuses on the use of new technological developments for the investigation of sediment dynamics. The hydrodynamics at each of the deployment sites are presented including centimetre resolution velocity profiles in the near bed region of the water column, obtained from the ADVP, which is presently the only autonomous field deployed coherent Doppler profiler . Based on these high resolution profiles variations in frictional velocity, bed shear stress and roughness length are calculated. Comparisons are made with theoretical models and with Reynolds stress values obtained from ADV data at a single point within the ADVP profile and from ADVP data itself. Predictions of bed roughness at each

  8. The Velocity and Attenuation of Acoustic Emission Waves in SiC/SiC Composites Loaded in Tension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, Gregory N.; Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The behavior of acoustic waves produced by microfracture events and from pencil lead breaks was studied for two different silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide matrix composites. The two composite systems both consisted of Hi-Nicalon (trademark) fibers and carbon interfaces but had different matrix compositions that led to considerable differences in damage accumulation and acoustic response. This behavior was primarily due to an order of magnitude difference in the interfacial shear stress for the two composite systems. Load/unload/reload tensile tests were performed and measurements were made over the entire stress range in order to determine the stress-dependence of acoustic activity for increasing damage states. It was found that using the extensional wave velocities from acoustic emission (AE) events produced from pencil lead breaks performed outside of the transducers enabled accurate measurements of the stiffness of the composite. The extensional wave velocities changed as a function of the damage state and the stress where the measurement was taken. Attenuation for AE waveforms from the pencil lead breaks occurred only for the composite possessing the lower interfacial shear stress and only at significantly high stresses. At zero stress after unloading from a peak stress, no attenuation occurred for this composite because of crack closure. For the high interfacial stress composite no attenuation was discernable at peak or zero stress over the entire stress-range of the composite. From these observations, it is believed that attenuation of AE waveforms is dependent on the magnitude of matrix crack opening.

  9. Group-phase Velocity Difference and THz Oscillation of the Nonlinear Refractive Index in Air: Particle-like Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kovachev, L. M.

    2009-10-29

    We present an analytical approach to the theory of optical pulses with superbroad spectrum propagated in air. The corresponding modified amplitude envelope equation admits oscillated with terahertz frequency nonlinear term The fluctuation is due to the group and phase velocity difference. In the partial case of femtosecond pulses with power, little above the critical for self-focusing, exact (3+1)D particle-like solution is found.

  10. AWESoMe: A code for the calculation of phase and group velocities of acoustic waves in homogeneous solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Santiburcio, Daniel; Hernández-Laguna, Alfonso; Soto, Juan I.

    2015-07-01

    We present AWESoMe, an implementation of a method for the evaluation of acoustic wave velocities in homogeneous solid media. The code computes the phase and group velocities for all the possible propagation directions, as well as some related parameters such as the polarization vectors, the power flow angle and the enhancement factor. The code is conveniently interfaced with GNUPLOT, thus offering immediate visualization of the results. AWESoMe is open-source software, available under the GNU General Public License v3.

  11. THE CORRELATION FUNCTION OF GALAXY CLUSTERS AND DETECTION OF BARYON ACOUSTIC OSCILLATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, T.; Han, J. L.; Wen, Z. L.; Sun, L.; Zhan, H.

    2012-04-10

    We calculate the correlation function of 13,904 galaxy clusters of z {<=} 0.4 selected from the cluster catalog of Wen et al. The correlation function can be fitted with a power-law model {xi}(r) = (r/R{sub 0}){sup -{gamma}} on the scales of 10 h{sup -1} Mpc {<=} r {<=} 50 h{sup -1} Mpc, with a larger correlation length of R{sub 0} = 18.84 {+-} 0.27 h{sup -1} Mpc for clusters with a richness of R {>=} 15 and a smaller length of R{sub 0} = 16.15 {+-} 0.13 h{sup -1} Mpc for clusters with a richness of R {>=} 5. The power-law index of {gamma} = 2.1 is found to be almost the same for all cluster subsamples. A pronounced baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) peak is detected at r {approx} 110 h{sup -1} Mpc with a significance of {approx}1.9{sigma}. By analyzing the correlation function in the range of 20 h{sup -1} Mpc {<=} r {<=} 200 h{sup -1} Mpc, we find that the constraints on distance parameters are D{sub v} (z{sub m} = 0.276) = 1077 {+-} 55(1{sigma}) Mpc and h = 0.73 {+-} 0.039(1{sigma}), which are consistent with the cosmology derived from Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) seven-year data. However, the BAO signal from the cluster sample is stronger than expected and leads to a rather low matter density {Omega}{sub m} h{sup 2} = 0.093 {+-} 0.0077(1{sigma}), which deviates from the WMAP7 result by more than 3{sigma}. The correlation function of the GMBCG cluster sample is also calculated and our detection of the BAO feature is confirmed.

  12. The Correlation Function of Galaxy Clusters and Detection of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, T.; Han, J. L.; Wen, Z. L.; Sun, L.; Zhan, H.

    2012-04-01

    We calculate the correlation function of 13,904 galaxy clusters of z <= 0.4 selected from the cluster catalog of Wen et al. The correlation function can be fitted with a power-law model ξ(r) = (r/R 0)-γ on the scales of 10 h -1 Mpc <= r <= 50 h -1 Mpc, with a larger correlation length of R 0 = 18.84 ± 0.27 h -1 Mpc for clusters with a richness of R >= 15 and a smaller length of R 0 = 16.15 ± 0.13 h -1 Mpc for clusters with a richness of R >= 5. The power-law index of γ = 2.1 is found to be almost the same for all cluster subsamples. A pronounced baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) peak is detected at r ~ 110 h -1 Mpc with a significance of ~1.9σ. By analyzing the correlation function in the range of 20 h -1 Mpc <= r <= 200 h -1 Mpc, we find that the constraints on distance parameters are Dv (zm = 0.276) = 1077 ± 55(1σ) Mpc and h = 0.73 ± 0.039(1σ), which are consistent with the cosmology derived from Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) seven-year data. However, the BAO signal from the cluster sample is stronger than expected and leads to a rather low matter density Ω m h 2 = 0.093 ± 0.0077(1σ), which deviates from the WMAP7 result by more than 3σ. The correlation function of the GMBCG cluster sample is also calculated and our detection of the BAO feature is confirmed.

  13. Distance, Growth Factor, and Dark Energy Constraints from Photometric Baryon Acoustic Oscillation and Weak Lensing Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Hu; Knox, Lloyd; Tyson, J. Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs) and weak lensing (WL) are complementary probes of cosmology. We explore the distance and growth factor measurements from photometric BAO and WL techniques, and investigate the roles of the distance and growth factor in constraining dark energy. We find for WL that the growth factor has a great impact on dark energy constraints, but is much less powerful than the distance. Dark energy constraints from WL are concentrated in considerably fewer distance eigenmodes than those from BAO, with the largest contributions from modes that are sensitive to the absolute distance. Both techniques have some well-determined distance eigenmodes that are not very sensitive to the dark energy equation-of-state parameters w0 and wa, suggesting that they can accommodate additional parameters for dark energy and for the control of systematic uncertainties. A joint analysis of BAO and WL is far more powerful than either technique alone, and the resulting constraints on the distance and growth factor will be useful for distinguishing dark energy and modified gravity models. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will yield both WL and angular BAO over a sample of several billion galaxies. Joint LSST BAO and WL can yield 0.5% level precision on ten comoving distances evenly spaced in log(1 + z) between redshift 0.3 and 3 with cosmic microwave background priors from Planck. In addition, since the angular diameter distance, which directly affects the observables, is linked to the comoving distance solely by the curvature radius in the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric solution, the LSST can achieve a pure metric constraint of 0.017 on the mean curvature parameter Ω k of the universe simultaneously with the constraints on the comoving distances.

  14. EFFECT OF MODEL-DEPENDENT COVARIANCE MATRIX FOR STUDYING BARYON ACOUSTIC OSCILLATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Labatie, A.; Starck, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Large-scale structures in the universe are a powerful tool to test cosmological models and constrain cosmological parameters. A particular feature of interest comes from baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs), which are sound waves traveling in the hot plasma of the early universe that stopped at the recombination time. This feature can be observed as a localized bump in the correlation function at the scale of the sound horizon r{sub s} . As such, it provides a standard ruler and a lot of constraining power in the correlation function analysis of galaxy surveys. Moreover, the detection of BAOs at the expected scale gives strong support to cosmological models. Both of these studies (BAO detection and parameter constraints) rely on a statistical modeling of the measured correlation function {xi}-circumflex. Usually {xi}-circumflex is assumed to be Gaussian, with a mean {xi}{sub {theta}} depending on the cosmological model and a covariance matrix C generally approximated as a constant (i.e., independent of the model). In this article, we study whether a realistic model-dependent C {sub {theta}} changes the results of cosmological parameter constraints compared to the approximation of a constant covariance matrix C. For this purpose, we use a new procedure to generate lognormal realizations of the luminous red galaxy sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 to obtain a model-dependent C {sub {theta}} in a reasonable time. The approximation of C {sub {theta}} as a constant creates small changes in the cosmological parameter constraints on our sample. We quantify this modeling error using a lot of simulations and find that it only has a marginal influence on cosmological parameter constraints for current and next-generation galaxy surveys. It can be approximately taken into account by extending the 1{sigma} intervals by a factor Almost-Equal-To 1.3.

  15. Distinguishing interacting dark energy from wCDM with CMB, lensing, and baryon acoustic oscillation data

    SciTech Connect

    Väliviita, Jussi; Palmgren, Elina E-mail: elina.palmgren@helsinki.fi

    2015-07-01

    We employ the Planck 2013 CMB temperature anisotropy and lensing data, and baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) data to constrain a phenomenological wCDM model, where dark matter and dark energy interact. We assume time-dependent equation of state parameter for dark energy, and treat dark matter and dark energy as fluids whose energy-exchange rate is proportional to the dark-matter density. The CMB data alone leave a strong degeneracy between the interaction rate and the physical CDM density parameter today, ω{sub c}, allowing a large interaction rate |Γ| ∼ H{sub 0}. However, as has been known for a while, the BAO data break this degeneracy. Moreover, we exploit the CMB lensing potential likelihood, which probes the matter perturbations at redshift z ∼ 2 and is very sensitive to the growth of structure, and hence one of the tools for discerning between the ΛCDM model and its alternatives. However, we find that in the non-phantom models (w{sub de}>−1), the constraints remain unchanged by the inclusion of the lensing data and consistent with zero interaction, −0.14 < Γ/H{sub 0} < 0.02 at 95% CL. On the contrary, in the phantom models (w{sub de}<−1), energy transfer from dark energy to dark matter is moderately favoured over the non-interacting model; 0−0.57 < Γ/H{sub 0} < −0.1 at 95% CL with CMB+BAO, while addition of the lensing data shifts this to −0.46 < Γ/H{sub 0} < −0.01.

  16. MODEL-INDEPENDENT EVIDENCE FOR DARK ENERGY EVOLUTION FROM BARYON ACOUSTIC OSCILLATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Sahni, V.; Shafieloo, A.; Starobinsky, A. A. E-mail: arman@apctp.org

    2014-10-01

    Baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs) allow us to determine the expansion history of the universe, thereby shedding light on the nature of dark energy. Recent observations of BAOs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR9 and DR11 have provided us with statistically independent measurements of H(z) at redshifts of 0.57 and 2.34, respectively. We show that these measurements can be used to test the cosmological constant hypothesis in a model-independent manner by means of an improved version of the Om diagnostic. Our results indicate that the SDSS DR11 measurement of H(z) = 222 ± 7 km s{sup –1} Mpc{sup –1} at z = 2.34, when taken in tandem with measurements of H(z) at lower redshifts, imply considerable tension with the standard ΛCDM model. Our estimation of the new diagnostic Omh {sup 2} from SDSS DR9 and DR11 data, namely, Omh {sup 2} ≈ 0.122 ± 0.01, which is equivalent to Ω{sub 0m} h {sup 2} for the spatially flat ΛCDM model, is in tension with the value Ω{sub 0m} h {sup 2} = 0.1426 ± 0.0025 determined for ΛCDM from Planck+WP. This tension is alleviated in models in which the cosmological constant was dynamically screened (compensated) in the past. Such evolving dark energy models display a pole in the effective equation of state of dark energy at high redshifts, which emerges as a smoking gun test for these theories.

  17. Model-independent Evidence for Dark Energy Evolution from Baryon Acoustic Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahni, V.; Shafieloo, A.; Starobinsky, A. A.

    2014-10-01

    Baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs) allow us to determine the expansion history of the universe, thereby shedding light on the nature of dark energy. Recent observations of BAOs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR9 and DR11 have provided us with statistically independent measurements of H(z) at redshifts of 0.57 and 2.34, respectively. We show that these measurements can be used to test the cosmological constant hypothesis in a model-independent manner by means of an improved version of the Om diagnostic. Our results indicate that the SDSS DR11 measurement of H(z) = 222 ± 7 km s-1 Mpc-1 at z = 2.34, when taken in tandem with measurements of H(z) at lower redshifts, imply considerable tension with the standard ΛCDM model. Our estimation of the new diagnostic Omh 2 from SDSS DR9 and DR11 data, namely, Omh 2 ≈ 0.122 ± 0.01, which is equivalent to Ω0m h 2 for the spatially flat ΛCDM model, is in tension with the value Ω0m h 2 = 0.1426 ± 0.0025 determined for ΛCDM from Planck+WP. This tension is alleviated in models in which the cosmological constant was dynamically screened (compensated) in the past. Such evolving dark energy models display a pole in the effective equation of state of dark energy at high redshifts, which emerges as a smoking gun test for these theories.

  18. Baryonic acoustic oscillations from 21 cm intensity mapping: the Square Kilometre Array case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Alonso, David; Viel, Matteo

    2017-04-01

    We quantitatively investigate the possibility of detecting baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO) using single-dish 21 cm intensity mapping observations in the post-reionization era. We show that the telescope beam smears out the isotropic BAO signature and, in the case of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) instrument, makes it undetectable at redshifts z ≳ 1. We however demonstrate that the BAO peak can still be detected in the radial 21 cm power spectrum and describe a method to make this type of measurements. By means of numerical simulations, containing the 21 cm cosmological signal as well as the most relevant Galactic and extra-Galactic foregrounds and basic instrumental effect, we quantify the precision with which the radial BAO scale can be measured in the 21 cm power spectrum. We systematically investigate the signal to noise and the precision of the recovered BAO signal as a function of cosmic variance, instrumental noise, angular resolution and foreground contamination. We find that the expected noise levels of SKA would degrade the final BAO errors by ∼5 per cent with respect to the cosmic-variance limited case at low redshifts, but that the effect grows up to ∼65 per cent at z ∼ 2-3. Furthermore, we find that the radial BAO signature is robust against foreground systematics, and that the main effect is an increase of ∼20 per cent in the final uncertainty on the standard ruler caused by the contribution of foreground residuals as well as the reduction in sky area needed to avoid high-foreground regions. We also find that it should be possible to detect the radial BAO signature with high significance in the full redshift range. We conclude that a 21 cm experiment carried out by the SKA should be able to make direct measurements of the expansion rate H(z) with measure the expansion with competitive per cent level precision on redshifts z ≲ 2.5.

  19. An acoustic doppler current profiler survey of flow velocities in St. Clair River, a connecting channel of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holtschlag, David J.; Koschik, John A.

    2003-01-01

    Acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP) were used to measure flow velocities in St. Clair River during a survey in May and June of 2002, as part of a study to assess the susceptibility of public water intakes to contaminants on the St. Clair-Detroit River Waterway. The survey provides 2.7 million point velocity measurements at 104 cross sections. Sections are spaced about 1,630 ft apart along the river from Port Huron to Algonac, Michigan, a distance of 28.6 miles. Two transects were obtained at each cross section, one in each direction across the river. Along each transect, velocity profiles were obtained 2-4 ft apart. At each velocity profile, average water velocity data were obtained at 1.64 ft intervals of depth. The raw position and velocity data from the ADCP field survey were adjusted for local magnetic anomalies using global positioning system (GPS) measurements at the end points of the transects. The adjusted velocity and ancillary data can be retrieved through the internet and extracted to column-oriented data files.

  20. An acoustic doppler current profiler survey of flow velocities in Detroit River, a connecting channel of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holtschlag, David J.; Koschik, John A.

    2003-01-01

    Acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP) were used to survey flow velocities in Detroit River from July 8-19, 2002, as part of a study to assess the susceptibility of public water intakes to contaminants on the St. Clair-Detroit River Waterway. More than 3.5 million point velocities were measured at 130 cross sections. Cross sections were generally spaced about 1,800 ft apart along the river from the head of Detroit River at the outlet of Lake St. Clair to the mouth of Detroit River on Lake Erie. Two transects were surveyed at each cross section, one in each direction across the river. Along each transect, velocity profiles were generally obtained 0.8-2.2 ft apart. At each velocity profile, average water velocity data were obtained at 1.64 ft intervals of depth. The raw position and velocity data from the ADCP field survey were adjusted for local magnetic anomalies using global positioning system (GPS) measurements at the end points of the transects. The adjusted velocity and ancillary data can be retrieved though the internet and extracted to column-oriented data files.

  1. Direct Measurement Results of the Time Lag of LOS-Velocity Oscillations Between Two Heights in Solar Faculae and Sunspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobanov, N.; Kolobov, D.; Kustov, A.; Chupin, S.; Chelpanov, A.

    2013-06-01

    We present an investigation of line-of-sight (LOS) velocity oscillations in solar faculae and sunspots. To study the phase relations between chromospheric and photospheric oscillations of the LOS velocity, we measured the time lag of the chromospheric signal relative to the photospheric one for several faculae and sunspots in a set of spectral line pairs. The measured time lags are different for different objects. The mean measured delay between the oscillations in the five-minute band in faculae is 50 s for the Si i 10 827 Å - He i 10 830 Å pair; for the pair Fe i 6569 Å - Hα 6563 Å the mean delay is 20 s; for the pair Fe i 4551 Å - Ba ii 4554 Å the mean delay is 7 s; for the pair Si i 8536 Å - Ca ii 8542 Å the mean delay is 20 s. For the oscillations in the three-minute band in sunspot umbrae the mean delay is 55 s for the Si i 10 827 Å - He i 10 830 Å pair; for the Fe i 6569 Å - Hα 6563 Å pair it was not possible to determine the delay; for the Fe i 4551 Å - Ba ii 4554 Å pair the mean delay is 6 s; for the Si i 8536 Å - Ca ii 8542 Å pair the mean delay is 21 s. Measured delays correspond to the wave propagation speed, which significantly exceeds the generally adopted speed of sound in the photosphere. This raises the question of the origin of these oscillations. The possibility that we deal with slow MHD waves is not ruled out.

  2. Electrodynamic soil plate oscillator: Modeling nonlinear mesoscopic elastic behavior and hysteresis in nonlinear acoustic landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korman, M. S.; Duong, D. V.; Kalsbeck, A. E.

    2015-10-01

    An apparatus (SPO), designed to study flexural vibrations of a soil loaded plate, consists of a thin circular elastic clamped plate (and cylindrical wall) supporting a vertical soil column. A small magnet attached to the center of the plate is driven by a rigid AC coil (located coaxially below the plate) to complete the electrodynamic soil plate oscillator SPO design. The frequency dependent mechanical impedance Zmech (force / particle velocity, at the plate's center) is inversely proportional to the electrical motional impedance Zmot. Measurements of Zmot are made using the complex output to input response of a Wheatstone bridge that has an identical coil element in one of its legs. Near resonance, measurements of Zmot (with no soil) before and after a slight point mass loading at the center help determine effective mass, spring, damping and coupling constant parameters of the system. "Tuning curve" behavior of real{ Zmot } and imaginary{ Zmot } at successively higher vibration amplitudes of dry sifted masonry sand are measured. They exhibit a decrease "softening" in resonance frequency along with a decrease in the quality Q factor. In soil surface vibration measurements a bilinear hysteresis model predicts the tuning curve shape for this nonlinear mesoscopic elastic SPO behavior - which also models the soil vibration over an actual plastic "inert" VS 1.6 buried landmine. Experiments are performed where a buried 1m cube concrete block supports a 12 inch deep by 30 inch by 30 inch concrete soil box for burying a VS 1.6 in dry sifted masonry sand for on-the-mine and off-the-mine soil vibration experiments. The backbone curve (a plot of the peak amplitude vs. corresponding resonant frequency from a family of tuning curves) exhibits mostly linear behavior for "on target" soil surface vibration measurements of the buried VS 1.6 or drum-like mine simulants for relatively low particle velocities of the soil. Backbone curves for "on target" measurements exhibit

  3. Influence of sound absorbing surfaces on acoustic oscillations and flame acceleration in hydrogen-air mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobov, A. E.; Volodin, V. V.; Golovastov, S. V.

    2016-11-01

    The frequency spectrum of acoustic disturbances that are emitted by accelerating flame front in an air-hydrogen mixture within an axially symmetric channel with a uniform cross section is experimentally determined. The effect of acoustic disturbances that are reflected from the closed end of the combustion chamber on the flame front acceleration is studied. It is revealed that the frequency spectrum of generated acoustic disturbances under experiment conditions has maximums at frequencies close to 250, 800, and 1500 Hz.

  4. Shear wave velocity and attenuation in the upper layer of ocean bottoms from long-range acoustic field measurements.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ji-Xun; Zhang, Xue-Zhen

    2012-12-01

    Several physics-based seabed geoacoustic models (including the Biot theory) predict that compressional wave attenuation α(2) in sandy marine sediments approximately follows quadratic frequency dependence at low frequencies, i.e., α(2)≈kf(n) (dB/m), n=2. A recent paper on broadband geoacoustic inversions from low frequency (LF) field measurements, made at 20 locations around the world, has indicated that the frequency exponent of the effective sound attenuation n≈1.80 in a frequency band of 50-1000 Hz [Zhou et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125, 2847-2866 (2009)]. Carey and Pierce hypothesize that the discrepancy is due to the inversion models' neglect of shear wave effects [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 124, EL271-EL277 (2008)]. The broadband geoacoustic inversions assume that the seabottom is an equivalent fluid and sound waves interact with the bottom at small grazing angles. The shear wave velocity and attenuation in the upper layer of ocean bottoms are estimated from the LF field-inverted effective bottom attenuations using a near-grazing bottom reflection expression for the equivalent fluid model, derived by Zhang and Tindle [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 98, 3391-3396 (1995)]. The resultant shear wave velocity and attenuation are consistent with the SAX99 measurement at 25 Hz and 1000 Hz. The results are helpful for the analysis of shear wave effects on long-range sound propagation in shallow water.

  5. DIASCoPE: Directly integrated acoustic system combined with pressure experiments—A new method for fast acoustic velocity measurements at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, Matthew L.; Baldwin, Kenneth J.; Huebsch, William R.

    2017-03-01

    A new experimental system to measure elastic wave velocities in samples in situ under extreme conditions of pressure and temperature in a multi-anvil apparatus has been installed at Beamline 6-BM-B of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. This system allows for measurement of acoustic velocities via ultrasonic interferometry, and makes use of the synchrotron beam to measure sample densities via X-ray diffraction and sample lengths using X-radiographic imaging. This system is fully integrated into the automated software controls of the beamline and is capable of collecting robust data on elastic wave travel times in less than 1 s, which is an improvement of more than one to two orders of magnitude over existing systems. Moreover, this fast data collection time has been shown to have no effect on the obtained travel time results. This allows for more careful study of time-dependent phenomena with tighter snapshots in time of processes that would otherwise be lost or averaged out in other acoustic measurement systems.

  6. The application of the photoacoustic transmittance oscillations for determining elastic constants in gallium and indium selenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer, Ch.; Segura, A.; Andrés, M. V.; Muñoz, V.; Pellicer, J.

    1996-03-01

    Transmittance periodic oscillations are observed in GaSe and InSe on excitation with optical pulses. Such oscillations are explained in terms of photoacoustic generation of dilatational waves, which become resonant within the crystal. Spectral analysis of those oscillations in samples of different thickness has led to an accurate determination of the longitudinal acoustic-wave velocity along the crystallographic axis c.

  7. On the variations of acoustic absorption peak with particle velocity in micro-perforated panels at high level of excitation.

    PubMed

    Tayong, Rostand; Dupont, Thomas; Leclaire, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    The acoustic behavior of micro-perforated panels (MPP) is studied theoretically and experimentally at high level of pressure excitation. A model based on Forchheimer's regime of flow velocity in the perforations is proposed. This model is valid at relatively high Reynolds numbers and low Mach numbers. The experimental method consists in measuring the acoustical pressure at three different positions in an impedance tube, the two measurement positions usually considered in an impedance tube and one measurement in the vicinity of the rear surface of the MPP. The impedance tube is equipped with a pressure driver instead of the usual loudspeaker and capable of delivering a high sound pressure level up to 160 dB. MPP specimens made out of steel, dural and polypropylene were tested. Measurements using random noise or sinusoidal excitation in a frequency range between 200 and 1600 Hz were carried out on MPPs backed by air cavities. It was observed that the maximum of absorption can be a positive or a negative function of the flow velocity in the perforations. This suggests the existence of a maximum of absorption as a function of flow velocity. This behavior was predicted by the model and confirmed experimentally.

  8. Theoretical surface velocity distributions on acoustic splitter geometries for an engine inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albers, J. A.; Breunlin, D. C.

    1974-01-01

    The potential-flow velocity distributions on several splitter geometries in an engine inlet and their variation with different splitter leading-edge shapes and distances from the inlet highlight were analyzed. The velocity distributions on the inner and outer surfaces of the splitters are presented for low-speed and cruise conditions. At zero incidence angle, the splitter with the 4-to-1 elliptical leading edge had lower peak velocities and velocity gradients than the splitter with the 2-to-1 elliptical leading edge. The velocity gradients decreased as the distance from the inlet highlight to the splitter leading edge was increased. For a given distance, the peak velocity on the splitter inner surface increased with increasing inlet incidence angle. At an incidence angle of 50 deg, the velocity level and gradients on the inner surface of the splitter in the forward position were sufficiently severe to suggest local separation.

  9. The electron drift velocity, ion acoustic speed and irregularity drifts in high-latitude E-region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uspensky, M. V.; Pellinen, R. J.; Janhunen, P.

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the STARE irregularity drift velocity dependence on the EISCAT line-of-sight (los or l-o-s) electron drift velocity magnitude, VE×Blos, and the flow angle ΘN,F (superscript N and/or F refer to the STARE Norway and Finland radar). In the noon-evening sector the flow angle dependence of Doppler velocities, VirrN,F, inside and outside the Farley-Buneman (FB) instability cone (|VE×Blos|>Cs and |VE×Blos|acoustic speed), is found to be similar and much weaker than suggested earlier. In a band of flow angles 45°<ΘN,F<85° it can be reasonably described by |VirrN,F|∝AN,FCscosnΘN,F, where AN,F≍1.2 1.3 are monotonically increasing functions of VE×B and the index n is ~0.2 or even smaller. This study (a) does not support the conclusion by Nielsen and Schlegel (1985), Nielsen et al. (2002, their #[18]) that at flow angles larger than ~60° (or |VirrN,F|≤300 m/s) the STARE Doppler velocities are equal to the component of the electron drift velocity. We found (b) that if the data points are averages over 100 m/s intervals (bins) of l-o-s electron velocities and 10 deg intervals (bins) of flow angles, then the largest STARE Doppler velocities always reside inside the bin with the largest flow angle. In the flow angle bin 80° the STARE Doppler velocity is larger than its driver term, i.e. the EISCAT l-o-s electron drift velocity component, |VirrN,F|>|VE×Blos|. Both features (a and b) as well as the weak flow angle velocity dependence indicate that the l-o-s electron drift velocity cannot be the sole factor which controls the motion of the backscatter ~1-m irregularities at large flow angles. Importantly, the backscatter was collected at aspect angle ~1° and flow angle Θ>60°, where linear fluid and kinetic theories invariably predict negative growth rates. At least qualitatively, all the facts can be reasonably explained by nonlinear wave-wave coupling found and

  10. Tolerance to Central Hypovolemia: The Influence of Oscillations in Arterial Pressure and Cerebral Blood Velocity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    specific details about whether they were taking oral contraceptive medications, both of which can impact cardiovascular responses to hypovo- lemia (4, 20...37). High tolerance (HT) to LBNP has been attributed to a number of factors , including elevated release of vasoactive hormones (11, 26), enhanced...sympathetic nerve activity was driving LF oscillations (53), although a centrally mediated mechanism could also be an important contributing factor (33

  11. The acoustic velocity, refractive index, and equation of state of liquid ammonia dihydrate under high pressure and high temperature.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunli; Wu, Xiaoxin; Huang, Fengxian; Zhou, Qiang; Li, Fangfei; Cui, Qiliang

    2012-09-14

    High-pressure and high-temperature Brillouin scattering studies have been performed on liquid of composition corresponding to the ammonia dihydrate stoichiometry (NH(3)·2H(2)O) in a diamond anvil cell. Using the measured Brillouin frequency shifts from 180° back- and 60° platelet-scattering geometries, the acoustic velocity, refractive index, density, and adiabatic bulk modulus have been determined under pressure up to freezing point along the 296, 338, 376, and 407 K isotherms. Along these four isotherms, the acoustic velocities increase smoothly with increasing pressure but decrease with the increased temperature. However, the pressure dependence of the refractive indexes on the four isotherms exhibits a change in slope around 1.5 GPa. The bulk modulus increases linearly with pressure and its slope, dB/dP, decreases from 6.83 at 296 K to 4.41 at 407 K. These new datasets improve our understanding of the pressure- and temperature-induced molecular structure changes in the ammonia-water binary system.

  12. Basic investigation on acoustic velocity change imaging method for quantitative assessment of fat content in human liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mano, Kazune; Tanigawa, Shohei; Hori, Makoto; Yokota, Daiki; Wada, Kenji; Matsunaka, Toshiyuki; Morikawa, Hiroyasu; Horinaka, Hiromichi

    2016-07-01

    Fatty liver is a disease caused by the excess accumulation of fat in the human liver. The early diagnosis of fatty liver is very important, because fatty liver is the major marker linked to metabolic syndrome. We already proposed the ultrasonic velocity change imaging method to diagnose fatty liver by using the fact that the temperature dependence of ultrasonic velocity is different in water and in fat. For the diagonosis of a fatty liver stage, we attempted a feasibility study of the quantitative assessment of the fat content in the human liver using our ultrasonic velocity change imaging method. Experimental results showed that the fat content in the tissue mimic phantom containing lard was determined by its ultrasonic velocity change in the flat temperature region formed by a circular warming ultrasonic transducer with an acoustic lens having an appropriate focal length. By considering the results of our simulation using a thermal diffusion equation, we determined whether this method could be applied to fatty liver assessment under the condition that the tissue had the thermal relaxation effect caused by blood flow.

  13. Comparison of auditory responses determined by acoustic stimulation and by mechanical round window stimulation at equivalent stapes velocities.

    PubMed

    Lee, JangWoo; Seong, KiWoong; Lee, Sang-Heun; Lee, Kyu-Yup; Cho, Jin-Ho

    2014-08-01

    Active middle ear implants (AMEIs) have been studied to overcome the limitations of conventional hearing aids such as howling, occlusion, and social discrimination. AMEIs usually drive the oval window (OW) by means of transmitting vibrational force through the ossicles and the vibrational force corresponding to sound is generated from a mechanical actuator. Recently, round window (RW) stimulation using an AMEI such as a floating mass transducer (FMT) to deliver sound to the cochlea has been introduced and hearing improvement in clinical use has been reported. Although previous studies demonstrated that the auditory response to RW stimulation was comparable to a sound-evoked auditory response, few studies have investigated the quantification of the physiologic performance of an AMEI through RW stimulation on the inner ear in vivo. There is no established relationship between the cochlear responses and mechanical stimulation to RW. The aim of this study is to assess the physiologic response in RW stimulation by an AMEI. The transferred energy through the RW to the inner ear could estimate the response corresponding to acoustic stimulation in order to quantify the AMEI output in the ossicular chain or OW stimulation. The parameters of the auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were measured and compared based on stapes velocities similar enough to be regarded as the same for acoustic stimulation to the external auditory canal (EAC) and mechanical stimulation to the RW in an in vivo system. In conclusion, this study showed that the amplitudes and latencies of the ABRs of acoustic and RW stimulation showed significant differences at comparable stapes velocities in an in vivo system. These differences in the ABR amplitudes and latencies reflect different output functions of the cochlea in response to different stimulation pathways. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a new method for quantifying the output of the cochlea in the case of RW stimulation.

  14. Solar luminosity oscillations from two stations and correlation with velocity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, A.; Palle, Pere L.; Roca Cortés, Teodoro; Andersen, N. B.; Domingo, V.; Jones, A. R.; Alvarez, M.; Ledezma, E.

    1988-12-01

    Since 1984 the measurements of a quadruple photometer sited at the Observatorio del Teide (Izana, Tenerife) made it possible to identify the p-mode luminosity spectrum with simultaneous velocity observations. Comparing this data, the adiabatic behavior of solar atmosphere and theoretical expectations from solar models were tested. In order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and reduce the sidebands due to the night-time data gaps, a second identical photometer was set-up in December 1987, at the Observatorio de San Pedro Martir (Baja California Norte, Mexico). Results of the observations of these two stations are analyzed and compared with simultaneous velocity measurements.

  15. Blowoff characteristics of bluff-body stabilized conical premixed flames with upstream spatial mixture gradients and velocity oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Cetegen, Baki M.

    2008-06-15

    This experimental study concerns determination of blowoff equivalence ratios for lean premixed conical flames for different mixture approach velocities ranging from 5 to 16 m/s in the presence of spatial mixture gradients and upstream velocity modulation. Conical flames were anchored on a disk-shaped bluff body that was attached to a central rod in the burner nozzle. A combustible propane-air mixture flowed through a converging axisymmetric nozzle with a concentric insert, allowing radial mixture variation by tailoring the composition in the inner and outer parts of the nozzle. The radial mixture profiles were characterized near the location of the flame holder by laser Rayleigh light scattering. Additionally, a loudspeaker at the nozzle base allowed introduction of periodic velocity oscillations with an amplitude of 9% of the mean flow velocity up to a frequency of 350 Hz. The flame blowoff equivalence ratio was experimentally determined by continuously lowering the fuel flow rates and determining the flame detachment point from the flame holder. Flame detachment was detected by a rapid reduction of CH* emission from the flame base imaged by a photomultiplier detector. It was found that the flame blowoff is preceded by progressive narrowing of the flame cone for the case of higher inner jet equivalence ratios. In this case, the fuel-lean outer flow cannot sustain combustion, and clearly this is not a good way of operating a combustor. Nevertheless, the overall blowoff equivalence ratio is reduced by inner stream fuel enrichment. A possible explanation for this behavior is given based on the radial extent of the variable-equivalence-ratio mixture burning near the flame stabilization region. Fuel enrichment in the outer flow was found to have no effect on blowoff as compared to the case of uniform mixture. The results were similar for the whole range of mean flow velocities and upstream excitation frequencies. (author)

  16. Effects of electron beam parameters and velocity spread on radio frequency output of a photonic band gap cavity gyrotron oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ashutosh; Jain, P. K.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, the effects of electron beam parameters and velocity spread on the RF behavior of a metallic photonic band gap (PBG) cavity gyrotron operating at 35 GHz with TE041-like mode have been theoretically demonstrated. PBG cavity is used here to achieve a single mode operation of the overmoded cavity. The nonlinear time-dependent multimode analysis has been used to observe the beam-wave interaction behavior of the PBG cavity gyrotron, and a commercially available PIC code "CST Particle Studio" has been reconfigured to obtain 3D simulation results in order to validate the analytical values. The output power for this typical PBG gyrotron has been obtained ˜108 kW with ˜15.5% efficiency in a well confined TE041-like mode, while all other competing modes have significantly low values of power output. The output power and efficiency of a gyrotron depend highly on the electron beam parameters and velocity spread. The influence of several electron beam parameters, e.g., beam voltage, beam current, beam velocity pitch factor, and DC magnetic field, on the PBG gyrotron operations has been investigated. This study would be helpful in optimising the electron beam parameters and estimating accurate RF output power of the high frequency PBG cavity based gyrotron oscillators.

  17. Effects of electron beam parameters and velocity spread on radio frequency output of a photonic band gap cavity gyrotron oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Ashutosh; Jain, P. K.

