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Sample records for acoustic voice quality

  1. The Acoustic Voice Quality Index: Toward Improved Treatment Outcomes Assessment in Voice Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryn, Youri; De Bodt, Marc; Roy, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Voice practitioners require an objective index of dysphonia severity as a means to reliably track treatment outcomes. To ensure ecological validity however, such a measure should survey both sustained vowels and continuous speech. In an earlier study, a multivariate acoustic model referred to as the Acoustic Voice Quality Index (AVQI), consisting…

  2. Automatic phonetogram recording supplemented with acoustical voice-quality parameters.

    PubMed

    Pabon, J P; Plomp, R

    1988-12-01

    A new method for automatic voice-quality registration is presented. The method is based on a technique called phonetography, which is the registration of the dynamic range of a voice as a function of fundamental frequency. In the new phonetogram-recording method fundamental frequency (Fo) and sound-pressure level (SPL) are automatically measured and represented in an XY-diagram. Three additional acoustical voice-quality parameters are measured simultaneously with Fo and SPL: (a) jitter in the Fo as a measure for roughness, (b) the SPL difference between the 0-1.5 kHz and the 1.5-5 kHz bands as a measure for sharpness, and (c) the vocal-noise level above 5 kHz as a measure for breathiness. With this method, the voice-quality parameter values, which may change substantially as a function of Fo and SPL, are pinned to a reference position in the patient's total vocal range. Seen as a reference tool, the phonetogram opens the possibility for a more meaningful comparison of voice-quality data. Some examples, demonstrating the dependence of the chosen quality parameters on Fo and SPL are given. PMID:3230899

  3. Acoustic-Perceptual Correlates of Voice Quality in Elderly Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorham-Rowan, Mary M.; Laures-Gore, Jacqueline

    2006-01-01

    Common perceptual characteristics of the elderly voice include hoarseness, breathiness, instability, and a change in the pitch of the voice. Although research is available concerning changes in the elderly voice, little research has been completed to examine the relationship between the perception of voice quality and acoustic measures. The…

  4. Perception of recorded singing voice quality and expertise: cognitive linguistics and acoustic approaches.

    PubMed

    Morange, Séverine; Dubois, Danièle; Fontaine, Jean-Marc

    2010-07-01

    The objective of the present pluridisciplinary study was to contribute to determine how a diversity of audience differently appreciates several versions resulting from different "restoration" treatments of one single original lyrical recording. We present here a joint analysis coupling psychological and linguistic analyses with acoustic descriptions on a unique research object: a Caruso's piece of song diversely remastered on commercial CDs. Thirty-two subjects were selected contrasted on age ("younger than 30 years" and "older than 60 years") related with their different experience of earlier technical recording devices (rendering through devices such as radio, 78rpm records, CD...) and on expertise concerning musical acoustics (acousticians and/or musicians vs ordinary music lovers). Eleven excerpts of reediting of an opera record interpreted by Caruso were selected from what could found on the market. The listening protocol involved a free categorization task and the selection of excerpts on preference judgments. Each task involved subjects' free commentaries about their choices as a joint output from psychological processing. A cluster analysis scaffold by a psycholinguistic processing of the verbal comments of the categories allowed to identify both commonalities and differences in groupings excerpts by the different groups of the subjects, along a diversity of criteria, varying according to age and expertise. Each excerpt can therefore be characterized both according to psychological and to acoustic criteria. This study has enabled us to develop the idea that a lyric voice is a multifaced object (cultural, esthetic, technical, physical), acoustic parameters being linked to the various sensory experiences and expertises of appraisers. Such pluridisciplinary research and the coupling of the correlated multiplicity of methodologies we developed acknowledge for a better understanding of listening practices and music-lover assessments here concerned with a

  5. Dimensionality in voice quality.

    PubMed

    Bele, Irene Velsvik

    2007-05-01

    This study concerns speaking voice quality in a group of male teachers (n = 35) and male actors (n = 36), as the purpose was to investigate normal and supranormal voices. The goal was the development of a method of valid perceptual evaluation for normal to supranormal and resonant voices. The voices (text reading at two loudness levels) had been evaluated by 10 listeners, for 15 vocal characteristics using VA scales. In this investigation, the results of an exploratory factor analysis of the vocal characteristics used in this method are presented, reflecting four dimensions of major importance for normal and supranormal voices. Special emphasis is placed on the effects on voice quality of a change in the loudness variable, as two loudness levels are studied. Furthermore, the vocal characteristics Sonority and Ringing voice quality are paid special attention, as the essence of the term "resonant voice" was a basic issue throughout a doctoral dissertation where this study was included. PMID:16504471

  6. Acoustic correlates of vocal quality.

    PubMed

    Eskenazi, L; Childers, D G; Hicks, D M

    1990-06-01

    We have investigated the relationship between various voice qualities and several acoustic measures made from the vowel /i/ phonated by subjects with normal voices and patients with vocal disorders. Among the patients (pathological voices), five qualities were investigated: overall severity, hoarseness, breathiness, roughness, and vocal fry. Six acoustic measures were examined. With one exception, all measures were extracted from the residue signal obtained by inverse filtering the speech signal using the linear predictive coding (LPC) technique. A formal listening test was implemented to rate each pathological voice for each vocal quality. A formal listening test also rated overall excellence of the normal voices. A scale of 1-7 was used. Multiple linear regression analysis between the results of the listening test and the various acoustic measures was used with the prediction sums of squares (PRESS) as the selection criteria. Useful prediction equations of order two or less were obtained relating certain acoustic measures and the ratings of pathological voices for each of the five qualities. The two most useful parameters for predicting vocal quality were the Pitch Amplitude (PA) and the Harmonics-to-Noise Ratio (HNR). No acoustic measure could rank the normal voices. PMID:2359270

  7. Associations between voice ergonomic risk factors and acoustic features of the voice.

    PubMed

    Rantala, Leena M; Hakala, Suvi; Holmqvist, Sofia; Sala, Eeva

    2015-10-01

    The associations between voice ergonomic risk factors in 40 classrooms and the acoustic parameters of 40 schoolteachers' voices were investigated. The risk factors assessed were connected to participants' working practices, working postures, and the indoor air quality in their workplaces. The teachers recorded spontaneous speech and sustained /a/ before and after a working day. Fundamental frequency, sound pressure level, the slope of the spectrum, perturbation, and harmonic-to-noise ratio were analysed. The results showed that the more the voice ergonomic risk factors were involved, the louder the teachers' voices became. Working practices correlated most often with the acoustic parameters; associations were found especially before a working day. The results suggest that a risky voice ergonomic environment affects voice production. PMID:24007529

  8. Assessment of voice quality: Current state-of-the-art.

    PubMed

    Barsties, Ben; De Bodt, Marc

    2015-06-01

    Voice quality is not clearly defined but it can be concluded that it is a multidimensional perceived construct. Therefore, there are broadly two approaches to measure voice quality: (1) subjective measurements to score a client's voice that reflects his or her judgment of the voice and (2) objective measurements by applying specific algorithm to quantify certain aspects of a correlate of vocal production. This paper proposes a collection and discusses a number of critical issues of the current state-of-the-art in voice quality assessments of auditory-perceptual judgment, objective-acoustic analysis and aerodynamic measurements in clinical practice and research that maybe helpful for clinicians and researchers. PMID:25440411

  9. The Belt voice: Acoustical measurements and esthetic correlates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bounous, Barry Urban

    This dissertation explores the esthetic attributes of the Belt voice through spectral acoustical analysis. The process of understanding the nature and safe practice of Belt is just beginning, whereas the understanding of classical singing is well established. The unique nature of the Belt sound provides difficulties for voice teachers attempting to evaluate the quality and appropriateness of a particular sound or performance. This study attempts to provide answers to the question "does Belt conform to a set of measurable esthetic standards?" In answering this question, this paper expands on a previous study of the esthetic attributes of the classical baritone voice (see "Vocal Beauty", NATS Journal 51,1) which also drew some tentative conclusions about the Belt voice but which had an inadequate sample pool of subjects from which to draw. Further, this study demonstrates that it is possible to scientifically investigate the realm of musical esthetics in the singing voice. It is possible to go beyond the "a trained voice compared to an untrained voice" paradigm when evaluating quantitative vocal parameters and actually investigate what truly beautiful voices do. There are functions of sound energy (measured in dB) transference which may affect the nervous system in predictable ways and which can be measured and associated with esthetics. This study does not show consistency in measurements for absolute beauty (taste) even among belt teachers and researchers but does show some markers with varying degrees of importance which may point to a difference between our cognitive learned response to singing and our emotional, more visceral response to sounds. The markers which are significant in determining vocal beauty are: (1) Vibrancy-Characteristics of vibrato including speed, width, and consistency (low variability). (2) Spectral makeup-Ratio of partial strength above the fundamental to the fundamental. (3) Activity of the voice-The quantity of energy being produced. (4

  10. Voice Quality of Psychological Origin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Antonio; Nunes, Ana; Coimbra, Rosa Lidia; Lima, Rosa; Moutinho, Lurdes

    2008-01-01

    Variations in voice quality are essentially related to modifications of the glottal source parameters, such as: F[subscript 0], jitter, and shimmer. Voice quality is affected by prosody, emotional state, and vocal pathologies. Psychogenic vocal pathology is particularly interesting. In the present case study, the speaker naturally presented a…

  11. Voice-over: perceptual and acoustic analysis of vocal features.

    PubMed

    Medrado, Reny; Ferreira, Leslie Piccolotto; Behlau, Mara

    2005-09-01

    Voice-overs are professional voice users who use their voices to market products in the electronic media. The purposes of this study were to (1) analyze voice-overed and non-overed productions of an advertising text in two groups consisting of 10 male professional voice-overs and 10 male non-voice-overs; and (2) determine specific acoustic features of voice-over productions in both groups. A naïve group of listeners were engaged for the perceptual analysis of the recorded advertising text. The voice-overed production samples from both groups were submitted for analysis of acoustic and temporal features. The following parameters were analyzed: (1) the total text length, (2) the length of the three emphatic pauses, (3) values of the mean, (4) minimum, (5) maximum fundamental frequency, and (6) the semitone range. The majority of voice-overs and non-voice-overs were correctly identified by the listeners in both productions. However voice-overs were more consistently correctly identified than non-voice-overs. The total text length was greater for voice-overs. The pause time distribution was statistically more homogeneous for the voice-overs. The acoustic analysis indicated that the voice-overs had lower values of mean, minimum, and maximum fundamental frequency and a greater range of semitones. The voice-overs carry the voice-overed production features to their non-voice-overed production. PMID:16102662

  12. Physiological and acoustic characteristics of the male music theatre voice.

    PubMed

    Bourne, Tracy; Garnier, Maëva; Samson, Adeline

    2016-07-01

    Six male music theatre singers were recorded in three different voice qualities: legit and two types of belt ("chesty" and "twangy"), on two vowels ([e] and [ɔ]), at four increasing pitches in the upper limit of each singer's belt range (∼250-440 Hz). The audio signal, the electroglottographic (EGG) signal, and the vocal tract impedance were all measured simultaneously. Voice samples were analyzed and then evaluated perceptually by 16 expert listeners. The three qualities were produced with significant differences at the physiological, acoustical, and perceptual levels: Singers produced belt qualities with a higher EGG contact quotient (CQEGG) and greater contacting speed quotient (Qcs), greater sound pressure level (SPL), and energy above 1 kHz (alpha ratio), and with higher frequencies of the first two vocal tract resonances (fR1, fR2), especially in the upper pitch range when compared to legit. Singers produced the chesty belt quality with higher CQEGG, Qcs, and SPL values and lower alpha ratios over the whole belt range, and with higher fR1 at the higher pitch range when compared to twangy belt. Consistent tuning of fR1 to the second voice harmonic (2f0) was observed in all three qualities and for both vowels. Expert listeners tended to identify all qualities based on the same acoustical and physiological variations as those observed in the singers' intended qualities. PMID:27475183

  13. Voice acoustic measures of depression severity and treatment response collected via interactive voice response (IVR) technology

    PubMed Central

    Mundt, James C.; Snyder, Peter J.; Cannizzaro, Michael S.; Chappie, Kara; Geralts, Dayna S.

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to develop more effective depression treatments are limited by assessment methods that rely on patient-reported or clinician judgments of symptom severity. Depression also affects speech. Research suggests several objective voice acoustic measures affected by depression can be obtained reliably over the telephone. Thirty-five physician-referred patients beginning treatment for depression were assessed weekly, using standard depression severity measures, during a six-week observational study. Speech samples were also obtained over the telephone each week using an IVR system to automate data collection. Several voice acoustic measures correlated significantly with depression severity. Patients responding to treatment had significantly greater pitch variability, paused less while speaking, and spoke faster than at baseline. Patients not responding to treatment did not show similar changes. Telephone standardization for obtaining voice data was identified as a critical factor influencing the reliability and quality of speech data. This study replicates and extends previous research with a larger sample of patients assessing clinical change associated with treatment. The feasibility of obtaining voice acoustic measures reflecting depression severity and response to treatment using computer-automated telephone data collection techniques is also established. Insight and guidance for future research needs are also identified. PMID:21253440

  14. Acoustic Analysis Before and After Voice Therapy for Laryngeal Pathology.

    PubMed

    Chhetri, S S; Gautam, R

    2015-01-01

    Background Voice problems caused by pathologies in vocal folds are well known. Some types of laryngeal pathologies have certain acoustic characteristics. Objective evaluation helps characterize the voice and voice problems providing supporting evidences, severity of disorders. It helps assess the response to the treatment and measures the outcomes. Objective The objective of the study is to determine the effectiveness of the voice therapy and quantify the results objectively by voice parameters. Method Study includes 61 patients who presented with different types of laryngeal pathologies. Acoustic analyses and voice assessment was done with Dr. Speech ver 4 (Tiger DRS Inc.). Acoustic parameters including fundamental frequency, jitters, shimmers, Harmonic to noise ratio (HNR), Normalized noise energy (NNE) were analyzed before and after voice therapy. Result Bilateral vocal nodules were the most common pathologies comprising 44.26%. All acoustic parameters showed a significant difference after the therapy (p<0.05) except for NNE. Dysphonia due to vocal fold polyp showed no improvement even after voice therapy (p>0.05). Conclusion Acoustic analysis provides an objective, recordable data regarding the voice parameters and its pathologies. Though, few pathology require alternative therapy rather than voice therapy, overall it has a good effect on glottic closure. As the voice therapy can improve the different indices of voice, it can be viewed as imperative part of treatment and to monitor progression. PMID:27423282

  15. Acoustic sensors in the helmet detect voice and physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, Michael V.

    2003-09-01

    The Army Research Laboratory has developed body-contacting acoustic sensors that detect diverse physiological sounds such as heartbeats and breaths, high quality speech, and activity. These sensors use an acoustic impedance-matching gel contained in a soft, compliant pad to enhance the body borne sounds, yet significantly repel airborne noises due to an acoustic impedance mismatch. The signals from such a sensor can be used as a microphone with embedded physiology, or a dedicated digital signal processor can process packetized data to separate physiological parameters from voice, and log parameter trends for performance surveillance. Acoustic sensors were placed inside soldier helmets to monitor voice, physiology, activity, and situational awareness clues such as bullet shockwaves from sniper activity and explosions. The sensors were also incorporated into firefighter breathing masks, neck and wrist straps, and other protective equipment. Heart rate, breath rate, blood pressure, voice and activity can be derived from these sensors (reports at www.arl.army.mil/acoustics). Having numerous sensors at various locations provides a means for array processing to reduce motion artifacts, calculate pulse transit time for passive blood pressure measurement, and the origin of blunt/penetrating traumas such as ballistic wounding. These types of sensors give us the ability to monitor soldiers and civilian emergency first-responders in demanding environments, and provide vital signs information to assess their health status and how that person is interacting with the environment and mission at hand. The Objective Force Warrior, Scorpion, Land Warrior, Warrior Medic, and other military and civilian programs can potentially benefit from these sensors.

  16. Effects of microphone type on acoustic measures of voice.

    PubMed

    Parsa, V; Jamieson, D G; Pretty, B R

    2001-09-01

    Acoustic measures provide an objective means to describe pathological voices and are a routine component of the clinical voice examination. Because the voice sample is obtained using a microphone, microphone characteristics have the potential to influence the values of parameters obtained from a voice sample. This project examined how the choice of microphone affects key voice parameters and investigated how one might compensate for such microphone effects through filtering or by including additional parameters in the decision process. A database of 53 normal voice samples and 100 pathological voice samples was used in four experiments conducted in an anechoic chamber using four different microphones. One omnidirectional microphone and three cardioid microphones were used in these experiments. The original voice samples were presented to each microphone through a speaker located in an anechoic chamber, and the output of each microphone sampled to computer disk. Each microphone modified the frequency spectrum of the voice signal; this, in turn, affected the values of the voice parameters obtained. These microphone effects reduced the accuracy with which acoustic measures of voice could be used to discriminate pathological from normal voices. Discrimination performance improved when the microphone output was filtered to compensate for microphone frequency response. Performance also improved when spectral moment coefficient parameters were added to the vocal function parameters already in use. PMID:11575630

  17. Sources of listener disagreement in voice quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Kreiman, J; Gerratt, B R

    2000-10-01

    Traditional interval or ordinal rating scale protocols appear to be poorly suited to measuring vocal quality. To investigate why this might be so, listeners were asked to classify pathological voices as having or not having different voice qualities. It was reasoned that this simple task would allow listeners to focus on the kind of quality a voice had, rather than how much of a quality it possessed, and thus might provide evidence for the validity of traditional vocal qualities. In experiment 1, listeners judged whether natural pathological voice samples were or were not primarily breathy and rough. Listener agreement in both tasks was above chance, but listeners agreed poorly that individual voices belonged in particular perceptual classes. To determine whether these results reflect listeners' difficulty agreeing about single perceptual attributes of complex stimuli, listeners in experiment 2 classified natural pathological voices and synthetic stimuli (varying in f0 only) as low pitched or not low pitched. If disagreements derive from difficulties dividing an auditory continuum consistently, then patterns of agreement should be similar for both kinds of stimuli. In fact, listener agreement was significantly better for the synthetic stimuli than for the natural voices. Difficulty isolating single perceptual dimensions of complex stimuli thus appears to be one reason why traditional unidimensional rating protocols are unsuited to measuring pathologic voice quality. Listeners did agree that a few aphonic voices were breathy, and that a few voices with prominent vocal fry and/or interharmonics were rough. These few cases of agreement may have occurred because the acoustic characteristics of the voices in question corresponded to the limiting case of the quality being judged. Values of f0 that generated listener agreement in experiment 2 were more extreme for natural than for synthetic stimuli, consistent with this interpretation. PMID:11051513

  18. Mapping emotions into acoustic space: the role of voice production.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sona; Scherer, Klaus R; Björkner, Eva; Sundberg, Johan

    2011-04-01

    Research on the vocal expression of emotion has long since used a "fishing expedition" approach to find acoustic markers for emotion categories and dimensions. Although partially successful, the underlying mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. To illustrate that this research can profit from considering the underlying voice production mechanism, we specifically analyzed short affect bursts (sustained/a/vowels produced by 10 professional actors for five emotions) according to physiological variations in phonation (using acoustic parameters derived from the acoustic signal and the inverse filter estimated voice source waveform). Results show significant emotion main effects for 11 of 12 parameters. Subsequent principal components analysis revealed three components that explain acoustic variations due to emotion, including "tension," "perturbation," and "voicing frequency." These results suggest that future work may benefit from theory-guided development of parameters to assess differences in physiological voice production mechanisms in the vocal expression of different emotions. PMID:21354259

  19. Flow-Structure-Acoustic Interaction Computational Modeling of Voice Production inside an Entire Airway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Weili; Zheng, Xudong; Xue, Qian

    2015-11-01

    Human voice quality is directly determined by the interplay of dynamic behavior of glottal flow, vibratory characteristics of VFs and acoustic characteristics of upper airway. These multiphysics constituents are tightly coupled together and precisely coordinate to produce understandable sound. Despite many years' research effort, the direct relationships among the detailed flow features, VF vibration and aeroacoustics still remains elusive. This study utilizes a first-principle based, flow-structure-acoustics interaction computational modeling approach to study the process of voice production inside an entire human airway. In the current approach, a sharp interface immersed boundary method based incompressible flow solver is utilized to model the glottal flow; A finite element based solid mechanics solver is utilized to model the vocal vibration; A high-order immersed boundary method based acoustics solver is utilized to directly compute sound. These three solvers are fully coupled to mimic the complex flow-structure-acoustic interaction during voice production. The geometry of airway is reconstructed based on the in-vivo MRI measurement reported by Story et al. (1995) and a three-layer continuum based vocal fold model is taken from Titze and Talkin (1979). Results from these simulations will be presented and further analyzed to get new insight into the complex flow-structure-acoustic interaction during voice production. This study is expected to improve the understanding of fundamental physical mechanism of voice production and to help to build direct cause-effect relationship between biomechanics and voice sound.

  20. Voice assessment: Updates on perceptual, acoustic, aerodynamic, and endoscopic imaging methods

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Daryush D.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review This paper describes recent advances in perceptual, acoustic, aerodynamic, and endoscopic imaging methods for assessing voice production. Recent findings Perceptual assessment Speech-language pathologists are being encouraged to use the new CAPE-V inventory for auditory perceptual assessment of voice quality, and recent studies have provided new insights into listener reliability issues that have plagued subjective perceptual judgments of voice quality. Acoustic assessment Progress is being made on the development of algorithms that are more robust for analyzing disordered voices, including the capability to extract voice quality-related measures from running speech segments. Aerodynamic assessment New devices for measuring phonation threshold air pressures and air flows have the potential to serve as sensitive indices of glottal phonatory conditions, and recent developments in aeroacoustic theory may provide new insights into laryngeal sound production mechanisms. Endoscopic imaging The increased light sensitivity of new ultra high-speed color digital video processors is enabling high-quality endoscopic imaging of vocal fold tissue motion at unprecedented image capture rates, which promises to provide new insights into mechanisms of normal and disordered voice production. Summary Some of the recent research advances in voice quality assessment could be more readily adopted into clinical practice, while others will require further development. PMID:18475073

  1. Perceptual and acoustic characteristics of voice changes in reflux laryngitis patients.

    PubMed

    Pribuisiene, Ruta; Uloza, Virgilijus; Kupcinskas, Limas; Jonaitis, Laimas

    2006-03-01

    The aim of the study was to outline the multidimensional perceptual, subjective, and instrumental acoustic voice changes in the group of reflux laryngitis (RL) patients. Data of multidimensional voice assessment of 108 RL patients and 90 healthy persons of the control group were subjected to comparative analysis. A slight hoarseness according to the GRB (G-grade, R- rough, B-breathy) scale was prevailing in the RL patients group. Statistically significant difference (P < 0.001) between RL patients group and the control group was found of all voice parameters measured, with the patients having worse results--increased mean jitter, shimmer, normalized noise energy, voice handicap index (VHI), and decreased parameters of phonetogram. The results of the study demonstrated that multidimensional voice assessment documented deteriorated voice quality and restricted phonation capabilities in the tested group of RL patients. PMID:15925484

  2. [Acoustic analysis of the voice in singing children].

    PubMed

    Shilenkova, V V; Korotchenko, V V

    2010-01-01

    The present acoustic analysis of the voice is based on the data obtained from 54 singing children (19 boys and 25 girls). They were divided into two groups of 27 subjects each, with one including premutational-age the other mutational-age children (from 8 to 12 and from 13 to 16 years respectively). software package was used to analyse phonetograms and spectrograms of the voice and to study the speech profile. The acoustic parameters measured included voice frequency range, strength, and Jitter, maximum phonation time, and dysphonic index (DSI) depending on the age of the singing children. Premutational acoustic voice characteristics were essentially similar in boys and girls unlike mutational ones that differed dramatically, in the first place due to their substantial change in boys. The boys' voice underwent marked narrowing of the frequency range and its shift toward lower values, the jitter increased, and DSI became negative (-1.7+/-2.6). On the contrary, the voice frequency range in girls broadened and shifted toward both high and low frequencies; the girls showed only small amounts of Jitter and high DSI (2.4+/-2.2). PMID:20436424

  3. Acoustic and phonatory characterization of the Fado voice.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Ana P; Rodrigues, Aira F; Guerreiro, David Michael

    2013-09-01

    Fado is a Portuguese musical genre, instrumentally accompanied by a Portuguese and an acoustic guitar. Fado singers' voice is perceptually characterized by a low pitch, hoarse, and strained voice. The present research study sketches the acoustic and phonatory profile of the Fado singers' voice. Fifteen Fado singers produced spoken and sung phonatory tasks. For the spoken voice measures, the maximum phonation time and s/z ratio of Fado singers were near the inefficient physiological threshold. Fundamental frequency was higher than that found in nonsingers and lower than that found in Western Classical singers. Jitter and shimmer mean values were higher compared with nonsingers. Harmonic-to-noise ratio (HNR) was similar to the mean values for nonsingers. For the sung voice, jitter was higher compared with Country, Musical Theater, Soul, Jazz, and Western Classical singers and lower than Pop singers. Shimmer mean values were lower than Country, Musical Theater, Pop, Soul, and Jazz singers and higher than Western Classical singers. HNR was similar for Western Classical singers. Maximum phonational frequency range of Fado singers indicated that male and female subjects had a lower range compared with Western Classical singers. Additionally, Fado singers produced vibrato, but singer's formant was rarely produced. These sung voice characteristics could be related with life habits, less/lack of singing training, or could be just a Fado voice characteristic. PMID:23591453

  4. The Aging Female Voice: Acoustic and Respiratory Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awan, Shaheen N.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend understanding of the effects of aging on the female voice by obtaining measures of both acoustic and respiratory-based performance in groups of 18-30, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70-79-year-old subjects. Acoustic measures of speaking fundamental frequency (SFF), pitch sigma, jitter, shimmer, and signal-to-noise…

  5. Standardization of pitch range settings in voice acoustic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Adam P.; Maruff, Paul; Snyder, Peter J.; Mundt, James C.

    2009-01-01

    Voice acoustic analysis is typically a labor intensive, time consuming process that requires the application of idiosyncratic parameters tailored to individual aspects of the speech signal. These processes limit the efficiency and utility of voice analysis in clinical practice as well as applied research and development. In the current study, we analyzed 1120 voice files using standard techniques (case by case hand analysis); taking roughly 8 weeks of personnel time complete. The obtained results were then compared to the analytic output of several automated analysis scripts that made use of pre-set pitch range parameters. The automated analysis scripts reduced processing time of the 1680 speech samples to less than 2.5 hours and produced results comparable to the hand analysis when pitch window were appropriately selected to account for known population differences (i.e., sex differences). Caution should be exercised when applying suggested settings to pathological voice populations. PMID:19363172

  6. Voice quality variations in English sentences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, Melissa

    2002-05-01

    This study examines the predictability of changes in voice quality at the sentence level in English. Sentence-level effects can only be isolated once the effects of linguistic factors (e.g., glottalization before a glottalized consonant), social or dialectal, and individual factors have been eliminated. In this study, these effects were controlled by obtaining a baseline value for each measurement for each word of the corpus. Voice quality variations were tracked using quantitative measurements derived from the LF model of the glottal source, and also qualitative descriptions of the waveforms. Preliminary results indicate that there are consistent voice quality differences at the sentence level and that pitch contours and sentence accent also produce predictable effects on voice quality.

  7. Effects of voice style, noise level, and acoustic feedback on objective and subjective voice evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Bottalico, Pasquale; Graetzer, Simone; Hunter, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Speakers adjust their vocal effort when communicating in different room acoustic and noise conditions and when instructed to speak at different volumes. The present paper reports on the effects of voice style, noise level, and acoustic feedback on vocal effort, evaluated as sound pressure level, and self-reported vocal fatigue, comfort, and control. Speakers increased their level in the presence of babble and when instructed to talk in a loud style, and lowered it when acoustic feedback was increased and when talking in a soft style. Self-reported responses indicated a preference for the normal style without babble noise. PMID:26723357

  8. Effects of voice style, noise level, and acoustic feedback on objective and subjective voice evaluations.

    PubMed

    Bottalico, Pasquale; Graetzer, Simone; Hunter, Eric J

    2015-12-01

    Speakers adjust their vocal effort when communicating in different room acoustic and noise conditions and when instructed to speak at different volumes. The present paper reports on the effects of voice style, noise level, and acoustic feedback on vocal effort, evaluated as sound pressure level, and self-reported vocal fatigue, comfort, and control. Speakers increased their level in the presence of babble and when instructed to talk in a loud style, and lowered it when acoustic feedback was increased and when talking in a soft style. Self-reported responses indicated a preference for the normal style without babble noise. PMID:26723357

  9. Exploring the feasibility of smart phone microphone for measurement of acoustic voice parameters and voice pathology screening.

    PubMed

    Uloza, Virgilijus; Padervinskis, Evaldas; Vegiene, Aurelija; Pribuisiene, Ruta; Saferis, Viktoras; Vaiciukynas, Evaldas; Gelzinis, Adas; Verikas, Antanas

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the reliability of acoustic voice parameters obtained using smart phone (SP) microphones and investigate the utility of use of SP voice recordings for voice screening. Voice samples of sustained vowel/a/obtained from 118 subjects (34 normal and 84 pathological voices) were recorded simultaneously through two microphones: oral AKG Perception 220 microphone and SP Samsung Galaxy Note3 microphone. Acoustic voice signal data were measured for fundamental frequency, jitter and shimmer, normalized noise energy (NNE), signal to noise ratio and harmonic to noise ratio using Dr. Speech software. Discriminant analysis-based Correct Classification Rate (CCR) and Random Forest Classifier (RFC) based Equal Error Rate (EER) were used to evaluate the feasibility of acoustic voice parameters classifying normal and pathological voice classes. Lithuanian version of Glottal Function Index (LT_GFI) questionnaire was utilized for self-assessment of the severity of voice disorder. The correlations of acoustic voice parameters obtained with two types of microphones were statistically significant and strong (r = 0.73-1.0) for the entire measurements. When classifying into normal/pathological voice classes, the Oral-NNE revealed the CCR of 73.7% and the pair of SP-NNE and SP-shimmer parameters revealed CCR of 79.5%. However, fusion of the results obtained from SP voice recordings and GFI data provided the CCR of 84.60% and RFC revealed the EER of 7.9%, respectively. In conclusion, measurements of acoustic voice parameters using SP microphone were shown to be reliable in clinical settings demonstrating high CCR and low EER when distinguishing normal and pathological voice classes, and validated the suitability of the SP microphone signal for the task of automatic voice analysis and screening. PMID:26162450

  10. Comparison of Acoustic and Stroboscopic Findings and Voice Handicap Index between Allergic Rhinitis Patients and Controls

    PubMed Central

    Koç, Eltaf Ayça Özbal; Koç, Bülent; Erbek, Selim

    2014-01-01

    Background: In our experience Allergic Rhinitis (AR) patients suffer from voice problems more than health subjects. Aims: To investigate the acoustic analysis of voice, stroscopic findings of larynx and Voice Handicap Index scores in allergic rhinitis patients compared with healthy controls. Study Design: Case-control study. Methods: Thirty adult patients diagnosed with perennial allergic rhinitis were compared with 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls without allergy. All assessments were performed in the speech physiology laboratory and the testing sequence was as follows: 1. Voice Handicap Index (VHI) questionnaire, 2. Laryngovideostroboscopy, 3. Acoustic analyses. Results: No difference was observed between the allergic rhinitis and control groups regarding mean Maximum Phonation Time (MPT) values, Fo values, and stroboscopic assessment (p>0.05). On the other hand, mean VHI score (p=0.001) and s/z ratio (p=0.011) were significantly higher in the allergic rhinitis group than in controls. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the presence of allergies could have effects on laryngeal dysfunction and voice-related quality of life. PMID:25667789

  11. Outcome of resonant voice therapy for female teachers with voice disorders: perceptual, physiological, acoustic, aerodynamic, and functional measurements.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng Hwa; Hsiao, Tzu-Yu; Hsiao, Li-Chun; Chung, Yu-Mei; Chiang, Shu-Chiung

    2007-07-01

    Teachers have a high percentage of voice problems. For voice disordered teachers, resonant voice therapy is hypothesized to reduce voice problems. No research has been done on the physiological, acoustic, and aerodynamic effects of resonant voice therapy for school teachers. The purpose of this study is to investigate resonant voice therapy outcome from perceptual, physiological, acoustic, aerodynamic, and functional aspects for female teachers with voice disorders. A prospective study was designed for this research. The research subjects were 24 female teachers in Taipei. All subjects received resonant voice therapy in groups of 4 subjects, 90 minutes per session, and 1 session per week for 8 weeks. The outcome of resonant voice therapy was assessed from auditory perceptual judgment, videostroboscopic examination, acoustic measurements, aerodynamic measurements, and functional measurements before and after therapy. After therapy the severity of roughness, strain, monotone, resonance, hard attack, and glottal fry in auditory perceptual judgments, the severity of vocal fold pathology, mucosal wave, amplitude, and vocal fold closure in videostroboscopic examinations, phonation threshold pressure, and the score of physical scale in the Voice Handicap Index were significantly reduced. The speaking Fo, maximum range of speaking Fo, and maximum range of speaking intensity were significantly increased after therapy. No significant change was found in perturbation and breathiness measurements after therapy. Resonant voice therapy is effective for school teachers and is suggested as one of the therapy approaches in clinics for this population. PMID:16581227

  12. Reliability in perceptual analysis of voice quality.

    PubMed

    Bele, Irene Velsvik

    2005-12-01

    This study focuses on speaking voice quality in male teachers (n = 35) and male actors (n = 36), who represent untrained and trained voice users, because we wanted to investigate normal and supranormal voices. In this study, both substantial and methodologic aspects were considered. It includes a method for perceptual voice evaluation, and a basic issue was rater reliability. A listening group of 10 listeners, 7 experienced speech-language therapists, and 3 speech-language therapist students evaluated the voices by 15 vocal characteristics using VA scales. Two sets of voice signals were investigated: text reading (2 loudness levels) and sustained vowel (3 levels). The results indicated a high interrater reliability for most perceptual characteristics. Connected speech was evaluated more reliably, especially at the normal level, but both types of voice signals were evaluated reliably, although the reliability for connected speech was somewhat higher than for vowels. Experienced listeners tended to be more consistent in their ratings than did the student raters. Some vocal characteristics achieved acceptable reliability even with a smaller panel of listeners. The perceptual characteristics grouped in 4 factors reflected perceptual dimensions. PMID:16301102

  13. Comparing Two Methods for Reducing Variability in Voice Quality Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreiman, Jody; Gerratt, Bruce R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Interrater disagreements in ratings of quality plague the study of voice. This study compared 2 methods for handling this variability. Method: Listeners provided multiple breathiness ratings for 2 sets of pathological voices, one including 20 male and 20 female voices unselected for quality and one including 20 breathy female voices.…

  14. Acoustic cues for the recognition of self-voice and other-voice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Mingdi; Homae, Fumitaka; Hashimoto, Ryu-ichiro; Hagiwara, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    Self-recognition, being indispensable for successful social communication, has become a major focus in current social neuroscience. The physical aspects of the self are most typically manifested in the face and voice. Compared with the wealth of studies on self-face recognition, self-voice recognition (SVR) has not gained much attention. Converging evidence has suggested that the fundamental frequency (F0) and formant structures serve as the key acoustic cues for other-voice recognition (OVR). However, little is known about which, and how, acoustic cues are utilized for SVR as opposed to OVR. To address this question, we independently manipulated the F0 and formant information of recorded voices and investigated their contributions to SVR and OVR. Japanese participants were presented with recorded vocal stimuli and were asked to identify the speaker—either themselves or one of their peers. Six groups of 5 peers of the same sex participated in the study. Under conditions where the formant information was fully preserved and where only the frequencies lower than the third formant (F3) were retained, accuracies of SVR deteriorated significantly with the modulation of the F0, and the results were comparable for OVR. By contrast, under a condition where only the frequencies higher than F3 were retained, the accuracy of SVR was significantly higher than that of OVR throughout the range of F0 modulations, and the F0 scarcely affected the accuracies of SVR and OVR. Our results indicate that while both F0 and formant information are involved in SVR, as well as in OVR, the advantage of SVR is manifested only when major formant information for speech intelligibility is absent. These findings imply the robustness of self-voice representation, possibly by virtue of auditory familiarity and other factors such as its association with motor/articulatory representation. PMID:24133475

  15. Copying hierarchical leaders’ voices? Acoustic plasticity in female Japanese macaques

    PubMed Central

    Lemasson, Alban; Jubin, Ronan; Masataka, Nobuo; Arlet, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    It has been historically claimed that call production in nonhuman primates has been shaped by genetic factors, although, recently socially-guided plasticity and cortical control during vocal exchanges have been observed. In humans, context-dependent vocal convergence with relatives, friends or leaders’ voices can be found. Comparative studies with monkeys and apes presenting tolerant social organizations have demonstrated that affiliative bonding is the determining factor of convergence. We tested whether vocal copying could also exist in a primate species with a despotic social organization. We compared the degree of inter-individual similarity of contact calls in two groups of Japanese macaques as a function of age, dominance rank, maternal kin and affiliative bonds. We found a positive relationship between dyadic acoustic similarity and female rank differences. Since most call exchanges were initiated by dominant females and since this species is known for the ability of responders to acoustically match initiators’ calls, we conclude that high social status may motivate vocal convergence in this despotic society. Accordingly, intra-individual comparisons showed that isolated calls were more stereotyped than exchanged calls, and that dominants had more stereotyped voices than subordinates. This opens new lines of research with regard to social motivation guiding acoustic plasticity in primates. PMID:26880673

  16. Acoustic Analysis of the Voiced-Voiceless Distinction in Dutch Tracheoesophageal Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongmans, Petra; Wempe, Ton G.; van Tinteren, Harm; Hilgers, Frans J. M.; Pols, Louis C. W.; van As-Brooks, Corina J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Confusions between voiced and voiceless plosives and voiced and voiceless fricatives are common in Dutch tracheoesophageal (TE) speech. This study investigates (a) which acoustic measures are found to convey a correct voicing contrast in TE speech and (b) whether different measures are found in TE speech than in normal laryngeal (NL)…

  17. Acoustics characteristics of voice and vocal care in acting and other students.

    PubMed

    Varosanec-Skarić, Gordana

    2008-01-01

    Based on voice-history data, a chi2 test was used to investigate the difference between students of acting (n = 45) and other students (n = 45). A t-test was used to calculate the differences in acoustic parameters between the two groups. It was expected that students of acting spent significantly more time practicing voice exercises, took more acting instructions, and generally spoke more in larger rooms and did warm up exercises (p < .001). However, it was not expected that they smoked more than non-professionals (p = .003), and that they drank alcoholic drinks as much as other students. Male students of acting had significantly lower f(0) SD means (p = .015), which means that they had a more stable pitch throughout phonation. Students of acting also showed a significantly higher Harmonics-to-Noise Ratio (HNR) than other students (p = .001 for males; p = .01 for females). The data showed the importance of the appropriate use of voice, which reflected relatively good voice quality despite the bad living habits of the future professional voice users. PMID:18608245

  18. Robotic vehicle uses acoustic sensors for voice detection and diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Stuart H.; Scanlon, Michael V.

    2000-07-01

    An acoustic sensor array that cues an imaging system on a small tele- operated robotic vehicle was used to detect human voice and activity inside a building. The advantage of acoustic sensors is that it is a non-line of sight (NLOS) sensing technology that can augment traditional LOS sensors such as visible and IR cameras. Acoustic energy emitted from a target, such as from a person, weapon, or radio, will travel through walls and smoke, around corners, and down corridors, whereas these obstructions would cripple an imaging detection system. The hardware developed and tested used an array of eight microphones to detect the loudest direction and automatically setter a camera's pan/tilt toward the noise centroid. This type of system has applicability for counter sniper applications, building clearing, and search/rescue. Data presented will be time-frequency representations showing voice detected within rooms and down hallways at various ranges. Another benefit of acoustics is that it provides the tele-operator some situational awareness clues via low-bandwidth transmission of raw audio data for the operator to interpret with either headphones or through time-frequency analysis. This data can be useful to recognize familiar sounds that might indicate the presence of personnel, such as talking, equipment, movement noise, etc. The same array also detects the sounds of the robot it is mounted on, and can be useful for engine diagnostics and trouble shooting, or for self-noise emanations for stealthy travel. Data presented will characterize vehicle self noise over various surfaces such as tiles, carpets, pavement, sidewalk, and grass. Vehicle diagnostic sounds will indicate a slipping clutch and repeated unexpected application of emergency braking mechanism.

  19. The influence of vocal training and acting experience on measures of voice quality and emotional genuineness

    PubMed Central

    Livingstone, Steven R.; Choi, Deanna H.; Russo, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    Vocal training through singing and acting lessons is known to modify acoustic parameters of the voice. While the effects of singing training have been well documented, the role of acting experience on the singing voice remains unclear. In two experiments, we used linear mixed models to examine the relationships between the relative amounts of acting and singing experience on the acoustics and perception of the male singing voice. In Experiment 1, 12 male vocalists were recorded while singing with five different emotions, each with two intensities. Acoustic measures of pitch accuracy, jitter, and harmonics-to-noise ratio (HNR) were examined. Decreased pitch accuracy and increased jitter, indicative of a lower “voice quality,” were associated with more years of acting experience, while increased pitch accuracy was associated with more years of singing lessons. We hypothesized that the acoustic deviations exhibited by more experienced actors was an intentional technique to increase the genuineness or truthfulness of their emotional expressions. In Experiment 2, listeners rated vocalists’ emotional genuineness. Vocalists with more years of acting experience were rated as more genuine than vocalists with less acting experience. No relationship was reported for singing training. Increased genuineness was associated with decreased pitch accuracy, increased jitter, and a higher HNR. These effects may represent a shifting of priorities by male vocalists with acting experience to emphasize emotional genuineness over pitch accuracy or voice quality in their singing performances. PMID:24639659

  20. The influence of vocal training and acting experience on measures of voice quality and emotional genuineness.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Steven R; Choi, Deanna H; Russo, Frank A

    2014-01-01

    Vocal training through singing and acting lessons is known to modify acoustic parameters of the voice. While the effects of singing training have been well documented, the role of acting experience on the singing voice remains unclear. In two experiments, we used linear mixed models to examine the relationships between the relative amounts of acting and singing experience on the acoustics and perception of the male singing voice. In Experiment 1, 12 male vocalists were recorded while singing with five different emotions, each with two intensities. Acoustic measures of pitch accuracy, jitter, and harmonics-to-noise ratio (HNR) were examined. Decreased pitch accuracy and increased jitter, indicative of a lower "voice quality," were associated with more years of acting experience, while increased pitch accuracy was associated with more years of singing lessons. We hypothesized that the acoustic deviations exhibited by more experienced actors was an intentional technique to increase the genuineness or truthfulness of their emotional expressions. In Experiment 2, listeners rated vocalists' emotional genuineness. Vocalists with more years of acting experience were rated as more genuine than vocalists with less acting experience. No relationship was reported for singing training. Increased genuineness was associated with decreased pitch accuracy, increased jitter, and a higher HNR. These effects may represent a shifting of priorities by male vocalists with acting experience to emphasize emotional genuineness over pitch accuracy or voice quality in their singing performances. PMID:24639659

  1. Voice quality of children with cochlear implants acquired at early and later ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Melanie M.; Hanstein, Stefanie; Ney, Christina

    2005-09-01

    The speech gains of children with cochlear implants (CIs) are well documented, but the literature on voice quality is sparse. It has reported atypical measures/ratings of voice pitch, pleasantness, timing, and acoustic features [Higgins et al. (2003); Perrin et al. (1998)]. Is voice quality now improving in children implanted very early? This pilot study compared the voice quality of (a) children with early acquired CIs and children with normal hearing and (b) the voice quality of children implanted later and earlier in life. Children aged 6 to 10 years, with early acquired CIs, and participants with normal hearing, age-matched to them, audio recorded sentences, vowels, and conversation. PERCI pressure measures were also performed. PERCI Differential and Oral Pressure values and Computerized Speech Lab (CSL) and Visipitch measures of voice-onset time and fundamental frequency were analyzed comparing the values from the hearing and the early implanted children and values gleaned from the study of Higgins et al. of children with later-acquired implants. CSL and Visipitch measures of intonation contour, intensity, and jitter were analyzed to compare the hearing and the early implanted participants. Ratings on the Wilson Voice Scale were correlated with measures of jitter, fundamental frequency, and intonation contour.

  2. Rating, ranking, and understanding acoustical quality in university classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgson, Murray

    2002-08-01

    Nonoptimal classroom acoustical conditions directly affect speech perception and, thus, learning by students. Moreover, they may lead to voice problems for the instructor, who is forced to raise his/her voice when lecturing to compensate for poor acoustical conditions. The project applied previously developed simplified methods to predict speech intelligibility in occupied classrooms from measurements in unoccupied and occupied university classrooms. The methods were used to predict the speech intelligibility at various positions in 279 University of British Columbia (UBC) classrooms, when 70% occupied, and for four instructor voice levels. Classrooms were classified and rank ordered by acoustical quality, as determined by the room-average speech intelligibility. This information was used by UBC to prioritize classrooms for renovation. Here, the statistical results are reported to illustrate the range of acoustical qualities found at a typical university. Moreover, the variations of quality with relevant classroom acoustical parameters were studied to better understand the results. In particular, the factors leading to the best and worst conditions were studied. It was found that 81% of the 279 classrooms have "good," "very good," or "excellent" acoustical quality with a "typical" (average-male) instructor. However, 50 (18%) of the classrooms had "fair" or "poor" quality, and two had "bad" quality, due to high ventilation-noise levels. Most rooms were "very good" or "excellent" at the front, and "good" or "very good" at the back. Speech quality varied strongly with the instructor voice level. In the worst case considered, with a quiet female instructor, most of the classrooms were "bad" or "poor." Quality also varies with occupancy, with decreased occupancy resulting in decreased quality. The research showed that a new classroom acoustical design and renovation should focus on limiting background noise. They should promote high instructor speech levels at the back

  3. Perception of synthesized voice quality in connected speech by Cantonese speakers.

    PubMed

    Yiu, Edwin M L; Murdoch, Bruce; Hird, Kathryn; Lau, Polly

    2002-09-01

    Perceptual voice analysis is a subjective process. However, despite reports of varying degrees of intrajudge and interjudge reliability, it is widely used in clinical voice evaluation. One of the ways to improve the reliability of this procedure is to provide judges with signals as external standards so that comparison can be made in relation to these "anchor" signals. The present study used a Klatt speech synthesizer to create a set of speech signals with varying degree of three different voice qualities based on a Cantonese sentence. The primary objective of the study was to determine whether different abnormal voice qualities could be synthesized using the "built-in" synthesis parameters using a perceptual study. The second objective was to determine the relationship between acoustic characteristics of the synthesized signals and perceptual judgment. Twenty Cantonese-speaking speech pathologists with at least three years of clinical experience in perceptual voice evaluation were asked to undertake two tasks. The first was to decide whether the voice quality of the synthesized signals was normal or not. The second was to decide whether the abnormal signals should be described as rough, breathy, or vocal fry. The results showed that signals generated with a small degree of aspiration noise were perceived as breathiness while signals with a small degree of flutter or double pulsing were perceived as roughness. When the flutter or double pulsing increased further, tremor and vocal fry, rather than roughness, were perceived. Furthermore, the amount of aspiration noise, flutter, or double pulsing required for male voice stimuli was different from that required for the female voice stimuli with a similar level of perceptual breathiness and roughness. These findings showed that changes in perceived vocal quality could be achieved by systematic modifications of synthesis parameters. This opens up the possibility of using synthesized voice signals as external standards or

  4. Identifying a Comparison for Matching Rough Voice Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Sona; Shrivastav, Rahul; Eddins, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Perceptual estimates of voice quality obtained using rating scales are subject to contextual biases that influence how individuals assign numbers to estimate the magnitude of vocal quality. Because rating scales are commonly used in clinical settings, assessments of voice quality are also subject to the limitations of these scales.…

  5. Remote Capture of Human Voice Acoustical Data by Telephone: A Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannizzaro, Michael S.; Reilly, Nicole; Mundt, James C.; Snyder, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    In this pilot study we sought to determine the reliability and validity of collecting speech and voice acoustical data via telephone transmission for possible future use in large clinical trials. Simultaneous recordings of each participant's speech and voice were made at the point of participation, the local recording (LR), and over a telephone…

  6. Acoustics Characteristics of Voice and Vocal Care in Acting and Other Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varosanec-Skaric, Gordana

    2008-01-01

    Based on voice-history data, a X[superscript 2] test was used to investigate the difference between students of acting (n = 45) and other students (n = 45). A t-test was used to calculate the differences in acoustic parameters between the two groups. It was expected that students of acting spent significantly more time practicing voice exercises,…

  7. Acoustic Analysis of the Tremulous Voice: Assessing the Utility of the Correlation Dimension and Perturbation Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shao, Jun; MacCallum, Julia K.; Zhang, Yu; Sprecher, Alicia; Jiang, Jack J.

    2010-01-01

    Acoustic analysis may provide a useful means to quantitatively characterize the tremulous voice. Signals were obtained from 25 subjects with diagnoses of either Parkinson's disease or vocal polyps exhibiting vocal tremor. These were compared to signals from 24 subjects with normal voices. Signals were analyzed via correlation dimension and several…

  8. Rating, ranking, and understanding acoustical quality in university classrooms.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Murray

    2002-08-01

    Nonoptimal classroom acoustical conditions directly affect speech perception and, thus, learning by students. Moreover, they may lead to voice problems for the instructor, who is forced to raise his/her voice when lecturing to compensate for poor acoustical conditions. The project applied previously developed simplified methods to predict speech intelligibility in occupied classrooms from measurements in unoccupied and occupied university classrooms. The methods were used to predict the speech intelligibility at various positions in 279 University of British Columbia (UBC) classrooms, when 70% occupied, and for four instructor voice levels. Classrooms were classified and rank ordered by acoustical quality, as determined by the room-average speech intelligibility. This information was used by UBC to prioritize classrooms for renovation. Here, the statistical results are reported to illustrate the range of acoustical qualities found at a typical university. Moreover, the variations of quality with relevant classroom acoustical parameters were studied to better understand the results. In particular, the factors leading to the best and worst conditions were studied. It was found that 81% of the 279 classrooms have "good," "very good," or "excellent" acoustical quality with a "typical" (average-male) instructor. However, 50 (18%) of the classrooms had "fair" or "poor" quality, and two had "bad" quality, due to high ventilation-noise levels. Most rooms were "very good" or "excellent" at the front, and "good" or "very good" at the back. Speech quality varied strongly with the instructor voice level. In the worst case considered, with a quiet female instructor, most of the classrooms were "bad" or "poor." Quality also varies with occupancy, with decreased occupancy resulting in decreased quality. The research showed that a new classroom acoustical design and renovation should focus on limiting background noise. They should promote high instructor speech levels at the back

  9. The quality of voice in patients irradiated for laryngeal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Karim, A.B.; Snow, G.B.; Siek, H.T.; Njo, K.H.

    1983-01-01

    Data from 150 patients with laryngeal carcinoma, consecutively treated primarily by radiotherapy from 1965 through 1974 was analyzed to assess the quality of voice. The voice appears to improve in majority of the successfully irradiated patients. In 76% of the evaluable patients in this group, the quality of voice appears to have attained normalcy or near normalcy. Smoking appears to have a negative influence. High incidence of bronchogenic carcinoma along with the negative influence of smoking on the quality of voice in this series of patients indicate that the patients should be advised against smoking in day-to-day clinical practice.

  10. Voice Quality Modelling for Expressive Speech Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Socoró, Joan Claudi

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the perceptual experiments that were carried out in order to validate the methodology of transforming expressive speech styles using voice quality (VoQ) parameters modelling, along with the well-known prosody (F0, duration, and energy), from a neutral style into a number of expressive ones. The main goal was to validate the usefulness of VoQ in the enhancement of expressive synthetic speech in terms of speech quality and style identification. A harmonic plus noise model (HNM) was used to modify VoQ and prosodic parameters that were extracted from an expressive speech corpus. Perception test results indicated the improvement of obtained expressive speech styles using VoQ modelling along with prosodic characteristics. PMID:24587738

  11. Age- and sex-related variations in vocal-tract morphology and voice acoustics during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Markova, Diana; Richer, Louis; Pangelinan, Melissa; Schwartz, Deborah H; Leonard, Gabriel; Perron, Michel; Pike, G Bruce; Veillette, Suzanne; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Pausova, Zdenka; Paus, Tomáš

    2016-05-01

    Distinct differences in the human voice emerge during adolescence, with males producing deeper and more resonant voices than females by the end of sexual maturation. Using magnetic resonance images of heads and voice recordings obtained in 532 typically developing adolescents, we investigate what might be the drivers of this change in voice, and the subjective judgment of the voice "maleness" and "femaleness". We show clear sex differences in the morphology of voice-related structures during adolescence, with males displaying strong associations between age (and puberty) and both vocal-fold and vocal-tract length; this was not the case in female adolescents. At the same time, males (compared with females) display stronger associations between age (and puberty) with both fundamental frequency and formant position. In males, vocal morphology was a mediator in the relationship between bioavailable testosterone and acoustic indices. Subjective judgment of the voice sex could be predicted by the morphological and acoustic parameters in males only: the length of vocal folds and its acoustic counterpart, fundamental frequency, is a larger predictor of subjective "maleness" of a voice than vocal-tract length and formant position. PMID:27062936

  12. Effects of native language on perception of voice quality

    PubMed Central

    Kreiman, Jody; Gerratt, Bruce R.; Khan, Sameer ud Dowla

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about how listeners judge phonemic versus allophonic (or freely varying) versus post-lexical variations in voice quality, or about which acoustic attributes serve as perceptual cues in specific contexts. To address this issue, native speakers of Gujarati, Thai, and English discriminated among pairs of voices that differed only in the relative amplitudes of the first versus second harmonics (H1-H2). Results indicate that speakers of Gujarati (which contrasts H1-H2 phonemically) were more sensitive to changes than are speakers of Thai or English. Further, sensitivity was not affected by the overall source spectral slope for Gujarati speakers, unlike Thai and English speakers, who were most sensitive when the spectrum fell away steeply. In combination with previous findings from Mandarin speakers, these results suggest a continuum of sensitivity to H1-H2. In Gujarati, the independence of sensitivity and spectral context is consistent with use of H1-H2 as a cue to the language’s phonemic phonation contrast. Speakers of Mandarin, in which creaky phonation occurs in conjunction with the low dipping Tone 3, apparently also learn to hear these contrasts, but sensitivity is conditioned by spectral context. Finally, for Thai and English speakers, who vary phonation only post-lexically, sensitivity is both lower and contextually-determined, reflecting the smaller role of H1-H2 in these languages. PMID:21152109

  13. Voice quality following laryngeal reinnervation by ansa hypoglossi transfer.

    PubMed

    Crumley, R L; Izdebski, K

    1986-06-01

    Recurrent laryngeal nerve injury resulting in chronic unilateral vocal fold paralysis has been treated traditionally by implantation of various materials into the paralyzed vocal fold. Although the usage of these techniques, especially Teflon-glycerin paste injection, has been clinically established, they do not restore full functionality to the larynx (abduction, adduction, and vibratory synchronization of the vocal folds). Restoration of these functions, necessary for improved phonation, has been achieved at least on an experimental basis by reinnervation techniques previously described. This study demonstrates excellent human voice quality following reinnervation of the vocal folds in two cases using ansa hypoglossi-recurrent laryngeal nerve anastomosis. Although the reinnervated vocal fold neither abducted nor adducted, it presented itself in the midline for precise apposition with the nonparalyzed cord. Voice data were analyzed within a single subject experimental design at the following intervals; preoperatively, immediately postoperatively, midterm, and long-term (3 and 6 years). The data was analyzed by subjective and objective means, including acoustics and electroglottography. Patient selection, surgical techniques, results, and implications are reviewed. PMID:3713403

  14. Acoustic interpretation of the voice range profile (phonetogram).

    PubMed

    Titze, I R

    1992-02-01

    The voice range profile (VRP) is a display of vocal intensity range versus fundamental frequency (F0). Past measurements have shown that the intensity range is reduced at the extremes of the F0 range, that there is a gradual upward tilt of the high- and low-intensity boundaries with increasing F0, and that a ripple exists at the boundaries. The intensity ripple, which results from tuning of source harmonics to the formants, is more noticeable at the upper boundary than the lower boundary because higher harmonics are not energized as effectively near phonation threshold as at maximum lung pressure. The gradual tilt of the intensity boundaries results from more effective transmission and radiation of acoustic energy at higher fundamental frequencies. This depends on the spectral distribution of the source power, however, At low F0, a smaller spectral slope (more harmonic energy) produces greater intensity. At high F0, on the other hand, a shift of energy toward the fundamental results in greater intensity. This dependence of intensity on spectral distribution of source power seems to explain the reduced intensity range at higher F0. An unrelated problem of reduced intensity range at low F0 stems from the inherent difficulty of keeping F0 from rising when subglottal pressure is increased. PMID:1735970

  15. Outcomes Measurement in Voice Disorders: Application of an Acoustic Index of Dysphonia Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awan, Shaheen N.; Roy, Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this experiment was to assess the ability of an acoustic model composed of both time-based and spectral-based measures to track change following voice disorder treatment and to serve as a possible treatment outcomes measure. Method: A weighted, four-factor acoustic algorithm consisting of shimmer, pitch sigma, the ratio of…

  16. System And Method For Characterizing Voiced Excitations Of Speech And Acoustic Signals, Removing Acoustic Noise From Speech, And Synthesizi

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2006-04-25

    The present invention is a system and method for characterizing human (or animate) speech voiced excitation functions and acoustic signals, for removing unwanted acoustic noise which often occurs when a speaker uses a microphone in common environments, and for synthesizing personalized or modified human (or other animate) speech upon command from a controller. A low power EM sensor is used to detect the motions of windpipe tissues in the glottal region of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech is produced by a user. From these tissue motion measurements, a voiced excitation function can be derived. Further, the excitation function provides speech production information to enhance noise removal from human speech and it enables accurate transfer functions of speech to be obtained. Previously stored excitation and transfer functions can be used for synthesizing personalized or modified human speech. Configurations of EM sensor and acoustic microphone systems are described to enhance noise cancellation and to enable multiple articulator measurements.

