Science.gov

Sample records for acoustic vibration analysis

  1. Acoustical analysis of gear housing vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seybert, A. F.; Wu, T. W.; Wu, X. F.; Oswald, Fred B.

    1991-01-01

    The modal and acoustical analysis of the NASA gear-noise rig is described. Experimental modal analysis techniques were used to determine the modes of vibration of the transmission housing. The resulting modal data were then used in a boundary element method (BEM) analysis to calculate the sound pressure and sound intensity on the surface of the housing as well as the radiation efficiency of each mode. The radiation efficiencies of the transmission housing modes are compared with theoretical results for finite, baffled plates. A method that uses the measured mode shapes and the BEM to predict the effect of simple structural changes on the sound radiation efficiency of the modes of vibration is also described.

  2. Analysis of Vibration and Acoustic Noise in Permanent Magnet Motors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Sangmoon

    The drive motor is a frequent source of vibration and acoustic noise in many precision spindle motors. One of the electromagnetic sources of vibration in permanent magnet motors is the torque ripple, consisting of the reluctance torque and electromagnetic torque fluctuation. This type of vibration is becoming more serious with the advent of new high-grade magnets with increased flux density. Acoustic noise of electromagnetic origin is difficult to predict and its exact mechanism is unclear. The mechanism of noise generation should be revealed to design a quieter motor which is the modern customer's demand. For motor operation at low speeds and loads, torque ripple due to the reluctance torque is often a source of vibration and control difficulty. The reluctance torque in a motor was calculated from the flux density by a finite element method and the Maxwell stress method. Effects of design parameters, such as stator slot width, permanent slot width, airgap length and magnetization direction, were investigated. Magnet pole shaping, by gradually decreasing the magnet thickness toward edges, yields a sinusoidal shape of the reluctance torque with reduced harmonics, thus reducing the vibration. This dissertation also presents two motor design techniques: stator tooth notching and rotor pole skewing with magnet pole shaping, and the effect of each method on the output torque. The analysis shows that the reluctance torque can be nearly eliminated by the suggested designs, with minimal sacrifice of the output torque. In permanent magnet DC motors, the most popular design type is the trapezoidal back electro-motive force (BEMF), for switched DC controllers. It is demonstrated that the output torque profile of one phase energized is qualitatively equivalent to the BEMF profile for motors with reduced reluctance torque. It implies that design of BEMF profile is possible by magnetic modeling of a motor, without expensive and time-consuming experiments for different designs

  3. Acoustic vibration analysis for utilization of woody plant in space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chida, Yukari; Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Sato, Seigo; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Baba, Keiichi; Suzuki, Toshisada; Motohashi, Kyohei; Sakurai, Naoki; Nakagawa-izumi, Akiko

    2012-07-01

    We are proposing to raise woody plants for space agriculture in Mars. Space agriculture has the utilization of wood in their ecosystem. Nobody knows the real tree shape grown under space environment under the low or micro gravitational conditions such as outer environment. Angiosperm tree forms tension wood for keeping their shape. Tension wood formation is deeply related to gravity, but the details of the mechanism of its formation has not yet been clarified. For clarifying the mechanism, the space experiment in international space station, ISS is the best way to investigate about them as the first step. It is necessary to establish the easy method for crews who examine the experiments at ISS. Here, we are proposing to investigate the possibility of the acoustic vibration analysis for the experiment at ISS. Two types of Japanese cherry tree, weeping and upright types in Prunus sp., were analyzed by the acoustic vibration method. Coefficient-of-variation (CV) of sound speed was calculated by the acoustic vibration analysis. The amount of lignin and decomposed lignin were estimated by both Klason and Py-GC/MS method, respectively. The relationships of the results of acoustic vibration analysis and the inner components in tested woody materials were investigated. After the experiments, we confirm the correlation about them. Our results indicated that the acoustic vibration analysis would be useful for determining the inside composition as a nondestructive method in outer space environment.

  4. Mechanical signature analysis: Machinery vibration, flow-induced vibration, and acoustic noise analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, S.; Lu, K.H.; Au Yang, M.K.; Ungar, E.E.; Simonis, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 30 selections. Some of the titles are: A New Method in the Fault Diagnosis of Turbomachine and Its Application; Vibration Control of a Cylindrical Off-Shore Structure; Design Evaluation of Flow-Induced Vibrations for a Large Shell and Tube Type Nuclear Heat Exchanger; Simulation of Fluid-Structure Interaction Between a Drywell Penetration and a High Energy Line Break in a BWR.

  5. Structural Acoustics and Vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaigne, Antoine

    This structural chapter is devoted to vibrations of structures and to their coupling with the acoustic field. Depending on the context, the radiated sound can be judged as desirable, as is mostly the case for musical instruments, or undesirable, like noise generated by machinery. In architectural acoustics, one main goal is to limit the transmission of sound through walls. In the automobile industry, the engineers have to control the noise generated inside and outside the passenger compartment. This can be achieved by means of passive or active damping. In general, there is a strong need for quieter products and better sound quality generated by the structures in our daily environment.

  6. A non-invasive acoustic and vibration analysis technique for evaluation of hip joint conditions.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Diana; Komistek, Richard D; Cates, Harold E; Mahfouz, Mohamed R

    2010-02-10

    The performance evaluation of THA outcome is difficult and surgeons often use invasive methods to investigate effectiveness. A non-invasive acoustic and vibration analysis technique has recently been developed for more-in-depth evaluation of in vivo hip conditions. Gait kinematics, corresponding vibration and sound measurement of five THA subjects were analyzed post-operatively using video-fluoroscopy, sound and accelerometer measurements while walking on a treadmill. The sound sensor and a pair of tri-axial accelerometers, externally attached to the pelvic and femoral bone prominences, detected frequencies that are propagated through the femoral head and acetabular cup interactions. A data acquisition system was used to amplify the signal and filter out noise generated by undesired frequencies. In vivo kinematics and femoral head sliding quantified using video fluoroscopy were correlated to the sound and acceleration measurements. Distinct variations between the different subjects were identified. A correlation of sound and acceleration impulses with separation has been achieved. Although, in vivo sounds are quite variable in nature and all correlated well with the visual images. This is the first study to document and correlate visual and audible effects of THA under in-vivo conditions. This study has shown that the development of the acoustic and vibration technique provides a practical method and generates new possibilities for a better understanding of THA performance.

  7. A non-invasive acoustic and vibration analysis technique for evaluation of hip joint conditions.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Diana; Komistek, Richard D; Cates, Harold E; Mahfouz, Mohamed R

    2010-02-10

    The performance evaluation of THA outcome is difficult and surgeons often use invasive methods to investigate effectiveness. A non-invasive acoustic and vibration analysis technique has recently been developed for more-in-depth evaluation of in vivo hip conditions. Gait kinematics, corresponding vibration and sound measurement of five THA subjects were analyzed post-operatively using video-fluoroscopy, sound and accelerometer measurements while walking on a treadmill. The sound sensor and a pair of tri-axial accelerometers, externally attached to the pelvic and femoral bone prominences, detected frequencies that are propagated through the femoral head and acetabular cup interactions. A data acquisition system was used to amplify the signal and filter out noise generated by undesired frequencies. In vivo kinematics and femoral head sliding quantified using video fluoroscopy were correlated to the sound and acceleration measurements. Distinct variations between the different subjects were identified. A correlation of sound and acceleration impulses with separation has been achieved. Although, in vivo sounds are quite variable in nature and all correlated well with the visual images. This is the first study to document and correlate visual and audible effects of THA under in-vivo conditions. This study has shown that the development of the acoustic and vibration technique provides a practical method and generates new possibilities for a better understanding of THA performance. PMID:19931084

  8. A new acoustic portal into the odontocete ear and vibrational analysis of the tympanoperiotic complex.

    PubMed

    Cranford, Ted W; Krysl, Petr; Amundin, Mats

    2010-01-01

    Global concern over the possible deleterious effects of noise on marine organisms was catalyzed when toothed whales stranded and died in the presence of high intensity sound. The lack of knowledge about mechanisms of hearing in toothed whales prompted our group to study the anatomy and build a finite element model to simulate sound reception in odontocetes. The primary auditory pathway in toothed whales is an evolutionary novelty, compensating for the impedance mismatch experienced by whale ancestors as they moved from hearing in air to hearing in water. The mechanism by which high-frequency vibrations pass from the low density fats of the lower jaw into the dense bones of the auditory apparatus is a key to understanding odontocete hearing. Here we identify a new acoustic portal into the ear complex, the tympanoperiotic complex (TPC) and a plausible mechanism by which sound is transduced into the bony components. We reveal the intact anatomic geometry using CT scanning, and test functional preconceptions using finite element modeling and vibrational analysis. We show that the mandibular fat bodies bifurcate posteriorly, attaching to the TPC in two distinct locations. The smaller branch is an inconspicuous, previously undescribed channel, a cone-shaped fat body that fits into a thin-walled bony funnel just anterior to the sigmoid process of the TPC. The TPC also contains regions of thin translucent bone that define zones of differential flexibility, enabling the TPC to bend in response to sound pressure, thus providing a mechanism for vibrations to pass through the ossicular chain. The techniques used to discover the new acoustic portal in toothed whales, provide a means to decipher auditory filtering, beam formation, impedance matching, and transduction. These tools can also be used to address concerns about the potential deleterious effects of high-intensity sound in a broad spectrum of marine organisms, from whales to fish.

  9. A New Acoustic Portal into the Odontocete Ear and Vibrational Analysis of the Tympanoperiotic Complex

    PubMed Central

    Cranford, Ted W.; Krysl, Petr; Amundin, Mats

    2010-01-01

    Global concern over the possible deleterious effects of noise on marine organisms was catalyzed when toothed whales stranded and died in the presence of high intensity sound. The lack of knowledge about mechanisms of hearing in toothed whales prompted our group to study the anatomy and build a finite element model to simulate sound reception in odontocetes. The primary auditory pathway in toothed whales is an evolutionary novelty, compensating for the impedance mismatch experienced by whale ancestors as they moved from hearing in air to hearing in water. The mechanism by which high-frequency vibrations pass from the low density fats of the lower jaw into the dense bones of the auditory apparatus is a key to understanding odontocete hearing. Here we identify a new acoustic portal into the ear complex, the tympanoperiotic complex (TPC) and a plausible mechanism by which sound is transduced into the bony components. We reveal the intact anatomic geometry using CT scanning, and test functional preconceptions using finite element modeling and vibrational analysis. We show that the mandibular fat bodies bifurcate posteriorly, attaching to the TPC in two distinct locations. The smaller branch is an inconspicuous, previously undescribed channel, a cone-shaped fat body that fits into a thin-walled bony funnel just anterior to the sigmoid process of the TPC. The TPC also contains regions of thin translucent bone that define zones of differential flexibility, enabling the TPC to bend in response to sound pressure, thus providing a mechanism for vibrations to pass through the ossicular chain. The techniques used to discover the new acoustic portal in toothed whales, provide a means to decipher auditory filtering, beam formation, impedance matching, and transduction. These tools can also be used to address concerns about the potential deleterious effects of high-intensity sound in a broad spectrum of marine organisms, from whales to fish. PMID:20694149

  10. Numerical and theoretical analysis of beam vibration induced acoustic streaming and the associated heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Qun

    The purpose of this research is to numerically and analytically investigate the acoustic streaming and the associated heat transfer, which are induced by a beam vibrating in either standing or traveling waveforms. Analytical results show that the beam vibrating in standing waveforms scatters the acoustic waves into the free space, which have a larger attenuation coefficient and longer propagating traveling wavelength than those of the plane wave. In contrast to a constant Reynolds stress in the plane wave, the Reynolds stress generated by such acoustic wave is expected to drive the free space streaming away from the anti-nodes and towards nodes of the standing wave vibration. The sonic and ultrasonic streamings within the channel between the vibrating beam and a parallel stationary beam are also investigated. The acoustic streaming is utilized to cool the stationary beam, which has either a heat source attached to it or subjected to a uniform heat flux. The sonic streaming is found to be mainly the boundary layer streaming dominating the whole channel while the ultrasonic streaming is clearly composed of two boundary layer streamings near both beams and a core region streaming, which is driven by the streaming velocity at the edge of the boundary layer near the vibrating beam. The standing wave vibration of the beam induces acoustic streaming in a series of counterclockwise eddies, which is directed away from the anti-nodes and towards the nodes. The magnitude of the sonic streaming is proportional to o2A 2 while that of the ultrasonic streaming is proportional to o 3/2A2. Numerical results show that the acoustic streaming induced by the beam vibrating in either standing or traveling waveforms has almost the same cooling efficiency for the heat source and the heat flux cases although the flow and temperature fields within the channel are different. The hysteresis of the ultrasonic streaming flow patterns associated with the change of the aspect ratio of the channel

  11. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) vibration sensors.

    PubMed

    Filipiak, Jerzy; Solarz, Lech; Steczko, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    In the paper a feasibility study on the use of surface acoustic wave (SAW) vibration sensors for electronic warning systems is presented. The system is assembled from concatenated SAW vibration sensors based on a SAW delay line manufactured on a surface of a piezoelectric plate. Vibrations of the plate are transformed into electric signals that allow identification of the sensor and localization of a threat. The theoretical study of sensor vibrations leads us to the simple isotropic model with one degree of freedom. This model allowed an explicit description of the sensor plate movement and identification of the vibrating sensor. Analysis of frequency response of the ST-cut quartz sensor plate and a damping speed of its impulse response has been conducted. The analysis above was the basis to determine the ranges of parameters for vibrating plates to be useful in electronic warning systems. Generally, operation of electronic warning systems with SAW vibration sensors is based on the analysis of signal phase changes at the working frequency of delay line after being transmitted via two circuits of concatenated four-terminal networks. Frequencies of phase changes are equal to resonance frequencies of vibrating plates of sensors. The amplitude of these phase changes is proportional to the amplitude of vibrations of a sensor plate. Both pieces of information may be sent and recorded jointly by a simple electrical unit.

  12. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) vibration sensors.

    PubMed

    Filipiak, Jerzy; Solarz, Lech; Steczko, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    In the paper a feasibility study on the use of surface acoustic wave (SAW) vibration sensors for electronic warning systems is presented. The system is assembled from concatenated SAW vibration sensors based on a SAW delay line manufactured on a surface of a piezoelectric plate. Vibrations of the plate are transformed into electric signals that allow identification of the sensor and localization of a threat. The theoretical study of sensor vibrations leads us to the simple isotropic model with one degree of freedom. This model allowed an explicit description of the sensor plate movement and identification of the vibrating sensor. Analysis of frequency response of the ST-cut quartz sensor plate and a damping speed of its impulse response has been conducted. The analysis above was the basis to determine the ranges of parameters for vibrating plates to be useful in electronic warning systems. Generally, operation of electronic warning systems with SAW vibration sensors is based on the analysis of signal phase changes at the working frequency of delay line after being transmitted via two circuits of concatenated four-terminal networks. Frequencies of phase changes are equal to resonance frequencies of vibrating plates of sensors. The amplitude of these phase changes is proportional to the amplitude of vibrations of a sensor plate. Both pieces of information may be sent and recorded jointly by a simple electrical unit. PMID:22247694

  13. Coupling between plate vibration and acoustic radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frendi, Abdelkader; Maestrello, Lucio; Bayliss, Alvin

    1992-01-01

    A detailed numerical investigation of the coupling between the vibration of a flexible plate and the acoustic radiation is performed. The nonlinear Euler equations are used to describe the acoustic fluid while the nonlinear plate equation is used to describe the plate vibration. Linear, nonlinear, and quasi-periodic or chaotic vibrations and the resultant acoustic radiation are analyzed. We find that for the linear plate response, acoustic coupling is negligible. However, for the nonlinear and chaotic responses, acoustic coupling has a significant effect on the vibration level as the loading increases. The radiated pressure from a plate undergoing nonlinear or chaotic vibrations is found to propagate nonlinearly into the far-field. However, the nonlinearity due to wave propagation is much weaker than that due to the plate vibrations. As the acoustic wave propagates into the far-field, the relative difference in level between the fundamental and its harmonics and subharmonics decreases with distance.

  14. An intelligent sensor array distributed system for vibration analysis and acoustic noise characterization of a linear switched reluctance actuator.

    PubMed

    Salvado, José; Espírito-Santo, António; Calado, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a distributed system for analysis and monitoring (DSAM) of vibrations and acoustic noise, which consists of an array of intelligent modules, sensor modules, communication bus and a host PC acting as data center. The main advantages of the DSAM are its modularity, scalability, and flexibility for use of different type of sensors/transducers, with analog or digital outputs, and for signals of different nature. Its final cost is also significantly lower than other available commercial solutions. The system is reconfigurable, can operate either with synchronous or asynchronous modes, with programmable sampling frequencies, 8-bit or 12-bit resolution and a memory buffer of 15 kbyte. It allows real-time data-acquisition for signals of different nature, in applications that require a large number of sensors, thus it is suited for monitoring of vibrations in Linear Switched Reluctance Actuators (LSRAs). The acquired data allows the full characterization of the LSRA in terms of its response to vibrations of structural origins, and the vibrations and acoustic noise emitted under normal operation. The DSAM can also be used for electrical machine condition monitoring, machine fault diagnosis, structural characterization and monitoring, among other applications.

  15. An Intelligent Sensor Array Distributed System for Vibration Analysis and Acoustic Noise Characterization of a Linear Switched Reluctance Actuator

    PubMed Central

    Salvado, José; Espírito-Santo, António; Calado, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a distributed system for analysis and monitoring (DSAM) of vibrations and acoustic noise, which consists of an array of intelligent modules, sensor modules, communication bus and a host PC acting as data center. The main advantages of the DSAM are its modularity, scalability, and flexibility for use of different type of sensors/transducers, with analog or digital outputs, and for signals of different nature. Its final cost is also significantly lower than other available commercial solutions. The system is reconfigurable, can operate either with synchronous or asynchronous modes, with programmable sampling frequencies, 8-bit or 12-bit resolution and a memory buffer of 15 kbyte. It allows real-time data-acquisition for signals of different nature, in applications that require a large number of sensors, thus it is suited for monitoring of vibrations in Linear Switched Reluctance Actuators (LSRAs). The acquired data allows the full characterization of the LSRA in terms of its response to vibrations of structural origins, and the vibrations and acoustic noise emitted under normal operation. The DSAM can also be used for electrical machine condition monitoring, machine fault diagnosis, structural characterization and monitoring, among other applications. PMID:22969364

  16. Acoustically Induced Vibration of Structures: Reverberant Vs. Direct Acoustic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolaini, Ali R.; O'Connell, Michael R.; Tsoi, Wan B.

    2009-01-01

    Large reverberant chambers have been used for several decades in the aerospace industry to test larger structures such as solar arrays and reflectors to qualify and to detect faults in the design and fabrication of spacecraft and satellites. In the past decade some companies have begun using direct near field acoustic testing, employing speakers, for qualifying larger structures. A limited test data set obtained from recent acoustic tests of the same hardware exposed to both direct and reverberant acoustic field testing has indicated some differences in the resulting structural responses. In reverberant acoustic testing, higher vibration responses were observed at lower frequencies when compared with the direct acoustic testing. In the case of direct near field acoustic testing higher vibration responses appeared to occur at higher frequencies as well. In reverberant chamber testing and direct acoustic testing, standing acoustic modes of the reverberant chamber or the speakers and spacecraft parallel surfaces can strongly couple with the fundamental structural modes of the test hardware. In this paper data from recent acoustic testing of flight hardware, that yielded evidence of acoustic standing wave coupling with structural responses, are discussed in some detail. Convincing evidence of the acoustic standing wave/structural coupling phenomenon will be discussed, citing observations from acoustic testing of a simple aluminum plate. The implications of such acoustic coupling to testing of sensitive flight hardware will be discussed. The results discussed in this paper reveal issues with over or under testing of flight hardware that could pose unanticipated structural and flight qualification issues. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the structural modal coupling with standing acoustic waves that has been observed in both methods of acoustic testing. This study will assist the community to choose an appropriate testing method and test setup in

  17. Adaptive structural vibration control of acoustic deflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostasevicius, Vytautas; Palevicius, Arvydas; Ragulskis, Minvydas; Dagys, Donatas; Janusas, Giedrius

    2004-06-01

    Vehicle interior acoustics became an important design criterion. Both legal restrictions and the growing demand for comfort, force car manufacturers to optimize the vibro-acoustic behavior of their products. The main source of noise is, of course, the engine, but sometimes some ill-designed cover or other shell structure inside the car resonates and makes unpredicted noise. To avoid this, we must learn the genesis mechanism of such vibrations, having as subject complex 3D shells. The swift development of computer technologies opens the possibility to numerically predict and optimize the vibrations and noises.

  18. Acoustical comfort of vehicles: A combination of sound and vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genuit, Klaus; Schutte-Fortkamp, Brigitte; Fiebig, Andre

    2005-09-01

    As vehicles become more and more quiet, the customer's sensitivity to acoustical comfort increases. The acoustical comfort is not independent of the vibrations the driver can feel in the seat and at the steering. The passenger of a vehicle must be regarded as part of a vibro-acoustic system. Correspondingly, the subjective judgement which passengers make about their impression of levels of acoustic comfort encompasses both sound and vibration. Achievement in this field depends on obtaining knowledge about the interaction between sound and vibration and how these factors impact subjective evaluation. To save time and money prediction tools for the estimation of sound and vibration contributions into the vehicle cabin are very important in order to simulate the final comfort with respect to sound and vibration. Based on the binaural transfer path analysis in combination with the binaural transfer path synthesis a sound and vibration reproduction in a so-called SoundCar can be realized with a very good simulation of a real situation of a car. First research tests completed for the European research project OBELICS (Objective Evaluation of Interior Car Sound) have shown that the use of SoundCar may result in more reliable sound characteristic and quality evaluation.

  19. Force Measurements in Vibration and Acoustic Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharton, T. D.

    1996-01-01

    The advent of triaxial, piezoelectric force gages and the associated signal processing is a precursor to several dynamics testing innovations. This new technology is applicable to spacecraft programs that JPL manages. An application of force measurement is force limiting (when testing spacecraft in random vibration tests). Base-drive and acoustic modal testing is a potential application.

  20. Vibration and acoustic testing of TOPEX/Poseidon satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boatman, Dave; Scharton, Terry; Hershfeld, Donald; Larkin, Paul

    1992-01-01

    The satellite was subjected to a 1.5G swept sine vibration test and a 146 dB overall level acoustic test, in accordance with Ariane launch vehicle requirements, at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Extensive pretest analysis of the sine test was conducted to plan the input notching and to justify vibration testing the satellite only in the longitudinal axis. A unique measurement system was utilized to determine the six components of interface force between the shaker and the satellite in the sine vibration test. The satellite was heavily instrumented in both the sine vibration and acoustic test in order to insure that the launch loads were enveloped with appropriate margin and that satellite responses did not exceed the compatibilities of the structure and equipment. The test specification, objectives, instrumentation, and test results are described herein.

  1. Vibration and acoustic testing of spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharton, T. D.

    2002-01-01

    Spacecraft are subjected to a variety of dynamics environments, which may include: quasi-static, vibration and acoustic loads at launch: pyrotechnic shocks generated by separation mechanisms; on orbit jitter; and sometimes, planetary landing loads. There is a trend in the aerospace industry to rely more on structural analyses and less on testing to simulate these environments, because dynamics testing of spacecraft is time consuming, risky and expensive.

  2. Effects of vibration excitation methodology and configuration of an acoustic needle on its tip vibration.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Hu, Junhui

    2013-04-01

    One of design purposes of an acoustic needle is to obtain a big vibration displacement at its tip. In this paper, vibration characteristics of the tip of the acoustic needle driven by a sandwich type ultrasonic transducer, is investigated to obtain the guidelines for increasing the tip vibration. It is found that the tip vibration can be increased by employing acoustic needles with proper vibration excitation structure and configuration. The effective measures include using a sandwich type piezoelectric transducer with flexurally vibrating end plates and an acoustic needle with conical tip section, decreasing the length of vibration excitation section at the needle root, bonding the needle root at a proper location of the transducer end plate, and tuning the length ratio of the conical tip section to the whole needle. PMID:23294988

  3. Sensitive acoustic vibration sensor using single-mode fiber tapers.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Wang, Xiaozhen; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2011-05-01

    Optical fiber sensors are a good alternative to piezoelectric devices in electromagnetic sensitive environments. In this study, we reported a fiber acoustic sensor based on single-mode fiber (SMF) tapers. The fiber taper is used as the sensing arm in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Benefiting from their micrometer dimensions, fiber tapers have shown higher sensitivities to the acoustic vibrations than SMFs. Under the same conditions, the thinnest fiber taper in this report, with a diameter of 1.7 µm, shows a 20 dB improvement in the signal to noise ratio as compared to that of an SMF. This acoustic vibration sensor can detect the acoustic waves over the frequencies of 30 Hz-40 kHz, which is limited by the acoustic wave generator in experiments. We also discussed the phase changes of fiber tapers with different diameters under acoustic vibrations.

  4. Note: Vibration energy harvesting based on a round acoustic fence.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiao-bin; Huang, Cheng-ping; Hu, Jun-hui

    2015-07-01

    An energy harvester based on a round acoustic fence (RAF) has been proposed and studied. The RAF is composed of cylindrical stubs stuck in a circular array on a thin metal plate, which can confine the acoustic energy efficiently. By removing one stub and thus opening a small gap in the RAF, acoustic leakage with larger intensity can be produced at the gap opening. With the vibration source surrounded by the RAF, the energy harvesting at the gap opening has a wide bandwidth and is insensitive to the position of the vibration source. The results may have potential applications in harvesting the energy of various vibration sources in solid structure. PMID:26233415

  5. Vertical vibration and shape oscillation of acoustically levitated water drops

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, D. L.; Xie, W. J.; Yan, N.; Wei, B.

    2014-09-08

    We present the vertical harmonic vibration of levitated water drops within ultrasound field. The restoring force to maintain such a vibration mode is provided by the resultant force of acoustic radiation force and drop gravity. Experiments reveal that the vibration frequency increases with the aspect ratio for drops with the same volume, which agrees with the theoretical prediction for those cases of nearly equiaxed drops. During the vertical vibration, the floating drops undergo the second order shape oscillation. The shape oscillation frequency is determined to be twice the vibration frequency.

  6. Vertical vibration and shape oscillation of acoustically levitated water drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, D. L.; Xie, W. J.; Yan, N.; Wei, B.

    2014-09-01

    We present the vertical harmonic vibration of levitated water drops within ultrasound field. The restoring force to maintain such a vibration mode is provided by the resultant force of acoustic radiation force and drop gravity. Experiments reveal that the vibration frequency increases with the aspect ratio for drops with the same volume, which agrees with the theoretical prediction for those cases of nearly equiaxed drops. During the vertical vibration, the floating drops undergo the second order shape oscillation. The shape oscillation frequency is determined to be twice the vibration frequency.

  7. Acoustic buffeting by infrasound in a low vibration facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, B. P.; Hoffman, J. E.; Burke, S. A.; Bonn, D. A.

    2016-09-01

    Measurement instruments and fabrication tools with spatial resolution on the atomic scale require facilities that mitigate the impact of vibration sources in the environment. One approach to protection from vibration in a building's foundation is to place the instrument on a massive inertia block, supported on pneumatic isolators. This opens the questions of whether or not a massive floating block is susceptible to acoustic forces, and how to mitigate the effects of any such acoustic buffeting. Here this is investigated with quantitative measurements of vibrations and sound pressure, together with finite element modeling. It is shown that a particular concern, even in a facility with multiple acoustic enclosures, is the excitation of the lowest fundamental acoustic modes of the room by infrasound in the low tens of Hz range, and the efficient coupling of the fundamental room modes to a large inertia block centered in the room.

  8. Acoustic and Vibration Environment for Crew Launch Vehicle Mobile Launcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Bruce T.

    2007-01-01

    A launch-induced acoustic environment represents a dynamic load on the exposed facilities and ground support equipment (GSE) in the form of random pressures fluctuating around the ambient atmospheric pressure. In response to these fluctuating pressures, structural vibrations are generated and transmitted throughout the structure and to the equipment items supported by the structure. Certain equipment items are also excited by the direct acoustic input as well as by the vibration transmitted through the supporting structure. This paper presents the predicted acoustic and vibration environments induced by the launch of the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) from Launch Complex (LC) 39. The predicted acoustic environment depicted in this paper was calculated by scaling the statistically processed measured data available from Saturn V launches to the anticipated environment of the CLV launch. The scaling was accomplished by using the 5-segment Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) engine parameters. Derivation of vibration environment for various Mobile Launcher (ML) structures throughout the base and tower was accomplished by scaling the Saturn V vibration environment.

  9. Acoustic Levitation Transportation of Small Objects Using a Ring-type Vibrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Gilles P. L.; Andrade, Marco A. B.; Adamowski, Julio C.; Silva, Eḿílio C. N.

    A new device for noncontact transportation of small solid objects is presented here. Ultrasonic flexural vibrations are generated along the ring shaped vibrator using two Langevin transducers and by using a reflector parallel to the vibrator, small particles are trapped at the nodal points of the resulting acoustic standing wave. The particles are then moved by generating a traveling wave along the vibrator, which can be done by modulating the vibration amplitude of the transducers. The working principle of the traveling wave along the vibrator has been modeled by the superposition of two orthogonal standing waves, and the position of the particles can be predicted by using finite element analysis of the vibrator and the resulting acoustic field. A prototype consisting of a 3 mm thick, 220 mm long, 50 mm wide and 52 mm radius aluminum ring-type vibrator and a reflector of the same length and width was built and small polystyrene spheres have been successfully transported along the straight parts of the vibrator.

  10. Acoustic analysis of trill sounds.

    PubMed

    Dhananjaya, N; Yegnanarayana, B; Bhaskararao, Peri

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, the acoustic-phonetic characteristics of steady apical trills--trill sounds produced by the periodic vibration of the apex of the tongue--are studied. Signal processing methods, namely, zero-frequency filtering and zero-time liftering of speech signals, are used to analyze the excitation source and the resonance characteristics of the vocal tract system, respectively. Although it is natural to expect the effect of trilling on the resonances of the vocal tract system, it is interesting to note that trilling influences the glottal source of excitation as well. The excitation characteristics derived using zero-frequency filtering of speech signals are glottal epochs, strength of impulses at the glottal epochs, and instantaneous fundamental frequency of the glottal vibration. Analysis based on zero-time liftering of speech signals is used to study the dynamic resonance characteristics of vocal tract system during the production of trill sounds. Qualitative analysis of trill sounds in different vowel contexts, and the acoustic cues that may help spotting trills in continuous speech are discussed. PMID:22501086

  11. Nonlinear scattering of acoustic waves by vibrating obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piquette, J. C.

    1983-06-01

    The problem of the generation of sum- and difference-frequency waves produced via the scattering of an acoustic wave by an obstacle whose surface vibrates harmonically was studied both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical approach involved solving the nonlinear wave equation, subject to appropriate boundary conditions, by the use of a perturbation expansion of the fields and a Green's function method. In addition to ordinary rigid-body scattering, Censor predicted nongrowing waves at frequencies equal to the sum and to the difference of the frequencies of the primary waves. The solution to the nonlinear wave equation also yields scattered waves at the sum and difference frequencies. However, the nonlinearity of the medium causes these waves to grow with increasing distance from the scatter's surface and, after a very small distance, dominate those predicted by Censor. The simple-source formulation of the second-order nonlinear wave equation for a lossless fluid medium has been derived for arbitrary primary wave fields. This equation was used to solve the problem of nonlinear scattering of acoustic waves by a vibrating obstacle for three geometries: (1) a plane-wave scattering by a vibrating plane, (2) cylindrical-wave scattering by a vibrating cylinder, and (3) plane-wave scattering by a vibrating cylinder. Successful experimental validation of the theory was inhibited by previously unexpected levels of nonlinearity in the hydrophones used. Such high levels of hydrophone nonlinearity appeared in hydrophones that, by their geometry of construction, were expected to be fairly linear.

  12. An acoustic vibration sensor based on tapered triple cladding fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hui; Pang, Fufei; Zhao, Shiqi; Chen, Zhenyi; Wang, Tingyun

    2014-05-01

    An acoustic vibration sensor is investigated and demonstrated by using a tapered triple cladding fiber (TCF). It is fabricated by tapering a length of 2 cm TCF which is spliced between two single mode fibers (SMF). The TCF consists of core, inner cladding, middle cladding and outer cladding. After the tapering process, this structure becomes a tapered coaxial fiber coupler which presents a periodic filtering transmission spectrum. The surrounding vibration perturbation can be directly demodulated by intensity detection of the transmission power at a particular wavelength. The experimental result shows that the maximum frequency response of 700 kHz is achieved.

  13. The effects of acoustic vibration on fibroblast cell migration.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Taybia; Murphy, Mark F; Lilley, Francis; Burton, David R; Bezombes, Frederic

    2016-12-01

    Cells are known to interact and respond to external mechanical cues and recent work has shown that application of mechanical stimulation, delivered via acoustic vibration, can be used to control complex cell behaviours. Fibroblast cells are known to respond to physical cues generated in the extracellular matrix and it is thought that such cues are important regulators of the wound healing process. Many conditions are associated with poor wound healing, so there is need for treatments/interventions, which can help accelerate the wound healing process. The primary aim of this research was to investigate the effects of mechanical stimulation upon the migratory and morphological properties of two different fibroblast cells namely; human lung fibroblast cells (LL24) and subcutaneous areolar/adipose mouse fibroblast cells (L929). Using a speaker-based system, the effects of mechanical stimulation (0-1600Hz for 5min) on the mean cell migration distance (μm) and actin organisation was investigated. The results show that 100Hz acoustic vibration enhanced cell migration for both cell lines whereas acoustic vibration above 100Hz was found to decrease cell migration in a frequency dependent manner. Mechanical stimulation was also found to promote changes to the morphology of both cell lines, particularly the formation of lamellipodia and filopodia. Overall lamellipodia was the most prominent actin structure displayed by the lung cell (LL24), whereas filopodia was the most prominent actin feature displayed by the fibroblast derived from subcutaneous areolar/adipose tissue. Mechanical stimulation at all the frequencies used here was found not to affect cell viability. These results suggest that low-frequency acoustic vibration may be used as a tool to manipulate the mechanosensitivity of cells to promote cell migration. PMID:27612824

  14. Surface Acoustic Wave Vibration Sensors for Measuring Aircraft Flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Moore, Jason P.; Juarez, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Under NASA's Advanced Air Vehicles Program the Advanced Air Transport Technology (AATT) Project is investigating flutter effects on aeroelastic wings. To support that work a new method for measuring vibrations due to flutter has been developed. The method employs low power Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors. To demonstrate the ability of the SAW sensor to detect flutter vibrations the sensors were attached to a Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite panel which was vibrated at six frequencies from 1Hz to 50Hz. The SAW data was compared to accelerometer data and was found to resemble sine waves and match each other closely. The SAW module design and results from the tests are presented here.

  15. An efficient model for coupling structural vibrations with acoustic radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frendi, Abdelkader; Maestrello, Lucio; Ting, LU

    1993-01-01

    The scattering of an incident wave by a flexible panel is studied. The panel vibration is governed by the nonlinear plate equations while the loading on the panel, which is the pressure difference across the panel, depends on the reflected and transmitted waves. Two models are used to calculate this structural-acoustic interaction problem. One solves the three dimensional nonlinear Euler equations for the flow-field coupled with the plate equations (the fully coupled model). The second uses the linear wave equation for the acoustic field and expresses the load as a double integral involving the panel oscillation (the decoupled model). The panel oscillation governed by a system of integro-differential equations is solved numerically and the acoustic field is then defined by an explicit formula. Numerical results are obtained using the two models for linear and nonlinear panel vibrations. The predictions given by these two models are in good agreement but the computational time needed for the 'fully coupled model' is 60 times longer than that for 'the decoupled model'.

  16. Acoustically-coupled flow-induced vibration of a computational vocal fold model

    PubMed Central

    Daily, David Jesse; Thomson, Scott L.

    2012-01-01

    The flow-induced vibration of synthetic vocal fold models has been previously observed to be acoustically-coupled with upstream flow supply tubes. This phenomenon was investigated using a finite element model that included flow–structure–acoustic interactions. The length of the upstream duct was varied to explore the coupling between model vibration and subglottal acoustics. Incompressible and slightly compressible flow models were tested. The slightly compressible model exhibited acoustic coupling between fluid and solid domains in a manner consistent with experimental observations, whereas the incompressible model did not, showing the slightly compressible approach to be suitable for simulating acoustically-coupled vocal fold model flow-induced vibration. PMID:23585700

  17. Multivariate Analysis of Ladle Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yenus, Jaefer; Brooks, Geoffrey; Dunn, Michelle

    2016-08-01

    The homogeneity of composition and uniformity of temperature of the steel melt before it is transferred to the tundish are crucial in making high-quality steel product. The homogenization process is performed by stirring the melt using inert gas in ladles. Continuous monitoring of this process is important to make sure the action of stirring is constant throughout the ladle. Currently, the stirring process is monitored by process operators who largely rely on visual and acoustic phenomena from the ladle. However, due to lack of measurable signals, the accuracy and suitability of this manual monitoring are problematic. The actual flow of argon gas to the ladle may not be same as the flow gage reading due to leakage along the gas line components. As a result, the actual degree of stirring may not be correctly known. Various researchers have used one-dimensional vibration, and sound and image signals measured from the ladle to predict the degree of stirring inside. They developed online sensors which are indeed to monitor the online stirring phenomena. In this investigation, triaxial vibration signals have been measured from a cold water model which is a model of an industrial ladle. Three flow rate ranges and varying bath heights were used to collect vibration signals. The Fast Fourier Transform was applied to the dataset before it has been analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS). PCA was used to unveil the structure in the experimental data. PLS was mainly applied to predict the stirring from the vibration response. It was found that for each flow rate range considered in this study, the informative signals reside in different frequency ranges. The first latent variables in these frequency ranges explain more than 95 pct of the variation in the stirring process for the entire single layer and the double layer data collected from the cold model. PLS analysis in these identified frequency ranges demonstrated that the latent

  18. Coupling of Acoustic Vibrations to Plasmon Resonances in Metal Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Aftab; Pelton, Matthew; Guest, Jeffrey

    Measurements of acoustic vibrations in nanoparticles provide a unique opportunity to study mechanical phenomena at nanometer length scales and picosecond time scales. Phonon vibrations of plasmonic nanoparticles are of particular interest, due to their large extinction efficiencies, and high sensitivity to surrounding medium. There are two mechanisms that transduce the mechanical oscillations into plasmon resonance shift: (1) changes in polarizability; and (2) changes in electron density. These mechanisms have been used to explain qualitatively the origin of the transient-absorption signals, however, a quantitative connection has not yet been made except for simple geometries. Here, we present a method to quantitatively determine the coupling between vibrational modes and plasmon modes in noble-metal nanoparticles including spheres, shells, rods and cubes. We separately determine the parts of the optical response that are due to shape changes and to changes in electron density, and we relate the optical signals to the symmetries of the vibrational and plasmon modes. These results clarify reported experimental results, and should help guide the optimization of future experiments.

  19. Gearbox Tooth Cut Fault Diagnostics Using Acoustic Emission and Vibration Sensors — A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Yongzhi; He, David; Yoon, Jae; Van Hecke, Brandon; Bechhoefer, Eric; Zhu, Junda

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, acoustic emission (AE) sensors and AE-based techniques have been developed and tested for gearbox fault diagnosis. In general, AE-based techniques require much higher sampling rates than vibration analysis-based techniques for gearbox fault diagnosis. Therefore, it is questionable whether an AE-based technique would give a better or at least the same performance as the vibration analysis-based techniques using the same sampling rate. To answer the question, this paper presents a comparative study for gearbox tooth damage level diagnostics using AE and vibration measurements, the first known attempt to compare the gearbox fault diagnostic performance of AE- and vibration analysis-based approaches using the same sampling rate. Partial tooth cut faults are seeded in a gearbox test rig and experimentally tested in a laboratory. Results have shown that the AE-based approach has the potential to differentiate gear tooth damage levels in comparison with the vibration-based approach. While vibration signals are easily affected by mechanical resonance, the AE signals show more stable performance. PMID:24424467

  20. Gearbox tooth cut fault diagnostics using acoustic emission and vibration sensors--a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yongzhi; He, David; Yoon, Jae; Van Hecke, Brandon; Bechhoefer, Eric; Zhu, Junda

    2014-01-14

    In recent years, acoustic emission (AE) sensors and AE-based techniques have been developed and tested for gearbox fault diagnosis. In general, AE-based techniques require much higher sampling rates than vibration analysis-based techniques for gearbox fault diagnosis. Therefore, it is questionable whether an AE-based technique would give a better or at least the same performance as the vibration analysis-based techniques using the same sampling rate. To answer the question, this paper presents a comparative study for gearbox tooth damage level diagnostics using AE and vibration measurements, the first known attempt to compare the gearbox fault diagnostic performance of AE- and vibration analysis-based approaches using the same sampling rate. Partial tooth cut faults are seeded in a gearbox test rig and experimentally tested in a laboratory. Results have shown that the AE-based approach has the potential to differentiate gear tooth damage levels in comparison with the vibration-based approach. While vibration signals are easily affected by mechanical resonance, the AE signals show more stable performance.

  1. Computer analysis of railcar vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlaminck, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    Computer models and techniques for calculating railcar vibrations are discussed along with criteria for vehicle ride optimization. The effect on vibration of car body structural dynamics, suspension system parameters, vehicle geometry, and wheel and rail excitation are presented. Ride quality vibration data collected on the state-of-the-art car and standard light rail vehicle is compared to computer predictions. The results show that computer analysis of the vehicle can be performed for relatively low cost in short periods of time. The analysis permits optimization of the design as it progresses and minimizes the possibility of excessive vibration on production vehicles.

  2. Droplet Manipulation Using Acoustic Streaming Induced by a Vibrating Membrane.

    PubMed

    Phan, Hoang Van; Alan, Tuncay; Neild, Adrian

    2016-06-01

    We present a simple method for on-demand manipulation of aqueous droplets in oil. With numerical simulations and experiments, we show that a vibrating membrane can produce acoustic streaming. By making use of this vortical flow, we manage to repulse the droplets away from the membrane edges. Then, by simply aligning the membrane at 45° to the flow, the droplets can be forced to follow the membrane's boundaries, thus steering them across streamlines and even between different oil types. We also characterize the repulsion and steering effect with various excitation voltages at different water and oil flow rates. The maximum steering frequency we have achieved is 165 Hz. The system is extremely robust and reliable: the same membrane can be reused after many days and with different oils and/or surfactants at the same operating frequency. PMID:27119623

  3. Droplet Manipulation Using Acoustic Streaming Induced by a Vibrating Membrane.

    PubMed

    Phan, Hoang Van; Alan, Tuncay; Neild, Adrian

    2016-06-01

    We present a simple method for on-demand manipulation of aqueous droplets in oil. With numerical simulations and experiments, we show that a vibrating membrane can produce acoustic streaming. By making use of this vortical flow, we manage to repulse the droplets away from the membrane edges. Then, by simply aligning the membrane at 45° to the flow, the droplets can be forced to follow the membrane's boundaries, thus steering them across streamlines and even between different oil types. We also characterize the repulsion and steering effect with various excitation voltages at different water and oil flow rates. The maximum steering frequency we have achieved is 165 Hz. The system is extremely robust and reliable: the same membrane can be reused after many days and with different oils and/or surfactants at the same operating frequency.

  4. Acoustic vibrations of semiconductor nanocrystals in doped glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Prabhat; Cordts, W.; Irmer, G.; Monecke, J.

    1999-08-01

    Polarization-dependent low-frequency off-resonant Raman scattering has been studied from various commercially available filter glass samples, which contain CdSxSe1-x nanoparticles embedded in a glass matrix. In order to distinguish the confined acoustic phonons from the glass background, the spectra have been compared with those obtained from the base material, which does not contain nanoparticles. Polarized and depolarized scattering from confined acoustic phonons was distinctly resolved near the laser line and overtones of the polarized modes were observed. A theoretical treatment, which establishes a relation between the particle size, the frequencies, and the widths of various phonons, taking into account the matrix influence on the vibrational spectrum and on its damping, is presented. The material-dependent generalized form of this model enables one to use it for any given combination of particle and matrix materials. A good agreement between the experimental and the theoretical results is found. The nanoparticle sizes obtained from Raman scattering agree well with those obtained from transmission electron microscope and anomalous small angle x-ray scattering experiments.

  5. Modal analysis and intensity of acoustic radiation of the kettledrum.

    PubMed

    Tronchin, Lamberto

    2005-02-01

    The acoustical features of kettledrums have been analyzed by means of modal analysis and acoustic radiation (p/v ratio) measurements. Modal analysis of two different kettledrums was undertaken, exciting the system both by a hammer and a shaker. Up to 15 vibrational modes were clearly identified. Acoustic radiation was studied using two ways. Based on previous experiments of other researchers, a new parameter, called intensity of acoustic radiation (IAR), has been defined and measured. Results show a strict relationship between IAR and the frequency response function (FRF, which is the v/F ratio), and IAR also strongly relates the modal pattern to acoustic radiation. Finally, IAR is proposed for vibro-acoustical characterization of kettledrums and other musical instruments such as strings, pianos, and harpsichords. PMID:15759711

  6. Coupling of Excitons and Discrete Acoustic Phonons in Vibrationally Isolated Quantum Emitters.

    PubMed

    Werschler, Florian; Hinz, Christopher; Froning, Florian; Gumbsheimer, Pascal; Haase, Johannes; Negele, Carla; de Roo, Tjaard; Mecking, Stefan; Leitenstorfer, Alfred; Seletskiy, Denis V

    2016-09-14

    The photoluminescence emission by mesoscopic condensed matter is ultimately dictated by the fine-structure splitting of the fundamental exciton into optically allowed and dipole-forbidden states. In epitaxially grown semiconductor quantum dots, nonradiative equilibration between the fine-structure levels is mediated by bulk acoustic phonons, resulting in asymmetric spectral broadening of the excitonic luminescence. In isolated colloidal quantum dots, spatial confinement of the vibrational motion is expected to give rise to an interplay between the quantized electronic and phononic degrees of freedom. In most cases, however, zero-dimensional colloidal nanocrystals are strongly coupled to the substrate such that the charge relaxation processes are still effectively governed by the bulk properties. Here we show that encapsulation of single colloidal CdSe/CdS nanocrystals into individual organic polymer shells allows for systematic vibrational decoupling of the semiconductor nanospheres from the surroundings. In contrast to epitaxially grown quantum dots, simultaneous quantization of both electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom results in a series of strong and narrow acoustic phonon sidebands observed in the photoluminescence. Furthermore, an individual analysis of more than 200 compound particles reveals that enhancement or suppression of the radiative properties of the fundamental exciton is controlled by the interaction between fine-structure states via the discrete vibrational modes. For the first time, pronounced resonances in the scattering rate between the fine-structure states are directly observed, in good agreement with a quantum mechanical model. The unambiguous assignment of mediating acoustic modes to the observed scattering resonances complements the experimental findings. Thus, our results form an attractive basis for future studies on subterahertz quantum opto-mechanics and efficient laser cooling at the nanoscale.

  7. Coupling of Excitons and Discrete Acoustic Phonons in Vibrationally Isolated Quantum Emitters.

    PubMed

    Werschler, Florian; Hinz, Christopher; Froning, Florian; Gumbsheimer, Pascal; Haase, Johannes; Negele, Carla; de Roo, Tjaard; Mecking, Stefan; Leitenstorfer, Alfred; Seletskiy, Denis V

    2016-09-14

    The photoluminescence emission by mesoscopic condensed matter is ultimately dictated by the fine-structure splitting of the fundamental exciton into optically allowed and dipole-forbidden states. In epitaxially grown semiconductor quantum dots, nonradiative equilibration between the fine-structure levels is mediated by bulk acoustic phonons, resulting in asymmetric spectral broadening of the excitonic luminescence. In isolated colloidal quantum dots, spatial confinement of the vibrational motion is expected to give rise to an interplay between the quantized electronic and phononic degrees of freedom. In most cases, however, zero-dimensional colloidal nanocrystals are strongly coupled to the substrate such that the charge relaxation processes are still effectively governed by the bulk properties. Here we show that encapsulation of single colloidal CdSe/CdS nanocrystals into individual organic polymer shells allows for systematic vibrational decoupling of the semiconductor nanospheres from the surroundings. In contrast to epitaxially grown quantum dots, simultaneous quantization of both electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom results in a series of strong and narrow acoustic phonon sidebands observed in the photoluminescence. Furthermore, an individual analysis of more than 200 compound particles reveals that enhancement or suppression of the radiative properties of the fundamental exciton is controlled by the interaction between fine-structure states via the discrete vibrational modes. For the first time, pronounced resonances in the scattering rate between the fine-structure states are directly observed, in good agreement with a quantum mechanical model. The unambiguous assignment of mediating acoustic modes to the observed scattering resonances complements the experimental findings. Thus, our results form an attractive basis for future studies on subterahertz quantum opto-mechanics and efficient laser cooling at the nanoscale. PMID:27550902

  8. Vibration analysis methods for piping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibert, R. J.

    1981-09-01

    Attention is given to flow vibrations in pipe flow induced by singularity points in the piping system. The types of pressure fluctuations induced by flow singularities are examined, including the intense wideband fluctuations immediately downstream of the singularity and the acoustic fluctuations encountered in the remainder of the circuit, and a theory of noise generation by unsteady flow in internal acoustics is developed. The response of the piping systems to the pressure fluctuations thus generated is considered, and the calculation of the modal characteristics of piping containing a dense fluid in order to obtain the system transfer function is discussed. The TEDEL program, which calculates the vibratory response of a structure composed of straight and curved pipes with variable mechanical characteristics forming a three-dimensional network by a finite element method, is then presented, and calculations of fluid-structural coupling in tubular networks are illustrated.

  9. Wavenumber transform analysis for acoustic black hole design.

    PubMed

    Feurtado, Philip A; Conlon, Stephen C

    2016-07-01

    Acoustic black holes (ABHs) are effective, passive, lightweight vibration absorbers that have been developed and shown to effectively reduce the structural vibration and radiated sound of beam and plate structures. ABHs employ a local thickness change that reduces the speed of bending waves and increases the transverse vibration amplitude. The vibrational energy can then be effectively focused and dissipated by material losses or through conventional viscoelastic damping treatments. In this work, the measured vibratory response of embedded ABH plates was transformed into the wavenumber domain in order to investigate the use of wavenumber analysis for characterizing, designing, and optimizing practical ABH systems. The results showed that wavenumber transform analysis can be used to simultaneously visualize multiple aspects of ABH performance including changes in bending wave speed, transverse vibration amplitude, and energy dissipation. The analysis was also used to investigate the structural acoustic coupling of the ABH system and determine the radiation efficiency of the embedded ABH plates compared to a uniform plate. The results demonstrated that the ABH effect results in acoustic decoupling as well as vibration reduction. The wavenumber transform based methods and results will be useful for implementing ABHs into real world structures. PMID:27475193

  10. Wavenumber transform analysis for acoustic black hole design.

    PubMed

    Feurtado, Philip A; Conlon, Stephen C

    2016-07-01

    Acoustic black holes (ABHs) are effective, passive, lightweight vibration absorbers that have been developed and shown to effectively reduce the structural vibration and radiated sound of beam and plate structures. ABHs employ a local thickness change that reduces the speed of bending waves and increases the transverse vibration amplitude. The vibrational energy can then be effectively focused and dissipated by material losses or through conventional viscoelastic damping treatments. In this work, the measured vibratory response of embedded ABH plates was transformed into the wavenumber domain in order to investigate the use of wavenumber analysis for characterizing, designing, and optimizing practical ABH systems. The results showed that wavenumber transform analysis can be used to simultaneously visualize multiple aspects of ABH performance including changes in bending wave speed, transverse vibration amplitude, and energy dissipation. The analysis was also used to investigate the structural acoustic coupling of the ABH system and determine the radiation efficiency of the embedded ABH plates compared to a uniform plate. The results demonstrated that the ABH effect results in acoustic decoupling as well as vibration reduction. The wavenumber transform based methods and results will be useful for implementing ABHs into real world structures.

  11. Vibration of a single microcapsule with a hard plastic shell in an acoustic standing wave field.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Daisuke; Kotera, Hironori; Kitazawa, Natsuko; Yoshida, Kenji; Nakamura, Kentaro; Watanabe, Yoshiaki

    2011-04-01

    Observation techniques for measuring the small vibration of a single microcapsule of tens of nanometers in an acoustic standing wave field are discussed. First, simultaneous optical observation of a microbubble vibration by two methods is investigated, using a high-speed video camera, which permits two-dimensional observation of the bubble vibration, and a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV), which can observe small bubble vibration amplitudes at high frequency. Bubbles of tens of micrometers size were trapped at the antinode of an acoustic standing wave generated in an observational cell. Bubble vibration at 27 kHz could be observed and the experimental results for the two methods showed good agreement. The radial vibration of microcapsules with a hard plastic shell was observed using the LDV and the measurement of the capsule vibration with radial oscillation amplitude of tens of nanometers was successful. The acoustic radiation force acting on microcapsules in the acoustic standing wave was measured from the trapped position of the standing wave and the radial oscillation amplitude of the capsules was estimated from the theoretical equation of the acoustic radiation force, giving results in good agreement with the LDV measurements. The radial oscillation amplitude of a capsule was found to be proportional to the amplitude of the driving sound pressure. A larger expansion ratio was observed for capsules closer to the resonance condition under the same driving sound pressure and frequency.

  12. A violin shell model: vibrational modes and acoustics.

    PubMed

    Gough, Colin E

    2015-03-01

    A generic physical model for the vibro-acoustic modes of the violin is described treating the body shell as a shallow, thin-walled, guitar-shaped, box structure with doubly arched top and back plates. comsol finite element, shell structure, software is used to identify and understand the vibrational modes of a simply modeled violin. This identifies the relationship between the freely supported plate modes when coupled together by the ribs and the modes of the assembled body shell. Such coupling results in a relatively small number of eigenmodes or component shell modes, of which a single volume-changing breathing mode is shown to be responsible for almost all the sound radiated in the monopole signature mode regime below ∼1 kHz for the violin, whether directly or by excitation of the Helmholtz f-hole resonance. The computations describe the influence on such modes of material properties, arching, plate thickness, elastic anisotropy, f-holes cut into the top plate, the bass-bar, coupling to internal air modes, the rigid neck-fingerboard assembly, and, most importantly, the soundpost. Because the shell modes are largely determined by the symmetry of the guitar-shaped body, the model is applicable to all instruments of the violin family. PMID:25786935

  13. A violin shell model: vibrational modes and acoustics.

    PubMed

    Gough, Colin E

    2015-03-01

    A generic physical model for the vibro-acoustic modes of the violin is described treating the body shell as a shallow, thin-walled, guitar-shaped, box structure with doubly arched top and back plates. comsol finite element, shell structure, software is used to identify and understand the vibrational modes of a simply modeled violin. This identifies the relationship between the freely supported plate modes when coupled together by the ribs and the modes of the assembled body shell. Such coupling results in a relatively small number of eigenmodes or component shell modes, of which a single volume-changing breathing mode is shown to be responsible for almost all the sound radiated in the monopole signature mode regime below ∼1 kHz for the violin, whether directly or by excitation of the Helmholtz f-hole resonance. The computations describe the influence on such modes of material properties, arching, plate thickness, elastic anisotropy, f-holes cut into the top plate, the bass-bar, coupling to internal air modes, the rigid neck-fingerboard assembly, and, most importantly, the soundpost. Because the shell modes are largely determined by the symmetry of the guitar-shaped body, the model is applicable to all instruments of the violin family.

  14. Enhanced vibration based energy harvesting using embedded acoustic black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L.; Semperlotti, F.; Conlon, S. C.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the use of dynamic structural tailoring via the concept of an Acoustic Black Hole (ABH) to enhance the performance of piezoelectric based energy harvesting from operational mechanical vibrations. The ABH is a variable thickness structural feature that can be embedded in the host structure allowing a smooth reduction of the phase velocity while minimizing the amplitude of reflected waves. The ABH thickness variation is typically designed according to power-law profiles. As a propagating wave enters the ABH, it is progressively slowed down while its wavelength is compressed. This effect results in structural areas with high energy density that can be exploited effectively for energy harvesting. The potential of ABH for energy harvesting is shown via a numerical study based on fully coupled finite element electromechanical models of an ABH tapered plate with surface mounted piezo-transducers. The performances of the novel design are evaluated by direct comparison with a non-tapered structure in terms of energy ratios and attenuation indices. Results show that the tailored structural design allows a drastic increase in the harvested energy both for steady state and transient excitation. Performance dependencies of key design parameters are also investigated.

  15. A case study of acoustics and vibration of mine fans

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, T.; Vitton, S.J.

    1995-11-01

    In December 1991, several residents of Hueytown, AL, began hearing what they referred to as a mysterious sound. This sound, which became known as the Hueytown Hum, was alleged to be so disruptive that one resident claimed it made it impossible to hold a prayer meeting in this house. Bathroom pipes were said to rattle, and the sound would quickly come and go. This phenomenon attracted considerable attention from the news media, including ABC Evening News, CNN, The New York times, A Current Affair, and others. Jim Walter Resources Inc. (JWR) owns and operates a large underground coal mine in the vicinity of Hueytown, and city officials were quick to blame the mysterious sound on a mine-ventilation fan which was installed at approximately the same time the noise began.To address the concerns of the city officials, JWR contracted with The University of Alabama to perform a study to determine if the ventilation fans were a contributing factor to the Hueytown Hum. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acoustical and vibrational characteristics of the JWR fans operating in the Hueytown area. This paper presents the findings of this investigation.

  16. Sensitivity to intermodal asynchrony between acoustic and structural vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Kent; Martens, William L.

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover the attributes of musical stimuli which facilitate sensory integration in bi-modal music reproduction systems incorporating sound and whole-body vibration. It was hypothesized that subjective judgments regarding bimodal synchrony would vary depending on the spectral, temporal, and spatial properties of the stimuli. To test this hypothesis, musical instruments with significant low frequency energy and a variety of spectra-temporal envelopes were recorded. These stimuli were then reproduced with varying intermodal delay and overlap in frequency content between displayed vibratory and acoustic components. The air-born component of the bimodal stimuli was presented via a multichannel loudspeaker array, with a direct sound component, as well as a reproduced indirect sound arriving from all around the observer. Psychometric functions were constructed for time order judgment (TOJ) over a range of intermodal delay values. Changes in the slope and intercept of the transformed psychometric functions gave a clear picture of the influence of spectra-temporal and spatial parameters of the multimodal stimuli, the most striking results being the decreased tolerance for intermodal asynchrony associated with instruments recorded in reverberant environments. [Work supported by a Grant from VRQ of the Government of Quebec.

  17. Acoustically Evoked Different Vibration Pattern Across the Width of the Cochlea Partition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Dingjun; Chen, Fangyi; Friderberg, Anders; Choudhury, Niloy; Nuttall, Alfred

    2011-11-01

    Using optical low coherence interferometry, the acoustically evoked vibration patterns of the basilar membrane (BM) and reticular lamina (RL) in the first turn of living guinea pigs were measured as function of the radial location. It was demonstrated that the vibration of the BM varied widely in amplitude, but little in phase across the width of the partition, while the RL had a different vibration pattern compared with the BM.

  18. Applications of ripple analysis in hydro-acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leducq, D.; Schlegel, R.

    Software developed for ripple analysis in hydro-acoustic applications is described. Noise and vibration analysis using this software is shown to be particularly effective. The importance of post treatment of the data in order to obtain dependable results is stressed. Examples are presented of the use of the ripple analysis software in measuring the noise and vibration produced by a pump. The software is used in the analysis of cavitation noise. Cavitation noise frequency graphs are presented to illustrate the experimented results. The advantages of the ripple analysis techniques in obtaining a better understanding of the underlying physics of the processes studied are stressed.

  19. High frequency vibration analysis by the complex envelope vectorization.

    PubMed

    Giannini, O; Carcaterra, A; Sestieri, A

    2007-06-01

    The complex envelope displacement analysis (CEDA) is a procedure to solve high frequency vibration and vibro-acoustic problems, providing the envelope of the physical solution. CEDA is based on a variable transformation mapping the high frequency oscillations into signals of low frequency content and has been successfully applied to one-dimensional systems. However, the extension to plates and vibro-acoustic fields met serious difficulties so that a general revision of the theory was carried out, leading finally to a new method, the complex envelope vectorization (CEV). In this paper the CEV method is described, underlying merits and limits of the procedure, and a set of applications to vibration and vibro-acoustic problems of increasing complexity are presented.

  20. Innovative Techniques Simplify Vibration Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    In the early years of development, Marshall Space Flight Center engineers encountered challenges related to components in the space shuttle main engine. To assess the problems, they evaluated the effects of vibration and oscillation. To enhance the method of vibration signal analysis, Marshall awarded Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts to AI Signal Research, Inc. (ASRI), in Huntsville, Alabama. ASRI developed a software package called PC-SIGNAL that NASA now employs on a daily basis, and in 2009, the PKP-Module won Marshall s Software of the Year award. The technology is also used in many industries: aircraft and helicopter, rocket engine manufacturing, transportation, and nuclear power."

