Science.gov

Sample records for acoustic-based nondestructive methods

  1. Electromagnetic Imaging Methods for Nondestructive Evaluation Applications

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yiming; Liu, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic nondestructive tests are important and widely used within the field of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The recent advances in sensing technology, hardware and software development dedicated to imaging and image processing, and material sciences have greatly expanded the application fields, sophisticated the systems design and made the potential of electromagnetic NDE imaging seemingly unlimited. This review provides a comprehensive summary of research works on electromagnetic imaging methods for NDE applications, followed by the summary and discussions on future directions. PMID:22247693

  2. Electromagnetic imaging methods for nondestructive evaluation applications.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yiming; Liu, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic nondestructive tests are important and widely used within the field of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The recent advances in sensing technology, hardware and software development dedicated to imaging and image processing, and material sciences have greatly expanded the application fields, sophisticated the systems design and made the potential of electromagnetic NDE imaging seemingly unlimited. This review provides a comprehensive summary of research works on electromagnetic imaging methods for NDE applications, followed by the summary and discussions on future directions.

  3. Method for non-destructive testing

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W.

    2011-08-30

    Non-destructive testing method may include providing a source material that emits positrons in response to bombardment of the source material with photons. The source material is exposed to photons. The source material is positioned adjacent the specimen, the specimen being exposed to at least some of the positrons emitted by the source material. Annihilation gamma rays emitted by the specimen are detected.

  4. Emerging nondestructive inspection methods for aging aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Beattie, A; Dahlke, L; Gieske, J

    1994-01-01

    This report identifies and describes emerging nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods that can potentially be used to inspect commercial transport and commuter aircraft for structural damage. The nine categories of emerging NDI techniques are: acoustic emission, x-ray computed tomography, backscatter radiation, reverse geometry x-ray, advanced electromagnetics, including magnetooptic imaging and advanced eddy current techniques, coherent optics, advanced ultrasonics, advanced visual, and infrared thermography. The physical principles, generalized performance characteristics, and typical applications associated with each method are described. In addition, aircraft inspection applications are discussed along with the associated technical considerations. Finally, the status of each technique is presented, with a discussion on when it may be available for use in actual aircraft maintenance programs. It should be noted that this is a companion document to DOT/FAA/CT-91/5, Current Nondestructive Inspection Methods for Aging Aircraft.

  5. Development of ultrasonic methods for the nondestructive inspection of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Claytor, T.N.; Ellingson, W.A.

    1983-08-01

    Nondestructive inspection of Portland cement and refractory concrete is conducted to determine strength, thickness, presence of voids or foreign matter, presence of cracks, amount of degradation due to chemical attack, and other properties without the necessity of coring the structure (which is usually accomplished by destructively removing a sample). This paper reviews the state of the art of acoustic nondestructive testing methods for Portland cement and refractory concrete. Most nondestructive work on concrete has concentrated on measuring acoustic velocity by through transmission methods. Development of a reliable pitch-catch or pulse-echo system would provide a method of measuring thickness with access from only one side of the concrete.

  6. Nondestructive tests of regenerative chambers. [evaluating nondestructive methods of determining metal bond integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, G. A.; Vecchies, L.; Wood, R.

    1974-01-01

    The capabilities and limitations of nondestructive evaluation methods were studied to detect and locate bond deficiencies in regeneratively cooled thrust chambers for rocket engines. Flat test panels and a cylinder were produced to simulate regeneratively cooled thrust chamber walls. Planned defects with various bond integrities were produced in the panels to evaluate the sensitivity, accuracy, and limitations of nondestructive methods to define and locate bond anomalies. Holography, acoustic emission, and ultrasonic scan were found to yield sufficient data to discern bond quality when used in combination and in selected sequences. Bonding techniques included electroforming and brazing. Materials of construction included electroformed nickel bonded to Nickel 200 and OFHC copper, electroformed copper bonded to OFHC copper, and 300 series stainless steel brazed to OFHC copper. Variations in outer wall strength, wall thickness, and defect size were evaluated for nondestructive test response.

  7. NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS FOR GEOTHERMAL PIPING.

    SciTech Connect

    BERNDT,M.L.

    2001-03-23

    Non-destructive testing is a key component of optimized plant inspection and maintenance programs. Risk based inspection, condition based maintenance and reliability centered maintenance systems all require detection, location and sizing of defects or flaws by non-destructive methods. Internal damage of geothermal piping by corrosion and erosion-corrosion is an ongoing problem requiring inspection and subsequent maintenance decisions to ensure safe and reliable performance. Conventional manual ultrasonic testing to determine remaining wall thickness has major limitations, particularly when damage is of a random and localized nature. Therefore, it is necessary to explore alternative non-destructive methods that offer potential benefits in terms of accurate quantification of size, shape and location of damage, probability of detection, ability to use on-line over long ranges, and economics. A review of non-destructive methods and their applicability to geothermal piping was performed. Based on this, ongoing research will concentrate on long range guided wave and dynamic methods.

  8. Non-destructive testing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W.

    2011-10-04

    Non-destructive testing apparatus may comprise a photon source and a source material that emits positrons in response to bombardment of the source material with photons. The source material is positionable adjacent the photon source and a specimen so that when the source material is positioned adjacent the photon source it is exposed to photons produced thereby. When the source material is positioned adjacent the specimen, the specimen is exposed to at least some of the positrons emitted by the source material. A detector system positioned adjacent the specimen detects annihilation gamma rays emitted by the specimen. Another embodiment comprises a neutron source and a source material that emits positrons in response to neutron bombardment.

  9. Universal non-destructive testing method in the microwave range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimov, R. Yu; Fadeev, G. N.; Gerasimov, Yu V.; Kondrakova, E. A.

    2016-07-01

    Considered in this paper, a new method of nondestructive control based on the spectra of radio wave radiation of the microwave range wideband scanning receiver. It is experimentally shown that this method has a high accuracy in the determination of the frequency spectrum. This allows the method considered to reach a sensitivity of 5-6 Hz/nm.

  10. Method and apparatus for nondestructive in vivo measurement of photosynthesis

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias

    1988-01-01

    A device for in situ, nondestructive measurement of photosynthesis in live plants and photosynthetic microorganisms is disclosed which comprises a Clark-type oxygen electrode having a substantially transparent cathode comprised of an optical fiber having a metallic grid microetched onto its front face and sides, an anode, a substantially transparent electrolyte film, and a substantially transparent oxygen permeable membrane. The device is designed to be placed in direct contact with a photosynthetic portion of a living plant, and nondestructive, noninvasive measurement of photosynthetic oxygen production from the plant can be taken by passing light through the fiber-optic cathode, transparent electroyte and transparent membrane, and onto the plant so that photosynthesis occurs. The oxygen thus produced by the plant is measured polargraphically by the electrode. The present invention allows for rapid, nondestructive measurements of photosynthesis in living plants in a manner heretofore impossible using prior art methods.

  11. Method and apparatus for nondestructive in vivo measurement of photosynthesis

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, E.

    1988-02-22

    A device for in situ, nondestructive measurement of photosynthesis in live plants and photosynthetic microorganisms is disclosed which comprises a Clark-type oxygen electrode having a substantially transparent cathode comprised of an optical fiber having a metallic grid microetched onto its front face and sides, an anode, a substantially transparent electrolyte film, and a substantially transparent oxygen permeable membrane. The device is designed to be placed in direct contact with a photosynthetic portion of a living plant, and nondestructive, noninvasive measurement of photosynthetic oxygen production from the plant can be taken by passing light through the fiber-optic cathode, transparent electrolyte and transparent membrane, and onto the plant so that photosynthesis occurs. The oxygen thus produced by the plant is measured polarographically by the electrode. The present invention allows for rapid, nondestructive measurements of photosynthesis in living plants in a manner heretofore impossible using prior art methods. 6 figs.

  12. An acoustic based, laser induced breakdown method for determining the sizes and concentrations of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hyun; Kim, Ji-Woong; Son, Ji-A; Choi, Joong-Gill

    2010-01-01

    An acoustic, laser induced breakdown (LIBD) method has been developed for determining the sizes and concentrations of nano-sized colloids. The size distributions from a mixture of aquatic nanoparticles are determined by measuring amplitudes of plasma shockwave that are fitted to multi-curve Gaussian distributions displayed in separate peaks with positions corresponding to particle sizes and areas being proportional to concentrations.

  13. Nondestructive method for measuring residual stresses in metals, a concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwebel, C. D.

    1968-01-01

    Nondestructive direct measurement of residual surface stresses in metals can be made because metal under stress has a different electrochemical solution potential than in the unstressed condition. The method uses two matched electrolytic cells to cancel extraneous effects on the actual solution potential of the metal specimen.

  14. Investigation into methods of nondestructive evaluation of masonry structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noland, J. L.; Atkinson, R. H.; Baur, J. C.

    1982-02-01

    Six nondestructive evaluation (NDE) test methods were investigated to assess their potential for strength and condition evaluation of masonry using unmodified commercially available equipment. The methods were: vibration, rebound hammer, penetration, ultrasonic pulse velocity, mechanical pulse velocity, and acoustic-mechanical pulse. These methods were applied to two wythe cantilever wall specimens. Companion small scale specimens, specimens removed from the walls subsequent to the NDE test, and in the wall specimens were tested to destruction to provide compression, shear, and flexural strength data for correlation studies. Results indicated that strength properties of the masonry tested could be estimated generally by some of the NDE methods considered. Investigation of the acoustic-mechanical pulse method indicated that consistent measurements could be obtained and that flaws could be detected. Nondestructive methods offer a means of relative quality assessment and flaw detection, and that some modifications to equipment would enhance efficacy of the methods.

  15. Nondestructive methods for quality evaluation of livestock products.

    PubMed

    Narsaiah, K; Jha, Shyam N

    2012-06-01

    The muscles derived from livestock are highly perishable. Rapid and nondestructive methods are essential for quality assurance of such products. Potential nondestructive methods, which can supplement or replace many of traditional time consuming destructive methods, include colour and computer image analysis, NIR spectroscopy, NMRI, electronic nose, ultrasound, X-ray imaging and biosensors. These methods are briefly described and the research work involving them for products derived from livestock is reviewed. These methods will be helpful in rapid screening of large number of samples, monitoring distribution networks, quick product recall and enhance traceability in the value chain of livestock products. With new developments in the areas of basic science related to these methods, colour, image processing, NIR spectroscopy, biosensors and ultrasonic analysis are expected to be widespread and cost effective for large scale meat quality evaluation in near future.

  16. Uranium holdup in concrete floors: a comparison of nondestructive methods

    SciTech Connect

    Hardt, T.L.; Dedo, M.P.

    1986-01-01

    In 1978, Babcock and Wilcox ceased operations at its high-enriched uranium conversion facility in Apollo, Pennsylvania. Incorporated in the Company's action was the responsibility to clean up, recover and/or identify any an all uranium that might be held up in processing equipment, piping, and the building. By 1980, most of the historical inventory difference had been recovered from the equipment and piping, which had been removed from the plant. It was anticipated that over the 20-yr history of this facility, some special nuclear material (SNM) would be embedded in the floors of the building. The objective of this work was to develop a method to measure this material nondestructively and as accurately as possible. This paper illustrates two nondestructive methods used at the Apollo facility and then presents a comparison of the NDA to the results of destructive recovery.

  17. Method for nondestructive fuel assay of laser fusion targets

    DOEpatents

    Farnum, Eugene H.; Fries, R. Jay

    1976-01-01

    A method for nondestructively determining the deuterium and tritium content of laser fusion targets by counting the x rays produced by the interaction of tritium beta particles with the walls of the microballoons used to contain the deuterium and tritium gas mixture under high pressure. The x rays provide a direct measure of the tritium content and a means for calculating the deuterium content using the initial known D-T ratio and the known deuterium and tritium diffusion rates.

  18. Nondestructive acoustic electric field probe apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Migliori, Albert

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a nondestructive acoustic electric field probe and its method of use. A source of acoustic pulses of arbitrary but selected shape is placed in an oil bath along with material to be tested across which a voltage is disposed and means for receiving acoustic pulses after they have passed through the material. The received pulses are compared with voltage changes across the material occurring while acoustic pulses pass through it and analysis is made thereof to determine preselected characteristics of the material.

  19. Non-destructive assessment of parchment deterioration by optical methods.

    PubMed

    Dolgin, Bella; Bulatov, Valery; Schechter, Israel

    2007-08-01

    A non-destructive and non-invasive method for quantitative characterization of parchment deterioration, based on spectral measurements, is proposed. Deterioration due to both natural aging (ancient parchments) and artificial aging (achieved by means of controlled UV irradiation and temperature treatment) was investigated. The effect of aging on parchment native fluorescence was correlated with its deterioration condition. Aging causes fluorescence intensity drop, spectral shift of the main peak, and an overall change in the fluorescence spectral features. Digital color imaging analysis based on visible reflectance from the parchment surface was also applied, and the correspondent color components (RGB) were successively correlated with the state of parchment deterioration/aging. The fluorescence and color imaging data were validated by analysis of historical parchments, aged between 50 and 2000 years and covering a large variety of states of deterioration. The samples were independently assessed by traditional microscopy methods. We conclude that the proposed optical method qualifies well as a non-destructive tool for rapid assessment of the stage of parchment deterioration.

  20. Nondestructive testing methods for 55-gallon, waste storage drums

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, R.H.; Hildebrand, B.P.; Hockey, R.L.; Riechers, D.M.; Spanner, J.C.; Duncan, D.R.

    1993-06-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) authorized Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct a feasibility study to identify promising nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for detecting general and localized (both pitting and pinhole) corrosion in the 55-gal drums that are used to store solid waste materials at the Hanford Site. This document presents results obtained during a literature survey, identifies the relevant reference materials that were reviewed, provides a technical description of the methods that were evaluated, describes the laboratory tests that were conducted and their results, identifies the most promising candidate methods along with the rationale for these selections, and includes a work plan for recommended follow-on activities. This report contains a brief overview and technical description for each of the following NDT methods: magnetic testing techniques; eddy current testing; shearography; ultrasonic testing; radiographic computed tomography; thermography; and leak testing with acoustic detection.

  1. Total Gamma Count Rate Analysis Method for Nondestructive Assay Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Cecilia R. Hoffman; Yale D. Harker

    2006-03-01

    A new approach to nondestructively characterize waste for disposal, based on total gamma response, has been developed at the Idaho Cleanup Project by CH2M-WG Idaho, LLC and Idaho State University, and is called the total gamma count rate analysis method. The total gamma count rate analysis method measures gamma interactions that produce energetic electrons or positrons in a detector. Based on previous experience with waste assays, the radionuclide content of the waste container is then determined. This approach potentially can yield minimum detection limits of less than 10 nCi/g. The importance of this method is twofold. First, determination of transuranic activity can be made for waste containers that are below the traditional minimum detection limits. Second, waste above 10 nCi/g and below 100 nCi/g can be identified, and a potential path for disposal resolved.

  2. Nondestructive characterization methods for monolithic solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    Monolithic solid oxide fuel cells (MSOFCS) represent a potential breakthrough in fuel cell technology, provided that reliable fabrication methods can be developed. Fabrication difficulties arise in several steps of the processing: First is the fabrication of uniform thin (305 {mu}m) single-layer and trilayer green tapes (the trilayer tapes of anode/electrolyte/cathode and anode/interconnect/cathode must have similar coefficients of thermal expansion to sinter uniformly and to have the necessary electrochemical properties); Second is the development of fuel and oxidant channels in which residual stresses are likely to develop in the tapes; Third is the fabrication of a ``complete`` cell for which the bond quality between layers and the quality of the trilayers must be established; and Last, attachment of fuel and oxidant manifolds and verification of seal integrity. Purpose of this report is to assess nondestructive characterization methods that could be developed for application to laboratory, prototype, and full-scale MSOFCs.

  3. Non-destructive evaluation method employing dielectric electrostatic ultrasonic transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, Jr., John H. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An acoustic nonlinearity parameter (.beta.) measurement method and system for Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of materials and structural members novelly employs a loosely mounted dielectric electrostatic ultrasonic transducer (DEUT) to receive and convert ultrasonic energy into an electrical signal which can be analyzed to determine the .beta. of the test material. The dielectric material is ferroelectric with a high dielectric constant .di-elect cons.. A computer-controlled measurement system coupled to the DEUT contains an excitation signal generator section and a measurement and analysis section. As a result, the DEUT measures the absolute particle displacement amplitudes in test material, leading to derivation of the nonlinearity parameter (.beta.) without the costly, low field reliability methods of the prior art.

  4. Infrared non-destructive evaluation method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Baleine, Erwan; Erwan, James F; Lee, Ching-Pang; Stinelli, Stephanie

    2014-10-21

    A method of nondestructive evaluation and related system. The method includes arranging a test piece (14) having an internal passage (18) and an external surface (15) and a thermal calibrator (12) within a field of view (42) of an infrared sensor (44); generating a flow (16) of fluid characterized by a fluid temperature; exposing the test piece internal passage (18) and the thermal calibrator (12) to fluid from the flow (16); capturing infrared emission information of the test piece external surface (15) and of the thermal calibrator (12) simultaneously using the infrared sensor (44), wherein the test piece infrared emission information includes emission intensity information, and wherein the thermal calibrator infrared emission information includes a reference emission intensity associated with the fluid temperature; and normalizing the test piece emission intensity information against the reference emission intensity.

  5. NON-DESTRUCTIVE METHOD AND MEANS FOR FLAW DETECTION

    DOEpatents

    Hochschild, R.

    1959-03-10

    BS>An improved method is presented for the nondestructive detection of flaws in olectrictilly conductivc articles using magnetic field. According to thc method a homogoneous mignetic field is established in the test article;it right angle" to the artyicle. A probe is aligned with its axis transverse to the translates so hat th4 probe scans the surface of the test article while the axis of the robe is transverse to the direction of translation of the article. In this manner any output current obtained in thc probe is an indication of the size and location of a flaw in the article under test, with a miiiimum of signal pick- up in the probe from the established magnetic field.

  6. Development of nondestructive evaluation methods for hot gas filters.

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, W. A.; Koehl, E. R.; Sun, J. G.; Deemer, C.; Lee, H.; Spohnholtz, T.; Energy Technology

    1999-01-01

    Rigid ceramic hot gas candle filters are currently under development for high-temperature hot gas particulate cleanup in advanced coal-based power systems. The ceramic materials for these filters include monolithics (usually non-oxides), oxide and non-oxide fiber-reinforced composites, and recrystallized silicon carbide. A concern of end users in using these types of filters, where over 3000 may be used in a single installation, is the lack of a data base on which to base decisions for reusing, replacing or predicting remaining life during plant shutdowns. One method to improve confidence of usage is to develop nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technology to provide surveillance methods for determination of the extent of damage or of life-limiting characteristics such as thermal fatigue, oxidation, damage from ash bridging such as localized cracking, damage from local burning, and elongation at elevated temperatures. Although in situ NDE methods would be desirable in order to avoid disassembly of the candle filter vessels, the possible presence of filter cakes and/or ash bridging, and the state of current NDE technology prevent this. Thus, off-line NDE methods, if demonstrated to be reliable, fast and cost effective, could be a significant step forward in developing confidence in utilization of rigid ceramic hot gas filters. Recently, NDE methods have been developed which show promise of providing information to build this confidence. Acousto-ultrasound, a totally nondestructive method, together with advanced digital signal processing, has been demonstrated to provide excellent correlation with remaining strength on new, as-produced filters, and for detecting damage in some monolithic filters when removed from service. Thermal imaging, with digital signal processing for determining through-wall thermal diffusivity, has also been demonstrated to correlate with remaining strength in both new (as-received) and in-service filters. Impact acoustic resonance using a

  7. Determine the Compressive Strength of Calcium Silicate Bricks by Combined Nondestructive Method

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the application of combined nondestructive method for assessment of compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks. In this case, it is a combination of the rebound hammer method and ultrasonic pulse method. Calibration relationships for determining compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks obtained from nondestructive parameter testing for the combined method as well as for the L-type Schmidt rebound hammer and ultrasonic pulse method are quoted here. Calibration relationships are known for their close correlation and are applicable in practice. The highest correlation between parameters from nondestructive measurement and predicted compressive strength is obtained using the SonReb combined nondestructive method. Combined nondestructive SonReb method was proved applicable for determination of compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks at checking tests in a production plant and for evaluation of bricks built in existing masonry structures. PMID:25276864

  8. Determine the compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks by combined nondestructive method.

    PubMed

    Brozovsky, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the application of combined nondestructive method for assessment of compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks. In this case, it is a combination of the rebound hammer method and ultrasonic pulse method. Calibration relationships for determining compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks obtained from nondestructive parameter testing for the combined method as well as for the L-type Schmidt rebound hammer and ultrasonic pulse method are quoted here. Calibration relationships are known for their close correlation and are applicable in practice. The highest correlation between parameters from nondestructive measurement and predicted compressive strength is obtained using the SonReb combined nondestructive method. Combined nondestructive SonReb method was proved applicable for determination of compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks at checking tests in a production plant and for evaluation of bricks built in existing masonry structures.

  9. Automated Nondestructive Evaluation Method for Characterizing Ceramic and Metallic Hot Gas Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, W.A.; Pastila, P.; Koehl, E.R.; Wheeler, B.; Deemer, C.; Forster, G.A.

    2002-09-19

    The objective of this work was to develop a nondestructive (NDE), cost-effective and reliable method to assess the condition of rigid ceramic hot gas filters. The work was intended to provide an end user, as well as filter producers, with a nondestructive method to assess the ''quality'' or status of the filters.

  10. Baited lines: An active nondestructive collection method for burrowing crayfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loughman, Zachary J.; Foltz, David A.; Welsh, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    A new method (baited lines) is described for the collection of burrowing crayfishes, where fishing hooks baited with earthworms and tied to monofilament leaders are used to lure crayfishes from their burrow entrances. We estimated capture rates using baited lines at four locations across West Virginia for a total of four crayfish taxa; the taxa studied were orange, blue, and blue/orange morphs of Cambarus dubius (Upland Burrowing Catfish), and C. thomai (Little Brown Mudbug). Baited-line capture rates were lowest for C. thomai (81%; n = 21 attempts) and highest for the orange morph ofC. dubius (99%; n = 13 attempts). The pooled capture rate across all taxa was 91.5% (n = 50 attempts). Baited lines represent an environmentally nondestructive method to capture burrowing crayfishes without harm to individuals, and without disturbing burrows or the surrounding area. This novel method allows for repeat captures and long-term studies, providing a useful sampling method for ecological studies of burrowing crayfishes.

  11. Development of nondestructive evaluation methods for structural ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, W.A.; Koehl, R.D.; Wilson, J.A.; Stuckey, J.B.; Engel, H.P. |

    1996-04-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods using three-dimensional microfocus X-ray computed tomographic imaging (3DXCT) were employed to map axial and radial density variations in hot-gas filters and heat exchanger tubes. 3D XCT analysis was conducted on (a) two 38-mm-OD, 6.5-mm wall, SiC/SiC heat exchanger tubes infiltrated by CVI; (b) eight 10 cm diam. oxide/oxide heat exchanger tubes; and (c) one 26-cm-long Nextel fiber/SiC matrix hot-gas filter. The results show that radial and axial density uniformity as well as porosity, can be assessed by 3D XCT. NDE methods are also under development to assess thermal barrier coatings which are under development as methods to protect gas-turbine first-stage hot section metallic substrates. Further, because both shop and field joining of CFCC materials will be necessary, work is now beginning on development of NDE methods for joining.

  12. Development of nondestructive evaluation methods for structural ceramics.

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, W. A.

    1998-08-19

    During the past year, the focus of our work on nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods was on the development and application of these methods to technologies such as ceramic matrix composite (CMC) hot-gas filters, CMC high-temperature heat exchangers, and CMC ceramic/ceramic joining. Such technologies are critical to the ''Vision 21 Energy-Plex Fleet'' of modular, high-efficiency, low-emission power systems. Specifically, our NDE work has continued toward faster, higher sensitivity, volumetric X-ray computed tomographic imaging with new amorphous silicon detectors to detect and measure axial and radial density variations in hot-gas filters and heat exchangers; explored the potential use of high-speed focal-plane-array infrared imaging technology to detect delaminations and variations in the thermal properties of SiC/SiC heat exchangers; and explored various NDE methods to characterize CMC joints in cooperation with various industrial partners. Work this year also addressed support of Southern Companies Services Inc., Power Systems Development Facility, where NDE is needed to assess the condition of hot-gas candle filters. This paper presents the results of these efforts.

  13. A non-destructive method for dating human remains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lail, Warren K.; Sammeth, David; Mahan, Shannon; Nevins, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The skeletal remains of several Native Americans were recovered in an eroded state from a creek bank in northeastern New Mexico. Subsequently stored in a nearby museum, the remains became lost for almost 36 years. In a recent effort to repatriate the remains, it was necessary to fit them into a cultural chronology in order to determine the appropriate tribe(s) for consultation pursuant to the Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). Because the remains were found in an eroded context with no artifacts or funerary objects, their age was unknown. Having been asked to avoid destructive dating methods such as radiocarbon dating, the authors used Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) to date the sediments embedded in the cranium. The OSL analyses yielded reliable dates between A.D. 1415 and A.D. 1495. Accordingly, we conclude that the remains were interred somewhat earlier than A.D. 1415, but no later than A.D. 1495. We believe the remains are from individuals ancestral to the Ute Mouache Band, which is now being contacted for repatriation efforts. Not only do our methods contribute to the immediate repatriation efforts, they provide archaeologists with a versatile, non-destructive, numerical dating method that can be used in many burial contexts.

  14. Nondestructive method for reconnecting aluminum metallization on integrated circuits.

    PubMed

    Zubatkin, A D

    1979-07-01

    A failure analysis technique for reconnecting aluminum metallization on planar IC devices is described. The technique, utilizing a conductive paint deposited on the device surface, is nondestructive and easily removable. PMID:18699636

  15. Nondestructive Evaluation Methods for the Ares I Common Bulkhead

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James

    2010-01-01

    A large scale bonding demonstration test article was fabricated to prove out manufacturing techniques for the current design of the NASA Ares I Upper Stage common bulkhead. The common bulkhead serves as the single interface between the liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen portions of the Upper Stage propellant tank. The bulkhead consists of spin-formed aluminum domes friction stir welded to Y-rings and bonded to a perforated phenolic honeycomb core. Nondestructive evaluation methods are being developed for assessing core integrity and the core-to-dome bond line of the common bulkhead. Detection of manufacturing defects such as delaminations between the core and face sheets as well as service life defects such as crushed or sheared core resulting from impact loading are all of interest. The focus of this work will be on the application of thermographic, shearographic, and phased array ultrasonic methods to the bonding demonstration article as well as various smaller test panels featuring design specific defect types and geometric features.

  16. Study Methods to Characterize and Implement Thermography Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James L.

    1998-01-01

    The limits and conditions under which an infrared thermographic nondestructive evaluation can be utilized to assess the quality of aerospace hardware is demonstrated in this research effort. The primary focus of this work is on applying thermography to the inspection of advanced composite structures such as would be found in the International Space Station Instrumentation Racks, Space Shuttle Cargo Bay Doors, Bantam RP-1 tank or RSRM Nose Cone. Here, the detection of delamination, disbond, inclusion and porosity type defects are of primary interest. In addition to composites, an extensive research effort has been initiated to determine how well a thermographic evaluation can detect leaks and disbonds in pressurized metallic systems "i.e. the Space Shuttle Main Engine Nozzles". In either case, research into developing practical inspection procedures was conducted and thermographic inspections were performed on a myriad of test samples, subscale demonstration articles and "simulated" flight hardware. All test samples were fabricated as close to their respective structural counterparts as possible except with intentional defects for NDE qualification. As an added benefit of this effort to create simulated defects, methods were devised for defect fabrication that may be useful in future NDE qualification ventures.

  17. Method of non-destructively inspecting a curved wall portion

    DOEpatents

    Fong, James T.

    1996-01-01

    A method of non-destructively inspecting a curved wall portion of a large and thick walled vessel for a defect by computed tomography is provided. A collimated source of radiation is placed adjacent one side of the wall portion and an array of detectors for the radiation is placed on the other side adjacent the source. The radiation from the source passing through the wall portion is then detected with the detectors over a limited angle, dependent upon the curvature of the wall of the vessel, to obtain a dataset. The source and array are then coordinately moved relative to the wall portion in steps and a further dataset is obtained at each step. The plurality of datasets obtained over the limited angle is then processed to produce a tomogram of the wall portion to determine the presence of a defect therein. In a preferred embodiment, the curved wall portion has a center of curvature so that the source and the array are positioned at each step along a respective arc curved about the center. If desired, the detector array and source can be reoriented relative to a new wall portion and an inspection of the new wall portion can be easily obtained. Further, the source and detector array can be indexed in a direction perpendicular to a plane including the limited angle in a plurality of steps so that by repeating the detecting and moving steps at each index step, a three dimensional image can be created of the wall portion.

  18. Development of nondestructive evaluation methods for structural ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, W.A.; Koehl, R.D.; Stuckey, J.B.; Sun, J.G.; Engel, H.P.; Smith, R.G.

    1997-06-01

    Development of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods for application to fossil energy systems continues in three areas: (a) mapping axial and radial density gradients in hot gas filters, (b) characterization of the quality of continuous fiber ceramic matrix composite (CFCC) joints and (c) characterization and detection of defects in thermal barrier coatings. In this work, X-ray computed tomographic imaging was further developed and used to map variations in the axial and radial density of two full length (2.3-m) hot gas filters. The two filters differed in through wall density because of the thickness of the coating on the continuous fibers. Differences in axial and through wall density were clearly detected. Through transmission infrared imaging with a highly sensitivity focal plane array camera was used to assess joint quality in two sets of SiC/SiC CFCC joints. High frame rate data capture suggests that the infrared imaging method holds potential for the characterization of CFCC joints. Work to develop NDE methods that can be used to evaluate electron beam physical vapor deposited coatings with platinum-aluminide (Pt-Al) bonds was undertaken. Coatings of Zirconia with thicknesses of 125 {micro}m (0.005 in.), 190 {micro}m (0.0075 in.), and 254 {micro}m (0.010 in.) with a Pt-Al bond coat on Rene N5 Ni-based superalloy were studied by infrared imaging. Currently, it appears that thickness variation, as well as thermal properties, can be assessed by infrared technology.

  19. Physics-Based Imaging Methods for Terahertz Nondestructive Evaluation Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kniffin, Gabriel Paul

    Lying between the microwave and far infrared (IR) regions, the "terahertz gap" is a relatively unexplored frequency band in the electromagnetic spectrum that exhibits a unique combination of properties from its neighbors. Like in IR, many materials have characteristic absorption spectra in the terahertz (THz) band, facilitating the spectroscopic "fingerprinting" of compounds such as drugs and explosives. In addition, non-polar dielectric materials such as clothing, paper, and plastic are transparent to THz, just as they are to microwaves and millimeter waves. These factors, combined with sub-millimeter wavelengths and non-ionizing energy levels, makes sensing in the THz band uniquely suited for many NDE applications. In a typical nondestructive test, the objective is to detect a feature of interest within the object and provide an accurate estimate of some geometrical property of the feature. Notable examples include the thickness of a pharmaceutical tablet coating layer or the 3D location, size, and shape of a flaw or defect in an integrated circuit. While the material properties of the object under test are often tightly controlled and are generally known a priori, many objects of interest exhibit irregular surface topographies such as varying degrees of curvature over the extent of their surfaces. Common THz pulsed imaging (TPI) methods originally developed for objects with planar surfaces have been adapted for objects with curved surfaces through use of mechanical scanning procedures in which measurements are taken at normal incidence over the extent of the surface. While effective, these methods often require expensive robotic arm assemblies, the cost and complexity of which would likely be prohibitive should a large volume of tests be needed to be carried out on a production line. This work presents a robust and efficient physics-based image processing approach based on the mature field of parabolic equation methods, common to undersea acoustics, seismology

  20. Complementary methods for nondestructive testing of composite materials reinforced with carbon woven fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigmann, R.; Iftimie, N.; Sturm, R.; Vizureanu, P.; Savin, A.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents complementary methods used in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of composite materials reinforced with carbon woven fibers as two electromagnetic methods using sensor with orthogonal coils and sensor with metamaterials lens as well as ultrasound phased array method and Fiber Bragg gratings embedded instead of a carbon fiber for better health monitoring. The samples were impacted with low energy in order to study delamination influence. The electromagnetic behavior of composite was simulated by finite- difference time-domain (FDTD) software, showing a very good concordance with electromagnetic nondestructive evaluation tests.

  1. The detection of fatigue cracks by nondestructive testing methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, W. D.; Todd, P. H., Jr.; Frecska, S. A.; Rathke, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    X-radiographic penetrant, ultrasonic, eddy current, holographic, and acoustic emission techniques were optimized and applied to the evaluation of 2219-T87 aluminum alloy test specimens. One hundred eighteen specimens containing a total of 328 fatigue cracks were evaluated. The cracks ranged in length from 0.500 inch (1.27 cm) to 0.007 inch (0.018 cm) and in depth from 0.178 inch (0.451 cm) and 0.001 inch (0.003 cm). Specimen thicknesses were nominally 0.060 inch (0.152 cm) and 0.210 inch (0.532 cm) and surface finishes were nominally 32 and 125 rms and 64 and 200 rms respectively. Specimens were evaluated in the as-milled surface condition, in the chemically milled surface condition and, after proof loading, in a randomized inspection sequence. Results of the nondestructive test (NDT) evaluations were compared with actual crack size obtained by measurement of the fractured specimens. Inspection data was then analyzed to provide a statistical basis for determinating the threshold crack detection sensitivity (the largest crack size that would be missed) for each of the inspection techniques at a 95% probability and 95% confidence level.

  2. Nondestructive evaluation and characterization of GFRP using non-contact ultrasound and complementary method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigmann, R.; Iftimie, N.; Dobrescu, G. S.; Barsanescu, P. D.; Curtu, I.; Stanciu, M. D.; Savin, A.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents two methods, non-contact low frequency ultrasound method and fiber Bragg gratings, and their application to nondestructive testing of glass fiber reinforced composites used in wind turbine blades. Theoretical models are used and experimental results are in good concordance with destructive testing results.

  3. Research on non-destructive testing method of silkworm cocoons based on image processing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Yong; Kong, Qing-hua; Wei, Li-fu

    2008-03-01

    The major studied in this dissertation is the non-destructive testing method of silkworm cocoon's quality, based on the digital image processing and photoelectricity technology. Through the images collection and the data analysis, procession and calculation of the tested silkworm cocoons with the non-destructive testing technology, internet applications automatically reckon all items of the classification indexes. Finally we can conclude the classification result and the purchase price of the silkworm cocoons. According to the domestic classification standard of the silkworm cocoons, the author investigates various testing methods of silkworm cocoons which are used or have been explored at present, and devices a non-destructive testing scheme of the silkworm cocoons based on the digital image processing and photoelectricity technology. They are dissertated about the project design of the experiment. The precisions of all the implements are demonstrated. I establish Manifold mathematic models, compare them with each other and analyze the precision with technology of databank to get the best mathematic model to figure out the weight of the dried silkworm cocoon shells. The classification methods of all the complementary items are designed well and truly. The testing method has less error and reaches an advanced level of the present domestic non-destructive testing technology of the silkworm cocoons.

  4. Failure analysis of electronic parts: Laboratory methods. [for destructive and nondestructive testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anstead, R. J. (Editor); Goldberg, E. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    Failure analysis test methods are presented for use in analyzing candidate electronic parts and in improving future design reliability. Each test is classified as nondestructive, semidestructive, or destructive. The effects upon applicable part types (i.e. integrated circuit, transitor) are discussed. Methodology is given for performing the following: immersion tests, radio graphic tests, dewpoint tests, gas ambient analysis, cross sectioning, and ultraviolet examination.

  5. Detection of fatigue cracks by nondestructive testing methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. T.; Delacy, T. J.; Stewart, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    The effectiveness was assessed of various NDT methods to detect small tight cracks by randomly introducing fatigue cracks into aluminum sheets. The study included optimizing NDT methods calibrating NDT equipment with fatigue cracked standards, and evaluating a number of cracked specimens by the optimized NDT methods. The evaluations were conducted by highly trained personnel, provided with detailed procedures, in order to minimize the effects of human variability. These personnel performed the NDT on the test specimens without knowledge of the flaw locations and reported on the flaws detected. The performance of these tests was measured by comparing the flaws detected against the flaws present. The principal NDT methods utilized were radiographic, ultrasonic, penetrant, and eddy current. Holographic interferometry, acoustic emission monitoring, and replication methods were also applied on a reduced number of specimens. Generally, the best performance was shown by eddy current, ultrasonic, penetrant and holographic tests. Etching provided no measurable improvement, while proof loading improved flaw detectability. Data are shown that quantify the performances of the NDT methods applied.

  6. Floating Ultrasonic Transducer Inspection System and Method for Nondestructive Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N. (Inventor); Johnston, Patrick H. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method for inspecting a structural sample using ultrasonic energy includes positioning an ultrasonic transducer adjacent to a surface of the sample, and then transmitting ultrasonic energy into the sample. Force pulses are applied to the transducer concurrently with transmission of the ultrasonic energy. A host machine processes ultrasonic return pulses from an ultrasonic pulser/receiver to quantify attenuation of the ultrasonic energy within the sample. The host machine detects a defect in the sample using the quantified level of attenuation. The method may include positioning a dry couplant between an ultrasonic transducer and the surface. A system includes an actuator, an ultrasonic transducer, a dry couplant between the transducer the sample, a scanning device that moves the actuator and transducer, and a measurement system having a pulsed actuator power supply, an ultrasonic pulser/receiver, and a host machine that executes the above method.

  7. Nondestructive Methods to Characterize Rock Mechanical Properties at Low-Temperature: Applications for Asteroid Capture Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, Kara A.

    Recent government initiatives and commercial activities have targeted asteroids for in situ material characterization, manipulation, and possible resource extraction. Most of these activities and missions have proposed significant robotic components, given the risks and costs associated with manned missions. To successfully execute these robotic activities, detailed mechanical characteristics of the target space bodies must be known prior to contact, in order to appropriately plan and direct the autonomous robotic protocols. Unfortunately, current estimates of asteroid mechanical properties are based on limited direct information, and significant uncertainty remains specifically concerning internal structures, strengths, and elastic properties of asteroids. One proposed method to elucidate this information is through in situ, nondestructive testing of asteroid material immediately after contact, but prior to any manipulation or resource extraction activities. While numerous nondestructive rock characterization techniques have been widely deployed for terrestrial applications, these methods must be adapted to account for unique properties of asteroid material and environmental conditions of space. For example, asteroid surface temperatures may range from -100°C to 30°C due to diurnal cycling, and these low temperatures are especially noteworthy due to their deleterious influence on non-destructive testing. As a result, this thesis investigates the effect of low temperature on the mechanical characteristics and nondestructive technique responses of rock material. Initially, a novel method to produce low temperature rock samples was developed. Dry ice and methanol cooling baths of specific formulations were used to decrease rock to temperatures ranging from -60°C to 0°C. At these temperatures, shale, chalk, and limestone rock samples were exposed to several nondestructive and conventional mechanical tests, including Schmidt hammer, ultrasonic pulse velocity, point

  8. New Acoustic Methods for Nondestructive Evaluation of Leather Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, there is no on-line test method to monitor the physical properties of semi-products such as wet blue or crust during the leather-making processes. Inferior leather semi-products, such as wet blue, cannot be downgraded earlier or removed before going through many expensive processes (incl...

  9. Multimode nondestructive detecting method for high-speed rail defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mingjian; Cheng, Xingzhen; Wan, Guangnan; Liu, Ting; Fu, Ying; Wang, Yan

    2015-11-01

    It is very important to detect the surface defects of the high-speed rail for security concerns. A multimode detecting method, which integrates high resolution of optical image, high precision of photoacoustic detection and strong penetration of ultrasound detecting, is proposed for the rail defect detection. Utilizing the surface defect characteristics obtained from optical signal, the photoacoustic and ultrasound scanning region could be determined, and rail shallow and internal defect characteristics can be acquired subsequently. Eventually, fusing three modal signals mentioned above, the information of the entire rail defect, including type, extension trend and depth can be detected. It has been proved that the multimode method can improve the detecting efficiency, and enlarge the detection range in the meantime.

  10. Nondestructive spot test method for magnesium and magnesium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, M. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A method for spot test identification of magnesium and various magnesium alloys commonly used in aerospace applications is described. The spot test identification involves color codes obtained when several drops of 3 M hydrochloric acid are placed on the surface to be tested. After approximately thirty seconds, two drops of this reacted acid is transferred to each of two depressions in a spot plate for additions of other chemicals with subsequent color changes indicating magnesium or its alloy.

  11. Non-destructive ion trap mass spectrometer and method

    DOEpatents

    Frankevich, Vladimir E.; Soni, Manish H.; Nappi, Mario; Santini, Robert E.; Amy, Jonathan W.; Cooks, Robert G.

    1997-01-01

    The invention relates to an ion trap mass spectrometer of the type having an ion trapping volume defined by spaced end caps and a ring electrode. The ion trap includes a small sensing electrode which senses characteristic motion of ions trapped in said trapping volume and provides an image current. Ions are excited into characteristic motion by application of an excitation pulse to the trapped ions. The invention also relates to a method of operating such an ion trap.

  12. Method and Apparatus for Non-Destructive Evaluation of Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldfine, Neil J. (Inventor); Washabaugh, Andrew P. (Inventor); Lyons, Robert (Inventor); Thomas, Zachary (Inventor); Jablonski, David A. (Inventor); Martin, Christopher (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for characterizing composite materials for manufacturing quality assurance (QA), periodic inspection during the useful life, or for forensic analysis/material testing. System are provided that relate eddy-current sensor responses to the fiber layup of a composite structure, the presence of impact damage on a composite structure with or without a metal liner, volumetric stress within the composite, fiber tow density, and other NDE inspection requirements. Also provided are systems that determine electromagnetic material properties and material dimensions of composite materials from capacitive sensor inspection measurements. These properties are related to the presence of buried defects in non-conductive composite materials, moisture ingress, aging of the material due to service or environmental/thermal exposure, or changes in manufacturing quality.

  13. Nondestructive methods of integrating energy harvesting systems for highway bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamdar, Sumedh; Zimowski, Krystian; Crawford, Richard; Wood, Kristin; Jensen, Dan

    2012-04-01

    Designing an attachment structure that is both novel and meets the system requirements can be a difficult task especially for inexperienced designers. This paper presents a design methodology for concept generation of a "parent/child" attachment system. The "child" is broadly defined as any device, part, or subsystem that will attach to any existing system, part, or device called the "parent." An inductive research process was used to study a variety of products, patents, and biological examples that exemplified the parent/child system. Common traits among these products were found and categorized as attachment principles in three different domains: mechanical, material, and field. The attachment principles within the mechanical domain and accompanying examples are the focus of this paper. As an example of the method, a case study of generating concepts for a bridge mounted wind energy harvester using the mechanical attachment principles derived from the methodology and TRIZ principles derived from Altshuller's matrix of contradictions is presented.

  14. Nondestructive methods of integrating energy harvesting systems with structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamdar, Sumedh; Zimowski, Krystian; Crawford, Richard; Wood, Kristin; Jensen, Dan

    2012-04-01

    Designing an attachment structure that is both novel and meets the system requirements can be a difficult task especially for inexperienced designers. This paper presents a design methodology for concept generation of a "parent/child" attachment system. The "child" is broadly defined as any device, part, or subsystem that will attach to any existing system, part, or device called the "parent." An inductive research process was used to study a variety of products, patents, and biological examples that exemplified the parent/child system. Common traits among these products were found and categorized as attachment principles in three different domains: mechanical, material, and field. The attachment principles within the mechanical domain and accompanying examples are the focus of this paper. As an example of the method, a case study of generating concepts for a bridge mounted wind energy harvester using the mechanical attachment principles derived from the methodology and TRIZ principles derived from Altshuller's matrix of contradictions is presented.

  15. Development of a Nondestructive Method for Sexing Live Adult Sternoplax souvorowiana (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Ma, Ji; Mao, Xinfang

    2015-01-01

    The darkling beetle, Sternoplax souvorowiana (Reitter) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is flightless and lives in the Guerbantonggut desert in northwestern China. Its special eggshell structure, day-active habit, large body size, short life cycle, and ease of rearing under laboratory conditions make it an excellent model for advanced studies on desert adaptation. Determining the sex of this beetle is usually complicated by the lack of a discreet, externally visible gender-specific character. To date, dissection has been used for sex identification in this species, whereas a nondestructive means is needed for further studies of sexual dimorphism. Here, a new method based on the difference of the pigmentation pattern on the eighth tergite of each sex is described and illustrated. This method can be quickly learned, is nondestructive, is 100% accurate, and is fast enough for most applications in both the field and the laboratory. Experienced users in our laboratory routinely sex 8–10 beetles per minute. PMID:25934924

  16. Application of Non-destructive Methods of Stress-strain State at Hazardous Production Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shram, V.; Kravtsova, Ye; Selsky, A.; Bezborodov, Yu; Lysyannikova, N.; Lysyannikov, A.

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with the sources of accidents in distillation columns, on the basis of which the most dangerous defects are detected. The analysis of the currently existing methods of non-destructive testing of the stress-strain state is performed. It is proposed to apply strain and acoustic emission techniques to continuously monitor dangerous objects, which helps prevent the possibility of accidents, as well as reduce the work.

  17. Nondestructive evaluation of composite materials by pulsed time domain methods in imbedded optical fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claus, R. O.; Bennett, K. D.; Jackson, B. S.

    1986-01-01

    The application of fiber-optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) to nondestructive quantitative measurements of distributed internal strain in graphite-epoxy composites, using optical fiber waveguides imbedded between plies, is discussed. The basic OTDR measurement system is described, together with the methods used to imbed optical fibers within composites. Measurement results, system limitations, and the effect of the imbedded fiber on the integrity of the host composite material are considered.

  18. Method and apparatus for non-destructive evaluation of composite materials with cloth surface impressions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madras, Eric I. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A method and related apparatus for nondestructive evaluation of composite materials by determination of the quantity known as Integrated Polar Backscatter, which avoids errors caused by surface texture left by cloth impressions by identifying frequency ranges associated with peaks in a power spectrum for the backscattered signal, and removing such frequency ranges from the calculation of Integrated Polar Backscatter for all scan sites on the composite material is presented.

  19. Simple, reliable, and nondestructive method for the measurement of vacuum pressure without specialized equipment.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jin-Peng; Ji, Zhong-Hua; Zhao, Yan-Ting; Chang, Xue-Fang; Xiao, Lian-Tuan; Jia, Suo-Tang

    2013-09-01

    We present a simple, reliable, and nondestructive method for the measurement of vacuum pressure in a magneto-optical trap. The vacuum pressure is verified to be proportional to the collision rate constant between cold atoms and the background gas with a coefficient k, which can be calculated by means of the simple ideal gas law. The rate constant for loss due to collisions with all background gases can be derived from the total collision loss rate by a series of loading curves of cold atoms under different trapping laser intensities. The presented method is also applicable for other cold atomic systems and meets the miniaturization requirement of commercial applications. PMID:24085077

  20. Non-destructive method for determining neutron exposure and constituent concentrations of a body

    DOEpatents

    Gold, Raymond; McElroy, William N.

    1986-01-01

    A non-destructive method for determination of neutron exposure and constituent concentrations in an object, such as reactor pressure vessel, is based on the observation of characteristic gamma-rays emitted by activation products in the object by using a unique continuous gamma-ray spectrometer. The spectrometer views the object through appropriate collimators to determine the absolute emission rate of these characteristic gamma-rays, thereby ascertaining the absolute activity of given activation products in the object. These data can then be used to deduce the spatial and angular dependence of neutron exposure or the spatial constituent concentration at regions of interest within the object.

  1. Non-Destructive Evaluation Method and Apparatus for Measuring Acoustic Material Nonlinearity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, John H. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An acoustic non-linearity parameter (beta) measurement method and system for Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of materials and structural members obviates the need for electronic calibration of the measuring equipment. Unlike known substitutional measuring techniques requiring elaborate calibration procedures, the electrical outputs of the capacitive detector of a sample with known beta and the test sample of unknown beta are compared to determine the unknown beta. In order to provide the necessary stability of the present-inventive reference-based approach, the bandpass filters of the measurement system are maintained in a temperature-controlled environment, and the line voltage supplied to said amplifiers is well-regulated.

  2. Residual Detergent Detection Method for Nondestructive Cytocompatibility Evaluation of Decellularized Whole Lung Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Zvarova, Barbora; Uhl, Franziska E; Uriarte, Juan J; Borg, Zachary D; Coffey, Amy L; Bonenfant, Nicholas R; Weiss, Daniel J; Wagner, Darcy E

    2016-05-01

    The development of reliable tissue engineering methods using decellularized cadaveric or donor lungs could potentially provide a new source of lung tissue. The vast majority of current lung decellularization protocols are detergent based and incompletely removed residual detergents may have a deleterious impact on subsequent scaffold recellularization. Detergent removal and quality control measures that rigorously and reliably confirm removal, ideally utilizing nondestructive methods, are thus critical for generating optimal acellular scaffolds suitable for potential clinical translation. Using a modified and optimized version of a methylene blue-based detergent assay, we developed a straightforward, noninvasive method for easily and reliably detecting two of the most commonly utilized anionic detergents, sodium deoxycholate (SDC) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), in lung decellularization effluents. In parallel studies, we sought to determine the threshold of detergent concentration that was cytotoxic using four different representative human cell types utilized in the study of lung recellularization: human bronchial epithelial cells, human pulmonary vascular endothelial cells (CBF12), human lung fibroblasts, and human mesenchymal stem cells. Notably, different cells have varying thresholds for either SDC or SDS-based detergent-induced cytotoxicity. These studies demonstrate the importance of reliably removing residual detergents and argue that multiple cell lines should be tested in cytocompatibility-based assessments of acellular scaffolds. The detergent detection assay presented here is a useful nondestructive tool for assessing detergent removal in potential decellularization schemes or for use as a potential endpoint in future clinical schemes, generating acellular lungs using anionic detergent-based decellularization protocols.

  3. RF impedance method for nondestructive moisture content determination for in-shell peanuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandala, C. V. K.; Nelson, S. O.

    2007-04-01

    A method was developed earlier for estimating the moisture content (mc) in samples of wheat, corn and peanut kernels, nondestructively, by measuring their complex impedance values. In this method, capacitance (C), phase angle (θ) and dissipation factor (D) were measured with an impedance analyser at 1 and 5 MHz on a parallel-plate capacitor holding a few kernels of a particular commodity between the plates. These values were then used in an empirical equation based on the parameters C, θ and D, and the moisture content was calculated. The calculated mc values were within 1% of the air-oven values for about 85% of the kernel samples tested in the moisture range from 6% to 20% for wheat, corn and peanuts. However, it would be useful during drying and processing of peanuts, if the mc could be determined without shelling them. In this work, the feasibility of determining the moisture content of in-shell peanuts (pods) by similar impedance measurements was investigated. Values of capacitance, phase angle and dissipation factor measured at 24 °C and at three frequencies were used in a modified prediction equation and the moisture content was estimated within 1% of the air-oven values for over 90% of the pod samples tested in the moisture range from 6% to 25%. The method is rapid and nondestructive and may be used in the development of a commercial instrument.

  4. Advanced digital speckle correlation method for strain measurement and nondestructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Guan-chang; Bao, Nai-Keng; Chung, Po Sheun

    1997-03-01

    An advanced digital speckle correlation method (DSCM) is presented in this paper. The advantages of this method will not only improve the processing speed but also increase the measuring accuracy. Some mathematics tools are derived and a powerful computing program is developed for further applications. A new feature of the measuring sensitivity of DSCM that can be varied by different amplification of the optical arrangement is first presented. This advantage may be superior to those available in other optical metrology methods like Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) in micro-deformation measurements. The applications of strain measurement and nondestructive testing are described and the advantages of DSCM are obvious. Some examples of material behavior measurement and plastic strain measurement are presented. Due to the high sensitivity of DSCM, another potential application in nondestructive testing (NDT) is also described in this paper. From the application examples given, this advanced DSCM proves to be a new and effective optical strain sensing technique especially for small objects or micro-deformation measurements.

  5. Photonic non-destructive measurement methods for investigating the evolution of polar firn and ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breton, Daniel James

    When snow falls on glaciers or ice sheets, it persists for many tens, hundreds and sometimes thousands of years before becoming ice. The granular material in between fresh snow and glacial ice is known as firn and is generally 50 to 100 m thick over polar ice sheets. The compaction mechanism of firn into ice (called densification) has important glaciological ramifications in determination of ice sheet stability and related sea level rise effects via remote sensing altimetry. Firn densification is also important for correctly interpreting ice core paleoclimate records, especially those analyzing gases trapped in air bubbles within the glacial ice. Densification is thought to depend strongly on microstructure: the sizes, shapes, orientations and inter-particle bonds of the ice grains that make up polar firn. Microstructure-dependent densification is poorly understood and occurs in the region where two-thirds of the overall densification takes place. This work focuses on developing non-destructive methods for simultaneously evaluating changes in both the bulk density and microstructure of polar firn to better understand structure- dependent densification processes. The first method is an automated density gauge which uses gamma-ray transmission methods to non-destructively produce high resolution (3.3 mm) and high precision (+/-4 kg m-3) density profiles of firn and ice cores. This instrument was used to collect a density profile for the first 160 m of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide WDCO6A deep ice core. The second method involves optical scattering measurements on firn and ice cores to determine the important microstructural parameters of ice grain and air bubble size and air-ice interface surface area. These measurements are modeled using both Monte Carlo radiative transfer and ray-tracing geometric optics methods, and are then tested against experiment using digital photography of the WDC06A core. Combining the results of both bulk density and optical

  6. The Evolution of Nondestructive Evaluation Methods for the Space Shuttle External Tank Thermal Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James L.; Richter, Joel D.

    2006-01-01

    Three nondestructive evaluation methods are being developed to identify defects in the foam thermal protection system (TPS) of the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET). Shearography is being developed to identify shallow delaminations, shallow voids and crush damage in the foam while terahertz imaging and backscatter radiography are being developed to identify voids and cracks in thick foam regions. The basic theory of operation along with factors affecting the results of these methods will be described. Also, the evolution of these methods from lab tools to implementation on the ET will be discussed. Results from both test panels and flight tank inspections will be provided to show the range in defect sizes and types that can be readily detected.

  7. Compressive strength evaluation of structural lightweight concrete by non-destructive ultrasonic pulse velocity method.

    PubMed

    Bogas, J Alexandre; Gomes, M Glória; Gomes, Augusto

    2013-07-01

    In this paper the compressive strength of a wide range of structural lightweight aggregate concrete mixes is evaluated by the non-destructive ultrasonic pulse velocity method. This study involves about 84 different compositions tested between 3 and 180 days for compressive strengths ranging from about 30 to 80 MPa. The influence of several factors on the relation between the ultrasonic pulse velocity and compressive strength is examined. These factors include the cement type and content, amount of water, type of admixture, initial wetting conditions, type and volume of aggregate and the partial replacement of normal weight coarse and fine aggregates by lightweight aggregates. It is found that lightweight and normal weight concretes are affected differently by mix design parameters. In addition, the prediction of the concrete's compressive strength by means of the non-destructive ultrasonic pulse velocity test is studied. Based on the dependence of the ultrasonic pulse velocity on the density and elasticity of concrete, a simplified expression is proposed to estimate the compressive strength, regardless the type of concrete and its composition. More than 200 results for different types of aggregates and concrete compositions were analyzed and high correlation coefficients were obtained. PMID:23351273

  8. Non-destructive infrared analyses: a method for provenance analyses of sandstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowitz, Jörg; Ehling, Angela

    2008-12-01

    Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy) is commonly applied in the laboratory for mineral analyses in addition to XRD. Because such technical efforts are time and cost consuming, we present an infrared-based mobile method for non-destructive mineral and provenance analyses of sandstones. IR spectroscopy is based on activating chemical bonds. By irradiating a mineral mixture, special bonds are activated to vibrate depending on the bond energy (resonance vibration). Accordingly, the energy of the IR spectrum will be reduced thereby generating an absorption spectrum. The positions of the absorption maxima within the spectral region indicate the type of the bonds and in many cases identify minerals containing these bonds. The non-destructive reflection spectroscopy operates in the near infrared region (NIR) and can detect all common clay minerals as well as sulfates, hydroxides and carbonates. The spectra produced have been interpreted by computer using digital mineral libraries that have been especially collected for sandstones. The comparison of all results with XRD, RFA and interpretations of thin sections demonstrates impressively the accuracy and reliability of this method. Not only are different minerals detectable, but also differently ordered kaolinites and varieties of illites can be identified by the shape and size of the absorption bands. Especially clay minerals and their varieties in combination with their relative contents form the characteristic spectra of sandstones. Other components such as limonite, hematite and amorphous silica also influence the spectra. Sandstones, similar in colour and texture, often can be identified by their characteristic reflectance spectra. Reference libraries with more than 60 spectra of important German sandstones have been created to enable entirely computerized interpretations and identifications of these dimension stones. The analysis of infrared spectroscopy results is demonstrated with examples of different sandstones

  9. A rapid non-destructive method for root dentin moisture measurements

    PubMed Central

    Komabayashi, Takashi; Zhu, Qiang; Jiang, Jin; Safavi, Kamran E.; Spångberg, Larz S.W.

    2009-01-01

    Dentin moisture content is important in adhesive bonding and structural strength research. However, there is no rapid method available to assess dentin moisture without sample destruction. This study examined the use of a digital grain moisture meter to measure root dentin moisture in vitro. Extracted mandibular single rooted teeth were sectioned at the CEJ. The moisture of the root dentin was measured at six measuring modes for different grains and repeated five times. Dentin weight changes before and after drying were measured to obtain control values. The control values were compared with machine readings. In conclusion, (1) Each non-destructive measurement took less than 30 seconds. (2) 24 hours storage at 37°C and 100 % humidity did not restore dentin moisture. (3) Five grain modes had a high validity, and could be used for dentin moisture measurements. PMID:19157921

  10. Non-destructive research methods applied on materials for the new generation of nuclear reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartošová, I.; Slugeň, V.; Veterníková, J.; Sojak, S.; Petriska, M.; Bouhaddane, A.

    2014-06-01

    The paper is aimed on non-destructive experimental techniques applied on materials for the new generation of nuclear reactors (GEN IV). With the development of these reactors, also materials have to be developed in order to guarantee high standard properties needed for construction. These properties are high temperature resistance, radiation resistance and resistance to other negative effects. Nevertheless the changes in their mechanical properties should be only minimal. Materials, that fulfil these requirements, are analysed in this work. The ferritic-martensitic (FM) steels and ODS steels are studied in details. Microstructural defects, which can occur in structural materials and can be also accumulated during irradiation due to neutron flux or alpha, beta and gamma radiation, were analysed using different spectroscopic methods as positron annihilation spectroscopy and Barkhausen noise, which were applied for measurements of three different FM steels (T91, P91 and E97) as well as one ODS steel (ODS Eurofer).

  11. System and method for non-destructive evaluation of surface characteristics of a magnetic material

    DOEpatents

    Jiles, David C.; Sipahi, Levent B.

    1994-05-17

    A system and a related method for non-destructive evaluation of the surface characteristics of a magnetic material. The sample is excited by an alternating magnetic field. The field frequency, amplitude and offset are controlled according to a predetermined protocol. The Barkhausen response of the sample is detected for the various fields and offsets and is analyzed. The system produces information relating to the frequency content, the amplitude content, the average or RMS energy content, as well as count rate information, for each of the Barkhausen responses at each of the excitation levels applied during the protocol. That information provides a contiguous body of data, heretofore unavailable, which can be analyzed to deduce information about the surface characteristics of the material at various depths below the surface.