  17. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2004-03-23

    The present invention is a system and method for characterizing human (or animate) speech voiced excitation functions and acoustic signals, for removing unwanted acoustic noise which often occurs when a speaker uses a microphone in common environments, and for synthesizing personalized or modified human (or other animate) speech upon command from a controller. A low power EM sensor is used to detect the motions of windpipe tissues in the glottal region of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech is produced by a user. From these tissue motion measurements, a voiced excitation function can be derived. Further, the excitation function provides speech production information to enhance noise removal from human speech and it enables accurate transfer functions of speech to be obtained. Previously stored excitation and transfer functions can be used for synthesizing personalized or modified human speech. Configurations of EM sensor and acoustic microphone systems are described to enhance noise cancellation and to enable multiple articulator measurements.

  18. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2006-02-14

    The present invention is a system and method for characterizing human (or animate) speech voiced excitation functions and acoustic signals, for removing unwanted acoustic noise which often occurs when a speaker uses a microphone in common environments, and for synthesizing personalized or modified human (or other animate) speech upon command from a controller. A low power EM sensor is used to detect the motions of windpipe tissues in the glottal region of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech is produced by a user. From these tissue motion measurements, a voiced excitation function can be derived. Further, the excitation function provides speech production information to enhance noise removal from human speech and it enables accurate transfer functions of speech to be obtained. Previously stored excitation and transfer functions can be used for synthesizing personalized or modified human speech. Configurations of EM sensor and acoustic microphone systems are described to enhance noise cancellation and to enable multiple articulator measurements.

  19. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2006-08-08

    The present invention is a system and method for characterizing human (or animate) speech voiced excitation functions and acoustic signals, for removing unwanted acoustic noise which often occurs when a speaker uses a microphone in common environments, and for synthesizing personalized or modified human (or other animate) speech upon command from a controller. A low power EM sensor is used to detect the motions of windpipe tissues in the glottal region of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech is produced by a user. From these tissue motion measurements, a voiced excitation function can be derived. Further, the excitation function provides speech production information to enhance noise removal from human speech and it enables accurate transfer functions of speech to be obtained. Previously stored excitation and transfer functions can be used for synthesizing personalized or modified human speech. Configurations of EM sensor and acoustic microphone systems are described to enhance noise cancellation and to enable multiple articulator measurements.

  20. Comparing Two Methods for Reducing Variability in Voice Quality Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Kreiman, Jody; Gerratt, Bruce R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Interrater disagreements in ratings of quality plague the study of voice. This study compared two methods for handling this variability. Method Listeners provided multiple breathiness ratings for two set of pathological voices, one including 20 male and 20 female voices unselected for quality and one including 20 breathy female voices. Ratings for each listener were averaged together, mean ratings were z-transformed, and the likelihood that two listeners would agree exactly in their ratings was calculated as a function of averaging and standardizing condition. Data were also multidimensionally scaled to examine similarities among listeners in perceptual strategy. Results were compared to parallel analyses of existing breathiness ratings of the same voices gathered using a method-of-adjustment task. Results Three-way interactions between the mean rating for a voice, standardization condition, and the number of voices averaged together were observed, but no main effect of averaging condition emerged. Multidimensional scaling revealed significant residual differences in perceptual strategy across listeners after averaging and standardizing. Ratings from the method-of-adjustment task showed both high agreement levels and consistent perceptual strategies across listeners, as theoretically predicted. Conclusion Averaging multiple ratings and standardizing the mean are inadequate in addressing variations in voice quality perception. PMID:21081673

  1. Changes in Acoustic Characteristics of the Voice across the Life Span: Measures from Individuals 4-93 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stathopoulos, Elaine T.; Huber, Jessica E.; Sussman, Joan E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present investigation was to examine acoustic voice changes across the life span. Previous voice production investigations used small numbers of participants, had limited age ranges, and produced contradictory results. Method: Voice recordings were made from 192 male and female participants 4-93 years of age. Acoustic…

  2. Birth Control Pills and Nonprofessional Voice: Acoustic Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Ofer; Biron-Shental, Tal; Shabtai, Esther

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Two studies are presented here. Study 1 was aimed at evaluating whether the voice characteristics of women who use birth control pills that contain different progestins differ from the voice characteristics of a control group. Study 2 presents a meta-analysis that combined the results of Study 1 with those from 3 recent studies that…

  3. Acoustic Analysis of Voice in Dysarthria following Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yu-Tsai; Kent, Ray D.; Kent, Jane Finley; Duffy, Joseph R.; Thomas, Jack E.

    2009-01-01

    Although perceptual studies indicate the likelihood of voice disorders in persons with stroke, there have been few objective instrumental studies of voice dysfunction in dysarthria following stroke. This study reports automatic analysis of sustained vowel phonation for 61 speakers with stroke. The results show: (1) men with stroke and healthy…

  4. Voice and swallowing disorders: functional results and quality of life following supracricoid laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy.

    PubMed

    Portas, Juliana Godoy; Queija, Débora dos Santos; Arine, Leonora Pereira; Ferreira, Alessandra Sampaio; Dedivitis, Rogério A; Lehn, Carlos Neutzling; Barros, Ana Paula Brandão

    2009-10-01

    We conducted a prospective study of 11 patients with laryngeal cancer who underwent supracricoid laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy. Our goal was to evaluate their postoperative voice and swallowing function and to ascertain the impact that surgery had on patient-perceived quality of life. Postoperative assessments were made by auditory perception analyses, objective voice analyses, the Voice Handicap Index questionnaire, the Quality of Life in Swallowing Disorders questionnaire, and videofluoroscopy. Following surgery, 8 patients experienced severe dysphonia and 3 experienced moderate dysphonia. Also, 5 patients experienced mild to severe dysphagia whereas 6 patients experienced normal or near-normal swallowing function. Postoperative acoustic measurements were higher than expected, and spectrographic evaluation revealed the presence of high-grade noise without predominant concentration over the spectrum. Some association with the grade of dysphonia and self-perception of voice handicap was observed. With regard to swallowing, 5 patients (45.5%) showed a decrease in laryngeal remnant elevation and a slight or moderate degree of stasis in the oropharynx. Overall, patients reported good quality of life regarding both voice and swallowing. No relationship between the functional swallowing and the number of preserved arytenoid cartilages was observed. PMID:19826987

  5. Tense-Lax Vowel Classification with Energy Trajectory and Voice Quality Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Suk-Myung; Choi, Jeung-Yoon

    This work examines energy trajectory and voice quality measurements, in addition to conventional formant and duration properties, to classify tense and lax vowels in English. Tense and lax vowels are produced with differing articulatory configurations which can be identified by measuring acoustic cues such as energy peak location, energy convexity, open quotient and spectral tilt. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) is conducted, and dialect effects are observed. An overall 85.2% classification rate is obtained using the proposed features on the TIMIT database, resulting in improvement over using only conventional acoustic features. Adding the proposed features to widely used cepstral features also results in improved classification.

  6. Voice perceptions and quality of life of transgender people.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Adrienne B; Krissinger, Julianne; Owen, Kelly

    2011-09-01

    Despite the plethora of research documenting that the voice and quality of life (QoL) are related, the exact nature of this relationship is vague. Studies have not addressed people who consider their voice to influence their life and identity, but would not be considered to have a voice "disorder" (e.g., transgender individuals). Individuals seeking vocal feminization may or may not have vocal pathology and often have concerns not addressed on the standard psychosocial measures of voice impact. Recent development of a voice-related QoL measure specific to the needs of transgender care (Transgender Self-Evaluation Questionnaire [TSEQ]) affords opportunity to explore relationships between self-perceived QoL and perceptions of femininity and likability associated with transgender voice. Twenty male-to-female transgender individuals living as a female 100% of the time completed the TSEQ and contributed a speech sample describing Norman Rockwell's "The Waiting Room" picture. Twenty-five undergraduate listeners rated voice femininity and voice likability after audio-only presentation of each speech sample. Speakers also self-rated their voices on these parameters. For male-to-female transgender clients, QoL is moderately correlated with how others perceive their voice. QoL ratings correlate more strongly with speaker's self-rated perception of voice compared with others' perceptions, more so for likability than femininity. This study complements previous research reports that subjective measures from clients and listeners may be valuable for evaluating the effectiveness of treatment in terms of how treatment influences voice-related QoL issues for transgender people. PMID:21051199

  7. [Voice quality following CO2 laser cordectomy].

    PubMed

    Höfler, H; Bigenzahn, W

    1986-11-01

    The voice of patients after CO2 laser cordectomy was evaluated by subjective assessment, registration of voice parameters and sonegraphic classification. The results proved to be closely concordant, the main result being a slight or medium degree of dysphonia. Severe dysphonia or aphonia occurred in about one fifth of patients. This result is somewhat inferior to radiotherapy, but superior to standard translaryngeal cordectomy. Yanagihara's sonegraphic classification of dysphonia is recommendable for future comparative studies. PMID:3807602

  8. Voice quality after endoscopic laser surgery and radiotherapy for early glottic cancer: objective measurements emphasizing the Voice Handicap Index

    PubMed Central

    Caminero Cueva, Maria Jesús; Señaris González, Blanca; Llorente Pendás, José Luis; Gorriz Gil, Carmen; López Llames, Aurora; Alonso Pantiga, Ramón; Suárez Nieto, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed the functional outcome and self-evaluation of the voice of patients with T1 glottic carcinoma treated with endoscopic laser surgery and radiotherapy. We performed an objective voice evaluation, as well as a physical, emotional and functional well being assessment of 19 patients treated with laser surgery and 18 patients treated with radiotherapy. Voice quality is affected both by surgery and radiotherapy. Voice parameters only show differences in the maximum phonation time between both treatments. Results in the Voice Handicap Index show that radiotherapy has less effect on patient voice quality perception. There is a reduced impact on the patient’s perception of voice quality after radiotherapy, despite there being no significant differences in vocal quality between radiotherapy and laser cordectomy. PMID:17999074

  9. The Academic Voice in English and Czech Higher Education Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertova, Patricie; Webster, Len

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper sets out to report on a research project investigating the academic voice in higher education quality in the UK and the Czech Republic. It aims to describe the origins and reasons for introducing quality monitoring and assurance into higher education, showing the differences and impacts on higher education quality in England…

  10. [Acoustic analysis of voice production. Production trial from a clinical perspective].

    PubMed

    Dejonckere, P H

    1986-01-01

    This article presents an overview of relevant methods for acoustic analysis of voice from a clinical point of view: Mean speaking frequency and fundamental frequency in singing; frequency range of phonation; pitch perturbations; intensity range of phonation and phonetogram; cycle-to-cycle amplitude variations; Sound spectrography (Visible Speech) and Long-Time-Average-Spectrum. PMID:3751531

  11. Subjective voice quality evaluation in a satellite communications environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farinholt, E. V.; Lavalley, R. W.; Hardy, W. C.

    The development of a subjective test procedure for evaluating voice quality is described. The technical characteristics of the satellite communication system are analyzed in order to identify the factors that impair voice quality. The factors that affect the system are: (1) low volume, (2) constant noise, (3) busting noise, (4) noise on speech, (5) speech distortion, (6) incomplete words, (7) garbling, (8) mutual interpretation, and (9) echo. The communication system was rated by test callers based on the occurrence of each noise impairment, the effect of the impairments on the call quality, and the overall quality of the call. Analysis of the data reveals that it is feasible to develop a voice quality evaluation system based on electronic measurements of parameters that predict the occurrence and severity of the nine impairments.

  12. Voice quality after treatment for T1a glottic carcinoma--radiotherapy versus laser cordectomy.

    PubMed

    Krengli, Marco; Policarpo, Mario; Manfredda, Irene; Aluffi, Paolo; Gambaro, Giuseppina; Panella, Massimiliano; Pia, Francesco

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the anatomic and functional outcomes and compare the voice quality in patients affected by T1a glottic carcinoma treated with curative intent with radiotherapy or laser cordectomy. Fifty-seven cases were analysed: 27 after curative radiotherapy and 30 after laser cordectomy. All patients were studied with videolaryngostroboscopy, voice analysis by narrow spectrogram, and vocal parameters (Jitter, Shimmer, noise/harmonic ratio, and diplophonia). Videolaryngostroboscopy showed severe glottic inadequacy in 25% of cases treated with radiation and insufficient compensation 'ventricular band' or 'with arytenoid hyperadduction' in 65% of cases after surgery. Severe dysphonia on the electro-acoustic analysis of voice was observed in 25% of cases after radiation and 70% after laser (p < 0.001). Fundamental frequency and vocal parameters showed more favourable results in the radiation group (p < 0.001). Voice assessment showed better results after radiotherapy compared with laser cordectomy. Voice outcome should be carefully considered in the treatment decision for T1 glottic carcinoma. PMID:15244253

  13. Predicting Voice Quality of Deaf Speakers on the Basis of Glottal Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arends, Nico; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The voice quality, breathiness, hoarseness, and laryngeal strain of 20 profoundly deaf and 5 normal-hearing children, age 5-19, were judged. Findings suggest that overall prediction of voice quality cannot reliably be based on glottal parameters and judged voice deviations, although severe cases of deaf voice deviations may be detectable.…

  14. Fluid-acoustic interactions and their impact on pathological voiced speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erath, Byron D.; Zanartu, Matias; Peterson, Sean D.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2011-11-01

    Voiced speech is produced by vibration of the vocal fold structures. Vocal fold dynamics arise from aerodynamic pressure loadings, tissue properties, and acoustic modulation of the driving pressures. Recent speech science advancements have produced a physiologically-realistic fluid flow solver (BLEAP) capable of prescribing asymmetric intraglottal flow attachment that can be easily assimilated into reduced order models of speech. The BLEAP flow solver is extended to incorporate acoustic loading and sound propagation in the vocal tract by implementing a wave reflection analog approach for sound propagation based on the governing BLEAP equations. This enhanced physiological description of the physics of voiced speech is implemented into a two-mass model of speech. The impact of fluid-acoustic interactions on vocal fold dynamics is elucidated for both normal and pathological speech through linear and nonlinear analysis techniques. Supported by NSF Grant CBET-1036280.

  15. Effects of age on speech and voice quality ratings.

    PubMed

    Goy, Huiwen; Kathleen Pichora-Fuller, M; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    The quality of communication may be affected by listeners' perception of talkers' characteristics. This study examined if there were effects of talker and listener age on the perception of speech and voice qualities. Younger and older listeners judged younger and older talkers' gender and age, then rated speech samples on pleasantness, naturalness, clarity, ease of understanding, loudness, and the talker's suitability to be an audiobook reader. For the same talkers, listeners also rated voice samples on pleasantness, roughness, and power. Younger and older talkers were perceived to be similar on most qualities except age. Younger and older listeners rated talkers similarly, except that younger listeners perceived younger voices to be more pleasant and less rough than older voices. For vowel samples, younger listeners were more accurate than older listeners at age estimation, while older listeners were more accurate than younger listeners at gender identification, suggesting that younger and older listeners differ in their evaluation of specific talker characteristics. Thus, the perception of quality was generally more affected by the age of the listener than the age of the talker, and age-related differences between listeners depended on whether voice or speech samples were used and the rating being made. PMID:27106312

  16. Effects of subglottal and supraglottal acoustic loading on voice production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoyan; Mongeau, Luc; Frankel, Steven

    2002-05-01

    Speech production involves sound generation by confined jets through an orifice (the glottis) with a time-varying area. Predictive models are usually based on the quasi-steady assumption. This assumption allows the complex unsteady flows to be treated as steady flows, which are more effectively modeled computationally. Because of the reflective properties of the human lungs, trachea and vocal tract, subglottal and supraglottal resonance and other acoustic effects occur in speech, which might affect glottal impedance, especially in the regime of unsteady flow separation. Changes in the flow structure, or flow regurgitation due to a transient negative transglottal pressure, could also occur. These phenomena may affect the quasi-steady behavior of speech production. To investigate the possible effects of the subglottal and supraglottal acoustic loadings, a dynamic mechanical model of the larynx was designed and built. The subglottal and supraglottal acoustic loadings are simulated using an expansion in the tube upstream of the glottis and a finite length tube downstream, respectively. The acoustic pressures of waves radiated upstream and downstream of the orifice were measured and compared to those predicted using a model based on the quasi-steady assumption. A good agreement between the experimental data and the predictions was obtained for different operating frequencies, flow rates, and orifice shapes. This supports the validity of the quasi-steady assumption for various subglottal and supraglottal acoustic loadings.

  17. Acoustic Correlates of Fatigue in Laryngeal Muscles: Findings for a Criterion-Based Prevention of Acquired Voice Pathologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Victor J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The objective was to identify acoustic correlates of laryngeal muscle fatigue in conditions of vocal effort. Method: In a previous study, a technique of electromyography (EMG) served to define physiological signs of "voice fatigue" in laryngeal muscles involved in voicing. These signs correspond to spectral changes in contraction…

  18. Objective Pathological Voice Quality Assessment Based on HOS Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ji-Yeoun; Jeong, Sangbae; Choi, Hong-Shik; Hahn, Minsoo

    This work proposes new features to improve the pathological voice quality classification performance. They are the means, the variances, and the perturbations of the higher-order statistics (HOS) such as the skewness and the kurtosis. The HOS-based features show meaningful differences among normal, grade 1, grade 2, and grade 3 voices classified in the GRBAS scale. The jitter, the shimmer, the harmonic-to-noise ratio (HNR), and the variance of the short-time energy are utilized as the conventional features. The performances are measured by the classification and regression tree (CART) method. Specifically, the CART-based method by utilizing both the conventional features and the HOS-based ones shows its effectiveness in the pathological voice quality measurement, with the classification accuracy of 87.8%.

  19. Unique gel-coupled acoustic sensor array monitors human voice and physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, Michael

    2002-11-01

    The health and performance of soldiers, firefighters, and other first responders in strenuous and hazardous environments can be continuously and remotely monitored with body-worn acoustic sensors. The Army Research Laboratory's gel-coupled acoustic physiological monitoring sensor has acoustic impedance properties similar to the skin that facilitate the transmission of body sounds into the sensor pad, yet significantly repel ambient airborne noises due to an impedance mismatch. Acoustic signal processing detects physiological events such as heartbeats, breaths, wheezes, coughs, blood pressure, activity, motion, and voice for communication and automatic speech recognition. Acoustic sensors can be in a helmet or in a strap around the neck, chest, and wrist. Although the physiological sounds have high SNR, the acoustic sensor also responds to motion-induced artifacts that sometimes obscure meaningful physiology. A noise-canceling sensor array configuration helps remove motion noise by using two acoustic sensors on the front sides of the neck and 2 additional acoustic sensors on each wrist. The motion noise detected on all 4 sensors will be dissimilar and out of phase, yet the physiology on all 4 sensors is covariant. Pulse wave transit time between neck and wrist will indicate systolic blood pressure. Data from a firefighter experiment will be presented.

  20. Linguistic Context and the Social Meaning of Voice Quality Variation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callier, Patrick R.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the linguistic and social constraints on the occurrence of creaky voice quality (creak) in Beijing Mandarin (BM), as well as the effect of linguistic and prosodic context on creak's social meanings for Mandarin listeners. It is a two-phase study, composed of 1) a production study of the distribution of creak in the…

  1. Acoustic resonance techniques for quality control

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, D.N.

    1992-09-01

    Acoustic resonance based nondestructive techniques are described that can be used for both process and quality control in manufacturing. The Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (AS) technique is highlighted for its capability in fluid property (flow, density, viscosity, and speed of sound) monitoring. Possible applications of these noninvasive techniques for textile manufacturing are pointed out.

  2. Acoustic resonance techniques for quality control

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, D.N.

    1992-01-01

    Acoustic resonance based nondestructive techniques are described that can be used for both process and quality control in manufacturing. The Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (AS) technique is highlighted for its capability in fluid property (flow, density, viscosity, and speed of sound) monitoring. Possible applications of these noninvasive techniques for textile manufacturing are pointed out.

  3. Effects of voice training and voice hygiene education on acoustic and perceptual speech parameters and self-reported vocal well-being in female teachers.

    PubMed

    Ilomaki, Irma; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria; Leppanen, Kirsti; Vilkman, Erkki

    2008-01-01

    Voice education programs may help in optimizing teachers' voice use. This study compared effects of voice training (VT) and voice hygiene lecture (VHL) in 60 randomly assigned female teachers. All 60 attended the lecture, and 30 completed a short training course in addition. Text reading was recorded in working environments and analyzed for fundamental frequency (F0), equivalent sound level (Leq), alpha ratio, jitter, shimmer, and perceptual quality. Self-reports of vocal well-being were registered. In the VHL group, increased F0 and difficulty of phonation and in the VT group decreased perturbation, increased alpha ratio, easier phonation, and improved perceptual and self-reported voice quality were found. Both groups equally self-reported increase of voice care knowledge. Results seem to indicate improved vocal well-being after training. PMID:18569647

  4. Voices of athletes reveal only modest acoustic correlates of stature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owren, Michael J.; Anderson, John D.

    2005-04-01

    Recent studies of acoustic cues to body-size in nonhuman primate and human vocalizations have produced results varying from very strong relationships between formant frequencies and length/weight in rhesus monkeys to weak correlations between formants and stature in humans. The current work attempted to address these discrepancies by compiling a database of naturally occurring speech with a large number of vocalizers of maximally varying size. To that end, fundamental frequency (F0) and formant frequencies were measured in both running speech and filled pauses (i.e., ``ah'' and ``um'') produced by male athletes during televised same-day interviews. Multiple-regression analysis of data from 100 male athletes showed that these acoustic measures accounted for at most 17% of variance in height over a 37-cm range. Analyses of filled speech pauses produced by a subset of 48 athletes could account for up to 36%. These outcomes fall within the range of previously reported outcomes, indicating that while speech acoustics are correlated with body-size in human adult males, the cues provided are quite modest.

  5. The Voice of Emotion: Acoustic Properties of Six Emotional Expressions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Carol May

    Studies in the perceptual identification of emotional states suggested that listeners seemed to depend on a limited set of vocal cues to distinguish among emotions. Linguistics and speech science literatures have indicated that this small set of cues included intensity, fundamental frequency, and temporal properties such as speech rate and duration. Little research has been done, however, to validate these cues in the production of emotional speech, or to determine if specific dimensions of each cue are associated with the production of a particular emotion for a variety of speakers. This study addressed deficiencies in understanding of the acoustical properties of duration and intensity as components of emotional speech by means of speech science instrumentation. Acoustic data were conveyed in a brief sentence spoken by twelve English speaking adult male and female subjects, half with dramatic training, and half without such training. Simulated expressions included: happiness, surprise, sadness, fear, anger, and disgust. The study demonstrated that the acoustic property of mean intensity served as an important cue for a vocal taxonomy. Overall duration was rejected as an element for a general taxonomy due to interactions involving gender and role. Findings suggested a gender-related taxonomy, however, based on differences in the ways in which men and women use the duration cue in their emotional expressions. Results also indicated that speaker training may influence greater use of the duration cue in expressions of emotion, particularly for male actors. Discussion of these results provided linkages to (1) practical management of emotional interactions in clinical and interpersonal environments, (2) implications for differences in the ways in which males and females may be socialized to express emotions, and (3) guidelines for future perceptual studies of emotional sensitivity.

  6. Flow-structure-acoustic interaction in a human voice model.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stefan; Kniesburges, Stefan; Müller, Stefan; Delgado, Antonio; Link, Gerhard; Kaltenbacher, Manfred; Döllinger, Michael

    2009-03-01

    For the investigation of the physical processes of human phonation, inhomogeneous synthetic vocal folds were developed to represent the full fluid-structure-acoustic coupling. They consisted of polyurethane rubber with a stiffness in the range of human vocal folds and were mounted in a channel, shaped like the vocal tract in the supraglottal region. This test facility permitted extensive observations of flow-induced vocal fold vibrations, the periodic flow field, and the acoustic signals in the far field of the channel. Detailed measurements were performed applying particle-image velocimetry, a laser-scanning vibrometer, a microphone, unsteady pressure sensors, and a hot-wire probe, with the aim of identifying the physical mechanisms in human phonation. The results support the existence of the Coanda effect during phonation, with the flow attaching to one vocal fold and separating from the other. This behavior is not linked to one vocal fold and changes stochastically from cycle to cycle. The oscillating flow field generates a tonal sound. The broadband noise is presumed to be caused by the interaction of the asymmetric flow with the downstream-facing surfaces of the vocal folds, analogous to trailing-edge noise. PMID:19275292

  7. Discrimination of Male Voice Quality by 8 and 9 Week Old Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culp, Rex E.; Gallas, Howard B.

    This paper reports a study which investigated 2-month-old infants' auditory discrimination of tone quality in the male voice, extending a previous study which found that voice quality changes (soft versus harsh) in a female voice were discriminable by infants at this age. Subjects were 20 infants, tested at 8 and 9 weeks of age. Each infant was…

  8. Learning [Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauberer, Joshua Ian

    2010-01-01

    The [voice] distinction between homorganic stops and fricatives is made by a number of acoustic correlates including voicing, segment duration, and preceding vowel duration. The present work looks at [voice] from a number of multidimensional perspectives. This dissertation's focus is a corpus study of the phonetic realization of [voice] in two…

  9. Comparing the acoustics of voiced and voiceless fricatives in Deg Xinag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Richard; Hargus, Sharon; Miller, Julia

    2005-09-01

    Few studies have looked at the acoustic properties of fricative voicing and place in Native American languages despite their relatively rich fricative inventories of rarely studied fricative places. Deg Xinag, an endangered Athabaskan language spoken in Alaska, provides us with a rare opportunity to investigate fricative place and voicing within a single language: it has eight places of articulation for voiceless fricatives, six of which have voiced counterparts, including some rarely studied place contrasts (e.g., palato-alveolar versus retroflex, uvular versus glottal, lateral versus alveolar). In this study, pre- and post-vocalic fricatives were digitally recorded in the field from eight speakers (two males, six females) using a head-mounted mic to control for distance from the source. The segmental context was also controlled for, the neighboring vowel being [a] in all cases. Each speaker produced four repetitions of each word. Each fricative was analyzed qualitatively using impressionistic transcription and spectrographic investigation, and quantitatively using a set of widely employed measures: (a) widely employed spectral measures (center of gravity, skew, kurtosis, standard deviation, lowest spectral peak), peak and rms intensity of frication, overall duration and duration of voicing. [Work supported by NSF.

  10. Perceptual identification and acoustic measures of the resonant voice based on "Lessac's Y-Buzz"--a preliminary study with actors.

    PubMed

    Barrichelo, Viviane M O; Behlau, Mara

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to verify whether the resonant voice based on Lessac's Y-Buzz can be perceived by listeners as resonant and different from habitual voice and to compare them to determine whether this sound exploration improves the vocal production. Nine newly graduated actors, six men and three women without voice complaints, were the subjects. They received a session of Lessac's Y-Buzz training from the primary investigator. Before training, they were asked to sustain the vowel /i/ at comfortable frequency and habitual loudness. After training, they were requested to sustain the Y-Buzz they had learned at a comfortable frequency and habitual loudness. Three speech-language pathologists (SLP) trained in voice developed an auditory-perceptive analysis. The pre- and posttraining voice samples were randomly spliced together, edited, and presented in pairs to perceptual judges who were asked to identify the most resonant of the pair. The voice samples were also acoustically compared through the Hoarseness Diagram and acoustic measures using the VoxMetria Software (CTS, version 2.0s, Brazil). The Y-Buzz trials were identified as resonant voice in 74% of the comparisons. The acoustic measures showed a statistically significant decrease of irregularity (P = 0.002) and shimmer (P = 0.38). The Hoarseness Diagram demonstrated how the resonant voice moved toward the normality for irregularity and noise components. The results showed that the resonant voice based on the Y-Buzz can be identified as resonant and different from normal voicing in the same subject, and it apparently implies a better vocal production demonstrating a significant decrease of shimmer and irregularity through the Hoarseness Diagram evaluation. PMID:16458480

  11. Acoustic Emissions Could Indicate Weld Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustafson, P. E.; Sutch, F. S.

    1982-01-01

    Preliminary tests show quality of welds can be assessed by acoustic-emission monitor mounted on welder. Nondestructive measurement technique allows operator to determine uniformity and integrity of weld as being made, evaluate equipment performance and condition, and initiate corrective action if quality is not satisfactory.

  12. [The quality of voice in coal-miners after burn/inhalation injury due to methane explosion].

    PubMed

    Orecka, Boguslawa; Sikora, Łukasz; Misiołek, Maciej; Fira, Rafał; Miśkiewicz-Orczyk, Katarzyna; Paluch, Zbigniew; Krzywiecki, Andrzej; Grzanka, Alicja; Namysłowski, Grzegorz

    2012-01-01

    The job as a coal-miner exposes to the greatest risk. One of the most dangerous health hazard is a burn/inhalation injury during the methane explosion. The victims undergo physical trauma, effect of high temperature and inhalation of toxic gases and products of incomplete combustion, As a result of inhalation injury both, upper and lower airways are affected. The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between burn/inhalation injury and quality of voice in affected coal-miners. A group of 23 patients (men) in age from 28 to 59 (mean 38.5) 3 years after burn/inhalation injury participated in this study. The voice evaluation based on ENT examination, videlaryngostroboscopy, acoustic analysis, MPT parameter and GRBAS analysis was performed. The special control group of coal-miners served as a control. On the basis of the subjective evaluation and the objective acoustic analysis, aerodynamic parameter and videlaryngostroboscopy the worse quality of voice in the group of injured coalminers was shown in comparison to the control group. No substantial correlation between the acoustic parameters, MPT parameter and ventilating rates was found. PMID:22500499

  13. Voice restoration following total laryngectomy by tracheoesophageal prosthesis: Effect on patients' quality of life and voice handicap in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Attieh, Abdelrahim Y; Searl, Jeff; Shahaltough, Nada H; Wreikat, Mahmoud M; Lundy, Donna S

    2008-01-01

    Background Little has been reported about the impact of tracheoesophageal (TE) speech on individuals in the Middle East where the procedure has been gaining in popularity. After total laryngectomy, individuals in Europe and North America have rated their quality of life as being lower than non-laryngectomized individuals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in quality of life and degree of voice handicap reported by laryngectomized speakers from Jordan before and after establishment of TE speech. Methods Twelve male Jordanian laryngectomees completed the University of Michigan Head & Neck Quality of Life instrument and the Voice Handicap Index pre- and post-TE puncture. Results All subjects showed significant improvements in their quality of life following successful prosthetic voice restoration. In addition, voice handicap scores were significantly reduced from pre- to post-TE puncture. Conclusion Tracheoesophageal speech significantly improved the quality of life and limited the voice handicap imposed by total laryngectomy. This method of voice restoration has been used for a number of years in other countries and now appears to be a viable alternative within Jordan. PMID:18373867

  14. Elephants can determine ethnicity, gender, and age from acoustic cues in human voices

    PubMed Central

    McComb, Karen; Shannon, Graeme; Sayialel, Katito N.; Moss, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Animals can accrue direct fitness benefits by accurately classifying predatory threat according to the species of predator and the magnitude of risk associated with an encounter. Human predators present a particularly interesting cognitive challenge, as it is typically the case that different human subgroups pose radically different levels of danger to animals living around them. Although a number of prey species have proved able to discriminate between certain human categories on the basis of visual and olfactory cues, vocalizations potentially provide a much richer source of information. We now use controlled playback experiments to investigate whether family groups of free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Amboseli National Park, Kenya can use acoustic characteristics of speech to make functionally relevant distinctions between human subcategories differing not only in ethnicity but also in sex and age. Our results demonstrate that elephants can reliably discriminate between two different ethnic groups that differ in the level of threat they represent, significantly increasing their probability of defensive bunching and investigative smelling following playbacks of Maasai voices. Moreover, these responses were specific to the sex and age of Maasai presented, with the voices of Maasai women and boys, subcategories that would generally pose little threat, significantly less likely to produce these behavioral responses. Considering the long history and often pervasive predatory threat associated with humans across the globe, it is likely that abilities to precisely identify dangerous subcategories of humans on the basis of subtle voice characteristics could have been selected for in other cognitively advanced animal species. PMID:24616492

  15. Elephants can determine ethnicity, gender, and age from acoustic cues in human voices.

    PubMed

    McComb, Karen; Shannon, Graeme; Sayialel, Katito N; Moss, Cynthia

    2014-04-01

    Animals can accrue direct fitness benefits by accurately classifying predatory threat according to the species of predator and the magnitude of risk associated with an encounter. Human predators present a particularly interesting cognitive challenge, as it is typically the case that different human subgroups pose radically different levels of danger to animals living around them. Although a number of prey species have proved able to discriminate between certain human categories on the basis of visual and olfactory cues, vocalizations potentially provide a much richer source of information. We now use controlled playback experiments to investigate whether family groups of free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Amboseli National Park, Kenya can use acoustic characteristics of speech to make functionally relevant distinctions between human subcategories differing not only in ethnicity but also in sex and age. Our results demonstrate that elephants can reliably discriminate between two different ethnic groups that differ in the level of threat they represent, significantly increasing their probability of defensive bunching and investigative smelling following playbacks of Maasai voices. Moreover, these responses were specific to the sex and age of Maasai presented, with the voices of Maasai women and boys, subcategories that would generally pose little threat, significantly less likely to produce these behavioral responses. Considering the long history and often pervasive predatory threat associated with humans across the globe, it is likely that abilities to precisely identify dangerous subcategories of humans on the basis of subtle voice characteristics could have been selected for in other cognitively advanced animal species. PMID:24616492

  16. Acoustic changes in student actors' voices after 12 months of training.

    PubMed

    Walzak, Peta; McCabe, Patricia; Madill, Cate; Sheard, Christine

    2008-05-01

    This study was to evaluate acoustic changes in student actors' voices after 12 months of actor training. The design used was a longitudinal study. Eighteen students enrolled in an Australian tertiary 3-year acting program (nine male and nine female) were assessed at the beginning of their acting course and again 12 months later using a questionnaire, interview, maximum phonation time (MPT), reading, spontaneous speaking, sustained phonation tasks, and a pitch range task. Samples were analyzed for MPT, fundamental frequency across tasks, pitch range for speaking and reading, singing pitch range, noise-to-harmonic ratio, shimmer, and jitter. After training, measures of shimmer significantly increased for both male and female participants. Female participants' pitch range significantly increased after training, with a significantly lower mean frequency for their lowest pitch. The finding of limited or negative changes for some measures indicate that further investigation is required into the long-term effects of actor voice training and which parameters of voicing are most targeted and valued in training. Particular investigation into the relationship between training targets and outcomes could more reliably inform acting programs about changes in teaching methodologies. Further research into the relationship between specific training techniques, physiological changes, and vocal changes may also provide information on implementing more evidence-based training methods. PMID:17512170

  17. Contemporary review: Impact of primary neopharyngoplasty on acoustic characteristics of alaryngeal tracheoesophageal voice.

    PubMed

    Albirmawy, Osama A; Elsheikh, Mohamed N; Silver, Carl E; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio

    2012-02-01

    The physiology of the vibratory mechanism in alaryngeal tracheoesophageal speech depends on several factors. The structure and resulting function of the neoglottis (or neopharynx) varies from patient to patient depending on the individual details of the surgical procedure performed, as well as the patient's anatomy. In general, the vibratory segment is a blending of the pharyngeal constrictor muscles, cricopharyngeus, and upper circular fibers of the esophagus. Limited ability to visualize dynamically these three-dimensional structures during rapid events of voice and speech production impedes complete understanding of the vibratory function of the neopharynx. Acoustic studies have elucidated some general characteristics of the pharyngoesophagus and neoglottic vibratory mechanism in the laryngectomized population. A critical degree of tonicity is necessary for apposition of mucosal surfaces in the production of tracheoesophageal voice. Deficiencies in the vibratory segment can usually be managed with various surgical procedures (neopharyngoplasty), resulting in reduced intraesophageal pressure and corresponding increase in fluent, intelligible, effortless speech. The acoustic measures, when correlated with neopharyngoplasty variables, produce many significant associations. Some of them are paramount and deserve further attention. PMID:22258890

  18. Effects of nasalance on the acoustical properties of the tenor passaggio and the head voice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna, Nicholas Kevin

    This study aims to measure the effect that nasality has on the acoustical properties of the tenor passaggio and head voice. Not to be confused with forward resonance, nasality here will be defined as nasalance, the reading of a Nasometer, or the percentage of nasal and oral airflow during phonation. A previous study by Peer Birch et al. has shown that professional tenors used higher percentages of nasalance through their passaggio. They hypothesized that tenors used nasalance to make slight timbral adjustments as they ascended through passaggio. Other well respected authors including Richard Miller and William McIver have claimed that teaching registration issues is the most important component of training young tenors. It seemed logical to measure the acoustic effects of nasalance on the tenor passaggio and head voice. Eight professional operatic tenors participated as subjects performing numerous vocal exercises that demonstrated various registration events. These examples were recorded and analyzed using a Nasometer and Voce Vista Pro Software. Tenors did generally show an increase of nasalance during an ascending B-flat major scale on the vowels [i] and [u]. Perhaps the most revealing result was that six of seven tenors showed at least a 5-10% increase in nasalance on the note after their primary register transition on the vowel of [a]. It is suggested that this phenomenon receive further empirical scrutiny, because, if true, pedagogues could use nasalance as a tool for helping a young tenor ascend through his passaggio.

  19. Comparisons among aerodynamic, electroglottographic, and acoustic spectral measures of female voice.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, E B; Hillman, R E; Perkell, J S; Guiod, P C; Goldman, S L

    1995-12-01

    This study examines measures of the glottal airflow waveform, the electroglottographic signal (EGG), amplitude differences between peaks in the acoustic spectrum, and observations of the spectral energy content of the third formant (F3), in terms of how they relate to one another. Twenty females with normal voices served as subjects. Both group and individual data were studied. Measurements were made for the vowel in two speech tasks: strings of the syllable /pae/and sustained phonation of /ae/, which were produced at two levels of vocal effort: comfortable and loud voice. The main results were: 1. Significant differences in parameter values between /pae/and/ae/were related to significant differences in the sound pressure level (SPL). 2. An "adduction quotient," measured from the glottal waveform at a 30% criterion, was sensitive enough to differentiate between waveforms reflecting abrupt versus gradual vocal fold closing movements. 3. DC flow showed weak or nonsignificant relationships with acoustic measures. 4. The spectral content in the third formant (F3) in comfortable loudness typically consisted of a mix of noise and harmonic energy. In loud voice, the F3 spectral content typically consisted of harmonic energy. 5. Significant differences were found in all measures between tokens with F3 harmonic energy and tokens with F3 noise, independent of loudness condition. 6. Strong relationships between flow- and EGG-adduction quotients suggested that these signals can be used to complement each other. 7. The amplitude difference between spectral peaks of the first and third formant (F1-F3) was found to add information about abruptness of airflow decrease (flow declination) that may be lost in the glottal waveform signal due to low-pass filtering. The results are discussed in terms of how an integrated use of these measures can contribute to a better understanding of the normal vocal mechanism and help to improve methods for evaluating vocal function. PMID:8747815

  20. Effects of sinus lifting on voice quality. A prospective study and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Tepper, Gabor; Haas, Robert; Schneider, Berit; Watzak, Georg; Mailath, Georg; Jovanovic, Sasha A; Busenlechner, Dieter; Zechner, Werner; Watzek, Georg

    2003-12-01

    A variety of potential complications associated with sinus lift surgery have been reported in the literature. However, potential alterations of voice quality following sinus elevation have so far not been mentioned or evaluated scientifically. For the majority of patients, slight changes of the voice pattern are of no importance. However, for voice professionals, whose voices have become part of their distinctive profession or trademark, minimal changes may have dramatic consequences. This specific group of patients, such as speakers, actors and singers, depend on the particular quality and timbre of their voice for their livelihood. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to assess the effects of sinus lifting on voice quality in the above patient group. In a collaborative interdisciplinary effort, the Departments of Oral Surgery and Otorhinolaryngology, Section of Phoniatrics and Logopedics, thoroughly evaluated a series of voice parameters of four patients undergoing sinus lifting pre- and postoperatively. The parameters analyzed included pitch, dynamic range, sound pressure level, percent jitter, percent shimmer and noise-to-harmonics ratio with special emphasis on formant analysis. No changes were detected in any of the commonly evaluated parameters. These were rated subjectively by patients and their friends or relatives and objectively with instrumental tools under isolated phoniatric lab conditions. In conclusion, sinus lift surgery appears to be a safe, predictable evidence-based method for regenerating the highly atrophic posterior maxilla, which does not jeopardize the individual characteristic voice pattern of high-profile patients critically dependent on their voices for their livelihood. PMID:15015954

  1. A prospective longitudinal study of voice characteristics and health-related quality of life outcomes following laryngeal cancer treatment with radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Therese; Bergström, Liza; Ward, Elizabeth; Finizia, Caterina

    2016-06-01

    Background To investigate potential changes in perceptual, acoustic and patient-reported outcomes over 12 months for laryngeal cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. Material and methods A total of 40 patients with Tis-T3 laryngeal cancer treated with curative intent by radiotherapy were included in this prospective longitudinal descriptive study. Patients were followed pre-radiotherapy, one month, six months and 12 months post-radiotherapy, where voice recordings and patient-reported outcome instruments (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality-of-Life Questionnaire Core30, Head and Neck35, Swedish Self-Evaluation of Communication Experiences after Laryngeal Cancer) were completed at each appointment. Perceptual analysis, using the Grade-Roughness-Breathiness-Asthenia-Strain scale and vocal fry parameters, and acoustic measures including harmonics-to-noise ratio (HNR), jitter, shimmer and mean spoken fundamental frequency (MSFF) were produced from voice recordings. Results All patients presented with dysphonic voices pre-radiotherapy, where 95% demonstrated some degree of vocal roughness. This variable improved significantly immediately post-radiotherapy, however, then deteriorated again between six and 12 months. Vocal fry also increased significantly at 12 months. Acoustic measures were abnormal pre- and post-treatment with no significant change noted except for MSFF, which lowered significantly by 12 months. Health-related quality of life (HRQL) deteriorated post-radiotherapy but returned to pretreatment levels by 12 months. Conclusion By 12 months, most perceptual, acoustic, patient-reported voice and HRQL outcomes for laryngeal cancer patients treated by radiotherapy had showed no significant improvements compared to pretreatment function. Further studies are required to investigate potential benefits of voice rehabilitation following radiotherapy. PMID:27056401

  2. Influence of the intentional voice quality on the impression of female speaker.

    PubMed

    Lukkarila, Päivi; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria; Palo, Pertti

    2012-12-01

    This study examines the relationship of voice quality and speech-based personality assessment of Finnish-speaking female speakers. Five Finnish-speaking female subjects recorded a text passage with eight different vocal qualities. Samples that passed the preselection test for the voice qualities were played to 50 Finnish-speaking listeners, who reported speaker impressions on a scale of 18 opposite trait pairs. Voices produced with forward placement received assessments of femininity and friendliness. Readers speaking with backward placement were considered less feminine, while breathy voice evoked assessments of emotionality and implausibility. Tense phonation as well as creakiness, nasality, and denasality gave rise to numerous negative notions. The results suggest that voice stereotypes have both internationality and cultural dependency. PMID:22616785

  3. A high quality voice coder with integrated echo canceller and voice activity detector for mobile satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondoz, A. M.; Evans, B. G.

    1993-01-01

    In the last decade, low bit rate speech coding research has received much attention resulting in newly developed, good quality, speech coders operating at as low as 4.8 Kb/s. Although speech quality at around 8 Kb/s is acceptable for a wide variety of applications, at 4.8 Kb/s more improvements in quality are necessary to make it acceptable to the majority of applications and users. In addition to the required low bit rate with acceptable speech quality, other facilities such as integrated digital echo cancellation and voice activity detection are now becoming necessary to provide a cost effective and compact solution. In this paper we describe a CELP speech coder with integrated echo canceller and a voice activity detector all of which have been implemented on a single DSP32C with 32 KBytes of SRAM. The quality of CELP coded speech has been improved significantly by a new codebook implementation which also simplifies the encoder/decoder complexity making room for the integration of a 64-tap echo canceller together with a voice activity detector.

  4. A high quality voice coder with integrated echo canceller and voice activity detector for mobile satellite applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondoz, A. M.; Evans, B. G.

    In the last decade, low bit rate speech coding research has received much attention resulting in newly developed, good quality, speech coders operating at as low as 4.8 Kb/s. Although speech quality at around 8 Kb/s is acceptable for a wide variety of applications, at 4.8 Kb/s more improvements in quality are necessary to make it acceptable to the majority of applications and users. In addition to the required low bit rate with acceptable speech quality, other facilities such as integrated digital echo cancellation and voice activity detection are now becoming necessary to provide a cost effective and compact solution. In this paper we describe a CELP speech coder with integrated echo canceller and a voice activity detector all of which have been implemented on a single DSP32C with 32 KBytes of SRAM. The quality of CELP coded speech has been improved significantly by a new codebook implementation which also simplifies the encoder/decoder complexity making room for the integration of a 64-tap echo canceller together with a voice activity detector.

  5. Voice quality and surgical detail in post-laryngectomy tracheoesophageal speakers.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, I; Timmermans, A J; Hilgers, F J M; van den Brekel, M W M

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study is to assess surgical parameters correlating with voice quality after total laryngectomy (TL) by relating voice and speech outcomes of TL speakers to surgical details. Seventy-six tracheoesophageal patients' voice recordings of running speech and sustained vowel were assessed in terms of voice characteristics. Measurements were related to data retrieved from surgical reports and patient records. In standard TL (sTL), harmonics-to-noise ratio was more favorable after primary TL + postoperative RT than after salvage TL. Pause/breathing time increased when RT preceded TL, after extensive base of tongue resection, and after neck dissections. Fundamental frequency (f0) measures were better after neurectomy. Females showed higher minimum f0 and higher second formants. While voice quality differed widely after sTL, gastric pull-ups and non-circumferential pharyngeal reconstructions using (myo-)cutaneous flaps scored worst in voice and speech measures and the two tubed free flaps best. Formant/resonance measures in/a/indicated differences in pharyngeal lumen properties and cranio-caudal place of the neoglottic bar between pharyngeal reconstructions, and indicate that narrower pharynges and/or more superiorly located neoglottic bars bring with them favorable voice quality. Ranges in functional outcome after TL in the present data, and the effects of treatment and surgical variables such as radiotherapy, neurectomy, neck dissection, and differences between partial or circumferential reconstructions on different aspects of voice and speech underline the importance of these variables for voice quality. Using running speech, next to sustained/a/, renders more reliable results. More balanced data, and better detail in surgical reporting will improve our knowledge on voice quality after TL. PMID:26395116

  6. Cue-specific effects of categorization training on the relative weighting of acoustic cues to consonant voicing in English

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Alexander L.; Kaganovich, Natalya; Driscoll-Huber, Courtney

    2008-01-01

    In English, voiced and voiceless syllable-initial stop consonants differ in both fundamental frequency at the onset of voicing (onset F0) and voice onset time (VOT). Although both correlates, alone, can cue the voicing contrast, listeners weight VOT more heavily when both are available. Such differential weighting may arise from differences in the perceptual distance between voicing categories along the VOT versus onset F0 dimensions, or it may arise from a bias to pay more attention to VOT than to onset F0. The present experiment examines listeners’ use of these two cues when classifying stimuli in which perceptual distance was artificially equated along the two dimensions. Listeners were also trained to categorize stimuli based on one cue at the expense of another. Equating perceptual distance eliminated the expected bias toward VOT before training, but successfully learning to base decisions more on VOT and less on onset F0 was easier than vice versa. Perceptual distance along both dimensions increased for both groups after training, but only VOT-trained listeners showed a decrease in Garner interference. Results lend qualified support to an attentional model of phonetic learning in which learning involves strategic redeployment of selective attention across integral acoustic cues. PMID:18681610

  7. Study of Harmonics-to-Noise Ratio and Critical-Band Energy Spectrum of Speech as Acoustic Indicators of Laryngeal and Voice Pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shama, Kumara; krishna, Anantha; Cholayya, Niranjan U.

    2006-12-01

    Acoustic analysis of speech signals is a noninvasive technique that has been proved to be an effective tool for the objective support of vocal and voice disease screening. In the present study acoustic analysis of sustained vowels is considered. A simple[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]-means nearest neighbor classifier is designed to test the efficacy of a harmonics-to-noise ratio (HNR) measure and the critical-band energy spectrum of the voiced speech signal as tools for the detection of laryngeal pathologies. It groups the given voice signal sample into pathologic and normal. The voiced speech signal is decomposed into harmonic and noise components using an iterative signal extrapolation algorithm. The HNRs at four different frequency bands are estimated and used as features. Voiced speech is also filtered with 21 critical-bandpass filters that mimic the human auditory neurons. Normalized energies of these filter outputs are used as another set of features. The results obtained have shown that the HNR and the critical-band energy spectrum can be used to correlate laryngeal pathology and voice alteration, using previously classified voice samples. This method could be an additional acoustic indicator that supplements the clinical diagnostic features for voice evaluation.

  8. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2002-01-01

    Low power EM waves are used to detect motions of vocal tract tissues of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech. A voiced excitation function is derived. The excitation function provides speech production information to enhance speech characterization and to enable noise removal from human speech.

  9. Analysis of modal and creaky voice quality variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetye, Avanti S.; Espy-Wilson, Carol Y.

    2005-09-01

    Voice quality, as a major vehicle of information about physical, phonological, and social characteristics of the speaker, has a vital semiotic role to play in spoken interaction [Laver (1968), Laver and Trudgill (1979)]. In the past couple of years, our lab developed an Aperiodicity/Periodicity/Pitch (APP) detector that produces a spectro-temporal profile of the periodic and aperiodic regions of the speech waveform [Deshmukh et al. (in press)]. To do so, the speech signal is passed through a 60-channel gamma tone auditory filterbank. The distribution of the dips occurring in the average magnitude difference function (AMDF) computed from each channel envelope is analyzed to determine periodicity and aperiodicity. Presently, the APP detector classifies both turbulent noise and irregular vocal fold vibration (creakiness) as aperiodic. In this work, we are investigating the detailed characteristics of the AMDF waveform when speech is creaky. This information is presently being used to distinguish aperiodicity due to turbulence from aperiodicity due to creakiness. We will present results from the refined APP detector using various male and female utterances from the TIMIT database.

  10. Automatic Assessment of Pathological Voice Quality Using Higher-Order Statistics in the LPC Residual Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ji Yeoun; Hahn, Minsoo

    2010-12-01

    A preprocessing scheme based on linear prediction coefficient (LPC) residual is applied to higher-order statistics (HOSs) for automatic assessment of an overall pathological voice quality. The normalized skewness and kurtosis are estimated from the LPC residual and show statistically meaningful distributions to characterize the pathological voice quality. 83 voice samples of the sustained vowel /a/ phonation are used in this study and are independently assessed by a speech and language therapist (SALT) according to the grade of the severity of dysphonia of GRBAS scale. These are used to train and test classification and regression tree (CART). The best result is obtained using an optima l decision tree implemented by a combination of the normalized skewness and kurtosis, with an accuracy of 92.9%. It is concluded that the method can be used as an assessment tool, providing a valuable aid to the SALT during clinical evaluation of an overall pathological voice quality.

  11. The effect of choir formation on the acoustical attributes of the singing voice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, Debra Sue

    Research shows that many things can influence choral tone and choral blend. Some of these are vowel uniformity, vibrato, choral formation, strategic placement of singers, and spacing between singers. This study sought to determine the effect that changes in choral formation and spacing between singers would have on four randomly selected voices of an ensemble as revealed through long-term average spectra (LTAS) of the individual singers. All members of the ensemble were given the opportunity to express their preferences for each of the choral formations and the four randomly selected choristers were asked specific questions regarding the differences between choral singing and solo singing. The results indicated that experienced singers preferred singing in a mixed-spread choral formation. However, the graphs of the choral excerpts as compared to the solo recordings revealed that the choral graphs for the soprano and bass were very similar to the graphs of their solos, but the graphs of the tenor and the alto were different from their solo graphs. It is obvious from the results of this study that the four selected singers did sing with slightly different techniques in the choral formations than they did while singing their solos. The members of this ensemble were accustomed to singing in many different formations. Therefore, it was easy for them to consciously think about how they sang in each of the four formations (mixed-close, mixed-spread, sectional-close, and sectional-spread) and answer the questionnaire accordingly. This would not be as easy for a group that never changed choral formations. Therefore, the results of this study cannot be generalized to choirs who only sing in sectional formation. As researchers learn more about choral acoustics and the effects of choral singing on the voice, choral conductors will be able to make better decisions about the methods used to achieve their desired choral blend. It is up to the choral conductors to glean the

  12. Benefits of teaching voice amplification as related to subjective laryngeal symptoms and perceived voice quality in teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonsdottir, Valdis

    2005-04-01

    Loud speaking due to noisy working conditions is a common cause for teachers' voice disorders. One way to diminish the vocal load of teaching is to make use of technical equipment. This Icelandic study explores: (1) if the use of amplification in classrooms would diminish the teachers' experienced symptoms of vocal fatigue; and (2) whether there is a possible change in perceptual voice quality during a teachers' working day. Thirty-three teachers, from grade school to university level, voluntarily served as subjects. They used amplifiers while teaching for one week at least. After that, they filled out a questionnaire concerning their symptoms and experiences. The results showed that the majority of teachers found amplification beneficial. They found it easier to talk and experienced less fatigue. The few disadvantages were technical. For a perceptual analysis, three females and two males (mean age 51 years) with long teaching experience and three or more dysphonic symptoms during the term, had their speech recorded while teaching, with and without amplification. In the clinical examination, no pathological changes were found in the vocal folds. In both studies, the quality of the voices was esteemed better when amplification was used.

  13. Acoustical analysis of the underlying voice differences between two groups of professional singers: opera and country and western.

    PubMed

    Burns, P

    1986-05-01

    An acoustical analysis of the speaking and singing voices of two types of professional singers was conducted. The vowels /i/, /a/, and /o/ were spoken and sung ten times each by seven opera and seven country and western singers. Vowel spectra were derived by computer software techniques allowing quantitative assessment of formant structure (F1-F4), relative amplitude of resonance peaks (F1-F4), fundamental frequency, and harmonic high frequency energy. Formant analysis was the most effective parameter differentiating the two groups. Only opera singers lowered their fourth formant creating a wide-band resonance area (approximately 2,800 Hz) corresponding to the well-known "singing formant." Country and western singers revealed similar resonatory voice characteristics for both spoken and sung output. These results implicate faulty vocal technique in country and western singers as a contributory reason for vocal abuse/fatigue. PMID:3702569

  14. Prospective clinical study on long-term swallowing function and voice quality in advanced head and neck cancer patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy and preventive swallowing exercises.

    PubMed

    Kraaijenga, Sophie A C; van der Molen, Lisette; Jacobi, Irene; Hamming-Vrieze, Olga; Hilgers, Frans J M; van den Brekel, Michiel W M

    2015-11-01

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for advanced head and neck cancer (HNC) is associated with substantial early and late side effects, most notably regarding swallowing function, but also regarding voice quality and quality of life (QoL). Despite increased awareness/knowledge on acute dysphagia in HNC survivors, long-term (i.e., beyond 5 years) prospectively collected data on objective and subjective treatment-induced functional outcomes (and their impact on QoL) still are scarce. The objective of this study was the assessment of long-term CCRT-induced results on swallowing function and voice quality in advanced HNC patients. The study was conducted as a randomized controlled trial on preventive swallowing rehabilitation (2006-2008) in a tertiary comprehensive HNC center with twenty-two disease-free and evaluable HNC patients as participants. Multidimensional assessment of functional sequels was performed with videofluoroscopy, mouth opening measurements, Functional Oral Intake Scale, acoustic voice parameters, and (study specific, SWAL-QoL, and VHI) questionnaires. Outcome measures at 6 years post-treatment were compared with results at baseline and at 2 years post-treatment. At a mean follow-up of 6.1 years most initial tumor-, and treatment-related problems remained similarly low to those observed after 2 years follow-up, except increased xerostomia (68%) and increased (mild) pain (32%). Acoustic voice analysis showed less voicedness, increased fundamental frequency, and more vocal effort for the tumors located below the hyoid bone (n = 12), without recovery to baseline values. Patients' subjective vocal function (VHI score) was good. Functional swallowing and voice problems at 6 years post-treatment are minimal in this patient cohort, originating from preventive and continued post-treatment rehabilitation programs. PMID:25381096

  15. Comment on "Increase in voice level and speaker comfort in lecture rooms" [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125, 2072-2082 (2009)] (L).