  1. Detection of bearing damage by statistic vibration analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikora, E. A.

    2016-04-01

    The condition of bearings, which are essential components in mechanisms, is crucial to safety. The analysis of the bearing vibration signal, which is always contaminated by certain types of noise, is a very important standard for mechanical condition diagnosis of the bearing and mechanical failure phenomenon. In this paper the method of rolling bearing fault detection by statistical analysis of vibration is proposed to filter out Gaussian noise contained in a raw vibration signal. The results of experiments show that the vibration signal can be significantly enhanced by application of the proposed method. Besides, the proposed method is used to analyse real acoustic signals of a bearing with inner race and outer race faults, respectively. The values of attributes are determined according to the degree of the fault. The results confirm that the periods between the transients, which represent bearing fault characteristics, can be successfully detected.

  2. A Spectral Analysis Approach for Acoustic Radiation from Composite Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.; Singh, Mahendra P.; Mei, Chuh

    2004-01-01

    A method is developed to predict the vibration response of a composite panel and the resulting far-field acoustic radiation due to acoustic excitation. The acoustic excitation is assumed to consist of obliquely incident plane waves. The panel is modeled by a finite element analysis and the radiated field is predicted using Rayleigh's integral. The approach can easily include other effects such as shape memory alloy (SMA) ber reinforcement, large detection thermal postbuckling, and non-symmetric SMA distribution or lamination. Transmission loss predictions for the case of an aluminum panel excited by a harmonic acoustic pressure are shown to compare very well with a classical analysis. Results for a composite panel with and without shape memory alloy reinforcement are also presented. The preliminary results demonstrate that the transmission loss can be significantly increased with shape memory alloy reinforcement. The mechanisms for further transmission loss improvement are identified and discussed.

  3. Spectral compressor vibration analysis techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, M.L.

    1982-02-01

    Studies at GAT have verified that the spectral distribution of energy in gaseous diffusion compressor vibrations contains information pertinent to the state of the compressor's ''health.'' Based on that conclusion, vibration analysis capabilities were included in the CUP computer data acquisition system. In order for that information to be used for diagnosis of incipient failure mechanisms, however, spectral features must be empirically associated with actual malfunctions and validated statistically as diagnostic symptoms. When the system was acquired, indicators were generally unknown except for those associated with unbalance, misalignment, 00 secondary surge and severe resonant blade vibrations. Others must be developed as in-service malfunctions occur. The power spectral density function (PSDF) has historically been used to compute vibration spectra. Accurate, high-resolution power density spectra require long data-acquisition periods which is inconsistent with frequent examinations of all up-rated compressors. Detection of gross spectral changes indicative of a need for detailed analyses has been accomplished at a rate of less than 1 minute per compressor. An optimum analytical sequence will be based on trade offs. Work is in progress to identify additional malfunction indicators and investigate tools other than the PSDF to provide faster diagnoses. 6 figs.

  4. Convergence of intense aerial acoustic waves radiated by a rectangular transverse vibrating plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, Tomoki; Asami, Takuya; Miura, Hikaru

    2016-07-01

    A stripe-mode rectangular transverse vibrating plate can be used as a sound source that emits intense ultrasonic waves in air by placing a jut driving point outside the vibrating plate. The aim of this research was to use this vibrating plate to focus sound waves in the direction perpendicular to the nodal lines of the vibrating plate, which differs from the conventional direction. In this study, we investigated new methods for focusing the emitted sound waves by arranging reflective plates around the vibrating plate, using a design equation for each node between nodes in the vibrating plate, and placing additional reflective plates at an outer position beyond the convergence point, and found that a powerful acoustic field can be formed at an arbitrary position.

  5. Extraction of the acoustic component of a turbulent flow exciting a plate by inverting the vibration problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecoq, D.; Pézerat, C.; Thomas, J.-H.; Bi, W. P.

    2014-06-01

    An improvement of the Force Analysis Technique (FAT), an inverse method of vibration, is proposed to identify the low wavenumbers including the acoustic component of a turbulent flow that excites a plate. This method is a significant progress since the usual techniques of measurements with flush-mounted sensors are not able to separate the acoustic and the aerodynamic energies of the excitation because the aerodynamic component is too high. Moreover, the main cause of vibration or acoustic radiation of the structure might be due to the acoustic part by a phenomenon of spatial coincidence between the acoustic wavelengths and those of the plate. This underlines the need to extract the acoustic part. In this work, numerical experiments are performed to solve both the direct and inverse problems of vibration. The excitation is a turbulent boundary layer and combines the pressure field of the Corcos model and a diffuse acoustic field. These pressures are obtained by a synthesis method based on the Cholesky decomposition of the cross-spectra matrices and are used to excite a plate. Thus, the application of the inverse problem FAT that requires only the vibration data shows that the method is able to identify and to isolate the acoustic part of the excitation. Indeed, the discretization of the inverse operator (motion equation of the plate) acts as a low-pass wavenumber filter. In addition, this method is simple to implement because it can be applied locally (no need to know the boundary conditions), and measurements can be carried out on the opposite side of the plate without affecting the flow. Finally, an improvement of FAT is proposed. It regularizes optimally and automatically the inverse problem by analyzing the mean quadratic pressure of the reconstructed force distribution. This optimized FAT, in the case of the turbulent flow, has the advantage of measuring the acoustic component up to higher frequencies even in the presence of noise. the aerodynamic component

  6. Acoustic vibration sensor based on nonadiabatic tapered fibers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ben; Li, Yi; Sun, Miao; Zhang, Zhen-Wei; Dong, Xin-Yong; Zhang, Zai-Xuan; Jin, Shang-Zhong

    2012-11-15

    A simple and low-cost vibration sensor based on single-mode nonadiabatic fiber tapers is proposed and demonstrated. The environmental vibrations can be detected by demodulating the transmission loss of the nonadiabatic fiber taper. Theoretical simulations show that the transmission loss is related to the microbending of the fiber taper induced by vibrations. Unlike interferometric sensors, this vibration sensor does not need any feedback loop to control the quadrature point to obtain a stable performance. In addition, it has no requirement for the coherence of the light source and is insensitive to temperature changes. Experimental results show that this sensing system has a wide frequency response range from a few hertz to tens of kilohertz with the maximal signal to noise ratio up to 73 dB.

  7. Vibration Analysis and the Accelerometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Have you ever put your hand on an electric motor or motor-driven electric appliance and felt it vibrate? Ever wonder why it vibrates? What is there about the operation of the motor, or the object to which it is attached, that causes the vibrations? Is there anything "regular" about the vibrations, or are they the result of random causes? In this…

  8. Axial vibrations of brass wind instrument bells and their acoustical influence: Theory and simulations.

    PubMed

    Kausel, Wilfried; Chatziioannou, Vasileios; Moore, Thomas R; Gorman, Britta R; Rokni, Michelle

    2015-06-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that structural vibrations of brass wind instruments can audibly affect the radiated sound. Furthermore, these broadband effects are not explainable by assuming perfect coincidence of the frequency of elliptical structural modes with air column resonances. In this work a mechanism is proposed that has the potential to explain the broadband influences of structural vibrations on acoustical characteristics such as input impedance, transfer function, and radiated sound. The proposed mechanism involves the coupling of axial bell vibrations to the internal air column. The acoustical effects of such axial bell vibrations have been studied by extending an existing transmission line model to include the effects of a parasitic flow into vibrating walls, as well as distributed sound pressure sources due to periodic volume fluctuations in a duct with oscillating boundaries. The magnitude of these influences in typical trumpet bells, as well as in a complete instrument with an unbraced loop, has been studied theoretically. The model results in predictions of input impedance and acoustical transfer function differences that are approximately 1 dB for straight instruments and significantly higher when coiled tubes are involved or when very thin brass is used.

  9. Vibration analysis using moire interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asundi, A.; Cheung, M. T.

    The present use of moire interferometry for low amplitude vibration and analysis demonstrates the possibility of obtaining out-of-plane displacement contours whose sensitivity is comparable to that of holographic methods. A major advantage of the present system, is the obviation of prior knowledge of resonant frequencies, as called for in time-average holography. The experimental apparatus employed encompasses a laser beam, a parabolic mirror, a high frequency (600 line/mm) grating, and a camera, in addition to the test model.

  10. Measurements of Acoustic Properties of Porous and Granular Materials and Application to Vibration Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Junhong; Palumbo, Daniel L.

    2004-01-01

    For application of porous and granular materials to vibro-acoustic controls, a finite dynamic strength of the solid component (frame) is an important design factor. The primary goal of this study was to investigate structural vibration damping through this frame wave propagation for various poroelastic materials. A measurement method to investigate the vibration characteristics of the frame was proposed. The measured properties were found to follow closely the characteristics of the viscoelastic materials - the dynamic modulus increased with frequency and the degree of the frequency dependence was determined by its loss factor. The dynamic stiffness of hollow cylindrical beams containing porous and granular materials as damping treatment was measured also. The data were used to extract the damping materials characteristics using the Rayleigh-Ritz method. The results suggested that the acoustic structure interaction between the frame and the structure enhances the dissipation of the vibration energy significantly.

  11. Stick-slip instabilities in sheared granular flow: The role of friction and acoustic vibrations.

    PubMed

    Lieou, Charles K C; Elbanna, Ahmed E; Langer, J S; Carlson, J M

    2015-08-01

    We propose a theory of shear flow in dense granular materials. A key ingredient of the theory is an effective temperature that determines how the material responds to external driving forces such as shear stresses and vibrations. We show that, within our model, friction between grains produces stick-slip behavior at intermediate shear rates, even if the material is rate strengthening at larger rates. In addition, externally generated acoustic vibrations alter the stick-slip amplitude, or suppress stick-slip altogether, depending on the pressure and shear rate. We construct a phase diagram that indicates the parameter regimes for which stick-slip occurs in the presence and absence of acoustic vibrations of a fixed amplitude and frequency. These results connect the microscopic physics to macroscopic dynamics and thus produce useful information about a variety of granular phenomena, including rupture and slip along earthquake faults, the remote triggering of instabilities, and the control of friction in material processing.

  12. Piezoelectric Vibrational and Acoustic Alert for a Personal Communication Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Hellbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); Daugherty, Robert H. (Inventor); Scholz, Raymond C. (Inventor); Little, Bruce D. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Denhardt, Gerald A. (Inventor); Jang, SeGon (Inventor); Balein, Rizza (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An alert apparatus for a personal communication device includes a mechanically prestressed piezoelectric wafer positioned within the personal communication device and an alternating voltage input line coupled at two points of the wafer where polarity is recognized. The alert apparatus also includes a variable frequency device coupled to the alternating voltage input line, operative to switch the alternating voltage on the alternating voltage input line at least between an alternating voltage having a first frequency and an alternating voltage having a second frequency. The first frequency is preferably sufficiently high so as to cause the wafer to vibrate at a resulting frequency that produces a sound perceptible by a human ear, and the second frequency is preferably sufficiently low so as to cause the wafer to vibrate at a resulting frequency that produces a vibration readily felt by a holder of the personal communication device.

  13. Vibration Damping Via Acoustic Treatment Attached To Vehicle Body Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambino, Carlo

    Currently, in the automotive industry, the control of noise and vibration is the subject of much research, oriented towards the creation of innovative solutions to improve the comfort of the vehicle and to reduce its cost and weight. This thesis fits into this particular framework, as it aims to investigate the possibility of integrating the functions of sound absorptioninsulation and vibration damping in a unique component. At present the bituminous viscoelastic treatments, which are bonded to the car body panels, take charge of the vibration damping, while the sound absorption and insulation is obtained by means of the poroacoustic treatments. The solution proposed here consists of employing porous materials to perform both these functions, thus allowing the partial or complete removal of the viscoelastic damping treatments from the car body. This should decrease the weight of the vehicle, reducing fuel consumption and emissions, and it might also benefit production costs.

  14. Vibration and acoustic response of an orthotropic composite laminated plate in a hygroscopic environment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Geng, Qian; Li, Yueming

    2013-03-01

    This paper is a study of the vibration and acoustic response characteristics of orthotropic laminated composite plate with simple supported boundary conditions excited by a harmonic concentrated force in a hygroscopic environment. First the natural vibration of the plate with the in-plane forces induced by hygroscopic stress is obtained analytically. Secondly, the sound pressure distribution of the plate at the far field is obtained using the Rayleigh integral. Furthermore, the sound radiation efficiency is deduced. Third, different ratios of elastic modulus in material principal directions are set to research the effects of increasing stiffness of the orthotropic plate on the vibration and acoustic radiation characteristics. Finally, to verify the theoretical solution, numerical simulations are also carried out with commercial finite software. It is found that the natural frequencies decrease with the increase of the moisture content and the first two order modes interconvert at high moisture content. The dynamic response and sound pressure level float to lower frequencies with elevated moisture content. Acoustic radiation efficiency generally floats to the low frequencies and decreases with an increase of moisture content. The dynamic and acoustic responses reduce and the coincidence frequency decreases with the enhanced stiffness.

  15. Vibration and acoustic response of an orthotropic composite laminated plate in a hygroscopic environment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Geng, Qian; Li, Yueming

    2013-03-01

    This paper is a study of the vibration and acoustic response characteristics of orthotropic laminated composite plate with simple supported boundary conditions excited by a harmonic concentrated force in a hygroscopic environment. First the natural vibration of the plate with the in-plane forces induced by hygroscopic stress is obtained analytically. Secondly, the sound pressure distribution of the plate at the far field is obtained using the Rayleigh integral. Furthermore, the sound radiation efficiency is deduced. Third, different ratios of elastic modulus in material principal directions are set to research the effects of increasing stiffness of the orthotropic plate on the vibration and acoustic radiation characteristics. Finally, to verify the theoretical solution, numerical simulations are also carried out with commercial finite software. It is found that the natural frequencies decrease with the increase of the moisture content and the first two order modes interconvert at high moisture content. The dynamic response and sound pressure level float to lower frequencies with elevated moisture content. Acoustic radiation efficiency generally floats to the low frequencies and decreases with an increase of moisture content. The dynamic and acoustic responses reduce and the coincidence frequency decreases with the enhanced stiffness. PMID:23464015

  16. Gigahertz Acoustic Vibrations of Elastically Anisotropic Indium-Tin-Oxide Nanorod Arrays.

    PubMed

    Guo, Peijun; Schaller, Richard D; Ocola, Leonidas E; Ketterson, John B; Chang, Robert P H

    2016-09-14

    Active control of light is important for photonic integrated circuits, optical switches, and telecommunications. Coupling light with acoustic vibrations in nanoscale optical resonators offers optical modulation capabilities with high bandwidth and small footprint. Instead of using noble metals, here we introduce indium-tin-oxide nanorod arrays (ITO-NRAs) as the operating media and demonstrate optical modulation covering the visible spectral range (from 360 to 700 nm) with ∼20 GHz bandwidth through the excitation of coherent acoustic vibrations in ITO-NRAs. This broadband modulation results from the collective optical diffraction by the dielectric ITO-NRAs, and a high differential transmission modulation up to 10% is achieved through efficient near-infrared, on-plasmon-resonance pumping. By combining the frequency signatures of the vibrational modes with finite-element simulations, we further determine the anisotropic elastic constants for single-crystalline ITO, which are not known for the bulk phase. This technique to determine elastic constants using coherent acoustic vibrations of uniform nanostructures can be generalized to the study of other inorganic materials.

  17. Gigahertz Acoustic Vibrations of Elastically Anisotropic Indium-Tin-Oxide Nanorod Arrays.

    PubMed

    Guo, Peijun; Schaller, Richard D; Ocola, Leonidas E; Ketterson, John B; Chang, Robert P H

    2016-09-14

    Active control of light is important for photonic integrated circuits, optical switches, and telecommunications. Coupling light with acoustic vibrations in nanoscale optical resonators offers optical modulation capabilities with high bandwidth and small footprint. Instead of using noble metals, here we introduce indium-tin-oxide nanorod arrays (ITO-NRAs) as the operating media and demonstrate optical modulation covering the visible spectral range (from 360 to 700 nm) with ∼20 GHz bandwidth through the excitation of coherent acoustic vibrations in ITO-NRAs. This broadband modulation results from the collective optical diffraction by the dielectric ITO-NRAs, and a high differential transmission modulation up to 10% is achieved through efficient near-infrared, on-plasmon-resonance pumping. By combining the frequency signatures of the vibrational modes with finite-element simulations, we further determine the anisotropic elastic constants for single-crystalline ITO, which are not known for the bulk phase. This technique to determine elastic constants using coherent acoustic vibrations of uniform nanostructures can be generalized to the study of other inorganic materials. PMID:27526053

  18. Axial vibrations of brass wind instrument bells and their acoustical influence: Experiments.

    PubMed

    Moore, Thomas R; Gorman, Britta R; Rokni, Michelle; Kausel, Wilfried; Chatziioannou, Vasileios

    2015-08-01

    It has recently been proposed that the effects of structural vibrations on the radiated sound of brass wind instruments may be attributable to axial modes of vibration with mode shapes that contain no radial nodes [Kausel, Chatziioannou, Moore, Gorman, and Rokni, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 137, 3149-3162 (2015)]. Results of experiments are reported that support this theory. Mechanical measurements of a trumpet bell demonstrate that these axial modes do exist in brass wind instruments. The quality factor of the mechanical resonances can be on the order of 10 or less, making them broad enough to encompass the frequency range of previously reported effects attributed to bell vibrations. Measurements of the input impedance show that damping bell vibrations can result in impedance changes of up to 5%, in agreement with theory. Measurements of the acoustic transfer function demonstrate that the axial vibrations couple to the internal sound field as proposed, resulting in changes in the transfer function of approximately 1 dB. In agreement with theory, a change in the sign of the effect is observed at the frequency of the structural resonance.

  19. Axial vibrations of brass wind instrument bells and their acoustical influence: Experiments.

    PubMed

    Moore, Thomas R; Gorman, Britta R; Rokni, Michelle; Kausel, Wilfried; Chatziioannou, Vasileios

    2015-08-01

    It has recently been proposed that the effects of structural vibrations on the radiated sound of brass wind instruments may be attributable to axial modes of vibration with mode shapes that contain no radial nodes [Kausel, Chatziioannou, Moore, Gorman, and Rokni, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 137, 3149-3162 (2015)]. Results of experiments are reported that support this theory. Mechanical measurements of a trumpet bell demonstrate that these axial modes do exist in brass wind instruments. The quality factor of the mechanical resonances can be on the order of 10 or less, making them broad enough to encompass the frequency range of previously reported effects attributed to bell vibrations. Measurements of the input impedance show that damping bell vibrations can result in impedance changes of up to 5%, in agreement with theory. Measurements of the acoustic transfer function demonstrate that the axial vibrations couple to the internal sound field as proposed, resulting in changes in the transfer function of approximately 1 dB. In agreement with theory, a change in the sign of the effect is observed at the frequency of the structural resonance. PMID:26328736

  20. Probing the Raman-active acoustic vibrations of nanoparticles with extraordinary spectral resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheaton, Skyler; Gelfand, Ryan M.; Gordon, Reuven

    2015-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dots, viruses, DNA and all other nanoparticles have acoustic vibrations that can act as ‘fingerprints’ to identify their shape, size and mechanical properties, yet high-resolution Raman spectroscopy in this low-energy range has been lacking. Here, we demonstrate extraordinary acoustic Raman (EAR) spectroscopy to measure the Raman-active vibrations of single isolated nanoparticles in the 0.1-10 cm-1 range with ˜0.05 cm-1 resolution, to resolve peak splitting from material anisotropy and to probe the low-frequency modes of biomolecules. EAR employs a nanoaperture laser tweezer that can select particles of interest and manipulate them once identified. We therefore believe that this nanotechnology will enable expanded capabilities for the study of nanoparticles in the materials and life sciences.

  1. Vibrations of three-dimensional pipe systems with acoustic coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Raheb, M.

    1981-09-01

    A general algorithm is developed for estimating the beam type dynamic response of three dimensional multiplane pipe systems consisting of elbows and straight segments with smooth interface. The transfer matrix approach is adopted in modeling the elastodynamics of each duct with allowance for distributed loads. The formulation includes the acoustic coupling of a plane wave and elbow curvature. Secondary loads from plane wave distortion are considered from a modal solution of the Helmholtz equation in an equivalent rigid waveguide with square cross section. The effect of path imperfection is introduced as a perturbation from the hypothetical perfectly straight pipe. The one dimensional plane wave assumption is valid for frequencies below half the first cut-off frequency. Wave asymmetry from elbow curvature produces substantial increase in response level near and above cut-off.

  2. Vibration analysis using digital correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, John A.; Lehner, David L.; Dudderar, T. Dixon; Matthys, Donald R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of a computer-based optical method for locating the positions of nodes and antinodes in vibrating members. Structured light patterns are projected at an angle onto the vibrating surface using a 35 mm slide projector. The vibrating surface and the projected images are captured in a time averaged photograph which is subsequently digitized. The inherent fringe patterns are filtered to determine amplitudes of vibration, and computer programs are used to compare the time averaged images to images recorded prior to excitation to locate nodes and antinodes. Some of the influences of pattern regularity on digital correlation are demonstrated, and a speckle-based method for determining the mode shapes and the amplitudes of vibration with variable sensitivity is suggested.

  3. Active vibration and noise control of vibro-acoustic system by using PID controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yunlong; Wang, Xiaojun; Huang, Ren; Qiu, Zhiping

    2015-07-01

    Active control simulation of the acoustic and vibration response of a vibro-acoustic cavity of an airplane based on a PID controller is presented. A full numerical vibro-acoustic model is developed by using an Eulerian model, which is a coupled model based on the finite element formulation. The reduced order model, which is used to design the closed-loop control system, is obtained by the combination of modal expansion and variable substitution. Some physical experiments are made to validate and update the full-order and the reduced-order numerical models. Optimization of the actuator placement is employed in order to get an effective closed-loop control system. For the controller design, an iterative method is used to determine the optimal parameters of the PID controller. The process is illustrated by the design of an active noise and vibration control system for a cavity structure. The numerical and experimental results show that a PID-based active control system can effectively suppress the noise inside the cavity using a sound pressure signal as the controller input. It is also possible to control the noise by suppressing the vibration of the structure using the structural displacement signal as the controller input. For an airplane cavity structure, considering the issue of space-saving, the latter is more suitable.

  4. Statistical quality control through overall vibration analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnero, M. a. Carmen; González-Palma, Rafael; Almorza, David; Mayorga, Pedro; López-Escobar, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    The present study introduces the concept of statistical quality control in automotive wheel bearings manufacturing processes. Defects on products under analysis can have a direct influence on passengers' safety and comfort. At present, the use of vibration analysis on machine tools for quality control purposes is not very extensive in manufacturing facilities. Noise and vibration are common quality problems in bearings. These failure modes likely occur under certain operating conditions and do not require high vibration amplitudes but relate to certain vibration frequencies. The vibration frequencies are affected by the type of surface problems (chattering) of ball races that are generated through grinding processes. The purpose of this paper is to identify grinding process variables that affect the quality of bearings by using statistical principles in the field of machine tools. In addition, an evaluation of the quality results of the finished parts under different combinations of process variables is assessed. This paper intends to establish the foundations to predict the quality of the products through the analysis of self-induced vibrations during the contact between the grinding wheel and the parts. To achieve this goal, the overall self-induced vibration readings under different combinations of process variables are analysed using statistical tools. The analysis of data and design of experiments follows a classical approach, considering all potential interactions between variables. The analysis of data is conducted through analysis of variance (ANOVA) for data sets that meet normality and homoscedasticity criteria. This paper utilizes different statistical tools to support the conclusions such as chi squared, Shapiro-Wilks, symmetry, Kurtosis, Cochran, Hartlett, and Hartley and Krushal-Wallis. The analysis presented is the starting point to extend the use of predictive techniques (vibration analysis) for quality control. This paper demonstrates the existence

  5. Probing elasticity at the nanoscale: Terahertz acoustic vibration of small metal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Juvé, Vincent; Crut, Aurélien; Maioli, Paolo; Pellarin, Michel; Broyer, Michel; Del Fatti, Natalia; Vallée, Fabrice

    2010-05-12

    The acoustic response of surface-controlled metal (Pt) nanoparticles is investigated in the small size range, between 1.3 and 3 nm (i.e., 75-950 atoms), using time-resolved spectroscopy. Acoustic vibration of the nanoparticles is demonstrated, with frequencies ranging from 1.1 to 2.6 THz, opening the way to the development of THz acoustic resonators. The frequencies, measured with a noncontact optical method, are in excellent agreement with the prediction of a macroscopic approach based on the continuous elastic model, together with the bulk material elastic constants. This demonstrates the validity of this model at the nanoscale and the weak impact of size reduction on the elastic properties of a material, even for nanoparticles formed by less than 100 atoms.

  6. Vibration signature analysis of multistage gear transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choy, F. K.; Tu, Y. K.; Savage, M.; Townsend, D. P.

    1989-01-01

    An analysis is presented for multistage multimesh gear transmission systems. The analysis predicts the overall system dynamics and the transmissibility to the gear box or the enclosed structure. The modal synthesis approach of the analysis treats the uncoupled lateral/torsional model characteristics of each stage or component independently. The vibration signature analysis evaluates the global dynamics coupling in the system. The method synthesizes the interaction of each modal component or stage with the nonlinear gear mesh dynamics and the modal support geometry characteristics. The analysis simulates transient and steady state vibration events to determine the resulting torque variations, speeds, changes, rotor imbalances, and support gear box motion excitations. A vibration signature analysis examines the overall dynamic characteristics of the system, and the individual model component responses. The gear box vibration analysis also examines the spectral characteristics of the support system.

  7. Effects of heat exchange and nonlinearity on acoustic streaming in a vibrating cylindrical cavity.

    PubMed

    Gubaidullin, Amir A; Yakovenko, Anna V

    2015-06-01

    Acoustic streaming in a gas filled cylindrical cavity subjected to the vibration effect is investigated numerically. Both thermally insulated walls and constant temperature walls are considered. The range of vibration frequencies from low frequencies, at which the process can be described by an approximate analytical solution, to high frequencies giving rise to strong nonlinear effects is studied. Frequencies lower than the resonant one are chosen, and nonlinearity is achieved due to the large amplitude. The problem is solved in an axisymmetric statement. The dependence of acoustic streaming in narrow channels at vibration frequencies lower than the resonant one on the type of thermal boundary conditions is shown. The streaming vortices' directions of rotation in the case of constant temperature walls are found to be opposite to those in the case of thermally insulated walls. Different nonlinear effects, which increase with the frequency of vibration, are obtained. Nonlinear effects manifesting as the nonuniformity of average temperature, pressure, and density are in turn found to be influencing the streaming velocity and streaming structure.

  8. Bond-selective photoacoustic imaging by converting molecular vibration into acoustic waves

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Jie; Li, Rui; Phillips, Evan H.; Goergen, Craig J.; Sturek, Michael; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2016-01-01

    The quantized vibration of chemical bonds provides a way of detecting specific molecules in a complex tissue environment. Unlike pure optical methods, for which imaging depth is limited to a few hundred micrometers by significant optical scattering, photoacoustic detection of vibrational absorption breaks through the optical diffusion limit by taking advantage of diffused photons and weak acoustic scattering. Key features of this method include both high scalability of imaging depth from a few millimeters to a few centimeters and chemical bond selectivity as a novel contrast mechanism for photoacoustic imaging. Its biomedical applications spans detection of white matter loss and regeneration, assessment of breast tumor margins, and diagnosis of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. This review provides an overview of the recent advances made in vibration-based photoacoustic imaging and various biomedical applications enabled by this new technology. PMID:27069873

  9. Bond-selective photoacoustic imaging by converting molecular vibration into acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Hui, Jie; Li, Rui; Phillips, Evan H; Goergen, Craig J; Sturek, Michael; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2016-03-01

    The quantized vibration of chemical bonds provides a way of detecting specific molecules in a complex tissue environment. Unlike pure optical methods, for which imaging depth is limited to a few hundred micrometers by significant optical scattering, photoacoustic detection of vibrational absorption breaks through the optical diffusion limit by taking advantage of diffused photons and weak acoustic scattering. Key features of this method include both high scalability of imaging depth from a few millimeters to a few centimeters and chemical bond selectivity as a novel contrast mechanism for photoacoustic imaging. Its biomedical applications spans detection of white matter loss and regeneration, assessment of breast tumor margins, and diagnosis of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. This review provides an overview of the recent advances made in vibration-based photoacoustic imaging and various biomedical applications enabled by this new technology.

  10. Flow-induced vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Blevins, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on dimensional analysis; ideal fluid models; vortex-induced vibration; galloping and flutter; instability of tube and cylinder arrays; vibrations induced by oscillating flow; vibration induced by turbulence and sound; damping of structures; sound induced by vortex shedding; vibrations of a pipe containing a fluid flow; indices. It covers the analysis of the vibrations of structures exposed to fluid flows; explores applications for offshore platforms and piping; wind-induced vibration of buildings, bridges, and towers; and acoustic and mechanical vibration of heat exchangers, power lines, and process ducting.

  11. Analysis of railway track vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, K.; Yamada, M.

    1989-04-01

    Analytical formulae are developed for estimating the amplitudes of the vibrations generated in railway tracks by wheels and rail discontinuities or by unevennesses on their surfaces. Rails are assumed to be supported elastically on concrete sleepers by resilient rail-pads inserted between them. The elasticities and the masses of track materials and those of the roadbed are also taken into consideration. It is shown that after an impulse is applied to the track, not only is a vibration with a comparatively low natural frequency generated, but also traveling waves with higher frequencies, and the latter propagate lengthwise along the track or downwards into the roadbed. With the assumption that the power spectral density of the unevennesses on the rail surface is in proportion to the third power of the wavelength, or to (wavenumber) -3, the amplitudes of the vibrations in railway tracks supported by rail-pads and roadbeds with various magnitudes of elastic constants are analyzed and the values for each one-third octave band are estimated. The velocity of the vibration takes on a maximum value for the band with a center frequency of 63 Hz, which corresponds to the resonant frequency of the system composed of the wheel and the track. As the frequency increases beyond this value, the velocity of the vibration takes on a second maximum value at a frequency of about 1000 Hz. These estimates are compared with the data obtained from field measurements and reasonably good correlations are found between them.

  12. Piezoelectric Shunt Vibration Damping of F-15 Panel under High Acoustic Excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Shu-Yau; Turner, Travis L.; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2000-01-01

    At last year's SPIE symposium, we reported results of an experiment on structural vibration damping of an F-15 underbelly panel using piezoelectric shunting with five bonded PZT transducers. The panel vibration was induced with an acoustic speaker at an overall sound pressure level (OASPL) of about 90 dB. Amplitude reductions of 13.45 and 10.72 dB were achieved for the first and second modes, respectively, using single- and multiple-mode shunting. It is the purpose of this investigation to extend the passive piezoelectric shunt-damping technique to control structural vibration induced at higher acoustic excitation levels, and to examine the controllability and survivability of the bonded PZT transducers at these high levels. The shunting experiment was performed with the Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus (TAFA) at the NASA Langley Research Center using the same F-15 underbelly panel. The TAFA is a progressive wave tube facility. The panel was mounted in one wall of the TAFA test section using a specially designed mounting fixture such that the panel was subjected to grazing-incidence acoustic excitation. Five PZT transducers were used with two shunt circuits designed to control the first and second modes of the structure between 200 and 400 Hz. We first determined the values of the shunt inductance and resistance at an OASPL of 130 dB. These values were maintained while we gradually increased the OASPL from 130 to 154 dB in 6-dB steps. During each increment, the frequency response function between accelerometers on the panel and the acoustic excitation measured by microphones, before and after shunting, were recorded. Good response reduction was observed up to the 148dB level. The experiment was stopped at 154 dB due to wire breakage from vibration at a transducer wire joint. The PZT transducers, however, were still bonded well on the panel and survived at this high dB level. We also observed shifting of the frequency peaks toward lower frequency when the OASPL

  13. Structure borne noise analysis using Helmholtz equation least squares based forced vibro acoustic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natarajan, Logesh Kumar

    This dissertation presents a structure-borne noise analysis technology that is focused on providing a cost-effective noise reduction strategy. Structure-borne sound is generated or transmitted through structural vibration; however, only a small portion of the vibration can effectively produce sound and radiate it to the far-field. Therefore, cost-effective noise reduction is reliant on identifying and suppressing the critical vibration components that are directly responsible for an undesired sound. However, current technologies cannot successfully identify these critical vibration components from the point of view of direct contribution to sound radiation and hence cannot guarantee the best cost-effective noise reduction. The technology developed here provides a strategy towards identifying the critical vibration components and methodically suppressing them to achieve a cost-effective noise reduction. The core of this technology is Helmholtz equation least squares (HELS) based nearfield acoustic holography method. In this study, the HELS formulations derived in spherical co-ordinates using spherical wave expansion functions utilize the input data of acoustic pressures measured in the nearfield of a vibrating object to reconstruct the vibro-acoustic responses on the source surface and acoustic quantities in the far field. Using these formulations, three steps were taken to achieve the goal. First, hybrid regularization techniques were developed to improve the reconstruction accuracy of normal surface velocity of the original HELS method. Second, correlations between the surface vibro-acoustic responses and acoustic radiation were factorized using singular value decomposition to obtain orthogonal basis known here as the forced vibro-acoustic components (F-VACs). The F-VACs enables one to identify the critical vibration components for sound radiation in a similar manner that modal decomposition identifies the critical natural modes in a structural vibration. Finally

  14. Acoustic spreading of thin films of water: balancing capillary, viscous, and vibrational mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manor, Ofer; Altshuler, Gennady; Small Scale Trasport laboratory Team

    2014-11-01

    Substrate vibrations at frequencies comparable to HF radio frequencies and in contact with liquid generate flow at submicron length scales that may result in spreading of liquid films. This spreading mechanism is thought as a way of manipulating liquids on microfluidic platforms. In previous studies we used silicon oil as a model liquid; silicon oil spread easily and smoothly as long as the oil and substrate vibrations are in contact. Water films under similar conditions, however, were observed to spread to a minute extent and only under high power levels that further render intense capillary instabilities. In this presentation we use theory and experimental evidence to discuss the physical mechanisms associated with acoustic spreading of water films. We highlight mechanisms associated with acoustic spreading of arbitrary liquids, and we show the various influences of these mechanisms on liquid spreading is encapsulated within one dimensionless number whose value determines whether spreading is to take place. We further elucidate the discrepancy, observed in earlier literature, between the response of oil and water to acoustic excitation and highlight an intermediate parametric region, where precise manipulation of water spreading is achieved by carefully balancing the governing mechanisms.

  15. Vibration analysis utilizing Mossbauer effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roughton, N. A.

    1967-01-01

    Measuring instrument analyzes mechanical vibrations in transducers at amplitudes in the range of a few to 100 angstroms. This instrument utilizes the Mossbauer effect, the phenomenon of the recoil-free emission and resonant absorption of nuclear gamma rays in solids.

  16. CO2 compressor vibration and cause analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ying, Y. L.

    1985-01-01

    The operational experience of a large turbine drive carbon dioxide compressor train in a urea plant with capacity of 1620 tons/day is considered. After the initial start-up in 1976, the vibration in the HP cylinder was comparatively serious. The radial vibration reached 4.2 to 4.5 mils and fluctuated around this value. It was attributed to the rotating stall based on the spectrum analysis. Additional return line from the 4th to 4th and higher temperature of the 4th inlet has cured the vibration. Problems are described which were encountered in the operation along with their solutions, and/or improvements.

  17. A Correlated Study of the Response of a Satellite to Acoustic Radiation Using Statistical Energy Analysis and Acoustic Test Data

    SciTech Connect

    CAP,JEROME S.; TRACEY,BRIAN

    1999-11-15

    Aerospace payloads, such as satellites, are subjected to vibroacoustic excitation during launch. Sandia's MTI satellite has recently been certified to this environment using a combination of base input random vibration and reverberant acoustic noise. The initial choices for the acoustic and random vibration test specifications were obtained from the launch vehicle Interface Control Document (ICD). In order to tailor the random vibration levels for the laboratory certification testing, it was necessary to determine whether vibration energy was flowing across the launch vehicle interface from the satellite to the launch vehicle or the other direction. For frequencies below 120 Hz this issue was addressed using response limiting techniques based on results from the Coupled Loads Analysis (CLA). However, since the CLA Finite Element Analysis FEA model was only correlated for frequencies below 120 Hz, Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) was considered to be a better choice for predicting the direction of the energy flow for frequencies above 120 Hz. The existing SEA model of the launch vehicle had been developed using the VibroAcoustic Payload Environment Prediction System (VAPEPS) computer code [1]. Therefore, the satellite would have to be modeled using VAPEPS as well. As is the case for any computational model, the confidence in its predictive capability increases if one can correlate a sample prediction against experimental data. Fortunately, Sandia had the ideal data set for correlating an SEA model of the MTI satellite--the measured response of a realistic assembly to a reverberant acoustic test that was performed during MTI's qualification test series. The first part of this paper will briefly describe the VAPEPS modeling effort and present the results of the correlation study for the VAPEPS model. The second part of this paper will present the results from a study that used a commercial SEA software package [2] to study the effects of in-plane modes and to

  18. Acoustic and vibration performance evaluations of a velocity sensing hull array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cray, Benjamin A.; Christman, Russell A.

    1996-04-01

    Acoustic and vibration measurements were conducted at the Naval Undersea Warfare Center's Seneca Lake Facility to investigate the in situ signal response of a linear array of velocity sensors (sensors that measure either acoustic particle acceleration, velocity, or displacement have generically been denoted as velocity sensors) on a coating. The coating used at Seneca Lake consisted of air-voided elastomeric tiles with an overall coating thickness of approximately 3 inches. The accelerometer array and coating were mounted on the Seneca Lake Hull Fixture, which measures 33 feet lengthwise with an arc length of 20 feet. The fixture weighs approximately 30 tons. Specifically, measurements of in situ sensitivity, velocity reduction, reflection gain, array beam response, and equivalent planewave self-noise levels are presented.

  19. Vibro-acoustic analysis of composite plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarigül, A. S.; Karagözlü, E.

    2014-03-01

    Vibro-acoustic analysis plays a vital role on the design of aircrafts, spacecrafts, land vehicles and ships produced from thin plates backed by closed cavities, with regard to human health and living comfort. For this type of structures, it is required a coupled solution that takes into account structural-acoustic interaction which is crucial for sensitive solutions. In this study, coupled vibro-acoustic analyses of plates produced from composite materials have been performed by using finite element analysis software. The study has been carried out for E-glass/Epoxy, Kevlar/Epoxy and Carbon/Epoxy plates with different ply angles and numbers of ply. The effects of composite material, ply orientation and number of layer on coupled vibro-acoustic characteristics of plates have been analysed for various combinations. The analysis results have been statistically examined and assessed.

  20. On the interaction of a vibrating plate with an acoustic medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mixson, J. S.; Koval, L. R.

    1974-01-01

    The interaction of a vibrating plate with an adjacent acoustic medium is important in problems involving the radiation of sound from panels, in problems involving the transmission of sound through walls of buildings, aircraft, or launch vehicles; and in problems involving the estimation of damping and the stress amplitude of vibration for panel-fatigue predictions. There appear to have been no systematic studies of the effects on the plate of fluid coupling for an arbitrary fluid-mass/plate-mass loading ratio. An attempt is made to determine this effect for a wide range of fluid-plate mass ratios without resorting to the usual simplifications of light or heavy fluid loading. Emphasis is with the plate motion rather than the radiation of sound.

  1. Measurement of cantilever vibration using impedance-loaded surface acoustic wave sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Masaki; Hamashima, Hiromitsu; Kondoh, Jun

    2016-07-01

    In this study, an impedance-loaded surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor was demonstrated to monitor the vibration frequency. Commercialized pressure sensors and a variable capacitor were chosen as external sensors, which were connected to a reflector on a SAW device. As the reflection coefficient of the reflector depended on the impedance, the echo amplitude was influenced by changes in the impedance of the external sensor. The vibration frequency of the cantilever was determined by monitoring the echo amplitude of the SAW device. Moreover, the attenuation constant of an envelope was estimated. The results of our feasibility study indicate that the impedance-loaded SAW sensor can be applied as a detector for structural health monitoring.

  2. Effects of hydration levels on the bandwidth of microwave resonant absorption induced by confined acoustic vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tzu-Ming; Chen, Hung-Pin; Yeh, Shih-Chia; Wu, Chih-Yu; Wang, Chung-Hsiung; Luo, Tang-Nian; Chen, Yi-Jan; Liu, Shen-Iuan; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2009-10-01

    We found the hydration levels on the capsid surface of viruses can affect the bandwidth of microwave resonant absorption (MRA) induced by the confined acoustic vibrations (CAV). By decreasing the pH value of solution down to 5.2 or inactivating the capsid proteins, we enhanced the surface hydrophilicity and increased the magnitude of surface potentials. Both of these surface manipulations raised the surface affinity to water molecules and narrowed the bandwidths of CAV-induced MRA. Our results validate the viscoelastic transition of hydration shells.

  3. An application review of dielectric electroactive polymer actuators in acoustics and vibration control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhenghong; Shuai, Changgeng; Gao, Yan; Rustighi, Emiliano; Xuan, Yuan

    2016-09-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing interest in the dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAPs) and their potential in actuator applications due to the large strain capabilities. This paper starts with an overview of some configurations of the DEAP actuators and follows with an in-depth literature and technical review of recent advances in the field with special considerations given to aspects pertaining to acoustics and vibration control. Significant research has shown that these smart actuators are promising replacement for many conventional actuators. The paper has been written with reference to a large number of published papers listed in the reference section.

  4. Integrated acoustic emission/vibration sensor for detecting damage in aircraft drive train components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godínez-Azcuaga, Valery F.; Ozevin, Didem; Finlayson, Richard D.; Anastasopoulos, Athanasios; Tsimogiannis, Apostolos

    2007-04-01

    Diaphragm-type couplings are high misalignment torque and speed transfer components used in aircrafts. Crack development in such couplings, or in the drive train in general, can lead to component failure that can bring down an aircraft. Real time detection of crack formation and growth is important to prevent such catastrophic failures. However, there is no single Nondestructive Monitoring method available that is capable of assessing the early stages of crack growth in such components. While vibration based damage identification techniques are used, they cannot detect cracks until they reach a considerable size, which makes detection of the onset of cracking extremely difficult. Acoustic Emission (AE) can detect and monitor early stage crack growth, however excessive background noise can mask acoustic emissions produced by crack initiation. Fusion of the two mentioned techniques can increase the accuracy of measurement and minimize false alarms. However, a monitoring system combining both techniques could prove too large and heavy for the already restricted space available in aircrafts. In the present work, we will present a newly developed integrated Acoustic Emission/Vibration (AE/VIB) combined sensor which can operate in the temperature range of -55°F to 257°F and in high EMI environment. This robust AE/VIB sensor has a frequency range of 5 Hz-2 kHz for the vibration component and a range of 200-400 kHz for the acoustic emission component. The sensor weight is comparable to accelerometers currently used in flying aircraft. Traditional signal processing approaches are not effective due to high signal attenuation and strong background noise conditions, commonly found in aircraft drive train systems. As an alternative, we will introduce a new Supervised Pattern Recognition (SPR) methodology that allows for simultaneous processing of the signals detected by the AE/VIB sensor and their classification in near-real time, even in these adverse conditions. Finally, we

  5. Full skin quantitative optical coherence elastography achieved by combining vibration and surface acoustic wave methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunhui; Guan, Guangying; Huang, Zhihong; Wang, Ruikang K.; Nabi, Ghulam

    2015-03-01

    By combining with the phase sensitive optical coherence tomography (PhS-OCT), vibration and surface acoustic wave (SAW) methods have been reported to provide elastography of skin tissue respectively. However, neither of these two methods can provide the elastography in full skin depth in current systems. This paper presents a feasibility study on an optical coherence elastography method which combines both vibration and SAW in order to give the quantitative mechanical properties of skin tissue with full depth range, including epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous fat. Experiments are carried out on layered tissue mimicking phantoms and in vivo human forearm and palm skin. A ring actuator generates vibration while a line actuator were used to excited SAWs. A PhS-OCT system is employed to provide the ultrahigh sensitive measurement of the generated waves. The experimental results demonstrate that by the combination of vibration and SAW method the full skin bulk mechanical properties can be quantitatively measured and further the elastography can be obtained with a sensing depth from ~0mm to ~4mm. This method is promising to apply in clinics where the quantitative elasticity of localized skin diseases is needed to aid the diagnosis and treatment.

  6. Study on the radial vibration and acoustic field of an isotropic circular ring radiator.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shuyu; Xu, Long

    2012-01-01

    Based on the exact analytical theory, the radial vibration of an isotropic circular ring is studied and its electro-mechanical equivalent circuit is obtained. By means of the equivalent circuit model, the resonance frequency equation is derived; the relationship between the radial resonance frequency, the radial displacement amplitude magnification and the geometrical dimensions, the material property is analyzed. For comparison, numerical method is used to simulate the radial vibration of isotropic circular rings. The resonance frequency and the radial vibrational displacement distribution are obtained, and the radial radiation acoustic field of the circular ring in radial vibration is simulated. It is illustrated that the radial resonance frequencies from the analytical method and the numerical method are in good agreement when the height is much less than the radius. When the height becomes large relative to the radius, the frequency deviation from the two methods becomes large. The reason is that the exact analytical theory is limited to thin circular ring whose height must be much less than its radius.

  7. Low-amplitude non-linear volume vibrations of single microbubbles measured with an "acoustical camera".

    PubMed

    Renaud, Guillaume; Bosch, Johan G; Van Der Steen, Antonius F W; De Jong, Nico

    2014-06-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging is based on the detection of non-linear vibrational responses of a contrast agent after its intravenous administration. Improving contrast-enhanced images requires an accurate understanding of the vibrational response to ultrasound of the lipid-coated gas microbubbles that constitute most ultrasound contrast agents. Variations in the volume of microbubbles provide the most efficient radiation of ultrasound and, therefore, are the most important bubble vibrations for medical diagnostic ultrasound imaging. We developed an "acoustical camera" that measures the dynamic volume change of individual microbubbles when excited by a pressure wave. In the work described here, the technique was applied to the characterization of low-amplitude non-linear behaviors of BR14 microbubbles (Bracco Research, Geneva, Switzerland). The amplitude dependence of the resonance frequency and the damping, the prevalence of efficient subharmonic and ultraharmonic vibrations and the amplitude dependence of the response at the fundamental frequency and at the second harmonic frequency were investigated. Because of the large number of measurements, we provide a statistical characterization of the low-amplitude non-linear properties of the contrast agent.

  8. Ultralow frequency acoustic bandgap and vibration energy recovery in tetragonal folding beam phononic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Nansha; Wu, Jiu Hui; Yu, Lie; Hou, Hong

    2016-06-01

    This paper investigates ultralow frequency acoustic properties and energy recovery of tetragonal folding beam phononic crystal (TFBPC) and its complementary structure. The dispersion curve relationships, transmission spectra and displacement fields of the eigenmodes are studied with FEA in detail. Compared with the traditional three layer phononic crystal (PC) structure, this structure proposed in this paper not only unfold bandgaps (BGs) in lower frequency range (below 300 Hz), but also has lighter weight because of beam structural cracks. We analyze the relevant physical mechanism behind this phenomenon, and discuss the effects of the tetragonal folding beam geometric parameters on band structure maps. FEM proves that the multi-cell structures with different arrangements have different acoustic BGs when compared with single cell structure. Harmonic frequency response and piezoelectric properties of TFBPC are specifically analyzed. The results confirm that this structure does have the recovery ability for low frequency vibration energy in environment. These conclusions in this paper could be indispensable to PC practical applications such as BG tuning and could be applied in portable devices, wireless sensor, micro-electro mechanical systems which can recycle energy from vibration environment as its own energy supply.

  9. Preliminary vibration, acoustic, and shock design and test criteria for components on the Lightweight External Tank (LWT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Space Shuttle LWT is divided into zones and subzones. Zones are designated primarily to assist in determining the applicable specifications. A subzone (general Specification) is available for use when the location of the component is known but component design and weight are not well defined. When the location, weight, and mounting configuration of the component are known, specifications for appropriate subzone weight ranges are available. Along with the specifications are vibration, acoustic, shock, transportation, handling, and acceptance test requirements and procedures. A method of selecting applicable vibration, acoustic, and shock specifications is presented.

  10. High Sensitivity Detection of Broadband Acoustic Vibration Using Optical Demodulation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen

    Measuring the high frequency acoustic vibrations represents the fundamental interest in revealing the intrinsic dynamic characteristic of board range of systems, such as the growth of the fetus, blood flow in human palms, and vibrations of carbon nanotube. However, the acoustic wave detection capability is limited by the detection bandwidth and sensitivity of the commonly used piezoelectric based ultrasound detectors. To overcome these limitations, this thesis focuses on exploring the optical demodulation method for highly sensitive detection of broadband acoustic vibration. First, a transparent optical ultrasonic detector has been developed using micro-ring resonator (MRR) made of soft polymeric materials. It outperforms the traditional piezoelectric detectors with broader detection bandwidth, miniaturized size and wide angular sensitivity. Its ease of integration into photoacoustic microscopy system has resulted in the great improvement of the imaging resolution. A theoretic framework has been developed to establish the quantitative understanding of its unique distance and angular dependent detection characteristics and was subsequently validated experimentally. The developed theoretic framework provides a guideline to fully accounts for the trade-offs between axial and lateral resolution, working distance, and the field of view in developing optimal imaging performance for a wide range of biological and clinical applications. MRR-based ultrasonic detector is further integrated into confocal fluorescence microscopy to realize the simultaneous imaging of fluorescence and optical absorption of retinal pigment epithelium, achieving multi-contrast imaging at sub-cellular level. The needs to resolve the fine details of the biological specimen with the resolution beyond the diffraction limit further motivate the development of optical demodulated ultrasonic detection method based on near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM). The nano-focusing probe was developed

  11. Analysis of the fundamental vibrational modes of trumpet bells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Thomas; Kaplon, Joseph; McDowall, Gregory; Martin, Kristy

    2000-11-01

    Musicians and craftsmen maintain that vibrations of the bells of brass musical instruments such as trumpets and trombones significantly affect the instrument's acoustic signature. Most musical acousticians maintain that these effects are unimportant and imperceptible. In an effort to begin to understand the interaction between the bell vibrations and the acoustic signature of brass wind instruments, we have investigated the fundamental modes of vibration of the bells of several modern trumpets. We will present interferograms showing the fundamental vibrational modes of the modern trumpet bell, discuss the subtle differences between similar instruments, describe observed asymmetries, present data on the correlation between the air column resonance structure and the fundamental vibrational frequencies, and review the progress of ongoing modeling efforts.

  12. Acoustic Gaits: Gait Analysis With Footstep Sounds.

    PubMed

    Altaf, M Umair Bin; Butko, Taras; Juang, Biing-Hwang Fred

    2015-08-01

    We describe the acoustic gaits-the natural human gait quantitative characteristics derived from the sound of footsteps as the person walks normally. We introduce the acoustic gait profile, which is obtained from temporal signal analysis of sound of footsteps collected by microphones and illustrate some of the spatio-temporal gait parameters that can be extracted from the acoustic gait profile by using three temporal signal analysis methods-the squared energy estimate, Hilbert transform and Teager-Kaiser energy operator. Based on the statistical analysis of the parameter estimates, we show that the spatio-temporal parameters and gait characteristics obtained using the acoustic gait profile can consistently and reliably estimate a subset of clinical and biometric gait parameters currently in use for standardized gait assessments. We conclude that the Teager-Kaiser energy operator provides the most consistent gait parameter estimates showing the least variation across different sessions and zones. Acoustic gaits use an inexpensive set of microphones with a computing device as an accurate and unintrusive gait analysis system. This is in contrast to the expensive and intrusive systems currently used in laboratory gait analysis such as the force plates, pressure mats and wearable sensors, some of which may change the gait parameters that are being measured.

  13. Harmonic Vibrational Analysis in Delocalized Internal Coordinates.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Frank; Palmer, David S

    2011-01-11

    It is shown that a principal component analysis of a large set of internal coordinates can be used to define a nonredundant set of delocalized internal coordinates suitable for the calculation of harmonic vibrational normal modes. The selection of internal coordinates and the principal component analysis provide large degrees of freedom in extracting a nonredundant set of coordinates, and thus influence how the vibrational normal modes are described. It is shown that long-range coordinates may be especially suitable for describing low-frequency global deformation modes in proteins.

  14. Spectral analysis methods for vehicle interior vibro-acoustics identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini Fouladi, Mohammad; Nor, Mohd. Jailani Mohd.; Ariffin, Ahmad Kamal

    2009-02-01

    Noise has various effects on comfort, performance and health of human. Sound are analysed by human brain based on the frequencies and amplitudes. In a dynamic system, transmission of sound and vibrations depend on frequency and direction of the input motion and characteristics of the output. It is imperative that automotive manufacturers invest a lot of effort and money to improve and enhance the vibro-acoustics performance of their products. The enhancement effort may be very difficult and time-consuming if one relies only on 'trial and error' method without prior knowledge about the sources itself. Complex noise inside a vehicle cabin originated from various sources and travel through many pathways. First stage of sound quality refinement is to find the source. It is vital for automotive engineers to identify the dominant noise sources such as engine noise, exhaust noise and noise due to vibration transmission inside of vehicle. The purpose of this paper is to find the vibro-acoustical sources of noise in a passenger vehicle compartment. The implementation of spectral analysis method is much faster than the 'trial and error' methods in which, parts should be separated to measure the transfer functions. Also by using spectral analysis method, signals can be recorded in real operational conditions which conduce to more consistent results. A multi-channel analyser is utilised to measure and record the vibro-acoustical signals. Computational algorithms are also employed to identify contribution of various sources towards the measured interior signal. These achievements can be utilised to detect, control and optimise interior noise performance of road transport vehicles.

  15. Test-Anchored Vibration Response Predictions for an Acoustically Energized Curved Orthogrid Panel with Mounted Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frady, Gregory P.; Duvall, Lowery D.; Fulcher, Clay W. G.; Laverde, Bruce T.; Hunt, Ronald A.

    2011-01-01

    A rich body of vibroacoustic test data was recently generated at Marshall Space Flight Center for a curved orthogrid panel typical of launch vehicle skin structures. Several test article configurations were produced by adding component equipment of differing weights to the flight-like vehicle panel. The test data were used to anchor computational predictions of a variety of spatially distributed responses including acceleration, strain and component interface force. Transfer functions relating the responses to the input pressure field were generated from finite element based modal solutions and test-derived damping estimates. A diffuse acoustic field model was employed to describe the assumed correlation of phased input sound pressures across the energized panel. This application demonstrates the ability to quickly and accurately predict a variety of responses to acoustically energized skin panels with mounted components. Favorable comparisons between the measured and predicted responses were established. The validated models were used to examine vibration response sensitivities to relevant modeling parameters such as pressure patch density, mesh density, weight of the mounted component and model form. Convergence metrics include spectral densities and cumulative root-mean squared (RMS) functions for acceleration, velocity, displacement, strain and interface force. Minimum frequencies for response convergence were established as well as recommendations for modeling techniques, particularly in the early stages of a component design when accurate structural vibration requirements are needed relatively quickly. The results were compared with long-established guidelines for modeling accuracy of component-loaded panels. A theoretical basis for the Response/Pressure Transfer Function (RPTF) approach provides insight into trends observed in the response predictions and confirmed in the test data. The software modules developed for the RPTF method can be easily adapted for

  16. Comparative evaluation of Space Transportation System (STS)-3 flight and acoustic test random vibration response of the OSS-1 payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    On, F. J.

    1983-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of the Space Transportation System (STS)-3 flight and acoustic test random vibration response of the Office of Space Science-1 (OSS-1) payload is presented. The results provide insight into the characteristics of vibroacoustic response of pallet payload components in the payload bay during STS flights.

  17. Damage Detection and Analysis in CFRPs Using Acoustic Emission Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitlow, Travis Laron

    Real time monitoring of damage is an important aspect of life management of critical structures. Acoustic emission (AE) techniques allow for measurement and assessment of damage in real time. Acoustic emission parameters such as signal amplitude and duration were monitored during the loading sequences. Criteria that can indicate the onset of critical damage to the structure were developed. Tracking the damage as it happens gives a better analysis of the failure evolution that will allow for a more accurate determination of structural life. The main challenge is distinguishing between legitimate damage signals and "false positives" which are unrelated to damage growth. Such false positives can be related to electrical noise, friction, or mechanical vibrations. This research focuses on monitoring signals of damage growth in carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) and separating the relevant signals from the false ones. In this Dissertation, acoustic emission signals from CFRP specimens were experimentally recorded and analyzed. The objectives of this work are: (1) perform static and fatigue loading of CFRP composite specimens and measure the associated AE signals, (2) accurately determine the AE parameters (energy, frequency, duration, etc.) of signals generated during failure of such specimens, (3) use fiber optic sensors to monitor the strain distribution of the damage zone and relate these changes in strain measurements to AE data.

  18. Pulse analysis of acoustic emission signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houghton, J. R.; Packman, P. F.

    1977-01-01

    A method for the signature analysis of pulses in the frequency domain and the time domain is presented. Fourier spectrum, Fourier transfer function, shock spectrum and shock spectrum ratio were examined in the frequency domain analysis and pulse shape deconvolution was developed for use in the time domain analysis. Comparisons of the relative performance of each analysis technique are made for the characterization of acoustic emission pulses recorded by a measuring system. To demonstrate the relative sensitivity of each of the methods to small changes in the pulse shape, signatures of computer modeled systems with analytical pulses are presented. Optimization techniques are developed and used to indicate the best design parameter values for deconvolution of the pulse shape. Several experiments are presented that test the pulse signature analysis methods on different acoustic emission sources. These include acoustic emission associated with (a) crack propagation, (b) ball dropping on a plate, (c) spark discharge, and (d) defective and good ball bearings. Deconvolution of the first few micro-seconds of the pulse train is shown to be the region in which the significant signatures of the acoustic emission event are to be found.

  19. Pulse analysis of acoustic emission signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houghton, J. R.; Packman, P. F.

    1977-01-01

    A method for the signature analysis of pulses in the frequency domain and the time domain is presented. Fourier spectrum, Fourier transfer function, shock spectrum and shock spectrum ratio were examined in the frequency domain analysis, and pulse shape deconvolution was developed for use in the time domain analysis. Comparisons of the relative performance of each analysis technique are made for the characterization of acoustic emission pulses recorded by a measuring system. To demonstrate the relative sensitivity of each of the methods to small changes in the pulse shape, signatures of computer modeled systems with analytical pulses are presented. Optimization techniques are developed and used to indicate the best design parameters values for deconvolution of the pulse shape. Several experiments are presented that test the pulse signature analysis methods on different acoustic emission sources. These include acoustic emissions associated with: (1) crack propagation, (2) ball dropping on a plate, (3) spark discharge and (4) defective and good ball bearings. Deconvolution of the first few micro-seconds of the pulse train are shown to be the region in which the significant signatures of the acoustic emission event are to be found.

  20. Analysis of real-time vibration data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, E.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, a few structures have been instrumented to provide continuous vibration data in real time, recording not only large-amplitude motions generated by extreme loads, but also small-amplitude motions generated by ambient loads. The main objective in continuous recording is to track any changes in structural characteristics, and to detect damage after an extreme event, such as an earthquake or explosion. The Fourier-based spectral analysis methods have been the primary tool to analyze vibration data from structures. In general, such methods do not work well for real-time data, because real-time data are mainly composed of ambient vibrations with very low amplitudes and signal-to-noise ratios. The long duration, linearity, and the stationarity of ambient data, however, allow us to utilize statistical signal processing tools, which can compensate for the adverse effects of low amplitudes and high noise. The analysis of real-time data requires tools and techniques that can be applied in real-time; i.e., data are processed and analyzed while being acquired. This paper presents some of the basic tools and techniques for processing and analyzing real-time vibration data. The topics discussed include utilization of running time windows, tracking mean and mean-square values, filtering, system identification, and damage detection.

  1. Nonlinear vibration and radiation from a panel with transition to chaos induced by acoustic waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, Lucio; Frendi, Abdelkader; Brown, Donald E.

    1992-01-01

    The dynamic response of an aircraft panel forced at resonance and off-resonance by plane acoustic waves at normal incidence is investigated experimentally and numerically. Linear, nonlinear (period doubling) and chaotic responses are obtained by increasing the sound pressure level of the excitation. The response time history is sensitive to the input level and to the frequency of excitation. The change in response behavior is due to a change in input conditions, triggered either naturally or by modulation of the bandwidth of the incident waves. Off-resonance, bifurcation is diffused and difficult to maintain, thus the panel response drifts into a linear behavior. The acoustic pressure emanated by the panel is either linear or nonlinear as is the vibration response. The nonlinear effects accumulate during the propagation with distance. Results are also obtained on the control of the panel response using damping tape on aluminum panel and using a graphite epoxy panel having the same size and weight. Good agreement is obtained between the experimental and numerical results.