  12. Computed tomography (CT) as a nondestructive test method used for composite helicopter components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oster, Reinhold

    1991-09-01

    The first components of primary helicopter structures to be made of glass fiber reinforced plastics were the main and tail rotor blades of the Bo105 and BK 117 helicopters. These blades are now successfully produced in series. New developments in rotor components, e.g., the rotor blade technology of the Bo108 and PAH2 programs, make use of very complex fiber reinforced structures to achieve simplicity and strength. Computer tomography was found to be an outstanding nondestructive test method for examining the internal structure of components. A CT scanner generates x-ray attenuation measurements which are used to produce computer reconstructed images of any desired part of an object. The system images a range of flaws in composites in a number of views and planes. Several CT investigations and their results are reported taking composite helicopter components as an example.

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) as a nondestructive test method used for composite helicopter components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oster, Reinhold

    The first components of primary helicopter structures to be made of glass fiber reinforced plastics were the main and tail rotor blades of the Bo105 and BK117 helicopters. These blades are now successfully produced in series. New developments in rotor components, e.g. the rotor blade technology of the Bo108 and PAH2 programs, make use of very complex fiber reinforced structures to achieve simplicity and strength. Computer tomography was found to be an outstanding nondestructive test method for examining the internal structure of components. A CT scanner generates x-ray attenuation measurements which are used to produce computer reconstructed images of any desired part of an object. The system images a range of flaws in composites in a number of views and planes. Several CT investigations and their results are reported taking composite helicopter components as an example.

  14. Nondestructive Method for Mapping Metal Contact Diffusion in In2O3 Thin-Film Transistors.

    PubMed

    Kryvchenkova, Olga; Abdullah, Isam; Macdonald, John Emyr; Elliott, Martin; Anthopoulos, Thomas D; Lin, Yen-Hung; Igić, Petar; Kalna, Karol; Cobley, Richard J

    2016-09-28

    The channel width-to-length ratio is an important transistor parameter for integrated circuit design. Contact diffusion into the channel during fabrication or operation alters the channel width and this important parameter. A novel methodology combining atomic force microscopy and scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) with self-consistent modeling is developed for the nondestructive detection of contact diffusion on active devices. Scans of the surface potential are modeled using physically based Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) simulations when the transistor terminals are grounded and under biased conditions. The simulations also incorporate the tip geometry to investigate its effect on the measurements due to electrostatic tip-sample interactions. The method is particularly useful for semiconductor- and metal-semiconductor interfaces where the potential contrast resulting from dopant diffusion is below that usually detectable with scanning probe microscopy. PMID:27581104

  15. Nondestructive method and apparatus for imaging grains in curved surfaces of polycrystalline articles

    DOEpatents

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    1995-01-01

    A nondestructive method, and associated apparatus, are provided for determining the grain flow of the grains in a convex curved, textured polycrystalline surface. The convex, curved surface of a polycrystalline article is aligned in a horizontal x-ray diffractometer and a monochromatic, converging x-ray beam is directed onto the curved surface of the polycrystalline article so that the converging x-ray beam is diffracted by crystallographic planes of the grains in the polycrystalline article. The diffracted x-ray beam is caused to pass through a set of horizontal, parallel slits to limit the height of the beam and thereafter. The linear intensity of the diffracted x-ray is measured, using a linear position sensitive proportional counter, as a function of position in a direction orthogonal to the counter so as to generate two dimensional data. An image of the grains in the curved surface of the polycrystalline article is provided based on the two-dimensional data.

  16. Non-destructive dental-age calculation methods in adults: intra- and inter-observer effects.

    PubMed

    Willems, Guy; Moulin-Romsee, Christian; Solheim, Tore

    2002-05-23

    The aim of the present study was to obtain data on the reliability and reproducibility of two non-destructive dental-age estimation methods in adults by calculating inter- and intra-observer effects. Both a morphological and a radiological technique available in the scientific literature were evaluated on a number of recently extracted teeth: the morphological technique was evaluated on a total of 160 teeth by two examiners, while three examiners applied the radiological technique on apical radiographs of 72 extracted teeth. Paired t-tests were used to calculate intra- and inter-observer differences. For the morphological method, both examiners were able to produce dental-age estimations that did not differ significantly from the real age of the teeth, obtaining a mean error between 0.5 and 1.8 years and a standard deviation of this error between 9.0 and 11.3 years. When using the radiological technique according to the original protocol, all three examiners produced age estimations that were statistically comparable to the real age of the teeth with a mean error of 0.5-2.5 years and a standard deviation of 4.6-9.8 years. For both techniques, intra-observer differences were observed. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that both non-destructive dental-age estimation techniques were able to produce reasonably accurate dental-age estimations, at least when these techniques were applied appropriately. However, the forensic odontologist is recommended to use different age estimation techniques and perform repetitive measurements in order to verify the reproducibility of the calculations performed. PMID:12062945

  17. Electromagnetic nondestructive inspection of aircraft structures by using a magnetic flux leakage method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muslih, Iyad Mahmood Ali

    Aging of aircraft structures is mostly associated with fatigue cracking, de-bonding and corrosion. Detection and characterization of the structural defects at the initiation stages makes it a great challenge for any inspection technology. This study proposes a new solution for the nondestructive evaluation problem by using a magnetic flux method for non-ferromagnetic materials and provides a new neural network tool that predicts crack profiles in three dimensions by solving the inverse problem, where available neural networks can solve it in two dimensions only. The discontinuity resulting from a crack produces disturbance to the distribution of electrical current density in the structure and as a result the magnetic field around the crack will change. The magnitude of the disturbance is determined by the size and shape of the crack. Therefore, it is possible to evaluate the crack area by magnetic field measurements. The magnetic fields from the plate edges and the wires that carry the current are very strong compared to the magnetic field produced by the crack. A new plate, called a dummy plate, is used to minimize the effect of the magnetic fields produced by the plate edges. This study proves the effectiveness of the dummy plate and shows the measurable change in the magnetic signal around the crack. As a result of this work, a tool is now available that can solve the nondestructive evaluation problem and the inverse problem in three dimensions and has the capability to provide an enhanced assessment tool for judgment and decision-making which will improve the safety of metallic structures and save people lives.

  18. Application of coupled electric field method for eddy current non-destructive inspection of multilayer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchala, T.; Abdelhadi, B.; Benoudjit, A.

    2015-04-01

    The development of fast and accurate method describing the electromagnetic phenomena intervening in eddy current non-destructive systems is very interesting, since it permits the design of reliable systems permitting the detection and the characterisation of defect in conductive materials. The coupled electric field method presented in this article can assume a large part of these objectives, because it is fast in comparison to the finite element method and easily invertible since the sensor impedance variation is an explicit function of target physical and geometrical characteristics. These advantages have motivated us to extend this method for multilayered structures, very interesting in aeronautic industry, by superposing the inductive effects in different layers. The impedance of an absolute sensor operating above three conducting layers will be calculated and compared to those obtained with finite element method. Afterwards, we shall exploit the model to study the effect of defect characteristics on the sensor impedance. Furthermore, regarding to the depth penetration effect, we shall make into evidence the necessity of accomplishing an optimal choice of the exciting field frequency during the inspection of multilayered materials. The essential importance of this method, besides of its rapidity, resides in its possibility to be extended to 2D irregular and 3D asymmetric configurations.

  19. Acoustically based fetal heart rate monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Donald A.; Zuckerwar, Allan J.

    1991-01-01

    The acoustically based fetal heart rate monitor permits an expectant mother to perform the fetal Non-Stress Test in her home. The potential market would include the one million U.S. pregnancies per year requiring this type of prenatal surveillance. The monitor uses polyvinylidene fluoride (PVF2) piezoelectric polymer film for the acoustic sensors, which are mounted in a seven-element array on a cummerbund. Evaluation of the sensor ouput signals utilizes a digital signal processor, which performs a linear prediction routine in real time. Clinical tests reveal that the acoustically based monitor provides Non-Stress Test records which are comparable to those obtained with a commercial ultrasonic transducer.

  20. X-ray based methods for non-destructive testing and material characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanke, Randolf; Fuchs, Theobald; Uhlmann, Norman

    2008-06-01

    The increasing complexity and miniaturization in the field of new materials as well as in micro-production requires in the same way improvements and technical advances in the field of micro-NDT to provide better quality data and more detailed knowledge about the internal structures of micro-components. Therefore, non-destructive methods like radioscopy, ultrasound, optical or thermal imaging increasingly gain in importance with respect to ongoing product and material development in the different phases like material characterization, production control or module reliability testing. Because of the manifold different application fields, i.e., certain physical NDT methods applied to material inspection, characterization or reliability testing, this contribution will focus on the radioscopic-based methods related to their most important applications. Today, in modern industrial quality control, X-ray transmission is used in two different ways: Two-dimensional radioscopic transmission imaging (projection technique), usually applied to inline inspection tasks in application fields like lightweight material production, electronic component soldering or food production. Computed tomography (CT) for generation of three-dimensional data, representing spatial information and density distribution of objects. CT application fields are on the one hand the understanding of production process failure or component and module inspection (completeness) and on the other hand the dimensional measuring of hidden geometrical outlines (metrology). This paper demonstrates the methods including technical set-ups (X-ray source and detector), imaging and reconstruction results and the methods for high speed and high-resolution volume data generation and evaluation.

  1. Quantitative impact characterization of aeronautical CFRP materials with non-destructive testing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefel, Denis; Stoessel, Rainer; Grosse, Christian

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of safety-relevant structures are designed and manufactured from carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) in order to reduce weight of airplanes by taking the advantage of their specific strength into account. Non-destructive testing (NDT) methods for quantitative defect analysis of damages are liquid- or air-coupled ultrasonic testing (UT), phased array ultrasonic techniques, and active thermography (IR). The advantage of these testing methods is the applicability on large areas. However, their quantitative information is often limited on impact localization and size. In addition to these techniques, Airbus Group Innovations operates a micro x-ray computed tomography (μ-XCT) system, which was developed for CFRP characterization. It is an open system which allows different kinds of acquisition, reconstruction, and data evaluation. One main advantage of this μ-XCT system is its high resolution with 3-dimensional analysis and visualization opportunities, which enables to gain important quantitative information for composite part design and stress analysis. Within this study, different NDT methods will be compared at CFRP samples with specified artificial impact damages. The results can be used to select the most suitable NDT-method for specific application cases. Furthermore, novel evaluation and visualization methods for impact analyzes are developed and will be presented.

  2. Quantitative impact characterization of aeronautical CFRP materials with non-destructive testing methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefel, Denis E-mail: Rainer.Stoessel@airbus.com; Stoessel, Rainer E-mail: Rainer.Stoessel@airbus.com; Grosse, Christian

    2015-03-31

    In recent years, an increasing number of safety-relevant structures are designed and manufactured from carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) in order to reduce weight of airplanes by taking the advantage of their specific strength into account. Non-destructive testing (NDT) methods for quantitative defect analysis of damages are liquid- or air-coupled ultrasonic testing (UT), phased array ultrasonic techniques, and active thermography (IR). The advantage of these testing methods is the applicability on large areas. However, their quantitative information is often limited on impact localization and size. In addition to these techniques, Airbus Group Innovations operates a micro x-ray computed tomography (μ-XCT) system, which was developed for CFRP characterization. It is an open system which allows different kinds of acquisition, reconstruction, and data evaluation. One main advantage of this μ-XCT system is its high resolution with 3-dimensional analysis and visualization opportunities, which enables to gain important quantitative information for composite part design and stress analysis. Within this study, different NDT methods will be compared at CFRP samples with specified artificial impact damages. The results can be used to select the most suitable NDT-method for specific application cases. Furthermore, novel evaluation and visualization methods for impact analyzes are developed and will be presented.

  3. Development of non-destructive evaluation methods for degradation of HTGR graphite components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Taiju; Sumita, Junya; Tada, Tatsuya; Sawa, Kazuhiro

    2008-10-01

    To develop the non-destructive evaluation method for degradation of HTGR graphite components, the applicability of the micro-indentation method to detect residual stress was studied. The fine-grained isotropic graphites IG-110 and IG-430, the candidates for the VHTR, were used. The following results were obtained: The residual stress in a graphite block at the HTTR in-core condition was analyzed. It was suggested that, for the components in the VHTR which would be used at much severer condition, the development of lifetime extension methods is an important subject. The micro-indentation behavior at stress free condition was investigated with some indenters. The spherical indenter R0.5 mm was selected to detect the specimen surface condition sensitively. The indentation load of 5 and 10 N was selected to avoid the pop-up effect in the loading process. The relationship between the average value of normalized indentation depth and compressive stress of the specimen was expressed by an empirical formula. It would be possible to evaluate the residual stress by the indentation behaviour. It is necessary to assess the variation of data with statistic method and it is the subject of future study.

  4. On the performance of nondestructive testing methods in the hydroelectric turbine industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibzadeh Boukani, H.; Viens, M.; Tahan, S. A.; Gagnon, M.

    2014-03-01

    Welded joints of turbine runners are one of the most critical parts of Francis turbines due to the presence of welding discontinuity and high stress. Because of thermal cycles, solidification, cooling distortion and residual stresses, welded joints always include discontinuities of different types and sizes. Some specific parameters will limit welding flaw dimensions in some or all direction based on the joint geometry, material and welding procedure. If discontinuities of critical size remain undetected, fatigue cracks might initiate and propagate in these zones because of dynamic in-service stresses leading to high repair costs and long down times. Therefore, reliable NDT methods and good knowledge of the probability of occurrence of welding flaws is important for fatigue life estimations. Every NDT method has its weaknesses; therefore, even after meticulous inspections it is likely for some discontinuities of critical sizes to remain in the welded joint. Our objective is to clarify the probability of detection and occurrence of different types of welding flaws in hydroelectric turbine runners. Furthermore, an overview of current nondestructive inspection methods and their capability in characterizing flaw dimensions will be discussed. Finally, advanced NDT techniques, for the characterization of welded joints integrity, will be proposed.

  5. Method and apparatus for enhancing surface absorption and emissivity in optical pulsed infrared nondestructive evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Yuxia; Zhang, Cunlin; Jin, Wanping; Wu, Naiming

    2009-07-01

    In the application of optical pulsed infrared NDE, the visible light absorption and IR emissivity of the detected object must be considered. One of the simple methods is spraying paint on the highly reflective and low IR emissivity surface before testing. However, for some materials such as with pore space in the surface or easily to be corrupted have to be pretreated by other method and apparatus. Two kinds of apparatus for surface pretreating are designed according to the dimension of the detected object and the testing conditions. One apparatus is independent of the former detecting system, and the other is an improvement of the former system. The basic principle of the two apparatus is covering a flexible membrane of high light absorption and IR emissivity on the specimen surface by vacuum pumping. The paper also present the applications of the method, including the detection of the metal mesh material and the honeycomb structures with aluminum coating. The experimental results show that the technique of covering thin film by vacuum pump is effective for enhancing surface absorption and emissivity; moreover, it does not pollute or damage the sample. The application of the technique has practical significance, because it extends the scope of the application of the optical pulsed thermography nondestructive evaluation.

  6. Quantitative electromechanical impedance method for nondestructive testing based on a piezoelectric bimorph cantilever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Ji; Tan, Chi; Li, Faxin

    2015-06-01

    The electromechanical impedance (EMI) method, which holds great promise in structural health monitoring (SHM), is usually treated as a qualitative method. In this work, we proposed a quantitative EMI method based on a piezoelectric bimorph cantilever using the sample’s local contact stiffness (LCS) as the identification parameter for nondestructive testing (NDT). Firstly, the equivalent circuit of the contact vibration system was established and the analytical relationship between the cantilever’s contact resonance frequency and the LCS was obtained. As the LCS is sensitive to typical defects such as voids and delamination, the proposed EMI method can then be used for NDT. To verify the equivalent circuit model, two piezoelectric bimorph cantilevers were fabricated and their free resonance frequencies were measured and compared with theoretical predictions. It was found that the stiff cantilever’s EMI can be well predicted by the equivalent circuit model while the soft cantilever’s cannot. Then, both cantilevers were assembled into a homemade NDT system using a three-axis motorized stage for LCS scanning. Testing results on a specimen with a prefabricated defect showed that the defect could be clearly reproduced in the LCS image, indicating the validity of the quantitative EMI method for NDT. It was found that the single-frequency mode of the EMI method can also be used for NDT, which is faster but not quantitative. Finally, several issues relating to the practical application of the NDT method were discussed. The proposed EMI-based NDT method offers a simple and rapid solution for damage evaluation in engineering structures and may also shed some light on EMI-based SHM.

  7. A Novel, Nondestructive, Dried Blood Spot-Based Hematocrit Prediction Method Using Noncontact Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Capiau, Sara; Wilk, Leah S; Aalders, Maurice C G; Stove, Christophe P

    2016-06-21

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling is recognized as a valuable alternative sampling strategy both in research and in clinical routine. Although many advantages are associated with DBS sampling, its more widespread use is hampered by several issues, of which the hematocrit effect on DBS-based quantitation remains undoubtedly the most widely discussed one. Previously, we developed a method to derive the approximate hematocrit from a nonvolumetrically applied DBS based on its potassium content. Although this method yielded good results and was straightforward to perform, it was also destructive and required sample preparation. Therefore, we now developed a nondestructive method which allows to predict the hematocrit of a DBS based on its hemoglobin content, measured via noncontact diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The developed method was thoroughly validated. A linear calibration curve was established after log/log transformation. The bias, intraday and interday imprecision of quality controls at three hematocrit levels and at the lower and upper limit of quantitation (0.20 and 0.67, respectively) were less than 11%. In addition, the influence of storage and the volume spotted was evaluated, as well as DBS homogeneity. Application of the method to venous DBSs prepared from whole blood patient samples (n = 233) revealed a good correlation between the actual and the predicted hematocrit. Limits of agreement obtained after Bland and Altman analysis were -0.076 and +0.018. Incurred sample reanalysis demonstrated good method reproducibility. In conclusion, mere scanning of a DBS suffices to derive its approximate hematocrit, one of the most important variables in DBS analysis.

  8. Non-destructive lichen biomass estimation in northwestern Alaska: a comparison of methods.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Abbey; Neitlich, Peter; Smith, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial lichen biomass is an important indicator of forage availability for caribou in northern regions, and can indicate vegetation shifts due to climate change, air pollution or changes in vascular plant community structure. Techniques for estimating lichen biomass have traditionally required destructive harvesting that is painstaking and impractical, so we developed models to estimate biomass from relatively simple cover and height measurements. We measured cover and height of forage lichens (including single-taxon and multi-taxa "community" samples, n = 144) at 73 sites on the Seward Peninsula of northwestern Alaska, and harvested lichen biomass from the same plots. We assessed biomass-to-volume relationships using zero-intercept regressions, and compared differences among two non-destructive cover estimation methods (ocular vs. point count), among four landcover types in two ecoregions, and among single-taxon vs. multi-taxa samples. Additionally, we explored the feasibility of using lichen height (instead of volume) as a predictor of stand-level biomass. Although lichen taxa exhibited unique biomass and bulk density responses that varied significantly by growth form, we found that single-taxon sampling consistently under-estimated true biomass and was constrained by the need for taxonomic experts. We also found that the point count method provided little to no improvement over ocular methods, despite increased effort. Estimated biomass of lichen-dominated communities (mean lichen cover: 84.9±1.4%) using multi-taxa, ocular methods differed only nominally among landcover types within ecoregions (range: 822 to 1418 g m-2). Height alone was a poor predictor of lichen biomass and should always be weighted by cover abundance. We conclude that the multi-taxa (whole-community) approach, when paired with ocular estimates, is the most reasonable and practical method for estimating lichen biomass at landscape scales in northwest Alaska. PMID:25079228

  9. Non-destructive lichen biomass estimation in northwestern Alaska: a comparison of methods.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Abbey; Neitlich, Peter; Smith, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial lichen biomass is an important indicator of forage availability for caribou in northern regions, and can indicate vegetation shifts due to climate change, air pollution or changes in vascular plant community structure. Techniques for estimating lichen biomass have traditionally required destructive harvesting that is painstaking and impractical, so we developed models to estimate biomass from relatively simple cover and height measurements. We measured cover and height of forage lichens (including single-taxon and multi-taxa "community" samples, n = 144) at 73 sites on the Seward Peninsula of northwestern Alaska, and harvested lichen biomass from the same plots. We assessed biomass-to-volume relationships using zero-intercept regressions, and compared differences among two non-destructive cover estimation methods (ocular vs. point count), among four landcover types in two ecoregions, and among single-taxon vs. multi-taxa samples. Additionally, we explored the feasibility of using lichen height (instead of volume) as a predictor of stand-level biomass. Although lichen taxa exhibited unique biomass and bulk density responses that varied significantly by growth form, we found that single-taxon sampling consistently under-estimated true biomass and was constrained by the need for taxonomic experts. We also found that the point count method provided little to no improvement over ocular methods, despite increased effort. Estimated biomass of lichen-dominated communities (mean lichen cover: 84.9±1.4%) using multi-taxa, ocular methods differed only nominally among landcover types within ecoregions (range: 822 to 1418 g m-2). Height alone was a poor predictor of lichen biomass and should always be weighted by cover abundance. We conclude that the multi-taxa (whole-community) approach, when paired with ocular estimates, is the most reasonable and practical method for estimating lichen biomass at landscape scales in northwest Alaska.

  10. Non-Destructive Lichen Biomass Estimation in Northwestern Alaska: A Comparison of Methods

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, Abbey; Neitlich, Peter; Smith, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial lichen biomass is an important indicator of forage availability for caribou in northern regions, and can indicate vegetation shifts due to climate change, air pollution or changes in vascular plant community structure. Techniques for estimating lichen biomass have traditionally required destructive harvesting that is painstaking and impractical, so we developed models to estimate biomass from relatively simple cover and height measurements. We measured cover and height of forage lichens (including single-taxon and multi-taxa “community” samples, n = 144) at 73 sites on the Seward Peninsula of northwestern Alaska, and harvested lichen biomass from the same plots. We assessed biomass-to-volume relationships using zero-intercept regressions, and compared differences among two non-destructive cover estimation methods (ocular vs. point count), among four landcover types in two ecoregions, and among single-taxon vs. multi-taxa samples. Additionally, we explored the feasibility of using lichen height (instead of volume) as a predictor of stand-level biomass. Although lichen taxa exhibited unique biomass and bulk density responses that varied significantly by growth form, we found that single-taxon sampling consistently under-estimated true biomass and was constrained by the need for taxonomic experts. We also found that the point count method provided little to no improvement over ocular methods, despite increased effort. Estimated biomass of lichen-dominated communities (mean lichen cover: 84.9±1.4%) using multi-taxa, ocular methods differed only nominally among landcover types within ecoregions (range: 822 to 1418 g m−2). Height alone was a poor predictor of lichen biomass and should always be weighted by cover abundance. We conclude that the multi-taxa (whole-community) approach, when paired with ocular estimates, is the most reasonable and practical method for estimating lichen biomass at landscape scales in northwest Alaska. PMID:25079228

  11. Non-destructive evaluation methods for degradation of IG-110 and IG-430 graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Taiju; Sumita, Junya; Tada, Tatsuya; Hanawa, Satoshi; Sawa, Kazuhiro; Iyoku, Tatsuo

    2008-10-01

    The lifetime extension of in-core graphite components is one of the key technologies for the VHTR. The residual stress in the graphite components caused by neutron irradiation at high temperatures affects their lifetime. Although oxidation damage in the components would not be significant in normal reactor operation, it should be checked as well. To evaluate the degradation of the graphite components directly by a non-destructive analysis, the applicability of the micro-indentation and ultrasonic wave methods were investigated. The fine-grained isotropic graphites of IG-110 and IG-430, the candidate grades for the VHTR, were used in this study. The following results were obtained. (1) The micro-indentation behavior was changed by applying the compressive strain on the graphite. It suggested that the residual stress would be measured directly. (2) The change of ultrasonic wave velocity with 1 MHz by the uniform oxidation could be evaluated by the wave-propagation analysis with wave-pore interaction model. (3) The trend of oxidation-induced strength degradation on IG-110 was expressed by using the proposed uniform oxidation model. The importance of the non-uniformity consideration was indicated.

  12. Nondestructive method and apparatus for imaging grains in curved surfaces of polycrystalline articles

    DOEpatents

    Carpenter, D.A.

    1995-05-23

    A nondestructive method, and associated apparatus, are provided for determining the grain flow of the grains in a convex curved, textured polycrystalline surface. The convex, curved surface of a polycrystalline article is aligned in a horizontal x-ray diffractometer and a monochromatic, converging x-ray beam is directed onto the curved surface of the polycrystalline article so that the converging x-ray beam is diffracted by crystallographic planes of the grains in the polycrystalline article. The diffracted x-ray beam is caused to pass through a set of horizontal, parallel slits to limit the height of the beam and thereafter. The linear intensity of the diffracted x-ray is measured, using a linear position sensitive proportional counter, as a function of position in a direction orthogonal to the counter so as to generate two dimensional data. An image of the grains in the curved surface of the polycrystalline article is provided based on the two-dimensional data. 7 Figs.

  13. Non-destructive in-situ method and apparatus for determining radionuclide depth in media

    DOEpatents

    Xu, X. George; Naessens, Edward P.

    2003-01-01

    A non-destructive method and apparatus which is based on in-situ gamma spectroscopy is used to determine the depth of radiological contamination in media such as concrete. An algorithm, Gamma Penetration Depth Unfolding Algorithm (GPDUA), uses point kernel techniques to predict the depth of contamination based on the results of uncollided peak information from the in-situ gamma spectroscopy. The invention is better, faster, safer, and/cheaper than the current practice in decontamination and decommissioning of facilities that are slow, rough and unsafe. The invention uses a priori knowledge of the contaminant source distribution. The applicable radiological contaminants of interest are any isotopes that emit two or more gamma rays per disintegration or isotopes that emit a single gamma ray but have gamma-emitting progeny in secular equilibrium with its parent (e.g., .sup.60 Co, .sup.235 U, and .sup.137 Cs to name a few). The predicted depths from the GPDUA algorithm using Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) simulations and laboratory experiments using .sup.60 Co have consistently produced predicted depths within 20% of the actual or known depth.

  14. Automatic method for synchronizing workpiece frames in twin-robot nondestructive testing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zongxing; Xu, Chunguang; Pan, Qinxue; Meng, Fanwu; Li, Xinliang

    2015-07-01

    The workpiece frames relative to each robot base frame should be known in advance for the proper operation of twin-robot nondestructive testing system. However, when two robots are separated from the workpieces, the twin robots cannot reach the same point to complete the process of workpiece frame positioning. Thus, a new method is proposed to solve the problem of coincidence between workpiece frames. Transformation between two robot base frames is initiated by measuring the coordinate values of three non-collinear calibration points. The relationship between the workpiece frame and that of the slave robot base frame is then determined according to the known transformation of two robot base frames, as well as the relationship between the workpiece frame and that of the master robot base frame. Only one robot is required to actually measure the coordinate values of the calibration points on the workpiece. This requirement is beneficial when one of the robots cannot reach and measure the calibration points. The coordinate values of the calibration points are derived by driving the robot hand to the points and recording the values of top center point(TCP) coordinates. The translation and rotation matrices relate either the two robot base frames or the workpiece and master robot. The coordinated are solved using the measured values of the calibration points according to the Cartesian transformation principle. An optimal method is developed based on exponential mapping of Lie algebra to ensure that the rotation matrix is orthogonal. Experimental results show that this method involves fewer steps, offers significant advantages in terms of operation and time-saving. A method used to synchronize workpiece frames in twin-robot system automatically is presented.

  15. Development of Natural Flaw Samples for Evaluating Nondestructive Testing Methods for Foam Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Davis, Jason; Farrington, Seth; Walker, James

    2007-01-01

    Low density polyurethane foam has been an important insulation material for space launch vehicles for several decades. The potential for damage from foam breaking away from the NASA External Tank was not realized until the foam impacts on the Columbia Orbiter vehicle caused damage to its Leading Edge thermal protection systems (TPS). Development of improved inspection techniques on the foam TPS is necessary to prevent similar occurrences in the future. Foamed panels with drilled holes for volumetric flaws and Teflon inserts to simulate debonded conditions have been used to evaluate and calibrate nondestructive testing (NDT) methods. Unfortunately the symmetric edges and dissimilar materials used in the preparation of these simulated flaws provide an artificially large signal while very little signal is generated from the actual defects themselves. In other words, the same signal are not generated from the artificial defects in the foam test panels as produced when inspecting natural defect in the ET foam TPS. A project to create more realistic voids similar to what actually occurs during manufacturing operations was began in order to improve detection of critical voids during inspections. This presentation describes approaches taken to create more natural voids in foam TPS in order to provide a more realistic evaluation of what the NDT methods can detect. These flaw creation techniques were developed with both sprayed foam and poured foam used for insulation on the External Tank. Test panels with simulated defects have been used to evaluate NDT methods for the inspection of the External Tank. A comparison of images between natural flaws and machined flaws generated from backscatter x-ray radiography, x-ray laminography, terahertz imaging and millimeter wave imaging show significant differences in identifying defect regions.

  16. Nondestructive evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H.E.

    1997-02-01

    Research reported in the thrust area of nondestructive evaluation includes: advanced 3-D imaging technologies; new techniques in laser ultrasonic testing; infrared computed tomography for thermal NDE of materials, structures, sources, and processes; automated defect detection for large laser optics; multistatic micropower impulse radar imaging for nondestructive evaluation; and multi-modal NDE for AVLIS pod shielding components.

  17. Nondestructive testing and characterization of residual stress field using an ultrasonic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wentao; Xu, Chunguang; Pan, Qinxue; Song, Jianfeng

    2016-03-01

    To address the difficulty in testing and calibrating the stress gradient in the depth direction of mechanical components, a new technology of nondestructive testing and characterization of the residual stress gradient field by ultrasonic method is proposed based on acoustoelasticity theory. By carrying out theoretical analysis, the sensitivity coefficients of different types of ultrasonic are obtained by taking the low carbon steel(12%C) as a research object. By fixing the interval distance between sending and receiving transducers, the mathematical expressions of the change of stress and the variation of time are established. To design one sending-one receiving and oblique incidence ultrasonic detection probes, according to Snell law, the critically refracted longitudinal wave (LCR wave) is excited at a certain depth of the fixed distance of the tested components. Then, the relationship between the depth of LCR wave detection and the center frequency of the probe in Q235 steel is obtained through experimental study. To detect the stress gradient in the depth direction, a stress gradient LCR wave detection model is established, through which the stress gradient formula is derived by the relationship between center frequency and detecting depth. A C-shaped stress specimen of Q235 steel is designed to conduct stress loading tests, and the stress is measured with the five group probes at different center frequencies. The accuracy of ultrasonic testing is verified by X-ray stress analyzer. The stress value of each specific depth is calculated using the stress gradient formula. Accordingly, the ultrasonic characterization of residual stress field is realized. Characterization results show that the stress gradient distribution is consistent with the simulation in ANSYS. The new technology can be widely applied in the detection of the residual stress gradient field caused by mechanical processing, such as welding and shot peening.

  18. The use of non-destructive passive neutron measurement methods in dismantling and radioactive waste characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Jallu, F.; Allinei, P. G.; Bernard, P.; Loridon, J.; Soyer, P.; Pouyat, D.; Torreblanca, L.; Reneleau, A.

    2011-07-01

    The cleaning up and dismantling of nuclear facilities lead to a great volume of technological radioactive wastes which need to be characterized in order to be sent to the adequate final disposal or interim storage. The control and characterization can be performed with non-destructive nuclear measurements such as gamma-ray spectrometry. Passive neutron counting is an alternative when the alpha-gamma emitters cannot be detected due to the presence of a high gamma emission resulting from fission or activation products, or when the waste matrix is too absorbing for the gamma rays of interest (too dense and/or made of high atomic number elements). It can also be a complement to gamma-ray spectrometry when two measurement results must be confronted to improve the confidence in the activity assessment. Passive neutron assays involve the detection of spontaneous fission neutrons emitted by even nuclides ({sup 238}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 242}Pu, {sup 242}Cm, {sup 244}Cm...) and neutrons resulting from ({alpha}, n) reactions with light nuclides (O, F, Be...). The latter is conditioned by the presence of high {alpha}-activity radionuclides ({sup 234}U, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Am...) and low-Z elements, which depends on the chemical form (metallic, oxide or fluorine) of the plutonium or uranium contaminant. This paper presents the recent application of passive neutron methods to the cleaning up of a nuclear facility located at CEA Cadarache (France), which concerns the Pu mass assessment of 2714 historic, 100 litre radioactive waste drums produced between 1980 and 1997. Another application is the dismantling and decommissioning of an uranium enrichment facility for military purposes, which involves the {sup 235}U and total uranium quantifications in about a thousand, large compressors employed in the gaseous diffusion enrichment process. (authors)

  19. Mild-Vectolysis: A nondestructive DNA extraction method for vouchering sand flies and mosquitoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nondestructive techniques allow the isolation of genomic DNA, without damaging the morphological features of the specimens. Though such techniques are available for numerous insect groups, they have not been applied to any member of the medically important families of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)...

  20. Litchi freshness rapid non-destructive evaluating method using electronic nose and non-linear dynamics stochastic resonance model

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Xiaoguo; Liu, Wei; Hui, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, litchi freshness rapid non-destructive evaluating method using electronic nose (e-nose) and non-linear stochastic resonance (SR) was proposed. EN responses to litchi samples were continuously detected for 6 d Principal component analysis (PCA) and non-linear stochastic resonance (SR) methods were utilized to analyze EN detection data. PCA method could not totally discriminate litchi samples, while SR signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) eigen spectrum successfully discriminated all litchi samples. Litchi freshness predictive model developed using SNR eigen values shows high predictive accuracy with regression coefficients R2 = 0 .99396. PMID:25920547

  1. Optical Calibration Process Developed for Neural-Network-Based Optical Nondestructive Evaluation Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J.

    2004-01-01

    A completely optical calibration process has been developed at Glenn for calibrating a neural-network-based nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method. The NDE method itself detects very small changes in the characteristic patterns or vibration mode shapes of vibrating structures as discussed in many references. The mode shapes or characteristic patterns are recorded using television or electronic holography and change when a structure experiences, for example, cracking, debonds, or variations in fastener properties. An artificial neural network can be trained to be very sensitive to changes in the mode shapes, but quantifying or calibrating that sensitivity in a consistent, meaningful, and deliverable manner has been challenging. The standard calibration approach has been difficult to implement, where the response to damage of the trained neural network is compared with the responses of vibration-measurement sensors. In particular, the vibration-measurement sensors are intrusive, insufficiently sensitive, and not numerous enough. In response to these difficulties, a completely optical alternative to the standard calibration approach was proposed and tested successfully. Specifically, the vibration mode to be monitored for structural damage was intentionally contaminated with known amounts of another mode, and the response of the trained neural network was measured as a function of the peak-to-peak amplitude of the contaminating mode. The neural network calibration technique essentially uses the vibration mode shapes of the undamaged structure as standards against which the changed mode shapes are compared. The published response of the network can be made nearly independent of the contaminating mode, if enough vibration modes are used to train the net. The sensitivity of the neural network can be adjusted for the environment in which the test is to be conducted. The response of a neural network trained with measured vibration patterns for use on a vibration isolation

  2. Photocurrent switching method based on photoisomerization of diarylethene layer for nondestructive readout of photochromic optical memory.

    PubMed

    Tsujioka, Tsuyoshi; Onishi, Itaru; Natsume, Daisuke

    2010-07-10

    We report on photocurrent switching based on photoisomerization for the nondestructive readout of photochromic optical memory. The photoisomerization of a diarylethene (DAE) memory layer switched the photocurrent generated in a light-absorbing phthalocyanine layer upon irradiation of a laser light. This switching is based on the ionization potential change of the DAE molecules. Switching characteristics of the photocurrent were investigated for the laser light with a wavelength of 410 nm, 630 nm, or 780 nm. Excellent on-off ratios of the photocurrent were achieved by irradiation at 630 nm and 780 nm. When the pulsed laser light with a wavelength of 780 nm was repeatedly irradiated to the colored and uncolored memory devices, no change of the photocurrent signal levels was observed, even after 8 x 10(5) cycles, indicating a successful demonstration of the nondestructive readout.

  3. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Thermal Spray Coating Interface Quality By Eddy Current Method

    SciTech Connect

    B. Mi; G. Zhao; R. Bayles

    2006-08-10

    Thermal spray coating is usually applied through directing molten or softened particles at very high velocities onto a substrate. An eddy current non-destructive inspection technique is presented here for thermal spray coating interface quality characterization. Several high-velocity-oxy-fuel (HVOF) coated steel plates were produced with various surface preparation conditions or spray process parameters. A quad-frequency eddy current probe was used to manually scan over the coating surface to evaluate the bonding quality. Experimental results show that different surface preparation conditions and varied process parameters can be successfully differentiated by the impedance value observed from the eddy current probe. The measurement is fairly robust and consistent. This non-contact, nondestructive, easy-to-use technique has the potential for evaluating the coating quality immediately after its application so that any defects can be corrected immediately.

  4. Nondestructive Evaluation of Thermal Spray Coating Interface Quality by Eddy Current Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Bao; Zhao, Xiaoliang (George); Bayles, Robert

    2007-03-01

    Thermal spray coating is usually applied through directing molten or softened particles at very high velocities onto a substrate. An eddy current non-destructive inspection technique is presented here for thermal spray coating interface quality characterization. Several high-velocity-oxy-fuel (HVOF) coated steel plates were produced with various surface preparation conditions or spray process parameters. A quad-frequency eddy current probe was used to manually scan over the coating surface to evaluate the bonding quality. Experimental results show that different surface preparation conditions and varied process parameters can be successfully differentiated by the impedance value observed from the eddy current probe. The measurement is fairly robust and consistent. This non-contact, nondestructive, easy-to-use technique has the potential for evaluating the coating quality immediately after its application so that any defects can be corrected immediately.

  5. Evaluation of non-destructive methods for estimating biomass in marshes of the upper Texas, USA coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitbeck, M.; Grace, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    The estimation of aboveground biomass is important in the management of natural resources. Direct measurements by clipping, drying, and weighing of herbaceous vegetation are time-consuming and costly. Therefore, non-destructive methods for efficiently and accurately estimating biomass are of interest. We compared two non-destructive methods, visual obstruction and light penetration, for estimating aboveground biomass in marshes of the upper Texas, USA coast. Visual obstruction was estimated using the Robel pole method, which primarily measures the density and height of the canopy. Light penetration through the canopy was measured using a Decagon light wand, with readings taken above the vegetation and at the ground surface. Clip plots were also taken to provide direct estimates of total aboveground biomass. Regression relationships between estimated and clipped biomass were significant using both methods. However, the light penetration method was much more strongly correlated with clipped biomass under these conditions (R2 value 0.65 compared to 0.35 for the visual obstruction approach). The primary difference between the two methods in this situation was the ability of the light-penetration method to account for variations in plant litter. These results indicate that light-penetration measurements may be better for estimating biomass in marshes when plant litter is an important component. We advise that, in all cases, investigators should calibrate their methods against clip plots to evaluate applicability to their situation. ?? 2006, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  6. A non-destructive method for measuring the mechanical properties of ultrathin films prepared by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qinglin; Xiao, Xingcheng Verbrugge, Mark W.; Cheng, Yang-Tse

    2014-08-11

    The mechanical properties of ultrathin films synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) are critical for the liability of their coated devices. However, it has been a challenge to reliably measure critical properties of ALD films due to the influence from the substrate. In this work, we use the laser acoustic wave (LAW) technique, a non-destructive method, to measure the elastic properties of ultrathin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films by ALD. The measured properties are consistent with previous work using other approaches. The LAW method can be easily applied to measure the mechanical properties of various ALD thin films for multiple applications.

  7. Theoretical detection ranges for acoustic based manatee avoidance technology.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Richard; Niezrecki, Christopher; Beusse, Diedrich O

    2006-07-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of watercraft collisions in Florida's coastal waterways. To reduce the number of collisions, warning systems based upon detecting manatee vocalizations have been proposed. One aspect of the feasibility of an acoustically based warning system relies upon the distance at which a manatee vocalization is detectable. Assuming a mixed spreading model, this paper presents a theoretical analysis of the system detection capabilities operating within various background and watercraft noise conditions. This study combines measured source levels of manatee vocalizations with the modeled acoustic properties of manatee habitats to develop a method for determining the detection range and hydrophone spacing requirements for acoustic based manatee avoidance technologies. In quiet environments (background noise approximately 70 dB) it was estimated that manatee vocalizations are detectable at approximately 250 m, with a 6 dB detection threshold, In louder environments (background noise approximately 100dB) the detection range drops to 2.5 m. In a habitat with 90 dB of background noise, a passing boat with a maximum noise floor of 120 dB would be the limiting factor when it is within approximately 100 m of a hydrophone. The detection range was also found to be strongly dependent on the manatee vocalization source level.

  8. Theoretical detection ranges for acoustic based manatee avoidance technology.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Richard; Niezrecki, Christopher; Beusse, Diedrich O

    2006-07-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of watercraft collisions in Florida's coastal waterways. To reduce the number of collisions, warning systems based upon detecting manatee vocalizations have been proposed. One aspect of the feasibility of an acoustically based warning system relies upon the distance at which a manatee vocalization is detectable. Assuming a mixed spreading model, this paper presents a theoretical analysis of the system detection capabilities operating within various background and watercraft noise conditions. This study combines measured source levels of manatee vocalizations with the modeled acoustic properties of manatee habitats to develop a method for determining the detection range and hydrophone spacing requirements for acoustic based manatee avoidance technologies. In quiet environments (background noise approximately 70 dB) it was estimated that manatee vocalizations are detectable at approximately 250 m, with a 6 dB detection threshold, In louder environments (background noise approximately 100dB) the detection range drops to 2.5 m. In a habitat with 90 dB of background noise, a passing boat with a maximum noise floor of 120 dB would be the limiting factor when it is within approximately 100 m of a hydrophone. The detection range was also found to be strongly dependent on the manatee vocalization source level. PMID:16875213

  9. A Nondestructive Evaluation Method: Measuring the Fixed Strength of Spot-Welded Joint Points by Surface Electrical Resistivity.

    PubMed

    Shimamoto, Akira; Yamashita, Keitaro; Inoue, Hirofumi; Yang, Sung-Mo; Iwata, Masahiro; Ike, Natsuko

    2013-04-01

    Destructive tests are generally applied to evaluate the fixed strength of spot-welding nuggets of zinc-plated steel (which is a widely used primary structural material for automobiles). These destructive tests, however, are expensive and time-consuming. This paper proposes a nondestructive method for evaluating the fixed strength of the welded joints using surface electrical resistance. A direct current nugget-tester and probes have been developed by the authors for this purpose. The proposed nondestructive method uses the relative decrease in surface electrical resistance, α. The proposed method also considers the effect of the corona bond. The nugget diameter is estimated by two factors: R Quota, which is calculated from variation of resistance, and a constant that represents the area of the corona bond. Since the maximum tensile strength is correlated with the nugget diameter, it can be inferred from the estimated nugget diameter. When appropriate measuring conditions for the surface electrical resistance are chosen, the proposed method can effectively evaluate the fixed strength of the spot-welded joints even if the steel sheet is zinc-plated.

  10. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Thermal Spray Coating Interface Quality by Eddy Current Method

    SciTech Connect

    B.Mi; X. Zhao; R. Bayles

    2006-05-26

    Thermal spray coating is usually applied through directing molten or softened particles at very high velocities onto a substrate. An eddy current non-destructive inspection technique is presented here for thermal spray coating interface quality characterization. Several high-velocity-oxy-fuel (HVOF) coated steel plates were produced with different surface preparation conditions before applying the coating, e.g., grit-blasted surface, wire-brush cleaned surface, and a dirty surface. A quad-frequency eddy current probe was used to manually scan over the coating surface to evaluate the bonding quality. Experimental results show that the three surface preparation conditions can be successfully differentiated by looking into the impedance difference observed from the eddy current probe. The measurement is fairly robust and consistent. More specimens are also prepared with variations of process parameters, such as spray angle, stand-off distance, and application of corrosion protective sealant, etc. They are blindly tested to evaluate the reliability of the eddy current system. Quantitative relations between the coating bond strength and the eddy current response are also established with the support of destructive testing. This non-contact, non-destructive, easy to use technique has the potential for evaluating the coating quality immediately after its application so that any defects can be corrected immediately.

  11. Non-destructive high-throughput DNA extraction and genotyping methods for cotton seeds and seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiuting; Hoegenauer, Kevin A; Maeda, Andrea B V; Wang, Fei; Stelly, David M; Nichols, Robert L; Jones, Don C

    2015-05-01

    Extensive use of targeted PCR-based genotyping is precluded for many plant research laboratories by the cost and time required for DNA extraction. Using cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) as a model for plants with medium-sized seeds, we report here manual procedures for inexpensive non-destructive high-throughput extraction of DNA suitable for PCR-based genotyping of large numbers of individual seeds and seedlings. By sampling only small amounts of cotyledon tissue of ungerminated seed or young seedlings, damage is minimized, and viability is not discernibly affected. The yield of DNA from each seed or seedling is typically sufficient for 1000 or 500 PCR reactions, respectively. For seeds, the tissue sampling procedure relies on a modified 96-well plate that is used subsequently for seed storage. For seeds and seedlings, the DNA is extracted in a strongly basic DNA buffer that is later neutralized and diluted. Extracts can be used directly for high-throughput PCR-based genotyping. Any laboratory can thus extract DNA from thousands of individual seeds/seedlings per person-day at a very modest cost for consumables (~$0.05 per sample). Being non-destructive, our approach enables a wide variety of time- and resource-saving applications, such as marker-assisted selection (MAS), before planting, transplanting, and flowering.

  12. Case study: using a nondestructive DNA extraction method to generate mtDNA sequences from historical chimpanzee specimens.

    PubMed

    Mohandesan, Elmira; Prost, Stefan; Hofreiter, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge for ancient DNA (aDNA) studies using museum specimens is that sampling procedures usually involve at least the partial destruction of each specimen used, such as the removal of skin, pieces of bone, or a tooth. Recently, a nondestructive DNA extraction method was developed for the extraction of amplifiable DNA fragments from museum specimens without appreciable damage to the specimen. Here, we examine the utility of this method by attempting DNA extractions from historic (older than 70 years) chimpanzee specimens. Using this method, we PCR-amplified part of the mitochondrial HVR-I region from 65% (56/86) of the specimens from which we attempted DNA extraction. However, we found a high incidence of multiple sequences in individual samples, suggesting substantial cross-contamination among samples, most likely originating from storage and handling in the museums. Consequently, reproducible sequences could be reconstructed from only 79% (44/56) of the successfully extracted samples, even after multiple extractions and amplifications. This resulted in an overall success rate of just over half (44/86 of samples, or 51% success), from which 39 distinct HVR-I haplotypes were recovered. We found a high incidence of C to T changes, arguing for both low concentrations of and substantial damage to the endogenous DNA. This chapter highlights both the potential and the limitations of nondestructive DNA extraction from museum specimens.

  13. Uncertainty determination for nondestructive chemical analytical methods using field data and application to XRF analysis for lead.

    PubMed

    Bartley, David L; Slaven, James E; Rose, Mike C; Andrew, Michael E; Harper, Martin

    2007-12-01

    Air sampling and analytical methods are developed to provide a basis for decision making. They are evaluated in the laboratory against prescribed fitness-for-use criteria even though laboratory validation does not take into account all possible sources of uncertainty in field application. Field evaluation would be preferable but is complicated by the lack of controlled conditions, which limits the ability to compare analytical methods and to recognize outliers and assess variance homogeneity across the range of interest. The specific situation of evaluating nondestructive field analytical methods against their reference laboratory equivalent is considered here, since the difficulty of providing replicates is obviated in this case. A portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer was used to determine the lead content of air filter samples from several workplaces where lead is used or is a contaminant of the process material. The portable XRF method has the advantage of allowing for faster decisions compared with the alternative of submitting the air samples to an off-site laboratory for analysis. Since the XRF method is nondestructive, the same air samples were also subjected to the reference laboratory-based method of analysis. Two statistical approaches were developed specifically to deal with non-normal elements of the data in evaluating the results. The ISO GUM method identifies outliers and then calculates an accuracy range about the true concentration for the remainder of the data. This coverage is then adjusted to account for the rate of outlier occurrence. The bootstrap procedure uses a large number of computer-generated data points that are sampled, with replacement, from the original set including outliers to determine the coverage. No significant difference is seen between the two statistical approaches. Both approaches result in similar coverage and support the adoption of method acceptance criteria specific to field evaluation (a symmetric accuracy range

  14. Nondestructive determination of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis rice seeds (Oryza sativa L.) using multispectral imaging and chemometric methods.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changhong; Liu, Wei; Lu, Xuzhong; Chen, Wei; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2014-06-15

    Crop-to-crop transgene flow may affect the seed purity of non-transgenic rice varieties, resulting in unwanted biosafety consequences. The feasibility of a rapid and nondestructive determination of transgenic rice seeds from its non-transgenic counterparts was examined by using multispectral imaging system combined with chemometric data analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA), least squares-support vector machines (LS-SVM), and PCA-back propagation neural network (PCA-BPNN) methods were applied to classify rice seeds according to their genetic origins. The results demonstrated that clear differences between non-transgenic and transgenic rice seeds could be easily visualized with the nondestructive determination method developed through this study and an excellent classification (up to 100% with LS-SVM model) can be achieved. It is concluded that multispectral imaging together with chemometric data analysis is a promising technique to identify transgenic rice seeds with high efficiency, providing bright prospects for future applications.

  15. Challenges in Integrating Nondestructive Evaluation and Finite Element Methods for Realistic Structural Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Baaklini, George Y.; Zagidulin, Dmitri; Rauser, Richard W.

    2000-01-01

    Capabilities and expertise related to the development of links between nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and finite element analysis (FEA) at Glenn Research Center (GRC) are demonstrated. Current tools to analyze data produced by computed tomography (CT) scans are exercised to help assess the damage state in high temperature structural composite materials. A utility translator was written to convert velocity (an image processing software) STL data file to a suitable CAD-FEA type file. Finite element analyses are carried out with MARC, a commercial nonlinear finite element code, and the analytical results are discussed. Modeling was established by building MSC/Patran (a pre and post processing finite element package) generated model and comparing it to a model generated by Velocity in conjunction with MSC/Patran Graphics. Modeling issues and results are discussed in this paper. The entire process that outlines the tie between the data extracted via NDE and the finite element modeling and analysis is fully described.

  16. Verification of nuclear fuel plates by a developed non-destructive assay method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Gammal, W.; El-Nagdy, M.; Rizk, M.; Shawky, S.; Samei, M. A.

    2005-11-01

    Nuclear material (NM) verification is a main target for NM accounting and control. In this work a new relative non-destructive assay technique has been developed to verify the uranium mass content in nuclear fuel. The technique uses a planar high-resolution germanium gamma ray spectrometer in combination with the MCNP-4B Monte Carlo transport code. A standard NM sample was used to simulate the assayed NM and to determine the average intrinsic full energy peak efficiency of the detector for assayed configuration. The developed technique was found to be capable of verifying the operator declarations with an average accuracy of about 2.8% within a precision of better than 4%.

  17. Prediction of Service Life of Cordierite-Mullite Refractory Materials by Non-Destructive Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Boccaccini, D. N.; Kamseu, Elie; Cannio, M.; Romagnoli, M.; Veronesi, P.; Leonelli, C.; Volkov-Husoviae, T. D.; Dlouhy, I.; Boccaccini, A. R.

    2008-02-15

    Ultrasonic pulse velocity testing was used to perform non-destructive quality control of refractory plates used as substrates in fast firing of porcelain whitewares. The measurement of the ultrasonic velocity was used to asses the presence of internal voids or cracks originated from the manufacturing procedure. Image analysis was used to predict thermal stability of the refractory materials. Two cordierite-mullite compositions were investigated that are characterized by different microstructure morphologies and crack propagation behaviour. A brief discussion about the correlation between microstructure, crack propagation behaviour and thermal shock resistance is presented. Moreover, empirical models were developed to predict the service life of refractory plates from measured values of ultrasonic velocities in plates in the as-received state.

  18. Oxidation Damage Evaluation by Non-Destructive Method for Graphite Components in High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Taiju; Tada, Tatsuya; Sumita, Junya; Sawa, Kazuhiro

    To develop non-destructive evaluation methods for oxidation damage on graphite components in High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs), the applicability of ultrasonic wave and micro-indentation methods were investigated. Candidate graphites, IG-110 and IG-430, for core components of Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) were used in this study. These graphites were oxidized uniformly by air at 500 °C. The following results were obtained from this study. (1) Ultrasonic wave velocities with 1 MHz can be expressed empirically by exponential formulas to burn-off, oxidation weight loss. (2) The porous condition of the oxidized graphite could be evaluated with wave propagation analysis with a wave-pore interaction model. It is important to consider the non-uniformity of oxidized porous condition. (3) Micro-indentation method is expected to determine the local oxidation damage. It is necessary to assess the variation of the test data.

  19. Innovative real-time and non-destructive method of beam profile measurement under large beam current irradiation for BNCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, M.; Kamada, S.; Suda, M.; Fujii, R.; Nakamura, M.; Hoshi, M.; Sato, H.; Endo, S.; Hamano, T.; Arai, S.; Higashimata, A.

    2012-10-01

    We developed a real-time and non-destructive method of beam profile measurement on a target under large beam current irradiation, and without any complex radiation detectors or electrical circuits. We measured the beam profiles on a target by observing the target temperature using an infrared-radiation thermometer camera. The target temperatures were increased and decreased quickly by starting and stopping the beam irradiation within 1 s in response speed. Our method could trace beam movements rapidly. The beam size and position were calibrated by measuring O-ring heat on the target. Our method has the potential to measure beam profiles at beam current over 1 mA for proton and deuteron with the energy around 3 MeV and allows accelerator operators to adjust the beam location during beam irradiation experiments without decreasing the beam current.

  20. A nondestructive method for estimation of the fracture toughness of CrMoV rotor steels based on ultrasonic nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyunjo; Nahm, Seung-Hoon; Jhang, Kyung-Young; Nam, Young-Hyun

    2003-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a nondestructive method for estimating the fracture toughness (K(IC)) of CrMoV steels used as the rotor material of steam turbines in power plants. To achieve this objective, a number of CrMoV steel samples were heat-treated, and the fracture appearance transition temperature (FATT) was determined as a function of aging time. Nonlinear ultrasonics was employed as the theoretical basis to explain the harmonic generation in a damaged material, and the nonlinearity parameter of the second harmonic wave was the experimental measure used to be correlated to the fracture toughness of the rotor steel. The nondestructive procedure for estimating the K(IC) consists of two steps. First, the correlations between the nonlinearity parameter and the FATT are sought. The FATT values are then used to estimate K(IC) using the K(IC) versus excess temperature (i.e., T-FATT) correlation that is available in the literature for CrMoV rotor steel. PMID:12919690

  1. Neutron radiography as a non-destructive method for diagnosing neutron converters for advanced thermal neutron detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraro, A.; Albani, G.; Perelli Cippo, E.; Croci, G.; Angella, G.; Birch, J.; Cazzaniga, C.; Caniello, R.; Dell'Era, F.; Ghezzi, F.; Grosso, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Höglund, C.; Hultman, L.; Schimdt, S.; Robinson, L.; Rebai, M.; Salvato, G.; Tresoldi, D.; Vasi, C.; Tardocchi, M.

    2016-03-01

    Due to the well-known problem of 3He shortage, a series of different thermal neutron detectors alternative to helium tubes are being developed, with the goal to find valid candidates for detection systems for the future spallation neutron sources such as the European Spallation Source (ESS). A possible 3He-free detector candidate is a charged particle detector equipped with a three dimensional neutron converter cathode (3D-C). The 3D-C currently under development is composed by a series of alumina (Al2O3) lamellas coated by 1 μ m of 10B enriched boron carbide (B4C). In order to obtain a good characterization in terms of detector efficiency and uniformity it is crucial to know the thickness, the uniformity and the atomic composition of the B4C neutron converter coating. In this work a non-destructive technique for the characterization of the lamellas that will compose the 3D-C was performed using neutron radiography. The results of these measurements show that the lamellas that will be used have coating uniformity suitable for detector applications. This technique (compared with SEM, EDX, ERDA, XPS) has the advantage of being global (i.e. non point-like) and non-destructive, thus it is suitable as a check method for mass production of the 3D-C elements.

  2. Nondestructive Methods and Special Test Instrumentation Supporting NASA Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saulsberry, Regor; Greene, Nathanael; Cameron, Ken; Madaras, Eric; Grimes-Ledesma, Lorie; Thesken, John; Phoenix, Leigh; Murthy, Pappu; Revilock, Duane

    2007-01-01

    Many aging composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs), being used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are currently under evaluation to better quantify their reliability and clarify their likelihood of failure due to stress rupture and age-dependent issues. As a result, some test and analysis programs have been successfully accomplished and other related programs are still in progress at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) and other NASA centers, with assistance from the commercial sector. To support this effort, a group of Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) experts was assembled to provide NDE competence for pretest evaluation of test articles and for application of NDE technology to real-time testing. Techniques were required to provide assurance that the test article had adequate structural integrity and manufacturing consistency to be considered acceptable for testing and these techniques were successfully applied. Destructive testing is also being accomplished to better understand the physical and chemical property changes associated with progression toward "stress rupture" (SR) failure, and it is being associated with NDE response, so it can potentially be used to help with life prediction. Destructive work also includes the evaluation of residual stresses during dissection of the overwrap, laboratory evaluation of specimens extracted from the overwrap to evaluate physical property changes, and quantitative microscopy to inform the theoretical micromechanics.

  3. [A nondestructive method to measure the oxygen binding and releasing properties of biodegradable polymers microcapsules intented for blood substitutes].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolan; Yuan, Yuan; Wang, Kai; Shan, Xiaoqian; Zhao, Jian; Sheng, Yan; Liu, Changsheng

    2008-10-01

    P50 is an important parameter reflecting the binding and releasing oxygen properties of blood substitutes. In this study, based on the strong penetrating property of near infrared light and the mechanism involved in the pulsatile oxygen meter in clinic as well as on the ability for penetrating biodegradable polymers and detecting bovine hemoglobin encapsulated within the microcapsules, we have made an airproof and equilibrium apparatus to measure oxygen saturation and oxygen partial pressure. Subsequently, we have obtained the oxygen dissociation curve and P50 of the microcapsules loaded bovine hemoglobin in the light of oxyHemoglobin and deoxyHemoglobin with different spectrum in the near infrared region. The above-mentioned apparatus and method are not destructive to the microcapsules, and the process is simple and nondestructive. So it is practical to take in-situ measurements of the oxygen binding and releasing property of biodegradable polymer microcapsules intented for the blood substitute.

  4. Non-destructive Testing (NDT) of metal cracks using a high Tc rf-SQUID and eddy current method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, D. F.; Fan, Chang-Xin; Ruan, J. Z.; Han, S. G.; Wong, K. W.; Sun, G. F.

    1995-01-01

    A SQUID is the most sensitive device to detect change in magnetic field. A nondestructive testing (NDT) device using high temperature SQUID's and eddy current method will be much more sensitive than those currently used eddy current systems, yet much cheaper than one with low temperature SQUID's. In this paper, we present our study of such a NDT device using a high temperature superconducting rf-SQUID as a gradiometer sensor. The result clearly demonstrates the expected sensitivity of the system, and indicates the feasibility of building a portable HTS SQUID NDT device with the help from cryocooler industry. Such a NDT device will have a significant impact on metal corrosion or crack detection technology.

  5. Assessment of the probability of failure for EC nondestructive testing based on intrusive spectral stochastic finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oudni, Zehor; Féliachi, Mouloud; Mohellebi, Hassane

    2014-06-01

    This work is undertaken to study the reliability of eddy current nondestructive testing (ED-NDT) when the defect concerns a change of physical property of the material. So, an intrusive spectral stochastic finite element method (SSFEM) is developed in the case of 2D electromagnetic harmonic equation. The electrical conductivity is considered as random variable and is developed in series of Hermite polynomials. The developed model is validated from measurements on NDT device and is applied to the assessment of the reliability of failure in steam generator tubing of nuclear power plants. The exploitation of the model concerns the impedance calculation of the sensor and the assessment of the reliability of failure. The random defect geometry is also considered and results are given.

  6. Non-destructive testing (NDT) of metal cracks using a high Tc rf-SQUID and eddy current method

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, D.F.; Fan, C.; Ruan, J.Z.