    PubMed

    Pelegrín-García, David

    2011-03-01

    Recently, a paper written by Brunskog Gade, Payá-Ballester and Reig-Calbo, "Increase in voice level and speaker comfort in lecture rooms" [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125, 2072-2082 (2009)] related teachers' variation in vocal intensity during lecturing to the room acoustic conditions, introducing an objective parameter called "room gain" to describe these variations. In a failed attempt to replicate the objective measurements by Brunskog et al., a simplified and improved method for the calculation of room gain is proposed, in addition with an alternative magnitude called "voice support." The measured parameters are consistent with those of other studies and are used here to build two empirical models relating the voice power levels measured by Brunskog et al., to the room gain and the voice support. PMID:21428479

  16. Role of the Internal Superior Laryngeal Nerve in the Motor Responses of Vocal Cords and the Related Voice Acoustic Changes

    PubMed Central

    Seifpanahi, Sadegh; Izadi, Farzad; Jamshidi, Ali-Ashraf; Torabinezhad, Farhad; Sarrafzadeh, Javad; Mohammadi, Siavash

    2016-01-01

    Background: Repeated efforts by researchers to impose voice changes by laryngeal surface electrical stimulation (SES) have come to no avail. This present pre-experimental study employed a novel method for SES application so as to evoke the motor potential of the internal superior laryngeal nerve (ISLN) and create voice changes. Methods: Thirty-two normal individuals (22 females and 10 males) participated in this study. The subjects were selected from the students of Iran University of Medical Sciences in 2014. Two monopolar active electrodes were placed on the thyrohyoid space at the location of the ISLN entrance to the larynx and 1 dispersive electrode was positioned on the back of the neck. A current with special programmed parameters was applied to stimulate the ISLN via the active electrodes and simultaneously the resultant acoustic changes were evaluated. All the means of the acoustic parameters during SES and rest periods were compared using the paired t-test. Results: The findings indicated significant changes (P=0.00) in most of the acoustic parameters during SES presentation compared to them at rest. The mean of fundamental frequency standard deviation (SD F0) at rest was 1.54 (SD=0.55) versus 4.15 (SD=3.00) for the SES period. The other investigated parameters comprised fundamental frequency (F0), minimum F0, jitter, shimmer, harmonic-to-noise ratio (HNR), mean intensity, and minimum intensity. Conclusion: These findings demonstrated significant changes in most of the important acoustic features, suggesting that the stimulation of the ISLN via SES could induce motor changes in the vocal folds. The clinical applicability of the method utilized in the current study in patients with vocal fold paralysis requires further research. PMID:27582586

  17. Voice following radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Stoicheff, M L

    1975-04-01

    This study was undertaken to provide information on the voice of patients following radiotherapy for glottic cancer. Part I presents findings from questionnaires returned by 227 of 235 patients successfully irradiated for glottic cancer from 1960 through 1971. Part II presents preliminary findings on the speaking fundamental frequencies of 22 irradiated patients. Normal to near-normal voice was reported by 83 percent of the 227 patients; however, 80 percent did indicate persisting vocal difficulties such as fatiguing of voice with much usage, inability to sing, reduced loudness, hoarse voice quality and inability to shout. Amount of talking during treatments appeared to affect length of time for voice to recover following treatments in those cases where it took from nine to 26 weeks; also, with increasing years since treatment, patients rated their voices more favorably. Smoking habits following treatments improved significantly with only 27 percent smoking heavily as compared with 65 percent prior to radiation therapy. No correlation was found between smoking (during or after treatments) and vocal ratings or between smoking and length of time for voice to recover. There was no relationship found between reported vocal ratings and stage of the disease. Data on mean speaking fundamental frequency seem to indicate a trend toward lower frequencies in irradiated patients as compared with normals. A trend was also noted in both irradidated and control groups for lower speaking fundamental frequencies in heavy smokers compared with non-smokers or previous smokers. These trends would indicate some vocal cord thickening or edema in irradiated patients and in heavy smokers. It is suggested that the study of irradiated patients' voices before, during and following treatments by means of audio, aerodynamic and acoustic instrumentation would yield additional information of diagnostic value on recovery of laryngeal function. It is also suggested that the voice pathologist could

  18. Effect of Septoplasty on Voice Quality: A Prospective-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gulec, Safak; Kulahli, Ismail; Sahin, Mehmet Ilhan; Kokoğlu, Kerem; Gunes, Murat Salih; Avci, Deniz; Arli, Turan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose is to investigate effect of septoplasty and widened nasal patency on voice quality. Methods. Fifty patients who undergone septoplasty were included in the study. Thirty-three people who had similar age and distribution were enrolled as control group. Before and 1 and 3 months after surgery, anterior rhinomanometry, voice analysis by Multi-Dimensional Voice Program, and spectrographic analysis were performed to patients. The recordings of /a/ vowel were used to evaluate average fundamental frequency (F0), jitter percent, and shimmer percent. In spectrographic analyses, F3–F4 values for the vowels /i, e, a, o, and u/, nasal formant frequencies of the consonants /m/ and /n/ in the word /mini/, and 4 formant frequencies (F1, F2, F3, and F4) for nasalized /i/ vowel following a nasal consonant /n/ in the word /mini/ were compared. The differences in nasal resonance were evaluated. All patients were asked whether change in their voices after the surgery. Preoperative and postoperative voice parameters and anterior rhinomanometry results were compared separately with the control group as well as in the patient group itself. Results. Preoperative total nasal resistance (TNR) values of patients were higher than the control group (P=0.001). TNR values of patients measured one day before surgery and after surgery in the 1st and 3rd months were different and these differences were significant statistically (P=0.001). There was no significant difference between the voice analysis parameters in preoperative, postoperative 1st, and 3rd months. As a result of their subjective reviews, 12 patients (36%) noted their voices were better than before surgery and 20 patients (61%) noted no change before and after surgery. Conclusion. Providing widened nasal cavity has no effect on voice quality. PMID:27230274

  19. Effects of a music therapy voice protocol on speech intelligibility, vocal acoustic measures, and mood of individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Haneishi, E

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a Music Therapy Voice Protocol (MTVP) on speech intelligibility, vocal intensity, maximum vocal range, maximum duration of sustained vowel phonation, vocal fundamental frequency, vocal fundamental frequency variability, and mood of individuals with Parkinson's disease. Four female patients, who demonstrated voice and speech problems, served as their own controls and participated in baseline assessment (study pretest), a series of MTVP sessions involving vocal and singing exercises, and final evaluation (study posttest). In study pre and posttests, data for speech intelligibility and all acoustic variables were collected. Statistically significant increases were found in speech intelligibility, as rated by caregivers, and in vocal intensity from study pretest to posttest as the results of paired samples t-tests. In addition, before and after each MTVP session (session pre and posttests), self-rated mood scores and selected acoustic variables were collected. No significant differences were found in any of the variables from the session pretests to posttests, across the entire treatment period, or their interactions as the results of two-way ANOVAs with repeated measures. Although not significant, the mean of mood scores in session posttests (M = 8.69) was higher than that in session pretests (M = 7.93). PMID:11796078

  20. Psychometric evaluation of disease specific quality of life instruments in voice disorders.

    PubMed

    Franic, Duska M; Bramlett, Robin Edge; Bothe, Anne Cordes

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the psychometric properties of voice disordered quality of life (VQOL) instruments. Nine VQOL instruments were identified through a comprehensive literature search. Based on specific criteria, four were selected for comprehensive review: Voice Handicap Index (VHI), Voice Activity and Participation Profile (VAPP), Voice-Related Quality of Life (V-RQOL) and Voice Outcome Survey (VOS). Selected instruments were evaluated based on 11 measurement standards related to item information, versatility, practicality, breadth and depth of health measure, reliability, validity, and responsiveness. VHI and V-RQOL each met 7 of 11 criteria, with VHI showing additional preferable item information, practicality, and reliability over V-RQOL and V-RQOL showing preferable responsiveness properties over VHI. These study results do not support the Social Security Administration's recent conclusion that the VHI meets reliability and validity standards for individual decision making. Nevertheless, the present results do support the use of VHI total scores for clinical use with individual patients, and the use of V-RQOL total scores or individual dimension scores for use with groups of patients. PMID:15907445

  1. Effects of Omeprazole Over Voice Quality in Muscle Tension Dysphonia Patients With Laryngopharyngeal Reflux

    PubMed Central

    Kandogan, Tolga; Aksoy, Gökce; Dalgic, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Backround Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is the backflow of stomach contents above upper esophageal sphincter, into the pharynx, larynx, and upper aerodigestive system. Objectives In this study, effects of omeprazole over voice quality in muscle tension dysphonia with laryngopharyngeal reflux was ınvestigated. Patients and Methods Nine patients, 7 males and 2 females, aged between 27-43 (mean age:31) were included to this study. The diagnosis of muscle tension dysphonia with LPR was established by video laryngoscopy, rigid scope 70º. The laryngeal changes related with LPR were evaluated according to Reflux Finding Score. The patients received omeprazole 20 mg twice a day for a period of 6 months. None of the patients received voice therapy. Vocal hygiene guidelines were also explained to the patients. Objective and subjective voice parameters (Jitter, shimmer, NHR, Voice Handicap Index, and Auditive analysis; Roughness, breathiness, and hoarseness) were evaluated in this study. Results After treatment with omeprazol, all the parameters showed an improvement in voice quality, but only VHI (P = 0) and shimmer (P = 0,018) are statistically significant. Conclusions For FD patients with LPR condition, we highly recommend that LPR treatment should be part of the treatment plan. PMID:23483094

  2. How well do men's faces and voices index mate quality and dominance?

    PubMed

    Doll, Leslie M; Hill, Alexander K; Rotella, Michelle A; Cárdenas, Rodrigo A; Welling, Lisa L M; Wheatley, John R; Puts, David A

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have used self-ratings or strangers' ratings to assess men's attractiveness and dominance, attributes that have likely affected men's access to mates throughout human evolution. However, attractiveness and dominance include more than isolated impressions; they incorporate knowledge gained through social interaction. We tested whether dominance and attractiveness assessed by acquaintances can be predicted from (1) strangers' ratings made from facial photographs and vocal clips and (2) self-ratings. Two university social fraternities, their socially affiliated sororities, and independent raters evaluated men's short- and long-term attractiveness, fighting ability, and leadership ability. Ratings made by unfamiliar men using faces, but not voices, predicted acquaintance-rated fighting and leadership ability, whereas ratings made by unfamiliar women from faces and voices predicted acquaintance-rated short- and long-term attractiveness. Except for leadership, self-ratings aligned with peers' evaluations. These findings support the conclusion that faces and voices provide valuable information about dominance and mate quality. PMID:24578029

  3. A local vector coding for high-quality voice analysis/synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Masashi; Yano, Masafumi

    2005-09-01

    Line-type spectrum is observed in frequency responses for voiced sound. The spectrum can be characterized by physical parameters: instantaneous amplitude, frequency, and phase for each component. It is difficult to estimate these parameters for natural utterances accurately by power spectrogram because the sound is usually unstationary. A new method, termed local vector coding (LVC), has been proposed to analyze these sounds. LVC assumes that the time-varying parameters for the input sound can be approximated by simple quadratic functions in a short analysis window. Utilizing the phase responses, LVC can estimate not only instantaneous amplitude and frequency for each component of the input but also their time derivatives. The validity of LVC method is examined by using naturally uttered voiced speech. The averaged estimation errors, defined by the differences between the input and resynthesized signals, are lower than 30 dB of the input energy. It indicates that LVC method is very useful for analyzing natural sounds. In addition, since the parameters of each component obtained by LVC method characterize the vowel quality, any kind of voice can be synthesized/transformed by changing each parameter independently, such as a voice of a male adult to a female voice.

  4. Evaluating the perceived voice quality on VoIP network using interpolated FIR filter algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal Singh, Harjit; Singh, Sarabjeet; Sarin, R. K.; Singh, Jasvir

    2012-10-01

    Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is a popular communication service nowadays. VoIP reduces the cost of call transmission by passing voice and video packets through the available bandwidth for data packets through Internet protocol. The quality of the VoIP signal is degraded due to the various network impairments. The proposed scheme, interpolated finite impulse response, is implemented as post-processor after decoding the signal in VoIP system. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated for various network conditions. The results of the proposed scheme are measured with the objective measurement methods for signal quality evaluation. The performance of the proposed system is compared with the existing techniques for quality improvement in VoIP system. The results show much improvement in speech quality with the proposed scheme in comparison to other similar schemes.

  5. The effect of vocal fold adduction on the acoustic quality of phonation: ex vivo investigations

    PubMed Central

    Regner, Michael F.; Tao, Chao; Ying, Di; Olszewski, Aleksandra; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Jack J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of vocal fold adduction on voice quality in an ex vivo larynx model. STUDY DESIGN Prospective, repeated-measures experiments. METHODS Ten excised canine larynges were mounted on an excised larynx phonation system and measurements were recorded for three different vocal fold adduction levels. Acoustic perturbation measurements of jitter, shimmer, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were calculated from recorded radiated sound histories. RESULTS Ex vivo experiments indicated that statistically significant increases in the means of jitter (p=0.005), shimmer (p=0.002), and SNR (p=0.011) measures decreased with respect to vocal fold adduction as the independent variable. Theoretical results showed that the DC and AC component of glottal area increased monotonically with prephonatory glottal area. CONCLUSIONS Acoustic perturbation increased with the degree of vocal fold abduction. Ex vivo larynx measurements suggested that a hyperadducted state may be acoustically best. This may be explained theoretically by an increase in DC/AC ratio as the prephonatory area is increased. PMID:22578437

  6. Effects of chemoradiotherapy on voice and swallowing

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Cathy L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review Chemotherapy has been found to result in comparable survival rates to surgery for head and neck cancer. However, toxicity can often be worse after chemoradiotherapy, with impairment in voice, swallowing, nutrition, and quality of life. Investigators are attempting to modify radiotherapy treatment regimens to spare organs that have an impact on swallowing. This review will highlight voice and swallowing impairment seen after chemoradiotherapy, as well as treatment for voice and swallowing disorders in this population. Results of newer radiotherapy regimens will also be highlighted. Recent findings Specific oropharyngeal swallowing motility disorders after chemoradiotherapy have been identified. Damage to specific structures has been correlated with specific pharyngeal phase swallow impairment. Swallowing function and quality of life have been examined over time, with improvement seen in both. Preventive/prophylactic swallow exercise programs have been encouraging. Chemoradiotherapy effects on voice have been identified in terms of acoustic, aerodynamic, and patient and clinician-rated perception of function. Improvement in voice has also been observed over time after chemoradiotherapy. Voice therapy has been found to have a positive impact on voice and perceptual measures in this population. Summary Current studies show some improvement in swallow function after swallow and voice therapy in patients treated with chemoradiotherapy. Further, there is a suggestion of improved swallow function with sparing of organs with specific radiotherapy protocols. Future research needs to focus on specific voice and swallow treatment regimens in the head and neck cancer patient treated with chemoradiotherapy, specifically, timing, frequency, duration, and specific treatment types. PMID:19337126

  7. Physiological attributes of vocal fatigue and their acoustic effects: a synthesis of findings for a criterion-based prevention of acquired voice disorders.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Victor J; Ayad, Tareck

    2010-05-01

    The lack of a physiological definition of "vocal fatigue" is a central problem in prevention research that seeks to identify effects of voice effort and acoustic signs of potential vocal fold lesions. This report presents a three-part synthesis of electromyographic (EMG) and acoustic observations from a study that served to define physiological features of vocal fatigue. The study used a technique of EMG to show that, contrary to views that laryngeal tissues are largely nonfatiguable, voice effort induces spectral compression in the contraction potentials of glottal adductors typically associated with muscle fatigue. In subsequent analyses, these observable attributes served to identify, in seven subjects with widely differing profiles, consistent signs of voice tremor and effects of vocal loading on the voice apparatus. Given the novel character of this criterion-based approach, the first part (section "The Rationale of Electromyographic Observations of Fatigue") describes the EMG technique and its usefulness in observing in vivo effects of vocal loading. The second part (section "Acoustic Signs of Fatigue in Muscles Involved in Voicing") summarizes the results of a test that served to determine whether the identified signs of tremor reflect muscle fatigue induced by voice effort or by "general fatigue" associated with waking hours. The third part (section "Compensatory Stabilization of Tremor and Effects of 'Critical Fatigue'") presents the results of analyses of compensatory effects in three laryngeal muscles by reference to EMG observations of one subject in conditions of vocal loading. Taken together, the results illustrate the benefits of an approach based on objective criterion changes in muscle fatigue and show that valid tremor signs may, nonetheless, be sporadic, given the varying compensatory behavior of muscles in fatiguing conditions. PMID:19321298

  8. Voice quality and tone identification in White Hmong

    PubMed Central

    Garellek, Marc; Keating, Patricia; Esposito, Christina M.; Kreiman, Jody

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the importance of source spectrum slopes in the perception of phonation by White Hmong listeners. In White Hmong, nonmodal phonation (breathy or creaky voice) accompanies certain lexical tones, but its importance in tonal contrasts is unclear. In this study, native listeners participated in two perceptual tasks, in which they were asked to identify the word they heard. In the first task, participants heard natural stimuli with manipulated F0 and duration (phonation unchanged). Results indicate that phonation is important in identifying the breathy tone, but not the creaky tone. Thus, breathiness can be viewed as contrastive in White Hmong. Next, to understand which parts of the source spectrum listeners use to perceive contrastive breathy phonation, source spectrum slopes were manipulated in the second task to create stimuli ranging from modal to breathy sounding, with F0 held constant. Results indicate that changes in H1-H2 (difference in amplitude between the first and second harmonics) and H2-H4 (difference in amplitude between the second and fourth harmonics) are independently important for distinguishing breathy from modal phonation, consistent with the view that the percept of breathiness is influenced by a steep drop in harmonic energy in the lower frequencies. PMID:23363123

  9. Speech and Voice in Instructional Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaspers, Fons

    1994-01-01

    Describes the application of audio as a vehicle of information. In applying audio to the audiovisual, computer-assisted instruction format, a consideration of the aspects of dominance and redundancy in auditory-visual presentation is required. Understanding acoustic and informational characteristics of audio and qualities of voice and speech may…

  10. The professional voice.

    PubMed

    Benninger, M S

    2011-02-01

    The human voice is not only the key to human communication but also serves as the primary musical instrument. Many professions rely on the voice, but the most noticeable and visible are singers. Care of the performing voice requires a thorough understanding of the interaction between the anatomy and physiology of voice production, along with an awareness of the interrelationships between vocalisation, acoustic science and non-vocal components of performance. This review gives an overview of the care and prevention of professional voice disorders by describing the unique and integrated anatomy and physiology of singing, the roles of development and training, and the importance of the voice care team. PMID:21029501

  11. [Relation between voice quality and pathological vibratory patterns using high-speed digital imaging].

    PubMed

    Miyaji, M; Iwamoto, Y; Oda, M; Niimi, S

    1999-03-01

    We analysed the vocal fold vibrations of 22 pathological larynges using a computer-assisted high-speed digital imaging technique. The parameters observed included symmetry, regularity, phase difference, glottal closure, amplitude, mucosal wave and periodicity difference. Voice quality was evaluated by a GRBAS system, and we examined the relation between vocal fold vibration patterns and voice quality. The intraexaminer correlation coefficient was high for the G, R and B scales. Vibratory patterns were classified according to the location of the lesion, severity of the disease, expiratory pressure and laryngeal modulation. Although there were no matches between a vocal fold vibratory pattern for one psychoacoustic impression of hoarseness, the characteristic vibratory patterns of these cases of R > or = 2.5 or diplophonia exhibited irregular glottal closure and periodicity differences. The characteristic vibratory pattern of vocal fry is a double or triple opening/closing phase, followed by a long closed phase. PMID:10226472

  12. The Voice of the Customer (The Quest for Quality).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Ann L.

    1993-01-01

    Describes Quality Function Deployment (QFD), a systematic method for assessing customer requirements and integrating them into the design and production of any product. Applies QFD to the writing of computer manuals. (SR)

  13. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the voice-related quality of life into Persian.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Negin; Saki, Nader; Aghadoost, Ozra; Nikakhlagh, Soheila; Soltani, Majid; Derakhshandeh, Vita; Naderifar, Ehsan; Mahmoodi Bakhtiari, Behrooz; Javadipour, Shiva

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt and determine reliability, validity, and responsiveness of voice-related quality of life (V-RQOL) for Persian. A total of 300 patients with voice disorders participated in the study. Also, 116 people without any voice disorders volunteered to participate in the study as a control group. All participants filled in the Persian version of V-RQOL. The reliability, validity, and responsiveness were studied. Results demonstrated that the discrimination coefficient is significant for all items. The V-RQOL measure showed a strong internal consistency (Cronbach alpha coefficient = 0.88-0.91) and a good test-retest reliability (r = 0.93-0.95). Pre- and post-treatment results showed a significant responsiveness (functioning, 0.000; social-emotional, 0.001; and total, 0.000). Effect size range of 1.26-1.59 and the standardized response mean range of 1.07-1.41 were obtained for V-RQOL. It seems that the Persian version of V-RQOL is valid, reliable, and responsive to change, and this questionnaire can be used for completing voice evaluation for patients with dysphonia. PMID:25008375

  14. Effects of Intensive Voice Treatment (the Lee Silverman Voice Treatment [LSVT]) on Vowel Articulation in Dysarthric Individuals with Idiopathic Parkinson Disease: Acoustic and Perceptual Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapir, Shimon; Spielman, Jennifer L.; Ramig, Lorraine O.; Story, Brad H.; Fox, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of intensive voice treatment targeting vocal loudness (the Lee Silverman Voice Treatment [LSVT]) on vowel articulation in dysarthric individuals with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: A group of individuals with PD receiving LSVT (n = 14) was compared to a group of individuals with PD not receiving LSVT…

  15. Acoustic Predictors of Intelligibility for Segmentally Interrupted Speech: Temporal Envelope, Voicing, and Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogerty, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Temporal interruption limits the perception of speech to isolated temporal glimpses. An analysis was conducted to determine the acoustic parameter that best predicts speech recognition from temporal fragments that preserve different types of speech information--namely, consonants and vowels. Method: Young listeners with normal hearing…

  16. Multidimensional voice analysis of reflux laryngitis patients.

    PubMed

    Pribuisienë, Rûta; Uloza, Virgilijus; Saferis, Viktoras

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze and quantify the voice characteristics of reflux laryngitis (RL) patients and to determine the most important voice tests and voice-quality parameters in the functional diagnostics of RL. The voices of 83 RL patients and 31 persons in the control group were evaluated. Vocal function was assessed using a multidimensional set of video laryngostroboscopic, perceptual, acoustic, aerodynamic and subjective measurements according to the protocol elaborated by the Committee on Phoniatrics of the European Laryngological Society. The mean values of the hoarseness visual analogue scale assessment and voice handicap index were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the group of RL patients as compared to the controls. Objective voice assessment revealed a significant increase in mean values of jitter, shimmer and normalized noise energy (NNE), along with a significant decrease in pitch range, maximum frequency, phonetogram area (S) and maximum phonation time (MPT) in RL patients, both in the male and female subgroups. According to the results of discriminant analysis, the NNE, MPT, S and intensity range were determined as an optimum set for functional diagnostics of RL. The derived function (equation) makes it possible to assign the person to the group of RL patients with an accuracy of 86.7%. The sensitivity and specificity of eight voice parameters were found to be higher than 50%. The results of the present study demonstrate a reduction of phonation capabilities and voice quality in RL patients. Multidimensional voice evaluation makes it possible to detect significant differences in mean values of perceptual, subjective and objective voice quality parameters between RL patients and controls groups. Therefore, multidimensional voice analysis is an important tool in the functional diagnostics of RL. PMID:15004705

  17. The Inner Voice of the Teacher: The Key to Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoran, Naama

    This paper discusses how deliberation and critical reflection contribute to the quality of teachers' work. The paper defines deliberation and notes factors that could interfere with the process. The paper then examines critical reflection theory, differentiating three types of assumptions, and highlighting four "lenses" that can help the process…

  18. (Collection of high quality acoustical records for honeybees)

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, H.T.; Buchanan, M.E.

    1987-02-19

    High quality acoustical data records were collected for both European and Africanized honeybees under various field conditions. This data base was needed for more rigorous evaluation of a honeybee identification technique previously developed by the travelers from preliminary data sets. Laboratory-grade recording equipment was used to record sounds made by honeybees in and near their nests and during foraging flights. Recordings were obtained from European and Africanized honeybees in the same general environment. Preliminary analyses of the acoustical data base clearly support the general identification algorithm: Africanized honeybee noise has significantly higher frequency content than does European honeybee noise. As this algorithm is refined, it may result in the development of a simple field-portable device for identifying subspecies of honeybees. Further, the honeybee's acoustical signals appear to be correlated with specific colony conditions. Understanding these variations may have enormous benefit for entomologists and for the beekeeping industry.

  19. Teaching room acoustics as a product sound quality issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleiner, Mendel; Vastfjall, Daniel

    2003-04-01

    The department of Applied Acoustics teaches engineering and architect students at Chalmers University of Technology. The teaching of room acoustics to architectural students has been under constant development under several years and is now based on the study of room acoustics as a product sound quality issue. Various listening sessions using binaural sound recording and reproduction is used to focus students' learning on simple, easy to remember concepts. Computer modeling using ray tracing software and auralization is also used extensively as a tool to demonstrate concepts in addition to other software for simple sound generation and manipulation. Sound in general is the focus of an interdisciplinary course for students from Chalmers as well as from a school of art, a school of design, and a school of music which offers particular challenges and which is almost all listening based.

  20. Voice Quality After Treatment of Early Vocal Cord Cancer: A Randomized Trial Comparing Laser Surgery With Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, Leena-Maija; Rautiainen, Noora; Sellman, Jaana; Saarilahti, Kauko; Mäkitie, Antti; Rihkanen, Heikki; Laranne, Jussi; Kleemola, Leenamaija; Wigren, Tuija; Sala, Eeva; Lindholm, Paula; Grenman, Reidar; Joensuu, Heikki

    2014-10-01

    Objective: Early laryngeal cancer is usually treated with either transoral laser surgery or radiation therapy. The quality of voice achieved with these treatments has not been compared in a randomized trial. Methods and Materials: Male patients with carcinoma limited to 1 mobile vocal cord (T1aN0M0) were randomly assigned to receive either laser surgery (n=32) or external beam radiation therapy (n=28). Surgery consisted of tumor excision with a CO{sub 2} laser with the patient under general anaesthesia. External beam radiation therapy to the larynx was delivered to a cumulative dose of 66 Gy in 2-Gy daily fractions over 6.5 weeks. Voice quality was assessed at baseline and 6 and 24 months after treatment. The main outcome measures were expert-rated voice quality on a grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, and strain (GRBAS) scale, videolaryngostroboscopic findings, and the patients' self-rated voice quality and its impact on activities of daily living. Results: Overall voice quality between the groups was rated similar, but voice was more breathy and the glottal gap was wider in patients treated with laser surgery than in those who received radiation therapy. Patients treated with radiation therapy reported less hoarseness-related inconvenience in daily living 2 years after treatment. Three patients in each group had local cancer recurrence within 2 years from randomization. Conclusions: Radiation therapy may be the treatment of choice for patients whose requirements for voice quality are demanding. Overall voice quality was similar in both treatment groups, however, indicating a need for careful consideration of patient-related factors in the choice of a treatment option.

  1. Measurement and prediction of voice support and room gain in school classrooms.

    PubMed

    Pelegrín-García, David; Brunskog, Jonas; Lyberg-Åhlander, Viveka; Löfqvist, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Objective acoustic parameters have been measured in 30 school classrooms. These parameters include usual descriptors of the acoustic quality from the listeners' standpoint, such as reverberation time, speech transmission index, and background noise level, and two descriptors of the acoustic properties for a speaker: Voice support and room gain. This paper describes the measurement method for these two parameters and presents a prediction model for voice support and room gain derived from the diffuse field theory. The voice support for medium-sized classrooms with volumes between 100 and 250 m(3) and good acoustical quality lies in the range between -14 and -9 dB, whereas the room gain is in the range between 0.2 and 0.5 dB. The prediction model for voice support describes the measurements in the classrooms with a coefficient of determination of 0.84 and a standard deviation of 1.2 dB. PMID:22280584

  2. Impact on quality of life in teachers after educational actions for prevention of voice disorders: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Voice problems are more common in teachers due to intensive voice use during routine at work. There is evidence that occupational disphonia prevention programs are important in improving the quality voice and consequently the quality of subjects’ lives. Aim To investigate the impact of educational voice interventions for teachers on quality of life and voice. Methods A longitudinal interventional study involving 70 teachers randomly selected from 11 public schools, 30 to receive educational intervention with vocal training exercises and vocal hygiene habits (experimental group) and 40 to receive guidance on vocal hygiene habits (control group control). Before the process of educational activities, the Voice-Related Quality of Life instrument (V-RQOL) was applied, and 3 months after conclusion of the activities, the subjects were interviewed again, using the same instrument. For data analysis, Prox MIXED were applied, with a level of significance α < 0.05. Results: Teachers showed significantly higher domain and overall V-RQOL scores after preventive intervention, in both control and experimental groups. Nevertheless, there was no statistical difference in scores between the groups. Conclusion Educational actions for vocal health had a positive impact on the quality of life of the participants, and the incorporation of permanent educational actions at institutional level is suggested. PMID:23445566

  3. Low Pitched Voices Are Perceived as Masculine and Attractive but Do They Predict Semen Quality in Men?

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Leigh W.; Peters, Marianne; Rhodes, Gillian

    2011-01-01

    Women find masculinity in men's faces, bodies, and voices attractive, and women's preferences for men's masculine features are thought to be biological adaptations for finding a high quality mate. Fertility is an important aspect of mate quality. Here we test the phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis, which proposes that male secondary sexual characters are positively related to semen quality, allowing females to obtain direct benefits from mate choice. Specifically, we examined women's preferences for men's voice pitch, and its relationship with men's semen quality. Consistent with previous voice research, women judged lower pitched voices as more masculine and more attractive. However men with lower pitched voices did not have better semen quality. On the contrary, men whose voices were rated as more attractive tended to have lower concentrations of sperm in their ejaculate. These data are more consistent with a trade off between sperm production and male investment in competing for and attracting females, than with the phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis. PMID:22216228

  4. Evaluation of voice pathology based on the estimation of vocal fold biomechanical parameters.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Vilda, P; Fernández-Baillo, R; Nieto, A; Díaz, F; Fernández-Camacho, F J; Rodellar, V; Alvarez, A; Martínez, R

    2007-07-01

    Voice disorders are a source of increasing concern as normal voice quality is a social demand for at least one third of the population in developed countries in cases where voice is an essential resource in professional exercise. In addition, the growing exposure to certain pathogenic factors such as smoking, alcohol abuse, air pollution, and acoustic contamination, and other problems such as gastro-esopharyngeal reflux or allergy as well as aging, aggravate voice disorders. Voice pathologies justify the assignment of larger resources to prevention policies, early detection, and less aggressive treatments. Traditional pathology detection relies on perceptive evaluation methods (GRABS), acoustic analysis, and visual inspection (indirect laryngoscopy, and modern fibro-endo-stroboscopy). This article describes a method for voice pathology detection based on the noninvasive estimation of vocal cord biomechanical parameters derived from voice using specific signal processing methods. Preliminary results using records from patients showing four frequent causes of voice pathology (nodules, polyps, chronic laryngitis, and Reinke's edema) are given. The results show that the alteration (distortion, unbalance, or deviation) of cord biomechanical parameters may serve as an indicator of pathology. Statistical methods based on hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis reveal that combining biomechanical estimates with classic perturbation parameters increases the accuracy of acoustic analysis, improving the detection of voice pathology. This research could open new possibilities for noninvasive screening of vocal fold pathologies and could be used in the implantation of e-health voice care services. PMID:16549321

  5. Acoustic echo cancellation for full-duplex voice transmission on fading channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Sangil; Messer, Dion D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the implementation of an adaptive acoustic echo canceler for a hands-free cellular phone operating on a fading channel. The adaptive lattice structure, which is particularly known for faster convergence relative to the conventional tapped-delay-line (TDL) structure, is used in the initialization stage. After convergence, the lattice coefficients are converted into the coefficients for the TDL structure which can accommodate a larger number of taps in real-time operation due to its computational simplicity. The conversion method of the TDL coefficients from the lattice coefficients is derived and the DSP56001 assembly code for the lattice and TDL structure is included, as well as simulation results and the schematic diagram for the hardware implementation.

  6. Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Jerry R.; Grosveld, Ferdinand

    2007-01-01

    The acoustics environment in space operations is important to maintain at manageable levels so that the crewperson can remain safe, functional, effective, and reasonably comfortable. High acoustic levels can produce temporary or permanent hearing loss, or cause other physiological symptoms such as auditory pain, headaches, discomfort, strain in the vocal cords, or fatigue. Noise is defined as undesirable sound. Excessive noise may result in psychological effects such as irritability, inability to concentrate, decrease in productivity, annoyance, errors in judgment, and distraction. A noisy environment can also result in the inability to sleep, or sleep well. Elevated noise levels can affect the ability to communicate, understand what is being said, hear what is going on in the environment, degrade crew performance and operations, and create habitability concerns. Superfluous noise emissions can also create the inability to hear alarms or other important auditory cues such as an equipment malfunctioning. Recent space flight experience, evaluations of the requirements in crew habitable areas, and lessons learned (Goodman 2003; Allen and Goodman 2003; Pilkinton 2003; Grosveld et al. 2003) show the importance of maintaining an acceptable acoustics environment. This is best accomplished by having a high-quality set of limits/requirements early in the program, the "designing in" of acoustics in the development of hardware and systems, and by monitoring, testing and verifying the levels to ensure that they are acceptable.

  7. Neural mechanisms for voice recognition.

    PubMed

    Andics, Attila; McQueen, James M; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Gál, Viktor; Rudas, Gábor; Vidnyánszky, Zoltán

    2010-10-01

    We investigated neural mechanisms that support voice recognition in a training paradigm with fMRI. The same listeners were trained on different weeks to categorize the mid-regions of voice-morph continua as an individual's voice. Stimuli implicitly defined a voice-acoustics space, and training explicitly defined a voice-identity space. The pre-defined centre of the voice category was shifted from the acoustic centre each week in opposite directions, so the same stimuli had different training histories on different tests. Cortical sensitivity to voice similarity appeared over different time-scales and at different representational stages. First, there were short-term adaptation effects: increasing acoustic similarity to the directly preceding stimulus led to haemodynamic response reduction in the middle/posterior STS and in right ventrolateral prefrontal regions. Second, there were longer-term effects: response reduction was found in the orbital/insular cortex for stimuli that were most versus least similar to the acoustic mean of all preceding stimuli, and, in the anterior temporal pole, the deep posterior STS and the amygdala, for stimuli that were most versus least similar to the trained voice-identity category mean. These findings are interpreted as effects of neural sharpening of long-term stored typical acoustic and category-internal values. The analyses also reveal anatomically separable voice representations: one in a voice-acoustics space and one in a voice-identity space. Voice-identity representations flexibly followed the trained identity shift, and listeners with a greater identity effect were more accurate at recognizing familiar voices. Voice recognition is thus supported by neural voice spaces that are organized around flexible 'mean voice' representations. PMID:20553895

  8. Pitch (F0) and formant profiles of human vowels and vowel-like baboon grunts: The role of vocalizer body size and voice-acoustic allometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rendall, Drew; Kollias, Sophie; Ney, Christina; Lloyd, Peter

    2005-02-01

    Key voice features-fundamental frequency (F0) and formant frequencies-can vary extensively between individuals. Much of the variation can be traced to differences in the size of the larynx and vocal-tract cavities, but whether these differences in turn simply reflect differences in speaker body size (i.e., neutral vocal allometry) remains unclear. Quantitative analyses were therefore undertaken to test the relationship between speaker body size and voice F0 and formant frequencies for human vowels. To test the taxonomic generality of the relationships, the same analyses were conducted on the vowel-like grunts of baboons, whose phylogenetic proximity to humans and similar vocal production biology and voice acoustic patterns recommend them for such comparative research. For adults of both species, males were larger than females and had lower mean voice F0 and formant frequencies. However, beyond this, F0 variation did not track body-size variation between the sexes in either species, nor within sexes in humans. In humans, formant variation correlated significantly with speaker height but only in males and not in females. Implications for general vocal allometry are discussed as are implications for speech origins theories, and challenges to them, related to laryngeal position and vocal tract length. .

  9. Evaluation of MPEG-7-Based Audio Descriptors for Animal Voice Recognition over Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Luque, Joaquín; Larios, Diego F.; Personal, Enrique; Barbancho, Julio; León, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Environmental audio monitoring is a huge area of interest for biologists all over the world. This is why some audio monitoring system have been proposed in the literature, which can be classified into two different approaches: acquirement and compression of all audio patterns in order to send them as raw data to a main server; or specific recognition systems based on audio patterns. The first approach presents the drawback of a high amount of information to be stored in a main server. Moreover, this information requires a considerable amount of effort to be analyzed. The second approach has the drawback of its lack of scalability when new patterns need to be detected. To overcome these limitations, this paper proposes an environmental Wireless Acoustic Sensor Network architecture focused on use of generic descriptors based on an MPEG-7 standard. These descriptors demonstrate it to be suitable to be used in the recognition of different patterns, allowing a high scalability. The proposed parameters have been tested to recognize different behaviors of two anuran species that live in Spanish natural parks; the Epidalea calamita and the Alytes obstetricans toads, demonstrating to have a high classification performance. PMID:27213375

  10. An Investigation of Vocal Tract Characteristics for Acoustic Discrimination of Pathological Voices

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Won; Kang, Hong-Goo; Choi, Jeung-Yoon; Son, Young-Ik

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of measures related to vocal tract characteristics in classifying normal and pathological speech. Unlike conventional approaches that mainly focus on features related to the vocal source, vocal tract characteristics are examined to determine if interaction effects between vocal folds and the vocal tract can be used to detect pathological speech. Especially, this paper examines features related to formant frequencies to see if vocal tract characteristics are affected by the nature of the vocal fold-related pathology. To test this hypothesis, stationary fragments of vowel /aa/ produced by 223 normal subjects, 472 vocal fold polyp subjects, and 195 unilateral vocal cord paralysis subjects are analyzed. Based on the acoustic-articulatory relationships, phonation for pathological subjects is found to be associated with measures correlated with a raised tongue body or an advanced tongue root. Vocal tract-related features are also found to be statistically significant from the Kruskal-Wallis test in distinguishing normal and pathological speech. Classification results demonstrate that combining the formant measurements with vocal fold-related features results in improved performance in differentiating vocal pathologies including vocal polyps and unilateral vocal cord paralysis, which suggests that measures related to vocal tract characteristics may provide additional information in diagnosing vocal disorders. PMID:24288686

  11. Evaluation of MPEG-7-Based Audio Descriptors for Animal Voice Recognition over Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Luque, Joaquín; Larios, Diego F; Personal, Enrique; Barbancho, Julio; León, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Environmental audio monitoring is a huge area of interest for biologists all over the world. This is why some audio monitoring system have been proposed in the literature, which can be classified into two different approaches: acquirement and compression of all audio patterns in order to send them as raw data to a main server; or specific recognition systems based on audio patterns. The first approach presents the drawback of a high amount of information to be stored in a main server. Moreover, this information requires a considerable amount of effort to be analyzed. The second approach has the drawback of its lack of scalability when new patterns need to be detected. To overcome these limitations, this paper proposes an environmental Wireless Acoustic Sensor Network architecture focused on use of generic descriptors based on an MPEG-7 standard. These descriptors demonstrate it to be suitable to be used in the recognition of different patterns, allowing a high scalability. The proposed parameters have been tested to recognize different behaviors of two anuran species that live in Spanish natural parks; the Epidalea calamita and the Alytes obstetricans toads, demonstrating to have a high classification performance. PMID:27213375

  12. Relation of structural and vibratory kinematics of the vocal folds to two acoustic measures of breathy voice based on computational modeling

    PubMed Central

    Samlan, Robin A.; Story, Brad H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To relate vocal fold structure and kinematics to two acoustic measures: cepstral peak prominence (CPP) and the amplitude of the first harmonic relative to the second (H1-H2). Method A computational, kinematic model of the medial surfaces of the vocal folds was used to specify features of vocal fold structure and vibration in a manner consistent with breathy voice. Four model parameters were altered: degree of vocal fold adduction, surface bulging, vibratory nodal point, and supraglottal constriction. CPP and H1-H2 were measured from simulated glottal area, glottal flow and acoustic waveforms and related to the underlying vocal fold kinematics. Results CPP decreased with increased separation of the vocal processes, whereas the nodal point location had little effect. H1-H2 increased as a function of separation of the vocal processes in the range of 1–1.5 mm and decreased with separation > 1.5 mm. Conclusions CPP is generally a function of vocal process separation. H1*-H2* will increase or decrease with vocal process separation based on vocal fold shape, pivot point for the rotational mode, and supraglottal vocal tract shape, limiting its utility as an indicator of breathy voice. Future work will relate the perception of breathiness to vocal fold kinematics and acoustic measures. PMID:21498582

  13. Improvement of voice quality and prevention of deafness by a bone-conduction device

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyung-Woo; Kim, Myung-Sook; Bae, Myung-Jin

    2014-01-01

    In modern society, people are involuntarily being exposed to various noises in their everyday-life environments. The increasing use of mobile phones and other portable devices as a primary means of communication outside of homes makes the current noise condition even worse. During the exchange of information on these devices, the volume is usually set 15 dB higher than the surrounding noise in order for the sound to be perceived more clearly. Hence, the sum of noise on these devices is usually estimated to be around 110 dB. This level of noise can cause noise-induced hearing impairment or even hearing loss to users when continued for a long time. A bone-conduction system can be a possible solution to reducing the noise while enhancing the quality of voice signals in mobile phones. In this study, we suggest that the implementation of the bone-conduction feedback system in mobile phones will raise the ratio of signal to noise with about 17 dB, enhancing the quality of voice signals. PMID:26019607

  14. Azimuthally acoustic logging tool to evaluate cementing quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Junqiang; Ju, Xiaodong; Qiao, Wenxiao; Men, Baiyong; Wang, Ruijia; Wu, Jinping

    2014-08-01

    An azimuthally sensitive acoustic bond tool (AABT) uses a phased arc array transmitter that can provide directionally focused radiation. The acoustic sonde consists of a phased arc array transmitter and two monopole receivers, the spaces from the transmitter being 0.91 m and 1.52 m, respectively. The transmitter includes eight transducer sub-units. By controlling the high-voltage firing signal phase for each transmitter, the radiation energy of the phased arc array transducer can be focused in a single direction. Compared with conventional monopole and dipole transmitters, the new transmitter provides cement quality evaluation with azimuthal sensitivity, which is not possible with conventional cement bond log/variable density log tools. Laboratory measurements indicate that the directivity curves for the phased arc array and those computed theoretically are consistent and show good agreement. We acquire measurements from a laboratory cistern and from the field to validate the reliability and applicability of the AABT. Results indicate that the AABT accurately evaluates the azimuthal cement quality of case-cement interfaces by imaging the amplitude of the first-arrival wave. This tool visualizes the size, position and orientation of channeling and holes. In the case of good case-cement bonding, the AABT also evaluates the azimuthal cementing quality of the cement formation interface by imaging the amplitude of formation waves.

  15. The acoustic and perceptual differences to the non-singer's singing voice before and after a singing vocal warm-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeRosa, Angela

    The present study analyzed the acoustic and perceptual differences in non-singer's singing voice before and after a vocal warm-up. Experiments were conducted with 12 females who had no singing experience and considered themselves to be non-singers. Participants were recorded performing 3 tasks: a musical scale stretching to their most comfortable high and low pitches, sustained productions of the vowels /a/ and /i/, and singing performance of the "Star Spangled Banner." Participants were recorded performing these three tasks before a vocal warm-up, after a vocal warm-up, and then again 2-3 weeks later after 2-3 weeks of practice. Acoustical analysis consisted of formant frequency analysis, singer's formant/singing power ratio analysis, maximum phonation frequency range analysis, and an analysis of jitter, noise to harmonic ratio (NHR), relative average perturbation (RAP), and voice turbulence index (VTI). A perceptual analysis was also conducted with 12 listeners rating comparison performances of before vs. after the vocal warm-up, before vs. after the second vocal warm-up, and after both vocal warm-ups. There were no significant findings for the formant frequency analysis of the vowel /a/, but there was significance for the 1st formant frequency analysis of the vowel /i/. Singer's formant analyzed via Singing Power Ratio analysis showed significance only for the vowel /i/. Maximum phonation frequency range analysis showed a significant increase after the vocal warm-ups. There were no significant findings for the acoustic measures of jitter, NHR, RAP, and VTI. Perceptual analysis showed a significant difference after a vocal warm-up. The results indicate that a singing vocal warm-up can have a significant positive influence on the singing voice of non-singers.

  16. Supra-thyroid alar cartilage approach for the complete resection of laryngeal submucosal tumors and postoperative voice quality.

    PubMed

    Ueha, Rumi; Nito, Takaharu; Sakamoto, Takashi; Fujimaki, Yoko; Yamauchi, Akihito; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2015-10-01

    Various surgical approaches for the treatment of laryngeal submucosal tumors have been reported. Endoscopic excision is indicated for small lesions, while external approaches are recommended for larger tumors. This report introduces a supra-thyroid alar cartilage approach (STACA), which has strong advantages for the preservation of the laryngeal framework and voice recovery after surgery. Case series with chart review. Four patients with laryngeal submucosal tumors in the paraglottic space underwent complete tumor removal through STACA. Medical charts were reviewed to evaluate patient background, major complaints, tumor type, tumor size, the time period from operation to tracheostomy closure, tumor recurrence, and the difference between pre- and postoperative voice quality. Voice quality was assessed using the GRBAS score, maximum phonation time (MPT) and Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) 6 months after surgery. All patients were females between 43 and 67 years of age. Two patients had schwannoma, one laryngocele, and one lipoma. Mean tumor size was 3.4 cm. The main complaints were hoarseness in all patients, and dyspnea in one. The periods of time from surgery to oral intake and tracheostomy closure were 3.5 and 7 days, respectively. No patient developed recurrence during a minimum follow-up period of 2 years. The postoperative GRBAS scores, MPT and VHI-10 improved in all patients. STACA has advantages including minimal trauma, no deformity to the laryngeal framework, and good voice qualities after the resection of laryngeal submucosal tumors. PMID:26048355

  17. Data Quality Control for Vessel Mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler. Application for the Western Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Gorriz, E.; Front, J.; Candela, J.

    1997-01-01

    A systematic Data Quality Checking Protocol for vessel Mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler observations is proposed. Previous-to-acquisition conditions are considered along with simultaneous ones.

  18. Loud speech in realistic environmental noise: phonetogram data, perceptual voice quality, subjective ratings, and gender differences in healthy speakers.

    PubMed

    Södersten, Maria; Ternström, Sten; Bohman, Mikael

    2005-03-01

    A new method for cancelling background noise from running speech was used to study voice production during realistic environmental noise exposure. Normal subjects, 12 women and 11 men, read a text in five conditions: quiet, soft continuous noise (75 dBA to 70 dBA), day-care babble (74 dBA), disco (87 dBA), and loud continuous noise (78 dBA to 85 dBA). The noise was presented over loudspeakers and then removed from the recordings in an off-line processing operation. The voice signals were analyzed acoustically with an automatic phonetograph and perceptually by four expert listeners. Subjective data were collected after each vocal loading task. The perceptual parameters press, instability, and roughness increased significantly as an effect of speaking loudly over noise, whereas vocal fry decreased. Having to make oneself heard over noise resulted in higher SPL and F0, as expected, and in higher phonation time. The total reading time was slightly longer in continuous noise than in intermittent noise. The women had 4 dB lower voice SPL overall and increased their phonation time more in noise than did the men. Subjectively, women reported less success making themselves heard and higher effort. The results support the contention that female voices are more vulnerable to vocal loading in background noise. PMID:15766848

  19. Analysis of Postsurgical Health-Related Quality of Life and Quality of Voice of Patients With Laryngeal Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Wu, Jieli; Lv, Kexing; Li, Kaichun; Wu, Jianhui; Wen, Yihui; Li, Xiaoling; Tang, Haocheng; Jiang, Aiyun; Wang, Zhangfeng; Wen, Weiping; Lei, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the postsurgical health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and quality of voice (QOV) of patients with laryngeal carcinoma with an expectation of improving the treatment and HRQOL of these patients. Based on the collection of information of patients with laryngeal carcinoma regarding clinical characteristics (age, TNM stage, with or without laryngeal preservation and/or neck dissection, with or without postoperative irradiation and/or chemotherapy, etc.), QOV using Voice Handicap Index (VIH) scale and HRQOL using EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTCQLQ-H&N35 scales, the differences of postsurgical HRQOL related to their clinical characteristics were analyzed using univariate nonparametric tests, the main factors impacting the postsurgical HRQOL were analyzed using regression analyses (generalized linear models) and the correlation between QOV and HRQOL analyzed using spearman correlation analysis. A total of 92 patients were enrolled in this study, on whom the use of EORTC QLQ-C30, EORTC QLQ-H&N35 and VHI scales revealed that: the differences of HRQOL were significant among patients with different ages, TNM stages, and treatment modalities; the main factors impacting the postsurgical HRQOL were pain, speech disorder, and dry mouth; and QOV was significantly correlated with HRQOL. For the patients with laryngeal carcinoma included in our study, the quality of life after open surgeries were impacted by many factors predominated by pain, speech disorder, and dry mouth. It is suggested that doctors in China do more efforts on the patients' postoperative pain and xerostomia management and speech rehabilitation with the hope of improving the patients' quality of life. PMID:26735538

  20. Analysis of Postsurgical Health-Related Quality of Life and Quality of Voice of Patients With Laryngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jie; Wu, Jieli; Lv, Kexing; Li, Kaichun; Wu, Jianhui; Wen, Yihui; Li, Xiaoling; Tang, Haocheng; Jiang, Aiyun; Wang, Zhangfeng; Wen, Weiping; Lei, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aims to analyze the postsurgical health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and quality of voice (QOV) of patients with laryngeal carcinoma with an expectation of improving the treatment and HRQOL of these patients. Based on the collection of information of patients with laryngeal carcinoma regarding clinical characteristics (age, TNM stage, with or without laryngeal preservation and/or neck dissection, with or without postoperative irradiation and/or chemotherapy, etc.), QOV using Voice Handicap Index (VIH) scale and HRQOL using EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTCQLQ-H&N35 scales, the differences of postsurgical HRQOL related to their clinical characteristics were analyzed using univariate nonparametric tests, the main factors impacting the postsurgical HRQOL were analyzed using regression analyses (generalized linear models) and the correlation between QOV and HRQOL analyzed using spearman correlation analysis. A total of 92 patients were enrolled in this study, on whom the use of EORTC QLQ-C30, EORTC QLQ-H&N35 and VHI scales revealed that: the differences of HRQOL were significant among patients with different ages, TNM stages, and treatment modalities; the main factors impacting the postsurgical HRQOL were pain, speech disorder, and dry mouth; and QOV was significantly correlated with HRQOL. For the patients with laryngeal carcinoma included in our study, the quality of life after open surgeries were impacted by many factors predominated by pain, speech disorder, and dry mouth. It is suggested that doctors in China do more efforts on the patients’ postoperative pain and xerostomia management and speech rehabilitation with the hope of improving the patients’ quality of life. PMID:26735538

  1. Personal Genres, Public Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielewicz, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Writing in personal genres, like autobiography, leads writers to public voices. Public voice is a discursive quality of a text that conveys the writer's authority and position relative to others. To show how voice and authority depend on genre, I analyze the autobiographies of two writers who take opposing positions on the same topic. By producing…

  2. A quality comparison of preventive control schemes for media synchronization in voice and video communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minezawa, Satoshi; Ishibashi, Yutaka; Psannis, Kostas E.

    2007-09-01

    This paper assesses the media synchronization quality of preventive control schemes employed at media sources and media destinations for voice and video over a network. Preventive control is required to try to avoid asynchrony (i.e., out of synchronization). We here deal with two preventive control techniques employed at sources: Advancement of transmission timing of media units (MUs), each of which is the information unit for media synchronization (e.g., a video picture), with network delay estimation and temporal resolution control of video. We also handle three preventive control techniques employed at destinations: Change of buffering time with network delay estimation, preventive pausing, and preventive shortening of output duration. By experiment, we make a performance comparison among preventive control schemes which employ the preventive control techniques at sources and destinations. We also clarify the relations between subjective and objective assessment results.

  3. Information transfer in auditoria and room-acoustical quality.

    PubMed

    Summers, Jason E

    2013-04-01

    It is hypothesized that room-acoustical quality correlates with the information-transfer rate. Auditoria are considered as multiple-input multiple-output communication channels and a theory of information-transfer is outlined that accounts for time-variant multipath, spatial hearing, and distributed directional sources. Source diversity and spatial hearing are shown to be the mechanisms through which multipath increases the information-transfer rate by overcoming finite spatial resolution. In addition to predictions that are confirmed by recent and historical findings, the theory provides explanations for the influence of factors such as musical repertoire and ensemble size on subjective preference and the influence of multisource, multichannel auralization on perceived realism. PMID:23556686

  4. Correlation of instrumental voice evaluation with perceptual voice analysis using a modified visual analog scale.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ping; Revis, Joana; Wuyts, Floris L; Zanaret, Michel; Giovanni, Antoine

    2002-01-01

    Various rating scales have been used for perceptual voice analysis including ordinal (ORD) scales and visual analog (VA) scales. The purpose of this study was to determine the most suitable scale for studies using perceptual voice analysis as a gold standard for validation of objective analysis protocols. The study was carried out on 74 female voice samples from 68 dysphonic patients and 6 controls. A panel of 4 raters with experience in perceptual analysis was asked to score voices according to the G component (overall quality) of the GRBAS system. Two rating scales were used. The first was a conventional 4-point ORD scale. The second was a modified VA (mVA) scale obtained by transforming the VA scale into an ORD scale using a weighted conversion scheme. Objective voice evaluation was performed using the EVA workstation. Objective measurements included acoustic, aerodynamic, and physiologic parameters as well as parameters based on nonlinear mathematics (e.g., Lyapunov coefficient). Instrumental measurements were compared with results of perceptual analysis using either the conventional ORD scale or mVA scale. Results demonstrate that correlation between perceptual and objective voice judgments is better using a mVA scale than a conventional ORD scale (concordance, 88 vs. 64%). Data also indicate that the mVA scale described herein improves the correlation between objective and perceptual voice analysis. PMID:12417797

  5. Child voice and noise: a pilot study of noise in day cares and the effects on 10 children's voice quality according to perceptual evaluation.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Anita M; Granqvist, Svante; Sjölander, Peta; Sundberg, Johan

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study children's exposure to background noise at the ears during a normal day at the day care center and also to relate this to a perceptual evaluation of voice quality. Ten children, from three day care centers, with no history of hearing and speech problems or frequent infections were selected as subjects. A binaural recording technique was used with two microphones placed on both sides of the subject's head, at equal distance from the mouth. A portable digital audio tape (DAT) recorder (Sony TCD-D 100, Stockholm, Sweden) was attached to the subject's waist. Three recordings were made for each child during the day. Each recording was calibrated and started with three repetitions of three sentences containing only sonorants. The recording technique allowed separate analyses of the background noise level and of the sound pressure level (SPL) of each subjects' own voice. Results showed a mean background noise level for the three day care centers at 82.6dBA Leq, ranging from 81.5 to 83.6dBA Leq. Day care center no. 2 had the highest mean value and also the highest value at any separate recording session with a mean background noise level of 85.4dBA Leq during the noontime recordings. Perceptual evaluation showed that the children attending this day care center also received higher values on the following voice characteristics: hoarseness, breathiness, and hyperfunction. Girls increased their loudness level during the day, whereas for boys no such change could be observed. PMID:18456454

  6. Evaluation of Singer's Voice Quality by Means of Visual Pattern Recognition.

    PubMed

    Forczmański, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    The article presents a description of the algorithm of singing voice quality assessment that uses selected methods from the field of digital image processing and recognition. It adopts the assumption that an audio signal with recorded vocal exercise can be converted into a visual representation, and processed further, as an image. Presented approach is based on generating a sound spectrogram of a sample in the form of a rectangular matrix, objective improvement of its visual quality based on local changes in brightness and contrast, and scaling to a fixed size. Then, it uses a two-step approach: the construction of a representative database of reference samples and the identification of test samples. The process of building the database uses two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis. Then, the recognition operation is carried out in a reduced feature space that has been obtained by two-dimensional Karhunen-Loeve projection. Classification is done by a variant of Support Vector Machines approach. As it is shown, the results are very encouraging and are competitive to the most powerful state-of-the-art methods. PMID:25935835

  7. The effects of indwelling voice prosthesis on the quality of life, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem in patients with total laryngectomy.