  2. Vibration analysis of annular-like plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, L.; Li, Y. Y.; Yam, L. H.

    2003-05-01

    The existence of eccentricity of the central hole for an annular plate results in a significant change in the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the structure. In this paper, the vibration analysis of annular-like plates is presented based on numerical and experimental approaches. Using the finite element analysis code Nastran, the effects of the eccentricity, hole size and boundary condition on vibration modes are investigated systematically through both global and local analyses. The results show that analyses for perfect symmetric conditions can still roughly predict the mode shapes of "recessive" modes of the plate with a slightly eccentric hole. They will, however, lead to erroneous results for "dominant" modes. In addition, the residual displacement mode shape is verified as an effective parameter for identifying damage occurring in plate-like structures. Experimental modal analysis on a clamped-free annular-like plate is performed, and the results obtained reveal good agreement with those obtained by numerical analysis. This study provides guidance on modal analysis, vibration measurement and damage detection of plate-like structures.

  3. Nonlinear frequency response analysis of structural vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weeger, Oliver; Wever, Utz; Simeon, Bernd

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we present a method for nonlinear frequency response analysis of mechanical vibrations of 3-dimensional solid structures. For computing nonlinear frequency response to periodic excitations, we employ the well-established harmonic balance method. A fundamental aspect for allowing a large-scale application of the method is model order reduction of the discretized equation of motion. Therefore we propose the utilization of a modal projection method enhanced with modal derivatives, providing second-order information. For an efficient spatial discretization of continuum mechanics nonlinear partial differential equations, including large deformations and hyperelastic material laws, we employ the concept of isogeometric analysis. Isogeometric finite element methods have already been shown to possess advantages over classical finite element discretizations in terms of higher accuracy of numerical approximations in the fields of linear vibration and static large deformation analysis. With several computational examples, we demonstrate the applicability and accuracy of the modal derivative reduction method for nonlinear static computations and vibration analysis. Thus, the presented method opens a promising perspective on application of nonlinear frequency analysis to large-scale industrial problems.

  4. Vibro-acoustic analysis of the acoustic-structure interaction of flexible structure due to acoustic excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djojodihardjo, Harijono

    2015-03-01

    The application of BE-FE acoustic-structure interaction on a structure subject to acoustic load is elaborated using the boundary element-finite element acoustic structural coupling and the utilization of the computational scheme developed earlier. The plausibility of the numerical treatment is investigated and validated through application to generic cases. The analysis carried out in the work is intended to serve as a baseline in the analysis of acoustic structure interaction for lightweight structures. Results obtained thus far exhibit the robustness of the method developed.

  5. Test-Anchored Vibration Response Predictions for an Acoustically Energized Curved Orthogrid Panel with Mounted Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frady, Gregory P.; Duvall, Lowery D.; Fulcher, Clay W. G.; Laverde, Bruce T.; Hunt, Ronald A.

    2011-01-01

    rich body of vibroacoustic test data was recently generated at Marshall Space Flight Center for component-loaded curved orthogrid panels typical of launch vehicle skin structures. The test data were used to anchor computational predictions of a variety of spatially distributed responses including acceleration, strain and component interface force. Transfer functions relating the responses to the input pressure field were generated from finite element based modal solutions and test-derived damping estimates. A diffuse acoustic field model was applied to correlate the measured input sound pressures across the energized panel. This application quantifies the ability to quickly and accurately predict a variety of responses to acoustically energized skin panels with mounted components. Favorable comparisons between the measured and predicted responses were established. The validated models were used to examine vibration response sensitivities to relevant modeling parameters such as pressure patch density, mesh density, weight of the mounted component and model form. Convergence metrics include spectral densities and cumulative root-mean squared (RMS) functions for acceleration, velocity, displacement, strain and interface force. Minimum frequencies for response convergence were established as well as recommendations for modeling techniques, particularly in the early stages of a component design when accurate structural vibration requirements are needed relatively quickly. The results were compared with long-established guidelines for modeling accuracy of component-loaded panels. A theoretical basis for the Response/Pressure Transfer Function (RPTF) approach provides insight into trends observed in the response predictions and confirmed in the test data. The software developed for the RPTF method allows easy replacement of the diffuse acoustic field with other pressure fields such as a turbulent boundary layer (TBL) model suitable for vehicle ascent. Structural responses

  6. Acoustic analysis of anisotropic poroelastic multilayered systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra Martinez, Juan Pablo; Dazel, Olivier; Göransson, Peter; Cuenca, Jacques

    2016-02-01

    The proposed method allows for an extended analysis of the wave analysis, internal powers, and acoustic performance of anisotropic poroelastic media within semi-infinite multilayered systems under arbitrary excitation. Based on a plane wave expansion, the solution is derived from a first order partial derivative as proposed by Stroh. This allows for an in-depth analysis of the mechanisms controlling the acoustic behaviour in terms of internal powers and wave properties in the media. In particular, the proposed approach is used to highlight the influence of the phenomena intrinsic to anisotropic poroelastic media, such as compression-shear coupling related to the material alignment, the frequency shift of the fundamental resonance, or the appearance of particular geometrical coincidences in multilayered systems with such materials.

  7. Vibrational analysis of α-cyanohydroxycinnamic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojica, Elmer-Rico E.; Vedad, Jayson; Desamero, Ruel Z. B.

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, a comparative Raman vibrational analysis of alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (4CHCA) and its derivative, alpha-cyano-3-hydroxycinnamic acid (3CHCA), was performed. The Raman spectra of the 4CHCA and 3CHCA in solid form were obtained and analyzed to determine differences between the two structurally similar derivatives. For comparison, the CHCA derivatives cyanocinnamic acid (CCA) and coumaric acid (CA) were also studied. The plausible vibrational assignments were made and matched with those obtained theoretically using density functional theory (DFT) based method employing a 6-31 g basis set. The computational wavenumbers obtained were in good agreement with the observed experimental results. This was the first reported Raman study of CCA, 3CHCA and 4CHCA.

  8. Vibration, acoustic, and shock design and test criteria for components on the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB), Lightweight External Tank (LWT), and Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The vibration, acoustics, and shock design and test criteria for components and subassemblies on the space shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB), lightweight tank (LWT), and main engines (SSME) are presented. Specifications for transportation, handling, and acceptance testing are also provided.

  9. Acoustic Emission Analysis Applet (AEAA) Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, Charles T.; Roth, Don J.

    2013-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research and NASA White Sands Test Facility have developed software supporting an automated pressure vessel structural health monitoring (SHM) system based on acoustic emissions (AE). The software, referred to as the Acoustic Emission Analysis Applet (AEAA), provides analysts with a tool that can interrogate data collected on Digital Wave Corp. and Physical Acoustics Corp. software using a wide spectrum of powerful filters and charts. This software can be made to work with any data once the data format is known. The applet will compute basic AE statistics, and statistics as a function of time and pressure (see figure). AEAA provides value added beyond the analysis provided by the respective vendors' analysis software. The software can handle data sets of unlimited size. A wide variety of government and commercial applications could benefit from this technology, notably requalification and usage tests for compressed gas and hydrogen-fueled vehicles. Future enhancements will add features similar to a "check engine" light on a vehicle. Once installed, the system will ultimately be used to alert International Space Station crewmembers to critical structural instabilities, but will have little impact to missions otherwise. Diagnostic information could then be transmitted to experienced technicians on the ground in a timely manner to determine whether pressure vessels have been impacted, are structurally unsound, or can be safely used to complete the mission.

  10. Acoustic analysis of the frequency-dependent coupling between the frog's ears.

    PubMed

    Shofner, William P

    2015-09-01

    The ears of anurans are coupled through the Eustachian tubes and mouth cavity. The degree of coupling varies with frequency showing a bandpass characteristic, but the characteristics differ between empirically measured data based on auditory nerve responses and tympanic membrane vibration. In the present study, the coupling was modeled acoustically as a tube connected with a side branch. This tube corresponds to the Eustachian tubes, whereas the side branch corresponds to the mouth cavity and nares. The analysis accounts for the frequency dependency shown by the empirical data and reconciles the differences observed between the coupling as measured by tympanic membrane vibration and auditory nerve responses.

  11. Preliminary vibration, acoustic, and shock design and test criteria for components on the SRB, ET, and SSME

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Specifications for vibration, acoustic and shock design for components and subassemblies on the External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), and Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). Included are vibration, acoustic, shock, transportation, handling, and acceptance test requirements and procedures. The space shuttle ET, SRB, and SSME have been divided into zones and subzones. Zones are designated primarily to assist in determining the applicable specifications. A subzone (General Specification) is available for use when the location of the component is known but component design and weight are not well defined. When the location, weight, and mounting configuration of the component are known, specifications for appropriate subzone weight ranges are available. Criteria for some specific components are also presented.

  12. Performance, Thermal, and Vibration Qualification Testing of Zetec Acoustic Transducers, Model Z0002659-2, Sondicator Probes

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, G; Gemberling, S; Lavietes, A

    2006-03-10

    This report is a result of Qualification Test Plan No.001 prepared by Anthony Lavietes. The Qualification Test Plan outlines a list of requirements for thermal and vibrational testing of Zetac's Z0002659-2 Sondicator Probe acoustic transducers (hereafter called ''transducers''). The Zetec transducers are used in a system that employs an array of 7 acoustic transducers. Qualification testing of these transducers was required since they are a modified version of a standard catalog item from the manufacturer. This report documents the thermal, vibrational, and performance testing that was performed on a sampling of these transducers in order to qualify them for flight. A total of 14 transducers were tested. All 14 passed qualification testing with no failures.

  13. Silicon Micromachined Sensor for Broadband Vibration Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutierrez, Adolfo; Edmans, Daniel; Cormeau, Chris; Seidler, Gernot; Deangelis, Dave; Maby, Edward

    1995-01-01

    The development of a family of silicon based integrated vibration sensors capable of sensing mechanical resonances over a broad range of frequencies with minimal signal processing requirements is presented. Two basic general embodiments of the concept were designed and fabricated. The first design was structured around an array of cantilever beams and fabricated using the ARPA sponsored multi-user MEMS processing system (MUMPS) process at the Microelectronics Center of North Carolina (MCNC). As part of the design process for this first sensor, a comprehensive finite elements analysis of the resonant modes and stress distribution was performed using PATRAN. The dependence of strain distribution and resonant frequency response as a function of Young's modulus in the Poly-Si structural material was studied. Analytical models were also studied. In-house experimental characterization using optical interferometry techniques were performed under controlled low pressure conditions. A second design, intended to operate in a non-resonant mode and capable of broadband frequency response, was proposed and developed around the concept of a cantilever beam integrated with a feedback control loop to produce a null mode vibration sensor. A proprietary process was used to integrat a metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) sensing device, with actuators and a cantilever beam, as part of a compatible process. Both devices, once incorporated as part of multifunction data acquisition and telemetry systems will constitute a useful system for NASA launch vibration monitoring operations. Satellite and other space structures can benefit from the sensor for mechanical condition monitoring functions.

  14. Finite Element Vibration Analysis of Rectangular Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. H.; Lin, W. J.; Leung, A. Y. T.

    2010-05-01

    Some pre-tensioned 4-node rectangular elements and 8-node triangular elements are constructed for the free vibration analysis of membranes by finite element. The shape functions are given to derive the element stiffness and mass matrices in accordance with the minimum potential energy principle. Two typical examples show that the calculation by the 4-node rectangular element is very close to the theoretical solution, and 8-node rectangular element has higher accuracy than the 4-node rectangular element. For dense grid, the result is almost consistent with the theoretical solution.

  15. Cavitation damage prediction for spallation target vessels by assessment of acoustic vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Futakawa, Masatoshi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Hasegawa, Shoichi; Ikeda, Dr. Yujiro; Riemer, Bernie; Wendel, Mark W; Haines, John R; Bauer, Guenter; Naoe, Dr. Takashi; Okita, Dr. Kohei; Fujiwara, Dr. Akiko; Matsumoto, Dr. Yoichiro; Tanaka, Dr. Nobuatsu

    2008-01-01

    Liquid-mercury target systems for MW-class spallation neutron sources are being developed around the world. Proton beams are used to induce the spallation reaction. At the moment the proton beam hits the target, pressure waves are generated in the mercury because of the abrupt heat deposition. The pressure waves interact with the target vessel leading to negative pressure that may cause cavitation along the vessel wall. In order to estimate the cavitation erosion, i.e. the pitting damage formed by the collapse of cavitation bubbles, off-beam tests were performed by using an electric magnetic impact testing machine (MIMTM), which can impose equivalent pressure pulses in mercury. The damage potential was defined based on the relationship between the pitting damage and the time-integrated acoustic vibration induced by impact due to the bubble collapses. Additionally, the damage potential was measured in on-beam tests carried out by using the proton beam at WNR (Weapons Neutron Research) facility in Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). In this paper, the concept of the damage potential, the relationship between the pitting damage formation and the damage potential both in off-beam and on-beam tests is shown.

  16. Control of boundary layer transition location and plate vibration in the presence of an external acoustic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, L.; Grosveld, F. W.

    1991-01-01

    The experiment is aimed at controlling the boundary layer transition location and the plate vibration when excited by a flow and an upstream sound source. Sound has been found to affect the flow at the leading edge and the response of a flexible plate in a boundary layer. Because the sound induces early transition, the panel vibration is acoustically coupled to the turbulent boundary layer by the upstream radiation. Localized surface heating at the leading edge delays the transition location downstream of the flexible plate. The response of the plate excited by a turbulent boundary layer (without sound) shows that the plate is forced to vibrate at different frequencies and with different amplitudes as the flow velocity changes indicating that the plate is driven by the convective waves of the boundary layer. The acoustic disturbances induced by the upstream sound dominate the response of the plate when the boundary layer is either turbulent or laminar. Active vibration control was used to reduce the sound induced displacement amplitude of the plate.

  17. The model of local mode analysis for structural acoustics of box structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngai, King-Wah

    Structure-borne noise is a new noise pollution problem emerging from railway concrete box structures in Hong Kong. Its low frequency noise with intermittent effect can cause considerable nuisance to neighborhoods. The tonal noise peaks in this low frequency range should be one of the important factors in structure-borne noise analysis. In the acoustic field, the deterministic analysis of all the resonant modes of vibration is generally considered as not practical. Many acoustic experts use the statistical energy analysis as the main tool for the noise investigation whereas the application of the experimental modal analysis in the structural acoustic problem is comparatively rare. In the past, most studies mainly focused on the structure-borne noise measurement and analysis. The detail study of the cause of structure-borne noise is lack, especially for the rectangular concrete box structure. In this dissertation, an experimental and analytical approach is adopted to study a typical concrete box model. This thesis aims at confirming the importance of modal analysis in the structure-borne noise study and then at identifying the local vibration modes along the cross-section of box structure. These local modes are responsible for the structure-borne noise radiation. The findings of this study suggest that the web of viaduct cross-section is not as rigid as assumed in the conventional viaduct design and the web face is likely to be more flexible in the vertical displacement of the concrete viaduct. Two types of local vibration modes along the cross-section are identified: the centre mode and the web mode. At the top panel of the viaduct, the centre mode has movement in the middle but not at the edges. The web mode has movement at the edges with the middle fixed. The combined centre and web mode has been found to be important in the structural acoustics of the concrete box structure. In the actual concrete viaduct, the coincidence frequency is especially low (often around

  18. Airborne chemistry: acoustic levitation in chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Santesson, Sabina; Nilsson, Staffan

    2004-04-01

    This review with 60 references describes a unique path to miniaturisation, that is, the use of acoustic levitation in analytical and bioanalytical chemistry applications. Levitation of small volumes of sample by means of a levitation technique can be used as a way to avoid solid walls around the sample, thus circumventing the main problem of miniaturisation, the unfavourable surface-to-volume ratio. Different techniques for sample levitation have been developed and improved. Of the levitation techniques described, acoustic or ultrasonic levitation fulfils all requirements for analytical chemistry applications. This technique has previously been used to study properties of molten materials and the equilibrium shape()and stability of liquid drops. Temperature and mass transfer in levitated drops have also been described, as have crystallisation and microgravity applications. The airborne analytical system described here is equipped with different and exchangeable remote detection systems. The levitated drops are normally in the 100 nL-2 microL volume range and additions to the levitated drop can be made in the pL-volume range. The use of levitated drops in analytical and bioanalytical chemistry offers several benefits. Several remote detection systems are compatible with acoustic levitation, including fluorescence imaging detection, right angle light scattering, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Applications include liquid/liquid extractions, solvent exchange, analyte enrichment, single-cell analysis, cell-cell communication studies, precipitation screening of proteins to establish nucleation conditions, and crystallisation of proteins and pharmaceuticals. PMID:14762640

  19. Design and Analysis of Underwater Acoustic Networks with Reflected Links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emokpae, Lloyd

    -of-sight (LOS) and NLOS links by utilizing directional antennas, which will boost the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the receiver while promoting NLOS usage. In our model, we employ a directional underwater acoustic antenna composed of an array of hydrophones that can be summed up at various phases and amplitudes resulting in a beam-former. We have also adopted a practical multimodal directional transducer concept which generates both directional and omni-directional beam patterns by combining the fundamental vibration modes of a cylindrical acoustic radiator. This allows the transducer to be electrically controlled and steered by simply adjusting the electrical voltage weights. A prototype acoustic modem is then developed to utilize the multimodal directional transducer for both LOS and NLOS communication. The acoustic modem has also been used as a platform for empirically validating our SBR communication model in a tank and with empirical data. Networking protocols have been developed to exploit the SBR communication model. These protocols include node discovery and localization, directional medium access control (D-MAC) and geographical routing. In node discovery and localization, each node will utilize SBR-based range measurements to its neighbors to determine their relative position. The D-MAC protocol utilizes directional antennas to increase the network throughput due to the spatial efficiency of the antenna model. In the proposed reflection-enabled directional MAC protocol (RED-MAC), each source node will be able to determine if an obstacle is blocking the LOS link to the destination and switch to the best NLOS link by utilizing surface/bottom reflections. Finally, we have developed a geographical routing algorithm which aims to establish the best stable route from a source node to a destination node. The optimized route is selected to achieve maximum network throughput. Extensive analysis of the network throughput when utilizing directional antennas is also presented

  20. Vibration analysis by time-average holography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aprahamian, R.; Evensen, D. A.

    1971-01-01

    Method photographs vibration modes as high as 100 kHz. Technique also measures vibration decay and damping characteristics. Compensation techniques for structural size limitations and for background noise excitations are discussed.

  1. The effects of wood variability on the free vibration of an acoustic guitar top plate.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Micah R; Hambric, Stephen A; Wess, Dennis B

    2014-11-01

    A finite element model of a bare top plate with braces and a bridge plate was created using orthotropic material properties. The natural variation of the wood properties including dependence on moisture content was also determined. The simulated modes were then compared to experimentally obtained modes from top plate prototypes. Uncertainty analysis was also performed to determine the statistical bound of natural variability between wood samples. The natural frequencies of the model fall within the computed error bound. These results reinforce the importance of obtaining accurate material properties for acoustic guitar modeling. PMID:25373993

  2. The effects of wood variability on the free vibration of an acoustic guitar top plate.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Micah R; Hambric, Stephen A; Wess, Dennis B

    2014-11-01

    A finite element model of a bare top plate with braces and a bridge plate was created using orthotropic material properties. The natural variation of the wood properties including dependence on moisture content was also determined. The simulated modes were then compared to experimentally obtained modes from top plate prototypes. Uncertainty analysis was also performed to determine the statistical bound of natural variability between wood samples. The natural frequencies of the model fall within the computed error bound. These results reinforce the importance of obtaining accurate material properties for acoustic guitar modeling.

  3. Acoustic attenuation analysis program for ducts with mean flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunze, R. K., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A computerized acoustic attenuation prediction procedure has been developed to evaluate acoustically lined ducts for various geometric and environmental parameters. The analysis procedure is based on solutions to the acoustic wave equation, assuming uniform airflow on a duct cross section, combined with appropriate mathematical lining impedance models. The impedance models included in the analysis procedure are representative of either perforated sheet or porous polyimide impregnated fiberglass facing sheet coupled with a cellular backing space. Advantages and limitations of the analysis procedure are reviewed.

  4. Statistical energy analysis of nonlinear vibrating systems.

    PubMed

    Spelman, G M; Langley, R S

    2015-09-28

    Nonlinearities in practical systems can arise in contacts between components, possibly from friction or impacts. However, it is also known that quadratic and cubic nonlinearity can occur in the stiffness of structural elements undergoing large amplitude vibration, without the need for local contacts. Nonlinearity due purely to large amplitude vibration can then result in significant energy being found in frequency bands other than those being driven by external forces. To analyse this phenomenon, a method is developed here in which the response of the structure in the frequency domain is divided into frequency bands, and the energy flow between the frequency bands is calculated. The frequency bands are assigned an energy variable to describe the mean response and the nonlinear coupling between bands is described in terms of weighted summations of the convolutions of linear modal transfer functions. This represents a nonlinear extension to an established linear theory known as statistical energy analysis (SEA). The nonlinear extension to SEA theory is presented for the case of a plate structure with quadratic and cubic nonlinearity. PMID:26303923

  5. FY-93 noncontacting acoustic ultrasonic signature analysis development

    SciTech Connect

    Tow, D.M.; Rodriguez, J.G.; Williamson, R.L.; Blackwood, L.G.

    1994-04-01

    A noncontacting, long-standoff inspection system with proven capabilities in container fill identification has been under development at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The system detects subtle change in container vibration characteristics caused by differences in the physical properties of the fill materials. A container is inspected by acoustically inducting it to vibrate and sensing the vibrational response with a laser vibrometer. A standoff distance of several meters is feasible. In previous work the system proved to be a reliable means of distinguishing between munitions with a variety of chemical fills. During FY-93, the system was modified to improve performance and simplify operation. Other FY-93 accomplishments include progress in modeling the vibrational characteristics of containers and refinements to the statistical classification algorithms. Progress was also made in identifying other applications for this technology.

  6. Seminar on Understanding Digital Control and Analysis in Vibration Test Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The advantages of the digital methods over the analog vibration methods are demonstrated. The following topics are covered: (1) methods of computer-controlled random vibration and reverberation acoustic testing, (2) methods of computer-controlled sinewave vibration testing, and (3) methods of computer-controlled shock testing. General algorithms are described in the form of block diagrams and flow diagrams.

  7. Particle analysis in an acoustic cytometer

    DOEpatents

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Ward, Michael D

    2012-09-18

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for acoustically manipulating one or more particles. Acoustically manipulated particles may be separated by size. The particles may be flowed in a flow stream and acoustic radiation pressure, which may be radial, may be applied to the flow stream. This application of acoustic radiation pressure may separate the particles. In one embodiment, the particles may be separated by size, and as a further example, the larger particles may be transported to a central axis.

  8. Analysis of potential helicopter vibration reduction concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landgrebe, A. J.; Davis, M. W.

    1985-01-01

    Results of analytical investigations to develop, understand, and evaluate potential helicopter vibration reduction concepts are presented in the following areas: identification of the fundamental sources of vibratory loads, blade design for low vibration, application of design optimization techniques, active higher harmonic control, blade appended aeromechanical devices, and the prediction of vibratory airloads. Primary sources of vibration are identified for a selected four-bladed articulated rotor operating in high speed level flight. The application of analytical design procedures and optimization techniques are shown to have the potential for establishing reduced vibration blade designs through variations in blade mass and stiffness distributions, and chordwise center-of-gravity location.

  9. Moire interferometry for vibration analysis of plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asundi, A.; Cheung, M. T.

    1987-12-01

    Moire interferometry is used to locate nodal regions and measure vibration amplitudes of sinusoidally vibrating square plates. The high sensitivity afforded by this technique makes possible the study of plate vibrations at high frequencies and low amplitudes. The initial pattern is modulated by the zero-order Bessel function representing the vibratory motion. The fringe (or fringes) with best contrast indicate the nodal regions, while the higher order fringes, describing loci of points vibrating with the same amplitude, have decreasing contrast which is improved by spatial filtering.

  10. Integrated predictive maintenance program vibration and lube oil analysis: Part I - history and the vibration program

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, H.

    1996-12-01

    This paper is the first of two papers which describe the Predictive Maintenance Program for rotating machines at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The organization has recently been restructured and significant benefits have been realized by the interaction, or {open_quotes}synergy{close_quotes} between the Vibration Program and the Lube Oil Analysis Program. This paper starts with the oldest part of the program - the Vibration Program and discusses the evolution of the program to its current state. The {open_quotes}Vibration{close_quotes} view of the combined program is then presented.

  11. An experimental study of vibration based energy harvesting in dynamically tailored structures with embedded acoustic black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liuxian; Conlon, Stephen C.; Semperlotti, Fabio

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we present an experimental investigation on the energy harvesting performance of dynamically tailored structures based on the concept of embedded acoustic black holes (ABHs). Embedded ABHs allow tailoring the wave propagation characteristics of the host structure creating structural areas with extreme levels of energy density. Experiments are conducted on a tapered plate-like aluminum structure with multiple embedded ABH features. The dynamic response of the structure is tested via laser vibrometry in order to confirm the vibration localization and the passive wavelength sweep characteristic of ABH embedded tapers. Vibrational energy is extracted from the host structure and converted into electrical energy by using ceramic piezoelectric discs bonded on the ABHs and shunted on an external electric circuit. The energy harvesting performance is investigated both under steady state and transient excitation. The experimental results confirm that the dynamic tailoring produces a drastic increase in the harvested energy independently from the nature of the excitation input.

  12. Preliminary vibration, acoustic, and shock design and test criteria for components on the HEAO-A spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    These vibration, acoustic, and shock specifications provide the qualification test criteria for spacecraft components and subassemblies and for the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO-A) experiments. The HEAO-A was divided into zones and subzones to obtain simple component groupings. Zones are designated primarily to assist in determining the applicable specification. A Subzone is available for use when the location of the component is known but component design and weight are not well defined. When the location, weight, and mounting configuration of the component are known, the appropriate Subzone weight ranges are available. Experiment and specific component specifications are available.

  13. Vibration analysis of composite laminate plate excited by piezoelectric actuators.

    PubMed

    Her, Shiuh-Chuan; Lin, Chi-Sheng

    2013-03-01

    Piezoelectric materials can be used as actuators for the active vibration control of smart structural systems. In this work, piezoelectric patches are surface bonded to a composite laminate plate and used as vibration actuators. A static analysis based on the piezoelectricity and elasticity is conducted to evaluate the loads induced by the piezoelectric actuators to the host structure. The loads are then employed to develop the vibration response of a simply supported laminate rectangular plate excited by piezoelectric patches subjected to time harmonic voltages. An analytical solution of the vibration response of a simply supported laminate rectangular plate under time harmonic electrical loading is obtained and compared with finite element results to validate the present approach. The effects of location and exciting frequency of piezoelectric actuators on the vibration response of the laminate plate are investigated through a parametric study. Numerical results show that modes can be selectively excited, leading to structural vibration control.

  14. Vibration Analysis of Composite Laminate Plate Excited by Piezoelectric Actuators

    PubMed Central

    Her, Shiuh-Chuan; Lin, Chi-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials can be used as actuators for the active vibration control of smart structural systems. In this work, piezoelectric patches are surface bonded to a composite laminate plate and used as vibration actuators. A static analysis based on the piezoelectricity and elasticity is conducted to evaluate the loads induced by the piezoelectric actuators to the host structure. The loads are then employed to develop the vibration response of a simply supported laminate rectangular plate excited by piezoelectric patches subjected to time harmonic voltages. An analytical solution of the vibration response of a simply supported laminate rectangular plate under time harmonic electrical loading is obtained and compared with finite element results to validate the present approach. The effects of location and exciting frequency of piezoelectric actuators on the vibration response of the laminate plate are investigated through a parametric study. Numerical results show that modes can be selectively excited, leading to structural vibration control. PMID:23529121

  15. Acoustic analysis of speech under stress.

    PubMed

    Sondhi, Savita; Khan, Munna; Vijay, Ritu; Salhan, Ashok K; Chouhan, Satish

    2015-01-01

    When a person is emotionally charged, stress could be discerned in his voice. This paper presents a simplified and a non-invasive approach to detect psycho-physiological stress by monitoring the acoustic modifications during a stressful conversation. Voice database consists of audio clips from eight different popular FM broadcasts wherein the host of the show vexes the subjects who are otherwise unaware of the charade. The audio clips are obtained from real-life stressful conversations (no simulated emotions). Analysis is done using PRAAT software to evaluate mean fundamental frequency (F0) and formant frequencies (F1, F2, F3, F4) both in neutral and stressed state. Results suggest that F0 increases with stress; however, formant frequency decreases with stress. Comparison of Fourier and chirp spectra of short vowel segment shows that for relaxed speech, the two spectra are similar; however, for stressed speech, they differ in the high frequency range due to increased pitch modulation. PMID:26558301

  16. Fault diagnosis of planetary gearboxes via torsional vibration signal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhipeng; Zuo, Ming J.

    2013-04-01

    Torsional vibration signals are theoretically free from the amplitude modulation effect caused by time variant vibration transfer paths due to the rotation of planet carrier and sun gear, and therefore their spectral structure are simpler than transverse vibration signals. Thus, it is potentially easy and effective to diagnose planetary gearbox faults via torsional vibration signal analysis. We give explicit equations to model torsional vibration signals, considering both distributed gear faults (like manufacturing or assembly errors) and local gear faults (like pitting, crack or breakage of one tooth), and derive the characteristics of both the traditional Fourier spectrum and the proposed demodulated spectra of amplitude envelope and instantaneous frequency. These derivations are not only effective to diagnose single gear fault of planetary gearboxes, but can also be generalized to detect and locate multiple gear faults. We validate experimentally the signal models, as well as the Fourier spectral analysis and demodulation analysis methods.

  17. Flow-induced vibrations-1987

    SciTech Connect

    Au-Yang, M.K.; Chen, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 20 selections. Some of the titles are: Acoustic resonance in heat exchanger tube bundles--Part 1. Physical nature of the phenomenon; Theoretical and experimental studies on heat exchanger U-bend tube bundle vibration characteristics; Experimental model analysis of metallic pipeline conveying fluid; Leakage flow-induced vibration of an eccentric tube-in-tube slip joint; and A study on the vibrations of pipelines caused by internal pulsating flows.

  18. Numerical Description of Acoustic Vibrations of a Vapor-Gas-Droplet Mixture in a Closed Channel Based on a One-Velocity, One-Temperature Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayanov, R. I.; Tukmakov, A. L.

    2015-05-01

    The paper describes a mathematical model and the results of numerical calculations of resonance acoustic vibrations of a vapor-gas-droplet mixture in a closed volume under the action of periodic acoustic waves generated by a harmonically vibrating piston. The numerical method of solving the equations of the model is based on MacCormack's scheme. The model of equilibrium phase transitions used in the numerical scheme has allowed a chart of regimes of the vapor-gas-droplet mixture vibrations to be constructed depending on the initial vapor content. In accordance with the piston vibration amplitude, the limit of the critical vapor content below which vapor condensation is impossible has been found.

  19. Influence of resonators on the acoustic and propulsion performance characteristics of a ramjet ejector chamber under conditions with vibration hydrogen combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potapkin, A. V.; Moskvichev, D. Yu.

    2008-09-01

    The influence of acoustic resonators on the acoustic and propulsion performance characteristics of a ramjet ejector chamber under conditions with vibration hydrogen combustion was experimentally examined. In the study, resonators having identical throats and different cavity diameters were used. For fixed-volume resonators the best propulsion performance characteristics were achieved in the case in which the cavity diameter differed little from the resonator throat diameter.

  20. Vibration Analysis of a Split Path Gearbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, Timothy L.; Rashidi, Majid

    1995-01-01

    Split path gearboxes can be attractive alternatives to the common planetary designs for rotorcraft, but because they have seen little use, they are relatively high risk designs. To help reduce the risk of fielding a rotorcraft with a split path gearbox, the vibration and dynamic characteristics of such a gearbox were studied. A mathematical model was developed by using the Lagrangian method, and it was applied to study the effect of three design variables on the natural frequencies and vibration energy of the gearbox. The first design variable, shaft angle, had little influence on the natural frequencies. The second variable, mesh phasing, had a strong effect on the levels of vibration energy, with phase angles of 0 deg and 180 deg producing low vibration levels. The third design variable, the stiffness of the shafts connecting the spur gears to the helical pinions, strongly influenced the natural frequencies of some of the vibration modes, including two of the dominant modes. We found that, to achieve the lowest level of vibration energy, the natural frequencies of these two dominant modes should be less than those of the main excitation sources.

  1. Two-dimensional optical coherence vibration tomography for low-frequency vibration measurement and response-only modal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Jianfeng; Zhong, Shuncong; Zhang, Qiukun

    2016-10-01

    A high-speed camera-based two-dimensional optical coherence vibration tomography (2DOCVT) system with a subnanometre displacement resolution was developed and employed for low-frequency vibration measurement and modal analysis. Experimental results demonstrated the ability of low-frequency absolute displacement measurement of structural line vibrations without scanning. Three-dimensional (3D) surface displacement of a vibrating structure could also be obtained using the developed 2DOCVT by scanning the structure. The scanning 2DOCVT system acted like a 3D optical coherence vibration tomography system. The developed 2DOCVT system could capture structural modal parameters without vibration excitation input information, and therefore, it is a response-only method. The 2DOCVT could be recommended in the application of low-frequency vibration measurement and modal analysis of beam and plate structures, especially when the vibration amplitude is at nanometre or micrometre scale.

  2. Distributed bearing fault diagnosis based on vibration analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolenc, Boštjan; Boškoski, Pavle; Juričić, Đani

    2016-01-01

    Distributed bearing faults appear under various circumstances, for example due to electroerosion or the progression of localized faults. Bearings with distributed faults tend to generate more complex vibration patterns than those with localized faults. Despite the frequent occurrence of such faults, their diagnosis has attracted limited attention. This paper examines a method for the diagnosis of distributed bearing faults employing vibration analysis. The vibrational patterns generated are modeled by incorporating the geometrical imperfections of the bearing components. Comparing envelope spectra of vibration signals shows that one can distinguish between localized and distributed faults. Furthermore, a diagnostic procedure for the detection of distributed faults is proposed. This is evaluated on several bearings with naturally born distributed faults, which are compared with fault-free bearings and bearings with localized faults. It is shown experimentally that features extracted from vibrations in fault-free, localized and distributed fault conditions form clearly separable clusters, thus enabling diagnosis.

  3. Ambient noise analysis of underwater acoustic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Mark A.; Orlin, Pete; Schulte, Annette; Newcomb, Joal

    2003-04-01

    The Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center (LADC) deployed three Environmental Acoustic Recording System (EARS) buoys in the northern Gulf of Mexico during the summers of 2001 and 2002. The buoys recorded frequencies up to 5859 Hz continuously for 36 days in 2001 and for 72 days in 2002. The acoustic signals recorded include sperm whale vocalizations, seismic airguns, and shipping traffic. The variability of the ambient noise is analyzed using spectrograms, time series, and statistical measurements. Variations in ambient noise before, during, and after tropical storm/hurricane passage are also investigated.

  4. Space Launch System Vibration Analysis Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Katie

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate goal for my efforts during this internship was to help prepare for the Space Launch System (SLS) integrated modal test (IMT) with Rodney Rocha. In 2018, the Structural Engineering Loads and Dynamics Team will have 10 days to perform the IMT on the SLS Integrated Launch Vehicle. After that 10 day period, we will have about two months to analyze the test data and determine whether the integrated vehicle modes/frequencies are adequate for launching the vehicle. Because of the time constraints, NASA must have newly developed post-test analysis methods proven well and with technical confidence before testing. NASA civil servants along with help from rotational interns are working with novel techniques developed and applied external to Johnson Space Center (JSC) to uncover issues in applying this technique to much larger scales than ever before. We intend to use modal decoupling methods to separate the entangled vibrations coming from the SLS and its support structure during the IMT. This new approach is still under development. The primary goal of my internship was to learn the basics of structural dynamics and physical vibrations. I was able to accomplish this by working on two experimental test set ups, the Simple Beam and TAURUS-T, and by doing some light analytical and post-processing work. Within the Simple Beam project, my role involves changing the data acquisition system, reconfiguration of the test set up, transducer calibration, data collection, data file recovery, and post-processing analysis. Within the TAURUS-T project, my duties included cataloging and removing the 30+ triaxial accelerometers, coordinating the removal of the structure from the current rolling cart to a sturdy billet for further testing, preparing the accelerometers for remounting, accurately calibrating, mounting, and mapping of all accelerometer channels, and some testing. Hammer and shaker tests will be performed to easily visualize mode shapes at low frequencies. Short

  5. Graphical Acoustic Liner Design and Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howerton, Brian M. (Inventor); Jones, Michael G. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An interactive liner design and impedance modeling tool comprises software utilized to design acoustic liners for use in constrained spaces, both regularly and irregularly shaped. A graphical user interface allows the acoustic channel geometry to be drawn in a liner volume while the surface impedance calculations are updated and displayed in real-time. A one-dimensional transmission line model may be used as the basis for the impedance calculations.

  6. Acoustic emission spectral analysis of fiber composite failure mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, D. M.; Williams, J. H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The acoustic emission of graphite fiber polyimide composite failure mechanisms was investigated with emphasis on frequency spectrum analysis. Although visual examination of spectral densities could not distinguish among fracture sources, a paired-sample t statistical analysis of mean normalized spectral densities did provide quantitative discrimination among acoustic emissions from 10 deg, 90 deg, and plus or minus 45 deg, plus or minus 45 deg sub s specimens. Comparable discrimination was not obtained for 0 deg specimens.

  7. Scaling and dimensional analysis of acoustic streaming jets

    SciTech Connect

    Moudjed, B.; Botton, V.; Henry, D.; Ben Hadid, H.

    2014-09-15

    This paper focuses on acoustic streaming free jets. This is to say that progressive acoustic waves are used to generate a steady flow far from any wall. The derivation of the governing equations under the form of a nonlinear hydrodynamics problem coupled with an acoustic propagation problem is made on the basis of a time scale discrimination approach. This approach is preferred to the usually invoked amplitude perturbations expansion since it is consistent with experimental observations of acoustic streaming flows featuring hydrodynamic nonlinearities and turbulence. Experimental results obtained with a plane transducer in water are also presented together with a review of the former experimental investigations using similar configurations. A comparison of the shape of the acoustic field with the shape of the velocity field shows that diffraction is a key ingredient in the problem though it is rarely accounted for in the literature. A scaling analysis is made and leads to two scaling laws for the typical velocity level in acoustic streaming free jets; these are both observed in our setup and in former studies by other teams. We also perform a dimensional analysis of this problem: a set of seven dimensionless groups is required to describe a typical acoustic experiment. We find that a full similarity is usually not possible between two acoustic streaming experiments featuring different fluids. We then choose to relax the similarity with respect to sound attenuation and to focus on the case of a scaled water experiment representing an acoustic streaming application in liquid metals, in particular, in liquid silicon and in liquid sodium. We show that small acoustic powers can yield relatively high Reynolds numbers and velocity levels; this could be a virtue for heat and mass transfer applications, but a drawback for ultrasonic velocimetry.

  8. Activities report of the Institute of Sound and Vibration Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Research in fluid dynamics and acoustics (noise and vibration control); audiology and human effects (audiotory communication and hearing conservation); structures and machinery (automotive design); and shock analysis is summarized. Underwater acoustics; active noise control; aircraft noise; wind turbine noise; laminar flow fans; helmet design; and the acoustics of flow ducts were studied.

  9. Vibro-acoustic analysis procedures for the evaluation of the sound insulation characteristics of agricultural machinery cabins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmet, W.; Pluymers, B.; Sas, P.

    2003-09-01

    Over the last few years, customer demands regarding acoustic performance, along with the tightening of legal regulations on noise emission levels and human exposure to noise, have made the noise and vibration properties into important design criteria for agricultural machinery cabins. In this framework, both experimental analysis procedures for prototype testing as well as reliable numerical prediction tools for early design assessment are compulsory for an efficient optimization of the cabin noise and vibration comfort. This paper discusses several numerical approaches, which are based on the finite element and boundary element method, in terms of their practical use for airborne sound insulation predictions. To illustrate the efficiency and reliability of the various vibro-acoustic analysis procedures, the numerical procedures are applied for the case of a harvester driver's cabin and validated with experimental results.

  10. Free-Vibration Analysis of Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, K. K.

    1985-01-01

    Improved numerical procedure more than twice as fast as previous methods. Unified numerical algorithm efficiently solves free-vibration problems of stationary or spinning structures with or without viscous or structural damping. Algorithm used to solve static problems involving multiple loads and to solve quadratic matrix eigenvalue problems associated with finite-dynamic-element structural discretization.

  11. Vibration analysis of rotor blades with pendulum absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, V. R.; Hammond, C. E.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive vibration analysis of rotor blades with spherical pendulum absorbers is presented. Linearized equations of motion for small oscillations about the steady-state deflection of a spherical pendulum on elastic rotor blades undergoing coupled flapwise bending, chordwise bending, and torsional vibrations are obtained. A transmission matrix formulation is given to determine the natural vibrational characteristics of rotor blades with spherical or simple flapping pendulum absorbers. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of a hingeless rotor blade with a spherical pendulum are computed.

  12. Acoustic and vibration response of a structure with added noise control treatment under various excitations.

    PubMed

    Rhazi, Dilal; Atalla, Noureddine

    2014-02-01

    The evaluation of the acoustic performance of noise control treatments is of great importance in many engineering applications, e.g., aircraft, automotive, and building acoustics applications. Numerical methods such as finite- and boundary elements allow for the study of complex structures with added noise control treatment. However, these methods are computationally expensive when used for complex structures. At an early stage of the acoustic trim design process, many industries look for simple and easy to use tools that provide sufficient physical insight that can help to formulate design criteria. The paper presents a simple and tractable approach for the acoustic design of noise control treatments. It presents and compares two transfer matrix-based methods to investigate the vibroacoustic behavior of noise control treatments. The first is based on a modal approach, while the second is based on wave-number space decomposition. In addition to the classical rain-on-the-roof and diffuse acoustic field excitations, the paper also addresses turbulent boundary layer and point source (monopole) excitations. Various examples are presented and compared to a finite element calculation to validate the methodology and to confirm its relevance along with its limitations. PMID:25234878

  13. Numerical analysis of acoustic impedance microscope utilizing acoustic lens transducer to examine cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Gunawan, Agus Indra; Hozumi, Naohiro; Takahashi, Kenta; Yoshida, Sachiko; Saijo, Yoshifumi; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Yamamoto, Seiji

    2015-12-01

    A new technique is proposed for non-contact quantitative cell observation using focused ultrasonic waves. This technique interprets acoustic reflection intensity into the characteristic acoustic impedance of the biological cell. The cells are cultured on a plastic film substrate. A focused acoustic beam is transmitted through the substrate to its interface with the cell. A two-dimensional (2-D) reflection intensity profile is obtained by scanning the focal point along the interface. A reference substance is observed under the same conditions. These two reflections are compared and interpreted into the characteristic acoustic impedance of the cell based on a calibration curve that was created prior to the observation. To create the calibration curve, a numerical analysis of the sound field is performed using Fourier Transforms and is verified using several saline solutions. Because the cells are suspended by two plastic films, no contamination is introduced during the observation. In a practical observation, a sapphire lens transducer with a center frequency of 300 MHz was employed using ZnO thin film. The objects studied were co-cultured rat-derived glial (astrocyte) cells and glioma cells. The result was the clear observation of the internal structure of the cells. The acoustic impedance of the cells was spreading between 1.62 and 1.72 MNs/m(3). Cytoskeleton was indicated by high acoustic impedance. The introduction of cytochalasin-B led to a significant reduction in the acoustic impedance of the glioma cells; its effect on the glial cells was less significant. It is believed that this non-contact observation method will be useful for continuous cell inspections.

  14. Vibrational analysis of tertiary alkyl chlorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowder, G. A.; Harper, Clay

    1980-11-01

    Vibrational spectra were obtained for 2-chloro-2-methylpentane, 3-chloro-3-methylpentane, 2-chloro-2-methylhexane, and 3-chloro-3-methylhexane. All four compounds exist in T HHH and T CHH conformations in the neat liquid, and the T HHH' conformer of the last named compound also seems to be present. Only the T HHH conformer is present in the crystalline state of the two pentanes, but the hexanes could not be made to crystallize and both conformers were present in the solid. A 44-parameter modified valence force field was used in normal coordinate calculations, with fifteen force constants being adjusted to fit 188 assigned frequencies below 1500 cm -1 of six molecules (two conformers each of 2-chloro-2-methylbutane, 2-chloro-2-methylpentane, and 3-chloro-3-methylpentane). The resulting force constant values were used in zero-order calculations of the two hexanes as an aid in interpreting vibrational spectra for those compounds.

  15. Acoustic vibrations contribute to the diffuse scatter produced by ribosome crystals.

    PubMed

    Polikanov, Yury S; Moore, Peter B

    2015-10-01

    The diffuse scattering pattern produced by frozen crystals of the 70S ribosome from Thermus thermophilus is as highly structured as it would be if it resulted entirely from domain-scale motions within these particles. However, the qualitative properties of the scattering pattern suggest that acoustic displacements of the crystal lattice make a major contribution to it.

  16. Acoustic vibrations contribute to the diffuse scatter produced by ribosome crystals

    PubMed Central

    Polikanov, Yury S.; Moore, Peter B.

    2015-01-01

    The diffuse scattering pattern produced by frozen crystals of the 70S ribosome from Thermus thermophilus is as highly structured as it would be if it resulted entirely from domain-scale motions within these particles. However, the qualitative properties of the scattering pattern suggest that acoustic displacements of the crystal lattice make a major contribution to it. PMID:26457426

  17. LES and acoustic analysis of thermo-acoustic instabilities in a partially premixed model combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Ignacio; Staffelbach, Gabriel; Poinsot, Thierry; Román Casado, Juan C.; Kok, Jim B. W.

    2013-01-01

    Numerical simulations were performed using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and acoustic analysis tools to study thermo-acoustic instabilities in a methane/air academic burner installed at the University of Twente (The Netherlands). It operates under fuel-lean partially premixed conditions at atmospheric pressure, and was built to study thermo-acoustic instabilities in conditions representative of gas turbine Lean Premixed systems: gaseous fuel is injected upstream of the combustor and has a limited time to mix with air. Even though the objective is to burn in a premixed mode, the actual regime corresponds to a partially premixed flame where strong equivalence ratio variations are created especially during combustion instabilities. Capturing these modes with LES is a challenge: here, simulations for both stable and unstable regimes are performed. In the unstable case, the limit cycle oscillations (LCO) are characterized and compared to experimental results. Reasonable agreement is found between simulations and experiments.

  18. Force Limiting Vibration Tests Evaluated from both Ground Acoustic Tests and FEM Simulations of a Flight Like Vehicle System Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Andrew; LaVerde, Bruce; Waldon, James; Hunt, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center has conducted a series of ground acoustic tests with the dual goals of informing analytical judgment, and validating analytical methods when estimating vibroacoustic responses of launch vehicle subsystems. The process of repeatedly correlating finite element-simulated responses with test-measured responses has assisted in the development of best practices for modeling and post-processing. In recent work, force transducers were integrated to measure interface forces at the base of avionics box equipment. Other force data was indirectly measured using strain gauges. The combination of these direct and indirect force measurements has been used to support and illustrate the advantages of implementing the Force Limiting approach for equipment qualification tests. The comparison of force response from integrated system level tests to measurements at the same locations during component level vibration tests provides an excellent illustration. A second comparison of the measured response cases from the system level acoustic tests to finite element simulations has also produced some principles for assessing the suitability of Finite Element Models (FEMs) for making vibroacoustics estimates. The results indicate that when FEM models are employed to guide force limiting choices, they should include sufficient detail to represent the apparent mass of the system in the frequency range of interest.

  19. A random rotor molecule: Vibrational analysis and molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu; Zhang, Rui-Qin; Shi, Xing-Qiang; Lin, Zijing; Van Hove, Michel A.

    2012-12-01

    Molecular structures that permit intramolecular rotational motion have the potential to function as molecular rotors. We have employed density functional theory and vibrational frequency analysis to study the characteristic structure and vibrational behavior of the molecule (4',4″″-(bicyclo[2,2,2]octane-1,4-diyldi-4,1-phenylene)-bis-2,2':6',2″-terpyridine. IR active vibrational modes were found that favor intramolecular rotation. To demonstrate the rotor behavior of the isolated single molecule, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations at various temperatures were carried out. This molecular rotor is expected to be thermally triggered via excitation of specific vibrational modes, which implies randomness in its direction of rotation.

  20. Dimensional analysis of acoustically propagated signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Scott D.; Thomson, Dennis W.

    1993-01-01

    Traditionally, long term measurements of atmospherically propagated sound signals have consisted of time series of multiminute averages. Only recently have continuous measurements with temporal resolution corresponding to turbulent time scales been available. With modern digital data acquisition systems we now have the capability to simultaneously record both acoustical and meteorological parameters with sufficient temporal resolution to allow us to examine in detail relationships between fluctuating sound and the meteorological variables, particularly wind and temperature, which locally determine the acoustic refractive index. The atmospheric acoustic propagation medium can be treated as a nonlinear dynamical system, a kind of signal processor whose innards depend on thermodynamic and turbulent processes in the atmosphere. The atmosphere is an inherently nonlinear dynamical system. In fact one simple model of atmospheric convection, the Lorenz system, may well be the most widely studied of all dynamical systems. In this paper we report some results of our having applied methods used to characterize nonlinear dynamical systems to study the characteristics of acoustical signals propagated through the atmosphere. For example, we investigate whether or not it is possible to parameterize signal fluctuations in terms of fractal dimensions. For time series one such parameter is the limit capacity dimension. Nicolis and Nicolis were among the first to use the kind of methods we have to study the properties of low dimension global attractors.

  1. Membrane Vibration Analysis Above the Nyquist Limit with Fluorescence Videogrammetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorrington, Adrian A.; Jones, Thomas W.; Danehy, Paul M.; Pappa, Richard S.

    2004-01-01

    A new method for generating photogrammetric targets by projecting an array of laser beams onto a membrane doped with fluorescent laser dye has recently been developed. In this paper we review this new fluorescence based technique, then proceed to show how it can be used for dynamic measurements, and how a short pulsed (10 ns) laser allows the measurement of vibration modes at frequencies several times the sampling frequency. In addition, we present experimental results showing the determination of fundamental and harmonic vibration modes of a drum style dye-doped polymer membrane tautly mounted on a 12-inch circular hoop and excited with 30 Hz and 62 Hz sinusoidal acoustic waves. The projected laser dot pattern was generated by passing the beam from a pulsed Nd:YAG laser though a diffractive optical element, and the resulting fluorescence was imaged with three digital video cameras, all of which were synchronized with a pulse and delay generator. Although the video cameras are capable of 240 Hz frame rates, the laser s output was limited to 30 Hz and below. Consequently, aliasing techniques were used to allow the measurement of vibration modes up to 186 Hz with a Nyquist limit of less than 15 Hz.

  2. Acoustic Analysis of a Mechanical Circulatory Support

    PubMed Central

    Hubbert, Laila; Sundbom, Per; Loebe, Matthias; Peterzén, Bengt; Granfeldt, Hans; Ahn, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical circulatory support technology is continually improving. However, adverse complications do occur with devastating consequences, for example, pump thrombosis that may develop in several parts of the pump system. The aim of this study was to design an experimental clot/thrombosis model to register and analyze acoustic signals from the left ventricular assist device (LVAD) HeartMate II (HMII) (Thoratec Corporation, Inc., Pleasanton, CA, USA) and detect changes in sound signals correlating to clots in the inflow, outflow, and pump housing. Using modern telecom techniques, it was possible to register and analyze the HMII pump-specific acoustic fingerprint in an experimental model of LVAD support using a mock loop. Increase in pump speed significantly (P < 0.005) changed the acoustic fingerprint at certain frequency (0–23 000 Hz) intervals (regions: R1–3 and peaks: P1,3–4). When the ball valves connected to the tubing were narrowed sequentially by ∼50% of the inner diameter (to mimic clot in the out- and inflow tubing), the frequency spectrum changed significantly (P < 0.005) in P1 and P2 and R1 when the outflow tubing was narrowed. This change was not seen to the same extent when the lumen of the ball valve connected to the inflow tube was narrowed by ∼50%. More significant (P < 0.005) acoustic changes were detected in P1 and P2 and R1 and R3, with the largest dB figs. in the lower frequency ranges in R1 and P2, when artificial clots and blood clots passed through the pump system. At higher frequencies, a significant change in dB figs. in R3 and P4 was detected when clots passed through the pump system. Acoustic monitoring of pump sounds may become a valuable tool in LVAD surveillance. PMID:24372095

  3. Vibrational analysis of tertiary alkyl bromides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowder, G. A.; Richardson, Mary Townsends; Gross, Lorelei

    Infrared spectra have been obtained for 2-bromo-2-methylpentane and 3-bromo-3-methylpentane. Both compounds exist in THHH and TCHH conformations. Normal coordinate calculations were made for these two compounds and for 2-bromo-2-methylbutane, using the 44-parameter modified valence force field that was used for tertiary chlorides. Fifteen force constants were adjusted to fit 169 frequencies below 1500 cm-1 of six molecules (two each for the three named compounds) with an average error of 5.6 cm-1. Vibrational assignments are presented.

  4. Vibrational analysis of tertiary alkyl bromides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowder, G. A.; Richardson, Mary Townsends; Gross, Lorelei

    1982-11-01

    Infrared spectra have been obtained for 2-bromo-2-methylpentane and 3-bromo-3-methylpentane. Both compounds exist in THHH and TCHH conformations. Normal coordinate calculations were made for these two compounds and for 2-bromo-2-methylbutane, using the 44-parameter modified valence force field that was used for tertiary chlorides. Fifteen force constants were adjusted to fit 169 frequencies below 1500 cm -1 of six molecules (two each for the three named compounds) with an average error of 5.6 cm -1. Vibrational assignments are presented.

  5. Vertical vibration dynamics of acoustically levitated drop containing two immiscible liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Duyang; Zhai, Zhicong; Li, Lin; Lin, Kejun; Li, Xiaoguang; Geng, Xingguo

    2016-09-01

    We have studied the levitation and oscillation dynamics of complex drops containing two immiscible liquids. Two types of drops, core-shell drop and abnormal-shaped drop, have been obtained depending on the levitation procedures. The oscillation dynamics of the drops have been studied using a high speed camera. It has been found that the oscillation of the abnormal-shaped drop has a longer oscillation period and decays much faster than that of the core-shell drop, which cannot be accounted for by the air resistance itself. The acoustic streaming induced by ultrasound may bring an additional force against the motion of the drop due to the Bernoulli effect. This is responsible for the enhanced damping during the oscillation in acoustic levitation.

  6. Payload bay atmospheric vent airflow testing at the Vibration and Acoustic Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, James D., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Several concerns related to venting the Space Shuttle Orbiter payload bay during launch led to laboratory experiments with a flight-type vent box installed in the wall of a subsonic wind tunnel. This report describes the test setups and procedures used to acquire data for characterization of airflow through the vent box and acoustic tones radiated from the vent-box cavity. A flexible boundary-layer spoiler which reduced the vent-tone amplitude is described.

  7. Principal Components Analysis of Triaxial Vibration Data From Helicopter Transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Irem Y.; Huff, Edward M.

    2001-01-01

    Research on the nature of the vibration data collected from helicopter transmissions during flight experiments has led to several crucial observations believed to be responsible for the high rates of false alarms and missed detections in aircraft vibration monitoring systems. This work focuses on one such finding, namely, the need to consider additional sources of information about system vibrations. In this light, helicopter transmission vibration data, collected using triaxial accelerometers, were explored in three different directions, analyzed for content, and then combined using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) to analyze changes in directionality. In this paper, the PCA transformation is applied to 176 test conditions/data sets collected from an OH58C helicopter to derive the overall experiment-wide covariance matrix and its principal eigenvectors. The experiment-wide eigenvectors. are then projected onto the individual test conditions to evaluate changes and similarities in their directionality based on the various experimental factors. The paper will present the foundations of the proposed approach, addressing the question of whether experiment-wide eigenvectors accurately model the vibration modes in individual test conditions. The results will further determine the value of using directionality and triaxial accelerometers for vibration monitoring and anomaly detection.

  8. Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Jerry R.; Grosveld, Ferdinand

    2007-01-01

    The acoustics environment in space operations is important to maintain at manageable levels so that the crewperson can remain safe, functional, effective, and reasonably comfortable. High acoustic levels can produce temporary or permanent hearing loss, or cause other physiological symptoms such as auditory pain, headaches, discomfort, strain in the vocal cords, or fatigue. Noise is defined as undesirable sound. Excessive noise may result in psychological effects such as irritability, inability to concentrate, decrease in productivity, annoyance, errors in judgment, and distraction. A noisy environment can also result in the inability to sleep, or sleep well. Elevated noise levels can affect the ability to communicate, understand what is being said, hear what is going on in the environment, degrade crew performance and operations, and create habitability concerns. Superfluous noise emissions can also create the inability to hear alarms or other important auditory cues such as an equipment malfunctioning. Recent space flight experience, evaluations of the requirements in crew habitable areas, and lessons learned (Goodman 2003; Allen and Goodman 2003; Pilkinton 2003; Grosveld et al. 2003) show the importance of maintaining an acceptable acoustics environment. This is best accomplished by having a high-quality set of limits/requirements early in the program, the "designing in" of acoustics in the development of hardware and systems, and by monitoring, testing and verifying the levels to ensure that they are acceptable.

  9. Theoretical and experimental dynamic analysis aimed at the improvement of an acoustic method for fresco detachment diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Vescovo, Dionisio; Fregolent, Annalisa

    2009-10-01

    An acoustic non-invasive method for the diagnosis of detachment in frescos was previously proposed by the authors. This method is based on the indirect evaluation of the vibrations due to detachments, by means of a surface inspection. In this paper the relations between the dynamics of the structure to be inspected and the operational principles of the acoustic method of diagnosis are presented. The dynamic analysis is carried out using experimental investigations and analytical and numerical models. It shows that the quality of the diagnosis depends on the capability of the acoustic device to excite the structural resonances related to the detachments. These results are useful for future improvements, in particular to enhance the sensitivity of the proposed method.

  10. Special considerations for vibration analysis on longwall equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Towles, B.

    1996-12-31

    West Elk Mine has included vibration analysis as a part of the longwall maintenance program since 1993. Longwall equipment presents several special problems which are not common to most vibration analysis applications: (1) Heavy construction of equipment damps some signals making machine condition determinations difficult, and (2) Complexity of longwall equipment; (3) Difficulty in isolating spectrum frequencies to individual machinery components; (4) Flexing of equipment frames and housings due to longwall face advance affects vibration spectrums; (5) Difficulty of obtaining necessary information on internal machinery components from longwall equipment suppliers; (6) Permissibility of data collection instruments. In spite of these difficulties, West Elk has had positive results in preventing catastrophic failures, predicting life expectancy of failing components, making general machinery improvements in cooperation with manufacturers and determining rebuild quality.

  11. Vibration Analysis of a Rotating Timoshenko Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LIN, S. C.; HSIAO, K. M.

    2001-02-01

    The governing equations for linear vibration of a rotating Timoshenko beam are derived by the d‘Alembert principle and the virtual work principle. In order to capture all inertia effect and coupling between extensional and flexural deformation, the consistent linearization of the fully geometrically non-linear beam theory is used. The effect of Coriolis force on the natural frequency of the rotating beam is considered. A method based on the power series solution is proposed to solve the natural frequency of the rotating Timoshenko beam. Numerical examples are studied to verify the accuracy of the proposed method and to investigate the effect of Coriolis force on the natural frequency of rotating beams with different angular velocity, hub radius and slenderness ratio.

  12. Smartphones as experimental tools to measure acoustical and mechanical properties of vibrating rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Manuel Á.; González, Miguel Á.

    2016-07-01

    Modern smartphones have calculation and sensor capabilities that make them suitable for use as versatile and reliable measurement devices in simple teaching experiments. In this work a smartphone is used, together with low cost materials, in an experiment to measure the frequencies emitted by vibrating rods of different materials, shapes and lengths. The results obtained with the smartphone have been compared with theoretical calculations and the agreement is good. Alternatively, physics students can perform the experiment described here and use their results to determine the dependencies of the obtained frequencies on the rod characteristics. In this way they will also practice research methods that they will probably use in their professional life.

  13. Shunted Piezoelectric Vibration Damping Analysis Including Centrifugal Loading Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, James B.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Provenza, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Excessive vibration of turbomachinery blades causes high cycle fatigue problems which require damping treatments to mitigate vibration levels. One method is the use of piezoelectric materials as passive or active dampers. Based on the technical challenges and requirements learned from previous turbomachinery rotor blades research, an effort has been made to investigate the effectiveness of a shunted piezoelectric for the turbomachinery rotor blades vibration control, specifically for a condition with centrifugal rotation. While ample research has been performed on the use of a piezoelectric material with electric circuits to attempt to control the structural vibration damping, very little study has been done regarding rotational effects. The present study attempts to fill this void. Specifically, the objectives of this study are: (a) to create and analyze finite element models for harmonic forced response vibration analysis coupled with shunted piezoelectric circuits for engine blade operational conditions, (b) to validate the experimental test approaches with numerical results and vice versa, and (c) to establish a numerical modeling capability for vibration control using shunted piezoelectric circuits under rotation. Study has focused on a resonant damping control using shunted piezoelectric patches on plate specimens. Tests and analyses were performed for both non-spinning and spinning conditions. The finite element (FE) shunted piezoelectric circuit damping simulations were performed using the ANSYS Multiphysics code for the resistive and inductive circuit piezoelectric simulations of both conditions. The FE results showed a good correlation with experimental test results. Tests and analyses of shunted piezoelectric damping control, demonstrating with plate specimens, show a great potential to reduce blade vibrations under centrifugal loading.