    1994-12-31

    A SQUID is the most sensitive device to detect change in magnetic field. A non-destructive testing (NDT) device using high temperature SQUIDs and eddy current method will be much more sensitive than those currently used eddy current systems, yet much cheaper than one with low temperature SQUIDs. In this paper, we present our study of such a NDT device using a high temperature superconducting rf-SQUID as a gradiometer sensor. The result clearly demonstrates the expected sensitivity of the system, and indicates the feasibility of building a portable HTS SQUID NDT device with the help from cryocooler industry. Such a NDT device will have a significant impact on metal corrosion or crack detection technology.

  7. Density determination of nano-layers depending to the thickness by non-destructive method

    SciTech Connect

    Gacem, A.; Doghmane, A.; Hadjoub, Z.

    2013-12-16

    Non-destructive tests used to characterize and observe the state of the solids near the surface or at depth, without damaging them or damaging them. Density is frequently used to follow the variations of the physical structure of the samples, as well as in the calculation of quantity of material required to fill a given volume, and it is also used to determine the homogeneity of a sample. However, the measurement of the acoustic properties (density, elastic constants,…) of a thin film whose thickness is smaller than several atomic layers is not easy to perform. For that reason, we expose in this work the effects of the thicknesses of thin films on the evolution of the density, where several samples are analyzed. The samples selected structures are thin films deposited on substrates, these coatings have thicknesses varying from a few atomic layers to ten or so micrometers and can change the properties of the substrate on which they are deposited. To do so, we considered a great number of layers (Cr, Al, SiO{sub 2}, ZnO, Cu, AlN, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, SiC) deposited on different substrates (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Cu and Quartz). It is first shown that the density exhibits a dispersive behaviour. Such a behaviour is characterized by an initial increase (or decrease) followed by a saturated region. Further investigations of these dependences led to the determination of a semi-empirical universal relations, ρ=f(h/λ{sub T}), for all the investigated layer/substrate combination. Such expression could be of great importance in the density prediction of even layers thicknesses.

  8. Introducing passive acoustic filter in acoustic based condition monitoring: Motor bike piston-bore fault identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jena, D. P.; Panigrahi, S. N.

    2016-03-01

    Requirement of designing a sophisticated digital band-pass filter in acoustic based condition monitoring has been eliminated by introducing a passive acoustic filter in the present work. So far, no one has attempted to explore the possibility of implementing passive acoustic filters in acoustic based condition monitoring as a pre-conditioner. In order to enhance the acoustic based condition monitoring, a passive acoustic band-pass filter has been designed and deployed. Towards achieving an efficient band-pass acoustic filter, a generalized design methodology has been proposed to design and optimize the desired acoustic filter using multiple filter components in series. An appropriate objective function has been identified for genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization technique with multiple design constraints. In addition, the sturdiness of the proposed method has been demonstrated in designing a band-pass filter by using an n-branch Quincke tube, a high pass filter and multiple Helmholtz resonators. The performance of the designed acoustic band-pass filter has been shown by investigating the piston-bore defect of a motor-bike using engine noise signature. On the introducing a passive acoustic filter in acoustic based condition monitoring reveals the enhancement in machine learning based fault identification practice significantly. This is also a first attempt of its own kind.

  9. Nondestructive evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H E

    1998-01-01

    The Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) supports initiatives that advance inspection science and technology. The goal is to provide cutting-edge technologies, that show promise for quantitative inspection and characterization tools two to three years into the future. The NDE thrust area supports a multidisciplinary team, consisting of mechanical and electronics engineers, physicists, materials and computer scientists, chemists, technicians, and radiographers. These team members include personnel that cross departments within LLNL, and some are from academia and industry, within the US and abroad. This collaboration brings together the necessary and diver disciplines to provide the key scientific and technological advancements required to meet LLNL programmatic and industrial NDE challenges. The primary contributions of the NDE thrust area this year are described in these five reports: (1) Image Recovery Techniques for X-Ray Computed Tomography for Limited-Data Environments; (2) Techniques for Enhancing Laser Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation; (3) Optical Inspection of Glass-Epoxy Bonds; (4) Miniature X-Ray Source Development; and (5) Improving Computed Tomography Design and Operation Using Simulation Tools.

  10. Potential applicability of stress wave velocity method on pavement base materials as a non-destructive testing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahedi, Masrur

    Aggregates derived from natural sources have been used traditionally as the pavement base materials. But in recent times, the extraction of these natural aggregates has become more labor intensive and costly due to resource depletion and environmental concerns. Thus, the uses of recycled aggregates as the supplementary of natural aggregates are increasing considerably in pavement construction. Use of recycled aggregates such as recycled crushed concrete (RCA) and recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) reduces the rate of natural resource depletion, construction debris and cost. Although recycled aggregates could be used as a viable alternative of conventional base materials, strength characteristics and product variability limit their utility to a great extent. Hence, their applicability is needed to be evaluated extensively based on strength, stiffness and cost factors. But for extensive evaluation, traditionally practiced test methods are proven to be unreasonable in terms of time, cost, reliability and applicability. On the other hand, rapid non-destructive methods have the potential to be less time consuming and inexpensive along with the low variability of test results; therefore improving the reliability of estimated performance of the pavement. In this research work, the experimental program was designed to assess the potential application of stress wave velocity method as a non-destructive test in evaluating recycled base materials. Different combinations of cement treated recycled concrete aggregate (RAP) and recycled crushed concrete (RCA) were used to evaluate the applicability of stress wave velocity method. It was found that, stress wave velocity method is excellent in characterizing the strength and stiffness properties of cement treated base materials. Statistical models, based on P-wave velocity were derived for predicting the modulus of elasticity and compressive strength of different combinations of cement treated RAP, Grade-1 and Grade-2 materials. Two

  11. Method Developed for the High-Temperature Nondestructive Evaluation of Fiber-Reinforced Silicon Carbide Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsby, Jon C.

    1998-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites have emerged as candidate materials to allow higher operating temperatures (1000 to 1400 C) in gas turbine engines. A need, therefore, exists to develop nondestructive methods to evaluate material integrity at the material operating temperature by monitoring thermal and mechanical fatigue. These methods would also have potential as quality inspection tools. The goal of this investigation at the NASA Lewis Research Center is to survey and correlate the temperature-dependent damping and stiffness of advanced ceramic composite materials with imposed thermal and stress histories that simulate in-service turbine engine conditions. A typical sample size of 100 by 4 by 2 cubic millimeters, along with the specified stiffness and density, placed the fundamental vibration frequencies between 100 and 2000 Hz. A modified Forster apparatus seemed most applicable to simultaneously measure both damping and stiffness. Testing in vacuum reduced the effects of air on the measurements. In this method, a single composite sample is vibrated at its fundamental tone; then suddenly, the mechanical excitation is removed so that the sample's motion freely decays with time. Typical results are illlustrated in this paper.

  12. Applications of Non-destructive methods (GPR and 3D Laser Scanner) in Historic Masonry Arch Bridge Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alani, Amir; Banks, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    There exist approximately 70,000 masonry arch bridge spans (brick and stone) in the UK with tens of thousands more throughout Europe. A significant number of these bridges are still in operation and form part of the road and rail network systems in many countries. A great majority of these bridges are in desperate need of repair and maintenance. Applications of non-destructive testing methods such as ground penetrating radar (GPR), 3D laser scanning, accelerometer sensors and vibration detecting sensors amongst many others have been used to assess and monitor such structures in the past few years. This presentation provides results of the applications of a 2GHz GPR antenna system and a 3D laser scanner on a historic masonry arch bridge (the Old Bridge, Aylesford) located in Kent, in the south east of England. The older part of the bridge (the mid-span) is 860 years old. The bridge was the subject of a major alteration in 1811. This presentation forms part of a larger ongoing study which is using the two above mentioned non-destructive methods for long-term monitoring of the bridge. The adopted survey planning strategy and technique, data acquisition and processing as well as challenges encountered during actual survey and fieldworks have been discussed in this presentation. As a result of this study the position of different layers of the deck structure has been established with the identification of the original stone base of the bridge. This information in addition to the location of a number of structural ties (anchors - remedial work carried out previously) in the absence of reliable and accurate design details proved to be extremely useful for the modelling of the bridge using the finite element method. Results of the 3D laser scanning of the bridge have also been presented which have provided invaluable data essential for the accurate modelling of the bridge as well as the long term monitoring of the bridge. 2014 EGU-GA GI3.1 Session, organised by COST Action

  13. Innovative non-destructive evaluation methods on HTR fuel at AREVA NP: towards a 100% non invasive control strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Banchet, J.; Tisseur, D.; Hermosilla Lara, S.; Piriou, M.; Bargain, R.; Guillermier, P.

    2007-07-01

    High Temperature Reactor (HTR) fuel consists in millimetric multilayered particles called TRISO, embedded, depending on the reactor design, in a pebble or cylinder-shaped graphite matrix called compact. Particles are typically composed of a 500 {mu}m fissile material kernel, a 95 {mu}m porous carbon layer called buffer, a 40 {mu}m dense pyrolytic carbon layer, a 35 {mu}m silicon carbide layer and another 40 {mu}m dense pyrolytic carbon layer. In order to ensure fuel qualification, as well as reactor safety, particles and compacts need to satisfy specifications concerning their physical characteristics and their integrity. In particular, geometrical parameters such as particle diameter and sphericity as well as layers thickness, but also layers density and the absence of structural defects such as cracks or de-cohesions need to be detected and characterized. In the past, a huge R and D work was carried out to build a TRISO particle characterization quality control plan, mainly based on particle sampling as well as destructive characterization methods. However, since then, development of industrial non-destructive evaluation techniques and devices contributed to envisage not only a non invasive control of HTR fuel, but also a 100% production control strategy. Since 2004, AREVA NP is engaged in a R and D program aiming at the development of innovative industrial nondestructive evaluation methods for HTR fuel. After investigating a number of potential techniques, some of them were selected based on their performances and/or their industrial potential. In particular, development has been carried out on high resolution X-Ray imaging allowing accurate layer thickness, layer density and structural defects characterization, X-Ray tomography offering the possibility to characterize fuel element homogeneity and determine the number of in-contact particles contained in a fuel element, infrared thermal imaging (ITI) allowing cracks detection, eddy currents (EC) enabling

  14. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Fatigue Damage for SUS316 by Using Electromagnetic Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, M.; Tsuchida, Y.; Yakushiji, T.; Enokizono, M.

    2009-03-01

    There are some fatigue damage estimation methods for an austenitic stainless steel that uses martensitic transformation. For instance, those are the remanent magnetization method, the excitation method using the differential pick-up coil, and so on. We are researching also those two methods in our laboratory now. In the remanent magnetization method, it is well known that the relationship between fatigue damage and the remanent magnetization is simple, clear, and reproducible. In addition, the excitation method can be easily used at the job site because the special magnetizer is unnecessary. But, these methods have some disadvantages shown as follows. For instance, the former needs a special magnetizer and the latter's output signal is small. On the other hand, it is well known that the inductance of a pancake type coil put on the metallic specimen changes according to the electromagnetic properties of the metallic specimen. In this paper, the assessment method of fatigue of an austenitic stainless steel (SUS316) that uses the change by fatigue of the inductance of the pancake type coil measured with the LCR meter is shown. In addition, the fatigue evaluation performance of this method is described.

  15. Ball tonometry: a rapid, nondestructive method for measuring cell turgor pressure in thin-walled plant cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lintilhac, P. M.; Wei, C.; Tanguay, J. J.; Outwater, J. O.

    2000-01-01

    In this article we describe a new method for the determination of turgor pressures in living plant cells. Based on the treatment of growing plant cells as thin-walled pressure vessels, we find that pressures can be accurately determined by observing and measuring the area of the contact patch formed when a spherical glass probe is lowered onto the cell surface with a known force. Within the limits we have described, we can show that the load (determined by precalibration of the device) divided by the projected area of the contact patch (determined by video microscopy) provides a direct, rapid, and accurate measure of the internal turgor pressure of the cell. We demonstrate, by parallel measurements with the pressure probe, that our method yields pressure data that are consistent with those from the pressure probe. Also, by incubating target tissues in stepped concentrations of mannitol to incrementally reduce the turgor pressure, we show that the pressures measured by tonometry accurately reflect the predicted changes from the osmotic potential of the bathing medium. The advantages of this new method over the pressure probe are considerable, however, in that we can move rapidly from cell to cell, taking measurements every 20 s. In addition, the nondestructive nature of the method means that we can return to the same cell repeatedly for periodic pressure measurements. The limitations of the method lie in the fact that it is suitable only for superficial cells that are directly accessible to the probe and to cells that are relatively thin walled and not heavily decorated with surface features. It is also not suitable for measuring pressures in flaccid cells.

  16. Ball tonometry: a rapid, nondestructive method for measuring cell turgor pressure in thin-walled plant cells.

    PubMed

    Lintilhac, P M; Wei, C; Tanguay, J J; Outwater, J O

    2000-03-01

    In this article we describe a new method for the determination of turgor pressures in living plant cells. Based on the treatment of growing plant cells as thin-walled pressure vessels, we find that pressures can be accurately determined by observing and measuring the area of the contact patch formed when a spherical glass probe is lowered onto the cell surface with a known force. Within the limits we have described, we can show that the load (determined by precalibration of the device) divided by the projected area of the contact patch (determined by video microscopy) provides a direct, rapid, and accurate measure of the internal turgor pressure of the cell. We demonstrate, by parallel measurements with the pressure probe, that our method yields pressure data that are consistent with those from the pressure probe. Also, by incubating target tissues in stepped concentrations of mannitol to incrementally reduce the turgor pressure, we show that the pressures measured by tonometry accurately reflect the predicted changes from the osmotic potential of the bathing medium. The advantages of this new method over the pressure probe are considerable, however, in that we can move rapidly from cell to cell, taking measurements every 20 s. In addition, the nondestructive nature of the method means that we can return to the same cell repeatedly for periodic pressure measurements. The limitations of the method lie in the fact that it is suitable only for superficial cells that are directly accessible to the probe and to cells that are relatively thin walled and not heavily decorated with surface features. It is also not suitable for measuring pressures in flaccid cells.

  17. Synergistic effect of combining two nondestructive analytical methods for multielemental analysis.

    PubMed

    Toh, Yosuke; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Kimura, Atsushi; Nakamura, Shoji; Harada, Hideo; Hara, Kaoru Y; Koizumi, Mitsuo; Kitatani, Fumito; Furutaka, Kazuyoshi

    2014-12-16

    We developed a new analytical technique that combines prompt gamma-ray analysis (PGA) and time-of-flight elemental analysis (TOF) by using an intense pulsed neutron beam at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex. It allows us to obtain the results from both methods at the same time. Moreover, it can be used to quantify elemental concentrations in the sample, to which neither of these methods can be applied independently, if a new analytical spectrum (TOF-PGA) is used. To assess the effectiveness of the developed method, a mixed sample of Ag, Au, Cd, Co, and Ta, and the Gibeon meteorite were analyzed. The analytical capabilities were compared based on the gamma-ray peak selectivity and signal-to-noise ratios. TOF-PGA method showed high merits, although the capability may differ based on the target and coexisting elements. PMID:25371049

  18. Nondestructive evaluation of the interface between ceramic coating and stainless steel by electromagnetic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, A.; Steigmann, R.; Iftimie, N.; Novy, F.; Vizureanu, P.; Craus, M. L.; Fintova, S.

    2016-08-01

    Protecting coatings as thermal barrier coating (TBC) are used for yield improvement of equipment working at high temperature. Zirconia doped with yttria ceramics are considered a good TBC material due of its low thermal conductivity, refractory, chemical inertness and compatible thermal expansion coefficient with metallic support. The paper proposes the use of an electromagnetic method for evaluation of coatings on stainless steel using a sensor with metamaterial lens and comparison of the results with those obtained by complementary methods.

  19. Nondestructive method for detecting defects in photodetector and solar cell devices

    DOEpatents

    Sawyer, David E.

    1981-01-01

    The invention described herein is a method for locating semiconductor device defects and for measuring the internal resistance of such devices by making use of the intrinsic distributed resistance nature of the devices. The method provides for forward-biasing a solar cell or other device while it is scanning with an optical spot. The forward-biasing is achieved with either an illuminator light source or an external current source.

  20. Nondestructive method for detecting defects in photodetector and solar cell devices

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    The invention described herein is a method for locating semiconductor device defects and for measuring the internal resistance of such devices by making use of the intrinsic distributed resistance nature of the devices. The method provides for forward-biasing a solar cell or other device while it is scanning with an optical spot. The forward-biasing is achieved with either an illuminator light source or an external current source.

  1. Age estimation in archaeological skeletal remains: evaluation of four non-destructive age calculation methods.

    PubMed

    Vodanović, M; Dumančić, J; Galić, I; Savić Pavičin, I; Petrovečki, M; Cameriere, R; Brkić, H

    2011-12-01

    Estimation of age at death is an essential part of reconstructing information from skeletal material. The aim of the investigation was to reconstruct the chronological age of an archaeological sample from Croatia using cranial skeletal remains as well as to make an evaluation of the methods used for age estimation. For this purpose, four age calculation methods were used: palatal suture closure, occlusal tooth wear, tooth root translucency and pulp/tooth area ratio. Cramer's V test was used to test the association between the age calculation methods. Cramer's V test showed high association (0.677) between age determination results using palatal suture closure and occlusal tooth wear, and low association (0.177) between age determination results using palatal suture closure and pulp/tooth area ratio. Simple methods like palatal suture closure can provide data about age at death for large number of individuals, but with less accuracy. More complex methods which require qualified and trained personnel can provide data about age for a smaller number of individuals, but with more accuracy. Using different (both simple and complex) age calculation methods in archaeological samples can raise the level of confidence and percentage of success in determining age.

  2. Non-destructive testing techniques based on nonlinear methods for assessment of debonding in single lap joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarselli, G.; Ciampa, F.; Ginzburg, D.; Meo, M.

    2015-04-01

    Nonlinear ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods can be used for the identification of defects within adhesive bonds as they rely on the detection of nonlinear elastic features for the evaluation of the bond strength. In this paper the nonlinear content of the structural response of a single lap joint subjected to ultrasonic harmonic excitation is both numerically and experimentally evaluated to identify and characterize the defects within the bonded region. Different metallic samples with the same geometry were experimentally tested in order to characterize the debonding between two plates by using two surface bonded piezoelectric transducers in pitch-catch mode. The dynamic response of the damaged samples acquired by the single receiver sensor showed the presence of higher harmonics (2nd and 3rd) and subharmonics of the fundamental frequencies. These nonlinear elastic phenomena are clearly due to nonlinear effects induced by the poor adhesion between the two plates. A new constitutive model aimed at representing the nonlinear material response generated by the interaction of the ultrasonic waves with the adhesive joint is also presented. Such a model is implemented in an explicit FE software and uses a nonlinear user defined traction-displacement relationship implemented by means of a cohesive material user model interface. The developed model is verified for the different geometrical and material configurations. Good agreement between the experimental and numerical nonlinear response showed that this model can be used as a simple and useful tool for understanding the quality of the adhesive joint.

  3. Case study of a non-destructive treatment method for the remediation of military structures containing polychlorinated biphenyl contaminated paint.

    PubMed

    Saitta, Erin K H; Gittings, Michael J; Novaes-Card, Simone; Quinn, Jacqueline; Clausen, Christian; O'Hara, Suzanne; Yestrebsky, Cherie L

    2015-08-01

    Restricted by federal regulations and limited remediation options, buildings contaminated with paint laden with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have high costs associated with the disposal of hazardous materials. As opposed to current remediation methods which are often destructive and a risk to the surrounding environment, this study suggests a non-metal treatment system (NMTS) and a bimetallic treatment system (BTS) as versatile remediation options for painted industrial structures including concrete buildings, and metal machine parts. In this field study, four areas of a discontinued Department of Defense site were treated and monitored over 3 weeks. PCB levels in paint and treatment system samples were analyzed through gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations were reduced by 95 percent on painted concrete and by 60-97 percent on painted metal with the majority of the PCB removal occurring within the first week of application. Post treatment laboratory studies including the utilization of an activated metal treatment system (AMTS) further degraded PCBs in BTS and NMTS by up to 82 percent and 99 percent, respectively, indicating that a two-step remediation option is viable. These findings demonstrate that the NMTS and BTS can be an effective, nondestructive, remediation process for large painted structures, allowing for the reuse or sale of remediated materials that otherwise may have been disposed. PMID:25950836

  4. Proposal of a New Method for Measuring Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) Rapidly, Quantitatively and Non-Destructively

    PubMed Central

    Helm, Paul Johannes

    2012-01-01

    The process of radiationless energy transfer from a chromophore in an excited electronic state (the “donor”) to another chromophore (an “acceptor”), in which the energy released by the donor effects an electronic transition, is known as “Förster Resonance Energy Transfer” (FRET). The rate of energy transfer is dependent on the sixth power of the distance between donor and acceptor. Determining FRET efficiencies is tantamount to measuring distances between molecules. A new method is proposed for determining FRET efficiencies rapidly, quantitatively, and non-destructively on ensembles containing donor acceptor pairs: at wavelengths suitable for mutually exclusive excitations of donors and acceptors, two laser beams are intensity-modulated in rectangular patterns at duty cycle ½ and frequencies f1 and f2 by electro-optic modulators. In an ensemble exposed to these laser beams, the donor excitation is modulated at f1, and the acceptor excitation, and therefore the degree of saturation of the excited electronic state of the acceptors, is modulated at f2. Since the ensemble contains donor acceptor pairs engaged in FRET, the released donor fluorescence is modulated not only at f1 but also at the beat frequency Δf: = |f1 − f2|. The depth of the latter modulation, detectable via a lock-in amplifier, quantitatively indicates the FRET efficiency. PMID:23202903

  5. Non-destructive method of characterisation of radioactive waste containers using gamma spectroscopy and Monte Carlo techniques.

    PubMed

    Ridikas, D; Feray, S; Cometto, M; Damoy, F

    2005-01-01

    During the decommissioning of the SATURNE accelerator at CEA Saclay (France), a number of concrete containers with radioactive materials of low or very low activity had to be characterised before their final storage. In this paper, a non-destructive approach combining gamma ray spectroscopy and Monte Carlo simulations is used in order to characterise massive concrete blocks containing some radioactive waste. The limits and uncertainties of the proposed method are quantified for the source term activity estimates using 137Cs as a tracer element. A series of activity measurements with a few representative waste containers were performed before and after destruction. It has been found that neither was the distribution of radioactive materials homogeneous nor was its density unique, and this became the major source of systematic errors in this study. Nevertheless, we conclude that by combining gamma ray spectroscopy and full scale Monte Carlo simulations one can estimate the source term activity for some tracer elements such as 134Cs, 137Cs, 60Co, etc. The uncertainty of this estimation should not be bigger than a factor of 2-3. PMID:16381694

  6. Case study of a non-destructive treatment method for the remediation of military structures containing polychlorinated biphenyl contaminated paint.

    PubMed

    Saitta, Erin K H; Gittings, Michael J; Novaes-Card, Simone; Quinn, Jacqueline; Clausen, Christian; O'Hara, Suzanne; Yestrebsky, Cherie L

    2015-08-01

    Restricted by federal regulations and limited remediation options, buildings contaminated with paint laden with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have high costs associated with the disposal of hazardous materials. As opposed to current remediation methods which are often destructive and a risk to the surrounding environment, this study suggests a non-metal treatment system (NMTS) and a bimetallic treatment system (BTS) as versatile remediation options for painted industrial structures including concrete buildings, and metal machine parts. In this field study, four areas of a discontinued Department of Defense site were treated and monitored over 3 weeks. PCB levels in paint and treatment system samples were analyzed through gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations were reduced by 95 percent on painted concrete and by 60-97 percent on painted metal with the majority of the PCB removal occurring within the first week of application. Post treatment laboratory studies including the utilization of an activated metal treatment system (AMTS) further degraded PCBs in BTS and NMTS by up to 82 percent and 99 percent, respectively, indicating that a two-step remediation option is viable. These findings demonstrate that the NMTS and BTS can be an effective, nondestructive, remediation process for large painted structures, allowing for the reuse or sale of remediated materials that otherwise may have been disposed.

  7. Validating a nondestructive optical method for apportioning colored particulate matter into black carbon and additional components

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Beizhan; Kennedy, Daniel; Miller, Rachel L.; Cowin, James P.; Jung, Kyung-hwa; Perzanowski, Matt; Balletta, Marco; Perera, Federica P.; Kinney, Patrick L.; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure of black carbon (BC) is associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes. A number of optical methods for estimating BC on Teflon filters have been adopted but most assume all light absorption is due to BC while other sources of colored particulate matter exist. Recently, a four-wavelength-optical reflectance measurement for distinguishing second hand cigarette smoke (SHS) from soot-BC was developed (Brook et al., 2010; Lawless et al., 2004). However, the method has not been validated for soot-BC nor SHS and little work has been done to look at the methodological issues of the optical reflectance measurements for samples that could have SHS, BC, and other colored particles. We refined this method using a lab-modified integrating sphere with absorption measured continuously from 350 nm to 1000 nm. Furthermore, we characterized the absorption spectrum of additional components of particulate matter (PM) on PM2.5 filters including ammonium sulfate, hematite, goethite, and magnetite. Finally, we validate this method for BC by comparison to other standard methods. Use of synthesized data indicates that it is important to optimize the choice of wavelengths to minimize computational errors as additional components (more than 2) are added to the apportionment model of colored components. We found that substantial errors are introduced when using 4 wavelengths suggested by Lawless et al. to quantify four substances, while an optimized choice of wavelengths can reduce model-derived error from over 10% to less than 2%. For environmental samples, the method was sensitive for estimating airborne levels of BC and SHS, but not mass loadings of iron oxides and sulfate. Duplicate samples collected in NYC show high reproducibility (points consistent with a 1:1 line, R2 = 0.95). BC data measured by this method were consistent with those measured by other optical methods, including Aethalometer and Smoke-stain Reflectometer (SSR); although the SSR looses sensitivity at

  8. Validating a nondestructive optical method for apportioning colored particulate matter into black carbon and additional components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Beizhan; Kennedy, Daniel; Miller, Rachel L.; Cowin, James P.; Jung, Kyung-hwa; Perzanowski, Matt; Balletta, Marco; Perera, Federica P.; Kinney, Patrick L.; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2011-12-01

    Exposure of black carbon (BC) is associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes. A number of optical methods for estimating BC on Teflon filters have been adopted but most assume all light absorption is due to BC while other sources of colored particulate matter exist. Recently, a four-wavelength-optical reflectance measurement for distinguishing second hand cigarette smoke (SHS) from soot-BC was developed (Brook et al., 2010; Lawless et al., 2004). However, the method has not been validated for soot-BC nor SHS and little work has been done to look at the methodological issues of the optical reflectance measurements for samples that could have SHS, BC, and other colored particles. We refined this method using a lab-modified integrating sphere with absorption measured continuously from 350 nm to 1000 nm. Furthermore, we characterized the absorption spectrum of additional components of particulate matter (PM) on PM 2.5 filters including ammonium sulfate, hematite, goethite, and magnetite. Finally, we validate this method for BC by comparison to other standard methods. Use of synthesized data indicates that it is important to optimize the choice of wavelengths to minimize computational errors as additional components (more than 2) are added to the apportionment model of colored components. We found that substantial errors are introduced when using 4 wavelengths suggested by Lawless et al. to quantify four substances, while an optimized choice of wavelengths can reduce model-derived error from over 10% to less than 2%. For environmental samples, the method was sensitive for estimating airborne levels of BC and SHS, but not mass loadings of iron oxides and sulfate. Duplicate samples collected in NYC show high reproducibility (points consistent with a 1:1 line, R2 = 0.95). BC data measured by this method were consistent with those measured by other optical methods, including Aethalometer and Smoke-stain Reflectometer (SSR); although the SSR looses sensitivity at

  9. Verification of recursive probabilistic integration (RPI) method for fatigue life management using non-destructive inspections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tzikang J.; Shiao, Michael

    2016-04-01

    This paper verified a generic and efficient assessment concept for probabilistic fatigue life management. The concept is developed based on an integration of damage tolerance methodology, simulations methods1, 2, and a probabilistic algorithm RPI (recursive probability integration)3-9 considering maintenance for damage tolerance and risk-based fatigue life management. RPI is an efficient semi-analytical probabilistic method for risk assessment subjected to various uncertainties such as the variability in material properties including crack growth rate, initial flaw size, repair quality, random process modeling of flight loads for failure analysis, and inspection reliability represented by probability of detection (POD). In addition, unlike traditional Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) which requires a rerun of MCS when maintenance plan is changed, RPI can repeatedly use a small set of baseline random crack growth histories excluding maintenance related parameters from a single MCS for various maintenance plans. In order to fully appreciate the RPI method, a verification procedure was performed. In this study, MC simulations in the orders of several hundred billions were conducted for various flight conditions, material properties, and inspection scheduling, POD and repair/replacement strategies. Since the MC simulations are time-consuming methods, the simulations were conducted parallelly on DoD High Performance Computers (HPC) using a specialized random number generator for parallel computing. The study has shown that RPI method is several orders of magnitude more efficient than traditional Monte Carlo simulations.

  10. Method for in-situ nondestructive measurement of Young's modulus of plate structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Jerry Qixin (Inventor); Perez, Robert J. (Inventor); DeLangis, Leo M. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method for determining stiffness of a composite laminate plate entails disposing a device for generating an acoustical pulse against a surface of the plate and disposing a detecting device against the same surface spaced a known distance from the pulse-generating device, and using the pulse-generating device to emit a pulse so as to create an extensional wave in the plate. The detecting device is used to determine a time of flight of the wave over the known distance, and the wave velocity is calculated. A Young's modulus of the plate is determined based on the wave velocity. Methods for both anisotropic and quasi-isotropic laminates are disclosed.

  11. Non-destructive testing method and apparatus utilizing phase multiplication holography

    DOEpatents

    Collins, H. Dale; Prince, James M.; Davis, Thomas J.

    1984-01-01

    An apparatus and method for imaging of structural characteristics in test objects using radiation amenable to coherent signal processing methods. Frequency and phase multiplication of received flaw signals is used to simulate a test wavelength at least one to two orders of magnitude smaller than the actual wavelength. The apparent reduction in wavelength between the illumination and recording radiation performs a frequency translation hologram. The hologram constructed with a high synthetic frequency and flaw phase multiplication is similar to a conventional acoustic hologram construction at the high frequency.

  12. Device and nondestructive method to determine subsurface micro-structure in dense materials

    DOEpatents

    Sun, Jiangang

    2006-05-09

    A method and a device to detect subsurface three-dimensional micro-structure in a sample by illuminating the sample with light of a given polarization and detecting light emanating from the sample that has a different direction of polarization by means of a confocal optical system.

  13. Nondestructive analysis of three-dimensional objects using a fluid displacement method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantification of three-dimensional (3-D) objects has been a real challenge in agricultural, hydrological and environmental studies. We designed and tested a method that is capable of quantifying 3-D objects using measurements of fluid displacement. The device consists of a stand that supports a mov...

  14. Nondestructive evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, S.

    1993-03-01

    This report discusses Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) thrust area which supports initiatives that advance inspection science and technology. The goal of the NDE thrust area is to provide cutting-edge technologies that have promise of inspection tools three to five years in the future. In selecting projects, the thrust area anticipates the needs of existing and future Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) programs. NDE provides materials characterization inspections, finished parts, and complex objects to find flaws and fabrication defects and to determine their physical and chemical characteristics. NDE also encompasses process monitoring and control sensors and the monitoring of in-service damage. For concurrent engineering, NDE becomes a frontline technology and strongly impacts issues of certification and of life prediction and extension. In FY-92, in addition to supporting LLNL programs and the activities of nuclear weapons contractors, NDE has initiated several projects with government agencies and private industries to study aging infrastructures and to advance manufacturing processes. Examples of these projects are (1) the Aging Airplanes Inspection Program for the Federal Aviation Administration, (2) Signal Processing of Acoustic Signatures of Heart Valves for Shiley, Inc.; and (3) Turbine Blade Inspection for the Air Force, jointly with Southwest Research Institute and Garrett. In FY-92, the primary contributions of the NDE thrust area, described in this report were in fieldable chemical sensor systems, computed tomography, and laser generation and detection of ultrasonic energy.

  15. Damage detection of carbon reinforced composites using nondestructive evaluation with ultrasound and electromagnetic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, A.; Barsanescu, P. D.; Vizureanu, P.; Stanciu, M. D.; Curtu, I.; Iftimie, N.; Steigmann, R.

    2016-06-01

    CFRP have applications among most different domains due their low density, high elastic modulus and high ultimate strength along the carbon fibers direction, no fatigue and the expansion coefficient is small. This paper presents the behavior of carbon fiber woven-PPS composites at low velocity impacts. The transversal electrical conductivity is modified due to the plastic deformation following the impacts, and thus electromagnetic procedures can be used for assessment of CFRP using a high resolution sensor with metamaterials lens and comparing the results with those obtained from ultrasound testing with phased array sensor. The area of the delamination is overestimated when the method of phased array ultrasound is used and substantially underestimated by the electromagnetic testing. There were a good agreement between the simulations with finite element method and experimental measurements.

  16. Nondestructive and noncontact method for determining the spring constant of rectangular cantilevers.

    PubMed

    Golovko, Dmytro S; Haschke, Thomas; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Bonaccurso, Elmar

    2007-04-01

    We present here an experimental setup and suggest an extension to the long existing added-mass method for the calibration of the spring constant of atomic force microscope cantilevers. Instead of measuring the resonance frequency shift that results from attaching particles of known masses to the end of cantilevers, we load them with water microdrops generated by a commercial inkjet dispenser. Such a device is capable of generating drops, and thus masses, of extremely reproducible size. This makes it an ideal tool for calibration tasks. Moreover, the major advantage of water microdrops is that they allow for a nearly contactless calibration: no mechanical micromanipulation of particles on cantilevers is required, neither for their deposition nor for removal. After some seconds the water drop is completely evaporated, and no residues are left on the cantilever surface or tip. We present two variants: we vary the size of the drops and deposit them at the free end of the cantilever, or we keep the size of the drops constant and vary their position along the cantilever. For the second variant, we implemented also numerical simulations. Spring constants measured by this method are comparable to results obtained by the thermal noise method, as we demonstrate for six different cantilevers.

  17. 3D Ultrasonic Non-destructive Evaluation of Spot Welds Using an Enhanced Total Focusing Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasiuniene, Elena; Samaitis, Vykintas; Mazeika, Liudas; Sanderson, Ruth

    2015-02-01

    Spot welds are used to join sheets of metals in the automotive industry. When spot weld quality is evaluated using conventional ultrasonic manual pulse-echo method, the reliability of the inspection is affected by selection of the probe diameter and the positioning of the probe in the weld center. The application of a 2D matrix array is a potential solution to the aforementioned problems. The objective of this work was to develop a signal processing algorithm to reconstruct the 3D spot weld volume showing the size of the nugget and the defects in it. In order to achieve this, the conventional total focusing method was enhanced by taking into account the directivities of the single elements of the array and the divergence of the ultrasonic beam due to the propagation distance. Enhancements enabled a reduction in the background noise and uniform sensitivity at different depths to be obtained. The proposed algorithm was verified using a finite element model of ultrasonic wave propagation simulating three common spot weld conditions: a good weld, an undersized weld, and a weld containing a pore. The investigations have demonstrated that proposed method enables the determination of the size of the nugget and detection of discontinuities.

  18. Non-destructive tree root detection with geophysical methods in urban soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vianden, Mitja Johannes; Weihs, Ulrich; Kuhnke, Falko; Rust, Steffen

    2010-05-01

    To assess the safety of roadside trees or as part of ecophysiological research it is often important to investigate the spatial distribution and development of tree roots. Conventionally this is done by laborious excavations or by the application of root drills which in many cases do not allow a comprehensive data collection. An indirect method for the investigation of subsurface features is ground penetrating radar (GPR). Its ability to detect tree roots has been shown by several studies (for example Hruska et al. 1999; Butnor et al. 2001; Barton et al. 2004). Another geophysical method which has been successful applied to study different aspects of tree roots is electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) (for example Hagrey 2007; Amato et al. 2008). These former studies by other authors mainly concentrated on a correlation between the measured parameters (signal amplitude and resistivity) and root-biomass on forest sites or controlled conditions. Results of Cermak et al. (2000), studying tree roots in urban areas with GPR, indicated that this method may also be useful for anthropogenic influenced areas. As a continuation of these approaches the authors have been using both techniques to study the spatial root architecture of urban trees. This research is designed to elicit the possibilities and limitations of the methods in urban areas. Reference sites have been established to quantify the methods' resolution and assess possible fields of application. These test site measurements are the basis for the interpretation of results at urban tree sites. Their results highlight the importance of 3D-measurements in urban areas because in inhomogeneous soil other reflectors (like rocks, cables, pipes, etc.) cause similar signals and bear a risk of misinterpretation. This can be minimized if detected objects have a spatial continuation and are connected to a tree. Here we present preliminary results from a combined application of both methods at the river bank of the

  19. Determination of the Optimum Harvest Window for Apples Using the Non-Destructive Biospeckle Method.

    PubMed

    Skic, Anna; Szymańska-Chargot, Monika; Kruk, Beata; Chylińska, Monika; Pieczywek, Piotr Mariusz; Kurenda, Andrzej; Zdunek, Artur; Rutkowski, Krzysztof P

    2016-01-01

    Determination of the optimum harvest window plays a key role in the agro-food chain as the quality of fruit depends on the right harvesting time and appropriate storage conditions during the postharvest period. Usually, indices based on destructive measurements are used for this purpose, like the De Jager Index (PFW-1), FARS index and the most popular Streif Index. In this study, we proposed a biospeckle method for the evaluation of the optimum harvest window (OHW) of the "Ligol" and "Szampion" apple cultivars. The experiment involved eight different maturity stages, of which four were followed by long cold storage and shelf life to assist the determination of the optimum harvest window. The biospeckle activity was studied in relation to standard quality attributes (firmness, acidity, starch, soluble solids content, Streif Index) and physiological parameters (respiration and ethylene emission) of both apple cultivars. Changes of biospeckle activity (BA) over time showed moderate relationships with biochemical changes during apple maturation and ripening. The harvest date suggested by the Streif Index and postharvest quality indicators matched with characteristic decrease in BA. The ability of biospeckle method to characterize the biological state of apples was confirmed by significant correlations of BA with firmness, starch index, total soluble solids and Streif Index, as well as good match with changes in carbon dioxide and ethylene emission. However, it should be noted that correlations between variables changing over time are not as meaningful as independent observations. Also, it is a well-known property of the Pearson's correlation that its value is highly susceptible to outlier data. Due to its non-selective nature the BA reflected only the current biological state of the fruit and could be affected by many other factors. The investigations showed that the optimum harvest window for apples was indicated by the characteristic drop of BA during pre

  20. Determination of the Optimum Harvest Window for Apples Using the Non-Destructive Biospeckle Method.

    PubMed

    Skic, Anna; Szymańska-Chargot, Monika; Kruk, Beata; Chylińska, Monika; Pieczywek, Piotr Mariusz; Kurenda, Andrzej; Zdunek, Artur; Rutkowski, Krzysztof P

    2016-01-01

    Determination of the optimum harvest window plays a key role in the agro-food chain as the quality of fruit depends on the right harvesting time and appropriate storage conditions during the postharvest period. Usually, indices based on destructive measurements are used for this purpose, like the De Jager Index (PFW-1), FARS index and the most popular Streif Index. In this study, we proposed a biospeckle method for the evaluation of the optimum harvest window (OHW) of the "Ligol" and "Szampion" apple cultivars. The experiment involved eight different maturity stages, of which four were followed by long cold storage and shelf life to assist the determination of the optimum harvest window. The biospeckle activity was studied in relation to standard quality attributes (firmness, acidity, starch, soluble solids content, Streif Index) and physiological parameters (respiration and ethylene emission) of both apple cultivars. Changes of biospeckle activity (BA) over time showed moderate relationships with biochemical changes during apple maturation and ripening. The harvest date suggested by the Streif Index and postharvest quality indicators matched with characteristic decrease in BA. The ability of biospeckle method to characterize the biological state of apples was confirmed by significant correlations of BA with firmness, starch index, total soluble solids and Streif Index, as well as good match with changes in carbon dioxide and ethylene emission. However, it should be noted that correlations between variables changing over time are not as meaningful as independent observations. Also, it is a well-known property of the Pearson's correlation that its value is highly susceptible to outlier data. Due to its non-selective nature the BA reflected only the current biological state of the fruit and could be affected by many other factors. The investigations showed that the optimum harvest window for apples was indicated by the characteristic drop of BA during pre

  1. Determination of the Optimum Harvest Window for Apples Using the Non-Destructive Biospeckle Method

    PubMed Central

    Skic, Anna; Szymańska-Chargot, Monika; Kruk, Beata; Chylińska, Monika; Pieczywek, Piotr Mariusz; Kurenda, Andrzej; Zdunek, Artur; Rutkowski, Krzysztof P.

    2016-01-01

    Determination of the optimum harvest window plays a key role in the agro-food chain as the quality of fruit depends on the right harvesting time and appropriate storage conditions during the postharvest period. Usually, indices based on destructive measurements are used for this purpose, like the De Jager Index (PFW-1), FARS index and the most popular Streif Index. In this study, we proposed a biospeckle method for the evaluation of the optimum harvest window (OHW) of the “Ligol” and “Szampion” apple cultivars. The experiment involved eight different maturity stages, of which four were followed by long cold storage and shelf life to assist the determination of the optimum harvest window. The biospeckle activity was studied in relation to standard quality attributes (firmness, acidity, starch, soluble solids content, Streif Index) and physiological parameters (respiration and ethylene emission) of both apple cultivars. Changes of biospeckle activity (BA) over time showed moderate relationships with biochemical changes during apple maturation and ripening. The harvest date suggested by the Streif Index and postharvest quality indicators matched with characteristic decrease in BA. The ability of biospeckle method to characterize the biological state of apples was confirmed by significant correlations of BA with firmness, starch index, total soluble solids and Streif Index, as well as good match with changes in carbon dioxide and ethylene emission. However, it should be noted that correlations between variables changing over time are not as meaningful as independent observations. Also, it is a well-known property of the Pearson’s correlation that its value is highly susceptible to outlier data. Due to its non-selective nature the BA reflected only the current biological state of the fruit and could be affected by many other factors. The investigations showed that the optimum harvest window for apples was indicated by the characteristic drop of BA during pre

  2. Bone structure studies with holographic interferometric nondestructive testing and x-ray methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvennoinen, Raimo; Nygren, Kaarlo; Rouvinen, Juha; Petrova, Valentina V.

    1994-02-01

    Changes in the biomechanics and in the molecular texture and structure of isolated radioulnar bones of subadult European moose (Alces alces L.) collected in various environmentally polluted areas of Finland were investigated by means of holographic interferometric non- destructive testing (HNDT), radiological, morphometrical, and x-ray diffraction methods. By means of small caudal-cranial bending forces, the surface movements of the lower end (distal epiphysis) of the radial bone were recorded with the HNDT method. To study bone molecular texture and structure changes under external compressing forces, the samples for x-ray diffraction analysis were taken from the upper end of the ulnar bone (olecranon tip). Results showed that the bones obtained from the Harjavalta area and those of North Karelian moose showing malnutrition and healing femoral fractures produced different HNDT pictures compared with the four normally developed North Karelian moose. In the x-ray diffraction, the Harjavalta samples showed changes in molecular texture and structure compared with the samples from the apparently normal North Karelian animals.

  3. Nondestructive Clinical Assessment of Occlusal Caries Lesions using Near-IR Imaging Methods

    PubMed Central

    Staninec, Michal; Douglas, Shane M.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Chan, Kenneth; Kang, Hobin; Lee, Robert C.; Fried, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Objective Enamel is highly transparent in the near-IR (NIR) at wavelengths near 1300-nm, and stains are not visible. The purpose of this study was to use NIR transillumination and optical coherence tomography (OCT) to estimate the severity of caries lesions on occlusal surfaces both in vivo and on extracted teeth. Methods Extracted molars with suspected occlusal lesions were examined with OCT and polarization sensitive OCT (PS-OCT), and subsequently sectioned and examined with polarized light microscopy (PLM) and transverse microradiography (TMR). Teeth in test subjects with occlusal caries lesions that were not cavitated or visible on radiographs were examined using NIR transillumination at 1310 nm using a custom built probe attached to an indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) camera and a linear OCT scanner. After imaging, cavities were prepared using dye staining to guide caries removal and physical impressions of the cavities were taken. Results The lesion severity determined from OCT and PS-OCT scans in vitro correlated with the depth determined using polarized light microscopy (PLM) and transverse microradiography (TMR). Occlusal caries lesions appeared in NIR images with high contrast in vivo. OCT scans showed that most of the lesions penetrated to dentin and spread laterally below the sound enamel. Conclusion This study demonstrates that both NIR transillumination and OCT are promising new methods for the clinical diagnosis of occlusal caries. PMID:22109697

  4. Distributive, Non-destructive Real-time System and Method for Snowpack Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frolik, Jeff (Inventor); Skalka, Christian (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A ground-based system that provides quasi real-time measurement and collection of snow-water equivalent (SWE) data in remote settings is provided. The disclosed invention is significantly less expensive and easier to deploy than current methods and less susceptible to terrain and snow bridging effects. Embodiments of the invention include remote data recovery solutions. Compared to current infrastructure using existing SWE technology, the disclosed invention allows more SWE sites to be installed for similar cost and effort, in a greater variety of terrain; thus, enabling data collection at improved spatial resolutions. The invention integrates a novel computational architecture with new sensor technologies. The invention's computational architecture is based on wireless sensor networks, comprised of programmable, low-cost, low-powered nodes capable of sophisticated sensor control and remote data communication. The invention also includes measuring attenuation of electromagnetic radiation, an approach that is immune to snow bridging and significantly reduces sensor footprints.

  5. Nondestructive method for chemically machining crucibles or molds from their enclosed ingots and castings

    DOEpatents

    Stout, Norman D.; Newkirk, Herbert W.

    1991-01-01

    An inventive method is described for chemically machining rhenium, rhenium and tungsten alloy, and group 5b and 6b crucibles or molds from included ingots and castings comprised of oxide crystals including YAG and YAG based crystals, garnets, corundum crystals, and ceramic oxides. A mixture of potassium hydroxide and 15 to 90 weight percent of potassium nitrate is prepared and maintained at a temperature above melting and below the lower of 500 degrees centigrade or the temperature of decomposition of the mixture. The enveloping metal container together with its included oxide crystal object is rotated within the heated KOH-KNO.sub.3 mixture, until the container is safely chemically machined away from the included oxide crystal object.

  6. 'Direct PCR' optimization yields a rapid, cost-effective, nondestructive and efficient method for obtaining DNA barcodes without DNA extraction.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wing Hing; Tay, Ywee Chieh; Puniamoorthy, Jayanthi; Balke, Michael; Cranston, Peter S; Meier, Rudolf

    2014-11-01

    Macroinvertebrates that are collected in large numbers pose major problems in basic and applied biodiversity research: identification to species via morphology is often difficult, slow and/or expensive. DNA barcodes are an attractive alternative or complementary source of information. Unfortunately, obtaining DNA barcodes from specimens requires many steps and thus time and money. Here, we promote a short cut to DNA barcoding, that is, a nondestructive PCR method that skips DNA extraction ('direct PCR') and that can be used for a broad range of invertebrate taxa. We demonstrate how direct PCR can be optimized for the larvae and adults of nonbiting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae), a typical invertebrate group that is abundant, contains important bioindicator species, but is difficult to identify based on morphological features. After optimization, direct PCR yields high PCR success rates (>90%), preserves delicate morphological features (e.g. details of genitalia, and larval head capsules) while allowing for the recovery of genomic DNA. We also document that direct PCR can be successfully optimized for a wide range of other invertebrate taxa that need routine barcoding (flies: Culicidae, Drosophilidae, Dolichopodidae, Sepsidae; sea stars: Oreasteridae). Key for obtaining high PCR success rates is optimizing (i) tissue quantity, (ii) body part, (iii) primer pair and (iv) type of Taq polymerase. Unfortunately, not all invertebrates appear suitable because direct PCR has low success rates for other taxa that were tested (e.g. Coleoptera: Dytiscidae, Copepoda, Hymenoptera: Formicidae and Odonata). It appears that the technique is less successful for heavily sclerotized insects and/or those with many exocrine glands. PMID:24816169

  7. Identifying cryptotephra units using correlated rapid, nondestructive methods: VSWIR spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, and magnetic susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCanta, Molly C.; Hatfield, Robert G.; Thomson, Bradley J.; Hook, Simon J.; Fisher, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the frequency, magnitude, and nature of explosive volcanic eruptions is essential for hazard planning and risk mitigation. Terrestrial stratigraphic tephra records can be patchy and incomplete due to subsequent erosion and burial processes. In contrast, the marine sedimentary record commonly preserves a more complete historical record of volcanic activity as individual events are archived within continually accumulating background sediments. While larger tephra layers are often identifiable by changes in sediment color and/or texture, smaller fallout layers may also be present that are not visible to the naked eye. These cryptotephra are commonly more difficult to identify and often require time-consuming and destructive point counting, petrography, and microscopy work. Here we present several rapid, nondestructive, and quantitative core scanning methodologies (magnetic susceptibility, visible to shortwave infrared spectroscopy, and XRF core scanning) which, when combined, can be used to identify the presence of increased volcaniclastic components (interpreted to be cryptotephra) in the sedimentary record. We develop a new spectral parameter (BDI1000VIS) that exploits the absorption of the 1 µm near-infrared band in tephra. Using predetermined mixtures, BDI1000VIS can accurately identify tephra layers in concentrations >15-20%. When applied to the upper ˜270 kyr record of IODP core U1396C from the Caribbean Sea, and verified by traditional point counting, 29 potential cryptotephra layers were identified as originating from eruptions of the Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc. Application of these methods in future coring endeavors can be used to minimize the need for physical disaggregation of valuable drill core material and allow for near-real-time recognition of tephra units, both visible and cryptotephra. This article was corrected on 23 DEC 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  8. Nondestructive examination using neutron activated positron annihilation

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W.; Denison, Arthur B.

    2001-01-01

    A method is provided for performing nondestructive examination of a metal specimen using neutron activated positron annihilation wherein the positron emitter source is formed within the metal specimen. The method permits in situ nondestructive examination and has the advantage of being capable of performing bulk analysis to determine embrittlement, fatigue and dislocation within a metal specimen.

  9. Shake and stew: a non-destructive PCR-ready DNA isolation method from a single preserved fish larva.

    PubMed

    Alvarado Bremer, J R; Smith, B L; Moulton, D L; Lu, C-P; Cornic, M

    2014-01-01

    A rapid non-destructive alternative to isolate DNA from an individual fish larva is presented, based on the suspension of epithelial cells through vortex forces, and the release of DNA in a heated alkaline solution. DNA from >6056 fish larvae isolated using this protocol has yielded a high PCR amplification success rate (>93%), suggesting its applicability to other taxonomic groups or sources when tissue amount is the limiting factor. PMID:24383811

  10. Nondestructive material characterization

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A.; Johnson, John A.; Telschow, Kenneth L.

    1991-01-01

    A method and apparatus for nondestructive material characterization, such as identification of material flaws or defects, material thickness or uniformity and material properties such as acoustic velocity. The apparatus comprises a pulsed laser used to excite a piezoelectric (PZ) transducer, which sends acoustic waves through an acoustic coupling medium to the test material. The acoustic wave is absorbed and thereafter reflected by the test material, whereupon it impinges on the PZ transducer. The PZ transducer converts the acoustic wave to electrical impulses, which are conveyed to a monitor.

  11. In situ nondestructive imaging of functional pigments in Micro-Tom tomato fruits by multi spectral imaging based on Wiener estimation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishidate, Izumi; Ooe, Shintaro; Todoroki, Shinsuke; Asamizu, Erika

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the functional pigments in the tomato fruits nondestructively, we propose a method based on the multispectral diffuse reflectance images estimated by the Wiener estimation for a digital RGB image. Each pixel of the multispectral image is converted to the absorbance spectrum and then analyzed by the multiple regression analysis to visualize the contents of chlorophyll a, lycopene and β-carotene. The result confirms the feasibility of the method for in situ imaging of chlorophyll a, β-carotene and lycopene in the tomato fruits.

  12. Multiscale monitoring of interface failure of brittle coating/ductile substrate systems: A non-destructive evaluation method combined digital image correlation with acoustic emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, W. G.; Wu, D. J.; Yao, W. B.; Zhou, M.; Lu, C.

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we proposed a non-destructive evaluation method combined digital image correlation with acoustic emission techniques. The method was used to in situ monitor interface failure and internal damage of brittle coating/ductile substrate systems with different size scales. The results show that there is a good relationship between digital image correlation and acoustic emission signals, which can be applied to judge cracking formation and coating delamination and to determine fracture toughness of a thermal barrier coating system subjected to bending.

  13. The Assisi Chartula by the hand of Saint Francis: non-destructive characterization by spectroscopic spectrometric and optical methods.

    PubMed

    Bicchieri, Marina; Di Majo, Anna; Martinelli, Giovanni; Mita, Lucia; Palazzi, Daniela; Pappalardo, Lighea; Romano, Francesco Paolo; Ronconi, Silvia

    2003-11-01

    Just two examples of writings by the hand of S. Francesco are known to exist: a letter to Brother Leone, kept in the archives of Spoleto cathedral and the Chartula, displayed in the Hall of Reliquaries at Assisi's Sacro Convento. For the first time in its history the Chartula has undergone a series of non-destructive analyses, with the object of establishing its current state of conservation and the types of inks used in its making. A new display case has been designed and built for the improved conservation of this precious document. The new housing substitutes an ancient case, which was located inside the original reliquary. PMID:14703855

  14. Applications of aerospace technology in industry: A technology transfer profile, nondestructive testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of nondestructive testing procedures by NASA and the transfer of nondestructive testing to technology to civilian industry are discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) an overview of the nondestructive testing field, (2) NASA contributions to the field of nondestructive testing, (3) dissemination of NASA contributions, and (4) a transfer profile. Attachments are included which provide a brief description of common nondestructive testing methods and summarize the technology transfer reports involving NASA generated nondestructive testing technology.

  15. The detection of tightly closed flaws by nondestructive testing (NDT) methods. [fatigue crack formation in aluminum alloy test specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, W. D.; Rathke, R. A.; Todd, P. H., Jr.; Mullen, S. J.

    1975-01-01

    Liquid penetrant, ultrasonic, eddy current and X-radiographic techniques were optimized and applied to the evaluation of 2219-T87 aluminum alloy test specimens in integrally stiffened panel, and weld panel configurations. Fatigue cracks in integrally stiffened panels, lack-of-fusion in weld panels, and fatigue cracks in weld panels were the flaw types used for evaluation. A 2319 aluminum alloy weld filler rod was used for all welding to produce the test specimens. Forty seven integrally stiffened panels containing a total of 146 fatigue cracks, ninety three lack-of-penetration (LOP) specimens containing a total of 239 LOP flaws, and one-hundred seventeen welded specimens containing a total of 293 fatigue cracks were evaluated. Nondestructive test detection reliability enhancement was evaluated during separate inspection sequences in the specimens in the 'as-machined or as-welded', post etched and post proof loaded conditions. Results of the nondestructive test evaluations were compared to the actual flaw size obtained by measurement of the fracture specimens after completing all inspection sequences. Inspection data were then analyzed to provide a statistical basis for determining the flaw detection reliability.

  16. Application of reflectance colorimeter measurements and infrared spectroscopy methods to rapid and nondestructive evaluation of carotenoids content in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    PubMed

    Ruiz, David; Reich, Maryse; Bureau, Sylvie; Renard, Catherine M G C; Audergon, Jean-Marc

    2008-07-01

    The importance of carotenoid content in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) is recognized not only because of the color that they impart but also because of their protective activity against human diseases. Current methods to assess carotenoid content are time-consuming, expensive, and destructive. In this work, the application of rapid and nondestructive methods such as colorimeter measurements and infrared spectroscopy has been evaluated for carotenoid determination in apricot. Forty apricot genotypes covering a wide range of peel and flesh colors have been analyzed. Color measurements on the skin and flesh ( L*, a*, b*, hue, chroma, and a*/ b* ratio) as well as Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR) on intact fruits and Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (FT-MIR) on ground flesh were correlated with the carotenoid content measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. A high variability in color values and carotenoid content was observed. Partial least squares regression analyses between beta-carotene content and provitamin A activity and color measurements showed a high fit in peel, flesh, and edible apricot portion (R(2) ranged from 0.81 to 0.91) and low prediction error. Regression equations were developed for predicting carotenoid content by using color values, which appeared as a simple, rapid, reliable, and nondestructive method. However, FT-NIR and FT-MIR models showed very low R(2) values and very high prediction errors for carotenoid content.

  17. Study Of Nondestructive Techniques For Testing Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, D.; Kautz, H.; Draper, S.; Bansal, N.; Bowles, K.; Bashyam, M.; Bishop, C.

    1995-01-01

    Study evaluates some nondestructive methods for characterizing ceramic-, metal-, and polymer-matrix composite materials. Results demonstrated utility of two ultrasonic methods for obtaining quantitative data on microstructural anomalies in composite materials.

  18. Development of a nondestructive method for underglaze painted tiles--demonstrated by the analysis of Persian objects from the nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Reiche, Ina; Röhrs, Stefan; Salomon, Joseph; Kanngiesser, Birgit; Höhn, Yvonne; Malzer, Wolfgang; Voigt, Friederike

    2009-02-01

    The paper presents an analytical method developed for the nondestructive study of nineteenth-century Persian polychrome underglaze painted tiles. As an example, 9 tiles from French and German museum collections were investigated. Before this work was undertaken little was known about the materials used in pottery at that time, although the broad range of colors and shades, together with their brilliant glazes, made these objects stand out when compared with Iranian ceramics of the preceding periods and suggested the use of new pigments, colorants, and glaze compositions. These materials are thought to be related to provenance and as such appropriate criteria for art-historical attribution. The analytical method is based on the combination of different nondestructive spectroscopic techniques using microfocused beams such as proton-induced X-ray emission/proton-induced gamma-ray emission, X-ray fluorescence, 3D X-ray absorption near edge structure, and confocal Raman spectroscopy and also visible spectroscopy. It was established to address the specific difficulties these objects and the technique of underglaze painting raise. The exact definition of the colors observed on the tiles using the Natural Color System helped to attribute them to different colorants. It was possible to establish the presence of Cr- and U-based colorants as new materials in nineteenth-century Persian tilemaking. The difference in glaze composition (Pb, Sn, Na, and K contents) as well as the use of B and Sn were identified as a potential marker for different workshops. PMID:19030848

  19. Development of a nondestructive method for underglaze painted tiles--demonstrated by the analysis of Persian objects from the nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Reiche, Ina; Röhrs, Stefan; Salomon, Joseph; Kanngiesser, Birgit; Höhn, Yvonne; Malzer, Wolfgang; Voigt, Friederike

    2009-02-01

    The paper presents an analytical method developed for the nondestructive study of nineteenth-century Persian polychrome underglaze painted tiles. As an example, 9 tiles from French and German museum collections were investigated. Before this work was undertaken little was known about the materials used in pottery at that time, although the broad range of colors and shades, together with their brilliant glazes, made these objects stand out when compared with Iranian ceramics of the preceding periods and suggested the use of new pigments, colorants, and glaze compositions. These materials are thought to be related to provenance and as such appropriate criteria for art-historical attribution. The analytical method is based on the combination of different nondestructive spectroscopic techniques using microfocused beams such as proton-induced X-ray emission/proton-induced gamma-ray emission, X-ray fluorescence, 3D X-ray absorption near edge structure, and confocal Raman spectroscopy and also visible spectroscopy. It was established to address the specific difficulties these objects and the technique of underglaze painting raise. The exact definition of the colors observed on the tiles using the Natural Color System helped to attribute them to different colorants. It was possible to establish the presence of Cr- and U-based colorants as new materials in nineteenth-century Persian tilemaking. The difference in glaze composition (Pb, Sn, Na, and K contents) as well as the use of B and Sn were identified as a potential marker for different workshops.