    PubMed

    Polat, Beldan; Orhan, Kadir Serkan; Kesimli, Mustafa Caner; Gorgulu, Yasemin; Ulusan, Murat; Deger, Kemal

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of voice rehabilitation with indwelling voice prosthesis on quality of life, depression, anxiety, self-esteem, and sexual functions in laryngectomy patients. Provox-1 was applied to 30 patients who underwent total laryngectomy by opening a tracheoesophageal fistula. WHO Quality of Life-BREF, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Arizona Sexual Experience Scale forms were asked to be filled out by the patients before voice prosthesis application. These tests were asked to be filled out again 3 months later after the voice prosthesis application. Paired samples and Wilcoxon tests were used to compare before and after operation values. Indwelling voice prosthesis was found to improve quality of life, self-esteem, and sexual function (p < 0.05). Additionally, symptoms of depression and anxiety were regressed (p < 0.05). Indwelling voice prosthesis was found to especially increase the quality of life and decrease depression (p < 0.05). This study is an uncontrolled single-arm study comparing patients' psychosocial statuses pre- and post-voice prosthesis. PMID:25326899

  8. Objective and subjective evaluation of the acoustic comfort in classrooms.

    PubMed

    Zannin, Paulo Henrique Trombetta; Marcon, Carolina Reich

    2007-09-01

    The acoustic comfort of classrooms in a Brazilian public school has been evaluated through interviews with 62 teachers and 464 pupils, measurements of background noise, reverberation time, and sound insulation. Acoustic measurements have revealed the poor acoustic quality of the classrooms. Results have shown that teachers and pupils consider the noise generated and the voice of the teacher in neighboring classrooms as the main sources of annoyance inside the classroom. Acoustic simulations resulted in the suggestion of placement of perforated plywood on the ceiling, for reduction in reverberation time and increase in the acoustic comfort of the classrooms. PMID:17202022

  9. Voice Disorders in Mucosal Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Ruas, Ana Cristina Nunes; Lucena, Márcia Mendonça; da Costa, Ananda Dutra; Vieira, Jéssica Rafael; de Araújo-Melo, Maria Helena; Terceiro, Benivaldo Ramos Ferreira; de Sousa Torraca, Tania Salgado; de Oliveira Schubach, Armando; Valete-Rosalino, Claudia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Leishmaniasis is considered as one of the six most important infectious diseases because of its high detection coefficient and ability to produce deformities. In most cases, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) occurs as a consequence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. If left untreated, mucosal lesions can leave sequelae, interfering in the swallowing, breathing, voice and speech processes and requiring rehabilitation. Objective To describe the anatomical characteristics and voice quality of ML patients. Materials and Methods A descriptive transversal study was conducted in a cohort of ML patients treated at the Laboratory for Leishmaniasis Surveillance of the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases - Fiocruz, between 2010 and 2013. The patients were submitted to otorhinolaryngologic clinical examination by endoscopy of the upper airways and digestive tract and to speech-language assessment through directed anamnesis, auditory perception, phonation times and vocal acoustic analysis. The variables of interest were epidemiologic (sex and age) and clinic (lesion location, associated symptoms and voice quality. Results 26 patients under ML treatment and monitored by speech therapists were studied. 21 (81%) were male and five (19%) female, with ages ranging from 15 to 78 years (54.5+15.0 years). The lesions were distributed in the following structures 88.5% nasal, 38.5% oral, 34.6% pharyngeal and 19.2% laryngeal, with some patients presenting lesions in more than one anatomic site. The main complaint was nasal obstruction (73.1%), followed by dysphonia (38.5%), odynophagia (30.8%) and dysphagia (26.9%). 23 patients (84.6%) presented voice quality perturbations. Dysphonia was significantly associated to lesions in the larynx, pharynx and oral cavity. Conclusion We observed that vocal quality perturbations are frequent in patients with mucosal leishmaniasis, even without laryngeal lesions; they are probably associated to disorders of some resonance

  10. Acoustic assessment of erygmophonic speech of Moroccan laryngectomized patients

    PubMed Central

    Ouattassi, Naouar; Benmansour, Najib; Ridal, Mohammed; Zaki, Zouheir; Bendahhou, Karima; Nejjari, Chakib; Cherkaoui, Abdeljabbar; El Alami, Mohammed Nouredine El Amine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Acoustic evaluation of alaryngeal voices is among the most prominent issues in speech analysis field. In fact, many methods have been developed to date to substitute the classic perceptual evaluation. The Aim of this study is to present our experience in erygmophonic speech objective assessment and to discuss the most widely used methods of acoustic speech appraisal. through a prospective case-control study we have measured acoustic parameters of speech quality during one year of erygmophonic rehabilitation therapy of Moroccan laryngectomized patients. Methods We have assessed acoustic parameters of erygmophonic speech samples of eleven laryngectomized patients through the speech rehabilitation therapy. Acoustic parameters were obtained by perturbation analysis method and linear predictive coding algorithms also through the broadband spectrogram. Results Using perturbation analysis methods, we have found erygmophonic voice to be significantly poorer than normal speech and it exhibits higher formant frequency values. However, erygmophonic voice shows also higher and extremely variable Error values that were greater than the acceptable level. And thus, live a doubt on the reliability of those analytic methods results. Conclusion Acoustic parameters for objective evaluation of alaryngeal voices should allow a reliable representation of the perceptual evaluation of the quality of speech. This requirement has not been fulfilled by the common methods used so far. Therefore, acoustical assessment of erygmophonic speech needs more investigations. PMID:26587121

  11. The influence of stoma occlusion on aspects of tracheoesophageal voice.

    PubMed

    van As, C J; Hilgers, F J; Koopmans-van Beinum, F J; Ackerstaff, A H

    1998-09-01

    In this study, speech of 21 laryngectomized patients is investigated under 2 different stoma occlusion conditions, i.e. direct digital occlusion of the stoma (by thumb or finger), and digital occlusion (by finger) via a special heat and moisture exchanger with speech valve (Provox Stomafilter). For both conditions, acoustical analyses of voice quality (various pitch, amplitude, tremor and harmonicity measures) were performed on a sustained /a/, the mean maximum phonation time was calculated, and a phonetogram was made. Acoustical analysis was possible in 13 of the 21 voices (for the other voices, the pitch was too low or the voice was too aperiodic), but no statistical significant differences were found for any of the acoustical parameters studied. However, the maximum phonation time was significantly longer, and the dynamic range significantly larger, under the Stomafilter occlusion condition. The maximum phonation time showed a relevant improvement in 57% of the patients, while the dynamic range showed a relevant improvement in 35% of the patients. In total, 75% of the patients experience an improvement in one or both of these speech characteristics when using the Stomafilter occlusion. It can be concluded that optimal stoma occlusion by means of a specialized device has a positive influence on two relevant parameters of prosthetic voice production: maximum phonation time and dynamic loudness range. PMID:9840514

  12. Occupational safety and health aspects of voice and speech professions.

    PubMed

    Vilkman, Erkki

    2004-01-01

    A well-functioning voice is an essential tool for one third of the labour force. Vocal demands vary to a great extent between the different voice and speech professions. In professions with heavy vocal loading (e.g. school and kindergarten teachers), occupational voice disorders threatening working ability are common. Vocal loading is a combination of prolonged voice use and additional loading factors (e.g. background noise, acoustics, air quality) affecting the fundamental frequency, type and loudness of phonation or the vibratory characteristics of the vocal folds as well as the external frame of the larynx. The prevention and treatment of occupational voice disorders calls for improved occupational safety and health (OSH) arrangements for voice and speech professionals. On the basis of epidemiological and acoustic-physiological research, the presence of risk to vocal health can be substantiated. From the point of view of the physical load on the vocal apparatus, loading-related physiological changes (adaptation) may play a role in the occupational risk. Environmental factors affect vocal loading changes. In teaching professions, the working environment is shared with children, who benefit from amendments of OSH legislation concerning their teachers. PMID:15258436

  13. The interaction of tone with voicing and foot structure: evidence from Kera phonetics and phonology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Mary Dorothy

    This thesis uses acoustic measurements as a basis for the phonological analysis of the interaction of tone with voicing and foot structure in Kera (a Chadic language). In both tone spreading and vowel harmony, the iambic foot acts as a domain for spreading. Further evidence for the foot comes from measurements of duration, intensity and vowel quality. Kera is unusual in combining a tone system with a partially independent metrical system based on iambs. In words containing more than one foot, the foot is the tone bearing unit (TBU), but in shorter words, the TBU is the syllable. In perception and production experiments, results show that Kera speakers, unlike English and French, use the fundamental frequency as the principle cue to 'Voicing" contrast. Voice onset time (VOT) has only a minor role. Historically, tones probably developed from voicing through a process of tonogenesis, but synchronically, the feature voice is no longer contrastive and VOT is used in an enhancing role. Some linguists have claimed that Kera is a key example for their controversial theory of long-distance voicing spread. But as voice is not part of Kera phonology, this thesis gives counter-evidence to the voice spreading claim. An important finding from the experiments is that the phonological grammars are different between village women, men moving to town and town men. These differences are attributed to French contact. The interaction between Kera tone and voicing and contact with French have produced changes from a 2-way voicing contrast, through a 3-way tonal contrast, to a 2-way voicing contrast plus another contrast with short VOT. These diachronic and synchronic tone/voicing facts are analysed using laryngeal features and Optimality Theory. This thesis provides a body of new data, detailed acoustic measurements, and an analysis incorporating current theoretical issues in phonology, which make it of interest to Africanists and theoreticians alike.

  14. The singing voice and country music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leborgne, Wendy D.

    2003-04-01

    Preliminary acoustic measures on the Broadway Belt voice suggest uniqueness in this type of vocal production. This study objectively compared the acoustic production of the Broadway Belt voice in four elite and four average belters. Three casting directors evaluated the vocal quality of 20 musical theater majors proficient in the singing style referred to as belting. Each belter sang two specified vocalizes as well as six short excerpts from the belting repertoire. The raters judged the belters on a set of seven perceptual parameters (loudness, vibrato, ring, timbre, focus, nasality, and registration breaks) and reported an overall score. Initially, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were calculated and reported for perceived loudness, vibrato, ring, timbre, focus, and nasality for the elite and average groups. Then, significant acoustic results related to vocal intensity, amplitude and magnitude of vibrato, increased spectral energy in the expected Singer's Formant area, and trends in F1-F2 characteristics were assessed. Overall patterns of these results suggest the elite belters maintained a greater magnitude of vocal vibrato, a brighter vocal quality on some vowels, and different harmonic--formant relationships than average belters. Specific relevant data related to these acoustical events will be the focus of this presentation.

  15. Temporary voice changes after uncomplicated thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Debruyne, F; Ostyn, F; Delaere, P; Wellens, W; Decoster, W

    1997-01-01

    Voice characteristics were studied before and after thyroidectomy in patients with intact vocal fold motility. The speaking voice was acoustically analysed in 47 patients and phonetograms were made in 17 patients. Eight parameters were measured and the pre- and postoperative values compared. The results show that the most affected parameter was the pitch of the speaking voice. The fourth postoperative day there was, on average, a lower SFo and a smaller Fo range during speaking. Postoperatively a progressive normalisation took place. After three months there were no more statistical differences and, looking at the individual measures, the SF0 of all patients fell within 2 semitones from their preoperative level. Vocal quality was also altered in the first postoperative examination, as shown by the higher jitter and smaller harmonics. These measures normalised after two weeks. In the same way, the evaluation of the limits of the voice by means of the phonetogram, showed that the maximal performances in the intensity and pitch domain were decreased in the earliest postoperative period. Information about temporary voice change is useful in patients undergoing thyroidectomy. PMID:9350311

  16. Speech masking and cancelling and voice obscuration

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, John F.

    2013-09-10

    A non-acoustic sensor is used to measure a user's speech and then broadcasts an obscuring acoustic signal diminishing the user's vocal acoustic output intensity and/or distorting the voice sounds making them unintelligible to persons nearby. The non-acoustic sensor is positioned proximate or contacting a user's neck or head skin tissue for sensing speech production information.

  17. Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The acoustics research activities of the DLR fluid-mechanics department (Forschungsbereich Stroemungsmechanik) during 1988 are surveyed and illustrated with extensive diagrams, drawings, graphs, and photographs. Particular attention is given to studies of helicopter rotor noise (high-speed impulsive noise, blade/vortex interaction noise, and main/tail-rotor interaction noise), propeller noise (temperature, angle-of-attack, and nonuniform-flow effects), noise certification, and industrial acoustics (road-vehicle flow noise and airport noise-control installations).

  18. What about the "actor's formant" in actresses' voices?

    PubMed

    Master, Suely; De Biase, Noemi Grigolleto; Madureira, Sandra

    2012-05-01

    Spectrographic analysis of male actors' voices showed a cluster, the "actor's formant" (AF), which is related to the perception of good and projected voice quality. To date, similar phenomena have not been described in the voices of actresses. Therefore, the objective of the current investigation was to compare actresses' and nonactresses' voices through acoustic analysis to verify the existence of the "AF" cluster or the strategies used to produce the performing voice. Thirty actresses and 30 nonactresses volunteered as subjects in the present study. All subjects read a 40-second text at both habitual and loud levels. Praat (v.5.1) was then used to analyze equivalent sound pressure level (Leq), speaking fundamental frequency (SFF), and in the long-term average spectrum window, the difference between the amplitude level of the fundamental frequency and first formant (L1-L0), the spectral tilt (alpha ratio), and the amplitude and frequency of the "AF" region. Significant differences between the groups, in both levels, were observed for SFF and L1-L0, with actresses presenting lower values. There were no significant differences between groups for Leq or alpha ratio at either level. There was no evidence of an "AF" cluster in the actresses' voices. Voice projection for this group of actresses seemed to be mainly a result of a laryngeal setting instead of vocal tract resonances. PMID:21376530

  19. Voice use in professional soccer management.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Jenna; McMenamin, Ruth

    2014-12-01

    Vocal load related to heavy voice use in particular professions increases the risk of occupational voice disorders. Research on professional voice use has primarily focused on educators, singers, and call-centre advisors. This paper describes the daily experiences of professional soccer managers' occupational voice use through qualitative methods. Four global themes were identified: 1) voice uses, 2) factors affecting voice change, 3) impact of voice use, and 4) the importance of voice in soccer management. All describe the nature of soccer managers' vocal demands. Risk factors for voice disorders include intense and prolonged voice use in environments with adverse acoustic properties for speakers and poor phonation methods. Research on vocal behaviours and early prevention programmes for this population group is warranted. PMID:23971728

  20. Voice integrated systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, P. Mike

    1977-01-01

    The program at Naval Air Development Center was initiated to determine the desirability of interactive voice systems for use in airborne weapon systems crew stations. A voice recognition and synthesis system (VRAS) was developed and incorporated into a human centrifuge. The speech recognition aspect of VRAS was developed using a voice command system (VCS) developed by Scope Electronics. The speech synthesis capability was supplied by a Votrax, VS-5, speech synthesis unit built by Vocal Interface. The effects of simulated flight on automatic speech recognition were determined by repeated trials in the VRAS-equipped centrifuge. The relationship of vibration, G, O2 mask, mission duration, and cockpit temperature and voice quality was determined. The results showed that: (1) voice quality degrades after 0.5 hours with an O2 mask; (2) voice quality degrades under high vibration; and (3) voice quality degrades under high levels of G. The voice quality studies are summarized. These results were obtained with a baseline of 80 percent recognition accuracy with VCS.

  1. Acoustic Quality of the 40- by 80- Foot Wind Tunnel Test Section After Installation of a Deep Acoustic Lining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderman, Paul T.; Jaeger, Stephen M.; Hayes, Julie A.; Allen, Christopher S.

    2002-01-01

    A recessed, 42-inch deep acoustic lining has been designed and installed in the 40- by 80- Foot Wind Tunnel (40x80) test section to greatly improve the acoustic quality of the facility. This report describes the test section acoustic performance as determined by a detailed static calibration-all data were acquired without wind. Global measurements of sound decay from steady noise sources showed that the facility is suitable for acoustic studies of jet noise or similar randomly generated sound. The wall sound absorption, size of the facility, and averaging effects of wide band random noise all tend to minimize interference effects from wall reflections. The decay of white noise with distance was close to free field above 250 Hz. However, tonal sound data from propellers and fans, for example, will have an error band to be described that is caused by the sensitivity of tones to even weak interference. That error band could be minimized by use of directional instruments such as phased microphone arrays. Above 10 kHz, air absorption began to dominate the sound field in the large test section, reflections became weaker, and the test section tended toward an anechoic environment as frequency increased.

  2. Web-based application for voice telediagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusawa, Adam; Grzanka, Antoni

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents a web-based system for distance acoustic investigation of human voice. The system is dedicated to diagnosis of speech disorders, and can also be used in evaluating voice rehabilitation results. The fundamental part of the paper contains an extensive description of the system for voice telediagnostics. The paper also presents a review of presently applied technologies and methods of voice transmission over the Internet.

  3. Perceptual sensitivity to first harmonic amplitude in the voice source.

    PubMed

    Kreiman, Jody; Gerratt, Bruce R

    2010-10-01

    Little is known about the perceptual importance of changes in the shape of the source spectrum, although many measures have been proposed and correlations with different vocal qualities (breathiness, roughness, nasality, strain...) have frequently been reported. This study investigated just-noticeable differences in the relative amplitudes of the first two harmonics (H1-H2) for speakers of Mandarin and English. Listeners heard pairs of vowels that differed only in the amplitude of the first harmonic and judged whether or not the voice tokens were identical in voice quality. Across voices and listeners, just-noticeable-differences averaged 3.18 dB. This value is small relative to the range of values across voices, indicating that H1-H2 is a perceptually valid acoustic measure of vocal quality. For both groups of listeners, differences in the amplitude of the first harmonic were easier to detect when the source spectral slope was steeply falling so that F0 dominated the spectrum. Mandarin speakers were significantly more sensitive (by about 1 dB) to differences in first harmonic amplitudes than were English speakers. Two explanations for these results are possible: Mandarin speakers may have learned to hear changes in harmonic amplitudes due to changes in voice quality that are correlated with the tones of Mandarin; or Mandarin speakers' experience with tonal contrasts may increase their sensitivity to small differences in the amplitude of F0 (which is also the first harmonic). PMID:20968379

  4. The source-filter theory of whistle-like calls in marmosets: Acoustic analysis and simulation of helium-modulated voices.

    PubMed

    Koda, Hiroki; Tokuda, Isao T; Wakita, Masumi; Ito, Tsuyoshi; Nishimura, Takeshi

    2015-06-01

    Whistle-like high-pitched "phee" calls are often used as long-distance vocal advertisements by small-bodied marmosets and tamarins in the dense forests of South America. While the source-filter theory proposes that vibration of the vocal fold is modified independently from the resonance of the supralaryngeal vocal tract (SVT) in human speech, a source-filter coupling that constrains the vibration frequency to SVT resonance effectively produces loud tonal sounds in some musical instruments. Here, a combined approach of acoustic analyses and simulation with helium-modulated voices was used to show that phee calls are produced principally with the same mechanism as in human speech. The animal keeps the fundamental frequency (f0) close to the first formant (F1) of the SVT, to amplify f0. Although f0 and F1 are primarily independent, the degree of their tuning can be strengthened further by a flexible source-filter interaction, the variable strength of which depends upon the cross-sectional area of the laryngeal cavity. The results highlight the evolutionary antiquity and universality of the source-filter model in primates, but the study can also explore the diversification of vocal physiology, including source-filter interaction and its anatomical basis in non-human primates. PMID:26093398

  5. 16 kb/s high quality voice encoding for satellite communication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsuzuka, Yohtaro; Yamazaki, Tomohiro; Iizuka, Shigeru

    1986-12-01

    A 16 kb/s adaptive predictive coding (APC) with maximum likelihood quantization (MLQ), which can cover a range of coding rates from 4.8-16 kb/s, for low C/N satellite communications systems is described, and its performance is evaluated. The requirements for a 16 kb/s voice coding technique in low C/N digital satellite communication systems, such as maritime and thin-route communications, are discussed. The use of a 9.6 kb/s voice coding channel for small-size antenna systems is proposed. NEC-7720 DSP chips were employed to implement the 16 kb/s APC/MLQ codec. A multimedia multiplexing for low C/N digital communications systems, and a small-scale circuit multiplication system for business services are examined. It is observed that the 16 kb/s APC hardware code with MLQ is applicable for speech and nonvoice signals.

  6. Voice quality improvement after management of unilateral vocal cord paralysis with different techniques.

    PubMed

    Bihari, A; Mészáros, K; Reményi, A; Lichtenberger, G

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to objectively evaluate the voices of patients suffering from unilateral vocal cord paralysis, before and after endoscopic augmentation and thyroplasty. In the past, we used injectable Teflon to treat this condition; later techniques included collagen injection and Isshiki thyroplasty. In the last 7 years, preferred treatment methods have included Bioplastique injection and lipoaugmentation of the vocal cords as well as medialization thyroplasty using a titanium implant according to Friedrich. Pre- and postoperative data was evaluated and compared to 25 patients. Appropriate glottic closure of the vocal cords was achieved in every case, in most cases after the first intervention. We used voice range profile measurements to evaluate the results. An objective evaluation was performed using the Friedrich dysphonia index. Significant improvements were found: the dysphonia index decreased in every case, from an average of 2.47, preoperatively, to an average of 1.18 postoperatively. In agreement with earlier studies, voice pitch range was the only parameter that not significantly improved. There was no statistical difference between the lipoaugmentation and thyroplasty according to Friedrich. We concluded that both endoscopic methods and thyroplasty can be used to achieve an optimal result. Cases must be evaluated individually so that the best technique, or combination of methods can be determined. PMID:16896756

  7. Modulation of voice related to tremor and vibrato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lester, Rosemary Anne

    Modulation of voice is a result of physiologic oscillation within one or more components of the vocal system including the breathing apparatus (i.e., pressure supply), the larynx (i.e. sound source), and the vocal tract (i.e., sound filter). These oscillations may be caused by pathological tremor associated with neurological disorders like essential tremor or by volitional production of vibrato in singers. Because the acoustical characteristics of voice modulation specific to each component of the vocal system and the effect of these characteristics on perception are not well-understood, it is difficult to assess individuals with vocal tremor and to determine the most effective interventions for reducing the perceptual severity of the disorder. The purpose of the present studies was to determine how the acoustical characteristics associated with laryngeal-based vocal tremor affect the perception of the magnitude of voice modulation, and to determine if adjustments could be made to the voice source and vocal tract filter to alter the acoustic output and reduce the perception of modulation. This research was carried out using both a computational model of speech production and trained singers producing vibrato to simulate laryngeal-based vocal tremor with different voice source characteristics (i.e., vocal fold length and degree of vocal fold adduction) and different vocal tract filter characteristics (i.e., vowel shapes). It was expected that, by making adjustments to the voice source and vocal tract filter that reduce the amplitude of the higher harmonics, the perception of magnitude of voice modulation would be reduced. The results of this study revealed that listeners' perception of the magnitude of modulation of voice was affected by the degree of vocal fold adduction and the vocal tract shape with the computational model, but only by the vocal quality (corresponding to the degree of vocal fold adduction) with the female singer. Based on regression analyses

  8. Effects of Voice Rehabilitation After Radiation Therapy for Laryngeal Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Study

    SciTech Connect

    Tuomi, Lisa; Andréll, Paulin

    2014-08-01

    Background: Patients treated with radiation therapy for laryngeal cancer often experience voice problems. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to assess the efficacy of voice rehabilitation for laryngeal cancer patients after having undergone radiation therapy and to investigate whether differences between different tumor localizations with regard to rehabilitation outcomes exist. Methods and Materials: Sixty-nine male patients irradiated for laryngeal cancer participated. Voice recordings and self-assessments of communicative dysfunction were performed 1 and 6 months after radiation therapy. Thirty-three patients were randomized to structured voice rehabilitation with a speech-language pathologist and 36 to a control group. Furthermore, comparisons with 23 healthy control individuals were made. Acoustic analyses were performed for all patients, including the healthy control individuals. The Swedish version of the Self Evaluation of Communication Experiences after Laryngeal Cancer and self-ratings of voice function were used to assess vocal and communicative function. Results: The patients who received vocal rehabilitation experienced improved self-rated vocal function after rehabilitation. Patients with supraglottic tumors who received voice rehabilitation had statistically significant improvements in voice quality and self-rated vocal function, whereas the control group did not. Conclusion: Voice rehabilitation for male patients with laryngeal cancer is efficacious regarding patient-reported outcome measurements. The patients experienced better voice function after rehabilitation. Patients with supraglottic tumors also showed an improvement in terms of acoustic voice outcomes. Rehabilitation with a speech-language pathologist is recommended for laryngeal cancer patients after radiation therapy, particularly for patients with supraglottic tumors.

  9. Increase in voice level and speaker comfort in lecture rooms.

    PubMed

    Brunskog, Jonas; Gade, Anders Christian; Bellester, Gaspar Payá; Calbo, Lilian Reig

    2009-04-01

    Teachers often suffer from health problems related to their voice. These problems are related to their working environment, including the acoustics of the lecture rooms. However, there is a lack of studies linking the room acoustic parameters to the voice produced by the speaker. In this pilot study, the main goals are to investigate whether objectively measurable parameters of the rooms can be related to an increase in the voice sound power produced by speakers and to the speakers' subjective judgments about the rooms. In six different rooms with different sizes, reverberation times, and other physical attributes, the sound power level produced by six speakers was measured. Objective room acoustic parameters were measured in the same rooms, including reverberation time and room gain, and questionnaires were handed out to people who had experience talking in the rooms. It is found that in different rooms significant changes in the sound power produced by the speaker can be found. It is also found that these changes mainly have to do with the size of the room and to the gain produced by the room. To describe this quality, a new room acoustic quantity called "room gain" is proposed. PMID:19354383

  10. Back-and-Forth Methodology for Objective Voice Quality Assessment: From/to Expert Knowledge to/from Automatic Classification of Dysphonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredouille, Corinne; Pouchoulin, Gilles; Ghio, Alain; Revis, Joana; Bonastre, Jean-François; Giovanni, Antoine

    2009-12-01

    This paper addresses voice disorder assessment. It proposes an original back-and-forth methodology involving an automatic classification system as well as knowledge of the human experts (machine learning experts, phoneticians, and pathologists). The goal of this methodology is to bring a better understanding of acoustic phenomena related to dysphonia. The automatic system was validated on a dysphonic corpus (80 female voices), rated according to the GRBAS perceptual scale by an expert jury. Firstly, focused on the frequency domain, the classification system showed the interest of 0-3000 Hz frequency band for the classification task based on the GRBAS scale. Later, an automatic phonemic analysis underlined the significance of consonants and more surprisingly of unvoiced consonants for the same classification task. Submitted to the human experts, these observations led to a manual analysis of unvoiced plosives, which highlighted a lengthening of VOT according to the dysphonia severity validated by a preliminary statistical analysis.

  11. Involvement of the left insula in the ecological validity of the human voice

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Yuri; Kuriki, Shinji; Nakano, Tamami

    2015-01-01

    A subtle difference between a real human and an artificial object that resembles a human evokes an impression of a large qualitative difference between them. This suggests the existence of a neural mechanism that processes the sense of humanness. To examine the presence of such a mechanism, we compared the behavioral and brain responses of participants who listened to human and artificial singing voices created from vocal fragments of a real human voice. The behavioral experiment showed that the song sung by human voices more often elicited positive feelings and feelings of humanness than the same song sung by artificial voices, although the lyrics, melody, and rhythm were identical. Functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed significantly higher activation in the left posterior insula in response to human voices than in response to artificial voices. Insular activation was not merely evoked by differences in acoustic features between the voices. Therefore, these results suggest that the left insula participates in the neural processing of the ecological quality of the human voice. PMID:25739519

  12. Involvement of the left insula in the ecological validity of the human voice.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Yuri; Kuriki, Shinji; Nakano, Tamami

    2015-01-01

    A subtle difference between a real human and an artificial object that resembles a human evokes an impression of a large qualitative difference between them. This suggests the existence of a neural mechanism that processes the sense of humanness. To examine the presence of such a mechanism, we compared the behavioral and brain responses of participants who listened to human and artificial singing voices created from vocal fragments of a real human voice. The behavioral experiment showed that the song sung by human voices more often elicited positive feelings and feelings of humanness than the same song sung by artificial voices, although the lyrics, melody, and rhythm were identical. Functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed significantly higher activation in the left posterior insula in response to human voices than in response to artificial voices. Insular activation was not merely evoked by differences in acoustic features between the voices. Therefore, these results suggest that the left insula participates in the neural processing of the ecological quality of the human voice. PMID:25739519

  13. Automatic Evaluation of Voice Quality Using Text-Based Laryngograph Measurements and Prosodic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Haderlein, Tino; Schwemmle, Cornelia; Döllinger, Michael; Matoušek, Václav; Ptok, Martin; Nöth, Elmar

    2015-01-01

    Due to low intra- and interrater reliability, perceptual voice evaluation should be supported by objective, automatic methods. In this study, text-based, computer-aided prosodic analysis and measurements of connected speech were combined in order to model perceptual evaluation of the German Roughness-Breathiness-Hoarseness (RBH) scheme. 58 connected speech samples (43 women and 15 men; 48.7 ± 17.8 years) containing the German version of the text “The North Wind and the Sun” were evaluated perceptually by 19 speech and voice therapy students according to the RBH scale. For the human-machine correlation, Support Vector Regression with measurements of the vocal fold cycle irregularities (CFx) and the closed phases of vocal fold vibration (CQx) of the Laryngograph and 33 features from a prosodic analysis module were used to model the listeners' ratings. The best human-machine results for roughness were obtained from a combination of six prosodic features and CFx (r = 0.71, ρ = 0.57). These correlations were approximately the same as the interrater agreement among human raters (r = 0.65, ρ = 0.61). CQx was one of the substantial features of the hoarseness model. For hoarseness and breathiness, the human-machine agreement was substantially lower. Nevertheless, the automatic analysis method can serve as the basis for a meaningful objective support for perceptual analysis. PMID:26136813

  14. Automatic Evaluation of Voice Quality Using Text-Based Laryngograph Measurements and Prosodic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Haderlein, Tino; Schwemmle, Cornelia; Döllinger, Michael; Matoušek, Václav; Ptok, Martin; Nöth, Elmar

    2015-01-01

    Due to low intra- and interrater reliability, perceptual voice evaluation should be supported by objective, automatic methods. In this study, text-based, computer-aided prosodic analysis and measurements of connected speech were combined in order to model perceptual evaluation of the German Roughness-Breathiness-Hoarseness (RBH) scheme. 58 connected speech samples (43 women and 15 men; 48.7 ± 17.8 years) containing the German version of the text "The North Wind and the Sun" were evaluated perceptually by 19 speech and voice therapy students according to the RBH scale. For the human-machine correlation, Support Vector Regression with measurements of the vocal fold cycle irregularities (CFx) and the closed phases of vocal fold vibration (CQx) of the Laryngograph and 33 features from a prosodic analysis module were used to model the listeners' ratings. The best human-machine results for roughness were obtained from a combination of six prosodic features and CFx (r = 0.71, ρ = 0.57). These correlations were approximately the same as the interrater agreement among human raters (r = 0.65, ρ = 0.61). CQx was one of the substantial features of the hoarseness model. For hoarseness and breathiness, the human-machine agreement was substantially lower. Nevertheless, the automatic analysis method can serve as the basis for a meaningful objective support for perceptual analysis. PMID:26136813

  15. Adductor spasmodic dysphonia: Relationships between acoustic indices and perceptual judgments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannito, Michael P.; Sapienza, Christine M.; Woodson, Gayle; Murry, Thomas

    2003-04-01

    This study investigated relationships between acoustical indices of spasmodic dysphonia and perceptual scaling judgments of voice attributes made by expert listeners. Audio-recordings of The Rainbow Passage were obtained from thirty one speakers with spasmodic dysphonia before and after a BOTOX injection of the vocal folds. Six temporal acoustic measures were obtained across 15 words excerpted from each reading sample, including both frequency of occurrence and percent time for (1) aperiodic phonation, (2) phonation breaks, and (3) fundamental frequency shifts. Visual analog scaling judgments were also obtained from six voice experts using an interactive computer interface to quantify four voice attributes (i.e., overall quality, roughness, brokenness, breathiness) in a carefully psychoacoustically controlled environment, using the same reading passages as stimuli. Number and percent aperiodicity and phonation breaks correlated significanly with perceived overall voice quality, roughness, and brokenness before and after the BOTOX injection. Breathiness was correlated with aperidocity only prior to injection, while roughness also correlated with frequency shifts following injection. Factor analysis reduced perceived attributes to two principal components: glottal squeezing and breathiness. The acoustic measures demonstrated a strong regression relationship with perceived glottal squeezing, but no regression relationship with breathiness was observed. Implications for an analysis of pathologic voices will be discussed.

  16. The impact of specific exertion on the efficiency and ease of the voice: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bagnall, Alison D; McCulloch, Kirsty

    2005-09-01

    Even though most singers and other professional voice users are encouraged to relax to optimize the quality and performance of the voice, observations of acclaimed singers, actors, and public speakers would suggest otherwise. These successful vocal performers appear to be energized, actively working and exerting themselves. For this reason, a study was designed to explore the role of exertion in maintaining and optimizing the voice. The focus of this study was the possibility that increasing exertion could improve the voice and might result in the voice user experiencing less strain and, therefore, more comfort and ease. Ten subjects were recorded before and after completing a workshop to develop their skills with precise use of effort involving selected parameters of the larynx and vocal tract. Self-reported ratings of degree of exertion and level of comfort were collected at the time of each recording. The preworkshop and postworkshop recordings were analyzed acoustically and perceptually to compare the degree of noise in the signal that corresponds with the efficiency of the voice. The results indicated that, for all subjects, the quality of the voice improved with an increase in the use of specific exertion. Furthermore, ease and comfort also significantly increased. PMID:16102665

  17. High-quality photoacoustic imaging by using of concentration-adjustable glycerin as an acoustic couplant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sihua; Gu, Huaimin

    2007-01-01

    The influences of mismatch of ultrasonic propagation velocities on photoacoustic imaging are studied. The concentration-adjustable glycerin is used as an ultrasonic couplant to match the ultrasonic velocities in different media in order to eliminate the acoustic refraction, reduce the acoustic reflection, and rectify the acoustic path difference. Two biological phantoms are tested by using water and glycerin as ultrasonic couplant, respectively. The spatial resolution of reconstructed image by experimental evaluation also is estimated to be 0.12mm. The experimental results demonstrate that the high-quality photoacoustic imaging can be obtained by matching the ultrasonic propagation velocities in different media. The contrast of reconstructed image is significantly improved and the image artifacts are obviously reduced after matching ultrasonic velocity. It has potential to promote photoacoustic imaging as a clinical diagnosis technique.

  18. Voice characteristics of acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Kadriye; Turkyilmaz, Didem; Ozturk, Burak; Dagdelen, Selcuk; Ozgen, Burce; Unal, Faruk; Erbas, Tomris

    2013-03-01

    Acromegaly's effect on voice is still indefinite. We aimed to define acoustic characteristics of patients with acromegaly. Cross-sectional case-control study was designed. Thirty-seven patients with acromegaly and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included. Fundamental frequency (F0) and measurements related to frequency, amplitude, noise and tremor of the obtained voice sample were analyzed using Multi-Dimensional Voice Program. Absolute jitter (Jita) and jitter percent (Jitt), shimmer in decibel and shimmer percent, noise to harmonic ratio and soft phonation index, fundamental frequency tremor frequency and frequency tremor intensity index represented the parameters related to frequency, amplitude, noise and tremor of the voice sample, respectively. Patients with acromegaly, especially the uncontrolled patients, exhibited significant differences in frequency perturbation measurements. Jitt of all patients and Jita of uncontrolled patients were significantly higher than that of control group (p = 0.044 and p = 0.043, respectively). Jitter which is a measure of frequency perturbation can be assumed as an indicator of hoarse and deepened voice. Jita of all patients and Jitt of uncontrolled patients were elevated, but not reaching a statistical significance. Controlled and active patients had similar analysis of acoustic parameters. In the correlation analysis, shimmer and IGF-1 (insulin like growth factor 1) was found to be positively correlated in all patients with acromegaly and in female patients. When the p value is adjusted according to Bonferroni correction regarding the use of ten parameters for acoustic analysis (so adjusted p is <0.005), all the statistically significant findings become insignificant. Considering the parameters test different properties of voice, it is reasonable to pay attention to the findings. Patients with acromegaly have increased frequency perturbations measures, but this increase is non-significant according to Bonferroni

  19. Every Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Penny

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses how the author develops an approach that allows her students, who are part of the marginalized population, to learn the power of their own voices--not just their writing voices, but their oral voices as well. The author calls it "TWIST": Thoughts, Writing folder, Inquiring mind, Supplies, and Teamwork. It is where students…

  20. Voices of Preservice Teachers on Teacher Quality Components in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okpala, Comfort O.; Rotich-Tanui, Jerono; Ardley, Jillian

    2009-01-01

    Research studies on teacher quality have concluded that students exposed to high quality instruction learn more than other students, but the evidence on teacher quality components is mixed. There is a growing concern that the decline in the quality of public school teachers is attributed to their preservice learning. In this research study, the…

  1. Impact of the codec and various QoS methods on the final quality of the transferred voice in an IP network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavata, Oldřich; Holub, Jan

    2015-02-01

    This paper deals with an analysis of the relation between the codec that is used, the QoS method, and the final voice transmission quality. The Cisco 2811 router is used for adjusting QoS. VoIP client Linphone is used for adjusting the codec. The criterion for transmission quality is the MOS parameter investigated with the ITU-T P.862 PESQ and P.863 POLQA algorithms.

  2. Mean-based neural coding of voices.

    PubMed

    Andics, Attila; McQueen, James M; Petersson, Karl Magnus

    2013-10-01

    The social significance of recognizing the person who talks to us is obvious, but the neural mechanisms that mediate talker identification are unclear. Regions along the bilateral superior temporal sulcus (STS) and the inferior frontal cortex (IFC) of the human brain are selective for voices, and they are sensitive to rapid voice changes. Although it has been proposed that voice recognition is supported by prototype-centered voice representations, the involvement of these category-selective cortical regions in the neural coding of such "mean voices" has not previously been demonstrated. Using fMRI in combination with a voice identity learning paradigm, we show that voice-selective regions are involved in the mean-based coding of voice identities. Voice typicality is encoded on a supra-individual level in the right STS along a stimulus-dependent, identity-independent (i.e., voice-acoustic) dimension, and on an intra-individual level in the right IFC along a stimulus-independent, identity-dependent (i.e., voice identity) dimension. Voice recognition therefore entails at least two anatomically separable stages, each characterized by neural mechanisms that reference the central tendencies of voice categories. PMID:23664949

  3. Obtaining a Picture of Undergraduate Education Quality: A Voice from inside the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Chia-Wei; Wu, Cheng-Ta

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to construct ranking indicators from the perspective inside of the university and shift the ranking target from overall university quality to undergraduate education quality. In dealing with the complexity of the concept of undergraduate education quality, two-stage questionnaire survey was conducted to gain comprehensive opinions…

  4. Voice measures of workload in the advanced flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Sid J.; Alpert, Murray; Odonnell, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Voice samples were obtained from 14 male subjects under high and low workload conditions. Acoustical analysis of the voice suggested that high workload conditions can be revealed by their effects on the voice over time. Aircrews in the advanced flight deck will be voicing short, imperative sentences repeatedly. A drop in the energy of the voice, as reflected by reductions in amplitude and frequency over time, and the failure to achieve old amplitude and frequency levels after rest periods, can signal that the workload demands of the situation are straining the speaker. This kind of measurement would be relatively unaffected by individual differences in acoustical measures.

  5. MSAT voice modulation considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bossler, Dan

    1990-01-01

    The challenge for Mobile satellite (MSAT) voice services is to provide near toll quality voice to the user, while minimizing the power and bandwidth resources of the satellite. The options for MSAT voice can be put into one of two groups: Analog and Digital. Analog, nominally narrowband single sideband techniques, have a shown robustness to the fading and shadowing environment. Digital techniques, a combination of low rate vocoders and bandwidth efficient modems, show the promise of enhanced fidelity, as well as easier networking to the emerging digital world. The problems and tradeoffs to designers are many, especially in the digital case. Processor speed vs. cost and MET power requirements, channel coding, bandwidth efficiency vs. power efficiency etc. While the list looks daunting, in fact an acceptable solution is well within the technology. The objectives are reviewed that the MSAT voice service must meet, along with the options that are seen for the future.

  6. Efficacy of the Discreteness of Voicing Category (DOVC) Measure for Characterizing Voicing Errors in Children with Cochlear Implants: A Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bharadwaj, Sneha V.; Graves, Amanda G.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This investigation explored the utility of an acoustic measure, called the discreteness of voicing category (DOVC), in identifying voicing errors in stop consonants produced by children with cochlear implants. Another objective was to examine the perceptual relevance of the DOVC measure and 2 commonly used voice onset time (VOT)-based…

  7. Student Voices Speak Quality Assurance: Continual Improvement in Online Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secret, Mary; Bentley, Kia J.; Kadolph, Jessie C.

    2016-01-01

    As social work education expands instruction through the rise of distance education, educators seek new ways to improve quality in online courses. Quality assurance standards and student feedback offer valuable insights to ensure satisfying and effective online learning experiences. An examination of these two assessment approaches concurrently in…

  8. Hearing Parents' and Carers' Voices: Experiences of Accessing Quality Long Day Care in Northern Regional Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Nonie; Tinning, Beth

    2012-01-01

    This article explores parents' and carers' experiences of accessing quality long day care in northern regional Australia. The data was gathered in 2009, after the collapse of ABC Developmental Learning Centres (herein referred to as ABC Learning) and before the implementation of the "National Quality Framework," and provides a snapshot of…

  9. Expert Voices: What Cooperating Teachers and Teacher Candidates Say about Quality Student Teaching Placements and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrez, Cheryl A. Franklin; Krebs, Marjori M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated characteristics and attributes of the student teaching experience to better understand what makes a quality student teaching experience. This article reflects a holistic approach by addressing the overall context of a quality student teaching experience that includes the environment, characteristics of successful…

  10. Vocal projection in actors: the long-term average spectral features that distinguish comfortable acting voice from voicing with maximal projection in male actors.

    PubMed

    Pinczower, Rachel; Oates, Jennifer

    2005-09-01

    This study explored whether acoustic and perceptual features could distinguish comfortable from maximally projected acting voice. Thirteen professional male actors performed a passage from William Shakespeare's Julius Caesar twice. The first delivery used their comfortably projected voices, whereas the second used maximal projection. Acoustic measures, expert ratings, and self-ratings of projection and voice quality were investigated. Long-term average spectra (LTAS) and sound pressure level (SPL) analyses were conducted. Perceptual variables included projection, breathiness, roughness, and strain. When comparing the intensity difference between the higher (2-4 kHz) and lower (0-2 kHz) regions of the spectrum in voice samples from the maximal projected condition, LTAS analyses demonstrated increased acoustic energy in the higher part of the spectrum. This LTAS pattern was not as evident in the comfortable projected condition. These findings offered some preliminary support for the existence of an actor's formant (prominent peak in the upper part of the spectrum) during maximal projection. PMID:16102670

  11. Hearing the patient's voice? Factors affecting the use of patient survey data in quality improvement

    PubMed Central

    Davies, E; Cleary, P

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To develop a framework for understanding factors affecting the use of patient survey data in quality improvement. Design: Qualitative interviews with senior health professionals and managers and a review of the literature. Setting: A quality improvement collaborative in Minnesota, USA involving teams from eight medical groups, focusing on how to use patient survey data to improve patient centred care. Participants: Eight team leaders (medical, clinical improvement or service quality directors) and six team members (clinical improvement coordinators and managers). Results: Respondents reported three types of barriers before the collaborative: organisational, professional and data related. Organisational barriers included lack of supporting values for patient centred care, competing priorities, and lack of an effective quality improvement infrastructure. Professional barriers included clinicians and staff not being used to focusing on patient interaction as a quality issue, individuals not necessarily having been selected, trained or supported to provide patient centred care, and scepticism, defensiveness or resistance to change following feedback. Data related barriers included lack of expertise with survey data, lack of timely and specific results, uncertainty over the effective interventions or time frames for improvement, and consequent risk of perceived low cost effectiveness of data collection. Factors that appeared to have promoted data use included board led strategies to change culture and create quality improvement forums, leadership from senior physicians and managers, and the persistence of quality improvement staff over several years in demonstrating change in other areas. Conclusion: Using patient survey data may require a more concerted effort than for other clinical data. Organisations may need to develop cultures that support patient centred care, quality improvement capacity, and to align professional receptiveness and leadership with

  12. Paralinguistic Qualifiers: Our Many Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poyatos, Fernando

    1991-01-01

    A case is made for the increased study of paralinguistic voice qualifiers, which include variations in breathing, laryngeal, esophageal, pharyngeal, velopharyngeal, lingual, labial, mandibular, articulatory, articulatory tension, and objectual control. It is proposed that attention to these voice qualities has a variety of practical, literary,…

  13. Voice and Speech after Laryngectomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stajner-Katusic, Smiljka; Horga, Damir; Musura, Maja; Globlek, Dubravka

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to compare voice and speech quality in alaryngeal patients using esophageal speech (ESOP, eight subjects), electroacoustical speech aid (EACA, six subjects) and tracheoesophageal voice prosthesis (TEVP, three subjects). The subjects reading a short story were recorded in the sound-proof booth and the speech samples…

  14. The impact of conventional or hypofractionated radiotherapy on voice quality and oncological outcome in patients with early glottic cancer.

    PubMed

    Di Nicola, L; Gravina, G L; Marampon, F; Bonfili, P; Buonopane, S; Di Staso, M; Festuccia, C; Franzese, P; Tombolini, M; Tombolini, V

    2010-11-01

    The hypothesis being tested in this study is that hypofractionated radiotherapy is well tolerated and not lower in terms of oncological outcome than conventional radiotherapy. Forty patients with histologically proven glottic cancer were included in the analysis. Twenty-two were treated by hypofractionated radiotherapy (3D-HFRT) (25 fractions of 2.4 Gy delivered daily to a total dose of 60 Gy). This group was retrospectively compared to 18 subjects who met the same inclusion criteria and who were treated with conventional radiotherapy (3D-CRT) (33 fractions of 2 Gy delivered daily to a total dose of 66 Gy). One year after RT treatment in 10 patients (5 in the arm-1 and 5 in the arm-2) mild dysphonia persisted. The other patients achieved a complete recovery of the overall quality of voice with no significant difference documented between the two groups. At 3 years the local control rate was 100% for the patients treated with hypofractionated radiotherapy and 96% for the patients treated with conventional regimen. The statistical analysis did not show any significant difference in local control between the two groups (p=0.45). No significant acute and late toxicity was documented in both groups. Subjects with early glottic cancer seem to experience comparable levels of morbidity irrespective whether they were treated by hypofractionated or conventional conformal therapy without any worsening of the tumor local control. Thus, we provide clinical evidence to justify trends already emerging toward hypofractionated regimens in early glottic cancer. PMID:20878134

  15. A Non-Intrusive GMA Welding Process Quality Monitoring System Using Acoustic Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Cayo, Eber Huanca; Alfaro, Sadek Crisostomo Absi

    2009-01-01

    Most of the inspection methods used for detection and localization of welding disturbances are based on the evaluation of some direct measurements of welding parameters. This direct measurement requires an insertion of sensors during the welding process which could somehow alter the behavior of the metallic transference. An inspection method that evaluates the GMA welding process evolution using a non-intrusive process sensing would allow not only the identification of disturbances during welding runs and thus reduce inspection time, but would also reduce the interference on the process caused by the direct sensing. In this paper a nonintrusive method for weld disturbance detection and localization for weld quality evaluation is demonstrated. The system is based on the acoustic sensing of the welding electrical arc. During repetitive tests in welds without disturbances, the stability acoustic parameters were calculated and used as comparison references for the detection and location of disturbances during the weld runs. PMID:22399990

  16. Voice - How humans communicate?

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Manjul; Tiwari, Maneesha

    2012-01-01

    Voices are important things for humans. They are the medium through which we do a lot of communicating with the outside world: our ideas, of course, and also our emotions and our personality. The voice is the very emblem of the speaker, indelibly woven into the fabric of speech. In this sense, each of our utterances of spoken language carries not only its own message but also, through accent, tone of voice and habitual voice quality it is at the same time an audible declaration of our membership of particular social regional groups, of our individual physical and psychological identity, and of our momentary mood. Voices are also one of the media through which we (successfully, most of the time) recognize other humans who are important to us—members of our family, media personalities, our friends, and enemies. Although evidence from DNA analysis is potentially vastly more eloquent in its power than evidence from voices, DNA cannot talk. It cannot be recorded planning, carrying out or confessing to a crime. It cannot be so apparently directly incriminating. As will quickly become evident, voices are extremely complex things, and some of the inherent limitations of the forensic-phonetic method are in part a consequence of the interaction between their complexity and the real world in which they are used. It is one of the aims of this article to explain how this comes about. This subject have unsolved questions, but there is no direct way to present the information that is necessary to understand how voices can be related, or not, to their owners. PMID:22690044

  17. Voices in Education: Accountability in Teacher Education and the National Council on Teacher Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Sharon; Marchant, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Personally, the authors have seen the evolution of teacher education for over 30 years. From "diagnostic/prescriptive teaching" through "reflective practice," the quality of the programs and students has improved greatly. Turning that subjective appraisal into a quantifiable evaluation is a tricky enterprise in education. However, the demand for…

  18. Effective Acoustic Modeling for Pronunciation Quality Scoring of Strongly Accented Mandarin Speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Fengpei; Liu, Changliang; Shao, Jian; Pan, Fuping; Dong, Bin; Yan, Yonghong

    In this paper we present our investigation into improving the performance of our computer-assisted language learning (CALL) system through exploiting the acoustic model and features within the speech recognition framework. First, to alleviate channel distortion, speaker-dependent cepstrum mean normalization (CMN) is adopted and the average correlation coefficient (average CC) between machine and expert scores is improved from 78.00% to 84.14%. Second, heteroscedastic linear discriminant analysis (HLDA) is adopted to enhance the discriminability of the acoustic model, which successfully increases the average CC from 84.14% to 84.62%. Additionally, HLDA causes the scoring accuracy to be more stable at various pronunciation proficiency levels, and thus leads to an increase in the speaker correct-rank rate from 85.59% to 90.99%. Finally, we use maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation to tune the acoustic model to fit strongly accented test speech. As a result, the average CC is improved from 84.62% to 86.57%. These three novel techniques improve the accuracy of evaluating pronunciation quality.

  19. Acoustic logging on ultralow density cement bonded quality evaluation in cased hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Shang, X.; Chen, T.; Tao, G.

    2011-12-01

    Cementing operation after drilling boreholes ensures oil and gas to be extracted effectively and avoids oil spill events such as BP Mexico oil leakage events. However, the loss of cement in deep formation due to its high density happens and raises issues. In order to overcome this problem, ultralow density cement or gas-based cements are used more and more commonly in recent years. Current acoustic evaluation tools, used to determine the cement bond quality, are designed for conventional high density cement. Therefore, they are not capable to image the ultralow density cement, whose acoustic properties are similar to borehole drilling mud. In this paper, a new acoustic technique is developed to image the ultralow density cement behind case. Finite difference method and analytical methods are used to simulate the wave-field of cased borehole which ultralow density cement bonded on. Based on the simulations, the optimal parameters of the evaluation tool design are proposed including spacing (from source to the nearest receiver and between the two neighboring receiver), frequency of source.

  20. Planning a brand new ED? Study up on acoustics, air quality, and patient wish-lists.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Hospitals planning to construct new EDs have a golden opportunity to integrate designs and materials that can please both patients and providers. Experts say attention to acoustics, privacy, and air quality can lower stress levels and boost satisfaction. Further, designs that prioritize efficient work flows get high marks from providers. Experts advise hospital leaders to get considerable input from patients before designing a new ED facility. Privacy, quiet, and a connection to nature are top priorities for patients. Use design to enhance patient flow. PMID:22413731

  1. Quality assurance plan for discharge measurements using broadband acoustic Doppler current profilers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipscomb, S.W.

    1995-01-01

    The recent introduction of the Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) as an instrument for measuring velocities and discharge in the riverine and estuarine environment promises to revolutionize the way these data are collected by the U.S. Geological Survey. The ADCP and associated software, however, compose a complex system and should be used only by qualifies personnel. Standard procedures should be rigorously followed to ensure that the quality of data collected is commensurate with the standards set by the Water Resources Division for all its varied activities in hydrologic investigations.

  2. Effect of crystalline quality of diamond film to the propagation loss of surface acoustic wave devices.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Satoshi; Shikata, Shinichi; Uemura, Tomoki; Nakahata, Hideaki; Harima, Hiroshi

    2005-10-01

    Diamond films with various crystal qualities were grown by chemical vapor deposition on silicon wafers. Their crystallinity was characterized by Raman scattering and electron backscattering diffraction. By fabricating a device structure for surface acoustic wave (SAW) using these diamond films, the propagation loss was measured at 1.8 GHz and compared with the crystallinity. It was found that the propagation loss was lowered in relatively degraded films having small crystallites, a narrow distribution in the diamond crystallite size, and preferential grain orientation. This experiment clarifies diamond film characteristics required for high-frequency applications in SAW filters. PMID:16382634

  3. Conducting Graduate Tracer Studies for Quality Assurance in East African Universities: A Focus on Graduate Students Voices on Quality Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badiru, Egesah Omar; Wahome, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a guide for graduate trace studies (GTS) to be adopted by universities and other higher education institutions (HEIs) in East Africa. Their essential role notwithstanding, graduate tracer studies present viable opportunities through which quality assurance (QA) can be institutionalized and mainstreamed in…

  4. Acoustic and Perceptual Effects of Left–Right Laryngeal Asymmetries Based on Computational Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Samlan, Robin A.; Story, Brad H.; Lotto, Andrew J.; Bunton, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Computational modeling was used to examine the consequences of 5 different laryngeal asymmetries on acoustic and perceptual measures of vocal function. Method A kinematic vocal fold model was used to impose 5 laryngeal asymmetries: adduction, edge bulging, nodal point ratio, amplitude of vibration, and starting phase. Thirty /a/ and /I/ vowels were generated for each asymmetry and analyzed acoustically using cepstral peak prominence (CPP), harmonics-to-noise ratio (HNR), and 3 measures of spectral slope (H1*-H2*, B0-B1, and B0-B2). Twenty listeners rated voice quality for a subset of the productions. Results Increasingly asymmetric adduction, bulging, and nodal point ratio explained significant variance in perceptual rating (R2 = .05, p < .001). The same factors resulted in generally decreasing CPP, HNR, and B0-B2 and in increasing B0-B1. Of the acoustic measures, only CPP explained significant variance in perceived quality (R2 = .14, p < .001). Increasingly asymmetric amplitude of vibration or starting phase minimally altered vocal function or voice quality. Conclusion Asymmetries of adduction, bulging, and nodal point ratio drove acoustic measures and perception in the current study, whereas asymmetric amplitude of vibration and starting phase demonstrated minimal influence on the acoustic signal or voice quality. PMID:24845730

  5. Acoustic concomitants of emotional expression in operatic singing: the case of Lucia in Ardi gli incensi.

    PubMed

    Siegwart, H; Scherer, K R

    1995-09-01

    Two excerpts from the cadenza in Ardi gli incensi from Donizetti's opera Lucia di Lammermoor were acoustically analyzed for five recorded versions of the cadenza by Toti dal Monte, Maria Callas, Renata Scotto, Joan Sutherland, and Edita Gruberova. These acoustic parameters of the singing voices were correlated with preference and emotional expression judgments, based on pairwise comparisons, made by a group of experienced listener-judges. In addition to showing major differences in the voice quality of the five "dive" studied, the acoustic parameters suggested which vocal cues affect listener judgments. Two component scores, based on a factorial-dimensional analysis of the acoustic parameters, predicted 84% of the variance in the preference ratings. PMID:8541968

  6. Modeling the voice source in terms of spectral slopes.

    PubMed

    Garellek, Marc; Samlan, Robin; Gerratt, Bruce R; Kreiman, Jody

    2016-03-01

    A psychoacoustic model of the voice source spectrum is proposed. The model is characterized by four spectral slope parameters: the difference in amplitude between the first two harmonics (H1-H2), the second and fourth harmonics (H2-H4), the fourth harmonic and the harmonic nearest 2 kHz in frequency (H4-2 kHz), and the harmonic nearest 2 kHz and that nearest 5 kHz (2 kHz-5 kHz). As a step toward model validation, experiments were conducted to establish the acoustic and perceptual independence of these parameters. In experiment 1, the model was fit to a large number of voice sources. Results showed that parameters are predictable from one another, but that these relationships are due to overall spectral roll-off. Two additional experiments addressed the perceptual independence of the source parameters. Listener sensitivity to H1-H2, H2-H4, and H4-2 kHz did not change as a function of the slope of an adjacent component, suggesting that sensitivity to these components is robust. Listener sensitivity to changes in spectral slope from 2 kHz to 5 kHz depended on complex interactions between spectral slope, spectral noise levels, and H4-2 kHz. It is concluded that the four parameters represent non-redundant acoustic and perceptual aspects of voice quality. PMID:27036277

  7. Kiwi fruit (Actinidia chinensis) quality determination based on surface acoustic wave resonator combined with electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Wei, Liu; Guohua, Hui

    2015-01-01

    In this study, electronic nose (EN) combined with a 433 MHz surface acoustic wave resonator (SAWR) was used to determine Kiwi fruit quality under 12-day storage. EN responses to Kiwi samples were measured and analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and stochastic resonance (SR) methods. SAWR frequency eigen values were also measured to predict freshness. Kiwi fruit sample's weight loss index and human sensory evaluation were examined to characteristic its quality and freshness. Kiwi fruit's quality predictive models based on EN, SAWR, and EN combined with SAWR were developed, respectively. Weight loss and human sensory evaluation results demonstrated that Kiwi fruit's quality decline and overall acceptance decrease during the storage. Experiment result indicated that the PCA method could qualitatively discriminate all Kiwi fruit samples with different storage time. Both SR and SAWR frequency analysis methods could successfully discriminate samples with high regression coefficients (R = 0.98093 and R = 0.99014, respectively). The validation experiment results showed that the mixed predictive model developed using EN combined with SAWR present higher quality prediction accuracy than the model developed either by EN or by SAWR. This method exhibits some advantages including high accuracy, non-destructive, low cost, etc. It provides an effective way for fruit quality rapid analysis. PMID:25551334

  8. Kiwi fruit (Actinidia chinensis) quality determination based on surface acoustic wave resonator combined with electronic nose

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Liu; Guohua, Hui

    2015-01-01

    In this study, electronic nose (EN) combined with a 433 MHz surface acoustic wave resonator (SAWR) was used to determine Kiwi fruit quality under 12-day storage. EN responses to Kiwi samples were measured and analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and stochastic resonance (SR) methods. SAWR frequency eigen values were also measured to predict freshness. Kiwi fruit sample's weight loss index and human sensory evaluation were examined to characteristic its quality and freshness. Kiwi fruit's quality predictive models based on EN, SAWR, and EN combined with SAWR were developed, respectively. Weight loss and human sensory evaluation results demonstrated that Kiwi fruit's quality decline and overall acceptance decrease during the storage. Experiment result indicated that the PCA method could qualitatively discriminate all Kiwi fruit samples with different storage time. Both SR and SAWR frequency analysis methods could successfully discriminate samples with high regression coefficients (R = 0.98093 and R = 0.99014, respectively). The validation experiment results showed that the mixed predictive model developed using EN combined with SAWR present higher quality prediction accuracy than the model developed either by EN or by SAWR. This method exhibits some advantages including high accuracy, non-destructive, low cost, etc. It provides an effective way for fruit quality rapid analysis. PMID:25551334

  9. Voice Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... make you hoarse. They can also lead to problems such as nodules, polyps, and sores on the ... disorders varies depending on the cause. Most voice problems can be successfully treated when diagnosed early. NIH: ...

  10. Voice Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... or voice box. In your larynx are your vocal cords, two bands of muscle that vibrate to make ... unique. Many things we do can injure our vocal cords. Talking too much, screaming, constantly clearing your throat, ...

  11. ATC/pilot voice communications: A survey of the literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinzo, O. Veronika; Britton, Thomas W.

    1993-11-01

    The first radio-equipped control tower in the United States opened at the Cleveland Municipal Airport in 1930. From that time to the present, voice radio communications have played a primary role in air safety. Verbal communications in air traffic control (ATC) operations have been frequently cited as causal factors in operational errors and pilot deviations in the FAA Operational Error and Deviation System, the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), and reports derived from government sponsored research projects. Collectively, the data provided by these programs indicate that communications constitute a significant problem for pilots and controllers. Although the communications problem was well known the research literature was fragmented, making it difficult to appreciate the various types of verbal communications problems that existed and their unique influence on the quality of ATC/pilot communications. This is a survey of the voice radio communications literature. The 43 reports in the review represent survey data, field studies, laboratory studies, narrative reports, and reviews. The survey topics pertain to communications taxonomies, acoustical correlates and cognitive/psycholinguistic perspectives. Communications taxonomies were used to identify the frequency and types of information that constitute routine communications, as well as those communications involved in operational errors, pilot deviations, and other safety-related events. Acoustical correlate methodologies identified some qualities of a speaker's voice, such as loudness, pitch, and speech rate, which might be used potentially to monitor stress, mental workload, and other forms of psychological or physiological factors that affect performance. Cognitive/psycho-linguistic research offered an information processing perspective for understanding how pilots' and controllers' memory and language comprehension processes affect their ability to communicate effectively with one another. This

  12. Experiences of hearing voices: analysis of a novel phenomenological survey

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Angela; Jones, Nev; Alderson-Day, Ben; Callard, Felicity; Fernyhough, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Auditory hallucinations—or voices—are a common feature of many psychiatric disorders and are also experienced by individuals with no psychiatric history. Understanding of the variation in subjective experiences of hallucination is central to psychiatry, yet systematic empirical research on the phenomenology of auditory hallucinations remains scarce. We aimed to record a detailed and diverse collection of experiences, in the words of the people who hear voices themselves. Methods We made a 13 item questionnaire available online for 3 months. To elicit phenomenologically rich data, we designed a combination of open-ended and closed-ended questions, which drew on service-user perspectives and approaches from phenomenological psychiatry, psychology, and medical humanities. We invited people aged 16–84 years with experience of voice-hearing to take part via an advertisement circulated through clinical networks, hearing voices groups, and other mental health forums. We combined qualitative and quantitative methods, and used inductive thematic analysis to code the data and χ2 tests to test additional associations of selected codes. Findings Between Sept 9 and Nov 29, 2013, 153 participants completed the study. Most participants described hearing multiple voices (124 [81%] of 153 individuals) with characterful qualities (106 [69%] individuals). Less than half of the participants reported hearing literally auditory voices—70 (46%) individuals reported either thought-like or mixed experiences. 101 (66%) participants reported bodily sensations while they heard voices, and these sensations were significantly associated with experiences of abusive or violent voices (p=0·024). Although fear, anxiety, depression, and stress were often associated with voices, 48 (31%) participants reported positive emotions and 49 (32%) reported neutral emotions. Our statistical analysis showed that mixed voices were more likely to have changed over time (p=0·030), be

  13. 'Inner voices': the cerebral representation of emotional voice cues described in literary texts.