  14. Eigenmode analysis of geodesic acoustic modes

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Zhe; Itoh, K.; Sanuki, H.; Dong, J. Q.

    2008-07-15

    Geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) are studied as plasma eigenmodes when an electrostatic potential nearly constant around a magnetic surface is applied to collisionless toroidal plasmas. Besides the standard GAM, a branch of low frequency mode and an infinite series of ion sound wavelike modes are identified. Eigenfrequencies of these modes are obtained analytically and numerically from a linear gyrokinetic model. The finite gyroradius effect is found to enhance the collisionless damping of the standard GAM, while this enhancement is not monotonic as the safety factor varies. Moreover, additional damping due to higher-harmonic resonances becomes important when the safety factor increases. The mode structure of the GAM is also discussed.

  15. Acoustic analysis in Mudejar-Gothic churches: experimental results.

    PubMed

    Galindo, Miguel; Zamarreño, Teófilo; Girón, Sara

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the preliminary results of research work in acoustics, conducted in a set of 12 Mudejar-Gothic churches in the city of Seville in the south of Spain. Despite common architectural style, the churches feature individual characteristics and have volumes ranging from 3947 to 10 708 m3. Acoustic parameters were measured in unoccupied churches according to the ISO-3382 standard. An extensive experimental study was carried out using impulse response analysis through a maximum length sequence measurement system in each church. It covered aspects such as reverberation (reverberation times, early decay times), distribution of sound levels (sound strength); early to late sound energy parameters derived from the impulse responses (center time, clarity for speech, clarity, definition, lateral energy fraction), and speech intelligibility (rapid speech transmission index), which all take both spectral and spatial distribution into account. Background noise was also measured to obtain the NR indices. The study describes the acoustic field inside each temple and establishes a discussion for each one of the acoustic descriptors mentioned by using the theoretical models available and the principles of architectural acoustics. Analysis of the quality of the spaces for music and speech is carried out according to the most widespread criteria for auditoria. PMID:15957758

  16. Acoustic analysis in Mudejar-Gothic churches: experimental results.

    PubMed

    Galindo, Miguel; Zamarreño, Teófilo; Girón, Sara

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the preliminary results of research work in acoustics, conducted in a set of 12 Mudejar-Gothic churches in the city of Seville in the south of Spain. Despite common architectural style, the churches feature individual characteristics and have volumes ranging from 3947 to 10 708 m3. Acoustic parameters were measured in unoccupied churches according to the ISO-3382 standard. An extensive experimental study was carried out using impulse response analysis through a maximum length sequence measurement system in each church. It covered aspects such as reverberation (reverberation times, early decay times), distribution of sound levels (sound strength); early to late sound energy parameters derived from the impulse responses (center time, clarity for speech, clarity, definition, lateral energy fraction), and speech intelligibility (rapid speech transmission index), which all take both spectral and spatial distribution into account. Background noise was also measured to obtain the NR indices. The study describes the acoustic field inside each temple and establishes a discussion for each one of the acoustic descriptors mentioned by using the theoretical models available and the principles of architectural acoustics. Analysis of the quality of the spaces for music and speech is carried out according to the most widespread criteria for auditoria.

  17. Acoustic analysis in Mudejar-Gothic churches: Experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo, Miguel; Zamarreño, Teófilo; Girón, Sara

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the preliminary results of research work in acoustics, conducted in a set of 12 Mudejar-Gothic churches in the city of Seville in the south of Spain. Despite common architectural style, the churches feature individual characteristics and have volumes ranging from 3947 to 10 708 m3. Acoustic parameters were measured in unoccupied churches according to the ISO-3382 standard. An extensive experimental study was carried out using impulse response analysis through a maximum length sequence measurement system in each church. It covered aspects such as reverberation (reverberation times, early decay times), distribution of sound levels (sound strength); early to late sound energy parameters derived from the impulse responses (center time, clarity for speech, clarity, definition, lateral energy fraction), and speech intelligibility (rapid speech transmission index), which all take both spectral and spatial distribution into account. Background noise was also measured to obtain the NR indices. The study describes the acoustic field inside each temple and establishes a discussion for each one of the acoustic descriptors mentioned by using the theoretical models available and the principles of architectural acoustics. Analysis of the quality of the spaces for music and speech is carried out according to the most widespread criteria for auditoria. .

  18. Fast contactless vibrating structure characterization using real time field programmable gate array-based digital signal processing: demonstrations with a passive wireless acoustic delay line probe and vision.

    PubMed

    Goavec-Mérou, G; Chrétien, N; Friedt, J-M; Sandoz, P; Martin, G; Lenczner, M; Ballandras, S

    2014-01-01

    Vibrating mechanical structure characterization is demonstrated using contactless techniques best suited for mobile and rotating equipments. Fast measurement rates are achieved using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices as real-time digital signal processors. Two kinds of algorithms are implemented on FPGA and experimentally validated in the case of the vibrating tuning fork. A first application concerns in-plane displacement detection by vision with sampling rates above 10 kHz, thus reaching frequency ranges above the audio range. A second demonstration concerns pulsed-RADAR cooperative target phase detection and is applied to radiofrequency acoustic transducers used as passive wireless strain gauges. In this case, the 250 ksamples/s refresh rate achieved is only limited by the acoustic sensor design but not by the detection bandwidth. These realizations illustrate the efficiency, interest, and potentialities of FPGA-based real-time digital signal processing for the contactless interrogation of passive embedded probes with high refresh rates. PMID:24517814

  19. Fast contactless vibrating structure characterization using real time field programmable gate array-based digital signal processing: Demonstrations with a passive wireless acoustic delay line probe and vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goavec-Mérou, G.; Chrétien, N.; Friedt, J.-M.; Sandoz, P.; Martin, G.; Lenczner, M.; Ballandras, S.

    2014-01-01

    Vibrating mechanical structure characterization is demonstrated using contactless techniques best suited for mobile and rotating equipments. Fast measurement rates are achieved using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices as real-time digital signal processors. Two kinds of algorithms are implemented on FPGA and experimentally validated in the case of the vibrating tuning fork. A first application concerns in-plane displacement detection by vision with sampling rates above 10 kHz, thus reaching frequency ranges above the audio range. A second demonstration concerns pulsed-RADAR cooperative target phase detection and is applied to radiofrequency acoustic transducers used as passive wireless strain gauges. In this case, the 250 ksamples/s refresh rate achieved is only limited by the acoustic sensor design but not by the detection bandwidth. These realizations illustrate the efficiency, interest, and potentialities of FPGA-based real-time digital signal processing for the contactless interrogation of passive embedded probes with high refresh rates.

  20. Vibrational analysis for the nuclear-electronic orbital method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iordanov, Tzvetelin; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2003-06-01

    The methodology for a vibrational analysis within the nuclear-electronic orbital (NEO) framework is presented. In the NEO approach, specified nuclei are treated quantum mechanically on the same level as the electrons, and mixed nuclear-electronic wave functions are calculated variationally with molecular orbital methods. Both electronic and nuclear molecular orbitals are expressed as linear combinations of Gaussian basis functions. The NEO potential energy surface depends on only the classical nuclei, and each point on this surface is optimized variationally with respect to all molecular orbitals as well as the centers of the nuclear basis functions. The NEO vibrational analysis involves the calculation, projection, and diagonalization of a numerical Hessian to obtain the harmonic vibrational frequencies corresponding to the classical nuclei. This analysis allows the characterization of stationary points on the NEO potential energy surface. It also enables the calculation of zero point energy corrections and thermodynamic properties such as enthalpy, entropy, and free energy for chemical reactions on the NEO potential energy surface. Illustrative applications of this vibrational analysis to a series of molecules and to a nucleophilic substitution reaction are presented.

  1. Finite element forced vibration analysis of rotating cyclic structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elchuri, V.; Smith, G. C. C.

    1981-01-01

    A capability was added to the general purpose finite element program NASTRAN Level 17.7 to conduct forced vibration analysis of tuned cyclic structures rotating about their axes of symmetry. The effects of Coriolis and centripetal accelerations together with those due to linear acceleration of the axis of rotation were included. The theoretical development of this capability is presented.

  2. Development of an Efficient Binaural Simulation for the Analysis of Structural Acoustic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalime, Aimee L.; Johnson, Marty E.; Rizzi, Stephen A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Binaural or "virtual acoustic" representation has been proposed as a method of analyzing acoustic and vibroacoustic data. Unfortunately, this binaural representation can require extensive computer power to apply the Head Related Transfer Functions (HRTFs) to a large number of sources, as with a vibrating structure. This work focuses on reducing the number of real-time computations required in this binaural analysis through the use of Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Equivalent Source Reduction (ESR). The SVD method reduces the complexity of the HRTF computations by breaking the HRTFs into dominant singular values (and vectors). The ESR method reduces the number of sources to be analyzed in real-time computation by replacing sources on the scale of a structural wavelength with sources on the scale of an acoustic wavelength. It is shown that the effectiveness of the SVD and ESR methods improves as the complexity of the source increases. In addition, preliminary auralization tests have shown that the results from both the SVD and ESR methods are indistinguishable from the results found with the exhaustive method.

  3. Acoustic indicators for targeted detection of stored product and urban insect pests by inexpensive infrared, acoustic, and vibrational detection of movement.

    PubMed

    Mankin, R W; Hodges, R D; Nagle, H T; Schal, C; Pereira, R M; Koehler, P G

    2010-10-01

    Crawling and scraping activity of three stored-product pests, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), and Stegobium paniceum (L.) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae), and two urban pests, Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae) and Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), were monitored individually by infrared sensors, microphones, and a piezoelectric sensor in a small arena to evaluate effects of insect locomotory behavior and size on the ability of an inexpensively constructed instrument to detect insects and distinguish among different species. Adults of all species could be detected when crawling or scraping. The smallest insects in the study, first-fourth-instar C. lectularius nymphs, could not be detected easily when crawling, but could be detected when scraping. Sound and vibration sensors detected brief, 3-10-ms impulses from all tested species, often grouped in distinctive trains (bursts), typical of impulses in previous acoustic detection experiments. To consider the potential for targeting or focusing detection on particular species of interest, indicators were developed to assess the likelihood of detection of C. lectularius. Statistically significant differences were found between C. lectularius and other species in distributions of three measured variables: infrared signal durations, sound impulse-burst durations, and sound pressure levels (energy) of impulses that best matched an averaged spectrum (profile) of scraping behavior. Thus, there is potential that signals collected by an inexpensive, polymodal-sensor instrument could be used in automated trapping systems to detect a targeted species, 0.1 mg or larger, in environments where servicing of traps is difficult or when timeliness of trapping information is important.

  4. Efficient Structure Resonance Energy Transfer from Microwaves to Confined Acoustic Vibrations in Viruses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Szu-Chi; Lin, Huan-Chun; Liu, Tzu-Ming; Lu, Jen-Tang; Hung, Wan-Ting; Huang, Yu-Ru; Tsai, Yi-Chun; Kao, Chuan-Liang; Chen, Shih-Yuan; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2015-12-09

    Virus is known to resonate in the confined-acoustic dipolar mode with microwave of the same frequency. However this effect was not considered in previous virus-microwave interaction studies and microwave-based virus epidemic prevention. Here we show that this structure-resonant energy transfer effect from microwaves to virus can be efficient enough so that airborne virus was inactivated with reasonable microwave power density safe for the open public. We demonstrate this effect by measuring the residual viral infectivity of influenza A virus after illuminating microwaves with different frequencies and powers. We also established a theoretical model to estimate the microwaves power threshold for virus inactivation and good agreement with experiments was obtained. Such structure-resonant energy transfer induced inactivation is mainly through physically fracturing the virus structure, which was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. These results provide a pathway toward establishing a new epidemic prevention strategy in open public for airborne virus.

  5. Efficient Structure Resonance Energy Transfer from Microwaves to Confined Acoustic Vibrations in Viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Szu-Chi; Lin, Huan-Chun; Liu, Tzu-Ming; Lu, Jen-Tang; Hung, Wan-Ting; Huang, Yu-Ru; Tsai, Yi-Chun; Kao, Chuan-Liang; Chen, Shih-Yuan; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2015-12-01

    Virus is known to resonate in the confined-acoustic dipolar mode with microwave of the same frequency. However this effect was not considered in previous virus-microwave interaction studies and microwave-based virus epidemic prevention. Here we show that this structure-resonant energy transfer effect from microwaves to virus can be efficient enough so that airborne virus was inactivated with reasonable microwave power density safe for the open public. We demonstrate this effect by measuring the residual viral infectivity of influenza A virus after illuminating microwaves with different frequencies and powers. We also established a theoretical model to estimate the microwaves power threshold for virus inactivation and good agreement with experiments was obtained. Such structure-resonant energy transfer induced inactivation is mainly through physically fracturing the virus structure, which was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. These results provide a pathway toward establishing a new epidemic prevention strategy in open public for airborne virus.

  6. Energy Finite Element Analysis Developments for Vibration Analysis of Composite Aircraft Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlahopoulos, Nickolas; Schiller, Noah H.

    2011-01-01

    The Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) has been utilized successfully for modeling complex structural-acoustic systems with isotropic structural material properties. In this paper, a formulation for modeling structures made out of composite materials is presented. An approach based on spectral finite element analysis is utilized first for developing the equivalent material properties for the composite material. These equivalent properties are employed in the EFEA governing differential equations for representing the composite materials and deriving the element level matrices. The power transmission characteristics at connections between members made out of non-isotropic composite material are considered for deriving suitable power transmission coefficients at junctions of interconnected members. These coefficients are utilized for computing the joint matrix that is needed to assemble the global system of EFEA equations. The global system of EFEA equations is solved numerically and the vibration levels within the entire system can be computed. The new EFEA formulation for modeling composite laminate structures is validated through comparison to test data collected from a representative composite aircraft fuselage that is made out of a composite outer shell and composite frames and stiffeners. NASA Langley constructed the composite cylinder and conducted the test measurements utilized in this work.

  7. Perturbation analysis of electromagnetic geodesic acoustic modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Haijun

    2014-06-01

    Lagrangian displacement and magnetic field perturbation response to the geodesic acoustic mode is analyzed by using the ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations in a large-aspect-ratio tokamak. δBθ, the poloidal component of magnetic field perturbation, has poloidal wave number m = 2 created by the poloidal displacement ξθ. The parallel perturbation of magnetic field, δB∥, has a poloidally asymmetric structure with m = 1 and is on the same order of magnitude with δBθ to the leading order. The radial displacement ξr is of order O(βɛξθ) but plays a significant role in determining δB∥, where β is the plasma/magnetic pressure ratio and ɛ is the inverse aspect ratio.

  8. Perturbation analysis of electromagnetic geodesic acoustic modes

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Haijun

    2014-06-15

    Lagrangian displacement and magnetic field perturbation response to the geodesic acoustic mode is analyzed by using the ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations in a large-aspect-ratio tokamak. δB{sub θ}, the poloidal component of magnetic field perturbation, has poloidal wave number m = 2 created by the poloidal displacement ξ{sub θ}. The parallel perturbation of magnetic field, δB{sub ∥}, has a poloidally asymmetric structure with m = 1 and is on the same order of magnitude with δB{sub θ} to the leading order. The radial displacement ξ{sub r} is of order O(βϵξ{sub θ}) but plays a significant role in determining δB{sub ∥}, where β is the plasma/magnetic pressure ratio and ϵ is the inverse aspect ratio.

  9. Photo-acoustic analysis of dental materials and tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeleva, Pavlina Jetchkova

    2005-11-01

    The goal of the presented study is the investigation of the feasibility of using optically generated acoustic waves for analysis of dental material below laser-ablation threshold. The temperature rise of dental material and tissue has been modeled analytically and numerically, and measured experimentally. Following interactions with nano- and femto-second laser radiation the temperature rises at a rate of typically 1°C per J/cm 2, along with the generation of an acoustical wave. The results from the models agree with the experiment. The acoustic measurements show differences in the acoustic signal strength and the frequency spectrum when the canal in the porcelain phantom is empty or filled with intralipid solution. The photo-acoustic technique is found to be suitable for detection of liquids under a layer of dental porcelain material, consequently it can be the basis for building an imaging tool for dental diagnostic applications. By generating sound waves in the pulp, one would be able to evaluate it's state and the overall health of the tooth. This is of vital importance for diagnosing initial-stage inflammation.

  10. Acoustic Analysis Before and After Voice Therapy for Laryngeal Pathology.

    PubMed

    Chhetri, S S; Gautam, R

    2015-01-01

    Background Voice problems caused by pathologies in vocal folds are well known. Some types of laryngeal pathologies have certain acoustic characteristics. Objective evaluation helps characterize the voice and voice problems providing supporting evidences, severity of disorders. It helps assess the response to the treatment and measures the outcomes. Objective The objective of the study is to determine the effectiveness of the voice therapy and quantify the results objectively by voice parameters. Method Study includes 61 patients who presented with different types of laryngeal pathologies. Acoustic analyses and voice assessment was done with Dr. Speech ver 4 (Tiger DRS Inc.). Acoustic parameters including fundamental frequency, jitters, shimmers, Harmonic to noise ratio (HNR), Normalized noise energy (NNE) were analyzed before and after voice therapy. Result Bilateral vocal nodules were the most common pathologies comprising 44.26%. All acoustic parameters showed a significant difference after the therapy (p<0.05) except for NNE. Dysphonia due to vocal fold polyp showed no improvement even after voice therapy (p>0.05). Conclusion Acoustic analysis provides an objective, recordable data regarding the voice parameters and its pathologies. Though, few pathology require alternative therapy rather than voice therapy, overall it has a good effect on glottic closure. As the voice therapy can improve the different indices of voice, it can be viewed as imperative part of treatment and to monitor progression. PMID:27423282

  11. Acoustic vibrations of Au nano-bipyramids and their modification under Ag deposition: a perspective for the development of nanobalances.

    PubMed

    Dacosta Fernandes, Benoît; Spuch-Calvar, Miguel; Baida, Hatim; Tréguer-Delapierre, Mona; Oberlé, Jean; Langot, Pierre; Burgin, Julien

    2013-09-24

    We investigated the acoustic vibrations of gold nanobipyramids and bimetallic gold-silver core-shell bipyramids, synthesized by wet chemistry techniques, using a high-sensitivity pump-probe femtosecond setup. Three modes were observed and characterized in the gold core particles for lengths varying from 49 to 170 nm and diameters varying from 20 to 40 nm. The two strongest modes have been associated with the fundamental extensional and its first harmonic, and a weak mode has been associated with the fundamental radial mode, in very good agreement with numerical simulations. We then derived linear laws linking the periods to the dimensions both experimentally and numerically. To go further, we investigated the evolution of these modes under silver deposition on gold core bipyramids. We studied the evolution of the periods of the extensional modes, which were found to be in good qualitative agreement with numerical simulations. Moreover, we observed a strong enhancement of the radial mode amplitude when silver is deposited: we are typically sensitive to the deposition of 40 attograms of silver per gold core particle. This opens up possible applications in the field of mass sensing, where metallic nanobalances have an important role to play, taking advantage of their robustness and versatility.

  12. Free Vibration Analysis of Symmetrically Laminated Composite Rectangular Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. M.; Chung, J. H.; Chung, T. Y.

    1997-01-01

    Free vibration analysis of symmetrically laminated composite rectangular plates with all edges elastically restrained against rotation was carried out based on the first order anisotropic shear deformation plate theory. The iterative Kantorovich method and the Rayleigh-Ritz method with three different sets of trial functions were applied to the analysis. The numerical results were compared with each other and with experimental ones, and they showed good agreement.

  13. Analysis of the development and possibilities of the acoustic emission method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malecki, Ignacy

    The phenomenon of acoustic emission has been known for ages, but its practical use only dates back to the early 1960's to 'microseismic observations,' or farther back to the analysis of the acoustic emission generated by metals under stress. Discussed is the expansion of the measurement range by the detection of high frequency acoustic emission signals, the generation of acoustic emission by dislocation movements in metals and the brittle fracture of ceramics, the effect of material fatigue on acoustic emission activity, promising new applications in mining and construction, and efforts to improve acoustic emission transducers. A comparative analysis of trends in the development of acoustic emission techniques over the last 25 years and conclusions concerning the directions of future research are given. A description of ways to improve acoustic emission techniques which primarily focuses on electronic acoustic emission signal processing, extraction, and separation is presented. Phases of acoustic emission activity under conditions of rising stress, the 'life span' and fatigue of a material determined by means of acoustic emission, classification of acoustic emission sources, and analysis of the possibilities of acoustic emission for raw materials, processed materials, mechanical engineering, electronics, power generation, construction, and chemicals and for diagnosing motor vehicles and engineering systems are discussed. The authors also discuss the possibility of using acoustic emission in biology and medicine and the possible applications of acoustic emissions for basic research in physics and chemistry.

  14. Advanced superposition methods for high speed turbopump vibration analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielson, C. E.; Campany, A. D.

    1981-01-01

    The small, high pressure Mark 48 liquid hydrogen turbopump was analyzed and dynamically tested to determine the cause of high speed vibration at an operating speed of 92,400 rpm. This approaches the design point operating speed of 95,000 rpm. The initial dynamic analysis in the design stage and subsequent further analysis of the rotor only dynamics failed to predict the vibration characteristics found during testing. An advanced procedure for dynamics analysis was used in this investigation. The procedure involves developing accurate dynamic models of the rotor assembly and casing assembly by finite element analysis. The dynamically instrumented assemblies are independently rap tested to verify the analytical models. The verified models are then combined by modal superposition techniques to develop a completed turbopump model where dynamic characteristics are determined. The results of the dynamic testing and analysis obtained are presented and methods of moving the high speed vibration characteristics to speeds above the operating range are recommended. Recommendations for use of these advanced dynamic analysis procedures during initial design phases are given.

  15. Equivalent Linearization Analysis of Geometrically Nonlinear Random Vibrations Using Commercial Finite Element Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Muravyov, Alexander A.

    2002-01-01

    Two new equivalent linearization implementations for geometrically nonlinear random vibrations are presented. Both implementations are based upon a novel approach for evaluating the nonlinear stiffness within commercial finite element codes and are suitable for use with any finite element code having geometrically nonlinear static analysis capabilities. The formulation includes a traditional force-error minimization approach and a relatively new version of a potential energy-error minimization approach, which has been generalized for multiple degree-of-freedom systems. Results for a simply supported plate under random acoustic excitation are presented and comparisons of the displacement root-mean-square values and power spectral densities are made with results from a nonlinear time domain numerical simulation.

  16. Efficient Structure Resonance Energy Transfer from Microwaves to Confined Acoustic Vibrations in Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Szu-Chi; Lin, Huan-Chun; Liu, Tzu-Ming; Lu, Jen-Tang; Hung, Wan-Ting; Huang, Yu-Ru; Tsai, Yi-Chun; Kao, Chuan-Liang; Chen, Shih-Yuan; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2015-01-01

    Virus is known to resonate in the confined-acoustic dipolar mode with microwave of the same frequency. However this effect was not considered in previous virus-microwave interaction studies and microwave-based virus epidemic prevention. Here we show that this structure-resonant energy transfer effect from microwaves to virus can be efficient enough so that airborne virus was inactivated with reasonable microwave power density safe for the open public. We demonstrate this effect by measuring the residual viral infectivity of influenza A virus after illuminating microwaves with different frequencies and powers. We also established a theoretical model to estimate the microwaves power threshold for virus inactivation and good agreement with experiments was obtained. Such structure-resonant energy transfer induced inactivation is mainly through physically fracturing the virus structure, which was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. These results provide a pathway toward establishing a new epidemic prevention strategy in open public for airborne virus. PMID:26647655

  17. Vibration Signature Analysis of a Faulted Gear Transmission System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choy, F. K.; Huang, S.; Zakrajsek, J. J.; Handschuh, R. F.; Townsend, D. P.

    1996-01-01

    A comprehensive procedure in predicting faults in gear transmission systems under normal operating conditions is presented. Experimental data were obtained from a spiral bevel gear fatigue test rig at NASA/Lewis. Time-synchronous-averaged vibration data were recorded throughout the test as the fault progressed from a small single pit to severe pitting over several teeth, and finally tooth fracture. A numerical procedure based on the Wigner-Ville distribution was used to examine the time-averaged vibration data. Results from the Wigner-Ville procedure are compared to results from a variety of signal analysis techniques that include time-domain analysis methods and frequency analysis methods. Using photographs of the gear tooth at various stages of damage, the limitations and accuracy of the various techniques are compared and discussed. Conclusions are drawn from the comparison of the different approaches as well as the applicability of the Wigner-Ville method in predicting gear faults.

  18. Vibration Signature Analysis of a Faulted Gear Transmission System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choy, F. K.; Huang, S.; Zakrajsek, J. J.; Handschuh, R. F.; Townsend, D. P.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive procedure in predicting faults in gear transmission systems under normal operating conditions is presented. Experimental data was obtained from a spiral bevel gear fatigue test rig at NASA Lewis Research Center. Time synchronous averaged vibration data was recorded throughout the test as the fault progressed from a small single pit to severe pitting over several teeth, and finally tooth fracture. A numerical procedure based on the Winger-Ville distribution was used to examine the time averaged vibration data. Results from the Wigner-Ville procedure are compared to results from a variety of signal analysis techniques which include time domain analysis methods and frequency analysis methods. Using photographs of the gear tooth at various stages of damage, the limitations and accuracy of the various techniques are compared and discussed. Conclusions are drawn from the comparison of the different approaches as well as the applicability of the Wigner-Ville method in predicting gear faults.

  19. Vibration detection of component health and operability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, B. C.

    1975-01-01

    In order to prevent catastrophic failure and eliminate unnecessary periodic maintenance in the shuttle orbiter program environmental control system components, some means of detecting incipient failure in these components is required. The utilization was investigated of vibrational/acoustic phenomena as one of the principal physical parameters on which to base the design of this instrumentation. Baseline vibration/acoustic data was collected from three aircraft type fans and two aircraft type pumps over a frequency range from a few hertz to greater than 3000 kHz. The baseline data included spectrum analysis of the baseband vibration signal, spectrum analysis of the detected high frequency bandpass acoustic signal, and amplitude distribution of the high frequency bandpass acoustic signal. A total of eight bearing defects and two unbalancings was introduced into the five test items. All defects were detected by at least one of a set of vibration/acoustic parameters with a margin of at least 2:1 over the worst case baseline. The design of a portable instrument using this set of vibration/acoustic parameters for detecting incipient failures in environmental control system components is described.

  20. Long-range vibration sensor based on correlation analysis of optical frequency-domain reflectometry signals.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhenyang; Yao, X Steve; Liu, Tiegen; Du, Yang; Liu, Kun; Han, Qun; Meng, Zhuo; Chen, Hongxin

    2012-12-17

    We present a novel method to achieve a space-resolved long- range vibration detection system based on the correlation analysis of the optical frequency-domain reflectometry (OFDR) signals. By performing two separate measurements of the vibrated and non-vibrated states on a test fiber, the vibration frequency and position of a vibration event can be obtained by analyzing the cross-correlation between beat signals of the vibrated and non-vibrated states in a spatial domain, where the beat signals are generated from interferences between local Rayleigh backscattering signals of the test fiber and local light oscillator. Using the proposed technique, we constructed a standard single-mode fiber based vibration sensor that can have a dynamic range of 12 km and a measurable vibration frequency up to 2 kHz with a spatial resolution of 5 m. Moreover, preliminarily investigation results of two vibration events located at different positions along the test fiber are also reported.

  1. Pulse analysis of acoustic emission signals. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houghton, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    A method for the signature analysis of pulses in the frequency domain and the time domain is presented. Fourier spectrum, Fourier transfer function, shock spectrum and shock spectrum ratio are examined in the frequency domain analysis, and pulse shape deconvolution is developed for use in the time domain analysis. To demonstrate the relative sensitivity of each of the methods to small changes in the pulse shape, signatures of computer modeled systems with analytical pulses are presented. Optimization techniques are developed and used to indicate the best design parameters values for deconvolution of the pulse shape. Several experiments are presented that test the pulse signature analysis methods on different acoustic emission sources. These include acoustic emissions associated with: (1) crack propagation, (2) ball dropping on a plate, (3) spark discharge and (4) defective and good ball bearings.

  2. Acoustic Emission Analysis of Prestressed Concrete Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elfergani, H. A.; Pullin, R.; Holford, K. M.

    2011-07-01

    Corrosion is a substantial problem in numerous structures and in particular corrosion is very serious in reinforced and prestressed concrete and must, in certain applications, be given special consideration because failure may result in loss of life and high financial cost. Furthermore corrosion cannot only be considered a long term problem with many studies reporting failure of bridges and concrete pipes due to corrosion within a short period after they were constructed. The concrete pipes which transport water are examples of structures that have suffered from corrosion; for example, the pipes of The Great Man-Made River Project of Libya. Five pipe failures due to corrosion have occurred since their installation. The main reason for the damage is corrosion of prestressed wires in the pipes due to the attack of chloride ions from the surrounding soil. Detection of the corrosion in initial stages has been very important to avoid other failures and the interruption of water flow. Even though most non-destructive methods which are used in the project are able to detect wire breaks, they cannot detect the presence of corrosion. Hence in areas where no excavation has been completed, areas of serious damage can go undetected. Therefore, the major problem which faces engineers is to find the best way to detect the corrosion and prevent the pipes from deteriorating. This paper reports on the use of the Acoustic Emission (AE) technique to detect the early stages of corrosion prior to deterioration of concrete structures.

  3. Structure analysis using acoustically levitated droplets.

    PubMed

    Leiterer, J; Delissen, F; Emmerling, F; Thünemann, A F; Panne, U

    2008-06-01

    Synchrotron diffraction with a micrometer-sized X-ray beam permits the efficient characterization of micrometer-sized samples, even in time-resolved experiments, which is important because often the amount of sample available is small and/or the sample is expensive. In this context, we will present acoustic levitation as a useful sample handling method for small solid and liquid samples, which are suspended in a gaseous environment (air) by means of a stationary ultrasonic field. A study of agglomeration and crystallization processes in situ was performed by continuously increasing the concentration of the samples by evaporating the solvent. Absorption and contamination processes on the sample container walls were suppressed strongly by this procedure, and parasitic scattering such as that observed when using glass capillaries was also absent. The samples investigated were either dissolved or dispersed in water droplets with diameters in the range of 1 micrometer to 2 millimeters. Initial results from time-resolved synchrotron small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering measurements of ascorbic acid, acetylsalicylic acid, apoferritin, and colloidal gold are presented. PMID:18373085

  4. Vibration manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, C.

    1971-01-01

    Guidelines of the methods and applications used in vibration technology at the MSFC are presented. The purpose of the guidelines is to provide a practical tool for coordination and understanding between industry and government groups concerned with vibration of systems and equipments. Topics covered include measuring, reducing, analyzing, and methods for obtaining simulated environments and formulating vibration specifications. Methods for vibration and shock testing, theoretical aspects of data processing, vibration response analysis, and techniques of designing for vibration are also presented.

  5. NASTRAN nonlinear vibration analysis of beam and frame structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, C.; Rogers, J. L., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A capability for the nonlinear vibration analysis of beam and frame structures suitable for use with NASTRAN level 15.5 is described. The nonlinearity considered is due to the presence of axial loads induced by longitudinal end restraints and lateral displacements that are large compared to the beam height. A brief discussion is included of the mathematical analysis and the geometrical stiffness matrix for a prismatic beam (BAR) element. Also included are a brief discussion of the equivalent linearization iterative process used to determine the nonlinear frequency, the required modifications to subroutines DBAR and XMPLBD of the NASTRAN code, and the appropriate vibration capability, four example problems are presented. Comparisons with existing experimental and analytical results show that excellent accuracy is achieved with NASTRAN in all cases.

  6. Study on acoustic resonance and its damping of BWR steam dome

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtsuka, Masaya; Fujimoto, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Shirou; Hirokawa, Fumihito; Tsubaki, Masaaki

    2006-07-01

    Acoustic resonance characteristics in a BWR steam dome are investigated analytically and experimentally to evaluate the acoustic vibration of a steam dryer. Acoustic modes and frequencies of the ABWR, which represents the BWRs in this study, are calculated by the SYSNOISE code. The lowest mode (32 Hz) is a half stand wave anti-symmetric mode to the center line of the steam dome at normal condition. Acoustic pressure distributions and phases on the steam dryer surface are analyzed for evaluating the vibration driving force of the structure. Acrylic 1/11 scale model tests are performed to verify the acoustic analysis and to develop the acoustic damping system. The experimental frequencies and modes agree with analysis ones for low frequencies. Experimentally, the acoustic pressure amplitude is significantly lowered using the Helmholtz resonators after tuning up the acoustic resonant frequency of the resonator to the acoustic resonant frequency of the main system. (authors)

  7. Acoustic response analysis of large light space structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defosse, H.; Mercier, F.

    1989-10-01

    The dynamic behavior of large lightweight aerospace structures under reverberant acoustic excitation is investigated. A review of the modal superposition theory is presented, along with an improved analysis method of air mass and acoustic radiation damping effects. An efficient postprocessor uses classic finite element codes to compute structural responses up to medium frequencies. Experiments performed on a honeycomb panel demonstrate the importance of two factors for the accurate analysis of the vibroacoustic responses of such aerospace structures: specifically, it is shown that the low frequency response calculations should include correlation characteristics of the excitation pressure field, and the test data processing should include pressure cross spectra calculations. Theoretical and analytical results are compared to assess air effects on a rigid circular plate. Dynamic analysis of large lightweight aerospace structures under a vacuum hypothesis may lead to a significant overestimation of predicted levels.

  8. Forced vibration analysis of rotating cyclic structures in NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elchuri, V.; Gallo, A. M.; Skalski, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    A new capability was added to the general purpose finite element program NASTRAN Level 17.7 to conduct forced vibration analysis of tuned cyclic structures rotating about their axis of symmetry. The effects of Coriolis and centripetal accelerations together with those due to linear acceleration of the axis of rotation were included. The theoretical, user's, programmer's and demonstration manuals for this new capability are presented.

  9. Rim-spoke composite flywheels: Stress and vibration analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Kiraly, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    Elementary relations are described to determine the material utilization efficiency of a thin wall rim composite flywheel over other configurations. An algorithm is generated for the automatic selection of the optimum composite material for a given thin rim flywheel environment. Subsequently, the computer program NASTRAN is used to perform a detailed stress and vibration analysis of thin wall cylindrical shell rim spoke, single rim and multirim composite flywheels for a specific application.

  10. Design sensitivity analysis of rotorcraft airframe structures for vibration reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, T. Sreekanta

    1987-01-01

    Optimization of rotorcraft structures for vibration reduction was studied. The objective of this study is to develop practical computational procedures for structural optimization of airframes subject to steady-state vibration response constraints. One of the key elements of any such computational procedure is design sensitivity analysis. A method for design sensitivity analysis of airframes under vibration response constraints is presented. The mathematical formulation of the method and its implementation as a new solution sequence in MSC/NASTRAN are described. The results of the application of the method to a simple finite element stick model of the AH-1G helicopter airframe are presented and discussed. Selection of design variables that are most likely to bring about changes in the response at specified locations in the airframe is based on consideration of forced response strain energy. Sensitivity coefficients are determined for the selected design variable set. Constraints on the natural frequencies are also included in addition to the constraints on the steady-state response. Sensitivity coefficients for these constraints are determined. Results of the analysis and insights gained in applying the method to the airframe model are discussed. The general nature of future work to be conducted is described.

  11. Analysis of classical guitars' vibrational behavior based on scanning laser vibrometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czajkowska, Marzena

    2012-06-01

    One of the main goals in musical acoustics research is to link measurable, physical properties of a musical instrument with subjective assessments of its tone quality. The aim of the research discussed in this paper was to observe the structural vibrations of different class classical guitars in relation to their quality. This work focuses on mid-low-and low-class classical (nylon-stringed) guitars. The main source of guitar body vibrations come from top and back plate vibrations therefore these were the objects of structural mode measurements and analysis. Sixteen classical guitars have been investigated, nine with cedar and seven with spruce top plate. Structural modes of top and back plates have been measured with the aid of a scanning laser vibrometer and the instruments were excited with a chirp signal transferred by bone vibrator. The issues related to excitor selection have been discussed. Correlation and descriptive statistics of top and back plates measurement results have been investigated in relation to guitar quality. The frequency range of 300 Hz to 5 kHz as well as selected narrowed frequency bands have been analyzed for cedar and spruce guitars. Furthermore, the influence of top plate wood type on vibration characteristics have been observed on three pairs of guitars. The instruments were of the same model but different top plate material. Determination and visualization of both guitar plates' modal patterns in relation to frequency are a significant attainment of the research. Scanning laser vibrometer measurements allow particular mode observation and therefore mode identification, as opposed to sound pressure response measurements. When correlating vibration characteristics of top and back plates it appears that Pearson productmoment correlation coefficient is not a parameter that associates with guitar quality. However, for best instruments with cedar top, top-back correlation coefficient has relatively greater value in 1-2 kHz band and lower in

  12. Perceptual centres in speech - an acoustic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Sophie Kerttu

    Perceptual centres, or P-centres, represent the perceptual moments of occurrence of acoustic signals - the 'beat' of a sound. P-centres underlie the perception and production of rhythm in perceptually regular speech sequences. P-centres have been modelled both in speech and non speech (music) domains. The three aims of this thesis were toatest out current P-centre models to determine which best accounted for the experimental data bto identify a candidate parameter to map P-centres onto (a local approach) as opposed to the previous global models which rely upon the whole signal to determine the P-centre the final aim was to develop a model of P-centre location which could be applied to speech and non speech signals. The first aim was investigated by a series of experiments in which a) speech from different speakers was investigated to determine whether different models could account for variation between speakers b) whether rendering the amplitude time plot of a speech signal affects the P-centre of the signal c) whether increasing the amplitude at the offset of a speech signal alters P-centres in the production and perception of speech. The second aim was carried out by a) manipulating the rise time of different speech signals to determine whether the P-centre was affected, and whether the type of speech sound ramped affected the P-centre shift b) manipulating the rise time and decay time of a synthetic vowel to determine whether the onset alteration was had more affect on P-centre than the offset manipulation c) and whether the duration of a vowel affected the P-centre, if other attributes (amplitude, spectral contents) were held constant. The third aim - modelling P-centres - was based on these results. The Frequency dependent Amplitude Increase Model of P-centre location (FAIM) was developed using a modelling protocol, the APU GammaTone Filterbank and the speech from different speakers. The P-centres of the stimuli corpus were highly predicted by attributes of

  13. Evolution of the vibrational behavior of a guitar soundboard along successive construction phases by means of the modal analysis technique

    PubMed

    Elejabarrieta; Ezcurra; Santamaria

    2000-07-01

    The crucial piece of a craft guitar is the soundboard since it determines the quality of the sound given by the instrument. From the initial phase (the gross plate with no hole) until the last construction phase (the plate with the full structure) several stages are followed to modify the dynamic behavior of the structure and hence the acoustic response of the final guitar. The aim of this work is to analyze the effect of each modification on the vibrational response of the plate. With this in mind, an experimental modal analysis of all the construction phases has been performed in the low frequency range under free conditions. The response of the plate in each stage is defined by vibration patterns, resonance frequencies, quality factors, and admittance curves.

  14. Capabilities, Design, Construction and Commissioning of New Vibration, Acoustic, and Electromagnetic Capabilities Added to the World's Largest Thermal Vacuum Chamber at NASA's Space Power Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Susan M.; Ludwiczak, Damian R.; Carek, Gerald A.; Sorge, Richard N.; Free, James M.; Cikanek, Harry A., III

    2011-01-01

    NASA s human space exploration plans developed under the Exploration System Architecture Studies in 2005 included a Crew Exploration Vehicle launched on an Ares I launch vehicle. The mass of the Crew Exploration Vehicle and trajectory of the Ares I coupled with the need to be able to abort across a large percentage of the trajectory generated unprecedented testing requirements. A future lunar lander added to projected test requirements. In 2006, the basic test plan for Orion was developed. It included several types of environment tests typical of spacecraft development programs. These included thermal-vacuum, electromagnetic interference, mechanical vibration, and acoustic tests. Because of the size of the vehicle and unprecedented acoustics, NASA conducted an extensive assessment of options for testing, and as result, chose to augment the Space Power Facility at NASA Plum Brook Station, of the John H. Glenn Research Center to provide the needed test capabilities. The augmentation included designing and building the World s highest mass capable vibration table, the highest power large acoustic chamber, and adaptation of the existing World s largest thermal vacuum chamber as a reverberant electromagnetic interference test chamber. These augmentations were accomplished from 2007 through early 2011. Acceptance testing began in Spring 2011 and will be completed in the Fall of 2011. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities, design, construction and acceptance of this extraordinary facility.

  15. Acoustical Characteristics of Mastication Sounds: Application of Speech Analysis Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brochetti, Denise

    Food scientists have used acoustical methods to study characteristics of mastication sounds in relation to food texture. However, a model for analysis of the sounds has not been identified, and reliability of the methods has not been reported. Therefore, speech analysis techniques were applied to mastication sounds, and variation in measures of the sounds was examined. To meet these objectives, two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, a digital sound spectrograph generated waveforms and wideband spectrograms of sounds by 3 adult subjects (1 male, 2 females) for initial chews of food samples differing in hardness and fracturability. Acoustical characteristics were described and compared. For all sounds, formants appeared in the spectrograms, and energy occurred across a 0 to 8000-Hz range of frequencies. Bursts characterized waveforms for peanut, almond, raw carrot, ginger snap, and hard candy. Duration and amplitude of the sounds varied with the subjects. In the second experiment, the spectrograph was used to measure the duration, amplitude, and formants of sounds for the initial 2 chews of cylindrical food samples (raw carrot, teething toast) differing in diameter (1.27, 1.90, 2.54 cm). Six adult subjects (3 males, 3 females) having normal occlusions and temporomandibular joints chewed the samples between the molar teeth and with the mouth open. Ten repetitions per subject were examined for each food sample. Analysis of estimates of variation indicated an inconsistent intrasubject variation in the acoustical measures. Food type and sample diameter also affected the estimates, indicating the variable nature of mastication. Generally, intrasubject variation was greater than intersubject variation. Analysis of ranks of the data indicated that the effect of sample diameter on the acoustical measures was inconsistent and depended on the subject and type of food. If inferences are to be made concerning food texture from acoustical measures of mastication

  16. Acoustical and functional analysis of Mountain lion (Puma concolor) vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Jacquelyn

    2002-05-01

    A 2-year study resulted in acoustic analysis of the structure of over 900 mountain lion vocalizations recorded in a seminatural setting at Wildlife Prairie Park near Peoria, Illinois. A vocal repertoire was obtained by describing quantitative variables about the sounds, i.e., frequency of the dominant part of the sound (beginning, ending, maximum, and minimum), duration, and number of components. Other variables described the tonal, harmonic, and wideband qualities of the sounds. Behavioral data were collected during the same period. Further analysis of both acoustic and behavioral data was completed to develop a correlation matrix between vocalizations and behavior. This study also looked at the effects of seasons on vocal behavior. Correlations were found between vocalization types and rates of usage with specific behaviors. Vocalization type and the usage rate also varied by season.

  17. Three dimensional analysis for vibration of unidirectional composite parallelepiped

    SciTech Connect

    Narita, Yoshihiro; Ohta, Yoshiki

    1995-11-01

    Pressure vessels and piping structures made of composite materials are being increasingly used, primarily because of the large values of specific strength and stiffness which may be obtained in comparison with conventional materials, such as metals. The composite structure may be considered as an assemblage of plate and shell components, likewise in conventional metal structures, and the vibration of composite plates and shells constitutes an important area in applied mechanics. Here, a method of analysis is presented for solving the free vibration problem of a rectangular parallelepiped. The parallelepiped is made of an undirectionally reinforced fiber composite, which is modeled to have rectangular orthotropy. The method is based on the Ritz method, and accommodates arbitrary boundary conditions on the six faces by introducing the boundary indices into the displacement functions. Numerical results are given for the first several frequencies of isotropic and orthotropic parallelepipeds, including the cube, and are compared to the existing results by other theories.

  18. Vibration analysis of the SA349/2 helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffernan, Ruth; Precetti, Dominique; Johnson, Wayne

    1991-01-01

    Helicopter airframe vibration is examined using calculations and measurements for the SA349/2 research helicopter. The hub loads, which transmit excitations to the fuselage, are predicted using a comprehensive rotorcraft analysis and correlated with measuring hub loads. The predicted and measured hub loads are then coupled with finite element models representing the SA349/2 fuselage. The resulting vertical acceleration at the pilot seat is examined. Adjustments are made to the airframe structural models to examine the sensitivity of predicted vertical acceleration to the model. Changes of a few percent to the damping and frequency of specific models lead to large reductions in predicted vibration, and to major improvements in the correlations with measured pilot-seat vertical acceleration.

  19. Vibration analysis and optimization of sandwich composite with curvilinear fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, S.; Narita, Y.

    2016-09-01

    The present paper develops a shell element based on the refined zigzag theory (RZT) and applies it to the vibration analysis and optimization problem of the composite sandwich plate composed of CFRP skins and soft-cores. The RZT accepts large differences in layer stiffness, and requires less calculation effort than the layer-wise or three-dimensional theories. Numerical results revealed that the present method predicts vibration characteristics of composite sandwich plates with soft-core accurately. Then, shapes of reinforcing fibers in CFRP composite skins are optimized to maximize fundamental frequencies. As an optimizer, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) approach is employed since curvilinear fiber shapes are defined by continuous design variables. Obtained results showed that the composite sandwich with optimum curvilinear fiber shapes indicates higher fundamental frequencies compared with straight fibers.

  20. Energetics and Vibrational Analysis of Methyl Salicylate Isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massaro, Richard D.; Dai, Yafei; Blaisten-Barojas, Estela

    2009-08-01

    Energetics and vibrational analysis study of six isomers of methyl salicylate in their singlet ground state and first excited triple state is put forward in this work at the density functional theory level and large basis sets. The ketoB isomer is the lowest energy isomer, followed by its rotamer ketoA. For both ketoB and ketoA their enolized tautomers are found to be stable as well as their open forms that lack the internal hydrogen bond. The calculated vibrational spectra are in excellent agreement with IR experiments of methyl salicylate in the vapor phase. It is demonstrated that solvent effects have a weak influence on the stability of these isomers. The ionization reaction from ketoB to ketoA shows a high barrier of 0.67 eV ensuring that thermal and chemical equilibria yield systems containing mostly the ketoB isomer at normal conditions.

  1. Reproducing kernel particle method for free and forced vibration analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, J. X.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, L.

    2005-01-01

    A reproducing kernel particle method (RKPM) is presented to analyze the natural frequencies of Euler-Bernoulli beams as well as Kirchhoff plates. In addition, RKPM is also used to predict the forced vibration responses of buried pipelines due to longitudinal travelling waves. Two different approaches, Lagrange multipliers as well as transformation method , are employed to enforce essential boundary conditions. Based on the reproducing kernel approximation, the domain of interest is discretized by a set of particles without the employment of a structured mesh, which constitutes an advantage over the finite element method. Meanwhile, RKPM also exhibits advantages over the classical Rayleigh-Ritz method and its counterparts. Numerical results presented here demonstrate the effectiveness of this novel approach for both free and forced vibration analysis.

  2. Time-average TV holography for vibration fringe analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Upputuri Paul; Kalyani, Yanam; Mohan, Nandigana Krishna; Kothiyal, Mahendra Prasad

    2009-06-01

    Time-average TV holography is widely used method for vibration measurement. The method generates speckle correlation time-averaged J0 fringes that can be used for full-field qualitative visualization of mode shapes at resonant frequencies of an object under harmonic excitation. In order to map the amplitudes of vibration, quantitative evaluation of the time-averaged fringe pattern is desired. A quantitative evaluation procedure based on the phase-shifting technique used in two beam interferometry has also been adopted for this application with some modification. The existing procedure requires a large number of frames to be recorded for implementation. We propose a procedure that will reduce the number of frames required for the analysis. The TV holographic system used and the experimental results obtained with it on an edge-clamped, sinusoidally excited square aluminium plate sample are discussed.

  3. Voice-over: perceptual and acoustic analysis of vocal features.

    PubMed

    Medrado, Reny; Ferreira, Leslie Piccolotto; Behlau, Mara

    2005-09-01

    Voice-overs are professional voice users who use their voices to market products in the electronic media. The purposes of this study were to (1) analyze voice-overed and non-overed productions of an advertising text in two groups consisting of 10 male professional voice-overs and 10 male non-voice-overs; and (2) determine specific acoustic features of voice-over productions in both groups. A naïve group of listeners were engaged for the perceptual analysis of the recorded advertising text. The voice-overed production samples from both groups were submitted for analysis of acoustic and temporal features. The following parameters were analyzed: (1) the total text length, (2) the length of the three emphatic pauses, (3) values of the mean, (4) minimum, (5) maximum fundamental frequency, and (6) the semitone range. The majority of voice-overs and non-voice-overs were correctly identified by the listeners in both productions. However voice-overs were more consistently correctly identified than non-voice-overs. The total text length was greater for voice-overs. The pause time distribution was statistically more homogeneous for the voice-overs. The acoustic analysis indicated that the voice-overs had lower values of mean, minimum, and maximum fundamental frequency and a greater range of semitones. The voice-overs carry the voice-overed production features to their non-voice-overed production. PMID:16102662

  4. Vibro-acoustic modelling of aircraft double-walls with structural links using Statistical Energy Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campolina, Bruno L.

    The prediction of aircraft interior noise involves the vibroacoustic modelling of the fuselage with noise control treatments. This structure is composed of a stiffened metallic or composite panel, lined with a thermal and acoustic insulation layer (glass wool), and structurally connected via vibration isolators to a commercial lining panel (trim). The goal of this work aims at tailoring the noise control treatments taking design constraints such as weight and space optimization into account. For this purpose, a representative aircraft double-wall is modelled using the Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) method. Laboratory excitations such as diffuse acoustic field and point force are addressed and trends are derived for applications under in-flight conditions, considering turbulent boundary layer excitation. The effect of the porous layer compression is firstly addressed. In aeronautical applications, compression can result from the installation of equipment and cables. It is studied analytically and experimentally, using a single panel and a fibrous uniformly compressed over 100% of its surface. When compression increases, a degradation of the transmission loss up to 5 dB for a 50% compression of the porous thickness is observed mainly in the mid-frequency range (around 800 Hz). However, for realistic cases, the effect should be reduced since the compression rate is lower and compression occurs locally. Then the transmission through structural connections between panels is addressed using a four-pole approach that links the force-velocity pair at each side of the connection. The modelling integrates experimental dynamic stiffness of isolators, derived using an adapted test rig. The structural transmission is then experimentally validated and included in the double-wall SEA model as an equivalent coupling loss factor (CLF) between panels. The tested structures being flat, only axial transmission is addressed. Finally, the dominant sound transmission paths are

  5. Vibration modal analysis using stroboscopic digital speckle pattern interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xizhou; Tan, Yushan

    1991-12-01

    Digital speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI) is a promising optoelectronic testing technique for a wide range of applications. Compared with holographic and speckle interferometry, it has some attractive features such as needlessness of tedious film processing, high measuring accuracy, and satisfactory automaticity. The measuring data can be displayed on the monitor at real time. In this paper, the vibration of a clamped steel plate is tested using stroboscopic digital speckle pattern interferometry. The advantages of stroboscopic technique are that it can give both the amplitude and phase information of a harmonic vibration. This is very useful for the vibration modal analysis of engineering structures. This work is realized on an image processing system based on IBM-PC/AT personal computer. The stroboscopic wavefronts are obtained by chopping a CW He-Ne laser using acousto-optic modulator. The fringe patterns obtained with stroboscopic DSPI are superior to that with time-averaging TV holography (ESPI or DPI). The interpretation of the stroboscopic DSPI fringes and selection of the system parameters are discussed in detail. The measured results are also given.

  6. Linear Stability Analysis of an Acoustically Vaporized Droplet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Junaid; Qamar, Adnan; Samtaney, Ravi

    2015-11-01

    Acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) is a phase transition phenomena of a superheat liquid (Dodecafluoropentane, C5F12) droplet to a gaseous bubble, instigated by a high-intensity acoustic pulse. This approach was first studied in imaging applications, and applicable in several therapeutic areas such as gas embolotherapy, thrombus dissolution, and drug delivery. High-speed imaging and theoretical modeling of ADV has elucidated several physical aspects, ranging from bubble nucleation to its subsequent growth. Surface instabilities are known to exist and considered responsible for evolving bubble shapes (non-spherical growth, bubble splitting and bubble droplet encapsulation). We present a linear stability analysis of the dynamically evolving interfaces of an acoustically vaporized micro-droplet (liquid A) in an infinite pool of a second liquid (liquid B). We propose a thermal ADV model for the base state. The linear analysis utilizes spherical harmonics (Ynm, of degree m and order n) and under various physical assumptions results in a time-dependent ODE of the perturbed interface amplitudes (one at the vapor/liquid A interface and the other at the liquid A/liquid B interface). The perturbation amplitudes are found to grow exponentially and do not depend on m. Supported by KAUST Baseline Research Funds.

  7. Interval process model and non-random vibration analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, C.; Ni, B. Y.; Liu, N. Y.; Han, X.; Liu, J.

    2016-07-01

    This paper develops an interval process model for time-varying or dynamic uncertainty analysis when information of the uncertain parameter is inadequate. By using the interval process model to describe a time-varying uncertain parameter, only its upper and lower bounds are required at each time point rather than its precise probability distribution, which is quite different from the traditional stochastic process model. A correlation function is defined for quantification of correlation between the uncertain-but-bounded variables at different times, and a matrix-decomposition-based method is presented to transform the original dependent interval process into an independent one for convenience of subsequent uncertainty analysis. More importantly, based on the interval process model, a non-random vibration analysis method is proposed for response computation of structures subjected to time-varying uncertain external excitations or loads. The structural dynamic responses thus can be derived in the form of upper and lower bounds, providing an important guidance for practical safety analysis and reliability design of structures. Finally, two numerical examples and one engineering application are investigated to demonstrate the feasibility of the interval process model and corresponding non-random vibration analysis method.

  8. Acoustic Emission Analysis of Shuttle Thermal Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, John; Hooker, Jeffery; Immer, Christopher; Walker, James

    2004-01-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) signals generated from projectile impacts on reinforced and advanced carbon/carbon (RCC and ACC) panels, fired from a compressed-gas gun, identify the type and severity of damage sustained by the target. This type of testing is vital in providing the required "return to flight" (RTF) data needed to ensure continued and safe operation of NASA's Space Shuttle fleet. The gas gun at Kennedy Space Center is capable of propelling 12-inch by 3-inch cylinders of external tank (ET) foam at exit velocities exceeding 1,000 feet per second. Conventional AE analysis techniques require time domain processing of impulse data, along with amplitude distribution analysis. It is well known that identical source excitations can produce a wide range of AE signals amplitudes. In order to satisfy RTF goals, it is necessary to identify impact energy levels above and below damage thresholds. Spectral analysis techniques involving joint time frequency analysis (JTFA) are used to reinforce time domain AE analysis. JTFA analysis of the AE signals consists of short-time Fourier transforms (STFT) and the Huang-Hilbert transform (HHT). The HHT provides a very good measure of the instantaneous frequency of impulse events dominated by a single component. Identifying failure modes and cracking of fibers from flexural and/or extensional mode acoustic signals will help support in-flight as well as postflight impact analysis.

  9. Synchronized imaging and acoustic analysis of the upper airway in patients with sleep-disordered breathing.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi-Chung; Huon, Leh-Kiong; Pham, Van-Truong; Chen, Yunn-Jy; Jiang, Sun-Fen; Shih, Tiffany Ting-Fang; Tran, Thi-Thao; Wang, Yung-Hung; Lin, Chen; Tsao, Jenho; Lo, Men-Tzung; Wang, Pa-Chun

    2014-12-01

    Progressive narrowing of the upper airway increases airflow resistance and can produce snoring sounds and apnea/hypopnea events associated with sleep-disordered breathing due to airway collapse. Recent studies have shown that acoustic properties during snoring can be altered with anatomic changes at the site of obstruction. To evaluate the instantaneous association between acoustic features of snoring and the anatomic sites of obstruction, a novel method was developed and applied in nine patients to extract the snoring sounds during sleep while performing dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The degree of airway narrowing during the snoring events was then quantified by the collapse index (ratio of airway diameter preceding and during the events) and correlated with the synchronized acoustic features. A total of 201 snoring events (102 pure retropalatal and 99 combined retropalatal and retroglossal events) were recorded, and the collapse index as well as the soft tissue vibration time were significantly different between pure retropalatal (collapse index, 2 ± 11%; vibration time, 0.2 ± 0.3 s) and combined (retropalatal and retroglossal) snores (collapse index, 13 ± 7% [P ≤ 0.0001]; vibration time, 1.2 ± 0.7 s [P ≤ 0.0001]). The synchronized dynamic MRI and acoustic recordings successfully characterized the sites of obstruction and established the dynamic relationship between the anatomic site of obstruction and snoring acoustics.

  10. Modal Analysis of MARS Solar Panel and Planar Vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonyan, Andranik; Williams, R. Brett

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the modal analysis of MARS solar panels and the planar vibrations. Included are views of the solar panels mock-up assembly, a view of the test seup,a view of the plot from the test, with the raw numbers of the frequencies in Hz values with the mode number, the spatial acceleration plots of Center sub panel at resonant frequencies, predictions from the Finite element models, an explanation of the two test that were done on the plate and the results from both tests,

  11. Rayleigh-Ritz vibration analysis of Mindlin plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawe, D. J.; Roufaeil, O. L.

    1980-04-01

    The Rayleigh-Ritz method is applied to the prediction of the natural frequencies of flexural vibration of square plates having general boundary conditions. The analysis is based on the use of Mindlin plate theory so that the effects of shear deformation and rotary inertia are included. The spatial variations of the plate deflection and the two rotations over the plate middle surface are assumed to be series of products of appropriate Timoshenko beam functions. Results are presented for a number of types of plate and these demonstrate the manner of convergence of the method as the number of terms in the assumed series increases.

  12. Advanced Vibration Analysis Tool Developed for Robust Engine Rotor Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, James B.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this research program is to develop vibration analysis tools, design tools, and design strategies to significantly improve the safety and robustness of turbine engine rotors. Bladed disks in turbine engines always feature small, random blade-to-blade differences, or mistuning. Mistuning can lead to a dramatic increase in blade forced-response amplitudes and stresses. Ultimately, this results in high-cycle fatigue, which is a major safety and cost concern. In this research program, the necessary steps will be taken to transform a state-of-the-art vibration analysis tool, the Turbo- Reduce forced-response prediction code, into an effective design tool by enhancing and extending the underlying modeling and analysis methods. Furthermore, novel techniques will be developed to assess the safety of a given design. In particular, a procedure will be established for using natural-frequency curve veerings to identify ranges of operating conditions (rotational speeds and engine orders) in which there is a great risk that the rotor blades will suffer high stresses. This work also will aid statistical studies of the forced response by reducing the necessary number of simulations. Finally, new strategies for improving the design of rotors will be pursued.

  13. Signature analysis of acoustic emission from graphite/epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, S. S.; Henneke, E. G., II

    1977-01-01

    Acoustic emissions were monitored for crack extension across and parallel to the fibers in a single ply and multiply laminates of graphite epoxy composites. Spectrum analysis was performed on the transient signal to ascertain if the fracture mode can be characterized by a particular spectral pattern. The specimens were loaded to failure quasistatically in a tensile machine. Visual observations were made via either an optical microscope or a television camera. The results indicate that several types of characteristics in the time and frequency domain correspond to different types of failure.

  14. Comparison of modal analysis results of laser vibrometry and nearfield acoustical holography measurements of an aluminum plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Jennifer L.

    2011-12-01

    Noise and vibration has long been sought to be reduced in major industries: automotive, aerospace and marine to name a few. Products must be tested and pass certain levels of federally regulated standards before entering the market. Vibration measurements are commonly acquired using accelerometers; however limitations of this method create a need for alternative solutions. Two methods for non-contact vibration measurements are compared: Laser Vibrometry, which directly measures the surface velocity of the aluminum plate, and Nearfield Acoustic Holography (NAH), which measures sound pressure in the nearfield, and using Green's Functions, reconstructs the surface velocity at the plate. The surface velocity from each method is then used in modal analysis to determine the comparability of frequency, damping and mode shapes. Frequency and mode shapes are also compared to an FEA model. Laser Vibrometry is a proven, direct method for determining surface velocity and subsequently calculating modal analysis results. NAH is an effective method in locating noise sources, especially those that are not well separated spatially. Little work has been done in incorporating NAH into modal analysis.

  15. Optical vibration detection spectral analysis assembly and method for detecting vibration in an object of interest

    DOEpatents

    Hale, Thomas C.; Telschow, Kenneth L.

    1998-01-01

    A vibration detection assembly is described which includes an emitter of light which has object and reference beams, the object beam reflected off of a vibrating object of interest; and a photorefractive substance having a given response time and which passes the reflected object beam and the reference beam, the reference beam and the object beam interfering within the photorefractive substance to create a space charge field which develops within the response time of the photorefractive substance.