  20. Non-destructive evaluation means and method of flaw reconstruction utilizing an ultrasonic multi-viewing transducer data acquistion system

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Donald O.; Wormley, Samuel J.

    1989-03-28

    A multi-viewing ultrasound transducer acquisition system for non-destructive evaluation, flaw detection and flaw reconstruction in materials. A multiple transducer assembly includes a central transducer surrounded by a plurality of perimeter transducers, each perimeter transducer having an axis of transmission which can be angularly oriented with respect to the axis of transmission of the central transducer to intersect the axis of transmission of the central transducer. A control apparatus automatically and remotely positions the transducer assembly with respect to the material by a positioning apparatus and adjusts the pe GRANT REFERENCE This invention was conceived and reduced to practice at least in part under a grant from the Department of Energy under Contract No. W-7407-ENG-82.

  1. Evaluation of Midwater Trawl Selectivity and its Influence on Acoustic-Based Fish Population Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Kresimir

    Trawls are used extensively during fisheries abundance surveys to derive estimates of fish density and, in the case of acoustic-based surveys, to identify acoustically sampled fish populations. However, trawls are selective in what fish they retain, resulting in biased estimates of density, species, and size compositions. Selectivity of the midwater trawl used in acoustic-based surveys of walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) was evaluated using multiple methods. The effects of trawl selectivity on the acoustic-based survey abundance estimates and the stock assessment were evaluated for the Gulf of Alaska walleye pollock population. Selectivity was quantified using recapture, or pocket, nets attached to the outside of the trawl. Pocket net catches were modeled using a hierarchical Bayesian model to provide uncertainty in selectivity parameter estimates. Significant under-sampling of juvenile pollock by the midwater trawl was found, with lengths at 50% retention ranging from 14--26 cm over three experiments. Escapement was found to be light dependent, with more fish escaping in dark conditions. Highest escapement rates were observed in the aft of the trawl near to the codend though the bottom panel of the trawl. The behavioral mechanisms involved in the process of herding and escapement were evaluated using stereo-cameras, a DIDSON high frequency imaging sonar, and pocket nets. Fish maintained greater distances from the trawl panel during daylight, suggesting trawl modifications such as increased visibility of netting materials may evoke stronger herding responses and increased retention of fish. Selectivity and catchability of pollock by the midwater trawl was also investigated using acoustic density as an independent estimate of fish abundance to compare with trawl catches. A modeling framework was developed to evaluate potential explanatory factors for selectivity and catchability. Selectivity estimates were dependent on which vessel was used for the survey

  2. Low Frequency Electrical and Magnetic Methods for Non-Destructive Analysis of Fiber Dispersion in Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composites: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Faifer, Marco; Ferrara, Liberato; Ottoboni, Roberto; Toscani, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Non-destructive analysis of fiber dispersion in structural elements made of Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) and Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composites (FRCCs) plays a significant role in the framework of quality control and performance prediction. In this paper, the research activity of the authors in the aforementioned field all over the last lustrum will be reviewed. A method based on the measurement of the inductance of a probe to be placed on the specimen will be presented and its progressive development will be described. Obtained correlation with actual fiber dispersion, as checked by means of destructive methods, as well as with the mechanical performance of the composite will also be presented, in an attempt to address the significance of the method from an engineering application perspective. PMID:23337334

  3. An innovative method for nondestructive analysis of cast iron artifacts at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, R.A.; Helmke, M.F.

    2011-01-01

    Iron ore containing elevated concentrations of trace metals was smelted at Hopewell Furnace during its 113 years of operation (1771-1883). For this study, we sampled iron ore, cast iron furnace products, slag, soil, groundwater, streamflow, and streambed sediment to determine the fate of trace metals released into the environment during the iron-smelting process. Standard techniques were used to sample and analyze all media except cast iron. We analyzed the trace-metal content of the cast iron using a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, which provided rapid, on-site, nondestructive analyses for 23 elements. The artifacts analyzed included eight cast iron stoves, a footed pot, and a kettle in the Hopewell Furnace museum. We measured elevated concentrations of arsenic, copper, lead, and zinc in the cast iron. Lead concentrations as great as 3,150 parts per million were measured in the stoves. Cobalt was detectable but not quantifiable because of interference with iron. Our study found that arsenic, cobalt, and lead were not released to soil or slag, which could pose a significant health risk to visitors and employees. Instead, our study demonstrates these heavy metals remained with the cast iron and were removed from the site.

  4. A Non-Destructive Method for Distinguishing Reindeer Antler (Rangifer tarandus) from Red Deer Antler (Cervus elaphus) Using X-Ray Micro-Tomography Coupled with SVM Classifiers

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, Alexandre; Rochefort, Gael Y.; Santos, Frédéric; Le Denmat, Dominique; Salmon, Benjamin; Pétillon, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, biomedical 3D-imaging tools have gained widespread use in the analysis of prehistoric bone artefacts. While initial attempts to characterise the major categories used in osseous industry (i.e. bone, antler, and dentine/ivory) have been successful, the taxonomic determination of prehistoric artefacts remains to be investigated. The distinction between reindeer and red deer antler can be challenging, particularly in cases of anthropic and/or taphonomic modifications. In addition to the range of destructive physicochemical identification methods available (mass spectrometry, isotopic ratio, and DNA analysis), X-ray micro-tomography (micro-CT) provides convincing non-destructive 3D images and analyses. This paper presents the experimental protocol (sample scans, image processing, and statistical analysis) we have developed in order to identify modern and archaeological antler collections (from Isturitz, France). This original method is based on bone microstructure analysis combined with advanced statistical support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. A combination of six microarchitecture biomarkers (bone volume fraction, trabecular number, trabecular separation, trabecular thickness, trabecular bone pattern factor, and structure model index) were screened using micro-CT in order to characterise internal alveolar structure. Overall, reindeer alveoli presented a tighter mesh than red deer alveoli, and statistical analysis allowed us to distinguish archaeological antler by species with an accuracy of 96%, regardless of anatomical location on the antler. In conclusion, micro-CT combined with SVM classifiers proves to be a promising additional non-destructive method for antler identification, suitable for archaeological artefacts whose degree of human modification and cultural heritage or scientific value has previously made it impossible (tools, ornaments, etc.). PMID:26901355

  5. A Non-Destructive Method for Distinguishing Reindeer Antler (Rangifer tarandus) from Red Deer Antler (Cervus elaphus) Using X-Ray Micro-Tomography Coupled with SVM Classifiers.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Alexandre; Rochefort, Gael Y; Santos, Frédéric; Le Denmat, Dominique; Salmon, Benjamin; Pétillon, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, biomedical 3D-imaging tools have gained widespread use in the analysis of prehistoric bone artefacts. While initial attempts to characterise the major categories used in osseous industry (i.e. bone, antler, and dentine/ivory) have been successful, the taxonomic determination of prehistoric artefacts remains to be investigated. The distinction between reindeer and red deer antler can be challenging, particularly in cases of anthropic and/or taphonomic modifications. In addition to the range of destructive physicochemical identification methods available (mass spectrometry, isotopic ratio, and DNA analysis), X-ray micro-tomography (micro-CT) provides convincing non-destructive 3D images and analyses. This paper presents the experimental protocol (sample scans, image processing, and statistical analysis) we have developed in order to identify modern and archaeological antler collections (from Isturitz, France). This original method is based on bone microstructure analysis combined with advanced statistical support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. A combination of six microarchitecture biomarkers (bone volume fraction, trabecular number, trabecular separation, trabecular thickness, trabecular bone pattern factor, and structure model index) were screened using micro-CT in order to characterise internal alveolar structure. Overall, reindeer alveoli presented a tighter mesh than red deer alveoli, and statistical analysis allowed us to distinguish archaeological antler by species with an accuracy of 96%, regardless of anatomical location on the antler. In conclusion, micro-CT combined with SVM classifiers proves to be a promising additional non-destructive method for antler identification, suitable for archaeological artefacts whose degree of human modification and cultural heritage or scientific value has previously made it impossible (tools, ornaments, etc.). PMID:26901355

  6. A Non-Destructive Method for Distinguishing Reindeer Antler (Rangifer tarandus) from Red Deer Antler (Cervus elaphus) Using X-Ray Micro-Tomography Coupled with SVM Classifiers.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Alexandre; Rochefort, Gael Y; Santos, Frédéric; Le Denmat, Dominique; Salmon, Benjamin; Pétillon, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, biomedical 3D-imaging tools have gained widespread use in the analysis of prehistoric bone artefacts. While initial attempts to characterise the major categories used in osseous industry (i.e. bone, antler, and dentine/ivory) have been successful, the taxonomic determination of prehistoric artefacts remains to be investigated. The distinction between reindeer and red deer antler can be challenging, particularly in cases of anthropic and/or taphonomic modifications. In addition to the range of destructive physicochemical identification methods available (mass spectrometry, isotopic ratio, and DNA analysis), X-ray micro-tomography (micro-CT) provides convincing non-destructive 3D images and analyses. This paper presents the experimental protocol (sample scans, image processing, and statistical analysis) we have developed in order to identify modern and archaeological antler collections (from Isturitz, France). This original method is based on bone microstructure analysis combined with advanced statistical support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. A combination of six microarchitecture biomarkers (bone volume fraction, trabecular number, trabecular separation, trabecular thickness, trabecular bone pattern factor, and structure model index) were screened using micro-CT in order to characterise internal alveolar structure. Overall, reindeer alveoli presented a tighter mesh than red deer alveoli, and statistical analysis allowed us to distinguish archaeological antler by species with an accuracy of 96%, regardless of anatomical location on the antler. In conclusion, micro-CT combined with SVM classifiers proves to be a promising additional non-destructive method for antler identification, suitable for archaeological artefacts whose degree of human modification and cultural heritage or scientific value has previously made it impossible (tools, ornaments, etc.).

  7. Nondestructive Evaluation of Aircraft and Spacecraft Wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, John E.; Tucholski, Edward J.; Green, Robert E., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Spacecraft, and especially aircraft, often fry well past their original design lives and, therefore, the need to develop nondestructive evaluation procedures for inspection of vital structures in these craft is extremely important. One of the more recent problems is the degradation of wiring and wiring insulation. The present paper describes several nondestructive characterization methods which afford the possibility to detect wiring and insulation degradation in-situ prior to major problems with the safety of aircraft and spacecraft.

  8. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Project No. 02 103 Innovative Low Cost Approaches to Automating QA/QC of Fuel Particle Production Using On Line Nondestructive Methods for Higher Reliability Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Salahuddin; Batishko, Charles R.; Flake, Matthew; Good, Morris S.; Mathews, Royce; Morra, Marino; Panetta, Paul D.; Pardini, Allan F.; Sandness, Gerald A.; Tucker, Brian J.; Weier, Dennis R.; Hockey, Ronald L.; Gray, Joseph N.; Saurwein, John J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Lowden, Richard A.; Miller, James H.

    2006-02-28

    This Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) project was tasked with exploring, adapting, developing and demonstrating innovative nondestructive test methods to automate nuclear coated particle fuel inspection so as to provide the United States (US) with necessary improved and economical Quality Assurance and Control (QA/QC) that is needed for the fuels for several reactor concepts being proposed for both near term deployment [DOE NE & NERAC, 2001] and Generation IV nuclear systems. Replacing present day QA/QC methods, done manually and in many cases destructively, with higher speed automated nondestructive methods will make fuel production for advanced reactors economically feasible. For successful deployment of next generation reactors that employ particle fuels, or fuels in the form of pebbles based on particles, extremely large numbers of fuel particles will require inspection at throughput rates that do not significantly impact the proposed manufacturing processes. The focus of the project is nondestructive examination (NDE) technologies that can be automated for production speeds and make either: (I) On Process Measurements or (II) In Line Measurements. The inspection technologies selected will enable particle “quality” qualification as a particle or group of particles passes a sensor. A multiple attribute dependent signature will be measured and used for qualification or process control decisions. A primary task for achieving this objective is to establish standard signatures for both good/acceptable particles and the most problematic types of defects using several nondestructive methods.

  9. Nondestructive characterization of pipeline materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Brady J.; Smart, Lucinda J.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2015-03-01

    There is a growing need to quantitatively and nondestructively evaluate the strength and toughness properties of pipeline steels, particularly in aging pipeline infrastructure. These strength and toughness properties, namely yield strength, tensile strength, transition temperature, and toughness, are essential for determining the safe operating pressure of the pipelines. For some older pipelines crucial information can be unknown, which makes determining the pressure rating difficult. Current inspection techniques address some of these issues, but they are not comprehensive. This paper will briefly discuss current inspection techniques and relevant literature for relating nondestructive measurements to key strength and toughness properties. A project is in progress to provide new in-trench tools that will give strength properties without the need for sample removal and destructive testing. Preliminary experimental ultrasonic methods and measurements will be presented, including velocity, attenuation, and backscatter measurements.

  10. Overview of nondestructive evaluation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G.

    1995-04-01

    The infrastructure in the US and the world is aging. There is an increasing awareness of the need to assess the severity of the damage occurring to the infrastructure. Limited resources preclude the replacement of all structures that need repairs or have exceeded their life times. Methods to assess the amount and severity of damage are crucial to implementing a systematic, cost effective approach to repair and/or replace the damaged structures. The challenges of inspecting aging structures without impairing their usefulness rely on a variety of technologies and techniques for nondestructive evaluation (NDE). This paper will briefly describe several nondestructive evaluation technologies that are required for inspecting a variety of systems and structures.

  11. Utilizing single particle Raman microscopy as a non-destructive method to identify sources of PM10 from cattle feedlot operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qiang; McConnell, Laura L.; Razote, Edna; Schmidt, Walter F.; Vinyard, Bryan T.; Torrents, Alba; Hapeman, Cathleen J.; Maghirang, Ronaldo; Trabue, Steven L.; Prueger, John; Ro, Kyoung S.

    2013-02-01

    Emissions of particulate matter (PM) from animal feeding operations (AFOs) pose a potential threat to the health of humans and livestock. Current efforts to characterize PM emissions from AFOs generally examine variations in mass concentration and particle size distributions over time and space, but these methods do not provide information on the sources of the PM captured. Raman microscopy was employed as a non-destructive method to quantify the contributions of source materials to PM10 emitted from a large cattle feedlot. Raman spectra from potential source materials (dust from unpaved roads, manure from pen surface, and cattle feed) were compiled to create a spectral library. Multivariate statistical analysis methods were used to identify specific groups composing the source library spectra and to construct a linear discriminant function to identify the source of particles collected on PM10 sample filters. Cross validation of the model resulted in 99.76% correct classification of source spectra in the training group. Source characterization results from samples collected at the cattle feedlot over a two-day period indicate that manure from the cattle pen surface contributed an average of 78% of the total PM10 particles, and dust from unpaved roads accounted for an average of 19% with minor contributions from feed. Results of this work are promising and provide support for further investigation into an innovative method to identify agricultural PM10 sources accurately under different meteorological and management conditions.

  12. Development of particle induced gamma-ray emission methods for nondestructive determination of isotopic composition of boron and its total concentration in natural and enriched samples.

    PubMed

    Chhillar, Sumit; Acharya, Raghunath; Sodaye, Suparna; Pujari, Pradeep K

    2014-11-18

    We report simple particle induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) methods using a 4 MeV proton beam for simultaneous and nondestructive determination of the isotopic composition of boron ((10)B/(11)B atom ratio) and total boron concentrations in various solid samples with natural isotopic composition and enriched with (10)B. It involves measurement of prompt gamma-rays at 429, 718, and 2125 keV from (10)B(p,αγ)(7)Be, (10)B(p, p'γ)(10)B, and (11)B(p, p'γ)(11)B reactions, respectively. The isotopic composition of boron in natural and enriched samples was determined by comparing peak area ratios corresponding to (10)B and (11)B of samples to natural boric acid standard. An in situ current normalized PIGE method, using F or Al, was standardized for total B concentration determination. The methods were validated by analyzing stoichiometric boron compounds and applied to samples such as boron carbide, boric acid, carborane, and borosilicate glass. Isotopic compositions of boron in the range of 0.247-2.0 corresponding to (10)B in the range of 19.8-67.0 atom % and total B concentrations in the range of 5-78 wt % were determined. It has been demonstrated that PIGE offers a simple and alternate method for total boron as well as isotopic composition determination in boron based solid samples, including neutron absorbers that are important in nuclear technology.

  13. State-of-the-art of non-destructive testing methods and technologies for application to nuclear power plant safety-related concrete structures

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggenhauser, Herbert; Naus, Dan J.

    2014-02-18

    The inspection of nuclear power plant concrete structures presents challenges different from conventional civil engineering structures. Wall thicknesses can be in excess of one meter and the structures often have increased steel reinforcement density with more complex detailing. The accessibility for any testing method may be limited due to the presence of liners and other components and there can be a number of penetrations or cast-in-place items present. The objective of the report is to present the state-of-the art of non-destructive testing methods and technologies for the inspection of thick, heavily-reinforced nuclear power plant concrete cross-sections with particular respect to: •locating steel reinforcement and identification of its cover depth •locating tendon ducts and identification of the condition of the grout materials •detection of cracking, voids, delamination, and honeycombing in concrete structures •detection of inclusions of different materials or voids adjacent to the concrete side of the containment liner •methods capable of identification of corrosion occurrence on the concrete side of the containment liner.

  14. State-of-the-Art of Non-Destructive Testing Methods and Technologies for Application to Nuclear Power Plant Safety-Related Concrete Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggenhauser, Dr. Herbert; Naus, Dan J

    2014-01-01

    The inspection of nuclear power plant concrete structures presents challenges different from conventional civil engineering structures. Wall thicknesses can be in excess of one meter and the structures often have increased steel reinforcement density with more complex detailing. The accessibility for any testing method may be limited due to the presence of liners and other components and there can be a number of penetrations or cast-in-place items present. The objective of the report is to present the state-of-the art of non-destructive testing methods and technologies for the inspection of thick, heavily-reinforced nuclear power plant concrete cross-sections with particular respect to: locating steel reinforcement and identification of its cover depth locating tendon ducts and identification of the condition of the grout materials detection of cracking, voids, delamination, and honeycombing in concrete structures detection of inclusions of different materials or voids adjacent to the concrete side of the containment liner methods capable of identification of corrosion occurrence on the concrete side of the containment liner

  15. A Nondestructive Method to Distinguish the Internal Constituent Architecture of the Intervertebral Discs Using 9.4 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wijayathunga, Vithanage N.; Ridgway, John P.; Ingham, Eileen; Treanor, Darren; Carey, Duane; Bulpitt, Andy; Magee, Derek; Damion, Robin; Wilcox, Ruth K.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design. An in vitro study of the intervertebral disc (IVD) structure using 9.4T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Objective. Investigate the potential of ultrahigh-field strength MRI for higher quality 3-dimensional (3D) volumetric MRI datasets of the IVD to better distinguish structural details. Summary of Background Data. MRI has the advantages of being nondestructive and 3D in comparison to most techniques used to obtain the structural details of biological tissues, however, its poor image quality at higher resolution is a limiting factor. Ultrahigh-field MRI could improve the imaging of biological tissues but the current understanding of its application for spinal tissue is limited. Methods. 2 ovine spinal segments (C7–T1, T2–T3) containing the IVD were separately imaged using 2 sequences; 3D spin echo (multislice-multiecho) pulse sequence for the C7–T1 sample and 3D gradient echo (fast-low-angle-shot) pulse sequence for the T2–T3 sample. The C7–T1 sample was subsequently decalcified and imaged again using the same scanning parameters. Histological sections obtained from the decalcified sample were stained followed by digital scanning. Observations from corresponding MRI slices and histological sections were compared as a method of confirmation of morphology captured under MRI. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and relative-contrast values were calculated for quantitative evaluation of image quality. Results. Measurements from histology sections and corresponding MRI slices matched well. Both sequences revealed finer details of the IVD structure. Under the spin echo sequence, the annulus lamellae architecture was distinguishable and the SNR and CNR values were higher. The relative contrast was considerably higher between high (nucleus) and low (bone) signal constituents, but between the nucleus and the annulus the relative contrast was low. Under the gradient echo sequence, although the relative contrasts between

  16. Performance monitoring of large-scale autonomously healed concrete beams under four-point bending through multiple non-destructive testing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaiskos, G.; Tsangouri, E.; Aggelis, D. G.; Van Tittelboom, K.; De Belie, N.; Van Hemelrijck, D.

    2016-05-01

    Concrete is still the leading structural material due to its low production cost and great structural design flexibility. Although it is distinguished by such a high durability and compressive strength, it is vulnerable in a series of ambient and operational degradation factors which all too frequently result in crack formation that can adversely affect its mechanical performance. The autonomous healing system, using encapsulated polyurethane-based, expansive, healing agent embedded in concrete, is triggered by the crack formation and propagation and promises material repair and operational service life extension. As shown in our previous studies, the formed cracks on small-scale concrete beams are sealed and repaired by filling them with the healing agent. In the present study, the crack formation and propagation in autonomously healed, large-scale concrete beams are thoroughly monitored through a combination of non-destructive testing (NDT) methods. The ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV), using embedded low-cost and aggregate-size piezoelectric transducers, the acoustic emission (AE) and the digital image correlation (DIC) are the NDT methods which are comprehensively used. The integrated ultrasonic, acoustic and optical monitoring system introduces an experimental configuration that detects and locates the four-point bending mode fracture on large-scale concrete beams, detects the healing activation process and evaluates the subsequent concrete repair.

  17. Visible and near-infrared light transmission: A hybrid imaging method for non-destructive meat quality evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziadi, A.; Maldague, X.; Saucier, L.; Duchesne, C.; Gosselin, R.

    2012-09-01

    Visual inspection of the amount of external marbling (intramuscular fat) on the meat surface is the official method used to assign the quality grading level of meat. However, this method is based exclusively on the analysis of the meat surface without any information about the internal content of the meat sample. In this paper, a new method using visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) light transmission is used to evaluate the quality of beef meat based on the marbling detection. It is demonstrated that using NIR light in transmission mode, it is possible to detect the fat not only on the surface, as in traditional methods, but also under the surface. Moreover, in combining the analysis of the two sides of the meat simple, it is possible to estimate the volumetric marbling which is not accessible by visual methods commonly proposed in computer vision. To the best of our knowledge, no similar work or method has been published or developed. The experimental results confirm the expected properties of the proposed method and illustrate the quality of the results obtained.

  18. The RAMANITA © method for non-destructive and in situ semi-quantitative chemical analysis of mineral solid-solutions by multidimensional calibration of Raman wavenumber shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David C.

    2005-08-01

    The "RAMANITA ©" method, for semi-quantitative chemical analysis of mineral solid-solutions by multidimensional calibration of Raman wavenumber shifts and mathematical calculation by simultaneous equations, is published here in detail in English for the first time. It was conceived by the present writer 20 years ago for binary and ternary pyroxene and garnet systems. The mathematical description was set out in 1989, but in an abstract in an obscure French special publication. Detailed "step-by-step" calibration of two garnet ternaries, followed by their linking, by M. Pinet and D.C. Smith in the early 1990s provided a hexary garnet database. Much later, using this garnet database, which forms part of his personal database called RAMANITA ©, the present writer began to develop the method by improving the terminology, automating the calculations, discussing problems and experimenting with different real chemical problems in archaeometry. Although this RAMANITA © method has been very briefly mentioned in two recent books, the necessary full mathematical explanation is given only here. The method will find application in any study which requires obtaining a non-destructive semi-quantitative chemical analysis from mineral solid solutions that cannot be analysed by any destructive analytical method, in particular for archaeological, geological or extraterrestrial research projects, e.g. from gemstones or other crystalline artworks of the cultural heritage (especially by Mobile Raman Microscopy (MRM)) in situ in museums or at archaeological sites, including under water for subaquatic archaeometry; from scientifically precious mineral microinclusions (such as garnet or pyroxene within diamond); from minerals in rocks analysed in situ on planetary bodies by a rover (especially "at distance" by telescopy). Recently some other workers have begun deducing chemical compositions from Raman wavenumber shifts in multivariate chemical space, but the philosophical approach is

  19. Non-destructive electromagnetic-acoustic evaluation methods of anisotropy and elastic properties in structural alloy steel rolled products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraviev, V. V.; Muravieva, O. V.; Gabbasova, M. A.

    2015-10-01

    Application opportunities of acoustic structural analysis methods for evaluation of elastic properties and anisotropy by the example of cold-rolled sheets and spring steel rods are presented. Methods are based on application of non-contact electromagnetic-acoustic transducers of encircling and laid-on types developed by the authors and measurements of volume, Rayleigh and Lamb waves parameters. The methods developed can be used as a research tool of material structural analysis, anisotropy of properties when choosing heat treatment techniques and conditions, under intensive plastic deformation and other external energy deposition, including non-conventional material production with hierarchy structure and development of new technologies and safe constructions.

  20. Summary of nondestructive testing theory and practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meister, R. P.; Randall, M. D.; Mitchell, D. K.; Williams, L. P.; Pattee, H. E.

    1972-01-01

    The ability to fabricate design critical and man-rated aerospace structures using materials near the limits of their capabilities requires a comprehensive and dependable assurance program. The quality assurance program must rely heavily on nondestructive testing methods for thorough inspection to assess properties and quality of hardware items. A survey of nondestructive testing methods is presented to provide space program managers, supervisors and engineers who are unfamiliar with this technical area with appropriate insight into the commonly accepted nondestructive testing methods available, their interrelationships, used, advantages and limitations. Primary emphasis is placed on the most common methods: liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, radiography, ultrasonics and eddy current. A number of the newer test techniques including thermal, acoustic emission, holography, microwaves, eddy-sonic and exo-electron emission, which are beginning to be used in applications of interest to NASA, are also discussed briefly.

  1. Infrared densitometry: a fast and non-destructive method for exact stratum corneum depth calculation for in vitro tape-stripping.

    PubMed

    Hahn, T; Hansen, S; Neumann, D; Kostka, K-H; Lehr, C-M; Muys, L; Schaefer, U F

    2010-01-01

    The investigation of drug penetration into the stratum corneum (SC) by tape-stripping requires an accurate measure of the amount of SC on each tape-strip in order to determine the depth inside the SC. This study applies infrared densitometry (IR-D) to in vitro tape-stripping using the novel Squame Scan(R) 850A. The device had recently been shown to provide accurate measurements of the SC depth for tape-stripping in vivo. Furthermore, the suitability of IR-D for determining the endpoint of tape-stripping, i.e. complete SC removal, was tested. The SC depth was computed from the IR-D data of sequential tape-strips and compared to the results of a protein assay as gold standard. IR-D provided accurate depth results both for freshly excised skin and for skin stored frozen for up to 3 months. In addition, the lower limit of quantification of IR-D indicates the complete removal of the SC (less than 5% of the total SC remaining) and can be used for adjusting the number of tapes applied in situ. Therefore, IR-D is an accurate, fast and non-destructive method for SC depth determination. PMID:20173360

  2. A NEW NON-DESTRUCTIVE METHOD FOR CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF PARTICULATE MATTER FILTERS: THE CASE OF MANGANESE AIR POLLUTION IN VALLECAMONICA (ITALY)

    PubMed Central

    Borgese, Laura; Zacco, Annalisa; Pal, Sudipto; Bontempi, Elza; Lucchini, Roberto; Zimmerman, Neil; Depero, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) is a well-established technique for chemical analysis, but it is mainly employed for quality control in the electronics semiconductor industry. The capability to analyze liquid and uniformly thin solid samples makes this technique suitable for other applications, and especially in the very critical field of environmental analysis. Comparison with standard methods like Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) show that TXRF is a practical, accurate, and reliable technique in occupational settings. Due to the greater sensitivity necessary in trace heavy metal detection, TXRF is also suitable for environmental chemical analysis. In this paper we show that based on appropriate standards, TXRF can be considered for non-destructive routine quantitative analysis of environmental matrices such as air filters. This work has been developed in the frame of the EU-FP6 PHIME (Public Health Impact of long-term, low-level Mixed element Exposure in susceptible population strata) Integrated Project (www.phime.org). The aim of this work was to investigate Mn air pollution in the area of Vallecamonica (Italy). PMID:21315919

  3. Development of Fluorescence Label and Con-focal Laser Scanning Microscopy Method for Non-Destructive Local Impurity Distribution Analysis in Protein Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iimura, Yoshikazu; Yoshizaki, Izumi; Nakamura, Hirohiko; Yoda, Shinichi; Komatsu, Hiroshi

    2003-09-01

    A new method for quantitative analysis of the impurity concentration in protein crystals and solutions was developed. This technique utilizes fluorescence label (FL) with con-focal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), which is more effective than SDS-PAGE analysis currently used for this purpose. The advantages of CLSM are that, it is non-destructive so that the impurity incorporation and local distribution could be observed in situ, and also that only a micro-quantity of protein solution is needed. The impurity protein is labeled with fluorescence material, and mixed with the crystallization solution. The solution and the crystal are observed by CLSM, and the fluorescence intensity from the labeled impurity is then converted to the impurity concentration by using calibration curves. A case study using Hen Egg White Lysozyme as a sample is reported. Calibration curves were obtained by comparing the fluorescence intensity and the actual impurity concentration determined by the absorbance at 280 nm and SDS-PAGE. A few factors such as the numerical aperture of the objective lens or the pinhole size were fixed. The utilization of this technique leads to the understanding of the effect of impurities on protein crystal growth.

  4. Micro-computed tomography: a method for the non-destructive evaluation of the three-dimensional structure of biological specimens.

    PubMed

    Stauber, Martin; Müller, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    The large increase in interest in micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) over the last decade reflects the+ need for a method able to non-destructively visualize the internal three-dimensional structure of an object. Thereby, the real beauty of computed tomography lies in the fact that it is available for a large range of nominal resolutions, which allows hierarchical imaging from whole bodies down to the tissue level. Although micro-CT is currently mainly used for imaging of hard tissue (i.e., bone and tooth), future developments might also allow high soft tissue contrast either using appropriate contrast agents or x-ray contrast mechanisms. This chapter aims to review the steps necessary for a successful micro-CT measurement. Although the actual measurement is often machine dependent, the chapter does not describe a specific system but rather lists all steps that eventually have to be considered to set up a measurement, run the measurement, process the image data, and get morphometric indices as a result. The chapter provides an easy understandable manual that should allow newcomers to perform successful measurements and hence to best profit from this powerful technique.

  5. A precise and non-destructive method to calculate the surface area in living scleractinian corals using X-ray computed tomography and 3D modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laforsch, C.; Christoph, E.; Glaser, C.; Naumann, M.; Wild, C.; Niggl, W.

    2008-12-01

    The surface area of corals represents a major reference parameter for the standardization of flux rates, for coral growth investigations, and for investigations of coral metabolism. The methods currently used to determine the surface area of corals are rather approximate approaches lacking accuracy, or are invasive and often destructive methods that are inapplicable for experiments involving living corals. This study introduces a novel precise and non-destructive technique to quantify surface area in living coral colonies by applying computed tomography (CT) and subsequent 3D reconstruction. Living coral colonies of different taxa were scanned by conventional medical CT either in air or in sea water. Resulting data volumes were processed by 3D modeling software providing realistic 3D coral skeleton surface reconstructions, thus enabling surface area measurements. Comparisons of CT datasets obtained from calibration bodies and coral colonies proved the accuracy of the surface area determination. Surface area quantifications derived from two different surface rendering techniques applied for scanning living coral colonies showed congruent results (mean deviation ranging from 1.32 to 2.03%). The validity of surface area measurement was verified by repeated measurements of the same coral colonies by three test persons. No significant differences between all test persons in all coral genera and in both surface rendering techniques were found (independent sample t-test: all n.s.). Data analysis of a single coral colony required approximately 15 to 30 min for a trained user using the isosurface technique regardless of the complexity and growth form of the latter, rendering the method presented in this study as a time-saving and accurate method to quantify surface areas in both living coral colonies and bare coral skeletons.

  6. A Non-destructive Imaging Method for Detecting Defect in Mortal Sample by High-intensity Aerial Ultrasonic Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osumi, Ayumu; Ito, Youichi

    We have studied a method of non-contact ultrasonic inspection that uses high-intensity aerial ultrasonic waves and optical equipment. Specially, the object is excited in noncontact way using high-intensity aerial ultrasonic waves and the vibration velocity on the object surface is measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV). We analysis the vibration information on the surface of the object with the defect area and image the defect shape in materials. In this paper, it was examined to detect the defect in mortal by proposed method.

  7. Nondestructive Testing Eddy Current Equipment, Methods and Applications RQA/M1-5330.12 (V-II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    As one in the series of programmed instruction handbooks, prepared by the U. S. space program, home study material is presented in this volume concerning familiarization and orientation on eddy current testing. The subject is presented under the following headings: Test Coils, Methods and Indications, and Applications. High product quality and…

  8. A rapid, non-invasive and non-destructive method for studying swelling behavior and microstructure variations of hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaqiong; Li, Xiunan; Chen, Chao; Zhao, Dawei; Su, Zhiguo; Ma, Guanghui; Yu, Rong

    2016-10-20

    A new method for studying swelling behavior of hydrogels was developed based on low field NMR (LF-NMR). This method is established on these facts: firstly, internal water (water trapped in hydrogel) and external water (water outside of hydrogel) correspond to different components of transverse relaxation time (T2); secondly, T2 component amplitude is proportional to relative water content; and finally, T2 value is closely related to mesh size of hydrogel network, the main effect being due to the overall concentration (degree of swelling). This method was successfully applied to swelling ratio determination of chitosan/glutaraldehyde (CS/GA) hydrogels in situ, and the results had better accuracy and repeatability compared with that of weighing method. Furthermore, swelling kinetics at different pH and microstructure of CS/GA hydrogels was well elucidated based on T2. It is clearly showed that LF-NMR provides a powerful tool for probing processes related to water transport and microstructure variation of hydrogels.

  9. A rapid, non-invasive and non-destructive method for studying swelling behavior and microstructure variations of hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaqiong; Li, Xiunan; Chen, Chao; Zhao, Dawei; Su, Zhiguo; Ma, Guanghui; Yu, Rong

    2016-10-20

    A new method for studying swelling behavior of hydrogels was developed based on low field NMR (LF-NMR). This method is established on these facts: firstly, internal water (water trapped in hydrogel) and external water (water outside of hydrogel) correspond to different components of transverse relaxation time (T2); secondly, T2 component amplitude is proportional to relative water content; and finally, T2 value is closely related to mesh size of hydrogel network, the main effect being due to the overall concentration (degree of swelling). This method was successfully applied to swelling ratio determination of chitosan/glutaraldehyde (CS/GA) hydrogels in situ, and the results had better accuracy and repeatability compared with that of weighing method. Furthermore, swelling kinetics at different pH and microstructure of CS/GA hydrogels was well elucidated based on T2. It is clearly showed that LF-NMR provides a powerful tool for probing processes related to water transport and microstructure variation of hydrogels. PMID:27474678

  10. [Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Born, Martin

    2010-01-01

    These poster boards display the United Space Alliance's (USA) systems and equipment used for Nondestructive Evaluation. These include: (1) the Robotic Inspection Facility, (2) CAT-Scan and Laminography, (3) Laser Surface Profilometry, (4) Remote Eddy Current, (5) Ultrasonic Phased Array, (7) Infrared Flash Thermography, and (8) Backscatter X-Ray (BSX)

  11. Development of a Rapid, Nondestructive Method to Measure Aqueous Carbonate in High Salinity Brines Using Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, L.; Phillips-Lander, C. M.; Elwood Madden, A. S.; Parnell, S.; Elwood Madden, M.

    2015-12-01

    Traditional methods of quantitative analysis are often ill-suited to determining the bulk chemistry of high salinity brines due to their corrosive and clogging properties. Such methods are also often difficult to apply remotely in planetary environments. However, Raman spectroscopy can be used remotely without physical contact with the fluid and is not affected by many ionic brines. Developing methods to study aqueous carbonates is vital to future study of brines on Mars and other planetary bodies, as they can reveal important information about modern and ancient near-surface aqueous processes. Both sodium carbonate standards and unknown samples from carbonate mineral dissolution experiments in high salinity brines were analyzed using a 532 nm laser coupled to an inVia Renishaw spectrometer to collect carbonate spectra from near-saturated sodium chloride and sodium sulfate brines. A calibration curve was determined by collecting spectra from solutions of known carbonate concentrations mixed with a pH 13 buffer and a near-saturated NaCl or Na2SO4 brine matrix. The spectra were processed and curve fitted to determine the height ratio of the carbonate peak at 1066 cm-1 to the 1640 cm-1 water peak. The calibration curve determined using the standards was then applied to the experimental data after accounting for dilutions. Concentrations determined based on Raman spectra were compared against traditional acid titration measurements. We found that the two techniques vary by less than one order of magnitude. Further work is ongoing to verify the method and apply similar techniques to measure aqueous carbonate concentrations in other high salinity brines.Traditional methods of quantitative analysis are often ill-suited to determining the bulk chemistry of high salinity brines due to their corrosive and clogging properties. Such methods are also often difficult to apply remotely in planetary environments. However, Raman spectroscopy can be used remotely without physical

  12. Sensitivity and Calibration of Non-Destructive Evaluation Method That Uses Neural-Net Processing of Characteristic Fringe Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J.; Weiland, Kenneth E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper answers some performance and calibration questions about a non-destructive-evaluation (NDE) procedure that uses artificial neural networks to detect structural damage or other changes from sub-sampled characteristic patterns. The method shows increasing sensitivity as the number of sub-samples increases from 108 to 6912. The sensitivity of this robust NDE method is not affected by noisy excitations of the first vibration mode. A calibration procedure is proposed and demonstrated where the output of a trained net can be correlated with the outputs of the point sensors used for vibration testing. The calibration procedure is based on controlled changes of fastener torques. A heterodyne interferometer is used as a displacement sensor for a demonstration of the challenges to be handled in using standard point sensors for calibration.

  13. Development of nondestructive evaluation methods and prediction of effects of flaws on the fracture behavior of structural ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, W.A.; Singh, J.P.; Sivers, E.A.; Holloway, D.L.; Jacobs, T.D.; Dieckman, S.L.; Singh, D.

    1994-05-01

    In the NDE area, specimens with different cloth lay-up orientations were examined by a 3-D X-ray microtomography device and image processing to measure and map in-plane fiber orientations. Results show detection sensitivity to better than {plus_minus}3{degrees}. We establish detection of 3-D braid/weave fiber orientation and spacing. Another NDE method, multinuclear ({sup 13}C,{sup 29}Si, and {sup 11B} NMR spectroscopy, is being developed to determine the chemical state of the fiber surface and its potential impact on fiber pullout. We have conducted initial studies to investigate sensitivity to bulk composition of the matrix materials (a,b, amorphous phase, silica, and oxynitride concentration). The first {sup 29}Si NMR experiments focused on methods to enhance the signal from the surface by selectively reducing surface relaxation. Additionally, we have determined that there is sufficient sensitivity of {sup 11}B NMR for monitoring fiber coatings.

  14. A Non-Destructive Distinctive Method for Discrimination of Automobile Lubricant Variety by Visible and Short-Wave Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lulu; Liu, Fei; He, Yong

    2012-01-01

    A novel method which is a combination of wavelet packet transform (WPT), uninformative variable elimination by partial least squares (UVE-PLS) and simulated annealing (SA) to extract best variance information among different varieties of lubricants is presented. A total of 180 samples (60 for each variety) were characterized on the basis of visible and short-wave infrared spectroscopy (VIS-SWNIR), and 90 samples (30 for each variety) were randomly selected for the calibration set, whereas, the remaining 90 samples (30 for each variety) were used for the validation set. The spectral data was split into different frequency bands by WPT, and different frequency bands were obtained. SA was employed to look for the best variance band (BVB) among different varieties of lubricants. In order to improve prediction precision further, BVB was processed by UVE-PLS and the optimal cutoff threshold of UVE was found by SA. Finally, five variables were mined, and were set as inputs for a least square-support vector machine (LS-SVM) to build the recognition model. An optimal model with a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.9850 and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.0827 was obtained. The overall results indicated that the method of combining WPT, UVE-PLS and SA was a powerful way to select diagnostic information for discrimination among different varieties of lubricating oil, furthermore, a more parsimonious and efficient LS-SVM model could be obtained. PMID:22737021

  15. Nondestructive Evaluation for the Space Shuttle's Wing Leading Edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madaras, Eric I.; Winfree, William P.; Prosser, William H.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Cramer, K. Elliot

    2005-01-01

    The loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia highlighted concerns about the integrity of the Shuttle's thermal protection system, which includes Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) on the leading edge. This led NASA to investigate nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods for certifying the integrity of the Shuttle's wing leading edge. That investigation was performed simultaneously with a large study conducted to understand the impact damage caused by errant debris. Among the many advanced NDE methods investigated for applicability to the RCC material, advanced digital radiography, high resolution computed tomography, thermography, ultrasound, acoustic emission and eddy current systems have demonstrated the maturity and success for application to the Shuttle RCC panels. For the purposes of evaluating the RCC panels while they are installed on the orbiters, thermographic detection incorporating principal component analysis (PCA) and eddy current array scanning systems demonstrated the ability to measure the RCC panels from one side only and to detect several flaw types of concern. These systems were field tested at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and at several locations where impact testing was being conducted. Another advanced method that NASA has been investigating is an automated acoustic based detection system. Such a system would be based in part on methods developed over the years for acoustic emission testing. Impact sensing has been demonstrated through numerous impact tests on both reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) leading edge materials as well as Shuttle tile materials on representative aluminum wing structures. A variety of impact materials and conditions have been evaluated including foam, ice, and ablator materials at ascent velocities as well as simulated hypervelocity micrometeoroid and orbital debris impacts. These tests have successfully demonstrated the capability to detect and localize impact events on Shuttle's wing structures. A first generation impact sensing

  16. Nondestructive decontamination of mortar and concrete by electro-kinetic methods: application to the extraction of radioactive heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Castellote, Marta; Andrade, Carmen; Alonso, Cruz

    2002-05-15

    Because the service lives of nuclear power plants are limited to a certain number of years, the need for the management of quite a large volume of radioactive contaminated concrete arises, which, in most cases, was not taken into account when the capacities of the low and medium activity repositories were designed. Therefore, the decontamination of these structures would be of great interest in order to declassify the wastes as radioactive and manage them as conventional ones. This research studies the reliability of the application of electrical fields to decontaminate radioactive contaminated concrete. Three series of decontamination experiments have been carried out, using Cs+, Sr2-, Co2+, and Fe3+ ions added during casting and that have penetrated from the outside, testing carbonated and uncarbonated matrixes, and using laboratory devices as well as the homemade device for in situ application named "honeycomb device". As a result, the application of electrical fields to concrete-contaminated structures has been developed as a new technique to extract radioactive ionic species from concrete. This method of decontamination has been patented by ENRESA (Spanish Company for the Management of Radioactive Wastes) in association with the IETcc. PMID:12038838

  17. Technology Review of Nondestructive Methods for Examination of Water Intrusion Areas on Hanford’s Double-Shell Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, Michael L.; Pardini, Allan F.

    2008-05-09

    Under a contract with CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc., PNNL has performed a review of the NDE technology and methods for examination of the concrete dome structure of Hanford’s double-shell tanks. The objective was to provide a matrix of methodologies that could be evaluated based on applicability, ease of deployment, and results that could provide information that could be used in the ongoing structural analysis of the tank dome. PNNL performed a technology evaluation with the objective of providing a critical literature review for all applicable technologies based on constraints provided by CH2M HILL. These constraints were not mandatory, but were desired. These constraints included performing the evaluation without removing any soil from the top of the tank, or if necessary, requesting that the hole diameter needed to gain access to evaluate the top of the tank structure to be no greater than approximately 12-in. in diameter. PNNL did not address the details of statistical sampling requirements as they depend on an unspecified risk tolerance. PNNL considered these during the technology evaluation and have reported the results in the remainder of this document. Many of the basic approaches to concrete inspection that were reviewed in previous efforts are still in use. These include electromagnetic, acoustic, radiographic, etc. The primary improvements in these tools have focused on providing quantitative image reconstruction, thus providing inspectors and analysts with three-dimensional data sets that allow for operator visualization of relevant abnormalities and analytical integration into structural performance models. Available instruments, such as radar used for bridge deck inspections, rely on post-processing algorithms and do not provide real-time visualization. Commercially available equipment only provides qualitative indications of relative concrete damage. It cannot be used as direct input for structural analysis to assess fitness for use and if

  18. Non-destructive thermal wave method applied to study thermal properties of fast setting time endodontic cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picolloto, A. M.; Mariucci, V. V. G.; Szpak, W.; Medina, A. N.; Baesso, M. L.; Astrath, N. G. C.; Astrath, F. B. G.; Santos, A. D.; Moraes, J. C. S.; Bento, A. C.

    2013-11-01

    The thermal wave method is applied for thermal properties measurement in fast endodontic cement (CER). This new formula is developed upon using Portland cement in gel and it was successfully tested in mice with good biocompatibility and stimulated mineralization. Recently, thermal expansion and setting time were measured, conferring to this material twice faster hardening than the well known Angelus Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) the feature of fast hardening (˜7 min) and with similar thermal expansion (˜12 μstrain/ °C). Therefore, it is important the knowledge of thermal properties like thermal diffusivity, conductivity, effusivity in order to match thermally the tissue environment upon its application in filling cavities of teeth. Photothermal radiometry technique based on Xe illumination was applied in CER disks 600 μm thick for heating, with prepared in four particle sizes (25, 38, 45, and 53) μm, which were added microemulsion gel with variation volumes (140, 150, 160, and 170) μl. The behavior of the thermal diffusivity CER disks shows linear decay for increase emulsion volume, and in contrast, thermal diffusivity increases with particles sizes. Aiming to compare to MTA, thermal properties of CER were averaged to get the figure of merit for thermal diffusivity as (44.2 ± 3.6) × 10-3 cm2/s, for thermal conductivity (228 ± 32) mW/cm K, the thermal effusivity (1.09 ± 0.06) W s0.5/cm2 K and volume heat capacity (5.2 ± 0.7) J/cm3 K, which are in excellent agreement with results of a disk prepared from commercial MTA-Angelus (grain size < 10 μm using 57 μl of distilled water).

  19. Non-destructive thermal wave method applied to study thermal properties of fast setting time endodontic cement

    SciTech Connect

    Picolloto, A. M.; Mariucci, V. V. G.; Szpak, W.; Medina, A. N.; Baesso, M. L.; Astrath, N. G. C.; Astrath, F. B. G.; Bento, A. C.; Santos, A. D.; Moraes, J. C. S.

    2013-11-21

    The thermal wave method is applied for thermal properties measurement in fast endodontic cement (CER). This new formula is developed upon using Portland cement in gel and it was successfully tested in mice with good biocompatibility and stimulated mineralization. Recently, thermal expansion and setting time were measured, conferring to this material twice faster hardening than the well known Angelus Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) the feature of fast hardening (∼7 min) and with similar thermal expansion (∼12 μstrain/ °C). Therefore, it is important the knowledge of thermal properties like thermal diffusivity, conductivity, effusivity in order to match thermally the tissue environment upon its application in filling cavities of teeth. Photothermal radiometry technique based on Xe illumination was applied in CER disks 600 μm thick for heating, with prepared in four particle sizes (25, 38, 45, and 53) μm, which were added microemulsion gel with variation volumes (140, 150, 160, and 170) μl. The behavior of the thermal diffusivity CER disks shows linear decay for increase emulsion volume, and in contrast, thermal diffusivity increases with particles sizes. Aiming to compare to MTA, thermal properties of CER were averaged to get the figure of merit for thermal diffusivity as (44.2 ± 3.6) × 10{sup −3} cm{sup 2}/s, for thermal conductivity (228 ± 32) mW/cm K, the thermal effusivity (1.09 ± 0.06) W s{sup 0.5}/cm{sup 2} K and volume heat capacity (5.2 ± 0.7) J/cm{sup 3} K, which are in excellent agreement with results of a disk prepared from commercial MTA-Angelus (grain size < 10 μm using 57 μl of distilled water)

  20. The Assess-and-Fix Approach: Using Non-Destructive Evaluations to Help Select Pipe Renewal Methods (WaterRF Report 4473)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nondestructive examinations (NDE) can be easily performed as part of a typical water main rehabilitation project. Once a bypass water system has been installed and the water main has been cleaned, pulling a scanning tool through the main is very straightforward. An engineer can t...

  1. Nondestructive Material Testing Using OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stifter, D.

    The fact that optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides information on internal structures of scattering tissue in a noninvasive way has led to a broad acceptance of OCT for dedicated biomedical imaging and diagnostics applications. Outside the biomedical field, an irreversible alteration of an object under investigation by the characterization method itself is likewise undesirable, especially in the case that such an object has to be further used with its original state maintained. For this purpose, a variety of so-called nondestructive testing (NDT) methods is nowadays at hand,with OCT as novel technique exhibiting a huge potential to add valuable contributions to nondestructive testing and evaluation of semitransparent, scattering materials with structural features on the micron scale. Therefore, within this chapter, a broad range of applications for OCT in NDT is presented, ranging from examples of industrial quality control over classification and authentication tasks to the evaluation of materials in research and development.The individual applications are listed according to the category of information obtained from the individual measurements, starting with the evaluation of the pure surface structure, proceeding to thickness measurements of layered systems, to imaging of internal 3D structures and finally leading to the determination of functional information.

  2. Nondestructive analysis and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moslehy, Faissal A.

    1993-01-01

    This final report summarizes the achievements of project #4 of the NASA/UCF Cooperative Agreement from January 1990 to December 1992. The objectives of this project are to review NASA's NDE program at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and recommend means for enhancing the present testing capabilities through the use of improved or new technologies. During the period of the project, extensive development of a reliable nondestructive, non-contact vibration technique to determine and quantify the bond condition of the thermal protection system (TPS) tiles of the Space Shuttle Orbiter was undertaken. Experimental modal analysis (EMA) is used as a non-destructive technique for the evaluation of Space Shuttle thermal protection system (TPS) tile bond integrity. Finite element (FE) models for tile systems were developed and were used to generate their vibration characteristics (i.e. natural frequencies and mode shapes). Various TPS tile assembly configurations as well as different bond conditions were analyzed. Results of finite element analyses demonstrated a drop in natural frequencies and a change in mode shapes which correlate with both size and location of disbond. Results of experimental testing of tile panels correlated with FE results and demonstrated the feasibility of EMA as a viable technique for tile bond verification. Finally, testing performed on the Space Shuttle Columbia using a laser doppler velocimeter demonstrated the application of EMA, when combined with FE modeling, as a non-contact, non-destructive bond evaluation technique.

  3. NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION (NDE) OF DAMAGED STRUCTURAL CERAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, R. E.; Green, W. H.; Sands, J. M.; Yu, J. H.

    2009-03-03

    A combination of destructive and nondestructive testing methods was utilized to evaluate the impact velocity and energy conditions that caused fracture in alumina structural ceramics. Drop tower testing was used for low velocity impact with a high mass indenter and fragment simulating projectile testing was used for high velocity impact with a low mass projectile. The damaged samples were nondestructively evaluated using digital radiography and ultrasound C-scan imaging. The bulk damage detected by these techniques was compared to surface damage observed by visual inspection.

  4. Nondestructive examination development and demonstration plan

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, J.R.

    1991-08-21

    Nondestructive examination (NDE) of waste matrices using penetrating radiation is by nature very subjective. Two candidate systems of examination have been identified for use in WRAP 1. This test plan describes a method for a comparative evaluation of different x-ray examination systems and techniques.

  5. Nondestructive Evaluation Quality Procedure: Personnel Qualification and Certification Radiographic Testing-Levels I& II

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, K; Rikard, R D; Rodriquez, J

    2003-07-01

    This Operational Procedure establishes the minimum requirements for the qualification and certification/recertification of Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) personnel in the nondestructive testing (NDT) radiographic testing (RT) method. This document is in accordance with the American Society for Nondestructive Testing Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A, 1996, except as amended herein.

  6. Nondestructive testing with thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; Tarpani, José Ricardo; Maldague, Xavier P. V.

    2013-11-01

    Thermography is a nondestructive testing (NDT) technique based on the principle that two dissimilar materials, i.e., possessing different thermo-physical properties, would produce two distinctive thermal signatures that can be revealed by an infrared sensor, such as a thermal camera. The fields of NDT applications are expanding from classical building or electronic components monitoring to more recent ones such as inspection of artworks or composite materials. Furthermore, thermography can be conveniently used as a didactic tool for physics education in universities given that it provides the possibility of visualizing fundamental principles, such as thermal physics and mechanics among others.

  7. Nondestructive DNA extraction from museum specimens.

    PubMed

    Hofreiter, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Natural history museums around the world hold millions of animal and plant specimens that are potentially amenable to genetic analyses. With more and more populations and species becoming extinct, the importance of these specimens for phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses is rapidly increasing. However, as most DNA extraction methods damage the specimens, nondestructive extraction methods are useful to balance the demands of molecular biologists, morphologists, and museum curators. Here, I describe a method for nondestructive DNA extraction from bony specimens (i.e., bones and teeth). In this method, the specimens are soaked in extraction buffer, and DNA is then purified from the soaking solution using adsorption to silica. The method reliably yields mitochondrial and often also nuclear DNA. The method has been adapted to DNA extraction from other types of specimens such as arthropods.

  8. A simple, nondestructive assay for bound hyaluronan.

    PubMed

    Johnston, J B

    2000-01-01

    A simple, convenient, nondestructive method is described for the quantitative determination of bound hyaluronan. The method is based on the binding of the cationic dye Toluidine Blue O to the D-glucuronate component of the hyaluronan repeat disaccharide. Quantification is accomplished without interference by the dye's metachromatic properties. The method is easily adapted to hyaluronan coated medical devices and should be useful to developers and manufacturers of such devices and coatings.

  9. Nondestructive evaluation technique guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1973-01-01

    A total of 70 individual nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are described. Information is presented that permits ease of comparison of the merits and limitations of each technique with respect to various NDE problems. An NDE technique classification system is presented. It is based on the system that was adopted by the National Materials Advisory Board (NMAB). The classification system presented follows the NMAB system closely with the exception of additional categories that have been added to cover more advanced techniques presently in use. The rationale of the technique is explained. The format provides for a concise description of each technique, the physical principles involved, objectives of interrogation, example applications, limitations of each technique, a schematic illustration, and key reference material. Cross-index tabulations are also provided so that particular NDE problems can be referred to appropriate techniques.

  10. Magnetic nondestructive testing of rotor blade tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardelli, E.; Faba, A.; Marsili, R.; Rossi, G.; Tomassini, R.

    2015-05-01

    This paper deals with a particular magnetic nondestructive technique applied to the control of the position of the steel blades in rotating parts of turbines and engines. The working principle is based on a bridge of four identical magneto-resistive sensors. One sensor is placed near the blades, and the change in magnetic field produced by a permanent magnet and deviated by the change in position of the blade is detected by the sensor bridge. The position of the sensor is indicated, via dedicated FEM simulations, in order to have high sensitivity to the position change and high output signal. The accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method are shown by experimental tests carried out in our laboratories. In particular, the tests indicate that the proposed magnetic nondestructive technique can be used in an almost large velocity range, and for quite different values of blade tip. The method seems also promising for the detection of blade vibrations.

  11. Development of a non-destructive micro-analytical method for stable carbon isotope analysis of transmission electron microscope (TEM) samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hode, Tomas; Kristiansson, Per; Elfman, Mikael; Hugo, Richard C.; Cady, Sherry L.

    2009-10-01

    The biogenicity of ancient morphological microfossil-like objects can be established by linking morphological (e.g. cell remnants and extracellular polymeric matrix) and chemical (e.g. isotopes, biomarkers and biominerals) evidence indicative of microorganisms or microbial activity. We have developed a non-destructive micro-analytical ion beam system capable of measuring with high spatial resolution the stable carbon isotope ratios of thin samples used for transmission electron microscopy. The technique is based on elastic scattering of alpha particles with an energy of 2.751 MeV. At this energy the 13C cross section is enhanced relative to the pure Rutherford cross section for 13C, whereas the 12C cross section is reduced relative to its pure Rutherford cross section. Here we report the initial results of this experimental approach used to characterize ultramicrotomed sections of sulfur-embedded graphite and microbial cells.

  12. Application of nondestructive assay techniques in Kazakstan

    SciTech Connect

    Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Butler, G.; Collins, M.

    1997-11-01

    As Kazakstan has transitioned from being part of the Soviet Union to a nonweapons state (Treaty of Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons [NPT] signatory) under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections, significant changes have been required. Some of these changes have occurred in nuclear material protection, control, and accounting at the four nuclear facility sites in the Republic of Kazakstan. Specifically, the Republic of Kazakstan has changed from relying primarily on a subset of physical protection methods to a graded safeguards approach using a balance of material control, material accounting, and physical protection. Once more intensive material control and accounting procedures and systems are in place, a necessary step is to supply the accounting systems with measured values of high quality. This need can be met with destructive and nondestructive methods. Material control systems can also use qualitative nondestructive assay information as input. This paper will discuss the nondestructive assay techniques and systems the US Department of Energy (DOE) is providing to Kazakstan under both DOE programs and the Cooperative Threat Reduction Act as part of the nuclear material control and accounting upgrades at four facilities in Kazakstan. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  13. SQUIDs: microscopes and nondestructive evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mück, Michael

    2005-03-01

    SQUIDs (Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices) are magnetic field sensores with unsurpassed sensitivity. They are amazingly versatile, being able to measure all physical quantities which can be converted to magnetic flux. They are routinely fabricated in thin film technology from two classes of superconducting materials: high-temperature superconductors (HTS) which are usually cooled to 77 K, and low-temperature superconductors (LTS), which have to be cooled to 4.2 K. SQUIDs have many applications, two of which shall be discussed in this paper. In SQUID microscopy, a SQUID scans a sample, which preferrably is at room temperature, and measures the two-dimensional magnetic field distribution at the surface of the sample. In order to achieve a relatively high spatial resolution, the stand-off distance between the sample and the SQUID is made as small as possible. SQUIDs show also promising results in the field of nondestructive testing of various materials. For example, ferromagnetic impurities in stainless steel formed by aging processes in the material can be detected with high probability, and cracks in conducting materials, for example aircraft parts, can be located using eddy current methods. Especially for the case of thick, highly conductive, or ferromagnetic materials, as well as sintered materials, it can be shown that a SQUID-based NDE system exhibits a much higher sensitivity compared to conventional eddy current NDE and ultrasonic testing.

  14. Nondestructive characterization of low-level transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Barna, B.A.; Reinhardt, W.W.

    1981-10-01

    The use of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods is proposed for characterization of transuranic (TRU) waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. These NDE methods include real-time x-ray radiography, real-time neutron radiography, x-ray and neutron computed tomography, thermal imaging, container weighing, visual examination, and acoustic measurements. An integrated NDE system is proposed for characterization and certification of TRU waste destined for eventual shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. Methods for automating both the classification waste and control of a complete nondestructive evaluation/nondestructive assay system are presented. Feasibility testing of the different NDE methods, including real-time x-ray radiography, and development of automated waste classification techniques are covered as part of a five year effort designed to yield a production waste characterization system.

  15. Nondestructive test of regenerative chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, G. A.; Stauffis, R.; Wood, R.

    1972-01-01

    Flat panels simulating internally cooled regenerative thrust chamber walls were fabricated by electroforming, brazing and diffusion bonding to evaluate the feasibility of nondestructive evaluation techniques to detect bonds of various strength integrities. Ultrasonics, holography, and acoustic emission were investigated and found to yield useful and informative data regarding the presence of bond defects in these structures.

  16. Quantitative nondestructive evaluation of materials and structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Barry T.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental investigation was undertaken to quantify damage tolerance and resistance in composite materials impacted using the drop-weight method. Tests were conducted on laminates of several different carbon-fiber composite systems, such as epoxies, modified epoxies, and amorphous and semicrystalline thermoplastics. Impacted composite specimens were examined using destructive and non-destructive techniques to establish the characteristic damage states. Specifically, optical microscopy, ultrasonic, and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to identify impact induced damage mechanisms. Damage propagation during post impact compression was also studied.

