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Sample records for acoustical heat pumping

  1. Acoustical heat pumping engine

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1983-08-16

    The disclosure is directed to an acoustical heat pumping engine without moving seals. A tubular housing holds a compressible fluid capable of supporting an acoustical standing wave. An acoustical driver is disposed at one end of the housing and the other end is capped. A second thermodynamic medium is disposed in the housing near to but spaced from the capped end. Heat is pumped along the second thermodynamic medium toward the capped end as a consequence both of the pressure oscillation due to the driver and imperfect thermal contact between the fluid and the second thermodynamic medium.

  2. Acoustical heat pumping engine

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1983-08-16

    The disclosure is directed to an acoustical heat pumping engine without moving seals. A tubular housing holds a compressible fluid capable of supporting an acoustical standing wave. An acoustical driver is disposed at one end of the housing and the other end is capped. A second thermodynamic medium is disposed in the housing near to but spaced from the capped end. Heat is pumped along the second thermodynamic medium toward the capped end as a consequence both of the pressure oscillation due to the driver and imperfect thermal contact between the fluid and the second thermodynamic medium. 2 figs.

  3. Experimental Study on Effects of Frequency and Mean Pressure on Heat Pumping by Acoustic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamoto, Akira; Ozawa, Mamoru; Kataoka, Masaki; Takifuji, Tomonari

    Experimental studies were conducted for the fundamental understanding of the thermoacoustic behavior in the simulated resonance-tube refrigerator with special reference to the effect of imposed frequency and mean pressure. The resonance frequency in the case of helium was lower by about 20% than the theoretical prediction, while the experimental value in the case of air was almost the same as the theoretical one. The temperature difference observed along the stack increased with the increase in the amplitude of acoustic pressure, and decreased with the increase in the mean pressure, Based on the simplified model of heat pumping process, the relationship between the temperature variation and the acoustic pressure field was formulated, and thus the characteristic parameter which represents overall heat transfer between gas and stack plates or heat exchangers was obtained.

  4. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Kirol, Lance D.

    1988-01-01

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation.

  5. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Kirol, L.D.

    1987-02-11

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation. 5 figs.

  6. Regenerative Hydride Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.

    1992-01-01

    Hydride heat pump features regenerative heating and single circulation loop. Counterflow heat exchangers accommodate different temperatures of FeTi and LaNi4.7Al0.3 subloops. Heating scheme increases efficiency.

  7. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  8. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  9. Champagne Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2004-01-01

    The term champagne heat pump denotes a developmental heat pump that exploits a cycle of absorption and desorption of carbon dioxide in an alcohol or other organic liquid. Whereas most heat pumps in common use in the United States are energized by mechanical compression, the champagne heat pump is energized by heating. The concept of heat pumps based on other absorption cycles energized by heat has been understood for years, but some of these heat pumps are outlawed in many areas because of the potential hazards posed by leakage of working fluids. For example, in the case of the water/ammonia cycle, there are potential hazards of toxicity and flammability. The organic-liquid/carbon dioxide absorption/desorption cycle of the champagne heat pump is similar to the water/ammonia cycle, but carbon dioxide is nontoxic and environmentally benign, and one can choose an alcohol or other organic liquid that is also relatively nontoxic and environmentally benign. Two candidate nonalcohol organic liquids are isobutyl acetate and amyl acetate. Although alcohols and many other organic liquids are flammable, they present little or no flammability hazard in the champagne heat pump because only the nonflammable carbon dioxide component of the refrigerant mixture is circulated to the evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, which are the only components of the heat pump in direct contact with air in habitable spaces.

  10. Regenerative adsorbent heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system and at least a portion of the heat of adsorption. A series of at least four compressors containing an adsorbent is provided. A large amount of heat is transferred from compressor to compressor so that heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  11. Nonazeotropic Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ealker, David H.; Deming, Glenn

    1991-01-01

    Heat pump collects heat from water circulating in heat-rejection loop, raises temperature of collected heat, and transfers collected heat to water in separate pipe. Includes sealed motor/compressor with cooling coils, evaporator, and condenser, all mounted in outer housing. Gradients of temperature in evaporator and condenser increase heat-transfer efficiency of vapor-compression cycle. Intended to recover relatively-low-temperature waste heat and use it to make hot water.

  12. Multiple source heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1983-01-01

    A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

  13. Lunar base heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Jeffrey H.; Tetreault, R.; Fischbach, D.; Walker, D.

    1994-01-01

    A heat pump is a device which elevates the temperature of a heat flow by a means of an energy input. By doing this, the heat pump can cause heat to transfer faster from a warm region to a cool region, or it can cause heat to flow from a cool region to a warmer region. The second case is the one which finds vast commercial applications such as air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration. Aerospace applications of heat pumps include both cases. The NASA Johnson Space Center is currently developing a Life Support Systems Integration Facility (LSSIF, previously SIRF) to provide system-level integration, operational test experience, and performance data that will enable NASA to develop flight-certified hardware for future planetary missions. A high lift heat pump is a significant part of the TCS hardware development associated with the LSSIF. The high lift heat pump program discussed here is being performed in three phases. In Phase 1, the objective is to develop heat pump concepts for a lunar base, a lunar lander, and for a ground development unit for the SIRF. In Phase 2, the design of the SIRF ground test unit is being performed, including identification and evaluation of safety and reliability issues. In Phase 3, the SIRF unit will be manufactured, tested, and delivered to the NASA Johnson Space Center.

  14. Magnetic heat pump design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirol, L. D.; Dacus, M. W.

    1988-03-01

    Heat pumps utilizing the magnetocaloric effect offer a potentially attractive alternative to conventional heat pumps and refrigerators. Many physical configurations of magnetic heat pumps are possible. Major classes include those requiring electrical energy input and those with mechanical energy input. Mechanical energy is used to move magnets, working material, or magnetic shielding. Each type of mechanical magnetic heat pump can be built in a rotary (recuperative) or reciprocal (regenerative) configuration. Machines with electrical energy input utilize modulation of the magnetic field to cause working material to execute the desired thermodynamic cycle, and can also be recuperative or regenerative. Recuperative rotary heat pumps in which working material is moved past stationary magnets is the preferred configuration. Regenerative devices suffer performance degradation from temperature change of regenerator material and mixing and conduction in the regenerator. Field modulated cycles are not practical due to ac losses in superconducting magnets. Development of methods for recuperator fluid pumping is the major challenge in design of rotary recuperative devices. Several pumping options are presented, and the design of a bench scale heat pump described.

  15. Lunar Base Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, D.; Fischbach, D.; Tetreault, R.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate the feasibility of constructing a heat pump suitable for use as a heat rejection device in applications such as a lunar base. In this situation, direct heat rejection through the use of radiators is not possible at a temperature suitable for lde support systems. Initial analysis of a heat pump of this type called for a temperature lift of approximately 378 deg. K, which is considerably higher than is commonly called for in HVAC and refrigeration applications where heat pumps are most often employed. Also because of the variation of the rejection temperature (from 100 to 381 deg. K), extreme flexibility in the configuration and operation of the heat pump is required. A three-stage compression cycle using a refrigerant such as CFC-11 or HCFC-123 was formulated with operation possible with one, two or three stages of compression. Also, to meet the redundancy requirements, compression was divided up over multiple compressors in each stage. A control scheme was devised that allowed these multiple compressors to be operated as required so that the heat pump could perform with variable heat loads and rejection conditions. A prototype heat pump was designed and constructed to investigate the key elements of the high-lift heat pump concept. Control software was written and implemented in the prototype to allow fully automatic operation. The heat pump was capable of operation over a wide range of rejection temperatures and cooling loads, while maintaining cooling water temperature well within the required specification of 40 deg. C +/- 1.7 deg. C. This performance was verified through testing.

  16. Dual source heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.; Pietsch, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

  17. Absorption heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huhtinen, M.; Heikkilae, M.; Andersson, R.

    1987-03-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the technical and economic feasibility of absorption heat pumps in Finland. The work was done as a case study: the technical and economic analyses have been carried out for six different cases, where in each the suitable size and type of the heat pump plant and the auxiliary components and connections were specified. The study also detailed the costs concerning the procurement, installation and test runs of the machinery, as well as the savings in energy costs incurred by the introduction of the plant. Conclusions were drawn of the economic viability of the applications studied. The following cases were analyzed: heat recovery from flue gases and productin of district heat in plants using peat, natural gas, and municipal wastes as a fuel. Heat recovery in the pulp and paper industry for the upgrading of pressure of secondary steam and for the heating of white liquor and combustion and drying the air. Heat recovery in a peat-fulled heat and power plant from flue gases that have been used for the drying of peat. According to the study, the absorption heat pump suits best to the production of district heat, when the heat source is the primary energy is steam produced by the boiler. Included in the flue as condensing is the purification of flue gases. Accordingly, benefit is gained on two levels in thick applications. In heat and power plants the use of absorption heat pumps is less economical, due to the fact that the steam used by the pump reduces the production of electricity, which is rated clearly higher than heat.

  18. Chemical heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Greiner, Leonard

    1980-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. The heat pump part of the system heats or cools a house or other structure through a combination of evaporation and absorption or, conversely, condensation and desorption, in a pair of containers. A set of automatic controls change the system for operation during winter and summer months and for daytime and nighttime operation to satisfactorily heat and cool a house during an entire year. The absorber chamber is subjected to solar heating during regeneration cycles and is covered by one or more layers of glass or other transparent material. Daytime home air used for heating the home is passed at appropriate flow rates between the absorber container and the first transparent cover layer in heat transfer relationship in a manner that greatly reduce eddies and resultant heat loss from the absorbant surface to ambient atmosphere.

  19. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon; Perez-Blanco, Horacio

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  20. Heat pump apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Paul A.; Horowitz, Jeffrey S.

    1983-01-01

    A heat pump apparatus including a compact arrangement of individual tubular reactors containing hydride-dehydride beds in opposite end sections, each pair of beds in each reactor being operable by sequential and coordinated treatment with a plurality of heat transfer fluids in a plurality of processing stages, and first and second valves located adjacent the reactor end sections with rotatable members having multiple ports and associated portions for separating the hydride beds at each of the end sections into groups and for simultaneously directing a plurality of heat transfer fluids to the different groups. As heat is being generated by a group of beds, others are being regenerated so that heat is continuously available for space heating. As each of the processing stages is completed for a hydride bed or group of beds, each valve member is rotated causing the heat transfer fluid for the heat processing stage to be directed to that bed or group of beds. Each of the end sections are arranged to form a closed perimeter and the valve member may be rotated repeatedly about the perimeter to provide a continuous operation. Both valves are driven by a common motor to provide a coordinated treatment of beds in the same reactors. The heat pump apparatus is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

  1. Pioneering Heat Pump Project

    SciTech Connect

    Aschliman, Dave; Lubbehusen, Mike

    2015-06-30

    This project was initiated at a time when ground coupled heat pump systems in this region were limited in size and quantity. There were economic pressures with costs for natural gas and electric utilities that had many organizations considering ground coupled heat pumps; The research has added to the understanding of how ground temperatures fluctuate seasonally and how this affects the performance and operation of the heat pumps. This was done by using a series of temperature sensors buried within the middle of one of the vertical bore fields with sensors located at various depths below grade. Trending of the data showed that there is a lag in ground temperature with respect to air temperatures in the shoulder months, however as full cooling and heating season arrives, the heat rejection and heat extraction from the ground has a significant effect on the ground temps; Additionally it is better understood that while a large community geothermal bore field serving multiple buildings does provide a convenient central plant to use, it introduces complexity of not being able to easily model and predict how each building will contribute to the loads in real time. Additional controllers and programming were added to provide more insight into this real time load profile and allow for intelligent shedding of load via a dry cooler during cool nights in lieu of rejecting to the ground loop. This serves as a means to ‘condition’ the ground loop and mitigate thermal creep of the field, as is typically observed; and It has been observed when compared to traditional heating and cooling equipment, there is still a cost premium to use ground source heat pumps that is driven mostly by the cost for vertical bore holes. Horizontal loop systems are less costly to install, but do not perform as well in this climate zone for heating mode

  2. Heat pump arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahamsson, T.; Hansson, K.

    1981-03-03

    The invention concerns a heat pump arrangement for heating of houses. The arrangement comprises a compressor, a condensor and a vaporizer, which is a part of an icing machine. The vaporizer is designed as a heat exchanger and is connected to a circulation system comprising an accumulator, to which the ice slush from the icing machine is delivered. Water from the accumulator is delivered to the icing machine. The water in the accumulator can be heated E.G. By means of a solar energy collector, the outdoor air etc. Surface water or waste water from the household can be delivered to the accumulator and replace the ice slush therein.

  3. Heat driven pulse pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benner, Steve M (Inventor); Martins, Mario S. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A heat driven pulse pump includes a chamber having an inlet port, an outlet port, two check valves, a wick, and a heater. The chamber may include a plurality of grooves inside wall of the chamber. When heated within the chamber, a liquid to be pumped vaporizes and creates pressure head that expels the liquid through the outlet port. As liquid separating means, the wick, disposed within the chamber, is to allow, when saturated with the liquid, the passage of only liquid being forced by the pressure head in the chamber, preventing the vapor from exiting from the chamber through the outlet port. A plurality of grooves along the inside surface wall of the chamber can sustain the liquid, which is amount enough to produce vapor for the pressure head in the chamber. With only two simple moving parts, two check valves, the heat driven pulse pump can effectively function over the long lifetimes without maintenance or replacement. For continuous flow of the liquid to be pumped a plurality of pumps may be connected in parallel.

  4. Guide to Geothermal Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-01

    Geothermal heat pumps, also known as ground source heat pumps, geoexchange, water-source, earth-coupled, and earth energy heat pumps, take advantage of this resource and represent one of the most efficient and durable options on the market to heat and cool your home.

  5. Heat pumps for industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-09-01

    Research activities, both in the laboratory and in the field, confirm that heat pumps can improve energy efficiency and productivity for a multitude of process types. By using heat pumps, process industries can save significant amounts of energy and money and successfully control emissions. Those industries with special needs, such as recovering solvents, can meet them more energy efficiently and cost effectively with heat pumps. Through the years, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) has helped industry solve its energy problems by joining in cooperative agreements with companies willing to do the research. The companies involved in these agreements share the costs of the research and benefit directly from the technology developed. OIT then has information from demonstration projects that it can pass on to others within industry. All the projects described in this brochure were joint ventures between DOE and industry participants. OIT will assist in accelerating the use of heat pumps in the industrial marketplace by continuing to work with industry on research and demonstration projects and to transfer research results and project performance information to the rest of industry. Successfully transferring this technology could conserve as much as 1.5 quads of energy annually at a savings of more than $4 billion at today's prices.

  6. Chemical heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Greiner, Leonard

    1984-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to faciliate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  7. Chemical heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Greiner, Leonard

    1981-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  8. Chemical heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Greiner, Leonard

    1984-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate intallation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  9. Chemical heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Greiner, Leonard

    1984-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  10. RSES heat pump technician certification

    SciTech Connect

    Zeiner, J.

    1996-06-01

    In 1987 the National Heat Pump certification test was developed by the Refrigeration Service Engineers Society (RSES), and in 1994, the program was more specifically named Heat Pump Service Technician Certification. This report describes the benefits of certification.

  11. Ammoniated salt heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, W. R.; Jaeger, F. J.; Giordano, T. J.

    A thermochemical heat pump/energy storage system using liquid ammoniate salts is described. The system, which can be used for space heating or cooling, provides energy storage for both functions. The bulk of the energy is stored as chemical energy and thus can be stored indefinitely. The system is well suited to use with a solar energy source or industrial waste heat. Several liquid ammoniates are identified and the critical properties of three of the most promising are presented. Results of small scale (5000 Btu) system tests are discussed and a design concept for a prototype system is given. This system represents a significant improvement over the system using solid ammoniates investigated previously because of the increase in heat transfer rates (5 to 60 Btu/hr sq ft F) and the resulting reduction in heat exchanger size. As a result the concept shows promise of being cost competitive with conventional systems.

  12. An aeroacoustically driven thermoacoustic heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaton, W. V.; Zeegers, J. C. H.

    2003-04-01

    The mean flow of gas in a pipe past a side branch, closed at the far end, can excite the resonant acoustic modes of the cavity much like blowing across the top of a bottle. This aeroacoustic whistle can excite very high amplitude acoustic waves within the side branch (easily 10% of the mean pressure) at optimal gas flow rates and mean pressures within the main pipe. The aeroacoustic whistle uses no moving parts to convert part of the power in the mean flow into acoustic power. Likewise a thermoacoustic heat pump, utilizing this acoustic power, uses no moving parts to pump heat and establish (or maintain) a temperature difference across a porous medium. This new combination of an aeroacoustic sound source and thermoacoustic heat pump (with suitable thermoelectric elements) is part of an electric power generation feasibility study for natural gas wells. Reliable electrical power generation down-hole to provide electricity for sensors, communications devices or energy storage units is an important research and development goal. Experimental results will be presented that demonstrate the performance of a simple thermoacoustic heat pump when powered by an aeroacoustic sound source. [Work supported by Shell International Exploration and Production B.V.

  13. Magnetic heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, J.R.; Uherka, K.L.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic heat pumps and refrigerators are potential replacements for vapor-compression devices that use chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants. Several room-temperature designs, using low-temperature superconducting magnets, have reached the experimental device stage. High-temperature superconducting materials may significantly increase the viability of the technology, both by enhancing existing design concepts and by enabling new major design types such as field switching of the superconducting magnets.

  14. Stirling Engine Heat Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa, Noboru

    Recent advances in the feasibility studies related to the Stirling engines and Stirling engine heat pumps which have been considered attractive due to their promising role in helping to solve the global environmental and energy problems,are reviewed. This article begins to describe the brief history of the Stirling engines and theoretical thermodynamic analysis of the Stirling cycle in order to understand several advantages on the Stirling engine. Furthermore,they could throw light on our question why the dream engines had not been promoted to practical applications during two hundred years. The present review shows that the Stirling engines with several unique advantages including 30 to 40% thermal efficiency and preferable exhaust characteristics,had been designed and constructed by recent tackling for the development of the advanced automobile and other applications using them. Based on the current state of art,it is being provided to push the Stirling engines combined with heat pumps based on the reversed Rankine cycle to the market. At present,however, many problems, especially for the durability, cost, and delicate engine parts must be enforced to solve. In addition,there are some possibilities which can increase the attractiveness of the Stirling engines and heat pumps. The review closes with suggestions for further research.

  15. An acoustic streaming instability in thermoacoustic devices utilizing jet pumps.

    PubMed

    Backhaus, S; Swift, G W

    2003-03-01

    Thermoacoustic-Stirling hybrid engines and feedback pulse tube refrigerators can utilize jet pumps to suppress streaming that would otherwise cause large heat leaks and reduced efficiency. It is desirable to use jet pumps to suppress streaming because they do not introduce moving parts such as bellows or membranes. In most cases, this form of streaming suppression works reliably. However, in some cases, the streaming suppression has been found to be unstable. Using a simple model of the acoustics in the regenerators and jet pumps of these devices, a stability criterion is derived that predicts when jet pumps can reliably suppress streaming. PMID:12656366

  16. Hydride heat pump with heat regenerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative hydride heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system. A series of at least four canisters containing a lower temperature performing hydride and a series of at least four canisters containing a higher temperature performing hydride is provided. Each canister contains a heat conductive passageway through which a heat transfer fluid is circulated so that sensible heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  17. Topological charge pump by surface acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Zheng; Shi-Ping, Feng; Shi-Jie, Yang

    2016-06-01

    Quantized electron pumping by the surface acoustic wave across barriers created by a sequence of split metal gates is interpreted from the viewpoint of topology. The surface acoustic wave serves as a one-dimensional periodical potential whose energy spectrum possesses the Bloch band structure. The time-dependent phase plays the role of an adiabatic parameter of the Hamiltonian which induces a geometrical phase. The pumping currents are related to the Chern numbers of the filled bands below the Fermi energy. Based on this understanding, we predict a novel effect of quantized but non-monotonous current plateaus simultaneously pumped by two homodromous surface acoustic waves. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11374036) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB821403).

  18. Earth-coupled heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, J. A.

    1981-08-01

    The object of the research work was to demonstrate that a water source heat pump could be used with an earth-coupled heat exchanger which was buried in an absorption field of a domestic sewage disposal system to provide the heating and cooling requirements for residential use in an energy efficient fashion. The system consists of a 3 ton heat pump (nominal rating of 34,000 Btu/hr), a closed-loop heat exchanger which was fabricated from 200 feet of 2 inch diameter cast iron soil pipe, and a calorimeter house which had heat transmission characteristics similar to a 100 sq ft house. The earth-coupled heat exchanger was connected to the water side heat exchanger of the heat pump. Water was circulated through the heat exchanger coil in the earth and through the water side heat exchanger of the heat pump. The earth served as the energy source (for heating) or sink (for cooling) for the heat pump.

  19. Magnetic heat pump flow director

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Frank S. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A fluid flow director is disclosed. The director comprises a handle body and combed-teeth extending from one side of the body. The body can be formed of a clear plastic such as acrylic. The director can be used with heat exchangers such as a magnetic heat pump and can minimize the undesired mixing of fluid flows. The types of heat exchangers can encompass both heat pumps and refrigerators. The director can adjust the fluid flow of liquid or gas along desired flow directions. A method of applying the flow director within a magnetic heat pump application is also disclosed where the comb-teeth portions of the director are inserted into the fluid flow paths of the heat pump.

  20. Heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1979-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchangers and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

  1. Heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1982-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchanges and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

  2. Energy 101: Geothermal Heat Pumps

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    An energy-efficient heating and cooling alternative, the geothermal heat pump system moves heat from the ground to a building (or from a building to the ground) through a series of flexible pipe "loops" containing water. This edition of Energy 101 explores the benefits Geothermal and the science behind how it all comes together.

  3. Geothermal heat pumps in Pierre

    SciTech Connect

    Wegman, S.

    1997-12-01

    There are two municipal connected heat pumps in Pierre, South Dakota: the South Dakota Discovery Center and Pierre City Hall.Both systems now utilize plate heat exchanger between the city water loop and the building loop. This article describes the geothermal system used in Pierre for both space heating and cooling of municipal buildings.

  4. Energy 101: Geothermal Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    An energy-efficient heating and cooling alternative, the geothermal heat pump system moves heat from the ground to a building (or from a building to the ground) through a series of flexible pipe "loops" containing water. This edition of Energy 101 explores the benefits Geothermal and the science behind how it all comes together.

  5. Heat Pumping in Nanomechanical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamon, Claudio; Mucciolo, Eduardo R.; Arrachea, Liliana; Capaz, Rodrigo B.

    2011-04-01

    We propose using a phonon pumping mechanism to transfer heat from a cold to a hot body using a propagating modulation of the medium connecting the two bodies. This phonon pump can cool nanomechanical systems without the need for active feedback. We compute the lowest temperature that this refrigerator can achieve.

  6. Portable Heat Pump Testing Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kłosowiak, R.; Bartoszewicz, J.; Urbaniak, R.

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the design and working principle of a portable testing device for heat pumps in the energy recirculation system. The presented test stand can be used for any refrigerating/reverse flow cycle device to calculate the device energy balance. The equipment is made of two portable containers of the capacity of 250 liters to simulate the air heat source and ground heat source with a system of temperature stabilization, compressor heat pump of the coefficient of performance (COP) of = 4.3, a failsafe system and a control and measurement system.

  7. Heat-Powered Pump for Liquid Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campana, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Proposed thermoelectromagnetic pump for liquid metal powered by waste heat; needs no battery, generator, or other external energy source. Pump turns part of heat in liquid metal into pumping energy. In combination with primary pump or on its own, thermoelectric pump circulates coolant between reactor and radiator. As long as there is decay heat to be removed, unit performs function.

  8. Heat-powered water pump

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, D.G.

    1980-04-08

    A heat-powered water pump includes a flexible diaphragm as the pumping element with a volatile liquid as a working fluid. The flexible diaphragm is enclosed within a vessel and isolates the working fluid from the water to be pumped. One-way valves control the direction of water flow through the pump. A u-shaped siphon tube acts as a temporary reservoir for the pumped water and is siphoned empty after being filled. A portion of the water siphoned from the u-shaped siphon tube is recirculated through the vessel in heat exchange relationship with the working fluid to condense the working fluid. A reservoir of warm water is maintained in thermal contact with the flexible diaphragm to minimize condensation of the working fluid by thermal contact with the water through the diaphragm.

  9. An aeroacoustically driven thermoacoustic heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaton, W. V.; Zeegers, J. C. H.

    2005-06-01

    The mean flow of gas in a pipe past a cavity can excite the resonant acoustic modes of the cavity-much like blowing across the top of a bottle. The periodic shedding of vortices from the leading edge of the mouth of the cavity feeds energy into the acoustic modes which, in turn, affect the shedding of the next vortex. This so-called aeroacoustic whistle can excite very high amplitude acoustic standing waves within a cavity defined by coaxial side branches closed at their ends. The amplitude of these standing waves can easily be 20% of the ambient pressure at optimal gas flow rates and ambient pressures within the main pipe. A standing wave thermoacoustic heat pump is a device which utilizes the in-phase pressure and displacement oscillations to pump heat across a porous medium thereby establishing, or maintaining, a temperature gradient. Experimental results of a combined system of aeroacoustic sound source and a simple thermoacoustic stack will be presented. .