    2015-09-15

    In this paper, the effects of electron beam parameters and velocity spread on the RF behavior of a metallic photonic band gap (PBG) cavity gyrotron operating at 35 GHz with TE{sub 041}–like mode have been theoretically demonstrated. PBG cavity is used here to achieve a single mode operation of the overmoded cavity. The nonlinear time-dependent multimode analysis has been used to observe the beam-wave interaction behavior of the PBG cavity gyrotron, and a commercially available PIC code “CST Particle Studio” has been reconfigured to obtain 3D simulation results in order to validate the analytical values. The output power for this typical PBG gyrotron has been obtained ∼108 kW with ∼15.5% efficiency in a well confined TE{sub 041}–like mode, while all other competing modes have significantly low values of power output. The output power and efficiency of a gyrotron depend highly on the electron beam parameters and velocity spread. The influence of several electron beam parameters, e.g., beam voltage, beam current, beam velocity pitch factor, and DC magnetic field, on the PBG gyrotron operations has been investigated. This study would be helpful in optimising the electron beam parameters and estimating accurate RF output power of the high frequency PBG cavity based gyrotron oscillators.

  18. Reconstruction of the forehead acoustic properties in an Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis), with investigation on the responses of soft tissue sound velocity to temperature.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhongchang; Zhang, Yu; Berggren, Per; Wei, Chong

    2017-02-01

    Computed tomography (CT) imaging and ultrasound experimental measurements were combined to reconstruct the acoustic properties (density, velocity, and impedance) of the head from a deceased Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis). The authors extracted 42 soft forehead tissue samples to estimate the sound velocity and density properties at room temperature, 25.0  °C. Hounsfield Units (HUs) of the samples were read from CT scans. Linear relationships between the tissues' HUs and velocity, and HUs and density were revealed through regression analyses. The distributions of the head acoustic properties at axial, coronal, and sagittal cross sections were reconstructed, suggesting that the forehead soft tissues were characterized by low-velocity in the melon, high-velocity in the muscle and connective tissues. Further, the sound velocities of melon, muscle, and connective tissue pieces were measured under different temperatures to investigate tissues' velocity response to temperature. The results demonstrated nonlinear relationships between tissues' sound velocity and temperature. This study represents a first attempt to provide general information on acoustic properties of this species. The results could provide meaningful information for understanding the species' bioacoustic characteristics and for further investigation on sound beam formation of the dolphin.

  19. Real-time GPU implementation of transverse oscillation vector velocity flow imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradway, David Pierson; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Krebs, Andreas; Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev; Kjær, Carsten Straso; Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2014-03-01

    Rapid estimation of blood velocity and visualization of complex flow patterns are important for clinical use of diagnostic ultrasound. This paper presents real-time processing for two-dimensional (2-D) vector flow imaging which utilizes an off-the-shelf graphics processing unit (GPU). In this work, Open Computing Language (OpenCL) is used to estimate 2-D vector velocity flow in vivo in the carotid artery. Data are streamed live from a BK Medical 2202 Pro Focus UltraView Scanner to a workstation running a research interface software platform. Processing data from a 50 millisecond frame of a duplex vector flow acquisition takes 2.3 milliseconds seconds on an Advanced Micro Devices Radeon HD 7850 GPU card. The detected velocities are accurate to within the precision limit of the output format of the display routine. Because this tool was developed as a module external to the scanner's built-in processing, it enables new opportunities for prototyping novel algorithms, optimizing processing parameters, and accelerating the path from development lab to clinic.

  20. Phase Velocity and Full-Waveform Analysis of Co-located Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) Channels and Geophone Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, L.; Mellors, R. J.; Thurber, C. H.; Wang, H. F.; Zeng, X.

    2015-12-01

    A 762-meter Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) array with a channel spacing of one meter was deployed at the Garner Valley Downhole Array in Southern California. The array was approximately rectangular with dimensions of 180 meters by 80 meters. The array also included two subdiagonals within the rectangle along which three-component geophones were co-located. Several active sources were deployed, including a 45-kN, swept-frequency, shear-mass shaker, which produced strong Rayleigh waves across the array. Both DAS and geophone traces were filtered in 2-Hz steps between 4 and 20 Hz to obtain phase velocities as a function of frequency from fitting the moveout of travel times over distances of 35 meters or longer. As an alternative to this traditional means of finding phase velocity, it is theoretically possible to find the Rayleigh-wave phase velocity at each point of co-location as the ratio of DAS and geophone responses, because DAS is sensitive to ground strain and geophones are sensitive to ground velocity, after suitable corrections for instrument response (Mikumo & Aki, 1964). The concept was tested in WPP, a seismic wave propagation program, by first validating and then using a 3D synthetic, full-waveform seismic model to simulate the effect of increased levels of noise and uncertainty as data go from ideal to more realistic. The results obtained from this study provide a better understanding of the DAS response and its potential for being combined with traditional seismometers for obtaining phase velocity at a single location. This analysis is part of the PoroTomo project (Poroelastic Tomography by Adjoint Inverse Modeling of Data from Seismology, Geodesy, and Hydrology, http://geoscience.wisc.edu/feigl/porotomo).

  1. Velocity dependence of biphasic flow structuration: steady-state and oscillating flow effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tore Tallakstad, Ken; Jankov, Mihailo; Løvoll, Grunde; Toussaint, Renaud; Jørgen Mâløy, Knut; Grude Flekkøy, Eirik; Schmittbuhl, Jean; Schäfer, Gerhard; Méheust, Yves; Arendt Knudsen, Henning

    2010-05-01

    We study various types of biphasic flows in quasi-two-dimensional transparent porous models. These flows imply a viscous wetting fluid, and a lowly viscous one. The models are transparent, allowing the displacement process and structure to be monitored in space and time. Three different aspects will be presented: 1. In stationary biphasic flows, we study the relationship between the macroscopic pressure drop (related to relative permeability) and the average flow rate, and how this arises from the cluster size distribution of the lowly viscous fluid [1]. 2. In drainage situations, we study how the geometry of the invader can be explained, and how it gives rise to apparent dynamic capillary effects. We show how these can be explained by viscous effects on evolving geometries of invading fluid [2]. 3. We study the impact of oscillating pressure fields superimposed to a background flow over the flow regimes patterns [3]. Steady-State Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media: Statistics and Transport Properties. First, in stationary flow with a control of the flux of both fluids, we show how the pressure drop depends on the flow rate. We will show that the dynamics is dominated by the interplay between a viscous pressure field from the wetting fluid and bubble transport of a less viscous, nonwetting phase. In contrast with more studied displacement front systems, steady-state flow is in equilibrium, statistically speaking. The corresponding theoretical simplicity allows us to explain a data collapse in the cluster size distribution of lowly viscous fluid in the system, as well as the relation |?P|∞√Ca--. This allows to explain so called relative permeability effects by the morphological changes of the cluster size distribution. Influence of viscous fingering on dynamic saturation-pressure curves in porous media. Next, we study drainage in such models, and investigate the relationship between the pressure field and the morphology of the invading fluid. This allows to model

  2. The clustering of galaxies in the completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: baryon acoustic oscillations in the Fourier space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beutler, Florian; Seo, Hee-Jong; Ross, Ashley J.; McDonald, Patrick; Saito, Shun; Bolton, Adam S.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Grieb, Jan Niklas; Hand, Nick; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Modi, Chirag; Nichol, Robert C.; Percival, Will J.; Prada, Francisco; Rodriguez-Torres, Sergio; Roe, Natalie A.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Schneider, Donald P.; Slosar, Anže; Tinker, Jeremy; Tojeiro, Rita; Vargas-Magaña, Mariana; Vazquez, Jose A.

    2017-01-01

    We analyse the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) signal of the final Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) data release (DR12). Our analysis is performed in the Fourier space, using the power spectrum monopole and quadrupole. The data set includes 1198 006 galaxies over the redshift range 0.2 < z < 0.75. We divide this data set into three (overlapping) redshift bins with the effective redshifts zeff = 0.38, 0.51 and 0.61. We demonstrate the reliability of our analysis pipeline using N-body simulations as well as ˜1000 MultiDark-Patchy mock catalogues that mimic the BOSS-DR12 target selection. We apply density field reconstruction to enhance the BAO signal-to-noise ratio. By including the power spectrum quadrupole we can separate the line of sight and angular modes, which allows us to constrain the angular diameter distance DA(z) and the Hubble parameter H(z) separately. We obtain two independent 1.6 and 1.5 per cent constraints on DA(z) and 2.9 and 2.3 per cent constraints on H(z) for the low (zeff = 0.38) and high (zeff = 0.61) redshift bin, respectively. We obtain two independent 1 and 0.9 per cent constraints on the angular averaged distance DV(z), when ignoring the Alcock-Paczynski effect. The detection significance of the BAO signal is of the order of 8σ (post-reconstruction) for each of the three redshift bins. Our results are in good agreement with the Planck prediction within Λ cold dark matter. This paper is part of a set that analyses the final galaxy clustering data set from BOSS. The measurements and likelihoods presented here are combined with others in Alam et al. to produce the final cosmological constraints from BOSS.

  3. The clustering of galaxies in the completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: observational systematics and baryon acoustic oscillations in the correlation function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Ashley J.; Beutler, Florian; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Pellejero-Ibanez, Marcos; Seo, Hee-Jong; Vargas-Magaña, Mariana; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Percival, Will J.; Burden, Angela; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Grieb, Jan Niklas; Reid, Beth; Brownstein, Joel R.; Dawson, Kyle S.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Ho, Shirley; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Nichol, Robert C.; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Prada, Francisco; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio A.; Saito, Shun; Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; Schneider, Donald P.; Thomas, Daniel; Tinker, Jeremy; Tojeiro, Rita; Wang, Yuting; White, Martin; Zhao, Gong-bo

    2017-01-01

    We present baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) scale measurements determined from the clustering of 1.2 million massive galaxies with redshifts 0.2 < z < 0.75 distributed over 9300 deg2, as quantified by their redshift-space correlation function. In order to facilitate these measurements, we define, describe, and motivate the selection function for galaxies in the final data release (DR12) of the SDSS III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). This includes the observational footprint, masks for image quality and Galactic extinction, and weights to account for density relationships intrinsic to the imaging and spectroscopic portions of the survey. We simulate the observed systematic trends in mock galaxy samples and demonstrate that they impart no bias on BAO scale measurements and have a minor impact on the recovered statistical uncertainty. We measure transverse and radial BAO distance measurements in 0.2 < z < 0.5, 0.5 < z < 0.75, and (overlapping) 0.4 < z < 0.6 redshift bins. In each redshift bin, we obtain a precision that is 2.7 per cent or better on the radial distance and 1.6 per cent or better on the transverse distance. The combination of the redshift bins represents 1.8 per cent precision on the radial distance and 1.1 per cent precision on the transverse distance. This paper is part of a set that analyses the final galaxy clustering data set from BOSS. The measurements and likelihoods presented here are combined with others in Alam et al. to produce the final cosmological constraints from BOSS.

  4. The clustering of galaxies in the completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: Baryon Acoustic Oscillations in Fourier-space

    SciTech Connect

    Beutler, Florian; Seo, Hee -Jong; Ross, Ashley J.; McDonald, Patrick; Saito, Shun; Bolton, Adam S.; Joel R. Brownstein; Chuang, Chia -Hsun; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Grieb, Jan Niklas; Hand, Nick; Kitaura, Francisco -Shu; Modi, Chirag; Nichol, Robert C.; Percival, Will J.; Prada, Francisco; Rodriguez-Torres, Sergio; Roe, Natalie A.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; Sanchez, Ariel G.; Schneider, Donald P.; Slosar, Anze; Tinker, Jeremy; Tojeiro, Rita; Vargas-Magana, Mariana; Vazquez, Jose A.

    2016-07-13

    Here, we analyse the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) signal of the final Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) data release (DR12). Our analysis is performed in Fourier-space, using the power spectrum monopole and quadrupole. The dataset includes 1 198 006 galaxies over the redshift range 0.2 < z < 0.75. We divide this dataset into three (overlapping) redshift bins with the effective redshifts zeff = 0.38, 0.51 and 0.61. We demonstrate the reliability of our analysis pipeline using N-body simulations as well as 1000 MultiDark-Patchy mock catalogues, which mimic the BOSS-DR12 target selection. We apply density eld reconstruction to enhance the BAO signal-to-noise ratio. By including the power spectrum quadrupole we can sep-arate the line-of-sight and angular modes, which allows us to constrain the angular diameter distance DA(z) and the Hubble parameter H ( z ) separately. We obtain two independent 1 : 6% and 1 : 5% constraints on DA(z) and 2.9% and 2.3% constraints on H(z) for the low (zeff = 0.38) and high (zeff = 0.61) redshift bin, respectively. We obtain two independent 1% and 0.9% constraints on the angular averaged distance DV(z), when ignoring the Alcock-Paczynski e ect. The detection significance of the BAO signal is of the order of 8σ (post-reconstruction) for each of the three redshift bins. Our results are in good agreement with the Planck prediction within CDM. This paper is part of a set that analyses the final galaxy clustering dataset from BOSS. The measurements and likelihoods presented here are combined with others in Alam et al. (2016) to produce the final cosmological constraints from BOSS.

  5. The clustering of galaxies in the completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: Baryon Acoustic Oscillations in Fourier-space

    DOE PAGES

    Beutler, Florian; Seo, Hee -Jong; Ross, Ashley J.; ...

    2016-07-13

    Here, we analyse the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) signal of the final Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) data release (DR12). Our analysis is performed in Fourier-space, using the power spectrum monopole and quadrupole. The dataset includes 1 198 006 galaxies over the redshift range 0.2 < z < 0.75. We divide this dataset into three (overlapping) redshift bins with the effective redshifts zeff = 0.38, 0.51 and 0.61. We demonstrate the reliability of our analysis pipeline using N-body simulations as well as 1000 MultiDark-Patchy mock catalogues, which mimic the BOSS-DR12 target selection. We apply density eld reconstruction to enhance themore » BAO signal-to-noise ratio. By including the power spectrum quadrupole we can sep-arate the line-of-sight and angular modes, which allows us to constrain the angular diameter distance DA(z) and the Hubble parameter H ( z ) separately. We obtain two independent 1 : 6% and 1 : 5% constraints on DA(z) and 2.9% and 2.3% constraints on H(z) for the low (zeff = 0.38) and high (zeff = 0.61) redshift bin, respectively. We obtain two independent 1% and 0.9% constraints on the angular averaged distance DV(z), when ignoring the Alcock-Paczynski e ect. The detection significance of the BAO signal is of the order of 8σ (post-reconstruction) for each of the three redshift bins. Our results are in good agreement with the Planck prediction within CDM. This paper is part of a set that analyses the final galaxy clustering dataset from BOSS. The measurements and likelihoods presented here are combined with others in Alam et al. (2016) to produce the final cosmological constraints from BOSS.« less

  6. Flow velocity profiling using acoustic time of flight flow metering based on wide band signals and adaptive beam-forming techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murgan, I.; Candel, I.; Ioana, C.; Digulescu, A.; Bunea, F.; Ciocan, G. D.; Anghel, A.; Vasile, G.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach to non-intrusive flow velocity profiling technique using multi-element sensor array and wide-band signal's processing methods. Conventional techniques for the measurements of the flow velocity profiles are usually based on intrusive instruments (current meters, acoustic Doppler profilers, Pitot tubes, etc.) that take punctual velocity readings. Although very efficient, these choices are limited in terms of practical cases of applications especially when non-intrusive measurements techniques are required and/or a spatial accuracy of the velocity profiling is required This is due to factors related to hydraulic machinery down time, the often long time duration needed to explore the entire section area, the frequent cumbersome number of devices that needs to be handled simultaneously, or the impossibility to perform intrusive tests. In the case of non-intrusive flow profiling methods based on acoustic techniques, previous methods concentrated on using a large number of acoustic transducers placed around the measured section. Although feasible, this approach presents several major drawbacks such as a complicated signal timing, transmission, acquisition and recording system, resulting in a relative high cost of operation. In addition, because of the geometrical constraints, a desired number of sensors may not be installed. Recent results in acoustic flow metering based on wide band signals and adaptive beamforming proved that it is possible to achieve flow velocity profiles using less acoustic transducers. In a normal acoustic time of flight path the transducers are both emitters and receivers, sequentially changing their roles. In the new configuration, proposed in this paper, two new receivers are added on each side. Since the beam angles of each acoustic transducer are wide enough the newly added transducers can receive the transmitted signals and additional time of flight estimation can be done. Thus, several flow

  7. The WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey: testing the cosmological model with baryon acoustic oscillations at z= 0.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Chris; Davis, Tamara; Poole, Gregory B.; Parkinson, David; Brough, Sarah; Colless, Matthew; Contreras, Carlos; Couch, Warrick; Croom, Scott; Drinkwater, Michael J.; Forster, Karl; Gilbank, David; Gladders, Mike; Glazebrook, Karl; Jelliffe, Ben; Jurek, Russell J.; Li, I.-Hui; Madore, Barry; Martin, D. Christopher; Pimbblet, Kevin; Pracy, Michael; Sharp, Rob; Wisnioski, Emily; Woods, David; Wyder, Ted K.; Yee, H. K. C.

    2011-08-01

    We measure the imprint of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs) in the galaxy clustering pattern at the highest redshift achieved to date, z= 0.6, using the distribution of N= 132 509 emission-line galaxies in the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. We quantify BAOs using three statistics: the galaxy correlation function, power spectrum and the band-filtered estimator introduced by Xu et al. The results are mutually consistent, corresponding to a 4.0 per cent measurement of the cosmic distance-redshift relation at z= 0.6 [in terms of the acoustic parameter 'A(z)' introduced by Eisenstein et al., we find A(z= 0.6) = 0.452 ± 0.018]. Both BAOs and power spectrum shape information contribute towards these constraints. The statistical significance of the detection of the acoustic peak in the correlation function, relative to a wiggle-free model, is 3.2σ. The ratios of our distance measurements to those obtained using BAOs in the distribution of luminous red galaxies at redshifts z= 0.2 and 0.35 are consistent with a flat Λ cold dark matter model that also provides a good fit to the pattern of observed fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation. The addition of the current WiggleZ data results in a ≈30 per cent improvement in the measurement accuracy of a constant equation of state, w, using BAO data alone. Based solely on geometric BAO distance ratios, accelerating expansion (w < -1/3) is required with a probability of 99.8 per cent, providing a consistency check of conclusions based on supernovae observations. Further improvements in cosmological constraints will result when the WiggleZ survey data set is complete.

  8. Simulated flight acoustic investigation of treated ejector effectiveness on advanced mechanical suppresors for high velocity jet noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brausch, J. F.; Motsinger, R. E.; Hoerst, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    Ten scale-model nozzles were tested in an anechoic free-jet facility to evaluate the acoustic characteristics of a mechanically suppressed inverted-velocity-profile coannular nozzle with an accoustically treated ejector system. The nozzle system used was developed from aerodynamic flow lines evolved in a previous contract, defined to incorporate the restraints imposed by the aerodynamic performance requirements of an Advanced Supersonic Technology/Variable Cycle Engine system through all its mission phases. Accoustic data of 188 test points were obtained, 87 under static and 101 under simulated flight conditions. The tests investigated variables of hardwall ejector application to a coannular nozzle with 20-chute outer annular suppressor, ejector axial positioning, treatment application to ejector and plug surfaces, and treatment design. Laser velocimeter, shadowgraph photograph, aerodynamic static pressure, and temperature measurement were acquired on select models to yield diagnositc information regarding the flow field and aerodynamic performance characteristics of the nozzles.

  9. Suppression of nonlinear oscillations in combustors with partial length acoustic liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espander, W. R.; Mitchell, C. E.; Baer, M. R.

    1975-01-01

    An analytical model is formulated for a three-dimensional nonlinear stability problem in a rocket motor combustion chamber. The chamber is modeled as a right circular cylinder with a short (multi-orifice) nozzle, and an acoustic linear covering an arbitrary portion of the cylindrical periphery. The combustion is concentrated at the injector and the gas flow field is characterized by a mean Mach number. The unsteady combustion processes are formulated using the Crocco time lag model. The resulting equations are solved using a Green's function method combined with numerical evaluation techniques. The influence of acoustic liners on the nonlinear waveforms is predicted. Nonlinear stability limits and regions where triggering is possible are also predicted for both lined and unlined combustors in terms of the combustion parameters.

  10. Nonlinear Resonant Oscillations of Gas in Optimized Acoustical Resonators and the Effect of Central Blockage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Xiaofan; Finkbeiner, Joshua; Raman, Ganesh; Daniels, Christopher; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2003-01-01

    Optimizing resonator shapes for maximizing the ratio of maximum to minimum gas pressure at an end of the resonator is investigated numerically. It is well known that the resonant frequencies and the nonlinear standing waveform in an acoustical resonator strongly depend on the resonator geometry. A quasi-Newton type scheme was used to find optimized axisymmetric resonator shapes achieving the maximum pressure compression ratio with an acceleration of constant amplitude. The acoustical field was solved using a one-dimensional model, and the resonance frequency shift and hysteresis effects were obtained through an automation scheme based on continuation method. Results are presented for optimizing three types of geometry: a cone, a horn-cone and a half cosine-shape. For each type, different optimized shapes were found when starting with different initial guesses. Further, the one-dimensional model was modified to study the effect of an axisymmetric central blockage on the nonlinear standing wave.

  11. Measuring sea ice permeability as a function of the attenuation and phase velocity shift of an acoustic wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudier, E. J.; Bahoura, M.

    2012-12-01

    Sea ice is a two-phase porous medium consisting of a solid matrix of pure ice and a salty liquid phase. At spring when ice permeability increases, it has been observed that pressure gradients induced at the ice-water interface upstream and downstream of pressure ridge keels can cause sea water and brine to be forced through the ice water boundary. It suggests that salt and heat fluxes through the bottom ice layers may be a major factor controlling the decay of an ice sheet. Knowing how water flows through the ice matrix is fundamental to a modeling of ocean-ice heat exchanges integrating the advective import/export of latent heat that result from melting/freezing within the ice. Permeability is the measurement of the ease with which fluids flow through a porous medium, however one of the most tricky to measure without altering the porosity of the sampled medium. To further complicate the challenge, horizontal and vertical permeability of the ice, referred as ice anisotropy, is significant. Acoustic wave propagation through porous media have been theorized to relate the acoustic velocity and attenuation to the physical properties of the tested material. It is a non-invasive technique, and as such could provide more reliable measurements of sea ice permeability than anything presently used. Simulations combining the Biot's and squirt flow mechanisms are performed to investigate the effect of permeability on the attenuation and phase velocity as a function of frequency. We first present the attenuation dispersion curves for an isotropic sea ice, then low-frequency and high-frequency limits are determined. Optimal frequency range and resolution requirements are evaluated for testing.

  12. Signatures of the Primordial Universe from Its Emptiness: Measurement of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations from Minima of the Density Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Liang, Yu; Zhao, Cheng; Tao, Charling; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Kneib, Jean-Paul; McBride, Cameron; Percival, Will J.; Ross, Ashley J.; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Tinker, Jeremy; Tojeiro, Rita; Vargas-Magana, Mariana; Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2016-04-01

    Sound waves from the primordial fluctuations of the Universe imprinted in the large-scale structure, called baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs), can be used as standard rulers to measure the scale of the Universe. These oscillations have already been detected in the distribution of galaxies. Here we propose to measure BAOs from the troughs (minima) of the density field. Based on two sets of accurate mock halo catalogues with and without BAOs in the seed initial conditions, we demonstrate that the BAO signal cannot be obtained from the clustering of classical disjoint voids, but it is clearly detected from overlapping voids. The latter represent an estimate of all troughs of the density field. We compute them from the empty circumsphere centers constrained by tetrahedra of galaxies using Delaunay triangulation. Our theoretical models based on an unprecedented large set of detailed simulated void catalogues are remarkably well confirmed by observational data. We use the largest recently publicly available sample of luminous red galaxies from SDSS-III BOSS DR11 to unveil for the first time a >3 σ BAO detection from voids in observations. Since voids are nearly isotropically expanding regions, their centers represent the most quiet places in the Universe, keeping in mind the cosmos origin and providing a new promising window in the analysis of the cosmological large-scale structure from galaxy surveys.

  13. Signatures of the Primordial Universe from Its Emptiness: Measurement of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations from Minima of the Density Field.

    PubMed

    Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Liang, Yu; Zhao, Cheng; Tao, Charling; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Kneib, Jean-Paul; McBride, Cameron; Percival, Will J; Ross, Ashley J; Sánchez, Ariel G; Tinker, Jeremy; Tojeiro, Rita; Vargas-Magana, Mariana; Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2016-04-29

    Sound waves from the primordial fluctuations of the Universe imprinted in the large-scale structure, called baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs), can be used as standard rulers to measure the scale of the Universe. These oscillations have already been detected in the distribution of galaxies. Here we propose to measure BAOs from the troughs (minima) of the density field. Based on two sets of accurate mock halo catalogues with and without BAOs in the seed initial conditions, we demonstrate that the BAO signal cannot be obtained from the clustering of classical disjoint voids, but it is clearly detected from overlapping voids. The latter represent an estimate of all troughs of the density field. We compute them from the empty circumsphere centers constrained by tetrahedra of galaxies using Delaunay triangulation. Our theoretical models based on an unprecedented large set of detailed simulated void catalogues are remarkably well confirmed by observational data. We use the largest recently publicly available sample of luminous red galaxies from SDSS-III BOSS DR11 to unveil for the first time a >3σ BAO detection from voids in observations. Since voids are nearly isotropically expanding regions, their centers represent the most quiet places in the Universe, keeping in mind the cosmos origin and providing a new promising window in the analysis of the cosmological large-scale structure from galaxy surveys.

  14. Acoustic emission and ultrasonic-velocity methods used to characterise the excavation disturbance associated with deep tunnels in hard rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falls, Stephen D.; Young, R. Paul

    1998-04-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) and ultrasonic-velocity monitoring studies have been undertaken at both the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) Underground Research Laboratory (URL) and at the Swedish Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Company (SKB) Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL). At both locations the excavations were tunnels in granitic material at approximately 420 m depth. However, the stress regime was more severe at the URL Mine-by tunnel site than the HRL ZEDEX tunnel. Different parts of the ZEDEX tunnel were created using different excavation techniques. Using AE and ultrasonic techniques to study these tunnels we have been able to examine the nature of the excavation-disturbed zone around the tunnel, as well as examining the effects of different stress regimes and excavation techniques. Studies were undertaken both during and after the Mine-by tunnel excavation and during excavation in the ZEDEX tunnel. AE monitoring in the wall of the Mine-by tunnel during excavation showed that some activity occurred in the sidewall regions, but the spatial density of AE hypocentres increased toward the regions in the floor and roof of the tunnel where breakout notches formed. This sidewall activity was clustered primarily within 0.5 m of the tunnel wall. AE monitoring in the floor of the tunnel showed that small numbers of AE continued to occur in the notch region in the floor of the tunnel over 2 years after excavation was completed. This activity became more acute as the rock was heated, imposing thermally induced stresses on the volume. Ultrasonic-velocity studies both in the floor and the wall of the tunnel showed that the velocity is strongly anisotropic with the direction of slowest velocity orthogonal to the tunnel surface. The velocity increased with distance into the rock from the tunnel surface. In the floor, this effect was seen up to 2 m from the tunnel surface. Most of the change occurred within the first 0.5 m from the tunnel perimeter. At the lower-stress HRL, most of

  15. Stochastic simulation for the propagation of high-frequency acoustic waves through a random velocity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, B.; Darmon, M.; Leymarie, N.; Chatillon, S.; Potel, C.

    2012-05-01

    In-service inspection of Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors (SFR) requires the development of non-destructive techniques adapted to the harsh environment conditions and the examination complexity. From past experiences, ultrasonic techniques are considered as suitable candidates. The ultrasonic telemetry is a technique used to constantly insure the safe functioning of reactor inner components by determining their exact position: it consists in measuring the time of flight of the ultrasonic response obtained after propagation of a pulse emitted by a transducer and its interaction with the targets. While in-service the sodium flow creates turbulences that lead to temperature inhomogeneities, which translates into ultrasonic velocity inhomogeneities. These velocity variations could directly impact the accuracy of the target locating by introducing time of flight variations. A stochastic simulation model has been developed to calculate the propagation of ultrasonic waves in such an inhomogeneous medium. Using this approach, the travel time is randomly generated by a stochastic process whose inputs are the statistical moments of travel times known analytically. The stochastic model predicts beam deviations due to velocity inhomogeneities, which are similar to those provided by a determinist method, such as the ray method.

  16. [EFFECTS OF MUSIC-ACOUSTIC SIGNALS, ONLINE CONTROLLED BY EEG OSCILLATORS OF THE SUBJECT].

    PubMed

    Fedotchev, A I; Bondar, A T; Bakhchina, A V; Parin, S B; Polevaya, S A; Radchenko, G S

    2015-08-01

    The effects of 2 variants of the method of musical EEG neurofeedback, in which the dominant spectral components of subject's EEG (EEG oscillators) are online converted to music-like signals similar by timbre to flute sounds, have been studied. In the first case, these music-like signals were smoothly varying by the pitch and intensity in accordance with the current amplitude of the EEG oscillator. In the second case, the same variations of flute-like sound were accompanied by such musical element as rhythm. After the single exposure, the modifications of subject's brain activity and positive changes in psycho-physiological state of the subject have been found. Particularly pronounced effects were observed under rhythmically organized music-like stimuli.

  17. Asymptotic theory of intermediate- and high-degree solar acoustic oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodsky, M.; Vorontsov, S. V.

    1993-01-01

    A second-order asymptotic approximation is developed for adiabatic nonradial p-modes of a spherically symmetric star. The exact solutions of adiabatic oscillations are assumed in the outermost layers, where the asymptotic description becomes invalid, which results in a eigenfrequency equation with model-dependent surface phase shift. For lower degree modes, the phase shift is a function of frequency alone; for high-degree modes, its dependence on the degree is explicitly taken into account.

  18. Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Jerry R.; Grosveld, Ferdinand

    2007-01-01

    The acoustics environment in space operations is important to maintain at manageable levels so that the crewperson can remain safe, functional, effective, and reasonably comfortable. High acoustic levels can produce temporary or permanent hearing loss, or cause other physiological symptoms such as auditory pain, headaches, discomfort, strain in the vocal cords, or fatigue. Noise is defined as undesirable sound. Excessive noise may result in psychological effects such as irritability, inability to concentrate, decrease in productivity, annoyance, errors in judgment, and distraction. A noisy environment can also result in the inability to sleep, or sleep well. Elevated noise levels can affect the ability to communicate, understand what is being said, hear what is going on in the environment, degrade crew performance and operations, and create habitability concerns. Superfluous noise emissions can also create the inability to hear alarms or other important auditory cues such as an equipment malfunctioning. Recent space flight experience, evaluations of the requirements in crew habitable areas, and lessons learned (Goodman 2003; Allen and Goodman 2003; Pilkinton 2003; Grosveld et al. 2003) show the importance of maintaining an acceptable acoustics environment. This is best accomplished by having a high-quality set of limits/requirements early in the program, the "designing in" of acoustics in the development of hardware and systems, and by monitoring, testing and verifying the levels to ensure that they are acceptable.

  19. Boundary conditions for simulations of oscillating bubbles using the non-linear acoustic approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. R. C.; Ziolkowski, A. M.; Ruffert, M.

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a new boundary condition for finite volume simulations of oscillating bubbles. Our method uses an approximation to the motion outside the domain, based on the solution at the domain boundary. We then use this approximation to apply boundary conditions by defining incoming characteristic waves at the domain boundary. Our boundary condition is applicable in regions where the motion is close to spherically symmetric. We have tested our method on a range of one- and two-dimensional test cases. Results show good agreement with previous studies. The method allows simulations of oscillating bubbles for long run times (5 ×105 time steps with a CFL number of 0.8) on highly truncated domains, in which the boundary condition may be applied within 0.1% of the maximum bubble radius. Conservation errors due to the boundary conditions are found to be of the order of 0.1% after 105 time steps. The method significantly reduces the computational cost of fixed grid finite volume simulations of oscillating bubbles. Two-dimensional results demonstrate that highly asymmetric bubble features, such as surface instabilities and the formation of jets, may be captured on a small domain using this boundary condition.

  20. Determination of elastic properties of a MnO2 coating by surface acoustic wave velocity dispersion analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sermeus, J.; Sinha, R.; Vanstreels, K.; Vereecken, P. M.; Glorieux, C.

    2014-07-01

    MnO2 is a material of interest in the development of high energy-density batteries, specifically as a coating material for internal 3D structures, thus ensuring rapid energy deployment. Its electrochemical properties have been mapped extensively, but there are, to the best of the authors' knowledge, no records of the elastic properties of thin film MnO2. Impulsive stimulated thermal scattering (ISTS), also known as the heterodyne diffraction or transient grating technique, was used to determine the Young's modulus (E) and porosity (ψ) of a 500 nm thick MnO2 coating on a Si(001) substrate. ISTS is an all optical method that is able to excite and detect surface acoustic waves (SAWs) on opaque samples. From the measured SAW velocity dispersion, the Young's modulus and porosity were determined to be E = 25 ± 1 GPa and ψ = 42 ± 1 %, respectively. These values were confirmed by independent techniques and determined by a most-squares analysis of the carefully fitted SAW velocity dispersion. This study demonstrates the ability of the presented technique to determine the elastic parameters of a thin, porous film on an anisotropic substrate.

  1. Acoustic Velocities and Elastic Properties of Pyrite (FeS2) to 9.6 GPa

    SciTech Connect

    M Whitaker; W Liu; L Wang; B Li

    2011-12-31

    Ultrasonic interferometry was utilized in conjunction with synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction and X-radiographic imaging to determine the compressional and shear wave velocities and unit-cell volumes of pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) at room temperature and pressures up to 9.6 GPa. Fitting all of the experimental volume and velocity data to third-order finite-strain equations yielded the adiabatic zero-pressure bulk and shear moduli and their first pressure derivatives: K{sub S0}=138.9(7) GPa, G{sub 0}=112.3(3) GPa, ({partial_derivative} K{sub S0}/{partial_derivative} P){sub T} =K{sub S0'}=6.0(1), ({partial_derivative}G{sub 0}/{partial_derivative}P){sub T} =G{sub 0'}=3.0(<1), where the numbers in parentheses represent the 1{sigma} uncertainty in the last significant digit. These results are in good agreement with several previous static compression studies on this material but differ quite strongly from the results obtained via first principles calculations. This study presents the first direct measurement of the bulk shear properties of this material.

  2. Stabilization and Low-Frequency Oscillation of Capillary Bridges with Modulated Acoustic Radiation Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, Philip L.; Marr-Lyon, Mark J.; Morse, S. F.; Thiessen, David B.

    1996-01-01

    In the work reported here it is demonstrated that acoustic radiation pressure may be used in simulated low gravity to produce stable bridges significantly beyond the Rayleigh limit with S as large as 3.6. The bridge (PDMS mixed with a dense liquid) has the same density as the surrounding water bath containing an ultrasonic standing wave. Modulation was first used to excite specific bridge modes. In the most recent work reported here the shape of the bridge is optically sensed and the ultrasonic drive is electronically adjusted such that the radiation stress distribution dynamically quenches the most unstable mode. This active control simulates passive stabilization suggested for low gravity. Feedback increases the mode frequency in the naturally stable region since the effective stiffness of the mode is increased.

  3. Ultrahigh-pressure acoustic wave velocities of SiO2-Al2O3 glasses up to 200 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohira, Itaru; Murakami, Motohiko; Kohara, Shinji; Ohara, Koji; Ohtani, Eiji

    2016-12-01

    Extensive experimental studies on the structure and density of silicate glasses as laboratory analogs of natural silicate melts have attempted to address the nature of dense silicate melts that may be present at the base of the mantle. Previous ultrahigh-pressure experiments, however, have been performed on simple systems such as SiO2 or MgSiO3, and experiments in more complex system have been conducted under relatively low-pressure conditions below 60 GPa. The effect of other metal cations on structural changes that occur in dense silicate glasses under ultrahigh pressures has been poorly understood. Here, we used a Brillouin scattering spectroscopic method up to pressures of 196.9 GPa to conduct in situ high-pressure acoustic wave velocity measurements of SiO2-Al2O3 glasses in order to understand the effect of Al2O3 on pressure-induced structural changes in the glasses as analogs of aluminosilicate melts. From 10 to 40 GPa, the transverse acoustic wave velocity ( V S ) of Al2O3-rich glass (SiO2 + 20.5 mol% Al2O3) was greater than that of Al2O3-poor glass (SiO2 + 3.9 mol% Al2O3). This result suggests that SiO2-Al2O3 glasses with higher proportions of Al ions with large oxygen coordination numbers (5 and 6) become elastically stiffer up to 40 GPa, depending on the Al2O3 content, but then soften above 40 GPa. At pressures from 40 to ~100 GPa, the increase in V S with increasing pressure became less steep than below 40 GPa. Above ~100 GPa, there were abrupt increases in the P-V S gradients ( dV S /dP) at 130 GPa in Al2O3-poor glass and at 116 GPa in Al2O3-rich glass. These changes resemble previous experimental results on SiO2 glass and MgSiO3 glass. Given that changes of dV S / dP have commonly been related to changes in the Si-O coordination states in the glasses, our results, therefore, may indicate a drastic structural transformation in SiO2-Al2O3 glasses above 116 GPa, possibly associated with an average Si-O coordination number change to higher than 6. Compared

  4. Lift-off compensation for improved accuracy in ultrasonic lamb wave velocity measurements using electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs).