  16. Optical vibration detection spectral analysis assembly and method for detecting vibration in an object of interest

    DOEpatents

    Hale, T.C.; Telschow, K.L.

    1998-10-27

    A vibration detection assembly is described which includes an emitter of light which has object and reference beams, the object beam reflected off of a vibrating object of interest; and a photorefractive substance having a given response time and which passes the reflected object beam and the reference beam, the reference beam and the object beam interfering within the photorefractive substance to create a space charge field which develops within the response time of the photorefractive substance. 6 figs.

  17. Assessing the Underwater Acoustics of the World's Largest Vibration Hammer (OCTA-KONG) and Its Potential Effects on the Indo-Pacific Humpbacked Dolphin (Sousa chinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhitao; Wu, Yuping; Duan, Guoqin; Cao, Hanjiang; Liu, Jianchang; Wang, Kexiong; Wang, Ding

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise in aquatic environments is a worldwide concern due to its potential adverse effects on the environment and aquatic life. The Hongkong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge is currently under construction in the Pearl River Estuary, a hot spot for the Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in China. The OCTA-KONG, the world's largest vibration hammer, is being used during this construction project to drive or extract steel shell piles 22 m in diameter. This activity poses a substantial threat to marine mammals, and an environmental assessment is critically needed. The underwater acoustic properties of the OCTA-KONG were analyzed, and the potential impacts of the underwater acoustic energy on Sousa, including auditory masking and physiological impacts, were assessed. The fundamental frequency of the OCTA-KONG vibration ranged from 15 Hz to 16 Hz, and the noise increments were below 20 kHz, with a dominant frequency and energy below 10 kHz. The resulting sounds are most likely detectable by Sousa over distances of up to 3.5 km from the source. Although Sousa clicks do not appear to be adversely affected, Sousa whistles are susceptible to auditory masking, which may negatively impact this species' social life. Therefore, a safety zone with a radius of 500 m is proposed. Although the zero-to-peak source level (SL) of the OCTA-KONG was lower than the physiological damage level, the maximum root-mean-square SL exceeded the cetacean safety exposure level on several occasions. Moreover, the majority of the unweighted cumulative source sound exposure levels (SSELs) and the cetacean auditory weighted cumulative SSELs exceeded the acoustic threshold levels for the onset of temporary threshold shift, a type of potentially recoverable auditory damage resulting from prolonged sound exposure. These findings may aid in the identification and design of appropriate mitigation methods, such as the use of air bubble curtains, “soft start” and “power down

  18. Assessing the underwater acoustics of the world's largest vibration hammer (OCTA-KONG) and its potential effects on the Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin (Sousa chinensis).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhitao; Wu, Yuping; Duan, Guoqin; Cao, Hanjiang; Liu, Jianchang; Wang, Kexiong; Wang, Ding

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise in aquatic environments is a worldwide concern due to its potential adverse effects on the environment and aquatic life. The Hongkong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge is currently under construction in the Pearl River Estuary, a hot spot for the Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in China. The OCTA-KONG, the world's largest vibration hammer, is being used during this construction project to drive or extract steel shell piles 22 m in diameter. This activity poses a substantial threat to marine mammals, and an environmental assessment is critically needed. The underwater acoustic properties of the OCTA-KONG were analyzed, and the potential impacts of the underwater acoustic energy on Sousa, including auditory masking and physiological impacts, were assessed. The fundamental frequency of the OCTA-KONG vibration ranged from 15 Hz to 16 Hz, and the noise increments were below 20 kHz, with a dominant frequency and energy below 10 kHz. The resulting sounds are most likely detectable by Sousa over distances of up to 3.5 km from the source. Although Sousa clicks do not appear to be adversely affected, Sousa whistles are susceptible to auditory masking, which may negatively impact this species' social life. Therefore, a safety zone with a radius of 500 m is proposed. Although the zero-to-peak source level (SL) of the OCTA-KONG was lower than the physiological damage level, the maximum root-mean-square SL exceeded the cetacean safety exposure level on several occasions. Moreover, the majority of the unweighted cumulative source sound exposure levels (SSELs) and the cetacean auditory weighted cumulative SSELs exceeded the acoustic threshold levels for the onset of temporary threshold shift, a type of potentially recoverable auditory damage resulting from prolonged sound exposure. These findings may aid in the identification and design of appropriate mitigation methods, such as the use of air bubble curtains, "soft start" and "power down" techniques.

  19. Statistical Analysis of Acoustic Wave Parameters Near Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabello-Soares, M. Cristina; Bogart, Richard S.; Scherrer, Philip H.

    2016-08-01

    In order to quantify the influence of magnetic fields on acoustic mode parameters and flows in and around active regions, we analyze the differences in the parameters in magnetically quiet regions nearby an active region (which we call “nearby regions”), compared with those of quiet regions at the same disk locations for which there are no neighboring active regions. We also compare the mode parameters in active regions with those in comparably located quiet regions. Our analysis is based on ring-diagram analysis of all active regions observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) during almost five years. We find that the frequency at which the mode amplitude changes from attenuation to amplification in the quiet nearby regions is around 4.2 mHz, in contrast to the active regions, for which it is about 5.1 mHz. This amplitude enhacement (the “acoustic halo effect”) is as large as that observed in the active regions, and has a very weak dependence on the wave propagation direction. The mode energy difference in nearby regions also changes from a deficit to an excess at around 4.2 mHz, but averages to zero over all modes. The frequency difference in nearby regions increases with increasing frequency until a point at which the frequency shifts turn over sharply, as in active regions. However, this turnover occurs around 4.9 mHz, which is significantly below the acoustic cutoff frequency. Inverting the horizontal flow parameters in the direction of the neigboring active regions, we find flows that are consistent with a model of the thermal energy flow being blocked directly below the active region.

  20. Analysis and experimental validation of the middle-frequency vibro-acoustic coupling property for aircraft structural model based on the wave coupling hybrid FE-SEA method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yunju; Li, Pengbo; Lin, Huagang

    2016-06-01

    The finite element (FE) method is suitable for low frequency analysis and the statistical energy analysis (SEA) for high frequency analysis, but the vibro-acoustic coupling analysis at middle frequency, especially with a certain range of uncertainty system, requires some new methods. A hybrid FE-SEA method is proposed in this study and the Monte Carlo method is used to check the hybrid FE-SEA method through the energy response analysis of a beam-plate built-up structure with some uncertainty, and the results show that two kinds of calculation results match well consistently. Taking the advantage of the hybrid FE-SEA method, the structural vibration and the cabin noise field responses under the vibro-acoustic coupling for an aircraft model are numerically analyzed, and, also, the corresponding experiment is carried out to verify the simulated results. Results show that the structural vibration responses at low frequency accord well with the experiment, but the error at high frequency is greater. The error of sound pressure response level in cabin throughout the spectrum is less than 3 dB. The research proves the reliability of the method proposed in this paper. This indicates that the proposed method can overcome the strict limitations of the traditional method for a large complex structure with uncertainty factors, and it can also avoid the disadvantages of solving complex vibro-acoustic system using the finite element method or statistical energy analysis in the middle frequency.

  1. Wind Turbine Gearbox Condition Monitoring Round Robin Study - Vibration Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) tested two identical gearboxes. One was tested on the NWTCs 2.5 MW dynamometer and the other was field tested in a turbine in a nearby wind plant. In the field, the test gearbox experienced two oil loss events that resulted in damage to its internal bearings and gears. Since the damage was not severe, the test gearbox was removed from the field and retested in the NWTCs dynamometer before it was disassembled. During the dynamometer retest, some vibration data along with testing condition information were collected. These data enabled NREL to launch a Wind Turbine Gearbox Condition Monitoring Round Robin project, as described in this report. The main objective of this project was to evaluate different vibration analysis algorithms used in wind turbine condition monitoring (CM) and find out whether the typical practices are effective. With involvement of both academic researchers and industrial partners, the project sets an example on providing cutting edge research results back to industry.

  2. Temperature dependent vibration analysis of functionally graded rectangular plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Wann

    2005-06-01

    A theoretical method is developed to investigate vibration characteristics of initially stressed functionally graded rectangular plates made up of metal and ceramic in thermal environment. The temperature is assumed to be constant in the plane of the plate and to vary in the thickness direction only. Two types of thermal condition are considered. The first type is that one value of the temperature is imposed on the upper surface and the other (or same) value on the lower surface. The second is that the heat flows from the upper surface to the lower one held at a prescribed temperature. Material properties are assumed to be temperature dependent, and vary continuously through the thickness according to a power law distribution in terms of the volume fraction of the constituents. The third-order shear deformation plate theory to account for rotary inertia and transverse shear strains is adopted to formulate the theoretical model. The Rayleigh-Ritz procedure is applied to obtain the frequency equation. The analysis is based on an expansion of the displacements in the double Fourier series that satisfy the boundary conditions. The effect of material compositions, plate geometry, and temperature fields on the vibration characteristics is examined. The present theoretical results are verified by comparing with those in literature.

  3. Dynamic response analysis of an aircraft structure under thermal-acoustic loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, H.; Li, H. B.; Zhang, W.; Wu, Z. Q.; Liu, B. R.

    2016-09-01

    Future hypersonic aircraft will be exposed to extreme combined environments includes large magnitude thermal and acoustic loads. It presents a significant challenge for the integrity of these vehicles. Thermal-acoustic test is used to test structures for dynamic response and sonic fatigue due to combined loads. In this research, the numerical simulation process for the thermal acoustic test is presented, and the effects of thermal loads on vibro-acoustic response are investigated. To simulate the radiation heating system, Monte Carlo theory and thermal network theory was used to calculate the temperature distribution. Considering the thermal stress, the high temperature modal parameters are obtained with structural finite element methods. Based on acoustic finite element, modal-based vibro-acoustic analysis is carried out to compute structural responses. These researches are very vital to optimum thermal-acoustic test and structure designs for future hypersonic vehicles structure

  4. Vibration mode analysis of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, B.; Liu, L. F.; Wei, M. Y.; Wu, C. W.

    2016-11-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stacks usually undergo vibration during packing, transportation, and serving time, in particular for those used in the automobiles or portable equipment. To study the stack vibration response, based on finite element method (FEM), a mode analysis is carried out in the present paper. Using this method, we can distinguish the local vibration from the stack global modes, predict the vibration responses, such as deformed shape and direction, and discuss the effects of the clamping configuration and the clamping force magnitude on vibration modes. It is found that when the total clamping force remains the same, increasing the bolt number can strengthen the stack resistance to vibration in the clamping direction, but cannot obviously strengthen stack resistance to vibration in the translations perpendicular to clamping direction and the three axis rotations. Increasing the total clamping force can increase both of the stack global mode and the bolt local mode frequencies, but will decrease the gasket local mode frequency.

  5. Mobility power flow analysis of coupled plate structure subjected to mechanical and acoustic excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuschieri, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    The mobility power flow approach that was previously applied in the derivation of expressions for the vibrational power flow between coupled plate substructures forming an L configuration and subjected to mechanical loading is generalized. Using the generalized expressions, both point and distributed mechanical loads on one or both of the plates can be considered. The generalized approach is extended to deal with acoustic excitation of one of the plate substructures. In this case, the forces (acoustic pressures) acting on the structure are dependent on the response of the structure because of the scattered pressure component. The interaction between the plate structure and the acoustic fluid leads to the derivation of a corrected mode shape for the plates' normal surface velocity and also for the structure mobility functions. The determination of the scattered pressure components in the expressions for the power flow represents an additional component in the power flow balance for the source plate and the receiver plate. This component represents the radiated acoustical power from the plate structure. For a number of coupled plate substrates, the acoustic pressure generated by one substructure will interact with the motion of another substructure. That is, in the case of the L-shaped plate, acoustic interaction exists between the two plate substructures due to the generation of the acoustic waves by each of the substructures. An approach to deal with this phenomena is described.

  6. Filterbank-based independent component analysis for acoustic mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyung-Min

    2011-06-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) for acoustic mixtures has been a challenging problem due to very complex reverberation involved in real-world mixing environments. In an effort to overcome disadvantages of the conventional time domain and frequency domain approaches, this paper describes filterbank-based independent component analysis for acoustic mixtures. In this approach, input signals are split into subband signals and decimated. A simplified network performs ICA on the decimated signals, and finally independent components are synthesized. First, a uniform filterbank is employed in the approach for basic and simple derivation and implementation. The uniform-filterbank-based approach achieves better separation performance than the frequency domain approach and gives faster convergence speed with less computational complexity than the time domain approach. Since most of natural signals have exponentially or more steeply decreasing energy as the frequency increases, the spectral characteristics of natural signals introduce a Bark-scale filterbank which divides low frequency region minutely and high frequency region widely. The Bark-scale-filterbank-based approach shows faster convergence speed than the uniform-filterbank-based one because it has more whitened inputs in low frequency subbands. It also improves separation performance as it has enough data to train adaptive parameters exactly in high frequency subbands.

  7. Multiple vibration displacements at multiple vibration frequencies stress impact on human femur computational analysis.

    PubMed

    Ezenwa, Bertram; Yeoh, Han Teik

    2011-01-01

    Whole-body vibration training using single-frequency methods has been reported to improve bone mineral density. However, the intensities can exceed safe levels and have drawn unfavorable comments from subjects. In a previous article, whole-body vibration training using multiple vibration displacements at multiple vibration frequencies (MVDMVF) was reported. This article presents the computational simulation evaluation of stress dispersion on a femur with and without the MVDMVF input. A model of bone femur was developed from a computed tomography image of the lower limb with Mimics software from Materialise (Plymouth, Michigan). We analyzed the mesh model in COMSOL Multiphysics (COMSOL, Inc; Burlington, Massachusetts) with and without MVDMVF input, with constraints and load applied to the femur model. We compared the results with published joint stresses during walking, jogging, and stair-climbing and descending and with standard vibration exposure limits. Results showed stress levels on the femur are significantly higher with MVDMVF input than without. The stress levels were within the published levels during walking and stair-climbing and descending but below the stress levels during jogging. Our computational results demonstrate that MVDMVF generates stress level equivalent to the level during walking and stair-climbing. This evidence suggests that MVDMVF is safe for prolonged use in subjects with osteoporosis who ambulate independently. PMID:21480091

  8. Acoustic streaming jets: A scaling and dimensional analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Botton, V. Henry, D.; Millet, S.; Ben-Hadid, H.; Garandet, J. P.

    2015-10-28

    We present our work on acoustic streaming free jets driven by ultrasonic beams in liquids. These jets are steady flows generated far from walls by progressive acoustic waves. As can be seen on figure 1, our set-up, denominated AStrID for Acoustic Streaming Investigation Device, is made of a water tank in which a 29 mm plane source emits continuous ultrasonic waves at typically 2 MHz. Our approach combines an experimental characterization of both the acoustic pressure field (hydrophone) and the obtained acoustic streaming velocity field (PIV visualization) on one hand, with CFD using an incompressible Navier-Stokes solver on the other hand.

  9. Structural and torsional vibration analysis of a dry screw compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willie, J.; Sachs, R.

    2015-08-01

    This paper investigates torsional vibration and pulsating noise in a dry screw compressor. The compressor is designed at Gardner Denver (GD) and is oil free and use for mounting on highway trucks. They are driven using a Power Take-Off (PTO) transmission and gear box on a truck. Torque peak fluctuation and noise measurements are done and their sources are investigated and reported in this work. To accurately predict the torsional response (frequency and relative angular deflection and torque amplitude), the Holzer method is used. It is shown that the first torsional frequency is manifested as sidebands in the gear train meshing frequencies and this can lead to noise that is the result of amplitude modulation. Sensitivity analysis of the drive train identifies the weakest link in the drive train that limits the first torsional frequency to a low value. Finally, the significance of higher mode shapes on inter-lobe clearance distribution of the rotors is investigated.

  10. Coefficient of variation spectral analysis: An application to underwater acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herstein, P. D.; Laplante, R. F.

    1983-05-01

    Acoustic noise in the ocean is often described in terms of its power spectral density. Just as in other media, this noise consists of both narrowband and broadband frequency components. A major problem in the analysis of power spectral density measurements is distinguishing between narrowband spectral components of interest and contaminating narrowband components. In this paper, the use of coefficient of variation (Cv) spectrum is examined as an adjunct to the conventional power spectrum to distinguish narrowband components of interest from contaminating components. The theory of the Cv is presented. Coefficients for several classical input distributions are developed. It is shown that Cv spectra can be easily implemented as an adjunct procedure during the computation of the ensemble of averaged power spectra. Power and Cv spectra derived from actual at-sea sonobuoy measurements of deep ocean ambient noise separate narrowband components from narrowband lines of interest in the ensemble of averaged power spectra, these acoustic components of interest can be distinguished in the Cv spectra.

  11. An analysis of the acoustic input impedance of the ear.

    PubMed

    Withnell, Robert H; Gowdy, Lauren E

    2013-10-01

    Ear canal acoustics was examined using a one-dimensional lossy transmission line with a distributed load impedance to model the ear. The acoustic input impedance of the ear was derived from sound pressure measurements in the ear canal of healthy human ears. A nonlinear least squares fit of the model to data generated estimates for ear canal radius, ear canal length, and quantified the resistance that would produce transmission losses. Derivation of ear canal radius has application to quantifying the impedance mismatch at the eardrum between the ear canal and the middle ear. The length of the ear canal was found, in general, to be longer than the length derived from the one-quarter wavelength standing wave frequency, consistent with the middle ear being mass-controlled at the standing wave frequency. Viscothermal losses in the ear canal, in some cases, may exceed that attributable to a smooth rigid wall. Resistance in the middle ear was found to contribute significantly to the total resistance. In effect, this analysis "reverse engineers" physical parameters of the ear from sound pressure measurements in the ear canal.

  12. Experimental vibration level analysis of a Francis turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucur, D. M.; Dunca, G.; Cǎlinoiu, C.

    2012-11-01

    In this study the vibration level of a Francis turbine is investigated by experimental work in site. Measurements are carried out for different power output values, in order to highlight the influence of the operation regimes on the turbine behavior. The study focuses on the turbine shaft to identify the mechanical vibration sources and on the draft tube in order to identify the hydraulic vibration sources. Analyzing the vibration results, recommendations regarding the operation of the turbine, at partial load close to minimum values, in the middle of the operating domain or close to maximum values of electric power, can be made in order to keep relatively low levels of vibration. Finally, conclusions are drawn in order to present the real sources of the vibrations.

  13. Vibration and aeroelastic analysis of highly flexible HALE aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chong-Seok

    The highly flexible HALE (High Altitude Long Endurance) aircraft analysis methodology is of interest because early studies indicated that HALE aircraft might have different vibration and aeroelastic characteristics from those of conventional aircraft. Recently the computer code Nonlinear Aeroelastic Trim And Stability of HALE Aircraft (NATASHA) was developed under NASA sponsorship. NATASHA can predict the flight dynamics and aeroelastic behavior for HALE aircraft with a flying wing configuration. Further analysis improvements for NATASHA were required to extend its capability to the ground vibration test (GVT) environment and to both GVT and aeroelastic behavior of HALE aircraft with other configurations. First, the analysis methodology, based on geometrically exact fully intrinsic beam theory, was extended to treat other aircraft cofigurations. Conventional aircraft with flexible fuselage and tail can now be modeled by treating the aircraft as an assembly of beam elements. NATASHA is now applicable to any aircraft cofiguration that can be modeled this way. The intrinsic beam formulation, which is a fundamental structural modeling approach, is now capable of being applying to a structure consisting of multiple beams by relating the virtual displacements and rotations at points where two or more beam elements are connected to each other. Additional aspects are also considered in the analysis such as auxiliary elevator input in the horizontal tail and fuselage aerodynamics. Second, the modeling approach was extended to treat the GVT environment for HALE aircraft, which have highly flexible wings. GVT has its main purpose to provide modal characteristics for model validation. A bungee formulation was developed by the augmented Lagrangian method and coupled to the intrinsic beam formulation for the GVT modeling. After the coupling procedure, the whole formulation cannot be fully intrinsic because the geometric constraint by bungee cords makes the system statically

  14. Wave Propagation in Exponentially Varying Cross-Section Rods and Vibration Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nikkhah-Bahrami, Mansour; Loghmani, Masih; Pooyanfar, Mostafa

    2008-09-01

    In this paper vibration as propagating waves is used to calculate frequencies of exponentially varying cross-section rods with various boundary conditions. From wave standpoint, vibrations propagate, reflect and transmit in structures. The propagation and reflection matrices are combined to provide a concise and systematic approach to free longitudinal vibration analysis of exponentially varying cross-section rods. The results are compared with another method.

  15. USED FUEL RAIL SHOCK AND VIBRATION TESTING OPTIONS ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Steven B.; Best, Ralph E.; Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Jensen, Philip J.; Maheras, Steven J.

    2014-09-29

    The objective of the rail shock and vibration tests is to complete the framework needed to quantify loads of fuel assembly components that are necessary to guide materials research and establish a technical basis for review organizations such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A significant body of experimental and numerical modeling data exists to quantify loads and failure limits applicable to normal conditions of transport (NCT) rail transport, but the data are based on assumptions that can only be verified through experimental testing. The test options presented in this report represent possible paths for acquiring the data that are needed to confirm the assumptions of previous work, validate modeling methods that will be needed for evaluating transported fuel on a case-by-case basis, and inform material test campaigns on the anticipated range of fuel loading. The ultimate goal of this testing is to close all of the existing knowledge gaps related to the loading of used fuel under NCT conditions and inform the experiments and analysis program on specific endpoints for their research. The options include tests that would use an actual railcar, surrogate assemblies, and real or simulated rail transportation casks. The railcar carrying the cradle, cask, and surrogate fuel assembly payload would be moved in a train operating over rail track modified or selected to impart shock and vibration forces that occur during normal rail transportation. Computer modeling would be used to help design surrogates that may be needed for a rail cask, a cask’s internal basket, and a transport cradle. The objective of the design of surrogate components would be to provide a test platform that effectively simulates responses to rail shock and vibration loads that would be exhibited by state-of-the-art rail cask, basket, and/or cradle structures. The computer models would also be used to help determine the placement of instrumentation (accelerometers and strain gauges

  16. Acoustic-Seismic Coupling in Porous Ground - Measurements and Analysis for On-Site-Inspection Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebsch, Mattes; Gorschlüter, Felix; Altmann, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    During on-site inspections (OSI) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO) a local seismic network can be installed to measure seismic aftershock signals of an assumed underground nuclear explosion. These signals are caused by relaxation processes in and near the cavity created by the explosion and when detected can lead to a localisation of the cavity. This localisation is necessary to take gas samples from the ground which are analysed for radioactive noble gas isotopes to confirm or dismiss the suspicion of a nuclear test. The aftershock signals are of very low magnitude so they can be masked by different sources, in particular periodic disturbances caused by vehicles and aircraft in the inspection area. Vehicles and aircraft (mainly helicopters) will be used for the inspection activities themselves, e.g. for overhead imagery or magnetic-anomaly sensing. While vehicles in contact with the ground can excite soil vibrations directly, aircraft and vehicles alike emit acoustic waves which excite soil vibrations when hitting the ground. These disturbing signals are of periodic nature while the seismic aftershock signals are pulse-shaped, so their separation is possible. The understanding of the coupling of acoustic waves to the ground is yet incomplete, a better understanding is necessary to improve the performance of an OSI, e.g. to address potential consequences for the sensor placement, the helicopter trajectories etc. In a project funded by the Young Scientist Research Award of the CTBTO to one of us (ML), we investigated the acoustic-seismic coupling of airborne signals of jet aircraft and artificially induced ones by a speaker. During a measurement campaign several acoustic and seismic sensors were placed below the take-off trajectory of an airport at 4 km distance. Therefore taking off and landing jet aircraft passed nearly straightly above the setup. Microphones were placed close to the ground to record the sound pressure of incident

  17. Design and performance analysis of a rotary traveling wave ultrasonic motor with double vibrators.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhaopeng; Yang, Ming; Chen, Zhangqi; Xu, Liang; Meng, Fan; Ou, Wenchu

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the development of a rotary traveling wave ultrasonic motor, in which a vibrating stator and vibrating rotor are combined in one motor. The stator and rotor are designed as similar structures an elastic body and a piezoelectric ceramic ring. In exciting of the piezoelectric ceramics, the elastic body of the stator and rotor will generate respective traveling waves, which force each other forward in the contact zone. Based on the elliptical rule of particle motion and matching principle of vibration, the design rules of two vibrators are determined. The finite element method is used to design the sizes of vibrators to ensure that they operate in resonance, and the simulation is verified by measuring the vibration with an impedance analyzer. It is found out that to maintain an appropriate contact between the stator and rotor, two vibrators need to be designed with close resonance frequencies, different vibration amplitudes, and be driven by an identical driving frequency. To analyze this innovative contact mechanism, particle velocity synthesis theory and contact force analysis using Hertz contact model are carried out. Finally, a prototype is fabricated and tested to verify the theoretical results. The test results show that the output performance of the motor driven by the two vibrators is significantly improved compared to the motor driven by a sole stator or rotor, which confirms the validity of the double-vibrator motor concept.

  18. Design and performance analysis of a rotary traveling wave ultrasonic motor with double vibrators.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhaopeng; Yang, Ming; Chen, Zhangqi; Xu, Liang; Meng, Fan; Ou, Wenchu

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the development of a rotary traveling wave ultrasonic motor, in which a vibrating stator and vibrating rotor are combined in one motor. The stator and rotor are designed as similar structures an elastic body and a piezoelectric ceramic ring. In exciting of the piezoelectric ceramics, the elastic body of the stator and rotor will generate respective traveling waves, which force each other forward in the contact zone. Based on the elliptical rule of particle motion and matching principle of vibration, the design rules of two vibrators are determined. The finite element method is used to design the sizes of vibrators to ensure that they operate in resonance, and the simulation is verified by measuring the vibration with an impedance analyzer. It is found out that to maintain an appropriate contact between the stator and rotor, two vibrators need to be designed with close resonance frequencies, different vibration amplitudes, and be driven by an identical driving frequency. To analyze this innovative contact mechanism, particle velocity synthesis theory and contact force analysis using Hertz contact model are carried out. Finally, a prototype is fabricated and tested to verify the theoretical results. The test results show that the output performance of the motor driven by the two vibrators is significantly improved compared to the motor driven by a sole stator or rotor, which confirms the validity of the double-vibrator motor concept. PMID:27336793

  19. Analysis of the measurement sensitivity of multidimensional vibrating microprobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Riel, M. C. J. M.; Bos, E. J. C.; Homburg, F. G. A.

    2014-07-01

    A comparison is made between tactile and vibrating microprobes regarding the measurement of typical high aspect ratio microfeatures. It is found that vibrating probes enable the use of styli with higher aspect ratios than tactile probes and are still capable of measuring with high sensitivity. In addition to the one dimensional sensitivity, the directional measurement sensitivity of a vibrating probe is investigated. A vibrating microprobe can perform measurements with high sensitivity in a space spanned by its mode shapes. If the natural frequencies that correspond to these mode shapes are different, the probe shows anisotropic and sub-optimal measurement sensitivity. It is shown that the closer the natural frequencies of the probe are, the better its performance is when regarding optimal and isotropic measurement sensitivity. A novel proof-of-principle setup of a vibrating probe with two nearly equal natural frequencies is realized. This system is able to perform measurements with high and isotropic sensitivity.

  20. Vibration and noise analysis of a gear transmission system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choy, F. K.; Qian, W.; Zakrajsek, J. J.; Oswald, F. B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive procedure to predict both the vibration and noise generated by a gear transmission system under normal operating conditions. The gearbox vibrations were obtained from both numerical simulation and experimental studies using a gear noise test rig. In addition, the noise generated by the gearbox vibrations was recorded during the experimental testing. A numerical method was used to develop linear relationships between the gearbox vibration and the generated noise. The hypercoherence function is introduced to correlate the nonlinear relationship between the fundamental noise frequency and its harmonics. A numerical procedure was developed using both the linear and nonlinear relationships generated from the experimental data to predict noise resulting from the gearbox vibrations. The application of this methodology is demonstrated by comparing the numerical and experimental results from the gear noise test rig.

  1. Experimental Analysis of a Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting System for Harmonic, Random, and Sine on Random Vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Cryns, Jackson W.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Santiago-Rojas, Emiliano; Silvers, Kurt L.

    2013-07-01

    Formal journal article Experimental analysis of a piezoelectric energy harvesting system for harmonic, random, and sine on random vibration Abstract: Harvesting power with a piezoelectric vibration powered generator using a full-wave rectifier conditioning circuit is experimentally compared for varying sinusoidal, random and sine on random (SOR) input vibration scenarios. Additionally, the implications of source vibration characteristics on harvester design are discussed. Studies in vibration harvesting have yielded numerous alternatives for harvesting electrical energy from vibrations but piezoceramics arose as the most compact, energy dense means of energy transduction. The rise in popularity of harvesting energy from ambient vibrations has made piezoelectric generators commercially available. Much of the available literature focuses on maximizing harvested power through nonlinear processing circuits that require accurate knowledge of generator internal mechanical and electrical characteristics and idealization of the input vibration source, which cannot be assumed in general application. In this manuscript, variations in source vibration and load resistance are explored for a commercially available piezoelectric generator. We characterize the source vibration by its acceleration response for repeatability and transcription to general application. The results agree with numerical and theoretical predictions for in previous literature that load optimal resistance varies with transducer natural frequency and source type, and the findings demonstrate that significant gains are seen with lower tuned transducer natural frequencies for similar source amplitudes. Going beyond idealized steady state sinusoidal and simplified random vibration input, SOR testing allows for more accurate representation of real world ambient vibration. It is shown that characteristic interactions from more complex vibrational sources significantly alter power generation and power processing

  2. Analysis of underwater decoupling properties of a locally resonant acoustic metamaterial coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling-Zhi, Huang; Yong, Xiao; Ji-Hong, Wen; Hai-Bin, Yang; Xi-Sen, Wen

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a semi-analytical solution for the vibration and sound radiation of a semi-infinite plate covered by a decoupling layer consisting of locally resonant acoustic metamaterial. Formulations are derived based on a combination use of effective medium theory and the theory of elasticity for the decoupling material. Theoretical results show good agreements between the method developed in this paper and the conventional finite element method (FEM), but the method of this paper is more efficient than FEM. Numerical results also show that system with acoustic metamaterial decoupling layer exhibits significant noise reduction performance at the local resonance frequency of the acoustic metamaterial, and such performance can be ascribed to the vibration suppression of the base plate. It is demonstrated that the effective density of acoustic metamaterial decoupling layer has a great influence on the mechanical impedance of the system. Furthermore, the resonance frequency of locally resonant structure can be effectively predicted by a simple model, and it can be significantly affected by the material properties of the locally resonant structure. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51305448 and 51275519).

  3. Numerical analysis of ultrasound propagation and reflection intensity for biological acoustic impedance microscope.

    PubMed

    Gunawan, Agus Indra; Hozumi, Naohiro; Yoshida, Sachiko; Saijo, Yoshifumi; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Yamamoto, Seiji

    2015-08-01

    This paper proposes a new method for microscopic acoustic imaging that utilizes the cross sectional acoustic impedance of biological soft tissues. In the system, a focused acoustic beam with a wide band frequency of 30-100 MHz is transmitted across a plastic substrate on the rear side of which a soft tissue object is placed. By scanning the focal point along the surface, a 2-D reflection intensity profile is obtained. In the paper, interpretation of the signal intensity into a characteristic acoustic impedance is discussed. Because the acoustic beam is strongly focused, interpretation assuming vertical incidence may lead to significant error. To determine an accurate calibration curve, a numerical sound field analysis was performed. In these calculations, the reflection intensity from a target with an assumed acoustic impedance was compared with that from water, which was used as a reference material. The calibration curve was determined by changing the assumed acoustic impedance of the target material. The calibration curve was verified experimentally using saline solution, of which the acoustic impedance was known, as the target material. Finally, the cerebellar tissue of a rat was observed to create an acoustic impedance micro profile. In the paper, details of the numerical analysis and verification of the observation results will be described.

  4. A Patch Density Recommendation based on Convergence Studies for Vehicle Panel Vibration Response resulting from Excitation by a Diffuse Acoustic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Andrew; LaVerde, Bruce; Jones, Douglas; Towner, Robert; Hunt, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Fluid structural interaction problems that estimate panel vibration from an applied pressure field excitation are quite dependent on the spatial correlation of the pressure field. There is a danger of either over estimating a low frequency response or under predicting broad band panel response in the more modally dense bands if the pressure field spatial correlation is not accounted for adequately. Even when the analyst elects to use a fitted function for the spatial correlation an error may be introduced if the choice of patch density is not fine enough to represent the more continuous spatial correlation function throughout the intended frequency range of interest. Both qualitative and quantitative illustrations evaluating the adequacy of different patch density assumptions to approximate the fitted spatial correlation function are provided. The actual response of a typical vehicle panel system is then evaluated in a convergence study where the patch density assumptions are varied over the same finite element model. The convergence study results are presented illustrating the impact resulting from a poor choice of patch density. The fitted correlation function used in this study represents a Diffuse Acoustic Field (DAF) excitation of the panel to produce vibration response.

  5. A Patch Density Recommendation based on Convergence Studies for Vehicle Panel Vibration Response resulting from Excitation by a Diffuse Acoustic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Andrew; LaVerde, Bruce; Jones, Douglas; Towner, Robert; Waldon, James; Hunt, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Producing fluid structural interaction estimates of panel vibration from an applied pressure field excitation are quite dependent on the spatial correlation of the pressure field. There is a danger of either over estimating a low frequency response or under predicting broad band panel response in the more modally dense bands if the pressure field spatial correlation is not accounted for adequately. It is a useful practice to simulate the spatial correlation of the applied pressure field over a 2d surface using a matrix of small patch area regions on a finite element model (FEM). Use of a fitted function for the spatial correlation between patch centers can result in an error if the choice of patch density is not fine enough to represent the more continuous spatial correlation function throughout the intended frequency range of interest. Several patch density assumptions to approximate the fitted spatial correlation function are first evaluated using both qualitative and quantitative illustrations. The actual response of a typical vehicle panel system FEM is then examined in a convergence study where the patch density assumptions are varied over the same model. The convergence study results illustrate the impacts possible from a poor choice of patch density on the analytical response estimate. The fitted correlation function used in this study represents a diffuse acoustic field (DAF) excitation of the panel to produce vibration response.

  6. Acoustics in mechanical engineering undergraduate core courses: Challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, M. G.

    2005-04-01

    Generally in an undergraduate curriculum of mechanical engineering, acoustics is not included as a core course. The major core courses deal with mechanics, design, dynamics of machinery, etc. However, engineering aspects of acoustics or noise can be included through elective courses. Given the limited slots for elective courses in a curriculum, it is difficult to run elective courses in acoustics regularly with a required number of students. The challenge is to find innovative ways to include acoustics into core courses so that all students are exposed to the field and its applications. The design and analysis of machine elements such as cams, gears, etc. are always part of core courses. It is in these contexts that the acoustics through noise aspects including multimedia can be introduced. Acoustics as an effect due to vibration as cause can be included in vibration analysis. A core course on system modeling can include acoustics. The integration of acoustical topics not only strengthens the core courses but also prepares the graduating engineer to deal with real problems better. Thus, it is important for academic acousticians to bring acoustics into the core courses. This paper presents some efforts to include the acoustics material in some core courses.

  7. Acoustic emission analysis as a non-destructive test procedure for fiber compound structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, J.

    1983-01-01

    The concept of acoustic emission analysis is explained in scientific terms. The detection of acoustic events, their localization, damage discrimination, and event summation curves are discussed. A block diagram of the concept of damage-free testing of fiber-reinforced synthetic materials is depicted. Prospects for application of the concept are assessed.

  8. Using rotor or tip speed in the acoustical analysis of small wind turbines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acoustical noise data have been collected and analyzed on small wind turbines used for water pumping at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory (CPRL) near Bushland, Texas. This acoustical analysis differed from previous research in that the data were analyzed with rotor or tip ...

  9. Acoustic streaming of a sharp edge.

    PubMed

    Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Zhou, Jianbo; Yalamanchili, Satish

    2014-07-01

    Anomalous acoustic streaming is observed emanating from sharp edges of solid bodies that are vibrating in fluids. The streaming velocities can be orders of magnitude higher than expected from the Rayleigh streaming at similar amplitudes of vibration. Acoustic velocity of fluid relative to a solid body diverges at a sharp edge, giving rise to a localized time-independent body force acting on the fluid. This force results in a formation of a localized jet. Two-dimensional numerical simulations are performed to predict acoustic streaming for low amplitude vibration using two methods: (1) Steady-state solution utilizing perturbation theory and (2) direct transient solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. Both analyses agree with each other and correctly predict the streaming of a sharp-edged vibrating blade measured experimentally. The origin of the streaming can be attributed to the centrifugal force of the acoustic fluid flow around a sharp edge. The dependence of this acoustic streaming on frequency and velocity is examined using dimensional analysis. The dependence law is devised and confirmed by numerical simulations.

  10. Analysis of passive acoustic ranging of helicopters from the joint acoustic propagation experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnes, Benny L.; Morgan, John C.

    1993-01-01

    For more than twenty years, personnel of the U.S.A.E. Waterways Experiment Station (WES) have been performing research dealing with the application of sensors for detection of military targets. The WES research has included the use of seismic, acoustic, magnetic, and other sensors to detect, track, and classify military ground targets. Most of the WES research has been oriented toward the employment of such sensors in a passive mode. Techniques for passive detection are of particular interest in the Army because of the advantages over active detection. Passive detection methods are not susceptible to interception, detection, jamming, or location of the source by the threat. A decided advantage for using acoustic and seismic sensors for detection in tactical situations is the non-line-of-sight capability; i.e., detection of low flying helicopters at long distances without visual contact. This study was conducted to analyze the passive acoustic ranging (PAR) concept using a more extensive data set from the Joint Acoustic Propagation Experiment (JAPE).

  11. Vibration analysis of rotor blades with an attached concentrated mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, V. R.; Barna, P. S.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of an attached concentrated mass on the dynamics of helicopter rotor blades is determined. The point transmission matrix method was used to define, through three completely automated computer programs, the natural vibrational characteristics (natural frequencies and mode shapes) of rotor blades. The problems of coupled flapwise bending, chordwise bending, and torsional vibration of a twisted nonuniform blade and its special subcase pure torsional vibration are discussed. The orthogonality relations that exist between the natural modes of rotor blades with an attached concentrated mass are derived. The effect of pitch, rotation, and point mass parameters on the collective, cyclic, scissor, and pure torsional modes of a seesaw rotor blade is determined.

  12. Feigned Depression and Feigned Sleepiness: A Voice Acoustical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Nicole; Cannizzaro, Michael S.; Harel, Brian T.; Snyder, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    We sought to profile the voice acoustical correlates of simulated, or feigned depression by neurologically and psychiatrically healthy control subjects. We also sought to identify the voice acoustical correlates of feigned sleepiness for these same subjects. Twenty-two participants were asked to speak freely about a cartoon, to count from 1 to 10,…

  13. Wind turbine acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, Harvey H.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    1990-01-01

    Available information on the physical characteristics of the noise generated by wind turbines is summarized, with example sound pressure time histories, narrow- and broadband frequency spectra, and noise radiation patterns. Reviewed are noise measurement standards, analysis technology, and a method of characterizing wind turbine noise. Prediction methods are given for both low-frequency rotational harmonics and broadband noise components. Also included are atmospheric propagation data showing the effects of distance and refraction by wind shear. Human perception thresholds, based on laboratory and field tests, are given. Building vibration analysis methods are summarized. The bibliography of this report lists technical publications on all aspects of wind turbine acoustics.

  14. Computer analysis of vibrational spectra of aqueous ethanol solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burikov, S. A.; Dolenko, T. A.; Kurchatov, I. S.; Patsaeva, S. V.; Starokurov, Yu. V.

    2012-09-01

    Results of decomposition of vibrational spectra for aqueous ethanol solutions into components in the region of hydroxyl group stretching vibrations are presented. The infrared light absorption and Raman scattering spectra are investigated for alcohol concentrations in the solution changing from 0 to 90 mass %. Methods of higher derivatives and genetic algorithms together with the simplex method are used to investigate the OH stretching vibrational band contour. Independent methods of spectral structure resolution demonstrate good agreement in the number of the major spectral components as well as in the dependences of the peak wavenumbers, band widths, and amplitudes of spectral components on the ethanol concentration in water. The observed changes in the shape of the spectral contour for OH stretching vibration and, therefore, its components are explained in terms of the hydrogen bonding in non-electrolyte/water mixtures.

  15. Calculation of Raman optical activity spectra for vibrational analysis.

    PubMed

    Mutter, Shaun T; Zielinski, François; Popelier, Paul L A; Blanch, Ewan W

    2015-05-01

    By looking back on the history of Raman Optical Activity (ROA), the present article shows that the success of this analytical technique was for a long time hindered, paradoxically, by the deep level of detail and wealth of structural information it can provide. Basic principles of the underlying theory are discussed, to illustrate the technique's sensitivity due to its physical origins in the delicate response of molecular vibrations to electromagnetic properties. Following a short review of significant advances in the application of ROA by UK researchers, we dedicate two extensive sections to the technical and theoretical difficulties that were overcome to eventually provide predictive power to computational simulations in terms of ROA spectral calculation. In the last sections, we focus on a new modelling strategy that has been successful in coping with the dramatic impact of solvent effects on ROA analyses. This work emphasises the role of complementarity between experiment and theory for analysing the conformations and dynamics of biomolecules, so providing new perspectives for methodological improvements and molecular modelling development. For the latter, an example of a next-generation force-field for more accurate simulations and analysis of molecular behaviour is presented. By improving the accuracy of computational modelling, the analytical capabilities of ROA spectroscopy will be further developed so generating new insights into the complex behaviour of molecules.

  16. Alignment of an acoustic manipulation device with cepstral analysis of electronic impedance data.

    PubMed

    Hughes, D A; Qiu, Y; Démoré, C; Weijer, C J; Cochran, S

    2015-02-01

    Acoustic particle manipulation is an emerging technology that uses ultrasonic standing waves to position objects with pressure gradients and acoustic radiation forces. To produce strong standing waves, the transducer and the reflector must be aligned properly such that they are parallel to each other. This can be a difficult process due to the need to visualise the ultrasound waves and as higher frequencies are introduced, this alignment requires higher accuracy. In this paper, we present a method for aligning acoustic resonators with cepstral analysis. This is a simple signal processing technique that requires only the electrical impedance measurement data of the resonator, which is usually recorded during the fabrication process of the device. We first introduce the mathematical basis of cepstral analysis and then demonstrate and validate it using a computer simulation of an acoustic resonator. Finally, the technique is demonstrated experimentally to create many parallel linear traps for 10 μm fluorescent beads inside an acoustic resonator.

  17. Application of wavelet analysis in laser Doppler vibration signal denoising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Yu-fei; Xue, Hui-feng; Li, Xin-liang; Liu, Dan

    2010-10-01

    Large number of experiments show that, due to external disturbances, the measured surface is too rough and other factors make use of laser Doppler technique to detect the vibration signal contained complex information, low SNR, resulting in Doppler frequency shift signals unmeasured, can not be demodulated Doppler phase and so on. This paper first analyzes the laser Doppler signal model and feature in the vibration test, and studies the most commonly used three ways of wavelet denoising techniques: the modulus maxima wavelet denoising method, the spatial correlation denoising method and wavelet threshold denoising method. Here we experiment with the vibration signals and achieve three ways by MATLAB simulation. Processing results show that the wavelet modulus maxima denoising method at low laser Doppler vibration SNR, has an advantage for the signal which mixed with white noise and contained more singularities; the spatial correlation denoising method is more suitable for denoising the laser Doppler vibration signal which noise level is not very high, and has a better edge reconstruction capacity; wavelet threshold denoising method has a wide range of adaptability, computational efficiency, and good denoising effect. Specifically, in the wavelet threshold denoising method, we estimate the original noise variance by spatial correlation method, using an adaptive threshold denoising method, and make some certain amendments in practice. Test can be shown that, compared with conventional threshold denoising, this method is more effective to extract the feature of laser Doppler vibration signal.

  18. Surface acoustic wave nebulization facilitating lipid mass spectrometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sung Hwan; Huang, Yue; Edgar, J Scott; Ting, Ying S; Heron, Scott R; Kao, Yuchieh; Li, Yanyan; Masselon, Christophe D; Ernst, Robert K; Goodlett, David R

    2012-08-01

    Surface acoustic wave nebulization (SAWN) is a novel method to transfer nonvolatile analytes directly from the aqueous phase to the gas phase for mass spectrometric analysis. The lower ion energetics of SAWN and its planar nature make it appealing for analytically challenging lipid samples. This challenge is a result of their amphipathic nature, labile nature, and tendency to form aggregates, which readily precipitate clogging capillaries used for electrospray ionization (ESI). Here, we report the use of SAWN to characterize the complex glycolipid, lipid A, which serves as the membrane anchor component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and has a pronounced tendency to clog nano-ESI capillaries. We also show that unlike ESI SAWN is capable of ionizing labile phospholipids without fragmentation. Lastly, we compare the ease of use of SAWN to the more conventional infusion-based ESI methods and demonstrate the ability to generate higher order tandem mass spectral data of lipid A for automated structure assignment using our previously reported hierarchical tandem mass spectrometry (HiTMS) algorithm. The ease of generating SAWN-MS(n) data combined with HiTMS interpretation offers the potential for high throughput lipid A structure analysis.

  19. Acoustic emission analysis of tooth-composite interfacial debonding.

    PubMed

    Cho, N Y; Ferracane, J L; Lee, I B

    2013-01-01

    This study detected tooth-composite interfacial debonding during composite restoration by means of acoustic emission (AE) analysis and investigated the effects of composite properties and adhesives on AE characteristics. The polymerization shrinkage, peak shrinkage rate, flexural modulus, and shrinkage stress of a methacrylate-based universal hybrid, a flowable, and a silorane-based composite were measured. Class I cavities on 49 extracted premolars were restored with 1 of the 3 composites and 1 of the following adhesives: 2 etch-and-rinse adhesives, 2 self-etch adhesives, and an adhesive for the silorane-based composite. AE analysis was done for 2,000 sec during light-curing. The silorane-based composite exhibited the lowest shrinkage (rate), the longest time to peak shrinkage rate, the lowest shrinkage stress, and the fewest AE events. AE events were detected immediately after the beginning of light-curing in most composite-adhesive combinations, but not until 40 sec after light-curing began for the silorane-based composite. AE events were concentrated at the initial stage of curing in self-etch adhesives compared with etch-and-rinse adhesives. Reducing the shrinkage (rate) of composites resulted in reduced shrinkage stress and less debonding, as evidenced by fewer AE events. AE is an effective technique for monitoring, in real time, the debonding kinetics at the tooth-composite interface. PMID:23100273

  20. Acoustic emission analysis of tooth-composite interfacial debonding.

    PubMed

    Cho, N Y; Ferracane, J L; Lee, I B

    2013-01-01

    This study detected tooth-composite interfacial debonding during composite restoration by means of acoustic emission (AE) analysis and investigated the effects of composite properties and adhesives on AE characteristics. The polymerization shrinkage, peak shrinkage rate, flexural modulus, and shrinkage stress of a methacrylate-based universal hybrid, a flowable, and a silorane-based composite were measured. Class I cavities on 49 extracted premolars were restored with 1 of the 3 composites and 1 of the following adhesives: 2 etch-and-rinse adhesives, 2 self-etch adhesives, and an adhesive for the silorane-based composite. AE analysis was done for 2,000 sec during light-curing. The silorane-based composite exhibited the lowest shrinkage (rate), the longest time to peak shrinkage rate, the lowest shrinkage stress, and the fewest AE events. AE events were detected immediately after the beginning of light-curing in most composite-adhesive combinations, but not until 40 sec after light-curing began for the silorane-based composite. AE events were concentrated at the initial stage of curing in self-etch adhesives compared with etch-and-rinse adhesives. Reducing the shrinkage (rate) of composites resulted in reduced shrinkage stress and less debonding, as evidenced by fewer AE events. AE is an effective technique for monitoring, in real time, the debonding kinetics at the tooth-composite interface.

  1. Vibration Propagation of Gear Dynamics in a Gear-Bearing-Housing System Using Mathematical Modeling and Finite Element Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Robert G.; Guo, Yi; Eritenel, Tugan; Ericson, Tristan M.

    2012-01-01

    Vibration and noise caused by gear dynamics at the meshing teeth propagate through power transmission components to the surrounding environment. This study is devoted to developing computational tools to investigate the vibro-acoustic propagation of gear dynamics through a gearbox using different bearings. Detailed finite element/contact mechanics and boundary element models of the gear/bearing/housing system are established to compute the system vibration and noise propagation. Both vibration and acoustic models are validated by experiments including the vibration modal testing and sound field measurements. The effectiveness of each bearing type to disrupt vibration propagation is speed-dependent. Housing plays an important role in noise radiation .It, however, has limited effects on gear dynamics. Bearings are critical components in drivetrains. Accurate modeling of rolling element bearings is essential to assess vibration and noise of drivetrain systems. This study also seeks to fully describe the vibro-acoustic propagation of gear dynamics through a power-transmission system using rolling element and fluid film wave bearings. Fluid film wave bearings, which have higher damping than rolling element bearings, could offer an energy dissipation mechanism that reduces the gearbox noise. The effectiveness of each bearing type to disrupt vibration propagation in explored using multi-body computational models. These models include gears, shafts, rolling element and fluid film wave bearings, and the housing. Radiated noise is mapped from the gearbox surface to surrounding environment. The effectiveness of rolling element and fluid film wave bearings in breaking the vibro-acoustic propagation path from the gear to the housing is investigated.

  2. Combustion-acoustic stability analysis for premixed gas turbine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darling, Douglas; Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Oyediran, Ayo; Cowan, Lizabeth

    1995-01-01

    Lean, prevaporized, premixed combustors are susceptible to combustion-acoustic instabilities. A model was developed to predict eigenvalues of axial modes for combustion-acoustic interactions in a premixed combustor. This work extends previous work by including variable area and detailed chemical kinetics mechanisms, using the code LSENS. Thus the acoustic equations could be integrated through the flame zone. Linear perturbations were made of the continuity, momentum, energy, chemical species, and state equations. The qualitative accuracy of our approach was checked by examining its predictions for various unsteady heat release rate models. Perturbations in fuel flow rate are currently being added to the model.

  3. Chemical analysis of acoustically levitated drops by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tuckermann, Rudolf; Puskar, Ljiljana; Zavabeti, Mahta; Sekine, Ryo; McNaughton, Don

    2009-07-01

    An experimental apparatus combining Raman spectroscopy with acoustic levitation, Raman acoustic levitation spectroscopy (RALS), is investigated in the field of physical and chemical analytics. Whereas acoustic levitation enables the contactless handling of microsized samples, Raman spectroscopy offers the advantage of a noninvasive method without complex sample preparation. After carrying out some systematic tests to probe the sensitivity of the technique to drop size, shape, and position, RALS has been successfully applied in monitoring sample dilution and preconcentration, evaporation, crystallization, an acid-base reaction, and analytes in a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy colloidal suspension. PMID:19418043

  4. Transient analysis of acoustically derived pressure and rate data

    SciTech Connect

    Kabir, C.S.; Kuchuk, F.J.; Hasan, A.R.

    1988-09-01

    A pressure-buildup test conducted on a sucker-rod pumping well is often by long-duration wellbore storage. In fact, this distortion could be so severe that even a week's shut-in period may not allow a semilog analysis. A longer shut-in period becomes economically discouraging because of lost production. Low energy and low transmissivity in the reservoir, coupled with increased fluid compressibility, contribute to this long-duration storage phenomenon. One way of reducing the storage effect clearly lies in the simultaneous analysis of downhole pressure and flow rate, estimated from casinghead pressure and rising annular liquid-level measurement made by acoustic well sounding (AWS). Ascertaining the quality of the indirectly measured pressure and rate data constitutes one of the objectives of this study. Several methods exist to translate the AWS measurement to downhole pressure and rate data for the subsequent transient analysis. The authors show that even an empirical hydrodynamic correlation provides satisfactory transient-pressure/flow-rate data for convolution and deconvolution analyses for moderate pumping-liquid columns. When long annular liquid columns are encountered, translating the AWS measurement with a mechanistically based hydrodynamic model appears to be a prudent approach. Interpretation of several transient tests show that automated convolved-type-curve or history matching of field data is a powerful tool for reservoir-parameter (total mobility, skin, fracture half-length, and storage coefficient) estimation. A simple algorithm for computing the Laplace transform of the wellbore pressure for an infinite-conductivity vertically fractured well in an infinite reservoir is developed in this work for a rapid, iterative-type computation used in automated convolved-type-curve analysis.

  5. A comprehensive vibration analysis of a coupled rotor/fuselage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, Hyeonsoo

    A comprehensive vibration analysis of a coupled rotor/fuselage system for a two-bladed teetering rotor using finite element methods in space and time is developed which incorporates consistent rotor/fuselage structural, aerodynamic, and inertial couplings and a modern free wake model. A coordinate system is developed to take into account a teetering rotor's unique characteristics, such as teetering motion and undersling. Coupled nonlinear periodic blade and fuselage equations are transformed to the modal space in the fixed frame and solved simultaneously. The elastic line and detailed 3-D NASTRAN finite element models of the AH-1G helicopter airframe from the DAMVIBS program are integrated into the elastic rotor finite element model. Analytical predictions of rotor control angles, blade loads, hub forces, and vibration are compared with AH-1G Operation Load Survey flight test data. The blade loads predicted by present analysis show generally fair agreement with the flight test data, especially blade chord bending moment estimation shows good agreement. Calculated 2/rev vertical vibration levels at pilot seat show good correlation with the flight test data both in magnitude and phase, but 4/rev vibration levels show fair correlation only in magnitude. Lateral vibration results show more disagreement than vertical vibration results. Pylon flexibility effect is essential in the two-bladed teetering rotor vibration analysis. The pylon flexibility increases the first lag frequency by about 14%, and decreases 2/rev longitudinal and lateral hub forces by more than half. Rotor/fuselage coupling reduces 2/rev vertical and lateral vibration levels by 60% to 70% and has a small effect on 4/rev vibration levels. Modeling of difficult components (secondary structures, doors/panels, etc) is essential in predicting airframe natural frequencies. Refined aerodynamics such as free wake and unsteady aerodynamics have an important role in the prediction of vibration. For example, free

  6. Algorithm for automated analysis of surface vibrations using time-averaged digital speckle pattern interferometry.

    PubMed

    Krzemien, Leszek; Lukomski, Michal

    2012-07-20

    A fully automated algorithm was developed for the recording and analysis of vibrating objects with the help of digital speckle pattern interferometry utilizing continuous-wave laser light. A series of measurements were performed with increasing force inducing vibration to allow the spatial distribution of vibration amplitude to be reconstructed on the object's surface. The developed algorithm uses Hilbert transformation for an independent, quantitative evaluation of the Bessel function at every point of the investigated surface. The procedure does not require phase modulation, and thus can be implemented within any, even the simplest, DSPI apparatus. The proposed deformation analysis is fast and computationally inexpensive.

  7. A Government/Industry Summary of the Design Analysis Methods for Vibrations (DAMVIBS) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvaternik, Raymond G. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center in 1984 initiated a rotorcraft structural dynamics program, designated DAMVIBS (Design Analysis Methods for VIBrationS), with the objective of establishing the technology base needed by the rotorcraft industry for developing an advanced finite-element-based dynamics design analysis capability for vibrations. An assessment of the program showed that the DAMVIBS Program has resulted in notable technical achievements and major changes in industrial design practice, all of which have significantly advanced the industry's capability to use and rely on finite-element-based dynamics analyses during the design process.

  8. Algorithm for automated analysis of surface vibrations using time-averaged digital speckle pattern interferometry.

    PubMed

    Krzemien, Leszek; Lukomski, Michal

    2012-07-20

    A fully automated algorithm was developed for the recording and analysis of vibrating objects with the help of digital speckle pattern interferometry utilizing continuous-wave laser light. A series of measurements were performed with increasing force inducing vibration to allow the spatial distribution of vibration amplitude to be reconstructed on the object's surface. The developed algorithm uses Hilbert transformation for an independent, quantitative evaluation of the Bessel function at every point of the investigated surface. The procedure does not require phase modulation, and thus can be implemented within any, even the simplest, DSPI apparatus. The proposed deformation analysis is fast and computationally inexpensive. PMID:22858957

  9. Active control of sound transmission/radiation from elastic plates by vibration inputs. I - Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    Active control of sound radiation from vibrating plates by oscillating forces applied directly to the structure is analytically studied. The model consists of a plane acoustic wave incident on a clamped elastic circular thin plate. Control is achieved by point forces, and quadratic optimization is used to calculate the optimal control gains necessary to minimize a cost function proportional to the radiated acoustic power (the transmitted field). The results show that global attenuation of broadband radiated sound levels for low to mid-range frequencies can be achieved with one or two control forces, irrespective of whether the system is on or off resonance. The efficiency of the control strategy is demonstrated to be related to the nature of the coupling between the plate modes of response and the radiated field.

  10. Thermal Acoustic Oscillation: Causes, Detection, Analysis and Prevention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christie, Robert J.; Hartwig, Jason W.

    2014-01-01

    The presentation discusses the causes of Thermal Acoustic Oscillations, how it can be detected, analyzed and prevented. It also discusses where it can occur, where it doesn't occur and practical mitigation techniques.

  11. Acoustic emission intensity analysis of corrosion in prestressed concrete piles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vélez, William; Matta, Fabio; Ziehl, Paul

    2014-02-01

    Corrosion of steel strands in prestressed concrete (PC) bridges may lead to substantial damage or collapse well before the end of the design life. Acoustic Emission (AE) is a suitable nondestructive technique to detect and locate corrosion in reinforced and prestressed concrete, which is key to prioritize inspection and maintenance. An effective tool to analyze damage-related AE data is intensity analysis (IA), which is based on two data trends, namely Severity (average signal strength of high amplitude hits) and Historic Index (ratio of the average signal strength of the most recent hits to the average of all hits). IA criteria for corrosion assessment in PC were recently proposed based on empirical evidence from accelerated corrosion tests. In this paper, AE data from prestressed and non-prestressed concrete pile specimens exposed to salt water wet-dry cycling for over 600 days are used to analyze the relation between Severity and Historic Index and actual corrosion. Evidence of corrosion is gained from the inspection of decommissioned specimens. The selection of suitable J and K parameters for IA is discussed, and an IA chart with updated corrosion criteria for PC piles is presented.

  12. Analysis of Measured and Simulated Supraglottal Acoustic Waves.

    PubMed

    Fraile, Rubén; Evdokimova, Vera V; Evgrafova, Karina V; Godino-Llorente, Juan I; Skrelin, Pavel A

    2016-09-01

    To date, although much attention has been paid to the estimation and modeling of the voice source (ie, the glottal airflow volume velocity), the measurement and characterization of the supraglottal pressure wave have been much less studied. Some previous results have unveiled that the supraglottal pressure wave has some spectral resonances similar to those of the voice pressure wave. This makes the supraglottal wave partially intelligible. Although the explanation for such effect seems to be clearly related to the reflected pressure wave traveling upstream along the vocal tract, the influence that nonlinear source-filter interaction has on it is not as clear. This article provides an insight into this issue by comparing the acoustic analyses of measured and simulated supraglottal and voice waves. Simulations have been performed using a high-dimensional discrete vocal fold model. Results of such comparative analysis indicate that spectral resonances in the supraglottal wave are mainly caused by the regressive pressure wave that travels upstream along the vocal tract and not by source-tract interaction. On the contrary and according to simulation results, source-tract interaction has a role in the loss of intelligibility that happens in the supraglottal wave with respect to the voice wave. This loss of intelligibility mainly corresponds to spectral differences for frequencies above 1500 Hz. PMID:26377510

  13. Acoustic modal analysis of a full-scale annular combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karchmer, A. M.

    1982-01-01

    An acoustic modal decomposition of the measured pressure field in a full scale annular combustor installed in a ducted test rig is described. The modal analysis, utilizing a least squares optimization routine, is facilitated by the assumption of randomly occurring pressure disturbances which generate equal amplitude clockwise and counter-clockwise pressure waves, and the assumption of statistical independence between modes. These assumptions are fully justified by the measured cross spectral phases between the various measurement points. The resultant modal decomposition indicates that higher order modes compose the dominant portion of the combustor pressure spectrum in the range of frequencies of interest in core noise studies. A second major finding is that, over the frequency range of interest, each individual mode which is present exists in virtual isolation over significant portions of the spectrum. Finally, a comparison between the present results and a limited amount of data obtained in an operating turbofan engine with the same combustor is made. The comparison is sufficiently favorable to warrant the conclusion that the structure of the combustor pressure field is preserved between the component facility and the engine.

  14. Parallel Finite Element Domain Decomposition for Structural/Acoustic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Duc T.; Tungkahotara, Siroj; Watson, Willie R.; Rajan, Subramaniam D.