  10. Heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1983-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

  11. Heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1983-06-21

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

  12. Heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1977-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

  13. Absorption-heat-pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, G.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1983-06-16

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  14. Multistage quantum absorption heat pumps.

    PubMed

    Correa, Luis A

    2014-04-01

    It is well known that heat pumps, while being all limited by the same basic thermodynamic laws, may find realization on systems as "small" and "quantum" as a three-level maser. In order to quantitatively assess how the performance of these devices scales with their size, we design generalized N-dimensional ideal heat pumps by merging N-2 elementary three-level stages. We set them to operate in the absorption chiller mode between given hot and cold baths and study their maximum achievable cooling power and the corresponding efficiency as a function of N. While the efficiency at maximum power is roughly size-independent, the power itself slightly increases with the dimension, quickly saturating to a constant. Thus, interestingly, scaling up autonomous quantum heat pumps does not render a significant enhancement beyond the optimal double-stage configuration.

  15. Integration of heat pumps into industrial processes

    SciTech Connect

    Chappell, R.N. ); Priebe, S.J. )

    1989-01-01

    The Department of Energy and others have funded studies to assess the potential for energy savings using industrial heat pumps. The studies included classifications of heat pumps, economic evaluations, and placement of heat pumps in industrial processes. Pinch technology was used in the placement studies to determine the placement, size, and type of heat pumps for a given applications. There appears to be considerable scope for heat pumping in several industries, but, where maximum process energy savings are desired, it is important to consider heat pumping in the context of overall process integration. 19 refs., 15 figs.

  16. Magnetic Heat Pump Containing Flow Diverters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Frank S.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed magnetic heat pump contains flow diverters for suppression of undesired flows. If left unchecked, undesired flows mix substantial amounts of partially heated and partially cooled portions of working fluid, effectively causing leakage of heat from heated side to cooled side. By reducing leakage of heat, flow diverters increase energy efficiency of magnetic heat pump, potentially offering efficiency greater than compressor-driven refrigerator.

  17. Geothermal heat in a heat pump use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlova, A.; Hansen, J.; Obermeyer, H.; Pavlova, I.

    2016-09-01

    The considered innovative technology proposes to use alternative energy sources for the process efficiency in low-height construction. The world economy depends on price rises for energy sources and the danger of environmental pollution increases. Geothermal energy is the basic resource saving and environmentally safe renewable heat source that is characterized by inexhaustibility, permanent all the-year-round use, universal prevalence of resources and the ability to replace considerable volumes of traditional energy carriers. The expediency and power efficiency to apply a heat pump with the use of geothermal heat is proved for low-height construction.

  18. Heat cascading regenerative sorption heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A simple heat cascading regenerative sorption heat pump process with rejected or waste heat from a higher temperature chemisorption circuit (HTCC) powering a lower temperature physisorption circuit (LTPC) which provides a 30% total improvement over simple regenerative physisorption compression heat pumps when ammonia is both the chemisorbate and physisorbate, and a total improvement of 50% or more for LTPC having two pressure stages. The HTCC contains ammonia and a chemisorbent therefor contained in a plurality of canisters, a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, and a heater, operatively connected together. The LTPC contains ammonia and a physisorbent therefor contained in a plurality of compressors, a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, operatively connected together. A closed heat transfer circuit (CHTC) is provided which contains a flowing heat transfer liquid (FHTL) in thermal communication with each canister and each compressor for cascading heat from the HTCC to the LTPC. Heat is regenerated within the LTPC by transferring heat from one compressor to another. In one embodiment the regeneration is performed by another CHTC containing another FHTL in thermal communication with each compressor. In another embodiment the HTCC powers a lower temperature ammonia water absorption circuit (LTAWAC) which contains a generator-absorber system containing the absorbent, and a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, operatively connected together. The absorbent is water or an absorbent aqueous solution. A CHTC is provided which contains a FHTL in thermal communication with the generator for cascading heat from the HTCC to the LTAWAC. Heat is regenerated within the LTAWAC by transferring heat from the generator to the absorber. The chemical composition of the chemisorbent is different than the chemical composition of the physisorbent, and the absorbent. The chemical composition of the FHTL is different than the chemisorbent, the physisorbent, the absorbent, and ammonia.

  19. Staged regenerative sorption heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system for cooling and heating a space. A sorbent is confined in a plurality of compressors of which at least four are first stage and at least four are second stage. The first stage operates over a first pressure region and the second stage over a second pressure region which is higher than the first. Sorbate from the first stage enters the second stage. The sorbate loop includes a condenser, expansion valve, evaporator and the compressors. A single sorbate loop can be employed for single-temperature-control such as air conditioning and heating. Two sorbate loops can be used for two-temperature-control as in a refrigerator and freezer. The evaporator temperatures control the freezer and refrigerator temperatures. Alternatively the refrigerator temperature can be cooled by the freezer with one sorbate loop. A heat transfer fluid is circulated in a closed loop which includes a radiator and the compressors. Low temperature heat is exhausted by the radiator. High temperature heat is added to the heat transfer fluid entering the compressors which are desorbing vapor. Heat is transferred from compressors which are sorbing vapor to the heat transfer fluid, and from the heat transfer fluid to the compressors which are desorbing vapor. Each compressor is subjected to the following phases, heating to its highest temperature, cooling down from its highest temperature, cooling to its lowest temperature, and warming up from its lowest temperature. The phases are repeated to complete a cycle and regenerate heat.

  20. Carbon Dioxide Absorption Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A carbon dioxide absorption heat pump cycle is disclosed using a high pressure stage and a super-critical cooling stage to provide a non-toxic system. Using carbon dioxide gas as the working fluid in the system, the present invention desorbs the CO2 from an absorbent and cools the gas in the super-critical state to deliver heat thereby. The cooled CO2 gas is then expanded thereby providing cooling and is returned to an absorber for further cycling. Strategic use of heat exchangers can increase the efficiency and performance of the system.

  1. Magnetic heat pumping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, G. V. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic element is used to control the temperature and applied magnetic field of the element to cause the state of the element as represented on a temperature-magnetic entropy diagram to repeatedly traverse a loop. The loop may have a first portion of concurrent substantially isothermal or constant temperature and increasing applied magnetic field, a second portion of lowering temperature and constant applied magnetic field, a third portion of isothermal and decreasing applied magnetic field, and a fourth portion of increasing temperature and constant applied magnetic field. Other loops may be four-sided, with two isotherms and two adiabats. Preferably, a regenerator is used to enhance desired cooling or heating effects, with varied magnetic fields, or varying temperatures including three-sided figures traversed by the representative point.

  2. Geothermal Heat Pump Benchmarking Report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-17

    A benchmarking study was conducted on behalf of the Department of Energy to determine the critical factors in successful utility geothermal heat pump programs. A Successful program is one that has achieved significant market penetration. Successfully marketing geothermal heat pumps has presented some major challenges to the utility industry. However, select utilities have developed programs that generate significant GHP sales. This benchmarking study concludes that there are three factors critical to the success of utility GHP marking programs: (1) Top management marketing commitment; (2) An understanding of the fundamentals of marketing and business development; and (3) An aggressive competitive posture. To generate significant GHP sales, competitive market forces must by used. However, because utilities have functioned only in a regulated arena, these companies and their leaders are unschooled in competitive business practices. Therefore, a lack of experience coupled with an intrinsically non-competitive culture yields an industry environment that impedes the generation of significant GHP sales in many, but not all, utilities.

  3. Acoustically enhanced heat exchange and drying apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bramlette, T.T.; Keller, J.O.

    1987-07-10

    A heat transfer drying apparatus includes an acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber for receiving material to be dried. The chamber includes a first heat transfer gas inlet, a second heat transfer gas inlet, a material inlet, and a gas outlet which also serves as a dried material and gas outlet. A non-pulsing first heat transfer gas source provides a first drying gas to the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber through the first heat transfer gas inlet. A valveless, continuous second heat transfer gas source provides a second drying gas to the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber through the second heat transfer gas inlet. The second drying gas also generates acoustic waves which bring about acoustical coupling with the gases in the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber. The second drying gas itself oscillates at an acoustic frequency of approximately 180 Hz due to fluid mechanical motion in the gas. The oscillations of the second heat transfer gas coupled to the first heat transfer gas in the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber enhance heat and mass transfer by convection within the chamber. 3 figs.

  4. Sorption Refrigeration / Heat Pump Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Bidyut Baran; Alam, K. C. Amanul; Hamamoto, Yoshinori; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    Over the past few decades there have been considerable efforts to use adsorption (solid/vapor) for cooling and heat pump applications, but intensified efforts were initiated only since the imposition of international restrictions on the production and use of CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) and HCFCs (hydrochlorofluorocarbons). Up to now, only the desiccant evaporative cooling system of the open type has achieved commercial use, predominantly in the United States. Closed-type adsorption refrigeration and heat pump systems are rarely seen in the market, or are still in the laboratory testing stage. Promising recent development have been made in Japan for the use of porous metal hydrides and composite adsorbents. In this paper, a short description of adsorption theories along with an overview of present status and future development trends of thermally powered adsorption refrigeration cycles are outlined putting emphasis on experimental achievements. This paper also addressed some advanced absorption cycles having relatively higher COP, and also summarizes fundamental concepts of GAX cycles and various GAX cycles developed for heat pump applications.

  5. A regenerative elastocaloric heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tušek, Jaka; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Eriksen, Dan; Dall’Olio, Stefano; Tušek, Janez; Pryds, Nini

    2016-10-01

    A large fraction of global energy use is for refrigeration and air-conditioning, which could be decarbonized if efficient renewable energy technologies could be found. Vapour-compression technology remains the most widely used system to move heat up the temperature scale after more than 100 years; however, caloric-based technologies (those using the magnetocaloric, electrocaloric, barocaloric or elastocaloric effect) have recently shown a significant potential as alternatives to replace this technology due to high efficiency and the use of green solid-state refrigerants. Here, we report a regenerative elastocaloric heat pump that exhibits a temperature span of 15.3 K on the water side with a corresponding specific heating power up to 800 W kg‑1 and maximum COP (coefficient-of-performance) values of up to 7. The efficiency and specific heating power of this device exceeds those of other devices based on caloric effects. These results open up the possibility of using the elastocaloric effect in various cooling and heat-pumping applications.

  6. Solar preheater for residential heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    The Solar Preheater for Residential Heat PUmps was designed to offset the weakest points in a heat pump system using solar energy. These weak points affect both energy efficiency and comfort, and are: (1) the heat pumps need to defrost its outside coils, and (2) its use of resistance coils when outside air is very cold. While a heat pump can claim close to 100% efficiency in its conversion of electricity to heat, these efficiencies drop way off under the above circumstances. Less dramatic energy savings should also occur during the heat pump's normal operation, since a heat pump takes available heat and condenses it to heat the house. It seems reasonable to say that if there is more heat in the outside air it will take less time to raise the temperature inside. The net effect should be similar to having the heat pump located several hundred miles south of the home it is heating. There are several ways to achieve solar augmentation of heat pump operation, but most are either too expensive, too difficult for do-it-yourselfers, or are not easily adaptable to existing units. The solar preheater for residential heat pumps gets around all the above restrictions.

  7. Plasma heat pump and heat engine

    SciTech Connect

    Avinash, K.

    2010-08-15

    A model system where cold charged particles are locally confined in a volume V{sub P} within a warm plasma of volume V (V{sub P}<heat and vice versa. Two applications of this theory are, first we propose a pumping device which heats plasmas by an adiabatic/isothermal compression of fields. Heating power ranging from a few hundred watts to a few kilowatts is possible with the present day technology. Second, we discuss the feasibility of constructing an electrostatic heat engine which converts plasma heat into mechanical work via plasma electric fields. Effects of P{sub E} are shown to be observable in colloidal solutions.

  8. Heat pump having improved defrost system

    DOEpatents

    Chen, F.C.; Mei, V.C.; Murphy, R.W.

    1998-12-08

    A heat pump system includes, in an operable relationship for transferring heat between an exterior atmosphere and an interior atmosphere via a fluid refrigerant: a compressor; an interior heat exchanger; an exterior heat exchanger; an accumulator; and means for heating the accumulator in order to defrost the exterior heat exchanger. 2 figs.

  9. Heat pump having improved defrost system

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Fang C.; Mei, Viung C.; Murphy, Richard W.

    1998-01-01

    A heat pump system includes, in an operable relationship for transferring heat between an exterior atmosphere and an interior atmosphere via a fluid refrigerant: a compressor; an interior heat exchanger; an exterior heat exchanger; an accumulator; and means for heating the accumulator in order to defrost the exterior heat exchanger.

  10. Using water in distillation systems heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Meili, A.

    1993-05-01

    Conventional steam-heated distillation columns are among the largest energy consumers in a chemical process industries (CPI) plant. More and more distillation columns are, therefore, being equipped with heat pumps. In many cases, this is done not only to reduce energy costs, but also for safety and operational reasons. Most heat pumps in industrial-scale evaporation or distillation plants employ steam ejectors, direct vapor recompression, or an auxiliary heat-transfer medium. An earlier article covered the various alternatives for heat-pump-assisted distillation. This article takes an in-depth look at heat pumps with an auxiliary medium, specifically those employing water. The article provides some general background on heat-pump-assisted distillation, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using water as the heat-transfer medium, highlights the range of possible applications, and illustrates the technology and its potential energy savings via several examples.

  11. Acoustically enhanced heat exchange and drying apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bramlette, T. Tazwell; Keller, Jay O.

    1989-01-01

    A heat transfer apparatus includes a first chamber having a first heat transfer gas inlet, a second heat transfer gas inlet, and an outlet. A first heat transfer gas source provides a first gas flow to the first chamber through the first heat transfer gas inlet. A second gas flow through a second chamber connected to the side of the first chamber, generates acoustic waves which bring about acoustical coupling of the first and second gases in the acoustically augmented first chamber. The first chamber may also include a material inlet for receiving material to be dried, in which case the gas outlet serves as a dried material and gas outlet.

  12. Heat pumps and heat pipes for applications in cold regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, Leonard L.

    Advanced active carbon fibre/NH3 heat pumps with dual sources of energy (solar/gas) were developed for providing space heating, cooling and sanitary hot water for buildings. The next heat pump generation will include a combination of chemicals with an active carbon fibre to increase the NH3 absorption. Combination of heat pipes and heat pumps solves the problem of heating the ground and air in green houses using the heat of the ground, hot ground waters, solar energy and gas flames with heat storage.

  13. Chromospheric heating by acoustic shock waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Stuart D.

    1993-01-01

    Work by Anderson & Athay (1989) suggests that the mechanical energy required to heat the quiet solar chromosphere might be due to the dissipation of weak acoustic shocks. The calculations reported here demonstrate that a simple picture of chromospheric shock heating by acoustic waves propagating upward through a model solar atmosphere, free of both magnetic fields and local inhomogeneities, cannot reproduce their chromospheric model. The primary reason is the tendency for vertically propagating acoustic waves in the range of allowed periods to dissipate too low in the atmosphere, providing insufficient residual energy for the middle chromosphere. The effect of diverging magnetic fields and the corresponding expanding acoustic wavefronts on the mechanical dissipation length is then discussed as a means of preserving a quasi-acoustic heating hypothesis. It is argued that this effect, in a canopy that overlies the low chromosphere, might preserve the acoustic shock hypothesis consistent with the chromospheric radiation losses computed by Anderson & Athay.

  14. High efficiency advanced absorption heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, E. A., Jr.

    1982-03-01

    A high efficiency absorption heat pump for the residential market is investigated. The performance targets established for this high efficiency absorption heat pump are a heating coefficient of performance of 1.5 and a cooling coefficient of performance of 0.8 at rating conditions, including parasitic electric power consumption. The resulting heat pump would have a space heating capacity of 68,000 BTU/hour, and a space cooling capacity of 36,000 BTU/hour at rating conditions. A very simplified schematic block diagram of the high efficiency absorption heat pump cycle is shown. High temperature, high pressure, refrigerant vapor is produced in the refrigerant generator and heat exchange system, is condensed to a liquid in the condenser, expanded to a low pressure vapor in the evaporator, and mixed with and reabsorbed into the weakened solution returned from the refrigerant generator and heat exchange system in the absorber.

  15. Geothermal heat pump grouting materials

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, M.

    1998-08-01

    The thermal conductivity of cementitious grouts has been investigated in order to determine suitability of these materials for grouting vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pumps. The roles of mix variables such as water/cement ratio, sand/cement ratio and superplasticizer dosage were measured. The cement-sand grouts were also tested for rheological characteristics, bleeding, permeability, bond to HDPE pipe, shrinkage, coefficient of thermal expansion, exotherm, durability and environmental impact. This paper summarizes the thermal conductivity, permeability, bonding and exotherm data for selected cementitious grouts. The theoretical reduction in bore length that could be achieved with the BNL-developed cement-sand grouts is examined. Finally, the FY 98 research and field trials are discussed.

  16. GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMP GROUTING MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    ALLAN,M.

    1998-04-01

    The thermal conductivity of cementitious grouts has been investigated in order to determine suitability of these materials for grouting vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pumps. The roles of mix variables such as water/cement ratio, sand/cement ratio and superplasticizer dosage were measured. The cement-sand grouts were also tested for rheological characteristics, bleeding, permeability, bond to HDPE pipe, shrinkage, coefficient of thermal expansion, exotherm, durability and environmental impact. This paper summarizes the thermal conductivity, permeability, bonding and exotherm data for selected cementitious grouts. The theoretical reduction in bore length that could be achieved with the BNL-developed cement-sand grouts is examined. Finally, the FY 98 research and field trials are discussed.

  17. Pumped two-phase heat transfer loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelstein, Fred (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A pumped loop two-phase heat transfer system, operating at a nearly constant temperature throughout, includes a plurality of independently operating grooved capillary heat exchanger plates supplied with working fluid through independent flow modulation valves connected to a liquid supply line, a vapor line for collecting vapor from the heat exchangers, a condenser between the vapor and the liquid lines, and a fluid circulating pump between the condenser and the heat exchangers.

  18. Pumped two-phase heat transfer loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelstein, Fred

    1988-01-01

    A pumped loop two-phase heat transfer system, operating at a nearly constant temperature throughout, includes several independently operating grooved capillary heat exchanger plates supplied with working fluid through independent flow modulation valves connected to a liquid supply line, a vapor line for collecting vapor from the heat exchangers, a condenser between the vapor and the liquid lines, and a fluid circulating pump between the condenser and the heat exchangers.

  19. Frostless heat pump having thermal expansion valves

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Fang C [Knoxville, TN; Mei, Viung C [Oak Ridge, TN

    2002-10-22

    A heat pump system having an operable relationship for transferring heat between an exterior atmosphere and an interior atmosphere via a fluid refrigerant and further having a compressor, an interior heat exchanger, an exterior heat exchanger, a heat pump reversing valve, an accumulator, a thermal expansion valve having a remote sensing bulb disposed in heat transferable contact with the refrigerant piping section between said accumulator and said reversing valve, an outdoor temperature sensor, and a first means for heating said remote sensing bulb in response to said outdoor temperature sensor thereby opening said thermal expansion valve to raise suction pressure in order to mitigate defrosting of said exterior heat exchanger wherein said heat pump continues to operate in a heating mode.

  20. Heat pump associations, alliances, and allies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Associations, Alliances, and Allies, a seminar and workshop sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute, was held in Memphis, Tennessee, April 10--11, 1991. The focus of the meeting was relationships forged between electric utilities and trade allies that sell residential heat pumps. one hundred and seven representatives of electric utilities, dealer/contractors, manufacturers, and consultants attended. Electric utility trade ally programs run the gamut from coop advertising to heat pump association to elaborate technician training programs. All utility participants recognize the important programs, since it is the trade ally who sells, installs, and services heat pumps, while it is the electric utility who gets blamed if the heat pumps fail to operate properly or are inefficient. Heat pumps are efficient and effective, but their efficiency and effectiveness depends critically upon the quality of installation and maintenance. A utility can thus help to ensure satisfied customers and can also help to achieve its own load shape objectives by working closely with its trade allies, the dealers, contractors, manufacturers, and distributors. Attendees spent the morning sessions of the two day meeting in plenary sessions, hearing about utility and dealer heat pump programs and issues. Afternoon roundtable discussions provided structured forums to discuss: Advertising; Heat pump association startup and operation; Rebates and incentives; Technician training school and centers; Installation inspection and dealer qualification; and Heat pump association training. These proceedings report on the papers presented in the morning plenary sessions and summarize the main points discussed in the afternoon workshops.

  1. Heat pump technology: Responding to new opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, V.D.; Creswick, F.A. ); Snelson, W.K. . Institute for Mechnical Engineering)

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides an update on advanced heat pump research and development activities in the United States and Canada. Under the general area of vapor compression technology a major need toward which these research programs are directed is the development of viable alternatives to HCFC-22 for heat pump and air-conditioning applications. The HCFC phaseout provides an opportunity to develop advanced refrigeration equipment for the new refrigerants which has higher energy efficiency than current heat pump systems. Programs are underway in both industry and government laboratories and are characterized by close collaboration between major manufacturers and government agencies to plan and execute the research. Under the general area of thermally activated heat pump technology, there are several cooperative early-commercialization activities being conducted on gas-fired heat pumps and chillers by government, HVAC industry, and gas utility organizations.

  2. D-Zero HVAC Heat Pump Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Markley, Dan; /Fermilab

    2004-04-14

    This engineering note documents the integration of Dzero Heat Pump 1 through Heat Pump 15 into the cryo/gas process control system commonly referred to as the cryo control system. Heat pumps 1 through 15 control the ambient air temperature on the 3rd, 5th, and 6th floor office areas at Dzero. The entire Johnson HVAC control system was replaced with a Siemens control system in 1999 leaving behind the 15 heat pumps with stand-alone Johnson controllers. Now, these 15 heat pump Johnson controllers are being replaced with small stand alone Beckhoff BC9000 controllers. The Beckhoff BC9000 controllers are network able into the existing Intellution control system. The Beckhoff BC9000 controllers use the cryo private Ethernet network and an OPC driver to get data into the Intellution SCADA node databases. The BC9000 is also programmed over this same Ethernet network.

  3. Jet pump assisted arterial heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bienert, W. B.; Ducao, A. S.; Trimmer, D. S.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of an arterial heat pipe with a capillary driven jet pump. The jet pump generates a suction which pumps vapor and noncondensible gas from the artery. The suction also forces liquid into the artery and maintains it in a primed condition. A theoretical model was developed which predicts the existence of two stable ranges. Up to a certain tilt the artery will prime by itself once a heat load is applied to the heat pipe. At higher tilts, the jet pump can maintain the artery in a primed condition but self-priming is not possible. A prototype heat pipe was tested which self-primed up to a tilt of 1.9 cm, with a heat load of 500 watts. The heat pipe continued to prime reliably when operated as a VCHP, i.e., after a large amount of noncondensible gas was introduced.

  4. Solid state radiative heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Berdahl, Paul H.

    1986-01-01

    A solid state radiative heat pump (10, 50, 70) operable at room temperature (300.degree. K.) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of charge carriers as compared to thermal equilibrium. In one form of the invention (10, 70) an infrared semiconductor photodiode (21, 71) is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention (50), a homogeneous semiconductor (51) is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation through the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-reflection layer (19) is coated into the active surface (13) of the semiconductor (11), the anti-reflection layer (19) having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor (11). In the second method, a passive layer (75) is spaced from the active surface (73) of the semiconductor (71) by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler (91) with a paraboloid reflecting surface (92) is in contact with the active surface (13, 53) of the semiconductor (11, 51), the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  5. Solid state radiative heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1984-09-28

    A solid state radiative heat pump operable at room temperature (300 K) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of change carriers as compared equilibrium. In one form of the invention an infrared semiconductor photodiode is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention, a homogenous semiconductor is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-refection layer is coated into the active surface of the semiconductor, the anti-reflection layer having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor. In the second method, a passive layer is speaced trom the active surface of the semiconductor by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler with a paraboloid reflecting surface surface is in contact with the active surface of the semiconductor, the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  6. Heat and mass transfer considerations in advanced heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect

    Panchal, C.B.; Bell, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced heat-pump cycles are being investigated for various applications. However, the working media and associated thermal design aspects require new concepts for maintaining high thermal effectiveness and phase equilibrium for achieving maximum possible thermodynamic advantages. In the present study, the heat- and mass-transfer processes in two heat-pump systems -- those based on absorption processes, and those using refrigerant mixtures -- are analyzed. The major technical barriers for achieving the ideal performance predicted by thermodynamic analysis are identified. The analysis provides general guidelines for the development of heat- and mass-transfer equipment for advanced heat-pump systems.

  7. Heat and mass transfer considerations in advanced heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect

    Panchal, C.B.; Bell, K.J.

    1992-08-01

    Advanced heat-pump cycles are being investigated for various applications. However, the working media and associated thermal design aspects require new concepts for maintaining high thermal effectiveness and phase equilibrium for achieving maximum possible thermodynamic advantages. In the present study, the heat- and mass-transfer processes in two heat-pump systems -- those based on absorption processes, and those using refrigerant mixtures -- are analyzed. The major technical barriers for achieving the ideal performance predicted by thermodynamic analysis are identified. The analysis provides general guidelines for the development of heat- and mass-transfer equipment for advanced heat-pump systems.

  8. Heat pump with freeze-up prevention

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1981-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid prevents freeze up of the second heat exchanger by keeping the temperature above the dew point; and, optionally, provides heat for efficient operation.