    PubMed

    Morrison, J P; Dixon, S; Potter, M D G; Jian, X

    2006-12-22

    The crystalline texture of a sheet metal strongly affects its formability, so having knowledge of this texture is of great industrial relevance. The texture of rolled sheet metals, such as aluminium and steel, may be determined by ultrasonic measurement of the velocity of the zero order symmetric (S(0)) Lamb wave as a function of angle to the rolling direction. Electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) may perform this measurement without contacting the sample, therefore reducing perturbation to the plate wave system, as they are electromagnetically coupled to the sheet. The EMAT system measurements are non-destructive and may be made in real time, therefore offering advantages over the conventional techniques such as X-ray and neutron diffraction. It has been noticed that in the two EMAT pitch-catch system, the apparent arrival times of the ultrasonic waves change with variation in lift-off (distance between sample and transducer) due to impedance and aperture effects. For precise and accurate texture parameters to be obtained, accurate absolute ultrasonic velocity measurement is required and hence lift-off must be compensated for. This is of particular importance to online inspection systems where constant lift-off may be difficult to maintain. The impedance behaviour of various coil geometries has been investigated as a function of lift-off and frequency and compared to the received ultrasonic signal and the drive current pulse profile. Theoretical models have been used to explain the observed behaviour, and hence a scheme has been proposed for the compensation of lift-off effects in real time.

  5. Acoustic Emission and Velocity Measurements using a Modular Borehole Prototype Tool to Provide Real Time Rock Mass Characterization.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, D. S.; Pettitt, W. S.; Young, R. P.

    2003-04-01

    Permanent changes to rock mass properties can occur due to the application of excavation or thermal induced stresses. This project involves the design of hardware and software for the long term monitoring of a rock volume, and the real time analysis and interpretation of induced microcracks and their properties. A set of borehole sondes have been designed with each sonde containing up to 6 sensor modules. Each piezoelectric sensor is dual mode allowing it to either transmit an ultrasonic pulse through a rock mass, or receive ultrasonic waveform data. Good coupling of the sensors with the borehole wall is achieved through a motorized clamping mechanism. The borehole sondes are connected to a surface interface box and digital acquisition system and controlled by a laptop computer. The system allows acoustic emission (AE) data to be recorded at all times using programmable trigger logic. The AE data is processed in real time for 3D source location and magnitude, with further analysis such as mechanism type available offline. Additionally the system allows velocity surveys to be automatically performed at pre-defined times. A modelling component of the project, using a 3D dynamic finite difference code, is investigating the effect that different microcrack distributions have on velocity waveform data in terms of time and frequency amplitude. The modelling codes will be validated using data recorded from laboratory tests on rocks with known crack fabrics, and then used in insitu experimental tests. This modelling information will be used to help interpret, in real time, microcrack characteristics such as crack density, size, and fluid content. The technology has applications in a number of branches of geotechnical and civil engineering including radioactive waste storage, mining, dams, bridges, and oil reservoir monitoring.

  6. Visually induced motion sickness when viewing visual oscillations of different frequencies along the fore-and-aft axis: keeping velocity versus amplitude constant.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daniel Jinzhao; Bao, Beisheng; Zhao, Yue; So, Richard H Y

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to visual oscillations (VOs) can lead to visually induced motion sickness (VIMS). The level of VIMS among viewers has been shown to vary when the frequency of the VOs is changed either by manipulating their amplitude or velocity. The present study investigates whether the level of VIMS would change if we keep the root mean square (rms) velocity or amplitude of VOs constant while manipulating the VO frequency. A total of 25 individuals were exposed to random-dot and checkerboard VOs along the fore-and-aft axis in two experiments. Changing the amplitude (or frequency) of VOs while keeping the rms velocity constant did not affect the level of VIMS; however, increasing the rms velocity (or frequency) of VOs while keeping the amplitude constant made VIMS significantly worse. Practitioner Summary: Exposure to VOs of the same frequency can cause different levels of nausea depending on the combination of oscillation amplitude and velocity. Results suggest an opportunity for game designers to reduce symptoms of game sickness by using the correct combinations of velocity and amplitude of the visual motions.

  7. Evaluation of the Acoustic Doppler Velocity Meter for Computation of Discharge Records at Three Sites in Colorado, 2004-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, Michael R.; Diaz, Paul; Smits, Dennis E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board, conducted a study in 2004-2005 at three sites in Colorado: Bear Creek at Morrison, Clear Creek near Empire, and Redlands Canal near Grand Junction. The study was done to evaluate acoustic Doppler velocity meter (ADVM) technology in different hydrologic settings that are characteristic of many Colorado streamflow-gaging sites. ADVMs have been tested and used extensively in many parts of the United States by USGS but not in Colorado where relatively small, shallow, clear, coarse-bed streams that ice up in the winter may affect the ADVM suitability. In this study, ADVM instrumentation was successfully used and discharge computations compared favorably, generally within 5 to 10 percent, with conventional USGS stage/discharge methods at the three Colorado sites. However, two factors, encountered in this study, may adversely affect the use of ADVM technology in Colorado. First, for some streams, the depth required (about 1.5 feet for a side-looking instrument) cannot be met during low-flow periods of the year. Second, cold temperatures and freezing-thawing cycles can produce ice effects that could prevent collection of usable ADVM (and stage) data.

  8. Simultaneous estimation of cortical bone thickness and acoustic wave velocity using a multivariable optimization approach: Bone phantom and in-vitro study.

    PubMed

    Tasinkevych, Yuriy; Podhajecki, Jerzy; Falińska, Katarzyna; Litniewski, Jerzy

    2016-02-01

    The paper presents a method that allows the thickness of a compact bone layer and longitudinal wave velocity in the bone to be determined simultaneously with the use of reflected waves, with particular emphasis on the case of layers when the propagation time through the layer is shorter than the time duration of the interrogating pulse. The proposed method estimates simultaneously the thickness of the cortical bone layer and acoustic wave velocity by fitting the temporal spectrum of the simulated reflected wave to the spectrum of the reflected wave measured experimentally. For the purpose of echo-simulations the model of "soft tissue - compact bone layer - cancellous bone" was developed. Next, the cost function was defined as the least square error between the measured and simulated temporal spectra. Minimization of the cost function allowed us to determine the values of the parameters of the cortical bone layer which best fitted the measurements. To solve the optimization problem a simulated annealing algorithm was used. The method was tested using acoustic data obtained at the frequency of 0.6 MHz and 1 MHz respectively for a custom designed bone mimicking phantom and a calf femur. For the cortical shell of the calf femur whose thickness varies from 2.1 mm to 2.4 mm and velocity of 2910 m/s, the relative errors of the thickness estimation ranged from 0.4% to 5.5%. The corresponding error of the acoustic wave velocity estimation in the layer was 3.1%. In the case of artificial bone the thickness of the cortical layer was equal to 1.05 and 1.2 mm and acoustic wave velocity was 2900 m/s. These parameters were determined with the errors ranging from 1.9% to 10.8% and from 3.9% to 4.5% respectively.

  9. Evaluation of acoustic doppler velocity meters to quantify flow from Comal Springs and San Marcos Springs, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gary, Marcus O.; Gary, Robin H.; Asquith, William H.

    2008-01-01

    Comal Springs and San Marcos Springs are the two largest springs in Texas, are major discharge points for the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer, and provide habitat for several Federally listed endangered species that depend on adequate springflows for survival. It is therefore imperative that the Edwards Aquifer Authority have accurate and timely springflow data to guide resource management. Discharge points for Comal Springs and San Marcos Springs are submerged in Landa Lake and in Spring Lake, respectively. Flows from the springs currently (2008) are estimated by the U.S Geological Survey in real time as surface-water discharge from conventional stage-discharge ratings at sites downstream from each spring. Recent technological advances and availability of acoustic Doppler velocity meters (ADVMs) now provide tools to collect data (stream velocity) related to springflow that could increase accuracy of real-time estimates of the springflows. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Edwards Aquifer Authority, did a study during May 2006 through September 2007 to evaluate ADVMs to quantify flow from Comal and San Marcos Springs. The evaluation was based on two monitoring approaches: (1) placement of ADVMs in important spring orifices - spring run 3 and spring 7 at Comal Springs, and diversion spring at San Marcos Springs; and (2) placement of ADVMs at the nearest flowing streams - Comal River new and old channels for Comal Springs, Spring Lake west and east outflow channels and current (2008) San Marcos River streamflow-gaging site for San Marcos Springs. For Comal Springs, ADVM application at spring run 3 and spring 7 was intended to indicate whether the flows of spring run 3 and spring 7 can be related to total springflow. The findings indicate that velocity data from both discharge features, while reflecting changes in flow, do not reliably show a direct relation to measured streamflow and thus to total Comal Springs flow. ADVMs at the Comal

  10. Baryon acoustic oscillations in the Lyα forest of BOSS DR11 quasars

    SciTech Connect

    Delubac, Timothée; Bautista, Julian E.; Rich, James; Kirkby, David; Bailey, Stephen; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Slosar, Anže; Lee, Khee-Gan; Pieri, Matthew M.; Hamilton, Jean-Christophe; Bovy, Jo; Brinkmann, Jon; Carithers, William; Dawson, Kyle S.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Gontcho A Gontcho, Satya; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Margala, Daniel; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Myers, Adam D.; Nichol, Robert C.; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; O’Connell, Ross; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Pâris, Isabelle; Petitjean, Patrick; Ross, Nicholas P.; Rossi, Graziano; Schlegel, David J.; Schneider, Donald P.; Weinberg, David H.; Yèche, Christophe; York, Donald G.

    2015-01-26

    We report a detection of the baryon acousticoscillation (BAO) feature in the flux-correlation function of the Lyα forest of high-redshift quasars with a statistical significance of five standard deviations. The study uses 137,562 quasars in the redshift range 2.1 ≤ z ≤ 3.5 from the data release 11 (DR11) of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) of SDSS-III. This sample contains three times the number of quasars used in previous studies. The measured position of the BAO peak determines the angular distance, DA(z = 2.34) and expansion rate, H(z = 2.34), both on a scale set by the sound horizon at the drag epoch, rd. We find DA/rd = 11.28 ± 0.65(1σ)$+2.8\\atop{-1.2}$(2σ) and DH/rd = 9.18 ± 0.28(1σ) ± 0.6(2σ) where DH = c/H. The optimal combination, ~D$0.7\\atop{H}$ D$0.3\\atop{A}/rd is determined with a precision of ~2%. For the value rd = 147.4 Mpc, consistent with the cosmic microwave background power spectrum measured by Planck, we find DA(z = 2.34) = 1662 ± 96(1σ) Mpc and H(z = 2.34) = 222 ± 7(1σ) km s-1 Mpc-1. Tests with mock catalogs and variations of our analysis procedure have revealed no systematic uncertainties comparable to our statistical errors. Our results agree with the previously reported BAO measurement at the same redshift using the quasar-Lyα forest cross-correlation. The autocorrelation and cross-correlation approaches are complementary because of the quite different impact of redshift-space distortion on the two measurements. The combined constraints from the two correlation functions imply values of DA/rd that are 7% lower and 7% higher for DH/rd than the predictions of a flat ΛCDM cosmological model with the best-fit Planck parameters. With our estimated statistical errors, the significance of this discrepancy is ≈2.5σ.

  11. Baryon acoustic oscillations in the Lyα forest of BOSS DR11 quasars

    DOE PAGES

    Delubac, Timothée; Bautista, Julian E.; Busca, Nicolás G.; ...

    2015-01-26

    We report a detection of the baryon acousticoscillation (BAO) feature in the flux-correlation function of the Lyα forest of high-redshift quasars with a statistical significance of five standard deviations. The study uses 137,562 quasars in the redshift range 2.1 ≤ z ≤ 3.5 from the data release 11 (DR11) of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) of SDSS-III. This sample contains three times the number of quasars used in previous studies. The measured position of the BAO peak determines the angular distance, DA(z = 2.34) and expansion rate, H(z = 2.34), both on a scale set by the sound horizon at the drag epoch, rd. We find DA/rd = 11.28 ± 0.65(1σ)more » $$+2.8\\atop{-1.2}$$(2σ) and DH/rd = 9.18 ± 0.28(1σ) ± 0.6(2σ) where DH = c/H. The optimal combination, ~D$$0.7\\atop{H}$$ D$0.3\\atop{A}/rd is determined with a precision of ~2%. For the value rd = 147.4 Mpc, consistent with the cosmic microwave background power spectrum measured by Planck, we find DA(z = 2.34) = 1662 ± 96(1σ) Mpc and H(z = 2.34) = 222 ± 7(1σ) km s-1 Mpc-1. Tests with mock catalogs and variations of our analysis procedure have revealed no systematic uncertainties comparable to our statistical errors. Our results agree with the previously reported BAO measurement at the same redshift using the quasar-Lyα forest cross-correlation. The autocorrelation and cross-correlation approaches are complementary because of the quite different impact of redshift-space distortion on the two measurements. The combined constraints from the two correlation functions imply values of DA/rd that are 7% lower and 7% higher for DH/rd than the predictions of a flat ΛCDM cosmological model with the best-fit Planck parameters. With our estimated statistical errors, the significance of this discrepancy is ≈2.5σ.« less

  12. Comment on 'Nonplanar dust-ion acoustic Gardner solitons in a dusty plasma with q-nonextensive electron velocity distribution' [Phys. Plasmas 19, 033703 (2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Mannan, A.; Tanjia, F.; Yasmin, S.

    2013-04-15

    The basic characteristics of cylindrical and spherical dust-ion acoustic Gardner solitary waves in a dusty plasma with q-nonextensive electron velocity distribution have been represented by Ghosh et al.[Phys. Plasmas 19, 033703 (2012)]. In this manuscript, they use the double layer stationary solution of the standard Gardner equation but they explain the whole article in terms of Gardner solitons which is completely incorrect.

  13. Probing large-scale structure with large samples of X-ray selected AGN. I. Baryonic acoustic oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hütsi, Gert; Gilfanov, Marat; Kolodzig, Alexander; Sunyaev, Rashid

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the potential of large X-ray-selected AGN samples for detecting baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO). Though AGN selection in X-ray band is very clean and efficient, it does not provide redshift information, and thus needs to be complemented with an optical follow-up. The main focus of this study is (i) to find the requirements needed for the quality of the optical follow-up and (ii) to formulate the optimal strategy of the X-ray survey, in order to detect the BAO. We demonstrate that redshift accuracy of σ0 = 10-2 at z = 1 and the catastrophic failure rate of ffail ≲ 30% are sufficient for a reliable detection of BAO in future X-ray surveys. Spectroscopic quality redshifts (σ0 = 10-3 and ffail ~ 0) will boost the confidence level of the BAO detection by a factor of ~2. For meaningful detection of BAO, X-ray surveys of moderate depth of Flim ~ few 10-15 erg s-1/cm2 covering sky area from a few hundred to ~ten thousand square degrees are required. The optimal strategy for the BAO detection does not necessarily require full sky coverage. For example, in a 1000 day-long survey by an eROSITA type telescope, an optimal strategy would be to survey a sky area of ~9000 deg2, yielding a ~16σ BAO detection. A similar detection will be achieved by ATHENA+ or WFXT class telescopes in a survey with a duration of 100 days, covering a similar sky area. XMM-Newton can achieve a marginal BAO detection in a 100-day survey covering ~400 deg2. These surveys would demand a moderate-to-high cost in terms the optical follow-ups, requiring determination of redshifts of ~105 (XMM-Newton) to ~3 × 106 objects (eROSITA, ATHENA+, and WFXT) in these sky areas.

  14. Split Hopkinson Resonant Bar Test for Sonic-Frequency Acoustic Velocity and Attenuation Measurements of Small, Isotropic Geologic Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, S.

    2011-04-01

    Mechanical properties (seismic velocities and attenuation) of geological materials are often frequency dependent, which necessitates measurements of the properties at frequencies relevant to a problem at hand. Conventional acoustic resonant bar tests allow measuring seismic properties of rocks and sediments at sonic frequencies (several kilohertz) that are close to the frequencies employed for geophysical exploration of oil and gas resources. However, the tests require a long, slender sample, which is often difficult to obtain from the deep subsurface or from weak and fractured geological formations. In this paper, an alternative measurement technique to conventional resonant bar tests is presented. This technique uses only a small, jacketed rock or sediment core sample mediating a pair of long, metal extension bars with attached seismic source and receiver - the same geometry as the split Hopkinson pressure bar test for large-strain, dynamic impact experiments. Because of the length and mass added to the sample, the resonance frequency of the entire system can be lowered significantly, compared to the sample alone. The experiment can be conducted under elevated confining pressures up to tens of MPa and temperatures above 100 C, and concurrently with x-ray CT imaging. The described Split Hopkinson Resonant Bar (SHRB) test is applied in two steps. First, extension and torsion-mode resonance frequencies and attenuation of the entire system are measured. Next, numerical inversions for the complex Young's and shear moduli of the sample are performed. One particularly important step is the correction of the inverted Young's moduli for the effect of sample-rod interfaces. Examples of the application are given for homogeneous, isotropic polymer samples and a natural rock sample.

  15. Split Hopkinson resonant bar test for sonic-frequency acoustic velocity and attenuation measurements of small, isotropic geological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Seiji

    2011-04-01

    Mechanical properties (seismic velocities and attenuation) of geological materials are often frequency dependent, which necessitates measurements of the properties at frequencies relevant to a problem at hand. Conventional acoustic resonant bar tests allow measuring seismic properties of rocks and sediments at sonic frequencies (several kilohertz) that are close to the frequencies employed for geophysical exploration of oil and gas resources. However, the tests require a long, slender sample, which is often difficult to obtain from the deep subsurface or from weak and fractured geological formations. In this paper, an alternative measurement technique to conventional resonant bar tests is presented. This technique uses only a small, jacketed rock or sediment core sample mediating a pair of long, metal extension bars with attached seismic source and receiver—the same geometry as the split Hopkinson pressure bar test for large-strain, dynamic impact experiments. Because of the length and mass added to the sample, the resonance frequency of the entire system can be lowered significantly, compared to the sample alone. The experiment can be conducted under elevated confining pressures up to tens of MPa and temperatures above 100 °C, and concurrently with x-ray CT imaging. The described split Hopkinson resonant bar test is applied in two steps. First, extension and torsion-mode resonance frequencies and attenuation of the entire system are measured. Next, numerical inversions for the complex Young's and shear moduli of the sample are performed. One particularly important step is the correction of the inverted Young's moduli for the effect of sample-rod interfaces. Examples of the application are given for homogeneous, isotropic polymer samples, and a natural rock sample.

  16. Interactions of coupled acoustic and vortical instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, T. J.; Sohn, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    In the past, the acoustic combustion instability was studied independently of the hydrodynamic instability induced by vortex motions. This paper is intended to combine the two different sources of energy everywhere within the spatial domain and determine the effect of one upon the other. This can be achieved by calculating the mean flow velocities and vorticities and their fluctuating parts of velocities and vortices, as well as the fluctuating pressure. The Orr-Sommerfeld equation is utilized to determine the wavenumbers and unsteady stream functions from which vortically coupled acoustic instability growth constants are calculated. This process demonstrates that there are two different frequencies, acoustic and hydrodynamic, various combinations of which contribute to either damping or amplification. It is found that stability boundaries for coupled acoustic and vortical oscillations are somewhat similar to the classical hydrodynamic stability boundaries, but they occur in the form of multiple islands.

  17. A new time-marching scheme that suppresses spurious oscillations in the dynamic rupture problem of the spectral element method: the weighted velocity Newmark scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hong; Jiang, Han

    2015-11-01

    For dynamic rupture problems, numerical simulation methods, such as the finite-difference method, the finite-element method and the boundary integral element method, usually produce spurious high-frequency oscillations that are mainly generated by discontinuities in the friction law and poor resolution of the breakdown zone. Techniques have been developed to reduce the oscillations; for example, the application of a damping coefficient, the introduction of a Green's function with higher accuracy and the use of a high-frequency filter. Presently, the spectral element method (SEM) is an important method used to simulate strong ground motion because of its high precision in calculations and flexibility in gridding media. Its greatest advantage is that it applies the orthogonal property of Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre points to form a diagonal mass matrix and is thus suitable for parallel computation that greatly reduces the computational time. However, comparisons made in the SCEC/USGS Spontaneous Rupture Code Verification Project show that the SEM has larger high-frequency oscillations than some other numerical methods for dynamic rupture problems. In this paper, we propose a new time-marching scheme of the SEM that has the frequency response of suppressing high-frequency oscillations for the slip-weakening friction law. Computation in rupture problem illustrates that the scheme greatly reduces spurious high-frequency oscillations. Furthermore, in the Appendix of the paper we provide some formula derivation to distinguish our scheme from generalized velocity schemes.

  18. Feasibility of Acoustic Doppler Velocity Meters for the Production of Discharge Records from U.S. Geological Survey Streamflow-Gaging Stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morlock, Scott E.; Nguyen, Hieu T.; Ross, Jerry H.

    2002-01-01

    It is feasible to use acoustic Doppler velocity meters (ADVM's) installed at U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-gaging stations to compute records of river discharge. ADVM's are small acoustic current meters that use the Doppler principle to measure water velocities in a two-dimensional plane. Records of river discharge can be computed from stage and ADVM velocity data using the 'index velocity' method. The ADVM-measured velocities are used as an estimator or 'index' of the mean velocity in the channel. In evaluations of ADVM's for the computation of records of river discharge, the USGS installed ADVM's at three streamflow-gaging stations in Indiana: Kankakee River at Davis, Fall Creek at Millersville, and Iroquois River near Foresman. The ADVM evaluation study period was from June 1999 to February 2001. Discharge records were computed, using ADVM data from each station. Discharge records also were computed using conventional stage-discharge methods of the USGS. The records produced from ADVM and conventional methods were compared with discharge record hydrographs and statistics. Overall, the records compared closely from the Kankakee River and Fall Creek stations. For the Iroquois River station, variable backwater was present and affected the comparison; because the ADVM record compensates for backwater, the ADVM record may be superior to the conventional record. For the three stations, the ADVM records were judged to be of a quality acceptable to USGS standards for publications and near realtime ADVM-computed discharges are served on USGS real-time data World Wide Web pages.

  19. Angular spectrum approach for the computation of group and phase velocity surfaces of acoustic waves in anisotropic materials

    PubMed

    Pluta; Schubert; Jahny; Grill

    2000-03-01

    The decomposition of an acoustic wave into its angular spectrum representation creates an effective base for the calculation of wave propagation effects in anisotropic media. In this method, the distribution of acoustic fields is calculated in arbitrary planes from the superposition of the planar components with proper phase shifts. These phase shifts depend on the ratio of the distance between the planes to the normal component of the phase slowness vector. In anisotropic media, the phase shifts depend additionally on the changes of the slowness with respect to the direction of the propagation vector and the polarization. Those relations are obtained from the Christoffel equation. The method employing the fast Fourier transformation algorithm is especially suited for volume imaging in anisotropic media, based on holographic detection in transmission of acoustic waves generated by a point source. This technique is compared with measurements on crystals performed by phase-sensitive scanning acoustic microscopy.

  20. A one-dimensional numerical model for predicting pressure and velocity oscillations of a compressed air-pocket in a vertical shaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Leon, A.; Apte, S.

    2015-12-01

    The presence of pressurized air pockets in combined sewer systems is argued to produce geyser flows, which is an oscillating jetting of a mixture of gas-liquid flows through vertical shafts. A 1D numerical model is developed for predicting pressure and velocity oscillations of a compressed air-pocket in a vertical shaft which in turn attempts to simulate geyser like flows. The vertical shaft is closed at the bottom and open to ambient pressure at the top. Initially, the lower section of the vertical shaft is filled with compressed air and the upper section with water. The interaction between the pressurized air pocket and the water column in the vertical shaft exhibits an oscillatory motion of the water column that decays over time. The model accounts for steady and unsteady friction to estimate the energy dissipation. The model also includes the falling flow of water around the external perimeter of the pressurized air pocket by assuming that any expansion in the pressurized air pocket would result in the falling volume of water. The acceleration of air-water interface is predicted through a force balance between the pressurized air pocket and the water column combined with the Method of Characteristics that resolves pressure and velocity within the water column. The expansion and compression of the pressurized air pocket is assumed to follow either isothermal process or adiabatic process. Results for both assumptions; isothermal and adiabatic processes, are presented. The performance of the developed 1D numerical model is compared with that of a commercial 3D CFD model. Overall, a good agreement between both models is obtained for pressure and velocity oscillations. The paper will also present a sensitivity analysis of the 3D CFD model.

  1. Experimental study of aerodynamic characteristics of a reentry vehicle on a setup with free oscillations at supersonic velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamov, N. P.; Kharitonov, A. M.; Chasovnikov, E. A.; Dyad'kin, A. A.; Krylov, A. N.; Aleksandrov, E. N.

    2016-11-01

    A setup with free oscillations containing a transverse sting for holding the test model and possible test regimes are described. The method of testing and data processing is presented. Aerodynamic characteristics of the pitching moment of the model in a wide range of Mach numbers are obtained. Comparisons of quasi-steady data with numerical predictions and of damping derivatives with those obtained previously in tests of the model mounted on the base sting and with calculated results are performed. The model is found to be statically and dynamically stable except for regimes with M = 1.75 and 2.25, where nondecaying oscillations are excited.

  2. Wind velocity measurement accuracy with highly stable 12 mJ/pulse high repetition rate CO2 laser master oscillator power amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilbro, James W.; Johnson, Steven C.; Rothermel, Jeffry

    1987-01-01

    A coherent CO2 lidar operating in a master oscillator power amplifier configuration (MOPA) is described for both ground-based and airborne operation. Representative data taken from measurements against stationary targets in both the ground-based and airborne configurations are shown for the evaluation of the frequency stability of the system. Examples of data are also given which show the results of anomalous system operation. Overall results demonstrate that velocity measurements can be performed consistently to an accuracy of + or - 0.5 m/s and in some cases + or - 0.1 m/s.

  3. Use of acoustic velocity methodology and remote sensing techniques to measure unsteady flow on the lower Yazoo River in Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turnipseed, D. Phil; Cooper, Lance M.; Davis, Angela A.

    1998-01-01

    Methodologies have been developed for computing continuous discharge during varied, non-uniform low and medium flows on the Yazoo River at the U.S. Geological Survey streamgage below Steele Bayou near Long Lake, Mississippi, using acoustic signal processing and conventional streamgaging techniques. Procedures were also developed to compute locations of discharges during future high flow events when the stream reach is subject to hi-directional and reverse flow caused by rising stages on the Mississippi River using a combination of acoustic equipment and remote sensing technology. A description of the study area is presented. Selected results of these methods are presented for the period from March through September 1997.

  4. Numerical Simulation of the Self-Oscillations of the Vocal Folds and of the Resulting Acoustic Phenomena in the Vocal Tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Švancara, P.; Horáček, J.; Švec, J. G.

    The study presents a three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model of the flow-induced self-oscillation of the human vocal folds in interaction with acoustics of simplified vocal tract models. The 3D vocal tract models of the acoustic spaces shaped for simulation of phonation of Czech vowels [a:], [i:] and [u:] were created by converting the data from the magnetic resonance images (MRI). For modelling of the fluid-structure interaction, explicit coupling scheme with separated solvers for fluid and structure domain was utilized. The FE model comprises vocal folds pretension before starting phonation, large deformations of the vocal fold tissue, vocal-fold collisions, fluid-structure interaction, morphing the fluid mesh according to the vocal-fold motion (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian approach), unsteady viscous compressible airflow described by the Navier-Stokes equations and airflow separation. The developed FE model enables to study the relationship between flow-induced vibrations of the vocal folds and acoustic wave propagation in the vocal tract and can also be used to simulate for example pathological changes in the vocal fold tissue and their influence on the voice production.

  5. A high-overtone bulk acoustic wave resonator-oscillator-based 4.596 GHz frequency source: Application to a coherent population trapping Cs vapor cell atomic clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daugey, Thomas; Friedt, Jean-Michel; Martin, Gilles; Boudot, Rodolphe

    2015-11-01

    This article reports on the design and characterization of a high-overtone bulk acoustic wave resonator (HBAR)-oscillator-based 4.596 GHz frequency source. A 2.298 GHz signal, generated by an oscillator constructed around a thermally controlled two-port aluminum nitride-sapphire HBAR resonator with a Q-factor of 24 000 at 68 °C, is frequency multiplied by 2-4.596 GHz, half of the Cs atom clock frequency. The temperature coefficient of frequency of the HBAR is measured to be -23 ppm/ °C at 2.298 GHz. The measured phase noise of the 4.596 GHz source is -105 dB rad2/Hz at 1 kHz offset and -150 dB rad2/Hz at 100 kHz offset. The 4.596 GHz output signal is used as a local oscillator in a laboratory-prototype Cs microcell-based coherent population trapping atomic clock. The signal is stabilized onto the atomic transition frequency by tuning finely a voltage-controlled phase shifter implemented in the 2.298 GHz HBAR-oscillator loop, preventing the need for a high-power-consuming direct digital synthesis. The short-term fractional frequency stability of the free-running oscillator is 1.8 × 10-9 at one second integration time. In locked regime, the latter is improved in a preliminary proof-of-concept experiment at the level of 6.6 × 10-11 τ-1/2 up to a few seconds and found to be limited by the signal-to-noise ratio of the detected CPT resonance.

  6. A high-overtone bulk acoustic wave resonator-oscillator-based 4.596 GHz frequency source: Application to a coherent population trapping Cs vapor cell atomic clock

    SciTech Connect

    Daugey, Thomas; Friedt, Jean-Michel; Martin, Gilles; Boudot, Rodolphe

    2015-11-15

    This article reports on the design and characterization of a high-overtone bulk acoustic wave resonator (HBAR)-oscillator-based 4.596 GHz frequency source. A 2.298 GHz signal, generated by an oscillator constructed around a thermally controlled two-port aluminum nitride-sapphire HBAR resonator with a Q-factor of 24 000 at 68 °C, is frequency multiplied by 2–4.596 GHz, half of the Cs atom clock frequency. The temperature coefficient of frequency of the HBAR is measured to be −23 ppm/ °C at 2.298 GHz. The measured phase noise of the 4.596 GHz source is −105 dB rad{sup 2}/Hz at 1 kHz offset and −150 dB rad{sup 2}/Hz at 100 kHz offset. The 4.596 GHz output signal is used as a local oscillator in a laboratory-prototype Cs microcell-based coherent population trapping atomic clock. The signal is stabilized onto the atomic transition frequency by tuning finely a voltage-controlled phase shifter implemented in the 2.298 GHz HBAR-oscillator loop, preventing the need for a high-power-consuming direct digital synthesis. The short-term fractional frequency stability of the free-running oscillator is 1.8 × 10{sup −9} at one second integration time. In locked regime, the latter is improved in a preliminary proof-of-concept experiment at the level of 6.6 × 10{sup −11} τ{sup −1/2} up to a few seconds and found to be limited by the signal-to-noise ratio of the detected CPT resonance.

  7. The normal modes of a resonant cavity containing discrete inhomogeneities - The influence of fibril magnetic fields on the solar acoustic oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdan, Thomas J.; Cattaneo, Fausto

    1989-01-01

    Motivated by considerations of the interaction between fibril magnetic fields and solar p-modes, the acoustic spectrum of a cylindrical cavity filled with ideal gas in which a number of magnetic flux tubes are embedded is studied. A formalism, based on the T-matrix approach to acoustic scattering, is developed which can be used to determine the eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions for any arbitrary distribution of flux tubes. For weak scatterers, the frequency shifts and velocity eigenfunctions are calculated using perturbation theory for the cases of a single flux tube and a random distribution of up to 100 flux tubes. The results of this 'exact' approach are used to give a critical appraisal of the predictions of theories based on some form of averaging, such as the one discussed recently by Bogdan and Zweibel (1987).

  8. SOLAR-LIKE OSCILLATIONS AND ACTIVITY IN PROCYON: A COMPARISON OF THE 2007 MOST AND GROUND-BASED RADIAL VELOCITY CAMPAIGNS

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, Daniel; Bedding, Timothy R.; Stello, Dennis; Arentoft, Torben; Kjeldsen, Hans; Gruberbauer, Michael; Guenther, David B.; Houdek, Guenter; Kallinger, Thomas; Weiss, Werner W.; Matthews, Jaymie M.

    2011-04-20

    We compare the simultaneous 2007 space-based MOST photometry and ground-based radial velocity (RV) observations of the F5 star Procyon. We identify slow variations in the MOST data that are similar to those reported in the RV time series and confirm by comparison with the Sun that these variations are likely the signature of stellar activity. The MOST power spectrum yields clear evidence for individual oscillation frequencies that match those found in the RV data by Bedding et al. We identify the same ridges due to modes of different spherical degree in both data sets, but are not able to confirm a definite ridge identification using the MOST data. We measure the luminosity amplitude per radial mode A{sub l=0,phot} = 9.1 {+-} 0.5 ppm. Combined with the estimate for the RV data by Arentoft et al., this gives a mean amplitude ratio of A{sub l=0,phot}/A{sub l=0,RV} = 0.24 {+-} 0.02 ppm cm{sup -1} s, considerably higher than expected from scaling relations but in reasonable agreement with theoretical models by Houdek. We also compare the amplitude ratio as a function of frequency and find that the maximum of the oscillation envelope is shifted to higher frequencies in photometry than in velocity.

  9. Acoustic impedance measurements of pulse tube refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwase, Takashi; Biwa, Tetsushi; Yazaki, Taichi

    2010-02-01

    Complex acoustic impedance is determined in a prototype refrigerator that can mimic orifice-type, inertance-type, and double inlet-type pulse tube refrigerators from simultaneous measurements of pressure and velocity oscillations at the cold end. The impedance measurements revealed the means by which the oscillatory flow condition in the basic pulse tube refrigerator is improved by additional components such as a valve and a tank. The working mechanism of pulse tube refrigerators is explained based on an electrical circuit analogy.

  10. Acoustic forcing of a liquid drop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyell, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    The development of systems such as acoustic levitation chambers will allow for the positioning and manipulation of material samples (drops) in a microgravity environment. This provides the capability for fundamental studies in droplet dynamics as well as containerless processing work. Such systems use acoustic radiation pressure forces to position or to further manipulate (e.g., oscillate) the sample. The primary objective was to determine the effect of a viscous acoustic field/tangential radiation pressure forcing on drop oscillations. To this end, the viscous acoustic field is determined. Modified (forced) hydrodynamic field equations which result from a consistent perturbation expansion scheme are solved. This is done in the separate cases of an unmodulated and a modulated acoustic field. The effect of the tangential radiation stress on the hydrodynamic field (drop oscillations) is found to manifest as a correction to the velocity field in a sublayer region near the drop/host interface. Moreover, the forcing due to the radiation pressure vector at the interface is modified by inclusion of tangential stresses.

  11. Acoustic velocity log numerical simulation and saturation estimation of gas hydrate reservoir in Shenhu area, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Kun; Zou, Changchun; Xiang, Biao; Liu, Jieqiong

    2013-01-01

    Gas hydrate model and free gas model are established, and two-phase theory (TPT) for numerical simulation of elastic wave velocity is adopted to investigate the unconsolidated deep-water sedimentary strata in Shenhu area, South China Sea. The relationships between compression wave (P wave) velocity and gas hydrate saturation, free gas saturation, and sediment porosity at site SH2 are studied, respectively, and gas hydrate saturation of research area is estimated by gas hydrate model. In depth of 50 to 245 m below seafloor (mbsf), as sediment porosity decreases, P wave velocity increases gradually; as gas hydrate saturation increases, P wave velocity increases gradually; as free gas saturation increases, P wave velocity decreases. This rule is almost consistent with the previous research result. In depth of 195 to 220 mbsf, the actual measurement of P wave velocity increases significantly relative to the P wave velocity of saturated water modeling, and this layer is determined to be rich in gas hydrate. The average value of gas hydrate saturation estimated from the TPT model is 23.2%, and the maximum saturation is 31.5%, which is basically in accordance with simplified three-phase equation (STPE), effective medium theory (EMT), resistivity log (Rt), and chloride anomaly method.