  17. Complementary Electromagnetic Non-Destructive Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Gui Yun; Wilson, John; Morozov, Maxim

    2011-06-01

    The use of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) for defect detection and failure prediction in structures and specimens is widespread in energy industries, aimed at ageing power plants and pipelines, material degradation, fatigue and radiation damage, etc. At present there are no suitable electromagnetic NDE methods for the measurement and characterization of material degradation, in irradiated samples in particular, which is very important and timely for the nuclear power industry in the UK. This paper reports recent developments in the field of electromagnetic (EM) NDE at Newcastle University, including pulsed eddy current (PEC), pulsed magnetic flux leakage (PMFL), magnetic Barkhausen emission (MBE) and magneto-acoustic emission (MAE). As different EM methods have different strengths, an integrative EM framework is introduced. Case studies through the second round robin tests organized by the Universal Network for Magnetic Non-Destructive Evaluation (UNMNDE), representing eighteen leading research groups worldwide in the area of electromagnetic NDE, are reported. Twelve samples with different ageing times and rolling reduction ratios were tested using different magnetic methods among the UNMNDE members. Based on the studies, the complementary characteristics of electromagnetic techniques for NDE are discussed.

  18. Nondestructive Evaluation of Nuclear-Grade Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis C. Kunerth; Timothy R. McJunkin

    2011-07-01

    Nondestructive Evaluation of Nuclear Grade Graphite Dennis C. Kunerth and Timothy R. McJunkin Idaho National Laboratory Idaho Falls, ID, 83415 This paper discusses the nondestructive evaluation of nuclear grade graphite performed at the Idaho National Laboratory. Graphite is a composite material highly dependent on the base material and manufacturing methods. As a result, material variations are expected within individual billets as well billet to billet and lot to lot. Several methods of evaluating the material have been explored. Particular technologies each provide a subset of information about the material. This paper focuses on techniques that are applicable to in-service inspection of nuclear energy plant components. Eddy current examination of the available surfaces provides information on potential near surface structural defects and although limited, ultrasonics can be utilized in conventional volumetric inspection. Material condition (e.g. micro-cracking and porosity induced by radiation and stress) can be derived from backscatter or acousto-ultrasound (AU) methods. Novel approaches utilizing phased array ultrasonics have been attempted to expand the abilities of AU techniques. By combining variable placement of apertures, angle and depth of focus, the techniques provide the potential to obtain parameters at various depths in the material. Initial results of the study and possible procedures for application of the techniques are discussed.

  19. Recent advances in the use of non-destructive near infrared spectroscopy on intact olive fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this review is to illustrate the state of the art in the use of non-destructive near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for quality evaluation of intact fruit in the olive industry. First, the most recent studies regarding the application of non-destructive NIR spectroscopy methods to asse...

  20. Nondestructive Evaluation for Aerospace Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, Cara; Cramer, Elliott; Perey, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are important for enabling NASA's missions in space exploration and aeronautics. The expanded and continued use of composite materials for aerospace components and vehicles leads to a need for advanced NDE techniques capable of quantitatively characterizing damage in composites. Quantitative damage detection techniques help to ensure safety, reliability and durability of space and aeronautic vehicles. This presentation will give a broad outline of NASA's range of technical work and an overview of the NDE research performed in the Nondestructive Evaluation Sciences Branch at NASA Langley Research Center. The presentation will focus on ongoing research in the development of NDE techniques for composite materials and structures, including development of automated data processing tools to turn NDE data into quantitative location and sizing results. Composites focused NDE research in the areas of ultrasonics, thermography, X-ray computed tomography, and NDE modeling will be discussed.

  1. Nondestructive ultrasonic characterization of engineering materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, K.

    1985-01-01

    The development of an ultrasonic method for the nondestructive characterization of mechanical properties of engineering material is described. The method utilizes the nonlinearity parameter measurement which describes the anharmonic behavior of the solid through measurements of amplitudes of the fundamental and of the generated second harmonic ultrasonic waves. The nonlinearity parameter is also directly related to the acoustoelastic constant of the solid which can be determined by measuring the linear dependence of ultrasonic velocity on stress. A major advantage of measurements of the nonlinearity parameter over that of the acoustoelastic constant is that it may be determined without the application of stress on the material, which makes it more applicable for in-service nondestructive characterization. The relationships between the nonlinearity parameter of second-harmonic generation and the percentage of solid solution phase in engineering materials such as heat treatable aluminum alloys was established. The acoustoelastic constants are measured on these alloys for comparison and confirmation. A linear relationship between the nonlinearity parameter and the volume fraction of second phase precipitates in the alloys is indicated.

  2. Nondestructive evaluation of advanced ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klima, Stanley J.; Kautz, Harold E.

    1988-01-01

    A review is presented of Lewis Research Center efforts to develop nondestructive evaluation techniques for characterizing advanced ceramic materials. Various approaches involved the use of analytical ultrasonics to characterize monolythic ceramic microstructures, acousto-ultrasonics for characterizing ceramic matrix composites, damage monitoring in impact specimens by microfocus X-ray radiography and scanning ultrasonics, and high resolution computed X-ray tomography to identify structural features in fiber reinforced ceramics.

  3. An economical non-destructive method for estimating eelgrass, Zostera marina (Potamogetonaceae) leaf growth rates: formal development and use in northwestern Baja California.

    PubMed

    Solana-Arellano, Elena; Echavarria-Heras, Héctor; Franco-Vizcaíno, Ernesto

    2008-09-01

    Seagrass beds provide much of the primary production in estuaries; host many fishes and fish larvae, and abate erosion. The present study presents original analytical methods for estimating mean leaf-growth rates of eelgrass (Zostera marina). The method was calibrated by using data collected in a Z. marina meadow at Punta Banda estuary in Baja California, Mexico. The analytical assessments were based on measurements of leaf length and standard regression procedures. We present a detailed explanation of the formal procedures involved in the derivation of these analytical methods. The measured daily leaf-growth rate was 10.9 mm d(-1) leaf(-1). The corresponding value projected by our method was 10.2 mm d(-1) leaf(-). The associated standard errors were of 0.53 and 0.56 mm d(-1) leaf(-1) respectively. The method was validated by projecting leaf-growth rates from an independent data set, which gave consistent results. The use of the method to obtain the mean leaf growth rate of a transplanted plot is also illustrated. Comparison of our leaf-growth data with previously reported assessments show the significant forcing of sea-surface temperature on eelgrass leaf dynamics. The formal constructs provided here are of general scope and can be applied to equivalent eelgrass data sets in a straightforward manner. PMID:19419023

  4. An economical non-destructive method for estimating eelgrass, Zostera marina (Potamogetonaceae) leaf growth rates: formal development and use in northwestern Baja California.

    PubMed

    Solana-Arellano, Elena; Echavarria-Heras, Héctor; Franco-Vizcaíno, Ernesto

    2008-09-01

    Seagrass beds provide much of the primary production in estuaries; host many fishes and fish larvae, and abate erosion. The present study presents original analytical methods for estimating mean leaf-growth rates of eelgrass (Zostera marina). The method was calibrated by using data collected in a Z. marina meadow at Punta Banda estuary in Baja California, Mexico. The analytical assessments were based on measurements of leaf length and standard regression procedures. We present a detailed explanation of the formal procedures involved in the derivation of these analytical methods. The measured daily leaf-growth rate was 10.9 mm d(-1) leaf(-1). The corresponding value projected by our method was 10.2 mm d(-1) leaf(-). The associated standard errors were of 0.53 and 0.56 mm d(-1) leaf(-1) respectively. The method was validated by projecting leaf-growth rates from an independent data set, which gave consistent results. The use of the method to obtain the mean leaf growth rate of a transplanted plot is also illustrated. Comparison of our leaf-growth data with previously reported assessments show the significant forcing of sea-surface temperature on eelgrass leaf dynamics. The formal constructs provided here are of general scope and can be applied to equivalent eelgrass data sets in a straightforward manner.

  5. An innovative method for the non-destructive identification of photodegradation products in solid state: 1H-14N NMR-NQR and DFT/QTAIM study of photodegradation of nifedipine (anti-hypertensive) to nitrosonifedipine (potential anti-oxidative).

    PubMed

    Latosińska, J N; Latosińska, M; Seliger, J; Zagar, V

    2012-08-30

    Stability of the antihypertensive drug nifedipine (NIF) has been studied experimentally in solid state by (1)H-(14)N NMR-NQR double resonance (NQDR) and theoretically by the Density Functional Theory (DFT). Photodegradation of NIF to its metabolite in vivo nitrosonifedipine, NO-NIF (antioxidative agent) upon long term daylight exposure was detected and the changes in the molecular structure of NIF were analysed. The photoconversion of NIF to NO-NIF in solid was found to be accompanied with the electron density redistribution at nitrogen sites (NH to N and NO(2) to NO) and proved to be successfully detected with identification of photoproducts by (1)H-(14)N NQDR and DFT methods. The increase in the e(2)qQ/h and η describing EFG tendency towards non-spherical symmetry was significantly greater upon the reduction of NO(2) site than upon hydrogen abstraction from NH site. The level of sensitivity of detection of the photodegradation product was about 1% of the original sample. The Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) analysis has been found useful in predicting photoreactive sites in the molecules and finding the explanation of differences in reactivity between parent NIF and its photoproduct NO-NIF. Using NIF as a model, this study demonstrates the suitability of NQDR supported by DFT for non-destructive determination of the photodegradation products in solid state.

  6. Nondestructive test determines overload destruction characteristics of current limiter fuses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, G. A.

    1968-01-01

    Nondestructive test predicts the time required for current limiters to blow /open the circuit/ when subjected to a given overload. The test method is based on an empirical relationship between the voltage rise across a current limiter for a fixed time interval and the time to blow.

  7. Airborne Ultrasonics for Nondestructive Evaluation of Leather Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our recent research has shown that besides Acoustic Emission (AE), Airborne Ultrasonics (AU) can also be applied for the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of leather quality. Implementation of these methods in the manufacturing process could save a considerable amount of money, decrease the use of ch...

  8. Nondestructive Characterization of Adhesive Bonds from Guided Wave Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mal, A.; Lih, S-S.; Bar-Cohen, Y.

    1994-01-01

    The critical role played by interface zones in the fracture and failure of composites and other bonded materials is well known. The existing nondestructive evaluation methods are generally not capable of yielding useful quantitative information of the strength of an interface.

  9. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Slot-Die-Coated Lithium Secondary Battery Electrodes by In-Line Laser Caliper and IR Thermography Methods-Journal Cover Page

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanty, Debasish; Li, Jianlin; Born, Rachael; Maxey, L Curt; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton; Daniel, Claus; Wood III, David L

    2014-01-01

    Note: This is a cover page for the 'Analytical Methods' journal, which was requested by the journal editor for consideration. The article has already been published and the PTS publication ID is 44000. The acknowledgements are same as mentioned in the PTS publication ID 44000.

  10. Nondestructive verification of continuous-variable entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Faria, Alencar J.

    2016-07-01

    An optical procedure in the context of continuous variables to verify bipartite entanglement without destroying both systems and their entanglement is proposed. To perform the nondestructive verification of entanglement, the method relies on beam-splitter and quantum nondemolition (QND) interactions of the signal modes with two ancillary probe modes. The probe modes are measured by homodyne detections, and the obtained information is used to feed forward modulation of signal modes, concluding the procedure. Characterizing the method by figures of merit used in QND processes, we can establish the conditions for an effectively quantum scheme. Based on such conditions, it is shown that the classical information acquired from the homodyne detections of probe modes is sufficient to verify the entanglement of the output signal modes. The processing impact due to added noise on the output entanglement is assessed in the case of Gaussian modes.

  11. Nondestructive characterization of woven fabric ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, D.K.; Saini, V.; Liaw, P.K.; Yu, N.; Miriyala, N.; McHargue, C.J.; Snead, L.L.; Lowden, R.A.

    1995-10-01

    Woven fabric ceramic composites fabricated by the chemical vapor infiltration method are susceptible to high void content and inhomogeneity. The condition of such materials may be characterized nondestructively with ultrasonic methods. In this work, longitudinal and shear waves were used in the quantitative determination of elastic constants of Nicalon{trademark}/SiC composites as a function of volume percent of porosity. Elastic stiffness constants were obtained for both the in-plane and out-of-plane directions with respect to fiber fabric. The effect of porosity on the modulus of woven fabric composites was also modeled and compared to the measured results. Scan images based on the amplitude and time-of-flight of radio frequency (RF) ultrasonic pulses were used for evaluating the material homogeneity for the purpose of optimizing the manufacturing process and for correlation with the mechanical testing results.

  12. Non-destructive elemental analysis of large meteorite samples by prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis with the internal mono-standard method.

    PubMed

    Latif, Sk A; Oura, Y; Ebihara, M; Nakahara, H

    2013-11-01

    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) using the internal mono-standard method was tested for its applicability to analyzing large solid samples including irregularly shaped meteorite samples. For evaluating the accuracy and precision of the method, large quantities of the Geological Survey of Japan standardized rock powders (JB-1a, JG-1a, and JP-1) were analyzed and 12 elements (B, Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Sm, and Gd) were determined by using Si as an internal standard element. Analytical results were mostly in agreement with literature values within 10 %. The precision of the method was also shown to be within 10 % (1σ) for most of these elements. The analytical procedure was then applied to four stony meteorites (Allende, Kimble County, Leedey, Lake Labyrinth) and four iron meteorites (Canyon Diablo, Toluca (Mexico), Toluca (Xiquipilco), Squaw Creek) consisting of large chunks or single slabs. For stony meteorites, major elements (Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, and Ni), minor elements (Na and Mn) and trace element (B, Cl, K, Ti, Co, and Sm) were determined with adequate accuracy. For iron meteorites, results for the Co and Ni mass fractions determined are all consistent with corresponding literature values. After the analysis, it was confirmed that the residual radioactivity remaining in the sample after PGNAA was very low and decreased down to the background level. This study shows that PGNAA with the internal mono-standard method is highly practical for determining the elemental composition of large, irregularly shaped solid samples including meteorites.

  13. Non-destructive elemental analysis of large meteorite samples by prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis with the internal mono-standard method.

    PubMed

    Latif, Sk A; Oura, Y; Ebihara, M; Nakahara, H

    2013-11-01

    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) using the internal mono-standard method was tested for its applicability to analyzing large solid samples including irregularly shaped meteorite samples. For evaluating the accuracy and precision of the method, large quantities of the Geological Survey of Japan standardized rock powders (JB-1a, JG-1a, and JP-1) were analyzed and 12 elements (B, Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Sm, and Gd) were determined by using Si as an internal standard element. Analytical results were mostly in agreement with literature values within 10 %. The precision of the method was also shown to be within 10 % (1σ) for most of these elements. The analytical procedure was then applied to four stony meteorites (Allende, Kimble County, Leedey, Lake Labyrinth) and four iron meteorites (Canyon Diablo, Toluca (Mexico), Toluca (Xiquipilco), Squaw Creek) consisting of large chunks or single slabs. For stony meteorites, major elements (Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, and Ni), minor elements (Na and Mn) and trace element (B, Cl, K, Ti, Co, and Sm) were determined with adequate accuracy. For iron meteorites, results for the Co and Ni mass fractions determined are all consistent with corresponding literature values. After the analysis, it was confirmed that the residual radioactivity remaining in the sample after PGNAA was very low and decreased down to the background level. This study shows that PGNAA with the internal mono-standard method is highly practical for determining the elemental composition of large, irregularly shaped solid samples including meteorites. PMID:24037616

  14. An improved sample preparation method for non-destructive analyses of fine-grained subseafloor sediments using micro-focus X-ray CT and SEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uramoto, G.; Morono, Y.; Uematsu, K.; Inagaki, F.

    2012-12-01

    Spatial arrangement of particles in fine-grained marine subsurface sediments is a key factor for the physical property of sediments. The pore space provides micro-niches for chemical, physical, and microbiological components in the subsurface geosphere and biosphere. However, the standard techniques conventionally used for the sample preparation have some critical issues to understand accurate nature of fine-scale particle arrangement because of the possible deformation of micro-structures during the sample fixation. Here we tested the resin-embedding method for ocean drilling core samples, which technique has been applied mainly for biological samples. Using micro-focus X-ray CT-computed tomography and SEM we compared the images with the conventional t-butyl alcohol freeze-drying methods. Using the t-butyl alcohol freeze-dried sediment samples, we observed large number of micrometer-scale cracks in both SEM and X-CT image analyses, indicating the significant disturbance of sediment microstructure during sample processing. On the other hand, when we employed mini-coring, agar infiltration, and related biological sample-processing techniques for the resin-embedding method, no observable cracks were evident, most likely due to the rapid resin impregnation into sediments without sample drying. On SEM images of the flattened sample surface, we compared the porosity assessed with the resin-embedded samples to those measured onboard by the moisture and density method, showing a good agreement of the porosity values. In high-porosity surficial sediments embedded with resin, we observed structures that sediment particles are floating in the space, which may represent the results of physico-chemical interaction among sediment particles. However, almost no such particle arrangements were observed in t-butyl alcohol freeze-dried samples, indicating that drying of interstitial fluids may impact on the physico-chemical forces within particulate compounds. Conclusively, our

  15. Two new species of erect Bryozoa (Gymnolaemata: Cheilostomata) and the application of non-destructive imaging methods for quantitative taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Kei; Titschack, Jürgen; Baum, Daniel; Freiwald, André

    2015-09-21

    Two new species of cheilostome Bryozoa are described from continental-slope habitats off Mauritania, including canyon and cold-water coral (mound) habitats. Internal structures of both species were visualised and quantified using microcomputed tomographic (micro-CT) methods. Cellaria bafouri n. sp. is characterised by the arrangement of zooids in alternating longitudinal rows, a smooth cryptocyst, and the presence of an ooecial plate with denticles. Smittina imragueni n. sp. exhibits many similarities with Smittina cervicornis (Pallas, 1766), but differs especially in the shape and orientation of the suboral avicularium. Observations on Smittina imragueni and material labelled as Smittina cervicornis suggest that the latter represents a species group, members of which have not yet been discriminated, possibly because of high intracolony variation and marked astogenetic changes in surface morphology. Both new species are known only from the habitats where they were collected, probably reflecting the paucity of bryozoan sampling from this geographic area and depth range. Both species are able to tolerate low oxygen concentration, which is assumed to be compensated by the high nutrient supply off Mauritania. The application of micro-CT for the semiautomatic quantification of zooidal skeletal characters was successfully tested. We were able to automatically distinguish individual zooidal cavities and acquire corresponding morphological datasets. Comparing the obtained results with conventional SEM measurements allowed ascertaining the reliability of this new method. The employment of micro-CT allows the observation and quantification of previously unseen characters that can be used in describing and differentiating species that were previously indistinguishable. Furthermore, this method might help elucidate processes of colony growth and the function of individual zooids during this process.

  16. Non-destructive observation of intact bacteria and viruses in water by the highly sensitive frequency transmission electric-field method based on SEM

    SciTech Connect

    Ogura, Toshihiko

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • We developed a high-sensitive frequency transmission electric-field (FTE) system. • The output signal was highly enhanced by applying voltage to a metal layer on SiN. • The spatial resolution of new FTE method is 41 nm. • New FTE system enables observation of the intact bacteria and virus in water. - Abstract: The high-resolution structural analysis of biological specimens by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) presents several advantages. Until now, wet bacterial specimens have been examined using atmospheric sample holders. However, images of unstained specimens in water using these holders exhibit very poor contrast and heavy radiation damage. Recently, we developed the frequency transmission electric-field (FTE) method, which facilitates the SEM observation of biological specimens in water without radiation damage. However, the signal detection system presents low sensitivity. Therefore, a high EB current is required to generate clear images, and thus reducing spatial resolution and inducing thermal damage to the samples. Here a high-sensitivity detection system is developed for the FTE method, which enhances the output signal amplitude by hundredfold. The detection signal was highly enhanced when voltage was applied to the metal layer on silicon nitride thin film. This enhancement reduced the EB current and improved the spatial resolution as well as the signal-to-noise ratio. The spatial resolution of a high-sensitive FTE system is 41 nm, which is considerably higher than previous FTE system. New FTE system can easily be utilised to examine various unstained biological specimens in water, such as living bacteria and viruses.

  17. Two new species of erect Bryozoa (Gymnolaemata: Cheilostomata) and the application of non-destructive imaging methods for quantitative taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Kei; Titschack, Jürgen; Baum, Daniel; Freiwald, André

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of cheilostome Bryozoa are described from continental-slope habitats off Mauritania, including canyon and cold-water coral (mound) habitats. Internal structures of both species were visualised and quantified using microcomputed tomographic (micro-CT) methods. Cellaria bafouri n. sp. is characterised by the arrangement of zooids in alternating longitudinal rows, a smooth cryptocyst, and the presence of an ooecial plate with denticles. Smittina imragueni n. sp. exhibits many similarities with Smittina cervicornis (Pallas, 1766), but differs especially in the shape and orientation of the suboral avicularium. Observations on Smittina imragueni and material labelled as Smittina cervicornis suggest that the latter represents a species group, members of which have not yet been discriminated, possibly because of high intracolony variation and marked astogenetic changes in surface morphology. Both new species are known only from the habitats where they were collected, probably reflecting the paucity of bryozoan sampling from this geographic area and depth range. Both species are able to tolerate low oxygen concentration, which is assumed to be compensated by the high nutrient supply off Mauritania. The application of micro-CT for the semiautomatic quantification of zooidal skeletal characters was successfully tested. We were able to automatically distinguish individual zooidal cavities and acquire corresponding morphological datasets. Comparing the obtained results with conventional SEM measurements allowed ascertaining the reliability of this new method. The employment of micro-CT allows the observation and quantification of previously unseen characters that can be used in describing and differentiating species that were previously indistinguishable. Furthermore, this method might help elucidate processes of colony growth and the function of individual zooids during this process. PMID:26624090

  18. Non-destructive observation of intact bacteria and viruses in water by the highly sensitive frequency transmission electric-field method based on SEM.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Toshihiko

    2014-08-01

    The high-resolution structural analysis of biological specimens by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) presents several advantages. Until now, wet bacterial specimens have been examined using atmospheric sample holders. However, images of unstained specimens in water using these holders exhibit very poor contrast and heavy radiation damage. Recently, we developed the frequency transmission electric-field (FTE) method, which facilitates the SEM observation of biological specimens in water without radiation damage. However, the signal detection system presents low sensitivity. Therefore, a high EB current is required to generate clear images, and thus reducing spatial resolution and inducing thermal damage to the samples. Here a high-sensitivity detection system is developed for the FTE method, which enhances the output signal amplitude by hundredfold. The detection signal was highly enhanced when voltage was applied to the metal layer on silicon nitride thin film. This enhancement reduced the EB current and improved the spatial resolution as well as the signal-to-noise ratio. The spatial resolution of a high-sensitive FTE system is 41nm, which is considerably higher than previous FTE system. New FTE system can easily be utilised to examine various unstained biological specimens in water, such as living bacteria and viruses. PMID:25058457

  19. Educational ultrasound nondestructive testing laboratory.

    PubMed

    Genis, Vladimir; Zagorski, Michael

    2008-09-01

    The ultrasound nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of materials course was developed for applied engineering technology students at Drexel University's Goodwin College of Professional Studies. This three-credit, hands-on laboratory course consists of two parts: the first part with an emphasis on the foundations of NDE, and the second part during which ultrasound NDE techniques are utilized in the evaluation of parts and materials. NDE applications are presented and applied through real-life problems, including calibration and use of the latest ultrasonic testing instrumentation. The students learn engineering and physical principles of measurements of sound velocity in different materials, attenuation coefficients, material thickness, and location and dimensions of discontinuities in various materials, such as holes, cracks, and flaws. The work in the laboratory enhances the fundamentals taught during classroom sessions. This course will ultimately result in improvements in the educational process ["The greater expectations," national panel report, http://www.greaterexpectations.org (last viewed February, 2008); R. M. Felder and R. Brent "The intellectual development of Science and Engineering Students. Part 2: Teaching to promote growth," J. Eng. Educ. 93, 279-291 (2004)] since industry is becoming increasingly reliant on the effective application of NDE technology and the demand on NDE specialists is increasing. NDE curriculum was designed to fulfill levels I and II NDE in theory and training requirements, according to American Society for Nondestructive Testing, OH, Recommended Practice No. SNT-TC-1A (2006).

  20. Nondestructive detection and measurement of hydrogen embrittlement

    DOEpatents

    Alex, Franklin; Byrne, Joseph Gerald

    1977-01-01

    A nondestructive system and method for the determination of the presence and extent of hydrogen embrittlement in metals, alloys, and other crystalline structures subject thereto. Positron annihilation characteristics of the positron-electron annihilation within the tested material provide unique energy distribution curves for each type of material tested at each respective stage of hydrogen embrittlement. Gamma radiation resulting from such annihilation events is detected and statistically summarized by appropriate instrumentation to reveal the variations of electron activity within the tested material caused by hydrogen embrittlement therein. Such data from controlled tests provides a direct indication of the relative stages of hydrogen embrittlement in the form of unique energy distribution curves which may be utilized as calibration curves for future comparison with field tests to give on-site indication of progressive stages of hydrogen embrittlement.

  1. Nondestructive evaluation of nuclear-grade graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Kunerth, D. C.; McJunkin, T. R.

    2012-05-17

    The material of choice for the core of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactors being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's Next Generation Nuclear Plant Program is graphite. Graphite is a composite material whose properties are highly dependent on the base material and manufacturing methods. In addition to the material variations intrinsic to the manufacturing process, graphite will also undergo changes in material properties resulting from radiation damage and possible oxidation within the reactor. Idaho National Laboratory is presently evaluating the viability of conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques to characterize the material variations inherent to manufacturing and in-service degradation. Approaches of interest include x-ray radiography, eddy currents, and ultrasonics.

  2. Reconstruction of lake history using nondestructive methods. A first record of organic endmember in sediments using solid phase fluorescence (Lake Noir Inférieur, Aiguilles Rouges Massif, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiers, Marine; Develle, Anne-Lise; Perette, Yves; Sabatier, Pierre; Belle, Simon; Pignol, Cécile; Millet, Laurent; Arnaud, Fabien

    2015-04-01

    Mountain areas are known to be highly sensitive to environmental perturbations driven by climate changes and human activities. Thus, high altitude lake sediments represent interesting archives to reconstruct past environmental variations. Because of their difficult access and their low sedimentation rate, high resolution nondestructive methods are required to limit the loss of information induced by the use of destructive analyses. Moreover, when they are located at the top of drainage basins, their reduced catchment area leads to the dominance of organic matter in the sediment which would make interesting to complete the use of traditional high resolution sedimentary geochemistry tools, such as X-ray fluorescence (XRF) logging, by organic matter-borne high resolution signals. Here we attempt to use UV-induced solid phase fluorescence (SPF) as a promising way to analyze the organic component of environmental archives as we already showed on speleothem records. A 70cm-long core was retrieved in 2012 from the high altitude Lake Noir Inférieur (2495 a.s.l.), located in the Aiguilles Rouges Massif (Northern French Alps). The catchment area, made by gneiss and amphibolites, is almost devoid of vegetation. Thus, the high OM content (up to 23.6%) of the homogenous dark brown sediments is assumed to be essentially related to autochtonous production. The preliminary age model suggests that the core spans the last 8000 yrs. In this work, we investigated the upper 15 cm of the core which represents the last 1300 yrs. We combined the two spectroscopic methods (XRF and SPF) at a 100µm step, in order to provide a high resolution overview of both mineral and organic endmembers. The XRF core scanner analytical settings were adjusted at 10 kV and 30kV in order to detect elements from Al to Pb. SPF measurements were performed with a spectrofluorimeter and emission spectra were recorded at 256 nm and 325 nm excitation wavelengths. Different organic matter types (chlorophyll

  3. 49 CFR 193.2321 - Nondestructive tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nondestructive tests. 193.2321 Section 193.2321 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction § 193.2321 Nondestructive tests. (a) The butt welds in metal...

  4. NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF CERAMIC CANDLE FILTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Roger H.L. Chen, Ph.D.; Alejandro Kiriakidis

    1999-09-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques have been used to reduce the potential mechanical failures and to improve the reliability of a structure. Failure of a structure is usually initiated at some type of flaw in the material. NDE techniques have been developed to determine the presence of flaws larger than an acceptable size and to estimate the remaining stiffness of a damaged structure (Chen, et. al, 1995). Ceramic candle filters have been tested for use in coal-fueled gas turbine systems. They protect gas turbine components from damage due to erosion. A total of one hundred and one candle filters were nondestructively evaluated in this study. Ninety-eight ceramic candle filters and three ceramic composite filters have been nondestructively inspected using dynamic characterization technique. These ceramic filters include twelve unused Coors alumina/mullite, twenty-four unused and fifteen used Schumacher-Dia-Schumalith TF-20, twenty-five unused and nine used Refractron 326, eight unused and three used Refractron 442T, one new Schumacher-T 10-20, and one used Schumacher-Dia-Schumalith F-40. All filters were subjected to a small excitation and the dynamic response was picked up by a piezoelectric accelerometer. The evaluation of experimental results was processed using digital signal analysis technique including various forms of data transformation. The modal parameters for damage assessment for the unexposed (unused) vs. exposed (used) specimen were based on two vibration parameters: natural frequencies and mode shapes. Finite Element models were built for each specimen type to understand its dynamic response. Linear elastic modal analysis was performed using eight nodes, three-dimensional isotropic solid elements. Conclusions based on our study indicate that dynamic characterization is a feasible NDE technique in studying structural properties of ceramic candle filters. It has been shown that the degradation of the filters due to long working hours (or

  5. Improvement of non-destructive fissile mass assays in α low-level waste drums: A matrix correction method based on neutron capture gamma-rays and a neutron generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jallu, F.; Loche, F.

    2008-08-01

    Within the framework of radioactive waste control, non-destructive assay (NDA) methods may be employed. The active neutron interrogation (ANI) method is now well-known and effective in quantifying low α-activity fissile masses (mainly 235U, 239Pu, 241Pu) with low densities, i.e. less than about 0.4, in radioactive waste drums of volumes up to 200 l. The PROMpt Epithermal and THErmal interrogation Experiment (PROMETHEE [F. Jallu, A. Mariani, C. Passard, A.-C. Raoux, H. Toubon, Alpha low level waste control: improvement of the PROMETHEE 6 assay system performances. Nucl. Technol. 153 (January) (2006); C. Passard, A. Mariani, F. Jallu, J. Romeyer-Dherber, H. Recroix, M. Rodriguez, J. Loridon, C. Denis, PROMETHEE: an alpha low level waste assay system using passive and active neutron measurement methods. Nucl. Technol. 140 (December) (2002) 303-314]) based on ANI has been under development since 1996 to reach the incinerating α low level waste (LLW) criterion of about 50 Bq[α] per gram of crude waste (≈50 μg Pu) in 118 l drums on the date the drums are conditioned. Difficulties arise when dealing with matrices containing neutron energy moderators such as H and neutron absorbents such as Cl. These components may have a great influence on the fissile mass deduced from the neutron signal measured by ANI. For example, the calibration coefficient measured in a 118 l drum containing a cellulose matrix (density d = 0.144 g cm -3) may be 50 times higher than that obtained in a poly-vinyl-chloride matrix ( d = 0.253 g cm -3). Without any information on the matrix, the fissile mass is often overestimated due to safety procedures and by considering the most disadvantageous calibration coefficient corresponding to the most absorbing and moderating calibration matrix. The work discussed in this paper was performed at the CEA Nuclear Measurement Laboratory in France. It concerns the development of a matrix effect correction method, which consists in identifying and quantifying

  6. Advances in nondestructive evaluation technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    Research at NASA Langley's Materials Characterization Instrumentation Section has followed the philosophy of improving the science base of nondestructive evaluation and advancing the state of the art of quantitative interpretability of physical measurements of materials. Details of several R&D programs choosen to highlight the last several years are given. Applications of these technologies are presented in the area of stress measurement, characterization of metal heat treatment, and evaluation of material internal structure. A second focus of the program is on quantitative transducers/measurements that have resulted in better data in irregular inhomogeneous materials such as composites. Examples are presented of new capabilities resulting from these advances that include fatigue and impact damage evaluation.

  7. Nondestructive evaluation of structural ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klima, Stanley J.; Baaklini, George Y.; Abel, Phillip B.

    1987-01-01

    A review is presented on research and development of techniques for nondestructive evaluation and characterization of advanced ceramics for heat engine applications. Highlighted in this review are Lewis Research Center efforts in microfocus radiography, scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM), scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM), scanning electron acoustic microscopy (SEAM), and photoacoustic microscopy (PAM). The techniques were evaluated by applying them to research samples of green and sintered silicon nitride and silicon carbide in the form of modulus-of-rupture bars containing seeded voids. Probabilities of detection of voids were determined for diameters as small as 20 microns for microfucus radiography, SLAM, and SAM. Strengths and limitations of the techniques for ceramic applications are identified. Application of ultrasonics for characterizing ceramic microstructures is also discussed.

  8. Non-Destructive Testing for Control of Radioactive Waste Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumeri, S.; Carrel, F.

    2015-10-01

    Characterization and control of radioactive waste packages are important issues in the management of a radioactive waste repository. Therefore, Andra performs quality control inspection on radwaste package before disposal to ensure the compliance of the radwast characteristics with Andra waste disposal specifications and to check the consistency between Andra measurements results and producer declared properties. Objectives of this quality control are: assessment and improvement of producer radwaste packages quality mastery, guarantee of the radwaste disposal safety, maintain of the public confidence. To control radiological characteristics of radwaste package, non-destructive passive methods (gamma spectrometry and neutrons counting) are commonly used. These passive methods may not be sufficient, for instance to control the mass of fissile material contained inside radwaste package. This is particularly true for large concrete hull of heterogeneous radwaste containing several actinides mixed with fission products like 137Cs. Non-destructive active methods, like measurement of photofission delayed neutrons, allow to quantify the global mass of actinides and is a promising method to quantify mass of fissile material. Andra has performed different non-destructive measurements on concrete intermediate-level short lived nuclear waste (ILW-SL) package to control its nuclear material content. These tests have allowed Andra to have a first evaluation of the performance of photofission delayed neutron measurement and to identify development needed to have a reliable method, especially for fissile material mass control in intermediate-level long lived waste package.

  9. Speech timing and linguistic rhythm: on the acoustic bases of rhythm typologies.

    PubMed

    Rathcke, Tamara V; Smith, Rachel H

    2015-05-01

    Research into linguistic rhythm has been dominated by the idea that languages can be classified according to rhythmic templates, amenable to assessment by acoustic measures of vowel and consonant durations. This study tested predictions of two proposals explaining the bases of rhythmic typologies: the Rhythm Class Hypothesis which assumes that the templates arise from an extensive vs a limited use of durational contrasts, and the Control and Compensation Hypothesis which proposes that the templates are rooted in more vs less flexible speech production strategies. Temporal properties of segments, syllables and rhythmic feet were examined in two accents of British English, a "stress-timed" variety from Leeds, and a "syllable-timed" variety spoken by Panjabi-English bilinguals from Bradford. Rhythm metrics were calculated. A perception study confirmed that the speakers of the two varieties differed in their perceived rhythm. The results revealed that both typologies were informative in that to a certain degree, they predicted temporal patterns of the two varieties. None of the metrics tested was capable of adequately reflecting the temporal complexity found in the durational data. These findings contribute to the critical evaluation of the explanatory adequacy of rhythm metrics. Acoustic bases and limitations of the traditional rhythmic typologies are discussed.

  10. Non-destructive examination system of vitreous body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Takuma; Gong, Jin; Watanabe, Yosuke; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Masato, Makino; Furukawa, Hidemitsu; Nishitsuka, Koichi

    2014-04-01

    Eyeball plays a quite important role in acquiring the vision. Vitreous body occupies the largest part of the eyeball and consists of biological, elastic, transparent, gel materials. In the present medical examination, the non-destructive examination method of the vitreous body has not been well established. Here, we focus on an application of dynamic light scattering to this topic. We tried to apply our lab-made apparatus, scanning microscopic light scattering (SMILS), which was specially designed for observing the nanometer-scale network structure in gel materials. In order to examine the vitreous body using SMILS method, a commercial apparatus, nano Partica (Horiba Co. Ltd.) was also customized. We analyzed vitreous body using both the SMILS and the customized nano Partica. We successfully examined the vitreous bodies of healthy pigs in non-destructive way.

  11. Non-destructive metallurgical analysis of astrolabes utilizing synchrotron radiation.

    SciTech Connect

    Newbury, B.; Stephenson, B.; Almer, J. D.; Notis, M.; Haeffner, D. R.; Slade Cargill, G., III

    2002-05-22

    From the experiments performed it is possible to determine a wide range of information about the metallurgy of the astrolabes studied. It was found that different brass alloys were used for components that were cast and those that were mechanically deformed. Chemical composition, forming history, and thickness measurements are all determined non-destructively, illustrating that this technique could be useful for many applications with metal artifact analysis where non-intrusive methods are required.

  12. Nondestructive evaluation of critical composite material structural elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, John C., Jr.; Lesko, John J.; Weyers, R.

    1996-11-01

    A small span bridge that has suffered corrosive deterioration of a number of the steel structural members is in the process of being rehabilitated with glass and carbon fiber reinforced, pultruded polymer structural beams. As part of a comprehensive research program to develop methods for modeling long term durability of the composite material, nondestructive evaluation if being used to provide a preliminary assessment of the initial condition of the beams as well as to monitor the deterioration of the beams during service.

  13. Optical and mechanical nondestructive tests for measuring tomato fruit firmness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manivel-Chávez, Ricardo A.; Garnica-Romo, M. G.; Arroyo-Correa, Gabriel; Aranda-Sánchez, Jorge I.

    2011-08-01

    Ripening is one of the most important processes to occur in fruits which involve changes in color, flavor, and texture. An important goal in quality control of fruits is to substitute traditional sensory testing methods with reliable nondestructive tests (NDT). In this work we study the firmness of tomato fruits by using optical and mechanical NDT. Optical and mechanical parameters, measured along the tomato shelf life, are shown.

  14. Symmetry analyzer for nondestructive Bell-state detection using weak nonlinearities

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, S.D.; Kok, Pieter; Spiller, T.P.; Nemoto, Kae; Beausoleil, R.G.; Munro, W.J.

    2005-06-15

    We describe a method to project photonic two-qubit states onto the symmetric and antisymmetric subspaces of their Hilbert space. This device utilizes an ancillary coherent state, together with a weak cross-Kerr nonlinearity, generated, for example, by electromagnetically induced transparency. The symmetry analyzer is nondestructive, and works for small values of the cross-Kerr coupling. Furthermore, this device can be used to construct a nondestructive Bell-state detector.

  15. Nondestructive electromagnetic characterization of uniaxial materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Neil G.

    In this dissertation, a method for the simultaneous non-destructive extraction of the permittivity and permeability of a dielectric magnetic uniaxial anisotropic media is developed and several key contributions are demonstrated. The method utilizes a single fixture in which the MUT is clamped between two rectangular waveguides with 6" x 6" PEC flanges. The transmission and reflection coefficients are measured, then compared with theoretically calculated coefficients to find a least squares solution to the minimization problem. One of the key contributions of this work is the development of the total parallel plate spectral-domain Green's function by two independent methods. The Green's function is thereby shown to be correct in form and in physical meaning. A second significant contribution of this work to the scientific community is the evaluation of one of the inverse Fourier transform integrals in the complex plane. This significantly enhances the efficiency of the extraction code. A third significant contribution is the measurement of a number of uniaxial anisotropic materials, many of which were envisioned, designed and constructed in-house using 3D printing technology. The results are shown to be good in the transverse dimension, but mildly unstable in the longitudinal dimension. A secondary contribution of this work that warrants mention is the inclusion of a flexible, complete, working code for the extraction process. Although such codes have been written before, they have not been published in the literature for broader use.

  16. Nondestructive characterization of fatigue damage with thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roesner, Henrik; Sathish, Shamachary; Meyendorf, Norbert

    2001-08-01

    A thermal imaging NDE method has been developed for nondestructive characterization of early stages of fatigue damage. The method is based on evaluation of the thermal effects induced in a material by a short-term mechanical loading. The mechanical loading causes in addition to thermoelastic temperature change, an increase due to heat dissipation that depends upon the microstructure of the material in a characteristic manner. The origin of this heat dissipation is the mechanical damping process. Utilizing the initial temperature rise due to a short-term mechanical loading, the dissipated energy per cycle was evaluated as a thermal parameter. This new thermal NDE parameter allows a quantitative characterization of the mechanical hysteresis, without the need for calibration to eliminate influences of thermal boundary conditions. The measurement of the thermal NDE parameters has been performed on Ti-6Al-4V dog-bone specimens, fatigued in low cycle fatigue (LCF) as well as in high cycle fatigue (HCF) experiments. Characteristic dependence of the NDE parameters on the already accumulated fatigue damage has been observed. The advantage of the thermal method is the applicability to components under service conditions because of simplicity, rapid measurements (a few seconds) and the ability of locally resolved evaluations.

  17. Nondestructive characterization of as-fabricated composite ceramic panels

    SciTech Connect

    Green, W. H.; Brennan, R. E.

    2011-06-23

    Decreasing the weight of protective systems, while minimizing the decrease in ballistic performance, is an ongoing goal of the Army. Ceramic materials are currently combined with other materials in these types of structures in order to decrease weight without losing ballistic performance. This includes structures in which the ceramic material is confined in some way and in which the ceramic material is completely encapsulated. Confinement or encapsulation of ceramic material within a structure generally adds complexity and cost. Relatively simple panel specimens fabricated with ceramic tiles on aluminum backings and side confinement using steel were evaluated using nondestructive methods, including x-ray computed tomography and ultrasonic testing. The nondestructive evaluation results will be discussed and compared, including the detectability and mapping of fabrication features.

  18. Nondestructive Characterization of As-Fabricated Composite Ceramic Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, W. H.; Brennan, R. E.

    2011-06-01

    Decreasing the weight of protective systems, while minimizing the decrease in ballistic performance, is an ongoing goal of the Army. Ceramic materials are currently combined with other materials in these types of structures in order to decrease weight without losing ballistic performance. This includes structures in which the ceramic material is confined in some way and in which the ceramic material is completely encapsulated. Confinement or encapsulation of ceramic material within a structure generally adds complexity and cost. Relatively simple panel specimens fabricated with ceramic tiles on aluminum backings and side confinement using steel were evaluated using nondestructive methods, including x-ray computed tomography and ultrasonic testing. The nondestructive evaluation results will be discussed and compared, including the detectability and mapping of fabrication features.

  19. Ultrasonic Nondestructive Characterization of Adhesive Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qu, Jianmin

    1999-01-01

    Adhesives and adhesive joints are widely used in various industrial applications to reduce weight and costs, and to increase reliability. For example, advances in aerospace technology have been made possible, in part, through the use of lightweight materials and weight-saving structural designs. Joints, in particular, have been and continue to be areas in which weight can be trimmed from an airframe through the use of novel attachment techniques. In order to save weight over traditional riveted designs, to avoid the introduction of stress concentrations associated with rivet holes, and to take full advantage of advanced composite materials, engineers and designers have been specifying an ever-increasing number of adhesively bonded joints for use on airframes. Nondestructive characterization for quality control and remaining life prediction has been a key enabling technology for the effective use of adhesive joints. Conventional linear ultrasonic techniques generally can only detect flaws (delamination, cracks, voids, etc) in the joint assembly. However, more important to structural reliability is the bond strength. Although strength, in principle, cannot be measured nondestructively, a slight change in material nonlinearity may indicate the onset of failure. Furthermore, microstructural variations due to aging or under-curing may also cause changes in the third order elastic constants, which are related to the ultrasonic nonlinear parameter of the polymer adhesive. It is therefore reasonable to anticipate a correlation between changes in the ultrasonic nonlinear acoustic parameter and the remaining bond strength. It has been observed that higher harmonics of the fundamental frequency are generated when an ultrasonic wave passes through a nonlinear material. It seems that such nonlinearity can be effectively used to characterize bond strength. Several theories have been developed to model this nonlinear effect. Based on a microscopic description of the nonlinear

  20. Nondestructive inspection of a composite missile launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ley, O.; Chung, S.; Butera, M.; Valatka, T.; Triplett, M. H.; Godinez, V.

    2012-05-01

    Lighter weight alternatives are being sought to replace metallic components currently used in high performance aviation and missile systems. Benefits of lightweight, high strength carbon fiber reinforced composites in missile launchers and rocket motor cases include improved fuel economy, increased flight times, enhanced lethality and/or increased velocity. In this work, various nondestructive inspection techniques are investigated for the damage assessment of a composite missile launcher system for use in U.S. Army attack helicopters. The launcher system, which includes rails and a hardback, can be subject to impact damage from accidental tool drops, routine operation, and/or ballistic threats. The composite hardback and the launch rails both have complex geometries that can challenge the inspection process. Scanning techniques such as line scanning thermography, ultrasonic, and acousto-ultrasonics will be used and compared to determine damage detection accuracy, reliability, and efficiency. Results will also be compared with visual observations to determine if there is a correlation. The goal is to establish an inspection method that quickly and accurately assesses damage extent in order to minimize service time and return the missile system back into the field [1].

  1. Nondestructive Evaluation of Reactive Powder Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washer, Glenn; Fuchs, Paul; Graybeal, Benjamin; Rezaizadeh, Ali

    2004-02-01

    Reactive powder concrete (RPC) has been introduced as a structural material for civil engineering applications. The material consists of a finely graded combination of cement, sand, ground quartz and silica fume which combined with water form a cement paste. Small steel fibers measuring approximately 0.2 mm in diameter and 12 mm in length are distributed throughout the cement matrix and the combined material has very high compressive strength and toughness. The material is proposed for use in the primary load bearing members in bridges, and as such nondestructive evaluation technologies are needed to evaluate material quality and monitor in-service condition. This paper reports on research to determine the effectiveness of ultrasonic testing for determining the elastic properties of RPC. Comparison between static modulus of elasticity and ultrasonic modulus measurements is presented. A system for determining elastic moduli as a quality control tool is discussed. The effect of curing conditions on ultrasonic velocities and resulting calculated moduli values is presented and compared with traditional measurement methods.

  2. Evaluation of Nondestructive Assay/Nondestructive Examination Capabilities for Department of Energy Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Luptak, A.J.; Bulmahn, K.D.

    1998-09-01

    This report summarizes an evaluation of the potential use of nondestructive assay (NDA) and nondestructive examination (NDE) technologies on DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF). It presents the NDA/NDE information necessary for the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) and the SNF storage sites to use when defining that role, if any, of NDA/NDE in characterization and certification processes. Note that the potential role for NDA/NDE includes confirmatory testing on a sampling basis and is not restricted to use as a primary, item-specific, data collection method. The evaluation does not attempt to serve as a basis for selecting systems for development or deployment. Information was collected on 27 systems being developed at eight DOE locations. The systems considered are developed to some degree, but are not ready for deployment on the full range of DOE SNF and still require additional development. The system development may only involve demonstrating performance on additional SNF, packaging the system for deployment, and developing calibration standards, or it may be as extensive as performing additional basic research. Development time is considered to range from one to four years. We conclude that NDA/NDE systems are capable of playing a key role in the characterization and certification of DOE SNF, either as the primary data source or as a confirmatory test. NDA/NDE systems will be able to measure seven of the nine key SNF properties and to derive data for the two key properties not measured directly. The anticipated performance goals of these key properties are considered achievable except for enrichment measurements on fuels near 20% enrichment. NDA/NDE systems can likely be developed to measure the standard canisters now being considered for co-disposal of DOE SNF. This ability would allow the preparation of DOE SNF for storage now and the characterization and certification to be finalize later.

  3. Efficient Nondestructive Evaluation of Prototype Carbon Fiber Reinforced Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Samuel S.; Walker, James L.; Workman, Gary; Thom, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Thermography inspection is an optic based technology that can reduce the time and cost required to inspect propellant tanks or aero structures fabricated from composite materials. Usually areas identified as suspect in the thermography inspection are examined with ultrasonic methods to better define depth, orientation and the nature of the anomaly. This combination of nondestructive evaluation techniques results in a rapid and comprehensive inspection of composite structures. Examples of application of this inspection philosophy to prototype will be presented. Methods organizing the inspection and evaluating the results will be considered.

  4. Nondestructive assessment of internal quality of Gannan navel orange by photodiode array spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xudong; Zhou, Huamao; Zhou, Wenchao; Liu, Yande

    2008-12-01

    The photodiode array (PDA) spectrometer combined with partial least square (PLS) was developed to rapid measure the internal quality indices of Gannan navel orange nondestructively in the wavelength range of 550-950nm. The original spectra were processed by standard normal variate (SNV) and Savitzky-Golay (SG) smooth method. The optimal models of internal quality indices were determined after different spectral windows chosen. The optimal model of soluble solids content (SSC), total acidity (TA) and ratio of them were developed with RMSECV = 0.5118Brix%, 0.0856% and 2.0617 by PLS method, respectively. The optimal spectral windows were 700-950nm, 600-750nm and 600-950nm for measuring internal indices nondestructively by PDA. The results illustrated that PDA with PLS method were a rapid tool to measure the internal quality indices of Gannan navel orange nondestructively.

  5. Non-Destructive Testing A Developing Tool in Science and Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Lianshan

    2013-01-01

    Non-destructive testing (NDT), sometimes also known as non-destructive inspection (NDI) or non-destructive examination (NDE), has been applied to solve a wide range of science and industry problems including construction, aerospace, nuclear engineering, manufacturing, space exploration, art objects, forensic studies, biological and medical fields, etc. Without any permanent changing or alteration of testing objects, NDT methods provide great advantages such as increased testing reliability, efficiency, and safety, as well as reduced time and cost. Since the second half of the 20th century, NDT technology has seen significant growth. Depending on the physical properties being measured, NDT techniques can be classified into several branches. This article will provide a brief overview of commonly used NDT methods and their up-to-date progresses including optical examination, radiography, acoustic emission, ultrasonic testing and eddy current testing. For extended reviews on many presently used NDT methods, please refer to articles by Mullins [1, 2].

  6. Guided wave nuances for ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rose, J L

    2000-01-01

    Recent developments in guided wave generation, reception, and mode control show that increased penetration power and sensitivity are possible. A tone burst function generator and appropriate signal processing are generally used. Variable angle beam and comb-type transducers are the key to this effort. Problems in tubing, piping, hidden corrosion detection in aging aircraft, adhesive and diffusion bonding, and ice detection are discussed. Additionally, sample configurations, inspection objectives, and logic are being developed for such sample problems as defect detection and analysis in lap splice joints, tear straps, cracks in a second layer, hidden corrosion in multiple layers, cracks from rivet holes, transverse cracking in a beam, and cracks in landing gear assembly. Theoretical and experimental aspects of guided wave analysis include phase velocity, group velocity, and attenuation dispersion curves; boundary element model analysis for reflection and transmission factor analysis; use of wave structure for defect detection sensitivity; source influence on the phase velocity spectrum, and the use of angle beam and comb transducer technology. Probe design and modeling considerations are being explored. Utilization of in-plane and out-of-plane displacement patterns on the surface and longitudinal power distribution across the structural cross-section are considered for improved sensitivity, penetration power, and resolution in nondestructive evaluation. Methods of controlling the phase velocity spectrum for mode and frequency selection are available. Such features as group velocity change, mode cut-off measurements, mode conversion, amplitude ratios of transmission, and reflection factors of specific mode and frequency as input will be introduced for their ability to be used in flaw and material characterization analysis.

  7. Guided wave nuances for ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rose, J L

    2000-01-01

    Recent developments in guided wave generation, reception, and mode control show that increased penetration power and sensitivity are possible. A tone burst function generator and appropriate signal processing are generally used. Variable angle beam and comb-type transducers are the key to this effort. Problems in tubing, piping, hidden corrosion detection in aging aircraft, adhesive and diffusion bonding, and ice detection are discussed. Additionally, sample configurations, inspection objectives, and logic are being developed for such sample problems as defect detection and analysis in lap splice joints, tear straps, cracks in a second layer, hidden corrosion in multiple layers, cracks from rivet holes, transverse cracking in a beam, and cracks in landing gear assembly. Theoretical and experimental aspects of guided wave analysis include phase velocity, group velocity, and attenuation dispersion curves; boundary element model analysis for reflection and transmission factor analysis; use of wave structure for defect detection sensitivity; source influence on the phase velocity spectrum, and the use of angle beam and comb transducer technology. Probe design and modeling considerations are being explored. Utilization of in-plane and out-of-plane displacement patterns on the surface and longitudinal power distribution across the structural cross-section are considered for improved sensitivity, penetration power, and resolution in nondestructive evaluation. Methods of controlling the phase velocity spectrum for mode and frequency selection are available. Such features as group velocity change, mode cut-off measurements, mode conversion, amplitude ratios of transmission, and reflection factors of specific mode and frequency as input will be introduced for their ability to be used in flaw and material characterization analysis. PMID:18238584

  8. Laser speckle photometry: contactless nondestructive testing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cikalova, Ulana; Nicolai, Juergen; Bendjus, Beatrice; Schreiber, Juergen

    2012-10-01

    Laser Speckle Photometry (LSP) is a newly developed contactless, fast and completely optical nondestructive testing method based on the detection and analysis of thermally or mechanically activated characteristic speckle dynamics. The heat propagation or tension process causes locally different degrees of thermal/mechanical expansion, which generates local and time-dependent strain fields, resulting in a local displacement of material surface. During this process, the normal surface slope and absolute height of the microscopic and mesoscopic surface segments, especially at rough sample surfaces, is transformed. These spatiotemporal changes include information about the material structure and conditions. Therefore, the proposed measurement technique includes a pulsed heating source for sample activation, a temperature detection of the sample at the measurement location in a distance from the heading point, a continuous wave laser for sample irradiation and activation of speckle patterns at the measurement point, and in addition, a fast CCD camera for the detection of the speckle movement during heat propagation at the measurement location. Laser Speckle Photometry can be used for evaluating material properties, such as hardness and porosity. The approach is based on the estimation of the "Speckle Thermal Diffusivity" parameter K, that can be determined using the thermal diffusion equation and the modified correlation function from the pixel intensity of the speckle image variations during thermal activation. After testing, the correlation between parameter K and hardness, and porosity respectively, was found. Furthermore, mechanical material stress changes, also at elevated operating temperatures, can be estimated by the presented technique using the calculated parameter K. In this case, the thermal excitation will be partially replaced by mechanical activation, such as the tension process. The technique of LSP and the results of calibration experiments are

  9. Non-destructive decontamination of building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holecek, Josef; Otahal, Petr

    2015-11-01

    For nondestructive radiation decontamination of surfaces it is necessary to use varnishes, such as ARGONNE, DG1101, DG1108, etc. This text evaluates the use of manufactured strippable coatings for radiation decontamination. To evaluate decontamination capability of such coatings the following varnishes were selected and subsequently used: AZ 1-700 and AXAL 1807S. The varnishes were tested on different building materials surfaces contaminated by short-term radioisotopes of Na-24 or La-140, in water soluble or water insoluble forms. Decontamination quality was assessed by the decontamination efficiency value, defined as the proportion of removed activity to the applied activity. It was found that decontamination efficiency of both used varnishes depends not only on the form of contaminant, but in the case of application of AXAL 1807S varnish it also depends on the method of its application on the contaminated surface. The values of the decontamination efficiency for AZ1-700 varnish range from 46% for decontamination of a soluble form of the radioisotope from concrete surface to 98% for the decontamination of a soluble form of the radioisotope from ceramic tile surface. The decontamination efficiency values determined for AXAL 1807S varnish range from 48% for decontamination of a soluble form of the radioisotope from concrete surface to 96% for decontamination of an insoluble form of the radioisotope from ceramic tile surface. Comparing these values to the values given for the decontaminating varnishes we can conclude that AXAL 1807S varnish is possible to use on all materials, except highly porous materials, such as plasterboard or breeze blocks, or plastic materials. AZ 1-700 varnish can be used for all dry materials except plasterboard.

  10. Interpixel capacitance in nondestructive focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Andrew C.; Ninkov, Zoran; Forrest, William J.

    2004-01-01

    Inter-pixel capacitive coupling can exist in a non-destructive detector array if the detector nodes change voltage as they integrate charge and the design of the device allows for an electric field to exist between adjacent collection nodes. Small amounts of inter-pixel capacitance can cause large errors in the measurement of poissonian noise versus signal, and all subsequently derived measurements such as nodal capacitance and quantum efficiency. Crosstalk and MTF can also be significantly influenced by interpixel capacitance. Two 1k by 1k Raytheon SB226-based hybridized silicon PIN arrays were tested for nodal capacitance and MTF. Initial results indicated unexpected and unexplainably large nodal capacitance, poor MTF, and odd edge spread. It was hypothesized that inter-pixel capacitive coupling was responsible for these discrepancies. A stochastic method of measuring the coupling using 2D autocorrelation and Fourier Transform techniques was devised and implemented. Autocorrelation of the shot noise in the images revealed a correlation consistent with 3.2% interpixel capacitive coupling. When the effects of the measured interpixel capacitance were taken into account, the initially measured nodal capacitance of 56 fF was found to be 31% higher than the corrected nodal capacitance measurement of 43 fF. Large discrepancies between the theoretical and observed edge spread response were also greatly reduced. A simulation of the electric field in the PIN detector intrinsic region predicted an interpixel coupling very close to the observed coupling. Interpixel capacitance was also observed in a 2k by 2k Raytheon SB304-based InSb detector array, but was not strongly evident in a bare Raytheon SB226 multiplexer.

  11. Laser active thermography for non-destructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semerok, A.; Grisolia, C.; Fomichev, S. V.; Thro, P.-Y.

    2013-11-01

    Thermography methods have found their applications in different fields of human activity. The non-destructive feature of these methods along with the additional advantage by automated remote control and tests of nuclear installations without personnel attendance in the contaminated zone are of particular interest. Laser active pyrometry and laser lock-in thermography for in situ non-destructive characterization of micrometric layers on graphite substrates from European tokamaks were under extensive experimental and theoretical studies in CEA (France). The studies were aimed to obtain layer characterization with cross-checking the layer thermal contact coefficients determined by active laser pyrometry and lock-in thermography. The experimental installation comprised a Nd-YAG pulsed repetition rate laser (1 Hz - 10 kHz repetition rate frequency, homogeneous spot) and a home-made pyrometer system based on two pyrometers for the temperature measurements in 500 - 2600 K range. For both methods, the layer characterization was provided by the best fit of the experimental results and simulations. The layer thermal contact coefficients determined by both methods were quite comparable. Though there was no gain in the measurements accuracy, lock-in measurements have proved their advantage as being much more rapid. The obtained experimental and theoretical results are presented. Some practical applications and possible improvements of the methods are discussed.

  12. 29 CFR 1919.78 - Nondestructive examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nondestructive examinations. 1919.78 Section 1919.78 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices §...

  13. 49 CFR 193.2321 - Nondestructive tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... with internal design pressures at 15 psig or less, ultrasonic examinations of welds on metal containers... ultrasonic equipment is found to be out of calibration, all previous weld inspections that are suspect must...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction § 193.2321 Nondestructive tests. (a) The butt welds in metal...

  14. 49 CFR 193.2321 - Nondestructive tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... with internal design pressures at 15 psig or less, ultrasonic examinations of welds on metal containers... ultrasonic equipment is found to be out of calibration, all previous weld inspections that are suspect must...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction § 193.2321 Nondestructive tests. (a) The butt welds in metal...

  15. 49 CFR 193.2321 - Nondestructive tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... with internal design pressures at 15 psig or less, ultrasonic examinations of welds on metal containers... ultrasonic equipment is found to be out of calibration, all previous weld inspections that are suspect must...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction § 193.2321 Nondestructive tests. (a) The butt welds in metal...

  16. 49 CFR 193.2321 - Nondestructive tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... with internal design pressures at 15 psig or less, ultrasonic examinations of welds on metal containers... ultrasonic equipment is found to be out of calibration, all previous weld inspections that are suspect must...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction § 193.2321 Nondestructive tests. (a) The butt welds in metal...

  17. Nondestructive assay of boxed radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gilles, W.P.; Roberts, R.J.; Jasen, W.G.