  9. Transient Analysis of a Magnetic Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, E. A.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental heat pump that uses a rare earth element as the refrigerant is modeled using NASTRAN. The refrigerant is a ferromagnetic metal whose temperature rises when a magnetic field is applied and falls when the magnetic field is removed. The heat pump is used as a refrigerator to remove heat from a reservoir and discharge it through a heat exchanger. In the NASTRAN model the components modeled are represented by one-dimensional ROD elements. Heat flow in the solids and fluid are analyzed. The problem is mildly nonlinear since the heat capacity of the refrigerant is temperature-dependent. One simulation run consists of a series of transient analyses, each representing one stroke of the heat pump. An auxiliary program was written that uses the results of one NASTRAN analysis to generate data for the next NASTRAN analysis.

  10. Absorption heat pump for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Tuan; Simon, William E.; Warrier, Gopinath R.; Woramontri, Woranun

    1993-01-01

    In the first part, the performance of the Absorption Heat Pump (AHP) with water-sulfuric acid and water-magnesium chloride as two new refrigerant-absorbent fluid pairs was investigated. A model was proposed for the analysis of the new working pairs in a heat pump system, subject to different temperature lifts. Computer codes were developed to calculate the Coefficient of Performance (COP) of the system with the thermodynamic properties of the working fluids obtained from the literature. The study shows the potential of water-sulfuric acid as a satisfactory replacement for water-lithium bromide in the targeted temperature range. The performance of the AHP using water-magnesium chloride as refrigerant-absorbent pair does not compare well with those obtained using water-lithium bromide. The second part concentrated on the design and testing of a simple ElectroHydrodynamic (EHD) Pump. A theoretical design model based on continuum electromechanics was analyzed to predict the performance characteristics of the EHD pump to circulate the fluid in the absorption heat pump. A numerical method of solving the governing equations was established to predict the velocity profile, pressure - flow rate relationship and efficiency of the pump. The predicted operational characteristics of the EHD pump is comparable to that of turbomachinery hardware; however, the overall efficiency of the electromagnetic pump is much lower. An experimental investigation to verify the numerical results was conducted. The pressure - flow rate performance characteristics and overall efficiency of the pump obtained experimentally agree well with the theoretical model.

  11. Hot Topics! Heat Pumps and Geothermal Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The recent rapid rises in the cost of energy has significantly increased interest in alternative energy sources. The author discusses the underlying principles of heat pumps and geothermal energy. Related activities for technology education students are included.

  12. Geothermal Heat Pumps for Federal Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    1999-08-01

    OFFICE OF GEOTHERMAL TECHNOLOGIES Geothermal Heat Pumps for Federal Buildings The U.S. Government spends approximately $8 billion annually on its energy needs. To reduce energy use in Federal buildings, President Bill Clinton issued Executive Order 13123 in June 1999, which calls for a 35% reduction in Federal energy use from 1985 levels by 2010. Geothermal heat pumps--when installed in virtually any type of building--can help accomplish this goal with energy savings of up to 40%. Geothermal he.

  13. An environmental rating for heat pump equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    The major federal and state regulatory trends that may affect heat pump markets are reviewed. Then the confluence of federal and state regulation, and what that may mean for heat pump markets, is discussed. The conclusion reached, and therefore the assumption for the rest of the paper, is that state regulators will increasingly be managing the environmental impacts associated with alternative heating, cooling, and water heating methods within the framework of Integrated Resource Planning (IRP). The input needs of IRP are reviewed, and some shortcomings of existing rating procedures for providing the IRP inputs are identified. Finally, the paper concludes with a brief suggestion on course of action.

  14. An environmental rating for heat pump equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, P.J.

    1992-12-31

    The major federal and state regulatory trends that may affect heat pump markets are reviewed. Then the confluence of federal and state regulation, and what that may mean for heat pump markets, is discussed. The conclusion reached, and therefore the assumption for the rest of the paper, is that state regulators will increasingly be managing the environmental impacts associated with alternative heating, cooling, and water heating methods within the framework of Integrated Resource Planning (IRP). The input needs of IRP are reviewed, and some shortcomings of existing rating procedures for providing the IRP inputs are identified. Finally, the paper concludes with a brief suggestion on course of action.

  15. Self-pumping solar heating system with geyser pumping action

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, E.L.; Bartera, R.E.

    1984-10-23

    A self-pumping solar heating system having a collector including a multitude of small diameter riser tubes from which heated liquid is pumped into a header by a geyser action. A vapor condenser assures a header pressure conducive to bubble nucleation in the riser tube upper end segments. The level of liquid within the header or its outlet is higher than the liquid level in the riser tubes to produce a gravity imbalance capable of circulating heated liquid past a storage heat exchanger, below the header, and then upwardly through the closed vapor condenser in the header prior to return to a collector inlet manifold. A modified header utilizes an open vapor condenser in vapor communication with the collector header.

  16. Acoustic Levitator With Furnace And Laser Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin B.; Stoneburner, James D.

    1991-01-01

    Acoustic-levitation apparatus incorporates electrical-resistance furnace for uniform heating up to temperature of about 1,000 degrees C. Additional local heating by pair of laser beams raise temperature of sample to more than 1,500 degrees C. High temperature single-mode acoustic levitator generates cylindrical-mode accoustic resonance levitating sample. Levitation chamber enclosed in electrical-resistance furnace. Infrared beams from Nd:YAG laser provide additional local heating of sample. Designed for use in containerless processing of materials in microgravity or in normal Earth gravity.

  17. Direct expansion solar collector and heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-05-01

    A hybrid heat pump/solar collector combination in which solar collectors replace the outside air heat exchanger found in conventional air-to-air heat pump systems is discussed. The solar panels ordinarily operate at or below ambient temperature, eliminating the need to install the collector panels in a glazed and insulated enclosure. The collectors simply consist of a flat plate with a centrally located tube running longitudinally. Solar energy absorbed by exposed panels directly vaporizes the refrigerant fluid. The resulting vapor is compressed to higher temperature and pressure; then, it is condensed to release the heat absorbed during the vaporization process. Control and monitoring of the demonstration system are addressed, and the tests conducted with the demonstration system are described. The entire heat pump system is modelled, including predicted performance and costs, and economic comparisons are made with conventional flat-plate collector systems.

  18. Capillary pumped loop body heat exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Theodore D. (Inventor); Wren, deceased, Paul (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A capillary pumped loop for transferring heat from one body part to another body part, the capillary pumped loop comprising a capillary evaporator for vaporizing a liquid refrigerant by absorbing heat from a warm body part, a condenser for turning a vaporized refrigerant into a liquid by transferring heat from the vaporized liquid to a cool body part, a first tube section connecting an output port of the capillary evaporator to an input of the condenser, and a second tube section connecting an output of the condenser to an input port of the capillary evaporator. A wick may be provided within the condenser. A pump may be provided between the second tube section and the input port of the capillary evaporator. Additionally, an esternal heat source or heat sink may be utilized.

  19. Acoustic spin pumping in magnetoelectric bulk acoustic wave resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polzikova, N. I.; Alekseev, S. G.; Pyataikin, I. I.; Kotelyanskii, I. M.; Luzanov, V. A.; Orlov, A. P.

    2016-05-01

    We present the generation and detection of spin currents by using magnetoelastic resonance excitation in a magnetoelectric composite high overtone bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonator (HBAR) formed by a Al-ZnO-Al-GGG-YIG-Pt structure. Transversal BAW drives magnetization oscillations in YIG film at a given resonant magnetic field, and the resonant magneto-elastic coupling establishes the spin-current generation at the Pt/YIG interface. Due to the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) this BAW-driven spin current is converted to a dc voltage in the Pt layer. The dependence of the measured voltage both on magnetic field and frequency has a resonant character. The voltage is determined by the acoustic power in HBAR and changes its sign upon magnetic field reversal. We compare the experimentally observed amplitudes of the ISHE electrical field achieved by our method and other approaches to spin current generation that use surface acoustic waves and microwave resonators for ferromagnetic resonance excitation, with the theoretically expected values.

  20. Efficiency optimization of the classical molecular heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Dong-Qin; Zhong, Wei-Rong

    2011-07-01

    We investigate a three-terminal heat pump through classical molecular dynamics simulations. It is reported an asymmetrical structure is necessary for the molecular heat pump. There exists an optimum pumping efficiency by controlling the asymmetry and the average temperature of the heat pump. The efficiency increases with the decreasing of the temperature difference between the hot and cold heat baths.

  1. Solar-powered Rankine heat pump for heating and cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseau, J.

    1978-01-01

    The design, operation and performance of a familyy of solar heating and cooling systems are discussed. The systems feature a reversible heat pump operating with R-11 as the working fluid and using a motor-driven centrifugal compressor. In the cooling mode, solar energy provides the heat source for a Rankine power loop. The system is operational with heat source temperatures ranging from 155 to 220 F; the estimated coefficient of performance is 0.7. In the heating mode, the vapor-cycle heat pump processes solar energy collected at low temperatures (40 to 80 F). The speed of the compressor can be adjusted so that the heat pump capacity matches the load, allowing a seasonal coefficient of performance of about 8 to be attained.

  2. The application of heat pump water heating in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, A.S.

    1995-12-01

    The Hawaiian Electric Company is the national leader in the application and general commercial acceptance of heat pump water heating. Since 1980, over 600 commercial-size heat pump water heaters have been installed in Hawaii. Over 300 apartment buildings with over 35,000 living units, some 30 hotels, 8 hospitals and numerous restaurants and lauderettes have replaced their central gas water heating systems with commercial-size heat pump water heaters. This exceptionally efficient electrotechnology permits hotels and apartments to extract significant amounts of solar energy from the warm sub-tropical atmosphere or to recycle waste heat from the building`s air conditioning system for water heating. Heat pump water heaters discharge thermal energy from their condensers that is 2.5 to 6.5 times greater than the electric energy that they consume. Existing gas and oil-fired water heater efficiencies will vary from 0.50 to 0.75 depending on their age, their duty cycle, their adjustment and the cleanliness of their heat exchange surfaces. As a result, these conventional fuel fired water heaters consume 3 to 12 times more energy than the heat pumps that replace them.

  3. Capillary-Condenser-Pumped Heat-Transfer Loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverstein, Calvin C.

    1989-01-01

    Heat being transferred supplies operating power. Capillary-condenser-pumped heat-transfer loop similar to heat pipe and to capillary-evaporator-pumped heat-transfer loop in that heat-transfer fluid pumped by evaporation and condensation of fluid at heat source and sink, respectively. Capillary condenser pump combined with capillary evaporator pump to form heat exchanger circulating heat-transfer fluids in both loops. Transport of heat more nearly isothermal. Thermal stress in loop reduced, and less external surface area needed in condenser section for rejection of heat to heat sink.

  4. Acoustic resonance in heat exchanger tube bundles

    SciTech Connect

    Blevins, R.D. )

    1994-02-01

    A series of experiments has been made on aeroacoustic tones produced by flow over tubes in a duct. The sound is characterized by the onset of a loud and persistent acoustic resonance. The acoustic resonance occurs at the frequency of the acoustic modes. The magnitude and extent of the resonance are functions of tube pattern and tube pitch. The sound levels increase in proportion with Mach number, dynamic head and pressure drop. A design procedure for predicting the magnitude of the sound within the tube array is presented. Methods of resonance avoidance are illustrated. An example is made for a large petrochemical heat exchanger.

  5. Cold Climates Heat Pump Design Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Shen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Heat pumps provide an efficient heating method; however they suffer from sever capacity and performance degradation at low ambient conditions. This has deterred market penetration in cold climates. There is a continuing effort to find an efficient air source cold climate heat pump that maintains acceptable capacity and performance at low ambient conditions. Systematic optimization techniques provide a reliable approach for the design of such systems. This paper presents a step-by-step approach for the design optimization of cold climate heat pumps. We first start by describing the optimization problem: objective function, constraints, and design space. Then we illustrate how to perform this design optimization using an open source publically available optimization toolbox. The response of the heat pump design was evaluated using a validated component based vapor compression model. This model was treated as a black box model within the optimization framework. Optimum designs for different system configurations are presented. These optimum results were further analyzed to understand the performance tradeoff and selection criteria. The paper ends with a discussion on the use of systematic optimization for the cold climate heat pump design.

  6. Lunar base heat pump, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Jeffrey H.; Harvey, A.; Lovell, T.; Walker, David H.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the Phase 1 process and analysis used to select a refrigerant and thermodynamic cycle as the basis of a vapor compression heat pump requiring a high temperature lift, then to perform a preliminary design to implement the selected concept, including major component selection. Use of a vapor compression heat pump versus other types was based on prior work performed for the Electric Power Research Institute. A high lift heat pump is needed to enable a thermal control system to remove heat down to 275 K from a habitable volume when the external thermal environment is severe. For example, a long-term lunar base habitat will reject heat from a space radiator to a 325 K environment. The first step in the selection process was to perform an optimization trade study, quantifying the effect of radiator operating temperature and heat pump efficiency on total system mass; then, select the radiator operating temperature corresponding to the lowest system mass. Total system mass included radiators, all heat pump components, and the power supply system. The study showed that lunar night operation, with no temperature lift, dictated the radiator size. To operate otherwise would require a high mass penalty to store power. With the defined radiation surface, and heat pump performances assumed to be from 40 percent to 60 percent of the Carnot ideal, the optimum heat rejection temperature ranged from 387 K to 377 K, as a function of heat pump performance. Refrigerant and thermodynamic cycles were then selected to best meet the previously determined design conditions. The system was then adapted as a ground-based prototype lifting temperature to 360 K (versus 385 K for flight unit) and using readily available commercial-grade components. Over 40 refrigerants, separated into wet and dry compression behavioral types, were considered in the selection process. Refrigerants were initially screened for acceptable critical temperature. The acceptable refrigerants were

  7. Heat pump system with selective space cooling

    DOEpatents

    Pendergrass, J.C.

    1997-05-13

    A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve. 4 figs.

  8. Heat pump system with selective space cooling

    DOEpatents

    Pendergrass, Joseph C.

    1997-01-01

    A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve.

  9. Heat Radiators for Electromagnetic Pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campana, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Report proposes use of carbon/carbon composite radiators in electromagnetic coolant pumps of nuclear reactors on spacecraft. Carbon/carbon composite materials function well at temperatures in excess of 2,200 K. Aluminum has melting temperature of only 880 K.

  10. Heat Pumps With Direct Expansion Solar Collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Sadasuke

    In this paper, the studies of heat pump systems using solar collectors as the evaporators, which have been done so far by reserchers, are reviwed. Usually, a solar collector without any cover is preferable to one with ac over because of the necessity of absorbing heat from the ambient air when the intensity of the solar energy on the collector is not enough. The performance of the collector depends on its area and the intensity of the convective heat transfer on the surface. Fins are fixed on the backside of the collector-surface or on the tube in which the refrigerant flows in order to increase the convective heat transfer. For the purpose of using a heat pump efficiently throughout year, a compressor with variable capacity is applied. The solar assisted heat pump can be used for air conditioning at night during the summer. Only a few groups of people have studied cooling by using solar assisted heat pump systems. In Japan, a kind of system for hot water supply has been produced commercially in a company and a kind of system for air conditioning has been installed in buildings commercially by another company.

  11. Indoor unit for electric heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Draper, R.; Lackey, R.S.; Fagan, T.J. Jr.; Veyo, S.E.; Humphrey, J.R.

    1984-05-22

    An indoor unit for an electric heat pump is provided in modular form including a refrigeration module, an air mover module, and a resistance heat package module, the refrigeration module including all of the indoor refrigerant circuit components including the compressor in a space adjacent the heat exchanger, the modules being adapted to be connected to air flow communication in several different ways as shown to accommodate placement of the unit in various orientations. 9 figs.

  12. Capillary-Pumped Heat-Transfer Loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    New type of capillary-pumped heat-transfer loop primes itself at startup. Removes substantial quantities of heat like that generated by people and equipment in rooms and vehicles. Creates continuous path for its working fluid; both vapor and liquid move in same direction. Key element in operation of loop is formation of slugs of liquid, condensed from vapor and moved along loop by vapor bubbles before and after it. Both evaporator and condenser contain axial arteries carrying water. Heat entering evaporator from heat source provides energy for transport of fluid and heat. Dimensions in inches.

  13. Heat Balance Study for Submersible Mixer Pump

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.

    2003-07-21

    A transient heat balance model was developed to assess the impact of a Submersible Mixer Pump (SMP) on waste temperature during the process of waste mixing and removal for the Type-I SRS tanks. The model results will be mainly used to determine the SMP design impacts on the waste tank temperature during operations and to develop a specification for a new SMP design to replace existing long-shaft mixer pumps used during waste removal. The model will also be used to provide input to the operation planning. This planning will be used as input to pump run duration in order to maintain temperature requirements within the tank during SMP operation.

  14. Natural Thermoelectric Heat Pump in Social Wasps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishay, Jacob S.; Pertsis, Vitaly; Rave, Eran; Goren, Alon; Bergman, David J.

    2003-05-01

    Photographs of wasps or hornets, taken with different temperature sensitive infrared cameras, reveal body temperatures that are sometimes significantly lower than the ambient temperature. This suggests that the hornets possess an intrinsic biological heat pump mechanism which can be used to achieve such cooling. Evidence is presented to substantiate this novel suggestion and to argue that the heat pump is most likely implemented by exploiting a thermoelectric effect in the hornet cuticle. Such a natural heat pump can conceivably also serve to cool the active hornet, engaged in daytime activities outside the nest at ambient temperatures exceeding 40 °C, to a body temperature that is low enough to allow its survival in extreme thermal conditions. It might also function as a means of raising the body temperature up to a level that enables the hornet to remain active even when the ambient temperature is as low as 10 °C.

  15. Design and development of absorption heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, I. E.

    1986-12-01

    The aim of the research was to demonstrate an absorption heat pump capable of accepting heat from ambient air at building design temperatures, typically -1 C, and elevating it typically to 70 C to supply hydronic central heating systems. An absorbent consisting of a mixture of sodium and potassium hydroxide has been investigated with water as the working fluid and it has been demonstrated that it will accept heat at -5 C and deliver heat 68 degrees higher. If the condenser of the heat pump was operated at temperatures of around 80 C then the heat pump system would meet the above requirement. Liquid water, containing an anti-freeze component has successfully been evaporated at -5 C, and heat transfer coefficients for evaporation at these, and lower temperatures, have been measured. Both film flash evaporation have been investigated in a quantitative manner. The important matter of constructional materials has been investigated through literature review and consultation and no insuperable problems have been identified.

  16. Electric Adsorption Heat Pump for Electric Vehicles: Electric-Powered Adsorption Heat Pump for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    2011-11-21

    HEATS Project: PNNL is developing a new class of advanced nanomaterial called an electrical metal organic framework (EMOF) for EV heating and cooling systems. The EMOF would function similar to a conventional heat pump, which circulates heat or cold to the cabin as needed. However, by directly controlling the EMOF's properties with electricity, the PNNL design is expected to use much less energy than traditional heating and cooling systems. The EMOF-based heat pumps would be light, compact, efficient, and run using virtually no moving parts.

  17. A regional comparison of solar, heat pump, and solar heat pump systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manton, B. E.; Mitchell, J. W.

    The thermal and economic performance of the parallel and series solar-heat pump systems, stand-alone solar and stand-alone heat pump systems for residential space and domestic hot water heating is being compared for the United States using FCHART 4.0. The results are useful for a regional assessment of the viability of the different systems, and for assessing policies that will encourage the implementation of the most energy efficient system.

  18. Performance of a solar augmented heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedinger, A. F. G.; Tomlinson, J. J.; Reid, R. L.; Chaffin, D. J.

    Performance of a residential size solar augmented heat pump is reported for the 1979-1980 heating season. The facility located in Knoxville, Tennessee, has a measured heat load coefficient of 339.5 watt/C (644 BTU/hr- F). The solar augmented heat pump system consists of 7.4 cu m of one inch diameter crushed limestone. The heat pump is a nominal 8.8 KW (2 1/2 ton) high efficiency unit. The system includes electric resistance heaters to give the option of adding thermal energy to the pebble bed storage during utility off-peak periods, thus offering considerable load management capability. A 15 KW electric resistance duct heater is used to add thermal energy to the pebble bin as required during off-peak periods. Hourly thermal performance and on site weather data was taken for the period November 1, 1979, to April 13, 1980. Thermal performance data consists of heat flow summations for all modes of the system, pebble bed temperatures, and space temperature. Weather data consists of dry bulb temperature, dew point temperature, total global insolation (in the plane of the collector), and wind speed and direction. An error analysis was performed and the least accurate of the measurements was determined to be the heat flow at 5%. Solar system thermal performance factor was measured to be 8.77. The heat pump thermal performance factor was 1.64. Total system seasonal performance factor was measured to be 1.66. Using a modified version of TRNSYS, the thermal performance of this system was simulated. When simulation results were compared with data collected onsite, the predicted heat flow and power consumption generally were within experimental accuracy.

  19. Acoustically excited heated jets. 1: Internal excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, J.; Ahuja, K. K.; Brown, W. H.; Salikuddin, M.; Morris, P. J.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of relatively strong upstream acoustic excitation on the mixing of heated jets with the surrounding air are investigated. To determine the extent of the available information on experiments and theories dealing with acoustically excited heated jets, an extensive literature survey was carried out. The experimental program consisted of flow visualization and flowfield velocity and temperature measurements for a broad range of jet operating and flow excitation conditions. A 50.8-mm-diam nozzle was used for this purpose. Parallel to the experimental study, an existing theoretical model of excited jets was refined to include the region downstream of the jet potential core. Excellent agreement was found between theory and experiment in moderately heated jets. However, the theory has not yet been confirmed for highly heated jets. It was found that the sensitivity of heated jets to upstream acoustic excitation varies strongly with the jet operating conditions and that the threshold excitation level increases with increasing jet temperature. Furthermore, the preferential Strouhal number is found not to change significantly with a change of the jet operating conditions. Finally, the effects of the nozzle exit boundary layer thickness appear to be similar for both heated and unheated jets at low Mach numbers.

  20. Practical and efficient magnetic heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, G. V.

    1978-01-01

    Method for pumping heat magnetically at room temperature is more economical than existing refrigeration systems. Method uses natural magneto-thermal effect of gadolinium metal to establish temperature gradient across length of tube. Regenerative cyclic process in which gadolinium sample is magnetized and gives off heat at one end of tube, and then is demagnetized at other end to absorb heat has established temperature gradients of 144 degrees F in experiments near room temperature. Other materials with large magnetothermal effects can be used below room temperature. Possible commercial applications include freeze-drying and food processing, cold storage, and heating and cooling of buildings, plants, and ships.

  1. Acoustical Convective Cooling Or Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Eugene H.; Robey, Judith L.

    1988-01-01

    Small, efficient ultrasonic device circulates fluid. Vibrating at ultrasonic frequency, piezoelectric driver sets up vortexes transfering heat to or from object in space. Used on Earth to apply localized or concentrated cooling to individual electronic components or other small parts.

  2. A regional comparison of solar, heat pump, and solar-heat pump systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manton, B. E.; Mitchell, J. W.

    1982-08-01

    A comparative study of the thermal and economic performance of the parallel and series solar heat pump systems, stand alone solar and stand alone heat pump systems for residential space and domestic hot water heating for the U.S. using FCHART 4.0 is presented. Results show that the parallel solar heat pump system yields the greatest energy savings in the south. Very low cost collectors (50-150 dollars/sq m) are required for a series solar heat pump system in order for it to compete economically with the better of the parallel or solar systems. Conventional oil or gas furnaces need to have a seasonal efficiency of at least 70-85% in order to save as much primary energy as the best primary system in the northeast. In addition, the implications of these results for current or proposed federal tax credit measures are discussed.

  3. Submersible pumping system with heat transfer mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Daniel Francis Alan; Prenger, F. Coyne; Hill, Dallas D; Jankowski, Todd Andrew

    2014-04-15

    A submersible pumping system for downhole use in extracting fluids containing hydrocarbons from a well. In one embodiment, the pumping system comprises a rotary induction motor, a motor casing, one or more pump stages, and a cooling system. The rotary induction motor rotates a shaft about a longitudinal axis of rotation. The motor casing houses the rotary induction motor such that the rotary induction motor is held in fluid isolation from the fluid being extracted. The pump stages are attached to the shaft outside of the motor casing, and are configured to impart fluid being extracted from the well with an increased pressure. The cooling system is disposed at least partially within the motor casing, and transfers heat generated by operation of the rotary induction motor out of the motor casing.

  4. Manually operated elastomer heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchinson, W. D.

    1970-01-01

    Device consisting of a rotating mechanism, a frame with multiple wide bands of rubber, and a fluid bath, demonstrates the feasibility of a human operated device capable of cooling or producing heat. This invention utilizes the basic thermodynamic properties of natural rubber.

  5. Heat pump evaluation for Space Station ATCS evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Brian E.; Petete, Patricia A.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary feasibility assessment of the application of a vapor compression heat pump to the Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) of SSF is presented. This paper focuses on the methodology of raising the surface temperature of the radiators for improved heat rejection. Some of the effects of the vapor compression cycle on SSF examined include heat pump integration into ATCS, constraints on the heat pump operating parameters, and heat pump performance enhancements.

  6. Process Integration Study [Advanced Industrial Heat Pump Applications and Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Eastwood, A.