    2005-01-01

    A domain decomposition (DD) formulation for solving sparse linear systems of equations resulting from finite element analysis is presented. The formulation incorporates mixed direct and iterative equation solving strategics and other novel algorithmic ideas that are optimized to take advantage of sparsity and exploit modern computer architecture, such as memory and parallel computing. The most time consuming part of the formulation is identified and the critical roles of direct sparse and iterative solvers within the framework of the formulation are discussed. Experiments on several computer platforms using several complex test matrices are conducted using software based on the formulation. Small-scale structural examples are used to validate thc steps in the formulation and large-scale (l,000,000+ unknowns) duct acoustic examples are used to evaluate the ORIGIN 2000 processors, and a duster of 6 PCs (running under the Windows environment). Statistics show that the formulation is efficient in both sequential and parallel computing environmental and that the formulation is significantly faster and consumes less memory than that based on one of the best available commercialized parallel sparse solvers.

  15. An analysis and retrofit of the acoustics at Image Creators Health and Beauty Salon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Donna

    2002-11-01

    This paper discusses the analysis and retrofit of the acoustics in a high-volume beauty salon in Severna Park, MD. The major issues in what was designed to be a serene environment are reverberation times of 1-1.68 s in the mid- to upper-frequency range. Employee and customer complaints include heightened stress, vocal strain, headaches, and poor intelligibility. Existing analysis and acoustical retrofit solutions will be demonstrated.

  16. Vibration analysis of structural elements using differential quadrature method.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Mohamed; Matbuly, Mohamed S; Ragb, Ola

    2013-01-01

    The method of differential quadrature is employed to analyze the free vibration of a cracked cantilever beam resting on elastic foundation. The beam is made of a functionally graded material and rests on a Winkler-Pasternak foundation. The crack action is simulated by a line spring model. Also, the differential quadrature method with a geometric mapping are applied to study the free vibration of irregular plates. The obtained results agreed with the previous studies in the literature. Further, a parametric study is introduced to investigate the effects of geometric and elastic characteristics of the problem on the natural frequencies.

  17. Time average vibration fringe analysis using Hilbert transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Upputuri Paul; Mohan, Nandigana Krishna; Kothiyal, Mahendra Prasad

    2010-10-20

    Quantitative phase information from a single interferogram can be obtained using the Hilbert transform (HT). We have applied the HT method for quantitative evaluation of Bessel fringes obtained in time average TV holography. The method requires only one fringe pattern for the extraction of vibration amplitude and reduces the complexity in quantifying the data experienced in the time average reference bias modulation method, which uses multiple fringe frames. The technique is demonstrated for the measurement of out-of-plane vibration amplitude on a small scale specimen using a time average microscopic TV holography system.

  18. Double-pulse digital speckle pattern interferometry for vibration analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dazhi; Xue, Jingfeng; Chen, Lu; Wen, Juying; Wang, Jingjing

    2014-12-01

    The double-pulse Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry (DSPI) in the laboratory is established. Two good performances have been achieved at the same time, which is uniform distribution of laser beam energy by space filter and recording two successive pictures by a CCD camera successfully. Then two-dimensional discrete orthogonal wavelet transform method is used for the process of filtering method. By using the DSPI, speckle pattern of a vibrated object is obtained with interval of (2~800)μs, and 3D plot of the transient vibration is achieved. Moreover, good agreements of the mode shapes and displacement are obtained by comparing with Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) .

  19. Force Limited Vibration Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharton, Terry; Chang, Kurng Y.

    2005-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the concept and applications of Force Limited Vibration Testing. The goal of vibration testing of aerospace hardware is to identify problems that would result in flight failures. The commonly used aerospace vibration tests uses artificially high shaker forces and responses at the resonance frequencies of the test item. It has become common to limit the acceleration responses in the test to those predicted for the flight. This requires an analysis of the acceleration response, and requires placing accelerometers on the test item. With the advent of piezoelectric gages it has become possible to improve vibration testing. The basic equations have are reviewed. Force limits are analogous and complementary to the acceleration specifications used in conventional vibration testing. Just as the acceleration specification is the frequency spectrum envelope of the in-flight acceleration at the interface between the test item and flight mounting structure, the force limit is the envelope of the in-flight force at the interface . In force limited vibration tests, both the acceleration and force specifications are needed, and the force specification is generally based on and proportional to the acceleration specification. Therefore, force limiting does not compensate for errors in the development of the acceleration specification, e.g., too much conservatism or the lack thereof. These errors will carry over into the force specification. Since in-flight vibratory force data are scarce, force limits are often derived from coupled system analyses and impedance information obtained from measurements or finite element models (FEM). Fortunately, data on the interface forces between systems and components are now available from system acoustic and vibration tests of development test models and from a few flight experiments. Semi-empirical methods of predicting force limits are currently being developed on the basis of the limited flight and system test

  20. [Evaluation of acoustic effectiveness of personnel protectors from extra-aural exposure to aviation noise].

    PubMed

    Dragan, S P; Soldatov, S K; Bogomolov, A V; Drozdov, S V; Poliakov, N M

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the investigation was to validate testing acoustic effectiveness of a personnel vest-like protector (PP) from extra-aural exposure to aviation noise. Levels of aviation noise for PP testing were determined through calculation. Vest effectiveness in protecting from acoustic vibration generated by high-intensity aviation noise was evaluated both in laboratory and field tests. For comparison analysis, PP was also tested with a dummy exposed on a special tester, i.e. acoustic interferometer.

  1. Analysis of damped tissue vibrations in time-frequency space: a wavelet-based approach.

    PubMed

    Enders, Hendrik; von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Nigg, Benno M

    2012-11-15

    There is evidence that vibrations of soft tissue compartments are not appropriately described by a single sinusoidal oscillation for certain types of locomotion such as running or sprinting. This paper discusses a new method to quantify damping of superimposed oscillations using a wavelet-based time-frequency approach. This wavelet-based method was applied to experimental data in order to analyze the decay of the overall power of vibration signals over time. Eight healthy subjects performed sprinting trials on a 30 m runway on a hard surface and a soft surface. Soft tissue vibrations were quantified from the tissue overlaying the muscle belly of the medial gastrocnemius muscle. The new methodology determines damping coefficients with an average error of 2.2% based on a wavelet scaling factor of 0.7. This was sufficient to detect differences in soft tissue compartment damping between the hard and soft surface. On average, the hard surface elicited a 7.02 s(-1) lower damping coefficient than the soft surface (p<0.05). A power spectral analysis of the muscular vibrations occurring during sprinting confirmed that vibrations during dynamic movements cannot be represented by a single sinusoidal function. Compared to the traditional sinusoidal approach, this newly developed method can quantify vibration damping for systems with multiple vibration modes that interfere with one another. This new time-frequency analysis may be more appropriate when an acceleration trace does not follow a sinusoidal function, as is the case with multiple forms of human locomotion. PMID:22995145

  2. Modeling ground vehicle acoustic signatures for analysis and synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Haschke, G.; Stanfield, R.

    1995-07-01

    Security and weapon systems use acoustic sensor signals to classify and identify moving ground vehicles. Developing robust signal processing algorithms for this is expensive, particularly in presence of acoustic clutter or countermeasures. This paper proposes a parametric ground vehicle acoustic signature model to aid the system designer in understanding which signature features are important, developing corresponding feature extraction algorithms and generating low-cost, high-fidelity synthetic signatures for testing. The authors have proposed computer-generated acoustic signatures of armored, tracked ground vehicles to deceive acoustic-sensored smart munitions. They have developed quantitative measures of how accurately a synthetic acoustic signature matches those produced by actual vehicles. This paper describes parameters of the model used to generate these synthetic signatures and suggests methods for extracting these parameters from signatures of valid vehicle encounters. The model incorporates wide-bandwidth and narrow- bandwidth components that are modulated in a pseudo-random fashion to mimic the time dynamics of valid vehicle signatures. Narrow- bandwidth feature extraction techniques estimate frequency, amplitude and phase information contained in a single set of narrow frequency- band harmonics. Wide-bandwidth feature extraction techniques estimate parameters of a correlated-noise-floor model. Finally, the authors propose a method of modeling the time dynamics of the harmonic amplitudes as a means adding necessary time-varying features to the narrow-bandwidth signal components. The authors present results of applying this modeling technique to acoustic signatures recorded during encounters with one armored, tracked vehicle. Similar modeling techniques can be applied to security systems.

  3. A technique for the vibration signal analysis in vehicle diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchalski, Andrzej

    2015-05-01

    The method of utilising signals of vibration acceleration in the on-line and off-line diagnostics of mechanical defects of internal combustion engines is presented in the paper. The monitored vibration signals of the spark ignition (SI) engine in various maintenance states of the valve system were investigated. The suggested technique is based on mathematical methods of the lower triangular-orthogonal (LQ) factorisation and the singular value decomposition (SVD) of observation subspaces computed on a vibration time series after their angular resampling without any transformations in the frequency domain. The applied algorithm of data processing filters excessive information and allows the selection of diagnostic features (essential from the maintenance point of view) and generates the empirical model and matrix residuals assessed in the no-fault state as being 'zero'. Then, statistical feature vectors, for which the averaged successive singular values of the residuals of the observation subspaces of the vibration signals were assumed as components, were analysed. As a result of this procedure the vectors of lower dimensions reduced to components, allowing the classification of observations within all defined classes, were obtained. On the basis of these vectors a scalar measure - sensitive to the kind of defect - was proposed and verified.

  4. A method for the measurement and analysis of ride vibrations of transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catherines, J. J.; Clevenson, S. A.; Scholl, H. F.

    1972-01-01

    The measurement and recording of ride vibrations which affect passenger comfort in transportation systems and the subsequent data-reduction methods necessary for interpreting the data present exceptional instrumentation requirements and necessitate the use of computers for specialized analysis techniques. A method is presented for both measuring and analyzing ride vibrations of the type encountered in ground and air transportation systems. A portable system for measuring and recording low-frequency, low-amplitude accelerations and specialized data-reduction procedures are described. Sample vibration measurements in the form of statistical parameters representative of typical transportation systems are also presented to demonstrate the utility of the techniques.

  5. Analysis of acoustic signals on welding and cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, Takao; Ogawa, Yoji; Sumitomo, Takashi

    1995-12-31

    The sounds emitted during the welding and cutting processes are closely related to the processing phenomena, and sometimes they provide useful information for evaluation of their processing conditions. The analyses of acoustic signals from arc welding, plasma arc cutting, oxy-flame cutting, and water jet cutting are carried out in details in order to develop effective signal processing algorithm. The sound from TIG arc welding has the typical line spectrum which principal frequency, is almost the same as that of supplied electricity. The disturbance of welding process is clearly appeared oil the acoustic emission. The sound exposure level for CO{sub 2} or MIG welding is higher than that for TIG welding, and the relative intensity of the typical line spectrum caused by supplied electricity becomes low. But the sudden transition of welding condition oil produces an apparent change of sound exposure level. On the contrary, the acoustics from cutting processes are much louder than those of arc welding and show more chaotic behavior because the supplied fluid velocity and temperature of arc for cutting processes are much higher than those for welding processes. Therefore, it requires a special technique to extract the well meaning signals from the loud acoustic sounds. Further point of view, the reduction of acoustic exposure level becomes an important research theme with the growth of application fields of cutting processes.

  6. Numerical analysis of the transportation characteristics of a self-running sliding stage based on near-field acoustic levitation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Kai; Liu, Yuanyuan; Cheng, Miaomiao

    2015-12-01

    Owing to its distinct non-contact and oil-free characteristics, a self-running sliding stage based on near-field acoustic levitation can be used in an environment, which demands clean rooms and zero noise. This paper presents a numerical analysis on the lifting and transportation capacity of a non-contact transportation system. Two simplified structure models, namely, free vibration and force vibration models, are proposed for the study of the displacement amplitude distribution of two cases using the finite element method. After coupling the stage displacement into the film thickness, the Reynolds equation is solved by the finite difference method to obtain the lifting and thrusting forces. Parametric analyses of the effects of amplitude, frequency, and standing wave ratio (SWR) on the sliding stage dynamic performance are investigated. Numerical results show good agreement with published experimental values. The predictions also reveal that greater transportation capacity of the self-running sliding stage is generally achieved at less SWR and at higher amplitude. PMID:26723328

  7. Mobility power flow analysis of an L-shaped plate structure subjected to acoustic excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuschieri, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    An analytical investigation based on the Mobility Power Flow method is presented for the determination of the vibrational response and power flow for two coupled flat plate structures in an L-shaped configuration, subjected to acoustical excitation. The principle of the mobility power flow method consists of dividing the global structure into a series of subsystems coupled together using mobility functions. Each separate subsystem is analyzed independently to determine the structural mobility functions for the junction and excitation locations. The mobility functions, together with the characteristics of the junction between the subsystems, are then used to determine the response of the global structure and the power flow. In the coupled plate structure considered here, mobility power flow expressions are derived for excitation by an incident acoustic plane wave. In this case, the forces (acoustic pressures) acting on the structure are dependent on the response of the structure because of the scattered pressure component. The interaction between the structure and the fluid leads to the derivation of a corrected mode shape for the plates' normal surface velocity and also for the structure mobility functions. The determination of the scattered pressure components in the expressions for the power flow represents an additional component in the power flow balance for the source plate and the receiver plate. This component represents the radiated acoustical power from the plate structure.

  8. Analysis of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) Data for Acoustic Velocity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackshire, James L.

    1997-01-01

    Acoustic velocity measurements were taken using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) in a Normal Incidence Tube configuration at various frequency, phase, and amplitude levels. This report presents the results of the PIV analysis and data reduction portions of the test and details the processing that was done. Estimates of lower measurement sensitivity levels were determined based on PIV image quality, correlation, and noise level parameters used in the test. Comparison of measurements with linear acoustic theory are presented. The onset of nonlinear, harmonic frequency acoustic levels were also studied for various decibel and frequency levels ranging from 90 to 132 dB and 500 to 3000 Hz, respectively.

  9. A formulation of rotor-airframe coupling for design analysis of vibrations of helicopter airframes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvaternik, R. G.; Walton, W. C., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A linear formulation of rotor airframe coupling intended for vibration analysis in airframe structural design is presented. The airframe is represented by a finite element analysis model; the rotor is represented by a general set of linear differential equations with periodic coefficients; and the connections between the rotor and airframe are specified through general linear equations of constraint. Coupling equations are applied to the rotor and airframe equations to produce one set of linear differential equations governing vibrations of the combined rotor airframe system. These equations are solved by the harmonic balance method for the system steady state vibrations. A feature of the solution process is the representation of the airframe in terms of forced responses calculated at the rotor harmonics of interest. A method based on matrix partitioning is worked out for quick recalculations of vibrations in design studies when only relatively few airframe members are varied. All relations are presented in forms suitable for direct computer implementation.

  10. Analysis of three-component ambient vibration array measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fäh, Donat; Stamm, Gabriela; Havenith, Hans-Balder

    2008-01-01

    Both synthetic and observed ambient vibration array data are analysed using high-resolution beam-forming. In addition to a classical analysis of the vertical component, this paper presents results derived from processing horizontal components. We analyse phase velocities of fundamental and higher mode Rayleigh and Love waves, and particle motions (ellipticity) retrieved from H/V spectral ratios. A combined inversion with a genetic algorithm and a strategy for selecting possible model parameters allow us to define structural models explaining the data. The results from synthetic data for simple models with one or two layers of sediments suggest that, in most cases, the number of layers has to be reduced to a few sediment strata to find the original structure. Generally, reducing the number of soft-sediment layers in the inversion process with genetic algorithms leads to a class of models that are less smooth. They have a stronger impedance contrast between sediments and bedrock. Combining Love and Rayleigh wave dispersion curves with the ellipticity of the fundamental mode Rayleigh waves has some advantages. Scatter is reduced when compared to using structural models obtained only from Rayleigh wave phase velocity curves. By adding information from Love waves some structures can be excluded. Another possibility for constraining inversion results is to include supplementary geological or borehole information. Analysing radial components also can provide segments of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves for modes not seen on the vertical component. Finally, using ellipticity information allows us to confine the total depth of the soft sediments. For real sites, considerable variability in the measured phase velocity curves is observed. This comes from lateral changes in the structure or seismic sources within the array. Constraining the inversion by combining Love and Rayleigh wave information can help reduce such problems. Frequency bands in which the Rayleigh wave

  11. A coupled rotor-fuselage vibration analysis for helicopter rotor system fault detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mao

    A coupled rotor-fuselage vibration analysis for helicopter rotor system fault detection is developed. The coupled rotor/fuselage/vibration absorbers (bifilar type) system incorporates consistent structural, aerodynamic and inertial couplings. The aeroelastic analysis is based on finite element methods in space and time. The coupled rotor, absorbers and fuselage equations are transformed into the modal space and solved in the fixed coordinate system. A coupled trim procedure is used to solve the responses of rotor, fuselage and vibration absorber, rotor trim control and vehicle orientation simultaneously. Rotor system faults are modeled by changing blade structural, inertial and aerodynamic properties. Both adjustable and component faults, such as misadjusted trim-tab, misadjusted pitch-control rod (PCR), imbalanced mass and pitch-control bearing freeplay, are investigated. Detailed SH-60 helicopter fuselage NASTRAN model is integrated into the analysis. Validation study was performed using SH-60 helicopter flight test data. The prediction of fuselage natural frequencies show fairly large error compared to shake test data. Analytical predictions of fuselage baseline (without fault) 4/rev vibration and fault-induced 1/rev vibration and blade displacement deviations are compared with SH-60 flight test (with prescribed fault) data. The fault-induced 1/rev fuselage vibration (magnitude and phase) predicted by present analysis generally capture the trend of the flight test data, although prediction under-predicts. The large discrepancy of fault-induced 1/rev vibration magnitude at hover between prediction and flight test data partially comes from the variation of flight condition (not perfect hover) and partially due to the effect of the rotor-fuselage aerodynamic interaction (wake effect) at low speed which is not considered in the analysis. Also the differences in the phase prediction is not clear since only the magnitude and phase information were given instead of the

  12. Numerical Analysis of Flow-Induced Vibrations in Closed Side Branches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KníŽat, Branislav; Troják, Michal

    2011-12-01

    Vibrations occuring in closed side branches connected to a main pipe are a frequent problem during pipeline system operation. At the design stage of pipeline systems, this problem is sometimes overlooked or underestimated which can later lead to the shortening of the systems life cycle or may even cause injury. The aim of this paper is a numerical analysis of the start of self-induced vibrations on the edge of a closed side branch. Calculation conditions and obtained results are presented within.

  13. Distributed optical fiber vibration sensor based on spectrum analysis of Polarization-OTDR system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ziyi; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2008-07-01

    A fully distributed optical fiber vibration sensor is demonstrated based on spectrum analysis of Polarization-OTDR system. Without performing any data averaging, vibration disturbances up to 5 kHz is successfully demonstrated in a 1km fiber link with 10m spatial resolution. The FFT is performed at each spatial resolution; the relation of the disturbance at each frequency component versus location allows detection of multiple events simultaneously with different and the same frequency components.

  14. [Application of acoustic analysis of the voice to diagnosis and treatment of functional dysphonia].

    PubMed

    Chernobel'skiĭ, S I

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic analysis of the voice was used to facilitate diagnosis and to objectively evaluate results of the treatment of psychogenic dysphonia (PD) in 20 women. The control group comprised 20 women showing no signs of laryngeal pathology. The following parameters were measure: jitter, shimmer, signal to noise ratio, and response in the voicing test. Other methods applied included laryngoscopy, videolaryngoscopy, and laryngostroboscopy. It was shown that hoarseness in patients with PD results from the disturbances of mechanisms controlling stability of phonation. This observation is confirmed by the results of the acoustic test. It is concluded that dysphonia confirmed in the acoustic test in the absence of organic changes in the larynx is caused by psychogenic factors. Acoustic analysis of the voice is indicated to objectively evaluate results of the treatment of psychogenic dysphonia.

  15. Numerical analysis of the vibroacoustic properties of plates with embedded grids of acoustic black holes.

    PubMed

    Conlon, Stephen C; Fahnline, John B; Semperlotti, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    The concept of an Acoustic Black Hole (ABH) has been developed and exploited as an approach for passively attenuating structural vibration. The basic principle of the ABH relies on proper tailoring of the structure geometrical properties in order to produce a gradual reduction of the flexural wave speed, theoretically approaching zero. For practical systems the idealized "zero" wave speed condition cannot be achieved so the structural areas of low wave speed are treated with surface damping layers to allow the ABH to approach the idealized dissipation level. In this work, an investigation was conducted to assess the effects that distributions of ABHs embedded in plate-like structures have on both vibration and structure radiated sound, focusing on characterizing and improving low frequency performance. Finite Element and Boundary Element models were used to assess the vibration response and radiated sound power performance of several plate configurations, comparing baseline uniform plates with embedded periodic ABH designs. The computed modal loss factors showed the importance of the ABH unit cell low order modes in the overall vibration reduction effectiveness of the embedded ABH plates at low frequencies where the free plate bending wavelengths are longer than the scale of the ABH.

  16. Numerical analysis of the vibroacoustic properties of plates with embedded grids of acoustic black holes.

    PubMed

    Conlon, Stephen C; Fahnline, John B; Semperlotti, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    The concept of an Acoustic Black Hole (ABH) has been developed and exploited as an approach for passively attenuating structural vibration. The basic principle of the ABH relies on proper tailoring of the structure geometrical properties in order to produce a gradual reduction of the flexural wave speed, theoretically approaching zero. For practical systems the idealized "zero" wave speed condition cannot be achieved so the structural areas of low wave speed are treated with surface damping layers to allow the ABH to approach the idealized dissipation level. In this work, an investigation was conducted to assess the effects that distributions of ABHs embedded in plate-like structures have on both vibration and structure radiated sound, focusing on characterizing and improving low frequency performance. Finite Element and Boundary Element models were used to assess the vibration response and radiated sound power performance of several plate configurations, comparing baseline uniform plates with embedded periodic ABH designs. The computed modal loss factors showed the importance of the ABH unit cell low order modes in the overall vibration reduction effectiveness of the embedded ABH plates at low frequencies where the free plate bending wavelengths are longer than the scale of the ABH. PMID:25618073

  17. A finite element analysis of the vibration behaviour of a cementless hip system.

    PubMed

    Pérez, M A; Seral-García, B

    2013-01-01

    An early diagnosis of aseptic loosening of a total hip replacement (THR) by plain radiography, scintigraphy or arthography has been shown to be less reliable than using a vibration technique. However, it has been suggested that it may be possible to distinguish between a secure and a loose prosthesis using a vibration technique. In fact, vibration analysis methods have been successfully used to assess dental implant stability, to monitor fracture healing and to measure bone mechanical properties. Several studies have combined the vibration technique with the finite element (FE) method in order to better understand the events involved in the experimental technique. In the present study, the main goal is to simulate the change in the resonance frequency during the osseointegration process of a cementless THR (Zweymüller). The FE method was used and a numerical modal analysis was conducted to obtain the natural frequencies and mode shapes under vibration. The effects were studied of different bone and stem material properties, and different contact conditions at the bone-implant interface. The results were in agreement with previous experimental and computational observations, and differences among the different cases studied were detected. As the osseointegration process at the bone-implant interface evolved, the resonance frequency values of the femur-prosthesis system also increased. In summary, vibration analysis combined with the FE method was able to detect different boundary conditions at the bone-implant interface in cases of both osseointegration and loosening. PMID:22300407

  18. The NASA/industry design analysis methods for vibrations (DAMVIBS) program - Accomplishments and contributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvaternik, Raymond G.

    1991-01-01

    A NASA Langley-sponsored rotorcraft structural dynamics program, known as Design Analysis Methods for VIBrationS (DAMVIBS), has been under development since 1984. The objective of this program was to establish the technology base needed by the industry to develop an advanced finite-element-based dynamics design analysis capability for vibrations. Under the program, teams from the four major helicopter manufacturers have formed finite-element models, conducted ground vibration tests, made test/analysis comparisons of both metal and composite airframes, performed 'difficult components' studies on airframes to identify components which need more complete finite-element representation for improved correlation, and evaluated industry codes for computing coupled rotor-airframe vibrations. Studies aimed at establishing the role that structural optimization can play in airframe vibrations design work have also been initiated. Five government/industry meetings were held in connection with these activities during the course of the program. Because the DAMVIBS Program is coming to an end, the fifth meeting included a brief assessment of the program and its benefits to the industry.

  19. A dimensionless analysis of a 2DOF piezoelectric vibration energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Han; Wang, Xu; John, Sabu

    2015-06-01

    In this study, a dimensionless analysis method is proposed to predict the output voltage and harvested power for a 2DOF vibration energy harvesting system. This method allows us to compare the harvesting power and efficiency of the 2DOF vibration energy harvesting system and to evaluate the harvesting system performance regardless the sizes or scales. The analysis method is a hybrid of time domain simulation and frequency response analysis approaches, which would be a useful tool for parametric study, design and optimisation of a 2DOF piezoelectric vibration energy harvester. In a case study, a quarter car suspension model with a piezoelectric material insert is chosen to be studied. The 2DOF vibration energy harvesting system could potentially be applied in a vehicle to convert waste or harmful ambient vibration energy into electrical energy for charging the battery. Especially for its application in a hybrid vehicle or an electrical vehicle, the 2DOF vibration energy harvesting system could improve charge mileage, comfort and reliability.

  20. The NASA/industry design analysis methods for vibrations (DAMVIBS) program: Accomplishments and contributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvaternik, Raymond G.

    1991-01-01

    A NASA Langley-sponsored rotorcraft structural dynamics program, known as Design Analysis Methods for VIBrationS (DAMVIBS), has been under development since 1984. The objective of this program was to establish the technology base needed by the industry to develop an advanced finite-element-based dynamics design analysis capability for vibrations. Under the program, teams from the four major helicopter manufacturers have formed finite-element models, conducted ground vibration tests, made test/analysis comparisons of both metal and composite airframes, performed 'difficult components' studies on airframes to identify components which need more complete finite-element representation for improved correlation, and evaluated industry codes for computing coupled rotor-airframe vibrations. Studies aimed at establishing the role that structural optimization can play in airframe vibrations design work have also been initiated. Five government/industry meetings were held in connection with these activities during the course of the program. Because the DAMVIBS Program is coming to an end, the fifth meeting included a brief assessment of the program and its benefits to the industry.

  1. On the Analysis of Flows in Vibrating Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandi, Sahab; Mohammadi, Alireza; Floryan, Jerzy Maciej

    2015-11-01

    Pressure losses in channels with vibrating walls have been analyzed. Surface vibrations were assumed to have the form of travelling waves. The waves can have arbitrary profiles. The spectrally accurate immersed boundary conditions (IBC) method based on the Fourier expansions in the flow direction and the Chebyshev expansions in the transverse direction has been developed. The results show dependence of the pressure losses on the phase speed of the waves, with the waves propagating in the downstream direction reducing the pressure gradient required to maintain a fixed flow rate. A drag increase is observed when the waves propagate with a phase speed similar to the flow velocity. Analytical solution demonstrates that the drag changes result from the nonlinear interactions and vary proportionally to A2 for small enough A, where A stands for the wave amplitude. This work has been carried out with support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada.

  2. Current analysis for rotating and vibrating heavy nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, J.; Schuh, A.; Mosel, U.; Wuest, E.

    Microscopic current distributions are calculated for rotations and quadrupole vibrations of heavy nuclei in the cranking model using the Nilsson Hamiltonian and pairing correlations. The currents are analyzed in terms of vector spherical harmonics; symmetry relations are taken into account. In the case of collective rotations magnetic and electric current contributions occur. The two dominant contributions correspond to rigid and irrotational flow. The strong influence of pairing on the rotational currents is demonstrated. It can be understood by investigating the delta N = 0 and delta N = 2 contributions to the currents. For collective quadrupole vibrations only electric current contributions occur. In contrast to the irrotational Bohr-Tassie flow the realistic current fields show a vortex structure.

  3. Application of coupled analysis methods for prediction of blast-induced dominant vibration frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haibo; Li, Xiaofeng; Li, Jianchun; Xia, Xiang; Wang, Xiaowei

    2016-03-01

    Blast-induced dominant vibration frequency (DVF) involves a complex, nonlinear and small sample system considering rock properties, blasting parameters and topography. In this study, a combination of grey relational analysis and dimensional analysis procedures for prediction of dominant vibration frequency are presented. Six factors are selected from extensive effect factor sequences based on grey relational analysis, and then a novel blast-induced dominant vibration frequency prediction is obtained by dimensional analysis. In addition, the prediction is simplified by sensitivity analysis with 195 experimental blast records. Validation is carried out for the proposed formula based on the site test database of the firstperiod blasting excavation in the Guangdong Lufeng Nuclear Power Plant (GLNPP). The results show the proposed approach has a higher fitting degree and smaller mean error when compared with traditional predictions.

  4. Forced vibration analysis of rotating structures with application to vertical axis wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobitz, D. W.

    Predictive methods for the dynamic analysis of wind turbine systems are important for assessing overall structural integrity and fatigue life. For the former, the identification of resonance points (spectral analysis) is of primary concern. For the latter forced vibration analysis is necessary. These analyses are complicated by the fact that, for a spinning turbine, the stress-producing deformations take place in both fixed and rotating reference systems simultaneously. As an example, the tower of a horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) must be analyzed in a fixed frame, and the rotor in a rotating one. Forced vibration analysis is further complicated in that accurate models need to be developed for aeroload prediction. Methods which are available for forced vibration analysis of both horizontal and vertical axis machines are identified and the method which was developed for vertical axis wind turbines is emphasized, with some comparisons of the predictions to experimental data.

  5. Waveform analysis in mitigation of blast-induced vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldas, G. G. U.; Ecevitoglu, B.

    2008-10-01

    To mitigate the blast-induced ground vibrations, we proposed a new methodology quite different from conventional methods which do not take into account the mechanics of seismic waves. Contrary to conventional methods, the proposed methodology does not consider any blast-parameters such as explosive types and amounts, blast-geometry, blast-hole design, hole-depth/diameter, etc., except time-delays. The methodology aims to employ the most suitable time-delays among blast-hole groupings to minimize destructive interference of the surface waves at the location of blast-induced vibrations. The crucial point of the proposed methodology is the use of a pilot-blast signal which takes account of the seismic properties of all complex geology between the blast and the target locations. Therefore, it does not require any geological model or assumption. The methodology has been implemented at a Turkish Coal Company's Lignite Mine. Blasting induced ground vibrations at this mine could be minimized to a ratio of 1/8.

  6. Analytical and Experimental Vibration Analysis of a Faulty Gear System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choy, F. K.; Braun, M. J.; Polyshchuk, V.; Zakrajsek, J. J.; Townsend, D. P.; Handschuh, R. F.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical procedure was developed for predicting faults in gear transmission systems under normal operating conditions. A gear tooth fault model is developed to simulate the effects of pitting and wear on the vibration signal under normal operating conditions. The model uses changes in the gear mesh stiffness to simulate the effects of gear tooth faults. The overall dynamics of the gear transmission system is evaluated by coupling the dynamics of each individual gear-rotor system through gear mesh forces generated between each gear-rotor system and the bearing forces generated between the rotor and the gearbox structure. The predicted results were compared with experimental results obtained from a spiral bevel gear fatigue test rig at NASA Lewis Research Center. The Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD) was used to give a comprehensive comparison of the predicted and experimental results. The WVD method applied to the experimental results were also compared to other fault detection techniques to verify the WVD's ability to detect the pitting damage, and to determine its relative performance. Overall results show good correlation between the experimental vibration data of the damaged test gear and the predicted vibration from the model with simulated gear tooth pitting damage. Results also verified that the WVD method can successfully detect and locate gear tooth wear and pitting damage.

  7. Multidimensional Fourier Methods: Analysis of Internal Soliton Data and Acoustic Wave Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, A.

    2005-05-01

    The aggressive pursuit of a satisfactory level of physical understanding of nonlinear oceanic wave dynamics has lead to the use of multidimensional Fourier analysis as a tool for the time series analysis of both internal wave motion and acoustic wave propagation. These new tools have arisen naturally for studies using the inverse scattering transform to particular nonlinear wave equations. When applied to the Korteweg-deVries equation, for example, one finds that the approach can be extended to arbitrarily high order. There are several advantages for using multidimensional Fourier methods over ordinary Fourier analysis: (1) fully nonlinear wave dynamics can be studied, (2) solitons become a natural component in the theory and correspond to the diagonal elements of the "Riemann matrix", (3) nonlinear interactions are accounted for by the off-diagonal elements of this matrix, (4) nonlinear acoustic modes are found to also have an (albeit static) solitonic component. These surprising results lead to new interpretations of acoustic waves propagating in the presence of a nonlinear internal wave field. One of the most important results is the implication that new nonlinear filtering techniques allow for the spectral decomposition of both the internal wave field and of the acoustic field. With regard to the acoustic field, one can foresee the application of the method to the observations of phenomena in the "hidden zones", where one would normally conclude that acoustic wave propagation does not occur.

  8. An Acoustic Analysis of Young Children's Productions of Word Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Karen E.; And Others

    A study investigated children's use of three acoustic parameters (intensity, fundamental frequency, and duration) in the production of two-syllable nonsense words. Subjects were six children each at ages 2, 3, and 4 years with age-appropriate language skills and normal hearing sensitivity. An examiner produced eight novel two-syllable words of…

  9. Prediction and mitigation analysis of ground vibration caused by running high-speed trains on rigid-frame viaducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Liangming; Xie, Weiping; He, Xingwen; Hayashikawa, Toshiro

    2016-03-01

    In this study a 3D numerical analysis approach is developed to predict the ground vibration around rigid-frame viaducts induced by running high-speed trains. The train-bridge-ground interaction system is divided into two subsystems: the train-bridge interaction and the soil-structure interaction. First, the analytical program to simulate bridge vibration with consideration of train-bridge interaction is developed to obtain the vibration reaction forces at the pier bottoms. The highspeed train is described by a multi-DOFs vibration system and the rigid-frame viaduct is modeled with 3D beam elements. Second, applying these vibration reaction forces as input external excitations, the ground vibration is simulated by using a general-purpose program that includes soil-structure interaction effects. The validity of the analytical procedure is confirmed by comparing analytical and experimental results. The characteristics of high-speed train-induced vibrations, including the location of predominant vibration, are clarified. Based on this information a proposed vibration countermeasure using steel strut and new barrier is found effective in reducing train-induced vibrations and it satisfies environmental vibration requirements. The vibration screening efficiency is evaluated by reduction VAL based on 1/3 octave band spectral analysis.

  10. Real Time Study Of Vibrations By Means Of An Instrument Recording Time-Average Holograms On A TV-Vidicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ek, Leif; Molin, Nils-Erik; Biedermann, Klaus

    1985-06-01

    A number of experiments in vibration analysis are discussed where different methods like hologram interferometry, impact testing, acoustical recording, FEM-calculations are compared to results obtained by means of an instrument based on image-plane, time-average hologram recording on a TV-vidicon like ESPI (electronic speckle pattern interferometry). The instrument, "VibraVision", offers distinct advantages in vibration studies.

  11. Activities of the Institute of Sound and Vibration Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Research in fluid dynamics, acoustics, automotive engineering, audiology, noise and vibration effects (on human beings), and structural response to noise and vibration was carried out. Aircraft noise, acoustics of flow duct systems and enclosures, acoustic modeling, sound propagation, and acoustic measurement techniques were studied. Auditory and vestibular functions and electrophysiology were investigated.

  12. Analysis of the flow-induced vibrations of viscoelastically supported rectangular plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Junhong; Siegmund, Thomas; Mongeau, Luc

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical model for the flow-induced vibration of viscoelastically supported rectangular plates. In particular, the influence of the dynamic mechanical properties of the elements supporting the plate was investigated. The case of a homogeneous rectangular plate supported along all four edges by a complex viscoelastic element was treated. The Rayleigh-Ritz method was used applying beam functions as the trial functions. This approach ensured a fast convergence rate, which is advantageous for vibration analysis of high order modes. The flow-induced vibration of the plate was calculated using the Corcos model for the surface pressure loading. The results suggest that there is an optimal support stiffness that minimizes the flow-induced vibration response of the plate.

  13. Vibration analysis of the Second Saikai Bridge—a concrete filled tubular (CFT) arch bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Mistuhiro; Wu, Qingxiong; Takahashi, Kazuo; Nakamura, Shozo; Furukawa, Kazuyoshi

    2006-02-01

    Concrete-filled steel tubular (CFT) arch bridges have been rapidly developing in China since 1990. Research has focused on the static behavior, thermal stress and erection technique, however, and there has been very little research of natural vibrations and dynamic responses of these bridges. Japan's first CFT arch bridge in highway bridges, the Second Saikai Bridge, is now under construction in Nagasaki Prefecture. Furthermore, this bridge has a pedestrian bridge that is suspended under the girder, which is rare. Therefore, the natural vibration properties are examined, and the influence of pedestrian bridge structure on the natural vibration of main bridge is discussed first. Response analysis under a moving vehicle and pedestrian is carried out, and the response characteristics and response level are clarified. The natural vibrations and responses are compared to those of CFT arch bridges that have been constructed in China. Results show the fine performance of both main bridge and pedestrian bridge of the Second Saikai Bridge.

  14. Dynamical energy analysis for built-up acoustic systems at high frequencies.

    PubMed

    Chappell, D J; Giani, S; Tanner, G

    2011-09-01

    Standard methods for describing the intensity distribution of mechanical and acoustic wave fields in the high frequency asymptotic limit are often based on flow transport equations. Common techniques are statistical energy analysis, employed mostly in the context of vibro-acoustics, and ray tracing, a popular tool in architectural acoustics. Dynamical energy analysis makes it possible to interpolate between standard statistical energy analysis and full ray tracing, containing both of these methods as limiting cases. In this work a version of dynamical energy analysis based on a Chebyshev basis expansion of the Perron-Frobenius operator governing the ray dynamics is introduced. It is shown that the technique can efficiently deal with multi-component systems overcoming typical geometrical limitations present in statistical energy analysis. Results are compared with state-of-the-art hp-adaptive discontinuous Galerkin finite element simulations.

  15. Assessment of Infant Cry: Acoustic Cry Analysis and Parental Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGasse, Linda L.; Neal, A. Rebecca; Lester, Barry M.

    2005-01-01

    Infant crying signals distress to potential caretakers who can alleviate the aversive conditions that gave rise to the cry. The cry signal results from coordination among several brain regions that control respiration and vocal cord vibration from which the cry sounds are produced. Previous work has shown a relationship between acoustic…

  16. Theoretical studies on the molecular structure, conformational preferences, topological and vibrational analysis of allicin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durlak, Piotr; Berski, Sławomir; Latajka, Zdzisław

    2016-01-01

    The molecular structure, conformational preferences, topological and vibrational analysis of allicin has been investigated at two different approaches. Calculations have been carried out on static (DFT and MP2) levels with an assortment of Dunning's basis sets and dynamic CPMD simulations. In this both case within the isolated molecule approximation. The results point out that at least twenty different conformers coexist on the PES as confirmed by the flexible character of this molecule. The topological analysis of ELF showed very similar nature of the Ssbnd S and Ssbnd O bonds. The infrared spectrum has been calculated, and a comparative vibrational analysis has been performed.

  17. Quantitative Analysis Of Acoustic Emission From Rock Fracture Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodfellow, Sebastian David

    This thesis aims to advance the methods of quantitative acoustic emission (AE) analysis by calibrating sensors, characterizing sources, and applying the results to solve engi- neering problems. In the first part of this thesis, we built a calibration apparatus and successfully calibrated two commercial AE sensors. The ErgoTech sensor was found to have broadband velocity sensitivity and the Panametrics V103 was sensitive to surface normal displacement. These calibration results were applied to two AE data sets from rock fracture experiments in order to characterize the sources of AE events. The first data set was from an in situ rock fracture experiment conducted at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL). The Mine-By experiment was a large scale excavation response test where both AE (10 kHz - 1 MHz) and microseismicity (MS) (1 Hz - 10 kHz) were monitored. Using the calibration information, magnitude, stress drop, dimension and energy were successfully estimated for 21 AE events recorded in the tensile region of the tunnel wall. Magnitudes were in the range -7.5 < Mw < -6.8, which is consistent with other laboratory AE results, and stress drops were within the range commonly observed for induced seismicity in the field (0.1 - 10 MPa). The second data set was AE collected during a true-triaxial deformation experiment, where the objectives were to characterize laboratory AE sources and identify issues related to moving the analysis from ideal in situ conditions to more complex laboratory conditions in terms of the ability to conduct quantitative AE analysis. We found AE magnitudes in the range -7.8 < Mw < -6.7 and as with the in situ data, stress release was within the expected range of 0.1 - 10 MPa. We identified four major challenges to quantitative analysis in the laboratory, which in- hibited our ability to study parameter scaling (M0 ∝ fc -3 scaling). These challenges were 0c (1) limited knowledge of attenuation which we proved was continuously evolving, (2

  18. Natural bond orbital analysis, electronic structure and vibrational spectral analysis of N-(4-hydroxyl phenyl) acetamide: a density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Govindasamy, P; Gunasekaran, S; Ramkumaar, G R

    2014-09-15

    The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and FT-Raman spectra of N-(4-hydroxy phenyl) acetamide (N4HPA) of painkiller agent were recorded in the region 4000-450 cm(-1) and 4000-50 cm(-1) respectively. Density functional theory (DFT) has been used to calculate the optimized geometrical parameter, atomic charges, and vibrational wavenumbers and intensity of the vibrational bands. The computed vibrational wave numbers were compared with the FT-IR and FT-Raman experimental data. The computational calculations at DFT/B3LYP level with 6-31G(d,p), 6-31++G(d,p), 6-311G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets. The complete vibrational assignments were performed on the basis of the potential energy distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes calculated using Vibrational energy distribution analysis (VEDA 4) program. The oscillator's strength calculated by TD-DFT and N4HPA is approach complement with the experimental findings. The NMR chemical shifts 13C and 1H were recorded and calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The molecular electrostatic potential (MESP) and electron density surfaces of the molecule were constructed. The Natural charges and intermolecular contacts have been interpreted using Natural Bond orbital (NBO) analysis the HOMO-LUMO energy gap has been calculated. The thermodynamic properties like entropy, heat capacity and zero vibrational energy have been calculated.

  19. The acoustic power of a vibrating clamped circular plate revisited in the wide low frequency range using expansion into the radial polynomials.

    PubMed

    Rdzanek, Wojciech P

    2016-06-01

    This study deals with the classical problem of sound radiation of an excited clamped circular plate embedded into a flat rigid baffle. The system of the two coupled differential equations is solved, one for the excited and damped vibrations of the plate and the other one-the Helmholtz equation. An approach using the expansion into radial polynomials leads to results for the modal impedance coefficients useful for a comprehensive numerical analysis of sound radiation. The results obtained are accurate and efficient in a wide low frequency range and can easily be adopted for a simply supported circular plate. The fluid loading is included providing accurate results in resonance. PMID:27369144

  20. Vibration analysis of rotating thin laminated composite shell of revolution

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, K.; Shikanai, G.; Takayama, K.

    1995-11-01

    An exact solution procedure is presented for solving free vibrations of a rotating thin laminated composite shell of revolution having meridionally constant curvature. Based on the classical lamination theory, equations of motion and boundary conditions are obtained from the stationally conditions of the Lagrangian. The equations of motion are solved exactly by using a power series expansion for symmetrically laminated, cross-ply shells. Frequencies and mode shapes of the shells having both ends clamped and both ends freely supported are presented showing their variations with rotating angular velocity, number of laminae and other parameters.

  1. Analysis of proposed criteria for human response to vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janeway, R. N.

    1975-01-01

    The development of criteria for human vibration response is reviewed, including the evolution of the ISO standard 2631. The document is analyzed to show why its application to vehicle ride evaluation is strongly opposed. Alternative vertical horizontal limits for comfort are recommended in the ground vehicle ride frequency range above 1 Hz. These values are derived by correlating the absorbed power findings of Pradko and Lee with other established criteria. Special emphasis is placed on working limits in the frequency range of 1 to 10 Hz since this is the most significant area in ground vehicle ride evaluation.

  2. Random Vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messaro. Semma; Harrison, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Ares I Zonal Random vibration environments due to acoustic impingement and combustion processes are develop for liftoff, ascent and reentry. Random Vibration test criteria for Ares I Upper Stage pyrotechnic components are developed by enveloping the applicable zonal environments where each component is located. Random vibration tests will be conducted to assure that these components will survive and function appropriately after exposure to the expected vibration environments. Methodology: Random Vibration test criteria for Ares I Upper Stage pyrotechnic components were desired that would envelope all the applicable environments where each component was located. Applicable Ares I Vehicle drawings and design information needed to be assessed to determine the location(s) for each component on the Ares I Upper Stage. Design and test criteria needed to be developed by plotting and enveloping the applicable environments using Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet Software and documenting them in a report Using Microsoft Word Processing Software. Conclusion: Random vibration liftoff, ascent, and green run design & test criteria for the Upper Stage Pyrotechnic Components were developed by using Microsoft Excel to envelope zonal environments applicable to each component. Results were transferred from Excel into a report using Microsoft Word. After the report is reviewed and edited by my mentor it will be submitted for publication as an attachment to a memorandum. Pyrotechnic component designers will extract criteria from my report for incorporation into the design and test specifications for components. Eventually the hardware will be tested to the environments I developed to assure that the components will survive and function appropriately after exposure to the expected vibration environments.

  3. Surface Acoustic Wave Monitor for Deposition and Analysis of Ultra-Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Jacqueline H. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW) based thin film deposition monitor device and system for monitoring the deposition of ultra-thin films and nanomaterials and the analysis thereof is characterized by acoustic wave device embodiments that include differential delay line device designs, and which can optionally have integral reference devices fabricated on the same substrate as the sensing device, or on a separate device in thermal contact with the film monitoring/analysis device, in order to provide inherently temperature compensated measurements. These deposition monitor and analysis devices can include inherent temperature compensation, higher sensitivity to surface interactions than quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) devices, and the ability to operate at extreme temperatures.

  4. Correlation of AH-1G airframe flight vibration data with a coupled rotor-fuselage analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sangha, K.; Shamie, J.

    1990-01-01

    The formulation and features of the Rotor-Airframe Comprehensive Analysis Program (RACAP) is described. The analysis employs a frequency domain, transfer matrix approach for the blade structural model, a time domain wake or momentum theory aerodynamic model, and impedance matching for rotor-fuselage coupling. The analysis is applied to the AH-1G helicopter, and a correlation study is conducted on fuselage vibration predictions. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the state-of-the-art in helicopter fuselage vibration prediction technology. The fuselage vibration predicted using RACAP are fairly good in the vertical direction and somewhat deficient in the lateral/longitudinal directions. Some of these deficiencies are traced to the fuselage finite element model.

  5. Analysis of In-Situ Vibration Monitoring for End-Point Detection of CMP Planarization Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hetherington, Dale L.; Lauffer, James P.; Shingledecker, David M.; Stein, David J.; Wyckoff, Edward E.

    1999-05-14

    This paper details the analysis of vibration monitoring for end-point control in oxide CMP processes. Two piezoelectric accelerometers were integrated onto the backside of a stainless steel polishing head of an IPEC 472 polisher. One sensor was placed perpendicular to the carrier plate (vertical) and the other parallel to the plate (horizontal). Wafers patterned with metal and coated with oxide material were polished at different speeds and pressures. Our results show that it is possible to sense a change in the vibration signal over time during planarization of oxide material on patterned wafers. The horizontal accelerometer showed more sensitivity to change in vibration amplitude compared to the vertical accelerometer for a given polish condition. At low carrier and platen rotation rates, the change in vibration signal over time at fixed frequencies decreased approximately ½ - 1 order of magnitude (over the 2 to 10 psi polish pressure ranges). At high rotation speeds, the vibration signal remained essentially constant indicating that other factors dominated the vibration signaL These results show that while it is possible to sense changes in acceleration during polishing, more robust hardware and signal processing algorithms are required to ensure its use over a wide range of process conditions.

  6. Analysis of Dynamic Stiffness Effect of Primary Suspension Helical Springs on Railway Vehicle Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, W.; Thompson, D. J.; Zhou, J.; Gong, D.

    2016-09-01

    Helical springs within the primary suspension are critical components for isolating the whole vehicle system from vibration generated at the wheel/rail contact. As train speeds increase, the frequency region of excitation becomes larger, and a simplified static stiffness can no longer represent the real stiffness property in a vehicle dynamic model. Coil springs in particular exhibit strong internal resonances, which lead to high vibration amplitudes within the spring itself as well as degradation of the vibration isolation. In this paper, the dynamic stiffness matrix method is used to determine the dynamic stiffness of a helical spring from a vehicle primary suspension. Results are confirmed with a finite element analysis. Then the spring dynamic stiffness is included within a vehicle-track coupled dynamic model of a high speed train and the effect of the dynamic stiffening of the spring on the vehicle vibration is investigated. It is shown that, for frequencies above about 50 Hz, the dynamic stiffness of the helical spring changes sharply. Due to this effect, the vibration transmissibility increases considerably which results in poor vibration isolation of the primary suspension. Introducing a rubber layer in series with the coil spring can attenuate this effect.

  7. The NASA/industry Design Analysis Methods for Vibrations (DAMVIBS) program : Bell Helicopter Textron accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronkhite, James D.

    1993-01-01

    Accurate vibration prediction for helicopter airframes is needed to 'fly from the drawing board' without costly development testing to solve vibration problems. The principal analytical tool for vibration prediction within the U.S. helicopter industry is the NASTRAN finite element analysis. Under the NASA DAMVIBS research program, Bell conducted NASTRAN modeling, ground vibration testing, and correlations of both metallic (AH-1G) and composite (ACAP) airframes. The objectives of the program were to assess NASTRAN airframe vibration correlations, to investigate contributors to poor agreement, and to improve modeling techniques. In the past, there has been low confidence in higher frequency vibration prediction for helicopters that have multibladed rotors (three or more blades) with predominant excitation frequencies typically above 15 Hz. Bell's findings under the DAMVIBS program, discussed in this paper, included the following: (1) accuracy of finite element models (FEM) for composite and metallic airframes generally were found to be comparable; (2) more detail is needed in the FEM to improve higher frequency prediction; (3) secondary structure not normally included in the FEM can provide significant stiffening; (4) damping can significantly affect phase response at higher frequencies; and (5) future work is needed in the areas of determination of rotor-induced vibratory loads and optimization.

  8. Statistical correlation analysis for comparing vibration data from test and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, T. G.; Strang, R. F.; Purves, L. R.; Hershfeld, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    A theory was developed to compare vibration modes obtained by NASTRAN analysis with those obtained experimentally. Because many more analytical modes can be obtained than experimental modes, the analytical set was treated as expansion functions for putting both sources in comparative form. The dimensional symmetry was developed for three general cases: nonsymmetric whole model compared with a nonsymmetric whole structural test, symmetric analytical portion compared with a symmetric experimental portion, and analytical symmetric portion with a whole experimental test. The theory was coded and a statistical correlation program was installed as a utility. The theory is established with small classical structures.

  9. Vibro-acoustic analysis of coupled spherical-cylindrical-spherical shells stiffened by ring and stringer reinforcements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Yegao; Hua, Hongxing; Meng, Guang

    2015-10-01

    A semi-analytical method is developed to predict the vibration and acoustic responses of submerged coupled spherical-cylindrical-spherical shells stiffened by circumferential rings and longitudinal stringers. The structural model of the coupled stiffened shell is formulated using a modified variational method combined with a multi-segment partitioning technique, whereas a spectral Kirchhoff-Helmholtz integral formulation is employed to model the exterior fluid. The stiffened rings and stringers, which may be few or many in number, non-uniform or uniform in size, and non-uniformly or uniformly spaced, are treated as discrete elements. The displacement and sound pressure variables are expanded in the form of a double mixed series using Fourier series and Chebyshev orthogonal polynomials. This provides a flexible way for the present method to account for the individual contributions of circumferential wave modes to the vibration and acoustic responses of coupled stiffened shells in an analytical manner. The application of the method is illustrated with several numerical examples, and comparisons are made with available solutions obtained from the coupled finite element/boundary element method. The contributions of different circumferential wave modes to the vibration responses, sound power and the directivity of radiated sound pressure for coupled shells bounded by light or heavy fluid are examined. Effects of the rings and stringers on the vibration and acoustic responses of the coupled shells are investigated.

  10. Analysis of heat generation using ultrasonic vibration for post removal.

    PubMed

    Dominici, John T; Clark, Stephen; Scheetz, James; Eleazer, Paul D

    2005-04-01

    This study measured the temperature of the root surface and post during the application of ultrasonic vibration to cemented posts to simulate post removal procedure. Root canal therapy was performed on ten extracted maxillary incisors. A stainless steel Parapost was cemented into each prepared post space. Ultrasonic vibration was applied to the post and temperatures were recorded at the coronal post and the cervical root surface. Data were analyzed with ANOVA using the independent variables of (a) time of ultrasonic application (15, 30, 45 and 60 s) and 2) location (post and root surface). Greater temperature increase was observed at the post (52.6 degrees C, SD 11.1; 82.6 degrees C, SD 20.1; 111.0 degrees C, SD 29.1; 125.3 degrees C, SD 33.2) compared to the root surface (9.5 degrees C, SD 4.6; 17.5 degrees C, SD 4.8; 25.4 degrees C, SD 7.3; 32.2 degrees C, SD 8.1) for each time period, P < 0.001. Ultrasonic application to the post for longer than 15 s generates high temperature on the root surface.

  11. Vibration analysis of obturator prostheses with different bulb height designs.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Makio; Oki, Meiko; Ozawa, Shogo; Inoue, Takaaki; Mukohyama, Hitoshi; Takato, Tsuyoshi; Ohyama, Takashi; Taniguchi, Hisashi

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect on the vibratory characteristics of a cast hollow obturator prosthesis retainer when varying its bulb height. Bulb parts with high (H), middle (M), and low (L) lateral walls were prepared. A Vibration Generator was used to excite the three obturators, while a Laser-Doppler Vibrometer was employed to detect the vibrations at specified measurement points. The frequency response functions of each obturator were recorded on an FFT analyzer to enable their modal shapes to be identified. In addition, transient response simulations were carried out and the decay rate (DR) and the maximum amplitude (MA) of the rest and clasp parts of each obturator were obtained. These were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Fisher's PLSD test (p < 0.01). The modal shapes were almost the same in all obturators. Significant differences were found in DR in all pairs among the three obturator prostheses, with the DR of the L type being the highest. On the other hand, there were no significant differences in MA. We conclude that the L type is preferable from the standpoint of its vibratory characteristics.

  12. Vibration characteristics analysis of rotating shrouded blades with impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hui; Xie, Fangtao; Nai, Haiqiang; Wen, Bangchun

    2016-09-01

    A dynamic model of rotating shrouded blades with impacts among adjacent shrouded blades is established considering the effects of the centrifugal stiffening, spin softening and Coriolis force, and the model is validated using finite element method. In the proposed model, the shrouded blade is simplified as a cantilever Euler-Bernoulli beam with a mass point at the free end, and the flexural dynamic stiffness of shrouded blade is selected as contact stiffness during collision. Based on the developed model, the effects of symmetric and asymmetric shroud gaps, rotational speeds, and aerodynamic force amplitudes on the dynamic characteristics of shrouded blades are analyzed through Newmark-β numerical method. The results indicate that (1) the vibro-impact responses of shrouded blades under some asymmetric gaps are more complicated than that under symmetric gap. (2) With the increase of rotational speed from 6000 to 10,000 rev/min, the system vibration experiences from period-three motion, through chaotic motion, finally to period-one motion during collision process because the increasing rotational speed changes the flexural dynamic stiffness of rotating blade. (3) The vibration displacements of shrouded blades increase linearly, and impact force increases linearly with the increase of aerodynamic force amplitude.

  13. Analysis of Vibration and Noise of Construction Machinery Based on Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition and Spectral Correlation Analysis Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuebiao; Zhou, Yiqi; Yu, Gang; Lu, Dan

    In order to analyze the effect of engine vibration on cab noise of construction machinery in multi-frequency bands, a new method based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and spectral correlation analysis is proposed. Firstly, the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) of vibration and noise signals were obtained by EEMD method, and then the IMFs which have the same frequency bands were selected. Secondly, we calculated the spectral correlation coefficients between the selected IMFs, getting the main frequency bands in which engine vibration has significant impact on cab noise. Thirdly, the dominated frequencies were picked out and analyzed by spectral analysis method. The study result shows that the main frequency bands and dominated frequencies in which engine vibration have serious impact on cab noise can be identified effectively by the proposed method, which provides effective guidance to noise reduction of construction machinery.

  14. Analysis of possibility of applying the PVDF foil in industrial vibration sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel, A.

    2015-11-01

    There are many machines using the piezoelectric effects. Systems with smart materials are often used because they have high potential applications for example transducers can be applied to receive required characteristic of projected system. Every engineer and designer know how important it is properly mathematical model and method of the analysis. Also it is important to consider all parameters of analyzed system for example glue layer between elements. Geometrical and material parameters has a significant impact on the characteristics of the all system's components because the omission of the influence of one of them results in inaccuracy in the analysis of the system. In article the modeling and testing of vibrating systems with piezoelectric ceramic materials transducers used as actuators and vibration dampers. The method of analysis of the vibrating sensor systems will be presented, mathematical model, and characteristics, to determine the influence of the system's properties on these characteristics. Main scientific point of the project is to analyze and demonstrate possibility of applying new construction with the PVDF foil or any other belonging to a group of smart materials in industrial sensors. Currently, the vibration level sensors are used by practically all manufacturers of piezoelectric ceramic plates to generate and detect the vibration of the fork.

  15. In situ high temperature oxidation analysis of Zircaloy-4 using acoustic emission coupled with thermogravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Al Haj; Véronique, Peres; Eric, Serris; François, Grosjean; Jean, Kittel; François, Ropital; Michel, Cournil

    2015-06-01

    Zircaloy-4 oxidation behavior at high temperature (900 °C), which can be reached in case of severe accidental situations in nuclear pressurised water reactor, was studied using acoustic emission analysis coupled with thermogravimetry. Two different atmospheres were used to study the oxidation of Zircaloy-4: (a) helium and pure oxygen, (b) helium and oxygen combined with slight addition of air. The experiments with 20% of oxygen confirm the dependence on oxygen anions diffusion in the oxide scale. Under a mixture of oxygen and air in helium, an acceleration of the corrosion was observed due to the detrimental effect of nitrogen. The kinetic rate increased significantly after a kinetic transition (breakaway). This acceleration was accompanied by an acoustic emission activity. Most of the acoustic emission bursts were recorded after the kinetic transition (post-transition) or during the cooling of the sample. The characteristic features of the acoustic emission signals appear to be correlated with the different populations of cracks and their occurrence in the ZrO2 layer or in the α-Zr(O) layer. Acoustic events were recorded during the isothermal dwell time at high temperature under air. They were associated with large cracks in the zirconia porous layer. Acoustic events were also recorded during cooling after oxidation tests both under air or oxygen. For the latter, cracks were observed in the oxygen enriched zirconium metal phase and not in the dense zirconia layer after 5 h of oxidation.

  16. Contribution of the supraglottic larynx to the vocal product: imaging and acoustic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gracco, L. Carol

    1996-04-01

    Horizontal supraglottic laryngectomy is a surgical procedure to remove a mass lesion located in the region of the pharynx superior to the true vocal folds. In contrast to full or partial laryngectomy, patients who undergo horizontal supraglottic laryngectomy often present with little or nor involvement to the true vocal folds. This population provides an opportunity to examine the acoustic consequences of altering the pharynx while sparing the laryngeal sound source. Acoustic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were acquired in a group of four patients before and after supraglottic laryngectomy. Acoustic measures included the identification of vocal tract resonances and the fundamental frequency of the vocal fold vibration. 3D reconstruction of the pharyngeal portion of each subjects' vocal tract were made from MRIs taken during phonation and volume measures were obtained. These measures reveal a variable, but often dramatic difference in the surgically-altered area of the pharynx and changes in the formant frequencies of the vowel/i/post surgically. In some cases the presence of the tumor created a deviation from the expected formant values pre-operatively with post-operative values approaching normal. Patients who also underwent radiation treatment post surgically tended to have greater constriction in the pharyngeal area of the vocal tract.

  17. Vibration Analysis of the Space Shuttle External Tank Cable Tray Flight Data With and Without PAL Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Bruce E.; Panda, Jayanta; Sutliff, Daniel L.

    2008-01-01

    External Tank Cable Tray vibration data for three successive Space Shuttle flights were analyzed to assess response to buffet and the effect of removal of the Protuberance Air Loads (PAL) ramp. Waveform integration, spectral analysis, cross-correlation analysis and wavelet analysis were employed to estimate vibration modes and temporal development of vibration motion from a sparse array of accelerometers and an on-board system that acquired 16 channels of data for approximately the first 2 min of each flight. The flight data indicated that PAL ramp removal had minimal effect on the fluctuating loads on the cable tray. The measured vibration frequencies and modes agreed well with predicted structural response.

  18. Vibration Analysis of the Space Shuttle External Tank Cable Tray Flight Data with and without PAL Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, B. E.; Panda, B. E.; Sutliff, D. L.