    1992-12-01

    This paper describes the problems related to the nondestructive assay (NDA) of boxed radioactive waste at the Hanford Site and how Westinghouse Hanford company (WHC) is solving the problems. The waste form and radionuclide content are described. The characteristics of the combined neutron and gamma-based measurement system are described.

  18. 46 CFR 151.03-38 - Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nondestructive testing. 151.03-38 Section 151.03-38 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-38 Nondestructive testing. Nondestructive testing includes ultrasonic...

  19. Nondestructive Technique Survey for Assessing Integrity of Composite Firing Vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, A.

    2000-08-01

    The repeated use and limited lifetime of a composite tiring vessel compel a need to survey techniques for monitoring the structural integrity of the vessel in order to determine when it should be retired. Various nondestructive techniques were researched and evaluated based on their applicability to the vessel. The methods were visual inspection, liquid penetrant testing, magnetic particle testing, surface mounted strain gauges, thermal inspection, acoustic emission, ultrasonic testing, radiography, eddy current testing, and embedded fiber optic sensors. It was determined that embedded fiber optic sensor is the most promising technique due to their ability to be embedded within layers of composites and their immunity to electromagnetic interference.

  20. Nondestructive testing of surface-bonded piezoelectric patch actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerr, Johannes K.; Krohn, Nils; Nixdorf, Klaus; Luetze, Steffen; Herold-Schmidt, Ursula; Busse, Gerhard

    1999-07-01

    Introduction of new technologies to aerospace applications necessarily requires methods of non-destructive testing suitable to evaluate structural integrity. This important task also occurred when it was decided to develop and manufacture a large Fin-Box-Demonstrator equivalent to a fighter aircraft tail equipped with surface bonded piezoceramic actuators between DaimlerChrysler Aerospace - Military Aircraft Division and DaimlerChrysler Research and Technology. The objective of this project is to prove that structural vibrations of a fighter aircraft tail fin due to buffeting can be damped actively by means of surface bonded piezoceramic actuators.

  1. NON-DESTRUCTIVE SOIL CARBON ANALYZER.

    SciTech Connect

    Wielopolski, Lucian; Hendrey, G.; Orion, I.; Prior, S.; Rogers, H.; Runion, B.; Torbert, A.

    2004-02-01

    This report describes the feasibility, calibration, and safety considerations of a non-destructive, in situ, quantitative, volumetric soil carbon analytical method based on inelastic neutron scattering (INS). The method can quantify values as low as 0.018 gC/cc, or about 1.2% carbon by weight with high precision under the instrument's configuration and operating conditions reported here. INS is safe and easy to use, residual soil activation declines to background values in under an hour, and no radiological requirements are needed for transporting the instrument. The labor required to obtain soil-carbon data is about 10-fold less than with other methods, and the instrument offers a nearly instantaneous rate of output of carbon-content values. Furthermore, it has the potential to quantify other elements, particularly nitrogen. New instrumentation was developed in response to a research solicitation from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE LAB 00-09 Carbon Sequestration Research Program) supporting the Terrestrial Carbon Processes (TCP) program of the Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research (BER). The solicitation called for developing and demonstrating novel techniques for quantitatively measuring changes in soil carbon. The report includes raw data and analyses of a set of proof-of-concept, double-blind studies to evaluate the INS approach in the first phase of developing the instrument. Managing soils so that they sequester massive amounts of carbon was suggested as a means to mitigate the atmospheric buildup of anthropogenic CO{sub 2}. Quantifying changes in the soils' carbon stocks will be essential to evaluating such schemes and documenting their performance. Current methods for quantifying carbon in soil by excavation and core sampling are invasive, slow, labor-intensive and locally destroy the system being observed. Newly emerging technologies, such as Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, offer soil

  2. A review of issues and strategies in nondestructive evaluation of fiber reinforced structural composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1979-01-01

    Techniques for quantitative assessment of the mechanical strength and integrity of fiber composites during manufacture and service and following repair operations are presented. Problems and approaches are discussed relative to acceptance criteria, calibrating standards, and methods for nondestructive evaluation of composites in strength-critical applications. Acousto-ultrasonic techniques provide the methods of choice in this area.

  3. Nuclear Technology. Course 26: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I. Module 26-2, Leak Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groseclose, Richard

    This second in a series of seven modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I describes the predominantly used leak test methods in nuclear power plants. More specifically, the module describes these test methods, the testing techniques, and the associated quality assurance requirements. The module follows a typical…

  4. Microwave Nondestructive Sensing of Moisture Content in Shelled Peanuts Independent of Bulk Density with Temperature Compensation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dielectric methods for rapid and nondestructive sensing of moisture content in shelled peanuts from free-space measurement of attenuation and phase shift, and their corresponding dielectric properties at 10 GHz, are presented. These methods provide moisture content independent of bulk density and c...

  5. Nondestructive Assessment of Engineered Cartilage Composition by Near Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    McGoverin, Cushla M; Hanifi, Arash; Palukuru, Uday P; Yousefi, Farzad; Glenn, Padraig B M; Shockley, Michael; Spencer, Richard G; Pleshko, Nancy

    2016-03-01

    Tissue engineering presents a strategy to overcome the limitations of current tissue healing methods. Scaffolds, cells, external growth factors and mechanical input are combined in an effort to obtain constructs with properties that mimic native tissues. However, engineered constructs developed using similar culture environments can have very different matrix composition and biomechanical properties. Accordingly, a nondestructive technique to assess constructs during development such that appropriate compositional endpoints can be defined is desirable. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) analysis is a modality being investigated to address the challenges associated with current evaluation techniques, which includes nondestructive compositional assessment. In the present study, cartilage tissue constructs were grown using chondrocytes seeded onto polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffolds in similar environments in three separate tissue culture experiments and monitored using NIRS. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) analysis models of NIR spectra were calculated and used to predict tissue composition, with biochemical assay information used as the reference data. Results showed that for combined data from all tissue culture experiments, PLS models were able to assess composition with significant correlations to reference values, including engineered cartilage water (at 5200 cm(-1), R = 0.68, p = 0.03), proteoglycan (at 4310 cm(-1), R = 0.82, p = 0.007), and collagen (at 4610 cm(-1), R = 0.84, p = 0.005). In addition, degradation of PGA was monitored using specific NIRS frequencies. These results demonstrate that NIR spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis provides a nondestructive modality to assess engineered cartilage, which could provide information to determine the optimal time for tissue harvest for clinical applications. PMID:26817457

  6. Nondestructive technique for detecting diseased poultry carcasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yud-Ren

    1993-04-01

    In response to the need of the U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service, the Agriculture Research Service has undertaken a project to develop an accurate, reliable, and nondestructive sensor for detecting poultry diseased carcasses on-line at poultry processing plants. This paper presents some results of a study on the development of a nondestructive technique for the detection of abnormal poultry carcasses based on the spectroscopy of the carcasses. A diode array spectrophotometer equipped with a fiber optic probe was used to obtain optical spectra of the breasts of normal, septicemic, and cadaver poultry carcasses in visible and near-infrared regions (500 - 1100 nm). Optimal wavelengths of reflectance and interactance in the range of 500 to 850 nm were obtained for classifying the carcasses into normal and abnormal (septicemic and cadaver) classes. A back-propagation neural network model was used to develop classifiers for the classification of poultry carcasses into normal, septicemic, and cadaver classes.

  7. Techniques for enhancing laser ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J; Chinn, D; Huber, R; Spicer, J; Thomas, G

    1999-02-16

    Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation is an extremely powerful tool for characterizing materials and detecting defects. A majority of the ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation is performed with piezoelectric transducers that generate and detect high frequency acoustic energy. The liquid needed to couple the high frequency acoustic energy from the piezoelectric transducers restricts the applicability of ultrasonics. For example, traditional ultrasonics cannot evaluate parts at elevated temperatures or components that would be damaged by contact with a fluid. They are developing a technology that remotely generates and detects the ultrasonic pulses with lasers and consequently there is no requirement for liquids. Thus the research in laser-based ultrasound allows them to solve inspection problems with ultrasonics that could not be done before. This technology has wide application in many Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory programs, especially when remote and/or non-contact sensing is necessary.

  8. Nondestructive tribochemistry-assisted nanofabrication on GaAs surface

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chenfei; Li, Xiaoying; Dong, Hanshan; Yu, Bingjun; Wang, Zhiming; Qian, Linmao

    2015-01-01

    A tribochemistry-assisted method has been developed for nondestructive surface nanofabrication on GaAs. Without any applied electric field and post etching, hollow nanostructures can be directly fabricated on GaAs surfaces by sliding a SiO2 microsphere under an ultralow contact pressure in humid air. TEM observation on the cross-section of the fabricated area shows that there is no appreciable plastic deformation under a 4 nm groove, confirming that GaAs can be removed without destruction. Further analysis suggests that the fabrication relies on the tribochemistry with the participation of vapor in humid air. It is proposed that the formation and breakage of GaAs-O-Si bonding bridges are responsible for the removal of GaAs material during the sliding process. As a nondestructive and conductivity-independent method, it will open up new opportunities to fabricate defect-free and well-ordered nucleation positions for quantum dots on GaAs surfaces. PMID:25761910

  9. Microwave Nondestructive Evaluation of Dielectric Materials with a Metamaterial Lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shreiber, Daniel; Gupta, Mool; Cravey, Robin L.

    2008-01-01

    A novel microwave Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) sensor was developed in an attempt to increase the sensitivity of the microwave NDE method for detection of defects small relative to a wavelength. The sensor was designed on the basis of a negative index material (NIM) lens. Characterization of the lens was performed to determine its resonant frequency, index of refraction, focus spot size, and optimal focusing length (for proper sample location). A sub-wavelength spot size (3 dB) of 0.48 lambda was obtained. The proof of concept for the sensor was achieved when a fiberglass sample with a 3 mm diameter through hole (perpendicular to the propagation direction of the wave) was tested. The hole was successfully detected with an 8.2 cm wavelength electromagnetic wave. This method is able to detect a defect that is 0.037 lambda. This method has certain advantages over other far field and near field microwave NDE methods currently in use.

  10. Nondestructive Evaluation of Adhesively Bonded Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayeb-Hashemi, Hamid; Rossettos, J. N.

    1997-01-01

    The final report consists of 5 published papers in referred journals and a technical letter to the technical monitor. These papers include the following: (1) Comparison of the effects of debonds and voids in adhesive; (2) On the peak shear stresses in adhesive joints with voids; (3) Nondestructive evaluation of adhesively bonded joints by acousto-ultrasonic technique and acoustic emission; (4) Multiaxial fatigue life evaluation of tubular adhesively bonded joints; (5) Theoretical and experimental evaluation of the bond strength under peeling loads. The letter outlines the progress of the research. Also included is preliminary information on the study of nondestructive evaluation of composite materials subjected to localized heat damage. The investigators studied the effects of localized heat on unidirectional fiber glass epoxy composite panels. Specimens of the fiber glass epoxy composites were subjected to 400 C heat for varying lengths of time. The specimens were subjected to nondestructive tests. The specimens were then pulled to their failure and acoustic emission of these specimens were measured. The analysis of the data was continuing as of the writing of the letter, and includes a finite element stress analysis of the problem.

  11. Nondestructive evaluation of pyroshock propagation using hydrocodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Juho; Hwang, Dae-Hyeon; Jang, Jae-Kyeong; Lee, Jung-Ryul; Han, Jae-Hung

    2016-04-01

    Pyroshock or pyrotechnic shock generated by explosive events of pyrotechnic devices can induce fatal failures in electronic payloads. Therefore, understanding and estimation of pyroshock propagation through complex structures are necessary. However, an experimental approach using real pyrotechnic devices is quite burdensome because pyrotechnic devices can damage test structures and newly manufactured test structures are necessary for each experiment. Besides, pyrotechnic experiments are quite expensive, time-consuming, and dangerous. Consequently, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of pyroshock propagation without using real pyrotechnic devices is necessary. In this study, nondestructive evaluation technique for pyroshock propagation estimation using hydrocodes is proposed. First, pyroshock propagation is numerically analyzed using AUTODYN, a commercial hydrocodes. Hydrocodes can handle stress wave propagation including elastic, plastic, and shock wave in the time domain. Test structures are modeled and pyroshock time history is applied to where the pyroshock propagation originates. Numerical NDE results of pyroshock propagation on test structures are analyzed in terms of acceleration time histories and acceleration shock response spectra (SRS) results. To verify the proposed numerical methodology, impact tests using airsoft gun are performed. The numerical analysis results for the impact tests are compared with experimental results and they show good agreements. The proposed numerical techniques enable us to nondestructively characterize pyroshock propagation.

  12. Development of instrumentation for magnetic nondestructive evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hariharan, S.

    1991-09-23

    The use of failure-prone components in critical applications has been traditionally governed by removing such components from service prior to the expiration of their predicted life expectancy. Such early retirement of materials does not guarantee that a particular sample will not fail in actual usage. The increasing cost of such life expectancy based operation and increased demand for improved reliability in industrial settings has necessitated an alternate form of quality control. Modern applications employ nondestructive evaluation (NDE), also known as nondestructive testing (NDT), as a means of monitoring the levels and growth of defects in a material throughout its operational life. This thesis describes the modifications made to existing instrumentation used for magnetic measurements at the Center for Nondestructive Evaluation at Iowa State University. Development of a new portable instrument is also given. An overview of the structure and operation of this instrumentation is presented. This thesis discusses the application of the magnetic hysteresis and Barkhausen measurement techniques, described in Sections 1.3.1 and 1.3.2 respectively, to a number of ferromagnetic specimens. Specifically, measurements were made on a number of railroad steel specimens for fatigue characterization, and on specimens of Damascus steel and Terfenol-D for materials evaluation. 60 refs., 51 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Edward's sword? - A non-destructive study of a medieval king's sword

    SciTech Connect

    Segebade, Chr.

    2013-04-19

    Non-destructive and instrumental methods including photon activation analysis were applied in an examination of an ancient sword. It was tried to find indication of forgery or, if authentic, any later processing and alteration. Metal components of the hilt and the blade were analysed by instrumental photon activation. Non-destructive metallurgical studies (hardness measurements, microscopic microstructure analysis) are briefly described, too. The results of these investigations did not yield indication of non-authenticity. This stood in agreement with the results of stylistic and scientific studies by weapon experts.

  14. Quantitative non-destructive testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    The work undertaken during this period included two primary efforts. The first is a continuation of theoretical development from the previous year of models and data analyses for NDE using the Optical Thermal Infra-Red Measurement System (OPTITHIRMS) system, which involves heat injection with a laser and observation of the resulting thermal pattern with an infrared imaging system. The second is an investigation into the use of the thermoelastic effect as an effective tool for NDE. As in the past, the effort is aimed towards NDE techniques applicable to composite materials in structural applications. The theoretical development described produced several models of temperature patterns over several geometries and material types. Agreement between model data and temperature observations was obtained. A model study with one of these models investigated some fundamental difficulties with the proposed method (the primitive equation method) for obtaining diffusivity values in plates of thickness and supplied guidelines for avoiding these difficulties. A wide range of computing speeds was found among the various models, with a one-dimensional model based on Laplace's integral solution being both very fast and very accurate.

  15. Nondestructive characterization of corrosion protective coatings on airframe structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Jochen Peter

    Corrosion protective polymeric aircraft coating systems are continuously subject to ultraviolet radiation, thermal cycling and humidity exposure causing the coating to fail. This leaves the Aluminum alloy aircraft skin unprotected and frequent paint replacement becomes necessary creating huge amounts of hazardous waste. Current efforts are directed to enhance the coating lifetime and new nondestructive inspection methodologies are needed for monitoring the coating performance periodically. In the scope of this dissertation, several methods were considered to identify potential nondestructive evaluation (NDE) metrics. The approach then concentrated on Scanning Acoustic Microscopy (SAM) which contributed to all main research topics: coating inhomogeneity, coating weathering and interface condition. Developing a new data analysis procedure based on acoustic reflectivity, it became possible to determine the acoustic impedance of the coatings as a function of different weathering exposures. In addition, SAM and thermal techniques were employed to detect microscale sites of coating delamination and early stages of corrosion under a visibly intact coating. Here, the newly developed fan (hot air) thermography was introduced for interface studies. The NDE measurements were benchmarked with results from white light interferometry and electrochemical techniques.

  16. Operation of the EPRI Nondestructive Evaluation Center. 1983 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Nemzek, T.A.; Stone, R.M.; Schoenecke, P.L.; Ammirato, F.V.; Becker, F.L.; Behravesh, M.; Brown, S.D.; Pherigo, G.L.; Wilson, G.H. III

    1984-07-01

    This report describes the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) funded nondestructive evaluation (NDE) project activities carried out by the J.A. Jones Applied Research Company. The primary support for this project is provided through Contract RP 1570-2 with supplementary funding provided by interested EPRI Owners' Groups. The purpose of the project is to design, construct, organize, staff, equip and operate a dedicated facility for providing improved and field qualified NDE equipment, procedures, and personnel training to the electric utility industry. The entire scope of this work is presented with major emphasis placed on the activities in 1983, the second full year of operation in the Nondestructive Evaluation Center facility. The NDE Center is providing a bridge to transfer useful research and development results to routine field application. This is being accomplished through qualification and refinement for field use of equipment and techniques developed in EPRI sponsored and other related projects, realistic training of utility designated personnel and organization of greater involvement of the academic community in NDE education. Significant assistance has been provided to the electric utility industry under this project in the form of improved, field ready NDE equipment and procedures; critically needed documentation on present inspection method capability; mechanisms for demonstrating the effectivenesss of techniques being used; rapid response assistance for critical, short-term problems; and training for generic industry needs.

  17. Using magnetic levitation for non-destructive quality control of plastic parts.

    PubMed

    Hennek, Jonathan W; Nemiroski, Alex; Subramaniam, Anand Bala; Bwambok, David K; Yang, Dian; Harburg, Daniel V; Tricard, Simon; Ellerbee, Audrey K; Whitesides, George M

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic levitation (MagLev) enables rapid and non-destructive quality control of plastic parts. The feasibility of MagLev as a method to: i) rapidly assess injection-molded plastic parts for defects during process optimization, ii) monitor the degradation of plastics after exposure to harsh environmental conditions, and iii) detect counterfeit polymers by density is demonstrated. PMID:25589230

  18. Nondestructive testing of ceramic engine components. Final progress report for completed CRADAs

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, W.A.; Happoldt, G.P.

    1993-07-15

    This report describes a method for the nondestructive testing of ZrO{sub 2} plasma-sprayed layers with intentional disbonds. A theoretical analysis was conducted to determine the surface-temperature difference for each disbond using a given input heat pulse.

  19. Nuclear Technology. Course 26: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I. Module 26-4, Liquid Penetrant Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espy, John

    This fourth in a series of seven modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I describes liquid penetrant examination which provides an effective method of detecting undesired, invisible surface discontinuities. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module…

  20. Nondestructive evaluation: A survey of NASA contributions, chapter 1, Chapter 11, cover page, acknowledgements, and contents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A survey of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technology, which is discussed in terms of popular demands for a greater degree of quality, reliability, and safety in industrial products, is presented as an overview of the NDE field to serve the needs of middle management. Three NDE methods are presented: acoustic emission, the use of coherent (laser)light, and ultrasonic holography.

  1. Instrumentation: Nondestructive Examination for Verification of Canister and Cladding Integrity. FY2014 Status Update

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Jones, Anthony M.

    2014-09-12

    This report documents FY14 efforts for two instrumentation subtasks under storage and transportation. These instrumentation tasks relate to developing effective nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods and techniques to (1) verify the integrity of metal canisters for the storage of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and to (2) verify the integrity of dry storage cask internals.

  2. Instrumentation. Nondestructive Examination for Verification of Canister and Cladding Integrity - FY2013 Status Update

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Jones, Anthony M.; Pardini, Allan F.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Crawford, Susan L.; Larche, Michael R.

    2013-09-30

    This report documents FY13 efforts for two instrumentation subtasks under storage and transportation. These instrumentation tasks relate to developing effective nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods and techniques to (1) verify the integrity of metal canisters for the storage of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and to (2) characterize hydrogen effects in UNF cladding to facilitate safe storage and retrieval.

  3. Using magnetic levitation for non-destructive quality control of plastic parts.

    PubMed

    Hennek, Jonathan W; Nemiroski, Alex; Subramaniam, Anand Bala; Bwambok, David K; Yang, Dian; Harburg, Daniel V; Tricard, Simon; Ellerbee, Audrey K; Whitesides, George M

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic levitation (MagLev) enables rapid and non-destructive quality control of plastic parts. The feasibility of MagLev as a method to: i) rapidly assess injection-molded plastic parts for defects during process optimization, ii) monitor the degradation of plastics after exposure to harsh environmental conditions, and iii) detect counterfeit polymers by density is demonstrated.

  4. Non-destructive photoacoustic imaging of metal surface defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Seungwan; Kim, Jeesu; Yun, Jong Pil; Kim, Chulhong

    2016-11-01

    The detection of metal surface defects is important in achieving the goals of product quality enhancement and manufacturing cost reduction. Identifying the defects with visual inspection is difficult, inaccurate, and time-consuming. Thus, several inspection methods using line cameras, magnetic field, and ultrasound have been proposed. However, identifying small defects on metal surfaces remains a challenge. To deal with this problem, we propose the use of photoacoustic imaging (PAI) as a new non-destructive imaging tool to detect metal surface defects. We successfully visualized two types of cracks (i.e., unclassified and seam cracks) in metal plate samples using PAI. In addition, we successfully extracted cracked edges from height-encoded photoacoustic maximum amplitude projection images using the Laplacian of Gaussian filtering method, and then, quantified the detected edges for a statistical analysis. We concluded that PAI can be useful in detecting metal surface defects reducing the defect rate and manufacturing cost during metal production.

  5. Non-destructive Faraday imaging of dynamically controlled ultracold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajdacz, Miroslav; Pedersen, Poul L.; Mørch, Troels; Hilliard, Andrew J.; Arlt, Jan; Sherson, Jacob F.

    2013-08-01

    We describe an easily implementable method for non-destructive measurements of ultracold atomic clouds based on dark field imaging of spatially resolved Faraday rotation. The signal-to-noise ratio is analyzed theoretically and, in the absence of experimental imperfections, the sensitivity limit is found to be identical to other conventional dispersive imaging techniques. The dependence on laser detuning, atomic density, and temperature is characterized in a detailed comparison with theory. Due to low destructiveness, spatially resolved images of the same cloud can be acquired up to 2000 times. The technique is applied to avoid the effect of shot-to-shot fluctuations in atom number calibration, to demonstrate single-run vector magnetic field imaging and single-run spatial imaging of the system's dynamic behavior. This demonstrates that the method is a useful tool for the characterization of static and dynamically changing properties of ultracold atomic clouds.

  6. Non-destructive Faraday imaging of dynamically controlled ultracold atoms.

    PubMed

    Gajdacz, Miroslav; Pedersen, Poul L; Mørch, Troels; Hilliard, Andrew J; Arlt, Jan; Sherson, Jacob F

    2013-08-01

    We describe an easily implementable method for non-destructive measurements of ultracold atomic clouds based on dark field imaging of spatially resolved Faraday rotation. The signal-to-noise ratio is analyzed theoretically and, in the absence of experimental imperfections, the sensitivity limit is found to be identical to other conventional dispersive imaging techniques. The dependence on laser detuning, atomic density, and temperature is characterized in a detailed comparison with theory. Due to low destructiveness, spatially resolved images of the same cloud can be acquired up to 2000 times. The technique is applied to avoid the effect of shot-to-shot fluctuations in atom number calibration, to demonstrate single-run vector magnetic field imaging and single-run spatial imaging of the system's dynamic behavior. This demonstrates that the method is a useful tool for the characterization of static and dynamically changing properties of ultracold atomic clouds. PMID:24007051

  7. Non-destructive Faraday imaging of dynamically controlled ultracold atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Gajdacz, Miroslav; Pedersen, Poul L.; Mørch, Troels; Hilliard, Andrew J.; Arlt, Jan; Sherson, Jacob F.

    2013-08-15

    We describe an easily implementable method for non-destructive measurements of ultracold atomic clouds based on dark field imaging of spatially resolved Faraday rotation. The signal-to-noise ratio is analyzed theoretically and, in the absence of experimental imperfections, the sensitivity limit is found to be identical to other conventional dispersive imaging techniques. The dependence on laser detuning, atomic density, and temperature is characterized in a detailed comparison with theory. Due to low destructiveness, spatially resolved images of the same cloud can be acquired up to 2000 times. The technique is applied to avoid the effect of shot-to-shot fluctuations in atom number calibration, to demonstrate single-run vector magnetic field imaging and single-run spatial imaging of the system's dynamic behavior. This demonstrates that the method is a useful tool for the characterization of static and dynamically changing properties of ultracold atomic clouds.

  8. Non-destructive Faraday imaging of dynamically controlled ultracold atoms.

    PubMed

    Gajdacz, Miroslav; Pedersen, Poul L; Mørch, Troels; Hilliard, Andrew J; Arlt, Jan; Sherson, Jacob F

    2013-08-01

    We describe an easily implementable method for non-destructive measurements of ultracold atomic clouds based on dark field imaging of spatially resolved Faraday rotation. The signal-to-noise ratio is analyzed theoretically and, in the absence of experimental imperfections, the sensitivity limit is found to be identical to other conventional dispersive imaging techniques. The dependence on laser detuning, atomic density, and temperature is characterized in a detailed comparison with theory. Due to low destructiveness, spatially resolved images of the same cloud can be acquired up to 2000 times. The technique is applied to avoid the effect of shot-to-shot fluctuations in atom number calibration, to demonstrate single-run vector magnetic field imaging and single-run spatial imaging of the system's dynamic behavior. This demonstrates that the method is a useful tool for the characterization of static and dynamically changing properties of ultracold atomic clouds.

  9. A sparse reconstruction algorithm for ultrasonic images in nondestructive testing.

    PubMed

    Guarneri, Giovanni Alfredo; Pipa, Daniel Rodrigues; Neves Junior, Flávio; de Arruda, Lúcia Valéria Ramos; Zibetti, Marcelo Victor Wüst

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging systems (UIS) are essential tools in nondestructive testing (NDT). In general, the quality of images depends on two factors: system hardware features and image reconstruction algorithms. This paper presents a new image reconstruction algorithm for ultrasonic NDT. The algorithm reconstructs images from A-scan signals acquired by an ultrasonic imaging system with a monostatic transducer in pulse-echo configuration. It is based on regularized least squares using a l1 regularization norm. The method is tested to reconstruct an image of a point-like reflector, using both simulated and real data. The resolution of reconstructed image is compared with four traditional ultrasonic imaging reconstruction algorithms: B-scan, SAFT, ω-k SAFT and regularized least squares (RLS). The method demonstrates significant resolution improvement when compared with B-scan-about 91% using real data. The proposed scheme also outperforms traditional algorithms in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). PMID:25905700

  10. Non-destructive Elemental Analysis Using Negative Muon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, Michael K.

    2016-09-01

    A negative muon implanted into materials is captured by an atom and forms a muonic atom with emission of muonic X-rays. The X-ray energy is characteristic to the atomic number of the atom which captured the muon. By measuring the energy of the muonic X-ray induced by the negative muon implanted into the sample material with a kinetic energy tuned to stop at a chosen depth from the sample surface, the elemental composition of the sample at the specific depth from the surface is revealed. This elemental analysis method has unique in non-destructive, multi-element, and depth-selective characteristics. The method is being developed at the J-PARC/MUSE facility.

  11. FIRST 100 T NON-DESTRUCTIVE MAGNET

    SciTech Connect

    J. R. SIMS; ET AL

    1999-10-01

    The first 100 T non-destructive (100 T ND) magnet and power supplies as currently designed are described. This magnet will be installed as part of the user facility research equipment at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) Pulsed Field Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 100 T ND magnet will provide a 100 T pulsed field of 5 ms duration (above 90% of full field) in a 15 mm diameter bore once per hour. Magnet operation will be non-destructive. The magnet will consist of a controlled power outer coil set which produces a 47 T platform field in a 225 mm diameter bore. Located within the outer coil set will be a 220 mm outer diameter capacitor powered insert coil. Using inertial energy storage a synchronous motor/generator will provide ac power to a set of seven ac-dc converters rated at 64 MW/80 MVA each. These converters will energize three independent coil circuits to create 170 MJ of field energy in the outer coil set at the platform field of 47 T. The insert will then be energized to produce the balance of the 100 T peak field using a 2.3 MJ, 18 kV (charged to 15 kV), 14.4 mF capacitor bank controlled with solid-state switches. The magnet will be the first of its kind and the first non-destructive, reusable 100 T pulsed magnet. The operation of the magnet will be described along with special features of its design and construction.

  12. Functional relationships among selenium concentrations in the diet, target tissues, and nondestructive tissue samples of two species of snakes.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, William A; Snodgrass, Joel W; Baionno, Jennifer A; Roe, John H; Staub, Brandon P; Jackson, Brian P

    2005-02-01

    Nondestructive sampling methods, such as removal of feathers for contaminant analysis, are desirable in ecological monitoring programs that seek to minimize the impacts of harvesting organisms. Although many reptiles are declining worldwide, nondestructive sampling techniques seldom have been employed for assessing contaminant exposure in these organisms. In this study, we examined the utility of nondestructive tissue sampling for assessing Se exposure in reptiles. We describe the functional relationships among dietary Se concentrations, target tissue Se concentrations, and Se concentrations in nondestructive tissue samples (blood and tail tissue biopsy) in two species of snakes that had been exposed to Se under very different experimental protocols. Using nonlinear regression, we found strong positive correlations (r2 > 0.92) in all comparisons among Se concentrations in nondestructive tissues, diet, and target tissues. Moreover, equations describing these relationships can be used to estimate concentrations of Se in diet and target organs, from known concentrations of Se in nondestructive tissue samples. Although the current paucity of toxicity data on reptiles precludes tests of our models, we demonstrate how the equations describing these relationships might be used to make predictions about Se accumulation in target organs for risk assessment. Future studies on reptiles that examine these relationships under different Se exposure conditions, and those that document physiological responses of reptiles to various concentrations of Se, will help to refine our models and test their efficacy for predicting health risk.

  13. PREFACE: III All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference on Innovations in Non-Destructive Testing (SibTest 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-01-01

    This issue of the journal is devoted to the research and studies presented at the III All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference on Innovations in Non-Destructive Testing SibTest. The conference was held in Altai, Russia, on 27-31 July 2015. The conference brought together experts from different countries and organizations who had a great opportunity to share knowledge during oral and poster presentations and to initiate discussions on topics that are of interest to the conference attendees. The conference aimed to discuss innovative methods and the application of advanced technologies in non-destructive testing. The conference also attempted to bring together university, academic and industrial science, to expand the co-operation of scientists from different countries in research and development and the commercialization of innovative technologies in non-destructive testing. The key themes of the conference were: ultrasonic and acoustic testing; electromagnetic and thermal testing; various types of radiation non-destructive testing; passive and active testing techniques. The conference organizers are the Institute of Non-Destructive Testing, Tomsk Polytechnic University, with the assistance of the Russian Society for Non-Destructive Testing and Technical Diagnostics, Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, National Research Tomsk State University, Moscow State Institute of Radio Engineering, Electronics and Automation.

  14. Nondestructive assay measurements of GNEP related materials

    SciTech Connect

    Santi, Peter A; Crooks, William J.; Geist, William H.; Gonzales, Robert; Helland, Carolyn A.; Jackson, Jay M.; Frame, Katherine C.; Martinez, Michael M.; Scherer, Caroylnn P.; Vo, Duc T.

    2008-06-12

    Because the reprocessing technologies that are currently being considered for the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) will keep various actinides commingled with plutonium at all times throughout the process, the resulting nuclear fuel that is intended for the Advanced Burner Reactor will present unique measurement challenges for the various Nondestructive Assay (NDA) techniques. In order to begin clarifying which types of materials and measurement scenarios that may exist within GNEP require the development of new measurement technologies, an initial series of measurements have been performed on materials with radiation properties that are similar to those being considered within GNEP.

  15. Nondestructive assay confirmatory assessment experiments: mixed oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lemming, J.F.

    1980-04-30

    The confirmatory assessment experiments demonstrate traceable nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of plutonium in mixed oxide powder using commercially available spontaneous-fission assay systems. The experiments illustrate two major concepts: the production of calibration materials using calorimetric assay, and the use of paired measurements for measurement assurance. Two batches of well-characterized mixed oxide powder were used to establish the random and systematic error components. The major components of an NDA measurement assurance technique to establish and maintain traceability are identified and their functions are demonstrated. 20 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  16. Nondestructive measurement of environmental radioactive strontium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiba, Shuntaro; Okamiya, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Saki; Tanuma, Ryosuke; Totsuka, Yumi; Murata, Jiro

    2014-03-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident was triggered by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. The main radioactivity concerns after the accident are I-131 (half-life: 8.0 days), Cs-134 (2.1 years), Cs-137 (30 years), Sr-89 (51 days), and Sr-90 (29 years). We are aiming to establish a new nondestructive measurement and detection technique that will enable us to realize a quantitative evaluation of strontium radioactivity without chemical separation processing. This technique is needed to detect radiation contained in foods, environmental water, and soil, to prevent us from undesired internal exposure to radiation.

  17. Automation for nondestructive inspection of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, M. W.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss the motivation and an architectural framework for using small mobile robots as automated aids to operators of nondestructive inspection (NDI) equipment. We review the need for aircraft skin inspection, and identify the constraints in commercial airlines operations that make small mobile robots the most attractive alternative for automated aids for NDI procedures. We describe the design and performance of the robot (ANDI) that we designed, built, and are testing for deployment of eddy current probes in prescribed commercial aircraft inspections. We discuss recent work aimed at also providing robotic aids for visual inspection.

  18. Microwave sensors for nondestructive testing of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasri, Tuami; Glay, David; Mamouni, Ahmed; Leroy, Yves

    1999-10-01

    Much of today's applications in nondestructive testing by microwaves use an automatic network analyzer. As a result, there is a need for systems to reduce the cost of this kind of techniques. Fortunately, now we can benefit from the cost reduction of the microwave components, induced by the considerable development of the communication market, around 2 and 10 GHz. So, it seems reasonable to think that microwaves will take advantage of this new situation to assert themselves in this application field. In this context we conceive and develop original equipment competitive in term of price and reliability.

  19. Nondestructive identification of the Bell diagonal state

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Jiasen; Yu Changshui; Song Heshan

    2011-03-15

    We propose a scheme for identifying an unknown Bell diagonal state. In our scheme the measurements are performed on the probe qubits instead of the Bell diagonal state. The distinct advantage is that the quantum state of the evolved Bell diagonal state ensemble plus probe states will still collapse on the original Bell diagonal state ensemble after the measurement on probe states; i.e., our identification is quantum state nondestructive. How to realize our scheme in the framework of cavity electrodynamics is also shown.

  20. Nondestructive Technique To Assess Embrittlement In Steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Sidney G.; Yost, William T.; Cantrell, John H.

    1990-01-01

    Recent research at NASA Langley Research Center led to identification of nondestructive technique for detection of temper embrittlement in HY80 steel. Measures magnetoacoustic emission associated with reversible motion of domain walls at low magnetic fields. Of interest to engineers responsible for reliability and safety of various dynamically loaded and/or thermally cycled steel parts. Applications include testing of landing gears, naval vessels, and parts subjected to heat, such as those found in steam-pipe fittings, boilers, turbine rotors, and nuclear pressure vessels.

  1. Nondestructive spectroscopic and imaging techniques for quality evaluation and assessment of fish and fish products.

    PubMed

    He, Hong-Ju; Wu, Di; Sun, Da-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, people have increasingly realized the importance of acquiring high quality and nutritional values of fish and fish products in their daily diet. Quality evaluation and assessment are always expected and conducted by using rapid and nondestructive methods in order to satisfy both producers and consumers. During the past two decades, spectroscopic and imaging techniques have been developed to nondestructively estimate and measure quality attributes of fish and fish products. Among these noninvasive methods, visible/near-infrared (VIS/NIR) spectroscopy, computer/machine vision, and hyperspectral imaging have been regarded as powerful and effective analytical tools for fish quality analysis and control. VIS/NIR spectroscopy has been widely applied to determine intrinsic quality characteristics of fish samples, such as moisture, protein, fat, and salt. Computer/machine vision on the other hand mainly focuses on the estimation of external features like color, weight, size, and surface defects. Recently, by incorporating both spectroscopy and imaging techniques in one system, hyperspectral imaging cannot only measure the contents of different quality attributes simultaneously, but also obtain the spatial distribution of such attributes when the quality of fish samples are evaluated and measured. This paper systematically reviews the research advances of these three nondestructive optical techniques in the application of fish quality evaluation and determination and discuss future trends in the developments of nondestructive technologies for further quality characterization in fish and fish products.

  2. Nondestructive evaluation techniques for enhanced bridge inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G.; Benson, S.; Durbin, P.; Del Grande, N.; Haskins, J.; Brown, A.; Schneberk, D.

    1993-10-01

    Nondestructive evaluation of bridges is a critical aspect in the US aging infrastructure problem. For example in California there are 26,000 bridges, 3000 are made of steel, and of the steel bridges, 1000 are fracture critical. California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), Federal Highway Administration, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are collaborating to develop and field NDE techniques to improve bridge inspections. We have demonstrated our NDE technologies on several bridge inspection applications. An early collaboration was to ultrasonically evaluate the steel pins in the E-9 pier on the San Francisco Bay Bridge. Following the Loma-Prieta earthquake in 1989 and the road way collapse at the E-9 pier, a complete nondestructive evaluation was conducted by Caltrans inspectors and several ultrasonic indications were noted. LLNL worked with Caltrans to help identify the source of these reflections. Another project was to digitally enhance high energy radiographs of bridge components such as cable end caps. We demonstrated our ability to improve the detection of corrosion and fiber breakage inside the end cap. An extension of this technology is limited view computer tomography (CT). We implemented our limited view CT software and produced cross-sectional views of bridge cables from digitized radiographic films. Most recently, we are developing dual band infrared imaging techniques to assess bridge decks for delaminations. We have demonstrated the potential of our NDE technology for enhancing the inspection of the country`s aging bridges.

  3. Nondestructive evaluation of thick concrete structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Dwight A.

    2015-03-01

    Concrete has been used in the construction of nuclear power plants (NPPs) due to three primary properties: its low cost, structural strength, and ability to shield radiation. Examples of concrete structures important to the safety of Light Water Reactor (LWR) plants include the containment building, spent fuel pool, and cooling towers. Use in these structures has made concrete's long-term performance crucial for the safe operation of commercial NPPs. Extending LWR operating period to 60 years and beyond will likely increase susceptibility and severity of known forms of degradation. New mechanisms of materials degradation are also possible. This creates the need to be able to nondestructively evaluate the current subsurface concrete condition of aging concrete material in NPP structures. The size and complexity of NPP containment structures and heterogeneity of Portland cement concrete make characterization of the degradation extent a difficult task. Specially designed and fabricated test specimens can provide realistic flaws that are similar to actual flaws in terms of how they interact with a particular nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technique. Artificial test blocks allow the isolation of certain testing problems as well as the variation of certain parameters. Representative large heavily reinforced concrete specimens would allow for comparative testing to evaluate the state-of-the-art NDE in this area and to identify additional developments necessary to address the challenges potentially found in NPPs.

  4. Moving Beyond Nondestructive Examination to Proactive Management of Materials Degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Leonard J.

    2010-07-01

    There is growing interest in life extensions to enable longer term operation (LTO) for both existing nuclear power plants (NPPs) and proposed new NPPs. In order to justify an initial license extension for the 40-60 year period, new non-destructive examination (NDE) approaches have been developed and deployed by NPP operators in their Aging Management Programs (AMPs). However, to achieve the goals of even longer term operation, and specifically for the USA in looking at methodologies to support subsequent license renewal periods (i.e., 60-80 years, and beyond), it is necessary to understand the capabilities of current NDE methods to detect, monitor and trend degradation and hence enable timely implementation of appropriate corrective actions. This paper discusses insights from past experience, the state-of-the-art, and current activities in the move towards providing a capacity for proactive management of materials degradation (PMMD) to support NPP LTO.

  5. Non-destructive Faraday imaging of dynamically controlled ultracold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajdacz, Miroslav; Pedersen, Poul; Mørch, Troels; Hilliard, Andrew; Arlt, Jan; Sherson, Jacob

    2013-05-01

    We investigate non-destructive measurements of ultra-cold atomic clouds based on dark field imaging of spatially resolved Faraday rotation. In particular, we pursue applications to dynamically controlled ultracold atoms. The dependence of the Faraday signal on laser detuning, atomic density and temperature is characterized in a detailed comparison with theory. In particular the destructivity per measurement is extremely low and we illustrate this by imaging the same cloud up to 2000 times. The technique is applied to avoid the effect of shot-to-shot fluctuations in atom number calibration. Adding dynamic changes to system parameters, we demonstrate single-run vector magnetic field imaging and single-run spatial imaging of the system's dynamic behavior. The method can be implemented particularly easily in standard imaging systems by the insertion of an extra polarizing beam splitter. These results are steps towards quantum state engineering using feedback control of ultracold atoms.

  6. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) for Inspection of Composite Sandwich Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Parker, F. Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Composite honeycomb structures are widely used in aerospace applications due to their low weight and high strength advantages. Developing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) inspection methods are essential for their safe performance. Flash thermography is a commonly used technique for composite honeycomb structure inspections due to its large area and rapid inspection capability. Flash thermography is shown to be sensitive for detection of face sheet impact damage and face sheet to core disbond. Data processing techniques, using principal component analysis to improve the defect contrast, are discussed. Limitations to the thermal detection of the core are investigated. In addition to flash thermography, X-ray computed tomography is used. The aluminum honeycomb core provides excellent X-ray contrast compared to the composite face sheet. The X-ray CT technique was used to detect impact damage, core crushing, and skin to core disbonds. Additionally, the X-ray CT technique is used to validate the thermography results.

  7. Characterization of pottery fragments by nondestructive neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Barilaro, Donatella; Crupi, Vincenza; Majolino, Domenico; Venuti, Valentina; Barone, Germana; Kockelmann, Winfried

    2005-11-15

    The aim of the present work is the characterization of pottery fragments coming from the town of Caltagirone (Sicily, Italy). The samples belong to very different historical periods, from 18th century B.C. to 16th century A.D., and have finely decorated surfaces. Time-of-flight neutron-diffraction measurements were performed in order to obtain a quantitative identification of the mineralogical composition of the samples. A good determination of the relative weight fractions of the phases was obtained using the Rietveld analysis method. The application of neutron-diffraction technique allowed us to carry out a detailed analysis in a nondestructive way, so intact large fragments were investigated without damaging the precious decoration on the surface.

  8. Physical model assisted probability of detection in nondestructive evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M.; Meeker, W. Q.; Thompson, R. B.

    2011-06-23

    Nondestructive evaluation is used widely in many engineering and industrial areas to detect defects or flaws such as cracks inside parts or structures during manufacturing or for products in service. The standard statistical model is a simple empirical linear regression between the (possibly transformed) signal response variables and the (possibly transformed) explanatory variables. For some applications, such a simple empirical approach is inadequate. An important alternative approach is to use knowledge of the physics of the inspection process to provide information about the underlying relationship between the response and explanatory variables. Use of such knowledge can greatly increase the power and accuracy of the statistical analysis and enable, when needed, proper extrapolation outside the range of the observed explanatory variables. This paper describes a set of physical model-assisted analyses to study the capability of two different ultrasonic testing inspection methods to detect synthetic hard alpha inclusion and flat-bottom hole defects in a titanium forging disk.

  9. Multi-wave and hybrid imaging techniques: a new direction for nondestructive testing and structural health monitoring.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuhua; Deng, Yiming; Cao, Jing; Xiong, Xin; Bai, Libing; Li, Zhaojun

    2013-11-27

    In this article, the state-of-the-art multi-wave and hybrid imaging techniques in the field of nondestructive evaluation and structural health monitoring were comprehensively reviewed. A new direction for assessment and health monitoring of various structures by capitalizing the advantages of those imaging methods was discussed. Although sharing similar system configurations, the imaging physics and principles of multi-wave phenomena and hybrid imaging methods are inherently different. After a brief introduction of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) , structure health monitoring (SHM) and their related challenges, several recent advances that have significantly extended imaging methods from laboratory development into practical applications were summarized, followed by conclusions and discussion on future directions.

  10. Thermometric- and Acoustic-Based Beam Power Monitor for Ultra-Bright X-Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Bentsen, Gregory; /Rochester U. /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    A design for an average beam power monitor for ultra-bright X-ray sources is proposed that makes simultaneous use of calorimetry and radiation acoustics. Radiation incident on a solid target will induce heating and ultrasonic vibrations, both of which may be measured to give a fairly precise value of the beam power. The monitor is intended for measuring ultra-bright Free-Electron Laser (FEL) X-ray beams, for which traditional monitoring technologies such as photo-diodes or scintillators are unsuitable. The monitor consists of a Boron Carbide (B{sub 4}C) target designed to absorb most of the incident beam's energy. Resistance temperature detectors (RTD) and piezoelectric actuators are mounted on the outward faces of the target to measure the temperature changes and ultrasonic vibrations induced by the incident beam. The design was tested using an optical pulsed beam (780 nm, 120 and 360 Hz) from a Ti:sapphire oscillator at several energies between 0.8 and 2.6 mJ. The RTDs measured an increase in temperature of about 10 K over a period of several minutes. The piezoelectric sensors recorded ringing acoustic oscillations at 580 {+-} 40 kHz. Most importantly, the amplitude of the acoustic signals was observed to scale linearly with beam power up to 2 mJ of pulse energy. Above this pulse energy, the vibrational signals became nonlinear. Several causes for this nonlinearity are discussed, including amplifier saturation and piezoelectric saturation. Despite this nonlinearity, these measurements demonstrate the feasibility of such a beam power measurement device. The advantage of two distinct measurements (acoustic and thermometric) provides a useful method of calibration that is unavailable to current LCLS diagnostics tools.

  11. Nondestructive determination of the depth of planar p-n junctions by scanning electron microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chi, J.-Y.; Gatos, H. C.

    1977-01-01

    A method was developed for measuring nondestructively the depth of planar p-n junctions in simple devices as well as in integrated-circuit structures with the electron-beam induced current (EBIC) by scanning parallel to the junction in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results were found to be in good agreement with those obtained by the commonly used destructive method of lapping at an angle to the junction and staining to reveal the junction.

  12. Rotational magnetic flux sensor with neural network for non-destructive testing

    SciTech Connect

    Enokizono, M.; Todaka, T.; Akita, M. . Faculty of Engineering); Nagata, S. . Faculty of Engineering)

    1993-11-01

    This paper presents a new non-destructive testing (NDT) method which utilizes rotational magnetic flux. In this system, the magnitude and phase value are measured and used to obtain information about defect. These values include the information about the shape or position of an unknown defect. The authors employ the neural network technique for estimation of a defect shape. The experimental results show the validity of the method.

  13. NON-DESTRUCTIVE FLAW DETECTION APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Stateman, M.J.; Holloway, H.R.

    1957-12-17

    An apparatus is described for the non-destructive detection of flaws in electrical conducting articles. The particular feature of the detection apparatus is that a flaw in the front or back of the test article will not be masked by signals caused by the passage of the end and front of the article through the detection apparatus. The present invention alleviates the above problem by mounting detection coils on directly opposite sides of the test passageway so that the axes of the pickup coils are perpendicular to the axis of an energizing coil through which the article is passed. A flaw in the article will cause a change in the voltage induced in one pickup coil, but passage of the end or front of the article will not produce unequal signals. The signals are compared in appropriate electrical circuitry to actuate a recorder only when unequal signals are present, indicating the presence of a flaw.

  14. Expert system technology for nondestructive waste assay

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, G.K.; Determan, J.C.

    1998-07-01

    Nondestructive assay waste characterization data generated for use in the National TRU Program must be of known and demonstrable quality. Each measurement is required to receive an independent technical review by a qualified expert. An expert system prototype has been developed to automate waste NDA data review of a passive/active neutron drum counter system. The expert system is designed to yield a confidence rating regarding measurement validity. Expert system rules are derived from data in a process involving data clustering, fuzzy logic, and genetic algorithms. Expert system performance is assessed against confidence assignments elicited from waste NDA domain experts. Performance levels varied for the active, passive shielded, and passive system assay modes of the drum counter system, ranging from 78% to 94% correct classifications.

  15. Nondestructive Assay Options for Spent Fuel Encapsulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, Stephen J.; Jansson, Peter

    2014-10-02

    This report describes the role that nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques and systems of NDA techniques may have in the context of an encapsulation and deep geological repository. The potential NDA needs of an encapsulation and repository facility include safeguards, heat content, and criticality. Some discussion of the facility needs is given, with the majority of the report concentrating on the capability and characteristics of individual NDA instruments and techniques currently available or under development. Particular emphasis is given to how the NDA techniques can be used to determine the heat production of an assembly, as well as meet the dual safeguards needs of 1) determining the declared parameters of initial enrichment, burn-up, and cooling time and 2) detecting defects (total, partial, and bias). The report concludes with the recommendation of three integrated systems that might meet the combined NDA needs of the encapsulation/repository facility.

  16. Nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques and procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    Report No. 4 is precursory to Report No. 5 {open_quotes}Determination of the Quantity and Locations of the Pu Currently Retained in the Cimarron Fuel Plant Systems{close_quotes} which will be presented upon completion of the decontamination of the Cimarron Plutonium Fuel Fabrication Facility. This report presents the Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) procedures which were developed and used by Sequoyah Fuels Corporation (successor to Kerr-McGee Nuclear Corporation) to measure equipment hold-up of plutonium materials for inventory purposes during operation of the plant. These procedures are also used to measure plutonium contamination on the equipment removed from the Material Balance Areas (MBA`s) during final decontamination. Report No. 5 will compare the measurements taken during this final decontamination period to previous inventory hold-up measurements, the date will be statistically analyzed, and a long-term assessment of the performance of the NDA equipment will be described.

  17. Preliminary nondestructive evaluation manual for the space shuttle. [preliminary nondestructive evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pless, W. M.

    1974-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) requirements are presented for some 134 potential fracture-critical structural areas identified, for the entire space shuttle vehicle system, as those possibly needing inspection during refurbishment/turnaround and prelaunch operations. The requirements include critical area and defect descriptions, access factors, recommended NDE techniques, and descriptive artwork. Requirements discussed include: Orbiter structure, external tank, solid rocket booster, and thermal protection system (development area).

  18. A study of the stress wave factor technique for nondestructive evaluation of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarrafzadeh-Khoee, A.; Kiernan, M. T.; Duke, J. C., Jr.; Henneke, E. G., II

    1986-01-01

    The acousto-ultrasonic method of nondestructive evaluation is an extremely sensitive means of assessing material response. Efforts continue to complete the understanding of this method. In order to achieve the full sensitivity of the technique, extreme care must be taken in its performance. This report provides an update of the efforts to advance the understanding of this method and to increase its application to the nondestructive evaluation of composite materials. Included are descriptions of a novel optical system that is capable of measuring in-plane and out-of-plane displacements, an IBM PC-based data acquisition system, an extensive data analysis software package, the azimuthal variation of acousto-ultrasonic behavior in graphite/epoxy laminates, and preliminary examination of processing variation in graphite-aluminum tubes.

  19. Nondestructive evaluation of composite materials - A design philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, J. C., Jr.; Henneke, E. G., II; Stinchcomb, W. W.; Reifsnider, K. L.

    1984-01-01

    Efficient and reliable structural design utilizing fiber reinforced composite materials may only be accomplished if the materials used may be nondestructively evaluated. There are two major reasons for this requirement: (1) composite materials are formed at the time the structure is fabricated and (2) at practical strain levels damage, changes in the condition of the material, that influence the structure's mechanical performance is present. The fundamental basis of such a nondestructive evaluation capability is presented. A discussion of means of assessing nondestructively the material condition as well as a damage mechanics theory that interprets the material condition in terms of its influence on the mechanical response, stiffness, strength and life is provided.

  20. Nondestructive inspection of General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) girth welds

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, M.A.H.; George, T.G.; Lynch, C.

    1998-12-31

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. The GPHS is fabricated using iridium capsules, TIG welded, to contain the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel pellet. GPHS capsules will be utilized in the upcoming Cassini mission to explore Saturn and its moons. The physical integrity of the girth weld is important to mission safety and performance. Since experience in the past had revealed a potential for initiation of small cracks in the girth weld overlap zone, a nondestructive inspection of the capsule weld is required. A ultrasonic method was used to inspect the welds of capsules fabricated for the Galileo mission. The instrument, transducer, and method used were state of the art at the time (early 1980s). The ultrasonic instrumentation and methods used to inspect the Cassini GPHSs was significantly upgraded from those used for the Galileo mission. GPHSs that had ultrasonic reflectors that exceeded the reject specification level were subsequently inspected with radiography to provide additional engineering data used to accept/reject the heat source. This paper describes the Galileo-era ultrasonic instrumentation and methods and the subsequent upgrades made to support testing of Cassini GPHSs. Also discussed is the data obtained from radiographic examination and correlation to ultrasonic examination results.

  1. A calibration procedure for sonic infrared nondestructive evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Morbidini, M.; Cawley, P.

    2009-07-15

    Sonic infrared is potentially a very attractive nondestructive evaluation technique offering the possibility of rapid testing of complex components. However, at present it is difficult to be sure that sufficient excitation has been applied so that a null (no defect present) result can be trusted. This paper presents a calibration method to improve the reliability of the technique. The method uses a measurement of the vibration of the component during the test, the vibration signal being processed to give a 'heating index' which is a measure of the ability of the vibration field to generate heat at any defects of interest that are present. The calculation of the heating index and the rationale for its formulation are described. The method is then applied on two sets of beamlike specimens with cracks of different sizes. The maximum temperature rise in successive tests on a given specimen is shown to correlate well with the maximum heating index, so validating the method. The threshold heating index required to reliably detect cracks as a function of crack size is discussed and practical calibration and test procedures are proposed.

  2. Photoacoustic Spectroscopy as a Non-destructive Tool for Quantification of Pesticide Residue in Apple Cuticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lixian; Wang, Yafei; Gao, Chunming; Huan, Huiting; Zhao, Binxing; Yan, Laijun

    2015-06-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS), the non-destructive method to detect residue of dimethyl-dichloro-vinyl-phosphate (DDVP) pesticide in a cuticle of apple, is described. After constructing the PA experimental setup and identifying three characteristic peaks of DDVP in the near ultraviolet region, the PA spectra of an apple cuticle contaminated with DDVP were collected. The artificial neural network method was then applied to analyze data quantitatively. The results show a correlation coefficient exceeding 0.99 and a detection limit of 0.2 ppm, which is within the national food safety standard for maximum residue limits for pesticides in food (GB 2763-2012). This fact and the non-destructive character of PAS make the approach promising for detection of pesticide residue in fruits.

  3. Proceedings of the Second Annual Symposium for Nondestructive Evaluation of Bond Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Mark J. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    Ultrasonics, microwaves, optically stimulated electron emission (OSEE), and computational chemistry approaches have shown relevance to bond strength determination. Nonlinear ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation methods, however, have shown the most effectiveness over other methods on adhesive bond analysis. Correlation to changes in higher order material properties due to microstructural changes using nonlinear ultrasonics has been shown related to bond strength. Nonlinear ultrasonic energy is an order of magnitude more sensitive than linear ultrasound to these material parameter changes and to acoustic velocity changes caused by the acoustoelastic effect when a bond is prestressed. Signal correlations between non-linear ultrasonic measurements and initialization of bond failures have been measured. This paper reviews bond strength research efforts presented by university and industry experts at the Second Annual Symposium for Nondestructive Evaluation of Bond Strength organized by the NDE Sciences Branch at NASA Langley in November 1998.

  4. Results from nondestructive assay measurement of the 296-P-34 Rotary mode core sampler HEPA filters

    SciTech Connect

    HOMAN, N.A.

    1999-06-04

    The objective of this data acquisition was to measure and identify the gamma emissions from the 296-P-34 exhauster high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. Data acquisition was accomplished by nondestructive assay (NDA), using a portable gamma spectrometer calibrated to the exhauster HEPA filter geometry. The NDA technique that was used is referenced in 40 CFR 61 Appendix B Method 114 and also addressed in HNF-EP-0528.

  5. Super-resolution image reconstruction for ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation.

    PubMed

    Li, Shanglei; Chu, Tsuchin Philip

    2013-12-01

    Ultrasonic testing is one of the most successful nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for the inspection of carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) materials. This paper discusses the application of the iterative backprojection (IBP) super-resolution image reconstruction technique to carbon epoxy laminates with simulated defects to obtain high-resolution images for NDE. Super-resolution image reconstruction is an approach used to overcome the inherent resolution limitations of an existing ultrasonic system. It can greatly improve the image quality and allow more detailed inspection of the region of interest (ROI) with high resolution, improving defect evaluation and accuracy. First, three artificially simulated delamination defects in a CFRP panel were considered to evaluate and validate the application of the IBP method. The results of the validation indicate that both the contrast-tonoise ratio (CNR) and the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) value of the super-resolution result are better than the bicubic interpolation method. Then, the IBP method was applied to the low-resolution ultrasonic C-scan image sequence with subpixel displacement of two types of defects (delamination and porosity) which were obtained by the micro-scanning imaging technique. The result demonstrated that super-resolution images achieved better visual quality with an improved image resolution compared with raw C-scan images.

  6. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Materials via Ultraviolet Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pugel, Betsy

    2008-01-01

    A document discusses the use of ultraviolet spectroscopy and imaging for the non-destructive evaluation of the degree of cure, aging, and other properties of resin-based composite materials. This method can be used in air, and is portable for field use. This method operates in reflectance, absorbance, and luminescence modes. The ultraviolet source is used to illuminate a composite surface of interest. In reflectance mode, the reflected response is acquired via the imaging system or via the spectrometer. The spectra are analyzed for organic compounds (conjugated organics) and inorganic compounds (semiconducting band-edge states; luminescing defect states such as silicates, used as adhesives for composite aerospace applications; and metal oxides commonly used as thermal coating paints on a wide range of spacecraft). The spectra are compared with a database for variation in conjugation, substitution, or length of molecule (in the case of organics) or band edge position (in the case of inorganics). This approach is useful in the understanding of material quality. It lacks the precision in defining the exact chemical structure that is found in other materials analysis techniques, but it is advantageous over methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, and chromatography in that it can be used in the field to assess significant changes in chemical structure that may be linked to concerns associated with weaknesses or variations in structural integrity, without disassembly of or destruction to the structure of interest.

  7. 12. VIEW OF THE NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING EQUIPMENT BEING USED TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF THE NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING EQUIPMENT BEING USED TO DETECT FLAWS IN FABRICATED COMPONENTS. (6/76) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  8. Non-Destructive Classification Approaches for Equilibrated Ordinary Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righter, K.; Harrington, R.; Schroeder, C.; Morris, R. V.

    2013-09-01

    In order to compare a few non-destructive classification techniques with the standard approaches, we have characterized a group of chondrites from the Larkman Nunatak region using magnetic susceptibility and Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  9. Nondestructive evaluation using dipole model analysis with a scan type magnetic camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jinyi; Hwang, Jiseong

    2005-12-01

    Large structures such as nuclear power, thermal power, chemical and petroleum refining plants are drawing interest with regard to the economic aspect of extending component life in respect to the poor environment created by high pressure, high temperature, and fatigue, securing safety from corrosion and exceeding their designated life span. Therefore, technology that accurately calculates and predicts degradation and defects of aging materials is extremely important. Among different methods available, nondestructive testing using magnetic methods is effective in predicting and evaluating defects on the surface of or surrounding ferromagnetic structures. It is important to estimate the distribution of magnetic field intensity for applicable magnetic methods relating to industrial nondestructive evaluation. A magnetic camera provides distribution of a quantitative magnetic field with a homogeneous lift-off and spatial resolution. It is possible to interpret the distribution of magnetic field when the dipole model was introduced. This study proposed an algorithm for nondestructive evaluation using dipole model analysis with a scan type magnetic camera. The numerical and experimental considerations of the quantitative evaluation of several sizes and shapes of cracks using magnetic field images of the magnetic camera were examined.