    1992-06-01

    This work was carried out in two phases: Phase 1; identification of opportunities for heat pumps in industrial applications and Phase 2; evaluation of heat pumps in industrial applications. In Phase 1, pinch analysis was applied to several industrial sites to identify the best opportunities for heat pumping and other forms of heat integration. In Phase 2, more detailed analyses were undertaken, including the evaluation of a heat pump installed as a recommendation of Phase 1.

  7. Dual-stroke heat pump field performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veyo, S. E.

    1984-11-01

    Two nearly identical proprototype systems, each employing a unique dual-stroke compressor, were built and tested. One was installed in an occupied residence in Jeannette, Pa. It has provided the heating and cooling required from that time to the present. The system has functioned without failure of any prototypical advanced components, although early field experience did suffer from deficiencies in the software for the breadboard micro processor control system. Analysis of field performance data indicates a heating performance factor (HSPF) of 8.13 Stu/Wa, and a cooling energy efficiency (SEER) of 8.35 Scu/Wh. Data indicate that the beat pump is oversized for the test house since the observed lower balance point is 3 F whereas 17 F La optimum. Oversizing coupled with the use of resistance heat ot maintain delivered air temperature warmer than 90 F results in the consumption of more resistance heat than expected, more unit cycling, and therefore lower than expected energy efficiency. Our analysis indicates that with optimal mixing the dual stroke heat pump will yield as HSFF 30% better than a single capacity heat pump representative of high efficiency units in the market place today for the observed weather profile.

  8. Multi-Function Gas Fired Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Heiba, Ahmad; Vineyard, Edward Allan

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this project was to design a residential fuel fired heat pump and further improve efficiency in collaboration with an industry partner – Southwest Gas, the developer of the Nextaire commercial rooftop fuel-fired heat pump. Work started in late 2010. After extensive search for suitable engines, one manufactured by Marathon was selected. Several prototypes were designed and built over the following four years. Design changes were focused on lowering the cost of components and the cost of manufacturing. The design evolved to a final one that yielded the lowest cost. The final design also incorporates noise and vibration reduction measures that were verified to be effective through a customer survey. ETL certification is currently (as of November 2015) underway. Southwest Gas is currently in talks with GTI to reach an agreement through which GTI will assess the commercial viability and potential of the heat pump. Southwest Gas is searching for investors to manufacture the heat pump and introduce it to the market.

  9. Ion heating via turbulent ion acoustic waves.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. J.; Coroniti, F. V.

    1972-01-01

    The ion acoustic turbulence in the turbulent-heating experiment reported is excited by the ion-ion beam instability. Graphs are presented, showing the spatial evolution of the parallel ion beam energy and the spatial evolution of the ion acoustic turbulent wave spectrum. The observed characteristics of test waves in a turbulent beam-plasma imply that wave saturation is a dynamic balance between the emission of waves by the beam and the destruction or damping of wave coherence by the turbulent diffusion of particle orbits.

  10. Residential Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps Sized to Heating Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Munk, Jeffrey D.; Jackson, Roderick K.; Odukomaiya, Adewale; Gehl, Anthony C.

    2014-01-01

    Variable capacity heat pumps are an emerging technology offering significant energy savings potential and improved efficiency. With conventional single-speed systems, it is important to appropriately size heat pumps for the cooling load as over-sizing would result in cycling and insufficient latent capacity required for humidity control. These appropriately sized systems are often under-sized for the heating load and require inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat to meet the heating demand. Variable capacity heat pumps address these shortcomings by providing an opportunity to intentionally size systems for the dominant heating season load without adverse effects of cycling or insufficient dehumidification in the cooling season. This intentionally-sized system could result in significant energy savings in the heating season, as the need for inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat is drastically reduced. This is a continuation of a study evaluating the energy consumption of variable capacity heat pumps installed in two unoccupied research homes in Farragut, a suburb of Knoxville, Tennessee. In this particular study, space conditioning systems are intentionally sized for the heating season loads to provide an opportunity to understand and evaluate the impact this would have on electric resistance heat use and dehumidification. The results and conclusions drawn through this research are valid and specific for portions of the Southeastern and Midwestern United States falling in the mixed-humid climate zone. While other regions in the U.S. do not experience this type of climate, this work provides a basis for, and can help understand the implications of other climate zones on residential space conditioning energy consumption. The data presented here will provide a framework for fine tuning residential building EnergyPlus models that are being developed.

  11. Evaluation of Thermocompression Heat Pump Performance for American Maize, Decatur, AL [Advanced Industrial Heat Pump Applications and Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Eastwood, A.

    1993-06-01

    This work was carried out in two phases: Phase 1, identification of opportunities for heat pumps in industrial applications and Phase 2, evaluation of heat pumps in industrial applications. In Phase 1, pinch analysis was applied to several industrial sites to identify the best opportunities for heat pumping and other forms of heat integration. In Phase 2, more detailed analyses were undertaken, including the evaluation of a heat pump installed as a recommendation of Phase 1.

  12. Solar-powered turbocompressor heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Landerman, A.M.; Biancardi, F.R.; Melikian, G.; Meader, M.D.; Kepler, C.E.; Anderson, T.J.; Sitler, J.W.

    1982-08-12

    The turbocompressor comprises a power turbine and a compressor turbine having respective rotors and on a common shaft, rotatably supported by bearings. A first working fluid is supplied by a power loop and is expanded in the turbine. A second working fluid is compressed in the turbine and is circulated in a heat pump loop. A lubricant is mixed with the second working fluid but is excluded from the first working fluid. The bearings are cooled and lubricated by a system which circulates the second working fluid and the intermixed lubricant through the bearings. Such system includes a pump, a thermostatic expansion valve for expanding the working fluid into the space between the bearings, and a return conduit system for withdrawing the expanded working fluid after it passes through the bearings and for returning the working fluid to the evaporator. A shaft seal excludes the lubricant from the power turbine. The power loop includes a float operable by liquid working fluid in the condenser for controlling a recirculation valve so as to maintain a minimum liquid level in the condenser, while causing a feed pump to pump most of the working fluid into the vapor generator. The heat pump compressor loop includes a float in the condenser for operating and expansion valve to maintain a minimum liquid working fluid level in the condenser while causing most of the working fluid to be expanded into the evaporator.

  13. Ground-coupled heat pump demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oconnell, T.

    1983-09-01

    The results of a field evaluation of an innovative ground-coupled heat pump system which features a unique collector design and system control strategy aimed at maximizing heat pump performance by minimizing ground temperature change is discussed. The collector design includes several short closed loops, each consisting of a pair of polyethylene pipes buried 12 to 18 inches apart in a horizontal trench approximately six feet below ground. A micropressor is used to control flow and optimize system operation. Extrapolation of the results of experiments conducted on a unit length (250 ft.) of collector field during the 1981-82 and 1982-83 heating seasons indicates that a system seasonal performance factor of 2.75 to 3.0 will be achievable in practice.

  14. Chemical heat pump cost effectiveness evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Standley, W. R.

    1982-02-01

    The cost-effectiveness and energy-effectiveness of existing chemical heat pump (CHP) concepts is compared with a baseline of conventional energy technologies and a group of near-term emerging energy technologies with which CHPs are expected to compete. The analysis is structured to evaluate these systems functioning as the primary space conditioning unit of both a 'standard' single-family detached home and a 'representative' commercial building. Each HVAC system and application is analyzed in each of two locations in the United States, the southwest (Albuquerque, NM) and the northeast (Boston, MA). In addition, the CHPs are evaluated in a 'representative' industrial waste heat upgrading application, and compared to potentially-competitive technologies for industrial 'heat pumping'.

  15. Ground-coupled heat pump demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, T.

    1983-09-01

    This report presents the results of a field evaluation of an innovative ground-coupled heat pump system which features a unique collector design and system control strategy aimed at maximizing heat pump performance by minimizing ground temperature change. The collector design includes several short closed loops, each consisting of a pair of polyethylene pipes buried 12 to 18 inches apart in a horizontal trench approximately six feet below ground. A micropressor is used to control flow and optimize system operation. Extrapolation of the results of experiments conducted on a unit length (250 ft.) of collector field during the 1981-82 and 1982-83 heating seasons indicates that a system seasonal performance factor of 2.75 to 3.0 will be achievable in practice.

  16. Magnetic heat pumping near room temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, G. V.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that magnetic heat pumping can be made practical at room temperature by using a ferromagnetic material with a Curie point at or near operating temperature and an appropriate regenerative thermodynamic cycle. Measurements are performed which show that gadolinium is a resonable working material and it is found that the application of a 7-T magnetic field to gadolinium at the Curie point (293 K) causes a heat release of 4 kJ/kg under isothermal conditions or a temperature rise of 14 K under adiabatic conditions. A regeneration technique can be used to lift the load of the lattice and electronic heat capacities off the magnetic system in order to span a reasonable temperature difference and to pump as much entropy per cycle as possible

  17. Indoor unit for electric heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Draper, Robert; Lackey, Robert S.; Fagan, Jr., Thomas J.; Veyo, Stephen E.; Humphrey, Joseph R.

    1984-01-01

    An indoor unit for an electric heat pump is provided in modular form including a refrigeration module 10, an air mover module 12, and a resistance heat package module 14, the refrigeration module including all of the indoor refrigerant circuit components including the compressor 36 in a space adjacent the heat exchanger 28, the modules being adapted to be connected to air flow communication in several different ways as shown in FIGS. 4-7 to accommodate placement of the unit in various orientations.

  18. DOE Webinar - Residential Geothermal Heat Pump Retrofits (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E. R.

    2010-12-14

    This presentation was given December 14, 2010, as part of DOE's Webinar series. The presentation discusses geothermal heat pump retrofits, technology options, and an overview of geothermal energy and geothermal heat pumps.

  19. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2014-06-24

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, methods of managing refrigerant charge, and methods for heating and cooling a space and heating water. Various embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat, drive liquid refrigerant out of that heat exchanger, isolate that heat exchanger against additional refrigerant flowing into it, and operate the heat pump while the heat exchanger is isolated. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled or adjusted by controlling how much liquid refrigerant is driven from the heat exchanger, by letting refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and segments of refrigerant conduit can be interconnected with various components.

  20. Heat pump assisted geothermal heating system for Felix Spa, Romania

    SciTech Connect

    Rosca, Marcel; Maghiar, Teodor

    1996-01-24

    The paper presents a pre-feasibility type study of a proposed heat pump assisted geothermal heating system for an average hotel in Felix Spa, Romania. After a brief presentation of the geothermal reservoir, the paper gives the methodology and the results of the technical and economical calculations. The technical and economical viability of the proposed system is discussed in detail in the final part of the paper.

  1. Innovative Miniaturized Heat Pumps for Buildings: Modular Thermal Hub for Building Heating, Cooling and Water Heating

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: Georgia Tech is using innovative components and system design to develop a new type of absorption heat pump. Georgia Tech’s new heat pumps are energy efficient, use refrigerants that do not emit greenhouse gases, and can run on energy from combustion, waste heat, or solar energy. Georgia Tech is leveraging enhancements to heat and mass transfer technology possible in microscale passages and removing hurdles to the use of heat-activated heat pumps that have existed for more than a century. Use of microscale passages allows for miniaturization of systems that can be packed as monolithic full-system packages or discrete, distributed components enabling integration into a variety of residential and commercial buildings. Compared to conventional heat pumps, Georgia Tech’s design innovations will create an absorption heat pump that is much smaller, has higher energy efficiency, and can also be mass produced at a lower cost and assembly time.

  2. Heat pump processes induced by laser radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garbuny, M.; Henningsen, T.

    1980-01-01

    A carbon dioxide laser system was constructed for the demonstration of heat pump processes induced by laser radiation. The system consisted of a frequency doubling stage, a gas reaction cell with its vacuum and high purity gas supply system, and provisions to measure the temperature changes by pressure, or alternatively, by density changes. The theoretical considerations for the choice of designs and components are dicussed.

  3. Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.; Wilson, E.; Hancock, E.

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  4. Field Monitoring Protocol. Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.; Wilson, E.; Hancock, C. E.

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  5. Open-cycle vapor compression heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, F. E.; Ruggles, A. E.

    A prototype gas-fired steam heat pump was developed. The system utilizes a dry screw compressor driven by a 500-hp natural gas industrial engine. The system can recompress 10,000 lb per hr of clean steam over a 3 to 1 pressure ratio. The fuel consumption of this system is approximately 50 percent that of a direct-fired boiler. A similar size system capable of operating with contaminated steam is also being developed.

  6. Convective Heat Transfer in Acoustic Streaming Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopinath, Ashok

    1992-01-01

    Convective heat transfer due to acoustic streaming has been studied in the absence of an imposed mean flow. The work is motivated by the need to design and control the thermal features of a suitable experimental rig for the containerless processing of materials by heat treatment of acoustically levitated alloy samples at near zero-gravity. First the problem of heat transfer from an isolated sphere (in a standing sound field) is explored in detail. The streaming Reynolds number, Rs, which characterizes the resulting steady flows, is determined from the acoustic signal. A scale analysis is used to ascertain the importance of buoyancy and viscous dissipation. The steady velocity and temperature fields are determined using asymptotic techniques and numerical methods for the limiting cases of Rs<<1 and Rsgg1. Working correlations for the average Nusselt number are obtained for a wide range of Prandtl numbers. A simple experiment is conducted to verify the predictions for the more relevant case of Rsgg1. The acoustic levitation chamber itself is modelled as a Kundt tube (supporting a plane axial standing sound wave) with insulated side-wall and isothermal end-walls. Analytical solution techniques are used to determine the steady fields close to the tube walls. For the steady recirculatory transport in the core, the numerical solver PHOENICS is adopted for the solution of the complete elliptic form of the governing equations. A study of the effects of a range of acoustic and geometric parameters on the flow and heat transfer is performed and Nusselt number correlations are obtained for air. PHOENICS is also used to study the effects of variable fluid properties and axial side-wall conduction (coupled with radiation). The role of normal/reduced gravity is assessed and suggestions made for terrestrial testing of the levitation apparatus. Finally, with the sample located at a node in the levitation chamber, the effect of the interaction of the streaming flows (on the sphere

  7. Measured Performance of a Low Temperature Air Source Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect

    R.K. Johnson

    2013-09-01

    A 4-ton Low Temperature Heat Pump (LTHP) manufactured by Hallowell International was installed in a residence near New Haven, Connecticut and monitored over two winters of operation. After attending to some significant service issues, the heat pump operated as designed. This report should be considered a review of the dual compressor “boosted heat pump” technology. The Low Temperature Heat Pump system operates with four increasing levels of capacity (heat output) as the outdoor temperature drops.

  8. Micro acoustic resonant chambers for heating/agitating/mixing (MARCHAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Noell, Aaron C.; Fisher, Anita M.; Takano, Nobuyuki; Grunthaner, Frank

    2016-04-01

    A variety of applications require the mixing and/or heating of a slurry made from a powder/fluid mixture. One of these applications, Sub Critical Water Extraction (SCWE), is a process where water and an environmental powder sample (sieved soil, drill cuttings, etc.) are heated in a sealed chamber to temperatures greater than 200 degrees Celsius by allowing the pressure to increase, but without reaching the critical point of water. At these temperatures, the ability of water to extract organics from solid particulate increases drastically. This paper describes the modeling and experimentation on the use of an acoustic resonant chamber which is part of an amino acid detection instrument called Astrobionibbler [Noell et al. 2014, 2015]. In this instrument we use acoustics to excite a fluid- solid fines mixture in different frequency/amplitude regimes to accomplish a variety of sample processing tasks. Driving the acoustic resonant chamber at lower frequencies can create circulation patterns in the fluid and mixes the liquid and fines, while driving the chamber at higher frequencies one can agitate the fluid and powder and create a suspension. If one then drives the chamber at high amplitude at resonance heating of the slurry occurs. In the mixing and agitating cell the particle levitation force depends on the relative densities and compressibility's of the particulate and fluid and on the kinetic and potential energy densities associated with the velocity and pressure fields [Glynne-Jones, Boltryk and Hill 2012] in the cell. When heating, the piezoelectric transducer and chamber is driven at high power in resonance where the solid/fines region is modelled as an acoustic transmission line with a large loss component. In this regime, heat is pumped into the solution/fines mixture and rapidly heats the sample. We have modeled the piezoelectric transducer/chamber/ sample using Mason's equivalent circuit. In order to assess the validity of the model we have built and

  9. Demonstration of a heat pump water heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blevins, R. P.

    1982-03-01

    In the period between March 1979 and January 1980, 85 prototype heat pump water heaters were installed in single-family residences. Each system was monitored for a period of one year and total program monitoring was concluded at the end of December 1980. The field demonstration provided a total of 643 unit-months of usable operational data which showed an average OOP of 1.93, or an average 48% operating savings compared to resistance water heating. Average operating conditions were 73 gallons of 140 F water consumed each day with an average inlet water temperature of 71 F. Despite a high initial failure rate for the prototypes, which resulted in a protracted debugging period, consumer reaction to the system was extremely positive. The data suggests that the HPWH would save the average consumer in the test program 2917 kWh per year. Measurable impacts on heating/cooling systems were detected in only 8% of the test homes.

  10. Crawl space assisted heat pump. [using stored ground heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ternes, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    A variety of experiments and simulations, currently being designed or underway, to determine the feasibility of conditioning the source air of an air to air heat pump using stored ground heat or cool to produce higher seasonal COP's and net energy savings are discussed. The ground would condition ambient air as it is drawn through the crawl space of a house. Tests designed to evaluate the feasibility of the concept, to determine the amount of heat or cool available from the ground, to study the effect of the system on the heating and cooling loads of the house, to study possible mechanisms which could enhance heat flow through the ground, and to determine if diurnal temperature swings are necessary to achieve successful system performance are described.

  11. Thermodynamic efficiency of pumped heat electricity storage.

    PubMed

    Thess, André

    2013-09-13

    Pumped heat electricity storage (PHES) has been recently suggested as a potential solution to the large-scale energy storage problem. PHES requires neither underground caverns as compressed air energy storage (CAES) nor kilometer-sized water reservoirs like pumped hydrostorage and can therefore be constructed anywhere in the world. However, since no large PHES system exists yet, and theoretical predictions are scarce, the efficiency of such systems is unknown. Here we formulate a simple thermodynamic model that predicts the efficiency of PHES as a function of the temperature of the thermal energy storage at maximum output power. The resulting equation is free of adjustable parameters and nearly as simple as the well-known Carnot formula. Our theory predicts that for storage temperatures above 400 °C PHES has a higher efficiency than existing CAES and that PHES can even compete with the efficiencies predicted for advanced-adiabatic CAES.

  12. Coronal heating by stochastic magnetic pumping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturrock, P. A.; Uchida, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Recent observational data cast serious doubt on the widely held view that the Sun's corona is heated by traveling waves (acoustic or magnetohydrodynamic). It is proposed that the energy responsible for heating the corona is derived from the free energy of the coronal magnetic field derived from motion of the 'feet' of magnetic field lines in the photosphere. Stochastic motion of the feet of magnetic field lines leads, on the average, to a linear increase of magnetic free energy with time. This rate of energy input is calculated for a simple model of a single thin flux tube. The model appears to agree well with observational data if the magnetic flux originates in small regions of high magnetic field strength. On combining this energy input with estimates of energy loss by radiation and of energy redistribution by thermal conduction, we obtain scaling laws for density and temperature in terms of length and coronal magnetic field strength.

  13. Cold Climate Heat Pumps Using Tandem Compressors

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo; Abdelaziz, Omar; Rice, C Keith; Baxter, Van D

    2016-01-01

    In cold climate zones, e.g. ASHRAE climate regions IV and V, conventional electric air-source heat pumps (ASHP) do not work well, due to high compressor discharge temperatures, large pressure ratios and inadequate heating capacities at low ambient temperatures. Consequently, significant use of auxiliary strip heating is required to meet the building heating load. We introduce innovative ASHP technologies as part of continuing efforts to eliminate auxiliary strip heat use and maximize heating COP with acceptable cost-effectiveness and reliability. These innovative ASHP were developed using tandem compressors, which are capable of augmenting heating capacity at low temperatures and maintain superior part-load operation efficiency at moderate temperatures. Two options of tandem compressors were studied; the first employs two identical, single-speed compressors, and the second employs two identical, vapor-injection compressors. The investigations were based on system modeling and laboratory evaluation. Both designs have successfully met the performance criteria. Laboratory evaluation showed that the tandem, single-speed compressor ASHP system is able to achieve heating COP = 4.2 at 47 F (8.3 C), COP = 2.9 at 17 F (-8.3 C), and 76% rated capacity and COP = 1.9 at -13 F (-25 C). This yields a HSPF = 11.0 (per AHRI 210/240). The tandem, vapor-injection ASHP is able to reach heating COP = 4.4 at 47 F, COP = 3.1 at 17 F, and 88% rated capacity and COP = 2.0 at -13 F. This yields a HSPF = 12.0. The system modeling and further laboratory evaluation are presented in the paper.

  14. Operator manual: High temperature heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyer, D. F.; Maples, G.; Burch, T. E.; Chancellor, P. D.

    1980-03-01

    Experimental data were obtained from operating a high temperature heat pump system. The use of methanol as a working fluid necessitated careful monitoring of refrigerant temperatures and pressures with chemical analysis performed on the working fluid during scheduled down time. Materials sent to vendors and quotes received concerning equipment (compressor, evaporator, condensor, air heater, dryer, two accumulator tanks, and three expansion valves) are discussed. The detailed design and pricing estimates are included. Additional information on layout and construction; start-up; testing; shut down; scheduled maintenance and inspection; safety precautions; control system; and trouble shooting is presented.

  15. A geothermal heat pump for every home?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, M. Catherine

    Witnesses representing government, industry, and education requested increased federal funding to explore and utilize geothermal resources at a House Subcommittee on Environment hearing July 30. Citing the minimal environmental impact, low cost, and abundance of geothermal energy, and the chance to cut dependence on fossil fuels, the witnesses discussed the geothermal heat pump (GHP)—one of the energy source's most promising applications, according to testimony. The GHP has the capacity to help utility companies manage increased demand for electricity, and its small scale—one to a home—makes it highly accessible.

  16. Ground Source Heat Pump Computational Results

    DOE Data Explorer

    James Menart

    2013-07-31

    This data submission includes simulation results for ground loop heat pump systems located in 6 different cities across the United States. The cities are Boston, MA, Dayton, OH, Omaha, NE, Orlando, FL, Sacramento, CA, and St. Paul, MN. These results were obtained from the two-dimensional geothermal computer code called GEO2D. GEO2D was written as part of this DOE funded grant. The results included in this submission for each of the 6 cities listed above are: 1) specific information on the building being heated or cooled by the ground loop geothermal system, 2) some extreme values for the building heating and cooling loads during the year, 3) the inputs required to carry out the simulation, 4) a plot of the hourly building heating and cooling loads throughout the year, 5) a plot of the fluid temperature exiting the ground loop for a 20 year period, 6) a plot of the heat exchange between the ground loop and the ground for a 20 year period, and 7) ground and ground loop temperature contour plots at different times of the year for the 20 year period.

  17. Double-effect absorption heat pump, phase 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, F. B.; Cremean, S. P.; Jatana, S. C.; Johnson, R. A.; Malcosky, N. D.

    1987-06-01

    The RD&D program has resulted in design, development and testing of a packaged prototype double-effect generator cycle absorption gas heat pump for the residential and small commercial markets. The 3RT heat pump prototype has demonstrated a COPc of 0.82 and a COPh of 1.65 at ARI rating conditions. The heat pump prototype includes a solid state control system with built-in diagnostics. The absorbent/refrigerant solution thermophysical properties were completely characterized. Commercially available materials of construction were identified for all heat pump components. A corrosion inhibitor was identified and tested in both static and dynamic environments. The safety of the heat pump was analyzed by using two analytical approaches. Pioneer Engineering estimated the factory standard cost to produce the 3RT heat pump at $1,700 at a quantity of 50,000 units/year. One United States patent was allowed covering the heat pump technology, and two divisional applications and three Continuation-in-Park Applications were filed with the U.S.P.T.O. Corresponding patent coverage was applied for in Canada, the EEC, Australia, and Japan. Testing of the prototype heat pump is continuing, as are life tests of multiple pump concepts amd long-term dynamic corrosion tests. Continued development and commercialization of gas absorption heat pumps based on the technology are recommended.

  18. Nanoscale magnetic heat pumps and engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Gerrit E. W.; Bretzel, Stefan; Brataas, Arne; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav

    2010-01-01

    We present the linear-response matrix for a sliding domain wall in a rotatable magnetic nanowire, which is driven out of equilibrium by temperature and voltage bias, mechanical torque, and magnetic field. An expression for heat-current-induced domain-wall motion is derived. Application of Onsager’s reciprocity relation leads to a unified description of the Barnett and Einstein-de Haas effects as well as spin-dependent thermoelectric properties. We envisage various heat pumps and engines, such as coolers driven by magnetic fields or mechanical rotation as well as nanoscale motors that convert temperature gradients into useful work. All parameters (with the exception of mechanical friction) can be computed microscopically by the scattering theory of transport.

  19. System design factors for solar panel assisted mechanical heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The concept of energy management of heat pumps with auxiliary energy storage devices is discussed in this paper. By using a solar collector which doubles as a radiator allows the heat pump system to provide both heating and cooling. Qualitative design factors for this kind of system is discussed with the philosophy of the concept.