    PubMed

    Brück, Carolin; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Gößling-Arnold, Christina; Wertheimer, Jürgen; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2014-11-01

    While non-verbal affective voice cues are generally recognized as a crucial behavioral guide in any day-to-day conversation their role as a powerful source of information may extend well beyond close-up personal interactions and include other modes of communication such as written discourse or literature as well. Building on the assumption that similarities between the different 'modes' of voice cues may not only be limited to their functional role but may also include cerebral mechanisms engaged in the decoding process, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study aimed at exploring brain responses associated with processing emotional voice signals described in literary texts. Emphasis was placed on evaluating 'voice' sensitive as well as task- and emotion-related modulations of brain activation frequently associated with the decoding of acoustic vocal cues. Obtained findings suggest that several similarities emerge with respect to the perception of acoustic voice signals: results identify the superior temporal, lateral and medial frontal cortex as well as the posterior cingulate cortex and cerebellum to contribute to the decoding process, with similarities to acoustic voice perception reflected in a 'voice'-cue preference of temporal voice areas as well as an emotion-related modulation of the medial frontal cortex and a task-modulated response of the lateral frontal cortex. PMID:24396008

  14. Relationship between perceived politeness and spectral characteristics of voice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Mika

    2005-04-01

    This study investigates the role of voice quality in perceiving politeness under conditions of varying relative social status among Japanese male speakers. The work focuses on four important methodological issues: experimental control of sociolinguistic aspects, eliciting natural spontaneous speech, obtaining recording quality suitable for voice quality analysis, and assessment of glottal characteristics through the use of non-invasive direct measurements of the speech spectrum. To obtain natural, unscripted utterances, the speech data were collected with a Map Task. This methodology allowed us to study the effect of manipulating relative social status among participants in the same community. We then computed the relative amplitudes of harmonics and formant peaks in spectra obtained from the Map Task recordings. Finally, an experiment was conducted to observe the alignment between acoustic measures and the perceived politeness of the voice samples. The results suggest that listeners' perceptions of politeness are determined by spectral characteristics of speakers, in particular, spectral tilts obtained by computing the difference in amplitude between the first harmonic and the third formant.

  15. About Your Voice

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is Voice? “Voice” is the sound made by vibration of the vocal cords caused by air passing ... swelling of the vocal cords and changes their vibration resulting in an abnormal voice. Reduced voice use ( ...

  16. Voice Teachers on Voice, Part 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gollobin, Laurie Brooks; White, Harvey

    1978-01-01

    Concludes a three-part symposium with eight prominent voice teachers on voice teaching methods. In this part, the teachers discuss placement, voice breaks, tone deafness, covered tone, and developing volume and offer some final general comments. (Editor)

  17. Voice Dysfunction in Dysarthria: Application of the Multi-Dimensional Voice Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, R. D.; Vorperian, H. K.; Kent, J. F.; Duffy, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    Part 1 of this paper recommends procedures and standards for the acoustic analysis of voice in individuals with dysarthria. In Part 2, acoustic data are reviewed for dysarthria associated with Parkinson disease (PD), cerebellar disease, amytrophic lateral sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, unilateral hemispheric stroke, and essential tremor.…

  18. Affect intensity in voice recognized by tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri).

    PubMed

    Schehka, Simone; Zimmermann, Elke

    2012-06-01

    Shared acoustic cues in speech, music, and nonverbal emotional expressions were postulated to code for emotion quality and intensity favoring the hypothesis of a prehuman origin of affective prosody in human emotional communication. To explore this hypothesis, we examined in playback experiments using a habituation-dishabituation paradigm whether a solitary foraging, highly vocal mammal, the tree shrew, is able to discriminate two behaviorally defined states of affect intensity (low vs. high) from the voice of conspecifics. Playback experiments with communication calls of two different types (chatter call and scream call) given in the state of low affect intensity revealed that habituated tree shrews dishabituated to one call type (the chatter call) and showed a tendency to do so for the other one (the scream call), both given in the state of high affect intensity. Findings suggest that listeners perceive the acoustic variation linked to defined states of affect intensity as different within the same call type. Our findings in tree shrews provide first evidence that acoustically conveyed affect intensity is biologically relevant without any other sensory cue, even for solitary foragers. Thus, the perception of affect intensity in voice conveyed in stressful contexts represents a shared trait of mammals, independent of the complexity of social systems. Findings support the hypothesis that affective prosody in human emotional communication has deep-reaching phylogenetic roots, deriving from precursors already present and relevant in the vocal communication system of early mammals. PMID:22309729

  19. Scientific bases of human-machine communication by voice.

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, R W

    1995-01-01

    The scientific bases for human-machine communication by voice are in the fields of psychology, linguistics, acoustics, signal processing, computer science, and integrated circuit technology. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the basic scientific and technological issues in human-machine communication by voice and to point out areas of future research opportunity. The discussion is organized around the following major issues in implementing human-machine voice communication systems: (i) hardware/software implementation of the system, (ii) speech synthesis for voice output, (iii) speech recognition and understanding for voice input, and (iv) usability factors related to how humans interact with machines. PMID:7479802

  20. Scientific Bases of Human-Machine Communication by Voice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, Ronald W.

    1995-10-01

    The scientific bases for human-machine communication by voice are in the fields of psychology, linguistics, acoustics, signal processing, computer science, and integrated circuit technology. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the basic scientific and technological issues in human-machine communication by voice and to point out areas of future research opportunity. The discussion is organized around the following major issues in implementing human-machine voice communication systems: (i) hardware/software implementation of the system, (ii) speech synthesis for voice output, (iii) speech recognition and understanding for voice input, and (iv) usability factors related to how humans interact with machines.

  1. Denoising of human speech using combined acoustic and em sensor signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, L C; Burnett, G C; Holzrichter, J F; Gable, T J

    1999-11-29

    Low Power EM radar-like sensors have made it possible to measure properties of the human speech production system in real-time, without acoustic interference. This greatly enhances the quality and quantify of information for many speech related applications. See Holzrichter, Burnett, Ng, and Lea, J. Acoustic. Soc. Am. 103 (1) 622 (1998). By using combined Glottal-EM- Sensor- and Acoustic-signals, segments of voiced, unvoiced, and no-speech can be reliably defined. Real-time Denoising filters can be constructed to remove noise from the user's corresponding speech signal.

  2. A novel method of improving sound quality and reducing acoustic feedback in hearing aids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killion, Mead; French, John; Viranyi, Steve; Preves, David

    2002-05-01

    Most current hearing aids have relatively narrow bandwidths, when compared to high-fidelity equipment, and exhibit undamped peaks because the peaks are considered less troublesome than the problem of wax-clogged dampers. Attempting to make hearing aids wider band has typically resulted in increased acoustic feedback problems. The recent availability of an off-the-shelf digital hearing aid integrated circuit amplifier, which contains several biquad filters, when used with special software, automatically detects and suppresses peaks. The filters then further flatten and extend the hearing aid frequency response to 16 kHz, while the appropriate CORFIG correction is added to the frequency response, producing a transparent sound. Open ear versus aided KEMAR recordings were produced using a live jazz trio and a string quartet. The sound quality ratings for eight commercially available digital hearing aids were obtained from several different listening panels. The new response equalization proved advantageous in all cases. The effects of eliminating the peaks in the response on maximum real ear gain achievable before onset of acoustic feedback oscillation will be reported.

  3. Measures of voiced frication for automatic classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Philip J. B.; Jesus, Luis M. T.; Shadle, Christine H.; Pincas, Jonathan

    2001-05-01

    As an approach to understanding the characteristics of the acoustic sources in voiced fricatives, it seems apt to draw on knowledge of vowels and voiceless fricatives, which have been relatively well studied. However, the presence of both phonation and frication in these mixed-source sounds offers the possibility of mutual interaction effects, with variations across place of articulation. This paper examines the acoustic and articulatory consequences of these interactions and explores automatic techniques for finding parametric and statistical descriptions of these phenomena. A reliable and consistent set of such acoustic cues could be used for phonetic classification or speech recognition. Following work on devoicing of European Portuguese voiced fricatives [Jesus and Shadle, in Mamede et al. (eds.) (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003), pp. 1-8]. and the modulating effect of voicing on frication [Jackson and Shadle, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 1421-1434 (2000)], the present study focuses on three types of information: (i) sequences and durations of acoustic events in VC transitions, (ii) temporal, spectral and modulation measures from the periodic and aperiodic components of the acoustic signal, and (iii) voicing activity derived from simultaneous EGG data. Analysis of interactions observed in British/American English and European Portuguese speech corpora will be compared, and the principal findings discussed.

  4. Swinging at a cocktail party: voice familiarity aids speech perception in the presence of a competing voice.

    PubMed

    Johnsrude, Ingrid S; Mackey, Allison; Hakyemez, Hélène; Alexander, Elizabeth; Trang, Heather P; Carlyon, Robert P

    2013-10-01

    People often have to listen to someone speak in the presence of competing voices. Much is known about the acoustic cues used to overcome this challenge, but almost nothing is known about the utility of cues derived from experience with particular voices--cues that may be particularly important for older people and others with impaired hearing. Here, we use a version of the coordinate-response-measure procedure to show that people can exploit knowledge of a highly familiar voice (their spouse's) not only to track it better in the presence of an interfering stranger's voice, but also, crucially, to ignore it so as to comprehend a stranger's voice more effectively. Although performance declines with increasing age when the target voice is novel, there is no decline when the target voice belongs to the listener's spouse. This finding indicates that older listeners can exploit their familiarity with a speaker's voice to mitigate the effects of sensory and cognitive decline. PMID:23985575

  5. Voice recognition.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Amit; McLoud, Theresa C

    2003-07-01

    Voice recognition represents one of the new technologies that are changing the practice of radiology. Thirty percent of radiology practices are either currently or plan to have voice recognition (VR) systems. VR software encompasses 4 core processes: spoken recognition of human speech, synthesis of human readable characters into speech, speaker identification and verification, and comprehension. Many software packages are available offering VR. All these packages should contain an interface with the radiology information system. The benefits include decreased turnaround time and cost savings. Its advantages include the transfer of secretarial duties to the radiologist with a result in decreased productivity. PMID:12867815

  6. Relation of Structural and Vibratory Kinematics of the Vocal Folds to Two Acoustic Measures of Breathy Voice Based on Computational Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samlan, Robin A.; Story, Brad H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To relate vocal fold structure and kinematics to 2 acoustic measures: cepstral peak prominence (CPP) and the amplitude of the first harmonic relative to the second (H1-H2). Method: The authors used a computational, kinematic model of the medial surfaces of the vocal folds to specify features of vocal fold structure and vibration in a…

  7. Basics of voice dysfunction--etiology and prevention of voice damage.

    PubMed

    Sepić, Tatjana; Pankas, Josipa; Grubesić, Aron; Tićac, Robert; Starcević, Radan

    2011-09-01

    Voice is one of the most important means of communication and as such should be taken care of. The etiology of voice disorders is diverse. Due to the development of the society we live in, way of life, environmental factors, and exposure to pharmacological agents as well as demands we make towards our voice, there is a substantial growth in the number of people with voice disorders. We tasked ourselves to find out if it is possible to enlighten people on the importance of voice, to motivate them to take care of it, to notice the changes in its quality and eventually ask for help. We assessed in which measure do we understand the importance of a healthy voice, and do we know which is the most important factor that adds to its decline. For a long number of years voice therapists and other experts in the voice disorder field have been discussing the optimal voice impostation as well as vocal exercises and methods behind voice recovery. They have all come to the same conclusion that phonation is dependant on the sort of the voice disorder and the patient motivation. We wanted to go one step further and investigate, dependence of voice quality and the damage etiology (organic - functional), which are the predominant causes, what are the factors that account for the damage and how the disorder motivates the patient and therefore influences the rehabilitation success rate. PMID:22220413

  8. Fast response to human voices in autism.

    PubMed

    Lin, I-Fan; Agus, Trevor R; Suied, Clara; Pressnitzer, Daniel; Yamada, Takashi; Komine, Yoko; Kato, Nobumasa; Kashino, Makio

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are reported to allocate less spontaneous attention to voices. Here, we investigated how vocal sounds are processed in ASD adults, when those sounds are attended. Participants were asked to react as fast as possible to target stimuli (either voices or strings) while ignoring distracting stimuli. Response times (RTs) were measured. Results showed that, similar to neurotypical (NT) adults, ASD adults were faster to recognize voices compared to strings. Surprisingly, ASD adults had even shorter RTs for voices than the NT adults, suggesting a faster voice recognition process. To investigate the acoustic underpinnings of this effect, we created auditory chimeras that retained only the temporal or the spectral features of voices. For the NT group, no RT advantage was found for the chimeras compared to strings: both sets of features had to be present to observe an RT advantage. However, for the ASD group, shorter RTs were observed for both chimeras. These observations indicate that the previously observed attentional deficit to voices in ASD individuals could be due to a failure to combine acoustic features, even though such features may be well represented at a sensory level. PMID:27193919

  9. Fast response to human voices in autism

    PubMed Central

    Lin, I-Fan; Agus, Trevor R.; Suied, Clara; Pressnitzer, Daniel; Yamada, Takashi; Komine, Yoko; Kato, Nobumasa; Kashino, Makio

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are reported to allocate less spontaneous attention to voices. Here, we investigated how vocal sounds are processed in ASD adults, when those sounds are attended. Participants were asked to react as fast as possible to target stimuli (either voices or strings) while ignoring distracting stimuli. Response times (RTs) were measured. Results showed that, similar to neurotypical (NT) adults, ASD adults were faster to recognize voices compared to strings. Surprisingly, ASD adults had even shorter RTs for voices than the NT adults, suggesting a faster voice recognition process. To investigate the acoustic underpinnings of this effect, we created auditory chimeras that retained only the temporal or the spectral features of voices. For the NT group, no RT advantage was found for the chimeras compared to strings: both sets of features had to be present to observe an RT advantage. However, for the ASD group, shorter RTs were observed for both chimeras. These observations indicate that the previously observed attentional deficit to voices in ASD individuals could be due to a failure to combine acoustic features, even though such features may be well represented at a sensory level. PMID:27193919

  10. Lost Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiseri-Strater, Elizabeth

    Different writing voices are linked to early adult developmental issues that are gender-related. Research by Donald Graves has shown that gender affects topic choice in girls' and boys' writing as early as age seven. Adult developmental theories provide frames for looking at the growth potential of writers and locating gender-related issues. The…

  11. Quality Prediction of Twin Wire Arc Sprayed Coatings Using Acoustic Emission Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillmann, W.; Abdulgader, M.; Wang, G.; Zielke, R.

    2013-03-01

    In this work, acoustic emission analysis is utilized in the twin wire arc spraying (TWAS) process to study the influence of the adjustable process parameters on the simultaneously obtained acoustic signals at the nozzle and at the substrate. The amplitude of recorded signals at the substrate was in general much higher than those recorded at the nozzle. At the substrate side, the amplitude of emitted acoustic signals is dependent on feedstock materials and is higher when using solid wires. The acoustic signals were recorded at the spraying gun for different gas pressures without arc ignition (as dry runs) in order to reveal the effect of the arc on the emitted acoustic signals. A correlation between controllable parameters, the acoustic signals, and the obtained in-flight particle characteristics was observed. This work contributes to the online control of TWAS processes and is one of many proposed publications in the research field of the conducted acoustic emission analysis.

  12. Post-laryngectomy voice rehabilitation with a voice prosthesis in a young girl with advanced thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Fukuhara, Takahiro; Miyoshi, Masayuki; Fujii, Taihei; Miyake, Naritomo; Taira, Kenkichiro; Koyama, Satoshi; Taguchi, Daizo; Fujiwara, Kazunori; Kataoka, Hideyuki; Kitano, Hiroya; Takeuchi, Hiromi

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this report is to evaluate the effects of voice rehabilitation with a voice prosthesis in a young patient with thyroid cancer. A 17-year-old girl underwent voice restoration with a voice prosthesis after laryngectomy to treat thyroid cancer. She completed voice-related questionnaires (the Voice Handicap Index-10 and Voice-Related Quality Of Life Survey) at ages 17 and 21 and underwent phonetic functional evaluation. The sound spectrograms of her phonation using the voice prosthesis showed low frequency sounds without an obvious basic frequency. She was ashamed of her hoarse voice and did not use her voice prosthesis during high school. However, after beginning to work at age 20, she used her voice to communicate in the workplace. At age 21, her questionnaire scores, especially those related to the physical and functional domains, improved compared with those at age 17. Voice restoration with a voice prosthesis is recommended for young patients who undergo laryngectomy for advanced thyroid cancer. The advantages of voice restoration with a voice prosthesis may increase when the patient reaches working age, and it may improve post-laryngectomy quality of life considerably. PMID:26960746

  13. Speech Motor Development during Acquisition of the Voicing Contrast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigos, Maria I.; Saxman, John H.; Gordon, Andrew M.

    2005-01-01

    Lip and jaw movements were studied longitudinally in 19-month-old children as they acquired the voicing contrast for /p/ and /b/. A movement tracking system obtained lip and jaw kinematics as participants produced the target utterances /papa/ and /baba/. Laryngeal adjustments were also tracked through acoustically recorded voice onset time (VOT)…

  14. Onset of Voicing in Stuttered and Fluent Utterances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Gloria J.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Electroglottographic (EGG) and acoustic waveforms of the first few glottal pulses of voicing were monitored and voice onset time (VOT) measured during an adaptation task performed by adult stutterers and controls. Fluent utterances of stutterers resembled those of controls. After dysfluencies, however, the EGG signal increased gradually, lending…

  15. Voicing Status of Word Final Plosives in Friedreich's Ataxia Dysarthria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaney, B. E.; Hewlett, N.

    2007-01-01

    In a previous study, the authors identified final plosive voicing contrast as the highest single error source in dysarthria associated with Friedreich's Ataxia in a group of Irish English-speaking participants. This study aimed to determine the acoustic features underlying misperceptions of voicing status and implications for clinical management.…

  16. Perceptual Adaptation of Voice Gender Discrimination with Spectrally Shifted Vowels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Tianhao; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether perceptual adaptation improves voice gender discrimination of spectrally shifted vowels and, if so, which acoustic cues contribute to the improvement. Method: Voice gender discrimination was measured for 10 normal-hearing subjects, during 5 days of adaptation to spectrally shifted vowels, produced by processing the…

  17. Image quality, tissue heating, and frame rate trade-offs in acoustic radiation force impulse imaging.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Richard R; Dahl, Jeremy J; Hsu, Stephen J; Palmeri, Mark L; Trahey, Gregg E

    2009-01-01

    The real-time application of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging requires both short acquisition times for a single ARFI image and repeated acquisition of these frames. Due to the high energy of pulses required to generate appreciable radiation force, however, repeated acquisitions could result in substantial transducer face and tissue heating. We describe and evaluate several novel beam sequencing schemes which, along with parallel-receive acquisition, are designed to reduce acquisition time and heating. These techniques reduce the total number of radiation force impulses needed to generate an image and minimize the time between successive impulses. We present qualitative and quantitative analyses of the trade-offs in image quality resulting from the acquisition schemes. Results indicate that these techniques yield a significant improvement in frame rate with only moderate decreases in image quality. Tissue and transducer face heating resulting from these schemes is assessed through finite element method modeling and thermocouple measurements. Results indicate that heating issues can be mitigated by employing ARFI acquisition sequences that utilize the highest track-to-excitation ratio possible. PMID:19213633

  18. Exploring violin sound quality: investigating English timbre descriptors and correlating resynthesized acoustical modifications with perceptual properties.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Claudia; Blackwell, Alan F; Cross, Ian; Woodhouse, Jim; Moore, Brian C J

    2012-01-01

    Performers often discuss the sound quality of a violin or the sound obtained by particular playing techniques, calling upon a diverse vocabulary. This study explores the verbal descriptions, made by performers, of the distinctive timbres of different violins. Sixty-one common descriptors were collected and then arranged by violinists on a map, so that words with similar meanings lay close together, and those with different meanings lay far apart. The results of multidimensional scaling demonstrated consistent use among violinists of many words, and highlighted which words are used for similar purposes. These terms and their relations were then used to investigate the perceptual effect of acoustical modifications of violin sounds produced by roving of the levels in five one-octave wide bands, 190-380, 380-760, 760-1520, 1520-3040, and 3040-6080 Hz. Pairs of sounds were presented, and each participant was asked to indicate which of the sounds was more bright, clear, harsh, nasal, or good (in separate runs for each descriptor). Increased brightness and clarity were associated with moderately increased levels in bands 4 and 5, whereas increased harshness was associated with a strongly increased level in band 4. Judgments differed across participants for the qualities nasal and good. PMID:22280701

  19. The design of a digital voice data compression technique for orbiter voice channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Voice bandwidth compression techniques were investigated to anticipate link margin difficulties in the shuttle S-band communication system. It was felt that by reducing the data rate on each voice channel from the baseline 24 (or 32) Kbps to 8 Kbps, additional margin could be obtained. The feasibility of such an alternate voice transmission system was studied. Several factors of prime importance that were addressed are: (1) achieving high quality voice at 8 Kbps; (2) performance in the presence of the anticipated shuttle cabin environmental noise; (3) performance in the presence of the anticipated channel error statistics; and (4) minimal increase in size, weight, and power over the current baseline voice processor.

  20. An emergency command recognizer for voiced system control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetterlind, P.; Johnston, Waymon L.

    1987-10-01

    An algorithm for accepting speaker-independent voiced input, aimed especially at accommodating emergency acoustic commands, is described. The algorithm is directed toward correctly identifying commands from speaker-independent acoustic input using machine recognition of common, standarized phonemic input, using these recognized sounds to reconstruct entire words and phrases. Speaker-dependent phonemes are not used during the command reconstruction process, so that speaker idiosyncracies are accommodated. Machine recognition extends to voice pitch and emotional tension characteristics.

  1. The effective acoustic environment of helicopter crewmen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, R. T., Jr.; Mozo, B. T.

    1978-01-01

    Methods of measuring the composite acoustic environment of helicopters in order to quantify the effective acoustic environment of the crewmen and to assess the real acoustic hazards of the personnel are examined. It is indicated that the attenuation characteristics of the helmets and hearing protectors and the variables of the physiology of the human ear be accounted for in determining the effective acoustic environment of Army helicopter crewmen as well as the acoustic hazards of voice communications systems noise.

  2. Voice and choice by delegation.

    PubMed

    van de Bovenkamp, Hester; Vollaard, Hans; Trappenburg, Margo; Grit, Kor

    2013-02-01

    In many Western countries, options for citizens to influence public services are increased to improve the quality of services and democratize decision making. Possibilities to influence are often cast into Albert Hirschman's taxonomy of exit (choice), voice, and loyalty. In this article we identify delegation as an important addition to this framework. Delegation gives individuals the chance to practice exit/choice or voice without all the hard work that is usually involved in these options. Empirical research shows that not many people use their individual options of exit and voice, which could lead to inequality between users and nonusers. We identify delegation as a possible solution to this problem, using Dutch health care as a case study to explore this option. Notwithstanding various advantages, we show that voice and choice by delegation also entail problems of inequality and representativeness. PMID:23052688

  3. Treatment outcomes for professional voice users.

    PubMed

    Wingate, Judith M; Brown, William S; Shrivastav, Rahul; Davenport, Paul; Sapienza, Christine M

    2007-07-01

    Professional voice users comprise 25% to 35% of the U.S. working population. Their voice problems may interfere with job performance and impact costs for both employers and employees. The purpose of this study was to examine treatment outcomes of two specific rehabilitation programs for a group of professional voice users. Eighteen professional voice users participated in this study; half had complaints of throat pain or vocal fatigue (Dysphonia Group), and half were found to have benign vocal fold lesions (Lesion Group). One group received 5 weeks of expiratory muscle strength training followed by six sessions of traditional voice therapy. Treatment order was reversed for the second group. The study was designed as a repeated measures study with independent variables of treatment order, laryngeal diagnosis (lesion vs non-lesion), gender, and time. Dependent variables included maximum expiratory pressure (MEP), Voice Handicap Index (VHI) score, Vocal Rating Scale (VRS) score, Voice Effort Scale score, phonetogram measures, subglottal pressures, and acoustic and perceptual measures. Results showed significant improvements in MEP, VHI scores, and VRS scores, subglottal pressure for loud intensity, phonetogram area, and dynamic range. No significant difference was found between laryngeal diagnosis groups. A significant difference was not observed for treatment order. It was concluded that the combined treatment was responsible for the improvements observed. The results indicate that a combined modality treatment may be successful in the remediation of vocal problems for professional voice users. PMID:16581229

  4. Occupational risk factors and voice disorders.

    PubMed

    Vilkman, E

    1996-01-01

    From the point of view of occupational health, the field of voice disorders is very poorly developed as compared, for instance, to the prevention and diagnostics of occupational hearing disorders. In fact, voice disorders have not even been recognized in the field of occupational medicine. Hence, it is obviously very rare in most countries that the voice disorder of a professional voice user, e.g. a teacher, a singer or an actor, is accepted as an occupational disease by insurance companies. However, occupational voice problems do not lack significance from the point of view of the patient. We also know from questionnaires and clinical studies that voice complaints are very common. Another example of job-related health problems, which has proved more successful in terms of its occupational health status, is the repetition strain injury of the elbow, i.e. the "tennis elbow". Its textbook definition could be used as such to describe an occupational voice disorder ("dysphonia professional is"). In the present paper the effects of such risk factors as vocal loading itself, background noise and room acoustics and low relative humidity of the air are discussed. Due to individual factors underlying the development of professional voice disorders, recommendations rather than regulations are called for. There are many simple and even relatively low-cost methods available for the prevention of vocal problems as well as for supporting rehabilitation. PMID:21275584

  5. Electronic dummy for acoustical testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, B. B.; Di Mattia, A. L.; Rosencheck, A. J.; Stern, M.; Torick, E. L.

    1967-01-01

    Electronic Dummy /ED/ used for acoustical testing represents the average male torso from the Xiphoid process upward and includes an acoustic replica of the human head. This head simulates natural flesh, and has an artificial voice and artificial ears that measure sound pressures at the eardrum or the entrance to the ear canal.

  6. Effects of singing training on the speaking voice of voice majors.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Ana P; Brown, W S; Rothman, Howard B; Sapienza, Christine

    2004-03-01

    This longitudinal study gathered data with regard to the question: Does singing training have an effect on the speaking voice? Fourteen voice majors (12 females and two males; age range 17 to 20 years) were recorded once a semester for four consecutive semesters, while sustaining vowels and reading the "Rainbow Passage." Acoustic measures included speaking fundamental frequency (SFF) and sound pressure level (SLP). Perturbation measures included jitter, shimmer, and harmonic-to-noise ratio. Temporal measures included sentence, consonant, and diphthong durations. Results revealed that, as the number of semesters increased, the SFF increased while jitter and shimmer slightly decreased. Repeated measure analysis, however, indicated that none of the acoustic, temporal, or perturbation differences were statistically significant. These results confirm earlier cross-sectional studies that compared singers with nonsingers, in that singing training mostly affects the singing voice and rarely the speaking voice. PMID:15070227

  7. Acoustic comunication systems and sounds in three species of crickets from central Italy: musical instruments for a three-voices composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monacchi, David; Valentini, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Natural soundscape has always constituted a reference in cognitive and emotional processes. The imitation of natural sounds contributed to the origin of the verbal language, which has been then subjected to an even more refined process of abstraction throughout history. The musical language also evolved along the same path of imitation. Among the many sonic elements of a natural environment, the stridulation of crickets is one of the most consistent for its timbre, articulation, diffusion and intrinsic emotional power. More than 900 species of crickets, in fact, have been described. They can be found in all parts of the world with the exception of cold regions at latitudes higher than 55° North and South. Among the many species we're working on (Order Orthoptera and Suborder Ensifera), we refer here of a comparison between the morphology of the acoustic emission systems and the corresponding waveforms/spectral patterns of sound in three widespread species from central Italy: Gryllus Bimaculatus, Acheta Domesticus (Gryllidae), and Ruspolia Nitidula (Conocephalidae). The samples of the acoustic apparatus of the target individuals, stored in ethanol, were observed under a Field Emission Gun Environmental Electron Scanning Microscope (FEG-ESEM, Quanta 200, FEI, The Netherlands). The use of this type of microscope allowed to analyze the samples without any kind of manipulation (dehydration and/or metallization), while maintaining the morphological features of the fragile acoustic apparatus. The observations were made with different sensors (SE: secondary-electron sensor and BSE: backscattered-electron sensor), and performed at low-medium vacuum with energies varying from c.ca 10 to 30kV. Male individuals have an acoustic apparatus consisting in two cuticular structures (tegmina) positioned above wings, while both male and females have receiving organs (tympanum) in forelegs. Stridulation mechanism is produced when the file and the scraper (plectrum) scrub one another

  8. One-year follow-up results of combined use of CO2 laser and cold instrumentation for Reinke's edema surgery in professional voice users.

    PubMed

    Dursun, Gursel; Ozgursoy, Ozan Bagis; Kemal, Ozgur; Coruh, Isil

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to present our experience with combined use of CO2 laser and cold instrumentation for Reinke's edema surgery and to evaluate 1-year follow-up results of the technique in a series of professional voice users. Fifteen patients with Reinke's edema who underwent microlaryngoscopic surgery were included. Videolaryngostroboscopy, perceptual and acoustic voice analyses were performed before and after surgery. During the 1-year follow-up, no recurrence of Reinke's edema was encountered. Significant postoperative improvement was obtained in the quality of voice, in terms of GRBAS scores, Fo, jitter, shimmer and NHR. No evidence of laryngeal cancer was found on the histological examinations. Combined use of CO2 laser and cold instrumentation provides a reliable and safe method for Reinke's edema surgery, and cessation of smoking, voice rest and control of the laryngopharyngeal reflux contribute to the success of surgery. We consider that the removal of redundant mucosa of the vocal fold reduces the risk of the recurrence of Reinke's edema and provides better quality of voice. However, it does not imply that our method is superior to others', but this procedure constitutes an effective treatment of choice for Reinke's edema patients, including professional voice users. PMID:17431653

  9. Toward a unified theory of voice production and perception

    PubMed Central

    Kreiman, Jody; Gerratt, Bruce R.; Garellek, Marc; Samlan, Robin; Zhang, Zhaoyan

    2016-01-01

    At present, two important questions about voice remain unanswered: When voice quality changes, what physiological alteration caused this change, and if a change to the voice production system occurs, what change in perceived quality can be expected? We argue that these questions can only be answered by an integrated model of voice linking production and perception, and we describe steps towards the development of such a model. Preliminary evidence in support of this approach is also presented. We conclude that development of such a model should be a priority for scientists interested in voice, to explain what physical condition(s) might underlie a given voice quality, or what voice quality might result from a specific physical configuration. PMID:27135054

  10. A report on alterations to the speaking and singing voices of four women following hormonal therapy with virilizing agents.

    PubMed

    Baker, J

    1999-12-01

    Four women aged between 27 and 58 years sought otolaryngological examination due to significant alterations to their voices, the primary concerns being hoarseness in vocal quality, lowering of habitual pitch, difficulty projecting their speaking voices, and loss of control over their singing voices. Otolaryngological examination with a mirror or flexible laryngoscope revealed no apparent abnormality of vocal fold structure or function, and the women were referred for speech pathology with diagnoses of functional dysphonia. Objective acoustic measures using the Kay Visipitch indicated significant lowering of the mean fundamental frequency for each woman, and perceptual analysis of the patients' voices during quiet speaking, projected voice use, and comprehensive singing activities revealed a constellation of features typically noted in the pubescent male. The original diagnoses of a functional dysphonia were queried, prompting further exploration of each woman's medical history, revealing in each case onset of vocal symptoms shortly after commencing treatment for conditions with medications containing virilizing agents (eg, Danocrine (danazol), Deca-Durabolin (nandrolene decanoate), and testosterone). Although some of the vocal symptoms decreased in severity with the influences from 6 months voice therapy and after withdrawal from the drugs, a number of symptoms remained permanent, suggesting each subject had suffered significant alterations in vocal physiology, including muscle tissue changes, muscle coordination dysfunction, and propioceptive dysfunction. This retrospective study is presented in order to illustrate that it was both the projected speaking voice and the singing voice that proved so highly sensitive to the virilization effects. The implications for future prospective research studies and responsible clinical practice are discussed. PMID:10622516

  11. Tracheostomy cannulas and voice prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kramp, Burkhard; Dommerich, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Cannulas and voice prostheses are mechanical aids for patients who had to undergo tracheotomy or laryngectomy for different reasons. For better understanding of the function of those artificial devices, first the indications and particularities of the previous surgical intervention are described in the context of this review. Despite the established procedure of percutaneous dilatation tracheotomy e.g. in intensive care units, the application of epithelised tracheostomas has its own position, especially when airway obstruction is persistent (e.g. caused by traumata, inflammations, or tumors) and a longer artificial ventilation or special care of the patient are required. In order to keep the airways open after tracheotomy, tracheostomy cannulas of different materials with different functions are available. For each patient the most appropriate type of cannula must be found. Voice prostheses are meanwhile the device of choice for rapid and efficient voice rehabilitation after laryngectomy. Individual sizes and materials allow adaptation of the voice prostheses to the individual anatomical situation of the patients. The combined application of voice prostheses with HME (Head and Moisture Exchanger) allows a good vocal as well as pulmonary rehabilitation. Precondition for efficient voice prosthesis is the observation of certain surgical principles during laryngectomy. The duration of the prosthesis mainly depends on material properties and biofilms, mostly consisting of funguses and bacteries. The quality of voice with valve prosthesis is clearly superior to esophagus prosthesis or electro-laryngeal voice. Whenever possible, tracheostoma valves for free-hand speech should be applied. Physicians taking care of patients with speech prostheses after laryngectomy should know exactly what to do in case the device fails or gets lost. PMID:22073098

  12. Voice Teachers on Voice, Part 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gollobin, Laurie Brooks; White, Harvey

    1977-01-01

    Little real consensus exists among voice teachers on methodologies to achieve good vocal technique. Nevertheless, voice teachers can profit from sharing their ideas. In this first of a three part series, eight prominent voice teachers offer their views on a wide range of technical questions. (Author/RK)

  13. VOT and the perception of voicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remez, Robert E.

    2001-05-01

    In explaining the ability to distinguish phonemes, linguists have described the dimension of voicing. Acoustic analyses have identified many correlates of the voicing contrast in initial, medial, and final consonants within syllables, and these in turn have motivated studies of the perceptual resolution of voicing. The framing conceptualization articulated by Lisker and Abramson 40 years ago in physiological, phonetic, and perceptual studies has been widely influential, and research on voicing now adopts their perspective without reservation. Their original survey included languages with two voicing categories (Dutch, Puerto Rican Spanish, Hungarian, Tamil, Cantonese, English), three voicing categories (Eastern Armenian, Thai, Korean), and four voicing categories (Hindi, Marathi). Perceptual studies inspired by this work have also ranged widely, including tests with different languages and with listeners of several species. The profound value of the analyses of Lisker and Abramson is evident in the empirical traction provided by the concept of VOT in research on the every important perceptual question about speech and language in our era. Some of these classic perceptual investigations will be reviewed. [Research supported by NIH (DC00308).

  14. 'When you haven't got much of a voice': an evaluation of the quality of Independent Mental Health Advocate (IMHA) services in England.

    PubMed

    Newbigging, Karen; Ridley, Julie; McKeown, Mick; Machin, Karen; Poursanidou, Konstantina

    2015-05-01

    Advocacy serves to promote the voice of service users, represent their interests and enable participation in decision-making. Given the context of increasing numbers of people detained under the Mental Health Act and heightened awareness of the potential for neglect and abuse in human services, statutory advocacy is an important safeguard supporting human rights and democratising the social relationships of care. This article reports findings from a national review of Independent Mental Health Advocate (IMHA) provision in England. A qualitative study used a two-stage design to define quality and assess the experience and impact of IMHA provision in eight study sites. A sample of 289 participants - 75 focus group participants and 214 individuals interviewed - including 90 people eligible for IMHA services, as well as advocates, a range of hospital and community-based mental health professionals, and commissioners. The research team included people with experience of compulsion. Findings indicate that the experience of compulsion can be profoundly disempowering, confirming the need for IMHA. However, access was highly variable and more problematic for people with specific needs relating to ethnicity, age and disability. Uptake of IMHA services was influenced by available resources, attitude and understanding of mental health professionals, as well as the organisation of IMHA provision. Access could be improved through a system of opt-out as opposed to opt-in. Service user satisfaction was most frequently reported in terms of positive experiences of the process of advocacy rather than tangible impacts on care and treatment under the Mental Health Act. IMHA services have the potential to significantly shift the dynamic so that service users have more of a voice in their care and treatment. However, a shift is needed from a narrow conception of statutory advocacy as safeguarding rights to one emphasising self-determination and participation in decisions about care and

  15. Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice: Development of a Standardized Clinical Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempster, Gail B.; Gerratt, Bruce R.; Abbott, Katherine Verdolini; Barkmeier-Kraemer, Julie; Hillman, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article presents the development of the Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (CAPE-V) following a consensus conference on perceptual voice quality measurement sponsored by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association's Special Interest Division 3, Voice and Voice Disorders. The CAPE-V protocol and recording form were…

  16. The Role of Pitch and Timbre in Voice Gender Categorization

    PubMed Central

    Pernet, Cyril R.; Belin, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Voice gender perception can be thought of as a mixture of low-level perceptual feature extraction and higher-level cognitive processes. Although it seems apparent that voice gender perception would rely on low-level pitch analysis, many lines of research suggest that this is not the case. Indeed, voice gender perception has been shown to rely on timbre perception and to be categorical, i.e., to depend on accessing a gender model or representation. Here, we used a unique combination of acoustic stimulus manipulation and mathematical modeling of human categorization performances to determine the relative contribution of pitch and timbre to this process. Contrary to the idea that voice gender perception relies on timber only, we demonstrate that voice gender categorization can be performed using pitch only but more importantly that pitch is used only when timber information is ambiguous (i.e., for more androgynous voices). PMID:22347205

  17. Phonation Types in Marathi: An Acoustic Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkson, Kelly Harper

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents a comprehensive instrumental acoustic analysis of phonation type distinctions in Marathi, an Indic language with numerous breathy voiced sonorants and obstruents. Important new facts about breathy voiced sonorants, which are crosslinguistically rare, are established: male and female speakers cue breathy phonation in…

  18. Norm-Based Coding of Voice Identity in Human Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Latinus, Marianne; McAleer, Phil; Bestelmeyer, Patricia E.G.; Belin, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Summary Listeners exploit small interindividual variations around a generic acoustical structure to discriminate and identify individuals from their voice—a key requirement for social interactions. The human brain contains temporal voice areas (TVA) [1] involved in an acoustic-based representation of voice identity [2–6], but the underlying coding mechanisms remain unknown. Indirect evidence suggests that identity representation in these areas could rely on a norm-based coding mechanism [4, 7–11]. Here, we show by using fMRI that voice identity is coded in the TVA as a function of acoustical distance to two internal voice prototypes (one male, one female)—approximated here by averaging a large number of same-gender voices by using morphing [12]. Voices more distant from their prototype are perceived as more distinctive and elicit greater neuronal activity in voice-sensitive cortex than closer voices—a phenomenon not merely explained by neuronal adaptation [13, 14]. Moreover, explicit manipulations of distance-to-mean by morphing voices toward (or away from) their prototype elicit reduced (or enhanced) neuronal activity. These results indicate that voice-sensitive cortex integrates relevant acoustical features into a complex representation referenced to idealized male and female voice prototypes. More generally, they shed light on remarkable similarities in cerebral representations of facial and vocal identity. PMID:23707425

  19. A comparison of two approaches to the treatment of chronic cough: perceptual, acoustic, and electroglottographic outcomes.

    PubMed

    Vertigan, Anne E; Theodoros, Deborah G; Winkworth, Alison L; Gibson, Peter G

    2008-09-01

    Voice problems have been reported to occur in association with chronic cough (CC) and can interfere with quality of life. Voice symptoms can improve following behavioral intervention for CC that persists despite medical management; however, formal measures of voice changes have not been reported. The aim of this study was to measure the changes in perceptual, acoustic, and electroglottographic voice characteristics after a SPEech Pathology Intervention Program for CHronic Cough (SPEICH-C) compared to a Healthy Lifestyle Education intervention program (HLE control). Eighty-two participants with CC that was refractory to medical management were randomly allocated to receive either the SPEICH-C or an HLE control. Participants in the SPEICH-C group demonstrated a significant reduction in perceptual ratings of breathy, rough, strain, and glottal fry qualities (P<0.001) in comparison to the HLE control group. There was a significant improvement between pre- and postintervention maximum phonation time, jitter, and harmonic-to-noise ratio values in the SPEICH-C group; however, the magnitude of change was not significantly different between groups. There was no significant change in fundamental frequency, standard deviation of fundamental frequency, phonation range, or closed phase of vocal fold vibration after intervention for either group. These results demonstrated that SPEICH-C can improve perceptual aspects of voice quality suggesting that dysphonia may be a fundamental characteristic of CC. PMID:17485195

  20. Evaluation of voice codecs for the Australian mobile satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bundrock, Tony; Wilkinson, Mal

    1990-01-01

    The evaluation procedure to choose a low bit rate voice coding algorithm is described for the Australian land mobile satellite system. The procedure is designed to assess both the inherent quality of the codec under 'normal' conditions and its robustness under 'severe' conditions. For the assessment, normal conditions were chosen to be random bit error rate with added background acoustic noise and the severe condition is designed to represent burst error conditions when mobile satellite channel suffers from signal fading due to roadside vegetation. The assessment is divided into two phases. First, a reduced set of conditions is used to determine a short list of candidate codecs for more extensive testing in the second phase. The first phase conditions include quality and robustness and codecs are ranked with a 60:40 weighting on the two. Second, the short listed codecs are assessed over a range of input voice levels, BERs, background noise conditions, and burst error distributions. Assessment is by subjective rating on a five level opinion scale and all results are then used to derive a weighted Mean Opinion Score using appropriate weights for each of the test conditions.

  1. Room Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuttruff, Heinrich; Mommertz, Eckard

    The traditional task of room acoustics is to create or formulate conditions which ensure the best possible propagation of sound in a room from a sound source to a listener. Thus, objects of room acoustics are in particular assembly halls of all kinds, such as auditoria and lecture halls, conference rooms, theaters, concert halls or churches. Already at this point, it has to be pointed out that these conditions essentially depend on the question if speech or music should be transmitted; in the first case, the criterion for transmission quality is good speech intelligibility, in the other case, however, the success of room-acoustical efforts depends on other factors that cannot be quantified that easily, not least it also depends on the hearing habits of the listeners. In any case, absolutely "good acoustics" of a room do not exist.

  2. 'Silent voices' in health services research: ethnicity and socioeconomic variation in participation in studies of quality of life in childhood visual disability.

    PubMed

    Tadic, Valerie; Hamblion, Esther Louise; Keeley, Sarah; Cumberland, Phillippa; Lewando Hundt, Gillian; Rahi, Jugnoo Sangeeta

    2010-04-01

    Purpose. To investigate patterns of participation of visually impaired (VI) children and their families in health services research. Methods. The authors compared clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of children and their families who participated with those who did not participate in two studies of quality of life (QoL) of VI children. In Study 1, the authors interviewed VI children and adolescents, aged 10 to 15 years, about their vision-related quality of life (VRQoL) as the first phase of a program to develop a VRQoL instrument for this population. One hundred seven children with visual impairment (visual acuity in the better eye LogMar worse than 0.51) were invited to participate in the interviews. Study 2 investigated health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of VI children using an existing generic instrument, administered in a postal survey. 151 VI children and adolescents, aged 2 to 16 years, with hereditary retinal disorders were invited to participate in the survey. Results. The overall participation level was below 50%. In both studies, participants from white ethnic and more affluent socioeconomic backgrounds were overrepresented. Participation did not vary by age, sex, or clinical characteristics. Conclusions. The authors suggest that there are barriers to participation in child- and family-centered research on childhood visual disability for children from socioeconomically deprived or ethnic minority groups. They urge assessment and reporting of participation patterns in further health services research on childhood visual disability. Failure to recognize that there are "silent voices" is likely to have important implications for equitable and appropriate service planning and provision for VI children. PMID:19933181

  3. Ten Ways To Provide a High-Quality Acoustical Environment in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebein, Gary W.; Gold, Martin A.; Siebein, Glenn W.; Ermann, Michael G.

    2000-01-01

    A study used impulse response measures and observations in 10 Florida classrooms to develop 10 recommendations for improving the acoustical environment in schools. Recommendations include improving air-conditioning systems, limiting room volume, providing sound-absorbing surfaces, using carpeting, reducing distance between teachers and students,…

  4. Data quality enhancement and knowledge discovery from relevant signals in acoustic emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejia, Felipe; Shyu, Mei-Ling; Nanni, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    The increasing popularity of structural health monitoring has brought with it a growing need for automated data management and data analysis tools. Of great importance are filters that can systematically detect unwanted signals in acoustic emission datasets. This study presents a semi-supervised data mining scheme that detects data belonging to unfamiliar distributions. This type of outlier detection scheme is useful detecting the presence of new acoustic emission sources, given a training dataset of unwanted signals. In addition to classifying new observations (herein referred to as "outliers") within a dataset, the scheme generates a decision tree that classifies sub-clusters within the outlier context set. The obtained tree can be interpreted as a series of characterization rules for newly-observed data, and they can potentially describe the basic structure of different modes within the outlier distribution. The data mining scheme is first validated on a synthetic dataset, and an attempt is made to confirm the algorithms' ability to discriminate outlier acoustic emission sources from a controlled pencil-lead-break experiment. Finally, the scheme is applied to data from two fatigue crack-growth steel specimens, where it is shown that extracted rules can adequately describe crack-growth related acoustic emission sources while filtering out background "noise." Results show promising performance in filter generation, thereby allowing analysts to extract, characterize, and focus only on meaningful signals.

  5. A Quality Function Deployment Analysis of Customer Needs for Meeting School Improvement Goals: The Voice of the School Principal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushner, Susan N.; And Others

    In providing leadership for school improvement teams, principals must employ group communication and decision-making skills. In this study, a planning procedure called Quality Function Deployment (QFD) was modified for use with school-based administrators. Teams of school leaders used QFD to generate the top priority needs of school customers…

  6. A Questionnaire for Listening to Students' Voices in the Assessment of Teaching Quality in a Classical Medical School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaspar, Maria Filomena; Pinto, Anabela Mota; da Conceicao, Hugo Camilo F.; da Silva, Jose Antonio Pereira

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a teaching quality assessment questionnaire and assess its reliability by using it with a sample of first-year medical students. Principal components analysis with varimax orthogonal rotation resulted in the development of a 12-item, two-component tool, adequate for use in lectures and small-group sessions.…

  7. Methods of Voice Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hung-Chi; Kim Evans, Karen F.; Salgado, Christopher J.; Mardini, Samir

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews methods of voice reconstruction. Nonsurgical methods of voice reconstruction include electrolarynx, pneumatic artificial larynx, and esophageal speech. Surgical methods of voice reconstruction include neoglottis, tracheoesophageal puncture, and prosthesis. Tracheoesophageal puncture can be performed in patients with pedicled flaps such as colon interposition, jejunum, or gastric pull-up or in free flaps such as perforator flaps, jejunum, and colon flaps. Other flaps for voice reconstruction include the ileocolon flap and jejunum. Laryngeal transplantation is also reviewed. PMID:22550443

  8. Sensoring fusion data from the optic and acoustic emissions of electric arcs in the GMAW-S process for welding quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Alfaro, Sadek Crisóstomo Absi; Cayo, Eber Huanca

    2012-01-01

    The present study shows the relationship between welding quality and optical-acoustic emissions from electric arcs, during welding runs, in the GMAW-S process. Bead on plate welding tests was carried out with pre-set parameters chosen from manufacturing standards. During the welding runs interferences were induced on the welding path using paint, grease or gas faults. In each welding run arc voltage, welding current, infrared and acoustic emission values were acquired and parameters such as arc power, acoustic peaks rate and infrared radiation rate computed. Data fusion algorithms were developed by assessing known welding quality parameters from arc emissions. These algorithms have showed better responses when they are based on more than just one sensor. Finally, it was concluded that there is a close relation between arc emissions and quality in welding and it can be measured from arc emissions sensing and data fusion algorithms. PMID:22969330

  9. Sensoring Fusion Data from the Optic and Acoustic Emissions of Electric Arcs in the GMAW-S Process for Welding Quality Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Alfaro, Sadek Crisóstomo Absi; Cayo, Eber Huanca

    2012-01-01

    The present study shows the relationship between welding quality and optical-acoustic emissions from electric arcs, during welding runs, in the GMAW-S process. Bead on plate welding tests was carried out with pre-set parameters chosen from manufacturing standards. During the welding runs interferences were induced on the welding path using paint, grease or gas faults. In each welding run arc voltage, welding current, infrared and acoustic emission values were acquired and parameters such as arc power, acoustic peaks rate and infrared radiation rate computed. Data fusion algorithms were developed by assessing known welding quality parameters from arc emissions. These algorithms have showed better responses when they are based on more than just one sensor. Finally, it was concluded that there is a close relation between arc emissions and quality in welding and it can be measured from arc emissions sensing and data fusion algorithms. PMID:22969330

  10. Sex and the singer: Gender categorization aspects of singing voice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ternström, Sten

    2003-04-01

    The singing voice exhibits many systematic differences by gender and age. The physiological differences between the voice organs of males, females, and children are well known and give rise to several acoustic differences, including acoustic power, pitch range, and spectral distribution. Vocal artists often strive to widen their range of expression, and it is not uncommon for males to sing in a femalelike register, as in counter tenors and in some pop/rock genres. The opposite, however, is quite rare. While ambiguous or contradictory gender in speech is usually a social disadvantage, in singing it can be a desired effect. The physical differences in singing voice production between males and females are reviewed in detail. Some interesting borderline cases are examined from an acoustic standpoint.

  11. A survey of the acoustical quality of seventeen libraries at Princeton University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markham, Benjamin

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify objective acoustic measures that correlate with the subjective responses of students and administrators to libraries at Princeton University. The motivation for this study was to determine what is necessary in order to provide a comfortable acoustic environment for users of a new science library to be built on campus. On 31 March 2003, Acentech, Incorporated evaluated 17 library spaces and interviewed a number of students and librarians at Princeton. Based on the results of the survey, the author proposes that a comfortable acoustic environment in a library is an environment that provides freedom from distraction; in other words, casual conversation and other noises in the library will not distract users reading or studying in the library. In order to provide such an environment, a library must have (1) appropriate levels of background sound, (2) a physical barrier between noise-producing and noise-sensitive sections, and (3) sufficient sound absorbing material in the space. Measured quantitative metrics support these conclusions.

  12. The Meaning of Annoyance in Relation to the Quality of Acoustic Environments.

    PubMed

    Schulte-Fortkamp, Brigitte

    2002-01-01

    A supportive environment should take care of health. It is an environment that provides complete physical, mental and social well-being. It is not suffiently characterized by infirmity or the absence of disease. It should trigger good feelings and safety (WHO, 2000). Interdisciplinary procedures are needed that include acoustics, physics, psychology, and sociology when a survey on perception of acoustic environments is carried out under the aspect of comfort. It is necessary to combine methods with different sensibilities in order to measure the subjective perception of noise in such an environment. The context, the focus of attention, and the knowledge of past experiences must be taken into account. (Ipsen, 2001) These three conditions are required to implement an adequate measurement. Subject-centred methodological procedures should be used to develop a suitable measurement procedure. Such procedures will be presented with the aim to improve social surveys that especially address the meaning of annoyance in an acoustic environment and the contribution of a soundscape. PMID:12678945

  13. Writing with Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesler, Ted

    2012-01-01

    In this Teaching Tips article, the author argues for a dialogic conception of voice, based in the work of Mikhail Bakhtin. He demonstrates a dialogic view of voice in action, using two writing examples about the same topic from his daughter, a fifth-grade student. He then provides five practical tips for teaching a dialogic conception of voice in…

  14. Guided by Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallin, Jason J.

    2010-01-01

    While the educational project privileges signifying speech, the psychical significance of the "voice" has become an institutional "vanishing mediator." Against the commonplace assumption that the voice functions as a benign vehicle for conscious meaning-making, this article examines the sublimated privilege and function of the voice in the context…

  15. A ''Voice Inversion Effect?''

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedard, Catherine; Belin, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    Voice is the carrier of speech but is also an ''auditory face'' rich in information on the speaker's identity and affective state. Three experiments explored the possibility of a ''voice inversion effect,'' by analogy to the classical ''face inversion effect,'' which could support the hypothesis of a voice-specific module. Experiment 1 consisted…

  16. Voice prostheses, microbial colonization and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Leonhard, Matthias; Schneider-Stickler, Berit

    2015-01-01

    Total laryngectomy is performed in advanced laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer stages and results in reduced quality of life due to the loss of voice and smell, permanent tracheostoma and occasionally dysphagia. Therefore, successful voice rehabilitation is highly beneficial for the patients' quality of life after surgery. Over the past decades, voice prostheses have evolved to the gold standard in rehabilitation and allow faster and superior voicing results after laryngectomy compared to esophageal speech. Polyspecies biofilm formation has become the limiting factor for device lifetimes and causes prosthesis dysfunction, leakage and in consequence pneumonia, if not replaced immediately. Although major improvements in prosthesis design have been made and scientific insight in the complexity of biofilm evolution and material interaction progresses, the microbial colonization continues to restrict device lifetimes, causing patient discomfort and elevated health costs. However, present scientific findings and advances in technology yield promising future approaches to improve the situation for laryngectomized patients. PMID:25366225

  17. Mares Prefer the Voices of Highly Fertile Stallions

    PubMed Central

    Lemasson, Alban; Remeuf, Kévin; Trabalon, Marie; Cuir, Frédérique; Hausberger, Martine

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the possibility that stallion whinnies, known to encode caller size, also encoded information about caller arousal and fertility, and the reactions of mares in relation to type of voice. Voice acoustic features are correlated with arousal and reproduction success, the lower-pitched the stallion’s voice, the slower his heart beat and the higher his fertility. Females from three study groups preferred playbacks of low-pitched voices. Hence, females are attracted by frequencies encoding for large male size, calmness and high fertility. More work is needed to explore the relative importance of morpho-physiological features. Assortative mating may be involved as large females preferred voices of larger stallions. Our study contributes to basic and applied ongoing research on mammal reproduction, and questions the mechanisms used by females to detect males’ fertility. PMID:25714814

  18. Why are Korean tense stops acquired so early: The role of acoustic properties

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Eun Jong; Beckman, Mary E.; Edwards, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Transcription-based studies have shown that tense stops appear before aspirated or lax stops in most Korean-acquiring children's speech. This order of mastery is predicted by the short lag Voice Onset Time (VOT) values of Korean tense stops, as this is the earliest acquired phonation type across languages. However, the tense stop also has greater motor demands than the other two phonation types, given its pressed voice quality (negative H1-H2) and its relatively high f0 value at vowel onset, word-initially. In order to explain the observed order of mastery of Korean stops, we need a more sensitive quantitative model of the role of multiple acoustic parameters in production and perception. This study explores the relationship between native speakers' transcriptions/categorizations of children's stop productions and three acoustic characteristics (VOT, H1-H2 and f0). The results showed that the primary acoustic parameter that adult listeners used to differentiate tense vs. non-tense stops was VOT. Listeners used VOT and the additional acoustic parameter of f0 to differentiate lax vs. aspirated stops. Thus, the early acquisition of tense stops is explained both by their short-lag VOT values and the fact that children need to learn to control only a single acoustic parameter to produce them. PMID:21643475

  19. Voice onset time is necessary but not always sufficient to describe acquisition of voiced stops: The cases of Greek and Japanese

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Eun Jong; Beckman, Mary E.; Edwards, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The age at which children master adult-like voiced stops can generally be predicted by voice onset time (VOT): stops with optional short lag are early, those with obligatory lead are late. However, Japanese voiced stops are late despite having a short lag variant, whereas Greek voiced stops are early despite having consistent voicing lead. This cross-sectional study examines the acoustics of word-initial stops produced by English-, Japanese-, and Greek-speaking children aged 2 to 5, to investigate how these seemingly exceptional mastery patterns relate to use of other phonetic correlates. Productions were analyzed for VOT, f0 and spectral tilt (H1-H2) in Japanese and English, and for amplitude trajectory in Greek and Japanese. Japanese voiceless stops have intermediate lag VOT values, so other “secondary” cues are needed to differentiate them from the voiced short lag VOT variant. Greek voiced stops are optionally prenasalized, and the amplitude trajectory for the voice bar during closure suggests that younger children use a greater degree of nasal venting to create the aerodynamic conditions necessary for voicing lead. Taken together, the findings suggest that VOT must be supplemented by measurements of other language-specific acoustic properties to explain the mastery pattern of voiced stops in some languages. PMID:23105160

  20. Some Problems of modern acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stan, A.

    1974-01-01

    The multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary character of acoustics is considered and its scientific, technological, economical and social implications, as well as the role of acoustics in creating new machines and equipment and improving the quality of products are outlined. Research beyond audible frequencies, as well as to extremely high acoustic intensities, which requires the development of a nonlinear acoustics is elaborated.

  1. Does coastal lagoon habitat quality affect fish growth rate and their recruitment? Insights from fishing and acoustic surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brehmer, P.; Laugier, T.; Kantoussan, J.; Galgani, F.; Mouillot, D.