  12. Acoustic Velocity Log Numerical Simulation and Saturation Estimation of Gas Hydrate Reservoir in Shenhu Area, South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Kun; Zou, Changchun; Xiang, Biao; Liu, Jieqiong

    2013-01-01

    Gas hydrate model and free gas model are established, and two-phase theory (TPT) for numerical simulation of elastic wave velocity is adopted to investigate the unconsolidated deep-water sedimentary strata in Shenhu area, South China Sea. The relationships between compression wave (P wave) velocity and gas hydrate saturation, free gas saturation, and sediment porosity at site SH2 are studied, respectively, and gas hydrate saturation of research area is estimated by gas hydrate model. In depth of 50 to 245 m below seafloor (mbsf), as sediment porosity decreases, P wave velocity increases gradually; as gas hydrate saturation increases, P wave velocity increases gradually; as free gas saturation increases, P wave velocity decreases. This rule is almost consistent with the previous research result. In depth of 195 to 220 mbsf, the actual measurement of P wave velocity increases significantly relative to the P wave velocity of saturated water modeling, and this layer is determined to be rich in gas hydrate. The average value of gas hydrate saturation estimated from the TPT model is 23.2%, and the maximum saturation is 31.5%, which is basically in accordance with simplified three-phase equation (STPE), effective medium theory (EMT), resistivity log (Rt), and chloride anomaly method. PMID:23935407

  13. Canonical Acoustics and Its Application to Surface Acoustic Wave on Acoustic Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jian Qi

    2016-08-01

    In a conventional formalism of acoustics, acoustic pressure p and velocity field u are used for characterizing acoustic waves propagating inside elastic/acoustic materials. We shall treat some fundamental problems relevant to acoustic wave propagation alternatively by using canonical acoustics (a more concise and compact formalism of acoustic dynamics), in which an acoustic scalar potential and an acoustic vector potential (Φ ,V), instead of the conventional acoustic field quantities such as acoustic pressure and velocity field (p,u) for characterizing acoustic waves, have been defined as the fundamental variables. The canonical formalism of the acoustic energy-momentum tensor is derived in terms of the acoustic potentials. Both the acoustic Hamiltonian density and the acoustic Lagrangian density have been defined, and based on this formulation, the acoustic wave quantization in a fluid is also developed. Such a formalism of acoustic potentials is employed to the problem of negative-mass-density assisted surface acoustic wave that is a highly localized surface bound state (an eigenstate of the acoustic wave equations). Since such a surface acoustic wave can be strongly confined to an interface between an acoustic metamaterial (e.g., fluid-solid composite structures with a negative dynamical mass density) and an ordinary material (with a positive mass density), it will give rise to an effect of acoustic field enhancement on the acoustic interface, and would have potential applications in acoustic device design for acoustic wave control.

  14. High-frequency acoustic charge transport in GaAs nanowires.

    PubMed

    Büyükköse, S; Hernández-Mínguez, A; Vratzov, B; Somaschini, C; Geelhaar, L; Riechert, H; van der Wiel, W G; Santos, P V

    2014-04-04

    The oscillating piezoelectric fields accompanying surface acoustic waves are able to transport charge carriers in semiconductor heterostructures. Here, we demonstrate high-frequency (above 1 GHz) acoustic charge transport in GaAs-based nanowires deposited on a piezoelectric substrate. The short wavelength of the acoustic modulation, smaller than the length of the nanowire, allows the trapping of photo-generated electrons and holes at the spatially separated energy minima and maxima of conduction and valence bands, respectively, and their transport along the nanowire with a well defined acoustic velocity towards indium-doped recombination centers.

  15. Hot-pressing and characterization of polycrystals of. beta. -Mg sub 2 SiO sub 4 for acoustic velocity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Gwanmesia, G.D.; Liebermann, R.C.; Guyot, F. )

    1990-08-01

    Hot-pressing techniques have been developed for a 2,000-ton uniaxial split-sphere apparatus (USSA 2000) to fabricate polycrystalline specimens of high-pressure phases of mantle minerals at pressures up to 18 GPa and temperatures up to 1,400C. Cylindrical specimens (3 mm in diameter and 2-3 mm long) of the beta-phase of Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} were synthesized using a NaCl cell and recovered at ambient conditions by simultaneously decompressing and cooling along a computer-controlled P-T path designed to preserve the high-pressure phase and anneal strains in the polycrystalline aggregates. These specimens are single-phased, fine-grained ({le} 5 micron), free of microcracks and preferred orientation and have bulk densities greater than 99% of x-ray density. Ultrasonic interferometry measurements of the P-wave and S-wave velocities demonstrate that the polycrystals are isotropic and exhibit velocities within 2% of the Hashin-Shtrikman averages calculated from the single-crystal elastic moduli. The successful fabrication of these high-quality polycrystalline specimens makes feasible experiments to determine the pressure dependence of the acoustic velocities for high-pressure phase of mantle minerals.

  16. REGARDING THE LINE-OF-SIGHT BARYONIC ACOUSTIC FEATURE IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY AND BARYON OSCILLATION SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY LUMINOUS RED GALAXY SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Kazin, Eyal A.; Blanton, Michael R.; Scoccimarro, Roman; McBride, Cameron K.; Berlind, Andreas A.

    2010-08-20

    We analyze the line-of-sight baryonic acoustic feature in the two-point correlation function {xi} of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey luminous red galaxy (LRG) sample (0.16 < z < 0.47). By defining a narrow line-of-sight region, r{sub p} < 5.5 h {sup -1} Mpc, where r{sub p} is the transverse separation component, we measure a strong excess of clustering at {approx}110 h {sup -1} Mpc, as previously reported in the literature. We also test these results in an alternative coordinate system, by defining the line of sight as {theta} < 3{sup 0}, where {theta} is the opening angle. This clustering excess appears much stronger than the feature in the better-measured monopole. A fiducial {Lambda}CDM nonlinear model in redshift space predicts a much weaker signature. We use realistic mock catalogs to model the expected signal and noise. We find that the line-of-sight measurements can be explained well by our mocks as well as by a featureless {xi} = 0. We conclude that there is no convincing evidence that the strong clustering measurement is the line-of-sight baryonic acoustic feature. We also evaluate how detectable such a signal would be in the upcoming Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) LRG volume. Mock LRG catalogs (z < 0.6) suggest that (1) the narrow line-of-sight cylinder and cone defined above probably will not reveal a detectable acoustic feature in BOSS; (2) a clustering measurement as high as that in the current sample can be ruled out (or confirmed) at a high confidence level using a BOSS-sized data set; (3) an analysis with wider angular cuts, which provide better signal-to-noise ratios, can nevertheless be used to compare line-of-sight and transverse distances, and thereby constrain the expansion rate H(z) and diameter distance D{sub A}(z).

  17. Evidence for the Kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope and Velocity Reconstruction from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaan, Emmanuel S.; Ferraro, Simone; Vargas-Magana, Mariana; Smith, Kendrick M.; Ho, Shirley; Aiola, Simone; Battaglia, Nicholas; Bond, J. Richard; De Bernardis, Francesco; Calabrese, Erminia; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    We use microwave temperature maps from two seasons of data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope at 146 GHz, together with the "Constant Mass" CMASS galaxy sample from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey to measure the kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) effect over the redshift range z1/4 0.4-0.7. We use galaxy positions and the continuity equation to obtain a reconstruction of the line-of-sight velocity field. We stack the microwave temperature at the location of each halo, weighted by the corresponding reconstructed velocity. We vary the size of the aperture photometry filter used, thus probing the free electron profile of these halos from within the virial radius out to three virial radii, on the scales relevant for investigating the missing baryons problem. The resulting best fit kSZ model is preferred over the no-kSZ hypothesis at 3.3 and 2.9 sigma for two independent velocity reconstruction methods, using 25,537 galaxies over 660 square degrees. The data suggest that the baryon profile is shallower than the dark matter in the inner regions of the halos probed here, potentially due to energy injection from active galactic nucleus or supernovae. Thus, by constraining the gas profile on a wide range of scales, this technique will be useful for understanding the role of feedback in galaxy groups and clusters. The effect of foregrounds that are uncorrelated with the galaxy velocities is expected to be well below our signal, and residual thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich contamination is controlled by masking the most massive clusters. Finally, we discuss the systematics involved in converting our measurement of the kSZ amplitude into the mean free electron fraction of the halos in our sample.

  18. Evidence for the kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope and velocity reconstruction from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaan, Emmanuel; Ferraro, Simone; Vargas-Magaña, Mariana; Smith, Kendrick M.; Ho, Shirley; Aiola, Simone; Battaglia, Nicholas; Bond, J. Richard; De Bernardis, Francesco; Calabrese, Erminia; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Devlin, Mark J.; Dunkley, Joanna; Gallardo, Patricio A.; Hasselfield, Matthew; Henderson, Shawn; Hill, J. Colin; Hincks, Adam D.; Hlozek, Renée; Hubmayr, Johannes; Hughes, John P.; Irwin, Kent D.; Koopman, Brian; Kosowsky, Arthur; Li, Dale; Louis, Thibaut; Lungu, Marius; Madhavacheril, Mathew; Maurin, Loïc; McMahon, Jeffrey John; Moodley, Kavilan; Naess, Sigurd; Nati, Federico; Newburgh, Laura; Niemack, Michael D.; Page, Lyman A.; Pappas, Christine G.; Partridge, Bruce; Schmitt, Benjamin L.; Sehgal, Neelima; Sherwin, Blake D.; Sievers, Jonathan L.; Spergel, David N.; Staggs, Suzanne T.; van Engelen, Alexander; Wollack, Edward J.; ACTPol Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    We use microwave temperature maps from two seasons of data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope at 146 GHz, together with the "Constant Mass" CMASS galaxy sample from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey to measure the kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) effect over the redshift range z =0.4 - 0.7 . We use galaxy positions and the continuity equation to obtain a reconstruction of the line-of-sight velocity field. We stack the microwave temperature at the location of each halo, weighted by the corresponding reconstructed velocity. We vary the size of the aperture photometry filter used, thus probing the free electron profile of these halos from within the virial radius out to three virial radii, on the scales relevant for investigating the missing baryons problem. The resulting best fit kSZ model is preferred over the no-kSZ hypothesis at 3.3 and 2.9 σ for two independent velocity reconstruction methods, using 25,537 galaxies over 660 square degrees. The data suggest that the baryon profile is shallower than the dark matter in the inner regions of the halos probed here, potentially due to energy injection from active galactic nucleus or supernovae. Thus, by constraining the gas profile on a wide range of scales, this technique will be useful for understanding the role of feedback in galaxy groups and clusters. The effect of foregrounds that are uncorrelated with the galaxy velocities is expected to be well below our signal, and residual thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich contamination is controlled by masking the most massive clusters. Finally, we discuss the systematics involved in converting our measurement of the kSZ amplitude into the mean free electron fraction of the halos in our sample.

  19. Acoustic attenuation, phase and group velocities in liquid-filled pipes II: simulation for Spallation Neutron Sources and planetary exploration.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jian; Baik, Kyungmin; Leighton, Timothy G

    2011-08-01

    This paper uses a finite element method (FEM) to compare predictions of the attenuation and sound speeds of acoustic modes in a fluid-filled pipe with those of the analytical model presented in the first paper in this series. It explains why, when the predictions of the earlier paper were compared with experimental data from a water-filled PMMA pipe, the uncertainties and agreement for attenuation data were worse than those for sound speed data. Having validated the FEM approach in this way, the versatility of FEM is thereafter demonstrated by modeling two practical applications which are beyond the analysis of the earlier paper. These applications model propagation in the mercury-filled steel pipework of the Spallation Neutron Source at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Tennessee), and in a long-standing design for acoustic sensors for use on planetary probes. The results show that strong coupling between the fluid and the solid walls means that erroneous interpretations are made of the data if they assume that the sound speed and attenuation in the fluid in the pipe are the same as those that would be measured in an infinite volume of identical fluid, assumptions which are common when such data have previously been interpreted.

  20. Studies of the acoustic transmission characteristics of coaxial nozzles with inverted velocity profiles, volume 1. [jet engine noise radiation through coannular exhaust nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, P. D.; Salikuddin, M.; Ahuja, K. K.; Plumblee, H. E.; Mungur, P.

    1979-01-01

    The efficiency of internal noise radiation through coannular exhaust nozzle with an inverted velocity profile was studied. A preliminary investigation was first undertaken to: (1) define the test parameters which influence the internal noise radiation; (2) develop a test methodology which could realistically be used to examine the effects of the test parameters; (3) and to validate this methodology. The result was the choice of an acoustic impulse as the internal noise source in the in the jet nozzles. Noise transmission characteristics of a nozzle system were then investigated. In particular, the effects of fan nozzle convergence angle, core extention length to annulus height ratio, and flow Mach number and temperatures were studied. The results are presented as normalized directivity plots.

  1. A novel multi-segment path analysis based on a heterogeneous velocity model for the localization of acoustic emission sources in complex propagation media.

    PubMed

    Gollob, Stephan; Kocur, Georg Karl; Schumacher, Thomas; Mhamdi, Lassaad; Vogel, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    In acoustic emission analysis, common source location algorithms assume, independently of the nature of the propagation medium, a straight (shortest) wave path between the source and the sensors. For heterogeneous media such as concrete, the wave travels in complex paths due to the interaction with the dissimilar material contents and with the possible geometrical and material irregularities present in these media. For instance, cracks and large air voids present in concrete influence significantly the way the wave travels, by causing wave path deviations. Neglecting these deviations by assuming straight paths can introduce significant errors to the source location results. In this paper, a novel source localization method called FastWay is proposed. It accounts, contrary to most available shortest path-based methods, for the different effects of material discontinuities (cracks and voids). FastWay, based on a heterogeneous velocity model, uses the fastest rather than the shortest travel paths between the source and each sensor. The method was evaluated both numerically and experimentally and the results from both evaluation tests show that, in general, FastWay was able to locate sources of acoustic emissions more accurately and reliably than the traditional source localization methods.

  2. Comparison of ultrasound B-mode, strain imaging, acoustic radiation force impulse displacement and shear wave velocity imaging using real time clinical breast images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manickam, Kavitha; Machireddy, Ramasubba Reddy; Raghavan, Bagyam

    2016-04-01

    It has been observed that many pathological process increase the elastic modulus of soft tissue compared to normal. In order to image tissue stiffness using ultrasound, a mechanical compression is applied to tissues of interest and local tissue deformation is measured. Based on the mechanical excitation, ultrasound stiffness imaging methods are classified as compression or strain imaging which is based on external compression and Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging which is based on force generated by focused ultrasound. When ultrasound is focused on tissue, shear wave is generated in lateral direction and shear wave velocity is proportional to stiffness of tissues. The work presented in this paper investigates strain elastography and ARFI imaging in clinical cancer diagnostics using real time patient data. Ultrasound B-mode imaging, strain imaging, ARFI displacement and ARFI shear wave velocity imaging were conducted on 50 patients (31 Benign and 23 malignant categories) using Siemens S2000 machine. True modulus contrast values were calculated from the measured shear wave velocities. For ultrasound B-mode, ARFI displacement imaging and strain imaging, observed image contrast and Contrast to Noise Ratio were calculated for benign and malignant cancers. Observed contrast values were compared based on the true modulus contrast values calculated from shear wave velocity imaging. In addition to that, student unpaired t-test was conducted for all the four techniques and box plots are presented. Results show that, strain imaging is better for malignant cancers whereas ARFI imaging is superior than strain imaging and B-mode for benign lesions representations.

  3. Propagation of Electron Acoustic Soliton, Periodic and Shock Waves in Dissipative Plasma with a q-Nonextensive Electron Velocity Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hanbaly, A. M.; El-Shewy, E. K.; Elgarayhi, A.; Kassem, A. I.

    2015-11-01

    The nonlinear properties of small amplitude electron-acoustic (EA) solitary and shock waves in a homogeneous system of unmagnetized collisionless plasma with nonextensive distribution for hot electrons have been investigated. A reductive perturbation method used to obtain the Kadomstev-Petviashvili-Burgers equation. Bifurcation analysis has been discussed for non-dissipative system in the absence of Burgers term and reveals different classes of the traveling wave solutions. The obtained solutions are related to periodic and soliton waves and their behavior are shown graphically. In the presence of the Burgers term, the EXP-function method is used to solve the Kadomstev-Petviashvili-Burgers equation and the obtained solution is related to shock wave. The obtained results may be helpful in better conception of waves propagation in various space plasma environments as well as in inertial confinement fusion laboratory plasmas.

  4. Modulational instability of ion-acoustic waves in plasma with a q-nonextensive nonthermal electron velocity distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Bouzit, Omar Tribeche, Mouloud E-mail: mtribeche@usthb.dz; Bains, A. S.

    2015-08-15

    Modulation instability of ion-acoustic waves (IAWs) is investigated in a collisionless unmagnetized one dimensional plasma, containing positive ions and electrons following the mixed nonextensive nonthermal distribution [Tribeche et al., Phys. Rev. E 85, 037401 (2012)]. Using the reductive perturbation technique, a nonlinear Schrödinger equation which governs the modulation instability of the IAWs is obtained. Valid range of plasma parameters has been fixed and their effects on the modulational instability discussed in detail. We find that the plasma supports both bright and dark solutions. The valid domain for the wave number k where instabilities set in varies with both nonextensive parameter q as well as non thermal parameter α. Moreover, the analysis is extended for the rational solutions of IAWs in the instability regime. Present study is useful for the understanding of IAWs in the region where such mixed distribution may exist.

  5. Dust ion-acoustic shock waves in charge varying dusty plasmas with electrons having vortexlike velocity distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Alinejad, H.; Tribeche, M.

    2010-12-15

    A weakly nonlinear analysis is carried out to investigate the properties of dust ion-acoustic shock waves in a charge varying dusty plasma with vortexlike electron distribution. We use the ionization model, hot ions with equilibrium streaming speed and a trapped electron charging current derived from the well-known orbit limited motion theory. A new modified Burger equation is derived. Besides nonlinear trapping, this equation involves two kinds of dissipation (the anomalous one inherent to nonadiabatic dust charge fluctuation and the one due to the particle loss and ionization). These two kinds of dissipation can act concurrently. The traveling wave solution has been acquired by employing the modified extended tanh-function method. The shocklike solution is numerically analyzed based on the typical numerical data from laboratory dusty plasma devices. It is found that ion temperature, trapped particles, and weak dissipations significantly modify the shock structures.

  6. Application of acoustic-Doppler current profiler and expendable bathythermograph measurements to the study of the velocity structure and transport of the Gulf Stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyce, T. M.; Dunworth, J. A.; Schubert, D. M.; Stalcup, M. C.; Barbour, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    The degree to which Acoustic-Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) and expendable bathythermograph (XBT) data can provide quantitative measurements of the velocity structure and transport of the Gulf Stream is addressed. An algorithm is used to generate salinity from temperature and depth using an historical Temperature/Salinity relation for the NW Atlantic. Results have been simulated using CTD data and comparing real and pseudo salinity files. Errors are typically less than 2 dynamic cm for the upper 800 m out of a total signal of 80 cm (across the Gulf Stream). When combined with ADCP data for a near-surface reference velocity, transport errors in isopycnal layers are less than about 1 Sv (10 to the 6th power cu m/s), as is the difference in total transport for the upper 800 m between real and pseudo data. The method is capable of measuring the real variability of the Gulf Stream, and when combined with altimeter data, can provide estimates of the geoid slope with oceanic errors of a few parts in 10 to the 8th power over horizontal scales of 500 km.

  7. Gaseous bubble oscillations in anisotropic non-Newtonian fluids under influence of high-frequency acoustic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golykh, R. N.

    2016-06-01

    Progress of technology and medicine dictates the ever-increasing requirements (heat resistance, corrosion resistance, strength properties, impregnating ability, etc.) for non-Newtonian fluids and materials produced on their basis (epoxy resin, coating materials, liquid crystals, etc.). Materials with improved properties obtaining is possible by modification of their physicochemical structure. One of the most promising approaches to the restructuring of non-Newtonian fluids is cavitation generated by high-frequency acoustic vibrations. The efficiency of cavitation in non-Newtonian fluid is determined by dynamics of gaseous bubble. Today, bubble dynamics in isotropic non-Newtonian fluids, in which cavitation bubble shape remains spherical, is most full investigated, because the problem reduces to ordinary differential equation for spherical bubble radius. However, gaseous bubble in anisotropic fluids which are most wide kind of non-Newtonian fluids (due to orientation of macromolecules) deviates from spherical shape due to viscosity dependence on shear rate direction. Therefore, the paper presents the mathematical model of gaseous bubble dynamics in anisotropic non-Newtonian fluids. The model is based on general equations for anisotropic non-Newtonian fluid flow. The equations are solved by asymptotic decomposition of fluid flow parameters. It allowed evaluating bubble size and shape evolution depending on rheological properties of liquid and acoustic field characteristics.

  8. Local perturbations of the upper layers of a sun-like star: The impact on the acoustic oscillation spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Brito, Ana; Lopes, Ilídio E-mail: ilidio.lopes@ist.utl.pt

    2014-02-10

    In the last decade, the quality and the amount of observational asteroseismic data that has been made available by space based missions had a tremendous upgrowth. The determination of asteroseismic parameters to estimate the fundamental physical processes occurring in stars' interiors can be done today in a way that has never been possible before. In this work, we propose to compute the seismic observable β, which is a proxy of the phase shift of the acoustic modes propagating in the envelope of the Sun-like stars. This seismic parameter β can be used to identify rapid variation regions usually known as glitches. We show that a small variation in the structure, smaller than 1% in the sound speed, produces a glitch in the acoustic potential that could explain the oscillatory character of β. This method allows us to determine the location and the thickness of the glitch with precision. We applied this idea to the Sun-like star α Centauri A and found a glitch located at approximately 0.94 R (1400 s) and with a thickness of 0.2% of the stars' radius. This is fully consistent with the data and also validates other seismic tests.

  9. Hepatic and Splenic Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Shear Wave Velocity Elastography in Children with Liver Disease Associated with Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Cañas, Teresa; Maciá, Araceli; Muñoz-Codoceo, Rosa Ana; Fontanilla, Teresa; González-Rios, Patricia; Miralles, María; Gómez-Mardones, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Background. Liver disease associated with cystic fibrosis (CFLD) is the second cause of mortality in these patients. The diagnosis is difficult because none of the available tests are specific enough. Noninvasive elastographic techniques have been proven to be useful to diagnose hepatic fibrosis. Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging is an elastography imaging system. The purpose of the work was to study the utility of liver and spleen ARFI Imaging in the detection of CFLD. Method. 72 patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) were studied and received ARFI imaging in the liver and in the spleen. SWV values were compared with the values of 60 healthy controls. Results. Comparing the SWV values of CFLD with the control healthy group, values in the right lobe were higher in patients with CFLD. We found a SWV RHL cut-off value to detect CFLD of 1.27 m/s with a sensitivity of 56.5% and a specificity of 90.5%. CF patients were found to have higher SWC spleen values than the control group. Conclusions. ARFI shear wave elastography in the right hepatic lobe is a noninvasive technique useful to detect CFLD in our sample of patients. Splenic SWV values are higher in CF patients, without any clinical consequence. PMID:26609528

  10. Characterizing spatial variability in velocity and turbulence intensity using 3-D acoustic Doppler velocimeter data in a plane-bed reach of East St. Louis Creek, Colorado, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Gabrielle C. L.; Legleiter, Carl J.; Wohl, Ellen; Yochum, Steven E.

    2013-02-01

    We investigated the influence on flow resistance of flow structure and turbulence at the reach scale in a mountain channel using 3-D velocity measurements and geostatistical analysis to understand the complexity of the flow structure in a reach with limited bed irregularities. The increase in flow resistance at low flows in a plane-bed reach was not fully explained by grain resistance, therefore detailed 3-D velocity measurements were made to investigate spatial variability in velocity and turbulence components and potential controls on flow resistance. One plane-bed reach was surveyed over two stages in Fraser Experimental Forest, Colorado, using a combination of a total station, LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging), and a SonTek Flowtracker handheld ADV (acoustic Doppler velocimeter). LiDAR was used to capture bank and channel geometry at low flows, whereas the water surface and bed data were collected with the total station at all flows. We used the standard deviation of bed elevation (σb) within a moving window as an index of roughness height (ks) and calculated the relative submergence of the bed at different stages as h/ks, where h is the local flow depth. ADV measurements were collected on a grid with a 0.3 m to 0.5 m spacing. Geostatistical analysis of the velocity data indicated that the flow was highly three-dimensional and varied based on stage, demonstrating that even small irregularities in the bed have a significant influence on the flow characteristics. The streamwise component was the largest at both low and high flow, but varied more throughout the reach at low flow. At high flow, the greatest streamwise velocities were located within the thalweg. Areas of upwelling and downwelling also varied based on stage, with this component being strongly influenced by small changes in the morphology at high flow, and by protuberant grains at low flows. The cross-stream velocity and turbulence components were controlled by the flow structure and less by the

  11. Acoustic modes in fluid networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalopoulos, C. D.; Clark, Robert W., Jr.; Doiron, Harold H.

    1992-01-01

    Pressure and flow rate eigenvalue problems for one-dimensional flow of a fluid in a network of pipes are derived from the familiar transmission line equations. These equations are linearized by assuming small velocity and pressure oscillations about mean flow conditions. It is shown that the flow rate eigenvalues are the same as the pressure eigenvalues and the relationship between line pressure modes and flow rate modes is established. A volume at the end of each branch is employed which allows any combination of boundary conditions, from open to closed, to be used. The Jacobi iterative method is used to compute undamped natural frequencies and associated pressure/flow modes. Several numerical examples are presented which include acoustic modes for the Helium Supply System of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Main Propulsion System. It should be noted that the method presented herein can be applied to any one-dimensional acoustic system involving an arbitrary number of branches.

  12. Comparison, analysis, and estimation of discharge data from two acoustic velocity meters on the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal at Romeoville, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melching, Charles S.; Oberg, Kevin A.

    1993-01-01

    The acoustic velocity meter (AVM) on the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (the Canal) at Romeoville, Ill., provides vital information for the accounting of the diversion of water from Lake Michigan. A detailed analysis of the discharge record on the Canal at Romeoville was done by the U.S. Geological Survey to establish the most accurate estimates of discharge for water years 1986-91. The analysis involved (1) checking the consistency of the discharges estimated by two different AVM's installed at Romeoville for consecutive time periods by statistical and regression analyses, (2) adjusting the discharge record to account for corrections to the width and depth of the Canal determined by field measurements, and (3) development of equations for estimating discharge on days when the AVM was inoperative using discharge estimates made by the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago at the lock, powerhouse, and controlling works at Lockport, Ill. No signi- ficant difference in the discharge estimates made by the two AVM's could be documented. The estimation equations combined regression analysis with physical principles of the outlet-works operation. The estimation equations simulated the verification period of October 1, 1991, to May 31, 1992, within 0.22, 5.15, and 0.66 percent for the mean, standard deviation, and skewness coefficient, respectively. Discharges were recalculated for the corrected width and depth, estimated for the periods of AVM inoperation, and entered into the discharge record for the station.

  13. Experimental determination of the dynamics of an acoustically levitated sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Pérez, Nicolás; Andrade, Marco A. B.; Canetti, Rafael; Adamowski, Julio C.

    2014-11-14

    Levitation of solids and liquids by ultrasonic standing waves is a promising technique to manipulate materials without contact. When a small particle is introduced in certain areas of a standing wave field, the acoustic radiation force pushes the particle to the pressure node. This movement is followed by oscillations of the levitated particle. Aiming to investigate the particle oscillations in acoustic levitation, this paper presents the experimental and numerical characterization of the dynamic behavior of a levitated sphere. To obtain the experimental response, a small sphere is lifted by the acoustic radiation force. After the sphere lift, it presents a damped oscillatory behavior, which is recorded by a high speed camera. To model this behavior, a mass-spring-damper system is proposed. In this model, the acoustic radiation force that acts on the sphere is theoretically predicted by the Gor'kov theory and the viscous forces are modeled by two damping terms, one term proportional to the square of the velocity and another term proportional to the particle velocity. The proposed model was experimentally verified by using different values of sound pressure amplitude. The comparison between numerical and experimental results shows that the model can accurately describe the oscillatory behavior of the sphere in an acoustic levitator.

  14. Theoretical study of time-dependent, ultrasound-induced acoustic streaming in microchannels.

    PubMed

    Muller, Peter Barkholt; Bruus, Henrik

    2015-12-01

    Based on first- and second-order perturbation theory, we present a numerical study of the temporal buildup and decay of unsteady acoustic fields and acoustic streaming flows actuated by vibrating walls in the transverse cross-sectional plane of a long straight microchannel under adiabatic conditions and assuming temperature-independent material parameters. The unsteady streaming flow is obtained by averaging the time-dependent velocity field over one oscillation period, and as time increases, it is shown to converge towards the well-known steady time-averaged solution calculated in the frequency domain. Scaling analysis reveals that the acoustic resonance builds up much faster than the acoustic streaming, implying that the radiation force may dominate over the drag force from streaming even for small particles. However, our numerical time-dependent analysis indicates that pulsed actuation does not reduce streaming significantly due to its slow decay. Our analysis also shows that for an acoustic resonance with a quality factor Q, the amplitude of the oscillating second-order velocity component is Q times larger than the usual second-order steady time-averaged velocity component. Consequently, the well-known criterion v(1)≪c(s) for the validity of the perturbation expansion is replaced by the more restrictive criterion v(1)≪c(s)/Q. Our numerical model is available as supplemental material in the form of comsol model files and matlab scripts.

  15. Downstream boundary effects on the frequency of self-excited oscillations in transonic diffuser flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsieh, T.; Coakley, T. J.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation of downstream boundary effects on the frequency of self-excited oscillations in two-dimensional, separated transonic diffuser flows has been conducted numerically by solving the compressible, Reynolds-averaged, thin-layer Navier-Stokes equation with a two-equation turbulence model. It was found that the unsteady diffuser flowfields are very sensitive to the location of the downstream boundary. Extension of the diffuser downstream boundary significantly reduces the frequency and amplitude of oscillations for pressure, velocity and shock. Computational results suggest that the mechanism causing the self-excited oscillation changes from viscous convective wave dominated oscillations to inviscid acoustic wave dominated oscillations when the location of downstream boundary varies from 8.66 to 134.7 throat height. The existence of a suction slot in the experimental setup obscures the physical downstream boundary and, therefore, presents a difficulty for quantitative comparisons between computation and experiment.

  16. SU-D-210-07: The Dependence On Acoustic Velocity of Medium On the Needle Template and Electronic Grid Alignment in Ultrasound QA for Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kapoor, P; Kapoor, R; Curran, B

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To analyze the impact on acoustic velocity (AV) of two different media (water and milk) using the needle template/electronic grid alignment test. Water, easily available, makes a good material to test the alignment of the template and grid although water’s AV (1498 m/s at 25°C) is significantly different from tissue (1540 m/s). Milk, with an AV much closer (1548 m/s) to prostate tissue, may be a good substitute for water in ultrasound quality assurance testing. Methods: Tests were performed using a Hitachi ultrasound unit with a mechanical arrangement designed to position needles parallel to the transducer. In this work, two materials – distilled water and homogenized whole milk (AVs of 1498 and 1548 m/s at 25°C) were used in a phantom to test ultrasound needle/grid alignment. The images were obtained with both materials and analyzed for their placement accuracy. Results: The needle template/electronic grid alignment tests showed displacement errors between measured and calculated values. The measurements showed displacements of 2.3mm (water) and 0.4mm (milk), and 1.6mm (water) and 0.3mm (milk) at depths of 7cm and 5cm respectively from true needle positions. The calculated results showed a displacement of 2.36 mm (water); 0.435mm (milk), and 1.66mm (water) and 0.31mm (milk) at a depth of 7cm and 5cm respectively. The displacements in the X and Y directions were also calculated. At depths of 7cm and 5cm, the (ΔX,ΔY) displacements in water were (0.829mm, 2.21mm) and (0.273mm, 1.634mm) and for milk were (0.15mm, 0.44mm) and (0.05mm, 0.302mm) respectively. Conclusion: The measured and calculated values were in good agreement for all tests. They show that milk provides superior results when performing needle template and electronic grid alignment tests for ultrasound units used in prostate brachytherapy.

  17. Acoustic biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Fogel, Ronen; Seshia, Ashwin A.

    2016-01-01

    Resonant and acoustic wave devices have been researched for several decades for application in the gravimetric sensing of a variety of biological and chemical analytes. These devices operate by coupling the measurand (e.g. analyte adsorption) as a modulation in the physical properties of the acoustic wave (e.g. resonant frequency, acoustic velocity, dissipation) that can then be correlated with the amount of adsorbed analyte. These devices can also be miniaturized with advantages in terms of cost, size and scalability, as well as potential additional features including integration with microfluidics and electronics, scaled sensitivities associated with smaller dimensions and higher operational frequencies, the ability to multiplex detection across arrays of hundreds of devices embedded in a single chip, increased throughput and the ability to interrogate a wider range of modes including within the same device. Additionally, device fabrication is often compatible with semiconductor volume batch manufacturing techniques enabling cost scalability and a high degree of precision and reproducibility in the manufacturing process. Integration with microfluidics handling also enables suitable sample pre-processing/separation/purification/amplification steps that could improve selectivity and the overall signal-to-noise ratio. Three device types are reviewed here: (i) bulk acoustic wave sensors, (ii) surface acoustic wave sensors, and (iii) micro/nano-electromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) sensors. PMID:27365040

  18. Acoustic biosensors.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Ronen; Limson, Janice; Seshia, Ashwin A

    2016-06-30

    Resonant and acoustic wave devices have been researched for several decades for application in the gravimetric sensing of a variety of biological and chemical analytes. These devices operate by coupling the measurand (e.g. analyte adsorption) as a modulation in the physical properties of the acoustic wave (e.g. resonant frequency, acoustic velocity, dissipation) that can then be correlated with the amount of adsorbed analyte. These devices can also be miniaturized with advantages in terms of cost, size and scalability, as well as potential additional features including integration with microfluidics and electronics, scaled sensitivities associated with smaller dimensions and higher operational frequencies, the ability to multiplex detection across arrays of hundreds of devices embedded in a single chip, increased throughput and the ability to interrogate a wider range of modes including within the same device. Additionally, device fabrication is often compatible with semiconductor volume batch manufacturing techniques enabling cost scalability and a high degree of precision and reproducibility in the manufacturing process. Integration with microfluidics handling also enables suitable sample pre-processing/separation/purification/amplification steps that could improve selectivity and the overall signal-to-noise ratio. Three device types are reviewed here: (i) bulk acoustic wave sensors, (ii) surface acoustic wave sensors, and (iii) micro/nano-electromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) sensors.

  19. Numerical methods for large eddy simulation of acoustic combustion instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, Clifton T.

    Acoustic combustion instabilities occur when interaction between the combustion process and acoustic modes in a combustor results in periodic oscillations in pressure, velocity, and heat release. If sufficiently large in amplitude, these instabilities can cause operational difficulties or the failure of combustor hardware. In many situations, the dominant instability is the result of the interaction between a low frequency acoustic mode of the combustor and the large scale hydrodynamics. Large eddy simulation (LES), therefore, is a promising tool for the prediction of these instabilities, since both the low frequency acoustic modes and the large scale hydrodynamics are well resolved in LES. Problems with the tractability of such simulations arise, however, due to the difficulty of solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations efficiently at low Mach number and due to the large number of acoustic periods that are often required for such instabilities to reach limit cycles. An implicit numerical method for the solution of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations has been developed which avoids the acoustic CFL restriction, allowing for significant efficiency gains at low Mach number, while still resolving the low frequency acoustic modes of interest. In the limit of a uniform grid the numerical method causes no artificial damping of acoustic waves. New, non-reflecting boundary conditions have also been developed for use with the characteristic-based approach of Poinsot and Lele (1992). The new boundary conditions are implemented in a manner which allows for significant reduction of the computational domain of an LES by eliminating the need to perform LES in regions where one-dimensional acoustics significantly affect the instability but details of the hydrodynamics do not. These new numerical techniques have been demonstrated in an LES of an experimental combustor. The new techniques are shown to be an efficient means of performing LES of acoustic combustion

  20. Solar Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvall, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Oscillations were first detected in the solar photosphere in 1962 by Leighton and students. In 1970 it was calculated that these oscillations, with a period near five minutes, were the manifestations of acoustic waves trapped in the interior. The subsequent measurements of the frequencies of global oscillation modes from the spatio-temporal power spectrum of the waves made possible the refinement of solar interior models. Over the years, increased understanding of the nuclear reaction rates, the opacity, the equation of state, convection, and gravitational settling have resulted. Mass flows shift the frequencies of modes leading to very accurate measurements of the interior rotation as a function of radius and latitude. In recent years, analogues of terrestrial seismology have led to a tomography of the interior, including measurements of global north-south flows and flow and wave speed measurements below features such as sunspots. The future of helioseismology seems bright with the approval of NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory mission, to be launched in 2008.

  1. Directional Acoustic Density Sensor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-13

    fluctuations of fluid density at a point . (2) DESCRIPTION OF THE PRIOR ART [0004] Conventional vector sensors measure particle velocity, v (vx,Vytvz...dipole-type or first order sensor that is realized by measuring particle velocity at a point , (which is the vector sensor sensing approach for...underwater sensors), or by measuring the gradient of the acoustic pressure at two closely spaced (less than the wavelength of an acoustic wave) points as it

  2. Acoustic neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    Vestibular schwannoma; Tumor - acoustic; Cerebellopontine angle tumor; Angle tumor; Hearing loss - acoustic; Tinnitus - acoustic ... Acoustic neuromas have been linked with the genetic disorder neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). Acoustic neuromas are uncommon.