    2008-01-01

    External Tank Cable Tray vibration data for three successive Space Shuttle flights were analyzed to assess response to buffet and the effect of removal of the Protuberance Air Loads (PAL) ramp. Waveform integration, spectral analysis, cross-correlation analysis and wavelet analysis were employed to estimate vibration modes and temporal development of vibration motion from a sparse array of accelerometers and an on-board system that acquired 16 channels of data for approximately the first two minutes of each flight. The flight data indicated that PAL ramp removal had minimal effect on the fluctuating loads on the cable tray. The measured vibration frequencies and modes agreed well with predicted structural response.

  19. Acoustic effects analysis utilizing speckle pattern with fixed-particle Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakili, Ali; Hollmann, Joseph A.; Holt, R. Glynn; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2016-03-01

    Optical imaging in a turbid medium is limited because of multiple scattering a photon undergoes while traveling through the medium. Therefore, optical imaging is unable to provide high resolution information deep in the medium. In the case of soft tissue, acoustic waves unlike light, can travel through the medium with negligible scattering. However, acoustic waves cannot provide medically relevant contrast as good as light. Hybrid solutions have been applied to use the benefits of both imaging methods. A focused acoustic wave generates a force inside an acoustically absorbing medium known as acoustic radiation force (ARF). ARF induces particle displacement within the medium. The amount of displacement is a function of mechanical properties of the medium and the applied force. To monitor the displacement induced by the ARF, speckle pattern analysis can be used. The speckle pattern is the result of interfering optical waves with different phases. As light travels through the medium, it undergoes several scattering events. Hence, it generates different scattering paths which depends on the location of the particles. Light waves that travel along these paths have different phases (different optical path lengths). ARF induces displacement to scatterers within the acoustic focal volume, and changes the optical path length. In addition, temperature rise due to conversion of absorbed acoustic energy to heat, changes the index of refraction and therefore, changes the optical path length of the scattering paths. The result is a change in the speckle pattern. Results suggest that the average change in the speckle pattern measures the displacement of particles and temperature rise within the acoustic wave focal area, hence can provide mechanical and thermal properties of the medium.

  20. Vibrational spectra and normal coordinate analysis of plant growth regulator 1-naphthalene acetamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravikumar, C.; Padmaja, L.; Hubert Joe, I.

    2010-02-01

    FT Raman and IR spectra of the biologically active molecule, 1-naphthalene acetamide (NA) have been recorded and analyzed. The equilibrium geometry, bonding features and harmonic vibrational wavenumbers of NA have been calculated with the help of B3LYP density functional theory (DFT) method. The assignments of the vibrational spectra have been carried out with the help of normal coordinate analysis (NCA) following the scaled quantum mechanical force field methodology (SQMFF). The downshifting of NH 2 stretching wavenumber indicates the formation of intermolecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding. The NBO analysis confirms the occurrence of strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding in the molecule.

  1. The NASA/industry Design Analysis Methods for Vibrations (DAMVIBS) program: A government overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvaternik, Raymond G.

    1993-01-01

    NASA-Langley, under the Design Analysis Methods for Vibrations (DAMVIBS) Program, set out in 1984 to establish the technology base needed by the rotorcraft industry for developing an advanced finite-element-based dynamics design analysis capability for vibrations. Considerable work has been done by the industry participants in the program since that time. Because the DAMVIBS Program is being phased out, a government/industry assessment of the program has been made to identify those accomplishments and contributions which may be ascribed to the program. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the program and its accomplishments and contributions from the perspective of the government sponsoring organization.

  2. The NASA/industry Design Analysis Methods for Vibrations (DAMVIBS) Program: A government overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvaternik, Raymond G.

    1992-01-01

    LaRC, under the Design Analysis Methods for Vibrations (DAMVIBS) Program, set out in 1984 to establish the technology base needed by the rotorcraft industry for developing an advanced finite-element-based dynamics design analysis capability for vibrations. Considerable work was performed by the industry participants in the program since that time. Because the DAMVIBS Program is being phased out, a government/industry assessment of the program was made to identify those accomplishments and contributions which may be ascribed to the program. The purpose is to provide an overview of the program and its accomplishments and contributions from the perspective of the government sponsoring organization.

  3. Effects of vibration and shock on the performance of gas-bearing space-power Brayton cycle turbomachinery. Part 3: Sinusoidal and random vibration data reduction and evaluation, and random vibration probability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tessarzik, J. M.; Chiang, T.; Badgley, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    The random vibration response of a gas bearing rotor support system has been experimentally and analytically investigated in the amplitude and frequency domains. The NASA Brayton Rotating Unit (BRU), a 36,000 rpm, 10 KWe turbogenerator had previously been subjected in the laboratory to external random vibrations, and the response data recorded on magnetic tape. This data has now been experimentally analyzed for amplitude distribution and magnetic tape. This data has now been experimentally analyzed for amplitude distribution and frequency content. The results of the power spectral density analysis indicate strong vibration responses for the major rotor-bearing system components at frequencies which correspond closely to their resonant frequencies obtained under periodic vibration testing. The results of amplitude analysis indicate an increasing shift towards non-Gaussian distributions as the input level of external vibrations is raised. Analysis of axial random vibration response of the BRU was performed by using a linear three-mass model. Power spectral densities, the root-mean-square value of the thrust bearing surface contact were calculated for specified input random excitation.

  4. Application of analysis techniques for low frequency interior noise and vibration of commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landmann, A. E.; Tillema, H. F.; Macgregor, G. R.

    1992-01-01

    Finite element analysis (FEA), statistical energy analysis (SEA), and a power flow method (computer program PAIN) were used to assess low frequency interior noise associated with advanced propeller installations. FEA and SEA models were used to predict cabin noise and vibration and evaluate suppression concepts for structure-borne noise associated with the shaft rotational frequency and harmonics (less than 100 Hz). SEA and PAIN models were used to predict cabin noise and vibration and evaluate suppression concepts for airborne noise associated with engine radiated propeller tones. Both aft-mounted and wing-mounted propeller configurations were evaluated. Ground vibration test data from a 727 airplane modified to accept a propeller engine were used to compare with predictions for the aft-mounted propeller. Similar data from the 767 airplane was used for the wing-mounted comparisons.

  5. Theoretical and experimental analysis of bispectrum of vibration signals for fault diagnosis of gears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guoji, Shen; McLaughlin, Stephen; Yongcheng, Xu; White, Paul

    2014-02-01

    Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis is an important issue for gearbox maintenance and safety. The critical process involved in such activities is to extract reliable features representative of the condition of the gears or gearbox. In this paper a framework is presented for the application of bispectrum to the analysis of gearbox vibration. The bispectrum of a composite signal consisting of multiple periodic components has peaks at the bifrequencies that correspond to closely related components which can be produced by any nonlinearity. As a result, biphase verification is necessary to decrease false-alarming for any bispectrum-based method. A model based on modulated signals is adopted to reveal the bispectrum characteristics for the vibration of a faulty gear, and the corresponding amplitude and phase of the bispectrum expression are deduced. Therefore, a diagnostic approach based on the theoretical result is derived and verified by the analysis of a set of vibration signals from a helicopter gearbox.

  6. DFT computation and experimental analysis of vibrational and electronic spectra of phenoxy acetic acid herbicides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arul Dhas, D.; Hubert Joe, I.; Roy, S. D. D.; Balachandran, S.

    2013-05-01

    An absolute vibrational analysis has been attempted on the basis of experimental FTIR and NIR-FT Raman spectra with calculated vibrational wavenumbers and intensities of phenoxy acetic acids. The equilibrium geometry, bonding features and harmonic vibrational wavenumbers have been calculated with the help of B3LYP method with Dunning correlation consistent basis set aug-cc-pVTZ. The electronic structures of molecular fragments were described in terms of natural bond orbital analysis, which shows intermolecular Osbnd H⋯O and intramolecular Csbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The electronic absorption spectra with different solvents have been investigated in combination with time-dependent density functional theory calculation. The pKa values of phenoxy acetic acids were compared.

  7. Analysis of wheel speed vibrations for road friction classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmeitz, A. J. C.; Alirezaei, M.

    2016-04-01

    With higher level of vehicle automation, it becomes increasingly important to know the maximum possible tyre forces during normal driving. An interesting method in this respect is estimating the tyre-road friction from the resonance peak in the wheel speed signal, excited by road roughness. A simulation environment using the MF-Swift tyre model is proposed, which gives insight in the correctness and functioning of this method. From implementing the estimation algorithm and considering the tyre torsional vibration system, it is concluded that frequencies and damping ratios can be estimated with reasonable accuracy and that the trends observed with changing road friction are consistent. Furthermore, the proposed simulation environment gives opportunity to investigate other issues like robustness of the estimation method to road roughness. Additionally, the tyre modelling aspect of the estimation method is analysed and improvements are proposed.

  8. Improved finite-difference vibration analysis of pretwisted, tapered beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subrahmanyam, K. B.; Kaza, K. R. V.

    1984-01-01

    An improved finite difference procedure based upon second order central differences is developed. Several difficulties encountered in earlier works with fictitious stations that arise in using second order central differences, are eliminated by developing certain recursive relations. The need for forward or backward differences at the beam boundaries or other similar procedures is eliminated in the present theory. By using this improved theory, the vibration characteristics of pretwisted and tapered blades are calculated. Results of the second order theory are compared with published theoretical and experimental results and are found to be in good agreement. The present method generally produces close lower bound solutions and shows fast convergence. Thus, extrapolation procedures that are customary with first order finite-difference methods are unnecessary. Furthermore, the computational time and effort needed for this improved method are almost the same as required for the conventional first order finite-difference approach.

  9. Acoustic-Seismic Coupling of Broadband Signals - Analysis of Potential Disturbances during CTBT On-Site Inspection Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebsch, Mattes; Altmann, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    For the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) the precise localisation of possible underground nuclear explosion sites is important. During an on-site inspection (OSI) sensitive seismic measurements of aftershocks can be performed, which, however, can be disturbed by other signals. To improve the quality and effectiveness of these measurements it is essential to understand those disturbances so that they can be reduced or prevented. In our work we focus on disturbing signals caused by airborne sources: When the sound of aircraft (as often used by the inspectors themselves) hits the ground, it propagates through pores in the soil. Its energy is transferred to the ground and soil vibrations are created which can mask weak aftershock signals. The understanding of the coupling of acoustic waves to the ground is still incomplete. However, it is necessary to improve the performance of an OSI, e.g. to address potential consequences for the sensor placement, the helicopter trajectories etc. We present our recent advances in this field. We performed several measurements to record sound pressure and soil velocity produced by various sources, e.g. broadband excitation by jet aircraft passing overhead and signals artificially produced by a speaker. For our experimental set-up microphones were placed close to the ground and geophones were buried in different depths in the soil. Several sensors were shielded from the directly incident acoustic signals by a box coated with acoustic damping material. While sound pressure under the box was strongly reduced, the soil velocity measured under the box was just slightly smaller than outside of it. Thus these soil vibrations were mostly created outside the box and travelled through the soil to the sensors. This information is used to estimate characteristic propagation lengths of the acoustically induced signals in the soil. In the seismic data we observed interference patterns which are likely caused by the

  10. Analytical modeling and vibration analysis of internally cracked rectangular plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. V.; Jain, N. K.; Ramtekkar, G. D.

    2014-10-01

    This study proposes an analytical model for nonlinear vibrations in a cracked rectangular isotropic plate containing a single and two perpendicular internal cracks located at the center of the plate. The two cracks are in the form of continuous line with each parallel to one of the edges of the plate. The equation of motion for isotropic cracked plate, based on classical plate theory is modified to accommodate the effect of internal cracks using the Line Spring Model. Berger's formulation for in-plane forces makes the model nonlinear. Galerkin's method used with three different boundary conditions transforms the equation into time dependent modal functions. The natural frequencies of the cracked plate are calculated for various crack lengths in case of a single crack and for various crack length ratio for the two cracks. The effect of the location of the part through crack(s) along the thickness of the plate on natural frequencies is studied considering appropriate crack compliance coefficients. It is thus deduced that the natural frequencies are maximally affected when the crack(s) are internal crack(s) symmetric about the mid-plane of the plate and are minimally affected when the crack(s) are surface crack(s), for all the three boundary conditions considered. It is also shown that crack parallel to the longer side of the plate affect the vibration characteristics more as compared to crack parallel to the shorter side. Further the application of method of multiple scales gives the nonlinear amplitudes for different aspect ratios of the cracked plate. The analytical results obtained for surface crack(s) are also assessed with FEM results. The FEM formulation is carried out in ANSYS.

  11. Helicopter blade-vortex interaction locations: Scale-model acoustics and free-wake analysis results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoad, Danny R.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a model rotor acoustic test in the Langley 4by 7-Meter Tunnel are used to evaluate a free-wake analytical technique. An acoustic triangulation technique is used to locate the position in the rotor disk where the blade-vortex interaction noise originates. These locations, along with results of the rotor free-wake analysis, are used to define the geometry of the blade-vortex interaction noise phenomena as well as to determine if the free-wake analysis is a capable diagnostic tool. Data from tests of two teetering rotor systems are used in these analyses.

  12. Acoustic emission analysis: A test method for metal joints bonded by adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockmann, W.; Fischer, T.

    1978-01-01

    Acoustic emission analysis is applied to study adhesive joints which had been subjected to mechanical and climatic stresses, taking into account conditions which make results applicable to adhesive joints used in aerospace technology. Specimens consisting of the alloy AlMgSi0.5 were used together with a phenolic resin adhesive, an epoxy resin modified with a polyamide, and an epoxy resin modified with a nitrile. Results show that the acoustic emission analysis provides valuable information concerning the behavior of adhesive joints under load and climatic stresses.

  13. Energy Finite Element Analysis for Computing the High Frequency Vibration of the Aluminum Testbed Cylinder and Correlating the Results to Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlahopoulos, Nickolas

    2005-01-01

    The Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) is a finite element based computational method for high frequency vibration and acoustic analysis. The EFEA solves with finite elements governing differential equations for energy variables. These equations are developed from wave equations. Recently, an EFEA method for computing high frequency vibration of structures either in vacuum or in contact with a dense fluid has been presented. The presence of fluid loading has been considered through added mass and radiation damping. The EFEA developments were validated by comparing EFEA results to solutions obtained by very dense conventional finite element models and solutions from classical techniques such as statistical energy analysis (SEA) and the modal decomposition method for bodies of revolution. EFEA results have also been compared favorably with test data for the vibration and the radiated noise generated by a large scale submersible vehicle. The primary variable in EFEA is defined as the time averaged over a period and space averaged over a wavelength energy density. A joint matrix computed from the power transmission coefficients is utilized for coupling the energy density variables across any discontinuities, such as change of plate thickness, plate/stiffener junctions etc. When considering the high frequency vibration of a periodically stiffened plate or cylinder, the flexural wavelength is smaller than the interval length between two periodic stiffeners, therefore the stiffener stiffness can not be smeared by computing an equivalent rigidity for the plate or cylinder. The periodic stiffeners must be regarded as coupling components between periodic units. In this paper, Periodic Structure (PS) theory is utilized for computing the coupling joint matrix and for accounting for the periodicity characteristics.

  14. Molecular geometry, conformational, vibrational spectroscopic, molecular orbital and Mulliken charge analysis of 2-acetoxybenzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Govindasamy, P; Gunasekaran, S; Srinivasan, S

    2014-09-15

    The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and FT-Raman spectra of 2-acetoxybenzoic acid (2ABA), a painkiller agent were recorded in the region 4000-450 cm(-1) and 5000-50 cm(-1) respectively. Hartree Fock (HF) and Density functional theory (DFT) methods have been used to determine its optimized geometrical parameter, atomic charges, and vibrational wavenumbers and intensity of the vibrational bands of the title molecule. The computed vibrational wave numbers were compared with the FT-IR and FT-Raman experimental data. The computational calculations were done at HF and DFT/B3LYP level with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The complete vibrational assignments were performed on the basis of the potential energy distribution (PED) analysis. The Mulliken charges, UV-Visible spectral analysis and HOMO-LUMO energy gap have been calculated and reported. The B3LYP method of calculated parameters is a good complement with the experimental findings. The thermodynamic properties like entropy, heat capacity and zero vibrational energy have been calculated and discussed. The electrostatic potential (ESP) contour surface and molecular electrostatic potential (MESP) of the molecule were constructed.

  15. ACOUSTICAL STANDARDS NEWS.

    PubMed

    Stremmel, Neil; Struck, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    American National Standards (ANSI Standards) developed by Accredited Standards Committees S1, S2, S3, S3/SC 1, and S12 in the areas of acoustics, mechanical vibration and shock, bioacoustics, animal bioacoustics, and noise, respectively, are published by the Acoustical Society of America (ASA). In addition to these standards, ASA publishes a catalog of Acoustical American National Standards. To receive a copy of the latest Standards catalog, please contact Neil Stremmel.Comments are welcomed on all material in Acoustical Standards News.This Acoustical Standards News section in JASA, as well as the National Catalog of Acoustical Standards and other information on the Standards Program of the Acoustical Society of America, are available via the ASA home page: http://acousticalsociety.org. PMID:27475185

  16. Good Vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    A Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) sponsorship from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, assisted MetroLaser, of Irvine, California, in the development of a self-aligned laser vibrometer system. VibroMet, capable of measuring surface vibrations in a variety of industries, provides information on the structural integrity and acoustical characteristics of manufactured products. This low-cost, easy-to-use sensor performs vibration measurement from distances of up to three meters without the need for adjustment. The laser beam is simply pointed at the target and the system then uses a compact laser diode to illuminate the surface and to subsequently analyze the reflected light. The motion of the surface results in a Doppler shift that is measured with very high precision. VibroMet is considered one of the many behind-the-scenes tools that can be relied on to assure the quality, reliability and safety of everything from airplane panels to disk brakes

  17. Thermal Acoustic Oscillation: Causes, Detection, Analysis, and Prevention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christie, R. J.; Hartwig, J. W.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal Acoustic Oscillations (TAO) can occur in cryogenic systems and produce significant sources of heat. This source of heat can increase the boil off rate of cryogenic propellants in spacecraft storage tanks and reduce mission life. This paper discusses the causes of TAO, how it can be detected, what analyses can be done to predict it, and how to prevent it from occurring.The paper provides practical insight into what can aggravate instability, practical methods for mitigation, and when TAO does not occur. A real life example of a cryogenic system with an unexpected heat source is discussed, along with how TAO was confirmed and eliminated.

  18. Theoretical Analysis of Shear Wave Interference Patterns by Means of Dynamic Acoustic Radiation Forces.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Kenneth

    2011-03-01

    Acoustic radiation forces associated with high intensity focused ultrasound stimulate shear wave propagation allowing shear wave speed and shear viscosity estimation of tissue structures. As wave speeds are meters per second, real time displacement tracking over an extend field-of-view using ultrasound is problematic due to very high frame rate requirements. However, two spatially separated dynamic external sources can stimulate shear wave motion leading to shear wave interference patterns. Advantages are shear waves can be imaged at lower frame rates and local interference pattern spatial properties reflect tissue's viscoelastic properties. Here a theoretical analysis of shear wave interference patterns by means of dynamic acoustic radiation forces is detailed. Using a viscoelastic Green's function analysis, tissue motion due to a pair of focused ultrasound beams and associated radiation forces are presented. Overall, this paper theoretically demonstrates shear wave interference patterns can be stimulated using dynamic acoustic radiation forces and tracked using conventional ultrasound imaging.

  19. Field support, data analysis and associated research for the acoustic grenade sounding program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, T. G.; Bullard, E. R.

    1976-01-01

    Temperature and horizontal winds in the 30 to 90 km altitude range of the upper atmosphere, were determined by acoustic grenade soundings conducted at Wallops Island, Virginia and Kourou, French Guiana. Field support provided at these locations included deployment of the large area microphone system, supervision, maintenance and operation of sound ranging stations; and coordination of activities. Data analysis efforts included the analysis of field data to determine upper atmospheric meteorological parameters. Profiles for upper atmospheric temperature, wind and density are provided in plots and tables for each of the acoustic grenade soundings conducted during the contract period. Research efforts were directed toward a systematic comparison of temperature data from acoustic grenade with other meteorological sensor probes in the upper atmosphere.

  20. Acoustic Testing of the Cassini Spacecraft and Titan 4 Payload Fairing. Part 1; Introduction and Test Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Anne M.

    1997-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center recently led a multi-organizational acoustic test program. This testing consisted of acoustically exciting a Cassini spacecraft simulator in a full scale 60 foot high Titan 4 payload fairing with various acoustic blanket designs and configurations in a large reverberant acoustic chamber. The primary purpose of this test program was to measure the fairing's internal acoustics and spacecraft vibration, especially the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) vibration, and to quantify the mitigation efforts in reducing these levels. Key to this reduction effort was the utilization of new acoustic blanket designs. This paper will provide the background and rationale for performing this test program, state the test program's primary and secondary objectives and describe the test matrix, hardware and instrumentation. A second part companion paper will provide the test results and data analysis.

  1. Acoustic Analysis of Plutonium and Nuclear Weapon Components at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, T. A.; Reynolds, J. J.; Rowe, C. A.; Freibert, F. J.; Ten Cate, J. A.; Ulrich, T. J.; Farrow, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    One of the primary missions of Los Alamos National Laboratory is to use science based techniques to certify the nuclear weapons stockpile of the United States. As such we use numerous NDE techniques to monitor materials and systems properties in weapons. Two techniques will be discussed in this presentation, Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (ARS) and Acoustic Emission (AE). ARS is used to observe manufacturing variations or changes in the plutonium containing component (pit) of the weapon system. Both quantitative and qualitative comparisons can be used to determine variation in the pit components. Piezoelectric transducer driven acoustic resonance experiments will be described along with initial qualitative and more complex analysis and comparison techniques derived from earthquake analysis performed at LANL. Similarly, AE is used to measure the time of arrival of acoustic signals created by mechanical events that can occur in nuclear weapon components. Both traditional time of arrival techniques and more advanced techniques are used to pinpoint the location and type of acoustic emission event. Similar experiments on tensile tests of brittle phases of plutonium metal will be described.

  2. Multiple mode analysis of the self-excited vibrations of rotary drilling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germay, Christophe; Denoël, Vincent; Detournay, Emmanuel

    2009-08-01

    This paper extends the analysis of the self-excitated vibrations of a drilling structure presented in an earlier paper [T. Richard, C. Germay, E. Detournay, A simplified model to explore the root cause of stick-slip vibrations in drilling systems with drag bits, Journal of Sound and Vibration 305 (3) (2007) 432-456] by basing the formulation of the model on a continuum representation of the drillstring rather than on a characterization of the drilling structure by a 2 degree of freedom system. The particular boundary conditions at the bit-rock interface, which according to this model are responsible for the self-excited vibrations, account for both cutting and frictional contact processes. The cutting process combined with the quasi-helical motion of the bit leads to a regenerative effect that introduces a coupling between the axial and torsional modes of vibrations and a state-dependent delay in the governing equations, while the frictional contact process is associated with discontinuities in the boundary conditions when the bit sticks in its axial and angular motion. The dynamic response of the drilling structure is computed using the finite element method. While the general tendencies of the system response predicted by the discrete model are confirmed by this computational model (for example that the occurrence of stick-slip vibrations as well as the risk of bit bouncing are enhanced with an increase of the weight-on-bit or a decrease of the rotational speed), new features in the self-excited response of the drillstring can be detected. In particular, stick-slip vibrations are predicted to occur at natural frequencies of the drillstring different from the fundamental one (as sometimes observed in field operations), depending on the operating parameters.

  3. FRP/steel composite damage acoustic emission monitoring and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongsheng; Chen, Zhi

    2015-04-01

    FRP is a new material with good mechanical properties, such as high strength of extension, low density, good corrosion resistance and anti-fatigue. FRP and steel composite has gotten a wide range of applications in civil engineering because of its good performance. As the FRP/steel composite get more and more widely used, the monitor of its damage is also getting more important. To monitor this composite, acoustic emission (AE) is a good choice. In this study, we prepare four identical specimens to conduct our test. During the testing process, the AE character parameters and mechanics properties were obtained. Damaged properties of FRP/steel composite were analyzed through acoustic emission (AE) signals. By the growing trend of AE accumulated energy, the severity of the damage made on FRP/steel composite was estimated. The AE sentry function has been successfully used to study damage progression and fracture emerge release rate of composite laminates. This technique combines the cumulative AE energy with strain energy of the material rather than analyzes the AE information and mechanical separately.

  4. Outcome analysis of benign vocal cord lesions by videostroboscopy, acoustic analysis and voice handicap index.

    PubMed

    Thomas, George; Mathews, Suma Susan; Chrysolyte, Shipra B; Rupa, V

    2007-12-01

    Benign vocal cord lesions affect vibratory vocal fold function resulting in significant dysphonia. A prospective study of 30 patients with benign vocal fold lesions was undertaken at our centre to compare the pre and post operative voice using videostroboscopy, voice analysis and voice handicap index. The vibratory pattern of the cord improved as evidenced by the stroboscopic parameters-symmetry, mucosal wave and glottic closure (p<0.05). Voice analysis showed a trend towards normalcy but the values obtained did not attain statistical significance. Voice handicap index showed a reduction in the total and the subscales scores. Videostroboscopy along with acoustic analysis and voice handicap index are useful tools in the objective and subjective assessment of the effectiveness of treatment in patients with benign vocal cord lesions. Their routine use in a voice clinic is recommended.

  5. Whole-Body Vibration and Blood Flow and Muscle Oxygenation: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Games, Kenneth E.; Sefton, JoEllen M.; Wilson, Alan E.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The use and popularity of whole-body vibration (WBV) has increased in recent years, but there is a lack of consensus in the literature about the effectiveness of the treatment. Objective: To quantitatively examine the effects of WBV on muscle oxygenation and peripheral blood flow in healthy adults. Data Sources: We searched Web of Science and PubMed databases and reference lists from relevant articles using the key terms whole body vibration, whole-body vibration, WBV, blood flow, peripheral blood flow, oxygenation, muscle oxygenation, circulation, circulatory, near infrared spectroscopy, NIRS, and power Doppler. Key terms were searched using single word and combination searches. No date range was specified. Study Selection: Criteria for inclusion were (1) use of a commercially available WBV device, (2) a human research model, (3) a pre-WBV condition and at least 1 WBV experimental condition, and (4) reporting of unstandardized means and standard deviations of muscle oxygenation or peripheral blood flow. Data Extraction: Means, standard deviations, and sample sizes were extracted from the text, tables, and figures of included studies. A total of 35 and 90 data points were extracted for the muscle-oxygenation and blood-flow meta-analyses, respectively. Data for each meta-analysis were combined and analyzed using meta-analysis software. Weighted, random-effects meta-analyses using the Hedges g metric were completed for muscle oxygenation and blood flow. We then conducted follow-up analyses using the moderator variables of vibration type, vibration time, vibration frequency, measurement location, and sample type. Data Synthesis: We found 18 potential articles. Further examination yielded 10 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. Whole-body vibration was shown to positively influence peripheral blood flow. Additionally, the moderators of vibration type and frequency altered the influence of WBV on blood flow. Overall, WBV did not alter muscle oxygenation

  6. Vibration Analysis of Rectangular Isotropic Thick Plates Using Mindlin Plate Characteristic Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. M.; Kim, K. C.

    1995-11-01

    An iterative Kantorovich method is presented for the vibration analysis of rectangular isotropic thick plates. Mindlin plate characteristic functions are derived in general forms by the Kantorovich method initially starting with Timoshenko beam functions consistent with the boundary conditions of the plate. Through numerical calculations of a natural pairs and dynamic responses of appropriate models, it has been confirmed that the method presented is superior to the Rayleigh-Ritz analysis or the FEM analysis in accuracy and computational efficiency.

  7. Prototype partial one-third octave band spectrum analyzer for acoustic, vibration and other wideband data for flight applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The design refinement of a compact frequency analyzer for measurement and analysis on board flight vehicles is discussed. The analyzer has been constructed in a partial one-third octave band configuration with six filters and detectors spaced by the square root of 10 from 316 Hz to 100,000 Hz and a broadband detector channel. The analyzer has been tested over a temperature range of 40 to 120 F at a pressure of one atmosphere, and at a temperature of 75 F at an absolute pressure of 0.000001 torr, and has demonstrated at least 60 db of dynamic range.

  8. Time-resolved crystal structure analysis of resonantly vibrating langasite oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyagi, Shinobu; Osawa, Hitoshi; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Takeda, Shoichi; Moriyoshi, Chikako; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro

    2016-10-01

    The momentary crystal structure of a Y-cut langasite oscillator resonantly vibrating under an alternating electric field is revealed by time-resolved crystal structure analysis to understand the microscopic mechanism of piezoelectricity. The thickness-shear lattice strain under an electric field is amplified ∼103 times by the resonant effect. The lattice vibration involves the deformation of GaO4 and Ga0.5Si0.5O4 tetrahedra accompanied by atomic displacements of specific oxygen atoms along the electric field. The deformation of GaO4 and Ga0.5Si0.5O4 tetrahedra enhances the piezoelectricity of langasite.

  9. Motion and vibration control of a slewing flexible structure by SMA actuators and parameter sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janzen, F. C.; Tusset, A. M.; Piccirillo, V.; Balthazar, J. M.; Brasil, R. M. L. R. F.

    2015-11-01

    This work presents two approaches to the problem of vibration and positioning control of a flexible structural beam driven by a DC motor. The position is controlled by the current applied to the DC motor armature. A Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuator controls vibrations of the flexible structural beam. The State Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE) technique is used to provide a control action which uses sub-optimal control and system local stability search. The robustness of these two controllers is tested by sensitivity analysis to parametric uncertainties. Numerical simulations results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  10. High-tip-speed fiber composite compressor blades: Vibration and strength analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Lynch, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    An analytical procedure is described which couples composite mechanics computer codes with NASTRAN. This procedure was used to perform a detailed analysis of a high-tip-speed fiber composite compressor fan blade. The results indicate that the various vibration modes of this blade are highly coupled. Mechanical load ply stresses are well below the corresponding room temperature strengths. Lamination residual stresses are likely to cause transply cracks and interply delamination. Transply cracks and relaxation of root fixity decrease the vibrational frequencies whereas centrifugal stiffening increases them. Comparisons of results for various parameters are presented in tabular and graphical form.

  11. Sound radiation from randomly vibrating beams of finite circular cross section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutterlin, M. W.; Pierce, A. D.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation of sound from vibrating cylindrical beams is analyzed based on the frequency of the beam vibrations and the physical characteristics of the beam and its surroundings. A statistical analysis of random beam vibrations allows this result to be independent of the boundary conditions at the ends of the beam. The acoustic power radiated by the beam can be determined from a knowledge of the frequency band vibration data without a knowledge of the individual modal vibration amplitudes. A practical example of the usefulness of this technique is provided by the application of the theoretical calculations to the prediction of the octave band acoustic power output of the picking sticks of an automatic textile loom. Calculations are made of the expected octave band sound pressure levels based on measured acceleration data. These theoretical levels are subsequently compared with actual sound pressure level measurements of loom noise.

  12. In-plane vibration analysis of annular plates with arbitrary boundary conditions.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xianjie; Shi, Dongyan; Qin, Zhengrong; Wang, Qingshan

    2014-01-01

    In comparison with the out-of-plane vibrations of annular plates, far less attention has been paid to the in-plane vibrations which may also play a vital important role in affecting the sound radiation from and power flows in a built-up structure. In this investigation, a generalized Fourier series method is proposed for the in-plane vibration analysis of annular plates with arbitrary boundary conditions along each of its edges. Regardless of the boundary conditions, the in-plane displacement fields are invariantly expressed as a new form of trigonometric series expansions with a drastically improved convergence as compared with the conventional Fourier series. All the unknown expansion coefficients are treated as the generalized coordinates and determined using the Rayleigh-Ritz technique. Unlike most of the existing studies, the presented method can be readily and universally applied to a wide spectrum of in-plane vibration problems involving different boundary conditions, varying material, and geometric properties with no need of modifying the basic functions or adapting solution procedures. Several numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and reliability of the current solution for predicting the in-plane vibration characteristics of annular plates subjected to different boundary conditions.

  13. In-Plane Vibration Analysis of Annular Plates with Arbitrary Boundary Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Zhengrong; Wang, Qingshan

    2014-01-01

    In comparison with the out-of-plane vibrations of annular plates, far less attention has been paid to the in-plane vibrations which may also play a vital important role in affecting the sound radiation from and power flows in a built-up structure. In this investigation, a generalized Fourier series method is proposed for the in-plane vibration analysis of annular plates with arbitrary boundary conditions along each of its edges. Regardless of the boundary conditions, the in-plane displacement fields are invariantly expressed as a new form of trigonometric series expansions with a drastically improved convergence as compared with the conventional Fourier series. All the unknown expansion coefficients are treated as the generalized coordinates and determined using the Rayleigh-Ritz technique. Unlike most of the existing studies, the presented method can be readily and universally applied to a wide spectrum of in-plane vibration problems involving different boundary conditions, varying material, and geometric properties with no need of modifying the basic functions or adapting solution procedures. Several numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and reliability of the current solution for predicting the in-plane vibration characteristics of annular plates subjected to different boundary conditions. PMID:24688416

  14. Longitudinal vibration and stability analysis of carbon nanotubes conveying viscous fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oveissi, Soheil; Toghraie, Davood; Eftekhari, Seyyed Ali

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays, carbon nanotubes (CNT) play an important role in practical applications in fluidic devices. To this end, researchers have studied various aspects of vibration analysis of a behavior of CNT conveying fluid. In this paper, based on nonlocal elasticity theory, single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) is simulated. To investigate and analyze the effect of internal fluid flow on the longitudinal vibration and stability of SWCNT, the equation of motion for longitudinal vibration is obtained by using Navier-Stokes equations. In the governing equation of motion, the interaction of fluid-structure, dynamic and fluid flow velocity along the axial coordinate of the nanotube and the nano-scale effect of the structure are considered. To solve the nonlocal longitudinal vibration equation, the approximate Galerkin method is employed and appropriate simply supported boundary conditions are applied. The results show that the axial vibrations of the nanotubesstrongly depend on the small-size effect. In addition, the fluid flowing in nanotube causes a decrease in the natural frequency of the system. It is obvious that the system natural frequencies reach zero at lower critical flow velocities as the wave number increases. Moreover, the critical flow velocity decreases as the nonlocal parameter increases.

  15. Analysis of In-Flight Vibration Measurements from Helicopter Transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosher, Marianne; Huff, Ed; Barszcz

    2004-01-01

    In-flight vibration measurements from the transmission of an OH-58C KIOWA are analyzed. In order to understand the effect of normal flight variation on signal shape, the first gear mesh components of the planetary gear system and bevel gear are studied in detail. Systematic patterns occur in the amplitude and phase of these signal components with implications for making time synchronous averages and interpreting gear metrics in flight. The phase of the signal component increases as the torque increases; limits on the torque range included in a time synchronous average may now be selected to correspond to phase change limits on the underlying signal. For some sensors and components, an increase in phase variation and/or abrupt change in the slope of the phase dependence on torque are observed in regions of very low amplitude of the signal component. A physical mechanism for this deviation is postulated. Time synchronous averages should not be constructed in torque regions with wide phase variation.

  16. Polymorphism in 4‧-hydroxyacetophenone: A vibrational analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardes, Carlos E. S.; Ilharco, Laura M.; Minas da Piedade, Manuel E.

    2014-12-01

    In this work we show that the two known polymorphs of 4‧-hydroxyacetophenone (form I, monoclinic, P21/c, Z‧/Z = 1/4; form II, orthorhombic, P212121, Z‧/Z = 2/8) can be clearly distinguished by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier-transform infrared (DRIFT) spectroscopy. The experimental studies were complemented by density functional theory calculations (DFT) carried out at the B3LYP/cc-pVTZ level of theory on the E and Z molecular conformers present in the solid forms I and II, respectively. Comparison between the calculated and experimental spectra allowed understanding the influence of polymorphism on the main intermolecular interactions. It was concluded that the differences in the hydrogen bond (H-bond) patterns of the two forms previously highlighted by X-ray diffraction were also captured by the vibrational spectra. Finally, attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectra suggested that there is a direct connection between the predominant solvent-induced molecular conformation of 4‧-hydroxyacetophenone (E or Z) and the selective nucleation of form I from water and form II from ethanol.

  17. Vibration Analysis of Composite Rectangular Plates Reinforced along Curved Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Shinya; Oonishi, Yoshimasa; Narita, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Katsuhiko

    In the past few decades, composite materials composed of straight fibers and polymer matrix have gained their status as the most promising material for light-weight structures. Technical merit of the composites as tailored material also provided practical advantages in the optimum design process. Recently, it is reported that the fabrication machine has been developed to make curved fibers embedded in the matrix material. Based on such technical advancement, this paper proposes an analytical method to study vibration of composite rectangular plates reinforced along curved lines. The approach is based on the Ritz method where variable fiber direction can be accommodated. For this purpose, the fibers continuously changing their direction are formulated as the variable bending stiffness in the total potential energy. A frequency equation is derived by the Ritz minimizing process, and frequency parameters are calculated as the eigenvlaues in the eigenvalue problem. In numerical results, the accuracy of the method is presented by comparing present results with FEM results. The advantages of present plate are confirmed by comparing natural frequencies and mode shapes with those of conventional composite and isotropic plates, and the effectiveness of the new solution to the most recent problem is demonstrated.

  18. Vibration analysis of magnetostrictive thin-film composite cantilever actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Shang, Xinchun

    2016-09-01

    The transverse vibration of a composed cantilever beam with magnetostrictive layer is analyzed, which is employed to simulate dynamic response of an actuator. The high-order shear deformation theory of beam and the coupling magnetoelastic constitutive relationship are introduced to construct the governing equations, all interface conditions between magnetostrictive film and elastic substrate as well as the free stress condition on the top and bottom surfaces of the beam can be satisfied. In order to demonstrate validity of the presented mathematical modeling, the verification examples are also given. Furthermore, the effect of geometry and material parameters on dynamic characteristics of magnetostrictive cantilever beam, such as the nature frequency and amplitude, is discussed. Moreover, through computing the magneto-mechanical coupling factor of the beam structure, the variation tendency curves of the factor along with different parameters and frequencies of magnetostrictive cantilever beam actuator have been presented. These numerical results should be useful for the design of beam-type with magnetostrictive thin-film actuators.

  19. An Analysis of the Rotational Spectrum of Acetonitrile (CH_3CN) in Excited Vibrational States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neese, Christopher F.; McMillan, James; Fortman, Sarah; De Lucia, Frank C.

    2014-06-01

    Acetonitrile (CH_3CN) is a well-known interstellar molecule whose vibrationally excited states need to be accounted for in searches for new molecules in the interstellar medium. To help catalog such `weed' molecules, we have developed a technique that involves recording complete spectra over a range of astrophysically significant temperatures. With such a data set, we can experimentally measure the line strengths and lower state energies of unassigned lines in the spectrum. In this talk we will present the ongoing analysis of complete temperature resolved spectra in the 215-265 GHz and 570-650 GHz regions. We have been able to assign many vibrationally hot lines from this data and a room temperature data set spanning 165-700 GHz. To date, we have assigned lines from most of the vibrational states below ν_6 at 1448 wn.

  20. Developing Uncertainty Models for Robust Flutter Analysis Using Ground Vibration Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Starr; Lind, Rick; Kehoe, Michael W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A ground vibration test can be used to obtain information about structural dynamics that is important for flutter analysis. Traditionally, this information#such as natural frequencies of modes#is used to update analytical models used to predict flutter speeds. The ground vibration test can also be used to obtain uncertainty models, such as natural frequencies and their associated variations, that can update analytical models for the purpose of predicting robust flutter speeds. Analyzing test data using the -norm, rather than the traditional 2-norm, is shown to lead to a minimum-size uncertainty description and, consequently, a least-conservative robust flutter speed. This approach is demonstrated using ground vibration test data for the Aerostructures Test Wing. Different norms are used to formulate uncertainty models and their associated robust flutter speeds to evaluate which norm is least conservative.

  1. Vibration analysis of sandwich rectangular plates with magnetorheological elastomer damping treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Jia-Yi

    2013-03-01

    In this study, the vibration analysis of sandwich rectangular plates with magnetorheological (MR) elastomer damping treatment is presented. The rectangular plate is combined with a magnetorheological elastomer core layer and a constraining layer to improve the vibration behaviors of the sandwich system. The MR material shows variations in the rheological properties when subjected to varying magnetic fields. Additionally, the MR material exhibits a rapid time response and is applicable to structures or devices when a tunable system is required. The magnetorheological elastomer is found to have a significant effect on the vibration characteristics of the sandwich rectangular plate. The modal damper and the natural frequencies for the sandwich plate system are calculated for various magnetic fields and some designed parameters by utilizing the finite element method. The damping effects of the sandwich plate system can be controlled and changed when different magnetic field strengths are applied.

  2. Wavelet analysis of baryon acoustic structures in the galaxy distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnalte-Mur, P.; Labatie, A.; Clerc, N.; Martínez, V. J.; Starck, J.-L.; Lachièze-Rey, M.; Saar, E.; Paredes, S.

    2012-06-01

    Context. Baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) are imprinted in the density field by acoustic waves travelling in the plasma of the early universe. Their fixed scale can be used as a standard ruler to study the geometry of the universe. Aims: The BAO have been previously detected using correlation functions and power spectra of the galaxy distribution. We present a new method to detect the real-space structures associated with BAO. These baryon acoustic structures are spherical shells of relatively small density contrast, surrounding high density central regions. Methods: We design a specific wavelet adapted to search for shells, and exploit the physics of the process by making use of two different mass tracers, introducing a specific statistic to detect the BAO features. We show the effect of the BAO signal in this new statistic when applied to the Λ - cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model, using an analytical approximation to the transfer function. We confirm the reliability and stability of our method by using cosmological N-body simulations from the MareNostrum Institut de Ciències de l'Espai (MICE). Results: We apply our method to the detection of BAO in a galaxy sample drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We use the "main" catalogue to trace the shells, and the luminous red galaxies (LRG) as tracers of the high density central regions. Using this new method, we detect, with a high significance, that the LRG in our sample are preferentially located close to the centres of shell-like structures in the density field, with characteristics similar to those expected from BAO. We show that stacking selected shells, we can find their characteristic density profile. Conclusions: We delineate a new feature of the cosmic web, the BAO shells. As these are real spatial structures, the BAO phenomenon can be studied in detail by examining those shells. Full Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  3. Analysis of Fumarole Acoustics at Aso Volcano, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, K. F.; Yokoo, A.; Fee, D.; Huang, Y. C.; Yoshikawa, S.; Utsugi, M.; Minami, T.; Ohkura, T.

    2015-12-01

    The lowermost portion of large eruption columns is the momentum-driven, fluid flow portion known as a volcanic jet. The perturbation of the atmosphere from this region produces a sound known as jetting or jet noise. Recent work has shown that this volcanic jet noise produced by a volcano has similar characteristics as the sound from jet and rocket engines. The study of volcanic jet noise has gained much from laboratory jet engine studies; however, jet engines have been engineered to reduce noise thereby limiting their use as a comparison tool to the complex, ever-changing volcanic jet. Previous studies have noted that fumaroles produce jet noise without further detailed investigation. The goal of this work is to enhance our understanding of large-scale volcanic jets by studying an accessible, less hazardous fumarolic jet. We aim to characterize the acoustic signature of fumaroles and evaluate if fumarolic jets scale to that of large volcanic jets. To investigate this, we deployed a 6-element acoustic array at two different locations along the edge of the crater wall at Aso Volcano, Japan from early July through mid-August 2015. Approximately two months before this deployment, the pyroclastic cone within Aso's crater partially collapsed into the vent. The cone was constructed during both ash venting and strombolian-style explosive activity in the last year. After the deployment, on July 13 a new small vent opened on the southwest flank of the pyroclastic cone. The vent is several meters in diameter and has consistent gas jetting which produces audible jet noise. To better capture the acoustic signature of the gas jetting we moved the array to the southwestern edge of the crater. The array is 230 meters from the vent and is positioned 54 degrees from the vertical jet axis, a recording angle usually not feasible in volcanic environments. Preliminary investigations suggest directionality at the source and the influence of topography along the propagation path as

  4. Automated pattern analysis: A newsilent partner in insect acoustic detection studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This seminar reviews methods that have been developed for automated analysis of field-collected sounds used to estimate pest populations and guide insect pest management decisions. Several examples are presented of successful usage of acoustic technology to map insect distributions in field environ...

  5. Quantitative and Descriptive Comparison of Four Acoustic Analysis Systems: Vowel Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burris, Carlyn; Vorperian, Houri K.; Fourakis, Marios; Kent, Ray D.; Bolt, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines accuracy and comparability of 4 trademarked acoustic analysis software packages (AASPs): Praat, WaveSurfer, TF32, and CSL by using synthesized and natural vowels. Features of AASPs are also described. Method: Synthesized and natural vowels were analyzed using each of the AASP's default settings to secure 9…

  6. Acoustic Analysis of the Tremulous Voice: Assessing the Utility of the Correlation Dimension and Perturbation Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shao, Jun; MacCallum, Julia K.; Zhang, Yu; Sprecher, Alicia; Jiang, Jack J.

    2010-01-01

    Acoustic analysis may provide a useful means to quantitatively characterize the tremulous voice. Signals were obtained from 25 subjects with diagnoses of either Parkinson's disease or vocal polyps exhibiting vocal tremor. These were compared to signals from 24 subjects with normal voices. Signals were analyzed via correlation dimension and several…

  7. Operational Performance Analysis of Passive Acoustic Monitoring for Killer Whales

    SciTech Connect

    Matzner, Shari; Fu, Tao; Ren, Huiying; Deng, Zhiqun; Sun, Yannan; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2011-09-30

    For the planned tidal turbine site in Puget Sound, WA, the main concern is to protect Southern Resident Killer Whales (SRKW) due to their Endangered Species Act status. A passive acoustic monitoring system is proposed because the whales emit vocalizations that can be detected by a passive system. The algorithm for detection is implemented in two stages. The first stage is an energy detector designed to detect candidate signals. The second stage is a spectral classifier that is designed to reduce false alarms. The evaluation presented here of the detection algorithm incorporates behavioral models of the species of interest, environmental models of noise levels and potential false alarm sources to provide a realistic characterization of expected operational performance.

  8. Acoustic Propagation Studies For Sperm Whale Phonation Analysis During LADC Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorovskaia, Natalia A.; Ioup, George E.; Ioup, Juliette W.; Caruthers, Jerald W.

    2004-11-01

    The Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center (LADC) conducted a series of passive acoustic experiments in the Northern Gulf of Mexico and the Ligurian Sea in 2001 and 2002. Environmental and acoustic moorings were deployed in areas of large concentrations of marine mammals (mainly, sperm whales). Recordings and analysis of whale phonations are among the objectives of the project. Each mooring had a single autonomously recording hydrophone (Environmental Acoustic Recording System (EARS)) obtained from the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office after modification to record signals up to 5,859 Hz in the Gulf of Mexico and up to 12,500 Hz in the Ligurian Sea. Self-recording environmental sensors, attached to the moorings, and concurrent environmental ship surveys provided the environmental data for the experiments. The results of acoustic simulations of long-range propagation of the broad-band (500-6,000 Hz) phonation pulses from a hypothetical whale location to the recording hydrophone in the experimental environments are presented. The utilization of the simulation results for an interpretation of the spectral features observed in whale clicks and for the development of tracking algorithms from single hydrophone recordings based on the identification of direct and surface and bottom reflected arrivals are discussed. [Research supported by ONR.

  9. Data-driven automated acoustic analysis of human infant vocalizations using neural network tools

    PubMed Central

    Warlaumont, Anne S.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Buder, Eugene H.; Dale, Rick; Kozma, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Acoustic analysis of infant vocalizations has typically employed traditional acoustic measures drawn from adult speech acoustics, such as f0, duration, formant frequencies, amplitude, and pitch perturbation. Here an alternative and complementary method is proposed in which data-derived spectrographic features are central. 1-s-long spectrograms of vocalizations produced by six infants recorded longitudinally between ages 3 and 11 months are analyzed using a neural network consisting of a self-organizing map and a single-layer perceptron. The self-organizing map acquires a set of holistic, data-derived spectrographic receptive fields. The single-layer perceptron receives self-organizing map activations as input and is trained to classify utterances into prelinguistic phonatory categories (squeal, vocant, or growl), identify the ages at which they were produced, and identify the individuals who produced them. Classification performance was significantly better than chance for all three classification tasks. Performance is compared to another popular architecture, the fully supervised multilayer perceptron. In addition, the network’s weights and patterns of activation are explored from several angles, for example, through traditional acoustic measurements of the network’s receptive fields. Results support the use of this and related tools for deriving holistic acoustic features directly from infant vocalization data and for the automatic classification of infant vocalizations. PMID:20370038

  10. Alternate approaches to vibration and shock analysis using NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denver, R. E.; Menichello, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    A method that derives an approximate equivalent static load to a base excitation shock analysis is described. The transient analysis in the current level of NASTRAN, level 16, does not directly provide for either input acceleration forcing functions or enforced boundary displacement. In the suggested alternate analysis format, equivalent force input functions are applied to the constrained locations by using the artifice of placing a large mass, with respect to the total system mass, at the desired acceleration input points. This shortcut static analysis approach is presented to approximate the expensive and time consuming dynamics analysis approach to the base excitation shock analysis.

  11. Vibrational spectra and normal coordinate analysis of 2-hydroxy-3-(2-methoxyphenoxy) propyl carbamate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthu, S.; Renuga, S.

    2014-11-01

    In this work, the vibrational spectral analysis was carried out by using FT-Raman and FTIR spectroscopy in the range 50-4000 cm-1 and 450-4000 cm-1 respectively, for 2-hydroxy-3-(2-methoxyphenoxy) propyl carbamate (2H3MPPLC) molecule. The molecular structure, fundamental vibrational frequencies and intensities of the vibrational bands were interpreted with the aid of structure optimizations and normal coordinate force field calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) and ab initio HF methods with 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The complete vibrational assignments of wave numbers were made on the basis of potential energy distribution (PED). The results of the calculations were applied to simulated spectra of the title compound, which show excellent agreement with observed spectra. The scaled B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) results show the best agreement with the experimental values over the other method. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interactions, charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The results confirm the occurrence of intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) within the molecule. The dipole moment (μ), polarizability (α) and hyperpolarizability (β) of the investigated molecule has been computed using B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method. Mulliken population analysis on atomic charges was also calculated. Besides, frontier molecular orbitals, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and thermodynamic properties were performed.

  12. Nonlinear Steady-State Vibration Analysis of a Beam with Breathing Cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, Keisuke; Yoshinaga, Terumitsu

    This paper presents a method for analysis of steady-state vibration of a beam with breathing cracks, which open and close during vibration. There are several papers treating problems of vibration analysis of a beam with breathing cracks. However, due to their treatments of the condition which determines the switch between the open and closed states of the crack, it is difficult for one to obtain steady-state vibration efficiently by methods such as the incremental harmonic balance method. Since opening and closing of a breathing crack depends on the sign of the bending moment, or the curvature, of the beam, the key point to this problem is explicit treatment of the bending moment. The mixed variational principle allows one to use deflection as well as bending moment as primary variables in the governing equation. In this paper a governing equation of a beam with breathing cracks is derived by a finite element procedure based on the mixed variational principle. Then, the derived governing equations are solved by combining the iteration method and the harmonic balance method. Finally, examples of analysis by the presented method are given.

  13. Analysis of random structure-acoustic interaction problems using coupled boundary element and finite element methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, Chuh; Pates, Carl S., III

    1994-01-01

    A coupled boundary element (BEM)-finite element (FEM) approach is presented to accurately model structure-acoustic interaction systems. The boundary element method is first applied to interior, two and three-dimensional acoustic domains with complex geometry configurations. Boundary element results are very accurate when compared with limited exact solutions. Structure-interaction problems are then analyzed with the coupled FEM-BEM method, where the finite element method models the structure and the boundary element method models the interior acoustic domain. The coupled analysis is compared with exact and experimental results for a simplistic model. Composite panels are analyzed and compared with isotropic results. The coupled method is then extended for random excitation. Random excitation results are compared with uncoupled results for isotropic and composite panels.

  14. A comprehensive strategy for the analysis of acoustic compressibility and optical deformability on single cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tie; Bragheri, Francesca; Nava, Giovanni; Chiodi, Ilaria; Mondello, Chiara; Osellame, Roberto; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine; Cristiani, Ilaria; Minzioni, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    We realized an integrated microfluidic chip that allows measuring both optical deformability and acoustic compressibility on single cells, by optical stretching and acoustophoresis experiments respectively. Additionally, we propose a measurement protocol that allows evaluating the experimental apparatus parameters before performing the cell-characterization experiments, including a non-destructive method to characterize the optical force distribution inside the microchannel. The chip was used to study important cell-mechanics parameters in two human breast cancer cell lines, MCF7 and MDA-MB231. Results indicate that MDA-MB231 has both higher acoustic compressibility and higher optical deformability than MCF7, but statistical analysis shows that optical deformability and acoustic compressibility are not correlated parameters. This result suggests the possibility to use them to analyze the response of different cellular structures. We also demonstrate that it is possible to perform both measurements on a single cell, and that the order of the two experiments does not affect the retrieved values.

  15. Modal analysis and dynamic stresses for acoustically excited shuttle insulation tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ojalvo, I. U.; Ogilvie, P. L.

    1975-01-01

    Improvements and extensions to the RESIST computer program developed for determining the normalized modal stress response of shuttle insulation tiles are described. The new version of RESIST can accommodate primary structure panels with closed-cell stringers, in addition to the capability for treating open-cell stringers. In addition, the present version of RESIST numerically solves vibration problems several times faster than its predecessor. A new digital computer program, titled ARREST (Acoustic Response of Reusable Shuttle Tiles) is also described. Starting with modal information contained on output tapes from RESIST computer runs, ARREST determines RMS stresses, deflections and accelerations of shuttle panels with reusable surface insulation tiles. Both programs are applicable to stringer stiffened structural panels with or without reusable surface insulation titles.

  16. Microelectronics Instrument Products Shock and Vibration Electro-Optics. Section D; Strength Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The strength analysis report for FRR shall include only revisions to update the strength analysis reports for the flight design configuration. Since there have been no revisions to the design configuration since the PDR and the CDR this report shall consist of re-submitting the analysis previously performed. In addition the motors have been subjected to Sine vibration, Random vibration, and shock per the SXI specification. Both motor/encoders have passed all three tests. There was no evidence of damage to the motor/encoder and the motor/encoder performed as required by the Acceptance test procedure. No degradation was seen between the before and after performance tests. The testing verified the analysis that there were adequate mf@ty margins with regard to structural integrity. Separate reports are available from the test facility and are apart of the FRR submittal.

  17. Effects of Low-pass Filtering on Acoustic Analysis of Voice

    PubMed Central

    MacCallum, Julia K.; Olszewski, Aleksandra E.; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Jack J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective/Hypothesis Low-pass filtering is often applied to eliminate effects of environmental noise when preparing voice recordings for acoustic analysis. This study tested the effects of low-pass filter cutoff frequency on the results of acoustic voice analysis, with a particular interest in the effects of low cutoff frequencies on nonlinear dynamic parameters. Study Design A crossover randomized controlled trial was performed using voice recordings of sustained vowel phonation obtained from the Disordered Voice Database. Methods A second-order Butterworth filter was applied to the voices at cutoff frequencies ranging from 5000 to 40Hz. Percent jitter, percent shimmer, fundamental frequency (F0), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), D2, and K2 were calculated for each signal. Results Traditional acoustic parameters were validly measured at cutoff frequencies as low as 300Hz. SNR and percent shimmer were improved by cutoff frequencies of 300Hz or higher; F0 and percent jitter were unaffected by filtering at these frequencies. D2 and K2 were measured stably for signals filtered at cutoff frequencies as low as 100Hz. Conclusion To ensure accuracy in acoustic voice analysis, setting the cutoff frequency of a low-pass filter at least one octave above the fundamental frequency (minimum of 300Hz) is recommended. Nonlinear dynamic measures of correlation dimension (D2) and second-order entropy (K2) proved more robust and maintained accuracy at lower frequencies. PMID:20346621

  18. Analysis and calibration of stage axial vibration for synchrotron radiation nanoscale computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jian; Li, Chen; Liu, Zhenzhong

    2015-10-01

    Synchrotron radiation nanoscale computed tomography (SR nano-CT) is a powerful analysis tool and can be used to perform chemical identification, mapping, or speciation of carbon and other elements together with X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) imaging. In practical applications, there are often challenges for SR nano-CT due to the misaligned geometry caused by the sample stage axial vibration. It occurs quite frequently because of experimental constraints from the mechanical error of manufacturing and assembly and the thermal expansion during the time-consuming scanning. The axial vibration will lead to the structure overlap among neighboring layers and degrade imaging results by imposing artifacts into the nano-CT images. It becomes worse for samples with complicated axial structure. In this work, we analyze the influence of axial vibration on nano-CT image by partial derivative. Then, an axial vibration calibration method for SR nano-CT is developed and investigated. It is based on the cross correlation of plane integral curves of the sample at different view angles. This work comprises a numerical study of the method and its experimental verification using a dataset measured with the full-field transmission X-ray microscope nano-CT setup at the beamline 4W1A of the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The results demonstrate that the presented method can handle the stage axial vibration. It can work for random axial vibration and needs neither calibration phantom nor additional calibration scanning. It will be helpful for the development and application of synchrotron radiation nano-CT systems.

  19. Analysis and calibration of stage axial vibration for synchrotron radiation nanoscale computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jian; Li, Chen; Liu, Zhenzhong

    2015-10-01

    Synchrotron radiation nanoscale computed tomography (SR nano-CT) is a powerful analysis tool and can be used to perform chemical identification, mapping, or speciation of carbon and other elements together with X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) imaging. In practical applications, there are often challenges for SR nano-CT due to the misaligned geometry caused by the sample stage axial vibration. It occurs quite frequently because of experimental constraints from the mechanical error of manufacturing and assembly and the thermal expansion during the time-consuming scanning. The axial vibration will lead to the structure overlap among neighboring layers and degrade imaging results by imposing artifacts into the nano-CT images. It becomes worse for samples with complicated axial structure. In this work, we analyze the influence of axial vibration on nano-CT image by partial derivative. Then, an axial vibration calibration method for SR nano-CT is developed and investigated. It is based on the cross correlation of plane integral curves of the sample at different view angles. This work comprises a numerical study of the method and its experimental verification using a dataset measured with the full-field transmission X-ray microscope nano-CT setup at the beamline 4W1A of the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The results demonstrate that the presented method can handle the stage axial vibration. It can work for random axial vibration and needs neither calibration phantom nor additional calibration scanning. It will be helpful for the development and application of synchrotron radiation nano-CT systems. PMID:26265032

  20. "Novel Techniques in Non-Stationary Analysis of Rotorcraft Vibration Signitures"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meng, Teresa

    1999-01-01

    This research effort produced new methods to analyze the performance of linear predictors that track non-stationary processes. Specifically, prediction methods have been applied to the vibration pattern of rotorcraft drivetrains. This analysis is part or a larger rotorcraft Health and Usage Monitoring System (HUMS) that can diagnose immediate failures of the subsystems, as indicated by abrupt change in the vibration signature, and prognosticate future health, by examining the vibration patterns against long-term trends. This problem is described by a earlier joint paper co-authored by members of the funding agency and the recipient institutions prior to this grant effort. Specific accomplishments under this grant include the following: (1) Definition of a framework for analysis of non-stationary time-series estimation using the coefficients of an adaptive filter. (2) Description of a novel method of combining short-term predictor error and long-term regression error to analyze the performance of a non-stationary predictor. (3) Formulation of a multi-variate probability density function that quantifies the performance of a adaptive predictor by using the short- and long-term error variables in a Gamma function distribution. and (4) Validation of the mathematical formulations with empirical data from NASA flight tests and simulated data to illustrate the utility beyond the domain of vibrating machinery.

  1. Detailed Vibration Analysis of Pinion Gear with Time-Frequency Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosher, Marianne; Pryor, Anna H.; Lewicki, David G.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the authors show a detailed analysis of the vibration signal from the destructive testing of a spiral bevel gear and pinion pair containing seeded faults. The vibration signal is analyzed in the time domain, frequency domain and with four time-frequency transforms: the Short Time Frequency Transform (STFT), the Wigner-Ville Distribution with the Choi-Williams kernel (WV-CW), the Continuous Wavelet' Transform (CWT) and the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). Vibration data of bevel gear tooth fatigue cracks, under a variety of operating load levels and damage conditions, are analyzed using these methods. A new metric for automatic anomaly detection is developed and can be produced from any systematic numerical representation of the vibration signals. This new metric reveals indications of gear damage with all of the time-frequency transforms, as well as time and frequency representations, on this data set. Analysis with the CWT detects changes in the signal at low torque levels not found with the other transforms. The WV-CW and CWT use considerably more resources than the STFT and the DWT. More testing of the new metric is needed to determine its value for automatic anomaly detection and to develop fault detection methods for the metric.

  2. Nonlinear electroelastic vibration analysis of NEMS consisting of double-viscoelastic nanoplates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimy, Farzad; Hosseini, S. Hamed S.