    2013-07-01

    Ensuring the sustainability of fish resources necessitates understanding their interaction with coastal habitats, which is becoming ever more challenging in the context of ever increasing anthropogenic pressures. The ability of coastal lagoons, exposed to major sources of disturbance, to provide resources and suitable habitats for growth and survival of juvenile fish is especially important. We analysed three lagoons with different ecological statuses and habitat quality on the basis of their eutrophication and ecotoxicity (Trix test) levels. Fish abundances were sampled using fishing and horizontal beaming acoustic surveys with the same protocols in the same year. The relative abundance of Anguilla anguilla, Dicentrarchus labrax or the Mugilidae group was not an indicator of habitat quality, whereas Atherina boyeri and Sparus aurata appeared to be more sensitive to habitat quality. Fish abundance was higher in the two lagoons with high eutrophication and ecotoxicity levels than in the less impacted lagoon, while fish sizes were significantly higher in the two most severely impacted lagoons. This leads us to suggest low habitat quality may increase fish growth rate (by the mean of a cascading effect), but may reduce lagoon juvenile abundance by increasing larval mortality. Such a hypothesis needs to be further validated using greater investigations which take into account more influences on fish growth and recruitment in such variable environments under complex multi-stressor conditions.

  2. Beliefs about hearing voices.

    PubMed

    Connors, Michael H; Robidoux, Serje; Langdon, Robyn; Coltheart, Max

    2016-07-01

    People who experience auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) vary in whether they believe their AVHs are self-generated or caused by external agents. It remains unclear whether these differences are influenced by the "intensity" of the voices, such as their frequency or volume, or other aspects of their phenomenology. We examined 35 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who experienced AVHs. Patients completed a detailed structured interview about their AVHs, including beliefs about their cause. In response, 20 (57.1%) reported that their AVHs were self-generated, 9 (25.7%) were uncertain, and 6 (17.1%) reported that their AVHs were caused by external agents. Several analytical approaches revealed little or no evidence for associations between either AVH intensity or phenomenology and beliefs about the AVH's cause; the evidence instead favoured the absence of these associations. Beliefs about the cause of AVHs are thus unlikely to be explained solely by the phenomenological qualities of the AVHs. PMID:27258929

  3. Effect of voice training in the voice rehabilitation of patients with vocal cord polyps after surgery

    PubMed Central

    LIN, LI; SUN, NA; YANG, QIUHUA; ZHANG, YA; SHEN, JI; SHI, LIXIN; FANG, QIN; SUN, GUANGBIN

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of voice training on the vocal rehabilitation of patients with vocal cords polyps following phonomicrosurgery. A total of 60 cases of vocal cord polyps treated by laser phonomicrosurgery were randomly divided into training and control groups with 30 cases in each group. The patients were treated with laser phonomicrosurgery, routine postoperative treatment and nursing. The training group were additionally treated with vocal training, including relaxation training, breathing training, basic pronunciation training, chewing voice training and tone sandhi pronunciation training, and attention was paid to the training steps. Subjective and objective voice evaluations of the two groups were compared three months after the surgery and the differences between groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). Voice training may significantly improve the postoperative voice quality of patients with vocal cord polyps and support rehabilitation. PMID:24669244

  4. Auditory brainstem's sensitivity to human voices.

    PubMed

    Nan, Yun; Skoe, Erika; Nicol, Trent; Kraus, Nina

    2015-03-01

    Differentiating between voices is a basic social skill humans acquire early in life. The current study aimed to understand the subcortical mechanisms of voice processing by focusing on the two most important acoustical voice features: the fundamental frequency (F0) and harmonics. We measured frequency following responses in a group of young adults to a naturally produced speech syllable under two linguistic contexts: same-syllable and multiple-syllable. Compared to the same-syllable context, the multiple-syllable context contained more speech cues to aid voice processing. We analyzed the magnitude of the response to the F0 and harmonics between same-talker and multiple-talker conditions within each linguistic context. Results establish that the human auditory brainstem is sensitive to different talkers as shown by enhanced harmonic responses under the multiple-talker compared to the same-talker condition, when the stimulus stream contained multiple syllables. This study thus provides the first electrophysiological evidence of the auditory brainstem's sensitivity to human voices. PMID:25620126

  5. Effects of the Interaction of Caffeine and Water on Voice Performance: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franca, Maria Claudia; Simpson, Kenneth O.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this "pilot" investigation was to study the effects of the interaction of caffeine and water intake on voice as evidenced by acoustic and aerodynamic measures, to determine whether ingestion of 200 mg of caffeine and various levels of water intake have an impact on voice. The participants were 48 females ranging in age…

  6. The Sound of Voice: Voice-Based Categorization of Speakers’ Sexual Orientation within and across Languages

    PubMed Central

    Maass, Anne; Paladino, Maria Paola; Vespignani, Francesco; Eyssel, Friederike; Bentler, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Empirical research had initially shown that English listeners are able to identify the speakers' sexual orientation based on voice cues alone. However, the accuracy of this voice-based categorization, as well as its generalizability to other languages (language-dependency) and to non-native speakers (language-specificity), has been questioned recently. Consequently, we address these open issues in 5 experiments: First, we tested whether Italian and German listeners are able to correctly identify sexual orientation of same-language male speakers. Then, participants of both nationalities listened to voice samples and rated the sexual orientation of both Italian and German male speakers. We found that listeners were unable to identify the speakers' sexual orientation correctly. However, speakers were consistently categorized as either heterosexual or gay on the basis of how they sounded. Moreover, a similar pattern of results emerged when listeners judged the sexual orientation of speakers of their own and of the foreign language. Overall, this research suggests that voice-based categorization of sexual orientation reflects the listeners' expectations of how gay voices sound rather than being an accurate detector of the speakers' actual sexual identity. Results are discussed with regard to accuracy, acoustic features of voices, language dependency and language specificity. PMID:26132820

  7. QRev—Software for computation and quality assurance of acoustic doppler current profiler moving-boat streamflow measurements—User’s manual for version 2.8

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, David S.

    2016-01-01

    The software program, QRev computes the discharge from moving-boat acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements using data collected with any of the Teledyne RD Instrument or SonTek bottom tracking acoustic Doppler current profilers. The computation of discharge is independent of the manufacturer of the acoustic Doppler current profiler because QRev applies consistent algorithms independent of the data source. In addition, QRev automates filtering and quality checking of the collected data and provides feedback to the user of potential quality issues with the measurement. Various statistics and characteristics of the measurement, in addition to a simple uncertainty assessment are provided to the user to assist them in properly rating the measurement. QRev saves an extensible markup language file that can be imported into databases or electronic field notes software. The user interacts with QRev through a tablet-friendly graphical user interface. This report is the manual for version 2.8 of QRev.

  8. Design of Phoneme MIDI Codes Using the MIDI Encoding Tool “Auto-F” and Realizing Voice Synthesizing Functions Based on Musical Sounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modegi, Toshio

    Using our previously developed audio to MIDI code converter tool “Auto-F”, from given vocal acoustic signals we can create MIDI data, which enable to playback the voice-like signals with a standard MIDI synthesizer. Applying this tool, we are constructing a MIDI database, which consists of previously converted simple harmonic structured MIDI codes from a set of 71 Japanese male and female syllable recorded signals. And we are developing a novel voice synthesizing system based on harmonically synthesizing musical sounds, which can generate MIDI data and playback voice signals with a MIDI synthesizer by giving Japanese plain (kana) texts, referring to the syllable MIDI code database. In this paper, we propose an improved MIDI converter tool, which can produce temporally higher-resolution MIDI codes. Then we propose an algorithm separating a set of 20 consonant and vowel phoneme MIDI codes from 71 syllable MIDI converted codes in order to construct a voice synthesizing system. And, we present the evaluation results of voice synthesizing quality between these separated phoneme MIDI codes and their original syllable MIDI codes by our developed 4-syllable word listening tests.

  9. Perceptual evaluation of voice source models.

    PubMed

    Kreiman, Jody; Garellek, Marc; Chen, Gang; Alwan, Abeer; Gerratt, Bruce R

    2015-07-01

    Models of the voice source differ in their fits to natural voices, but it is unclear which differences in fit are perceptually salient. This study examined the relationship between the fit of five voice source models to 40 natural voices, and the degree of perceptual match among stimuli synthesized with each of the modeled sources. Listeners completed a visual sort-and-rate task to compare versions of each voice created with the different source models, and the results were analyzed using multidimensional scaling. Neither fits to pulse shapes nor fits to landmark points on the pulses predicted observed differences in quality. Further, the source models fit the opening phase of the glottal pulses better than they fit the closing phase, but at the same time similarity in quality was better predicted by the timing and amplitude of the negative peak of the flow derivative (part of the closing phase) than by the timing and/or amplitude of peak glottal opening. Results indicate that simply knowing how (or how well) a particular source model fits or does not fit a target source pulse in the time domain provides little insight into what aspects of the voice source are important to listeners. PMID:26233000

  10. Perceptual evaluation of voice source modelsa)

    PubMed Central

    Kreiman, Jody; Garellek, Marc; Chen, Gang; Alwan, Abeer; Gerratt, Bruce R.

    2015-01-01

    Models of the voice source differ in their fits to natural voices, but it is unclear which differences in fit are perceptually salient. This study examined the relationship between the fit of five voice source models to 40 natural voices, and the degree of perceptual match among stimuli synthesized with each of the modeled sources. Listeners completed a visual sort-and-rate task to compare versions of each voice created with the different source models, and the results were analyzed using multidimensional scaling. Neither fits to pulse shapes nor fits to landmark points on the pulses predicted observed differences in quality. Further, the source models fit the opening phase of the glottal pulses better than they fit the closing phase, but at the same time similarity in quality was better predicted by the timing and amplitude of the negative peak of the flow derivative (part of the closing phase) than by the timing and/or amplitude of peak glottal opening. Results indicate that simply knowing how (or how well) a particular source model fits or does not fit a target source pulse in the time domain provides little insight into what aspects of the voice source are important to listeners. PMID:26233001

  11. Acoustic neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    Vestibular schwannoma; Tumor - acoustic; Cerebellopontine angle tumor; Angle tumor ... Acoustic neuromas have been linked with the genetic disorder neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). Acoustic neuromas are uncommon.

  12. Smartphone App for Voice Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Taste, Smell, Hearing, Language, Voice, Balance Smartphone App for Voice ... try on the new ones. Read More "Taste, Smell, Hearing, Language, Voice, Balance" Articles At Last: A ...

  13. Lower Vocal Tract Morphologic Adjustments Are Relevant for Voice Timbre in Singing.

    PubMed

    Mainka, Alexander; Poznyakovskiy, Anton; Platzek, Ivan; Fleischer, Mario; Sundberg, Johan; Mürbe, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The vocal tract shape is crucial to voice production. Its lower part seems particularly relevant for voice timbre. This study analyzes the detailed morphology of parts of the epilaryngeal tube and the hypopharynx for the sustained German vowels /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, and /u/ by thirteen male singer subjects who were at the beginning of their academic singing studies. Analysis was based on two different phonatory conditions: a natural, speech-like phonation and a singing phonation, like in classical singing. 3D models of the vocal tract were derived from magnetic resonance imaging and compared with long-term average spectrum analysis of audio recordings from the same subjects. Comparison of singing to the speech-like phonation, which served as reference, showed significant adjustments of the lower vocal tract: an average lowering of the larynx by 8 mm and an increase of the hypopharyngeal cross-sectional area (+ 21:9%) and volume (+ 16:8%). Changes in the analyzed epilaryngeal portion of the vocal tract were not significant. Consequently, lower larynx-to-hypopharynx area and volume ratios were found in singing compared to the speech-like phonation. All evaluated measures of the lower vocal tract varied significantly with vowel quality. Acoustically, an increase of high frequency energy in singing correlated with a wider hypopharyngeal area. The findings offer an explanation how classical male singers might succeed in producing a voice timbre with increased high frequency energy, creating a singer`s formant cluster. PMID:26186691

  14. Lower Vocal Tract Morphologic Adjustments Are Relevant for Voice Timbre in Singing

    PubMed Central

    Mainka, Alexander; Poznyakovskiy, Anton; Platzek, Ivan; Fleischer, Mario; Sundberg, Johan; Mürbe, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The vocal tract shape is crucial to voice production. Its lower part seems particularly relevant for voice timbre. This study analyzes the detailed morphology of parts of the epilaryngeal tube and the hypopharynx for the sustained German vowels /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, and /u/ by thirteen male singer subjects who were at the beginning of their academic singing studies. Analysis was based on two different phonatory conditions: a natural, speech-like phonation and a singing phonation, like in classical singing. 3D models of the vocal tract were derived from magnetic resonance imaging and compared with long-term average spectrum analysis of audio recordings from the same subjects. Comparison of singing to the speech-like phonation, which served as reference, showed significant adjustments of the lower vocal tract: an average lowering of the larynx by 8 mm and an increase of the hypopharyngeal cross-sectional area (+ 21.9%) and volume (+ 16.8%). Changes in the analyzed epilaryngeal portion of the vocal tract were not significant. Consequently, lower larynx-to-hypopharynx area and volume ratios were found in singing compared to the speech-like phonation. All evaluated measures of the lower vocal tract varied significantly with vowel quality. Acoustically, an increase of high frequency energy in singing correlated with a wider hypopharyngeal area. The findings offer an explanation how classical male singers might succeed in producing a voice timbre with increased high frequency energy, creating a singer‘s formant cluster. PMID:26186691

  15. The irradiated larynx and voice: a perceptual study.

    PubMed

    Stoicheff, M L; Ciampi, A; Passi, J E; Fredrickson, J M

    1983-12-01

    The voices of patients with laryngeal cancer following a specific radiotherapy regimen were subjected to perceptual evaluation. Interval scaling of the severity of perceived dysphonia was completed for the voices of male patients sampled before and 1 year following radiation therapy and for a set of male controls. Eight listeners did this quantitative rating and also specified the predominant quality in each voice. The results indicated that the degree of dysphonia in the pretreatment group was highest. Radiotherapy decreased this dysphonia but not to the point that posttreatment voices were indistinguishable from those of normal subjects. Also, the voice qualities of laryngeal cancer patients shifted toward those of the control group following radiotherapy with over one half of the irradiated patients judged to have rough or normal qualities. PMID:6668937

  16. Aquatic Habitat Mapping with an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler: Considerations for Data Quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaeuman, David; Jacobson, Robert B.

    2005-01-01

    When mounted on a boat or other moving platform, acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) can be used to map a wide range of ecologically significant phenomena, including measures of fluid shear, turbulence, vorticity, and near-bed sediment transport. However, the instrument movement necessary for mapping applications can generate significant errors, many of which have not been inadequately described. This report focuses on the mechanisms by which moving-platform errors are generated, and quantifies their magnitudes under typical habitat-mapping conditions. The potential for velocity errors caused by mis-alignment of the instrument?s internal compass are widely recognized, but has not previously been quantified for moving instruments. Numerical analyses show that even relatively minor compass mis-alignments can produce significant velocity errors, depending on the ratio of absolute instrument velocity to the target velocity and on the relative directions of instrument and target motion. A maximum absolute instrument velocity of about 1 m/s is recommended for most mapping applications. Lower velocities are appropriate when making bed velocity measurements, an emerging application that makes use of ADCP bottom-tracking to measure the velocity of sediment particles at the bed. The mechanisms by which heterogeneities in the flow velocity field generate horizontal velocities errors are also quantified, and some basic limitations in the effectiveness of standard error-detection criteria for identifying these errors are described. Bed velocity measurements may be particularly vulnerable to errors caused by spatial variability in the sediment transport field.

  17. [Diagnostics and therapy in professional voice-users].

    PubMed

    Richter, B; Echternach, M

    2010-04-01

    Voice is one of the most important instruments for expression and communication in humans. Dysphonia remains very frequent. Generally people in voice-intensive professions, such as teachers, call center employees, singers and actors suffer from these complaints. In recent years methods have been developed which facilitate appropriate diagnosis and therapy, based on the criteria of evidence based medicine, in voice patients appropriate to their degree of disease. The basic protocol of the European Laryngological Society offers a standardized evaluation of multidimensional voice parameters. In our own patient collective there were statistically significant improvements in voice quality, according to a pre/post mean value comparison, in both phonomicrosurgical (n=45) and voice therapy (n=30) patients in relation to RBH, DSI and VHI. PMID:20127301

  18. Speech rehabilitation using a voice prostheses following laryngectomy.

    PubMed

    Kramp, B; Boehm, F; Fischer, A L

    2000-01-01

    The most serious consequence for patients following laryngectomy is the restriction of verbal communication. Since the introduction of laryngectomy significant concerns have already been focused on the field of speech rehabilitation. The operational procedures for the speech rehabilitation include training of the oesophageal voice speech and the voice prostheses. Speech prostheses are available in our hospital since 1983. The speech quality of the speech prostheses is compared with the classical oesophageal voice or to the voice by means of a Provox speech help. Bacteriological and mycological colonisation as a function of the length of implantation are defined. Our approach to the voice rehabilitation after a laryngectomy by use of a spacer during the laryngectomy has proven successful. As a result patients do not fall into a "hole" of non verbal communication. The aim of our efforts is always to create a functioning oesophageal voice after leaving the care of the hospital. PMID:11265379

  19. Spectral Analysis of the Voice in Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albertini, G.; Bonassi, S.; Dall'Armi, V.; Giachetti, I.; Giaquinto, S.; Mignano, M.

    2010-01-01

    The voice quality of individuals with Down Syndrome (DS) is generally described as husky, monotonous and raucous. On the other hand, the voice of DS children is characterized by breathiness, roughness, and nasality and is typically low pitched. However, research on phonation and intonation in these participants is limited. The present study was…

  20. An Evaluation of Residue Features as Correlates of Voice Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prosek, Robert A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the correlations of residue features with some perceptual properties of voice disorders. Results suggested that residue features may be useful in assessing the degree of vocal impairment, but use of residue features as correlates of voice quality requires further research. (Author/DB)

  1. An Acoustical and Physiological Investigation of the Arabic /E/.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ani, Salman H.

    Using acoustical evidence from spectrograms and physiological evidence from X-ray sound films, it appears that the most common allophone for the Arabic voiced pharyngeal fricative, at least in Iraqi, is a voiceless stop, and not a voiced fricative, as many believe. The author considers the phoneme in different environments and describes its…

  2. Speakers' comfort and voice level variation in classrooms: laboratory research.

    PubMed

    Pelegrín-García, David; Brunskog, Jonas

    2012-07-01

    Teachers adjust their voice levels under different classroom acoustics conditions, even in the absence of background noise. Laboratory experiments have been conducted in order to understand further this relationship and to determine optimum room acoustic conditions for speaking. Under simulated acoustic environments, talkers do modify their voice levels linearly with the measure voice support, and the slope of this relationship is referred to as room effect. The magnitude of the room effect depends highly on the instruction used and on the individuals. Group-wise, the average room effect ranges from -0.93 dB/dB, with free speech, to -0.1 dB/dB with other less demanding communication tasks as reading and talking at short distances. The room effect for some individuals can be as strong as -1.7 dB/dB. A questionnaire investigation showed that the acoustic comfort for talking in classrooms, in the absence of background noise, is correlated to the decay times derived from an impulse response measured from the mouth to the ears of a talker, and that there is a maximum of preference for decay times between 0.4 and 0.5 s. Teachers with self-reported voice problems prefer higher decay times to speak in than their healthy colleagues. PMID:22779474

  3. Voicing and Devoicing Assimilation of French /s/ and /z/

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelli-Beruh, Nassima B.

    2012-01-01

    The present acoustic-phonetic study explores whether voicing and devoicing assimilations of French fricatives are equivalent in magnitude and whether they operate similarly (i.e., complete vs. gradient, obligatory vs. optional, regressive vs. progressive). It concurrently assesses the contribution of speakers' articulation rate to the proportion…

  4. Voice Source Characteristics of Male and Female Speakers of French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Rosalind A. M.

    1996-01-01

    A study investigated the realization of voicing contrasts ("breathiness") in plosive consonants produced by young French adults, particularly as they differ in males and females. Data came from acoustic analysis of recordings of nine informants reading lists of monosyllabic words with initial plosive consonants in isolation and in the content,…

  5. Fricative Consonants: AN Articulatory, Acoustic, and Systems Study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Shrikanth S.

    1995-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of the articulatory and acoustic details of human speech is crucial for better understanding and modeling of our speech production mechanisms. Such knowledge is important for the development of high-quality speech synthesis, low bit rate speech coding, and improved automatic speech recognition strategies. This dissertation addresses the analysis and modeling of fricatives, a class of speech sounds characterized by turbulence generation in the vocal tract. Extensive data were collected using novel measurement techniques from four phonetically-trained native talkers of American English. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provided a detailed characterization of the 3D geometry of the human vocal-tract shapes and dimensions. Dynamic electropalatography (EPG) was useful for analyzing inter - and intra-speaker variabilities while high-quality recordings provided acoustic data necessary for modeling. Results showed similarities in the general vocal -tract shapes and the corresponding area-function patterns, across subjects. The vocal-tract dimensions showed, however, significant inter-subject differences which are related to differences in the corresponding acoustic spectra. These differences are attributed to variabilities both in the individual's oral morphology and in the way a particular consonant may be articulated. Distinct tongue body shapes were associated with the different fricative places of articulation. For example, the anterior tongue body shapes were concave for the alveolar fricatives and flat/convex in the postalveolars, implying differences in their aerodynamics. Voiced lingual fricatives showed a tendency towards enlarged supraglottal volumes due to tongue-root advancement. Results of the acoustic modeling indicate that a linear source-filter model is fairly adequate for capturing the essential spectral characteristics of sustained fricatives below 10 kHz. The hybrid source models employed a combination of acoustic monopole and dipole

  6. Relation of perceived breathiness to laryngeal kinematics and acoustic measures based on computational modeling

    PubMed Central

    Samlan, Robin A.; Story, Brad H.; Bunton, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine 1) how specific vocal fold structural and vibratory features relate to breathy voice quality and 2) the relation of perceived breathiness to four acoustic correlates of breathiness. Method A computational, kinematic model of the vocal fold medial surfaces was used to specify features of vocal fold structure and vibration in a manner consistent with breathy voice. Four model parameters were altered: vocal process separation, surface bulging, vibratory nodal point, and epilaryngeal constriction. Twelve naïve listeners rated breathiness of 364 samples relative to a reference. The degree of breathiness was then compared to 1) the underlying kinematic profile and 2) four acoustic measures: cepstral peak prominence (CPP), harmonics-to-noise ratio, and two measures of spectral slope. Results Vocal process separation alone accounted for 61.4% of the variance in perceptual rating. Adding nodal point ratio and bulging to the equation increased the explained variance to 88.7%. The acoustic measure CPP accounted for 86.7% of the variance in perceived breathiness, and explained variance increased to 92.6% with the addition of one spectral slope measure. Conclusions Breathiness ratings were best explained kinematically by the degree of vocal process separation and acoustically by CPP. PMID:23785184

  7. Establishing Validity of the Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (CAPE-V)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zraick, Richard I.; Kempster, Gail B.; Connor, Nadine P.; Thibeault, Susan; Klaben, Bernice K.; Bursac, Zoran; Thrush, Carol R.; Glaze, Leslie E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (CAPE-V) was developed to provide a protocol and form for clinicians to use when assessing the voice quality of adults with voice disorders (Kempster, Gerratt, Verdolini Abbott, Barkmeier-Kramer, & Hillman, 2009). This study examined the reliability and the empirical validity of the…

  8. Subjective evaluation of speech and noise in learning environments in the realm of classroom acoustics: Results from laboratory and field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meis, Markus; Nocke, Christian; Hofmann, Simone; Becker, Bernhard

    2005-04-01

    The impact of different acoustical conditions in learning environments on noise annoyance and the evaluation of speech quality were tested in a series of three experiments. In Experiment 1 (n=79) the auralization of seven classrooms with reverberation times from 0.55 to 3.21 s [average between 250 Hz to 2 kHz] served to develop a Semantic Differential, evaluating a simulated teacher's voice. Four factors were found: acoustical comfort, roughness, sharpness, and loudness. In Experiment 2, the effects of two classroom renovations were examined from a holistic perspective. The rooms were treated acoustically with acoustic ceilings (RT=0.5 s [250 Hz-2 kHz]) and muffling floor materials as well as non-acoustically with a new lighting system and color design. The results indicate that pupils (n=61) in renovated classrooms judged the simulated voice more positively, were less annoyed from the noise in classrooms, and were more motivated to participate in the lessons. In Experiment 3 the sound environments from six different lecture rooms (RT=0.8 to 1.39 s [250 Hz-2 kHz]) in two Universities of Oldenburg were evaluated by 321 students during the lectures. Evidence found supports the assumption that acoustical comfort in rooms is dependent on frequency for rooms with higher reverberation times.

  9. Computerized Analysis of Acoustic Characteristics of Patients with Internal Nasal Valve Collapse Before and After Functional Rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Fariba; Omrani, Mohammad Reza; Abnavi, Fateme; Mojiri, Fariba; Golabbakhsh, Marzieh; Barati, Sohrab; Mahaki, Behzad

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic analysis of sounds produced during speech provides significant information about the physiology of larynx and vocal tract. The analysis of voice power spectrum is a fundamental sensitive method of acoustic assessment that provides valuable information about the voice source and characteristics of vocal tract resonance cavities. The changes in long-term average spectrum (LTAS) spectral tilt and harmony to noise ratio (HNR) were analyzed to assess the voice quality before and after functional rhinoplasty in patients with internal nasal valve collapse. Before and 3 months after functional rhinoplasty, 12 participants were evaluated and HNR and LTAS spectral tilt in /a/ and /i/ vowels were estimated. It was seen that an increase in HNR and a decrease in LTAS spectral tilt existed after surgery. Mean LTAS spectral tilt in vowel /a/ decreased from 2.37 ± 1.04 to 2.28 ± 1.17 (P = 0.388), and it was decreased from 4.16 ± 1.65 to 2.73 ± 0.69 in vowel /i/ (P = 0.008). Mean HNR in the vowel /a/ increased from 20.71 ± 3.93 to 25.06 ± 2.67 (P = 0.002), and it was increased from 21.28 ± 4.11 to 25.26 ± 3.94 in vowel /i/ (P = 0.002). Modification of the vocal tract caused the vocal cords to close sufficiently, and this showed that although rhinoplasty did not affect the larynx directly, it changes the structure of the vocal tract and consequently the resonance of voice production. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in voice parameters after functional rhinoplasty in patients with internal nasal valve collapse by computerized analysis of acoustic characteristics. PMID:26955564

  10. Computerized Analysis of Acoustic Characteristics of Patients with Internal Nasal Valve Collapse Before and After Functional Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Fariba; Omrani, Mohammad Reza; Abnavi, Fateme; Mojiri, Fariba; Golabbakhsh, Marzieh; Barati, Sohrab; Mahaki, Behzad

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic analysis of sounds produced during speech provides significant information about the physiology of larynx and vocal tract. The analysis of voice power spectrum is a fundamental sensitive method of acoustic assessment that provides valuable information about the voice source and characteristics of vocal tract resonance cavities. The changes in long-term average spectrum (LTAS) spectral tilt and harmony to noise ratio (HNR) were analyzed to assess the voice quality before and after functional rhinoplasty in patients with internal nasal valve collapse. Before and 3 months after functional rhinoplasty, 12 participants were evaluated and HNR and LTAS spectral tilt in /a/ and /i/ vowels were estimated. It was seen that an increase in HNR and a decrease in LTAS spectral tilt existed after surgery. Mean LTAS spectral tilt in vowel /a/ decreased from 2.37 ± 1.04 to 2.28 ± 1.17 (P = 0.388), and it was decreased from 4.16 ± 1.65 to 2.73 ± 0.69 in vowel /i/ (P = 0.008). Mean HNR in the vowel /a/ increased from 20.71 ± 3.93 to 25.06 ± 2.67 (P = 0.002), and it was increased from 21.28 ± 4.11 to 25.26 ± 3.94 in vowel /i/ (P = 0.002). Modification of the vocal tract caused the vocal cords to close sufficiently, and this showed that although rhinoplasty did not affect the larynx directly, it changes the structure of the vocal tract and consequently the resonance of voice production. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in voice parameters after functional rhinoplasty in patients with internal nasal valve collapse by computerized analysis of acoustic characteristics. PMID:26955564

  11. Improving Speaker Recognition by Biometric Voice Deconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Mazaira-Fernandez, Luis Miguel; Álvarez-Marquina, Agustín; Gómez-Vilda, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Person identification, especially in critical environments, has always been a subject of great interest. However, it has gained a new dimension in a world threatened by a new kind of terrorism that uses social networks (e.g., YouTube) to broadcast its message. In this new scenario, classical identification methods (such as fingerprints or face recognition) have been forcedly replaced by alternative biometric characteristics such as voice, as sometimes this is the only feature available. The present study benefits from the advances achieved during last years in understanding and modeling voice production. The paper hypothesizes that a gender-dependent characterization of speakers combined with the use of a set of features derived from the components, resulting from the deconstruction of the voice into its glottal source and vocal tract estimates, will enhance recognition rates when compared to classical approaches. A general description about the main hypothesis and the methodology followed to extract the gender-dependent extended biometric parameters is given. Experimental validation is carried out both on a highly controlled acoustic condition database, and on a mobile phone network recorded under non-controlled acoustic conditions. PMID:26442245

  12. Bioengineered vocal fold mucosa for voice restoration.

    PubMed

    Ling, Changying; Li, Qiyao; Brown, Matthew E; Kishimoto, Yo; Toya, Yutaka; Devine, Erin E; Choi, Kyeong-Ok; Nishimoto, Kohei; Norman, Ian G; Tsegyal, Tenzin; Jiang, Jack J; Burlingham, William J; Gunasekaran, Sundaram; Smith, Lloyd M; Frey, Brian L; Welham, Nathan V

    2015-11-18

    Patients with voice impairment caused by advanced vocal fold (VF) fibrosis or tissue loss have few treatment options. A transplantable, bioengineered VF mucosa would address the individual and societal costs of voice-related communication loss. Such a tissue must be biomechanically capable of aerodynamic-to-acoustic energy transfer and high-frequency vibration and physiologically capable of maintaining a barrier against the airway lumen. We isolated primary human VF fibroblasts and epithelial cells and cocultured them under organotypic conditions. The resulting engineered mucosae showed morphologic features of native tissue, proteome-level evidence of mucosal morphogenesis and emerging extracellular matrix complexity, and rudimentary barrier function in vitro. When grafted into canine larynges ex vivo, the mucosae generated vibratory behavior and acoustic output that were indistinguishable from those of native VF tissue. When grafted into humanized mice in vivo, the mucosae survived and were well tolerated by the human adaptive immune system. This tissue engineering approach has the potential to restore voice function in patients with otherwise untreatable VF mucosal disease. PMID:26582902

  13. Improving Speaker Recognition by Biometric Voice Deconstruction.

    PubMed

    Mazaira-Fernandez, Luis Miguel; Álvarez-Marquina, Agustín; Gómez-Vilda, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Person identification, especially in critical environments, has always been a subject of great interest. However, it has gained a new dimension in a world threatened by a new kind of terrorism that uses social networks (e.g., YouTube) to broadcast its message. In this new scenario, classical identification methods (such as fingerprints or face recognition) have been forcedly replaced by alternative biometric characteristics such as voice, as sometimes this is the only feature available. The present study benefits from the advances achieved during last years in understanding and modeling voice production. The paper hypothesizes that a gender-dependent characterization of speakers combined with the use of a set of features derived from the components, resulting from the deconstruction of the voice into its glottal source and vocal tract estimates, will enhance recognition rates when compared to classical approaches. A general description about the main hypothesis and the methodology followed to extract the gender-dependent extended biometric parameters is given. Experimental validation is carried out both on a highly controlled acoustic condition database, and on a mobile phone network recorded under non-controlled acoustic conditions. PMID:26442245

  14. Nondestructive Evaluation of Leather Quality by Means of Acoustic Emission and Airborne Ultrasonics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quality control and assurance procedures in the leather industry are currently achieved by destructive methods performed on finished leather in order to determine material properties. These destructive tests lessen the square footage of the material since they are performed prior to leather being m...

  15. Impact of Aberrant Acoustic Properties on the Perception of Sound Quality in Electrolarynx Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzner, Geoffrey S.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    A large percentage of patients who have undergone laryngectomy to treat advanced laryngeal cancer rely on an electrolarynx (EL) to communicate verbally. Although serviceable, EL speech is plagued by shortcomings in both sound quality and intelligibility. This study sought to better quantify the relative contributions of previously identified…

  16. Voice Outcomes of Transoral Laser Microsurgery of the Larynx.

    PubMed

    Hartl, Dana M; Laoufi, Samia; Brasnu, Daniel F

    2015-08-01

    Transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) is the mainstay in the treatment of early (TisT1T2) glottic cancer. Current knowledge concerning voice quality and voice-related quality of life in patients treated using TLM is based on small cohort studies using various instruments to evaluate these functional results. The bulk of the literature indicates that subjective and objective measurements of voice quality can return to normal or almost normal values after TLM, generally after 6 to 12 months and particularly after cordectomy types I, II, and III. PMID:26096137

  17. Start/End Delays of Voiced and Unvoiced Speech Signals

    SciTech Connect

    Herrnstein, A

    1999-09-24

    Recent experiments using low power EM-radar like sensors (e.g, GEMs) have demonstrated a new method for measuring vocal fold activity and the onset times of voiced speech, as vocal fold contact begins to take place. Similarly the end time of a voiced speech segment can be measured. Secondly it appears that in most normal uses of American English speech, unvoiced-speech segments directly precede or directly follow voiced-speech segments. For many applications, it is useful to know typical duration times of these unvoiced speech segments. A corpus, assembled earlier of spoken ''Timit'' words, phrases, and sentences and recorded using simultaneously measured acoustic and EM-sensor glottal signals, from 16 male speakers, was used for this study. By inspecting the onset (or end) of unvoiced speech, using the acoustic signal, and the onset (or end) of voiced speech using the EM sensor signal, the average duration times for unvoiced segments preceding onset of vocalization were found to be 300ms, and for following segments, 500ms. An unvoiced speech period is then defined in time, first by using the onset of the EM-sensed glottal signal, as the onset-time marker for the voiced speech segment and end marker for the unvoiced segment. Then, by subtracting 300ms from the onset time mark of voicing, the unvoiced speech segment start time is found. Similarly, the times for a following unvoiced speech segment can be found. While data of this nature have proven to be useful for work in our laboratory, a great deal of additional work remains to validate such data for use with general populations of users. These procedures have been useful for applying optimal processing algorithms over time segments of unvoiced, voiced, and non-speech acoustic signals. For example, these data appear to be of use in speaker validation, in vocoding, and in denoising algorithms.

  18. [Voice disturbances in young children with gastroesophageal reflux disease].

    PubMed

    Viaz'menov, E O; Radtsig, E Iu; Bogomil'skiĭ, M R; Vodolazov, S Iu; Poliudov, S A; Myzin, A V

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study voice disturbances in young children with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Diagnostic algorithm included direct transnasal examination of the larynx using an Olympus fibroscope (Japan), fibrogastroduodenoscopy, 24-hour potentiometry, biopsy of oesophageal mucosa, and acoustic analysis of the voice. A total of 26 children at the age from 8 months to 3 years with voice disturbances were examined, including 12 children below one year, 5 between 1 and 2 years, and 9 between 2 and 3 years. The main signs of laryngoesophageal reflux were dysphonia, oedema, hyperemia, and altered light reflex of mucous membrane of arytenoid cartilages, interarytenoid space, and vocal cords. It is concluded that voice disturbances are the most common symptoms of laryngoesophageal reflux in young children which necessitates the earliest possible endoscopic study of the larynx in all cases of dysphonia. PMID:20517277

  19. Changing Voices, Changing Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friar, Kendra Kay

    1999-01-01

    Addresses the 1500-year-old belief that adolescents should not sing once their voice changes. Reviews the advances in changing-voice theory by Duncan McKenzie, Irwin Cooper, John Cooksey, Anthony Barresi, Lynn Gackle, and Ken Phillips that question this traditional belief in choral education and help adolescent boys and girls sing "through the…

  20. Borderline Space for Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, Denise

    2012-01-01

    Being on the borderline as a student in higher education is not always negative, to do with marginalisation, exclusion and having a voice that is vulnerable. Paradoxically, being on the edge also has positive connections with integration, inclusion and having a voice that is strong. Alternative understandings of the concept of borderline space can…

  1. Multiple levels of linguistic and paralinguistic features contribute to voice recognition.

    PubMed

    Zarate, Jean Mary; Tian, Xing; Woods, Kevin J P; Poeppel, David

    2015-01-01

    Voice or speaker recognition is critical in a wide variety of social contexts. In this study, we investigated the contributions of acoustic, phonological, lexical, and semantic information toward voice recognition. Native English speaking participants were trained to recognize five speakers in five conditions: non-speech, Mandarin, German, pseudo-English, and English. We showed that voice recognition significantly improved as more information became available, from purely acoustic features in non-speech to additional phonological information varying in familiarity. Moreover, we found that the recognition performance is transferable between training and testing in phonologically familiar conditions (German, pseudo-English, and English), but not in unfamiliar (Mandarin) or non-speech conditions. These results provide evidence suggesting that bottom-up acoustic analysis and top-down influence from phonological processing collaboratively govern voice recognition. PMID:26088739

  2. Multiple levels of linguistic and paralinguistic features contribute to voice recognition

    PubMed Central

    Mary Zarate, Jean; Tian, Xing; Woods, Kevin J. P.; Poeppel, David

    2015-01-01

    Voice or speaker recognition is critical in a wide variety of social contexts. In this study, we investigated the contributions of acoustic, phonological, lexical, and semantic information toward voice recognition. Native English speaking participants were trained to recognize five speakers in five conditions: non-speech, Mandarin, German, pseudo-English, and English. We showed that voice recognition significantly improved as more information became available, from purely acoustic features in non-speech to additional phonological information varying in familiarity. Moreover, we found that the recognition performance is transferable between training and testing in phonologically familiar conditions (German, pseudo-English, and English), but not in unfamiliar (Mandarin) or non-speech conditions. These results provide evidence suggesting that bottom-up acoustic analysis and top-down influence from phonological processing collaboratively govern voice recognition. PMID:26088739

  3. Using Ambulatory Voice Monitoring to Investigate Common Voice Disorders: Research Update

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Daryush D.; Van Stan, Jarrad H.; Zañartu, Matías; Ghassemi, Marzyeh; Guttag, John V.; Espinoza, Víctor M.; Cortés, Juan P.; Cheyne, Harold A.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Many common voice disorders are chronic or recurring conditions that are likely to result from inefficient and/or abusive patterns of vocal behavior, referred to as vocal hyperfunction. The clinical management of hyperfunctional voice disorders would be greatly enhanced by the ability to monitor and quantify detrimental vocal behaviors during an individual’s activities of daily life. This paper provides an update on ongoing work that uses a miniature accelerometer on the neck surface below the larynx to collect a large set of ambulatory data on patients with hyperfunctional voice disorders (before and after treatment) and matched-control subjects. Three types of analysis approaches are being employed in an effort to identify the best set of measures for differentiating among hyperfunctional and normal patterns of vocal behavior: (1) ambulatory measures of voice use that include vocal dose and voice quality correlates, (2) aerodynamic measures based on glottal airflow estimates extracted from the accelerometer signal using subject-specific vocal system models, and (3) classification based on machine learning and pattern recognition approaches that have been used successfully in analyzing long-term recordings of other physiological signals. Preliminary results demonstrate the potential for ambulatory voice monitoring to improve the diagnosis and treatment of common hyperfunctional voice disorders. PMID:26528472

  4. Voice data mining for laryngeal pathology assessment.

    PubMed

    Hemmerling, Daria; Skalski, Andrzej; Gajda, Janusz

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of different methods of speech signal analysis in the detection of voice pathologies. Firstly, an initial vector was created consisting of 28 parameters extracted from time, frequency and cepstral domain describing the human voice signal based on the analysis of sustained vowels /a/, /i/ and /u/ all at high, low and normal pitch. Afterwards we used a linear feature extraction technique (principal component analysis), which enabled a reduction in the number of parameters and choose the most effective acoustic features describing the speech signal. We have also performed non-linear data transformation which was calculated using kernel principal components. The results of the presented methods for normal and pathological cases will be revealed and discussed in this paper. The initial and extracted feature vectors were classified using the k-means clustering and the random forest classifier. We found that reasonably good classification accuracies could be achieved by selecting appropriate features. We obtained accuracies of up to 100% for classification of healthy versus pathology voice using random forest classification for female and male recordings. These results may assist in the feature development of automated detection systems for diagnosis of patients with symptoms of pathological voice. PMID:26471193

  5. Tracking Voice Change after Thyroidectomy: Application of Spectral/Cepstral Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awan, Shaheen N.; Helou, Leah B.; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Solomon, Nancy Pearl

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the utility of perioperative spectral and cepstral acoustic analyses to monitor voice change after thyroidectomy. Perceptual and acoustic analyses were conducted on speech samples (sustained vowel /[alpha]/ and CAPE-V sentences) provided by 70 participants (36 women and 34 men) at four study time points: prior to thyroid…

  6. Effect of testosterone therapy on the female voice

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, R.; York, A.; Dimitrakakis, C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This prospective study was designed to investigate the effect of testosterone, delivered by subcutaneous implants, on the female voice. Methods Ten women who had opted for testosterone therapy were recruited for voice analysis. Voices were recorded prior to treatment and at 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months while on testosterone therapy. Acoustic samples were collected with subjects reading a sentence, reading a paragraph, and participating in a conversation. Significant changes in the voice over time were investigated using a repeated-measures analysis of variance with the fundamental frequency (F 0) as a response variable. Demographic variables associated with characteristics of the voice were assessed. Results There were no significant differences in average F 0 related to smoking history, menopausal status, weight, or body mass index. There was no difference in average fundamental speaking frequency (sentence, paragraph, conversation) between the pre-treatment group and any post-treatment group at 3 and 12 months. There was an increase in sentence speech F 0 at 6 months. Two of three patients with lower than expected F 0 at baseline improved on testosterone therapy. Conclusion Therapeutic levels of testosterone, delivered by subcutaneous implant, had no adverse affect on the female voice including lowering or deepening of the voice. PMID:26857354

  7. In vitro experimental investigation of voice production

    PubMed Central

    Horáčcek, Jaromír; Brücker, Christoph; Becker, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The process of human phonation involves a complex interaction between the physical domains of structural dynamics, fluid flow, and acoustic sound production and radiation. Given the high degree of nonlinearity of these processes, even small anatomical or physiological disturbances can significantly affect the voice signal. In the worst cases, patients can lose their voice and hence the normal mode of speech communication. To improve medical therapies and surgical techniques it is very important to understand better the physics of the human phonation process. Due to the limited experimental access to the human larynx, alternative strategies, including artificial vocal folds, have been developed. The following review gives an overview of experimental investigations of artificial vocal folds within the last 30 years. The models are sorted into three groups: static models, externally driven models, and self-oscillating models. The focus is on the different models of the human vocal folds and on the ways in which they have been applied. PMID:23181007

  8. Voice Savers for Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookman, Starr

    2012-01-01

    Music teachers are in a class all their own when it comes to voice use. These elite vocal athletes require stamina, strength, and flexibility from their voices day in, day out for hours at a time. Voice rehabilitation clinics and research show that music education ranks high among the professionals most commonly affected by voice problems.…

  9. MOOD STATE PREDICTION FROM SPEECH OF VARYING ACOUSTIC QUALITY FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH BIPOLAR DISORDER

    PubMed Central

    Gideon, John; Provost, Emily Mower; McInnis, Melvin

    2016-01-01

    Speech contains patterns that can be altered by the mood of an individual. There is an increasing focus on automated and distributed methods to collect and monitor speech from large groups of patients suffering from mental health disorders. However, as the scope of these collections increases, the variability in the data also increases. This variability is due in part to the range in the quality of the devices, which in turn affects the quality of the recorded data, negatively impacting the accuracy of automatic assessment. It is necessary to mitigate variability effects in order to expand the impact of these technologies. This paper explores speech collected from phone recordings for analysis of mood in individuals with bipolar disorder. Two different phones with varying amounts of clipping, loudness, and noise are employed. We describe methodologies for use during preprocessing, feature extraction, and data modeling to correct these differences and make the devices more comparable. The results demonstrate that these pipeline modifications result in statistically significantly higher performance, which highlights the potential of distributed mental health systems. PMID:27570493

  10. A "voice inversion effect?".

    PubMed

    Bédard, Catherine; Belin, Pascal

    2004-07-01

    Voice is the carrier of speech but is also an "auditory face" rich in information on the speaker's identity and affective state. Three experiments explored the possibility of a "voice inversion effect," by analogy to the classical "face inversion effect," which could support the hypothesis of a voice-specific module. Experiment 1 consisted of a gender identification task on two syllables pronounced by 90 speakers (boys, girls, men, and women). Experiment 2 consisted of a speaker discrimination task on pairs of syllables (8 men and 8 women). Experiment 3 consisted of an instrument discrimination task on pairs of melodies (8 string and 8 wind instruments). In all three experiments, stimuli were presented in 4 conditions: (1) no inversion; (2) temporal inversion (e.g., backwards speech); (3) frequency inversion centered around 4000 Hz; and (4) around 2500 Hz. Results indicated a significant decrease in performance caused by sound inversion, with a much stronger effect for frequency than for temporal inversion. Interestingly, although frequency inversion markedly affected timbre for both voices and instruments, subjects' performance was still above chance. However, performance at instrument discrimination was much higher than for voices, preventing comparison of inversion effects for voices vs. non-vocal stimuli. Additional experiments will be necessary to conclude on the existence of a possible "voice inversion effect." PMID:15177788

  11. Acoustic differences among casual, conversational, and read speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinnow, DeAnna

    Speech is a complex behavior that allows speakers to use many variations to satisfy the demands connected with multiple speaking environments. Speech research typically obtains speech samples in a controlled laboratory setting using read material, yet anecdotal observations of such speech, particularly from talkers with a speech and language impairment, have identified a "performance" effect in the produced speech which masks the characteristics of impaired speech outside of the lab (Goberman, Recker, & Parveen, 2010). The aim of the current study was to investigate acoustic differences among laboratory read, laboratory conversational, and casual speech through well-defined speech tasks in the laboratory and in talkers' natural environments. Eleven healthy research participants performed lab recording tasks (19 read sentences and a dialogue about their life) and collected natural-environment recordings of themselves over 3-day periods using portable recorders. Segments were analyzed for articulatory, voice, and prosodic acoustic characteristics using computer software and hand counting. The current study results indicate that lab-read speech was significantly different from casual speech: greater articulation range, improved voice quality measures, lower speech rate, and lower mean pitch. One implication of the results is that different laboratory techniques may be beneficial in obtaining speech samples that are more like casual speech, thus making it easier to correctly analyze abnormal speech characteristics with fewer errors.

  12. Biphonation in voice signals

    SciTech Connect

    Herzel, H.; Reuter, R.

    1996-06-01

    Irregularities in voiced speech are often observed as a consequence of vocal fold lesions, paralyses, and other pathological conditions. Many of these instabilities are related to the intrinsic nonlinearities in the vibrations of the vocal folds. In this paper, a specific nonlinear phenomenon is discussed: The appearance of two independent fundamental frequencies termed biphonation. Several narrow-band spectrograms are presented showing biphonation in signals from voice patients, a newborn cry, a singer, and excised larynx experiments. Finally, possible physiological mechanisms of instabilities of the voice source are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Changes in F2-F1 as a voicing cue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Willis J.; Coren, Amy E.

    2003-10-01

    The interaction between formant transitions and vowel length was measured with respect to syllable final voicing distinctions. A synthesized ad VC token of 360 ms was edited in 5-ms intervals from either side, onset or offset, so that 260 ms were preserved. Ten subjects were asked to make final voicing judgments for the words ``odd'' and ``ought'' ([ad] vs [at]) when hearing the 20 edited tokens. Each token was presented five times, randomly, for a total of 1000 judgements. Results showed an overwhelming number of voiced responses when the entire offset was preserved and symmetrical voiceless results with the deletion of offset. A follow-up experiment utilized a similarly synthesized token of 460 ms. The results when adding 100 ms onto the vowel were insignificantly different than the results acquired for formant transitions, suggesting the latter are a more important cue for syllable final voicing distinctions. These findings contradict previous vowel length conclusions [L. J. Raphael, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 51, 1296-1303 (1972)] and further suggest that in addition to F1 [V. Summers, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 84, 485-492 (1988)], F2 transitions are also an important cue to final voicing distinctions in low vowel contexts.

  14. The maximum intelligible range of the human voice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boren, Braxton

    This dissertation examines the acoustics of the spoken voice at high levels and the maximum number of people that could hear such a voice unamplified in the open air. In particular, it examines an early auditory experiment by Benjamin Franklin which sought to determine the maximum intelligible crowd for the Anglican preacher George Whitefield in the eighteenth century. Using Franklin's description of the experiment and a noise source on Front Street, the geometry and diffraction effects of such a noise source are examined to more precisely pinpoint Franklin's position when Whitefield's voice ceased to be intelligible. Based on historical maps, drawings, and prints, the geometry and material of Market Street is constructed as a computer model which is then used to construct an acoustic cone tracing model. Based on minimal values of the Speech Transmission Index (STI) at Franklin's position, Whitefield's on-axis Sound Pressure Level (SPL) at 1 m is determined, leading to estimates centering around 90 dBA. Recordings are carried out on trained actors and singers to determine their maximum time-averaged SPL at 1 m. This suggests that the greatest average SPL achievable by the human voice is 90-91 dBA, similar to the median estimates for Whitefield's voice. The sites of Whitefield's largest crowds are acoustically modeled based on historical evidence and maps. Based on Whitefield's SPL, the minimal STI value, and the crowd's background noise, this allows a prediction of the minimally intelligible area for each site. These yield maximum crowd estimates of 50,000 under ideal conditions, while crowds of 20,000 to 30,000 seem more reasonable when the crowd was reasonably quiet and Whitefield's voice was near 90 dBA.

  15. Finding Your Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Bonnie

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author offers ways on how to find a voice when telling or sharing stories in print or in person. To find a voice, someone must: (1) Trust themselves; (2) Trust their audience whether they know they can trust them or not; (3) Be respectful in their inventions; (4) Listen to and read the stories of others; (5) Make mistakes; (6)…

  16. MSAT broadcast voice services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, John W.

    1995-01-01

    Later this year the MSAT satellite network will be delivering mobile and remote communications throughout North America. Its services include a family of Broadcast Voice Services, the first of which will be MSAT Dispatch Radio, which will extend the features and functionality of terrestrial Specialized Mobile Radio (SMR) to the entire continent. This paper describes the MSAT Broadcast Voice Services in general, and MSAT Dispatch Radio in particular, and provides examples of commercial and government applications.

  17. Seeing a voice: Rudolph Koenig's instruments for studying vowel sounds.

    PubMed

    Pantalony, David

    2004-01-01

    The human voice was one of the more elusive acoustical phenomena to study in the 19th century and therefore a crucial test of Hermann von Helmholtz's new theory of sound. This article describes the origins of instruments used to study vowel sounds: synthesizers for production, resonators for detection, and manometric flames for visual display. Instrument maker Rudolph Koenig played a leading role in transforming Helmholtz's ideas into apparatus. In particular, he was the first to make the human voice visible for research and teaching. Koenig's work reveals the rich context of science, craft traditions, experiment, demonstration culture, and commerce in his Paris workshop. PMID:15457810

  18. Dissociation of human and computer voices in the brain: evidence for a preattentive gestalt-like perception.

    PubMed

    Lattner, Sonja; Maess, Burkhard; Wang, Yunhua; Schauer, Michael; Alter, Kai; Friederici, Angela D

    2003-09-01

    We investigated the early ("preattentive") cortical processing of voice information, using the so-called "mismatch response". This brain potential allows inferences to be made about the sensory short-term store. Most importantly, the mismatch potential also provides information about the organization of long-term memory traces in the auditory system. Such traces have reliably been reported for phonemes. However, it is unclear whether they also exist for human voice information. To explore this issue, 10 healthy subjects were presented with a single word stimulus uttered by voices of different prototypicality (natural, manipulated, synthetic) in a mismatch experiment (stimulus duration 380 msec, onset-to-onset interval 900 msec). The event-related magnetic fields were recorded by a 148-channel whole-head magnetometer and a source current density modeling of the magnetic field data was performed using a minimum-norm estimate. Each deviating voice signal in a series of standard-voice stimuli evoked a mismatch response that was localized in temporal brain regions bilaterally. Increased mismatch related magnetic flux was observed in response to decreased prototypicality of a presented voice signal, but did not correspond to the acoustic similarity of standard voice and deviant voices. We, therefore, conclude that the mismatch activation predominantly reflects the ecological validity of the voice signals. We further demonstrate that the findings cannot be explained by mere acoustic feature processing, but rather point towards a holistic mapping of the incoming voice signal onto long-term representations in the auditory memory. PMID:12953302

  19. Prevalence, nature and risks of voice problems among public school teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rammage, Linda; Hodgson, Murray; Naylor, Charlie

    2005-04-01

    Voice problems among teachers represent a rising cause of teacher absenteeism, use of sick benefits, and stress among teachers and students. In British Columbia, the BC Teachers Federation and Workers Compensation Board are receiving increasing numbers of claims from teachers experiencing occupational voice problems and in the provincial voice clinic, the percentage of teachers in the clinic population is rising. Previous studies of teachers voice problems have typically had low return rates, which can bias the prevalence estimates, and have not incorporated standardized voice inventories, psychological inventories and acoustic measures. A survey study is in progress in B.C. to probe demographic, environmental, voice-use, health, psychological and personality issues that are thought to contribute to development of voice problems among teachers. To ensure validity of prevalence estimates by high return rates, on-site completion of questionnaires is being used in schools. Acoustical measures are also being made of representative classrooms, to determine the degree to which noise and reverberation contribute to voice problems among teachers.

  20. Subjective voice quality, communicative ability and swallowing after definitive radio(chemo)therapy, laryngectomy plus radio(chemo)therapy, or organ conservation surgery plus radio(chemo)therapy for laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Szuecs, Marcella; Kuhnt, Thomas; Punke, Christoph; Witt, Gabriele; Klautke, Gunther; Kramp, Burkhard; Hildebrandt, Guido

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective analysis focusses on the impact of therapy on perceived long-term post-cancer treatment function. A validated questionnaire including items and components for the assessment of communicative ability, quality of voice and swallowing was sent to 129 patients. All patients were treated between 1998 and 2007. A total of 76 patients (58.9%) with carcinoma of the larynx or hypopharynx replied to the questionnaire. Data was evaluated retrospectively. Therapy delivered was definitive radio(chemo)therapy (defchRT/RT) (21/76, 28%), laryngectomy + radio(chemo)therapy (LE + chRT/RT) (28/76, 37%), or larynx conservation surgery + radio(chemo)therapy (LCS + chRT/RT) (27/76, 36%). Radiotherapy was administered using 2D- or 3D-conformal planning. The most common concomitant chemotherapy delivered was cisplatin + 5FU. For statistical analyses of the components, averages were calculated and tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test and the U-test of Mann and Whitney. Differences were assessed by the Monte Carlo method or Fisher's exact test. The single item rates were compared with Fisher's exact test. Mean follow-up was 56.7 months (range, 8-130 months). After defchRT/RT, patients trended towards more substantial-strong hoarseness compared with LCS + chRT/RT (P = 0.2). After LE, patients were dissatisfied with their artificial larynx/electrolarynx and the tone of their voice (P = 0.3, P = 0.07) and communicative ability (P = 0.005, P = 0.008) compared with those treated with defchRT/RT and LCS + chRT/RT, respectively. Dysphagia and additional percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) feeding were more frequent after defchRT/RT in comparison with the other two groups (P < 0.05). Voice quality and communicative ability were slightly worse after defchRT/RT and LE + chRT/RT, but satisfying with all treatment modalities. Further development of the therapy approach is necessary to reduce long-term side effects, with measures of post-treatment function as important endpoints

  1. Subjective voice quality, communicative ability and swallowing after definitive radio(chemo)therapy, laryngectomy plus radio(chemo)therapy, or organ conservation surgery plus radio(chemo)therapy for laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Szuecs, Marcella; Kuhnt, Thomas; Punke, Christoph; Witt, Gabriele; Klautke, Gunther; Kramp, Burkhard; Hildebrandt, Guido

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective analysis focusses on the impact of therapy on perceived long-term post-cancer treatment function. A validated questionnaire including items and components for the assessment of communicative ability, quality of voice and swallowing was sent to 129 patients. All patients were treated between 1998 and 2007. A total of 76 patients (58.9%) with carcinoma of the larynx or hypopharynx replied to the questionnaire. Data was evaluated retrospectively. Therapy delivered was definitive radio(chemo)therapy (defchRT/RT) (21/76, 28%), laryngectomy + radio(chemo)therapy (LE + chRT/RT) (28/76, 37%), or larynx conservation surgery + radio(chemo)therapy (LCS + chRT/RT) (27/76, 36%). Radiotherapy was administered using 2D- or 3D-conformal planning. The most common concomitant chemotherapy delivered was cisplatin + 5FU. For statistical analyses of the components, averages were calculated and tested using the Kruskal–Wallis test and the U-test of Mann and Whitney. Differences were assessed by the Monte Carlo method or Fisher's exact test. The single item rates were compared with Fisher's exact test. Mean follow-up was 56.7 months (range, 8–130 months). After defchRT/RT, patients trended towards more substantial–strong hoarseness compared with LCS + chRT/RT (P = 0.2). After LE, patients were dissatisfied with their artificial larynx/electrolarynx and the tone of their voice (P = 0.3, P = 0.07) and communicative ability (P = 0.005, P = 0.008) compared with those treated with defchRT/RT and LCS + chRT/RT, respectively. Dysphagia and additional percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) feeding were more frequent after defchRT/RT in comparison with the other two groups (P < 0.05). Voice quality and communicative ability were slightly worse after defchRT/RT and LE + chRT/RT, but satisfying with all treatment modalities. Further development of the therapy approach is necessary to reduce long-term side effects, with measures of post-treatment function as important

  2. Cause-effect relationship between vocal fold physiology and voice production in a three-dimensional phonation model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaoyan

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study is to better understand the cause-effect relation between vocal fold physiology and the resulting vibration pattern and voice acoustics. Using a three-dimensional continuum model of phonation, the effects of changes in vocal fold stiffness, medial surface thickness in the vertical direction, resting glottal opening, and subglottal pressure on vocal fold vibration and different acoustic measures are investigated. The results show that the medial surface thickness has dominant effects on the vertical phase difference between the upper and lower margins of the medial surface, closed quotient, H1-H2, and higher-order harmonics excitation. The main effects of vocal fold approximation or decreasing resting glottal opening are to lower the phonation threshold pressure, reduce noise production, and increase the fundamental frequency. Increasing subglottal pressure is primarily responsible for vocal intensity increase but also leads to significant increase in noise production and an increased fundamental frequency. Increasing AP stiffness significantly increases the fundamental frequency and slightly reduces noise production. The interaction among vocal fold thickness, stiffness, approximation, and subglottal pressure in the control of F0, vocal intensity, and voice quality is discussed. PMID:27106298

  3. Improving Accuracy in Detecting Acoustic Onsets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duyck, Wouter; Anseel, Frederik; Szmalec, Arnaud; Mestdagh, Pascal; Tavernier, Antoine; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    In current cognitive psychology, naming latencies are commonly measured by electronic voice keys that detect when sound exceeds a certain amplitude threshold. However, recent research (e.g., K. Rastle & M. H. Davis, 2002) has shown that these devices are particularly inaccurate in precisely detecting acoustic onsets. In this article, the authors…

  4. The accuracy of a voice vote

    PubMed Central

    Titze, Ingo R.; Palaparthi, Anil

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy of a voice vote was addressed by systematically varying group size, individual voter loudness, and words that are typically used to express agreement or disagreement. Five judges rated the loudness of two competing groups in A-B comparison tasks. Acoustic analysis was performed to determine the sound energy level of each word uttered by each group. Results showed that individual voter differences in energy level can grossly alter group loudness and bias the vote. Unless some control is imposed on the sound level of individual voters, it is difficult to establish even a two-thirds majority, much less a simple majority. There is no symmetry in the bias created by unequal sound production of individuals. Soft voices do not bias the group loudness much, but loud voices do. The phonetic balance of the two words chosen (e.g., “yea” and “nay” as opposed to “aye” and “no”) seems to be less of an issue. PMID:24437776

  5. Atypical mismatch negativity in response to emotional voices in people with autism spectrum conditions.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yang-Teng; Cheng, Yawei

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) are characterized by heterogeneous impairments of social reciprocity and sensory processing. Voices, similar to faces, convey socially relevant information. Whether voice processing is selectively impaired remains undetermined. This study involved recording mismatch negativity (MMN) while presenting emotionally spoken syllables dada and acoustically matched nonvocal sounds to 20 subjects with ASC and 20 healthy matched controls. The people with ASC exhibited no MMN response to emotional syllables and reduced MMN to nonvocal sounds, indicating general impairments of affective voice and acoustic discrimination. Weaker angry MMN amplitudes were associated with more autistic traits. Receiver operator characteristic analysis revealed that angry MMN amplitudes yielded a value of 0.88 (p<.001). The results suggest that people with ASC may process emotional voices in an atypical fashion already at the automatic stage. This processing abnormality can facilitate diagnosing ASC and enable social deficits in people with ASC to be predicted. PMID:25036143

  6. Voice Therapy Practices and Techniques: A Survey of Voice Clinicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Peter B.; Larson, George W.