  3. Effects of thermoacoustic oscillations on spray combustion dynamics with implications for lean direct injection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chishty, Wajid Ali

    between combustor acoustic and heat release and also between combustor acoustics and air through-flow were found to exist. The impact of high amplitude limit-cycle pressure on droplet breakdown under very low mean airflow and the localized effects of forced primary fuel modulations on heat release were also investigated. The non-reacting flow experiments were conducted to study the spray behavior under the presence of an acoustic field. An isothermal acoustic rig was specially fabricated, where the pressure oscillations were generated using an acoustic driver. Phase Doppler Anemometry was used to measure the droplet velocities and sizes under varying acoustic forcing conditions and spray feed pressures. Measurements made at different locations in the spray were related to these variations in mean and unsteady inputs. The droplet velocities were found to show a second order response to acoustic forcing with the cut-off frequency equal to the relaxation time corresponding to mean droplet size. It was also found that under acoustic forcing the droplets migrate radially away from the spray centerline and show oscillatory excursions in their movement. Modeling efforts were undertaken to gain physical insights of spray dynamics under the influence of acoustic forcing and to explain the experimental findings. The radial migration of droplets and their oscillatory movement were validated. The flame characteristics in the two unstable regimes and the transition between them were explained. It was found that under certain acoustic and mean air-flow condition, bands of high droplet densities were formed which resulted in diffusion type group burning of droplets. It was also shown that very high acoustic amplitudes cause secondary breakup of droplets.

  4. Characterization of HIFU transducers designed for sonochemistry application: Acoustic streaming.

    PubMed

    Hallez, L; Touyeras, F; Hihn, J-Y; Bailly, Y

    2016-03-01

    Cavitation distribution in a High Intensity Focused Ultrasound sonoreactors (HIFU) has been extensively described in the recent literature, including quantification by an optical method (Sonochemiluminescence SCL). The present paper provides complementary measurements through the study of acoustic streaming generated by the same kind of HIFU transducers. To this end, results of mass transfer measurements (electrodiffusional method) were compared to optical method ones (Particle Image Velocimetry). This last one was used in various configurations: with or without an electrode in the acoustic field in order to have the same perturbation of the wave propagation. Results show that the maximum velocity is not located at the focal but shifted near the transducer, and that this shift is greater for high powers. The two cavitation modes (stationary and moving bubbles) are greatly affect the hydrodynamic behavior of our sonoreactors: acoustic streaming and the fluid generated by bubble motion. The results obtained by electrochemical measurements show the same low hydrodynamic activity in the transducer vicinity, the same shift of the active focal toward the transducer, and the same absence of activity in the post-focal axial zone. The comparison with theoretical Eckart's velocities (acoustic streaming in non-cavitating media) confirms a very high activity at the "sonochemical focal", accounted for by wave distortion, which induced greater absorption coefficients. Moreover, the equivalent liquid velocities are one order of magnitude larger than the ones measured by PIV, confirming the enhancement of mass transfer by bubbles oscillation and collapse close to the surface, rather than from a pure streaming effect.

  5. Use of acoustic backscatter and vertical velocity to estimate concentration and dynamics of suspended solids in Upper Klamath Lake, south-central Oregon: Implications for Aphanizomenon flos-aquae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Tamara M.; Gartner, Jeffrey W.

    2010-01-01

    Vertical velocity and acoustic backscatter measurements by acoustic Doppler current profilers were used to determine seasonal, subseasonal (days to weeks), and diel variation in suspended solids in a freshwater lake where massive cyanobacterial blooms occur annually. During the growing season, the suspended material in the lake is dominated by the buoyancy-regulating cyanobacteria, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Measured variables (water velocity, relative backscatter [RB], wind speed, and air and water temperatures) were averaged over the deployment season at each sample time of day to determine average diel cycles. Phase shifts between diel cycles in RB and diel cycles in wind speed, vertical water temperature differences (delta T(degree)), and horizontal current speeds were found by determining the lead or lag that maximized the linear correlation between the respective diel cycles. Diel cycles in RB were more in phase with delta T(degree) cycles, and, to a lesser extent, wind cycles, than to water current cycles but were out of phase with the cycle that would be expected if the vertical movement of buoyant cyanobacteria colonies was controlled primarily by light. Clear evidence of a diel cycle in vertical velocity was found only at the two deepest sites in the lake. Cycles of vertical velocity, where present, were out of phase with expected vertical motion of cyanobacterial colonies based on the theoretical cycle for light-driven vertical movement. This suggests that water column stability and turbulence were more important factors in controlling vertical distribution of colonies than light. Variations at subseasonal time scales were determined by filtering data to pass periods between 1.2 and 15 days. At subseasonal time scales, correlations between RB and currents or air temperature were consistent with increased concentration of cyanobacterial colonies near the surface when water column stability increased (higher air temperatures or weaker currents) and

  6. Nonlinear saturation of thermoacoustic oscillations in annular combustion chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghirardo, Giulio; Juniper, Matthew

    2014-11-01

    Continuous combustion systems such as aeroplane engines can experience self-sustained pressure oscillations, called thermoacoustic oscillations. Quite often the combustion chamber is rotationally symmetric and confined between inner and outer walls, with a fixed number of burners equispaced along the annulus, at the chamber inlet. We focus on thermoacoustic oscillations in the azimuthal direction, and discuss the nonlinear saturation of the system towards 2 types of solutions: standing waves (with velocity and pressure nodes fixed in time and in space) and spinning waves (rotating waves, in clockwise or anti-clockwise direction). We neglect the effect of the transverse velocity oscillating in the azimuthal direction in the combustion chamber, and focus the model on the nonlinear effect that the longitudinal velocity, just upstream of each burner, has on the fluctuating heat-release response in the chamber. We present a low-order analytical framework to discuss the stability of the 2 types of solutions. We discuss how the stability and amplitudes of the 2 solutions depend on: 1) the acoustic damping in the system; 2) the number of injectors equispaced in the annulus; 3) the nonlinear response of the flames.

  7. Investigation of crossed SAW fields by scanning acoustic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Behme, G; Hesjedal, T

    2001-07-01

    We used multimode scanning acoustic force microscopy (SAFM) for studying noncollinearly propagating Rayleigh and Love wave fields. By analyzing torsion and bending movement of SAFM cantilever, normal and in-plane wave oscillation components are accessible. The SAFM principle is the down-conversion of surface oscillations into cantilever vibrations caused by the nonlinearity of the tip-sample interaction. Through mixing of complementary oscillation components, phase velocities of crossed Rayleigh waves on GaAs and crossed Rayleigh and Love waves on the layered system SiO2/ST-cut quartz were obtained simultaneously. Now, it is possible to investigate elastic properties of submicron areas through multimode SAFM measurements. Finally, we present mixing experiments of four SAWs on GaAs and discuss the various influences on the measured SAFM amplitude and phase contrast.

  8. Acoustic tooth cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, J. S. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An acoustic oral hygiene unit is described that uses acoustic energy to oscillate mild abrasive particles in a water suspension which is then directed in a low pressure stream onto the teeth. The oscillating abrasives scrub the teeth clean removing food particles, plaque, calculous, and other foreign material from tooth surfaces, interproximal areas, and tooth-gingiva interface more effectively than any previous technique. The relatively low power output and the basic design makes the invention safe and convenient for everyday use in the home without special training. This invention replaces all former means of home dental prophylaxis, and requires no augmentation to fulfill all requirements for daily oral hygienic care.

  9. Characterization of acoustic emissions resulting from particle collision with a stationary bubble.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Spencer, Steven J; Coghill, Peter

    2013-05-01

    The present work characterizes the acoustic emissions resulting from the collision of a particle driven under gravity with a captive bubble. Conventional methods to investigate the bubble particle collision interaction model measure a descriptive parameter known as the collision time. During such a collision, particle impact may cause a strong deformation and a following oscillation of the bubble-particle interface generates detectable passive acoustic emissions (AE). Experiments and models presented show that the AE frequency monotonically decreases with the particle radius and is independent of the impact velocity, whereas the AE amplitude has a more complicated relationship with impact parameters.

  10. A simple violin oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    For acoustic tests the violin is driven laterally at the bridge by a small speaker of the type commonly found in pocket transistor radios. An audio oscillator excites the tone which is picked up by a sound level meter. Gross patterns of vibration modes are obtained by the Chladni method.

  11. Acoustic absorption by sunspots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, D. C.; Labonte, B. J.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents the initial results of a series of observations designed to probe the nature of sunspots by detecting their influence on high-degree p-mode oscillations in the surrounding photosphere. The analysis decomposes the observed oscillations into radially propagating waves described by Hankel functions in a cylindrical coordinate system centered on the sunspot. From measurements of the differences in power between waves traveling outward and inward, it is demonstrated that sunspots appear to absorb as much as 50 percent of the incoming acoustic waves. It is found that for all three sunspots observed, the amount of absorption increases linearly with horizontal wavenumber. The effect is present in p-mode oscillations with wavelengths both significantly larger and smaller than the diameter of the sunspot umbrae. Actual absorption of acoustic energy of the magnitude observed may produce measurable decreases in the power and lifetimes of high-degree p-mode oscillations during periods of high solar activity.

  12. Acoustical heat pumping engine

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1983-08-16

    The disclosure is directed to an acoustical heat pumping engine without moving seals. A tubular housing holds a compressible fluid capable of supporting an acoustical standing wave. An acoustical driver is disposed at one end of the housing and the other end is capped. A second thermodynamic medium is disposed in the housing near to but spaced from the capped end. Heat is pumped along the second thermodynamic medium toward the capped end as a consequence both of the pressure oscillation due to the driver and imperfect thermal contact between the fluid and the second thermodynamic medium.

  13. Acoustical heat pumping engine

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1983-08-16

    The disclosure is directed to an acoustical heat pumping engine without moving seals. A tubular housing holds a compressible fluid capable of supporting an acoustical standing wave. An acoustical driver is disposed at one end of the housing and the other end is capped. A second thermodynamic medium is disposed in the housing near to but spaced from the capped end. Heat is pumped along the second thermodynamic medium toward the capped end as a consequence both of the pressure oscillation due to the driver and imperfect thermal contact between the fluid and the second thermodynamic medium. 2 figs.

  14. Acoustic actuation of bioinspired microswimmers.

    PubMed

    Kaynak, Murat; Ozcelik, Adem; Nourhani, Amir; Lammert, Paul E; Crespi, Vincent H; Huang, Tony Jun

    2017-01-31

    Acoustic actuation of bioinspired microswimmers is experimentally demonstrated. Microswimmers are fabricated in situ in a microchannel. Upon acoustic excitation, the flagellum of the microswimmer oscillates, which in turn generates linear or rotary movement depending on the swimmer design. The speed of these bioinspired microswimmers is tuned by adjusting the voltage amplitude applied to the acoustic transducer. Simple microfabrication and remote actuation are promising for biomedical applications.

  15. Hydrokinetic canal measurements: inflow velocity, wake flow velocity, and turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Gunawan, Budi

    2014-06-11

    The dataset consist of acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) velocity measurements in the wake of a 3-meter diameter vertical-axis hydrokinetic turbine deployed in Roza Canal, Yakima, WA, USA. A normalized hub-centerline wake velocity profile and two cross-section velocity contours, 10 meters and 20 meters downstream of the turbine, are presented. Mean velocities and turbulence data, measured using acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) at 50 meters upstream of the turbine, are also presented. Canal dimensions and hydraulic properties, and turbine-related information are also included.

  16. Dynamics of the solar chromosphere. I - Long-period network oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lites, B. W.; Rutten, R. J.; Kalkofen, W.

    1993-01-01

    We analyze differences in solar oscillations between the chromospheric network and internetwork regions from a 1 hr sequence of spectrograms of a quiet region near disk center. The spectrograms contain Ca II H, Ca I 422.7 nm, and various Fe I blends in the Ca II H wing. They permit vertical tracing of oscillations throughout the photosphere and into the low chromosphere. We find that the rms amplitude of Ca II H line center Doppler fluctuations is about 1.5 km/s for both network and internetwork, but that the character of the oscillations differs markedly in these two regions. Within internetwork areas the chromospheric velocity power spectrum is dominated by oscillations with frequencies at and above the acoustic cutoff frequency. They are well correlated with the oscillations in the underlying photosphere, but they are much reduced in the network. In contrast, the network Ca II H line center velocity and intensity power spectra are dominated by low-frequency oscillations with periods of 5-20 min. Their signature is much clearer in our Ca II H line center measurements than in previously used diagnostics which are contaminated by signals from deeper layers. We find that these long-period oscillations are not correlated with underlying photospheric disturbances, and we discuss their nature.

  17. Rocket Engine Oscillation Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesman, Tom; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Rocket engine oscillating data can reveal many physical phenomena ranging from unsteady flow and acoustics to rotordynamics and structural dynamics. Because of this, engine diagnostics based on oscillation data should employ both signal analysis and physical modeling. This paper describes an approach to rocket engine oscillation diagnostics, types of problems encountered, and example problems solved. Determination of design guidelines and environments (or loads) from oscillating phenomena is required during initial stages of rocket engine design, while the additional tasks of health monitoring, incipient failure detection, and anomaly diagnostics occur during engine development and operation. Oscillations in rocket engines are typically related to flow driven acoustics, flow excited structures, or rotational forces. Additional sources of oscillatory energy are combustion and cavitation. Included in the example problems is a sampling of signal analysis tools employed in diagnostics. The rocket engine hardware includes combustion devices, valves, turbopumps, and ducts. Simple models of an oscillating fluid system or structure can be constructed to estimate pertinent dynamic parameters governing the unsteady behavior of engine systems or components. In the example problems it is shown that simple physical modeling when combined with signal analysis can be successfully employed to diagnose complex rocket engine oscillatory phenomena.

  18. Imaging the Anisotropic Shear-wave Velocity in the Earth's Mantle using Free Oscillations, Body Waves, Surface Waves and Long-period Waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulik, P.; Ekstrom, G.

    2013-12-01

    We incorporate normal-mode splitting functions into a framework containing surface-wave phase anomalies, long-period waveforms, and body-wave travel times to investigate the three-dimensional structure of anisotropic shear-wave velocity in the Earth's mantle. In contrast with earlier studies, our modeling approach spans a wider spectrum (0.3-50 mHz) of seismological observables, jointly inverts for velocity and anisotropy apart from the discontinuity topographies, and incorporates new crustal corrections for the splitting functions that are consistent with the nonlinear corrections we employ for the waveforms. Our preferred anisotropic model, S362ANI+, an update to S362ANI, gives better fits to the recently measured splitting functions of spheroidal and toroidal modes that are modeled in this study. The splitting functions require additional isotropic variations in the transition zone and the mid mantle that are geographically distributed in the southern hemisphere. The level of agreement in the isotropic shear-velocity structure is higher between S362ANI+ and other recent studies than in the earlier generation of models. The anisotropic part of S362ANI+ is similar to S362ANI and is restricted to the upper 300 km in the mantle since only small improvements in fits are observed on adding anisotropy at depth. We also show that modeling the splitting functions reduces the tradeoffs between lateral variations in velocity and anisotropy in the lowermost mantle. Therefore, more data should be included to constrain any radial anisotropy in the transition zone and in the lower mantle.

  19. Acoustic cryocooler

    DOEpatents

    Swift, Gregory W.; Martin, Richard A.; Radenbaugh, Ray

    1990-01-01

    An acoustic cryocooler with no moving parts is formed from a thermoacoustic driver (TAD) driving a pulse tube refrigerator (PTR) through a standing wave tube. Thermoacoustic elements in the TAD are spaced apart a distance effective to accommodate the increased thermal penetration length arising from the relatively low TAD operating frequency in the range of 15-60 Hz. At these low operating frequencies, a long tube is required to support the standing wave. The tube may be coiled to reduce the overall length of the cryocooler. One or two PTR's are located on the standing wave tube adjacent antinodes in the standing wave to be driven by the standing wave pressure oscillations. It is predicted that a heat input of 1000 W at 1000 K will maintian a cooling load of 5 W at 80 K.

  20. Acoustic Force Density Acting on Inhomogeneous Fluids in Acoustic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsen, Jonas T.; Augustsson, Per; Bruus, Henrik

    2016-09-01

    We present a theory for the acoustic force density acting on inhomogeneous fluids in acoustic fields on time scales that are slow compared to the acoustic oscillation period. The acoustic force density depends on gradients in the density and compressibility of the fluid. For microfluidic systems, the theory predicts a relocation of the inhomogeneities into stable field-dependent configurations, which are qualitatively different from the horizontally layered configurations due to gravity. Experimental validation is obtained by confocal imaging of aqueous solutions in a glass-silicon microchip.

  1. Large eddy simulations of a transcritical round jet submitted to transverse acoustic modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Flesca, M.; Schmitt, T.; Ducruix, S.; Candel, S.

    2016-05-01

    This article reports numerical computations of a turbulent round jet of transcritical fluid (low temperature nitrogen injected under high pressure conditions) surrounded by the same fluid at rest under supercritical conditions (high temperature and high pressure) and submitted to transverse acoustic modulations. The numerical framework relies on large eddy simulation in combination with a real-gas description of thermodynamics and transport properties. A stationary acoustic field is obtained by modulating the normal acoustic velocity at the lateral boundaries of the computational domain. This study specifically focuses on the interaction of the jet with the acoustic field to investigate how the round transcritical jet changes its shape and mixes with the surrounding fluid. Different modulation amplitudes and frequencies are used to sweep a range of conditions. When the acoustic field is established in the domain, the jet length is notably reduced and the jet is flattened in the spanwise direction. Two regimes of oscillation are identified: for low Strouhal numbers a large amplitude motion is observed, while for higher Strouhal numbers the jet oscillates with a small amplitude around the injector axis. The minimum length is obtained for a Strouhal number of 0.3 and the jet length increases with increasing Strouhal numbers after reaching this minimum value. The mechanism of spanwise deformation is shown to be linked with dynamical effects resulting from reduction of the pressure in the transverse direction in relation with increased velocities on the two sides of the jet. A propagative wave is then introduced in the domain leading to similar effects on the jet, except that a bending is also observed in the acoustic propagation direction. A kinematic model, combining hydrodynamic and acoustic contributions, is derived in a second stage to represent the motion of the jet centerline. This model captures details of the numerical simulations quite well. These various

  2. Theoretical description based on general and exact nonextensive dispersion relations of plasma oscillation data and verification of new acoustic plasma waves

    SciTech Connect

    Ebrahimi, V.; Esfandyari-Kalejahi, A.

    2014-09-15

    In this paper, first we represent the differences between spatial and temporal dispersions and their dependence on the measurement techniques for electrostatic waves in unmagnetized collisionless plasma. Then, three different experimental data are compared to the solutions of exact nonextensive dispersion relations for electron-ion and pair plasma. The results confirm the existence of new acoustic plasma waves. Furthermore, these comparisons yield a Maxwellian and a nonextensive plasma with nonextensive parameter q larger than one, and a Maxwellian plasma with some abnormal dispersion properties.

  3. Acoustic bubble traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler, Reinhard; Kurz, Thomas; Lauterborn, Werner

    2000-07-01

    A small, oscillating bubble in a liquid can be trapped in the antinode of an acoustic standing wave field. Bubble stability is required for the study of single bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL). The properties of the acoustic resonator are essential for the stable trapping of sonoluminescing bubbles. Resonators can be chosen according to the intended application: size and geometry can be varied in a wide range. In this work, the acoustic responses of different resonators were measured by means of holographic interferometry, hydrophones and a laser vibrometer. Also, high-speed photography was used to observe the bubble dynamics. Several single, stable sonoluminescent bubbles were trapped simultaneously within an acoustic resonator in the pressure antinodes of a higher harmonic mode (few bubble sonoluminescence, FBSL).

  4. Acoustic mapping velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muste, M.; Baranya, S.; Tsubaki, R.; Kim, D.; Ho, H.; Tsai, H.; Law, D.

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge of sediment dynamics in rivers is of great importance for various practical purposes. Despite its high relevance in riverine environment processes, the monitoring of sediment rates remains a major and challenging task for both suspended and bed load estimation. While the measurement of suspended load is currently an active area of testing with nonintrusive technologies (optical and acoustic), bed load measurement does not mark a similar progress. This paper describes an innovative combination of measurement techniques and analysis protocols that establishes the proof-of-concept for a promising technique, labeled herein Acoustic Mapping Velocimetry (AMV). The technique estimates bed load rates in rivers developing bed forms using a nonintrusive measurements approach. The raw information for AMV is collected with acoustic multibeam technology that in turn provides maps of the bathymetry over longitudinal swaths. As long as the acoustic maps can be acquired relatively quickly and the repetition rate for the mapping is commensurate with the movement of the bed forms, successive acoustic maps capture the progression of the bed form movement. Two-dimensional velocity maps associated with the bed form migration are obtained by implementing algorithms typically used in particle image velocimetry to acoustic maps converted in gray-level images. Furthermore, use of the obtained acoustic and velocity maps in conjunction with analytical formulations (e.g., Exner equation) enables estimation of multidirectional bed load rates over the whole imaged area. This paper presents a validation study of the AMV technique using a set of laboratory experiments.

  5. Exciton-polariton gap soliton dynamics in moving acoustic square lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buller, J. V. T.; Balderas-Navarro, R. E.; Biermann, K.; Cerda-Méndez, E. A.; Santos, P. V.

    2016-09-01

    The modulation by a surface acoustic wave (SAW) provides a powerful tool for the formation of tunable lattices of exciton-polariton macroscopic quantum states (MQSs) in semiconductor microcavities. The MQSs were resonantly excited in an optical parametric oscillator configuration. We investigate the temporal dynamics of these lattices using time and spatially resolved photoluminescence (PL). Photoluminescence images of the MQSs clearly show the motion of the lattice at the acoustic velocity. Interestingly, the PL intensity emitted by the MQSs as well as their coherence length oscillate with the position of the lattice sites relative to the exciting laser beam. The coherence length and the PL intensity are correlated. The PL oscillation amplitude depends on both the intensity and the size of the exciting laser spot and increases considerably for excitation intensities close to the optical threshold power for the formation of the MQS. The oscillations are explained by a model that takes into account the combined effects of SAW reflections, which dynamically distort the amplitude of the potential, and the spatial phase of the acoustic lattice within the exciting laser spot. This paper could pave the way to tailor polariton-based light-emitting sources with intensity variations controlled by the SAWs.

  6. Analytical description of nonlinear acoustic waves in the solar chromosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinenko, Yuri E.; Chae, Jongchul

    2017-02-01

    Aims: Vertical propagation of acoustic waves of finite amplitude in an isothermal, gravitationally stratified atmosphere is considered. Methods: Methods of nonlinear acoustics are used to derive a dispersive solution, which is valid in a long-wavelength limit, and a non-dispersive solution, which is valid in a short-wavelength limit. The influence of the gravitational field on wave-front breaking and shock formation is described. The generation of a second harmonic at twice the driving wave frequency, previously detected in numerical simulations, is demonstrated analytically. Results: Application of the results to three-minute chromospheric oscillations, driven by velocity perturbations at the base of the solar atmosphere, is discussed. Numerical estimates suggest that the second harmonic signal should be detectable in an upper chromosphere by an instrument such as the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph installed at the 1.6-m New Solar Telescope of the Big Bear Observatory.

  7. Nonlinear acoustic techniques for landmine detection.

    PubMed

    Korman, Murray S; Sabatier, James M

    2004-12-01

    Measurements of the top surface vibration of a buried (inert) VS 2.2 anti-tank plastic landmine reveal significant resonances in the frequency range between 80 and 650 Hz. Resonances from measurements of the normal component of the acoustically induced soil surface particle velocity (due to sufficient acoustic-to-seismic coupling) have been used in detection schemes. Since the interface between the top plate and the soil responds nonlinearly to pressure fluctuations, characteristics of landmines, the soil, and the interface are rich in nonlinear physics and allow for a method of buried landmine detection not previously exploited. Tuning curve experiments (revealing "softening" and a back-bone curve linear in particle velocity amplitude versus frequency) help characterize the nonlinear resonant behavior of the soil-landmine oscillator. The results appear to exhibit the characteristics of nonlinear mesoscopic elastic behavior, which is explored. When two primary waves f1 and f2 drive the soil over the mine near resonance, a rich spectrum of nonlinearly generated tones is measured with a geophone on the surface over the buried landmine in agreement with Donskoy [SPIE Proc. 3392, 221-217 (1998); 3710, 239-246 (1999)]. In profiling, particular nonlinear tonals can improve the contrast ratio compared to using either primary tone in the spectrum.

  8. Acoustic Neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    ... search IRSA's site Unique Hits since January 2003 Acoustic Neuroma Click Here for Acoustic Neuroma Practice Guideline ... to microsurgery. One doctor's story of having an acoustic neuroma In August 1991, Dr. Thomas F. Morgan ...

  9. Self-oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Alejandro

    2013-04-01

    Physicists are very familiar with forced and parametric resonance, but usually not with self-oscillation, a property of certain dynamical systems that gives rise to a great variety of vibrations, both useful and destructive. In a self-oscillator, the driving force is controlled by the oscillation itself so that it acts in phase with the velocity, causing a negative damping that feeds energy into the vibration: no external rate needs to be adjusted to the resonant frequency. The famous collapse of the Tacoma Narrows bridge in 1940, often attributed by introductory physics texts to forced resonance, was actually a self-oscillation, as was the swaying of the London Millennium Footbridge in 2000. Clocks are self-oscillators, as are bowed and wind musical instruments. The heart is a “relaxation oscillator”, i.e., a non-sinusoidal self-oscillator whose period is determined by sudden, nonlinear switching at thresholds. We review the general criterion that determines whether a linear system can self-oscillate. We then describe the limiting cycles of the simplest nonlinear self-oscillators, as well as the ability of two or more coupled self-oscillators to become spontaneously synchronized (“entrained”). We characterize the operation of motors as self-oscillation and prove a theorem about their limit efficiency, of which Carnot’s theorem for heat engines appears as a special case. We briefly discuss how self-oscillation applies to servomechanisms, Cepheid variable stars, lasers, and the macroeconomic business cycle, among other applications. Our emphasis throughout is on the energetics of self-oscillation, often neglected by the literature on nonlinear dynamical systems.

  10. Contour mode resonators with acoustic reflectors

    DOEpatents

    Olsson, Roy H.; Fleming, James G.; Tuck, Melanie R.

    2008-06-10

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) resonator is disclosed which has a linear or ring-shaped acoustic resonator suspended above a substrate by an acoustic reflector. The acoustic resonator can be formed with a piezoelectric material (e.g. aluminum nitride, zinc oxide or PZT), or using an electrostatically-actuated material. The acoustic reflector (also termed an acoustic mirror) uses alternating sections of a relatively low acoustic impedance Z.sub.L material and a relatively high acoustic impedance Z.sub.H material to isolate the acoustic resonator from the substrate. The MEM resonator, which can be formed on a silicon substrate with conventional CMOS circuitry, has applications for forming oscillators, rf filters, and acoustic sensors.

  11. Surface acoustic wave gas sensor based on film conductivity changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricco, A. J.; Martin, S. J.; Zipperian, T. E.

    1985-12-01

    The first surfce acoustic wave (SAW) sensor that functions via changes in conductivity of a thin surface film is reported. A lead phthalocyanine (PbPc) thin film is deposted on the acoustic progagation path of a LiNbO3 SAW delay line, which serves as the feedback element of an oscillator circuit. Reaction with strongly oxidizing gases, in particular NO2, increases the conductivity of the PbPc film. Acoustoelectric coupling of the traveling electric potential wave associated with the SAW-to-charge carriers in the PbPc film slows the acoustic wave velocity, altering the oscillation frequency of the circuit. This sensor is about 1000 times more sensitive, in terms of the number of NO2 molecules that can be detected (10 to the 16th molecules/cu cm of PbPc film), than an identical SAW sensor functioning via mass loading would be. Sensitivity to a few ppm of NO2 in N2 has been demonstrated.

  12. Surface acoustic wave gas sensor based on film conductivity changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricco, A. J.; Martin, S. J.; Zipperian, T. E.

    The first surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor that functions via changes in conductivity of a thin surface film is reported. A lead phthalocyanine (PbPc) thin film is deposited on the acoustic propagation path of a LiNbO3 SAW delay line, which serves as the feedback element of an oscillator circuit. Reaction with strongly oxidizing gases, in particular NO2, increases the conductivity of the PbPc film. Acoustoelectic coupling of the traveling electric potential wave associated with the SAW-to-charge carriers in the PbPc film slows the acoustic wave velocity, altering the oscillation frequency of the circuit. This sensor is about 1000 times more sensitive, in terms of the number of NO2 molecules that can be detected (10 to the 16th molecules/cu cm of PbPc film), than an identical SAW sensor functioning via mass loading would be. Sensitivity to a few ppm of NO2 in Ne was demonstrated.

  13. Acoustic bubble removal method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E. H.; Elleman, D. D.; Wang, T. G. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for removing bubbles from a liquid bath such as a bath of molten glass to be used for optical elements. Larger bubbles are first removed by applying acoustic energy resonant to a bath dimension to drive the larger bubbles toward a pressure well where the bubbles can coalesce and then be more easily removed. Thereafter, submillimeter bubbles are removed by applying acoustic energy of frequencies resonant to the small bubbles to oscillate them and thereby stir liquid immediately about the bubbles to facilitate their breakup and absorption into the liquid.

  14. Forward velocity effects on fan noise and the suppression characteristics of advanced inlets as measured in the NASA Ames 40 by 80 foot wind tunnel: Acoustic data report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, M. T.

    1981-01-01

    Forward velocity effects on the forward radiated fan noise and on the suppression characteristics of three advanced inlets relative to a baseline cylindrical inlet were measured in a wind tunnel. A modified JT15D turbofan engine in a quiet nacelle was the source of fan noise; the advanced inlets were a CTOL hybrid inlet, an STOL hybrid inlet, and a treated deflector inlet. Also measured were the static to flight effects on the baseline inlet noise and the effects on the fan noise of canting the baseline inlet 4 deg downward to simulate typical wing mounted turbofan engines. The 1/3 octave band noise data from these tests are given along with selected plots of 1/3 octave band spectra and directivity and full scale PNL directivities. The test facilities and data reduction techniques used are also described.

  15. Non-premixed acoustically perturbed swirling flame dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Idahosa, Uyi; Saha, Abhishek; Xu, Chengying; Basu, Saptarshi

    2010-09-15

    An investigation into the response of non-premixed swirling flames to acoustic perturbations at various frequencies (f{sub p}=0-315 Hz) and swirl intensities (S=0.09 and 0.34) is carried out. Perturbations are generated using a loudspeaker at the base of an atmospheric co-flow burner with resulting velocity oscillation amplitudes vertical stroke u'/U{sub avg} vertical stroke in the 0.03-0.30 range. The dependence of flame dynamics on the relative richness of the flame is investigated by studying various constant fuel flow rate flame configurations. Flame heat release rate is quantitatively measured using a photomultiplier with a 430 nm bandpass filter for observing CH* chemiluminescence which is simultaneously imaged with a phase-locked CCD camera. The flame response is observed to exhibit a low-pass filter characteristic with minimal flame response beyond pulsing frequencies of 200 Hz. Flames at lower fuel flow rates are observed to remain attached to the central fuel pipe at all acoustic pulsing frequencies. PIV imaging of the associated isothermal fields show the amplification in flame aspect ratio is caused by the narrowing of the inner recirculation zone (IRZ). Good correlation is observed between the estimated flame surface area and the heat release rate signature at higher swirl intensity flame configurations. A flame response index analogous to the Rayleigh criterion in non-forced flames is used to assess the potential for a strong flame response at specific perturbation configurations and is found to be a good predictor of highly responsive modes. Phase conditioned analysis of the flame dynamics yield additional criteria in highly responsive modes to include the effective amplitude of velocity oscillations induced by the acoustic pulsing. In addition, highly responsive modes were characterized by velocity to heat release rate phase differences in the {+-}{pi}/2 range. A final observed characteristic in highly responsive flames is a Strouhal number between

  16. Applications of surface acoustic and shallow bulk acoustic wave devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Colin K.

    1989-10-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) device coverage includes delay lines and filters operating at selected frequencies in the range from about 10 MHz to 11 GHz; modeling with single-crystal piezoelectrics and layered structures; resonators and low-loss filters; comb filters and multiplexers; antenna duplexers; harmonic devices; chirp filters for pulse compression; coding with fixed and programmable transversal filters; Barker and quadraphase coding; adaptive filters; acoustic and acoustoelectric convolvers and correlators for radar, spread spectrum, and packet radio; acoustooptic processors for Bragg modulation and spectrum analysis; real-time Fourier-transform and cepstrum processors for radar and sonar; compressive receivers; Nyquist filters for microwave digital radio; clock-recovery filters for fiber communications; fixed-, tunable-, and multimode oscillators and frequency synthesizers; acoustic charge transport; and other SAW devices for signal processing on gallium arsenide. Shallow bulk acoustic wave device applications include gigahertz delay lines, surface-transverse-wave resonators employing energy-trapping gratings, and oscillators with enhanced performance and capability.

  17. Solar oscillation frequency and solar neutrino predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, A.N.

    1990-07-05

    The light and velocity variations of the Sun and solar-like stars are unique among intrinsic variable stars. Unlike all other standard classes, such as Cepheids, B stars, and white dwarfs, the pulsation driving is caused by coupling with the acoustic noise in the upper convection zone. Each global pulsation mode is just another degree of freedom for the turbulent convection, and energy is shared equally between these g{sup {minus}}-modes and the solar oscillation modes. This driving and damping, together with the normal stellar pulsation mechanisms produce extremely low amplitude solar oscillations. Actually, the surface layer radiative damping is strong, and the varying oscillation mode amplitudes manifest the stochastic convection driving and the steady damping. Thus stability calculations for solar-like pulsations are difficult and mostly inconclusive, but calculations of pulsation periods are as straightforward as for all the other classes of intrinsic variable stars. The issue that is important for the Sun is its internal structure, because the mass, radius, and luminosity are extremely well known. Conventionally, we need the pulsation constants for each of millions of modes. Unknown parameters for constructing solar models are the composition and its material pressure, energy, and opacity, as well as the convection mixing length. We treat the nuclear energy and neutrino production formulas as sufficiently well known. The presence of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) orbiting the solar center affects the predicted oscillation frequencies so that they do not agree with observations as well as those for models without WIMPs. 34 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Combustor oscillating pressure stabilization and method

    DOEpatents

    Gemmen, Randall S.; Richards, George A.; Yip, Mui-Tong Joseph; Robey, Edward H.; Cully, Scott R.; Addis, Richard E.

    1998-01-01

    High dynamic pressure oscillations in hydrocarbon-fueled combustors typically occur when the transport time of the fuel to the flame front is at some fraction of the acoustic period. These oscillations are reduced to acceptably lower levels by restructuring or repositioning the flame front in the combustor to increase the transport time. A pilot flame front located upstream of the oscillating flame and pulsed at a selected frequency and duration effectively restructures and repositions the oscillating flame in the combustor to alter the oscillation-causing transport time.

  19. Combustor oscillating pressure stabilization and method

    DOEpatents

    Gemmen, R.S.; Richards, G.A.; Yip, M.T.J.; Robey, E.H.; Cully, S.R.; Addis, R.E.

    1998-08-11

    High dynamic pressure oscillations in hydrocarbon-fueled combustors typically occur when the transport time of the fuel to the flame front is at some fraction of the acoustic period. These oscillations are reduced to acceptably lower levels by restructuring or repositioning the flame front in the combustor to increase the transport time. A pilot flame front located upstream of the oscillating flame and pulsed at a selected frequency and duration effectively restructures and repositions the oscillating flame in the combustor to alter the oscillation-causing transport time. 7 figs.

  20. Acoustic metamaterial with negative modulus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sam Hyeon; Park, Choon Mahn; Seo, Yong Mun; Wang, Zhi Guo; Kim, Chul Koo

    2009-04-29

    We present experimental and theoretical results on an acoustic metamaterial that exhibits a negative effective modulus in a frequency range from 0 to 450 Hz. A one-dimensional acoustic metamaterial with an array of side holes on a tube was fabricated. We observed that acoustic waves above 450 Hz propagated well in this structure, but no sound below 450 Hz passed through. The frequency characteristics of the metamaterial has the same form as that of the permittivity in metals due to the plasma oscillation. We also provide a theory to explain the experimental results.

  1. Method and means for measuring acoustic emissions

    DOEpatents

    Renken, Jr., Claus J.

    1976-01-06

    The detection of acoustic emissions emanating from an object is achieved with a capacitive transducer coupled to the object. The capacitive transducer is charged and then allowed to discharge with the rate of discharge being monitored. Oscillations in the rate of discharge about the normally exponential discharge curve for the capacitive transducer indicate the presence of acoustic emissions.