  20. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2016-07-05

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, and methods of managing refrigerant charge. Various embodiments remove idle refrigerant from a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat by opening a refrigerant recovery valve and delivering the idle refrigerant from the heat exchanger to an inlet port on the compressor. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled by controlling how much refrigerant is drawn from the heat exchanger, by letting some refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and various components can be interconnected with refrigerant conduit. Some embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to the heat exchanger and drive liquid refrigerant out prior to isolating the heat exchanger.

  1. Solar assisted heat pump on air collectors: A simulation tool

    SciTech Connect

    Karagiorgas, Michalis; Galatis, Kostas; Tsagouri, Manolis; Tsoutsos, Theocharis; Botzios-Valaskakis, Aristotelis

    2010-01-15

    The heating system of the bioclimatic building of the Greek National Centre for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES) comprises two heating plants: the first one includes an air source heat pump, Solar Air Collectors (SACs) and a heat distribution system (comprising a fan coil unit network); the second one is, mainly, a geothermal heat pump unit to cover the ground floor thermal needs. The SAC configuration as well as the fraction of the building heating load covered by the heating plant are assessed in two operation modes; the direct (hot air from the collectors is supplied directly to the heated space) and the indirect mode (warm air from the SAC or its mixture with ambient air is not supplied directly to the heated space but indirectly into the evaporator of the air source heat pump). The technique of the indirect mode of heating aims at maximizing the efficiency of the SAC, saving electrical power consumed by the compressor of the heat pump, and therefore, at optimizing the coefficient of performance (COP) of the heat pump due to the increased intake of ambient thermal energy by means of the SAC. Results are given for three research objectives: assessment of the heat pump efficiency whether in direct or indirect heating mode; Assessment of the overall heating plant efficiency on a daily or hourly basis; Assessment of the credibility of the suggested simulation model TSAGAIR by comparing its results with the TRNSYS ones. (author)

  2. The ORNL Modulating Heat Pump Design Tool User's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, C.K.

    2001-06-01

    The ORNL Modulating Heat Pump Design Tool consists of a Modulating HPDM (Heat Pump Design Model) and a parametric-analysis (contour-data generating) front-end. Collectively the program is also referred to as MODCON which is in reference to the modulating and the contour data generating capabilities. The program was developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Department of Energy to provide a publicly-available system design tool for variable- and single-speed heat pumps.

  3. Heat Pump Clothes Dryer Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    A heat pump clothes dryer (HPCD) is an innovative appliance that uses a vapor compression system to dry clothes. Air circulates in a closed loop through the drum, so no vent is required. The condenser heats air to evaporate moisture out of the clothes, and the evaporator condenses water out of the air stream. As a result, the HPCD can achieve 50% energy savings compared to a conventional electric resistance dryer. We developed a physics-based, quasi-steady-state HPCD system model with detailed heat exchanger and compressor models. In a novel approach, we applied a heat and mass transfer effectiveness model to simulate the drying process of the clothes load in the drum. The system model is able to simulate the inherently transient HPCD drying process, to size components, and to reveal trends in key variables (e.g. compressor discharge temperature, power consumption, required drying time, etc.) The system model was calibrated using experimental data on a prototype HPCD. In the paper, the modeling method is introduced, and the model predictions are compared with experimental data measured on a prototype HPCD.

  4. Development of a hybrid chemical/mechanical heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grzyll, Lawrence R.; Silvestri, John J.; Scaringe, Robert P.

    1991-01-01

    The authors present the current development status of a hybrid chemical/mechanical heat pump for low-lift applications. The heat pump provides electronics cooling by evaporating a pure refrigerant from an absorbent/refrigerant mixture in a generator/cold plate. The current development focused on evaluation of absorbent/refrigerant pairs, corrosion testing, pump and compressor design, and electronic cold plate design. Two cycle configurations were considered. The first configuration utilized a standard mechanical compressor and pump. The second cycle configuration investigated pumps and compressors with non-moving parts. An innovative generator/cold plate design is also presented. The development to date shows that this cycle has about the same performance as standard vapor compression heat pumps with standard refrigerants but may have some performance and reliability advantages over vapor compression heat pumps.

  5. Heat pumps and manufactured homes: Making the marriage work

    SciTech Connect

    Conlin, F.; Neal, C.L.

    1996-11-01

    Manufactured homes make up over 7% of the US housing stock, including over 15% of the homes in North Carolina. As more of these homes are being equipped with heat pumps, it becomes important to figure out how to make these systems efficient. This article describes a number of ways of increasing the efficiency. The following topics are included: heat pump actual and rated capacity; heat pump sizing; air flow to the coil; indoor thermostat placement; outdoor thermostat; condensate; leaky ducts; pressure boundary breaches; pressure problems; what you should look for in heat pumps; manufactured housing - an evolutionary home.

  6. Heat-driven acoustic cooling engine having no moving parts

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert; Hofler, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    A heat-driven acoustic cooling engine having no moving parts receives heat from a heat source. The acoustic cooling engine comprises an elongated resonant pressure vessel having first and second ends. A compressible fluid having a substantial thermal expansion coefficient and capable of supporting an acoustic standing wave is contained in the resonant pressure vessel. The heat source supplies heat to the first end of the vessel. A first heat exchanger in the vessel is spaced-apart from the first end and receives heat from the first end. A first thermodynamic element is adjacent to the first heat exchanger and converts some of the heat transmitted by the first heat exchanger into acoustic power. A second thermodynamic element has a first end located spaced-apart from the first thermodynamic element and a second end farther away from the first thermodynamic element than is its first end. The first end of the second thermodynamic element heats while its second end cools as a consequence of the acoustic power. A second heat exchanger is adjacent to and between the first and second thermodynamic elements. A heat sink outside of the vessel is thermally coupled to and receives heat from the second heat exchanger. The resonant pressure vessel can include a housing less than one-fourth wavelength in length coupled to a reservoir. The housing can include a reduced diameter portion communicating with the reservoir.

  7. Ground-source Heat Pumps Applied to Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Steven A.; Hadley, Donald L.

    2009-07-14

    Ground-source heat pumps can provide an energy-efficient, cost-effective way to heat and cool commercial facilities. While ground-source heat pumps are well established in the residential sector, their application in larger, commercial-style, facilities is lagging, in part because of a lack of experience with the technology by those in decision-making positions. Through the use of a ground-coupling system, a conventional water-source heat pump design is transformed to a unique means of utilizing thermodynamic properties of earth and groundwater for efficient operation throughout the year in most climates. In essence, the ground (or groundwater) serves as a heat source during winter operation and a heat sink for summer cooling. Many varieties in design are available, so the technology can be adapted to almost any site. Ground-source heat pump systems can be used widely in commercial-building applications and, with proper installation, offer great potential for the commercial sector, where increased efficiency and reduced heating and cooling costs are important. Ground-source heat pump systems require less refrigerant than conventional air-source heat pumps or air-conditioning systems, with the exception of direct-expansion-type ground-source heat pump systems. This chapter provides information and procedures that an energy manager can use to evaluate most ground-source heat pump applications. Ground-source heat pump operation, system types, design variations, energy savings, and other benefits are explained. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application and installation. Two case studies are presented to give the reader a sense of the actual costs and energy savings. A list of manufacturers and references for further reading are included for prospective users who have specific or highly technical questions not fully addressed in this chapter. Sample case spreadsheets are provided in Appendix A. Additional appendixes provide other information on the ground

  8. Optimal Ground Source Heat Pump System Design

    SciTech Connect

    Ozbek, Metin; Yavuzturk, Cy; Pinder, George

    2015-04-15

    Despite the facts that GSHPs first gained popularity as early as the 1940’s and they can achieve 30 to 60 percent in energy savings and carbon emission reductions relative to conventional HVAC systems, the use of geothermal energy in the U.S. has been less than 1 percent of the total energy consumption. The key barriers preventing this technically-mature technology from reaching its full commercial potential have been its high installation cost and limited consumer knowledge and trust in GSHP systems to deliver the technology in a cost-effective manner in the market place. Led by ENVIRON, with support from University Hartford and University of Vermont, the team developed and tested a software-based a decision making tool (‘OptGSHP’) for the least-cost design of ground-source heat pump (‘GSHP’) systems. OptGSHP combines state of the art optimization algorithms with GSHP-specific HVAC and groundwater flow and heat transport simulation. The particular strength of OptGSHP is in integrating heat transport due to groundwater flow into the design, which most of the GSHP designs do not get credit for and therefore are overdesigned.

  9. Measurement of performance of thermoacoustic heat pump in a -3 to 160 °C temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Ryo; Tsuda, Kenichiro; Bassem, Mohamed Mehdi; Ueda, Yuki

    2015-11-01

    A thermoacoustic heat pump was constructed and tested. It was composed of a looped tube, a straight tube, and a regenerator. The looped tube contained the regenerator and was connected to the straight tube. The tubes were filled with nitrogen. When an acoustic wave was input to the tubes, a temperature difference formed along the regenerator. Our experiments showed that this heat pump could work as both a cooler and a heater. This heat pump achieved -39 °C as a cooler and 270 °C as a heater. Using antifreeze liquid and oil as heat media, the cooling and heating performance of the heat pump was measured within the temperature range from -3 to 160 °C.

  10. Heat pump assisted drying of agricultural produce-an overview.

    PubMed

    Patel, Krishna Kumar; Kar, Abhijit

    2012-04-01

    This review paper included the recent progress made in heat pump assisted drying, its principle, mechanism and efficiency, type and its application for drying of agricultural produce. Heat pump assisted drying provides a controllable drying environment (temperature and humidity) for better products quality at low energy consumption. It has remarkable future prospects and revolutionaries ability. The heat pump system consists of an expansion valve, two heat exchangers (evaporator and condenser), and a compressor, which are connected by using copper tubes. In this paper we also provided a review discussion on different type of heat pump assisted drying system ready for remarkable and commercial use in different type of food industries. Here we also have given some major advantage and disadvantage of heat pump assisted drying.

  11. Recent advances in magnetic heat pump technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uherka, Kenneth L.; Hull, John R.; Scheihing, Paul E.

    Magnetic heat pump (MHP)/refrigeration systems, incorporating state-of-the-art superconducting magnet technology, were assessed for industrial applications ranging from the liquefaction of gases (20 K to 100 K range) to cold storage refrigeration for food preservation (250 K to 320 K range). Initial market penetration of MHP technology is anticipated to occur in the gas liquefaction sector, since the performance advantages of magnetic refrigeration cycles relative to gas compression cycles and other conventional systems are more pronounced in the lower temperature ranges. Design options for rotary MHP devices include alternative regeneration schemes to obtain the temperature spans necessary for industrial applications. The results of preliminary design assessment studies indicate that active magnetic regenerator concepts, in which the magnetic working material also serves as the regenerative medium, offer advantages over alternative MHP designs for industrial applications.

  12. United States Department of Energy Thermally Activated Heat Pump Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fiskum, R.J.; Adcock, P.W.; DeVault, R.C.

    1996-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is working with partners from the gas heating and cooling industry to improve energy efficiency using advance absorption technologies, to eliminate chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), to reduce global warming through more efficient combustion of natural gas, and to impact electric peak demand of air conditioning. To assist industry in developing these gas heating and cooling absorption technologies, the US DOE sponsors the Thermally Activated Heat Pump Program. It is divided into five key activities, addressing residential gas absorption heat pumps, large commercial chillers, advanced absorption fluids, computer-aided design, and advanced ``Hi-Cool`` heat pumps.

  13. Coronal heating by stochastic magnetic pumping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturrock, P. A.; Uchida, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Recent observational data cast serious doubt on the widely held view that the sun's corona is heated by traveling waves (acoustic or magnetohydrodynamic). It is here proposed that the energy responsible for heating the corona is derived from the free energy of the coronal magnetic field derived from motion of the 'feet' of magnetic field lines in the photosphere. Stochastic motion of the feet of magnetic field lines leads, on the average, to a linear increase of magnetic free energy with time. This rate of energy input is calculated for a simple model of a single thin flux tube. The model appears to agree well with observational data if the magnetic flux originates in small regions of high magnetic field strength as proposed by Tarbell et al. (1979). On combining this energy input with estimates of energy loss by radiation and of energy redistribution by thermal conduction, scaling laws are obtained for density and temperature in terms of length and coronal magnetic field strength.

  14. Ground coupled solar heat pumps: analysis of four options

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    Heat pump systems which utilize both solar energy and energy withdrawn from the ground are analyzed using a simplified procedure which optimizes the solar storage temperature on a monthly basis. Four ways of introducing collected solar energy to the system are optimized and compared. These include use of actively collected thermal input to the heat pump; use of collected solar energy to heat the load directly (two different ways); and use of a passive option to reduce the effective heating load.

  15. Geothermal Heat Pumps - Using the Earth to Heat and Cool Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-01

    A heat pump--like an air conditioner or refrigerator--moves heat from one place to another. In the summer, a geothermal heat pump (GHP) operating in a cooling mode lowers indoor temperatures by transferring heat from inside a building to the ground outside or below it. Unlike an air conditioner, though, a heat pump's process can be reversed. In the winter, a GHP extracts

  16. Computational Simulation of a Water-Cooled Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozarth, Duane

    2008-01-01

    A Fortran-language computer program for simulating the operation of a water-cooled vapor-compression heat pump in any orientation with respect to gravity has been developed by modifying a prior general-purpose heat-pump design code used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  17. Corrosion protection of steel in ammonia/water heat pumps

    DOEpatents

    Mansfeld, Florian B.; Sun, Zhaoli

    2003-10-14

    Corrosion of steel surfaces in a heat pump is inhibited by adding a rare earth metal salt to the heat pump's ammonia/water working fluid. In preferred embodiments, the rare earth metal salt includes cerium, and the steel surfaces are cerated to enhance the corrosion-inhibiting effects.

  18. Mathematical model development and simulation of heat pump fruit dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Achariyaviriya, S.; Soponronnarit, S.; Terdyothin, A.

    2000-01-01

    A mathematical model of a heat pump fruit dryer was developed to study the performance of heat pump dryers. Using the moisture content of papaya glace drying, the refrigerant temperature at the evaporator and condenser and the performance, was verified. It was found that the simulated results using closed loop heat pump dryer were close to the experimental results. The criteria for evaluating the performance were specific moisture extraction rate and drying rate. The results showed that ambient conditions affected significantly on the performance of the open loop dryer and the partially closed loop dryer. Also, the fraction of evaporator bypass air affected markedly the performance of all heat pump dryers. In addition, it was found that specific air flow rate and drying air temperature affected significantly the performance of all heat pump dryers.

  19. High-lift chemical heat pump technologies for industrial processes

    SciTech Connect

    Olszewski, M.; Zaltash, A.

    1995-03-01

    Traditionally industrial heat pumps (IHPs) have found applications on a process specific basis with reject heat from a process being upgraded and returned to the process. The IHP must be carefully integrated into a process since improper placement may result in an uneconomic application. Industry has emphasized a process integration approach to the design and operation of their plants. Heat pump applications have adopted this approach and the area of applicability was extended by utilizing a process integrated approach where reject heat from one process is upgraded and then used as input for another process. The DOE IHP Program has extended the process integration approach of heat pump application with a plant utility emphasis. In this design philosophy, reject heat from a process is upgraded to plant utility conditions and fed into the plant distribution system. This approach has the advantage that reject heat from any pr@s can be used as input and the output can be used at any location within the plant. Thus the approach can be easily integrated into existing industrial applications and all reject heat streams are potential targets of opportunity. The plant utility approach can not be implemented without having heat pumps with high-lift capabilities (on the order of 65{degree}C). Current heat pumps have only about half the lift capability required. Thus the current emphasis for the DOE IHP Program is the development of high lift chemical heat pumps that can deliver heat more economically to higher heat delivery temperatures. This is achieved with innovative cooling (refrigeration) and heating technologies which are based on advanced cycles and advanced working fluids or a combination of both. This paper details the plan to develop economically competitive, environmentally acceptable heat pump technologies that are capable of providing the delivery temperature and lift required to supply industrial plant utility-grade process heating and/or cooling.

  20. Heat pump system and heat pump device using a constant flow reverse stirling cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Fineblum, S.S.

    1993-08-31

    A constant flow reverse Stirling cycle heat pump system is described comprising: a constant flow isothermal compression means for compressing a working gas, the compression means including a drive means, an inlet, and an outlet, and further including a cooling means to remove heat of compression from the working gas; a constant flow isothermal expansion means for expanding the working gas, the expansion means including an inlet, an outlet, and a heat source means to provide isothermal expansion of the working gas while removing heat from said heat source means; and a constant volume regenerative heat exchange means for transferring heat from compressed working gas to expanded working gas, the constant volume regenerative heat exchange means comprising: an enclosure, the enclosure containing a high pressure portion with an inlet receiving compressed working gas from the compression means outlet and with an outlet discharging cooled working gas to the expansion means inlet, a low pressure portion with an inlet receiving expanded working gas from the expansion means outlet and with an outlet discharging heated working gas to the compression means inlet, a slotted rotor in a central portion of the enclosure, the rotor containing a plurality of radially extending slots, and a plurality of radially sliding vanes mounted in the slots and extending to seal against a wall of the enclosure, wherein a first portion of the wall having a constant first radial distance from the rotor cooperates with the vanes to form a first constant volume channel defining the high pressure portion and a second portion of the wall having a constant second radial distance from the rotor cooperates with the vanes to form a second constant volume channel defining the low pressure portion; and heat transfer means in thermal contact with the high pressure portion and the low pressure portion for transferring heat from the compressed working gas to the expanded working gas.

  1. Gas heat pumps are coming: But by a different name

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, P.J.

    1994-09-01

    Gas heat pumps are coming, but by a different name. The manufacturers have elected not to call these products {open_quote}heat pumps{close_quotes} because advertising by gas distributors has been so effective at associating the term {open_quote}air-source heat pump{close_quotes} with cold blowing air. Nonetheless, gas-fired air-source heat pumps of the engine-driven and absorption types will be marketed starting in 1994 and in 1997, respectively, according to current plans. This paper identifies the generic participants that have been and will be involved in the gas heat pump deployment effort, and it reviews the underlying forces that caused (or likely will cause) those participants to act as they do. The participants include technology developers; the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) industry; the utility industry; and state utility regulators. The driving forces include the drifting of unitary HVAC products toward a commodity-like status, the decline of the domestic component of global HVAC markets, the restructuring of the HVAC and gas utility industries, the anticipated restructuring of the electric utility industry, the strengths and weaknesses of gas distributors, and state utility regulation. Also reviewed are technology status, manufacturer commitments, and timetables for introducing products. The road to widespread domestic market acceptance of gas heat pumps will likely be very different from that experienced by electric heat pump manufacturers in the 1950s and 1960s.

  2. Development of a jet pump-assisted arterial heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bienert, W. B.; Ducao, A. S.; Trimmer, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    The development of a jet pump assisted arterial heat pipe is described. The concept utilizes a built-in capillary driven jet pump to remove vapor and gas from the artery and to prime it. The continuous pumping action also prevents depriming during operation of the heat pipe. The concept is applicable to fixed conductance and gas loaded variable conductance heat pipes. A theoretical model for the jet pump assisted arterial heat pipe is presented. The model was used to design a prototype for laboratory demonstration. The 1.2 m long heat pipe was designed to transport 500 watts and to prime at an adverse elevation of up to 1.3 cm. The test results were in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. The heat pipe carried as much as 540 watts and was able to prime up to 1.9 cm. Introduction of a considerable amount of noncondensible gas had no adverse effect on the priming capability.

  3. Predicts the Steady-State Heating and Cooling Performance of Electric Heat Pump

    1993-01-13

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a leader in the development of analytical tools for the design of electrically driven, air-to-air heat pumps. Foremost among these tools is the ORNL Heat Pump Design Model, which can be used to predict the steady-state heating and cooling performance of an electrically driven, air-source heat pump. This version is three to five times faster than the earlier version, easier to use and more versatile.

  4. Capillary Pumped Heat Transfer (CHT) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallinan, Kevin P.; Allen, J. S.

    1998-01-01

    The operation of Capillary Pumped Loops (CPL's) in low gravity has generally been unable to match ground-based performance. The reason for this poorer performance has been elusive. In order to investigate the behavior of a CPL in low-gravity, an idealized, glass CPL experiment was constructed. This experiment, known as the Capillary-driven Heat Transfer (CHT) experiment, was flown on board the Space Shuttle Columbia in July 1997 during the Microgravity Science Laboratory mission. During the conduct of the CHT experiment an unexpected failure mode was observed. This failure mode was a result of liquid collecting and then eventually bridging the vapor return line. With the vapor return line blocked, the condensate was unable to return to the evaporator and dry-out subsequently followed. The mechanism for this collection and bridging has been associated with long wavelength instabilities of the liquid film forming in the vapor return line. Analysis has shown that vapor line blockage in present generation CPL devices is inevitable. Additionally, previous low-gravity CPL tests have reported the presence of relatively low frequency pressure oscillations during erratic system performance. Analysis reveals that these pressure oscillations are in part a result of long wavelength instabilities present in the evaporator pores, which likewise lead to liquid bridging and vapor entrapment in the porous media. Subsequent evaporation to the trapped vapor increases the vapor pressure. Eventually the vapor pressure causes ejection of the bridged liquid. Recoil stresses depress the meniscus, the vapor pressure rapidly increases, and the heated surface cools. The process then repeats with regularity.

  5. Development of a solar-powered Rankine cycle heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biancardi, F. R.; Melikian, G.; Sitler, J. W.

    1982-03-01

    The first prototype 18-ton solar-powered turbocompressor heat pump module was successfully designed, built and tested for more than 250 hr. in a specially-designed laboratory facility at UTRC. Operation in both the cooling and heat pump mode was demonstrated over a wide range of building, climatic, and collector/storage conditions. The design point performance of the heat pump in both the cooling and heat pump modes was confirmed, and performance mapping of the module completed. The heat pump demonstrated the wide operating range possible (using 200 to 300 F hot water) and high heat pump mode performance levels, such as a COP of 1.4 to 2.5 and 500,000 Btu/hr capacity. In cooling, a COP of 0.5 to 0.75 and up to 20 tons was demonstrated. In a simulation of operation in an actual building, the heat pump smoothly and accurately followed the building load for a full day. A detailed assessment of the individual module components was completed and performance, cost and reliability improvements were identified. No evidence of R11 decomposition or component wear or corrosion was found.

  6. Arena retrofit includes ground-source heat pump

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, S.F.

    1996-01-01

    The venue for Sacramento`s first professional basketball games was the {open_quotes}old Arco Arena,{close_quotes} built in 1985 just north of the downtown area and converted to offices after a large, permanent arena was constructed. In 1994, the {open_quotes}old arena{close_quotes} was acquired by a California general partnership called Del Paso Venture. To heat and cool the 3-story, 211,000-square foot structure, Del Paso has installed a ground-source heat pump system. The project is significant for the ground-source heat pump industry, because this is the first ground-source heat pump site ever designed specifically for the energy load of the building it will serve. Other projects have been calculated by rule-of-thumb. The installation and cost of the heat pump system are discussed.

  7. Shortening the Defrost Time on a Heat Pump Air Conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Eiji; Yamazaki, Masaya; Kawamura, Toshiaki

    Methods to shorten the defrost time have been studied on a heat pump air conditioner. The experiment has been carried out using a 0.75kW heat pump and the energy balance during defrosting has been analyzed. We have found that the following methods are effective to shorten the defrost time; (1) Increase in power inqut to the compressor during defrosting, (2) Utilization of the compressor for thermal energy storage, (3) Reduction of the water left on the outdoor heat exchanger fins. The heat pump with the new defrosting system has been made on an experimental basis. lts defrost time is 1 minute and 55 seconds under the defrost condition of the Japanese Industrial Standard. The defrost time of a conventional heat pump is about 4 or 5 minutes.

  8. Development of a nonazeotropic heat pump for crew hygiene water heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, David H.; Deming, Glenn I.

    1991-01-01

    A heat pump system is currently under development to produce hot water for crew hygiene on future manned space missions. The heat pump uses waste heat sources and a nonazeotropic working fluid in a highly efficient cycle. The potential benefits include a reduction in peak power draw from 2 to 5 kW for electric cartridge heaters to just more than 100 W for the heat pump. As part of the heat pump development project, a unique high efficiency compressor was developed to maintain lubrication in a zero-gravity environment.

  9. Method for predicting pump-induced acoustic pressures in fluid-handling systems. [ACSTIC code

    SciTech Connect

    Schwirian, R.E.; Shockling, L.A.; Singleton, N.R.; Riddell, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described for predicting the amplitudes of pump-induced acoustic pressures in fluid-handling systems using a node-flow path discretization methodology and a harmonic analysis algorithm. A computer model of a Westinghouse test loop using the volumetric forcing function model of the pump is presented. Comparisons of measured pressure amplitude profiles in the loop with model prediction are shown to be in good agreement for both the first and second pump blade-passing frequencies. 10 refs.