    1992-01-01

    Eighty-three voice disorder therapists' ratings of statements regarding voice therapy practices indicated that vocal nodules are the most frequent disorder treated; vocal abuse and hard glottal attack elimination, counseling, and relaxation were preferred treatment approaches; and voice therapy is more effective with adults than with children.…

  7. Effects of Medications on Voice

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Effects of Medications on Voice Effects of Medications on Voice Patient Health Information News ... replacement therapy post-menopause may have a variable effect. An inadequate level of thyroid replacement medication in ...

  8. Acoustic cue weighting in the singleton vs geminate contrast in Lebanese Arabic: The case of fricative consonants.

    PubMed

    Al-Tamimi, Jalal; Khattab, Ghada

    2015-07-01

    This paper is the first reported investigation of the role of non-temporal acoustic cues in the singleton-geminate contrast in Lebanese Arabic, alongside the more frequently reported temporal cues. The aim is to explore the extent to which singleton and geminate consonants show qualitative differences in a language where phonological length is prominent and where moraic structure governs segment timing and syllable weight. Twenty speakers (ten male, ten female) were recorded producing trochaic disyllables with medial singleton and geminate fricatives preceded by phonologically short and long vowels. The following acoustic measures were applied on the medial fricative and surrounding vowels: absolute duration; intensity; fundamental frequency; spectral peak and shape, dynamic amplitude, and voicing patterns of medial fricatives; and vowel quality and voice quality correlates of surrounding vowels. Discriminant analysis and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were used to assess each acoustic cue's contribution to the singleton-geminate contrast. Classification rates of 89% and ROC curves with an area under the curve rate of 96% confirmed the major role played by temporal cues, with non-temporal cues contributing to the contrast but to a much lesser extent. These results confirm that the underlying contrast for gemination in Arabic is temporal, but highlight [+tense] (fortis) as a secondary feature. PMID:26233034

  9. Intelligibility and Space-based Voice with Relaxed Delay Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Sam; Okino, Clayton; Cheng, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The inherent aspects and flaws surrounding space based communication is technically described and the math surrounding encoding and decoding LT Codes is examined. Utilizing LT codes as a means of reducing packet erasures due to corrupted packets on an RF link can result in higher voice quality. PESQ-MOS measure was used to analyze voice degradation over space links tested for LT codec size and number of 10ms per packet.Extensions utilizing LT codes to improve the packet erasure performance and combining the use of ASR could provide for a solid means of identifying the benefit in terms of intelligibility of voice communications in space-based networks

  10. Control of voice gender in pre-pubertal children.

    PubMed

    Cartei, Valentina; Cowles, Wind; Banerjee, Robin; Reby, David

    2014-03-01

    Adult listeners are capable of identifying the gender of speakers as young as 4 years old from their voice. In the absence of a clear anatomical dimorphism in the dimensions of pre-pubertal boys' and girls' vocal apparatus, the observed gender differences may reflect children's regulation of their vocal behaviour. A detailed acoustic analysis was conducted of the utterances of 34 6- to 9-year-old children, in their normal voices and also when asked explicitly to speak like a boy or a girl. Results showed statistically significant shifts in fundamental and formant frequency values towards those expected from the sex dimorphism in adult voices. Directions for future research on the role of vocal behaviours in pre-pubertal children's expression of gender are considered. PMID:24372318

  11. Discovering Voice through Media Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Susan R.

    Classrooms are filled with students with confident and vibrant voices, and most educators encourage them to use these voices in their writing. Many of the strategies of the process-centered classroom (peer editing, conferences, workshops, in-house publishing) also encourage students to write in real voices to real readers; however, there is still…

  12. An Introduction to Voice Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, James G.

    1986-01-01

    Uses and sources of voice indexing (a look-up feature for recorded materials) are discussed. Voice indexing enables a blind user of audiocassettes to find specific sections of recorded text independently. A procedure for sequential voice indexing on a two-track or four-track cassette recorder is described. (JW)

  13. Voices from other lands.

    PubMed

    Massarani, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, research in public understanding of science has significantly increased and become more systematic and academic. However, most of papers published by the main journals in the field have as origin the English-speaking world of the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and New Zealand: for example, in this very journal, PUS, two-thirds of the empirical material come from these countries. This paper aims both to call attention to unheard voices, and make space for new ones, from other parts of the world, aiming to open space for new voices. PMID:25556200

  14. Voice Disorder Classification Based on Multitaper Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients Features

    PubMed Central

    Eskidere, Ömer; Gürhanlı, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    The Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs) are widely used in order to extract essential information from a voice signal and became a popular feature extractor used in audio processing. However, MFCC features are usually calculated from a single window (taper) characterized by large variance. This study shows investigations on reducing variance for the classification of two different voice qualities (normal voice and disordered voice) using multitaper MFCC features. We also compare their performance by newly proposed windowing techniques and conventional single-taper technique. The results demonstrate that adapted weighted Thomson multitaper method could distinguish between normal voice and disordered voice better than the results done by the conventional single-taper (Hamming window) technique and two newly proposed windowing methods. The multitaper MFCC features may be helpful in identifying voices at risk for a real pathology that has to be proven later. PMID:26681977

  15. ‘Inner voices’: the cerebral representation of emotional voice cues described in literary texts

    PubMed Central

    Kreifelts, Benjamin; Gößling-Arnold, Christina; Wertheimer, Jürgen; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    While non-verbal affective voice cues are generally recognized as a crucial behavioral guide in any day-to-day conversation their role as a powerful source of information may extend well beyond close-up personal interactions and include other modes of communication such as written discourse or literature as well. Building on the assumption that similarities between the different ‘modes’ of voice cues may not only be limited to their functional role but may also include cerebral mechanisms engaged in the decoding process, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study aimed at exploring brain responses associated with processing emotional voice signals described in literary texts. Emphasis was placed on evaluating ‘voice’ sensitive as well as task- and emotion-related modulations of brain activation frequently associated with the decoding of acoustic vocal cues. Obtained findings suggest that several similarities emerge with respect to the perception of acoustic voice signals: results identify the superior temporal, lateral and medial frontal cortex as well as the posterior cingulate cortex and cerebellum to contribute to the decoding process, with similarities to acoustic voice perception reflected in a ‘voice’-cue preference of temporal voice areas as well as an emotion-related modulation of the medial frontal cortex and a task-modulated response of the lateral frontal cortex. PMID:24396008

  16. Cepstral Analysis of Voice in Patients With Thyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Yu Jeong; Hong, Ki Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The vocal changes after a thyroidectomy are temporary and nonsevere, therefore, obtaining accurate analytical results on the pathological vocal characteristics following such a procedure is difficult. For a more objective acoustic analysis, this study used the cepstral analysis method to examine changes in the patients’ voices during the perioperative period regarding sustained vowel phonation. Methods The sustained phonation of the five vowels (i.e., /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, and /u/) by 35 patients with thyroidectomy were recorded by using a Multi-Speech program. Of the 35 patients, 10 were men and 25 were women, with an average age of 51.5 years. Voice data were collected a total of 3 times (preoperatively, 5–7 days after the operation, and 6 weeks after the operation) and were edited according to each fragment (on-set, mid, and off-set) for cepstral analysis. Results The cepstral analysis on the patients’ voices revealed no significant differences between the examination periods of all vowel phonations. However, analysis of the on-set fragment of the vowel /i/ revealed pathological characteristics in which the cepstral measurements of the voice were significantly lower after the operation than before the operation, with the cepstral measurements of the voice increasing further 6 weeks following surgery. Conclusion The results of the acoustic analysis on the on-set fragment of the vowel /i/ will be important data for characterizing the vocal changes during the perioperative period. This study contributes to future research on the mechanisms underlying changes in the voice of patients with a history of thyroid or neck surgery. PMID:27090273

  17. Searching for a single voice. Various factors and groups affect the quality movement's quest to coalesce around a main strategy that will improve patient care.

    PubMed

    Robeznieks, Andis

    2006-03-01

    According to industry experts, there are too many cooks in the quality kitchen, each with different recipes and ingredients for the perfect way to improve patient safety and care. Some, like Cassy Horack, left, who is director of her hospital's quality initiatives, say that hospitals should work on quality from the inside out. Others believe universal benchmarks should determine what is quality care. PMID:16579421

  18. Design of a digital voice data compression technique for orbiter voice channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Candidate techniques were investigated for digital voice compression to a transmission rate of 8 kbps. Good voice quality, speaker recognition, and robustness in the presence of error bursts were considered. The technique of delayed-decision adaptive predictive coding is described and compared with conventional adaptive predictive coding. Results include a set of experimental simulations recorded on analog tape. The two FM broadcast segments produced show the delayed-decision technique to be virtually undegraded or minimally degraded at .001 and .01 Viterbi decoder bit error rates. Preliminary estimates of the hardware complexity of this technique indicate potential for implementation in space shuttle orbiters.

  19. Klamath River Water Quality and Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler Data from Link River Dam to Keno Dam, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Annett B.; Deas, Michael L.; Asbill, Jessica; Kirshtein, Julie D.; Butler, Kenna; Stewart, Marc A.; Wellman, Roy W.; Vaughn, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, Watercourse Engineering, and the Bureau of Reclamation began a project to construct and calibrate a water quality and hydrodynamic model of the 21-mile reach of the Klamath River from Link River Dam to Keno Dam. To provide a basis for this work, data collection and experimental work were planned for 2007 and 2008. This report documents sampling and analytical methods and presents data from the first year of work. To determine water velocities and discharge, a series of cross-sectional acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measurements were made on the mainstem and four canals on May 30 and September 19, 2007. Water quality was sampled weekly at five mainstem sites and five tributaries from early April through early November, 2007. Constituents reported here include field parameters (water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration, specific conductance); total nitrogen and phosphorus; particulate carbon and nitrogen; filtered orthophosphate, nitrite, nitrite plus nitrate, ammonia, organic carbon, iron, silica, and alkalinity; specific UV absorbance at 254 nm; phytoplankton and zooplankton enumeration and species identification; and bacterial abundance and morphological subgroups. The ADCP measurements conducted in good weather conditions in May showed that four major canals accounted for most changes in discharge along the mainstem on that day. Direction of velocity at measured locations was fairly homogeneous across the channel, while velocities were generally lowest near the bottom, and highest near surface, ranging from 0.0 to 0.8 ft/s. Measurements in September, made in windy conditions, raised questions about the effect of wind on flow. Most nutrient and carbon concentrations were lowest in spring, increased and remained elevated in summer, and decreased in fall. Dissolved nitrite plus nitrate and nitrite had a different seasonal cycle and were below detection or at low concentration in summer. Many nutrient and

  20. Voice Outcome Following Carbon Dioxide Laser Assisted Microlaryngeal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Divakaran, Shilpa; Alexander, Arun; Vijayakumar, Sabarinath; Saxena, Sunil Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Very few studies have been conducted in South Indian population to evaluate glottic function and voice outcome following carbon dioxide (CO2) laser assisted microsurgery for benign lesions of the larynx. This is a descriptive study which aims at assessing the voice outcome (perceptual and acoustic) and vocal fold function (stroboscopic) following CO2 laser excision in benign vocal fold lesions. 50 adult patients with benign laryngeal lesions were selected to undergo CO2 laser excision in super-pulse mode at power setting of 6 watts. Perceptual analysis was done using GRBAS score. Voice analysis was done using Praat software and fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer and harmonics to noise ratio were assessed. Stroboscopy was done to evaluate vocal fold function using glottic closure and mucosal wave pattern as parameters. Evaluation of these parameters was done pre-operatively and at 2, 6 weeks and 3 months post-operatively. Perceptual analysis revealed a significant improvement in the GRBAS score after surgery (p < 0.001). Acoustic analysis showed that all the parameters improved significantly after surgery (p < 0.001). Stroboscopy showed that vocal fold function improved in 98 % of patients in terms of completeness of glottic closure and regular, periodic mucosal wave. Super-pulse micro-spot carbon dioxide laser is a safe and effective treatment option for benign lesions of vocal folds, with excellent voice outcome. PMID:26693452

  1. Voice Onset Time for Turkish Stop Consonants in Adult Cochlear Implanted Patients.

    PubMed

    Dalgic, Abdullah; Kandogan, Tolga; Aksoy, Gokce

    2015-09-01

    The voice onset time is a temporal acoustic parameter defined as the time between the release of the oral constriction for plosive production and the onset of vocal fold vibrations. Hearing impairment is one of the factors that can effect the magnitude of voice onset time. Since voice onset time is a useful, noninvasive method for documenting the articulatory-phonatory aspects of vocal training during speech, we investigated voice onset time values for Turkish stop consonants in adult cochlear implanted patients in order to clarify the effect of CI and sequential hearing rehabilitation over voice onset time values. The CI patients were divided into two groups according to duration of CI usage. We looked for relations between results of the study and average voice onset time values in Turkish language for adults. Mean VOT values for for both males and females in the first and second group are shown in Tables 1, 2, 3, and 4. Most syllables both in males and females statistically significant differ from average VOT values, e.g. They did not reach to normal hearing adults level. These acoustic results indicated that VOT may be an effective measure for examining the effect of cochlear implantation over the articulatory accuracy. As far as we know, this is the first publication using voice onset time values for the efficiency of cochlear implantation in adult patients. [Table: see text] [Table: see text] [Table: see text] [Table: see text]. PMID:26405669

  2. Objective and perceptual analysis of outcome of voice rehabilitation after laryngectomy in an Indian tertiary referral cancer centre.

    PubMed

    Varghese, B T; Mathew, A; Sebastian, S; Iype, E M; Sebastian, P; Rajan, B

    2013-07-01

    Post laryngectomy voice rehabilitation is very challenging in centres with limited resources because of cost concerns and morbidity. A study of laryngectomised voice rehabilitated patients on follow up was performed to look into overall quality of life (QOL), morbidity and voice quality. Those patients who had visited head and neck surgical outpatient department during the period of January 2008 to October 2009 were evaluated for their QOL, morbidity and voice quality, objectively and subjectively. Voice rating and QOL rating showed a distinct discrepancy which could be explained by the morbidity recorded for surgical voice restoration in the present study. Voice rehabilitation strategy after laryngectomy in a low resource setting has to take in account financial social educational background of the patient besides technical issues. PMID:24427633

  3. Giving Voice to Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Marilyn L.

    2006-01-01

    This author is struck by two communication models she observes repeatedly that involve women's voices in meetings. In one model, the super-educated, pellucid, articulate woman, in meeting after meeting, makes suggestions, "points," or recommendations for initiatives, problem-solving, future direction, program improvement, decision making, or…

  4. Voices for Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Future Teacher, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Prominent Americans were asked to reflect on the diversity challenge facing America's teacher workforce. The following leaders from several fields voiced their support of teachers and their beliefs America needs more diverse and culturally responsive teachers: (1) Mary Hatwood Futrell, President of Education International; (2) Carol Moseley-Braun,…

  5. Mending Misused Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoer, Vicki L.; Swank, Helen

    1978-01-01

    This article, addressed to singing and choral teachers, examines functional voice disorders resulting from incorrect or abused functions of the laryngeal mechanism. Symptoms, testing methods, and correction techniques, short of medical help, are outlined for disorders of resonance, registration, articulation, and of the vocal fold mass.…

  6. Finding a Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skouge, James R.; Kajiyama, Brian

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors relate a story about the transformative power of technologies for voice. They relate Brian Kajiyama's personal odyssey--what might be described as a journey from unvoiced to vocal--in learning to use a DynaWrite, a type-and-talk device that Brian uses as a communication tool.

  7. Delayed voice communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, Stanley G.; Reagan, Marcum L.

    2013-10-01

    We present results from simulated deep-space exploration missions that investigated voice communication with significant time delays. The simulations identified many challenges: confusion of sequence, blocked calls, wasted crew time, impaired ability to provide relevant information to the other party, losing track of which messages have reached the other party, weakened rapport between crew and ground, slow response to rapidly changing situations, and reduced situational awareness. These challenges were met in part with additional training; greater attention and foresight; longer, less frequent transmissions; meticulous recordkeeping and timekeeping; and specific alerting and acknowledging calls. Several simulations used both delayed voice and text messaging. Text messaging provided a valuable record of transmissions and allowed messages to be targeted to subsets of the flight and ground crew, but it was a poor choice for high-workload operators such as vehicle drivers and spacewalkers. Even with the foregoing countermeasures, delayed voice communication is difficult. Additional aids such as automatic delay timers and voice-to-text transcription would help. Tests comparing delays of 50 and 300 s unexpectedly revealed that communicating with the shorter delay was just as challenging as with the longer one.

  8. Universal voice processor development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of a universal voice processor is discussed. The device is based on several circuit configurations using hybrid techniques to satisfy the electrical specifications. The steps taken during the design process are described. Circuit diagrams of the final design are presented. Mathematical models are included to support the theoretical aspects.

  9. Finding a Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Schools have struggled for decades to provide expensive augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) resources for autistic students with communication challenges. Clunky voice output devices, often included in students' individualized education plans, cost about $8,000, a difficult expense to cover in hard times. However, mobile technology is…

  10. Creative Reading: Other Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ron

    1990-01-01

    Discusses subvocalization and other ways in which people read silently. Comments on authorial voice and offers ways to experiment with creative reading aloud. Notes how the proliferation of advertising, the media "explosion," and the influence of modernism in literature has changed the fundamental sense of what reading is and how to do it. (MG)

  11. Voices of Columbine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickery, Emily

    2004-01-01

    In the immediate aftermath of the Columbine school shootings, Principal Frank DeAngelis felt, in his own words, "the weight of the world on my shoulders." Five years later, he still struggles for answers--and still loves his job. In this article, the author presents excerpts of her interview with DeAngelis, a man whose face and voice have become…

  12. Voices from the Unconscious

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alper, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    The author, a Manhattan-based psychotherapist, contrasts the fascinating but profound differences between the autobiographical narratives of young college students and the free-associative unconscious voices of patients engaged in the process of psychotherapy. The author begins by recounting the immense impact of his own divorce upon his…

  13. The value of visualizing tone of voice.

    PubMed

    Pullin, Graham; Cook, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    Whilst most of us have an innate feeling for tone of voice, it is an elusive quality that even phoneticians struggle to describe with sufficient subtlety. For people who cannot speak themselves this can have particularly profound repercussions. Augmentative communication often involves text-to-speech, a technology that only supports a basic choice of prosody based on punctuation. Given how inherently difficult it is to talk about more nuanced tone of voice, there is a risk that its absence from current devices goes unremarked and unchallenged. Looking ahead optimistically to more expressive communication aids, their design will need to involve more subtle interactions with tone of voice-interactions that the people using them can understand and engage with. Interaction design can play a role in making tone of voice visible, tangible, and accessible. Two projects that have already catalysed interdisciplinary debate in this area, Six Speaking Chairs and Speech Hedge, are introduced together with responses. A broader role for design is advocated, as a means to opening up speech technology research to a wider range of disciplinary perspectives, and also to the contributions and influence of people who use it in their everyday lives. PMID:23855927

  14. Subglottal Impedance-Based Inverse Filtering of Voiced Sounds Using Neck Surface Acceleration

    PubMed Central

    Zañartu, Matías; Ho, Julio C.; Mehta, Daryush D.; Hillman, Robert E.; Wodicka, George R.

    2014-01-01

    A model-based inverse filtering scheme is proposed for an accurate, non-invasive estimation of the aerodynamic source of voiced sounds at the glottis. The approach, referred to as subglottal impedance-based inverse filtering (IBIF), takes as input the signal from a lightweight accelerometer placed on the skin over the extrathoracic trachea and yields estimates of glottal airflow and its time derivative, offering important advantages over traditional methods that deal with the supraglottal vocal tract. The proposed scheme is based on mechano-acoustic impedance representations from a physiologically-based transmission line model and a lumped skin surface representation. A subject-specific calibration protocol is used to account for individual adjustments of subglottal impedance parameters and mechanical properties of the skin. Preliminary results for sustained vowels with various voice qualities show that the subglottal IBIF scheme yields comparable estimates with respect to current aerodynamics-based methods of clinical vocal assessment. A mean absolute error of less than 10% was observed for two glottal airflow measures –maximum flow declination rate and amplitude of the modulation component– that have been associated with the pathophysiology of some common voice disorders caused by faulty and/or abusive patterns of vocal behavior (i.e., vocal hyperfunction). The proposed method further advances the ambulatory assessment of vocal function based on the neck acceleration signal, that previously have been limited to the estimation of phonation duration, loudness, and pitch. Subglottal IBIF is also suitable for other ambulatory applications in speech communication, in which further evaluation is underway. PMID:25400531

  15. Voice-Recognition System Records Inspection Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochester, Larry L.

    1993-01-01

    Main Injector Voice Activated Record (MIVAR) system acts on vocal commands and processes spoken inspection data into electronic and printed inspection reports. Devised to improve acquisition and recording of data from borescope inspections of interiors of liquid-oxygen-injecting tubes on main engine of Space Shuttle. With modifications, system used in other situations to relieve inspectors of manual recording of data. Enhances flow of work and quality of data acquired by enabling inspector to remain visually focused on workpiece.

  16. Age-Related Changes to Spectral Voice Characteristics Affect Judgments of Prosodic, Segmental, and Talker Attributes for Child and Adult Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilley, Laura C.; Wieland, Elizabeth A.; Gamache, Jessica L.; McAuley, J. Devin; Redford, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: As children mature, changes in voice spectral characteristics co-vary with changes in speech, language, and behavior. In this study, spectral characteristics were manipulated to alter the perceived ages of talkers' voices while leaving critical acoustic-prosodic correlates intact, to determine whether perceived age differences were…

  17. Acoustic Neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    An acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor that develops on the nerve that connects the ear to the brain. ... can press against the brain, becoming life-threatening. Acoustic neuroma can be difficult to diagnose, because the ...

  18. Voices to reckon with: perceptions of voice identity in clinical and non-clinical voice hearers

    PubMed Central

    Badcock, Johanna C.; Chhabra, Saruchi

    2013-01-01

    The current review focuses on the perception of voice identity in clinical and non-clinical voice hearers. Identity perception in auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) is grounded in the mechanisms of human (i.e., real, external) voice perception, and shapes the emotional (distress) and behavioral (help-seeking) response to the experience. Yet, the phenomenological assessment of voice identity is often limited, for example to the gender of the voice, and has failed to take advantage of recent models and evidence on human voice perception. In this paper we aim to synthesize the literature on identity in real and hallucinated voices and begin by providing a comprehensive overview of the features used to judge voice identity in healthy individuals and in people with schizophrenia. The findings suggest some subtle, but possibly systematic biases across different levels of voice identity in clinical hallucinators that are associated with higher levels of distress. Next we provide a critical evaluation of voice processing abilities in clinical and non-clinical voice hearers, including recent data collected in our laboratory. Our studies used diverse methods, assessing recognition and binding of words and voices in memory as well as multidimensional scaling of voice dissimilarity judgments. The findings overall point to significant difficulties recognizing familiar speakers and discriminating between unfamiliar speakers in people with schizophrenia, both with and without AVH. In contrast, these voice processing abilities appear to be generally intact in non-clinical hallucinators. The review highlights some important avenues for future research and treatment of AVH associated with a need for care, and suggests some novel insights into other symptoms of psychosis. PMID:23565088

  19. Acoustic Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a sealing device having an acoustic resonator. The acoustic resonator is adapted to create acoustic waveforms to generate a sealing pressure barrier blocking fluid flow from a high pressure area to a lower pressure area. The sealing device permits noncontacting sealing operation. The sealing device may include a resonant-macrosonic-synthesis (RMS) resonator.

  20. Acoustic seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a sealing device having an acoustic resonator. The acoustic resonator is adapted to create acoustic waveforms to generate a sealing pressure barrier blocking fluid flow from a high pressure area to a lower pressure area. The sealing device permits noncontacting sealing operation. The sealing device may include a resonant-macrosonic-synthesis (RMS) resonator.

  1. The emergence of mature gestural patterns in the production of voiceless and voiced word-final stopsa)

    PubMed Central

    Nittrouer, Susan; Lowenstein, Joanna H.; Smith, Jennifer; Estee, Sandy

    2005-01-01

    The organization of gestures was examined in children's and adults' samples of consonant–vowel–stop words differing in stop voicing. Children (5 and 7 years old) and adults produced words from five voiceless/voiced pairs, five times each in isolation and in sentences. Acoustic measurements were made of vocalic duration, and of the first and second formants at syllable center and voicing offset. The predicted acoustic correlates of syllable-final voicing were observed across speakers: vocalic segments were shorter and first formants were higher in words with voiceless, rather than voiced, final stops. In addition, the second formant was found to differ depending on the voicing of the final stop for all speakers. It was concluded that by 5 years of age children produce words ending in stops with the same overall gestural organization as adults. However, some age-related differences were observed for jaw gestures, and variability for all measures was greater for children than for adults. These results suggest that children are still refining their organization of articulatory gestures past the age of 7 years. Finally, context effects (isolation or sentence) showed that the acoustic correlates of syllable-final voicing are attenuated when words are produced in sentences, rather than in isolation. PMID:15704427

  2. You're a What? Voice Actor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liming, Drew

    2009-01-01

    This article talks about voice actors and features Tony Oliver, a professional voice actor. Voice actors help to bring one's favorite cartoon and video game characters to life. They also do voice-overs for radio and television commercials and movie trailers. These actors use the sound of their voice to sell a character's emotions--or an advertised…

  3. A STUDY OF INNER VOICES IN SCHIZOPHERNICS

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, A.

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY Twelve schizophrenics with inner voices were examined and were compared to 12 - schizophrenics with external voices. The inner voices group was largely heterogenous. The inner voice group had shorter interval between onset of illness and onset of hallucinations, higher intensity of emotions outside the hallucinatory episodes but concerning the voices and longer duration of individual episodes of hallucinations. PMID:21847312

  4. How and when peers' positive mood influences employees' voice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wu; Tangirala, Subrahmaniam; Lam, Wing; Chen, Ziguang; Jia, Rongwen Tina; Huang, Xu

    2015-05-01

    Employees often assess whether the social context is favorable for them to speak out, yet little research has investigated how the target's mood might influence the actor's voice behavior. From an affect-as-social-information perspective, we explored such potential effects of the target's mood on the actor's promotive voice in 2 empirical studies. In a scenario-based study with 142 MBA students (Study 1), the target's positive mood was positively associated with the actor's intentions to engage in promotive voice toward that target, mediated by the actor's perceived psychological safety. This mediated relationship was stronger when (a) the quality of the relationship between the actor and the target was poor or (b) the actor had a lower social status than the target. We replicated these results in Study 2, a correlational field study with 572 dyads nested within 142 members of 30 teams, where the actor's promotive voice behaviors (rather than intentions) were measured. PMID:25365730

  5. Voice Problems of the Male to Female Transsexual Client.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Sandra F.; Clayman, Barbara

    The transsexual has numerous problems in the area of voice and diction. Some are subjective, such as quality, while others are objective and measurable, such as intensity, but all lend themselves to speech therapy. The speech clinician can help with problems involving pitch, quality, resonance articulation, vocabulary, and inflection. The absence…

  6. Laryngeal Compensation for Voice Production After CO2 Laser Cordectomy

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Zakaria; Hosny, Sameh Mohammad; Quriba, Amal Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Carbon dioxide (CO2) laser cordectomy is considered one of the modalities of choice for treatment of early glottic carcinoma. In addition to its comparable oncological results with radiotherapy and open surgical procedures, it preserves of laryngeal functions including voice production. The aim of this study was to detect how the larynx compensates for voice production after different types of CO2 laser cordectomy for early glottic carcinoma together with assessment of the vocal outcome in each compensation mechanism. Methods One hundred twelve patients treated with CO2 laser cordectomy were classified according to their main postoperative phonatory site. Perceptual analysis of voice samples using GRBAS (grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, and strain) scale was done for 88 patients after exclusion of the voice samples of all female patients to make the study population homogenous and the samples of 18 male patients due to bad quality (4 patients) or unavailability (14 patients) of their voice samples and the results were compared with those obtained from control group that included 25 age-matched euphonic male subjects. Results Five types of laryngeal compensation were defined including: vocal fold to vocal fold, vocal fold to vocal neofold, vocal fold to vestibular fold, vestibular fold, to vestibular fold, and arytenoids hyper adduction. Characters changes of voice produced by each compensation type were found to be statistically significant except for breathiness, asthenia and strain changes in vocal fold to vocal fold compensation type. Conclusion The larynx can compensate for voice production after CO2 laser cordectomy by five different compensation mechanisms with none of them producing voice quality comparable with that of controls. PMID:26622962

  7. Keyboard With Voice Output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, W. C.

    1986-01-01

    Voice synthesizer tells what key is about to be depressed. Verbal feedback useful for blind operators or where dim light prevents sighted operator from seeing keyboard. Also used where operator is busy observing other things while keying data into control system. Used as training aid for touch typing, and to train blind operators to use both standard and braille keyboards. Concept adapted to such equipment as typewriters, computers, calculators, telephones, cash registers, and on/off controls.

  8. Phonetography in voice diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Heylen, L G; Wuyts, F L; Mertens, F W; Pattyn, J E

    1996-01-01

    Phonetography has been defined by SCHUTTE and SEIDNER in 1983. Nevertheless publications on phonetography go back to the thirties. Due to publications in the last decade and the development of computer phonetography this testing method has been used for various purposes in voice evaluation. This article gives a historical background, with the different ways of phonetogram recording and describes variables who have their effect on phonetogram results and interpretation. Secondly the range of application with normative and reference phonetograms is discussed. PMID:9001639

  9. Acoustic-phonetic correlates of talker intelligibility for adults and children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazan, Valerie; Markham, Duncan

    2004-11-01

    This study investigated acoustic-phonetic correlates of intelligibility for adult and child talkers, and whether the relative intelligibility of different talkers was dependent on listener characteristics. In experiment 1, word intelligibility was measured for 45 talkers (18 women, 15 men, 6 boys, 6 girls) from a homogeneous accent group. The material consisted of 124 words familiar to 7-year-olds that adequately covered all frequent consonant confusions; stimuli were presented to 135 adult and child listeners in low-level background noise. Seven-to-eight-year-old listeners made significantly more errors than 12-year-olds or adults, but the relative intelligibility of individual talkers was highly consistent across groups. In experiment 2, listener ratings on a number of voice dimensions were obtained for the adults talkers identified in experiment 1 as having the highest and lowest intelligibility. Intelligibility was significantly correlated with subjective dimensions reflecting articulation, voice dynamics, and general quality. Finally, in experiment 3, measures of fundamental frequency, long-term average spectrum, word duration, consonant-vowel intensity ratio, and vowel space size were obtained for all talkers. Overall, word intelligibility was significantly correlated with the total energy in the 1- to 3-kHz region and word duration; these measures predicted 61% of the variability in intelligibility. The fact that the relative intelligibility of individual talkers was remarkably consistent across listener age groups suggests that the acoustic-phonetic characteristics of a talker's utterance are the primary factor in determining talker intelligibility. Although some acoustic-phonetic correlates of intelligibility were identified, variability in the profiles of the ``best'' talkers suggests that high intelligibility can be achieved through a combination of different acoustic-phonetic characteristics. .

  10. [Tracheostomy cannulas and voice prostheses].

    PubMed

    Kramp, B; Dommerich, S

    2009-05-01

    Tracheostomy cannulas and voice prosthesis are mechanical aids for patients, who for different reasons underwent either tracheostomies or laryngectomies. In this review, indications, surgical procedures, and consequencies of the preceeding surgical intervention are reported for a better understanding of the specific requirements for the artificial aids. In spite of the increasing number of percutaneous dilatation tracheostomies, e. g. in intensive care units, a classical tracheostomy with epithelialized connections between trachea and skin still represents the method of choice for all cases, in which a longer lasting access to the trachea is requested. Special tubes made of different materials, offering different physical qualities are used to keep the tracheostomy open and guarantee an easy access to the lower respiratory tract. For each individual patient the most adequate device must be found out. Voice prostheses allow a fast and effective vocal rehabilitation after laryngectomy. As many models are on the market with differences in terms of material, principle and design of the underlying valve mechanism, size etc., again, in each individual patient the most suitable prosthesis has to be chosen. In combination with special heat and moisture exchangers (HME), such prostheses not only allow a good vocal but also pulmonary rehabilitation. The duration of such prostheses depend on material properties but also on formation of biofilms (mostly consisting of bacteria and fungi) that can destroy the valve mechanism. Whenever possible, and additional valve mechanism covering the opening of the tracheostomy should be used in order to avoid the necessity to close this opening manually during phonation. Each doctor taking care of patients with speech prostheses after laryngectomy should know exactly what to do in case the device fails or gets lost. PMID:19353461

  11. Discriminability and Perceptual Saliency of Temporal and Spectral Cues for Final Fricative Consonant Voicing in Simulated Cochlear-Implant and Bimodal Hearing.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ying-Yee; Winn, Matthew B; Poellmann, Katja; Donaldson, Gail S

    2016-01-01

    Multiple redundant acoustic cues can contribute to the perception of a single phonemic contrast. This study investigated the effect of spectral degradation on the discriminability and perceptual saliency of acoustic cues for identification of word-final fricative voicing in "loss" versus "laws", and possible changes that occurred when low-frequency acoustic cues were restored. Three acoustic cues that contribute to the word-final /s/-/z/ contrast (first formant frequency [F1] offset, vowel-consonant duration ratio, and consonant voicing duration) were systematically varied in synthesized words. A discrimination task measured listeners' ability to discriminate differences among stimuli within a single cue dimension. A categorization task examined the extent to which listeners make use of a given cue to label a syllable as "loss" versus "laws" when multiple cues are available. Normal-hearing listeners were presented with stimuli that were either unprocessed, processed with an eight-channel noise-band vocoder to approximate spectral degradation in cochlear implants, or low-pass filtered. Listeners were tested in four listening conditions: unprocessed, vocoder, low-pass, and a combined vocoder + low-pass condition that simulated bimodal hearing. Results showed a negative impact of spectral degradation on F1 cue discrimination and a trading relation between spectral and temporal cues in which listeners relied more heavily on the temporal cues for "loss-laws" identification when spectral cues were degraded. Furthermore, the addition of low-frequency fine-structure cues in simulated bimodal hearing increased the perceptual saliency of the F1 cue for "loss-laws" identification compared with vocoded speech. Findings suggest an interplay between the quality of sensory input and cue importance. PMID:27317666

  12. Assessment of voice and speech symptoms in early Parkinson's disease by the Robertson dysarthria profile.

    PubMed

    Defazio, Giovanni; Guerrieri, Marta; Liuzzi, Daniele; Gigante, Angelo Fabio; di Nicola, Vincenzo

    2016-03-01

    Changes in voice and speech are thought to involve 75-90 % of people with PD, but the impact of PD progression on voice/speech parameters is not well defined. In this study, we assessed voice/speech symptoms in 48 parkinsonian patients staging <3 on the modified Hoehn and Yahr scale and 37 healthy subjects using the Robertson dysarthria profile (a clinical-perceptual method exploring all components potentially involved in speech difficulties), the Voice handicap index (a validated measure of the impact of voice symptoms on quality of life) and the speech evaluation parameter contained in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III (UPDRS-III). Accuracy and metric properties of the Robertson dysarthria profile were also measured. On Robertson dysarthria profile, all parkinsonian patients yielded lower scores than healthy control subjects. Differently, the Voice Handicap Index and the speech evaluation parameter contained in the UPDRS-III could detect speech/voice disturbances in 10 and 75 % of PD patients, respectively. Validation procedure in Parkinson's disease patients showed that the Robertson dysarthria profile has acceptable reliability, satisfactory internal consistency and scaling assumptions, lack of floor and ceiling effects, and partial correlations with UPDRS-III and Voice Handicap Index. We concluded that speech/voice disturbances are widely identified by the Robertson dysarthria profile in early parkinsonian patients, even when the disturbances do not carry a significant level of disability. Robertson dysarthria profile may be a valuable tool to detect speech/voice disturbances in Parkinson's disease. PMID:26615536

  13. Voice rehabilitation with tragal cartilage and perichondrium after vertical partial laryngectomy for glottic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chirilă, Magdalena; Ţiple, Cristina; Dinescu, Florina Veronica; Mureşan, Rodica; Bolboacă, Sorana D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The goal of the study is to test medialization of the neocord after oncological surgery for glottic cancer, using autologous tragal cartilage and perichondrium by the direct approach. Materials and Methods: Sixteen patients underwent comprehensive assessment including auditory perceptual assessment, videostrobolaryngoscopy, and acoustic voice analysis. The cartilage graft was inserted into a pocket created in the tyroarytenoid — lateral cricoarytenoid muscle complex or the excavated musculomembranous part of the neocord, and fixed by placing the perichondrium by the direct approach. The patients were evaluated preoperatively, and at 14 days, 60 days, and 6 months later. Results: Improvement of voice and breathiness was correlated with the increase of closed quotient and harmonic-to-noise ratio; the acoustic voice parameters studied showed significant differences between preoperative and postoperative voices, and these objective measurements of voice changes provided accurate and documentary evidence of the results of surgical treatment. Conclusion: This method may be considered a safe and efficient phonosurgical procedure for voice restoration. PMID:26109985

  14. Voice preprocessor for digital voice applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, G. S.; Fransen, L. J.; Moran, T. M.

    1989-09-01

    A voice processor operating satisfactorily in laboratory environments with carefully prerecorded speech samples often fails to operate satisfactorily with live speech. Potential reasons are: (1) the speech level may be too high or too low; (2) the speech signal may have too much interference (ambient noise, breath noise, 60 Hz hum, digital noise in analog circuits, a DC bias (caused by component aging, etc.) generated at the analog-to-digital converter output); (3) the microphone frequency may be severely distorted; (4) the speech signal from the existing audio system, in certain operating environments, may be improperly coupled to the front-end circuit; (5) the speaker may be talking too fast or may have an improper mouth-to-microphone distance, or the speech may lack high-frequency energies. In this report, we have generated a comprehensive design for a speech preprocessor that removes interferences, adaptively equalizes frequency anomalies, and conditions speech for speech encoding, speech recognition, speaker recognition, or extraction of verbal or nonverbal information from speech.

  15. Educating Early Educators: Voices of Early Childhood Educators Participating in Formal Education as Part of a Statewide Quality Rating Improvement System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griess, Carolyn J.

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood education has gained national attention as a tool for increasing outcomes and reducing risks for young children and their families. In an effort to ensure that early childhood programs are of high quality, many states are implementing systems that identify levels of criteria that denote excellence. Pennsylvania has adopted such a…

  16. Conversations--and Negotiated Interaction--in Text and Voice Chat Rooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jepson, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Despite the expanded use of the Internet for language learning and practice, little attention if any has been given to the quality of interaction among English L2 speakers in conversational text or voice chat rooms. This study explored the patterns of repair moves in synchronous non-native speaker (NNS) text chat rooms in comparison to voice chat…

  17. Voice Outcome after Gore-Tex Medialization Thyroplasty.

    PubMed

    Elnashar, Ismail; El-Anwar, Mohammad; Amer, Hazem; Quriba, Amal

    2015-07-01

    Introduction Although medialization thyroplasty utilizing Gore-Tex (Gore and Associates, Newark, Delaware, United States) has been discussed in the literature, few reports have assessed voice quality afterward, and they did not use a full assessment protocol. Objective To assess the improvement in voice quality after medialization thyroplasty utilizing Gore-Tex in patients with glottic insufficiency of variable etiology. Methods Eleven patients with glottic insufficiency of different etiologies that failed compensation were operated by type 1 thyroplasty utilizing Gore-Tex. Pre- and postoperative (1 week, 3 months, and 6 months) voice assessment was done and statistical analysis was performed on the results. Results In all postoperative assessments, there was significant improvement in the grade of dysphonia (p < 0.004) and highly significant reduction in the size of glottic gap and prolongation of maximum phonation time (p < 0.0001). The difference in voice parameters in the early (1 week) and the late (3 and 6 months) postoperative period was not significant. None of the patients developed stridor or shortness of breath necessitating tracheotomy, and there was no implant extrusion in any patient during the study period. Conclusion Gore-Tex medialization provides reliable results for both subjective and objective voice parameters. It leads to a satisfactory restoration of voice whatever the etiology of glottic incompetence is. This technique is relatively easy and does not lead to major complications. Further studies with larger number of patients and more extended periods of follow-up are still required to assess the long-term results of the technique regarding voice quality and implant extrusion. PMID:26157500

  18. Voice Outcome after Gore-Tex Medialization Thyroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Elnashar, Ismail; El-Anwar, Mohammad; Amer, Hazem; Quriba, Amal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although medialization thyroplasty utilizing Gore-Tex (Gore and Associates, Newark, Delaware, United States) has been discussed in the literature, few reports have assessed voice quality afterward, and they did not use a full assessment protocol. Objective To assess the improvement in voice quality after medialization thyroplasty utilizing Gore-Tex in patients with glottic insufficiency of variable etiology. Methods Eleven patients with glottic insufficiency of different etiologies that failed compensation were operated by type 1 thyroplasty utilizing Gore-Tex. Pre- and postoperative (1 week, 3 months, and 6 months) voice assessment was done and statistical analysis was performed on the results. Results In all postoperative assessments, there was significant improvement in the grade of dysphonia (p < 0.004) and highly significant reduction in the size of glottic gap and prolongation of maximum phonation time (p < 0.0001). The difference in voice parameters in the early (1 week) and the late (3 and 6 months) postoperative period was not significant. None of the patients developed stridor or shortness of breath necessitating tracheotomy, and there was no implant extrusion in any patient during the study period. Conclusion Gore-Tex medialization provides reliable results for both subjective and objective voice parameters. It leads to a satisfactory restoration of voice whatever the etiology of glottic incompetence is. This technique is relatively easy and does not lead to major complications. Further studies with larger number of patients and more extended periods of follow-up are still required to assess the long-term results of the technique regarding voice quality and implant extrusion. PMID:26157500

  19. Voices Carry: A Content Analysis of "Voices from the Middle"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Melissa B.; Blady, Shannon; Kumar, Tracey; Moorman, Honor; Prior, Lori; Willson, Angeli

    2011-01-01

    As educators who have been strongly influenced by this journal, the authors decided to do a content analysis of the "voices" from "Voices from the Middle," from its inception to today. They listened closely to who is talking, what the authors are (and are not) discussing, the educational contexts of these conversations, and how the dialogue has…

  20. Pedagogic Voice: Student Voice in Teaching and Engagement Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroutsis, Aspa; McGregor, Glenda; Mills, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with the notion of "pedagogic voice" as it relates to the presence of student "voice" in teaching, learning and curriculum matters at an alternative, or second chance, school in Australia. This school draws upon many of the principles of democratic schooling via its utilisation of student voice…

  1. The Voice Handicap Index with Post-Laryngectomy Male Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Eryl; Carding, Paul; Drinnan, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background: Surgical treatment for advanced laryngeal cancer involves complete removal of the larynx ("laryngectomy") and initial total loss of voice. Post-laryngectomy rehabilitation involves implementation of different means of "voicing" for these patients wherever possible. There is little information about laryngectomees' perception of their…

  2. Is there an effect of dysphonic teachers' voices on children's processing of spoken language?

    PubMed

    Rogerson, Jemma; Dodd, Barbara

    2005-03-01

    There is a vast body of literature on the causes, prevalence, implications, and issues of vocal dysfunction in teachers. However, the educational effect of teacher vocal impairment is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of impaired voice quality on children's processing of spoken language. One hundred and seven children (age range, 9.2 to 10.6, mean 9.8, SD 3.76 months) listened to three video passages, one read in a control voice, one in a mild dysphonic voice, and one in a severe dysphonic voice. After each video passage, children were asked to answer six questions, with multiple-choice answers. The results indicated that children's perceptions of speech across the three voice qualities differed, regardless of gender, IQ, and school attended. Performance in the control voice passages was better than performance in the mild and severe dysphonic voice passages. No difference was found between performance in the mild and severe dysphonic voice passages, highlighting that any form of vocal impairment is detrimental to children's speech processing and is therefore likely to have a negative educational effect. These findings, in light of the high rate of vocal dysfunction in teachers, further support the implementation of specific voice care education for those in the teaching profession. PMID:15766849

  3. A Longitudinal Study of Voice before and after Phonosurgery for Removal of a Polyp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stajner-Katusic, Smiljka; Horga, Damir; Zrinski, Karolina Vrban

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the acoustic parameters, perceptual estimation, and self-estimation of voice before, 1 month after, and 6 years after surgical removal of a vocal fold polyp. Subjects were five male patients who came to the Phoniatric Clinic because of breathiness. For all patients, a polyp of one vocal fold was…

  4. Parameterization of the Voice Source by Combining Spectral Decay and Amplitude Features of the Glottal Flow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alku, Paavo; Vilkman, Erkki; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria

    1998-01-01

    A new method is presented for the parameterization of glottal volume velocity waveforms that have been estimated by inverse filtering acoustic speech pressure signals. The new technique combines two features of voice production: the AC value and the spectral decay of the glottal flow. Testing found the new parameter correlates strongly with the…

  5. Influences of Fundamental Frequency, Formant Frequencies, Aperiodicity, and Spectrum Level on the Perception of Voice Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skuk, Verena G.; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the relative importance of acoustic parameters (fundamental frequency [F0], formant frequencies [FFs], aperiodicity, and spectrum level [SL]) on voice gender perception, the authors used a novel parameter-morphing approach that, unlike spectral envelope shifting, allows the application of nonuniform scale factors to transform…

  6. Topological Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhaoju; Gao, Fei; Shi, Xihang; Lin, Xiao; Gao, Zhen; Chong, Yidong; Zhang, Baile

    2015-03-01

    The manipulation of acoustic wave propagation in fluids has numerous applications, including some in everyday life. Acoustic technologies frequently develop in tandem with optics, using shared concepts such as waveguiding and metamedia. It is thus noteworthy that an entirely novel class of electromagnetic waves, known as "topological edge states," has recently been demonstrated. These are inspired by the electronic edge states occurring in topological insulators, and possess a striking and technologically promising property: the ability to travel in a single direction along a surface without backscattering, regardless of the existence of defects or disorder. Here, we develop an analogous theory of topological fluid acoustics, and propose a scheme for realizing topological edge states in an acoustic structure containing circulating fluids. The phenomenon of disorder-free one-way sound propagation, which does not occur in ordinary acoustic devices, may have novel applications for acoustic isolators, modulators, and transducers.

  7. Topological acoustics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhaoju; Gao, Fei; Shi, Xihang; Lin, Xiao; Gao, Zhen; Chong, Yidong; Zhang, Baile

    2015-03-20

    The manipulation of acoustic wave propagation in fluids has numerous applications, including some in everyday life. Acoustic technologies frequently develop in tandem with optics, using shared concepts such as waveguiding and metamedia. It is thus noteworthy that an entirely novel class of electromagnetic waves, known as "topological edge states," has recently been demonstrated. These are inspired by the electronic edge states occurring in topological insulators, and possess a striking and technologically promising property: the ability to travel in a single direction along a surface without backscattering, regardless of the existence of defects or disorder. Here, we develop an analogous theory of topological fluid acoustics, and propose a scheme for realizing topological edge states in an acoustic structure containing circulating fluids. The phenomenon of disorder-free one-way sound propagation, which does not occur in ordinary acoustic devices, may have novel applications for acoustic isolators, modulators, and transducers. PMID:25839273

  8. IP voice over ATM satellite: experimental results over satellite channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraf, Koroush A.; Butts, Norman P.

    1999-01-01

    IP telephony, a new technology to provide voice communication over traditional data networks, has the potential to revolutionize telephone communication within the modern enterprise. This innovation uses packetization techniques to carry voice conversations over IP networks. This packet switched technology promises new integrated services, and lower cost long-distance communication compared to traditional circuit switched telephone networks. Future satellites will need to carry IP traffic efficiently in order to stay competitive in servicing the global data- networking and global telephony infrastructure. However, the effects of Voice over IP over switched satellite channels have not been investigated in detail. To fully understand the effects of satellite channels on Voice over IP quality; several experiments were conducted at Lockheed Martin Telecommunications' Satellite Integration Lab. The result of those experiments along with suggested improvements for voice communication over satellite are presented in this document. First, a detailed introduction of IP telephony as a suitable technology for voice communication over future satellites is presented. This is followed by procedures for the experiments, along with results and strategies. In conclusion we hope that these capability demonstrations will alleviate any uncertainty regarding the applicability of this technology to satellite networks.

  9. Speech coding, reconstruction and recognition using acoustics and electromagnetic waves

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Ng, L.C.

    1998-03-17

    The use of EM radiation in conjunction with simultaneously recorded acoustic speech information enables a complete mathematical coding of acoustic speech. The methods include the forming of a feature vector for each pitch period of voiced speech and the forming of feature vectors for each time frame of unvoiced, as well as for combined voiced and unvoiced speech. The methods include how to deconvolve the speech excitation function from the acoustic speech output to describe the transfer function each time frame. The formation of feature vectors defining all acoustic speech units over well defined time frames can be used for purposes of speech coding, speech compression, speaker identification, language-of-speech identification, speech recognition, speech synthesis, speech translation, speech telephony, and speech teaching. 35 figs.

  10. Speech coding, reconstruction and recognition using acoustics and electromagnetic waves

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    1998-01-01

    The use of EM radiation in conjunction with simultaneously recorded acoustic speech information enables a complete mathematical coding of acoustic speech. The methods include the forming of a feature vector for each pitch period of voiced speech and the forming of feature vectors for each time frame of unvoiced, as well as for combined voiced and unvoiced speech. The methods include how to deconvolve the speech excitation function from the acoustic speech output to describe the transfer function each time frame. The formation of feature vectors defining all acoustic speech units over well defined time frames can be used for purposes of speech coding, speech compression, speaker identification, language-of-speech identification, speech recognition, speech synthesis, speech translation, speech telephony, and speech teaching.

  11. Acoustic neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    Vestibular schwannoma; Tumor - acoustic; Cerebellopontine angle tumor; Angle tumor ... 177. Battista RA. Gamma knife radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma. Otolaryngol Clin North Am . 2009;42:635-654. ...

  12. I Like the Sound of Your Voice: Affective Learning about Vocal Signals.

    PubMed

    Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Owren, Michael J

    2010-05-01

    This paper provides the first demonstration that the content of what a talker says is sufficient to imbue the acoustics of his voice with affective meaning. In two studies, participants listened to male talkers utter positive, negative, or neutral words. Next, participants completed a sequential evaluative priming task where a neutral word spoken by one of the same talkers was presented before each target word to be evaluated. We predicted, and found, that voices served as evaluative primes that influenced the speed with which participants evaluated the target words. These two experiments demonstrate that the human voice can take on affective meaning merely based on the positive or negative value of the words uttered by that voice. Implications for affective processing, the pragmatics of communication, and person-perception are discussed. PMID:20495619

  13. Perceptual Characteristics of Female Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batstone, Susan; Tuomi, Seppo K.

    1981-01-01

    Male and females listeners rated 21 young female voices on seven scales representing unique vocal features. Voices were described as "passive", or traditionally female, and "active," characterized as "lively,""colorful," and "sexy." Females found active characteristics more salient; males preferred the passive characteristics. Implications for…

  14. Teacher Development and Pupil Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flutter, Julia

    2007-01-01

    The principle of "pupil voice" has attained a high profile over the past decade and its key principles of encouraging pupil consultation and participation are evident in official policy and guidance in many countries around the world. While there has been official endorsement of the notions that pupils have a right to voice their opinions and…

  15. Voices for Illinois Children, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voices for Illinois Children, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of the three issues of the "Voices for Illinois Children" newsletter published during 1998. Voices for Illinois Children is a child advocacy group that works to make kids "count" in Illinois and to ensure that the basic needs of all children, families, and communities are met. These three newsletter issues explore topics…

  16. Voice, Schooling, Inequality, and Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, James

    2013-01-01

    The rich studies in this collection show that the investigation of voice requires analysis of "recognition" across layered spatial-temporal and sociolinguistic scales. I argue that the concepts of voice, recognition, and scale provide insight into contemporary educational inequality and that their study benefits, in turn, from paying attention to…

  17. Enhancing Author's Voice through Scripting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Chase J.; Rasinski, Timothy V.

    2011-01-01

    The authors suggest using scripting as a strategy to mentor and enhance author's voice in writing. Through gradual release, students use authentic literature as a model for writing with voice. The authors also propose possible extensions for independent practice, integration across content areas, and tips for evaluation.

  18. Unheard Voices among Faculty Developers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mighty, Joy; Ouellett, Mathew L.; Stanley, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    If one looks at the current literature and practice of faculty development through various lenses, one thing remains clear: there are voices that are missing from the discourse. In this article, the authors discuss "unheard voices" which they define as those who are still on the margins of the profession--faculty developers who are diverse in…

  19. Employee voice and employee retention.

    PubMed

    Spencer, D G

    1986-09-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the extent to which employees have opportunities to voice dissatisfaction and voluntary turnover in 111 short-term, general care hospitals. Results show that, whether or not a union is present, high numbers of mechanisms for employee voice are associated with high retention rates. Implications for theory and research as well as management practice are discussed. PMID:10278801

  20. Voices for Illinois Children, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voices for Illinois Children, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This document is comprised of the three "Voices for Illinois Children" newsletter issues published during 1999. Voices for Illinois Children is a child advocacy group that works to make kids "count" in Illinois and to ensure that the basic needs of all children, families, and communities are met. These newsletter issues explore topics pertaining…

  1. Why Is My Voice Changing?

    MedlinePlus

    ... enter puberty earlier or later than others. How Deep Will My Voice Get? How deep a guy's voice gets depends on his genes: ... Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  2. ASTP Onboard Voice Transcription

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The transcription is presented of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project voice communications as recorded on the command module data storage equipment. Data from this recorder are telemetered (dumped) to Space Tracking and Data Network sites for retransmission to the Johnson Space Center. The transcript is divided into three columns -- time, speaker, and text. The Greenwich mean time column consists of three two-digit numbers representing hours, minutes, and seconds (e.g., 22 34 14) for the Julian dates shown at the top of the page on which a new day begins. The speaker column indicates the source of a transmission; the text column contains the verbatim transcript of the communications.

  3. Fatigue estimation using voice analysis.

    PubMed

    Greeley, Harold P; Berg, Joel; Friets, Eric; Wilson, John; Greenough, Glen; Picone, Joseph; Whitmore, Jeffrey; Nesthus, Thomas

    2007-08-01

    In the present article, we present a means to remotely and transparently estimate an individual's level of fatigue by quantifying changes in his or her voice characteristics. Using Voice analysis to estimate fatigue is unique from established cognitive measures in a number of ways: (1) speaking is a natural activity requiring no initial training or learning curve, (2) voice recording is a unobtrusive operation allowing the speakers to go about their normal work activities, (3) using telecommunication infrastructure (radio, telephone, etc.) a diffuse set of remote populations can be monitored at a central location, and (4) often, previously recorded voice data are available for post hoc analysis. By quantifying changes in the mathematical coefficients that describe the human speech production process, we were able to demonstrate that for speech sounds requiring a large average air flow, a speaker's voice changes in synchrony with both direct measures of fatigue and with changes predicted by the length of time awake. PMID:17958175

  4. Voice Pathology Detection Using Modulation Spectrum-Optimized Metrics

    PubMed Central

    Moro-Velázquez, Laureano; Gómez-García, Jorge Andrés; Godino-Llorente, Juan Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    There exist many acoustic parameters employed for pathological assessment tasks, which have served as tools for clinicians to distinguish between normophonic and pathological voices. However, many of these parameters require an appropriate tuning in order to maximize its efficiency. In this work, a group of new and already proposed modulation spectrum (MS) metrics are optimized considering different time and frequency ranges pursuing the maximization of efficiency for the detection of pathological voices. The optimization of the metrics is performed simultaneously in two different voice databases in order to identify what tuning ranges produce a better generalization. The experiments were cross-validated so as to ensure the validity of the results. A third database is used to test the optimized metrics. In spite of some differences, results indicate that the behavior of the metrics in the optimization process follows similar tendencies for the tuning databases, confirming the generalization capabilities of the proposed MS metrics. In addition, the tuning process reveals which bands of the modulation spectra have relevant information for each metric, which has a physical interpretation respecting the phonatory system. Efficiency values up to 90.6% are obtained in one tuning database, while in the other, the maximum efficiency reaches 71.1%. Obtained results also evidence a separability between normophonic and pathological states using the proposed metrics, which can be exploited for voice pathology detection or assessment. PMID:26835449

  5. Very low bit rate voice for packetized mobile applications

    SciTech Connect

    Knittle, C.D.; Malone, K.T. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that transmitting digital voice via packetized mobile communications systems that employ relatively short packet lengths and narrow bandwidths often necessitates very low bit rate coding of the voice data. Sandia National Laboratories is currently developing an efficient voice coding system operating at 800 bits per second (bps). The coding scheme is a modified version of the 2400 bps NSA LPC-10e standard. The most significant modification to the LPC-10e scheme is the vector quantization of the line spectrum frequencies associated with the synthesis filters. An outline of a hardware implementation for the 800 bps coder is presented. The speech quality of the coder is generally good, although speaker recognition is not possible. Further research is being conducted to reduce the memory requirements and complexity of the vector quantizer, and to increase the quality of the reconstructed speech. This work may be of use dealing with nuclear materials.