  2. Acoustic Doppler velocimeter-induced acoustic streaming and its implications for measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poindexter, C. M.; Rusello, P. J.; Variano, E. A.

    2011-05-01

    The acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) is widely used for the characterization of fluid flow. Secondary flows ("acoustic streaming") generated by the ADV's acoustic pulses may affect the accuracy of measurements in experiments with small velocities. We assessed the impact of acoustic streaming on flow measurement using particle image velocimetry. The probes of two different ADVs were successively mounted in a tank of quiescent water. The probes' ultrasound emitters were aligned with a laser light sheet. Observed flow was primarily in the axial direction, accelerating from the ultrasound emitter and peaking within centimeters of the velocimeter sampling volume before dropping off. We measured the dependence of acoustic streaming velocity on ADV configuration, finding that different settings induce streaming ranging from negligible to more than 2.0 cm s-1. From these results, we describe cases where acoustic streaming affects velocity measurements and also cases where ADVs accurately measure their own acoustic streaming.

  3. Arctic Acoustics Ultrasonic Modeling Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    shear wave velocity and a large acoustic impedance relative to the water ("hard...results, the real part of the leaky Rayleigh wave root equals the shear wave velocity of the acrylic at 9.2*C. Above this temperature the leaky Rayleigh... wave can exist, and below this temperature it violates the theoretical existence condition by exceeding the shear wave velocity . Figure 4.12(b) shows

  4. Acoustic Neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    An acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor that develops on the nerve that connects the ear to the brain. ... can press against the brain, becoming life-threatening. Acoustic neuroma can be difficult to diagnose, because the ...

  5. A new type of magnetoresistance oscillations: Interaction of a two-dimensional electron gas with leaky interface phonons

    SciTech Connect

    ZUDOV,M.A.; PONOMAREV,I.V.; EFROS,A.L.; DU,R.R.; SIMMONS,JERRY A.; RENO,JOHN L.

    2000-05-11

    The authors report a new type of oscillations in magnetoresistance observed in high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG), in GaAs-AIGaAs heterostructures. Being periodic in 1/B these oscillations appear in weak magnetic field (B < 0.3 T) and only in a narrow temperature range (3 K < T < 7 K). Remarkably, these oscillations can be understood in terms of magneto-phonon resonance originating from the interaction of 2DEG and leaky interface-acoustic phonon modes. The existence of such modes on the GaAs:AIGaAs interface is demonstrated theoretically and their velocities are calculated. It is shown that the electron-phonon scattering matrix element exhibits a peak for the phonons carrying momentum q = 2k{sub F} (k{sub F} is the Fermi wave-vector of 2DEG).

  6. Nusselt numbers of laminar, oscillating flows in stacks and regenerators with pores of arbitrary cross-sectional geometry.

    PubMed

    Brady, John F

    2013-04-01

    Though widely used in steady-flow heat transfer applications, the Nusselt number-a dimensionless heat transfer coefficient-has not been studied as thoroughly in oscillating flows and is therefore not generally used in thermoacoustic applications. This paper presents expressions for the Nusselt numbers of laminar oscillating flows within the pores of stacks and regenerators, derived from thermoacoustic theory developed by Rott and Swift. These expressions are based on bulk (velocity-weighted, cross-sectionally averaged) temperature, rather than the cross-sectionally averaged temperature. Results are shown for parallel plates, circular pores, rectangular pores, and within the boundary layer limit. It is shown that bulk temperature does not become infinite during an acoustic cycle and that the Nusselt number is a complex constant at all times. In addition, steady-flow Nusselt numbers are recovered when velocity and temperature profiles are like those in steady flows.

  7. Acoustic Seaglider

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-07

    a national naval responsibility. Acoustic sensors on mobile, autonomous platforms will enable basic research topics on temporal and spatial...problem and acoustic navigation and communications within the context of distributed autonomous persistent undersea surveillance sensor networks...Acoustic sensors on mobile, autonomous platforms will enable basic research topics on temporal and spatial coherence and the description of ambient

  8. Acoustic seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a sealing device having an acoustic resonator. The acoustic resonator is adapted to create acoustic waveforms to generate a sealing pressure barrier blocking fluid flow from a high pressure area to a lower pressure area. The sealing device permits noncontacting sealing operation. The sealing device may include a resonant-macrosonic-synthesis (RMS) resonator.

  9. Acoustic Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a sealing device having an acoustic resonator. The acoustic resonator is adapted to create acoustic waveforms to generate a sealing pressure barrier blocking fluid flow from a high pressure area to a lower pressure area. The sealing device permits noncontacting sealing operation. The sealing device may include a resonant-macrosonic-synthesis (RMS) resonator.

  10. Acoustic anomalies in UPt{3} at high magnetic fields and low temperatures.

    SciTech Connect

    Feller, J. R.; Ketterson, J. B.; Hinks, D. G.; Dasgupta, D.; Sarma, B. K.; Materials Science Division; Northwestern Univ.; Univ. of Wisconsin at Milwaukee

    2000-11-01

    Ultrasound velocity and attenuation measurements were performed on single crystals of the heavy fermion compound UPt{sub 3} in magnetic fields up to 33 T and at temperatures ranging from 2.4 K to below 0.1 K. With longitudinal sound propagated in the crystallographic basal plane, parallel to the applied field, the familiar elastic softening is observed at the metamagnetic transition field H-20.2 T. More complicated structure emerges at low temperatures, including quantum acoustic oscillations and a second velocity minimum at -21.6 T. A weak frequency dependence (dispersion) is observed in the velocity. The ultrasonic data are analyzed using the Landau-Khalatnikov formalism, from which temperature- and field-dependent relaxation times are deduced.

  11. Neurodynamic oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espinosa, Ismael; Gonzalez, Hortensia; Quiza, Jorge; Gonazalez, J. Jesus; Arroyo, Ruben; Lara, Ritaluz

    1995-01-01

    Oscillation of electrical activity has been found in many nervous systems, from invertebrates to vertebrates including man. There exists experimental evidence of very simple circuits with the capability of oscillation. Neurons with intrinsic oscillation have been found and also neural circuits where oscillation is a property of the network. These two types of oscillations coexist in many instances. It is nowadays hypothesized that behind synchronization and oscillation there is a system of coupled oscillators responsible for activities that range from locomotion and feature binding in vision to control of sleep and circadian rhythms. The huge knowledge that has been acquired on oscillators from the times of Lord Rayleigh has made the simulation of neural oscillators a very active endeavor. This has been enhanced with more recent physiological findings about small neural circuits by means of intracellular and extracellular recordings as well as imaging methods. The future of this interdisciplinary field looks very promising; some researchers are going into quantum mechanics with the idea of trying to provide a quantum description of the brain. In this work we describe some simulations using neuron models by means of which we form simple neural networks that have the capability of oscillation. We analyze the oscillatory activity with root locus method, cross-correlation histograms, and phase planes. In the more complicated neural network models there is the possibility of chaotic oscillatory activity and we study that by means of Lyapunov exponents. The companion paper shows an example of that kind.

  12. Parvulescu Revisited: Small Tank Acoustics for Bioacousticians.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Peter H; Hawkins, Anthony D; Popper, Arthur N; Fay, Richard R; Gray, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Researchers often perform hearing studies on fish in small tanks. The acoustic field in such a tank is considerably different from the acoustic field that occurs in the animal's natural environment. The significance of these differences is magnified by the nature of the fish's auditory system where either acoustic pressure (a scalar), acoustic particle velocity (a vector), or both may serve as the stimulus. It is essential for the underwater acoustician to understand the acoustics of small tanks to be able to carry out valid auditory research in the laboratory and to properly compare and interpret the results of others.

  13. Unsteady Boundary Layer Due to an Oscillating Free Stream vs. an Oscillating Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-25

    dimensional stagnation point flow generated by an infinite flat plate. A uniform flow, U., approaching a plane wall which oscillates with velocity, VP...for certain in-plane oscillations equivalent surface stress distributions are produced. One example of equivalent transverse oscillations is the two

  14. Near-field acoustic streaming jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moudjed, B.; Botton, V.; Henry, D.; Millet, S.; Garandet, J. P.; Ben Hadid, H.

    2015-03-01

    A numerical and experimental investigation of the acoustic streaming flow in the near field of a circular plane ultrasonic transducer in water is performed. The experimental domain is a parallelepipedic cavity delimited by absorbing walls to avoid acoustic reflection, with a top free surface. The flow velocities are measured by particle image velocimetry, leading to well-resolved velocity profiles. The theoretical model is based on a linear acoustic propagation model, which correctly reproduces the acoustic field mapped experimentally using a hydrophone, and an acoustic force term introduced in the Navier-Stokes equations under the plane-wave assumption. Despite the complexity of the acoustic field in the near field, in particular in the vicinity of the acoustic source, a good agreement between the experimental measurements and the numerical results for the velocity field is obtained, validating our numerical approach and justifying the planar wave assumption in conditions where it is a priori far from obvious. The flow structure is found to be correlated with the acoustic field shape. Indeed, the longitudinal profiles of the velocity present a wavering linked to the variations in acoustic intensity along the beam axis and transverse profiles exhibit a complex shape strongly influenced by the transverse variations of the acoustic intensity in the beam. Finally, the velocity in the jet is found to increase as the square root of the acoustic force times the distance from the origin of the jet over a major part of the cavity, after a strong short initial increase, where the velocity scales with the square of the distance from the upstream wall.

  15. A Numerical Method of Calculating Propeller Noise Including Acoustic Nonlinear Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korkan, K. D.

    1985-01-01

    Using the transonic flow fields(s) generated by the NASPROP-E computer code for an eight blade SR3-series propeller, a theoretical method is investigated to calculate the total noise values and frequency content in the acoustic near and far field without using the Ffowcs Williams - Hawkings equation. The flow field is numerically generated using an implicit three dimensional Euler equation solver in weak conservation law form. Numerical damping is required by the differencing method for stability in three dimensions, and the influence of the damping on the calculated acoustic values is investigated. The acoustic near field is solved by integrating with respect to time the pressure oscillations induced at a stationary observer location. The acoustic far field is calculated from the near field primitive variables as generated by NASPROP-E computer code using a method involving a perturbation velocity potential as suggested by Hawkings in the calculation of the acoustic pressure time-history at a specified far field observed location. the methodologies described are valid for calculating total noise levels and are applicable to any propeller geometry for which a flow field solution is available.

  16. The detection and characterization of high frequency and high wavenumber solar oscillations. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandes, David Neil

    1992-01-01

    Doppler shift measurements of the Na D(sub 1) absorption line have revealed solar oscillations in a new regime of frequency and wavenumber. Oscillations of vertical velocities in the temperature minimum and low chromosphere of the Sun are observed with frequencies ranging up to 9.5 mHz. There is no evidence for chromospheric modes of 3 minute period. This indicates that the chromosphere does not form a good cavity for acoustic waves. The fundamental-modes appear with wavenumbers up to 5.57 M per m (equivalent spherical harmonic degree, 3877). The frequencies lie below the predicted values at wavenumbers above 1 M per m. The values are in agreement with previous measurements that exist for wavenumbers up to 2.67 M per m. Spatial maps of velocity power show that high wavenumber oscillations are suppressed in active regions. The shape of the power depression indicates that wave motion is affected in the layer of atmosphere where the measurement is made. The f-modes are suppressed in the same way as p-modes, indicating that the mechanism for wave suppression affects velocity fluctuations. Mode frequencies are not affected by the magnetic fields by more than 50 micro Hz, the precision of the measurement.

  17. Evolution of ion-acoustic plasma turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bychenkov, V. Iu.; Gradov, O. M.

    1986-03-01

    The evolution of ion-acoustic turbulence is studied on the basis of a numerical solution of the nonstationary equation for in-acoustic waves. Consideration is given to conditions under which the excitation threshold of long-wave ion-acoustic oscillations is exceeded as the result of instability saturation due to quasi-linear relaxation of electrons on turbulent pulsations and the induced scattering of ions by the ion sound. Distributed spectra of ion-acoustic turbulence are established in the plasma under these conditions.

  18. Horns as particle velocity amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Donskoy, Dimitri M; Cray, Benjamin A

    2011-11-01

    Preliminary measurements and numerical predictions reveal that simple, and relatively small, horns generate remarkable amplification of acoustic particle velocity. For example, below 2 kHz, a 2.5 cm conical horn has a uniform velocity amplification ratio (throat-to-mouth) factor of approximately 3, or, in terms of a decibel level, 9.5 dB. It is shown that the velocity amplification factor depends on the horn's mouth-to-throat ratio as well as, though to a lesser degree, the horn's flare rate. A double horn configuration provides limited additional gain, approximately an increase of up to 25%.

  19. The Roles of the Horizontal Component of the Earth's Angular Velocity in Nonhydrostatic Linear Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasahara, Akira

    2003-04-01

    Roles of the horizontal component of the earth's rotation, which is neglected traditionally in atmospheric and oceanographic models, are studied through the normal mode analysis of a compressible and stratified model on a tangent plane in the domain that is periodic in the zonal and meridional directions but bounded at the top and bottom. As expected, there exist two distinct kinds of acoustic and buoyancy oscillations that are modified by the earth's rotation. When the cos(latitude) Coriolis terms are included, there exists another kind of wave oscillation whose frequencies are very close to the inertial frequency, 2 sin(latitude), where is the earth's angular velocity.The objective of this article is to clarify the circumstance in which a distinct kind of wave oscillation emerges whose frequencies are very close to the inertial frequency. Because this particular kind of normal mode appears only due to the presence of boundary conditions in the vertical, it may be appropriate to call these waves boundary-induced inertial (BII) modes as demonstrated through the normal mode analyses of a homogeneous and incompressible model and a Boussinesq model with thermal stratification. Thus, it can be understood that the BII modes can coexist with the acoustic and inertio-gravity modes when the effect of compressibility is added to the effects of buoyancy and complete Coriolis force in the compressible, stratified, and rotating model.

  20. Calibration method helps in seismic velocity interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman, C.E.; Davenport, H.A.; Wilhelm, R.

    1997-11-03

    Acoustic velocities derived from seismic reflection data, when properly calibrated to subsurface measurements, help interpreters make pure velocity predictions. A method of calibrating seismic to measured velocities has improved interpretation of subsurface features in the Gulf of Mexico. In this method, the interpreter in essence creates a kind of gauge. Properly calibrated, the gauge enables the interpreter to match predicted velocities to velocities measured at wells. Slow-velocity zones are of special interest because they sometimes appear near hydrocarbon accumulations. Changes in velocity vary in strength with location; the structural picture is hidden unless the variations are accounted for by mapping in depth instead of time. Preliminary observations suggest that the presence of hydrocarbons alters the lithology in the neighborhood of the trap; this hydrocarbon effect may be reflected in the rock velocity. The effect indicates a direct use of seismic velocity in exploration. This article uses the terms seismic velocity and seismic stacking velocity interchangeably. It uses ground velocity, checkshot average velocity, and well velocity interchangeably. Interval velocities are derived from seismic stacking velocities or well average velocities; they refer to velocities of subsurface intervals or zones. Interval travel time (ITT) is the reciprocal of interval velocity in microseconds per foot.

  1. Influence of ultrasound power on acoustic streaming and micro-bubbles formations in a low frequency sono-reactor: mathematical and 3D computational simulation.

    PubMed

    Sajjadi, Baharak; Raman, Abdul Aziz Abdul; Ibrahim, Shaliza

    2015-05-01

    This paper aims at investigating the influence of ultrasound power amplitude on liquid behaviour in a low-frequency (24 kHz) sono-reactor. Three types of analysis were employed: (i) mechanical analysis of micro-bubbles formation and their activities/characteristics using mathematical modelling. (ii) Numerical analysis of acoustic streaming, fluid flow pattern, volume fraction of micro-bubbles and turbulence using 3D CFD simulation. (iii) Practical analysis of fluid flow pattern and acoustic streaming under ultrasound irradiation using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). In mathematical modelling, a lone micro bubble generated under power ultrasound irradiation was mechanistically analysed. Its characteristics were illustrated as a function of bubble radius, internal temperature and pressure (hot spot conditions) and oscillation (pulsation) velocity. The results showed that ultrasound power significantly affected the conditions of hotspots and bubbles oscillation velocity. From the CFD results, it was observed that the total volume of the micro-bubbles increased by about 4.95% with each 100 W-increase in power amplitude. Furthermore, velocity of acoustic streaming increased from 29 to 119 cm/s as power increased, which was in good agreement with the PIV analysis.

  2. Acoustic metamaterial with negative parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hongwei; Yan, Fei; Gu, Hao; Li, Ying

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we present theoretical results on an acoustic metamaterial beam and a bar that exhibit negative effective mass and negative effective stiffness. A one-dimensional acoustic metamaterial with an array of spring-mass subsystems was fabricated. The frequency of the acoustic one dimensional metamaterial structure has the same form as that of the permittivity in metals due to the plasma oscillation. We also provide a theory to explain the simulation results. And we use the concept of conventional mechanical vibration absorbers to reveal the actual working mechanism of the acoustic metamaterials. We explain the two vibrate modes which are optical mode and acoustic mode in detail. When the incoming elastic wave in the acoustic metamaterials to resonate the integrated spring-mass-damper absorbers to vibrate in their optical mode at frequencies close to but above their local resonance frequencies to create shear forces and bending moments to straighten the beam and stop the wave propagation. Moreover, we explain the negative parameter in acoustic metamaterials.

  3. Features of Propagation of the Acoustic-Gravity Waves Generated by High-Power Periodic Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernogor, L. F.; Frolov, V. L.

    2013-09-01

    We present the results of the bandpass filtering of temporal variations of the Doppler frequency shift of radio signals from a vertical-sounding Doppler radar located near the city of Kharkov when the ionosphere was heated by high-power periodic (with 10 and 15-min periods) radiation from the Sura facility. The filtering was done in the ranges of periods that are close to the acoustic cutoff period and the Brunt—Väisälä period (4-6, 8-12, and 13-17 min). Oscillations with periods of 4-6 min and amplitudes of 50-100 mHz were not recorded in fact. Oscillations with periods of 8-12 and 13-17 min and amplitudes of 60-100 mHz were detected in almost all the sessions. In the former and the latter oscillations, the time of delay with respect to the heater switch-on was close to 100 min and about 40-50 min, respectively. These values correspond to group propagation velocities of about 160 and 320-400 m/s. The Doppler shift oscillations were caused by the acoustic-gravity waves which led to periodic variations in the electron number density with a relative amplitude of about 0.1-1.0%. It was demonstrated that the acoustic-gravity waves were not recorded when the effective power of the Sura facility was equal to 50 MW and they were confidently observed when the effective power was increased up to 130 MW. It is shown that the period of the wave processes was determined by the period of the heating-pause cycles, and the duration of the wave trains did not depend on the duration of the series of heating-pause cycles. The data suggest that the generation mechanism of recorded wave disturbances is different from the mechanism proposed in 1970-1990.

  4. Acoustic behaviors of unsaturated soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.

    2011-12-01

    Soils are unconsolidated granular materials, consisting of solid particles, water and air. Their mechanical and dynamic behaviors are determined by the discrete nature of the media as well as external and inter-particle forces. For unsaturated soils, two factors significantly affect soils acoustic/seismic responses: external pressure and internal water potential/matric suction. In triaxial cell tests, unsaturated soils were subjected to predefined stress paths to undergo stages of normal consolidation, unload-reload cycles, and failure. The stress deformation curve and stress-P-wave velocity were measured and compared. The study revealed that soil's dynamic response to external pressure are similar to those of the load-deformation behaviors and demonstrated that acoustic velocity can be used to monitor the state of stress of soils. In a long term field soil survey, the P-wave velocities were found to be correlated with water potential as expressed as a power-law relationship. The above phenomena can be understood by using the Terzaghi' s the principle of effective stress. The measured results were in good agreement with Brutsaert theory. The effective stress concept can also be applied to explain the observations in a soil pipe flow study in which soil internal erosion processes were monitored and interpreted by the temporal evolution of the P-wave velocity. In addition to above linear acoustic behaviors, soils, like other earth materials, exhibit astonishing non-classical nonlinear behaviors such as end-point memory, hysteresis, strain -dependent shear modulus, resonant frequency shift, and phase shift, harmonics generation, etc. A nonlinear acoustic study of a soil as a function of water content showed that the nonlinear acoustic parameter are much sensitive to the variations of soil water content than that of the acoustic velocity.

  5. A fractional calculus model of anomalous dispersion of acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Wharmby, Andrew W

    2016-09-01

    An empirical formula based on viscoelastic analysis techniques that employs concepts from the fractional calculus that was used to model the dielectric behavior of materials exposed to oscillating electromagnetic fields in the radiofrequency, terahertz, and infrared bands. This work adapts and applies the formula to model viscoelastic behavior of materials that show an apparent increase of phase velocity of vibration with an increase in frequency, otherwise known as anomalous dispersion. A fractional order wave equation is derived through the application of the classic elastic-viscoelastic correspondence principle whose analytical solution is used to describe absorption and dispersion of acoustic waves in the viscoelastic material displaying anomalous dispersion in a specific frequency range. A brief discussion and comparison of an alternative fractional order wave equation recently formulated is also included.

  6. Oscillating Filaments. I. Oscillation and Geometrical Fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritschneder, Matthias; Heigl, Stefan; Burkert, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    We study the stability of filaments in equilibrium between gravity and internal as well as external pressure using the grid-based AMR code RAMSES. A homogeneous, straight cylinder below a critical line mass is marginally stable. However, if the cylinder is bent, such as with a slight sinusoidal perturbation, an otherwise stable configuration starts to oscillate, is triggered into fragmentation, and collapses. This previously unstudied behavior allows a filament to fragment at any given scale, as long as it has slight bends. We call this process “geometrical fragmentation.” In our realization, the spacing between the cores matches the wavelength of the sinusoidal perturbation, whereas up to now, filaments were thought to be only fragmenting on the characteristic scale set by the mass-to-line ratio. Using first principles, we derive the oscillation period as well as the collapse timescale analytically. To enable a direct comparison with observations, we study the line-of-sight velocity for different inclinations. We show that the overall oscillation pattern can hide the infall signature of cores.

  7. Dynamics of sessile and pendant drops excited by surface acoustic waves: Gravity effects and correlation between oscillatory and translational motions.

    PubMed

    Bussonnière, A; Baudoin, M; Brunet, P; Matar, O Bou

    2016-05-01

    When sessile droplets are excited by ultrasonic traveling surface acoustic waves (SAWs), they undergo complex dynamics with both oscillations and translational motion. While the nature of the Rayleigh-Lamb quadrupolar drop oscillations has been identified, their origin and their influence on the drop mobility remains unexplained. Indeed, the physics behind this peculiar dynamics is complex with nonlinearities involved both at the excitation level (acoustic streaming and radiation pressure) and in the droplet response (nonlinear oscillations and contact line dynamics). In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of sessile and pendant drops excited by SAWs. For pendant drops, so-far unreported dynamics are observed close to the drop detachment threshold with the suppression of the translational motion. Away from this threshold, the comparison between pendant and sessile drop dynamics allows us to identify the role played by gravity or, more generally, by an initial or dynamically induced stretching of the drop. In turn, we elucidate the origin of the resonance frequency shift, as well as the origin of the strong correlation between oscillatory and translational motion. We show that for sessile drops, the velocity is mainly determined by the amplitude of oscillation and that the saturation observed is due to the nonlinear dependence of the drop response frequency on the dynamically induced stretching.

  8. Dynamics of sessile and pendant drops excited by surface acoustic waves: Gravity effects and correlation between oscillatory and translational motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussonnière, A.; Baudoin, M.; Brunet, P.; Matar, O. Bou

    2016-05-01

    When sessile droplets are excited by ultrasonic traveling surface acoustic waves (SAWs), they undergo complex dynamics with both oscillations and translational motion. While the nature of the Rayleigh-Lamb quadrupolar drop oscillations has been identified, their origin and their influence on the drop mobility remains unexplained. Indeed, the physics behind this peculiar dynamics is complex with nonlinearities involved both at the excitation level (acoustic streaming and radiation pressure) and in the droplet response (nonlinear oscillations and contact line dynamics). In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of sessile and pendant drops excited by SAWs. For pendant drops, so-far unreported dynamics are observed close to the drop detachment threshold with the suppression of the translational motion. Away from this threshold, the comparison between pendant and sessile drop dynamics allows us to identify the role played by gravity or, more generally, by an initial or dynamically induced stretching of the drop. In turn, we elucidate the origin of the resonance frequency shift, as well as the origin of the strong correlation between oscillatory and translational motion. We show that for sessile drops, the velocity is mainly determined by the amplitude of oscillation and that the saturation observed is due to the nonlinear dependence of the drop response frequency on the dynamically induced stretching.

  9. Musical Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, Colin

    This chapter provides an introduction to the physical and psycho-acoustic principles underlying the production and perception of the sounds of musical instruments. The first section introduces generic aspects of musical acoustics and the perception of musical sounds, followed by separate sections on string, wind and percussion instruments.

  10. Characterization of nonlinear heat release-acoustic interactions in gas turbine combustors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellows, Benjamin D.

    This thesis describes an experimental investigation of the flame transfer function between flow disturbances and heat release oscillations in lean, premixed combustors. This research effort was motivated by the fact that modern gas turbines, operating fuel lean to minimize exhaust emissions, are susceptible to self-excited combustion oscillations. These instabilities generally occur when the unsteady combustion process couples with the acoustic modes of the combustion chamber. The resultant flow and structural vibrations can substantially reduce hot section part life. As such, avoiding operating regimes where high dynamics occur often requires operating at lower power outputs and/or higher pollutant emissions than the turbine is otherwise capable. This work demonstrated nonlinearities in the chemiluminescence response at large amplitude velocity oscillations in a turbulent, swirling flame. It is observed that the nonlinear flame response can exhibit a variety of behaviors, both in the shape of the response curve and the forcing amplitude at which nonlinearity is first observed depending on the operating conditions of the combustor. The phase between the flow oscillations and heat release is also seen to have substantial amplitude dependence. In addition, the interactions between the fundamental frequency and the higher and subharmonics of the measured signals can significantly influence the flame as well as the frequency response of the system. The nonlinear flame dynamics are governed by different mechanisms in different frequency and flowrate regimes. Three mechanisms, vortex rollup, unsteady flame liftoff, and parametric instability, are identified to influence the nonlinear flame response in these combustors. Analysis of the results shows that the mechanisms responsible for nonlinearity m the flame response are influenced by the Strouhal number, the mean velocity at the combustor dump plane, and the ratio of the oscillating velocity amplitude to the laminar

  11. Sensorless Oscillation Control of a Suspended Load with Flywheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Koichi; Tsuji, Toshiaki; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    This study proposes a method of sensorless oscillation control of a suspended load. To suppress oscillation of a suspended load, we use flywheels as a control device. Reaction torque of flywheels is applied for the oscillation control. An angular velocity value of a suspended load must be acquired for the oscillation control. Therefore, a method to estimate the angular velocity value is indispensable. By conventional methods, the estimation and the oscillation control cannot be realized simultaneously in case of one flywheel. Hence, inertia torque observer is proposed. Inertia torque appears as a disturbance torque on flywheels when a suspended load is oscillating. The angular velocity value is calculated based on this inertia toque. By using inertia torque observer, estimation of the angular velocity value and oscillation control of a suspended load are achieved at the same time.

  12. Power oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Gitsevich, Aleksandr

    2001-01-01

    An oscillator includes an amplifier having an input and an output, and an impedance transformation network connected between the input of the amplifier and the output of the amplifier, wherein the impedance transformation network is configured to provide suitable positive feedback from the output of the amplifier to the input of the amplifier to initiate and sustain an oscillating condition, and wherein the impedance transformation network is configured to protect the input of the amplifier from a destructive feedback signal. One example of the oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency. Various control circuits may be employed to match the driving frequency of the oscillator to a plurality of tuning states of the lamp.

  13. Oscillation damping means for magnetically levitated systems

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F.

    2009-01-20

    The present invention presents a novel system and method of damping rolling, pitching, or yawing motions, or longitudinal oscillations superposed on their normal forward or backward velocity of a moving levitated system.

  14. Acoustically enhanced heat exchange and drying apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bramlette, T.T.; Keller, J.O.

    1987-07-10

    A heat transfer drying apparatus includes an acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber for receiving material to be dried. The chamber includes a first heat transfer gas inlet, a second heat transfer gas inlet, a material inlet, and a gas outlet which also serves as a dried material and gas outlet. A non-pulsing first heat transfer gas source provides a first drying gas to the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber through the first heat transfer gas inlet. A valveless, continuous second heat transfer gas source provides a second drying gas to the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber through the second heat transfer gas inlet. The second drying gas also generates acoustic waves which bring about acoustical coupling with the gases in the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber. The second drying gas itself oscillates at an acoustic frequency of approximately 180 Hz due to fluid mechanical motion in the gas. The oscillations of the second heat transfer gas coupled to the first heat transfer gas in the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber enhance heat and mass transfer by convection within the chamber. 3 figs.

  15. An Oscillating System with Sliding Friction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamela, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Both harmonic oscillations and friction are the types of concepts in freshman physics that are readily applicable to the "real world" and as such, most students find these ideas interesting. Damped oscillations are usually presented with resistance proportional to velocity, which has the advantage of a relatively straightforward mathematical…

  16. An improved theoretical model of acoustic agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Song, L. ); Koopmann, G.H. . Center for Acoustics and Vibration); Hoffmann, T.L. )

    1994-04-01

    An improved theoretical model is developed to describe the acoustic agglomeration of particles entrained in a gas medium. The improvements to the present theories are twofold: first, wave scattering is included in the orthokinetic interaction of particles and second, hydrodynamic interaction, shown to be an important agglomeration mechanism for certain operation conditions, is incorporated into the model. The influence of orthokinetic and hydrodynamic interactions introduce associated convergent velocities that cause particles to approach each other and collide. The convergent velocities are related with an acoustic agglomeration frequency function (AAFF) through a semi-statistical method. This function is the key parameter for the theoretical simulation of acoustic agglomeration.

  17. High Q Miniature Sapphire Acoustic Resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Rabi T.; Tjoelker, R. L.

    2010-01-01

    We have demonstrated high Q measurements in a room temperature Miniature Sapphire Acoustic Resonator (MSAR). Initial measurements of bulk acoustic modes in room temperature sapphire at 39 MHz have demonstrated a Q of 8.8 x 10(exp 6). The long term goal of this work is to integrate such a high Q resonator with small, low noise quartz oscillator electronics, providing a fractional frequency stability better than 1 x 10(exp -14) @ 1s.

  18. Frequencies and amplitudes of high-degree solar oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, James Morris

    Measurements of some of the properties of high-degree solar p- and f-mode oscillations are presented. Using high-resolution velocity images from Big Bear Solar Observatory, we have measured mode frequencies, which provide information about the composition and internal structure of the Sun, and mode velocity amplitudes (corrected for the effects of atmospheric seeing), which tell us about the oscillation excitation and damping mechanisms. We present a new and more accurate table of the Sun's acoustic vibration frequencies, nunl, as a function of radial order n and spherical harmonic degree l. These frequencies are averages over azimuthal order m and approximate the normal mode frequencies of a nonrotating spherically symmetric Sun near solar minimum. The frequencies presented here are for solar p- and f-modes with 180 less than or = l less than or = 1920, 0 less than or = n less than or = 8, and 1.7 mHz less than or = nunl less than or = 5.3 mHz. The uncertainties, sigmanl, in the frequencies areas are as low as 3.1 micro-Hz. The theoretically expected f-mode frequencies are given by omega squared = gkh approx. = gl/R, where g is the gravitational acceleration at the surface, kh is the horizontal component of the wave vector, and R is the radius of the Sun. We find that the observed frequencies are significantly less than expected for l greater than 1000, for which we have no explanation. Observations of high-degree oscillations, which have very small spatial features, suffer from the effects of atmospheric image blurring and image motion (or 'seeing'), thereby reducing the amplitudes of their spatial-frequency components. In an attempt to correct the velocity amplitudes for these effects, we simultaneously measured the atmospheric modulation transfer function (MTF) by looking at the effects of seeing on the solar limb. We are able to correct the velocity amplitudes using the MTF out to l approx. = 1200. We find that the frequency of the peak velocity power (as a

  19. Vapor sensing by means of a ZnO-on-Si surface acoustic wave resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, S. J.; Schweizer, K. S.; Schwartz, S. S.; Gunshor, R. L.

    Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices can function as sensitive detectors of vapors. The high surface acoustic energy density of the device makes it extremely sensitive to the presence of molecules adsorbed from the gas phase. Mass loading by the adsorbate is the primary mechanism for the surface wave velocity perturbation. If the device is used as the frequency control element of an oscillator, perturbations in wave velocity on the order of 10 parts per billion may be resolved by means of a frequency counter. Zno-on-Si SAW resonators have been examined as vapor sensors. The piezoelectric ZnO layer permits transduction between electrical and acoustic energies, as well as endowing the surface with particular adsorptive properties. These devices exhibit C-values up to 12,000 at a resonant frequency of 109 MHZ. The resonant frequency of the device shifts upon exposure to a vapor-air mixture, with a transient response which is distinct for each of the organic vapors tested. Due to the permeability of the polycrystalline ZnO layer, the instantaneous reversibility of the resonant frequency shift is found to depend on the type of adsorbed molecule.

  20. Influence of acoustics in separation processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairbanks, H. V.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of introducing high energy acoustics into various filtering and drying systems were studied. With very slow velocity filtration systems, it was found that the introduction of acoustics could substantially increase the flow rate and also aided in the coagulation of the particulates before reaching the filter media. In the drying of temperature sensitive powders, the rate was increased by the introduction of acoustics. The acoustic frequency used was 20 kHz with power levels up to 3 watts per square centimeter.

  1. Measurements of Low-Frequency Acoustic Attenuation in Soils.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Engineering Research Laboratory to design an acoustic subsurface imaging system, a set of experiments was conducted in which the attenuation and the velocity...support of the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory’s efforts to design an acoustic subsurface imaging system which would ideally be...of acoustic waves such as those generated by a subsurface imaging system. An experiment reported in the literature characterized the acoustic

  2. Compressible flow in fluidic oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graff, Emilio; Hirsch, Damian; Gharib, Mory

    2013-11-01

    We present qualitative observations on the internal flow characteristics of fluidic oscillator geometries commonly referred to as sweeping jets in active flow control applications. We also discuss the effect of the geometry on the output jet in conditions from startup to supersonic exit velocity. Supported by the Boeing Company.

  3. OSCILLATING LIGHT WALL ABOVE A SUNSPOT LIGHT BRIDGE

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Shuhong; Zhang, Jun; Jiang, Fayu; Xiang, Yongyuan

    2015-05-10

    With the high tempo-spatial Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph 1330 Å images, we find that many bright structures are rooted in the light bridge of NOAA 12192, forming a light wall. The light wall is brighter than the surrounding areas, and the wall top is much brighter than the wall body. The New Vacuum Solar Telescope Hα and the Solar Dynamics Observatory 171 and 131 Å images are also used to study the light-wall properties. In 1330, 171, and 131 Å, the top of the wall has a higher emission, while in the Hα line, the wall-top emission is very low. The wall body corresponds to bright areas in 1330 Å and dark areas in the other lines. The top of the light wall moves upward and downward successively, performing oscillations in height. The deprojected mean height, amplitude, oscillation velocity, and the dominant period are determined to be 3.6 Mm, 0.9 Mm, 15.4 km s{sup −1}, and 3.9 minutes, respectively. We interpret the oscillations of the light wall as the leakage of p-modes from below the photosphere. The constant brightness enhancement of the wall top implies the existence of some kind of atmospheric heating, e.g., via the persistent small-scale reconnection or the magneto-acoustic waves. In another series of 1330 Å images, we find that the wall top in the upward motion phase is significantly brighter than in the downward phase. This kind of oscillation may be powered by the energy released due to intermittent impulsive magnetic reconnection.

  4. Oscillation Control of Suspended Load with Flywheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Toshiaki; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    This study is about an attitude control device applying flywheels. Reaction torque of a flywheel is applied for oscillation suppression of a suspended load. We suggest a sensorless estimation method of the attitude angular velocity. The band pass filter extracts the component of oscillation velocity from flywheel rotation velocity that contains various kinds of errors. A disturbance observer eliminates the steady state error on the wheel. Since the disturbance observer is for low frequency range, it does not interfere to angle velocity estimation. This attitude control device is convenient because it needs least calibrations when it is remounted on various suspended loads. The experimental result shows the validity of angle velocity estimation and the validity of oscillation suppression.