  10. Qualitative impedance-based nondestructive evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Lalande, F.; Rogers, C.A.

    1996-12-31

    A new qualitative non-destructive evaluation (NDE) sensor system to perform in-situ on-line monitoring of critical sections of structures and to provide a warning in the event of damage is the focus of this paper. The proposed technique described in this paper utilizes small PZT patches to provide high-frequency excitation, typically in the high kHz range, to the structure being monitored. At such high frequencies, the response is dominated by local modes and incipient damage like small cracks, loose connections, and delaminations, produce measurable changes in the vibration signature. The high frequencies also limit the actuation/sensing area. The effect of excitation frequency, geometry, material properties, structural joints, etc., on the size of the sensing/actuation area is still under investigation, but it is the authors observation that the sensing area, as a minimum, extends to the boundaries of the solid member to which the PZT is bonded. This limited sensing area helps to isolate the effect of damage on the signature from other far-field changes in mass-loading, stiffness and boundary conditions. The insensitivity to far-field boundary conditions comes at the cost of a limited sensing area. Therefore, this technique will be most useful in identifying and tracking damage in those areas of structures where high structural integrity must be assured at all times.

  11. Nondestructive evaluation of advanced ceramic composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lott, L.A.; Kunerth, D.C.; Walter, J.B.

    1991-09-01

    Nondestructive evaluation techniques were developed to characterize performance degrading conditions in continuous fiber-reinforced silicon carbide/silicon carbide composites. Porosity, fiber-matrix interface bond strength, and physical damage were among the conditions studied. The material studied is formed by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) of the matrix material into a preform of woven reinforcing fibers. Acoustic, ultrasonic, and vibration response techniques were studied. Porosity was investigated because of its inherent presence in the CVI process and of the resultant degradation of material strength. Correlations between porosity and ultrasonic attenuation and velocity were clearly demonstrated. The ability of ultrasonic transmission scanning techniques to map variations in porosity in a single sample was also demonstrated. The fiber-matrix interface bond was studied because of its importance in determining the fracture toughness of the material. Correlations between interface bonding and acoustic and ultrasonic properties were observed. These results are presented along with those obtained form acoustic and vibration response measurements on material samples subjected to mechanical impact damage. This is the final report on research sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program. 10 refs., 24 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Nondestructive evaluation of aircraft fuselage panels with electronic shearography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safai, Morteza

    1993-10-01

    With the growing number of aging passenger aircraft in the fleet, improve nondestructive inspection (NDI) techniques are being investigated to insure the reliability of the fuselage structures of these aircraft. The Boeing Commercial Airplane Group is evaluating nondestructive testing techniques for detecting disbonds in aircraft structures. One of the techniques under evaluation is electronic shearography. This paper describes the disbond inspection of aluminum lap joint coupons with electronic shearography. Inspection results from the simulated lap joint coupons, containing programmed defects, are reported.

  13. Characterization of Heat Treated Titanium-Based Implants by Nondestructive Eddy Current and Ultrasonic Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutlu, Ilven; Ekinci, Sinasi; Oktay, Enver

    2014-06-01

    This study presents nondestructive characterization of microstructure and mechanical properties of heat treated Ti, Ti-Cu, and Ti-6Al-4V titanium-based alloys and 17-4 PH stainless steel alloy for biomedical implant applications. Ti, Ti-Cu, and 17-4 PH stainless steel based implants were produced by powder metallurgy. Ti-6Al-4V alloy was investigated as bulk wrought specimens. Effects of sintering temperature, aging, and grain size on mechanical properties were investigated by nondestructive and destructive tests comparatively. Ultrasonic velocity in specimens was measured by using pulse-echo and transmission methods. Electrical conductivity of specimens was determined by eddy current tests. Determination of Young's modulus and strength is important in biomedical implants. Young's modulus of specimens was calculated by using ultrasonic velocities. Calculated Young's modulus values were compared and correlated with experimental values.

  14. Microwaving Blood as a Non-Destructive Technique for Haemoglobin Measurements on Microlitre Samples

    PubMed Central

    Basey-Fisher, Toby H.; Guerra, Nadia; Triulzi, Chiara; Gregory, Andrew; Hanham, Stephen M.; Stevens, Molly M.; Maier, Stefan A.; Klein, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    The non-destructive ex vivo determination of haemoglobin (Hgb) concentration offers the capability to conduct multiple red blood cell haematological measurements on a single sample, an advantage that current optical techniques are unable to offer. Here, a microwave method and device for the accurate and non-destructive determination of Hgb concentration in microlitre blood samples are described. Using broadband microwave spectroscopy, a relationship is established between the dielectric properties of murine blood and Hgb concentration that is utilized to create a technique for the determination of Hgb concentration. Subsequently, a microwave dielectric resonator-microfluidic system is implemented in the analysis of 52 murine samples with microlitre volumes and Hgb concentrations ranging from 0 to 17 g dL−1. Using the characterized relationship, independent and minimally invasive Hgb measurements are made on nine healthy mice as well as seven with mutations in the Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene that leads to colorectal cancer and consequently anaemia. PMID:24002989

  15. Non-destructive imaging of buried electronic interfaces using a decelerated scanning electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirohata, Atsufumi; Yamamoto, Yasuaki; Murphy, Benedict A.; Vick, Andrew J.

    2016-09-01

    Recent progress in nanotechnology enables the production of atomically abrupt interfaces in multilayered junctions, allowing for an increase in the number of transistors in a processor. However, uniform electron transport has not yet been achieved across the entire interfacial area in junctions due to the existence of local defects, causing local heating and reduction in transport efficiency. To date, junction uniformity has been predominantly assessed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, which requires slicing and milling processes that can potentially introduce additional damage and deformation. It is therefore essential to develop an alternative non-destructive method. Here we show a non-destructive technique using scanning electron microscopy to map buried junction properties. By controlling the electron-beam energy, we demonstrate the contrast imaging of local junction resistances at a controlled depth. This technique can be applied to any buried junctions, from conventional semiconductor and metal devices to organic devices.

  16. Non-destructive imaging of buried electronic interfaces using a decelerated scanning electron beam.

    PubMed

    Hirohata, Atsufumi; Yamamoto, Yasuaki; Murphy, Benedict A; Vick, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in nanotechnology enables the production of atomically abrupt interfaces in multilayered junctions, allowing for an increase in the number of transistors in a processor. However, uniform electron transport has not yet been achieved across the entire interfacial area in junctions due to the existence of local defects, causing local heating and reduction in transport efficiency. To date, junction uniformity has been predominantly assessed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, which requires slicing and milling processes that can potentially introduce additional damage and deformation. It is therefore essential to develop an alternative non-destructive method. Here we show a non-destructive technique using scanning electron microscopy to map buried junction properties. By controlling the electron-beam energy, we demonstrate the contrast imaging of local junction resistances at a controlled depth. This technique can be applied to any buried junctions, from conventional semiconductor and metal devices to organic devices. PMID:27586090

  17. Non-destructive imaging of buried electronic interfaces using a decelerated scanning electron beam

    PubMed Central

    Hirohata, Atsufumi; Yamamoto, Yasuaki; Murphy, Benedict A.; Vick, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in nanotechnology enables the production of atomically abrupt interfaces in multilayered junctions, allowing for an increase in the number of transistors in a processor. However, uniform electron transport has not yet been achieved across the entire interfacial area in junctions due to the existence of local defects, causing local heating and reduction in transport efficiency. To date, junction uniformity has been predominantly assessed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, which requires slicing and milling processes that can potentially introduce additional damage and deformation. It is therefore essential to develop an alternative non-destructive method. Here we show a non-destructive technique using scanning electron microscopy to map buried junction properties. By controlling the electron-beam energy, we demonstrate the contrast imaging of local junction resistances at a controlled depth. This technique can be applied to any buried junctions, from conventional semiconductor and metal devices to organic devices. PMID:27586090

  18. Complex Archaeological Prospection Using Combination of Non-destructive Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faltýnová, M.; Pavelka, K.; Nový, P.; Šedina, J.

    2015-08-01

    This article describes the use of a combination of non-destructive techniques for the complex documentation of a fabulous historical site called Devil's Furrow, an unusual linear formation lying in the landscape of central Bohemia. In spite of many efforts towards interpretation of the formation, its original form and purpose have not yet been explained in a satisfactory manner. The study focuses on the northern part of the furrow which appears to be a dissimilar element within the scope of the whole Devil's Furrow. This article presents detailed description of relics of the formation based on historical map searches and modern investigation methods including airborne laser scanning, aerial photogrammetry (based on airplane and RPAS) and ground-penetrating radar. Airborne laser scanning data and aerial orthoimages acquired by the Czech Office for Surveying, Mapping and Cadastre were used. Other measurements were conducted by our laboratory. Data acquired by various methods provide sufficient information to determine the probable original shape of the formation and proves explicitly the anthropological origin of the northern part of the formation (around village Lipany).

  19. Research in nondestructive evaluation techniques for nuclear reactor concrete structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Dwight; Smith, Cyrus

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the Materials Aging and Degradation (MAaD) Pathway of the Department of Energy's Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is to develop the scientific basis for understanding and predicting longterm environmental degradation behavior of material in nuclear power plants and to provide data and methods to assess the performance of systems, structures, and components (SSCs) essential to safe and sustained nuclear power plant operations. The understanding of aging-related phenomena and their impacts on SSCs is expected to be a significant issue for any nuclear power plant planning for long-term operations (i.e. service beyond the initial license renewal period). Management of those phenomena and their impacts during long-term operations can be better enable by improved methods and techniques for detection, monitoring, and prediction of SSC degradation. The MAaD Pathway R&D Roadmap for Concrete, "Light Water Reactor Sustainability Nondestructive Evaluation for Concrete Research and Development Roadmap", focused initial research efforts on understanding the recent concrete issues at nuclear power plants and identifying the availability of concrete samples for NDE techniques evaluation and testing. [1] An overview of the research performed by ORNL in these two areas is presented here.

  20. Nondestructive evaluation of ceramic candle filter with various boundary conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.L.; Kiriakidis, A.C.

    2005-06-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) using a dynamic characterization technique was conducted to study ceramic candle filters. Ceramic candle filters are hollow cylindrical structures made of porous ceramic materials used to protect gas turbine in coal-fired power plants. Deterioration and failure of ceramic filters occurs after being exposed to high-temperature and high-pressure operational environment over a period of time. This paper focuses on the development of an NDE method that can predict the in-situ structural stiffness of the candle filters while still being attached to the plenum. A combination of laboratory testing, theoretical analysis, and finite element method (FEM) simulations are presented. The candle filters were tested using a laser vibrometer/accelerometer setup with variable boundary restraints. A variable end-restraint Timoshenko beam equation was derived to determine the dynamic response of the candle filters with simulated in-situ boundary conditions. Results from the FEM simulation were verified with the analysis to determine the stiffness degradation of the candle filters as well as the boundary conditions. Results from this study show that the vibration characteristics can be used effectively to evaluate both the structural stiffness and the in-situ boundary restraints of the ceramic candle filters during field inspections.

  1. Nondestructive Evaluation of Metal Fatigue Using Nonlinear Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Safe-life and damage-tolerant design philosophies of high performance structures have driven the development of various methods to evaluate nondestructively the accumulation of damage in such structures resulting from cyclic loading. Although many techniques have proven useful, none has been able to provide an unambiguous, quantitative assessment of damage accumulation at each stage of fatigue from the virgin state to fracture. A method based on nonlinear acoustics is shown to provide such a means to assess the state of metal fatigue. The salient features of an analytical model are presented of the microelastic-plastic nonlinearities resulting from the interaction of an acoustic wave with fatigue-generated dislocation substructures and cracks that predictably evolve during the metal fatigue process. The interaction is quantified by the material (acoustic) nonlinearity parameter extracted from acoustic harmonic generation measurements. The parameters typically increase monotonically by several hundred percent over the fatigue life of the metal, thus providing a unique measure of the state of fatigue. Application of the model to aluminum alloy 2024-T4, 410Cb stainless steel, and IN100 nickel-base superalloy specimens fatigued using different loading conditions yields good agreement between theory and experiment. Application of the model and measurement technique to the on-site inspection of steam turbine blades is discussed.

  2. Nondestructive evaluation of weld defects by infrared thermography

    SciTech Connect

    Satonaka, Shinobu; Ohba, Hiroyasu; Shinozaki, Kenya

    1995-12-31

    In order to clarify the applicability of infrared thermography to the nondestructive evaluation of weld defects, an infrared measurement was conducted on the welds with various artificial defects. Two heating methods, a moving gas flame and a Joule effect by electric current flow, were used for the fast and large area inspection with readily interpretable images of defects. Finite element analysis was also used for the theoretical analyses of beat conduction and electric current flow, together with the development of imaging technique for the evaluation of the shape and size of defects. As the results of infrared measurements and theoretical analyses, the selection of heating method and the acquisition of infrared images were important for the clear image and precise measurement of weld defects. As for the clear images, the Joule effect heating was useful for the detection of open-to-the-surface defects, while the moving gas flame heating was available to the inner defect parallel to the surface. It was also clarified that the types of defects were identified by the distribution of high and low temperature regions. In the measurement of defect size, defect edges were evaluated by the positions with maximum temperature gradient in the moving gas flame heating, and with minimum second derivative of temperature in the Joule effect heating. The effective images for the precise measurement of defect size were obtained from the ones immediately after current flow in the Joule effect heating, and just before the arrival of gas flame beneath the defect.

  3. Synchronized Electronic Shutter System (SESS) for Thermal Nondestructive Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a new method for thermal nondestructive evaluation. This method uses a synchronized electronic shutter system (SESS) to remove the heat lamp's influence on the thermal data during and after flash heating. There are two main concerns when using flash heating. The first concern is during the flash when the photons are reflected back into the camera. This tends to saturate the detectors and potentially introduces unknown and uncorrectable errors when curve fitting the data to a model. To address this, an electronically controlled shutter was placed over the infrared camera lens. Before firing the flash lamps, the shutter is opened to acquire the necessary background data for offset calibration. During flash heating, the shutter is closed to prevent the photons from the high intensity flash from saturating the camera's detectors. The second concern is after the flash heating where the lamps radiate heat after firing. This residual cooling introduces an unwanted transient thermal response into the data. To remove this residual effect, a shutter was placed over the flash lamps to block the infrared heat radiating from the flash head after heating. This helped to remove the transient contribution of the flash. The flash lamp shutters were synchronized electronically with the camera shutter. Results are given comparing the use of the thermal inspection with and without the shutter system.

  4. Nondestructive Evaluation of Metal Fatigue Using Nonlinear Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantrell, John H.

    2009-03-01

    Safe-life and damage-tolerant design philosophies of high performance structures have driven the development of various methods to evaluate nondestructively the accumulation of damage in such structures resulting from cyclic loading. Although many techniques have proven useful, none has been able to provide an unambiguous, quantitative assessment of damage accumulation at each stage of fatigue from the virgin state to fracture. A method based on nonlinear acoustics is shown to provide such a means to assess the state of metal fatigue. The salient features of an analytical model are presented of the microelastic-plastic nonlinearities resulting from the interaction of an acoustic wave with fatigue-generated dislocation substructures and cracks that predictably evolve during the metal fatigue process. The interaction is quantified by the material (acoustic) nonlinearity parameter β extracted from acoustic harmonic generation measurements. The β parameters typically increase monotonically by several hundred percent over the fatigue life of the metal, thus providing a unique measure of the state of fatigue. Application of the model to aluminum alloy 2024-T4 and 410 Cb stainless steel specimens fatigued using different loading conditions yields good agreement between theory and experiment. Application of the model and measurement technique to the on-site inspection of steam turbine blades is discussed.

  5. Research in nondestructive evaluation techniques for nuclear reactor concrete structures

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Dwight; Smith, Cyrus

    2014-02-18

    The purpose of the Materials Aging and Degradation (MAaD) Pathway of the Department of Energy's Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is to develop the scientific basis for understanding and predicting longterm environmental degradation behavior of material in nuclear power plants and to provide data and methods to assess the performance of systems, structures, and components (SSCs) essential to safe and sustained nuclear power plant operations. The understanding of aging-related phenomena and their impacts on SSCs is expected to be a significant issue for any nuclear power plant planning for long-term operations (i.e. service beyond the initial license renewal period). Management of those phenomena and their impacts during long-term operations can be better enable by improved methods and techniques for detection, monitoring, and prediction of SSC degradation. The MAaD Pathway R and D Roadmap for Concrete, 'Light Water Reactor Sustainability Nondestructive Evaluation for Concrete Research and Development Roadmap', focused initial research efforts on understanding the recent concrete issues at nuclear power plants and identifying the availability of concrete samples for NDE techniques evaluation and testing. [1] An overview of the research performed by ORNL in these two areas is presented here.

  6. Nondestructive characterization of the elastic constants of fiber reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mal, Ajit K.; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    1993-04-01

    Composite structural components may be subjected to a variety of defects resulting in a sharp reduction in their load carrying capacity or even catastrophic failure. Thus, it is extremely important to have the means to monitor the degradation suffered by critical components of a structure for safe operation during its service life. A nondestructive method based on ultrasonics has recently been developed for the quantitative evaluation of composite structural components during service. The experimental part of the technique uses a two-transducer, pitch-catch type arrangement to generate a variety of elastic waves within the specimen immersed in water. The recorded reflection data are then analyzed by means of a theoretical model to back out the relevant properties. In this paper the method is applied to determine the stiffness constants of unidirectional graphite/epoxy materials. The measurements are shown to be efficient and sufficiently accurate so that it can be used for early detection of material degradation in composite structural elements during service.

  7. Non-destructive evaluation of anchorage zones by ultrasonics techniques.

    PubMed

    Kharrat, M; Gaillet, L

    2015-08-01

    This work aims to evaluate the efficiency and reliability of two Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) methods for damage assessment in bridges' anchorages. The Acousto-Ultrasonic (AU) technique is compared to classical Ultrasonic Testing (UT) in terms of defect detection and structural health classification. The AU technique is firstly used on single seven-wire strands damaged by artificial defects. The effect of growing defects on the waves traveling through the strands is evaluated. Thereafter, three specimens of anchorages with unknown defects are inspected by the AU and UT techniques. Damage assessment results from both techniques are then compared. The structural health conditions of the specimens can be then classified by a damage severity criterion. Finally, a damaged anchorage socket with mastered defects is controlled by the same techniques. The UT allows the detection and localization of damaged wires. The AU technique is used to bring out the effect of defects on acoustic features by comparing a healthy and damaged anchorage sockets. It is concluded that the UT method is suitable for local and crack-like defects, whereas the AU technique enables the assessment of the global structural health of the anchorage zones.

  8. Nondestructive Optical Determination of Fiber Organization in Intact Myocardial Wall

    PubMed Central

    SMITH, REBECCA M.; MATIUKAS, ARVYDAS; ZEMLIN, CHRISTIAN W.; PERTSOV, ARKADY M.

    2010-01-01

    Mapping the myocardial fiber organization is important for assessing the electrical and mechanical properties of normal and diseased hearts. Current methods to determine the fiber organization have several limitations: histological sectioning mechanically distorts the tissue and is labor-intensive, while diffusion tensor imaging has low spatial resolution and requires expensive MRI scanners. Here, we utilized optical clearing, a fluorescent dye, and confocal microscopy to create three-dimensional reconstructions of the myocardial fiber organization of guinea pig and mouse hearts. We have optimized the staining and clearing procedure to allow for the nondestructive imaging of whole hearts with a thickness up to 3.5 mm. Myocardial fibers could clearly be identified at all depths in all preparations. We determined the change of fiber orientation across strips of guinea pig left ventricular wall. Our study confirms the qualitative result that there is a steady counterclockwise fiber rotation across the ventricular wall. Quantitatively, we found a total fiber rotation of 105.7 ± 14.9° (mean ± standard error of the mean); this value lies within the range reported by previous studies. These results show that optical clearing, in combination with a fluorescent dye and confocal microscopy, is a practical and accurate method for determining myocardial fiber organization. PMID:18393296

  9. Destructive versus non-destructive methods for geochemical analyses of ceramic artifacts: comparison of portable XRF and ICP-MS data on Bronze Age ceramics from Failaka Island (Kuwait) and Bahrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stremtan, Ciprian; Ashkanani, Hasan; Tykot, Robert H.

    2013-04-01

    glass and MACS-3 pressed powder) were also measured to check for accuracy and precision. Our preliminary data shows that most of the major and trace elemental data acquired by both methods are consistent. Some transition metals (e.g. Y, Fe, and Mn) yielded overall lower values when measured with pXRF device (ranging from 27 to 60 % difference), while Ni and Ba showed systematically higher values (20 to 53 %). If samples are chosen properly for pXRF measurements (i.e. thoroughly cleaned, fine grained, well sorted) and the device is properly calibrated, the results are comparable with DCP-OES and ICP-MS data, thus being suitable to use for geochemical fingerprinting

  10. [Study on Non-Destructive Testing of Guqin Interior Structure Based on Computed Tomography].

    PubMed

    Zhao, De-da; Liu, Xing-e; Yang, Shu-min; Yu, Shenz; Tian, Gen-lin; Ma, Jian-feng; Wang, Qing-ping

    2015-12-01

    The wood property and production process affect quality of Guqin. At the same time, Guqin shape with cavity layout relations to the improvement of Guqin technology and inheritance, so it's very important to get the internal cavity characteristics and parameters on the condition of non-destructive the structure of Guqin. The image of interior structure in Guqin was investigated by overall scanning based on non-destructive testing technology of computed tomography, which texture of faceplate, connection method between faceplate and soleplate and interior defects were studied. The three-dimensional reconstruction of Guqin cavity was achieved through Mimics software of surface rendering method and put the two-dimensional CT tomography images convert into three-dimensional, which more complete show interior structural form in Guqin, and finally the parameter of cavity dimensions was obtained. Experimental research shows that there is significant difference in Guqin interior structure between Zhong-ni and Luo-xia type, in which the fluctuation of the interior surfacein Zhong-ni type's is larger than that in Luo-xia type; the interior volume of Zhong-ni typeis less than that of Luo-xia type, especially in Guqin neck. The accurate internal information of Guqin obtained through the computed tomography (CT) technology will provide technical support for the Guqin manufacture craft and the quality examination, as well as provide the reference in the aspect of non-destructive testing for other traditional precious internal structure research. PMID:26964242

  11. Nondestructive and rapid detection of potato black heart based on machine vision technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Fang; Peng, Yankun; Wei, Wensong

    2016-05-01

    Potatoes are one of the major food crops in the world. Potato black heart is a kind of defect that the surface is intact while the tissues in skin become black. This kind of potato has lost the edibleness, but it's difficult to be detected with conventional methods. A nondestructive detection system based on the machine vision technology was proposed in this study to distinguish the normal and black heart of potatoes according to the different transmittance of them. The detection system was equipped with a monochrome CCD camera, LED light sources for transmitted illumination and a computer. Firstly, the transmission images of normal and black heart potatoes were taken by the detection system. Then the images were processed by algorithm written with VC++. As the transmitted light intensity was influenced by the radial dimension of the potato samples, the relationship between the grayscale value and the potato radial dimension was acquired by analyzing the grayscale value changing rule of the transmission image. Then proper judging condition was confirmed to distinguish the normal and black heart of potatoes after image preprocessing. The results showed that the nondestructive system built coupled with the processing methods was accessible for the detection of potato black heart at a considerable accuracy rate. The transmission detection technique based on machine vision is nondestructive and feasible to realize the detection of potato black heart.

  12. Nuclear Technology. Course 32: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II. Module 32-1, Fundamentals of Ultrasonic Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Bruce

    This first in a series of six modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II introduces the student/trainee to the basic behavior of ultrasound, describes ultrasonic test equipment, and outlines the principal methods of ultrasonic testing. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1)…

  13. Nuclear Technology. Course 32: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) II. Module 32-3, Fundamentals of Magnetic Particle Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groseclose, Richard

    This third in a series of six modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II explains the principles of magnets and magnetic fields and how they are applied in magnetic particle testing, describes the theory and methods of magnetizing test specimens, describes the test equipment used, discusses the principles and…

  14. Cryogenic Storage Tank Non-Destructive Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work in non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of cryogenic storage tanks. Four large cryogenic tanks, constructed in 1965 with perlite insulation in the annular regions, are of concern. The construction of the tanks, two Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and two Liquid Hydrogen (LH2), are described. The loss rate for the LOX tank at Pad A is slightly higher than that for the one at Pad B. The concerns for the LH2 tank at Pad B are that there is a significantly higher boil-off rate than that at Pad A, that there is mold growth, indicative of increased heat flow, that there is a long down-time needed for repairs, and that 3 of 5 full thermal cycles have been used on the Pad B LH2 tank. The advantages and disadvantages of thermal imaging are given. A detailed description of what is visible of the structures in the infra-red is given and views of the thermal images are included. Missing Perlite is given as the probable cause of the cold spot on the Pad B LH2 tank. There is no indications of problematic cold regions on the Pad A LH2 tank, as shown by the thermal images given in the presentation. There is definite indication of a cold region on the Pad A LOX tank. There is however concerns with thermal imaging, as thermal images can be significantly effected by environmental conditions, image differences on similar days but with different wind speeds. Other effects that must be considered include ambient temperature, humidity levels/dew, and cloud reflections

  15. Nondestructive Evaluation Correlated with Finite Element Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdul-Azid, Ali; Baaklini, George Y.

    1999-01-01

    Advanced materials are being developed for use in high-temperature gas turbine applications. For these new materials to be fully utilized, their deformation properties, their nondestructive evaluation (NDE) quality and material durability, and their creep and fatigue fracture characteristics need to be determined by suitable experiments. The experimental findings must be analyzed, characterized, modeled and translated into constitutive equations for stress analysis and life prediction. Only when these ingredients - together with the appropriate computational tools - are available, can durability analysis be performed in the design stage, long before the component is built. One of the many structural components being evaluated by the NDE group at the NASA Lewis Research Center is the flywheel system. It is being considered as an energy storage device for advanced space vehicles. Such devices offer advantages over electrochemical batteries in situations demanding high power delivery and high energy storage per unit weight. In addition, flywheels have potentially higher efficiency and longer lifetimes with proper motor-generator and rotor design. Flywheels made of fiber-reinforced polymer composite material show great promise for energy applications because of the high energy and power densities that they can achieve along with a burst failure mode that is relatively benign in comparison to those of flywheels made of metallic materials Therefore, to help improve durability and reduce structural uncertainties, we are developing a comprehensive analytical approach to predict the reliability and life of these components under these harsh loading conditions. The combination of NDE and two- and three-dimensional finite element analyses (e.g., stress analyses and fracture mechanics) is expected to set a standardized procedure to accurately assess the applicability of using various composite materials to design a suitable rotor/flywheel assembly.

  16. Monte-Carlo Application for Nondestructive Nuclear Waste Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carasco, C.; Engels, R.; Frank, M.; Furletov, S.; Furletova, J.; Genreith, C.; Havenith, A.; Kemmerling, G.; Kettler, J.; Krings, T.; Ma, J.-L.; Mauerhofer, E.; Neike, D.; Payan, E.; Perot, B.; Rossbach, M.; Schitthelm, O.; Schumann, M.; Vasquez, R.

    2014-06-01

    Radioactive waste has to undergo a process of quality checking in order to check its conformance with national regulations prior to its transport, intermediate storage and final disposal. Within the quality checking of radioactive waste packages non-destructive assays are required to characterize their radio-toxic and chemo-toxic contents. The Institute of Energy and Climate Research - Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety of the Forschungszentrum Jülich develops in the framework of cooperation nondestructive analytical techniques for the routine characterization of radioactive waste packages at industrial-scale. During the phase of research and development Monte Carlo techniques are used to simulate the transport of particle, especially photons, electrons and neutrons, through matter and to obtain the response of detection systems. The radiological characterization of low and intermediate level radioactive waste drums is performed by segmented γ-scanning (SGS). To precisely and accurately reconstruct the isotope specific activity content in waste drums by SGS measurement, an innovative method called SGSreco was developed. The Geant4 code was used to simulate the response of the collimated detection system for waste drums with different activity and matrix configurations. These simulations allow a far more detailed optimization, validation and benchmark of SGSreco, since the construction of test drums covering a broad range of activity and matrix properties is time consuming and cost intensive. The MEDINA (Multi Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation) test facility was developed to identify and quantify non-radioactive elements and substances in radioactive waste drums. MEDINA is based on prompt and delayed gamma neutron activation analysis (P&DGNAA) using a 14 MeV neutron generator. MCNP simulations were carried out to study the response of the MEDINA facility in terms of gamma spectra, time dependence of the neutron energy spectrum

  17. Aluminum analysis in biological reference material by nondestructive methods

    SciTech Connect

    Landsberger, S.; Arendt, A.; Keck, B.; Glascock, M.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years, the determination of aluminum in biological materials has become the subject of many research projects. This interest stems from an increasing knowledge of the toxicity of aluminum to both aquatic and human life. Unfortunately, the detection of aluminum in biological materials has proven troublesome. The use of traditional chemical determinations has been shown to be very long and somewhat complicated. Several attempts have been made using neutron activation analysis, but an interfering reaction must be taken into account. In this experiment the rabbit irradiation facilities at the University of Missouri Research Reactor were used. The aluminum concentrations for eight certified reference materials are shown. When US National Bureau of Standards (NBS) value is given as certified or as an information value, results agree very well. The results for NBS 1572 citrus leaves agree, and NBS 1577 results agree very well with that of Glascock et al.

  18. Nondestructive imaging of shallow buried objects using acoustic computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Younis, Waheed A; Stergiopoulos, Stergios; Havelock, David; Grodski, Julius

    2002-05-01

    The nondestructive three-dimensional acoustic tomography concept of the present investigation combines computerized tomography image reconstruction algorithms using acoustic diffracting waves together with depth information to produce a three-dimensional (3D) image of an underground section. The approach illuminates the underground area of interest with acoustic plane waves of frequencies 200-3000 Hz. For each transmitted pulse, the reflected-refracted signals are received by a line array of acoustic sensors located at a diametrically opposite point from the acoustic source line array. For a stratified underground medium and for a given depth, which is represented by a time delay in the received signal, a horizontal tomographic 2D image is reconstructed from the received projections. Integration of the depth dependent sequence of cross-sectional reconstructed images provides a complete three-dimensional overview of the inspected terrain. The method has been tested with an experimental system that consists of a line array of four-acoustic sources, providing plane waves, and a receiving line array of 32-acoustic sensors. The results indicate both the potential and the challenges facing the new methodology. Suggestions are made for improved performance, including an adaptive noise cancellation scheme and a numerical interpolation technique.

  19. Nondestructive and Real-time Measurement of Moisture in Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Yuichi; Kawase, Kodo; Mizuno, Maya; Yamashita, Masatsugu; Otani, Chiko

    We constructed a THz transillumination system for water content monitoring, and we succeeded in measuring the moisture level in plants. Our measurement system uses a widely tunable coherent THz parametric oscillator source. As target we chose for this experiment a leaf of Japanese basil. The time variation of the water content in the leaf was monitored in two situations: a leaf freshly cut which is left to dry out, and the leaf of a water stressed plant. We found by real-time measurements that the water content of a cut leaf does not decrease uniformly in time. Also, the response to water stress is delayed by about 5-10 minutes. Furthermore, we demonstrated a moisture measurement using a transillumination THz imaging system. As target we chose for this experiment a leaf of Hedera helix held between two thin plastic sheets. The change of the moisture distribution is clearly visible. These results show that the method described here can be applied to nondestructive and real-time monitoring of water content in plants.

  20. Nondestructive evaluation of hydrogel mechanical properties using ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Jason M.; Myers, Ashley M.; Schluchter, Mark D.; Goldberg, Victor M.; Caplan, Arnold I.; Berilla, Jim A.; Mansour, Joseph M.; Welter, Jean F.

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of using ultrasound technology as a noninvasive, nondestructive method for evaluating the mechanical properties of engineered weight-bearing tissues was evaluated. A fixture was designed to accurately and reproducibly position the ultrasound transducer normal to the test sample surface. Agarose hydrogels were used as phantoms for cartilage to explore the feasibility of establishing correlations between ultrasound measurements and commonly used mechanical tissue assessments. The hydrogels were fabricated in 1–10% concentrations with a 2–10 mm thickness. For each concentration and thickness, six samples were created, for a total of 216 gel samples. Speed of sound was determined from the time difference between peak reflections and the known height of each sample. Modulus was computed from the speed of sound using elastic and poroelastic models. All ultrasonic measurements were made using a 15 MHz ultrasound transducer. The elastic modulus was also determined for each sample from a mechanical unconfined compression test. Analytical comparison and statistical analysis of ultrasound and mechanical testing data was carried out. A correlation between estimates of compressive modulus from ultrasonic and mechanical measurements was found, but the correlation depended on the model used to estimate the modulus from ultrasonic measurements. A stronger correlation with mechanical measurements was found using the poroelastic rather than the elastic model. Results from this preliminary testing will be used to guide further studies of native and engineered cartilage. PMID:21773854

  1. High resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy system for nondestructive evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. H.

    1991-01-01

    With increased demand for high resolution ultrasonic evaluation, computer based systems or work stations become essential. The ultrasonic spectroscopy method of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) was used to develop a high resolution ultrasonic inspection system supported by modern signal processing, pattern recognition, and neural network technologies. The basic system which was completed consists of a 386/20 MHz PC (IBM AT compatible), a pulser/receiver, a digital oscilloscope with serial and parallel communications to the computer, an immersion tank with motor control of X-Y axis movement, and the supporting software package, IUNDE, for interactive ultrasonic evaluation. Although the hardware components are commercially available, the software development is entirely original. By integrating signal processing, pattern recognition, maximum entropy spectral analysis, and artificial neural network functions into the system, many NDE tasks can be performed. The high resolution graphics capability provides visualization of complex NDE problems. The phase 3 efforts involve intensive marketing of the software package and collaborative work with industrial sectors.

  2. In-process nondestructive evaluation of the pultrusion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fecko, David L.; Heider, Dirk; Gillespie, John W., Jr.; Steiner, Karl V.

    1995-07-01

    Substantial growth potential for composite materials exists in the private sector, where high volume, low cost production is required. Post processing inspection can represent a significant percentage of the cost of composite products. Alternate ways of assuring quality must be examined. In-process inspection can be easily adapted to continuous composite manufacturing techniques such as the pultrusion process, enabling 100% inspection. Recent research efforts at the Center for Composite Materials has focused on ways of evaluating pultruded composites on-line by using ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques. The most accurate method to date is based upon Lamb wave velocity measurements. This inspection technique uses two transducers positioned at normal incidence to the composite in a through-transmission mode to generate and receive ultrasonic waves which propagate through the sample. Careful processing of the waveform data reveals the degree of porosity in the composite samples. A series of tests were performed in-situ on an actual laboratory scale pultrusion process which accurately predicted the porosity in a 6.4 mm multiplied by 3.2 mm (0.25' multiplied by 0.125') cross-section pultruded rod over a range of 0.5% to 12% void volume fraction.

  3. FIRST 100 T NON-DESTRUCTIVE MAGNET OUTER COIL SET

    SciTech Connect

    J. BACON; A. BACA; ET AL

    1999-09-01

    The controlled power outer coil set of the first 100 T non-destructive (100 T ND) magnet is described. This magnet will be installed as part of the user facility research equipment at the National High Magnetic Field laboratory (NHMFL) Pulsed Field Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 100 T ND controlled power outer coil set consists of seven nested, mechanically independent externally reinforced coils. These coils, in combination, will produce a 47 T platform field in a 225-mm diameter bore. Using inertial energy storage a synchronous motor/generator provides ac power to a set of seven ac-dc converters rated at 64 MW/80 MVA each. These converters energize three independent coil circuits to create 170 MJ of field energy in the outer coil set at the platform field of 47 T. Each coil consists of a multi-layer winding of high strength conductor supported by an external high strength stainless steel shell. Coils with the highest magnetic loads will utilize a reinforcing shell fabricated from highly cold worked 301 stainless steel strip. The autofrettage conditioning method will be used to pre-stress the coils and thereby limit conductor and reinforcement strains to the elastic range. The purpose of pre-stressing the coils is to attain a design life of 10,000 full field pulses. The operation and conditioning of the coil set will be described along with special features of its design, magnetic and structural analyses and construction.

  4. Nondestructive imaging of shallow buried objects using acoustic computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younis, Waheed A.; Stergiopoulos, Stergios; Havelock, David; Grodski, Julius

    2002-05-01

    The nondestructive three-dimensional acoustic tomography concept of the present investigation combines computerized tomography image reconstruction algorithms using acoustic diffracting waves together with depth information to produce a three-dimensional (3D) image of an underground section. The approach illuminates the underground area of interest with acoustic plane waves of frequencies 200-3000 Hz. For each transmitted pulse, the reflected-refracted signals are received by a line array of acoustic sensors located at a diametrically opposite point from the acoustic source line array. For a stratified underground medium and for a given depth, which is represented by a time delay in the received signal, a horizontal tomographic 2D image is reconstructed from the received projections. Integration of the depth dependent sequence of cross-sectional reconstructed images provides a complete three-dimensional overview of the inspected terrain. The method has been tested with an experimental system that consists of a line array of four-acoustic sources, providing plane waves, and a receiving line array of 32-acoustic sensors. The results indicate both the potential and the challenges facing the new methodology. Suggestions are made for improved performance, including an adaptive noise cancellation scheme and a numerical interpolation technique.

  5. Nondestructive Evaluation of Foam Insulation for the External Tank Return to Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James L.; Richter, Joel D.

    2006-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation methods have been developed to identify defects in the foam thermal protection system (TPS) of the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET). Terahertz imaging and backscatter radiography have been brought from prototype lab systems to production hardened inspection tools in just a few years. These methods have been demonstrated to be capable of detecting void type defects under many inches of foam which, if not repaired, could lead to detrimental foam loss. The evolution of these methods from lab tools to implementation on the ET will be discussed.

  6. Non-destructive Testing by Infrared Thermography Under Random Excitation and ARMA Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodnar, J. L.; Nicolas, J. L.; Candoré, J. C.; Detalle, V.

    2012-11-01

    Photothermal thermography is a non-destructive testing (NDT) method, which has many applications in the field of control and characterization of thin materials. This technique is usually implemented under CW or flash excitation. Such excitations are not adapted for control of fragile materials or for multi-frequency analysis. To allow these analyses, in this article, the use of a new control mode is proposed: infrared thermography under random excitation and auto regressive moving average analysis. First, the principle of this NDT method is presented. Then, the method is shown to permit detection, with low energy constraints, of detachments situated in mural paintings.

  7. Non-destructive mapping of grain orientations in 3D by laboratory X-ray microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, S. A.; Reischig, P.; Holzner, C.; Lauridsen, E. M.; Withers, P. J.; Merkle, A. P.; Feser, M.

    2015-10-01

    The ability to characterise crystallographic microstructure, non-destructively and in three-dimensions, is a powerful tool for understanding many aspects related to damage and deformation mechanisms in polycrystalline materials. To this end, the technique of X-ray diffraction contrast tomography (DCT) using monochromatic synchrotron and polychromatic laboratory X-ray sources has been shown to be capable of mapping crystal grains and their orientations non-destructively in 3D. Here we describe a novel laboratory-based X-ray DCT modality (LabDCT), enabling the wider accessibility of the DCT technique for routine use and in-depth studies of, for example, temporal changes in crystallographic grain structure non-destructively over time through ‘4D’ in situ time-lapse studies. The capability of the technique is demonstrated by studying a titanium alloy (Ti-β21S) sample. In the current implementation the smallest grains that can be reliably detected are around 40 μm. The individual grain locations and orientations are reconstructed using the LabDCT method and the results are validated against independent measurements from phase contrast tomography and electron backscatter diffraction respectively. Application of the technique promises to provide important insights related to the roles of recrystallization and grain growth on materials properties as well as supporting 3D polycrystalline modelling of materials performance.

  8. A new non-destructive readout by using photo-recovered surface potential contrast

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Le; Jin, Kui-juan; Gu, Jun-xing; Ma, Chao; He, Xu; Zhang, Jiandi; Wang, Can; Feng, Yu; Wan, Qian; Shi, Jin-an; Gu, Lin; He, Meng; Lu, Hui-bin; Yang, Guo-zhen

    2014-01-01

    Ferroelectric random access memory is still challenging in the feature of combination of room temperature stability, non-destructive readout and high intensity storage. As a non-contact and non-destructive information readout method, surface potential has never been paid enough attention because of the unavoidable decay of the surface potential contrast between oppositely polarized domains. That is mainly due to the recombination of the surface movable charges around the domain walls. Here, by introducing a laser beam into the combination of piezoresponse force microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy, we demonstrate that the surface potential contrast of BiFeO3 films can be recovered under light illumination. The recovering mechanism is understood based on the redistribution of the photo-induced charges driven by the internal electric field. Furthermore, we have created a 12-cell memory pattern based on BiFeO3 films to show the feasibility of such photo-assisted non-volatile and non-destructive readout of the ferroelectric memory. PMID:25381929

  9. Non-destructive mapping of grain orientations in 3D by laboratory X-ray microscopy

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, S. A.; Reischig, P.; Holzner, C.; Lauridsen, E. M.; Withers, P. J.; Merkle, A. P.; Feser, M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to characterise crystallographic microstructure, non-destructively and in three-dimensions, is a powerful tool for understanding many aspects related to damage and deformation mechanisms in polycrystalline materials. To this end, the technique of X-ray diffraction contrast tomography (DCT) using monochromatic synchrotron and polychromatic laboratory X-ray sources has been shown to be capable of mapping crystal grains and their orientations non-destructively in 3D. Here we describe a novel laboratory-based X-ray DCT modality (LabDCT), enabling the wider accessibility of the DCT technique for routine use and in-depth studies of, for example, temporal changes in crystallographic grain structure non-destructively over time through ‘4D’ in situ time-lapse studies. The capability of the technique is demonstrated by studying a titanium alloy (Ti-β21S) sample. In the current implementation the smallest grains that can be reliably detected are around 40 μm. The individual grain locations and orientations are reconstructed using the LabDCT method and the results are validated against independent measurements from phase contrast tomography and electron backscatter diffraction respectively. Application of the technique promises to provide important insights related to the roles of recrystallization and grain growth on materials properties as well as supporting 3D polycrystalline modelling of materials performance. PMID:26494523

  10. Nondestructive measurement of esophageal biaxial mechanical properties utilizing sonometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aho, Johnathon M.; Qiang, Bo; Wigle, Dennis A.; Tschumperlin, Daniel J.; Urban, Matthew W.

    2016-07-01

    Malignant esophageal pathology typically requires resection of the esophagus and reconstruction to restore foregut continuity. Reconstruction options are limited and morbid. The esophagus represents a useful target for tissue engineering strategies based on relative simplicity in comparison to other organs. The ideal tissue engineered conduit would have sufficient and ideally matched mechanical tolerances to native esophageal tissue. Current methods for mechanical testing of esophageal tissues both in vivo and ex vivo are typically destructive, alter tissue conformation, ignore anisotropy, or are not able to be performed in fluid media. The aim of this study was to investigate biomechanical properties of swine esophageal tissues through nondestructive testing utilizing sonometry ex vivo. This method allows for biomechanical determination of tissue properties, particularly longitudinal and circumferential moduli and strain energy functions. The relative contribution of mucosal-submucosal layers and muscular layers are compared to composite esophagi. Swine thoracic esophageal tissues (n  =  15) were tested by pressure loading using a continuous pressure pump system to generate stress. Preconditioning of tissue was performed by pressure loading with the pump system and pre-straining the tissue to in vivo length before data was recorded. Sonometry using piezocrystals was utilized to determine longitudinal and circumferential strain on five composite esophagi. Similarly, five mucosa-submucosal and five muscular layers from thoracic esophagi were tested independently. This work on esophageal tissues is consistent with reported uniaxial and biaxial mechanical testing and reported results using strain energy theory and also provides high resolution displacements, preserves native architectural structure and allows assessment of biomechanical properties in fluid media. This method may be of use to characterize mechanical properties of tissue engineered esophageal

  11. Nondestructive measurement of esophageal biaxial mechanical properties utilizing sonometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aho, Johnathon M.; Qiang, Bo; Wigle, Dennis A.; Tschumperlin, Daniel J.; Urban, Matthew W.

    2016-07-01

    Malignant esophageal pathology typically requires resection of the esophagus and reconstruction to restore foregut continuity. Reconstruction options are limited and morbid. The esophagus represents a useful target for tissue engineering strategies based on relative simplicity in comparison to other organs. The ideal tissue engineered conduit would have sufficient and ideally matched mechanical tolerances to native esophageal tissue. Current methods for mechanical testing of esophageal tissues both in vivo and ex vivo are typically destructive, alter tissue conformation, ignore anisotropy, or are not able to be performed in fluid media. The aim of this study was to investigate biomechanical properties of swine esophageal tissues through nondestructive testing utilizing sonometry ex vivo. This method allows for biomechanical determination of tissue properties, particularly longitudinal and circumferential moduli and strain energy functions. The relative contribution of mucosal–submucosal layers and muscular layers are compared to composite esophagi. Swine thoracic esophageal tissues (n  =  15) were tested by pressure loading using a continuous pressure pump system to generate stress. Preconditioning of tissue was performed by pressure loading with the pump system and pre-straining the tissue to in vivo length before data was recorded. Sonometry using piezocrystals was utilized to determine longitudinal and circumferential strain on five composite esophagi. Similarly, five mucosa–submucosal and five muscular layers from thoracic esophagi were tested independently. This work on esophageal tissues is consistent with reported uniaxial and biaxial mechanical testing and reported results using strain energy theory and also provides high resolution displacements, preserves native architectural structure and allows assessment of biomechanical properties in fluid media. This method may be of use to characterize mechanical properties of tissue engineered

  12. Nondestructive measurement of esophageal biaxial mechanical properties utilizing sonometry.

    PubMed

    Aho, Johnathon M; Qiang, Bo; Wigle, Dennis A; Tschumperlin, Daniel J; Urban, Matthew W

    2016-07-01

    Malignant esophageal pathology typically requires resection of the esophagus and reconstruction to restore foregut continuity. Reconstruction options are limited and morbid. The esophagus represents a useful target for tissue engineering strategies based on relative simplicity in comparison to other organs. The ideal tissue engineered conduit would have sufficient and ideally matched mechanical tolerances to native esophageal tissue. Current methods for mechanical testing of esophageal tissues both in vivo and ex vivo are typically destructive, alter tissue conformation, ignore anisotropy, or are not able to be performed in fluid media. The aim of this study was to investigate biomechanical properties of swine esophageal tissues through nondestructive testing utilizing sonometry ex vivo. This method allows for biomechanical determination of tissue properties, particularly longitudinal and circumferential moduli and strain energy functions. The relative contribution of mucosal-submucosal layers and muscular layers are compared to composite esophagi. Swine thoracic esophageal tissues (n  =  15) were tested by pressure loading using a continuous pressure pump system to generate stress. Preconditioning of tissue was performed by pressure loading with the pump system and pre-straining the tissue to in vivo length before data was recorded. Sonometry using piezocrystals was utilized to determine longitudinal and circumferential strain on five composite esophagi. Similarly, five mucosa-submucosal and five muscular layers from thoracic esophagi were tested independently. This work on esophageal tissues is consistent with reported uniaxial and biaxial mechanical testing and reported results using strain energy theory and also provides high resolution displacements, preserves native architectural structure and allows assessment of biomechanical properties in fluid media. This method may be of use to characterize mechanical properties of tissue engineered esophageal

  13. Characterization of Nitinol Laser-Weld Joints by Nondestructive Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlschlögel, Markus; Gläßel, Gunter; Sanchez, Daniela; Schüßler, Andreas; Dillenz, Alexander; Saal, David; Mayr, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Joining technology is an integral part of today's Nitinol medical device manufacturing. Besides crimping and riveting, laser welding is often applied to join components made from Nitinol to Nitinol, as well as Nitinol components to dissimilar materials. Other Nitinol joining techniques include adhesive bonding, soldering, and brazing. Typically, the performance of joints is assessed by destructive mechanical testing, on a process validation base. In this study, a nondestructive testing method—photothermal radiometry—is applied to characterize small Nitinol laser-weld joints used to connect two wire ends via a sleeve. Two different wire diameters are investigated. Effective joint connection cross sections are visualized using metallography techniques. Results of the nondestructive testing are correlated to data from destructive torsion testing, where the maximum torque at fracture is evaluated for the same joints and criteria for the differentiation of good and poor laser-welding quality by nondestructive testing are established.

  14. Application of Advanced Nondestructive Evaluation Techniques for Cylindrical Composite Test Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Richard E.; Roth, Donald J.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Two nondestructive methods were applied to composite cylinder samples pressurized to failure in order to determine manufacturing quality and monitor damage progression under load. A unique computed tomography (CT) image processing methodology developed at NASA Glenn Research was used to assess the condition of the as-received samples while acoustic emission (AE) monitoring was used to identify both the extent and location of damage within the samples up to failure. Results show the effectiveness of both of these methods in identifying potentially critical fabrication issues and their resulting impact on performance.

  15. Nondestructive indication of fatigue damage and residual lifetime in ferromagnetic construction materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomáš, Ivan; Kovářík, Ondřej; Vértesy, Gábor; Kadlecová, Jana

    2014-06-01

    A new revolutionary attitude toward investigation of fatigue damage in cyclically loaded steel samples is reported. The measurement is based on the method of magnetic adaptive testing, which--in contrast to traditional magnetic hysteresis investigations--picks up the relevant information from systematic measurement and evaluation of whole minor magnetic hysteresis loops and their derivatives. Satisfactory correlations between nondestructively measured magnetic descriptors and actual lifetime of the fatigued material were found. The presented method is able to serve as a powerful tool for indication of changes, which occur in the structure of the inspected objects during their industrial service lifetime, as long as they are manufactured from ferromagnetic materials.

  16. Determination of Flaw Type and Location Using an Expert Module in Ultrasonic Nondestructive Testing for Weld Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahriari, D.; Zolfaghari, A.; Masoumi, F.

    2011-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation is explained as nondestructive testing, nondestructive inspection, and nondestructive examination. It is a desire to determine some characteristic of the object or to determine whether the object contains irregularities, discontinuities, or flaws. Ultrasound based inspection techniques are used extensively throughout industry for detection of flaws in engineering materials. The range and variety of imperfections encountered is large, and critical assessment of location, size, orientation and type is often difficult. In addition, increasing quality requirements of new standards and codes of practice relating to fitness for purpose are placing higher demands on operators. Applying of an expert knowledge-based analysis in ultrasonic examination is a powerful tool that can help assure safety, quality, and reliability; increase productivity; decrease liability; and save money. In this research, an expert module system is coupled with ultrasonic examination (A-Scan Procedure) to determine and evaluate type and location of flaws that embedded during welding parts. The processing module of this expert system is implemented based on EN standard to classify welding defects, acceptance condition and measuring of their location via echo static pattern and image processing. The designed module introduces new system that can automate evaluating of the results of A-scan method according to EN standard. It can simultaneously recognize the number and type of defects, and determine flaw position during each scan.

  17. Quantitative non-destructive evaluation of composite materials based on ultrasonic parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James G.

    1987-01-01

    Research into the nondestructive evaluation of advanced reinforced composite laminates is summarized. The applicability of the Framers-Kronig equations to the nondestructive evaluation of composite materials is described.

  18. Skin secretion and shedding is a good source for non-destructive genetic sampling in the Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus).

    PubMed

    Guo, Wentao; Ao, Mingzhang; Li, Wei; Wang, Jianwen; Yu, Longjiang

    2013-01-01

    A non-destructive method of collecting samples for DNA analysis of the Chinese giant salamander is described and validated. DNA was extracted from the skin secretion and shedding using a Chelex-based method, and partial 12S rRNA gene sequences were amplified and sequenced. Sequences from skin secretion and shedding were cross-checked against the reported sequences from liver and were found to be identical. This method provides a non-destructive way of carrying out larger studies of the genetics of rare amphibians and may be of general use for genetic-based field studies of amphibians.

  19. Technologies for Nondestructive Evaluation of Surfaces and Thin Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The effort included in this project included several related activities encompassing basic understanding, technological development, customer identification and commercial transfer of several methodologies for nondestructive evaluation of surfaces and thin surface coatings. Consistent with the academic environment, students were involved in the effort working with established investigators to further their training, provide a nucleus of experienced practitioners in the new technologies during their industrial introduction, and utilize their talents for project goals. As will be seen in various portions of the report, some of the effort has led to commercialization. This process has spawned other efforts related to this project which are supported from outside sources. These activities are occupying the efforts of some of the people who were previously supported within this grant and its predecessors. The most advanced of the supported technologies is thermography, for which the previous joint efforts of the investigators and NASA researchers have developed several techniques for extending the utility of straight thermographic inspection by producing methods of interpretation and analysis accessible to automatic image processing with computer data analysis. The effort reported for this technology has been to introduce the techniques to new user communities, who are then be able to add to the effective uses of existing products with only slight development work. In a related development, analysis of a thermal measurement situation in past efforts led to a new insight into the behavior of simple temperature probes. This insight, previously reported to the narrow community in which the particular measurement was made, was reported to the community of generic temperature measurement experts this year. In addition to the propagation of mature thermographic techniques, the development of a thermoelastic imaging system has been an important related development. Part of the

  20. 46 CFR 98.25-97 - Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nondestructive testing. 98.25-97 Section 98.25-97 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in...

  1. 46 CFR 98.25-97 - Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nondestructive testing. 98.25-97 Section 98.25-97 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in...

  2. 46 CFR 98.25-97 - Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nondestructive testing. 98.25-97 Section 98.25-97 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in...

  3. 46 CFR 98.25-97 - Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nondestructive testing. 98.25-97 Section 98.25-97 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in...

  4. 46 CFR 98.25-97 - Nondestructive testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nondestructive testing. 98.25-97 Section 98.25-97 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in...

  5. Nondestructive Crack Detection in a Fuel System Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshti, Ajay; Ruffino, Norman; Wincheski, Russell; Prosser, William; Winfree, William; Russell, Richard; Bryson, Craig; Devries, Robert; Engel, James; Landy, James

    2010-01-01

    The presentation examines the background and objective of nondestructive crack detection, flow control valve assembly and poppet post flight evaluation, poppet properties. magnetic property characterization of lab data, NDE, eddy current inspection, simulation, eddy current criteria, poppet cycle testing and NDE criteria, and the use of ultrasonic surface wave for crack detection.

  6. An Instructional Program for Training Nondestructive Testing and Inspection Technicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Vernon L.

    This document, the second portion of a two-part study, is designed to provide a guide for the formal training of technicians for nondestructive testing and inspection. Information in the guide is based on results of the industrial survey discussed in Part I. The subject matter is intended to be both flexible and comprehensive, and instructional…

  7. 46 CFR 38.25-3 - Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL. 38.25-3 Section 38.25-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Periodic Tests and Inspections § 38.25-3 Nondestructive testing—TB/ALL. (a) Before nondestructive testing may...

  8. 46 CFR 38.25-3 - Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL. 38.25-3 Section 38.25-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Periodic Tests and Inspections § 38.25-3 Nondestructive testing—TB/ALL. (a) Before nondestructive testing may...

  9. 46 CFR 38.25-3 - Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL. 38.25-3 Section 38.25-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Periodic Tests and Inspections § 38.25-3 Nondestructive testing—TB/ALL. (a) Before nondestructive testing may...

  10. 46 CFR 38.25-3 - Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL. 38.25-3 Section 38.25-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Periodic Tests and Inspections § 38.25-3 Nondestructive testing—TB/ALL. (a) Before nondestructive testing may...

  11. 46 CFR 38.25-3 - Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nondestructive testing-TB/ALL. 38.25-3 Section 38.25-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Periodic Tests and Inspections § 38.25-3 Nondestructive testing—TB/ALL. (a) Before nondestructive testing may...

  12. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Results on Sikorsky Aircraft Survivable Affordable Reparable Airframe Program (SARAP) Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Anastasi, Robert F.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2004-01-01

    The Survivable, Affordable, Reparable Airframe Program (SARAP) will develop/produce new structural design concepts with lower structural weight, reduced manufacturing complexity and development time, increased readiness, and improved threat protection. These new structural concepts will require advanced field capable inspection technologies to help meet the SARAP structural objectives. In the area of repair, damage assessment using nondestructive inspection (NDI) is critical to identify repair location and size. The purpose of this work is to conduct an assessment of new and emerging NDI methods that can potentially satisfy the SARAP program goals.

  13. Application of magnetic resonance imaging to non-destructive void detection in watermelon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, K.; Miki, T.; Hayashi, S.; Kajikawa, H.; Shimada, M.; Kawate, Y.; Nishizawa, T.; Ikegaya, D.; Kimura, N.; Takabatake, K.; Sugiura, N.; Suzuki, M.

    A novel application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is described. The possibility of utilizing MRI for non-destructive quality evaluation of watermelons was studied. In this study, we applied MRI to the detection of internal voids in watermelons. In order to increase the measurement rate, we employed a one-dimensional projection profile method instead of observing a two-dimensional cross-sectional image. The void detection was carried out with this technique over 30 samples and 28 samples were correctly evaluated. The measurement rate was 900 ms per sample, which is an acceptable speed for a sorting machine in the agricultural field.

  14. Nondestructive Evaluation of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites Using Reflective Terahertz Imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Li, Wei; Cui, Hong-Liang; Shi, Changcheng; Han, Xiaohui; Ma, Yuting; Chen, Jiandong; Chang, Tianying; Wei, Dongshan; Zhang, Yumin; Zhou, Yufeng

    2016-06-14

    Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) imaging is considered a nondestructive evaluation method for composite materials used for examining various defects of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites and fire-retardant coatings in the reflective imaging modality. We demonstrate that hidden defects simulated by Teflon artificial inserts are imaged clearly in the perpendicular polarization mode. The THz TDS technique is also used to measure the thickness of thin fire-retardant coatings on CFRP composites with a typical accuracy of about 10 micrometers. In addition, coating debonding is successfully imaged based on the time-delay difference of the time-domain waveforms between closely adhered and debonded sample locations.

  15. Infrared reflection spectra in contactless nondestructive measurements of the electron density and mobility in indium phosphide

    SciTech Connect

    Il'in, M.A.; Karasev, P.Yu.; Denisova, N.A.; Rezvov, A.V.; Tyurina, S.V.

    1988-07-01

    On the basis of numerical calculations and experimental studies we analyze the possibilities of measuring the electrophysical parameters of indium phosphide by means of infrared reflection spectra at wavelengths ranging from 5 to 200 /mu/m. We demonstrate that contactless nondestructive measurements of the electron density in the range 10/sup 16/-10/sup 20/ cm/sup /minus/3/ can be made with a relative error not exceeding 15%, and of mobility with a relative error not exceeding 25%. A nomogram method is presented for rapid conversion of data form infrared reflection spectra into the parameters being measured.

  16. Physical interpretation and development of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation techniques applied to the quantitative characterization of textile composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James G.

    1993-01-01

    In this Progress Report, we describe our current research activities concerning the development and implementation of advanced ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation methods applied to the characterization of stitched composite materials and bonded aluminum plate specimens. One purpose of this investigation is to identify and characterize specific features of polar backscatter interrogation which enhance the ability of ultrasound to detect flaws in a stitched composite laminate. Another focus is to explore the feasibility of implementing medical linear array imaging technology as a viable ultrasonic-based nondestructive evaluation method to inspect and characterize bonded aluminum lap joints. As an approach to implementing quantitative ultrasonic inspection methods to both of these materials, we focus on the physics that underlies the detection of flaws in such materials.