  10. Jet pump-drive system for heat removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, James R. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The invention does away with the necessity of moving parts such as a check valve in a nuclear reactor cooling system. Instead, a jet pump, in combination with a TEMP, is employed to assure safe cooling of a nuclear reactor after shutdown. A main flow exists for a reactor coolant. A point of withdrawal is provided for a secondary flow. A TEMP, responsive to the heat from said coolant in the secondary flow path, automatically pumps said withdrawn coolant to a higher pressure and thus higher velocity compared to the main flow. The high velocity coolant is applied as a driver flow for the jet pump which has a main flow chamber located in the main flow circulation pump. Upon nuclear shutdown and loss of power for the main reactor pumping system, the TEMP/jet pump combination continues to boost the coolant flow in the direction it is already circulating. During the decay time for the nuclear reactor, the jet pump keeps running until the coolant temperature drops to a lower and safe temperature where the heat is no longer a problem. At this lower temperature, the TEMP/jet pump combination ceases its circulation boosting operation. When the nuclear reactor is restarted and the coolant again exceeds the lower temperature setting, the TEMP/jet pump automatically resumes operation. The TEMP/jet pump combination is thus automatic, self-regulating and provides an emergency pumping system free of moving parts.

  11. Stochastic pumping of heat: approaching the Carnot efficiency.

    PubMed

    Segal, Dvira

    2008-12-31

    Random noise can generate a unidirectional heat current across asymmetric nano-objects in the absence (or against) a temperature gradient. We present a minimal model for a molecular-level stochastic heat pump that may operate arbitrarily close to the Carnot efficiency. The model consists a fluctuating molecular unit coupled to two solids characterized by distinct phonon spectral properties. Heat pumping persists for a broad range of system and bath parameters. Furthermore, by filtering the reservoirs' phonons the pump efficiency can approach the Carnot limit.

  12. The second law efficiency of a heat pump system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akau, R. L.; Schoenhals, R. J.

    1980-09-01

    Various methods of calculating the second law efficiency for a heat pump system using water as a heat source and a heat sink are described. The arrangement is typical of many industrial, commercial, and residential applications, especially those dealing with waste heat recovery. An experimental system is used to obtain measurements, and these measurements are evaluated by the various analytical techniques. Advantages and disadvantages associated with these methods are discussed, and the aspects which account for different practical physical constraints are illustrated. In each treatment presented, the measurements obtained from an actual heat pump system are used as the vehicle for discussion.

  13. Thermodynamic analysis of geothermal heat pump during the cold season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitrașcu, G.; Dumencu, A.; Horbaniuc, B.; Atanasiu, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    The paper is analysing the performances (COP, power and, heating heat rate function of time) for a ground-coupled heat pump that is used to heat a space during winter, for a period of 180 days. The analysis purpose is to evaluate the time based changes in values of COP and, energy transfers of a geothermal heat pump, considering a scenario for the variation of the ambient temperature in time and an analytical solution for the time dependence of the soil one. The temperatures and the energy transfer rates were determined on the basis of the irreversible entropy balance equation.

  14. Heat pumps cut co-op's electricity use 65%

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, J.

    1982-04-19

    A $71,000 ground-water heat pump will reduce heating and cooling costs at the Butler Rural Electric Cooperative Inc. offices in Hamilton, Ohio, as much as 65% or $4000, and save another $13,000 in maintenance for the old equipment. Well water from an underground aquifer is pumped through freon heat exchangers and then returned to a second well 300 feet away. Heat is extracted from the freon and blown through heating ducts. The 54/sup 0/ water circulates through a large A-coil, and the cooled air is blown through the ducts for air conditioning. A monitoring system keeps the system performing efficiently. (DCK)

  15. Exergy analysis of the performance of low-temperature district heating system with geothermal heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekret, Robert; Nitkiewicz, Anna

    2014-03-01

    Exergy analysis of low temperature geothermal heat plant with compressor and absorption heat pump was carried out. In these two concepts heat pumps are using geothermal water at 19.5 oC with spontaneous outflow 24 m3/h as a heat source. The research compares exergy efficiency and exergy destruction of considered systems and its components as well. For the purpose of analysis, the heating system was divided into five components: geothermal heat exchanger, heat pump, heat distribution, heat exchanger and electricity production and transportation. For considered systems the primary exergy consumption from renewable and non-renewable sources was estimated. The analysis was carried out for heat network temperature at 50/40 oC, and the quality regulation was assumed. The results of exergy analysis of the system with electrical and absorption heat pump show that exergy destruction during the whole heating season is lower for the system with electrical heat pump. The exergy efficiencies of total system are 12.8% and 11.2% for the system with electrical heat pump and absorption heat pump, respectively.

  16. Solar assisted heat pump for a swine nursery barn

    SciTech Connect

    Havard, P.L.

    1981-01-01

    The raising of hogs in Canada and Northern United States may require heating year round in the nursery area of the operation. The use of a solar assisted heat pump system can lead to substantial energy savings. The heat system and the computer simulation output for a demonstration project built in this area are summarized.

  17. Geothermal Heat Pump Profitability in Energy Services

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    If geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) are to make a significant mark in the market, we believe that it will be through energy service pricing contracts offered by retailcos. The benefits of GHPs are ideally suited to energy service pricing (ESP) contractual arrangements; however, few retailcos are thoroughly familiar with the benefits of GHPs. Many of the same barriers that have prevented GHPs from reaching their full potential in the current market environment remain in place for retailcos. A lack of awareness, concerns over the actual efficiencies of GHPs, perceptions of extremely high first costs, unknown records for maintenance costs, etc. have all contributed to limited adoption of GHP technology. These same factors are of concern to retailcos as they contemplate long term customer contracts. The central focus of this project was the creation of models, using actual GHP operating data and the experience of seasoned professionals, to simulate the financial performance of GHPs in long-term ESP contracts versus the outcome using alternative equipment. We have chosen two case studies, which may be most indicative of target markets in the competitive marketplace: A new 37,000 square foot office building in Toronto, Ontario; we also modeled a similar building under the weather conditions of Orlando, Florida. An aggregated residential energy services project using the mass conversion of over 4,000 residential units at Ft. Polk, Louisiana. Our method of analyses involved estimating equipment and energy costs for both the base case and the GHP buildings. These costs are input in to a cash flow analysis financial model which calculates an after-tax cost for the base and GHP case. For each case study customers were assumed to receive a 5% savings over their base case utility bill. A sensitivity analysis was then conducted to determine how key variables affect the attractiveness of a GHP investment.

  18. ATES/heat pump simulations performed with ATESSS code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vail, L. W.

    1989-01-01

    Modifications to the Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage System Simulator (ATESSS) allow simulation of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES)/heat pump systems. The heat pump algorithm requires a coefficient of performance (COP) relationship of the form: COP = COP sub base + alpha (T sub ref minus T sub base). Initial applications of the modified ATES code to synthetic building load data for two sizes of buildings in two U.S. cities showed insignificant performance advantage of a series ATES heat pump system over a conventional groundwater heat pump system. The addition of algorithms for a cooling tower and solar array improved performance slightly. Small values of alpha in the COP relationship are the principal reason for the limited improvement in system performance. Future studies at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are planned to investigate methods to increase system performance using alternative system configurations and operations scenarios.

  19. Solar assisted heat pumps: A possible wave of the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smetana, F. O.

    1976-01-01

    With the higher costs of electric power and the widespread interest to use solar energy to reduce the national dependence on fossil fuels, heat pumps are examined to determine their suitability for use with solar energy systems.

  20. Technology Solutions Case Study: Heat Pump Water Heater Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-08-01

    In this project, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory studied heat pump water heaters, an efficient, cost-effective alternative to traditional electric resistance water heaters that can improve energy efficiency by up to 62%.

  1. Field Monitoring Protocol. Mini-Split Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, Dane; Fang, Xia; Tomerlin, Jeff; Winkler, Jon; Hancock, E.

    2011-03-01

    This Building America program report provides a detailed method for accurately measuring and monitoring performance of a residential mini-split heat pump, which will be used in high-performance retrofit applications.

  2. Field Monitoring Protocol: Mini-Split Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, D.; Fang, X.; Tomerlin, J.; Winkler, J.; Hancock, E.

    2011-03-01

    The report provides a detailed method for accurately measuring and monitoring performance of a residential Mini-Split Heat Pump. It will be used in high-performance retrofit applications, and as part of DOE's Building America residential research program.

  3. Comparison of ground-coupled solar-heat-pump systems to conventional systems for residential heating, cooling and water heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, M. K.; Morehouse, J. H.; Hughes, P. J.

    1981-07-01

    An analysis is performed of ground-coupled stand-alone and series configured solar-assisted liquid-to-air heat pump systems for residences. The year-round thermal performance of these systems for space heating, space cooling, and water heating is determined by simulation and compared against non-ground-coupled solar heat pump systems as well as conventional heating and cooling systems in three geographic locations: Washington, DC; Fort Worth, Texas; and Madison, Wisconsin. The results indicate that without tax credits a combined solar/ground-coupled heat pump system for space heating and cooling is not cost competitive with conventional systems. Its thermal performance is considerably better than non-ground-coupled solar heat pumps in Fort Worth. Though the ground-coupled stand-alone heat pump provides 51 percent of the heating and cooling load with non-purchased energy in Fort Worth, its thermal performance in Washington and Madison is poor.

  4. Improving Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, Jon

    2012-03-02

    This presentation describes a new approach to modeling residential air conditioners and heat pumps, which allows users to model systems by specifying only the more readily-available SEER/EER/HSPF-type metrics. Manufacturer data was used to generate full sets of model inputs for over 450 heat pumps and air conditioners. A sensitivity analysis identified which inputs can be safely defaulted “behind-the-scenes” without negatively impacting the reliability of energy simulations.

  5. Improving Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Modeling (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, J.

    2012-03-01

    A new approach to modeling residential air conditioners and heat pumps allows users to model systems by specifying only the more readily-available SEER/EER/HSPF-type metrics. Manufacturer data was used to generate full sets of model inputs for over 450 heat pumps and air conditioners. A sensitivity analysis identified which inputs can be safely defaulted 'behind-the-scenes' without negatively impacting the reliability of energy simulations.

  6. Generator-absorber-heat exchange heat transfer apparatus and method and use thereof in a heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Benjamin A.; Zawacki, Thomas S.; Marsala, Joseph

    1994-11-29

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use the working solution of the absorption system for the heat transfer medium.

  7. Hydrodynamic performance and heat generation by centrifugal pumps.

    PubMed

    Ganushchak, Y; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W; van der Nagel, T; de Jong, D S

    2006-11-01

    For over a century, centrifugal pumps (CP) have been used in various applications, from large industrial pumps to flow pumps for aquariums. However, the use of CP as blood pumps has a rather short history. Consequently, the hydraulic performance data for a blood CP are limited. The aim of our investigation was to study the hydraulic performance and the heat generation of three commercially available CP: Bio-Medicus Bio-Pump BP80 (Medtronic), Rotaflow (Jostra Medizintechnik), and DeltaStream DP2 (MEDOS Medizintechnik AQ). The study was performed using a circuit primed with a water-glycerin mixture with a dynamic viscosity of 0.00272 pa/s. Pressure-flow curves were obtained by a stepwise stagnation of the pump outlet or inlet. The temperature changes were observed using ThermaCAM SC2000 (Flir Systems). The pumps' performance in close to clinical conditions ('operating region') was analysed in this report. The 'operating region' in the case of the BP80 is positioned around the pressure-flow curve at a pump speed of 3000 rpm. In the case of the Rotaflow, the 'operating region' was between the pump pressure-flow curves at a speed of 3000 and 4000 rpm, and the DP2 was found between 7000 and 8000 rpm. The standard deviation of mean pressure through the pump was used to characterise the stability of the pump. In experiments with outlet stagnation, the BP80 demonstrated high negative association between flow and pressure variability (r = -0.68, p < 0.001). In experiments with the DP2, this association was positive (r = 0.68, p < 0.001). All pumps demonstrated significantly higher variability of pressure in experiments with inlet stagnation in comparison to the experiments with outlet stagnation. The rise of relative temperature in the inlet of a pump was closely related to the flow rate. The heating of fluid was more pronounced in the 'zero-flow' mode, especially in experiments with inlet stagnation. In summary, (1) the 'zero-flow' regime, which is described in the manuals

  8. New industrial heat pump applications to ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    An energy cost reduction study of the Midwest Grain Products, Atchison, Kansas Beverage grade alcohol (from grain) and speciality starch plant has been completed. The objective was to find out effective energy cost reduction projects and to develop a coherent strategy for realizing the savings. There are many possible options for reducing energy cost. To facilitate a fair comparison of the options, Pinch Technology was used to identify appropriate heat recovery, heat pumping and cogeneration options. Of particular interest were the opportunities for utilizing heat pumps, for energy cost reduction or other profit increasing uses. Therefore, where a heat pumping scheme was identified, its merits relative to other potential projects was carefully evaluated to ensure that the heat pump was technically and economically sound. It is felt that the results obtained in this study are applicable to other alcohol plants, due to the similarity of processes throughout the industry. This study and others indicate that reductions in thermal energy consumption of 10--30% can be expected through increased heat recovery. Additional energy cost reductions can be achieved through the use of MVR evaporators and other heat pump systems. 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. A mechanically assisted heat pipe using micro-pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, J.L.; Campbell, G.; Hassapis, C.; Chang, W.S.

    1996-12-31

    A new mechanically assisted heat pipe has been developed and tested by the authors that combines the high performance of a pumped fluid loop with the reliability of passive heat pipes. The new unit employs micro-pumps inside a passive heat pipe to enhance the return of working fluid from the condenser to the evaporator, and thereby increases the capability of the system. This hybrid device is lighter, smaller and handles higher heat flux compared with a passive heat pipe of similar weight and dimensions. Best of all, if the mechanical pump fails, the heat transport will be impaired, but not totally paralyzed, allowing some form of lower level operation. This micro-pump design installs fins at critical locations inside the heat pipe. These fins can be parallel (flag) or perpendicular (flap) to the flow direction. By vibrating these fins in a motion similar to dolphin kicks for the flaps, and in a motion similar to a fishtail for the flags, these fins were found capable of pumping the working fluid effectively. The size and geometry of these fins were tested extensively. Several actuation approaches were examined. The results of these tests are presented in this paper.

  10. New industrial heat pump applications to fructose production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    An energy cost reduction study of the American Fructose Decatur,Inc. High Fructose Corn Syrup process has been completed. The objective was to find cost effective energy cost reduction projects and to develop a coherent strategy for realizing the savings. There are many possible options for reducing energy cost. To facilitate a fair comparison of the options, Pinch Technology was used to identify appropriate heat recovery, heat pumping and cogeneration options. Of particular interest were the opportunities for utilizing heat pumps, for energy cost reduction or other profit increasing uses. Therefore, where a heat pumping scheme was identified, its merits relative to other potential projects was carefully evaluated to ensure that the heat pump was technically and economically sound. It is felt that the results obtained in this study are applicable to other wet corn milling sites which include a refinery section, due to the similarity of processes throughout the industry. This study and others indicate that reductions in thermal energy consumption of 15--25% can be expected through increased heat recovery. Also, the use of MVR and thermocompression evaporators is appropriate and additional economically viable opportunities exist for using industrial heat pumps to increase even further the level of energy cost reduction achievable. 17 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Study of a heat rejection system using capillary pumping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, L. G.; Wanous, D. J.; Clausen, O. W.

    1971-01-01

    Results of an analytical study investigating the application of capillary pumping to the heat rejection loop of an advanced Rankine cycle power conversion system are presented. The feasibility of the concept of capillary pumping as an alternate to electromagnetic pumping is analytically demonstrated. Capillary pumping is shown to provide a potential for weight and electrical power saving and reliability through the use of redundant systems. A screen wick pump design with arterial feed lines was analytically developed. Advantages of this design are high thermodynamic and hydrodynamic efficiency, which provide a lightweight easily packaged system. Operational problems were identified which must be solved for successful application of capillary pumping. The most important are the development of start up and shutdown procedures, and development of a means of keeping noncondensibles from the system and of earth-bound testing procedures.

  12. Mold Heating and Cooling Pump Package Operator Interface Controls Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Josh A. Salmond

    2009-08-07

    The modernization of the Mold Heating and Cooling Pump Package Operator Interface (MHC PP OI) consisted of upgrading the antiquated single board computer with a proprietary operating system to off-the-shelf hardware and off-the-shelf software with customizable software options. The pump package is the machine interface between a central heating and cooling system that pumps heat transfer fluid through an injection or compression mold base on a local plastic molding machine. The operator interface provides the intelligent means of controlling this pumping process. Strict temperature control of a mold allows the production of high quality parts with tight tolerances and low residual stresses. The products fabricated are used on multiple programs.

  13. Acoustic Optimization of Automotive Exhaust Heat Thermoelectric Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, C. Q.; Ye, B. Q.; Guo, X.; Hui, P.

    2012-06-01

    The potential for thermoelectric exhaust heat recovery in vehicles has been increasing with recent advances in the efficiency of thermoelectric generators (TEGs). This study analyzes the acoustic attenuation performance of exhaust-based TEGs. The acoustic characteristics of two different thermal designs of exhaust gas heat exchanger in TEGs are discussed in terms of transmission loss and acoustic insertion loss. GT-Power simulations and bench tests on a dynamometer with a high-performance production engine are carried out. Results indicate that the acoustic attenuation of TEGs could be determined and optimized. In addition, the feasibility of integration of exhaust-based TEGs and engine mufflers into the exhaust line is tested, which can help to reduce space and improve vehicle integration.

  14. Compressor Selection and Equipment Sizing for Cold Climate Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo; Abdelaziz, Omar; Rice, C Keith

    2014-01-01

    In order to limit heating capacity degradation at -25 C (-13 F) ambient to 25%, compared to the nominal rating point capacity at 8.3 C (47 F), an extensive array of design and sizing options were investigated, based on fundamental equipment system modeling and building energy simulation. Sixteen equipment design options were evaluated in one commercial building and one residential building, respectively in seven cities. The energy simulation results were compared to three baseline cases: 100% electric resistance heating, a 9.6 HSPF single-speed heat pump unit, and 90% AFUE gas heating system. The general recommendation is that variable-speed compressors and tandem compressors, sized such that their rated heating capacity at a low speed matching the building design cooling load, are able to achieve the capacity goal at low ambient temperatures by over-speeding, for example, a home with a 3.0 ton design cooling load, a tandem heat pump could meet this cooling load running a single compressor, while running both compressors to meet heating load at low ambient temperatures in a cold climate. Energy savings and electric resistance heat reductions vary with building types, energy codes and climate zones. Oversizing a heat pump can result in larger energy saving in a less energy efficient building and colder regions due to reducing electric resistance heating. However, in a more energy-efficient building or for buildings in warmer climates, one has to consider balance between reduction of resistance heat and addition of cyclic loss.

  15. 19. Heat Pump, view to the southwest. This system provides ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Heat Pump, view to the southwest. This system provides ventilation air heating and cooling throughout the powerhouse. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  16. Capillary Pump Loop (CPL) heat pipe development status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The capillary pump loop (CPL) was re-introduced as a potential candidate for the management of large heat loads. It is currently being evaluated for application in the thermal management of large space structures. Test efforts were conducted to establish the feasibility of the CPL heat pipe design.

  17. Measured Performance of a Low Temperature Air Source Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R. K.

    2013-09-01

    A 4-ton Low Temperature Heat Pump (LTHP) manufactured by Hallowell International was installed in a residence near New Haven, Connecticut and monitored over two winters of operation. After attending to some significant service issues, the heat pump operated as designed. This report should be considered a review of the dual compressor 'boosted heat pump' technology. The Low Temperature Heat Pumpsystem operates with four increasing levels of capacity (heat output) as the outdoor temperature drops. The system was shown to select capacity correctly, supplying the appropriate amount of heat to the house across the full range of outdoor temperatures. The system's Coefficient of Performance (Seasonal COP, or SCOP) over two entire winters was calculated, based on measured data, to be 3.29over the first winter and 2.68 over the second winter. A second seasonal efficiency calculation by a different method yielded a SCOP of 2.78 for the first winter and 2.83 for the second winter. This second seasonal efficiency calculation was determined by comparing measured heat pump energy use to the in situ energy use with resistance heat alone. This method is the ratio of the slopes of thedaily energy use load lines.

  18. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2011-09-01

    This report discusses how a significant opportunity for energy savings is domestic hot water heating, where an emerging technology has recently arrived in the U.S. market: the residential integrated heat pump water heater. A laboratory evaluation is presented of the five integrated HPWHs available in the U.S. today.

  19. Solar assisted gas-fired absorption heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, K. P.; Burke, J. C.; Phillips, B. A.

    1982-08-01

    An evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of coupling an absorption heat pump and an active solar system for residential applications is discussed. The absorption heat pump is based on a new absorption working pair developed by Allied. Three basic modes of coupling were considered, a series arrangement, a parallel arrangement, and a solar drive arrangement. Little overall difference in performance was found for these three modes but the solar drive was chosen for detailed study. A preliminary design of a dual mode absorption generator was developed capable of using simultaneously heat from gas and solar. The performance of such a system was examined in three cities.

  20. Heat pumps for geothermal applications: availability and performance. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Reistad, G.M.; Means, P.

    1980-05-01

    A study of the performance and availability of water-source heat pumps was carried out. The primary purposes were to obtain the necessary basic information required for proper evaluation of the role of water-source heat pumps in geothermal energy utilization and/or to identify the research needed to provide this information. The Search of Relevant Literature considers the historical background, applications, achieved and projected performance evaluations and performance improvement techniques. The commercial water-source heat pump industry is considered in regard to both the present and projected availability and performance of units. Performance evaluations are made for units that use standard components but are redesigned for use in geothermal heating.

  1. Acoustic energy-driven fluid pump and method

    SciTech Connect

    Janus, Michael C.; Richards, George A.; Robey, Edward H.

    1997-12-01

    Bulk fluid motion is promoted in a gaseous fluid contained within a conduit system provided with a diffuser without the need for a mean pressure differential across the conduit system. The contacting of the gaseous fluid with unsteady energy at a selected frequency and pressure amplitude induces fluid flow through the conical diffuser. The unsteady energy can be provided by pulse combustors, thermoacoustic engines, or acoustic energy generators such as acoustic speakers.

  2. Energy and Exergy Analysis of an Annular Thermoelectric Heat Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushik, S. C.; Manikandan, S.; Hans, Ranjana

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the concept of an annular thermoelectric heat pump (ATEHP) has been introduced. An exoreversible thermodynamic model of the ATEHP considering the Thomson effect in conjunction with Peltier, Joule and Fourier heat conduction has been investigated using exergy analysis. New expressions for dimensionless heating power, optimum current at the maximum energy, exergy efficiency conditions and dimensionless irreversibilities in the ATEHP are derived. The results show that the heating power, energy and exergy efficiency of the ATEHP are lower than the flat-plate thermoelectric heat pump. The effects of annular shape parameter ( S r = r 2 /r 1), dimensionless temperature ratio ( θ = T h /T c) and the electrical contact resistances on the heating power, energy/exergy efficiency of an ATEHP have been studied. This study will help in the designing of actual ATEHP systems.

  3. Mini-Split Heat Pumps Multifamily Retrofit Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Dentz, Jordan; Podorson, David; Varshney, Kapil

    2014-05-01

    Mini-split heat pumps can provide space heating and cooling in many climates and are relatively affordable. These and other features make them potentially suitable for retrofitting into multifamily buildings in cold climates to replace electric resistance heating or other outmoded heating systems. This report investigates the suitability of mini-split heat pumps for multifamily retrofits. Various technical and regulatory barriers are discussed and modeling was performed to compare long-term costs of substituting mini-splits for a variety of other heating and cooling options. A number of utility programs have retrofit mini-splits in both single family and multifamily residences. Two such multifamily programs are discussed in detail.

  4. Jet pump-drive system for heat removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, J. R. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A jet pump, in combination with a TEMP, is employed to assure safe cooling of a nuclear reactor after shutdown. A TEMP, responsive to the heat from the coolant in the secondary flow path, automatically pumps the withdrawn coolant to a higher pressure and thus higher velocity compared to the main flow. The high velocity coolant is applied as a driver flow for the jet pump which has a main flow chamber located in the main flow circulation pump. Upon nuclear shutdown and loss of power for the main reactor pumping system, the TEMP/jet pump combination continues to boost the coolant flow in the direction it is already circulating. During the decay time for the nuclear reactor, the jet pump keeps running until the coolant temperature drops to a lower and safe temperature. At this lower temperature, the TEMP/jet jump combination ceases its circulation boosting operation. The TEMP/jet pump combination is automatic, self-regulating and provides an emergency pumping system free of moving parts.

  5. Heat pump water heater and method of making the same

    DOEpatents

    Mei, Viung C.; Tomlinson, John J.; Chen, Fang C.

    2001-01-01

    An improved heat pump water heater wherein the condenser assembly of the heat pump is inserted into the water tank through an existing opening in the top of the tank, the assembly comprising a tube-in-a-tube construction with an elongated cylindrical outer body heat exchanger having a closed bottom with the superheated refrigerant that exits the compressor of the heat pump entering the top of the outer body. As the refrigerant condenses along the interior surface of the outer body, the heat from the refrigerant is transferred to the water through the outer body. The refrigerant then enters the bottom of an inner body coaxially disposed within the outer body and exits the top of the inner body into the refrigerant conduit leading into the expansion device of the heat pump. The outer body, in a second embodiment of the invention, acts not only as a heat exchanger but also as the sacrificial anode in the water tank by being constructed of a metal which is more likely to corrode than the metal of the tank.