  5. Room Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuttruff, Heinrich; Mommertz, Eckard

    The traditional task of room acoustics is to create or formulate conditions which ensure the best possible propagation of sound in a room from a sound source to a listener. Thus, objects of room acoustics are in particular assembly halls of all kinds, such as auditoria and lecture halls, conference rooms, theaters, concert halls or churches. Already at this point, it has to be pointed out that these conditions essentially depend on the question if speech or music should be transmitted; in the first case, the criterion for transmission quality is good speech intelligibility, in the other case, however, the success of room-acoustical efforts depends on other factors that cannot be quantified that easily, not least it also depends on the hearing habits of the listeners. In any case, absolutely "good acoustics" of a room do not exist.

  6. Active damping of capillary oscillations on liquid columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiessen, David B.; Wei, Wei; Marston, Philip L.

    2002-05-01

    Active control of acoustic radiation pressure and of electrostatic stresses on liquid columns has been demonstrated to overcome the Rayleigh-Plateau instability that normally causes long liquid columns to break [M. J. Marr-Lyon et al., J. Fluid Mech. 351, 345 (1997); Phys. Fluids 12, 986-995 (2000)]. Though originally demonstrated for liquid-liquid systems in plateau tanks, the electrostatic method also works on columns in air in reduced gravity [D. B. Thiessen, M. J. Marr-Lyon, and P. L. Marston, ``Active electrostatic stabilization of liquid bridges in low gravity,'' J. Fluid Mech. (in press)]. In new research, the electrostatic stresses are applied in proportion to the velocity of the surface of the column so as to actively dampen capillary oscillations of the surface. The mode amplitude is optically sensed and the rate-of-change is electronically determined. Plateau tank measurements and theory both show that the change in damping rate is proportional to the feedback gain. The results suggest that either active control of electrostatic stresses or of acoustic radiation stresses can be used to suppress the response of interfaces to vibration. [Work supported by NASA.

  7. Stable local oscillator microcircuit.

    SciTech Connect

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2006-10-01

    This report gives a description of the development of a Stable Local Oscillator (StaLO) Microcircuit. The StaLO accepts a 100MHz input signal and produces output signals at 1.2, 3.3, and 3.6 GHz. The circuit is built as a multi-chip module (MCM), since it makes use of integrated circuit technologies in silicon and lithium niobate as well as discrete passive components. The StaLO uses a comb generator followed by surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters. The comb generator creates a set of harmonic components of the 100MHz input signal. The SAW filters are narrow bandpass filters that are used to select the desired component and reject all others. The resulting circuit has very low sideband power levels and low phase noise (both less than -40dBc) that is limited primarily by the phase noise level of the input signal.

  8. Acoustic Characteristics of Simulated Respiratory-Induced Vocal Tremor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Rosemary A.; Story, Brad H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation of respiratory forced oscillation to the acoustic characteristics of vocal tremor. Method: Acoustical analyses were performed to determine the characteristics of the intensity and fundamental frequency (F[subscript 0]) for speech samples obtained by Farinella, Hixon, Hoit, Story,…

  9. Acoustic radiation from the submerged circular cylindrical shell treated with active constrained layer damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Li-Yun; Xiang, Yu; Lu, Jing; Jiang, Hong-Hua

    2015-12-01

    Based on the transfer matrix method of exploring the circular cylindrical shell treated with active constrained layer damping (i.e., ACLD), combined with the analytical solution of the Helmholtz equation for a point source, a multi-point multipole virtual source simulation method is for the first time proposed for solving the acoustic radiation problem of a submerged ACLD shell. This approach, wherein some virtual point sources are assumed to be evenly distributed on the axial line of the cylindrical shell, and the sound pressure could be written in the form of the sum of the wave functions series with the undetermined coefficients, is demonstrated to be accurate to achieve the radiation acoustic pressure of the pulsating and oscillating spheres respectively. Meanwhile, this approach is proved to be accurate to obtain the radiation acoustic pressure for a stiffened cylindrical shell. Then, the chosen number of the virtual distributed point sources and truncated number of the wave functions series are discussed to achieve the approximate radiation acoustic pressure of an ACLD cylindrical shell. Applying this method, different radiation acoustic pressures of a submerged ACLD cylindrical shell with different boundary conditions, different thickness values of viscoelastic and piezoelectric layer, different feedback gains for the piezoelectric layer and coverage of ACLD are discussed in detail. Results show that a thicker thickness and larger velocity gain for the piezoelectric layer and larger coverage of the ACLD layer can obtain a better damping effect for the whole structure in general. Whereas, laying a thicker viscoelastic layer is not always a better treatment to achieve a better acoustic characteristic. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11162001, 11502056, and 51105083), the Natural Science Foundation of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China (Grant No. 2012GXNSFAA053207), the Doctor Foundation of Guangxi

  10. Acoustic waves in medical imaging and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Sarvazyan, Armen P; Urban, Matthew W; Greenleaf, James F

    2013-07-01

    Up until about two decades ago acoustic imaging and ultrasound imaging were synonymous. The term ultrasonography, or its abbreviated version sonography, meant an imaging modality based on the use of ultrasonic compressional bulk waves. Beginning in the 1990s, there started to emerge numerous acoustic imaging modalities based on the use of a different mode of acoustic wave: shear waves. Imaging with these waves was shown to provide very useful and very different information about the biological tissue being examined. We discuss the physical basis for the differences between these two basic modes of acoustic waves used in medical imaging and analyze the advantages associated with shear acoustic imaging. A comprehensive analysis of the range of acoustic wavelengths, velocities and frequencies that have been used in different imaging applications is presented. We discuss the potential for future shear wave imaging applications.

  11. Stochastic excitation of the solar oscillations by turbulent convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willette, Gregory Thomas

    1994-01-01

    The thesis topic is the stochastic excitation of the solar p-modes by turbulent convection, and the work consists of four parts: three theoretical sections and one observational. In the first section of the thesis, an explicit calculation of the acoustic radiation of a buoyant oscillating bubble is presented as a model for the excitation of the solar p-modes. The central scientific issue addressed in this work is the cancellation of monopole and dipole radiation fields in an anisotropic medium, first pointed out by Goldreich and Kumar (1990). When the bubble oscillation frequency is small compared to the acoustic cutoff, the monopole and dipole disturbances cancel to the quadrupole order in the far field. The second section deals with the role of convective structures in a wide number of problems, including the creation of acoustic disturbances, the transport of heat and magnetic fields, and the penetration of flows into stable layers of the atmosphere (overshoot). A model of plume convection is developed to discuss these issues. It is argued that the scaleheight-sized flows (the only energetically significant ones) are properly characterized as coherent, entropy-preserving plumes, in contradistinction to the picture of amorphous parcels of fluid suggested by the Mixing Length Theory, and in spite of the large Reynolds numbers typical in astrophysical convection. The third section of the thesis is an analysis of high-resolution surface velocity data taken with a magneto-optical filter on the 10 inch telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory. Estimates are obtained for the frequencies and amplitudes of the solar oscillations of high spherical harmonic degree (l approximately less than 2000). The observed mode energies follow a Boltzmann distribution (P(E) varies as exp(-E/(bar-E)), as is predicted in the stochastic excitation model. In the final section of the thesis, a derivation of the variational principle for an incompressible fluid is presented. The Lagrange and

  12. Feedback control of combustion oscillations in combustion chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Jing; Li, Dong-hai; Zhu, Min; Xue, Ya-li

    2010-11-01

    Model-based algorithms are generally employed in active control of combustion oscillations. Since practical combustion processes consist of complex thermal and acoustic couplings, their accurate models and parameters may not be obtained in advance economically, a model free controller is necessary for the control of thermoacoustic instabilities. Active compensation based control algorithm is applied in the suppression of combustion instabilities. Tuning the controller parameters on line, the amplitudes of the acoustic waves can be modulated to desired values. Simulations performed on a control oriented, typical longitudinal oscillations combustor model illustrate the controllers' capability to attenuate combustion oscillations.

  13. Acoustic tomography. Laboratory technique Implementation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvis, Jorge; Carvajal, Jenny

    2010-05-01

    From geomechanical tests carried out on rocks it is possible to determine its physico-mechanical properties, which relate the strain and applied stress; even so, conventional tests do not allow to identify how stress is distributed and how it has affected porous media. Today, techniques like acoustic tomography widely used in medicine, geophysics and others sciences, generates images by sections of the interior of a body. Acoustic tomography allows inferring the stress state within porous media; since wave velocities are closely related to media density, if a stress is applied to a rock, it will generate grains compaction and this will be showed by an increase of wave velocity. Implementation was conducted on rock plugs under diverse stress fields, simultaneously recording P-wave velocities (Compressional) on perpendicular planes to sample vertical axis. Transmission and reception of acoustic waves through porous media were done by piezoelectric crystals (PZT) used as sensors. A transmitting crystal excited by a voltage pulse causes a mechanical vibration, which travels across media; this is known as inverse piezoelectric effect. This vibration is recorded by a receiving crystal in which the direct piezoelectric effect appears; which dictates that if a piezoelectric is disturbed mechanically, an electrical signal between its terminals will appear. This electrical signal is used to obtain the wave velocity. Nevertheless, acoustic tomography corresponds to one of those called inverse Problems that arise when from observed data the model parameters must be obtained; in this way, tomography involves iterative reconstruction techniques (ART or SIRT) which are projections of observed data and its later inversion. Obtained results are cross-sectional images of velocity within the rock. In these images it is possible to identify where stress has a greater concentration observing the color map generated; thus, a greater velocity density area corresponding to a greater

  14. Effect of electron heating on femtosecond laser-induced coherent acoustic phonons in noble metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jincheng; Guo, Chunlei

    2007-05-01

    We employ a surface plasmon technique to resolve the dynamics of femtosecond-laser-induced coherent acoustic phonons in noble metals. Clear acoustic oscillations are observed in our experiments. We further study the dependence of the initial phase of the oscillations on pump fluence, and we find that the initial phase decreases linearly with pump fluence. Our model calculations show that hot electrons instantaneously excited by femtosecond pulses contribute to the generation of coherent acoustic phonons in metals.

  15. Miniature Sapphire Acoustic Resonator - MSAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Rabi T.; Tjoelker, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    A room temperature sapphire acoustics resonator incorporated into an oscillator represents a possible opportunity to improve on quartz ultrastable oscillator (USO) performance, which has been a staple for NASA missions since the inception of spaceflight. Where quartz technology is very mature and shows a performance improvement of perhaps 1 dB/decade, these sapphire acoustic resonators when integrated with matured quartz electronics could achieve a frequency stability improvement of 10 dB or more. As quartz oscillators are an essential element of nearly all types of frequency standards and reference systems, the success of MSAR would advance the development of frequency standards and systems for both groundbased and flight-based projects. Current quartz oscillator technology is limited by quartz mechanical Q. With a possible improvement of more than x 10 Q with sapphire acoustic modes, the stability limit of current quartz oscillators may be improved tenfold, to 10(exp -14) at 1 second. The electromagnetic modes of sapphire that were previously developed at JPL require cryogenic temperatures to achieve the high Q levels needed to achieve this stability level. However sapphire fs acoustic modes, which have not been used before in a high-stability oscillator, indicate the required Q values (as high as Q = 10(exp 8)) may be achieved at room temperature in the kHz range. Even though sapphire is not piezoelectric, such a high Q should allow electrostatic excitation of the acoustic modes with a combination of DC and AC voltages across a small sapphire disk (approximately equal to l mm thick). The first evaluations under this task will test predictions of an estimated input impedance of 10 kilohms at Q = 10(exp 8), and explore the Q values that can be realized in a smaller resonator, which has not been previously tested for acoustic modes. This initial Q measurement and excitation demonstration can be viewed similar to a transducer converting electrical energy to

  16. Some general properties of the exact acoustic fields in horns and baffles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, L. M. B. C.

    1984-07-01

    calculating, in elementary form, the exact acoustic fields in inverse catenoidal ducts, for all cases of (a) propagating waves above, (b) non-oscillating modes below and (c) transition fields at the cut-off frequency. The inverse catenoidal ducts consist of (A) the horn of cross-section S˜sech 2, ressembling the "soliton" of non-linear water wave fame, and (B) the baffle of cross-section S˜csch 2, which also matches two exponentially converging ducts, but has infinite, instead of finite, flare at the origin. The geometrical and acoustic properties of these ducts are illustrated by sets of six plots, in Figure 1(a) for the sech-horn and in Figure 1(b) for the csch-baffle; the exact acoustic fields are described by amplitude and phase decompositions of the sound velocity and pressure, plotted as functions of position along the duct, for four frequencies ranging from the cut-off condition to the ray limit (or W.K.B.J. approximation).

  17. The effect of Jupiter oscillations on Juno gravity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, Daniele; Guillot, Tristan; Iess, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    Seismology represents a unique method to probe the interiors of giant planets. Recently, Saturn's f-modes have been indirectly observed in its rings, and there is strong evidence for the detection of Jupiter global modes by means of ground-based, spatially-resolved, velocimetry measurements. We propose to exploit Juno's extremely accurate radio science data by looking at the gravity perturbations that Jupiter's acoustic modes would produce. We evaluate the perturbation to Jupiter's gravitational field using the oscillation spectrum of a polytrope with index 1 and the corresponding radial eigenfunctions. We show that Juno will be most sensitive to the fundamental mode (n = 0), unless its amplitude is smaller than 0.5 cm/s, i.e. 100 times weaker than the n ∼ 4 - 11 modes detected by spatially-resolved velocimetry. The oscillations yield contributions to Juno's measured gravitational coefficients similar to or larger than those expected from shallow zonal winds (extending to depths less than 300 km). In the case of a strong f-mode (radial velocity ∼ 30 cm/s), these contributions would become of the same order as those expected from deep zonal winds (extending to 3000 km), especially on the low degree zonal harmonics, therefore requiring a new approach to the analysis of Juno data.

  18. Large amplitude drop shape oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E. H.; Wang, T. G.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental study of large amplitude drop shape oscillation was conducted in immiscible liquids systems and with levitated free liquid drops in air. In liquid-liquid systems the results indicate the existence of familiar characteristics of nonlinear phenomena. The resonance frequency of the fundamental quadrupole mode of stationary, low viscosity Silicone oil drops acoustically levitated in water falls to noticeably low values as the amplitude of oscillation is increased. A typical, experimentally determined relative frequency decrease of a 0.5 cubic centimeters drop would be about 10% when the maximum deformed shape is characterized by a major to minor axial ratio of 1.9. On the other hand, no change in the fundamental mode frequency could be detected for 1 mm drops levitated in air. The experimental data for the decay constant of the quadrupole mode of drops immersed in a liquid host indicate a slight increase for larger oscillation amplitudes. A qualitative investigation of the internal fluid flows for such drops revealed the existence of steady internal circulation within drops oscillating in the fundamental and higher modes. The flow field configuration in the outer host liquid is also significantly altered when the drop oscillation amplitude becomes large.

  19. The surface nitrogen abundance of a massive star in relation to its oscillations, rotation, and magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Aerts, C.; Molenberghs, G.; Kenward, M. G.; Neiner, C.

    2014-02-01

    We have composed a sample of 68 massive stars in our galaxy whose projected rotational velocity, effective temperature, and gravity are available from high-precision spectroscopic measurements. The additional seven observed variables considered here are their surface nitrogen abundance, rotational frequency, magnetic field strength, and the amplitude and frequency of their dominant acoustic and gravity modes of oscillation. A multiple linear regression to estimate the nitrogen abundance combined with principal component analysis, after addressing the incomplete and truncated nature of the data, reveals that the effective temperature and the frequency of the dominant acoustic oscillation mode are the only two significant predictors for the nitrogen abundance, while the projected rotational velocity and the rotational frequency have no predictive power. The dominant gravity mode and the magnetic field strength are correlated with the effective temperature but have no predictive power for the nitrogen abundance. Our findings are completely based on observations and their proper statistical treatment and call for a new strategy in evaluating the outcome of stellar evolution computations.

  20. Development of Surface Acoustic Wave-Based Microgyroscope Utilizing Progressive Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Haekwan; Yang, Sangsik; Lee, Keekeun

    2010-06-01

    An 80 MHz surface acoustic wave (SAW)-based gyroscope utilizing a progressive wave was developed on a 128° YX LiNbO3 piezoelectric substrate. The sensor developed consists of two SAW oscillators in which one is used as the sensing element and has metallic dots in the cavity between input and output interdigital transducers (IDTs). The other is used as the reference element. Coupling of modes (COM) modeling was conducted to determine the optimal device parameters prior to fabrication. On the basis of the simulation results, the device was fabricated and then measured on a rate table. When the device was subjected to an angular rotation, oscillation frequency differences between the two oscillators were observed because of the Coriolis force acting on the metallic dots. Depending on the angular velocity, the difference in oscillation frequency was modulated. The obtained sensitivity was approximately 52.35 Hz deg-1 s-1 at an angular rate range of 0-1000 deg/s. Device performances at different mass weights, mass positions, and temperatures were characterized. Good thermal stability was also observed during the evaluation process.

  1. Mass sensitivity analysis and designing of surface acoustic wave resonators for chemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kshetrimayum, Roshan; Yadava, R. D. S.; Tandon, R. P.

    2009-05-01

    The sensitivity of surface acoustic wave (SAW) chemical sensors depends on several factors such as the frequency and phase point of SAW device operation, sensitivity of the SAW velocity to surface mass loading, sensitivity of the SAW oscillator resonance to the loop phase shift, film thickness and oscillator electronics. This paper analyzes the influence of the phase point of operation in SAW oscillator sensors based on two-port resonator devices. It is found that the mass sensitivity will be enhanced if the SAW device has a nonlinear dependence on the frequency (delay ~ frequency-1). This requires the device to generate and operate in a ωτg(ω) = const region in the device passband, where ω denotes the angular frequency of oscillation and τg(ω) denotes the phase slope of the SAW resonator device. A SAW coupled resonator filter (CRF) that take advantage of mode coupling is considered in realizing such a device to help in shaping the phase transfer characteristics of a high mass sensitivity sensor. The device design and simulation results are presented within the coupling-of-modes formalism.

  2. Axisymmetric oscillations at L-H transitions in JET: M-mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano, Emilia R.; Vianello, N.; Delabie, E.; Hillesheim, J. C.; Buratti, P.; Réfy, D.; Balboa, I.; Boboc, A.; Coelho, R.; Sieglin, B.; Silburn, S.; Drewelow, P.; Devaux, S.; Dodt, D.; Figueiredo, A.; Frassinetti, L.; Marsen, S.; Meneses, L.; Maggi, C. F.; Morris, J.; Gerasimov, S.; Baruzzo, M.; Stamp, M.; Grist, D.; Nunes, I.; Rimini, F.; Schmuck, S.; Lupelli, I.; Silva, C.; contributors, JET

    2017-02-01

    L to H transition studies at JET have revealed an n  =  0, m  =  1 magnetic oscillation starting immediately at the L to H transition (called M-mode for brevity). While the magnetic oscillation is present a weak ELM-less H-mode regime is obtained, with a clear increase of density and a weak electron temperature pedestal. It is an intermediate state between L and H-mode. In ICRH heated plasmas or low density NBI plasmas the magnetic mode and the pedestal can remain steady (with small oscillations) for the duration of the heating phase, of order 10 s or more. The axisymmetric magnetic oscillation has period ~0.5-2 ms, and poloidal mode number m  =  1: it looks like a pedestal localised up/down oscillation, although it is clearly a natural oscillation of the plasma, not driven by the position control system. Electron cyclotron emission, interferometry, reflectometry and fast Li beam measurements locate the mode in the pedestal region. D α , fast infrared camera and Langmuir probe measurements show that the mode modulates heat and particle fluxes to the target. The mode frequency appears to scale with the poloidal Alfvén velocity, and not with sound speed (i.e. it is not a geodesic acoustic mode). A heuristic model is proposed for the frequency scaling of the mode. We discuss the relationship between the M-mode and other related observations near the L-H transition.

  3. Galactic oscillator symmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosensteel, George

    1995-01-01

    Riemann ellipsoids model rotating galaxies when the galactic velocity field is a linear function of the Cartesian coordinates of the galactic masses. In nuclear physics, the kinetic energy in the linear velocity field approximation is known as the collective kinetic energy. But, the linear approximation neglects intrinsic degrees of freedom associated with nonlinear velocity fields. To remove this limitation, the theory of symplectic dynamical symmetry is developed for classical systems. A classical phase space for a self-gravitating symplectic system is a co-adjoint orbit of the noncompact group SP(3,R). The degenerate co-adjoint orbit is the 12 dimensional homogeneous space Sp(3,R)/U(3), where the maximal compact subgroup U(3) is the symmetry group of the harmonic oscillator. The Hamiltonian equations of motion on each orbit form a Lax system X = (X,F), where X and F are elements of the symplectic Lie algebra. The elements of the matrix X are the generators of the symplectic Lie algebra, viz., the one-body collective quadratic functions of the positions and momenta of the galactic masses. The matrix F is composed from the self-gravitating potential energy, the angular velocity, and the hydostatic pressure. Solutions to the hamiltonian dynamical system on Sp(3,R)/U(3) are given by symplectic isospectral deformations. The Casimirs of Sp(3,R), equal to the traces of powers of X, are conserved quantities.

  4. Using micro-3D printing to build acoustically driven microswimmers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertin, Nicolas; Stephan, Olivier; Marmottant, Philippe; Spelman, Tamsin; Lauga, Eric; Dyfcom Team; Complex; Biological Fluids Team

    2015-11-01

    With no protection, a micron-sized free air bubble at room temperature in water has a life span shorter than a few tens of seconds. Using two-photon lithography, which is similar to 3D printing at the micron scale, we can build ``armors'' for these bubbles: micro-capsules with an opening to contain the bubble and extend its life to several hours in biological buffer solutions. When excited by an ultrasound transducer, a 20 μm bubble performs large amplitude oscillations in the capsule opening and generates a powerful acoustic streaming flow (velocity up to dozens of mm/s). A collaboration with the Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, is helping us predict the true resonance of these capsules and the full surrounding streaming flow. The present Bubbleboost project aims at creating red blood cell sized capsules (~ 10-20 μm) that can move on their own with a non-contact acoustic excitation for drug delivery applications. Another application of this research is in microfluidics: we are able to fabricate fields of capsules able to generate mixing effects in microchannels, or use the bubble-generated flow to guide passing objects at a junction. ERC Grant Agreement Bubbleboost no. 614655.

  5. Wave Phenomena in an Acoustic Resonant Chamber

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mary E.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the design and operation of a high Q acoustical resonant chamber which can be used to demonstrate wave phenomena such as three-dimensional normal modes, Q values, densities of states, changes in the speed of sound, Fourier decomposition, damped harmonic oscillations, sound-absorbing properties, and perturbation and scattering problems.…

  6. Towards an optimal reconstruction of baryon oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Tassev, Svetlin; Zaldarriaga, Matias E-mail: matiasz@ias.edu

    2012-10-01

    The Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) in the large-scale structure of the universe leave a distinct peak in the two-point correlation function of the matter distribution. That acoustic peak is smeared and shifted by bulk flows and non-linear evolution. However, it has been shown that it is still possible to sharpen the peak and remove its shift by undoing the effects of the bulk flows. We propose an improvement to the standard acoustic peak reconstruction. Contrary to the standard approach, the new scheme has no free parameters, treats the large-scale modes consistently, and uses optimal filters to extract the BAO information. At redshift of zero, the reconstructed linear matter power spectrum leads to a markedly improved sharpening of the reconstructed acoustic peak compared to standard reconstruction.

  7. FEL Oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    George Neil

    2003-05-12

    FEL Oscillators have been around since 1977 providing not only a test bed for the physics of Free Electron Lasers and electron/photon interactions but as a workhorse of scientific research. More than 30 FEL oscillators are presently operating around the world spanning a wavelength range from the mm region to the ultraviolet using DC and rf linear accelerators and storage rings as electron sources. The characteristics that have driven the development of these sources are the desire for high peak and average power, high micropulse energies, wavelength tunability, timing flexibility, and wavelengths that are unavailable from more conventional laser sources. Substantial user programs have been performed using such sources encompassing medicine, biology, solid state research, atomic and molecular physics, effects of non-linear fields, surface science, polymer science, pulsed laser vapor deposition, to name just a few.

  8. STABILIZED OSCILLATOR

    DOEpatents

    Jessen, P.L.; Price, H.J.

    1958-03-18

    This patent relates to sine-wave generators and in particular describes a generator with a novel feedback circuit resulting in improved frequency stability. The generator comprises two triodes having a common cathode circuit connected to oscillate at a frequency and amplitude at which the loop galn of the circutt ls unity, and another pair of triodes having a common cathode circuit arranged as a conventional amplifier. A signal is conducted from the osciliator through a frequency selective network to the amplifier and fed back to the osciliator. The unique feature of the feedback circuit is the amplifier operates in the nonlinear portion of its tube characteristics thereby providing a relatively constant feedback voltage to the oscillator irrespective of the amplitude of its input signal.

  9. Synchronization of an Array of Miniature Acoustic Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Young Sang; Symko, Orest G.

    2004-03-01

    In the development of miniature arrays of acoustic engines for energy conversion, phase-locking of the array ensemble was investigated. As the individual acoustic devices are independent resonant elements, maximum output can be achieved by a coherent summation of the elements of the array. They have small variations in resonant frequency and they have different phases as they are non-linear self-sustained oscillators and their phases depend on the initial conditions. The acoustic engines are based on thermoacoustics, where heat is converted to sound in a resonator by applying a temperature gradient across a stack of high surface area elements. In the experiments described here, the devices oscillate in the frequency range of 3 kHz and they are assembled into arrays of 5 elements and 9 elements. When the array is activated with heat, the acoustic power output is not coherent; it contains all sorts of beats and frequency mixtures produced by each independent oscillator. However, coherence is achieved by the introduction of a relatively weak signal from a separate resonator which phase-locks all the self-sustained acoustic oscillators and causes coherent summation of oscillations. Such approach provides a high intensity acoustic signal which can be used in energy conversion of heat to electricity.

  10. Nonlinear behavior of acoustic waves in combustion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culick, F. E. C.

    1975-01-01

    The nonlinear growth and limiting amplitude of acoustic waves in a combustion chamber are considered. A formal framework is provided within which practical problems can be treated with a minimum of effort and expense. The general conservation equations were expanded in two small parameters, one characterizing the mean flow field and one measuring the amplitude of oscillations, and then combined to yield a nonlinear inhomogeneous wave equation. The unsteady pressure and velocity fields were expressed as syntheses of the normal modes of the chamber, but with unknown time-varying amplitudes. This procedure yielded a representation of a general unsteady field as a system of coupled nonlinear oscillators. The system of nonlinear equations was treated by the method of averaging to produce a set of coupled nonlinear first order differential equations for the amplitudes and phases of the modes. The analysis is applicable to any combustion chamber. The most interesting applications are probably to solid rockets, liquid rockets, or thrust augmentors on jet engines.

  11. Capture of instantaneous temperature in oscillating flows: use of constant-voltage anemometry to correct the thermal lag of cold wires operated by constant-current anemometry.

    PubMed

    Berson, Arganthaël; Poignand, Gaëlle; Blanc-Benon, Philippe; Comte-Bellot, Geneviève

    2010-01-01

    A new procedure for the instantaneous correction of the thermal inertia of cold wires operated by a constant-current anemometer is proposed for oscillating flows. The thermal inertia of cold wires depends both on the wire properties and on the instantaneous incident flow velocity. Its correction is challenging in oscillating flows because no relationship between flow velocity and heat transfer around the wire is available near flow reversal. The present correction procedure requires neither calibration data for velocity nor thermophysical or geometrical properties of the wires. The method relies on the splitting of the time lag of cold wires into two factors, which are obtained using a constant-voltage anemometer in the heated mode. The first factor, which is intrinsic to the wire, is deduced from time-constant measurements performed in a low-turbulence flow. The second factor, which depends on the instantaneous flow velocity, is acquired in situ. In oscillating flows, data acquisition can be synchronized with a reference signal so that the same wire is alternatively operated in the cold mode by a constant-current anemometer and in the heated mode by a constant-voltage anemometer. Validation experiments are conducted in an acoustic standing-wave resonator, for which the fluctuating temperature field along the resonator axis is known independently from acoustic pressure measurements, so that comparisons can be made with cold-wire measurements. It is shown that despite the fact that the wire experiences flow reversal, the new procedure recovers accurately the instantaneous temperature of the flow.

  12. Pattern-formation under acoustic driving forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valverde, Jose Manuel

    2015-07-01

    Chemical and metallurgical processes enhanced by high intensity acoustic waves, thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators, fuel rods in nuclear reactors, heat exchanger tubes, offshore and vibrating structures, solar thermal collectors, acoustic levitators, microfluidic devices, cycling, musical acoustics, blood flow through veins/arteries, hearing in the mammalian ear, carbon nanotube loudspeakers, etc. The evolution of a myriad of processes involving the oscillation of viscous fluids in the presence of solid boundaries is up to a certain extent influenced by acoustic streaming. In addition to the sound field, viscous energy dissipation at the fluid-solid boundary causes a time-independent fluid circulation, which can lead to a significant enhancement of heat, mass and momentum transfer at large oscillation amplitudes. A particularly relevant phenomenon that can be notably affected by acoustic streaming is the promotion of sound waves by temperature gradients or viceversa (thermoacoustics), which is at the basis of potentially efficient and environmental friendly engines and refrigerators that have attracted a renewed interest in the last years. In the present manuscript, historical developments and the underlying basic physics behind acoustic streaming and thermoacoustics are reviewed from an unifying perspective.

  13. Nonlinear Acoustics Used To Reduce Leakage Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, Christopher C.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2004-01-01

    Leakage and wear are two fundamental problems in all traditional turbine seals that contribute to an engine's inefficiency. The solutions to seal leakage and wear conflict in the conventional design space. Reducing the clearance between the seal and rotating shaft reduces leakage but increases wear because of increased contact incidents. Increasing the clearance to reduce the contact between parts reduces wear but increases parasitic leakage. The goal of this effort is to develop a seal that restricts leakage flow using acoustic pressure while operating in a noncontacting manner, thereby increasing life. In 1996, Dr. Timothy Lucas announced his discovery of a method to produce shock-free high-amplitude pressure waves. For the first time, the formation of large acoustic pressures was possible using dissonant resonators. A pre-prototype acoustic seal developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center exploits this fundamental acoustic discovery: a specially shaped cavity oscillated at the contained fluid's resonant frequency produces high-amplitude acoustic pressure waves of a magnitude approaching those required of today's seals. While the original researchers are continuing their development of acoustic pumps, refrigeration compressors, and electronic thermal management systems using this technology, the goal of researchers at Glenn is to apply these acoustic principles to a revolutionary sealing device. When the acoustic resonator shape is optimized for the sealing device, the flow from a high-pressure cavity to a low-pressure cavity will be restricted by a series of high-amplitude standing pressure waves of higher pressure than the pressure to be sealed. Since the sealing resonator cavity will not touch the adjacent sealing structures, seal wear will be eliminated, improving system life. Under a cooperative agreement between Glenn and the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI), an acoustic-based pre-prototype seal was demonstrated for the first time. A pressurized cavity was

  14. Nonlinear Acoustics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-02-14

    Wester- velt. [60] Streaming. In 1831, Michael Faraday [61] noted that currents of air were set up in the neighborhood of vibrating plates-the first... ducei in the case of a paramettc amy (from Berktay an Leahy 141). C’ "". k•, SEC 10.1 NONLINEAR ACOUSTICS 345 The principal results of their analysis

  15. Acoustic minor losses in high amplitude resonators with single-sided junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doller, Andrew J.

    Steady flow engineering handbooks like Idelchik20 do not exist for investigators interested in acoustic (oscillating) fluid flows in complex resonators. Measurements of acoustic minor loss coefficients are presented in this dissertation for a limited number of resonator configurations having single-sided junctions. While these results may be useful, the greater purpose of this work is to provide a set of controlled measurements that can be used to benchmark computational models of acoustic flows used for more complicated resonator structures. The experiments are designed around a driver operating at 150 Hz enabling acoustic pressures in excess of 10k Pa in liquid cooled, temperature controlled resonators with 90°, 45° and 25° junctions. These junctions join a common 109 cm long 4.7 cm diameter section to a section of 8.4 mm diameter tube making two sets of resonators: one set with a small diameter length approximately a quarter-wavelength (45 cm), the other approximately a half-wavelength (112 cm). The long resonators have a velocity node at the junction; the short resonators have a velocity anti-node generating the greatest minor losses. Input power is measured by an accelerometer and a pressure transducer at the driver. A pressure sensor at the rigid termination measures radiation pressure from the driver and static junction pressure, as well as the acoustic pressure used to calculate linear thermal and viscous resonator wall losses. At the largest amplitudes, the 90° junction was found to dissipate as much as 0.3 Watt, 1/3 the power of linear losses alone. For each junction, the power dissipation depends on acoustic pressure differently: pressure cubed for the 90°, pressure to the 3.76 for the 45° and pressure to the 4.48 for the 25°. Common among all resonators, blowing acoustic half-cycle minor losses (KB) are excited at lower amplitudes than the suction half-cycle (KS) minor losses. Data collected for the 90° junction shows KB reaches an asymptotic

  16. Acoustic streaming jets: A scaling and dimensional analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Botton, V. Henry, D.; Millet, S.; Ben-Hadid, H.; Garandet, J. P.

    2015-10-28

    We present our work on acoustic streaming free jets driven by ultrasonic beams in liquids. These jets are steady flows generated far from walls by progressive acoustic waves. As can be seen on figure 1, our set-up, denominated AStrID for Acoustic Streaming Investigation Device, is made of a water tank in which a 29 mm plane source emits continuous ultrasonic waves at typically 2 MHz. Our approach combines an experimental characterization of both the acoustic pressure field (hydrophone) and the obtained acoustic streaming velocity field (PIV visualization) on one hand, with CFD using an incompressible Navier-Stokes solver on the other hand.

  17. Acoustic streaming jets: A scaling and dimensional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botton, V.; Moudjed, B.; Henry, D.; Millet, S.; Ben-Hadid, H.; Garandet, J. P.

    2015-10-01

    We present our work on acoustic streaming free jets driven by ultrasonic beams in liquids. These jets are steady flows generated far from walls by progressive acoustic waves. As can be seen on figure 1, our set-up, denominated AStrID for Acoustic Streaming Investigation Device, is made of a water tank in which a 29 mm plane source emits continuous ultrasonic waves at typically 2 MHz. Our approach combines an experimental characterization of both the acoustic pressure field (hydrophone) and the obtained acoustic streaming velocity field (PIV visualization) on one hand, with CFD using an incompressible Navier-Stokes solver on the other hand.

  18. The 3D rocket combustor acoustics model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priem, Richard J.; Breisacher, Kevin J.

    1992-01-01

    The theory and procedures for determining the characteristics of pressure oscillations in rocket engines with prescribed burning rate oscillations are presented. Analyses including radial and hub baffles and absorbers can be performed in one, two, and three dimensions. Pressure and velocity oscillations calculated using this procedure are presented for the SSME to show the influence of baffles and absorbers on the burning rate oscillations required to achieve neutral stability. Comparisons are made between the results obtained utilizing 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D assumptions with regards to capturing the physical phenomena of interest and computational requirements.

  19. Implementation and Comparison of Acoustic Travel-Time Measurement Procedures for the Solar Dynamics Observatory-Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager Time-Distance Helioseismology Pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Couvidat, S.; Zhao, J.; Birch, A. C.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Duvall, Thomas L., Jr.; Parchevsky, K.; Scherrer, P. H.