  6. Very low bit rate voice for packetized mobile applications

    SciTech Connect

    Knittle, C.D.; Malone, K.T.

    1991-01-01

    Transmitting digital voice via packetized mobile communications systems that employ relatively short packet lengths and narrow bandwidths often necessitates very low bit rate coding of the voice data. Sandia National Laboratories is currently developing an efficient voice coding system operating at 800 bits per second (bps). The coding scheme is a modified version of the 2400 bps NSA LPC-10e standard. The most significant modification to the LPC-10e scheme is the vector quantization of the line spectrum frequencies associated with the synthesis filters. An outline of a hardware implementation for the 800 bps coder is presented. The speech quality of the coder is generally good, although speaker recognition is not possible. Further research is being conducted to reduce the memory requirements and complexity of the vector quantizer, and to increase the quality of the reconstructed speech. 4 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. An Audio Architecture Integrating Sound and Live Voice for Virtual Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krebs, Eric M.

    2002-09-01

    The purpose behind this thesis was to design and implement audio system architecture, both in hardware and in software, for use in virtual environments The hardware and software design requirements were aimed at implementing acoustical models, such as reverberation and occlusion, and live audio streaming to any simulation employing this architecture, Several free or open-source sound APIs were evaluated, and DirectSound3DTM was selected as the core component of the audio architecture, Creative Technology Ltd, Environmental Audio Extensions (EAXTM 3,0) were integrated into the architecture to provide environmental effects such as reverberation, occlusion, obstruction, and exclusion, Voice over IP (VoIP) technology was evaluated to provide live, streaming voice to any virtual environment DirectVoice was selected as the voice component of the VoIP architecture due to its integration with DirectSound3DTM, However, extremely high latency considerations with DirectVoice, and any other VoIP application or software, required further research into alternative live voice architectures for inclusion in virtual environments Ausim3D's GoldServe Audio System was evaluated and integrated into the hardware component of the audio architecture to provide an extremely low-latency, live, streaming voice capability.

  8. Imagination in harmony with science: Spectral analysis as a practical pedagogic tool in the voice studio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundus, Katharin Elaine

    Traditionally, voice teachers have relied on intuition and imagination to impart technical information to their students. Spectral analysis, generated on a personal computer, is now available, affordable and accessible to the twenty-first century voice teacher. These programs provide several acoustical functions using frequency, intensity and time to provide technical information about the human singing voice. This paper advocates the use of this technology as a supplemental and supporting strategy in addition to the traditional pedagogic modes of metaphor and intuition. To begin, the paper examines the acoustical principles that reflect beautiful singing and are necessary to an understanding of spectral analysis. Several figures are used that graphically explain the source-filter theory of vowels and how it is affected by the constant manipulation of a closed-open tube like the human vocal tract. Nine functions of Real Analysis (a spectral analysis program in real time manufactured by Tiger DRS, Inc.) are then examined and explained in relation to the singing voice. The paper goes on to outline a systematic vocal pedagogy in eight parts that can be used in harmony with spectral analysis, portrayed in an octagonal spiral figure. In the fourth chapter, this systematic vocal pedagogy is then integrated with spectral analysis to suggest a holistic and artistic method to use this technology. In a table format, several singing behaviors are identified, both negative and positive; training solutions using Real Analysis functions are outlined for each behavior. The paper concludes by pointing out that this technology is valuable because it teaches teachers about their own voice in a scientific manner and allows them to share this quantifiable information with their students. Furthermore, twenty-first century students are accepting of and eager for new technologies as they learn about their voices. This new technology does not change the traditional goals of voice training

  9. Endolaryngeal contact laser surgery and voice function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plouzhnikov, Marius S.; Lopotko, Anatoly I.

    1997-05-01

    The paper deals with the analysis of the voice function in patients with laryngeal pathology who had undergone Nd:YAG contact laser surgery. Surgery technique is believed to be gentle and sparing not only structurally but also functionally. It was shown that the methods of function evaluation of phonation such as the voice dynamic range, the main tone testing, transient characteristics of speech tracing, spectrography and electroreolaryngography can serve as a helpful tool in diagnostics and treatment follow-up. Benign laryngeal growths, cysts, scarring, hypertrophic laryngitis and cancer tumors comprise an essential group leading to phonation disturbances. In recent years essentially new surgical approaches have been initiated in the management of these pathologies. It is assumed that voice function quality is dependent not only on the nature, extent and site of the pathology but, also on the technique of the surgery employed and, consequently, on the degree of operative trauma. Contact laser excisions are, among modern sparing methods of laryngeal surgery. It has been shown that contact laser methods are more advantageous as compared to conventional surgery. The present investigation is aimed at exploring phonation in patients with various laryngeal pathology after Nd:YAG contact laser surgery.

  10. Lunar module voice recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A feasibility unit suitable for use as a voice recorder on the space shuttle was developed. A modification, development, and test program is described. A LM-DSEA recorder was modified to achieve the following goals: (1) redesign case to allow in-flight cartridge change; (2) time code change from LM code to IRIG-B 100 pps code; (3) delete cold plate requirements (also requires deletion of long-term thermal vacuum operation at 0.00001 MMHg); (4) implement track sequence reset during cartridge change; (5) reduce record time per cartridge because of unavailability of LM thin-base tape; and (6) add an internal Vox key circuit to turn on/off transport and electronics with voice data input signal. The recorder was tested at both the LM and shuttle vibration levels. The modified recorder achieved the same level of flutter during vibration as the DSEA recorder prior to modification. Several improvements were made over the specification requirements. The high manufacturing cost is discussed.

  11. DLMS voice data entry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, P. B.

    1980-06-01

    This report describes the design, principles of operation, and performance characteristics of an Advanced Development Model of a voice recognition system (VRS) which can serve to input cartographic data to a computer. The completed system has been installed at the Defense Mapping Agency Aerospace Center (DMAAC) at St. Louis, MO, for evaluation and testing. The VRS is intended for use in entering by voice cartographic data to the Digital Landmass System (DLMS) Data Base. It was designed to satisfy the DMAAC product specifications. The software developed for the VRS includes two complete stand-alone programs. Performance tests conducted at TTI disclosed an average system word recognition accuracy of just under 99 percent for five talkers. The recognition tests were conducted by the use of tape recordings. These tape recordings were made during a previous contract involving cartographic data entry. Each person spoke approximately 536 words after uttering five training repetitions. The test results were virtually identical to those obtained during the previous contract.

  12. Voice characteristics, effects of voice therapy, and long-term follow-up of contact granuloma patients.

    PubMed

    Ylitalo, R; Hammarberg, B

    2000-12-01

    This study evaluates the laryngoscopic findings and voice characteristics of male contact granuloma patients before and after voice therapy and at a follow-up about 9 years later. Pre- and posttherapy recordings as well as follow-up recordings were made for 19 granuloma patients. Pretherapy revealed the most salient perceptual voice characteristics were low pitch, monotony, and a high degree of vocal fry and hyperfunction. Interjudge reliability for these traits was high. Immediately following therapy the healed patients (n = 10) had a decrease in hyperfunction, vocal fry, and monotony, while the unhealed patients (n = 9) had an increase in hyperfunction and vocal fry decreased only marginally. Monotony decreased significantly in this group. As regards the acoustic analyses, no significant differences were found in mean fundamental frequency (F0) or perturbation. At the follow-up assessment 4 patients had granuloma while 15 had normal laryngeal status. Perceptually their voice characteristics resembled those pretherapy independently of the laryngeal findings. The results suggest that reduced hyperfunction and decreased vocal fry may create better circumstances for the healing process at the posterior glottis. PMID:11130112

  13. Success with voice recognition.

    PubMed

    Sferrella, Sheila M

    2003-01-01

    You need a compelling reason to implement voice recognition technology. At my institution, the compelling reason was a turnaround time for Radiology results of more than two days. Only 41 percent of our reports were transcribed and signed within 24 hours. In November 1998, a team from Lehigh Valley Hospital went to RSNA and reviewed every voice system on the market. The evaluation was done with the radiologist workflow in mind, and we came back from the meeting with the vendor selection completed. The next steps included developing a business plan, approval of funds, reference calls to more than 15 sites and contract negotiation, all of which took about six months. The department of Radiology at Lehigh Valley Hospital and Health Network (LVHHN) is a multi-site center that performs over 360,000 procedures annually. The department handles all modalities of radiology: general diagnosis, neuroradiology, ultrasound, CT Scan, MRI, interventional radiology, arthography, myelography, bone densitometry, nuclear medicine, PET imaging, vascular lab and other advanced procedures. The department consists of 200 FTEs and a medical staff of more than 40 radiologists. The budget is in the $10.3 million range. There are three hospital sites and four outpatient imaging center sites where services are provided. At Lehigh Valley Hospital, radiologists are not dedicated to one subspecialty, so implementing a voice system by modality was not an option. Because transcription was so far behind, we needed to eliminate that part of the process. As a result, we decided to deploy the system all at once and with the radiologists as editors. The planning and testing phase took about four months, and the implementation took two weeks. We deployed over 40 workstations and trained close to 50 physicians. The radiologists brought in an extra radiologist from our group for the two weeks of training. That allowed us to train without taking a radiologist out of the department. We trained three to six

  14. Musical Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, Colin

    This chapter provides an introduction to the physical and psycho-acoustic principles underlying the production and perception of the sounds of musical instruments. The first section introduces generic aspects of musical acoustics and the perception of musical sounds, followed by separate sections on string, wind and percussion instruments.

  15. Voice measures of workload in the advanced flight deck: Additional studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Sid J.; Alpert, Murray

    1989-01-01

    These studies investigated acoustical analysis of the voice as a measure of workload in individual operators. In the first study, voice samples were recorded from a single operator during high, medium, and low workload conditions. Mean amplitude, frequency, syllable duration, and emphasis all tended to increase as workload increased. In the second study, NASA test pilots performed a laboratory task, and used a flight simulator under differing work conditions. For two of the pilots, high workload in the simulator brought about greater amplitude, peak duration, and stress. In both the laboratory and simulator tasks, high workload tended to be associated with more statistically significant drop-offs in the acoustical measures than were lower workload levels. There was a great deal of intra-subject variability in the acoustical measures. The results suggested that in individual operators, increased workload might be revealed by high initial amplitude and frequency, followed by rapid drop-offs over time.

  16. Can We Hear the Student Voice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garlick, Su

    2008-01-01

    The Student Voice project was launched in January 2007. The aim was to provide a method of encouraging students to become actively involved in decisions about their own learning and empowering them with appropriate ways to do so. Ninety-two pupils were divided up into specific focus groups (a voice). These "voices" include: (1) the "Blue Voice",…

  17. Structural Acoustics and Vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaigne, Antoine

    This chapter is devoted to vibrations of structures and to their coupling with the acoustic field. Depending on the context, the radiated sound can be judged as desirable, as is mostly the case for musical instruments, or undesirable, like noise generated by machinery. In architectural acoustics, one main goal is to limit the transmission of sound through walls. In the automobile industry, the engineers have to control the noise generated inside and outside the passenger compartment. This can be achieved by means of passive or active damping. In general, there is a strong need for quieter products and better sound quality generated by the structures in our daily environment.

  18. Acoustic Sample Deposition MALDI-MS (ASD-MALDI-MS): A Novel Process Flow for Quality Control Screening of Compound Libraries.

    PubMed

    Chin, Jefferson; Wood, Elizabeth; Peters, Grace S; Drexler, Dieter M

    2016-02-01

    In the early stages of drug discovery, high-throughput screening (HTS) of compound libraries against pharmaceutical targets is a common method to identify potential lead molecules. For these HTS campaigns to be efficient and successful, continuous quality control of the compound collection is necessary and crucial. However, the large number of compound samples and the limited sample amount pose unique challenges. Presented here is a proof-of-concept study for a novel process flow for the quality control screening of small-molecule compound libraries that consumes only minimal amounts of samples and affords compound-specific molecular data. This process employs an acoustic sample deposition (ASD) technique for the offline sample preparation by depositing nanoliter volumes in an array format onto microscope glass slides followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric (MALDI-MS) analysis. An initial study of a 384-compound array employing the ASD-MALDI-MS workflow resulted in a 75% first-pass positive identification rate with an analysis time of <1 s per sample. PMID:26203056

  19. An Effective Quality Control of Pharmacologically Active Volatiles of Houttuynia cordata Thunb by Fast Gas Chromatography-Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor.

    PubMed

    Oh, Se Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Fast gas chromatography-surface acoustic wave sensor (GC/SAW) has been applied for the detection of the pharmacological volatiles emanated from Houttuynia cordata Thunb which is from South Korea. H. cordata Thunb with unpleasant and fishy odors shows a variety of pharmacological activities such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and insect repellent. The aim of this study is to show a novel quality control by GC/SAW methodology for the discrimination of the three different parts of the plant such as leaves, aerial stems, and underground stems for H. cordata Thunb. Sixteen compounds were identified. β-Myrcene, cis-ocimene and decanal are the dominant volatiles for leaves (71.0%) and aerial stems (50.1%). While, monoterpenes (74.6%) are the dominant volatiles for underground stems. 2-Undecanone (1.3%) and lauraldehyde (3.5%) were found to be the characteristic components for leaves. Each part of the plant has its own characteristic fragrance pattern owing to its individual chemical compositions. Moreover, its individual characteristic fragrance patterns are conducive to discrimination of the three different parts of the plant. Consequently, fast GC/SAW can be a useful analytical method for quality control of the different parts of the plant with pharmacological volatiles as it provides second unit analysis, a simple and fragrant pattern recognition. PMID:26046325

  20. Menstrual cycle influences on voice and speech in adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Meurer, Elisea M; Garcez, Vera; von Eye Corleta, Helena; Capp, Edison

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to characterize voice intensity and stability of fundamental frequency, formants and diadochokinesis, vocal modulations, rhythms, and speed of speech in adolescents during follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Twenty-three adolescent females who were nonusers of oral contraceptives participated in a cross-sectional study of menstrual cycle influences on voicing and speaking tasks. Acoustic analyses were performed during both phases of the menstrual cycle using the Kay Elemetrics Computer Speech Lab Software Package. Data were analyzed using Student's paired sample t test. Phono-articulatory parameters were similar in both phases of the menstrual cycle (fundamental frequency: 192.6+/-23.9 Hz; minimum formant 891.7+/-110.3 Hz; and maximum formant: 2471.5+/-203.6 Hz). In diadochokinesis, they had a speed of 5.6+/-0.6 seg/s and vocal intensity was 61.5+/-2.6 dB. The mean values for the variations in voice modulations were as follows: anger (21.7+/-8.7 Hz)voice fundamental frequency and intensity, formants, speed of speech, and suprasegmental speech parameters. The results shown in this study may be used as standard of acoustic phono-articulatory for adolescents. PMID:17981011

  1. Listening to the voices of patients with cancer, their advocates and their nurses: A hermeneutic-phenomenological study of quality nursing care.

    PubMed

    Charalambous, Andreas; Papadopoulos, I Rena; Beadsmoore, Alan

    2008-12-01

    This article presents the findings from a hermeneutic-phenomenological study looking at the meanings of "quality nursing care" through the experiences of patients with cancer, their advocates and their nurses. Twenty-five patients were interviewed from which fifteen also participated in two focus groups. Six patients' advocates participated in a focus group and twenty nurses were individually interviewed. The informants came from the three major hospitals in Cyprus which provide in-patient cancer care. Patients' advocates came from the two major cancer associations in Cyprus. Having analysed the data, seven major themes were identified: receiving care in easily accessible cancer care services, being cared for by nurses who effectively communicate with them and their families and provide emotional support, being empowered by nurses through information giving, being cared for by clinically competent nurses, nurses addressing their religious and spiritual needs, being cared for in a nursing environment which promotes shared decision-making, and patients being with and involving the family in the care. These findings stress the need to integrate these aspects in the care of patients with cancer. In doing so, nurses will need support and adequate training in order to acquire the relevant skills towards better caring for the patients. PMID:18845478

  2. Voice stress analysis and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddad, Darren M.; Ratley, Roy J.

    2001-02-01

    Voice Stress Analysis (VSA) systems are marketed as computer-based systems capable of measuring stress in a person's voice as an indicator of deception. They are advertised as being less expensive, easier to use, less invasive in use, and less constrained in their operation then polygraph technology. The National Institute of Justice have asked the Air Force Research Laboratory for assistance in evaluating voice stress analysis technology. Law enforcement officials have also been asking questions about this technology. If VSA technology proves to be effective, its value for military and law enforcement application is tremendous.

  3. Restoration of voice function by using biological feedback in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choinzonov, E. L.; Balatskaya, L. N.; Chizhevskaya, S. Yu.; Meshcheryakov, R. V.; Kostyuchenko, E. Yu.; Ivanova, T. A.

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the research is to develop and introduce a new technique of post-laryngectomy voice rehabilitation of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma patients. The study involves comparing and analyzing 82 cases of voice function restoration by using biological feedback based on mathematical modeling of voice production. The advantage of the modern technology-based method in comparison with the conventional one is proved. Restoration of voice function using biofeedback allows taking into account patient's abilities, adjusting parameters of voice trainings, and controlling their efficiency in real-time mode. The data obtained indicate that the new method contributes to the rapid inclusion of self-regulation mechanisms of the body and results in the overall success rate of voice rehabilitation in totally laryngectomized patients reaching 92%, which reduces the rehabilitation period to 18 days, compared to 86% and 38 days in the control group, respectively. Restoration of disturbed functions after successful treatment is an important task of rehabilitation and is crucial in terms of the quality of cancer patients' lives. To assess life quality of laryngeal cancer patients, the EORTC Quality of Life Core Questionnaire (QLQ-C30), and head and neck module (QLQ-H&N35) were used. The analyzed results proved that the technique of biofeedback voice restoration significantly improves the quality of life of laryngectomized patients. It allows reducing the number of disabled people, restoring patients' ability to work-related activities, and significantly improving social adaptation of these patients.

  4. Voice stress analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Malcolm; Shipp, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    In a study of the validity of eight candidate voice measures (fundamental frequency, amplitude, speech rate, frequency jitter, amplitude shimmer, Psychological Stress Evaluator scores, energy distribution, and the derived measure of the above measures) for determining psychological stress, 17 males age 21 to 35 were subjected to a tracking task on a microcomputer CRT while parameters of vocal production as well as heart rate were measured. Findings confirm those of earlier studies that increases in fundamental frequency, amplitude, and speech rate are found in speakers involved in extreme levels of stress. In addition, it was found that the same changes appear to occur in a regular fashion within a more subtle level of stress that may be characteristic, for example, of routine flying situations. None of the individual speech measures performed as robustly as did heart rate.

  5. Functional Voice Testing Detects Early Changes in Vocal Pitch in Women During Testosterone Administration

    PubMed Central

    Pencina, Karol M.; Coady, Jeffry A.; Beleva, Yusnie M.; Bhasin, Shalender; Basaria, Shehzad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine dose-dependent effects of T administration on voice changes in women with low T levels. Methods: Seventy-one women who have undergone a hysterectomy with or without oophorectomy with total T < 31 ng/dL and/or free T < 3.5 pg/mL received a standardized transdermal estradiol regimen during the 12-week run-in period and were then randomized to receive weekly im injections of placebo or 3, 6.25, 12.5, or 25 mg T enanthate for 24 weeks. Total and free T levels were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and equilibrium dialysis, respectively. Voice handicap was measured by self-report using a validated voice handicap index questionnaire at baseline and 24 weeks after intervention. Functional voice testing was performed using the Kay Elemetrics-Computer Speech Lab to determine voice frequency, volume, and harmonics. Results: Forty-six women with evaluable voice data at baseline and after intervention were included in the analysis. The five groups were similar at baseline. Mean on-treatment nadir total T concentrations were 13, 83, 106, 122, and 250 ng/dL in the placebo, 3-, 6.25-, 12.5-, and 25-mg groups, respectively. Analyses of acoustic voice parameters revealed significant lowering of average pitch in the 12.5- and 25-mg dose groups compared to placebo (P < .05); these changes in pitch were significantly related to increases in T concentrations. No significant dose- or concentration-dependent changes in self-reported voice handicap index scores were observed. Conclusion: Testosterone administration in women with low T levels over 24 weeks was associated with dose- and concentration-dependent decreases in average pitch in the higher dose groups. These changes were seen despite the lack of self-reported changes in voice. PMID:25875779

  6. Scanning Tomographic Acoustic Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, G.; Meyyappan, A.

    1988-07-01

    The technology for "seeing" with sound has an important and interesting history. Some of nature's creatures have been using sound waves for many millenia to image otherwise unobservable objects. The human species, lacking this natural ability, have overcome this deficiency by developing several different ultrasonic imaging techniques. acoustic microscopy is one such technique, which produces high resolution images of detailed structure of small objects in a non-destructive fashion. Two types of acoustic microscopes have evolved for industrial exploitation. They are the scanning laser acoustic microscope (SLAM) and the scanning acoustic microscope (SAM). In this paper, we review the principles of SLAM and describe how we use elements of SLAM to realize the scanning tomographic acoustic microscope (STAM). We describe the data acquisition process and the image reconstruction procedure. We also describe techniques to obtain projection data from different angles of wave incidence enabling us to reconstruct different planes of a complex specimen tomo-graphically. Our experimental results show that STAM is capable of producing high-quality high-resolution subsurface images.

  7. How do you say 'hello'? Personality impressions from brief novel voices.

    PubMed

    McAleer, Phil; Todorov, Alexander; Belin, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    On hearing a novel voice, listeners readily form personality impressions of that speaker. Accurate or not, these impressions are known to affect subsequent interactions; yet the underlying psychological and acoustical bases remain poorly understood. Furthermore, hitherto studies have focussed on extended speech as opposed to analysing the instantaneous impressions we obtain from first experience. In this paper, through a mass online rating experiment, 320 participants rated 64 sub-second vocal utterances of the word 'hello' on one of 10 personality traits. We show that: (1) personality judgements of brief utterances from unfamiliar speakers are consistent across listeners; (2) a two-dimensional 'social voice space' with axes mapping Valence (Trust, Likeability) and Dominance, each driven by differing combinations of vocal acoustics, adequately summarises ratings in both male and female voices; and (3) a positive combination of Valence and Dominance results in increased perceived male vocal Attractiveness, whereas perceived female vocal Attractiveness is largely controlled by increasing Valence. Results are discussed in relation to the rapid evaluation of personality and, in turn, the intent of others, as being driven by survival mechanisms via approach or avoidance behaviours. These findings provide empirical bases for predicting personality impressions from acoustical analyses of short utterances and for generating desired personality impressions in artificial voices. PMID:24622283

  8. High-speed imaging and image processing in voice disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tigges, Monika; Wittenberg, Thomas; Rosanowski, Frank; Eysholdt, Ulrich

    1996-12-01

    A digital high-speed camera system for the endoscopic examination of the larynx delivers recording speeds of up to 10,000 frames/s. Recordings of up to 1 s duration can be stored and used for further evaluation. Maximum resolution is 128 multiplied by 128 pixel. The acoustic and electroglottographic signals are recorded simultaneously. An image processing program especially developed for this purpose renders time-way-waveforms (high-speed glottograms) of several locations on the vocal cords. From the graphs all of the known objective parameters of the voice can be derived. Results of examinations in normal subjects and patients are presented.

  9. International Space Station Acoustics - A Status Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Christopher S.; Denham, Samuel A.

    2011-01-01

    It is important to control acoustic noise aboard the International Space Station (ISS) to provide a satisfactory environment for voice communications, crew productivity, and restful sleep, and to minimize the risk for temporary and permanent hearing loss. Acoustic monitoring is an important part of the noise control process on ISS, providing critical data for trend analysis, noise exposure analysis, validation of acoustic analysis and predictions, and to provide strong evidence for ensuring crew health and safety, thus allowing Flight Certification. To this purpose, sound level meter (SLM) measurements and acoustic noise dosimetry are routinely performed. And since the primary noise sources on ISS include the environmental control and life support system (fans and airflow) and active thermal control system (pumps and water flow), acoustic monitoring will indicate changes in hardware noise emissions that may indicate system degradation or performance issues. This paper provides the current acoustic levels in the ISS modules and sleep stations, and is an update to the status presented in 20031. Many new modules, and sleep stations have been added to the ISS since that time. In addition, noise mitigation efforts have reduced noise levels in some areas. As a result, the acoustic levels on the ISS have improved.

  10. International Space Station Acoustics - A Status Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    It is important to control acoustic noise aboard the International Space Station (ISS) to provide a satisfactory environment for voice communications, crew productivity, alarm audibility, and restful sleep, and to minimize the risk for temporary and permanent hearing loss. Acoustic monitoring is an important part of the noise control process on ISS, providing critical data for trend analysis, noise exposure analysis, validation of acoustic analyses and predictions, and to provide strong evidence for ensuring crew health and safety, thus allowing Flight Certification. To this purpose, sound level meter (SLM) measurements and acoustic noise dosimetry are routinely performed. And since the primary noise sources on ISS include the environmental control and life support system (fans and airflow) and active thermal control system (pumps and water flow), acoustic monitoring will reveal changes in hardware noise emissions that may indicate system degradation or performance issues. This paper provides the current acoustic levels in the ISS modules and sleep stations and is an update to the status presented in 2011. Since this last status report, many payloads (science experiment hardware) have been added and a significant number of quiet ventilation fans have replaced noisier fans in the Russian Segment. Also, noise mitigation efforts are planned to reduce the noise levels of the T2 treadmill and levels in Node 3, in general. As a result, the acoustic levels on the ISS continue to improve.

  11. The development of acoustic cues to coda contrasts in young children learning American Englisha

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jae Yung; Demuth, Katherine; Shattuck-Hufnagel, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    Research on children’s speech perception and production suggests that consonant voicing and place contrasts may be acquired early in life, at least in word-onset position. However, little is known about the development of the acoustic correlates of later-acquired, word-final coda contrasts. This is of particular interest in languages like English where many grammatical morphemes are realized as codas. This study therefore examined how various non-spectral acoustic cues vary as a function of stop coda voicing (voiced vs. voiceless) and place (alveolar vs. velar) in the spontaneous speech of 6 American-English-speaking mother-child dyads. The results indicate that children as young as 1;6 exhibited many adult-like acoustic cues to voicing and place contrasts, including longer vowels and more frequent use of voice bar with voiced codas, and a greater number of bursts and longer post-release noise for velar codas. However, 1;6-year-olds overall exhibited longer durations and more frequent occurrence of these cues compared to mothers, with decreasing values by 2;6. Thus, English-speaking 1;6-year-olds already exhibit adult-like use of some of the cues to coda voicing and place, though implementation is not yet fully adult-like. Physiological and contextual correlates of these findings are discussed. PMID:22501078

  12. Surgical procedures for voice restoration

    PubMed Central

    Nawka, Tadeus; Hosemann, Werner

    2005-01-01

    Surgical procedures for voice restoration serve to improve oral communication by better vocal function. They comprise of phonomicrosurgery, with direct and indirect access to the larynx; laryngoplasty; laryngeal injections; and surgical laryngeal reinnervation. The basis for modern surgical techniques for voice disorders is the knowledge about the ultrastructure of the vocal folds and the increasing experience of surgeons in voice surgery, while facing high social and professional demands on the voice. Vocal activity limitation and participation restriction has become more important in the artistic and social areas. A number of surgical methods that have been developed worldwide for this reason, are presented in this article. Functional oriented surgery has to meet high standards. The diagnostics of vocal function has to be multi-dimensional in order to determine the indication and the appropriate surgical intervention. PMID:22073062

  13. Acoustic Neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    ... slow growing tumor which arise primarily from the vestibular portion of the VIII cranial nerve and lie ... you have a "brain tumor" called acoustic neuroma (vestibular schwannoma). You think you are the only one ...

  14. Underwater Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuperman, William A.; Roux, Philippe

    It is well underwater established that sound waves, compared to electromagnetic waves, propagate long distances in the ocean. Hence, in the ocean as opposed to air or a vacuum, one uses sound navigation and ranging (SONAR) instead navigation and ranging (SONAR) of radar, acoustic communication instead of radio, and acoustic imaging and tomography instead of microwave or optical imaging or X-ray tomography. Underwater acoustics is the science of sound in water (most commonly in the ocean) and encompasses not only the study of sound propagation, but also the masking of sound signals by interfering phenomenon and signal processing for extracting these signals from interference. This chapter we will present the basics physics of ocean acoustics and then discuss applications.

  15. Evaluation of voice and speech following subtotal reconstructive laryngectomy.

    PubMed

    Pastore, A; Yuceturk, A V; Trevisi, P

    1998-01-01

    Subtotal reconstructive laryngectomy (SRL) can be used to preserve voice in the treatment of selected laryngeal carcinomas. This study was designed to analyze both voice and speech results achieved after SRL in 14 male patients, aged from 48 to 73 years. Surgery was performed between 1983 and 1993. Fundamental frequencies, ranges of frequency, intensities, and intensity ranges were established using an S.I. 80 Philips AAC 600 Audio Active Comparative Language System. Five prolonged vowels and six phonetically balanced sentences were recorded on a tape positioned at a distance of 30 cm from the mouth of each patient during a 3-min recording time. The recorded material was then evaluated by a panel of ten trained listeners who were asked to consider the qualitative parameters and perceptual characteristics of voice and speech according to a scorecard modified from one devised by Voiers and Formigoni. Although a decrease was determined in Fundamental Frequency and intensity of the voice when compared to normal values, the quality and perception of speech were found to be satisfactory. The verbal message could be understood almost exactly by means of constant sonority, correct articulation and improved pneumophonic coordination. These values demonstrate that the new voice achieved after SRL is less sonorous and allows for understandable and socially acceptable speech. PMID:9783136

  16. The Voice of Emotion across Species: How Do Human Listeners Recognize Animals' Affective States?

    PubMed Central

    Scheumann, Marina; Hasting, Anna S.; Kotz, Sonja A.; Zimmermann, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Voice-induced cross-taxa emotional recognition is the ability to understand the emotional state of another species based on its voice. In the past, induced affective states, experience-dependent higher cognitive processes or cross-taxa universal acoustic coding and processing mechanisms have been discussed to underlie this ability in humans. The present study sets out to distinguish the influence of familiarity and phylogeny on voice-induced cross-taxa emotional perception in humans. For the first time, two perspectives are taken into account: the self- (i.e. emotional valence induced in the listener) versus the others-perspective (i.e. correct recognition of the emotional valence of the recording context). Twenty-eight male participants listened to 192 vocalizations of four different species (human infant, dog, chimpanzee and tree shrew). Stimuli were recorded either in an agonistic (negative emotional valence) or affiliative (positive emotional valence) context. Participants rated the emotional valence of the stimuli adopting self- and others-perspective by using a 5-point version of the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM). Familiarity was assessed based on subjective rating, objective labelling of the respective stimuli and interaction time with the respective species. Participants reliably recognized the emotional valence of human voices, whereas the results for animal voices were mixed. The correct classification of animal voices depended on the listener's familiarity with the species and the call type/recording context, whereas there was less influence of induced emotional states and phylogeny. Our results provide first evidence that explicit voice-induced cross-taxa emotional recognition in humans is shaped more by experience-dependent cognitive mechanisms than by induced affective states or cross-taxa universal acoustic coding and processing mechanisms. PMID:24621604

  17. Estimation of voice-onset time in continuous speech using temporal measures.

    PubMed

    Prathosh, A P; Ramakrishnan, A G; Ananthapadmanabha, T V

    2014-08-01

    This paper proposes an automatic acoustic-phonetic method for estimating voice-onset time of stops. This method requires neither transcription of the utterance nor training of a classifier. It makes use of the plosion index for the automatic detection of burst onsets of stops. Having detected the burst onset, the onset of the voicing following the burst is detected using the epochal information and a temporal measure named the maximum weighted inner product. For validation, several experiments are carried out on the entire TIMIT database and two of the CMU Arctic corpora. The performance of the proposed method compares well with three state-of-the-art techniques. PMID:25096135

  18. Surface acoustic wave sensors/gas chromatography; and Low quality natural gas sulfur removal and recovery CNG Claus sulfur recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Klint, B.W.; Dale, P.R.; Stephenson, C.

    1997-12-01

    This topical report consists of the two titled projects. Surface Acoustic Wave/Gas Chromatography (SAW/GC) provides a cost-effective system for collecting real-time field screening data for characterization of vapor streams contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The Model 4100 can be used in a field screening mode to produce chromatograms in 10 seconds. This capability will allow a project manager to make immediate decisions and to avoid the long delays and high costs associated with analysis by off-site analytical laboratories. The Model 4100 is currently under evaluation by the California Environmental Protection Agency Technology Certification Program. Initial certification focuses upon the following organics: cis-dichloroethylene, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, trichlorethylene, tetrachloroethylene, tetrachloroethane, benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and o-xylene. In the second study the CNG Claus process is being evaluated for conversion and recovery of elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide, especially found in low quality natural gas. This report describes the design, construction and operation of a pilot scale plant built to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the integrated CNG Claus process.

  19. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Two Semi-Occluded Vocal Tract Voice Therapy Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Eric J.; Kirkham, Kimberly; Cox, Karin; Titze, Ingo R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although there is a long history of use of semi-occluded vocal tract gestures in voice therapy, including phonation through thin tubes or straws, the efficacy of phonation through tubes has not been established. This study compares results from a therapy program on the basis of phonation through a flow-resistant tube (FRT) with Vocal Function Exercises (VFE), an established set of exercises that utilize oral semi-occlusions. Method Twenty subjects (16 women, 4 men) with dysphonia and/or vocal fatigue were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment conditions: (a) immediate FRT therapy, (b) immediate VFE therapy, (c) delayed FRT therapy, or (d) delayed VFE therapy. Subjects receiving delayed therapy served as a no-treatment control group. Results Voice Handicap Index (Jacobson et al., 1997) scores showed significant improvement for both treatment groups relative to the no-treatment group. Comparison of the effect sizes suggests FRT therapy is noninferior to VFE in terms of reduction in Voice Handicap Index scores. Significant reductions in Roughness on the Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (Kempster, Gerratt, Verdolini Abbott, Barkmeier-Kraemer, & Hillman, 2009) were found for the FRT subjects, with no other significant voice quality findings. Conclusions VFE and FRT therapy may improve voice quality of life in some individuals with dysphonia. FRT therapy was noninferior to VFE in improving voice quality of life in this study. PMID:25675335

  20. Functional connectivity associated with acoustic stability during vowel production: implications for vocal-motor control.

    PubMed

    Sidtis, John J

    2015-03-01

    Vowels provide the acoustic foundation of communication through speech and song, but little is known about how the brain orchestrates their production. Positron emission tomography was used to study regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during sustained production of the vowel /a/. Acoustic and blood flow data from 13, normal, right-handed, native speakers of American English were analyzed to identify CBF patterns that predicted the stability of the first and second formants of this vowel. Formants are bands of resonance frequencies that provide vowel identity and contribute to voice quality. The results indicated that formant stability was directly associated with blood flow increases and decreases in both left- and right-sided brain regions. Secondary brain regions (those associated with the regions predicting formant stability) were more likely to have an indirect negative relationship with first formant variability, but an indirect positive relationship with second formant variability. These results are not definitive maps of vowel production, but they do suggest that the level of motor control necessary to produce stable vowels is reflected in the complexity of an underlying neural system. These results also extend a systems approach to functional image analysis, previously applied to normal and ataxic speech rate that is solely based on identifying patterns of brain activity associated with specific performance measures. Understanding the complex relationships between multiple brain regions and the acoustic characteristics of vocal stability may provide insight into the pathophysiology of the dysarthrias, vocal disorders, and other speech changes in neurological and psychiatric disorders. PMID:25295385

  1. Event identification by acoustic signature recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Dress, W.B.; Kercel, S.W.

    1995-07-01

    Many events of interest to the security commnnity produce acoustic emissions that are, in principle, identifiable as to cause. Some obvious examples are gunshots, breaking glass, takeoffs and landings of small aircraft, vehicular engine noises, footsteps (high frequencies when on gravel, very low frequencies. when on soil), and voices (whispers to shouts). We are investigating wavelet-based methods to extract unique features of such events for classification and identification. We also discuss methods of classification and pattern recognition specifically tailored for acoustic signatures obtained by wavelet analysis. The paper is divided into three parts: completed work, work in progress, and future applications. The completed phase has led to the successful recognition of aircraft types on landing and takeoff. Both small aircraft (twin-engine turboprop) and large (commercial airliners) were included in the study. The project considered the design of a small, field-deployable, inexpensive device. The techniques developed during the aircraft identification phase were then adapted to a multispectral electromagnetic interference monitoring device now deployed in a nuclear power plant. This is a general-purpose wavelet analysis engine, spanning 14 octaves, and can be adapted for other specific tasks. Work in progress is focused on applying the methods previously developed to speaker identification. Some of the problems to be overcome include recognition of sounds as voice patterns and as distinct from possible background noises (e.g., music), as well as identification of the speaker from a short-duration voice sample. A generalization of the completed work and the work in progress is a device capable of classifying any number of acoustic events-particularly quasi-stationary events such as engine noises and voices and singular events such as gunshots and breaking glass. We will show examples of both kinds of events and discuss their recognition likelihood.

  2. Measuring glottal activity during voiced speech using a tuned electromagnetic resonating collar sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D. R., III; Keenaghan, K.; Desimini, S.

    2005-11-01

    Non-acoustic speech sensors can be employed to obtain measurements of one or more aspects of the speech production process, such as glottal activity, even in the presence of background noise. These sensors have a long history of clinical applications and have also recently been applied to the problem of denoising speech signals recorded in acoustically noisy environments (Ng et al 2000 Proc. Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP) (Istanbul, Turkey) vol 1, pp 229-32). Recently, researchers developed a new non-acoustic speech sensor based primarily on a tuned electromagnetic resonator collar (TERC) (Brown et al 2004 Meas. Sci. Technol. 15 1291). The TERC sensor measures glottal activity by sensing small changes in the dielectric properties of the glottis that result from voiced speech. This paper builds on the seminal work in Brown et al (2004). The primary contributions of this paper are (i) a description of a new single-mode TERC sensor design addressing the comfort and complexity issues of the original sensor, (ii) a complete description of new external interface systems used to obtain long-duration recordings from the TERC sensor and (iii) more extensive experimental results and analysis for the single-mode TERC sensor including spectrograms of speech containing both voiced and unvoiced speech segments in quiet and acoustically noisy environments. The experimental results demonstrate that the single-mode TERC sensor is able to detect glottal activity up to the fourth harmonic and is also insensitive to acoustic background noise.

  3. Using Principal Component and Tidal Analysis as a Quality Metric for Detecting Systematic Heading Uncertainty in Long-Term Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morley, M. G.; Mihaly, S. F.; Dewey, R. K.; Jeffries, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) operates the NEPTUNE and VENUS cabled ocean observatories to collect data on physical, chemical, biological, and geological ocean conditions over multi-year time periods. Researchers can download real-time and historical data from a large variety of instruments to study complex earth and ocean processes from their home laboratories. Ensuring that the users are receiving the most accurate data is a high priority at ONC, requiring quality assurance and quality control (QAQC) procedures to be developed for all data types. While some data types have relatively straightforward QAQC tests, such as scalar data range limits that are based on expected observed values or measurement limits of the instrument, for other data types the QAQC tests are more comprehensive. Long time series of ocean currents from Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP), stitched together from multiple deployments over many years is one such data type where systematic data biases are more difficult to identify and correct. Data specialists at ONC are working to quantify systematic compass heading uncertainty in long-term ADCP records at each of the major study sites using the internal compass, remotely operated vehicle bearings, and more analytical tools such as principal component analysis (PCA) to estimate the optimal instrument alignments. In addition to using PCA, some work has been done to estimate the main components of the current at each site using tidal harmonic analysis. This paper describes the key challenges and presents preliminary PCA and tidal analysis approaches used by ONC to improve long-term observatory current measurements.

  4. Anti-Voice Adaptation Suggests Prototype-Based Coding of Voice Identity

    PubMed Central

    Latinus, Marianne; Belin, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    We used perceptual aftereffects induced by adaptation with anti-voice stimuli to investigate voice identity representations. Participants learned a set of voices then were tested on a voice identification task with vowel stimuli morphed between identities, after different conditions of adaptation. In Experiment 1, participants chose the identity opposite to the adapting anti-voice significantly more often than the other two identities (e.g., after being adapted to anti-A, they identified the average voice as A). In Experiment 2, participants showed a bias for identities opposite to the adaptor specifically for anti-voice, but not for non-anti-voice adaptors. These results are strikingly similar to adaptation aftereffects observed for facial identity. They are compatible with a representation of individual voice identities in a multidimensional perceptual voice space referenced on a voice prototype. PMID:21847384

  5. [Acoustic study of sustained vowels made by patients with recurrent nerve paralysis after thyroidectomy].

    PubMed

    Fauth, C; Vaxelaire, B; Rodier, J F; Volkmar, P P; Sock, R

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the consequences of thyroid surgery on the voice of patients suffering from recurrent paralysis. The consequences of the surgery are evaluated using a corpus of sustained vowels in order to identify the various disruptions that this procedure may produce. This research also looks for possible compensatory and/or readjustment strategies that can be used by a patient alone and with the help of speech therapy. Acoustic measurements considered are fundamental frequency (F0), Harmonics-to-Noise Ratio (HNR), and vowel space area. This is a longitudinal study, as all patients are recorded once a month during three months after surgery. Results reveal a modification of all parameters in the early recording stages. However, time and speech therapy contribute to obtaining expected values of the measured parameters, and thus to improvement of vocal quality. PMID:23074822

  6. Some objective measures indicative of perceived voice robustness in student teachers.

    PubMed

    Orr, Rosemary; de Jong, Felix; Cranen, Bert

    2002-01-01

    One of the problems confronted in the teaching profession is the maintenance of a healthy voice. This basic pedagogical tool is subjected to extensive use, and frequently suffers from overload, with some teachers having to give up their profession altogether. In some teacher training schools, it is the current practice to examine the student's voice, and to refer any perceived susceptibility to strain to voice specialists. For this study, a group of vocally healthy students were examined first at the teacher training schools, and then at the ENT clinic at the University Hospital of Nijmegen. The aim was to predict whether the subject's voice might be at risk for occupational dysphonia as a result of the vocal load of the teaching profession. We tried to find objective measures of voice quality in student teachers, used in current clinical practice, which reflect the judgements of the therapists and phoniatricians. We tried to explain such measures physiologically in terms of robustness of, and control over voicing. Objective measures used included video-laryngostroboscopy, phonetography and spectrography. Maximum phonation time, melodic range in conjunction with maximum intensity range, and the production of soft voice are suggested as possible predictive parameters for the risk of occupational voice strain. PMID:12498351

  7. Overview of requirements and networks for voice communications and speech processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ince, A. Nejat

    1990-05-01

    The use of voice for military and civil communications are discussed. The military operational requirements are outlined in relation to air operations, including the effects of propagational factors and electronic warfare. Structures of the existing NATO communications network and the evolving Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN) are reviewed to show how they meet the requirements. It is concluded that speech coding at low-bit rates is a growing need for transmitting speech messages with a high level of security and reliability over low data-rate channels and for memory-efficient systems for voice storage, voice response, and voice mail. Furthermore, it is pointed out that the low-bit rate voice coding can ease the transition to shared channels for voice and data and can readily adopt voice messages for packet switching. The speech processing techniques and systems are then outlined as an introduction to the lectures of this series in terms of: the character of the speech signal, its generation and perception; speech coding which is mainly concerned with man-to-man voice communication; speech synthesis which deals with machine-to-man communication; speech recognition which is related to man-to-machine communication; and quality assessment of speech system and standards.

  8. Acoustic biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Fogel, Ronen; Seshia, Ashwin A.

    2016-01-01

    Resonant and acoustic wave devices have been researched for several decades for application in the gravimetric sensing of a variety of biological and chemical analytes. These devices operate by coupling the measurand (e.g. analyte adsorption) as a modulation in the physical properties of the acoustic wave (e.g. resonant frequency, acoustic velocity, dissipation) that can then be correlated with the amount of adsorbed analyte. These devices can also be miniaturized with advantages in terms of cost, size and scalability, as well as potential additional features including integration with microfluidics and electronics, scaled sensitivities associated with smaller dimensions and higher operational frequencies, the ability to multiplex detection across arrays of hundreds of devices embedded in a single chip, increased throughput and the ability to interrogate a wider range of modes including within the same device. Additionally, device fabrication is often compatible with semiconductor volume batch manufacturing techniques enabling cost scalability and a high degree of precision and reproducibility in the manufacturing process. Integration with microfluidics handling also enables suitable sample pre-processing/separation/purification/amplification steps that could improve selectivity and the overall signal-to-noise ratio. Three device types are reviewed here: (i) bulk acoustic wave sensors, (ii) surface acoustic wave sensors, and (iii) micro/nano-electromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) sensors. PMID:27365040

  9. Acoustic biosensors.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Ronen; Limson, Janice; Seshia, Ashwin A

    2016-06-30

    Resonant and acoustic wave devices have been researched for several decades for application in the gravimetric sensing of a variety of biological and chemical analytes. These devices operate by coupling the measurand (e.g. analyte adsorption) as a modulation in the physical properties of the acoustic wave (e.g. resonant frequency, acoustic velocity, dissipation) that can then be correlated with the amount of adsorbed analyte. These devices can also be miniaturized with advantages in terms of cost, size and scalability, as well as potential additional features including integration with microfluidics and electronics, scaled sensitivities associated with smaller dimensions and higher operational frequencies, the ability to multiplex detection across arrays of hundreds of devices embedded in a single chip, increased throughput and the ability to interrogate a wider range of modes including within the same device. Additionally, device fabrication is often compatible with semiconductor volume batch manufacturing techniques enabling cost scalability and a high degree of precision and reproducibility in the manufacturing process. Integration with microfluidics handling also enables suitable sample pre-processing/separation/purification/amplification steps that could improve selectivity and the overall signal-to-noise ratio. Three device types are reviewed here: (i) bulk acoustic wave sensors, (ii) surface acoustic wave sensors, and (iii) micro/nano-electromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) sensors. PMID:27365040

  10. Comparison of voice types for helicopter voice warning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, C. A.; Marchionda-Frost, K.; Navarro, T.

    1984-01-01

    Three related studies were conducted to compare different types of human voice warnings. In the first study, a comparison of three LPC-encoded voices, human female, human male, and phoneme-synthesized, by the criteria of pilot flight task performance showed no differences due to the voice type. In the second study, pilots' preferences were investigated, by comparing preference for direct synthesized speech to the LPC-encoded human female speech and to LPC-encoded synthesized speech. Most pilots were found to prefer direct synthesized speech over both LPC-encoded human female speech and the LPC-encoded synthesized speech. In the third study, phonetically balanced (PB) words heard in simulated helicopter noise were used to compare the intelligibility of direct synthesized and LPC-encoded phoneme-synthesized speech types. PB word intelligibility was found to be better for direct synthesized speech than for the LPC-encodes synthesized speech.

  11. Real-Time Feedback in the Singing Studio: An Innovatory Action-Research Project Using New Voice Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Graham F.; Howard, David M.; Himonides, Evangelos; Brereton, Jude

    2005-01-01

    The article reports on a one-year AHRB-funded Innovations project that was designed to evaluate the usefulness, or otherwise, of the application of real-time visual feedback technology in the singing studio. The basis for the research was a multi-disciplinary approach that drew on voice science and acoustics, the psychology of singing and voice…

  12. Exploiting Nonlinear Recurrence and Fractal Scaling Properties for Voice Disorder Detection

    PubMed Central

    Little, Max A; McSharry, Patrick E; Roberts, Stephen J; Costello, Declan AE; Moroz, Irene M

    2007-01-01

    Background Voice disorders affect patients profoundly, and acoustic tools can potentially measure voice function objectively. Disordered sustained vowels exhibit wide-ranging phenomena, from nearly periodic to highly complex, aperiodic vibrations, and increased "breathiness". Modelling and surrogate data studies have shown significant nonlinear and non-Gaussian random properties in these sounds. Nonetheless, existing tools are limited to analysing voices displaying near periodicity, and do not account for this inherent biophysical nonlinearity and non-Gaussian randomness, often using linear signal processing methods insensitive to these properties. They do not directly measure the two main biophysical symptoms of disorder: complex nonlinear aperiodicity, and turbulent, aeroacoustic, non-Gaussian randomness. Often these tools cannot be applied to more severe disordered voices, limiting their clinical usefulness. Methods This paper introduces two new tools to speech analysis: recurrence and fractal scaling, which overcome the range limitations of existing tools by addressing directly these two symptoms of disorder, together reproducing a "hoarseness" diagram. A simple bootstrapped classifier then uses these two features to distinguish normal from disordered voices. Results On a large database of subjects with a wide variety of voice disorders, these new techniques can distinguish normal from disordered cases, using quadratic discriminant analysis, to overall correct classification performance of 91.8 ± 2.0%. The true positive classification performance is 95.4 ± 3.2%, and the true negative performance is 91.5 ± 2.3% (95% confidence). This is shown to outperform all combinations of the most popular classical tools. Conclusion Given the very large number of arbitrary parameters and computational complexity of existing techniques, these new techniques are far simpler and yet achieve clinically useful classification performance using only a basic classification

  13. Quantification of dyspnea confirmed by voice pitch analysis.

    PubMed

    Mohler, J G

    1982-01-01

    Previous efforts to quantitate dyspnea are reviewed. In this study, the voice was recorded at each level of exercise on 44 healthy male subjects exercised to maximum oxygen consumption (MVO2) by incremental treadmill testing. The fundamental frequency (FO) was compared to the physical changes noted during exercise associated with dyspnea at each level of oxygen uptake (VO2) and minute ventilation (VE). FO increased linearly with VO2 and VE. FO at MVO2 was about 1.66 times FO at rest; the slope of the increase was an individual characteristic. The sum of the graded signs of dyspnea codes (dyspnea sum index, DSI) also agreed with the measured voice changes, VO2, VE and the subjective assessment of dyspnea by the subject. Equations for predicting MVO2 from submaximal exercise are given which tested favorably against the actual MVO2. Because resting FO was most affected by anxiety, the equation predicting MVO2 from FO was not as reliable as from DSI. FO is a function of elastic properties of the vocal folds, which change in response to increased VE by permitting air to pass through "air shunts" of the arytenoid aperture. This creates a falsetto characteristic to the voice and is perceived as a stress quality. FO is a measurement reflecting many changes in the larynx with stress of exercise and perceived dyspnea. The laryngeal changes during exercise are reviewed, and the basis for the correlation between qualities of the voice and quantities such as FO are suggested. PMID:6927538

  14. Questioning Photovoice Research: Whose Voice?

    PubMed

    Evans-Agnew, Robin A; Rosemberg, Marie-Anne S

    2016-07-01

    Photovoice is an important participatory research tool for advancing health equity. Our purpose is to critically review how participant voice is promoted through the photovoice process of taking and discussing photos and adding text/captions. PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases were searched from the years 2008 to 2014 using the keywords photovoice, photonovella, photovoice and social justice, and photovoice and participatory action research. Research articles were reviewed for how participant voice was (a) analyzed, (b) exhibited in community forums, and (c) disseminated through published manuscripts. Of 21 studies, 13 described participant voice in the data analysis, 14 described participants' control over exhibiting photo-texts, seven manuscripts included a comprehensive set of photo-texts, and none described participant input on choice of manuscript photo-texts. Photovoice designs vary in the advancement of participant voice, with the least advancement occurring in manuscript publication. Future photovoice researchers should expand approaches to advancing participant voice. PMID:26786953

  15. Thirty years of underwater acoustic signal processing in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qihu

    2012-11-01

    Advances in technology and theory in 30 years of underwater acoustic signal processing and its applications in China are presented in this paper. The topics include research work in the field of underwater acoustic signal modeling, acoustic field matching, ocean waveguide and internal wave, the extraction and processing technique for acoustic vector signal information, the space/time correlation characteristics of low frequency acoustic channels, the invariant features of underwater target radiated noise, the transmission technology of underwater voice/image data and its anti-interference technique. Some frontier technologies in sonar design are also discussed, including large aperture towed line array sonar, high resolution synthetic aperture sonar, deep sea siren and deep sea manned subsea vehicle, diver detection sonar and demonstration projector of national ocean monitoring system in China, etc.

  16. On the thermo-acoustic Fant equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, P. R.; Howe, M. S.

    2012-07-01

    A 'reduced complexity' equation is derived to investigate combustion instabilities of a Rijke burner. The equation is nonlinear and furnishes limit cycle solutions for finite amplitude burner modes. It is a generalisation to combustion flows of the Fant equation used to investigate the production of voiced speech by unsteady throttling of flow by the vocal folds [G. Fant, Acoustic Theory of Speech Production. Mouton, The Hague, 1960]. In the thermo-acoustic problem the throttling occurs at the flame holder. The Fant equation governs the unsteady volume flow past the flame holder which, in turn, determines the acoustics of the entire system. The equation includes a fully determinate part that depends on the geometry of the flame holder and the thermo-acoustic system, and terms defined by integrals involving thermo-aerodynamic sources, such as a flame and vortex sound sources. These integrals provide a clear indication of what must be known about the flow to obtain a proper understanding of the dynamics of the thermo-acoustic system. Illustrative numerical results are presented for the linearised equation. This governs the growth rates of the natural acoustic modes, determined by system geometry, boundary conditions and mean temperature distribution, which are excited into instability by unsteady heat release from the flame and damped by large scale vorticity production and radiation losses into the environment. In addition, the equation supplies information about the 'combustion modes' excited by the local time-delay feedback dynamics of the flame.

  17. Listening to the Voices of Students with Disabilities: Can Such Voices Inform Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, Linda J.; Rickards, Field W.

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates issues to do with student voice. Much attention is given within the literature to including the voice of students without disabilities in educational debate. Indeed, clear connections have been made between the use of student voice and raising student achievement (Mitra, 2004). Given the validation of such voices, it is…

  18. [Care of voice among transgender people].

    PubMed

    Sellman, Jaana; Rihkanen, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    In some cases transgender people spontaneously find vocal expression that is acceptable. The testosterone medication usually lowers the female voice (F to M) enough. Feminization of the male voice (M to F) needs more often care. Speech and voice therapy is usually the primary treatment. In some cases pitch-elevating surgery is needed. This will raise the pitch or at least eliminate spontaneous male voicing (cough, laughter). If cosmetically unacceptable, a prominent Adam's apple will be removed. PMID:26237931

  19. Effects of noise and acoustics in schools on vocal health in teachers.

    PubMed

    Cutiva, Lady Catherine Cantor; Burdorf, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on the influence of noise and acoustics in the classroom on voice symptoms among teachers have exclusively relied on self-reports. Since self-reported physical conditions may be biased, it is important to determine the role of objective measurements of noise and acoustics in the presence of voice symptoms. To assess the association between objectively measured and self-reported physical conditions at school with the presence of voice symptoms among teachers. In 12 public schools in Bogotα, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 682 Colombian school workers at 377 workplaces. After signed the informed consent, participants filled out a questionnaire on individual and work-related conditions and the nature and severity of voice symptoms in the past month. Short-term environmental measurements of sound levels, temperature, humidity, and reverberation time were conducted during visits at the workplaces, such as classrooms and offices. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine associations between work-related factors and voice symptoms. High noise levels outside schools (odds ratio [OR] = 1.83; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12-2.99) and self-reported poor acoustics at the workplace (OR = 2.44; 95% CI: 1.88-3.53) were associated with voice symptoms. We found poor agreement between the objective measurements and self-reports of physical conditions at the workplace. This study indicates that noise and acoustics may play a role in the occurrence of voice symptoms among teachers. The poor agreement between objective measurements and self-reports of physical conditions indicate that these are different entities, which argue for inclusion of physical measurements of the working environment in studies on the influence of noise and acoustics on vocal health. PMID:25599754

  20. Effects of noise and acoustics in schools on vocal health in teachers

    PubMed Central

    Cutiva, Lady Catherine Cantor; Burdorf, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on the influence of noise and acoustics in the classroom on voice symptoms among teachers have exclusively relied on self-reports. Since self-reported physical conditions may be biased, it is important to determine the role of objective measurements of noise and acoustics in the presence of voice symptoms. To assess the association between objectively measured and self-reported physical conditions at school with the presence of voice symptoms among teachers. In 12 public schools in Bogotá, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 682 Colombian school workers at 377 workplaces. After signed the informed consent, participants filled out a questionnaire on individual and work-related conditions and the nature and severity of voice symptoms in the past month. Short-term environmental measurements of sound levels, temperature, humidity, and reverberation time were conducted during visits at the workplaces, such as classrooms and offices. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine associations between work-related factors and voice symptoms. High noise levels outside schools (odds ratio [OR] = 1.83; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12–2.99) and self-reported poor acoustics at the workplace (OR = 2.44; 95% CI: 1.88–3.53) were associated with voice symptoms. We found poor agreement between the objective measurements and self-reports of physical conditions at the workplace. This study indicates that noise and acoustics may play a role in the occurrence of voice symptoms among teachers. The poor agreement between objective measurements and self-reports of physical conditions indicate that these are different entities, which argue for inclusion of physical measurements of the working environment in studies on the influence of noise and acoustics on vocal health. PMID:25599754