  6. Direct calculation of acoustic streaming including the boundary layer phenomena in an ultrasonic air pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Yuji; Koyama, Daisuke; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2012-05-01

    Direct finite difference fluid simulation of acoustic streaming on the fine-meshed three-dimensiona model by graphics processing unit (GPU)-oriented calculation array is discussed. Airflows due to the acoustic traveling wave are induced when an intense sound field is generated in a gap between a bending transducer and a reflector. Calculation results showed good agreement with the measurements in the pressure distribution. In addition to that, several flow-vortices were observed near the boundary of the reflector and the transducer, which have been often discussed in acoustic tube near the boundary, and have never been observed in the calculation in the ultrasonic air pump of this type.

  7. Organic Rankine cycle/heat pump technology working fluid problems

    SciTech Connect

    Baehr, H.D.

    1984-01-01

    This book contains papers that consider various options for improving the utilization of primary energy. The papers focus on improving the classical steam cycle by a bottoming-cycle that uses a working fluid different from steam. Also discussed are methods of improving waste heat utilization, especially by employing low temperature power cycles to generate shaft power or electricity by using heat pumps to boost waste heat temperature.

  8. Chemical heat pump and chemical energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Edward C.; Huxtable, Douglas D.

    1985-08-06

    A chemical heat pump and storage system employs sulfuric acid and water. In one form, the system includes a generator and condenser, an evaporator and absorber, aqueous acid solution storage and water storage. During a charging cycle, heat is provided to the generator from a heat source to concentrate the acid solution while heat is removed from the condenser to condense the water vapor produced in the generator. Water is then stored in the storage tank. Heat is thus stored in the form of chemical energy in the concentrated acid. The heat removed from the water vapor can be supplied to a heat load of proper temperature or can be rejected. During a discharge cycle, water in the evaporator is supplied with heat to generate water vapor, which is transmitted to the absorber where it is condensed and absorbed into the concentrated acid. Both heats of dilution and condensation of water are removed from the thus diluted acid. During the discharge cycle the system functions as a heat pump in which heat is added to the system at a low temperature and removed from the system at a high temperature. The diluted acid is stored in an acid storage tank or is routed directly to the generator for reconcentration. The generator, condenser, evaporator, and absorber all are operated under pressure conditions specified by the desired temperature levels for a given application. The storage tanks, however, can be maintained at or near ambient pressure conditions. In another form, the heat pump system is employed to provide usable heat from waste process heat by upgrading the temperature of the waste heat.

  9. Chromospheric Heating by Acoustic Waves Compared to Radiative Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobotka, M.; Heinzel, P.; Švanda, M.; Jurčák, J.; del Moro, D.; Berrilli, F.

    2016-07-01

    Acoustic and magnetoacoustic waves are among the possible candidate mechanisms that heat the upper layers of the solar atmosphere. A weak chromospheric plage near the large solar pore NOAA 11005 was observed on 2008 October 15, in the Fe i 617.3 nm and Ca ii 853.2 nm lines of the Interferometric Bidimemsional Spectrometer attached to the Dunn Solar Telescope. In analyzing the Ca ii observations (with spatial and temporal resolutions of 0.″4 and 52 s) the energy deposited by acoustic waves is compared to that released by radiative losses. The deposited acoustic flux is estimated from the power spectra of Doppler oscillations measured in the Ca ii line core. The radiative losses are calculated using a grid of seven one-dimensional hydrostatic semi-empirical model atmospheres. The comparison shows that the spatial correlation of the maps of radiative losses and acoustic flux is 72%. In a quiet chromosphere, the contribution of acoustic energy flux to radiative losses is small, only about 15%. In active areas with a photospheric magnetic-field strength between 300 and 1300 G and an inclination of 20°-60°, the contribution increases from 23% (chromospheric network) to 54% (a plage). However, these values have to be considered as lower limits and it might be possible that the acoustic energy flux is the main contributor to the heating of bright chromospheric network and plages.

  10. Miniature reciprocating heat pumps and engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiesen, Jack H. (Inventor); Willen, Gary S. (Inventor); Mohling, Robert A. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention discloses a miniature thermodynamic device that can be constructed using standard micro-fabrication techniques. The device can be used to provide cooling, generate power, compress gases, pump fluids and reduce pressure below ambient (operate as a vacuum pump). Embodiments of the invention relating to the production of a cooling effect and the generation of electrical power, change the thermodynamic state of the system by extracting energy from a pressurized fluid. Energy extraction is attained using an expansion process, which is as nearly isentropic as possible for the appropriately chosen fluid. An isentropic expansion occurs when a compressed gas does work to expand, and in the disclosed embodiments, the gas does work by overcoming either an electrostatic or a magnetic force.

  11. Stirling cycle heat pump for heating and/or cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Meijer, R.J.; Khalili, K.; Meijer, E.; Godett, T.M.

    1991-03-05

    This patent describes a duplex Stirling cycle machine acting as a heat pump. It comprises: a Stirling engine having pistons axially displaceable within parallel cylinders, the engine further having a swashplate rotatable about an axis of, rotation parallel to the cylinders and defining a plane inclined from the axis of rotation. The pistons connected to the swashplate via crossheads whereby axial displacement of the pistons is converted to rotation of the swashplate, and a Stirling cycle heat pump having a compression heat exchanger, an expansion heat exchanger and a regenerator with pistons equal in number to the engine pistons and axially displaceable within cylinders which are oriented co-axially with the engine cylinders. The crossheads further connected to the heat pump pistons whereby the heat pump pistons move simultaneously with the engine pistons over an equal stroke distance.

  12. Development of a nonazeotropic heat pump for crew hygiene water heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, David H.; Deming, Glenn I.

    1991-01-01

    A Phase 2 SBIR Program funded by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to develop a Nonazeotropic Heat Pump is described. The heat pump system which was designed, fabricated, and tested in the Foster-Miller laboratory, is capable of providing crew hygiene water heating for future manned missions. The heat pump utilizes a nonazeotropic refrigerant mixture which, in this application, provides a significant Coefficient of Performance improvement over a single-constituent working fluid. In order to take full advantage of the refrigerant mixture, compact tube-in-tube heat exchangers were designed. A high efficiency scroll compressor with a proprietary lubrication system was developed to meet the requirements of operation in zero-gravity. The prototype heat pump system consumes less than 200W of power compared to the alternative of electric cartridge heaters which would require 2 to 5 kW.

  13. New industrial heat pump applications to cheese production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    A energy cost reduction of the Sorrento Cheese Co. Inc. cheese/whey powder process has been completed. Of Particular interest were the opportunities for utilizing heat pumps for energy cost reduction or other profit improving uses. Pinch Technology was used to identify heat recovery, heat pumping, process modification and congeneration options. Pinch Technology provides a thermodynamically consistent base from which the relative merits of competing cost reduction options can be assessed. The study identified heat recovery opportunities which could save $198,000/yr at an over all payback of 26 months. Individual project paybacks range from 18 to 36 months. The use of heat pumps in the form of MVR and TVR evaporators is well established in the dairy industry. For this process, which already incorporates a TVR evaporator, no additional cost effective opportunities for utilizing heat pumps were identified. It is felt that the results obtained in this study are applicable to other cheese/whey powder manufacturing sits. This study, and others, indicate that reductions in thermal energy consumption of 10--15% can be expected. Also the use of MVR and TVR evaporators is appropriate. 10 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Materials corrosion in ammonia/solid heat pump working media

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.F.; Howell, M.; DeVan, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    Salt/ammonia complexes will undergo thermal cycles during use as working media for heat pumps. The interaction between container materials and complexes under thermal cyclic conditions was assessed to screen possible containment materials. Aluminum alloys 3003, 1100, and 6063 and carbon steel A214 were tested against possible heat pump working media SrCl{sub 2}/NH{sub 3}, CaBr{sub 2}/NH{sub 3}, and CaCl{sub 2}/NH{sub 3}. None of the containment materials showed susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking. While all the materials demonstrated excellent general corrosion resistance to SrCl{sub 2}/NH{sub 3}, only A214 displayed good general corrosion resistance to CaCl{sub 2}/NH{sub 3}. The complex CaBr{sub 2}/NH{sub 3} was found to be subject to thermal cyclic instability and should not be used as a heat pump working medium.

  15. Microgravity heat pump for space station thermal management.

    PubMed

    Domitrovic, R E; Chen, F C; Mei, V C; Spezia, A L

    2003-01-01

    A highly efficient recuperative vapor compression heat pump was developed and tested for its ability to operate independent of orientation with respect to gravity while maximizing temperature lift. The objective of such a heat pump is to increase the temperature of, and thus reduce the size of, the radiative heat rejection panels on spacecrafts such as the International Space Station. Heat pump operation under microgravity was approximated by gravitational-independent experiments. Test evaluations include functionality, efficiency, and temperature lift. Commercially available components were used to minimize costs of new hardware development. Testing was completed on two heat pump design iterations--LBU-I and LBU--II, for a variety of operating conditions under the variation of several system parameters, including: orientation, evaporator water inlet temperature (EWIT), condenser water inlet temperature (CWIT), and compressor speed. The LBU-I system employed an ac motor, belt-driven scroll compressor, and tube-in-tube heat exchangers. The LBU-II system used a direct-drive AC motor compressor assembly and plate heat exchangers. The LBU-II system in general outperformed the LBU-I system on all accounts. Results are presented for all systems, showing particular attention to those states that perform with a COP of 4.5 +/- 10% and can maintain a temperature lift of 55 degrees F (30.6 degrees C) +/- 10%. A calculation of potential radiator area reduction shows that points with maximum temperature lift give the greatest potential for reduction, and that area reduction is a function of heat pump efficiency and a stronger function of temperature lift. PMID:14632004

  16. Subterahertz acoustical pumping of electronic charge in a resonant tunneling device.

    PubMed

    Young, E S K; Akimov, A V; Henini, M; Eaves, L; Kent, A J

    2012-06-01

    We demonstrate that controlled subnanosecond bursts of electronic charge can be transferred through a resonant tunneling diode by successive picosecond acoustic pulses. The effect exploits the nonlinear current-voltage characteristics of the device and its asymmetric response to the compressive and tensile components of the strain pulse. This acoustoelectronic pump opens new possibilities for the control of quantum phenomena in nanostructures. PMID:23003634

  17. Heat pump/refrigerator using liquid working fluid

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, John C.; Paulson, Douglas N.; Allen, Paul C.; Knight, William R.; Warkentin, Paul A.

    1982-01-01

    A heat transfer device is described that can be operated as a heat pump or refrigerator, which utilizes a working fluid that is continuously in a liquid state and which has a high temperature-coefficient of expansion near room temperature, to provide a compact and high efficiency heat transfer device for relatively small temperature differences as are encountered in heating or cooling rooms or the like. The heat transfer device includes a pair of heat exchangers that may be coupled respectively to the outdoor and indoor environments, a regenerator connecting the two heat exchangers, a displacer that can move the liquid working fluid through the heat exchangers via the regenerator, and a means for alternately increasing and decreasing the pressure of the working fluid. The liquid working fluid enables efficient heat transfer in a compact unit, and leads to an explosion-proof smooth and quiet machine characteristic of hydraulics. The device enables efficient heat transfer as the indoor-outdoor temperature difference approaches zero, and enables simple conversion from heat pumping to refrigeration as by merely reversing the direction of a motor that powers the device.

  18. Proceedings: Heat pump technician training and certification workshop

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    In conjunction with the EPRI Heat Pump Initiative, established in 1995, the institute has proposed development of a national training and certification program to raise the skill level of technicians who install and repair heat pumps. To launch the project, a workshop was held in Nashville, Tennessee, in September 1995 that attracted participants from interested utilities, manufacturers, and trade organizations. This report documents the presentations, discussions, and results of the Tennessee meeting, and identifies its participants. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  19. Vapor-Compression Heat Pumps for Operation Aboard Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruemmele, Warren; Ungar, Eugene; Cornwell, John

    2006-01-01

    Vapor-compression heat pumps (including both refrigerators and heat pumps) of a proposed type would be capable of operating in microgravity and would be safe to use in enclosed environments like those of spacecraft. The designs of these pumps would incorporate modifications of, and additions to, vapor-compression cycles of heat pumps now used in normal Earth gravitation, in order to ensure efficiency and reliability during all phases of operation, including startup, shutdown, nominal continuous operation, and peak operation. Features of such a design might include any or all of the following: (1) Configuring the compressor, condenser, evaporator, valves, capillary tubes (if any), and controls to function in microgravitation; (2) Selection of a working fluid that satisfies thermodynamic requirements and is safe to use in a closed crew compartment; (3) Incorporation of a solenoid valve and/or a check valve to prevent influx of liquid to the compressor upon startup (such influx could damage the compressor); (4) Use of a diode heat pipe between the cold volume and the evaporator to limit the influx of liquid to the compressor upon startup; and (5) Use of a heated block to vaporize any liquid that arrives at the compressor inlet.

  20. Analyses of advanced residential abosrption heat pump cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, B. A.

    The development and proof testing of advanced absorption refrigeration cycle concepts is reported. The purpose is to develop a gas fired absorption heat pump for residential and small commercial applications that will produce a coefficient of performance of at least 1.6 Btu heating and .7 Btu of cooling per Btu of gas input. The goals refer to air-to-air heat pump operation at the rating conditions of 47 F outdoor ambient in heating mode and 95 F ambient in cooling mode. For year-round residential and small commerical use other requirements were added. One was that the heat pump itself will provide all the heating and cooling required by the building over the majority of temperatures experienced in the United States (from -10 F to 110 F) without resource to supplemental heat. The means of making major improvements in gas fired absorption systems include the following categories: higher efficiency cycles, better fluids, and higher flues efficiencies. High efficiency absorption cycles were evaluated and the cycle and working fluid combination preferred for development of an advanced absorption test unit of residential size is selected.

  1. Flathead Electric Cooperative Facility Geothermal Heat Pump System Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiaobing

    2014-06-01

    High initial cost and lack of public awareness of ground source heat pump (GSHP) technology are the two major barriers preventing rapid deployment of this energy saving technology in the United States. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 GSHP projects have been competitively selected and carried out to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. This paper highlights findings of a case study of one of the ARRA-funded GSHP demonstration projects, which is a heating only central GSHP system using shallow aquifer as heat source and installed at a warehouse and truck bay at Kalispell, MT. This case study is based on the analysis of measured performance data, utility bills, and calculations of energy consumptions of conventional central heating systems for providing the same heat outputs as the central GSHP system did. The evaluated performance metrics include energy efficiency of the heat pump equipment and the overall GSHP system, pumping performance, energy savings, carbon emission reductions, and cost-effectiveness of GSHP system compared with conventional heating systems. This case study also identified areas for reducing uncertainties in performance evaluation, improving operational efficiency, and reducing installed cost of similar GSHP systems in the future. Publication of ASHRAE at the annual conference in Seattle.

  2. Flathead Electric Cooperative Facility Geothermal Heat Pump System Upgrade.

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiaobing

    2014-06-01

    High initial cost and lack of public awareness of ground source heat pump (GSHP) technology are the two major barriers preventing rapid deployment of this energy saving technology in the United States. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 GSHP projects have been competitively selected and carried out to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. This paper highlights findings of a case study of one of the ARRA-funded GSHP demonstration projects, which is a heating only central GSHP system using shallow aquifer as heat source and installed at a warehouse and truck bay at Kalispell, MT. This case study is based on the analysis of measured performance data, utility bills, and calculations of energy consumptions of conventional central heating systems for providing the same heat outputs as the central GSHP system did. The evaluated performance metrics include energy efficiency of the heat pump equipment and the overall GSHP system, pumping performance, energy savings, carbon emission reductions, and cost-effectiveness of GSHP system compared with conventional heating systems. This case study also identified areas for reducing uncertainties in performance evaluation, improving operational efficiency, and reducing installed cost of similar GSHP systems in the future. Publication of ASHRAE at the annual conference in Seattle June 2014.

  3. Energy Factor Analysis for Gas Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Gluesenkamp, Kyle R

    2016-01-01

    Gas heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) can improve water heating efficiency with zero GWP and zero ODP working fluids. The energy factor (EF) of a gas HPWH is sensitive to several factors. In this work, expressions are derived for EF of gas HPWHs, as a function of heat pump cycle COP, tank heat losses, burner efficiency, electrical draw, and effectiveness of supplemental heat exchangers. The expressions are used to investigate the sensitivity of EF to each parameter. EF is evaluated on a site energy basis (as used by the US DOE for rating water heater EF), and a primary energy-basis energy factor (PEF) is also defined and included. Typical ranges of values for the six parameters are given. For gas HPWHs, using typical ranges for component performance, EF will be 59 80% of the heat pump cycle thermal COP (for example, a COP of 1.60 may result in an EF of 0.94 1.28). Most of the reduction in COP is due to burner efficiency and tank heat losses. Gas-fired HPWHs are theoretically be capable of an EF of up to 1.7 (PEF of 1.6); while an EF of 1.1 1.3 (PEF of 1.0 1.1) is expected from an early market entry.

  4. Vapor Compression and Thermoelectric Heat Pump Heat Exchangers for a Condensate Distillation System: Design and Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Lisa R.; Ungar, Eugene K.

    2013-01-01

    Maximizing the reuse of wastewater while minimizing the use of consumables is critical in long duration space exploration. One of the more promising methods of reclaiming urine is the distillation/condensation process used in the cascade distillation system (CDS). This system accepts a mixture of urine and toxic stabilizing agents, heats it to vaporize the water and condenses and cools the resulting water vapor. The CDS wastewater flow requires heating and its condensate flow requires cooling. Performing the heating and cooling processes separately requires two separate units, each of which would require large amounts of electrical power. By heating the wastewater and cooling the condensate in a single heat pump unit, mass, volume, and power efficiencies can be obtained. The present work describes and compares two competing heat pump methodologies that meet the needs of the CDS: 1) a series of mini compressor vapor compression cycles and 2) a thermoelectric heat exchanger. In the paper, the system level requirements are outlined, the designs of the two heat pumps are described in detail, and the results of heat pump performance tests are provided. A summary is provided of the heat pump mass, volume and power trades and a selection recommendation is made.

  5. Thermosyphon coil arrangement for heat pump outdoor unit

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, R.

    1984-05-22

    For a heat pump, the outdoor unit is provided with a coil and a refrigerant flow arrangement there for which is such that in the heating mode of operation of the heat pump they operate in a thermosyphon fashion. The coil has a feed portion and an exit portion leading to a separator drum from which liquid refrigerant is returned through downcomer line for recirculation to the feed portion. The coil is tilted upwardly from entry to exit by the angle alpha to enhance the clearance of the two phases of refrigerant from each other in the heating mode of operation. There is no thermosyphon function in the cooling mode of operation. 9 figs.

  6. Thermosyphon coil arrangement for heat pump outdoor unit

    DOEpatents

    Draper, Robert

    1984-01-01

    For a heat pump, the outdoor unit is provided with a coil and a refrigerant flow arrangement therefor which is such that in the heating mode of operation of the heat pump they operate in a thermosyphon fashion. The coil 32 has a feed portion 30 and an exit portion 34 leading to a separator drum 36 from which liquid refrigerant is returned through downcomer line 42 for recirculation to the feed portion. The coil is tilted upwardly from entry to exit by the angle alpha to enhance the clearance of the two phases of refrigerant from each other in the heating mode of operation. There is no thermosyphon function in the cooling mode of operation.

  7. Optimum Organization and Maximum Capabilities of Heat-Pump Heating Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsirlin, A. M.; Kuz‧min, V. A.

    2016-05-01

    The authors obtained a lower bound for the energy consumption in heating (maintaining an assigned temperature distribution in the system of intercommunicating chambers) and the corresponding distributions of the total heat-transfer coefficients and the temperature of the working medium of a heat pump in contact with the chambers and the environment.

  8. Generator-absorber-heat exchange heat transfer apparatus and method and use thereof in a heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Benjamin A.; Zawacki, Thomas S.

    1996-12-03

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use the working solution of the absorption system for the heat transfer medium. A combination of weak and rich liquor working solution is used as the heat transfer medium.

  9. Process Integration Study of Cache Valley Cheese Plant [Advanced Industrial Heat Pump Applications and Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Eastwood, A.

    1991-10-01

    This work has carried out in two phases: Phase 1; identification of opportunities for heat pumps in industrial applications and Phase 2; evaluation of heat pumps in industrial applications. In Phase 1, pinch analysis was applied to several industrial sites to identify the best opportunities for heat pumping and other forms of heat integration. In Phase 2, more detailed analyses were undertaken, including the evaluation of a heat pump installed as a recommendation of Phase 1.

  10. Heat pump water heaters: A technology assessment and market survey

    SciTech Connect

    Nisson, N.; Shepard, M.

    1994-12-31

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are two to four times as efficient as electric resistance water heaters and provide space cooling as well as water heating. They also cost considerably more, consume more space, and may require more maintenance. Their low operating costs make them an attractive option in hotels, apartment buildings, restaurants, laundries, and other settings where there are simultaneous demands for space cooling and water heating. In such settings they often pay back in less than two years relative to resistance water heating and can be more economical than gas water heating. In houses, the economics are highly variable, with paybacks ranging from less than two years to more than twenty years, depending on climate, water use patterns, and other factors. HPWHs can be a peak shaving option for utilities whose daily peak coincides with the residential morning water heating peak. Residential units draw 500 to 800 watts, compared to 4,500 watts or more for resistance water heaters. Heat pump water heaters hold a tiny share of the water heating market, but their profile is rising, due in part to a controversial water heating standard proposed in the United States. Six North American manufacturers currently produce nearly 50 models for residential and commercial applications, and several new players will enter the market in 1995. Scant field data exist on the performance of currently available models, but more information will become available over the coming year from several utility demonstration, monitoring, and incentive programs.

  11. Evaluation of solar collectors for heat pump applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Skartvedt, Gary; Pedreyra, Donald; McMordle, Dr., Robert; Kidd, James; Anderson, Jerome; Jones, Richard

    1980-08-01

    The study was initiated to evaluate the potential utility of very low cost (possibly unglazed and uninsulated) solar collectors to serve as both heat collection and rejection devices for a liquid source heat pump. The approach consisted of exercising a detailed analytical simulation of the complete heat pump/solar collector/storage system against heating and cooling loads derived for typical single-family residences in eight US cities. The performance of each system was measured against that of a conventional air-to-air heat pump operating against the same loads. In addition to evaluation of solar collector options, the study included consideration of water tanks and buried pipe grids to provide thermal storage. As a supplement to the analytical tasks, the study included an experimental determination of night sky temperature and convective heat transfer coefficients for surfaces with dimensions typical of solar collectors. The experiments were conducted in situ by placing the test apparatus on the roofs of houses in the Denver, Colorado, area. (MHR)

  12. Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pump Comfort Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, K.; Sehgal, N.; Akers, C.

    2013-03-01

    Field tests were conducted in two homes in Austin, TX to evaluate the comfort performance of ductless mini-split heat pumps (DMSHPs), measuring temperature and relative humidity measurements in four rooms in each home before and after retrofitting a central HVAC system with DMSHPs.

  13. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt(tm) whole-house building simulations.

  14. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of U.S. climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt™ whole-house building simulations.

  15. Geothermal Heat Pumps Score High Marks in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Renewable Energy Lab (DOE).

    Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) are showing their value in providing lower operating and maintenance costs, energy efficiency, and superior classroom comfort. This document describes what GHPs are and the benefits a school can garner after installing a GHP system. Three case studies are provided that illustrate these benefits. Finally, the Department…

  16. Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pump Comfort Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, K.; Sehgal, N.; Akers, C.

    2013-03-01

    Field tests were conducted in two homes in Austin, TX, to evaluate the comfort performance of ductless minisplit heat pumps (DMSHPs), measuring temperature and relative humidity measurements in four rooms in each home before and after retrofitting a central HVAC system with DMSHPs.

  17. TESTING OF REFRIGERANT MIXTURES IN RESIDENTIAL HEAT PUMPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an investigation of four possibilities for replacing Hydrochlorofluorocarbon-22 (HCFC-22) with the non-ozone-depleting new refrigerants R-407D and R-407C in residential heat pumps. The first and simplest scenario was a retrofit with no hardware modific...

  18. Structural morphology of acoustically levitated and heated nanosilica droplet

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Ranganathan; Tijerino, Erick; Saha, Abhishek; Basu, Saptarshi

    2010-09-20

    We study the vaporization and precipitation dynamics of a nanosilica encapsulated water droplet by levitating it acoustically and heating it with a CO{sub 2} laser. For all concentrations, we observe three phases: solvent evaporation, surface agglomeration, and precipitation leading to bowl or ring shaped structures. At higher concentrations, ring reorientation and rotation are seen consistently. The surface temperature from an infrared camera is seen to be dependent on the final geometrical shape of the droplet and its rotation induced by the acoustic field of the levitator. With nonuniform particle distribution, these structures can experience rupture which modifies the droplet rotational speed.

  19. A prototype heat pipe heat exchanger for the capillary pumped loop flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Yun, Seokgeun; Kroliczek, Edward J.

    1992-01-01

    A Capillary Pumped Two-Phase Heat Transport Loop (CAPL) Flight Experiment, currently planned for 1993, will provide microgravity verification of the prototype capillary pumped loop (CPL) thermal control system for EOS. CAPL employs a heat pipe heat exchanger (HPHX) to couple the condenser section of the CPL to the radiator assembly. A prototype HPHX consisting of a heat exchanger (HX), a header heat pipe (HHP), a spreader heat pipe (SHP), and a flow regulator has been designed and tested. The HX transmits heat from the CPL condenser to the HHP, while the HHP and SHP transport heat to the radiator assembly. The flow regulator controls flow distribution among multiple parallel HPHX's. Test results indicated that the prototype HPHX could transport up to 800 watts with an overall heat transfer coefficient of more than 6000 watts/sq m-deg C. Flow regulation among parallel HPHX's was also demonstrated.