    2010-01-01

    The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) instrument onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) satellite is designed to produce high-resolution Doppler-velocity maps of oscillations at the solar surface with high temporal cadence. To take advantage of these high-quality oscillation data, a time - distance helioseismology pipeline (Zhao et al., Solar Phys. submitted, 2010) has been implemented at the Joint Science Operations Center (JSOC) at Stanford University. The aim of this pipeline is to generate maps of acoustic travel times from oscillations on the solar surface, and to infer subsurface 3D flow velocities and sound-speed perturbations. The wave travel times are measured from cross-covariances of the observed solar oscillation signals. For implementation into the pipeline we have investigated three different travel-time definitions developed in time - distance helioseismology: a Gabor-wavelet fitting (Kosovichev and Duvall, SCORE'96: Solar Convection and Oscillations and Their Relationship, ASSL, Dordrecht, 241, 1997), a minimization relative to a reference cross-covariance function (Gizon and Birch, Astrophys. J. 571, 966, 2002), and a linearized version of the minimization method (Gizon and Birch, Astrophys. J. 614, 472, 2004). Using Doppler-velocity data from the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) instrument onboard SOHO, we tested and compared these definitions for the mean and difference traveltime perturbations measured from reciprocal signals. Although all three procedures return similar travel times in a quiet-Sun region, the method of Gizon and Birch (Astrophys. J. 614, 472, 2004) gives travel times that are significantly different from the others in a magnetic (active) region. Thus, for the pipeline implementation we chose the procedures of Kosovichev and Duvall (SCORE'96: Solar Convection and Oscillations and Their Relationship, ASSL, Dordrecht, 241, 1997) and Gizon and Birch (Astrophys. J. 571, 966, 2002). We investigated the relationships among

  20. Study on the bubble transport mechanism in an acoustic standing wave field.

    PubMed

    Xi, Xiaoyu; Cegla, Frederic B; Lowe, Michael; Thiemann, Andrea; Nowak, Till; Mettin, Robert; Holsteyns, Frank; Lippert, Alexander

    2011-12-01

    The use of bubbles in applications such as surface chemistry, drug delivery, and ultrasonic cleaning etc. has been enormously popular in the past two decades. It has been recognized that acoustically-driven bubbles can be used to disturb the flow field near a boundary in order to accelerate physical or chemical reactions on the surface. The interactions between bubbles and a surface have been studied experimentally and analytically. However, most of the investigations focused on violently oscillating bubbles (also known as cavitation bubble), less attention has been given to understand the interactions between moderately oscillating bubbles and a boundary. Moreover, cavitation bubbles were normally generated in situ by a high intensity laser beam, little experimental work has been carried out to study the translational trajectory of a moderately oscillating bubble in an acoustic field and subsequent interactions with the surface. This paper describes the design of an ultrasonic test cell and explores the mechanism of bubble manipulation within the test cell. The test cell consists of a transducer, a liquid medium and a glass backing plate. The acoustic field within the multi-layered stack was designed in such a way that it was effectively one dimensional. This was then successfully simulated by a one dimensional network model. The model can accurately predict the impedance of the test cell as well as the mode shape (distribution of particle velocity and stress/pressure field) within the whole assembly. The mode shape of the stack was designed so that bubbles can be pushed from their injection point onto a backing glass plate. Bubble radial oscillation was simulated by a modified Keller-Miksis equation and bubble translational motion was derived from an equation obtained by applying Newton's second law to a bubble in a liquid medium. Results indicated that the bubble trajectory depends on the acoustic pressure amplitude and initial bubble size: an increase of

  1. Dynamic Weakening by Acoustic Fluidization during Stick-Slip Motion.

    PubMed

    Giacco, F; Saggese, L; de Arcangelis, L; Lippiello, E; Pica Ciamarra, M

    2015-09-18

    The unexpected weakness of some faults has been attributed to the emergence of acoustic waves that promote failure by reducing the confining pressure through a mechanism known as acoustic fluidization, also proposed to explain earthquake remote triggering. Here we validate this mechanism via the numerical investigation of a granular fault model system. We find that the stick-slip dynamics is affected only by perturbations applied at a characteristic frequency corresponding to oscillations normal to the fault, leading to gradual dynamical weakening as failure is approaching. Acoustic waves at the same frequency spontaneously emerge at the onset of failure in the absence of perturbations, supporting the relevance of acoustic fluidization in earthquake triggering.

  2. Local wavefield velocity imaging for damage evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chia, Chen Ciang; Gan, Chia Sheng; Mustapha, F.

    2017-02-01

    Ultrasonic Propagation Imaging or Acoustic Wavefield Imaging has been widely used to evaluate structural damages and internal features. Inspecting complete wavefield time history for damage identification is tedious and error-prone. A more effective way is by extracting damage-related information into a single image. A wavefield velocity imaging method that maps the local estimates of group or phase velocity is proposed. Actual velocity values rather than arbitrarily-scaled intensities are mapped, enabling damage sizing without the need of supervised training or inspecting wavefield propagation video. Performance of the proposed method was tested by inspecting a 100 mm by 100 mm area of a 2 mm thick stainless steel specimen. Local phase velocity maps of A0 mode showed a half-thickness hole of 2 mm diameter as significant change in local phase velocity from the nominal 2 m/ms. Full width at half maximum of relevant velocity profiles proved the accuracy and consistency of the damage sizing.

  3. Acoustic tensometry. II - Methods and apparatus /survey/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrenko, V. M.; Kutsenko, A. N.; Sheremetikov, A. S.

    1981-08-01

    Acoustic methods for determining the stress-strain state of a solid are analyzed; the methods are based on the results obtained in a previous article on acoustic tensometry (Bobrenko et al., 1980), as well as other literature and patent information on the subject. The analysis, relevant to factory conditions, is broken down into a study of three methods: (1) the measurement of absolute propagation times of ultrasonic space waves; (2) the measurement of absolute velocities of Rayleigh waves; and (3) the measurement of acoustic anisotrophy. Features of the acoustic and electronic units, and the demands imposed on the transducers are also considered. Practical recommendations are given for using the acoustic methods, depending on the relative dimensions of the testpieces.

  4. Acoustic tensometry. II - Methods and apparatus /survey/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrenko, V. M.; Kutsenko, A. N.; Sheremetikov, A. S.

    1980-12-01

    Acoustic methods for determining the stress-strain state of a solid are analyzed; the methods are based on the results obtained in a previous article on acoustic tensometry (Bobrenko et al., 1980), as well as other literature and patent information on the subject. The analysis, relevant to factory conditions, is broken down into a study of three methods: (1) the measurement of absolute propagation times of ultrasonic space waves; (2) the measurement of absolute velocities of Rayleigh waves; and (3) the measurement of acoustic anisotrophy. Features of the acoustic and electronic units, and the demands imposed on the transducers are also considered. Practical recommendations are given for using the acoustic methods, depending on the relative dimensions of the testpieces.

  5. Acoustic transducer for acoustic microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T.; Chou, Ching H.

    1990-01-01

    A shear acoustic transducer-lens system in which a shear polarized piezoelectric material excites shear polarized waves at one end of a buffer rod having a lens at the other end which excites longitudinal waves in a coupling medium by mode conversion at selected locations on the lens.

  6. Acoustic transducer for acoustic microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Khuri-Yakub, B.T.; Chou, C.H.

    1990-03-20

    A shear acoustic transducer-lens system is described in which a shear polarized piezoelectric material excites shear polarized waves at one end of a buffer rod having a lens at the other end which excites longitudinal waves in a coupling medium by mode conversion at selected locations on the lens. 9 figs.

  7. Valveless micropump driven by acoustic streaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choe, Youngki; Sok Kim, Eun

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes two valveless micropumps built on a 260 µm thick PZT with 20 µm thick parylene acoustic Fresnel lenses with air cavities. The micropumps produce in-plane body force through acoustic streaming effect of high-intensity acoustic beam that is generated by acoustic wave interference. The fabricated micropumps were shown to move microspheres, which have a diameter of 70-90 µm and a density of 0.99 g cm-3, on the water surface to form U-shape streams of microspheres with a drift velocity of 7.3 cm s-1 when the micropumps were located 4 mm below the water surface and driven by 160 Vpeak-to-peak pulsed sinusoidal waves. The driven microspheres formed U-shape streaming even without any fluidic channel according to the serial connection of the pie-shaped lenses and top electrodes. A micropump with a straight-lined fluidic channel was also fabricated and tested to show a 9.2 cm s-1 microspheres' drift velocity and a 9.5 mL min-1 volume pumping rate when combined with the acrylic acoustic wave reflector. Both the Fresnel lens and top electrode were patterned in a pie-shape with its apex angle of 90° to form asymmetric acoustic pressure distribution at the focal plane of the acoustic Fresnel lenses in order to push water in one direction.

  8. Acoustically Induced Streaming Flows near a Model Cod Otolith and their Potential Implications for Fish Hearing

    SciTech Connect

    Kotas, Charlotte W; Rogers, Peter; Yoda, Minami

    2011-01-01

    The ears of fishes are remarkable sensors for the small acoustic disturbances associated with underwater sound. For example, each ear of the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) has three dense bony bodies (otoliths) surrounded by fluid and tissue, and detects sounds at frequencies from 30 to 500 Hz. Atlantic cod have also been shown to localize sounds. However, how their ears perform these functions is not fully understood. Steady streaming, or time-independent, flows near a 350% scale model Atlantic cod otolith immersed in a viscous fluid were studied to determine if these fluid flows contain acoustically relevant information that could be detected by the ear s sensory hair cells. The otolith was oscillated sinusoidally at various orientations at frequencies of 8 24 Hz, corresponding to an actual frequency range of 280 830 Hz. Phaselocked particle pathline visualizations of the resulting flows give velocity, vorticity, and rate of strain fields over a single plane of this mainly two-dimensional flow. Although the streaming flows contain acoustically relevant information, the displacements due to these flows are likely too small to explain Atlantic cod hearing abilities near threshold. The results, however, may suggest a possible mechanism for detection of ultrasound in some fish species.

  9. A linear acoustic model for intake wave dynamics in IC engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, M. F.; Stanev, P. T.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a linear acoustic model is described that has proven useful in obtaining a better understanding of the nature of acoustic wave dynamics in the intake system of an internal combustion (IC) engine. The model described has been developed alongside a set of measurements made on a Ricardo E6 single cylinder research engine. The simplified linear acoustic model reported here produces a calculation of the pressure time-history in the port of an IC engine that agrees fairly well with measured data obtained on the engine fitted with a simple intake system. The model has proved useful in identifying the role of pipe resonance in the intake process and has led to the development of a simple hypothesis to explain the structure of the intake pressure time history: the early stages of the intake process are governed by the instantaneous values of the piston velocity and the open area under the valve. Thereafter, resonant wave action dominates the process. The depth of the early depression caused by the moving piston governs the intensity of the wave action that follows. A pressure ratio across the valve that is favourable to inflow is maintained and maximized when the open period of the valve is such to allow at least, but no more than, one complete oscillation of the pressure at its resonant frequency to occur while the valve is open.

  10. Shear waves in acoustic anisotropic media

    SciTech Connect

    Grechka, Vladimir; Zhang, Linbin; Rector, James W.

    2003-01-02

    Acoustic transversely isotropic (TI) media are defined by artificially setting the shear-wave velocity in the direction of symmetry axis, VS0, to zero. Contrary to conventional wisdom that equating VS0 = 0 eliminates shear waves, we demonstrate their presence and examine their properties. Specifically, we show that SV-waves generally have finite nonzero phase and group velocities in acoustic TI media. In fact, these waves have been observed in full waveform modeling, but apparently they were not understood and labeled as numerical artifacts. Acoustic TI media are characterized by extreme, in some sense infinite strength of anisotropy. It makes the following unusual wave phenomena possible: (1) there are propagation directions, where the SV-ray is orthogonal to the corresponding wavefront normal, (2) the SV-wave whose ray propagates along the symmetry axis is polarized parallel to the P-wave propagating in the same direction, (3) P-wave singularities, that is, directions where P- and SV -wave phase velocities coincide might exist in acoustic TI media. We also briefly discuss some aspects of wave propagation in low-symmetry acoustic anisotropic models. Extreme anisotropy in those media creates bizarre phase- and group-velocity surfaces that might bring intellectual delight to an anisotropic guru.

  11. Drug perfusion enhancement in tissue model by steady streaming induced by oscillating microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jin Sun; Kwon, Yong Seok; Lee, Kyung Ho; Jeong, Woowon; Chung, Sang Kug; Rhee, Kyehan

    2014-01-01

    Drug delivery into neurological tissue is challenging because of the low tissue permeability. Ultrasound incorporating microbubbles has been applied to enhance drug delivery into these tissues, but the effects of a streaming flow by microbubble oscillation on drug perfusion have not been elucidated. In order to clarify the physical effects of steady streaming on drug delivery, an experimental study on dye perfusion into a tissue model was performed using microbubbles excited by acoustic waves. The surface concentration and penetration length of the drug were increased by 12% and 13%, respectively, with streaming flow. The mass of dye perfused into a tissue phantom for 30s was increased by about 20% in the phantom with oscillating bubbles. A computational model that considers fluid structure interaction for streaming flow fields induced by oscillating bubbles was developed, and mass transfer of the drug into the porous tissue model was analyzed. The computed flow fields agreed with the theoretical solutions, and the dye concentration distribution in the tissue agreed well with the experimental data. The computational results showed that steady streaming with a streaming velocity of a few millimeters per second promotes mass transfer into a tissue.

  12. Surface elastic waves on a viscoelastic boundary generated by an oscillating microbubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinguely, Marc; Hennessy, Matthew; Pommella, Angelo; Matar, Omar; Garbin, Valeria

    2015-11-01

    Acoustically-driven microbubbles are used as contrast agents for ultrasound medical imaging, or to enhance the uptake of molecules by cells in drug delivery. For both applications, the microbubbles oscillate near soft interfaces, whose viscoelastic properties vary depending on neighbouring tissues. The effect of these properties on the deformation of the boundary, and on the stresses generated by the microbubbles, is still poorly understood. We use high-speed video microscopy to investigate the deformation of agarose gels of controlled viscoelastic properties by an oscillating microbubble via tracking the displacement of embedded particles. We observe the propagation of surface elastic waves (Rayleigh waves) whose velocity of propagation, phase shift, and particle trajectories depend on the viscoelastic properties of the boundary. We develop a Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic model to predict the deformation of the gels. The results of the model are in good agreement with the experimental observations, which permits the estimation of the magnitude of the stresses generated on the surface of the gel by the oscillating bubble. National Swiss Foundation (MT), and EPSRC: Programme Grant EP/K003976/1, and EP/L022176/1.

  13. Acoustic chaos

    SciTech Connect

    Lauterborn, W.; Parlitz, U.; Holzfuss, J.; Billo, A.; Akhatov, I.

    1996-06-01

    Acoustic cavitation, a complex, spatio-temporal dynamical system, is investigated with respect to its chaotic properties. The sound output, the {open_quote}{open_quote}noise{close_quote}{close_quote}, is subjected to time series analysis. The spatial dynamics of the bubble filaments is captured by high speed holographic cinematography and subsequent digital picture processing from the holograms. Theoretical models are put forward for describing the pattern formation. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Medical Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, Kirk W.; Dunmire, Barbrina

    Medical acoustics can be subdivided into diagnostics and therapy. Diagnostics are further separated into auditory and ultrasonic methods, and both employ low amplitudes. Therapy (excluding medical advice) uses ultrasound for heating, cooking, permeablizing, activating and fracturing tissues and structures within the body, usually at much higher amplitudes than in diagnostics. Because ultrasound is a wave, linear wave physics are generally applicable, but recently nonlinear effects have become more important, even in low-intensity diagnostic applications.

  15. Excitation of atmospheric oscillations by volcanic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanamori, Hiroo; Mori, Jim; Harkrider, David G.

    1994-11-01

    We investigated the mechanism of atmospheric oscillations with periods of about 300 s which were observed for the 1991 Pinatubo and the 1982 El Chichon eruptions. Two distinct spectral peaks, at T = 270 and 230 s for the Pinatubo eruption and at T = 195 and 266 s for the El Chichon eruptions, have been reported. We found similar oscillations for the 1980 Mount St. Helens and the 1883 Krakatoa eruptions. To explain these observations, we investigated excitation problems for two types of idealized sources, 'mass injection' and 'energy injection' sources, placed in an isothermal atmosphere. In general, two modes of oscillations, 'acoustic' and 'gravity' modes, can be excited. For realistic atmospheric parameters, the acoustic and gravity modes have a period of 275 and 304 s, respectively. For a realistic time history of eruption, atmospheric oscillations with an amplitude of 50 to 100 Pa (0.5 to 1 mbar) can be excited by an energy injection source with a total energy of 10(exp 17) J. This result is consistent with the observations and provides a physical basis for interpretation of atmospheric oscillations excited by volcanic eruptions.

  16. MTCI acoustic agglomeration particulate control

    SciTech Connect

    Chandran, R.R.; Mansour, M.N.; Scaroni, A.W.; Koopmann, G.H.; Loth, J.L.

    1994-10-01

    The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate pulse combination induced acoustic enhancement of coal ash agglomeration and sulfur capture at conditions typical of direct coal-fired turbines and PFBC hot gas cleanup. MTCI has developed an advanced compact pulse combustor island for direct coal-firing in combustion gas turbines. This combustor island comprises a coal-fired pulse combustor, a combined ash agglomeration and sulfur capture chamber (CAASCC), and a hot cyclone. In the MTCI proprietary approach, the pulse combustion-induced high intensity sound waves improve sulfur capture efficiency and ash agglomeration. The resulting agglomerates allow the use of commercial cyclones and achieve very high particulate collection efficiency. In the MTCI proprietary approach, sorbent particles are injected into a gas stream subjected to an intense acoustic field. The acoustic field serves to improve sulfur capture efficiency by enhancing both gas film and intra-particle mass transfer rates. In addition, the sorbent particles act as dynamic filter foci, providing a high density of stagnant agglomerating centers for trapping the finer entrained (in the oscillating flow field) fly ash fractions. A team has been formed with MTCI as the prime contractor and Penn State University and West Virginia University as subcontractors to MTCI. MTCI is focusing on hardware development and system demonstration, PSU is investigating and modeling acoustic agglomeration and sulfur capture, and WVU is studying aerovalve fluid dynamics. Results are presented from all three studies.

  17. Broad-band acoustic Doppler current profiler

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cobb, E.D.

    1993-01-01

    The broad-band acoustic Doppler current profiler is an instrument that determines velocity based on the Doppler principle by reflecting acoustic signals off sediment particles in the water. The instrument is capable of measuring velocity magnitude and direction throughout a water column and of measuring water depth. It is also capable of bottom tracking and can, therefore, keep track of its own relative position as it is moved across a channel. Discharge measurements can be made quickly and, based on limited tests, accurately with this instrument. ?? 1993.

  18. Surface acoustic wave frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsko, A. B.; Savchenkov, A. A.; Ilchenko, V. S.; Seidel, D.; Maleki, L.

    2012-02-01

    We investigate opto-mechanical oscillation (OMO) and subsequent generation of acoustic wave frequency combs in monolithic crystalline whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators. The OMO is observed in resonators made of electro-optic (lithium tantalate), non-electro-optic birefringent (magnesium fluoride), and non-birefringent (calcium fluoride) materials. The phenomenon manifests itself as generation of optical harmonics separated by the eigenfrequency of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) mechanical mode of the same WGM resonator. We show that the light escaping the resonator and demodulated on a fast photodiode produces a spectrally pure radio frequency (RF) signal. For instance, we demonstrate generation of 200 MHz signals with instantaneous linewidth of 0.2 Hz.

  19. Acoustic dose and acoustic dose-rate.

    PubMed

    Duck, Francis

    2009-10-01

    Acoustic dose is defined as the energy deposited by absorption of an acoustic wave per unit mass of the medium supporting the wave. Expressions for acoustic dose and acoustic dose-rate are given for plane-wave conditions, including temporal and frequency dependencies of energy deposition. The relationship between the acoustic dose-rate and the resulting temperature increase is explored, as is the relationship between acoustic dose-rate and radiation force. Energy transfer from the wave to the medium by means of acoustic cavitation is considered, and an approach is proposed in principle that could allow cavitation to be included within the proposed definitions of acoustic dose and acoustic dose-rate.

  20. The acoustic characteristics of turbomachinery cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, M. J.; Noreen, R.; Southerland, L. D.; Cole, J., III; Junger, M.

    1995-01-01

    Internal fluid flows are subject not only to self-sustained oscillations of the purely hydrodynamic type but also to the coupling of the instability with the acoustic mode of the surrounding cavity. This situation is common to turbomachinery, since flow instabilities are confined within a flow path where the acoustic wavelength is typically smaller than the dimensions of the cavity and flow speeds are low enough to allow resonances. When acoustic coupling occurs, the fluctuations can become so severe in amplitude that it may induce structural failure of engine components. The potential for catastrophic failure makes identifying flow-induced noise and vibration sources a priority. In view of the complexity of these types of flows, this report was written with the purpose of presenting many of the methods used to compute frequencies for self-sustained oscillations. The report also presents the engineering formulae needed to calculate the acoustic resonant modes for ducts and cavities. Although the report is not a replacement for more complex numerical or experimental modeling techniques, it is intended to be used on general types of flow configurations that are known to produce self-sustained oscillations. This report provides a complete collection of these models under one cover.

  1. TRANSVERSE OSCILLATIONS IN CHROMOSPHERIC MOTTLES

    SciTech Connect

    Kuridze, D.; Mathioudakis, M.; Jess, D. B.; Keenan, F. P.; Morton, R. J.; Erdelyi, R.; Dorrian, G. D.

    2012-05-01

    A number of recent investigations have revealed that transverse waves are ubiquitous in the solar chromosphere. The vast majority of these have been reported in limb spicules and active region fibrils. We investigate long-lived, quiet-Sun, on-disk features such as chromospheric mottles (jet-like features located at the boundaries of supergranular cells) and their transverse motions. The observations were obtained with the Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere instrument at the Dunn Solar Telescope. The data set is comprised of simultaneous imaging in the H{alpha} core, Ca II K, and G band of an on-disk quiet-Sun region. Time-distance techniques are used to study the characteristics of the transverse oscillations. We detect over 40 transverse oscillations in both bright and dark mottles, with periods ranging from 70 to 280 s, with the most frequent occurrence at {approx}165 s. The velocity amplitudes and transverse displacements exhibit characteristics similar to limb spicules. Neighboring mottles oscillating in-phase are also observed. The transverse oscillations of individual mottles are interpreted in terms of magnetohydrodynamic kink waves. Their estimated periods and damping times are consistent with phase mixing and resonant mode conversion.

  2. Grid oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popovic, Zorana B.; Kim, Moonil; Rutledge, David B.

    1988-01-01

    Loading a two-dimensional grid with active devices offers a means of combining the power of solid-state oscillators in the microwave and millimeter-wave range. The grid structure allows a large number of negative resistance devices to be combined. This approach is attractive because the active devices do not require an external locking signal, and the combining is done in free space. In addition, the loaded grid is a planar structure amenable to monolithic integration. Measurements on a 25-MESFET grid at 9.7 GHz show power-combining and frequency-locking without an external locking signal, with an ERP of 37 W. Experimental far-field patterns agree with theoretical results obtained using reciprocity.

  3. Oscillator detector

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, B.M.

    1980-05-13

    An alien liquid detector employs a monitoring element and an oscillatory electronic circuit for maintaining the temperature of the monitoring element substantially above ambient temperature. The output wave form, eg., frequency of oscillation or wave shape, of the oscillatory circuit depends upon the temperaturedependent electrical characteristic of the monitoring element. A predetermined change in the output waveform allows water to be discriminated from another liquid, eg., oil. Features of the invention employing two thermistors in two oscillatory circuits include positioning one thermistor for contact with water and the other thermistor above the oil-water interface to detect a layer of oil if present. Unique oscillatory circuit arrangements are shown that achieve effective thermistor action with an economy of parts and energizing power. These include an operational amplifier employed in an astable multivibrator circuit, a discrete transistor-powered tank circuit, and use of an integrated circuit chip.

  4. Auditory velocity discrimination in the horizontal plane at very high velocities.

    PubMed

    Frissen, Ilja; Féron, François-Xavier; Guastavino, Catherine

    2014-10-01

    We determined velocity discrimination thresholds and Weber fractions for sounds revolving around the listener at very high velocities. Sounds used were a broadband white noise and two harmonic sounds with fundamental frequencies of 330 Hz and 1760 Hz. Experiment 1 used velocities ranging between 288°/s and 720°/s in an acoustically treated room and Experiment 2 used velocities between 288°/s and 576°/s in a highly reverberant hall. A third experiment addressed potential confounds in the first two experiments. The results show that people can reliably discriminate velocity at very high velocities and that both thresholds and Weber fractions decrease as velocity increases. These results violate Weber's law but are consistent with the empirical trend observed in the literature. While thresholds for the noise and 330 Hz harmonic stimulus were similar, those for the 1760 Hz harmonic stimulus were substantially higher. There were no reliable differences in velocity discrimination between the two acoustical environments, suggesting that auditory motion perception at high velocities is robust against the effects of reverberation.

  5. Acoustic Tooth Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    Acoustically-energized water jet aids in plaque breakdown. Acoustic Wand includes acoustic transducer 1/4 wave plate, and tapered cone. Together elements energize solution of water containing mild abrasive injected into mouth to help prevent calculous buildup.

  6. Development of a GaAs Monolithic Surface Acoustic Wave Integrated Circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, A.G.; Casalnuovo, S.C.; Drummond, T.J.; Frye, G.C.; Heller, E.J.; Hietala, V.M.; Klem, J.F.

    1999-03-08

    An oscillator technology using surface acoustic wave delay lines integrated with GaAs MESFET electronics has been developed for GaAs-based integrated microsensor applications. The oscillator consists of a two-port SAW delay line in a feedback loop with a four-stage GaAs MESFET amplifier. Oscillators with frequencies of 470, 350, and 200 MHz have been designed and fabricated. These oscillators are also promising for other RF applications.

  7. Optical and acoustical dynamics of microbubble contrast agents inside neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Dayton, P A; Chomas, J E; Lum, A F; Allen, J S; Lindner, J R; Simon, S I; Ferrara, K W

    2001-01-01

    Acoustically active microbubbles are used for contrast-enhanced ultrasound assessment of organ perfusion. In regions of inflammation, contrast agents are captured and phagocytosed by activated neutrophils adherent to the venular wall. Using direct optical observation with a high-speed camera and acoustical interrogation of individual bubbles and cells, we assessed the physical and acoustical responses of both phagocytosed and free microbubbles. Optical analysis of bubble radial oscillations during insonation demonstrated that phagocytosed microbubbles experience viscous damping within the cytoplasm and yet remain acoustically active and capable of large volumetric oscillations during an acoustic pulse. Fitting a modified version of the Rayleigh-Plesset equation that describes mechanical properties of thin shells to optical radius-time data of oscillating bubbles provided estimates of the apparent viscosity of the intracellular medium. Phagocytosed microbubbles experienced a viscous damping approximately sevenfold greater than free microbubbles. Acoustical comparison between free and phagocytosed microbubbles indicated that phagocytosed microbubbles produce an echo with a higher mean frequency than free microbubbles in response to a rarefaction-first single-cycle pulse. Moreover, this frequency increase is predicted using the modified Rayleigh-Plesset equation. We conclude that contrast-enhanced ultrasound can detect distinct acoustic signals from microbubbles inside of neutrophils and may provide a unique tool to identify activated neutrophils at sites of inflammation. PMID:11222315

  8. Acoustic imaging of subtle porosity variations in ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, E. R.; Roth, D. J.; Baaklini, G. Y.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic images of silicon carbide ceramic disks were obtained using a precision scanning contact pulse-echo technique. Phase and cross-correlation velocity and attenuation maps were used to form color images of microstructural variations. These acoustic images reveal microstructural variations not observable with X-radiography.

  9. Current-driven ion-acoustic and potential-relaxation instabilities excited in plasma plume during electron beam welding

    SciTech Connect

    Trushnikov, D. N.; Mladenov, G. M. Koleva, E. G.; Belenkiy, V. Ya. Varushkin, S. V.

    2014-04-15

    Many papers have sought correlations between the parameters of secondary particles generated above the beam/work piece interaction zone, dynamics of processes in the keyhole, and technological processes. Low- and high-frequency oscillations of the current, collected by plasma have been observed above the welding zone during electron beam welding. Low-frequency oscillations of secondary signals are related to capillary instabilities of the keyhole, however; the physical mechanisms responsible for the high-frequency oscillations (>10 kHz) of the collected current are not fully understood. This paper shows that peak frequencies in the spectra of the collected high-frequency signal are dependent on the reciprocal distance between the welding zone and collector electrode. From the relationship between current harmonics frequency and distance of the collector/welding zone, it can be estimated that the draft velocity of electrons or phase velocity of excited waves is about 1600 m/s. The dispersion relation with the properties of ion-acoustic waves is related to electron temperature 10 000 K, ion temperature 2 400 K and plasma density 10{sup 16} m{sup −3}, which is analogues to the parameters of potential-relaxation instabilities, observed in similar conditions. The estimated critical density of the transported current for creating the anomalous resistance state of plasma is of the order of 3 A·m{sup −2}, i.e. 8 mA for a 3–10 cm{sup 2} collector electrode. Thus, it is assumed that the observed high-frequency oscillations of the current collected by the positive collector electrode are caused by relaxation processes in the plasma plume above the welding zone, and not a direct demonstration of oscillations in the keyhole.

  10. Computational and experimental techniques for coupled acoustic/structure interactions.

    SciTech Connect

    Sumali, Anton Hartono; Pierson, Kendall Hugh; Walsh, Timothy Francis; Dohner, Jeffrey Lynn; Reese, Garth M.; Day, David Minot

    2004-01-01

    This report documents the results obtained during a one-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) initiative aimed at investigating coupled structural acoustic interactions by means of algorithm development and experiment. Finite element acoustic formulations have been developed based on fluid velocity potential and fluid displacement. Domain decomposition and diagonal scaling preconditioners were investigated for parallel implementation. A formulation that includes fluid viscosity and that can simulate both pressure and shear waves in fluid was developed. An acoustic wave tube was built, tested, and shown to be an effective means of testing acoustic loading on simple test structures. The tube is capable of creating a semi-infinite acoustic field due to nonreflecting acoustic termination at one end. In addition, a micro-torsional disk was created and tested for the purposes of investigating acoustic shear wave damping in microstructures, and the slip boundary conditions that occur along the wet interface when the Knudsen number becomes sufficiently large.

  11. Application of Gauge Theory to Acoustic Fields -- Revolutionizing and Rewriting the Whole Field of Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, W. S.

    2008-12-01

    This paper is to be dedicated to Prof C N Yang's 85th birthday celebration because the idea here was inspired by Prof Yang's public lecture in Singapore in 2006. There are many similarities between electromagnetic waves and acoustic waves. Maxwell's equations for em waves is the oldest gauge theory. We discover symmetries in the pair of wave equations in the acoustic stress field and the velocity field. We also derive a new equation in terms of the stress field for sound propagation in solids. This is different from the Christoffel's equation which is in term of the velocity field. We feel that stress field can better characterize the elastic properties of the sound waves. We also derive the acoustic gauge field condition and gauge invariance and symmetries for the acoustic fields. We also apply symmetries to study negative refraction. Note from Publisher: This article contains the abstract only.

  12. Acoustic phonons in chrysotile asbestos probed by high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Mamontov, Eugene; Vakhrushev, S. B.; Kumzerov, Yu. A,; Alatas, A.

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic phonons in an individual, oriented fiber of chrysotile asbestos (chemical formula Mg{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}) were observed at room temperature in the inelastic x-ray measurement with a very high (meV) resolution. The x-ray scattering vector was aligned along [1 0 0] direction of the reciprocal lattice, nearly parallel to the long axis of the fiber. The latter coincides with [1 0 0] direction of the direct lattice and the axes of the nano-channels. The data were analyzed using a damped harmonic oscillator model. Analysis of the phonon dispersion in the first Brillouin zone yielded the longitudinal sound velocity of (9200 {+-} 600) m/s.

  13. Oscillating Permanent Magnets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaelis, M. M.; Haines, C. M.

    1989-01-01

    Describes several ways to partially levitate permanent magnets. Computes field line geometries and oscillation frequencies. Provides several diagrams illustrating the mechanism of the oscillation. (YP)

  14. Determination of decay coefficients for combustors with acoustic absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. E.; Espander, W. R.; Baer, M. R.

    1972-01-01

    An analytical technique for the calculation of linear decay coefficients in combustors with acoustic absorbers is presented. Tuned circumferential slot acoustic absorbers were designed for the first three transverse modes of oscillation, and decay coefficients for these absorbers were found as a function of backing distance for seven different chamber configurations. The effectiveness of the absorbers for off-design values of the combustion response and acoustic mode is also investigated. Results indicate that for tuned absorbers the decay coefficient increases approximately as the cube of the backing distance. For most off-design situations the absorber still provides a damping effect. However, if an absorber designed for some higher mode of oscillation is used to damp lower mode oscillations, a driving effect is frequently found.

  15. Acoustic resonance phenomena in air bleed channels in aviation engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksentsev, A. A.; Sazhenkov, A. N.; Sukhinin, S. V.

    2016-11-01

    The existence of axial-radial acoustic resonance oscillations of the basic air flow in bleed channels of aviation engines is demonstrated theoretically and experimentally. Numerical and analytical methods are used to determine the frequency of acoustic resonance oscillations for the lowest modes of open and closed bleed channels of the PS-90A engine. Experimental investigations reveal new acoustic resonance phenomena arising in the air flow in bleed channel cavities in the core duct of this engine owing to instability of the basic air flow. The results of numerical, analytical, and experimental studies of the resonance frequencies reached in the flow in bleed channel cavities in the core duct of the PS-90A engine are found to be in reasonable agreement. As a result, various types of resonance oscillations in bleed channels can be accurately described.

  16. Acoustic iridescence.

    PubMed

    Cox, Trevor J

    2011-03-01

    An investigation has been undertaken into acoustic iridescence, exploring how a device can be constructed which alter sound waves, in a similar way to structures in nature that act on light to produce optical iridescence. The main construction had many thin perforated sheets spaced half a wavelength apart for a specified design frequency. The sheets create the necessary impedance discontinuities to create backscattered waves, which then interfere to create strongly reflected sound at certain frequencies. Predictions and measurements show a set of harmonics, evenly spaced in frequency, for which sound is reflected strongly. And the frequency of these harmonics increases as the angle of observation gets larger, mimicking the iridescence seen in natural optical systems. Similar to optical systems, the reflections become weaker for oblique angles of reflection. A second construction was briefly examined which exploited a metamaterial made from elements and inclusions which were much smaller than the wavelength. Boundary element method predictions confirmed the potential for creating acoustic iridescence from layers of such a material.

  17. Acoustic transducer

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1997-12-30

    An acoustic transducer is described comprising a one-piece hollow mandrel into the outer surface of which is formed a recess with sides perpendicular to the central axis of the mandrel and separated by a first distance and with a bottom parallel to the central axis and within which recess are a plurality of washer-shaped discs of a piezoelectric material and at least one disc of a temperature-compensating material with the discs being captured between the sides of the recess in a pre-stressed interference fit, typically at 2,000 psi of compressive stress. The transducer also includes a power supply and means to connect to a measurement device. The transducer is intended to be used for telemetry between a measurement device located downhole in an oil or gas well and the surface. The transducer is of an construction that is stronger with fewer joints that could leak fluids into the recess holding the piezoelectric elements than is found in previous acoustic transducers. 4 figs.

  18. Acoustic transducer

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, Douglas S.

    1997-01-01

    An acoustic transducer comprising a one-piece hollow mandrel into the outer surface of which is formed a recess with sides perpendicular to the central axis of the mandrel and separated by a first distance and with a bottom parallel to the central axis and within which recess are a plurality of washer-shaped discs of a piezoelectric material and at least one disc of a temperature-compensating material with the discs being captured between the sides of the recess in a pre-stressed interference fit, typically at 2000 psi of compressive stress. The transducer also includes a power supply and means to connect to a measurement device. The transducer is intended to be used for telemetry between a measurement device located downhole in an oil or gas well and the surface. The transducer is of an construction that is stronger with fewer joints that could leak fluids into the recess holding the piezoelectric elements than is found in previous acoustic transducers.

  19. Acoustic streaming of a sharp edge.

    PubMed

    Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Zhou, Jianbo; Yalamanchili, Satish

    2014-07-01

    Anomalous acoustic streaming is observed emanating from sharp edges of solid bodies that are vibrating in fluids. The streaming velocities can be orders of magnitude higher than expected from the Rayleigh streaming at similar amplitudes of vibration. Acoustic velocity of fluid relative to a solid body diverges at a sharp edge, giving rise to a localized time-independent body force acting on the fluid. This force results in a formation of a localized jet. Two-dimensional numerical simulations are performed to predict acoustic streaming for low amplitude vibration using two methods: (1) Steady-state solution utilizing perturbation theory and (2) direct transient solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. Both analyses agree with each other and correctly predict the streaming of a sharp-edged vibrating blade measured experimentally. The origin of the streaming can be attributed to the centrifugal force of the acoustic fluid flow around a sharp edge. The dependence of this acoustic streaming on frequency and velocity is examined using dimensional analysis. The dependence law is devised and confirmed by numerical simulations.

  20. Controlling the acoustic streaming by pulsed ultrasounds.

    PubMed

    Hoyos, Mauricio; Castro, Angélica

    2013-01-01

    We propose a technique based on pulsed ultrasounds for controlling, reducing to a minimum observable value the acoustic streaming in closed ultrasonic standing wave fluidic resonators. By modifying the number of pulses and the repetition time it is possible to reduce the velocity of the acoustic streaming with respect to the velocity generated by the continuous ultrasound mode of operation. The acoustic streaming is observed at the nodal plane where a suspension of 800nm latex particles was focused by primary radiation force. A mixture of 800nm and 15μm latex particles has been also used for showing that the acoustic streaming is hardly reduced while primary and secondary forces continue to operate. The parameter we call "pulse mode factor" i.e. the time of applied ultrasound divided by the duty cycle, is found to be the adequate parameter that controls the acoustic streaming. We demonstrate that pulsed ultrasound is more efficient for controlling the acoustic streaming than the variation of the amplitude of the standing waves.