    2016-10-01

    The nonlinear electroelastic vibration behavior of viscoelastic nanoplates is investigated based on nonlocal elasticity theory. Employing nonlinear strain-displacement relations, the geometrical nonlinearity is modeled while governing equations are derived through Hamilton's principle and they are solved applying semi-analytical generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method. Eringen's nonlocal elasticity theory takes into account the effect of small size, which enables the present model to become effective in the analysis and design of nanosensors and nanoactuators. Based on Kelvin-Voigt model, the influence of the viscoelastic coefficient is also discussed. It is demonstrated that the GDQ method has high precision and computational efficiency in the vibration analysis of viscoelastic nanoplates. The good agreement between the results of this article and those available in literature validated the presented approach. The detailed mathematical derivations are presented and numerical investigations are performed while the emphasis is placed on investigating the effect of the several parameters such as electric voltage, small-scale effects, van der Waals interaction, Winkler and Pasternak elastic coefficients, the viscidity and aspect ratio of the nanoplate on its nonlinear vibrational characteristics. It is explicitly shown that the electroelastic vibration behavior of viscoelastic nanoplates is significantly influenced by these effects. Numerical results are presented to serve as benchmarks for future analyses of viscoelastic nanoplates which are fundamental elements in nanoelectromechanical systems.

  3. Vibrational analysis and formation mechanism of typical deep eutectic solvents: An experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Siwen; Li, Hongping; Zhu, Wenshuai; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Chao; Wu, Peiwen; Zhang, Qi; Li, Huaming

    2016-07-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs), as ionic liquid analogues for green solvents, have gained increasing attentions in chemistry. In this work, three typical kinds of DESs (ChCl/Gly, ChCl/AcOH and ChCl/Urea) were successfully synthesized and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman. Then comprehensive and systematical analyses were performed by the methods of density functional theory (DFT). Two methods (B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,p) and dispersion-corrected B3LYP-D3/6-311++G(2d,p)) were employed to investigate the structures, vibrational frequencies and assign their ownership of vibrational modes for the DESs, respectively. Nearly all the experimental characteristic peaks of IR and Raman were identified according to the calculated results. By linear fitting of the combined calculated vs experimental vibration frequencies, it can be found that both of the two methods are excellent to reproduce the experimental results. Besides, hydrogen bonds were proved to exist in DESs by IR spectrum, structure analysis and RDG analysis. This work was aimed at predicting and understanding the vibrational spectra of the three typical DESs based on DFT methods. Moreover, by comparing experimental and theoretical results, it provides us a deep understanding of the formation mechanisms of DESs. PMID:27450770

  4. A combined dynamic analysis method for geometrically nonlinear vibration isolators with elastic rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhan; Zheng, Gangtie

    2016-08-01

    A combined analysis method is developed in the present paper for studying the dynamic properties of a type of geometrically nonlinear vibration isolator, which is composed of push-pull configuration rings. This method combines the geometrically nonlinear theory of curved beams and the Harmonic Balance Method to overcome the difficulty in calculating the vibration and vibration transmissibility under large deformations of the ring structure. Using the proposed method, nonlinear dynamic behaviors of this isolator, such as the lock situation due to the coulomb damping and the usual jump resulting from the nonlinear stiffness, can be investigated. Numerical solutions based on the primary harmonic balance are first verified by direct integration results. Then, the whole procedure of this combined analysis method is demonstrated and validated by slowly sinusoidal sweeping experiments with different amplitudes of the base excitation. Both numerical and experimental results indicate that this type of isolator behaves as a hardening spring with increasing amplitude of the base excitation, which makes it suitable for isolating both steady-state vibrations and transient shocks.

  5. Vibrational analysis and formation mechanism of typical deep eutectic solvents: An experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Siwen; Li, Hongping; Zhu, Wenshuai; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Chao; Wu, Peiwen; Zhang, Qi; Li, Huaming

    2016-07-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs), as ionic liquid analogues for green solvents, have gained increasing attentions in chemistry. In this work, three typical kinds of DESs (ChCl/Gly, ChCl/AcOH and ChCl/Urea) were successfully synthesized and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman. Then comprehensive and systematical analyses were performed by the methods of density functional theory (DFT). Two methods (B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,p) and dispersion-corrected B3LYP-D3/6-311++G(2d,p)) were employed to investigate the structures, vibrational frequencies and assign their ownership of vibrational modes for the DESs, respectively. Nearly all the experimental characteristic peaks of IR and Raman were identified according to the calculated results. By linear fitting of the combined calculated vs experimental vibration frequencies, it can be found that both of the two methods are excellent to reproduce the experimental results. Besides, hydrogen bonds were proved to exist in DESs by IR spectrum, structure analysis and RDG analysis. This work was aimed at predicting and understanding the vibrational spectra of the three typical DESs based on DFT methods. Moreover, by comparing experimental and theoretical results, it provides us a deep understanding of the formation mechanisms of DESs.

  6. A use of regression analysis in acoustical diagnostics of gear drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balitskiy, F. Y.; Genkin, M. D.; Ivanova, M. A.; Kobrinskiy, A. A.; Sokolova, A. G.

    1973-01-01

    A study is presented of components of the vibration spectrum as the filtered first and second harmonics of the tooth frequency which permits information to be obtained on the physical characteristics of the vibration excitation process, and an approach to be made to comparison of models of the gearing. Regression analysis of two random processes has shown a strong dependence of the second harmonic on the first, and independence of the first from the second. The nature of change in the regression line, with change in loading moment, gives rise to the idea of a variable phase shift between the first and second harmonics.

  7. Laboratory test and acoustic analysis of cabin treatment for propfan test assessment aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuntz, H. L.; Gatineau, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    An aircraft cabin acoustic enclosure, built in support of the Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) program, is described. Helmholtz resonators were attached to the cabin trim panels to increase the sidewall transmission loss (TL). Resonators (448) were located between the trim panels and fuselage shell. In addition, 152 resonators were placed between the enclosure and aircraft floors. The 600 resonators were each tuned to a 235 Hz resonance frequency. After flight testing on the PTA aircraft, the enclosure was tested in the Kelly Johnson R and D Center Acoustics Lab. Laboratory noise reduction (NR) test results are discussed. The enclosure was placed in a Gulfstream 2 fuselage section. Broadband (138 dB overall SPL) and tonal (149 dB overall SPL) excitations were used in the lab. Tonal excitation simulated the propfan flight test excitation. The fundamental tone was stepped in 2 Hz intervals from 225 through 245 Hz. The resonators increase the NR of the cabin walls around the resonance frequency of the resonator array. The effects of flanking, sidewall absorption, cabin adsorption, resonator loading of trim panels, and panel vibrations are presented. Increases in NR of up to 11 dB were measured.

  8. BENEFITS OF VIBRATION ANALYSIS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF EQUIPMENT IN HLW TANKS - 12341

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanko, D.; Herbert, J.

    2012-01-10

    Vibration analyses of equipment intended for use in the Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive liquid waste storage tanks are performed during pre-deployment testing and has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing the life-cycle costs of the equipment. Benefits of using vibration analysis to identify rotating machinery problems prior to deployment in radioactive service will be presented in this paper. Problems encountered at SRS and actions to correct or lessen the severity of the problem are discussed. In short, multi-million dollar cost saving have been realized at SRS as a direct result of vibration analysis on existing equipment. Vibration analysis of equipment prior to installation can potentially reduce inservice failures, and increases reliability. High-level radioactive waste is currently stored in underground carbon steel waste tanks at the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site and at the Hanford Site, WA. Various types of rotating machinery (pumps and separations equipment) are used to manage and retrieve the tank contents. Installation, maintenance, and repair of these pumps and other equipment are expensive. In fact, costs to remove and replace a single pump can be as high as a half million dollars due to requirements for radioactive containment. Problems that lead to in-service maintenance and/or equipment replacement can quickly exceed the initial investment, increase radiological exposure, generate additional waste, and risk contamination of personnel and the work environment. Several different types of equipment are considered in this paper, but pumps provide an initial example for the use of vibration analysis. Long-shaft (45 foot long) and short-shaft (5-10 feet long) equipment arrangements are used for 25-350 horsepower slurry mixing and transfer pumps in the SRS HLW tanks. Each pump has a unique design, operating characteristics and associated costs, sometimes exceeding a million dollars. Vibration data are routinely

  9. a Hamiltonian to Obtain a Global Frequency Analysis of all the Vibrational Bands of Ethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moazzen-Ahmadi, Nasser; Norooz Oliaee, Jalal

    2016-06-01

    The interest in laboratory spectroscopy of ethane stems from the desire to understand the methane cycle in the atmospheres of planets and their moons and from the importance of ethane as a trace species in the terrestrial atmosphere. Solar decomposition of methane in the upper part of these atmospheres followed by a series of reactions leads to a variety of hydrocarbon compounds among which ethane is often the second most abundant species. Because of its high abundance, ethane spectra have been measured by Voyager and Cassini in the regions around 30, 12, 7, and 3 μm. Therefore, a complete knowledge of line parameters of ethane is crucial for spectroscopic remote sensing of planetary atmospheres. Experimental characterization of torsion-vibration states of ethane lying below 1400 cm-1 have been made previously, but extension of the Hamiltonian model for treatment of the strongly perturbed νb{8} fundamental and the complex band system of ethane in the 3 micron region requires careful examination of the operators for many new torsionally mediated vibration-rotation interactions. Following the procedures outlined by Hougen, we have re-examined the transformation properties of the total angular momentum, the translational and vibrational coordinates and momenta of ethane, and for vibration-torsion-rotation interaction terms constructed by taking products of these basic operators. It is found that for certain choices of phase, the doubly degenerate vibrational coordinates with and symmetry can be made to transform under the group elements in such a way as to yield real matrix elements for the torsion-vibration-rotation couplings whereas other choices of phase may require complex algebra. In this talk, I will discuss the construction of a very general torsion-vibration-rotation Hamiltonian for ethane, as well as the prospect for using such a Hamiltonian to obtain a global frequency analysis (based in large part on an extension of earlier programs and ethane fits^a from

  10. A two-beam acoustic system for tissue analysis.

    PubMed

    Sachs, T D; Janney, C D

    1977-03-01

    In the 'thermo-acoustic sensing technique' (TAST), a burst of sound, called the 'thermometer' beam is passed through tissue and its transit time is measured. A focused sound field, called the heating field, then warms a small volume in the path of the therometer beam, in proportion to the absorption. Finally, the therometer beam burst is repeated and its transit time subtracted from that of the initial thermometer burst. This difference measures the velocity perturbation in the tissue produced by the heating field. The transit time difference is td = K integral of infinity-infinity IP dchi where K is the instrument constant, I the heating field intensity, and P a perturbation factor which characterizes the tissues. The integration is carried out along the path of the thermometer beam. The perturbation factor is P = (formula: see text) where C is the specific heat, rho the denisty, V the velocity of sound, (formula: see text) the temperature coefficient of velocity and alpha the heating field absorption coefficient which is apparently sensitive to tissue structure and condition. Experiments on a fixed human brain showed an ability to distinguish between various tissue types combined with a spatial resolution of better than 3 mm. Should predictions based on the data and theory prove correct, TAST may become a non-invasive alternative to biopsy. PMID:857267

  11. Analysis for Acoustic Characterization of Microbubbles under Ultrasound Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Wataru; Nakamura, Yoji; Ichiyanagi, Mitsuhisa; Yoshinaka, Kiyoshi; Ikeda, Teiichiro; Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2011-09-01

    Microbubble contrast agents are used in many diagnoses and studied for therapeutic applications. But ultrasound parameters have not been physically analyzed, which means we do not have sufficient data about the parameters to explain unexpected events during diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to obtain sufficient knowledge about the parameters relevant to ultrasound therapy using microbubble contrast agents and to analyze the microbubble dynamics under ultrasound exposure. We measured the acoustic pressures of commercial contrast agent (Sonazoid™) resulting from ultrasound sine burst exposure of 3 cycles at center frequency 3.5 MHz, in various concentrations (void fractions). Results showed that for a high void fraction of 10-4, there appeared a low frequency signal of the order of 100 kHz in radiated echo from microbubbles, and comparatively low intensity level of the driving frequency in transmitted signal. The results suggested some change in dynamics of bubbles according to void fraction. We calculated the bubble interaction parameter β to know the transition range from single bubble behavior to bubble cloud behavior, and concluded that the low frequency signal appearing in the radiated echo is likely to be a resonance frequency of bubble cloud.

  12. Analysis of clot formation with acoustic radiation force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, Francesco; Longo, Diane M.; Lawrence, Michael B.; Walker, William F.

    2002-04-01

    Inappropriate blood coagulation plays an important role in diseases including stroke, heart attack, and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). DVT arises when a blood clot forms in a large vein of the leg. DVT is detrimental because the blood flow may be partially or completely obstructed. More importantly, a potentially fatal situation may arise if part of the clot travels to the arteries in the lungs, forming a pulmonary embolism (PE). Characterization of the mechanical properties of DVT could improve diagnosis and suggest appropriate treatment. We are developing a technique to assess mechanical properties of forming thrombi. The technique uses acoustic radiation force as a means to produce small, localized displacements within the sample. Returned ultrasound echoes are processed to estimate the time dependent displacement of the sample. Appropriate mechanical modeling and signal processing produce plots depicting relative mechanical properties (relative elasticity and relative viscosity) and force-free parameters (time constant, damping ratio, and natural frequency). We present time displacement curves of blood samples obtained during coagulation, and show associated relative and force-free parameter plots. These results show that the Voigt model with added mass accurately characterizes blood behavior during clot formation.

  13. Extended aeroelastic analysis for helicopter rotors with prescribed hub motion and blade appended penduluum vibration absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielawa, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    The mathematical development for the expanded capabilities of the G400 rotor aeroelastic analysis was examined. The G400PA expanded analysis simulates the dynamics of all conventional rotors, blade pendulum vibration absorbers, and the higher harmonic excitations resulting from prescribed vibratory hub motions and higher harmonic blade pitch control. The methodology for modeling the unsteady stalled airloads of two dimensional airfoils is discussed. Formulations for calculating the rotor impedance matrix appropriate to the higher harmonic blade excitations are outlined. This impedance matrix, and the associated vibratory hub loads, are the rotor dynamic characteristic elements for use in the simplified coupled rotor/fuselage vibration analysis (SIMVIB). Updates to the development of the original G400 theory, program documentation, user instructions and information are presented.

  14. Risk Factors of Acoustic Neuroma: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mantao; Fan, Zuoxu; Cao, Fei; Wang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Many epidemiological studies have investigated environmental risk factors for the development of acoustic neuroma. However, these results are controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis of case-control studies to identify any potential relationship between history of noise exposure, smoking, allergic diseases, and risk of acoustic neuroma. Materials and Methods We searched PubMed to identify relevant articles. Two researchers evaluated the eligibility and extracted the data independently. Results Eleven case-control studies were included in our meta-analysis. Acoustic neuroma was found to be associated with leisure noise exposure [odds ratio (OR)=1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05–1.68], but not with occupational noise exposure and ever noise exposure (OR=1.20, 95% CI: 0.84–1.72 and OR=1.15, 95% CI: 0.80–1.65). The OR of acoustic neuroma for ever (versus never) smoking was 0.53 (95% CI: 0.30–0.94), while the subgroup analysis indicated ORs of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.81–1.10) and 0.49 (95% CI: 0.41–0.59) for ex-smoker and current smoker respectively. The ORs for asthma, eczema, and seasonal rhinitis were 0.98 (95% CI: 0.80–1.18), 0.91 (95% CI: 0.76–1.09), and 1.52 (95% CI: 0.90–2.54), respectively. Conclusion Our meta-analysis is suggestive of an elevated risk of acoustic neuroma among individuals who were ever exposed to leisure noise, but not to occupational noise. Our study also indicated a lower acoustic neuroma risk among ever and current cigarette smokers than never smokers, while there was no significant relationship for ex-smokers. No significant associations were found between acoustic neuroma and history of any allergic diseases, such as asthma, eczema, and seasonal rhinitis. PMID:26996581

  15. Phase Time and Envelope Time in Time-Distance Analysis and Acoustic Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Dean-Yi; Duvall, Thomas L.; Sun, Ming-Tsung; Chang, Hsiang-Kuang; Jimenez, Antonio; Rabello-Soares, Maria Cristina; Ai, Guoxiang; Wang, Gwo-Ping; Goode Philip; Marquette, William; Ehgamberdiev, Shuhrat; Landenkov, Oleg

    1999-01-01

    Time-distance analysis and acoustic imaging are two related techniques to probe the local properties of solar interior. In this study, we discuss the relation of phase time and envelope time between the two techniques. The location of the envelope peak of the cross correlation function in time-distance analysis is identified as the travel time of the wave packet formed by modes with the same w/l. The phase time of the cross correlation function provides information of the phase change accumulated along the wave path, including the phase change at the boundaries of the mode cavity. The acoustic signals constructed with the technique of acoustic imaging contain both phase and intensity information. The phase of constructed signals can be studied by computing the cross correlation function between time series constructed with ingoing and outgoing waves. In this study, we use the data taken with the Taiwan Oscillation Network (TON) instrument and the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) instrument. The analysis is carried out for the quiet Sun. We use the relation of envelope time versus distance measured in time-distance analyses to construct the acoustic signals in acoustic imaging analyses. The phase time of the cross correlation function of constructed ingoing and outgoing time series is twice the difference between the phase time and envelope time in time-distance analyses as predicted. The envelope peak of the cross correlation function between constructed ingoing and outgoing time series is located at zero time as predicted for results of one-bounce at 3 mHz for all four data sets and two-bounce at 3 mHz for two TON data sets. But it is different from zero for other cases. The cause of the deviation of the envelope peak from zero is not known.

  16. Molecular structure, vibrational spectral analysis, NBO, HOMO-LUMO and conformational studies of ninhydrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arivazhagan, M.; Anitha Rexalin, D.

    2013-03-01

    The FT-IR and FT-Raman vibrational spectra of ninhydrin have been recorded in the range 4000-400 cm-1and 3600-50 cm-1, respectively. A detailed vibrational spectral analysis has been carried out and assignments of the observed fundamental bands have been proposed on the basis of peak positions and relative intensities. The optimized molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies, atomic charges, dipole moment, rotational constants and several thermodynamic parameters in the ground state are calculated using ab initio HF and density functional B3LYP methods with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set combination. In order to find the most optimized geometry, the energy calculations are carried out for various possible conformers. Keto and enol forms of ninhydrin are also studied. The condensed summary of the principal NBOs shows the occupancy, orbital energy and the qualitative pattern of delocalization interactions of ninhydrin. The calculated HOMO-LUMO energies reveal that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The predicted first hyperpolarizability also shows that the ninhydrin molecule have good optical quality and nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior. With the help of specific scaling procedures, the observed vibrational wave numbers in FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra are analyzed and assigned to different normal modes of the molecule.

  17. Firmness evaluation of melon using its vibration characteristic and finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Nourain, Jamal; Ying, Yi-bin; Wang, Jian-ping; Rao, Xiu-qin; Yu, Chao-gang

    2005-06-01

    The "Huang gua" melons were measured for their physical properties including firmness and static elastic modulus. The vibrational characteristics of fruits and vegetables are governed by their elastic modulus (firmness), mass, and geometry. Therefore, it is possible to evaluate firmness of fruits and vegetables based on their vibrational characteristics. Analysis of the vibration responses of a fruit is suggested for measuring elastic properties (Firmness) non-destructively. The impulse response method is often used to measure firmness of fruits. The fruit was excited using three types of balls (wooden, steel and rubber) and the vibration is detected by an accelerometer. The Instron device was used to measure the static elastic modulus of the inner, middle and outer portions of melon flesh. Finite element (FE) technique was used to determine the optimum excitation location of the chosen measurement sensor and to analyze the mode shape fruits. Four types of mode shapes (torsional or flexural mode shape, first-type, second-type spherical mode and breathing mode shape) were found. Finite element simulation results agreed well with experimental results. Correlation between the firmness and resonant frequency (r2=0.91) and between the resonant frequency and stiffness factor (r2=0.74) existed. The optimum location and suitable direction for excitation and response measurement on the fruit were suggested.

  18. Correlation analysis of motor current and chatter vibration in grinding using complex continuous wavelet coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yao; Wang, Xiufeng; Lin, Jing; Zhao, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Motor current is an emerging and popular signal which can be used to detect machining chatter with its multiple advantages. To achieve accurate and reliable chatter detection using motor current, it is important to make clear the quantitative relationship between motor current and chatter vibration, which has not yet been studied clearly. In this study, complex continuous wavelet coherence, including cross wavelet transform and wavelet coherence, is applied to the correlation analysis of motor current and chatter vibration in grinding. Experimental results show that complex continuous wavelet coherence performs very well in demonstrating and quantifying the intense correlation between these two signals in frequency, amplitude and phase. When chatter occurs, clear correlations in frequency and amplitude in the chatter frequency band appear and the phase difference of current signal to vibration signal turns from random to stable. The phase lead of the most correlated chatter frequency is the largest. With the further development of chatter, the correlation grows up in intensity and expands to higher order chatter frequency band. The analyzing results confirm that there is a consistent correlation between motor current and vibration signals in the grinding chatter process. However, to achieve accurate and reliable chatter detection using motor current, the frequency response bandwidth of current loop of the feed drive system must be wide enough to response chatter effectively.

  19. Vibrational spectroscopic study and NBO analysis on tranexamic acid using DFT method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthu, S.; Prabhakaran, A.

    2014-08-01

    In this work, we reported the vibrational spectra of tranexamic acid (TA) by experimental and quantum chemical calculation. The solid phase FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra of the title compound were recorded in the region 4000 cm-1 to 100 cm-1 and 4000 cm-1 to 400 cm-1 respectively. The molecular geometry, harmonic vibrational frequencies and bonding features of TA in the ground state have been calculated by using density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP method with standard 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The scaled theoretical wavenumber showed very good agreement with the experimental values. The vibrational assignments were performed on the basis of the potential energy distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes. Stability of the molecule, arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalization, has been analyzed using Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis. The results show that ED in the σ* and π* antibonding orbitals and second order delocalization energies E(2) confirm the occurrence of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) within the molecule. The electrostatic potential mapped onto an isodensity surface has been obtained. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The thermodynamic properties (heat capacity, entropy, and enthalpy) of the title compound at different temperatures were calculated in gas phase.

  20. Synergy of seismic, acoustic, and video signals in blast analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.P.; Stump, B.W.; Weigand, J.

    1997-09-01

    The range of mining applications from hard rock quarrying to coal exposure to mineral recovery leads to a great variety of blasting practices. A common characteristic of many of the sources is that they are detonated at or near the earth`s surface and thus can be recorded by camera or video. Although the primary interest is in the seismic waveforms that these blasts generate, the visual observations of the blasts provide important constraints that can be applied to the physical interpretation of the seismic source function. In particular, high speed images can provide information on detonation times of individuals charges, the timing and amount of mass movement during the blasting process and, in some instances, evidence of wave propagation away from the source. All of these characteristics can be valuable in interpreting the equivalent seismic source function for a set of mine explosions and quantifying the relative importance of the different processes. This paper documents work done at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Southern Methodist University to take standard Hi-8 video of mine blasts, recover digital images from them, and combine them with ground motion records for interpretation. The steps in the data acquisition, processing, display, and interpretation are outlined. The authors conclude that the combination of video with seismic and acoustic signals can be a powerful diagnostic tool for the study of blasting techniques and seismology. A low cost system for generating similar diagnostics using consumer-grade video camera and direct-to-disk video hardware is proposed. Application is to verification of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

  1. Vibrating-chamber levitation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Granett, D.; Lee, M. C. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Systems are described for the acoustic levitation of objects, which enable the use of a sealed rigid chamber to avoid contamination of the levitated object. The apparatus includes a housing forming a substantially closed chamber, and means for vibrating the entire housing at a frequency that produces an acoustic standing wave pattern within the chamber.

  2. Vibrating-chamber levitation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Granett, D.; Lee, M. C.

    1985-10-01

    Systems are described for the acoustic levitation of objects, which enable the use of a sealed rigid chamber to avoid contamination of the levitated object. The apparatus includes a housing forming a substantially closed chamber, and means for vibrating the entire housing at a frequency that produces an acoustic standing wave pattern within the chamber.

  3. [Comparison of the results of acoustic analysis of the voice recorded by different methods].

    PubMed

    Chernobel'skiĭ, S I

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out with the purpose of estimating the possibility of the acoustic analysis of the voice recorded with the use of a handsfree telephone. The voices of 40 subjects were analysed with the help of the special software program. The recordings obtained with the help of the handsfree telephone and over a usual microphone were compared. The following parameters were determined: the frequency of the fundamental speech tone when reading a text and jitter, shimmer and the signal to noise (S/N) ratio when phonating the letter "a". Statistical analysis of the data obtained failed to reveal the significant difference between the values of the parameters of interest, such as the main the frequency, jitter, shimmer, and the S/N ratio, in both modes of recording (p>0.05).The results of the study confirm the possibility of acoustic analysis of the voice over the telephone.

  4. Experimental analysis of the aero-acoustic coupling in a plane impinging jet on a slotted plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assoum, Hassan H.; El Hassan, Mouhammad; Abed-Meraïm, Kamel; Martinuzzi, Robert; Sakout, Anas

    2013-08-01

    Impinging jets are encountered in many industrial applications and suppression of the noise generated by these jets is of great fundamental and practical interest. The vortex dynamics and the interaction between the vortical structures and the impinging wall should be understood in order to control the aero-acoustic coupling between shear layer oscillation and the acoustic modes (self-sustained tones). In this study, a plane jet issuing from a rectangular nozzle and impinging on a plate is considered for Re = 3900. The sound pressure, the vibration of the impinged plate and the spatial velocity field are obtained simultaneously using a microphone, an accelerometer and the time-resolved particle image velocimetry technique, respectively. Spectra and cross-correlations are used to educe the role of different vortical structures leading to the aero-acoustic coupling. The results show the evolution of the correlation between acoustic and transverse velocity fields in the longitudinal direction. A pre-whitening technique is used to investigate the coupling between the acoustic and the velocity signals. This method shows that the correlation between the two signals has a centred peak that is not directly related to the passage of the dominant Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices.

  5. Reducing Thermal Conduction In Acoustic Levitators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lierke, Ernst G.; Leung, Emily W.; Bhat, Balakrishna T.

    1991-01-01

    Acoustic transducers containing piezoelectric driving elements made more resistant to heat by reduction of effective thermal-conductance cross sections of metal vibration-transmitting rods in them, according to proposal. Used to levitate small objects acoustically for noncontact processing in furnaces. Reductions in cross sections increase amplitudes of transmitted vibrations and reduce loss of heat from furnaces.

  6. Asymptotic modal analysis of a rectangular acoustic cavity and characterization of its intensification zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peretti, Linda F.; Dowell, Earl H.

    1989-01-01

    Asymptotic modal analysis (AMA) is used to study a rectangular cavity with a flexible vibrating portion on one wall and five rigid walls. The agreement between mean square pressure levels of the cavity interior calculated from classical modal analysis and from the AMA method improved as the number of responding modes increased. It is shown that intensification effects were due to both the excitation location and the response location.

  7. Quantitative vibration analysis using a single fringe pattern in time-average speckle interferometry.

    PubMed

    Deepan, B; Quan, C; Tay, C J

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a novel technique for quantitative vibration analysis using time-average electronic speckle pattern interferometry is proposed. An amplitude-varied time-average refreshing reference frame method is used to capture a fringe pattern with a better fringe contrast than the conventional reference frame technique. The recorded fringe patterns with improved contrast provide better mode shape visibility and are easier to process. A derivative-based regularized phase tracker model is used to retrieve vibration amplitudes from a single fringe pattern. The method does not require a phase shifter to obtain the mode shape or amplitude. The method provides unwrapped amplitude and amplitude derivatives maps directly, so a separate phase unwrapping process is not required. Experimental work is carried out using a circular aluminum plate test specimen and the results are compared with a finite element method modal analysis. Both experimental and numerical results show that the proposed method is robust and accurate. PMID:27505366

  8. Aeroelastic analysis and ground vibration survey of the NASA, Grumman American Yankee modified for spin testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroeger, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    A complete ground vibration and aeroelastic analysis was made of a modified version of the Grumman American Yankee. The aircraft had been modified for four empennage configurations, a wing boom was added, a spin chute installed and provisions included for large masses in the wing tip to vary the lateral and directional inertia. Other minor changes were made which have much less influence on the flutter and vibrations. Neither static divergence nor aileron reversal was considered since the wing structure was not sufficiently changed to affect its static aeroelastic qualities. The aircraft was found to be free from flutter in all of the normal modes explored in the ground shake test. The analysis demonstrated freedom from flutter up to 214 miles per hour.

  9. Coupled rotor/airframe vibration analysis program manual. Volume 2: Sample input and output listings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassarino, S.; Sopher, R.

    1982-01-01

    Sample input and output listings obtained with the base program (SIMVIB) of the coupled rotor/airframe vibration analysis and the external programs, G400/F389 and E927 are presented. Results for five of the base program test cases are shown. They represent different applications of the SIMVIB program to study the vibration characteristics of various dynamic configurations. Input and output listings obtained for one cycle of the G400/F389 coupled program are presented. Results from the rotor aeroelastic analysis E927 also appear. A brief description of the check cases is provided. A summary of the check cases for all the external programs interacting with the SIMVIB program is illustrated.

  10. Analysis of acoustic and entropy disturbances in a hypersonic wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilden, Thomas; Schröder, Wolfgang; Ali, Syed Raza Christopher; Schreyer, Anne-Marie; Wu, Jie; Radespiel, Rolf

    2016-05-01

    The tunnel noise in a Mach 5.9 Ludwieg tube is determined by two methods, a newly developed cone-probe-DNS method and a reliable hot-wire-Pitot-probe method. The new method combines pressure and heat flux measurements using a cone probe and direct numerical simulation (DNS). The modal analysis is based on transfer functions obtained by the DNS to link the measured quantities to the tunnel noise. The measurements are performed for several unit-Reynolds numbers in the range of 5 ṡ 106 ≤ Re/m ≤ 16 ṡ 106 and probe positions to identify the sensitivities of tunnel noise. The DNS solutions show similar response mechanisms of the cone probe to incident acoustic and entropy waves which leads to high condition numbers of the transfer matrix such that a unique relationship between response and source mechanism can be only determined by neglecting the contribution of the non-acoustic modes to the pressure and heat flux fluctuations. The results of the cone-probe-DNS method are compared to a modal analysis based on the hot-wire-Pitot-probe method which provides reliable results in the frequency range less than 50 kHz. In this low frequency range the findings of the two different mode analyses agree well. At higher frequencies, the newly developed cone-probe-DNS method is still valid. The tunnel noise is dominated by the acoustic mode, since the entropy mode is lower by one order of magnitude and the vorticity mode can be neglected. The acoustic mode is approximately 0.5% at 30 kHz and the cone-probe-DNS data illustrate the acoustic mode to decrease and to asymptotically approach 0.2%.

  11. Vibration and stress analysis in the presence of structural uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langley, R. S.

    2009-08-01

    At medium to high frequencies the dynamic response of a built-up engineering system, such as an automobile, can be sensitive to small random manufacturing imperfections. Ideally the statistics of the system response in the presence of these uncertainties should be computed at the design stage, but in practice this is an extremely difficult task. In this paper a brief review of the methods available for the analysis of systems with uncertainty is presented, and attention is then focused on two particular "non-parametric" methods: statistical energy analysis (SEA), and the hybrid method. The main governing equations are presented, and a number of example applications are considered, ranging from academic benchmark studies to industrial design studies.

  12. Finite element analysis of vibration and damping of laminated composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rikards, Rolands

    Simple finite elements are used to form a special laminated beam and plate superelements excluding all degrees of freedom in the nodes of the middle layer, and the finite element analysis of this structure is performed. To estimate damping of structures, modal loss factors are calculated, using two methods: the 'exact' method of complex eigenvalues and the approximate energy method. It was found that both methods give satisfactory results. However, the energy method needs less computer time than the exact method.

  13. Blend uniformity analysis of pharmaceutical products by Broadband Acoustic Resonance Dissolution Spectroscopy (BARDS).

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Dara; Scanlon, Eoin; Krüse, Jacob; Vos, Bastiaan; Evans-Hurson, Rachel; Fitzpatrick, Eileen; McSweeney, Seán

    2012-11-15

    Blend uniformity analysis (BUA) is a routine and highly regulated aspect of pharmaceutical production. In most instances, it involves quantitative determination of individual components of a blend in order to ascertain the mixture ratio. This approach often entails the use of costly and sophisticated instrumentation and complex statistical methods. In this study, a new and simple qualitative blend confirmatory test is introduced based on a well known acoustic phenomenon. Several over the counter (OTC) product powder blends are analysed and it is shown that each product has a unique and highly reproducible acoustic signature. The acoustic frequency responses generated during the dissolution of the product are measured and recorded in real time. It is shown that intra-batch and inter-batch variation for each product is either insignificant or non-existent when measured in triplicate. This study demonstrates that Broadband Acoustic Resonance Dissolution Spectroscopy or BARDS can be used successfully to determine inter-batch variability, stability and uniformity of powder blends. This is just one application of a wide range of BARDS applications which are more cost effective and time efficient than current methods.

  14. Effects of different analysis techniques and recording duty cycles on passive acoustic monitoring of killer whales.

    PubMed

    Riera, Amalis; Ford, John K; Ross Chapman, N

    2013-09-01

    Killer whales in British Columbia are at risk, and little is known about their winter distribution. Passive acoustic monitoring of their year-round habitat is a valuable supplemental method to traditional visual and photographic surveys. However, long-term acoustic studies of odontocetes have some limitations, including the generation of large amounts of data that require highly time-consuming processing. There is a need to develop tools and protocols to maximize the efficiency of such studies. Here, two types of analysis, real-time and long term spectral averages, were compared to assess their performance at detecting killer whale calls in long-term acoustic recordings. In addition, two different duty cycles, 1/3 and 2/3, were tested. Both the use of long term spectral averages and a lower duty cycle resulted in a decrease in call detection and positive pod identification, leading to underestimations of the amount of time the whales were present. The impact of these limitations should be considered in future killer whale acoustic surveys. A compromise between a lower resolution data processing method and a higher duty cycle is suggested for maximum methodological efficiency.

  15. Effects of different analysis techniques and recording duty cycles on passive acoustic monitoring of killer whales.

    PubMed

    Riera, Amalis; Ford, John K; Ross Chapman, N

    2013-09-01

    Killer whales in British Columbia are at risk, and little is known about their winter distribution. Passive acoustic monitoring of their year-round habitat is a valuable supplemental method to traditional visual and photographic surveys. However, long-term acoustic studies of odontocetes have some limitations, including the generation of large amounts of data that require highly time-consuming processing. There is a need to develop tools and protocols to maximize the efficiency of such studies. Here, two types of analysis, real-time and long term spectral averages, were compared to assess their performance at detecting killer whale calls in long-term acoustic recordings. In addition, two different duty cycles, 1/3 and 2/3, were tested. Both the use of long term spectral averages and a lower duty cycle resulted in a decrease in call detection and positive pod identification, leading to underestimations of the amount of time the whales were present. The impact of these limitations should be considered in future killer whale acoustic surveys. A compromise between a lower resolution data processing method and a higher duty cycle is suggested for maximum methodological efficiency. PMID:23968036

  16. Numerical Comparison of Active Acoustic and Structural Noise Control in a Stiffened Double Wall Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.

    1996-01-01

    The active acoustic and structural noise control characteristics of a double wall cylinder with and without ring stiffeners were numerically evaluated. An exterior monopole was assumed to acoustically excite the outside of the double wall cylinder at an acoustic cavity resonance frequency. Structural modal vibration properties of the inner and outer shells were analyzed by post-processing the results from a finite element analysis. A boundary element approach was used to calculate the acoustic cavity response and the coupled structural-acoustic interaction. In the frequency region of interest, below 500 Hz, all structural resonant modes were found to be acoustically slow and the nonresonant modal response to be dominant. Active sound transmission control was achieved by control forces applied to the inner or outer shell, or acoustic control monopoles placed just outside the inner or outer shell. A least mean square technique was used to minimize the interior sound pressures at the nodes of a data recovery mesh. Results showed that single acoustic control monopoles placed just outside the inner or outer shells resulted in better sound transmission control than six distributed point forces applied to either one of the shells. Adding stiffeners to the double wall structure constrained the modal vibrations of the shells, making the double wall stiffer with associated higher modal frequencies. Active noise control obtained for the stiffened double wall configurations was less than for the unstiffened cylinder. In all cases, the acoustic control monopoles controlled the sound transmission into the interior better than the structural control forces.

  17. Analysis of Forced Spatial Vibrations of a Centrifugal Pump Impeller with Axial Forces Balancing Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhulyov, A.; Martsinkovsky, V.; Kundera, C.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a model of a pump impeller with annular seals and a balancing device, used as a combined support-seal assembly, is considered. The forced coupled radial, angular and axial vibrations of the rotor are determined with consideration of linearized inertial, damping, gyroscopic, positional and circulating forces and moments acting on the impeller from the side of the fluid flow in annular seals. The theoretical analysis is supplemented with a numerical example, the amplitude frequency characteristics are shown.

  18. Combined implementation of holographic and speckle interferometry for comparative local stress analysis at different vibration modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, Sergey A.; Pisarev, Vladimir S.; Dzuba, Alexander S.; Grigoriev, Vladimir D.

    1998-09-01

    New capability of combined application of time-averaged holographic interferometry and defocused speckle photography, allowing us a comparative analysis of local stresses corresponding to different vibration modes, is considered. The main aspects of the technique developed are illustrated by using as an example bending oscillations of thin square plate with a large central circular hole. Experimental results are compared with corresponding numerical data obtained by means of the MSC/NASTRAN software.

  19. Vibration Analysis of Orthotropic Mindlin Plates with Edges Elastically Restrained against Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, J. H.; Chung, T. Y.; Kim, K. C.

    1993-05-01

    The free vibration analysis of the orthotropic Mindlin plates with edges elastically restrained against rotation has been accomplished using the Rayleigh-Ritz method. Polynomials with properties corresponding to those of the Timoshenko beam functions are introduced as trial functions in the spatial representation of the deflection and rotations of cross sections in two directions of the plates. The results obtained by using polynomials are nearly the same as the Timoshenko beam functions results, but were obtained with considerably less numerical efforts.

  20. Seismo-acoustic analysis of thunderstorms at Plostina (Romania) site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grecu, Bogdan; Ghica, Daniela; Moldovan, Iren; Ionescu, Constantin

    2013-04-01

    The National Institute for Earth Physics (Romania) operates one of the largest seismic networks in the Eastern Europe. The network includes 97 stations with velocity sensors of which 52 are broadband and 45 are short period, 102 strong motion stations and 8 seismic observatories. Located in the most active seismic region of Romania, i.e. Vrancea area, the Plostina Observatory included initially two seismic stations, one at surface with both broadband and accelerometer sensors and one at 30 m depth with only short period velocity sensor. Starting with 2007, the facilities at Plostina have been upgraded so that at present, the observatory also includes one seismic array (PLOR) of seven elements (PLOR1, PLOR2, PLOR3, PLOR4, PLOR5, PLOR6, PLOR7) with an aperture of 2.5 km, seven infrasound elements (IPL2, IPL3, IPL4, IPH4, IPH5, IPH6, IPH7), two three-component fluxgate sensors, one Boltek EFM-100 electrometer and one La Crosse weather station. The element PLOR4 is co-located with the accelerometer and borehole sensor, two infrasonic elements (IPL4 and IPH4), one fluxgate sensor, the Boltek electrometer and the weather station. All the date are continuously recorded and real-time transmitted to the Romanian National Data Centre (RONDC) in Magurele. The recent developments at Plostina site made possible the improvement of the local miscroseismic activity monitoring as well as conducting of other geophysical studies such as acoustic measurements, observations of the variation of the magnetic field in correlation with solar activity, observations of the variation of radioactive alpha gases concentration, observations of the telluric currents. In this work, we investigate the signals emitted due to the process of lightning and thunder during thunderstorms activity at Plostina site. These signals are well recorded by both seismic and infrasound networks and they are used to perform spectral and specific array analyses. We also perform multiple correlations between the

  1. Application of comparative vibrational spectroscopic and mechanistic studies in analysis of fisetin structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrić Marković, Jasmina M.; Marković, Zoran S.; Milenković, Dejan; Jeremić, Svetlana

    2011-12-01

    This paper addresses experimental and theoretical research in fisetin (2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,7-dihydroxychromen-4-one) structure by means of experimental IR and Raman spectroscopies and mechanistic calculations. Density Functional Theory calculations, with M05-2X functional and the 6-311+G (2df, p) basis set implemented in the Gaussian 09 package, are performed with the aim to support molecular structure, vibrational bands' positions and their intensities. Potential energy distribution (PED) values and the description of the largest vibrational contributions to the normal modes are calculated. The most intense bands appear in the 1650-1500 cm -1 wavenumber region. This region involves a combination of the C dbnd O, C2 dbnd C3 and C-C stretching vibrational modes. Most of the bands in the 1500-1000 cm -1 range involve C-C stretching, O-C stretching and in-plane C-C-H, C-O-H, C-C-O and C-C-C bending vibrations of the rings. The region below 1000 cm -1 is characteristic to the combination of in plane C-C-C-H, H-C-C-H, C-C-C-C, C-C-O-C and out of plane O-C-C-C, C-C-O-C, C-C-C-C torsional modes. The Raman spectra of baicalein and quercetin were used for qualitative comparison with fisetin spectrum and verification of band assignments. The applied detailed vibrational spectral analysis and the assignments of the bands, proposed on the basis of fundamentals, reproduced the experimental results with high degree of accuracy.

  2. Vibration fatigue analysis and multi-axial effect in testing of aerospace structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aykan, Murat; Çelik, Mehmet

    2009-04-01

    The work reported in this paper compared the fatigue damage accumulated under uni-axial loading (a procedure promoted by the vibration testing standards) to that induced by multi-axial loading. The comparison was performed for a helicopter structural element (the flare dispenser bracket of the self-defensive system's Chaff), which is exposed to the particular combination of wide-band random with sinusoidal vibrations, which is characteristic to the helicopter dynamic environment. The evaluation of the fatigue damage induced by these loads requires the calculation or measurement of the structure's dynamic response in terms of stresses or strains, and the application of the appropriate methodology to this response. In this work, dynamic response was calculated in the frequency domain based on the relations between the power spectral density matrixes of the excitations to that of the responses for a linear system. The transfer matrix that relates the excitation to the responses was evaluated numerically. The power spectral densities of the responses evaluated at different locations on the structure were used in the determination of the responses' statistics (the counting of the loading cycles), which, combined with an appropriate physics of failure model (fatigue model), enabled the evaluation of the accumulated fatigue damage. The uni-axial-induced fatigue was evaluated from vibration tests of the kind promoted by military standards (it is assumed that axis-by-axis loading is cumulatively equal to multi-axial loading), and compared to that evaluated by analysis for the multi-axial loading. Also a numerical comparison of the effects of the two kinds of loading was performed. The results showed that the error of uni-axial testing varied for a wide range of parameters. The work led to the conclusion that simultaneous multi-axis vibration testing can improve significantly the laboratory's vibration simulation realism.

  3. AST Launch Vehicle Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, Janice; Counter, D.; Giacomoni, D.

    2015-01-01

    The liftoff phase induces acoustic loading over a broad frequency range for a launch vehicle. These external acoustic environments are then used in the prediction of internal vibration responses of the vehicle and components which result in the qualification levels. Thus, predicting these liftoff acoustic (LOA) environments is critical to the design requirements of any launch vehicle. If there is a significant amount of uncertainty in the predictions or if acoustic mitigation options must be implemented, a subscale acoustic test is a feasible pre-launch test option to verify the LOA environments. The NASA Space Launch System (SLS) program initiated the Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) to verify the predicted SLS LOA environments and to determine the acoustic reduction with an above deck water sound suppression system. The SMAT was conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center and the test article included a 5% scale SLS vehicle model, tower and Mobile Launcher. Acoustic and pressure data were measured by approximately 250 instruments. The SMAT liftoff acoustic results are presented, findings are discussed and a comparison is shown to the Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) results.

  4. Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Testing in Support of Launch Vehicle Loads and Controls Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Askins, Bruce R.; Davis, Susan R.; Salyer, Blaine H.; Tuma, Margaret L.

    2008-01-01

    All structural systems possess a basic set of physical characteristics unique to that system. These unique physical characteristics include items such as mass distribution and damping. When specified, they allow engineers to understand and predict how a structural system behaves under given loading conditions and different methods of control. These physical properties of launch vehicles may be predicted by analysis or measured by certain types of tests. Generally, these properties are predicted by analysis during the design phase of a launch vehicle and then verified by testing before the vehicle becomes operational. A ground vibration test (GVT) is intended to measure by test the fundamental dynamic characteristics of launch vehicles during various phases of flight. During the series of tests, properties such as natural frequencies, mode shapes, and transfer functions are measured directly. These data will then be used to calibrate loads and control systems analysis models for verifying analyses of the launch vehicle. NASA manned launch vehicles have undergone ground vibration testing leading to the development of successful launch vehicles. A GVT was not performed on the inaugural launch of the unmanned Delta III which was lost during launch. Subsequent analyses indicated had a GVT been performed, it would have identified instability issues avoiding loss of the vehicle. This discussion will address GVT planning, set-up, execution and analyses, for the Saturn and Shuttle programs, and will also focus on the current and on-going planning for the Ares I and V Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Test (IVGVT).

  5. Coupled analysis of multi-impact energy harvesting from low-frequency wind induced vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jin; Zhang, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Energy need from off-grid locations has been critical for effective real-time monitoring and control to ensure structural safety and reliability. To harvest energy from ambient environments, the piezoelectric-based energy-harvesting system has been proven very efficient to convert high frequency vibrations into usable electrical energy. However, due to the low frequency nature of the vibrations of civil infrastructures, such as those induced from vehicle impacts, wind, and waves, the application of a traditional piezoelectric-based energy-harvesting system is greatly restrained since the output power drops dramatically with the reduction of vibration frequencies. This paper focuses on the coupled analysis of a proposed piezoelectric multi-impact wind-energy-harvesting device that can effectively up-convert low frequency wind-induced vibrations into high frequency ones. The device consists of an H-shape beam and four bimorph piezoelectric cantilever beams. The H-shape beam, which can be easily triggered to vibrate at a low wind speed, is originated from the first Tacoma Narrows Bridge, which failed at wind speeds of 18.8 m s-1 in 1940. The multi-impact mechanism between the H-shape beam and the bimorph piezoelectric cantilever beams is incorporated to improve the harvesting performance at lower frequencies. During the multi-impact process, a series of sequential impacts between the H-shape beam and the cantilever beams can trigger high frequency vibrations of the cantilever beams and result in high output power with a considerably high efficiency. In the coupled analysis, the coupled structural, aerodynamic, and electrical equations are solved to obtain the dynamic response and the power output of the proposed harvesting device. A parametric study for several parameters in the coupled analysis framework is carried out including the external resistance, wind speed, and the configuration of the H-shape beam. The average harvested power for the piezoelectric cantilever

  6. Symmetry analysis for nonlinear time reversal methods applied to nonlinear acoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dos Santos, Serge; Chaline, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    Using symmetry invariance, nonlinear Time Reversal (TR) and reciprocity properties, the classical NEWS methods are supplemented and improved by new excitations having the intrinsic property of enlarging frequency analysis bandwidth and time domain scales, with now both medical acoustics and electromagnetic applications. The analysis of invariant quantities is a well-known tool which is often used in nonlinear acoustics in order to simplify complex equations. Based on a fundamental physical principle known as symmetry analysis, this approach consists in finding judicious variables, intrinsically scale dependant, and able to describe all stages of behaviour on the same theoretical foundation. Based on previously published results within the nonlinear acoustic areas, some practical implementation will be proposed as a new way to define TR-NEWS based methods applied to NDT and medical bubble based non-destructive imaging. This paper tends to show how symmetry analysis can help us to define new methodologies and new experimental set-up involving modern signal processing tools. Some example of practical realizations will be proposed in the context of biomedical non-destructive imaging using Ultrasound Contrast Agents (ACUs) where symmetry and invariance properties allow us to define a microscopic scale-invariant experimental set-up describing intrinsic symmetries of the microscopic complex system.

  7. Optimizing the band gap of effective mass negativity in acoustic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, K. T.; Huang, H. H.; Sun, C. T.

    2012-12-01

    A dual-resonator microstructure design is proposed for acoustic metamaterials to achieve broadband effective mass negativity. We demonstrate the advantage of acoustic wave attenuation over a wider frequency spectrum as compared to the narrow band gap of a single-resonator design. We explicitly confirm the effect of negative effective mass density by analysis of wave propagation using finite element simulations. Examples of practical application like vibration isolation and blast wave mitigation are presented and discussed.

  8. Acoustic Emission Analysis of Damage Progression in Thermal Barrier Coatings Under Thermal Cyclic Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, Matthew; Zhu, Dongming; Morscher, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Damage evolution of electron beam-physical vapor deposited (EBVD-PVD) ZrO2-7 wt.% Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) under thermal cyclic conditions was monitored using an acoustic emission (AE) technique. The coatings were heated using a laser heat flux technique that yields a high reproducibility in thermal loading. Along with AE, real-time thermal conductivity measurements were also taken using infrared thermography. Tests were performed on samples with induced stress concentrations, as well as calcium-magnesium-alumino-silicate (CMAS) exposure, for comparison of damage mechanisms and AE response to the baseline (as-produced) coating. Analysis of acoustic waveforms was used to investigate damage development by comparing when events occurred, AE event frequency, energy content and location. The test results have shown that AE accumulation correlates well with thermal conductivity changes and that AE waveform analysis could be a valuable tool for monitoring coating degradation and provide insight on specific damage mechanisms.

  9. Analysis of the STS-126 Flow Control Valve Structural-Acoustic Coupling Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Trevor M.; Larko, Jeffrey M.; McNelis, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    During the Space Transportation System mission STS-126, one of the main engine's flow control valves incurred an unexpected failure. A section of the valve broke off during liftoff. It is theorized that an acoustic mode of the flowing fuel, coupled with a structural mode of the valve, causing a high cycle fatigue failure. This report documents the analysis efforts conducted in an attempt to verify this theory. Hand calculations, computational fluid dynamics, and finite element methods are all implemented and analyses are performed using steady-state methods in addition to transient analysis methods. The conclusion of the analyses is that there is a critical acoustic mode that aligns with a structural mode of the valve

  10. Acoustical Klein-Gordon equation: a time-independent perturbation analysis.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Barbara J; Pike, E Roy

    2004-07-30

    The perturbation analysis of an ideal acoustical duct was first made by Rayleigh in 1878 and the result has since stood in the literature. However, the analysis is based on the assumption of potential and kinetic energy densities that remain constant as a change in cross section occurs, whereas, in fact, they may fluctuate significantly in comparison to the slowly varying "wave function," Psi(x,t), of the acoustical Klein-Gordon equation. The square of the time-independent eigenfunction, psi(2)(x), is directly proportional to the potential energy per unit length of fluid, and it is shown that it is precisely the perturbation in potential energy that defines correctly the eigenvalue shifts.

  11. DFT analysis on the molecular structure, vibrational and electronic spectra of 2-(cyclohexylamino)ethanesulfonic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renuga Devi, T. S.; Sharmi kumar, J.; Ramkumaar, G. R.

    2015-02-01

    The FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of 2-(cyclohexylamino)ethanesulfonic acid were recorded in the regions 4000-400 cm-1 and 4000-50 cm-1 respectively. The structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule in the ground state were calculated using Hartee-Fock and Density functional method (B3LYP) with the correlation consistent-polarized valence double zeta (cc-pVDZ) basis set and 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The most stable conformer was optimized and the structural and vibrational parameters were determined based on this. The complete assignments were performed based on the Potential Energy Distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes, calculated using Vibrational Energy Distribution Analysis (VEDA) 4 program. With the observed FTIR and FT-Raman data, a complete vibrational assignment and analysis of the fundamental modes of the compound were carried out. Thermodynamic properties and Atomic charges were calculated using both Hartee-Fock and density functional method using the cc-pVDZ basis set and compared. The calculated HOMO-LUMO energy gap revealed that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated using Gauge Including Atomic Orbital (GIAO) method and were compared with experimental results. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions, charge delocalization have been analyzed using Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis. The first order hyperpolarizability (β) and Molecular Electrostatic Potential (MEP) of the molecule was computed using DFT calculations. The electron density based local reactivity descriptor such as Fukui functions were calculated to explain the chemical reactivity site in the molecule.

  12. DFT analysis on the molecular structure, vibrational and electronic spectra of 2-(cyclohexylamino)ethanesulfonic acid.

    PubMed

    Renuga Devi, T S; Sharmi kumar, J; Ramkumaar, G R

    2015-02-25

    The FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of 2-(cyclohexylamino)ethanesulfonic acid were recorded in the regions 4000-400 cm(-1) and 4000-50 cm(-1) respectively. The structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule in the ground state were calculated using Hartee-Fock and Density functional method (B3LYP) with the correlation consistent-polarized valence double zeta (cc-pVDZ) basis set and 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The most stable conformer was optimized and the structural and vibrational parameters were determined based on this. The complete assignments were performed based on the Potential Energy Distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes, calculated using Vibrational Energy Distribution Analysis (VEDA) 4 program. With the observed FTIR and FT-Raman data, a complete vibrational assignment and analysis of the fundamental modes of the compound were carried out. Thermodynamic properties and Atomic charges were calculated using both Hartee-Fock and density functional method using the cc-pVDZ basis set and compared. The calculated HOMO-LUMO energy gap revealed that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated using Gauge Including Atomic Orbital (GIAO) method and were compared with experimental results. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions, charge delocalization have been analyzed using Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis. The first order hyperpolarizability (β) and Molecular Electrostatic Potential (MEP) of the molecule was computed using DFT calculations. The electron density based local reactivity descriptor such as Fukui functions were calculated to explain the chemical reactivity site in the molecule.

  13. Structural Analysis of Pressurized Small Diameter Lines in a Random Vibration Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Mark; Ridnour, Andrew; Brethen, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The pressurization and propellant feed lines for the Ares 1 Upper Stage Reaction and Roll Control Systems (ReCS and RoCS) were required to be in a high g-load random vibration flight environment. The lines connected the system components and were filled with both liquid hydrazine and gaseous helium. They are considered small and varied between one fourth to one inch in diameter. The random vibration of the lines was considered to be base excitation through the mating components and mounting hardware. It was found that reducing the amount of support structure for the lines added flexibility to the system and improved the line stresses from random vibration, but caused higher stresses from the static g-loads. The locations and number of brackets were optimized by analyzing the mode shapes of the lines causing high stresses. The use of brackets that only constrain motion in the direction of concern further reduced the stresses in the lines. Finite element analysis was used to perform the analysis. The lines were pre-stressed by temperature and internal pressure with fluid and insulation included as non-structural mass. Base excitation was added to the model using Power Spectral Density (PSD) data for the expected flight loads. The random vibration and static g-load cases were combined to obtain the total stress in the lines. This approach advances the state of the art in line analysis by using FEA to predict the stresses in the lines and to optimize the entire system based on the expected flight environment. Adding flexibility to lines has been used in piping system for temperature loads, but in flight environments flexibility has been limited for the static stresses. Adding flexibility to the system in a flight environment by reducing brackets has the benefit of reducing stresses and weight

  14. DFT analysis on the molecular structure, vibrational and electronic spectra of 2-(cyclohexylamino)ethanesulfonic acid.

    PubMed

    Renuga Devi, T S; Sharmi kumar, J; Ramkumaar, G R

    2015-02-25

    The FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of 2-(cyclohexylamino)ethanesulfonic acid were recorded in the regions 4000-400 cm(-1) and 4000-50 cm(-1) respectively. The structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule in the ground state were calculated using Hartee-Fock and Density functional method (B3LYP) with the correlation consistent-polarized valence double zeta (cc-pVDZ) basis set and 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The most stable conformer was optimized and the structural and vibrational parameters were determined based on this. The complete assignments were performed based on the Potential Energy Distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes, calculated using Vibrational Energy Distribution Analysis (VEDA) 4 program. With the observed FTIR and FT-Raman data, a complete vibrational assignment and analysis of the fundamental modes of the compound were carried out. Thermodynamic properties and Atomic charges were calculated using both Hartee-Fock and density functional method using the cc-pVDZ basis set and compared. The calculated HOMO-LUMO energy gap revealed that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated using Gauge Including Atomic Orbital (GIAO) method and were compared with experimental results. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions, charge delocalization have been analyzed using Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis. The first order hyperpolarizability (β) and Molecular Electrostatic Potential (MEP) of the molecule was computed using DFT calculations. The electron density based local reactivity descriptor such as Fukui functions were calculated to explain the chemical reactivity site in the molecule. PMID:25262144

  15. Application of Wavelet Packet Analysis to the Measurement of the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadowaki, Kevin; Garcia, Noel; Ford, Taurean; Pando, Jesus; SDSS-FAST Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    We develop a method of wavelet packet analysis to measure the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) peak and apply this method to the CMASS galaxy catalog from the SDSS Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) collaboration. We compare our results to a fiducial ?CDM flat cosmological model and detect a BAO signature in the power spectrum comparable to the previous consensus results of the BOSS collaboration. We find DA = 1365rd /rd , fid at z = . 54 . Member ID Forthcoming.

  16. Stability analysis of thermo-acoustic nonlinear eigenproblems in annular combustors. Part II. Uncertainty quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magri, Luca; Bauerheim, Michael; Nicoud, Franck; Juniper, Matthew P.

    2016-11-01

    Monte Carlo and Active Subspace Identification methods are combined with first- and second-order adjoint sensitivities to perform (forward) uncertainty quantification analysis of the thermo-acoustic stability of two annular combustor configurations. This method is applied to evaluate the risk factor, i.e., the probability for the system to be unstable. It is shown that the adjoint approach reduces the number of nonlinear-eigenproblem calculations by as much as the Monte Carlo samples.

  17. Digital Controller For Acoustic Levitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarver, D. Kent

    1989-01-01

    Acoustic driver digitally controls sound fields along three axes. Allows computerized acoustic levitation and manipulation of small objects for such purposes as containerless processing and nuclear-fusion power experiments. Also used for controlling motion of vibration-testing tables in three dimensions.

  18. Vibration analysis of the maglev guideway with the moving load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. P.; Li, J.; Zhang, K.

    2007-09-01

    The response of the guideway induced by moving maglev vehicle is investigated in this paper. The maglev vehicle is simplified as evenly distributed force acting on the guideway at constant speed. According to the experimental line, the guideway structure of rail-sleeper-bridge is simplified as Bernoulli-Euler (B-E) beam—evenly distributed spring—simply supported B-E beam structure; thus, double deck model of the maglev guideway is constructed which can more accurately reflect the dynamic characteristic of the experimental line. The natural frequency and mode are deduced based on the theoretical model. The relationship between structural parameters and natural frequency are exploited by employing the numerical calculation method. The way to suppress the vehicle-guideway interaction by regulating the structural parameter is also discussed here. Using the normal coordinate transformation method, the coupled differential equations of motion of the maglev guideway are converted into a set of uncoupled equations. The closed-form solutions for the response of the guideway subjecting the moving load are derived. It is noted that the moving load would not induce the vehicle-guideway interaction oscillation. The analysis of the guideway impact factor implies that at some position of the guideway, the deflection may decrease with the increase of the speed of the load; several extreme value of the guideway displacement will appear induced by different speeds, with different acting place, the speeds are different either. The final numerical simulation verifies these conclusions.

  19. Holographic vibration analysis of turbocharger turbine wheel instruction for use and benefit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambard, Jean-Pierre; Thouvenin, Denis

    2004-06-01

    Since the early 1990's, holography has been used worldwide to study the vibration of mechanical parts at the design stage. The so-called <

  20. The acoustics of snoring.

    PubMed

    Pevernagie, Dirk; Aarts, Ronald M; De Meyer, Micheline

    2010-04-01

    Snoring is a prevalent disorder affecting 20-40% of the general population. The mechanism of snoring is vibration of anatomical structures in the pharyngeal airway. Flutter of the soft palate accounts for the harsh aspect of the snoring sound. Natural or drug-induced sleep is required for its appearance. Snoring is subject to many influences such as body position, sleep stage, route of breathing and the presence or absence of sleep-disordered breathing. Its presentation may be variable within or between nights. While snoring is generally perceived as a social nuisance, rating of its noisiness is subjective and, therefore, inconsistent. Objective assessment of snoring is important to evaluate the effect of treatment interventions. Moreover, snoring carries information relating to the site and degree of obstruction of the upper airway. If evidence for monolevel snoring at the site of the soft palate is provided, the patient may benefit from palatal surgery. These considerations have inspired researchers to scrutinize the acoustic characteristics of snoring events. Similarly to speech, snoring is produced in the vocal tract. Because of this analogy, existing techniques for speech analysis have been applied to evaluate snoring sounds. It appears that the pitch of the snoring sound is in the low-frequency range (<500 Hz) and corresponds to a fundamental frequency with associated harmonics. The pitch of snoring is determined by vibration of the soft palate, while nonpalatal snoring is more 'noise-like', and has scattered energy content in the higher spectral sub-bands (>500 Hz). To evaluate acoustic properties of snoring, sleep nasendoscopy is often performed. Recent evidence suggests that the acoustic quality of snoring is markedly different in drug-induced sleep as compared with natural sleep. Most often, palatal surgery alters sound characteristics of snoring, but is no cure for this disorder. It is uncertain whether the perceived improvement after palatal surgery, as