  17. Multi-Wave and Hybrid Imaging Techniques: A New Direction for Nondestructive Testing and Structural Health Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yuhua; Deng, Yiming; Cao, Jing; Xiong, Xin; Bai, Libing; Li, Zhaojun

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the state-of-the-art multi-wave and hybrid imaging techniques in the field of nondestructive evaluation and structural health monitoring were comprehensively reviewed. A new direction for assessment and health monitoring of various structures by capitalizing the advantages of those imaging methods was discussed. Although sharing similar system configurations, the imaging physics and principles of multi-wave phenomena and hybrid imaging methods are inherently different. After a brief introduction of nondestructive evaluation (NDE), structure health monitoring (SHM) and their related challenges, several recent advances that have significantly extended imaging methods from laboratory development into practical applications were summarized, followed by conclusions and discussion on future directions. PMID:24287536

  18. Nondestructive Techniques to Evaluate the Characteristics and Development of Engineered Cartilage.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Joseph M; Lee, Zhenghong; Welter, Jean F

    2016-03-01

    In this review, methods for evaluating the properties of tissue engineered (TE) cartilage are described. Many of these have been developed for evaluating properties of native and osteoarthritic articular cartilage. However, with the increasing interest in engineering cartilage, specialized methods are needed for nondestructive evaluation of tissue while it is developing and after it is implanted. Such methods are needed, in part, due to the large inter- and intra-donor variability in the performance of the cellular component of the tissue, which remains a barrier to delivering reliable TE cartilage for implantation. Using conventional destructive tests, such variability makes it near-impossible to predict the timing and outcome of the tissue engineering process at the level of a specific piece of engineered tissue and also makes it difficult to assess the impact of changing tissue engineering regimens. While it is clear that the true test of engineered cartilage is its performance after it is implanted, correlation of pre and post implantation properties determined non-destructively in vitro and/or in vivo with performance should lead to predictive methods to improve quality-control and to minimize the chances of implanting inferior tissue.

  19. Nondestructive experimental determination of bimaterial rectangular cantilever spring constants in water

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, David E.; Kim, Dae Jung; Hope-Weeks, Louisa J.; Weeks, Brandon L.; Pitchimani, Rajasekar

    2008-08-15

    In order to address the issue of spring constant calibration in viscous fluids such as water, a new method is presented that allows for the experimental calibration of bimaterial cantilever spring constants. This method is based on modeling rectangular cantilever beam bending as a function of changing temperature. The temperature change is accomplished by heating water as it flows around the cantilever beams in an enclosed compartment. The optical static method of detection is used to measure the deflection of cantilever at the free end. Experimentally determined results are compared to Sader's method and to the Thermotune method most commonly used in cantilever calibrations. Results indicate that the new bimaterial thermal expansion method is accurate within 15%-20% of the actual cantilever spring constant, which is comparable to other nondestructive calibration techniques.

  20. Fast, quantitative, and nondestructive evaluation of hydrided LWR fuel cladding by small angle incoherent neutron scattering of hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Y.; Qian, S.; Littrell, K.; Parish, C. M.; Plummer, L. K.

    2015-05-01

    A nondestructive neutron scattering method to precisely measure the uptake of hydrogen and the distribution of hydride precipitates in light water reactor (LWR) fuel cladding was developed. Zircaloy-4 cladding used in commercial LWRs was used to produce hydrided specimens. The hydriding apparatus consists of a closed stainless-steel vessel that contains Zr alloy specimens and hydrogen gas. Following hydrogen charging, the hydrogen content of the hydrided specimens was measured using the vacuum hot extraction method, by which the samples with desired hydrogen concentrations were selected for the neutron study. Optical microscopy shows that our hydriding procedure results in uniform distribution of circumferential hydrides across the wall thickness. Small angle neutron incoherent scattering was performed in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Our study demonstrates that the hydrogen in commercial Zircaloy-4 cladding can be measured very accurately in minutes by this nondestructive method over a wide range of hydrogen concentrations from a very small amount (≈20 ppm) to over 1000 ppm. The hydrogen distribution in a tube sample was obtained by scaling the neutron scattering rate with a factor determined by a calibration process using standard, destructive direct chemical analysis methods on the specimens. This scale factor can be used in future tests with unknown hydrogen concentrations, thus providing a nondestructive method for determining absolute hydrogen concentrations.

  1. Fast, quantitative, and nondestructive evaluation of hydrided LWR fuel cladding by small angle incoherent neutron scattering of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Y.; Qian, S.; Littrell, K.; Parish, C. M.; Plummer, L. K.

    2015-02-13

    A non-destructive neutron scattering method to precisely measure the uptake of hydrogen and the distribution of hydride precipitates in light water reactor (LWR) fuel cladding was developed. Zircaloy-4 cladding used in commercial LWRs was used to produce hydrided specimens. The hydriding apparatus consists of a closed stainless steel vessel that contains Zr alloy specimens and hydrogen gas. Following hydrogen charging, the hydrogen content of the hydrided specimens was measured using the vacuum hot extraction method, by which the samples with desired hydrogen concentration were selected for the neutron study. Optical microscopy shows that our hydriding procedure results in uniform distribution of circumferential hydrides across the wall. Small angle neutron incoherent scattering was performed in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This study demonstrates that the hydrogen in commercial Zircaloy-4 cladding can be measured very accurately in minutes by this nondestructive method over a wide range of hydrogen concentrations from a very small amount ( 20 ppm) to over 1000 ppm. The hydrogen distribution in a tube sample was obtained by scaling the neutron scattering rate with a factor determined by a calibration process using standard, destructive direct chemical analysis methods on the specimens. This scale factor will be used in future tests with unknown hydrogen concentrations, thus providing a nondestructive method for absolute hydrogen concentration determination.

  2. Fast, quantitative, and nondestructive evaluation of hydrided LWR fuel cladding by small angle incoherent neutron scattering of hydrogen

    DOE PAGES

    Yan, Y.; Qian, S.; Littrell, K.; Parish, C. M.; Plummer, L. K.

    2015-02-13

    A non-destructive neutron scattering method to precisely measure the uptake of hydrogen and the distribution of hydride precipitates in light water reactor (LWR) fuel cladding was developed. Zircaloy-4 cladding used in commercial LWRs was used to produce hydrided specimens. The hydriding apparatus consists of a closed stainless steel vessel that contains Zr alloy specimens and hydrogen gas. Following hydrogen charging, the hydrogen content of the hydrided specimens was measured using the vacuum hot extraction method, by which the samples with desired hydrogen concentration were selected for the neutron study. Optical microscopy shows that our hydriding procedure results in uniform distributionmore » of circumferential hydrides across the wall. Small angle neutron incoherent scattering was performed in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This study demonstrates that the hydrogen in commercial Zircaloy-4 cladding can be measured very accurately in minutes by this nondestructive method over a wide range of hydrogen concentrations from a very small amount ( 20 ppm) to over 1000 ppm. The hydrogen distribution in a tube sample was obtained by scaling the neutron scattering rate with a factor determined by a calibration process using standard, destructive direct chemical analysis methods on the specimens. This scale factor will be used in future tests with unknown hydrogen concentrations, thus providing a nondestructive method for absolute hydrogen concentration determination.« less

  3. Nondestructive Assessment of Early Tooth Demineralization Using Cross-Polarization Optical Coherence Tomography.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hobin; Jiao, Jian J; Lee, Chulsung; Le, Michael H; Darling, Cynthia L; Fried, Daniel

    2010-07-01

    New methods are needed for the nondestructive measurement of tooth demineralization and remineralization to monitor the progression of incipient caries lesions (tooth decay) for effective nonsurgical intervention and to evaluate the performance of anticaries treatments such as chemical treatments or laser irradiation. Studies have shown that optical coherence tomography (OCT) has great potential to fulfill this role since it can be used to measure the depth and severity of early lesions with an axial resolution exceeding 10 µm, it is easy to apply in vivo and it can be used to image the convoluted topography of tooth occlusal surfaces. In this paper, a review of the use of polarization-sensitive-OCT for the measurement of tooth demineralization is provided along with some recent results regarding improved methods for the detection of caries lesions in the earliest stages of development. Automated methods of analysis were used to measure the depth and severity of demineralized bovine enamel produced using simulated caries models that emulate demineralization in the mouth. Significant differences in the depth and integrated reflectivity from the lesions were detected after only a few hours of demineralization. These results demonstrate that cross-polarization-OCT is ideally suited for the nondestructive assessment of early demineralization.

  4. Nondestructive Assessment of Early Tooth Demineralization Using Cross-Polarization Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hobin; Jiao, Jian J.; Lee, Chulsung; Le, Michael H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    New methods are needed for the nondestructive measurement of tooth demineralization and remineralization to monitor the progression of incipient caries lesions (tooth decay) for effective nonsurgical intervention and to evaluate the performance of anticaries treatments such as chemical treatments or laser irradiation. Studies have shown that optical coherence tomography (OCT) has great potential to fulfill this role since it can be used to measure the depth and severity of early lesions with an axial resolution exceeding 10 µm, it is easy to apply in vivo and it can be used to image the convoluted topography of tooth occlusal surfaces. In this paper, a review of the use of polarization-sensitive-OCT for the measurement of tooth demineralization is provided along with some recent results regarding improved methods for the detection of caries lesions in the earliest stages of development. Automated methods of analysis were used to measure the depth and severity of demineralized bovine enamel produced using simulated caries models that emulate demineralization in the mouth. Significant differences in the depth and integrated reflectivity from the lesions were detected after only a few hours of demineralization. These results demonstrate that cross-polarization-OCT is ideally suited for the nondestructive assessment of early demineralization. PMID:21660217

  5. Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation Techniques Applied to the Quantitative Characterization of Textile Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James G.

    1997-01-01

    In this Progress Report, we describe our further development of advanced ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation methods applied to the characterization of anisotropic materials. We present images obtained from experimental measurements of ultrasonic diffraction patterns transmitted through water only and transmitted through water and a thin woven composite. All images of diffraction patterns have been included on the accompanying CD-ROM in the JPEG format and Adobe TM Portable Document Format (PDF), in addition to the inclusion of hardcopies of the images contained in this report. In our previous semi-annual Progress Report (NAG 1-1848, December, 1996), we proposed a simple model to simulate the effect of a thin woven composite on an insonifying ultrasonic pressure field. This initial approach provided an avenue to begin development of a robust measurement method for nondestructive evaluation of anisotropic materials. In this Progress Report, we extend that work by performing experimental measurements on a single layer of a five-harness biaxial woven composite to investigate how a thin, yet architecturally complex, material interacts with the insonifying ultrasonic field. In Section 2 of this Progress Report we describe the experimental arrangement and methods for data acquisition of the ultrasonic diffraction patterns upon transmission through a thin woven composite. We also briefly describe the thin composite specimen investigated. Section 3 details the analysis of the experimental data followed by the experimental results in Section 4. Finally, a discussion of the observations and conclusions is found in Section 5.

  6. Non-invasive and non-destructive measurements of confluence in cultured adherent cell lines.

    PubMed

    Busschots, Steven; O'Toole, Sharon; O'Leary, John J; Stordal, Britta

    2015-01-01

    Many protocols used for measuring the growth of adherent monolayer cells in vitro are invasive, destructive and do not allow for the continued, undisturbed growth of cells within flasks. Protocols often use indirect methods for measuring proliferation. Microscopy techniques can analyse cell proliferation in a non-invasive or non-destructive manner but often use expensive equipment and software algorithms. In this method images of cells within flasks are captured by photographing under a standard inverted phase contract light microscope using a digital camera with a camera lens adaptor. Images are analysed for confluence using ImageJ freeware resulting in a measure of confluence known as an Area Fraction (AF) output. An example of the AF method in use on OVCAR8 and UPN251 cell lines is included. •Measurements of confluence from growing adherent cell lines in cell culture flasks is obtained in a non-invasive, non-destructive, label-free manner.•The technique is quick, affordable and eliminates sample manipulation.•The technique provides an objective, consistent measure of when cells reach confluence and is highly correlated to manual counting with a haemocytometer. The average correlation co-efficient from a Spearman correlation (n = 3) was 0.99 ± 0.008 for OVCAR8 (p = 0.01) and 0.99 ± 0.01 for UPN251 (p = 0.01) cell lines.

  7. Non-invasive and non-destructive measurements of confluence in cultured adherent cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Busschots, Steven; O’Toole, Sharon; O’Leary, John J.; Stordal, Britta

    2014-01-01

    Many protocols used for measuring the growth of adherent monolayer cells in vitro are invasive, destructive and do not allow for the continued, undisturbed growth of cells within flasks. Protocols often use indirect methods for measuring proliferation. Microscopy techniques can analyse cell proliferation in a non-invasive or non-destructive manner but often use expensive equipment and software algorithms. In this method images of cells within flasks are captured by photographing under a standard inverted phase contract light microscope using a digital camera with a camera lens adaptor. Images are analysed for confluence using ImageJ freeware resulting in a measure of confluence known as an Area Fraction (AF) output. An example of the AF method in use on OVCAR8 and UPN251 cell lines is included. • Measurements of confluence from growing adherent cell lines in cell culture flasks is obtained in a non-invasive, non-destructive, label-free manner. • The technique is quick, affordable and eliminates sample manipulation. • The technique provides an objective, consistent measure of when cells reach confluence and is highly correlated to manual counting with a haemocytometer. The average correlation co-efficient from a Spearman correlation (n = 3) was 0.99 ± 0.008 for OVCAR8 (p = 0.01) and 0.99 ± 0.01 for UPN251 (p = 0.01) cell lines. PMID:26150966

  8. Non-destructive flavour evaluation of red onion (Allium cepa L.) ecotypes: an electronic-nose-based approach.

    PubMed

    Russo, Mariateresa; di Sanzo, Rosa; Cefaly, Vittoria; Carabetta, Sonia; Serra, Demetrio; Fuda, Salvatore

    2013-11-15

    This work reports preliminary results on the potential of a metal oxide sensor (MOS)-based electronic nose, as a non-destructive method to discriminate three "Tropea Red Onion" PGI ecotypes (TrT, TrMC and TrA) from each other and the common red onion (RO), which is usually used to counterfeit. The signals from the sensor array were processed using a canonical discriminant function analysis (DFA) pattern recognition technique. The DFA on onion samples showed a clear separation among the four onion groups with an overall correct classification rate (CR) of 97.5%. Onion flavour is closely linked to pungency and thus to the pyruvic acid content. The e-nose analysis results are in good agreement with pyruvic acid analysis. This work demonstrated that artificial olfactory systems have potential for use as an innovative, rapid and specific non-destructive technique, and may provide a method to protect food products against counterfeiting.

  9. Acousto-ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation of materials using laser beam generation and detection. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Robert D.; Green, Robert E., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The acousto-ultrasonic method has proven to be a most interesting technique for nondestructive evaluation of the mechanical properties of a variety of materials. Use of the technique or a modification thereof, has led to correlation of the associated stress wave factor with mechanical properties of both metals and composite materials. The method is applied to the nondestructive evaluation of selected fiber reinforced structural composites. For the first time, conventional piezoelectric transducers were replaced with laser beam ultrasonic generators and detectors. This modification permitted true non-contact acousto-ultrasonic measurements to be made, which yielded new information about the basic mechanisms involved as well as proved the feasibility of making such non-contact measurements on terrestrial and space structures and heat engine components. A state-of-the-art laser based acousto-ultrasonic system, incorporating a compact pulsed laser and a fiber-optic heterodyne interferometer, was delivered to the NASA Lewis Research Center.

  10. Non-destructive examination of grouted waste

    SciTech Connect

    Benny, H.L.

    1994-11-18

    This data report contains the results of ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) and unconfined compressive strength (USC) measurements on a grouted simulant of 106AN tank waste. This testing program was conducted according to the requirements detailed in WHC-1993a. If successful, these methods could lead to a system for the remote verification of waste form quality. The objectives of this testing program were: to determine if a relationship exists between the velocity of ultrasonic compression waves and the unconfined compressive strength of simulated grouted waste, and if so, determine if the relationship is a valid method for grout quality assessment; and to determine if a relationship exists between the attenuation of wave amplitude and the age of test specimens. The first objective was met, in that a relationship between the UPV waves and USC was determined. This method appears to provide a valid measure of the quality of the grouted waste, as discussed in Sections 3.0 and 4.0. The second objective, to determine if the attenuation of UPV waves was related to the age of test specimens was partially met. A relationship does exist between wave amplitude and age, but it is doubtful that this method alone can be used to verify the overall quality of grouted waste. Section 2.0 describes the test methods, with the results detailed in Section 3.0. A discussion of the results are provided in Section 4.0.

  11. The non-destructive sizing of nanoparticles via particle-electrode collisions: Tag-redox coulometry (TRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, Neil V.; Zhou, Yi-Ge; Compton, Richard G.

    2012-02-01

    The use of anodic particle coulometry (APC) for the sizing and detection of oxidisable metal nanoparticles such as gold or silver have previously been shown to be reliable, albeit destructive. For the first time, the voltammetric sizing and detection of nanoparticles has been accomplished non-destructively, via the reduction of electroactively-tagged silver nanoparticles during particle impacts. Tag-redox coulometry (TRC) thus significantly expands the scope of nanoparticle sizing by particle-impact methods.

  12. Phenomenological and mechanics aspects of nondestructive evaluation and characterization by sound and ultrasound of material and fracture properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, L. S. W.

    1982-01-01

    Developments in fracture mechanics and elastic wave theory enhance the understanding of many physical phenomena in a mathematical context. Available literature in the material, and fracture characterization by NDT, and the related mathematical methods in mechanics that provide fundamental underlying principles for its interpretation and evaluation are reviewed. Information on the energy release mechanism of defects and the interaction of microstructures within the material is basic in the formulation of the mechanics problems that supply guidance for nondestructive evaluation (NDE).

  13. NDE: An effective approach to improved reliability and safety. A technology survey. [nondestructive testing of aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. L., Jr.; Stuhrke, W. F.

    1976-01-01

    Technical abstracts are presented for about 100 significant documents relating to nondestructive testing of aircraft structures or related structural testing and the reliability of the more commonly used evaluation methods. Particular attention is directed toward acoustic emission; liquid penetrant; magnetic particle; ultrasonics; eddy current; and radiography. The introduction of the report includes an overview of the state-of-the-art represented in the documents that have been abstracted.

  14. Hyperspectral imaging for nondestructive evaluation of tomatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Machine vision methods for quality and defect evaluation of tomatoes have been studied for online sorting and robotic harvesting applications. We investigated the use of a hyperspectral imaging system for quality evaluation and defect detection for tomatoes. Hyperspectral reflectance images were a...

  15. An assessment of nondestructive testing technologies for chemical weapons monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, T.T.

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), with the US Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center (CRDEC) under the sponsorship of the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA), completed testing of Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) technology on live agent systems. The tests were conducted at Tooele Army Depot during August 1992. The Nondestructive Evaluation systems were tested for potential use in verifying chemical treaty requirements. Five technologies, two neutron and three acoustic, were developed at DOE laboratories. Two systems from the United Kingdom (one neutron and one acoustic) were also included in the field trials. All systems tested showed the ability to distinguish among the VX, GB, and Mustard. Three of the systems (two acoustic and one neutron) were used by On-Site Inspection Agency (OSIA) personnel.

  16. Non-destructive techniques based on eddy current testing.

    PubMed

    García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future.

  17. Infrared Thermography for Temperature Measurement and Non-Destructive Testing

    PubMed Central

    Usamentiaga, Rubèn; Venegas, Pablo; Guerediaga, Jon; Vega, Laura; Molleda, Julio; Bulnes, Francisco G.

    2014-01-01

    The intensity of the infrared radiation emitted by objects is mainly a function of their temperature. In infrared thermography, this feature is used for multiple purposes: as a health indicator in medical applications, as a sign of malfunction in mechanical and electrical maintenance or as an indicator of heat loss in buildings. This paper presents a review of infrared thermography especially focused on two applications: temperature measurement and non-destructive testing, two of the main fields where infrared thermography-based sensors are used. A general introduction to infrared thermography and the common procedures for temperature measurement and non-destructive testing are presented. Furthermore, developments in these fields and recent advances are reviewed. PMID:25014096

  18. Nondestructive damage evaluation in ceramic matrix composites for aerospace applications.

    PubMed

    Dassios, Konstantinos G; Kordatos, Evangelos Z; Aggelis, Dimitrios G; Matikas, Theodore E

    2013-01-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) and acoustic emission (AE) are the two major nondestructive methodologies for evaluating damage in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) for aerospace applications. The two techniques are applied herein to assess and monitor damage formation and evolution in a SiC-fiber reinforced CMC loaded under cyclic and fatigue loading. The paper explains how IRT and AE can be used for the assessment of the material's performance under fatigue. IRT and AE parameters are specifically used for the characterization of the complex damage mechanisms that occur during CMC fracture, and they enable the identification of the micromechanical processes that control material failure, mainly crack formation and propagation. Additionally, these nondestructive parameters help in early prediction of the residual life of the material and in establishing the fatigue limit of materials rapidly and accurately.

  19. Nondestructive Measurement of Orbital Angular Momentum for an Electron Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larocque, Hugo; Bouchard, Frédéric; Grillo, Vincenzo; Sit, Alicia; Frabboni, Stefano; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Padgett, Miles J.; Boyd, Robert W.; Karimi, Ebrahim

    2016-10-01

    Free electrons with a helical phase front, referred to as "twisted" electrons, possess an orbital angular momentum (OAM) and, hence, a quantized magnetic dipole moment along their propagation direction. This intrinsic magnetic moment can be used to probe material properties. Twisted electrons thus have numerous potential applications in materials science. Measuring this quantity often relies on a series of projective measurements that subsequently change the OAM carried by the electrons. In this Letter, we propose a nondestructive way of measuring an electron beam's OAM through the interaction of this associated magnetic dipole with a conductive loop. Such an interaction results in the generation of induced currents within the loop, which are found to be directly proportional to the electron's OAM value. Moreover, the electron experiences no OAM variations and only minimal energy losses upon the measurement, and, hence, the nondestructive nature of the proposed technique.

  20. Magnetic field exposure in a nondestructive testing operation.

    PubMed

    Lippert, Julia F; Lacey, Steven E; Kennedy, Kathleen J; Esmen, Nurtan A; Buchanich, Jeanine M; Marsh, Gary M

    2007-01-01

    Nondestructive testing is any technique used to inspect the integrity of a manufactured item without diminishing its future usefulness. Magnetic particle inspection is one type of nondestructive testing that uses electromagnetism in the inspection procedure, thus potentially exposing the operator to magnetic fields. During magnetic particle inspection, investigators took peak magnetic field measurements of 8 turbine engine shafts at a turbine engine overhaul and repair center. They recorded 95 peak magnetic field measurements, ranging from < 0.1 to 29.27 mT. The exposure values measured were among the highest reported in the occupational setting. Further work is needed to characterize magnetic field exposures in magnetic particle inspection operations--in particular, by differentiating magnetic field magnitude by current frequency--and to understand exposure as it relates to different types of magnetic particle inspection devices.

  1. Nondestructive Damage Evaluation in Ceramic Matrix Composites for Aerospace Applications

    PubMed Central

    Dassios, Konstantinos G.; Kordatos, Evangelos Z.; Aggelis, Dimitrios G.; Matikas, Theodore E.

    2013-01-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) and acoustic emission (AE) are the two major nondestructive methodologies for evaluating damage in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) for aerospace applications. The two techniques are applied herein to assess and monitor damage formation and evolution in a SiC-fiber reinforced CMC loaded under cyclic and fatigue loading. The paper explains how IRT and AE can be used for the assessment of the material's performance under fatigue. IRT and AE parameters are specifically used for the characterization of the complex damage mechanisms that occur during CMC fracture, and they enable the identification of the micromechanical processes that control material failure, mainly crack formation and propagation. Additionally, these nondestructive parameters help in early prediction of the residual life of the material and in establishing the fatigue limit of materials rapidly and accurately. PMID:23935428

  2. Nondestructive Testing Qualification of Main Circulatory Tube Pipes DU 500

    SciTech Connect

    Tabakova, Bojana M.; Tzokov, Petio

    2004-07-01

    The criteria for safe operation of nuclear energetic installations is given a higher priority in the policy of Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant. An efficient non-destructive inspection is the key point for the safe service. Kozloduy NPP keeps on making investments in equipment and qualification of specialists in this field. The processes of qualification of the NDT components, important for the nuclear and radiation safety, make considerable improvement in Kozloduy NPP, thanks to the accumulated in the years experience in the activities of NDT inspection qualification, and to the help of our partners Serco Assurance and the Institute of Rzes. The results obtained by ultrasonic non-destructive inspection of circulation tube mains DU 500 WWER 440 type are under discussion in this report. (authors)

  3. Non-Destructive Techniques Based on Eddy Current Testing

    PubMed Central

    García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future. PMID:22163754

  4. Evaluation of an electric field sensor for nondestructive material inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyanasundaram, Kayatri; Arunachalam, Kavitha

    2013-01-01

    An electric field sensor is fabricated on a 125 micron thick flexible dielectric substrate for electromagnetic (EM) nondestructive material inspection at 915 MHz. The sensor consists of an electrically short dipole antenna and a radio frequency (RF) diode detector connected to a pair of high impedance screen printed carbon lines. The DC component of the rectified diode voltage conveyed across the high impedance lines is measured using a data acquisition circuit. Sensor measurements are validated with simulated data for a conformal patch antenna operating at 915 MHz. Sensor performance for EM nondestructive testing (NDT) is evaluated using phantom defects in low loss dielectric slabs. Preliminary results indicate sensor utility for EM NDT and support further testing on realistic defects.

  5. Materials and Nondestructive Evaluation Laboratoriers: User Test Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaschl, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    The Materials and Nondestructive Evaluation Laboratory process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users. The Materials and Nondestructive Evaluation Laboratory Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non- NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware developers. It is intended to assist their project engineering personnel in materials analysis planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the analysis process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, products, and inputs necessary to define scope of analysis, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  6. Enhancing quality control in transportation construction through nondestructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halabe, Udaya B.; Martinelli, David R.; Petro, Samer H.

    1999-02-01

    This paper addresses the growing need for modern nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for quality control during the construction/fabrication stages of transportation infrastructure. While the use of NDE techniques for in-service monitoring of infrastructure is increasing, very little effort is currently being made to use NDE for construction quality control. This paper proposes the use of modern NDE techniques for inspection of materials and quality control during construction of transportation infrastructure. The paper also discuses the use of conventional nondestructive and mildly destructive techniques. Examples of potential NDE applications for quality control in transportation construction have been presented. A short discussion on current impediments to NDE field use and possible solutions has been included.

  7. Review of materials property data for nondestructive characterization of pipeline materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, Lucinda Jeanette

    The oil and gas industry relies on an aging infrastructure of pipeline for transportation and distribution of product; therefore, it is important to assess the condition of the pipeline, using accurate material and mechanical properties, to ensure failures are minimized. Nondestructive evaluation techniques are currently being used to assess pipeline, but necessary mechanical properties (yield strength, tensile strength, fracture toughness, and ductile-to-brittle transition temperature) are not yet able to be adequately characterized by these methods. There are many issues to consider when addressing this problem. There is variability within the manufacturing processes due to simple inaccuracies in the processes themselves, and changes in practices over the years. There is also variability in the destructive techniques used for assessment of mechanical properties before the pipe is put into service. Current focus in the industry tends to be on pipe installed in the 1950's and 1960's because about half of the pipe currently in service was installed during these time periods, but it is equally important to verify the properties of modern pipe Therefore, nondestructive methods of measurement are commonly used for determining defect severity (e.g. magnetic flux leakage and ultrasonic) are being explored to determine what other properties can be measured to relate to mechanical properties. For future activities, it is advised to compare the accuracies of both destructive and nondestructive methods of determining properties, should some method of nondestructive evaluation become a more viable technique for mechanical property measurements, either directly or indirectly. The relationships between what can be measured (chemical content, grain size, microstructure, hardness, coercivity, permeability, etc) and the mechanical properties desired listed previously, show that there is a strong relationship between hardness and yield strength. This is already well known in the

  8. Rapid non-destructive assessment of pork edible quality by using VIS/NIR spectroscopic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Leilei; Peng, Yankun; Dhakal, Sagar; Song, Yulin; Zhao, Juan; Zhao, Songwei

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of this research were to develop a rapid non-destructive method to evaluate the edible quality of chilled pork. A total of 42 samples were packed in seal plastic bags and stored at 4°C for 1 to 21 days. Reflectance spectra were collected from visible/near-infrared spectroscopy system in the range of 400nm to 1100nm. Microbiological, physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics such as the total viable counts (TVC), total volatile basic-nitrogen (TVB-N), pH value and color parameters L* were determined to appraise pork edible quality. Savitzky-Golay (SG) based on five and eleven smoothing points, Multiple Scattering Correlation (MSC) and first derivative pre-processing methods were employed to eliminate the spectra noise. The support vector machines (SVM) and partial least square regression (PLSR) were applied to establish prediction models using the de-noised spectra. A linear correlation was developed between the VIS/NIR spectroscopy and parameters such as TVC, TVB-N, pH and color parameter L* indexes, which could gain prediction results with Rv of 0.931, 0.844, 0.805 and 0.852, respectively. The results demonstrated that VIS/NIR spectroscopy technique combined with SVM possesses a powerful assessment capability. It can provide a potential tool for detecting pork edible quality rapidly and non-destructively.

  9. Nondestructive evaluation of soluble solid content in strawberry by near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhiming; Huang, Wenqian; Chen, Liping; Wang, Xiu; Peng, Yankun

    This paper indicates the feasibility to use near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with synergy interval partial least squares (siPLS) algorithms as a rapid nondestructive method to estimate the soluble solid content (SSC) in strawberry. Spectral preprocessing methods were optimized selected by cross-validation in the model calibration. Partial least squares (PLS) algorithm was conducted on the calibration of regression model. The performance of the final model was back-evaluated according to root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) and correlation coefficient (R2 c) in calibration set, and tested by mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (R2 p) in prediction set. The optimal siPLS model was obtained with after first derivation spectra preprocessing. The measurement results of best model were achieved as follow: RMSEC = 0.2259, R2 c = 0.9590 in the calibration set; and RMSEP = 0.2892, R2 p = 0.9390 in the prediction set. This work demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy and siPLS with efficient spectral preprocessing is a useful tool for nondestructively evaluation SSC in strawberry.

  10. Application of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to non-destructive internal quality inspection of tomatoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Xuemei; He, Yong

    2006-09-01

    The internal quality of tomato such as acidity and sugar content is important to its taste thus influences the market. The objective of this paper was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to investigate the relationship between sugar content and acidity of tomato and absorption spectra. The N1RS reflectance of nondestructive tomatoes was measured with a Visible/NJR spectrophotometer in 325-1075 nm range. The sugar content and acidity of tomato were obtained with a handhold sugar content meter and a PH meter. The reflectance data set was recorded and analyzed with some mathematic methods. The PLS (Partial least squares) calibration method was developed for converting the NIRS reflectance of tomato into the data which determined the acidity value. BP (Back propagation) neural network was used to set up the relationship between the NIRS reflectance of tomato and sugar content. The acidity values were detected with an accuracy of 9O% and the sugar contents determined by the BP network were also very close to the measurements (coefficient of correlation r2=0.8764). NW spectra analysis would be very useful in the nondestructive internal quality inspecting of tomato.

  11. Proceedings of the First Annual Symposium for Nondestructive Evaluation of Bond Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Mark J. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    Quantitative adhesive bond strength measurement has been an issue for over thirty years. Utilization of nonlinear ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation methods has shown more effectiveness than linear methods on adhesive bond analysis, resulting in an increased sensitivity to changes in bondline conditions. Correlation to changes in higher order material properties due to microstructural changes using nonlinear ultrasonics has been shown and could relate to bond strength. Nonlinear ultrasonic energy is an order of magnitude more sensitive than linear ultrasound to these material parameter changes and to acoustic velocity changes caused by the acoustoelastic effect when a bond is prestressed. This increased sensitivity will assist in getting closer to quantitative measurement of adhesive bond strength. Signal correlations between non-linear ultrasonic measurements and initialization of bond failures have been successfully measured. This paper reviews nonlinear bond strength research efforts presented by university and industry experts at the First Annual Symposium for Nondestructive Evaluation of Bond Strength organized by the NDE Sciences Branch at NASA Langley in November 1997.

  12. Eddy Current Nondestructive Residual Stress Assessment in Shot-Peened Nickel-Base Superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blodgett, M. P.; Yu, F.; Nagy, P. B.

    2005-04-01

    Shot peening and other mechanical surface enhancement methods improve the fatigue resistance and foreign-object damage tolerance of metallic components by introducing beneficial near-surface compressive residual stresses and hardening the surface. However, the fatigue life improvement gained via surface enhancement is not explicitly accounted for in current engine component life prediction models because of the lack of accurate and reliable nondestructive methods that could verify the presence of compressive near-surface residual stresses in shot-peened hardware. In light of its frequency-dependent penetration depth, the measurement of eddy current conductivity has been suggested as a possible means to allow the nondestructive evaluation of subsurface residual stresses in surface-treated components. This technique is based on the so-called piezoresistivity effect, i.e., the stress-dependence of electrical resistivity. We found that, in contrast with most other materials, surface-treated nickel-base superalloys exhibit an apparent increase in electrical conductivity at increasing inspection frequencies, i.e., at decreasing penetration depths. Experimental results are presented to illustrate that the excess frequency-dependent apparent eddy current conductivity of shot-peened nickel-base superalloys can be used to estimate the absolute level and penetration depth of the compressive residual stress layer both before and after partial thermal relaxation.

  13. A nondestructive technique to determine the rate of oxygen permeation into solid dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Felton, L A; Timmins, G S

    2006-02-01

    The current study investigated the use of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy as a nondestructive method to quantify the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) in tablets and hard shell capsules. Lithium phthalocyanine crystals (LiPC) were placed inside the dosage forms. The peak-to-peak linewidth of the first derivative of the LiPC EPR spectra was measured and, by calibration tables, the oxygen partial pressure, pO2, within the dosage form was determined. The intra-dosage form pO2 was followed as a function of time after changing the exterior gas stream composition. Results showed initial oxygen concentrations comparable to atmospheric levels in all tablets and capsules investigated. Oxygen rapidly permeated into unsealed gelatin and cellulosic hard shell capsules. Banding at the cap/body joint significantly reduced the oxygen permeation rate. Oxygen also rapidly permeated into tablet compacts, regardless of the compressional force used during tableting, while application of a polymeric film significantly decreased the rate of oxygen permeation. This EPR technique was shown to be a suitable nondestructive method to study oxygen permeation kinetics in solid dosage forms.

  14. Non-destructive sampling of rock-dwelling microbial communities using sterile adhesive tape.

    PubMed

    Cutler, Nick A; Oliver, Anna E; Viles, Heather A; Whiteley, Andrew S

    2012-12-01

    Building stone provides a habitat for an array of microorganisms, many of which have been demonstrated to have a deleterious effect on the appearance and/or structural integrity of stone masonry. It is essential to understand the composition and structure of stone-dwelling (lithobiontic) microbial communities if successful stone conservation strategies are to be applied, particularly in the face of global environmental change. Ideally, the techniques used to sample such assemblages should be non-destructive due to the sensitive conservation status of many stone buildings. This paper quantitatively assesses the performance of sterile adhesive tape as a non-destructive sampling technique and compares the results of tape sampling with an alternative, destructive, sampling method. We used DNA fingerprinting (TRFLP) to characterise the algal, fungal and bacterial communities living on a stone slab. Our results demonstrate that tape sampling may be used to collect viable quantities of microbial DNA from environmental samples. This technique is ideally suited to the sampling of microbial biofilms, particularly when these communities are dominated by green algae. It provides a good approximation of total community diversity (i.e. the aggregate diversity of epilithic and endolithic communities). Tape sampling is straightforward, rapid and cost effective. When combined with molecular analytical techniques, this sampling method has the potential to make a major contribution to efforts to understand the structure of lithobiontic microbial communities and our ability to predict the response of such communities to future environmental change. PMID:23022426

  15. Nondestructive evaluation of the preservation state of stone columns in the Hospital Real of Granada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno de Jong van Coevorden, C.; Cobos Sánchez, C.; Rubio Bretones, A.; Fernández Pantoja, M.; García, Salvador G.; Gómez Martín, R.

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes the results of the employment of two nondestructive evaluation methods for the diagnostic of the preservation state of stone elements. The first method is based on ultrasonic (US) pulses while the second method uses short electromagnetic pulses. Specifically, these methods were applied to some columns, some of them previously restored. These columns are part of the architectonic heritage of the University of Granada, in particular they are located at the patio de la capilla del Hospital Real of Granada. The objective of this work was the application of systems based on US pulses (in transmission mode) and the ground-penetrating radar systems (electromagnetic tomography) in the diagnosis and detection of possible faults in the interior of columns.

  16. Federal laboratory nondestructive testing research and development applicable to industry

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.A.; Moore, N.L.

    1987-02-01

    This document presents the results of a survey of nondestructive testing (NDT) and related sensor technology research and development (R and D) at selected federal laboratories. Objective was to identify and characterize NDT activities that could be applied to improving energy efficiency and overall productivity in US manufacturing. Numerous federally supported R and D programs were identified in areas such as acoustic emissions, eddy current, radiography, computer tomography and ultrasonics. A Preliminary Findings Report was sent to industry representatives, which generated considerable interest.

  17. Nondestructive Inspection by Using Scattering and Spectra in Terahertz Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibuya, Takayuki; Yamashita, Masahiro; Ogawa, Yuichi; Otani, Chiko; Kawase, Kodo; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki

    In this paper, we show that the nondestructive detection of chemicals hidden in envelopes can be achieved using terahertz waves in a simple two-step procedure: First, scattering of the terahertz waves is an indicator of the presence of powders in the envelope; second, the identification of the chemicals is done by spectral fingerprinting. In addition, we examined the possibility of measurement by diffuse reflection.

  18. Non-destructive evaluation of composite materials using ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Investigation of the nondestructive evaluation of advanced composite-laminates is summarized. Indices derived from the measurement of fundamental acoustic parameters are used in order to quantitatively estimate the local material properties of the laminate. The following sections describe ongoing studies of phase insensitive attenuation measurements, and discuss several phenomena which influences the previously reported technique of polar backscatter. A simple and effective programmable gate circuit designed for use in estimating attenuation from backscatter is described.

  19. The Effects of Stress Mitigation on Nondestructive Examination

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis C. Kunerth; Eric D. Larsen; Timothy R. Mcjunkin; Arthur D. Watkins

    2004-08-01

    Ultrasonic volumetric and eddy current and visual profile surface inspections of the completed weld securing the outer lid of the Yucca Mountain waste package are required after stress mitigation. However, the technique implemented may affect the ability of the different evaluation techniques to properly characterize the completed weld. An evaluation was performed to determine the extent the nondestructive evaluation techniques are affected by two candidate mitigation processes: controlled plasticity burnishing and laser peening. This report describes the work performed and summarizes the results.

  20. Detection and sizing of underbead cracks using ultrasonic nondestructive examination

    SciTech Connect

    Scarbrough, J.D.; Wierzbicki, W.M.

    1982-02-11

    Ultrasonic nondestructive examination (NDE) will detect three mil deep underbead cracks in welds joining thin walled iridium hemishells. A correlation was developed to relate the amplitude of the signal reflected from the crack with crack wall area. The observed cracks occur in the weld underbead in the arc taper area during encapsulation of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ pellets for thermoelectric generators used in deep space exploration.

  1. Acoustic emission from composite materials. [nondestructive tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visconti, I. C.; Teti, R.

    1979-01-01

    The two basic areas where the acoustic emission (AE) technique can be applied are materials research and the evaluation of structural reliability. This experimental method leads to a better understanding of fracture mechanisms and is an NDT technique particularly well suited for the study of propagating cracks. Experiments are described in which acoustic emissions were unambiguously correlated with microstructural fracture mechanisms. The advantages and limitations of the AE technique are noted.

  2. Nondestructive Ultrasonic Inspection of Friction Stir Welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabatabaeipour, M.; Hettler, J.; Delrue, S.; Van Den Abeele, K.

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a relatively new solid-state welding procedure developed at The Welding Institute (TWI-UK) and the technique is widely employed for welding aluminum alloys in various applications. In order to examine the quality of the welds and to detect a variety of welding flaws such as wormholes and root-flaws, it is required to develop a methodical inspection technique that can be used for the identification and localization of such defects. The most prevalent and risky defect in this type of welding is the barely visible root flaw with a length varying from 100-700 μm. Due to the extreme characteristics of the flaw, off-the-shelf ultrasonic weld inspection methods are not always able to readily detect this type of minute defect feature. Here, we propose a novel approach to characterize root flaws using an oblique incident ultrasonic C-scan backscattering analysis. The implementation consists of an immersion ultrasonic testing method in pulse echo (i.e. backscatter) mode with a 3.5 MHz transducer, and makes use of an empirical procedure to engender of a shear wave dominated excitation at the root surface, and to properly gate the received signal for root flaw examination. By scanning the surface above the welded component, a C-scan image displaying the backscatter response from the root surface of the nugget zone can be obtained which allows a simple interpretation of the root flaw status of the weld.

  3. Nondestructive covalent functionalization of carbon nanotubes by selective oxidation of the original defects with K2FeO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhao-yang; Xu, Xue-cheng

    2015-08-01

    Chemical oxidation is still the major approach to the covalent functionalization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Theoretically, the defects on CNTs are more reactive than skeletal hexagons and should be preferentially oxidized, but conventional oxidation methods, e.g., HNO3/H2SO4 treatment, have poor reaction selectivity and inevitably consume the Cdbnd C bonds in the hexagonal lattices, leading to structural damage, π-electrons loss and weight decrease. In this work, we realized the nondestructive covalent functionalization of CNTs by selective oxidation of the defects. In our method, potassium ferrate K2FeVIO4 was employed as an oxidant for CNTs in H2SO4 medium. The CNT samples, before and after K2FeO4/H2SO4 treatment, were characterized with colloid dispersibility, IR, Raman spectroscopy, FESEM and XPS. The results indicated that (i) CNTs could be effectively oxidized by Fe (VI) under mild condition (60 °C, 3 h), and hydrophilic CNTs with abundant surface sbnd COOH groups were produced; and (ii) Fe (VI) oxidation of CNTs followed a defect-specific oxidation process, that is, only the sp3-hybridized carbon atoms on CNT surface were oxidized while the Cdbnd C bonds remained unaffected. This selective/nondestructive oxidation afforded oxidized CNTs in yields of above 100 wt%. This paper shows that K2FeO4/H2SO4 is an effective, nondestructive and green oxidation system for oxidative functionalization of CNTs and probably other carbon materials as well.

  4. Infrared thermal wave nondestructive testing for rotor blades in wind turbine generators non-destructive evaluation and damage monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shi bin; Zhang, Cun-lin; Wu, Nai-ming; Duan, Yu-xia; Li, Hao

    2009-07-01

    The rotor blades are key components in wind turbine generators. A visual inspection of the laminated shells for delaminations, air pockets, missing/disoriented fabric etc. is in most cases also not possible due to the manufacturing process, so Non-destructive testing and evaluation (NDT & E) techniques for assessing the integrity of rotor blades structure are essential to both reduce manufacturing costs and out of service time of wind turbine generators due to maintenance. Nowadays, Infrared Thermal Wave Nondestructive Testing (Pulsed thermography) is commonly used for assessing composites. This research work utilizes Infrared Thermal Wave Nondestructive Testing system (EchoTherm, Thermal Wave Imaging, Inc.) to inspect a specimen with embedded defects (i.e. foreign matter and air inclusions) in different depth which is a part of rotor blades in wind turbine generators, we have successfully identified defects including foreign matter and air inclusions, and discovered a defective workmanship. The system software allows us to simultaneously view and analyze the results for an entire transition.

  5. Highlights of NASA's Role In Developing State-Of-The-Art Nondestructive Evaluation For Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madaras, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Since the 1970's, when the promise of composites was being pursued for aeronautics applications, NASA has had programs that addressed the development of NDE (NonDestructive Evaluation) methods for composites. These efforts included both microscopic and macroscopic NDE. At the microscopic level, NDE investigations interrogated composites at the submicron to micron level to understand a composite's microstructure. A novel microfocus CT system was developed as well as the science underlying applications of acoustic microscopy to a composite's component material properties. On the macroscopic scale NDE techniques were'developed that advanced the capabilities to be faster and more quantitative. Techniques such as stiffness imaging, ultrasonic arrays, laser based ultrasound, advanced acoustic emission, thermography, and novel health monitoring systems were researched. Underlying these methods has been a strong modeling capability that has aided in method development.

  6. Nondestructive evaluation and characterization of damage and repair to continuous-fiber ceramic composite panels.

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, J. G.; Petrak, D. R.; Pillai, T. A. K.; Deemer, C.; Ellingson, W. A.

    1998-04-01

    Continuous fiber ceramic matrix composites are currently being developed for a variety of high-temperature applications. Because of the high costs of making these components, minor damage incurred during manufacturing or operation must be rewired in order to extend the life of the components. In this study, five ceramic-grade Nicalon{trademark} fiber/SiNC-matrix composite panels were intentionally damaged with a pendulum-type impactor during an impact test. The damaged panels were then repaired at Dow Corning Corporation. Three nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods were used to study the characteristics of the panels after the damage and again after the panels were repaired. The NDE methods were X-ray radiography, infrared thermal imaging, and air-coupled ultrasound. The results showed that the impact test induced various types of damage in the panels. The NDE data that were obtained by the three NDE methods were correlated with each other.

  7. Monitoring ground anchor using non-destructive ground anchor integrity test (NDT-GRANIT)

    SciTech Connect

    Robbany, Z. Handayani, G.

    2015-09-30

    Monitoring at ground anchor commonly uses a pull out test method, therefor we developing a non-destructive ground anchor integrity testing (NDT-GRANIT). NDT-GRANIT using the principle of seismic waves that have been modified into form of sweep signal, the signal will be demodulated, filtered, and Fourier transformation (inverse discrete Fourier transform) so the data can be interpreted reflected wave from the ground anchor. The method was applied to determine whether the ground anchor still gripped in the subsurface by looking the attenuation of the wave generated sources. From the result we can see that ground anchor does not grip. To validate the results of the comparison method of measurement used pile integrity test.

  8. Non-destructive testing of an original XVI century painting on wood by ESPI system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arena, G.; Paturzo, M.; Fatigati, G.; Grilli, M.; Pezzati, L.; Ferraro, P.

    2015-03-01

    Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI), a non-contact and non-destructive optical techniques, was employed for assessing the conservation state of a XVI Century painting on wood (72x88x1,9 cm). By a long term analysis, the whole structure alterations, induced by the room temperature and relative humidity variations, were evaluated. Measurement of the whole painting structural bends was achieved. Local flaws and hidden detachments of pictorial layers from the support, which cannot be recognized by traditional art-restorer methods, were also revealed. This work was prevalently aimed at achieving a simple approach, in the laboratory practice, to get an intuitively user-friendly method for art conservators, not accustomed to high-tech or math based methods. The results demonstrate that ESPI can largely improve the traditional art conservation survey techniques.

  9. Nondestructive evaluation of photosynthesis by delayed luminescence in Arabidopsis in Petri dishes.

    PubMed

    Chuenwarin, Paweena; Shimazaki, Azumi; Shimizu, Masanori; Kobayashi, Yuko; Katsumata, Masakazu; Kobayashi, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation of photosynthesis is a valuable tool in the field and laboratory. Delayed luminescence (DL) can reflect charge recombination through the backflow of electrons. However, DL detection has not yet been adapted for whole plants in Petri dishes. To compensate for differences in DL decay between sibling Arabidopsis plants grown under the same conditions, we developed a time-sequential double measurement method. Using this method, we examined the influence of photosynthetic electron flow inhibitors, and differences in the DL decay curves were categorized by considering the initial and late phases of the decay curves, as well as their intermediate slopes. The appearance of concavity and convexity in DL curves in Arabidopsis was different from unicellular algae, suggesting complexity in the photosynthetic machinery of higher plants. This detection method should be invaluable for evaluating photosynthetic defects in higher plants under sterile conditions without interrupting plant culture. PMID:26559425

  10. Nondestructive evaluation of photosynthesis by delayed luminescence in Arabidopsis in Petri dishes.

    PubMed

    Chuenwarin, Paweena; Shimazaki, Azumi; Shimizu, Masanori; Kobayashi, Yuko; Katsumata, Masakazu; Kobayashi, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation of photosynthesis is a valuable tool in the field and laboratory. Delayed luminescence (DL) can reflect charge recombination through the backflow of electrons. However, DL detection has not yet been adapted for whole plants in Petri dishes. To compensate for differences in DL decay between sibling Arabidopsis plants grown under the same conditions, we developed a time-sequential double measurement method. Using this method, we examined the influence of photosynthetic electron flow inhibitors, and differences in the DL decay curves were categorized by considering the initial and late phases of the decay curves, as well as their intermediate slopes. The appearance of concavity and convexity in DL curves in Arabidopsis was different from unicellular algae, suggesting complexity in the photosynthetic machinery of higher plants. This detection method should be invaluable for evaluating photosynthetic defects in higher plants under sterile conditions without interrupting plant culture.

  11. A non-destructive evaluation of the material properties of a composite laminated plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papazoglou, V. J.; Tsouvalis, N. G.; Lazaridis, A. G.

    1996-09-01

    A non-destructive method for the evaluation of material properties of a rectangular, anisotropic, homogeneous plate with four free edges is presented. The method consists of two steps. In the first step, a certain number of the plate's natural frequencies are experimentally measured. In the second step, the plate rigidities are varied in a theoretical model, so that the calculated natural frequencies match as close as possible the corresponding experimental values. Two such models are presented, based on the Classical Lamination Theory and on a Higher Order Shear Deformation Theory. High order Lagrange polynomials are used as deflection functions and the Rayleigh-Ritz procedure is employed to arrive at the solution. The identification of the plate rigidities is done by means of an iterative Bayesian parameter estimation method, where possible measurement errors or rigidities' uncertainties can be taken into account.

  12. An Assessment of Nondestructive Evaluation Capability for Complex Additive Manufacturing Aerospace Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James; Beshears, Ron; Lambert, Dennis; Tilson, William

    2016-01-01

    The primary focus of this work is to investigate some of the fundamental relationships between processing, mechanical testing, materials characterization, and NDE for additively manufactured (AM) components using the powder bed fusion direct melt laser sintered process. The goal is to understand the criticality of defects unique to the AM process and then how conventional nondestructive evaluation methods as well as some of the more non-traditional methods such as computed tomography, are effected by the AM material. Specific defects including cracking, porosity and partially/unfused powder will be addressed. Besides line-of-site NDE, as appropriate these inspection capabilities will be put into the context of complex AM geometries where hidden features obscure, or inhibit traditional NDE methods.

  13. Nondestructive 3D confocal laser imaging with deconvolution of seven whole stardust tracks with complementary XRF and quantitative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, M.; Ebel, D.S.

    2009-03-19

    We present a nondestructive 3D system for analysis of whole Stardust tracks, using a combination of Laser Confocal Scanning Microscopy and synchrotron XRF. 3D deconvolution is used for optical corrections, and results of quantitative analyses of several tracks are presented. The Stardust mission to comet Wild 2 trapped many cometary and ISM particles in aerogel, leaving behind 'tracks' of melted silica aerogel on both sides of the collector. Collected particles and their tracks range in size from submicron to millimeter scale. Interstellar dust collected on the obverse of the aerogel collector is thought to have an average track length of {approx}15 {micro}m. It has been our goal to perform a total non-destructive 3D textural and XRF chemical analysis on both types of tracks. To that end, we use a combination of Laser Confocal Scanning Microscopy (LCSM) and X Ray Florescence (XRF) spectrometry. Utilized properly, the combination of 3D optical data and chemical data provides total nondestructive characterization of full tracks, prior to flattening or other destructive analysis methods. Our LCSM techniques allow imaging at 0.075 {micro}m/pixel, without the use of oil-based lenses. A full textural analysis on track No.82 is presented here as well as analysis of 6 additional tracks contained within 3 keystones (No.128, No.129 and No.140). We present a method of removing the axial distortion inherent in LCSM images, by means of a computational 3D Deconvolution algorithm, and present some preliminary experiments with computed point spread functions. The combination of 3D LCSM data and XRF data provides invaluable information, while preserving the integrity of the samples for further analysis. It is imperative that these samples, the first extraterrestrial solids returned since the Apollo era, be fully mapped nondestructively in 3D, to preserve the maximum amount of information prior to other, destructive analysis.

  14. Neural network and principal component regression in non-destructive soluble solids content assessment: a comparison*

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Kim-seng; Abdul Rahim, Herlina; Abdul Rahim, Ruzairi

    2012-01-01

    Visible and near infrared spectroscopy is a non-destructive, green, and rapid technology that can be utilized to estimate the components of interest without conditioning it, as compared with classical analytical methods. The objective of this paper is to compare the performance of artificial neural network (ANN) (a nonlinear model) and principal component regression (PCR) (a linear model) based on visible and shortwave near infrared (VIS-SWNIR) (400–1000 nm) spectra in the non-destructive soluble solids content measurement of an apple. First, we used multiplicative scattering correction to pre-process the spectral data. Second, PCR was applied to estimate the optimal number of input variables. Third, the input variables with an optimal amount were used as the inputs of both multiple linear regression and ANN models. The initial weights and the number of hidden neurons were adjusted to optimize the performance of ANN. Findings suggest that the predictive performance of ANN with two hidden neurons outperforms that of PCR. PMID:22302428

  15. Nondestructive Detection and Quantification of Blueberry Bruising using Near-infrared (NIR) Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yu; Li, Changying; Takeda, Fumiomi

    2016-01-01

    Currently, blueberry bruising is evaluated by either human visual/tactile inspection or firmness measurement instruments. These methods are destructive, time-consuming, and subjective. The goal of this paper was to develop a non-destructive approach for blueberry bruising detection and quantification. Experiments were conducted on 300 samples of southern highbush blueberry (Camellia, Rebel, and Star) and on 1500 samples of northern highbush blueberry (Bluecrop, Jersey, and Liberty) for hyperspectral imaging analysis, firmness measurement, and human evaluation. An algorithm was developed to automatically calculate a bruise ratio index (ratio of bruised to whole fruit area) for bruise quantification. The spectra of bruised and healthy tissues were statistically separated and the separation was independent of cultivars. Support vector machine (SVM) classification of the spectra from the regions of interest (ROIs) achieved over 94%, 92%, and 96% accuracy on the training set, independent testing set, and combined set, respectively. The statistical results showed that the bruise ratio index was equivalent to the measured firmness but better than the predicted firmness in regard to effectiveness of bruise quantification, and the bruise ratio index had a strong correlation with human assessment (R2 = 0.78 − 0.83). Therefore, the proposed approach and the bruise ratio index are effective to non-destructively detect and quantify blueberry bruising. PMID:27767050

  16. Acoustic diagnosis for nondestructive evaluation of ceramic coatings on steel substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Aizawa, Tatsuhiko; Kihara, Junji; Ito, Manabu

    1995-11-01

    New methodology is proposed and developed to make quantitative nondestructive evaluation of TiN coated SKH steel substrates. Since the measured acoustic structure is in precise correspondence with the multi-layered elastic media, change of elastic properties by degradation and damage can be easily distinguished by the acoustic spectro microscopy. In particular, rather complex acoustic structure can be measured by the present method for ceramic coated steel substrate system, but it is completely described by the two-layer model in two dimensional elasticity. Typical example is the cut-off phenomenon where the dispersion curve for the leaky surface wave velocity is forced to be terminated by alternative activation of shear wave instead of it. The quantitative nondestructive diagnosis was developed on the basis of this predictable acoustic structure. Furthermore, the effect of coating conditions on the acoustic structure is also discussed to make residual stress distribution analysis in coating by the acoustic spectro microscopy with reference to the X-ray stress analysis. Some comments are made on further advancement of the present acoustic spectro microscopy adaptive to precise characterization of ceramic coatings and practical sensing system working in practice.

  17. New International Program to Asses the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques (PARENT)

    SciTech Connect

    Prokofiev, Iouri; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Csontos, Aladar A.; Braatz, Brett G.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2013-01-25

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques (PARENT) to follow on from the successful Program for the Inspection of Nickel alloy Components (PINC). The goal of the PARENT is to conduct a confirmatory assessment of the reliability of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for detecting and sizing primary water stress corrosion cracks (PWSCC) and applying the lessons learned from PINC to a series of round-robin tests. These open and blind round-robin tests will comprise a new set of typical pressure boundary components including dissimilar metal welds (DMWs) and bottom-mounted instrumentation penetrations. Open round-robin tests will engage research and industry teams worldwide to investigate and demonstrate the reliability of emerging NDE techniques to detect and size flaws with a wide range of lengths, depths, orientations, and locations. Blind round-robin tests will utilize various testing organizations, whose inspectors and procedures are certified by the standards for the nuclear industry in their respective countries, to investigate the ability of established NDE techniques to detect and size flaws whose characteristics range from relatively easy to very difficult for detection and sizing. Blind and open round-robin testing started in late 2011 and early 2012, respectively. This paper will present the work scope with reports on progress, NDE methods evaluated, and project timeline for PARENT.

  18. Non-destructive 3D shape measurement of transparent and black objects with thermal fringes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahm, Anika; Rößler, Conrad; Dietrich, Patrick; Heist, Stefan; Kühmstedt, Peter; Notni, Gunther

    2016-05-01

    Fringe projection is a well-established optical method for the non-destructive contactless three-dimensional (3D) measurement of object surfaces. Typically, fringe sequences in the visible wavelength range (VIS) are projected onto the surfaces of objects to be measured and are observed by two cameras in a stereo vision setup. The reconstruction is done by finding corresponding pixels in both cameras followed by triangulation. Problems can occur if the properties of some materials disturb the measurements. If the objects are transparent, translucent, reflective, or strongly absorbing in the VIS range, the projected patterns cannot be recorded properly. To overcome these challenges, we present a new alternative approach in the infrared (IR) region of the electromagnetic spectrum. For this purpose, two long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) cameras (7.5 - 13 μm) are used to detect the emitted heat radiation from surfaces which is induced by a pattern projection unit driven by a CO2 laser (10.6 μm). Thus, materials like glass or black objects, e.g. carbon fiber materials, can be measured non-destructively without the need of any additional paintings. We will demonstrate the basic principles of this heat pattern approach and show two types of 3D systems based on a freeform mirror and a GOBO wheel (GOes Before Optics) projector unit.

  19. Nondestructive, real-time determination and visualization of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin by luminescent oligothiophenes

    PubMed Central

    Choong, Ferdinand X.; Bäck, Marcus; Steiner, Svava E.; Melican, Keira; Nilsson, K. Peter R.; Edlund, Ulrica; Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta

    2016-01-01

    Enabling technologies for efficient use of the bio-based feedstock are crucial to the replacement of oil-based products. We investigated the feasibility of luminescent conjugated oligothiophenes (LCOs) for non-destructive, rapid detection and quality assessment of lignocellulosic components in complex biomass matrices. A cationic pentameric oligothiophene denoted p-HTEA (pentamer hydrogen thiophene ethyl amine) showed unique binding affinities to cellulose, lignin, hemicelluloses, and cellulose nanofibrils in crystal, liquid and paper form. We exploited this finding using spectrofluorometric methods and fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy, for sensitive, simultaneous determination of the structural and compositional complexities of native lignocellulosic biomass. With exceptional photostability, p-HTEA is also demonstrated as a dynamic sensor for real-time monitoring of enzymatic cellulose degradation in cellulolysis. These results demonstrate the use of p-HTEA as a non-destructive tool for the determination of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in complex biomass matrices, thereby aiding in the optimization of biomass-converting technologies. PMID:27759105

  20. Considerations for nondestructive evaluation of discontinuous fiber composites using dynamic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutting, Rebecca A.

    Knowledge of the composite microstructure is vital to predicting performance of the structural member. However, depending on the manufacturing process, the microstructure of the part may be unknown and not predictable with simulation software. A few non-destructive evaluation techniques have been adjusted to predict fiber orientation of composites, including CT scans and thermography, but none have proven acceptable on a large scale with the amount of fidelity required. This research investigated the use of dynamic analysis as a non-destructive evaluation technique to predict fiber orientation of discontinuous fiber compression molded parts. While the method is currently unable to predict individual fiber orientations, it can indicate the magnitude of change in microstructure, whether local or global. This research also identified several key considerations for testing of heterogeneous anisotropic composites versus their isotropic counterparts. Dynamic properties of a composite part, including natural frequency and mode shape, are dependent upon the geometric symmetry and material symmetry present in the part. Fiber orientation variations within the vicinity of boundary conditions for a test setup have a large impact on the natural frequencies of the first few modes. With the use of the COMAC parameter, analysis can identify the locations on the geometry that will capture the most number of natural frequencies for a given frequency range.