  20. Fort Bragg Embraces Groundbreaking Heat Pump Technology

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Army’s Fort Bragg partnered with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to build new, low-energy buildings that are at least 50% below Standard 90.1-2007 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.

  1. Pump, and earth-testable spacecraft capillary heat transport loop using augmentation pump and check valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, David (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A spacecraft includes heat-generating payload equipment, and a heat transport system with a cold plate thermally coupled to the equipment and a capillary-wick evaporator, for evaporating coolant liquid to cool the equipment. The coolant vapor is coupled to a condenser and in a loop back to the evaporator. A heated coolant reservoir is coupled to the loop for pressure control. If the wick is not wetted, heat transfer will not begin or continue. A pair of check valves are coupled in the loop, and the heater is cycled for augmentation pumping of coolant to and from the reservoir. This augmentation pumping, in conjunction with the check valves, wets the wick. The wick liquid storage capacity allows the augmentation pump to provide continuous pulsed liquid flow to assure continuous vapor transport and a continuously operating heat transport system. The check valves are of the ball type to assure maximum reliability. However, any type of check valve can be used, including designs which are preloaded in the closed position. The check valve may use any ball or poppet material which resists corrosion. For optimum performance during testing on Earth, the ball or poppet would have neutral buoyancy or be configured in a closed position when the heat transport system is not operating. The ball may be porous to allow passage of coolant vapor.

  2. Hybrid Heat Pumps Using Selective Water Sorbents (SWS)

    SciTech Connect

    Ally, M. R.

    2006-11-30

    The development of the ground-coupled and air-coupled Heating Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system is essential in meeting the goals of Zero Energy Houses (ZEH), a viable concept vigorously pursued under DOE sponsorship. ORNL has a large Habitat for Humanity complex in Lenoir City where modem buildings technology is incorporated on a continual basis. This house of the future is planned for lower and middle income families in the 21st century. The work undertaken in this CRADA is an integral part of meeting DOE's objectives in the Building America program. SWS technology is a prime candidate for reducing the footprint, cost and improve the performance of ground-coupled heat pumps. The efficacy of this technique to exchange energy with the ground is a topic of immense interest to DOE, builders and HVAC equipment manufacturers. If successful, the SWS concept will become part of a packaged ZEH kit for affordable and high-end houses. Lennox Industries entered into a CRADA with Oak Ridge National Laboratory in November 2004. Lennox, Inc. agreed to explore ways of using Selective Water Sorbent materials to boost the efficiency of air-coupled heat pumps whereas ORNL concentrated on ground-coupled applications. Lennox supplied ORNL with heat exchangers and heat pump equipment for use at ORNL's Habitat for Humanity site in Lenoir City, Tennessee. Lennox is focused upon air-coupled applications of SWS materials at the Product Development and Research Center in Carrollton, TX.

  3. Performance of a hybrid chemical/mechanical heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvestri, John J.; Scaringe, Robert P.; Grzyll, Lawrence R.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present the design and preliminary results of the performance of a hybrid chemical/mechanical, low-lift (20 C) heat pump. Studies have indicated that this heat pump has several advantages over the traditional single fluid vapor compression (reverse Rankine) heat pump. Included in these benefits are: 1) increased COPc due to the approximation of the cycle to the Lorenz cycle and due to the availability of the heat of solution, along with the heat of vaporization, to provide cooling; and 2) ease of variation in system cooling capacity by changing the fluid composition. The system performance is predicted for a variety of refrigerant-absorbent pairs. Cooling capacity is determined for systems operating with ammonia as the refrigerant and lithium nitrate and sodium thiocyanate as the absorbents and also with water as the refrigerant and magnesium chloride, potassium hydroxide, lithium bromide, sodium hydroxide, and sulfuric acid as the absorbents. Early indications have shown that the systems operating with water as the refrigerant operate at 2-4 times the capacity of the ammonia-refrigerant-based systems. Using existing working fluids in the proposed innovative design, a coefficient-of-performance improvement of 21 percent is possible when compared to the best vapor compression systems analyzed.

  4. Thermally conductive cementitious grout for geothermal heat pump systems

    DOEpatents

    Allan, Marita

    2001-01-01

    A thermally conductive cement-sand grout for use with a geothermal heat pump system. The cement sand grout contains cement, silica sand, a superplasticizer, water and optionally bentonite. The present invention also includes a method of filling boreholes used for geothermal heat pump systems with the thermally conductive cement-sand grout. The cement-sand grout has improved thermal conductivity over neat cement and bentonite grouts, which allows shallower bore holes to be used to provide an equivalent heat transfer capacity. In addition, the cement-sand grouts of the present invention also provide improved bond strengths and decreased permeabilities. The cement-sand grouts can also contain blast furnace slag, fly ash, a thermoplastic air entraining agent, latex, a shrinkage reducing admixture, calcium oxide and combinations thereof.

  5. TEM Pump With External Heat Source And Sink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesmith, Bill J.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed thermoelectric/electromagnetic (TEM) pump driven by external source of heat and by two or more heat pipe radiator heat sink(s). Thermoelectrics generate electrical current to circulate liquid metal in secondary loop of two-fluid-loop system. Intended for use with space and terrestrial dual loop liquid metal nuclear reactors. Applications include spacecraft on long missions or terrestrial beacons or scientific instruments having to operate in remote areas for long times. Design modified to include multiple radiators, converters, and ducts, as dictated by particular application.

  6. High Efficiency R-744 Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Elbel, Dr. Stefan W.; Petersen, Michael

    2013-04-25

    The project investigated the development and improvement process of a R744 (CO2) commercial heat pump water heater (HPWH) package of approximately 35 kW. The improvement process covered all main components of the system. More specific the heat exchangers (Internal heat exchanger, Evaporator, Gas cooler) as well as the expansion device and the compressor were investigated. In addition, a comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint was made in order to compare performance as well as package size reduction potential.

  7. The impact of TXV heating on the performance of air-source heat pump in heating mode

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses the strategy of TXV heating, which adds a limited amount of heat on the surface of TXV sensor, to achieve energy saving and low cost in air-source heat pumps. The TXV heating is able to retard the valve closing so as to boost energy saving in heating mode. The testing results demonstrate the appropriate TXV heating achieves a remarkable improvement in COP and thermal comfort. The required heating power is not more than 40w. The additional equipment cost of TXV heating is less than $20. Thus, the strategy of TXV heating is practical from the view of technology and economy.

  8. Thermodynamic modeling and performance analysis of the variable-temperature heat reservoir absorption heat pump cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xiaoyong; Chen, Lingen; Ge, Yanlin; Sun, Fengrui

    2015-10-01

    For practical absorption heat pump (AHP) plants, not all external heat reservoir heat capacities are infinite. External heat reservoir heat capacity should be an effect factor in modeling and performance analysis of AHP cycles. A variable-temperature heat reservoir AHP cycle is modeled, in which internal working substance is working in four temperature levels and all irreversibility factors are considered. The irreversibility includes heat transfer irreversibility, internal dissipation irreversibility and heat leakage irreversibility. The general equations among coefficient of performance (COP), heating load and some key characteristic parameters are obtained. The general and optimal characteristics are obtained by using numerical calculations. Besides, the influences of heat capacities of heat reservoirs, internal dissipation irreversibility, and heat leakage irreversibility on cycle performance are analyzed. The conclusions can offer some guidelines for design and operation of AHP plants.

  9. Ground coupled heat-pump-system experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, P. D.

    1983-06-01

    Since October 1980, a small house in Upton, Long Island, New York has been heated and cooled by a liquid source heat pump using a shallow serpentine earth coil as a heat source/sink. After a brief introduction and system description, system performance data are presented, for the winter of 1981-82 and the summer of 1982, followed by a discussion of these results. The experimental test house is a 104 m(2) (1120 ft(2)) 3 bedroom ranch of energy saving construction with a heating load of 7.8 x 10 to the 6th power J/0C-day (4.1 x 10 to the 3rd power Btu/0F-day). The heat pump used during most of the period reported on here is a commercially available water to air unit sized to just meet the building design heating load with no auxiliary heat. The earth coil contains 155 m (507 ft) of nominal 1-1/2 in. medium density polyethylene pipe, and is approximately 25% ethylene glycol in water, is employed to permit subfreezing earth coil operation. Two independent data acquisition systems, a datalogger microcomputer system backed up by a Btu meter, monitor the space conditioning system performance.

  10. Performance evaluation of the hydronic heat pump system. Volume 1: Heating season. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S.; Stoltz, S.

    1995-01-01

    A hydronic heat pump system has been developed under EPRI sponsorship as a potential substitute for conventional residential forced-air heat pumps. The use of a hydronic thermal distribution system of circulating water to distribute the output of a residential heat pump compares favorably with other methods of distribution. To evaluate the performance of a hydronic heat pump compared to a conventional forced-air system, EPRI retained GEOMET Technologies, Inc., to test a prototype hydronic system in the controlled environment of an unoccupied research house. A prototype multizone hydronic system, developed and assembled by the Tecogen Division of Thermal Power Corporation, was tested in one of GEOMET`s two research houses during the 1992--1993 heating season and in the 1993 cooling season. The prototype hydronic system was tested to examine its efficiency and reliability. It was tested under several scenarios having different combinations of setpoints while the internal doors were either open or closed. The test data were analyzed to compare the hydronic system`s energy consumption, comfort, and efficiency to those of a conventional forced-air heat pump system. The hydronic system ran smoothly, and there were no operational problems in the heating mode, though the hydronic system required more energy than the conventional system under comparable test conditions. However, the hydronic system provided better thermal comfort than the conventional system, especially in the test mode where all the inside doors were closed. Overall energy efficiency of the hydronic system might be improved with minor modifications in the operating/control scheme; to increase low-speed compressor operation, reduce compressor cycling and circulating the water through the system only when heating or cooling is required in any of the zones. This report describes the heating-season tests of the hydronic heat pump system.

  11. Status report on survey of alternative heat pumping technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, S.

    1998-07-01

    The Department of Energy is studying alternative heat pumping technologies to identify possible cost effective alternatives to electric driven vapor compression heat pumps, air conditioners, and chillers that could help reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Over thirty different technologies are being considered including: engine driven systems, fuel cell powered systems, and alternative cycles. Results presented include theoretical efficiencies for all systems as well as measured performance of some commercial, prototype, or experimental systems. Theoretical efficiencies show that the alternative electric-driven technologies would have HSPFs between 4 and 8 Btu/Wh (1.2 to 2.3 W/W) and SEERs between 3 and 9.5 Btu/Wh (0.9 and 2.8 W/W). Gas-fired heat pump technologies have theoretical seasonal heating gCOPs from 1.1 to 1.7 and cooling gCOPs from 0.95 to 1.6 (a SEER 12 Btu/Wh electric air conditioner has a primary energy efficiency of approximately 1.4 W/W).

  12. Experimental Evaluation of High Performance Integrated Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William A; Berry, Robert; Durfee, Neal; Baxter, Van D

    2016-01-01

    Integrated heat pump (IHP) technology provides significant potential for energy savings and comfort improvement for residential buildings. In this study, we evaluate the performance of a high performance IHP that provides space heating, cooling, and water heating services. Experiments were conducted according to the ASHRAE Standard 206-2013 where 24 test conditions were identified in order to evaluate the IHP performance indices based on the airside performance. Empirical curve fits of the unit s compressor maps are used in conjunction with saturated condensing and evaporating refrigerant conditions to deduce the refrigerant mass flowrate, which, in turn was used to evaluate the refrigerant side performance as a check on the airside performance. Heat pump (compressor, fans, and controls) and water pump power were measured separately per requirements of Standard 206. The system was charged per the system manufacturer s specifications. System test results are presented for each operating mode. The overall IHP performance metrics are determined from the test results per the Standard 206 calculation procedures.

  13. 10 CFR 431.92 - Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... heat pumps. 431.92 Section 431.92 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps § 431.92 Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps. The following definitions...

  14. 10 CFR 431.92 - Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... heat pumps. 431.92 Section 431.92 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps § 431.92 Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps. The following definitions...

  15. Generator-absorber-heat exchange heat transfer apparatus and method and use thereof in a heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Benjamin A.; Zawacki, Thomas S.

    1998-07-21

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use, as the heat transfer medium, the working fluid of the absorption system taken from the generator at a location where the working fluid has a rich liquor concentration.

  16. Generator-absorber-heat exchange heat transfer apparatus and method and use thereof in a heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, B.A.; Zawacki, T.S.

    1998-07-21

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use, as the heat transfer medium, the working fluid of the absorption system taken from the generator at a location where the working fluid has a rich liquor concentration. 5 figs.

  17. Modeling of a Membrane-Based Absorption Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, J.; Pellegrino, J.; Kozubal, E.; Slayzak, S.; Burch, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a membrane heat pump is proposed and analyzed. Fundamentally, the proposed heat pump consists of an aqueous CaCl{sub 2} solution flow separated from a water flow by a vapor-permeable membrane. The low activity of the solution results in a net flux of water vapor across the membrane, which heats the solution stream and cools the water stream. This mechanism upgrades water-side low-temperature heat to solution-side high-temperature heat, creating a 'temperature lift.' The modeling results show that using two membranes and an air gap instead of a single membrane increases the temperature lift by 185%. The model predicts temperature lifts for the air-gap design of 24, 16, and 6 C for inlet temperatures of 55, 35, and 15 C, respectively. Membranes with lower thermal conductivities and higher porosities improve the performance of single-membrane designs while thinner membranes improve the performance of air-gap designs. This device can be used with a solar heating system which already uses concentrated salt solutions for liquid-desiccant cooling.

  18. An ultrasonic air pump using an acoustic traveling wave along a small air gap.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Daisuke; Wada, Yuji; Nakamura, Kentaro; Nishikawa, Masato; Nakagawa, Tatsuyuki; Kihara, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    An ultrasonic air pump that uses a traveling wave along a small air gap between a bending vibrator and a reflector is discussed. The authors investigate ultrasonic air pumps that make use of bending vibrators and reflectors and confirm that air can be induced to flow by generating an asymmetric acoustic standing wave along an air gap. In this paper, we proposed a novel ultrasonic air pump in which a traveling wave along an air gap induces acoustic streaming and achieves one-way airflow. Two new reflector configurations, stepped and tapered, were designed and used to generate traveling waves. To predict airflow generation, sound pressure distribution in the air gap was calculated by means of finite element analysis (FEA). As a preliminary step, 2 FEA models were compared: one piezoelectric-structure-acoustic model and one piezoelectric- structure-fluid model, which included the viscosity effect of the fluid. The sound pressure distribution in the air gap, including fluid viscosity, was calculated by the FEA because it is expected to be dominant and thus have a strong effect on the sound pressure field in such a thin fluid layer. Based on the FEA results of the stepped and the tapered reflectors, it was determined that acoustic traveling waves could propagate along the gaps. Experiments were carried out with the designed bending vibrator and the reflectors. The acoustic fields in the air gap were measured via a fiber optic probe, and it was determined that the sound pressure and the phase distribution tendencies corresponded well with the results computed by FEA. Through our experiments, one-way airflow generation, in the same direction of the traveling wave and with the maximum flow velocity of 5.6 cm/s, was achieved.

  19. Acoustic means of checking thermal equilibrium when heating specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Belyanin, V.A.; Maksimov, Y.F.; Nikonov, K.P.; Pautkov, N.D.

    1985-10-01

    In acoustic arrangements realizing the vibrating-disk method, various kinds of heating systems are used for heating, cooling and thermostating a specimen. However, the requirements on systems for changing and controlling temperature in objects under study are constantly increasing, so the ideal heating device must be coordinated with modern facilities for automatic temperature control, must have low inertia, and should not degrade the vacuum or contaminate the specimen. In addition, for the solution of many problems in physical metallurgy, a specimen must be heated by hundreds of degrees in a few seconds, accurately thermostated for a prolonged time, and also cooled to a tempering condition. Hightemperature systems that heat a specimen directly by infrared radiation from quartz halogen lamps have these potentials. The authors report here on their development of a high-temperature chamber with a similar heater for an acoustic arrangement, comprising a steel, water-cooled housing in which six type KG-220-1000-4 quartz halogen lamps are mounted.

  20. Heat-activated heat-pump development and potential application of Stirling-engine technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairchild, P. D.; West, C. D.

    1982-06-01

    Presented is a brief overview of the heat-activated heat pump technology development program being carried out with emphasis on the Stirling engine technology projects. The major projects are reviewed as they were formulated and carried out under the previous product development guidelines. The revised technology development focus and current status of those major hardware projects are discussed. The key issues involved in applying Stirling engine technology to heat pump equipment are assessed. The approach and planned future activities to address those issues are described. Also included are brief descriptions of two projects in this area supported by the Gas Research Institute.

  1. Solar/gas Rankine/Rankine-cycle heat pump assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalifa, H. E.; Melikian, G.

    1982-07-01

    This report contains an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of Rankine-cycle solar-augmented gas-fired heat pumps (SAGFHP) for multi-family residential and light-commercial applications. The SAGFHP design considered in this report is based on the successful UTRC turbocompressor system which has been tested both in the laboratory and in a solar cooling installation in Phoenix. AZ. An hour-by-hour modeling of present-design SAGFHP performance in multi-family and office buildings in New York, Wisconsin, Nebraska and Oregon indicated that, even without solar augmentation, primary energy savings of up 17% and 31% could be achieved relative to advanced furnace plus electric air conditioning systems and electric heat pumps, respectively.

  2. Thermoeconomic analysis of an irreversible Stirling heat pump cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucia, U.; Gervino, G.

    2006-03-01

    In this paper an analysis of the Stirling cycle in thermoeconomic terms is developed using the entropy generation. In the thermoeconomic optimization of an irreversible Stirling heat pump cycle the F function has been introduced to evaluate the optimum for the higher and lower sources temperature ratio in the cycle: this ratio represents the value which optimizes the cycle itself. The variation of the function F is proportional to the variation of the entropy generation, the maxima and minima of F has been evaluated in a previous paper without giving the physical foundation of the method. We investigate the groundwork of this approach: to study the upper and lower limits of F function allows to determine the cycle stability and the optimization conditions. The optimization consists in the best COP at the least cost. The principle of maximum variation for the entropy generation becomes the analytic foundation of the optimization method in the thermoeconomic analysis for an irreversible Stirling heat pump cycle.

  3. Loop Heat Pipes and Capillary Pumped Loops: An Applications Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Dan; Ku, Jentung; Swanson, Theodore; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Capillary pumped loops (CPLS) and loop heat pipes (LHPS) are versatile two-phase heat transfer devices which have recently gained increasing acceptance in space applications. Both systems work based on the same principles and have very similar designs. Nevertheless, some differences exist in the construction of the evaporator and the hydro-accumulator, and these differences lead to very distinct operating characteristics for each loop. This paper presents comparisons of the two loops from an applications perspective, and addresses their impact on spacecraft design, integration, and test. Some technical challenges and issues for both loops are also addressed.

  4. Ground-source heat pump case studies and utility programs

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.; Boyd, T.L.; Rogers, R.L.

    1995-04-01

    Ground-source heat pump systems are one of the promising new energy technologies that has shown rapid increase in usage over the past ten years in the United States. These systems offer substantial benefits to consumers and utilities in energy (kWh) and demand (kW) savings. The purpose of this study was to determine what existing monitored data was available mainly from electric utilities on heat pump performance, energy savings and demand reduction for residential, school and commercial building applications. In order to verify the performance, information was collected for 253 case studies from mainly utilities throughout the United States. The case studies were compiled into a database. The database was organized into general information, system information, ground system information, system performance, and additional information. Information was developed on the status of demand-side management of ground-source heat pump programs for about 60 electric utility and rural electric cooperatives on marketing, incentive programs, barriers to market penetration, number units installed in service area, and benefits.

  5. Thermal analysis of an innovative heat pump operated desalination plant

    SciTech Connect

    Site, V.D.

    1995-12-31

    Sea and brackish water desalination can contribute to solve the problem of fresh water shortage in many and regions of the world. Nowadays most of the installed desalination plants employ distillation processes, like Multistage Flash (MSF), Multi effect Distillation (MED) and Vapor Compression (VC). VC process is called Mechanical Vapor Compression (MVC) when it employs a mechanical compressor, while it is called Thermal Compression when it employs a steam-ejector compressor. In this paper a new distillation plant for the treatment of sea water for drinking water purposes is presented. The most innovative feature of this system is the use of a heat pump as part of the desalting unit. The use of the heat pump in the proposed system enables desalting water evaporation and steam condensation at the same temperature, unlike conventional VC desalting systems where a steam compression stage is necessary. A thermal analysis of the heat pump-operated desalination (HPD) plant and a comparison between the HPD and a conventional MVC plant is presented, in order to determine the main advantages and disadvantages of the new system.

  6. Replacing Resistance Heating with Mini-Split Heat Pumps, Sharon, Connecticut (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-05-01

    Mini-split heat pumps can provide space heating and cooling in many climates and are relatively affordable. These and other features make them potentially suitable for retrofitting into multifamily buildings in cold climates to replace electric resistance heating or other outmoded heating systems. This report investigates the suitability of mini-split heat pumps for multifamily retrofits. Various technical and regulatory barriers are discussed and modeling was performed to compare long-term costs of substituting mini-splits for a variety of other heating and cooling options. A number of utility programs have retrofit mini-splits in both single family and multifamily residences. Two such multifamily programs are discussed in detail.

  7. Underground Mine Water Heating and Cooling Using Geothermal Heat Pump Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Watzlaf, G.R.; Ackman, T.E.

    2006-03-01

    In many regions of the world, flooded mines are a potentially cost-effective option for heating and cooling using geothermal heat pump systems. For example, a single coal seam in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Ohio contains 5.1 x 1012 L of water. The growing volume of water discharging from this one coal seam totals 380,000 L/min, which could theoretically heat and cool 20,000 homes. Using the water stored in the mines would conservatively extend this option to an order of magnitude more sites. Based on current energy prices, geothermal heat pump systems using mine water could reduce annual costs for heating by 67% and cooling by 50% over conventional methods (natural gas or heating oil and standard air conditioning).

  8. Measurement of heat pump processes induced by laser radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garbuny, M.; Henningsen, T.

    1983-01-01

    A series of experiments was performed in which a suitably tuned CO2 laser, frequency doubled by a Tl3AsSe37 crystal, was brought into resonance with a P-line or two R-lines in the fundamental vibration spectrum of CO. Cooling or heating produced by absorption in CO was measured in a gas-thermometer arrangement. P-line cooling and R-line heating could be demonstrated, measured, and compared. The experiments were continued with CO mixed with N2 added in partial pressures from 9 to 200 Torr. It was found that an efficient collisional resonance energy transfer from CO to N2 existed which increased the cooling effects by one to two orders of magnitude over those in pure CO. Temperature reductions in the order of tens of degrees Kelvin were obtained by a single pulse in the core of the irradiated volume. These measurements followed predicted values rather closely, and it is expected that increase of pulse energies and durations will enhance the heat pump effects. The experiments confirm the feasibility of quasi-isentropic engines which convert laser power into work without the need for heat rejection. Of more immediate potential interest is the possibility of remotely powered heat pumps for cryogenic use, such applications are discussed to the extent possible at the present stage.

  9. Potential market analysis for residential solar assisted in-line heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The method of studying the performance of the solar-assisted heat pump using the FCHART 4.0 computer program is described. The solar-assisted heat pump's performance was compared to that of an air-to-air heat pump and found to be inferior. The lifetime energy requirement is expected to be greater, as is its life-cycle cost. Moreover, conventional heat pumps are available now and are more easily suited to retrofit applications. It is recommended that the solar-assisted heat pump program be terminated in favor of more identifiable significant residential energy programs. (LEW)

  10. Performance of Gas-Engine Driven Heat Pump Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Abdi Zaltash; Randy Linkous; Randall Wetherington; Patrick Geoghegan; Ed Vineyard; Isaac Mahderekal; Robert Gaylord

    2008-09-30

    Air-conditioning (cooling) for buildings is the single largest use of electricity in the United States (U.S.). This drives summer peak electric demand in much of the U.S. Improved air-conditioning technology thus has the greatest potential impact on the electric grid compared to other technologies that use electricity. Thermally-activated technologies (TAT), such as natural gas engine-driven heat pumps (GHP), can provide overall peak load reduction and electric grid relief for summer peak demand. GHP offers an attractive opportunity for commercial building owners to reduce electric demand charges and operating expenses. Engine-driven systems have several potential advantages over conventional single-speed or single-capacity electric motor-driven units. Among them are variable speed operation, high part load efficiency, high temperature waste heat recovery from the engine, and reduced annual operating costs (SCGC 1998). Although gas engine-driven systems have been in use since the 1960s, current research is resulting in better performance, lower maintenance requirements, and longer operating lifetimes. Gas engine-driven systems are typically more expensive to purchase than comparable electric motor-driven systems, but they typically cost less to operate, especially for commercial building applications. Operating cost savings for commercial applications are primarily driven by electric demand charges. GHP operating costs are dominated by fuel costs, but also include maintenance costs. The reliability of gas cooling equipment has improved in the last few years and maintenance requirements have decreased (SCGC 1998, Yahagi et al. 2006). Another advantage of the GHP over electric motor-driven is the ability to use the heat rejected from the engine during heating operation. The recovered heat can be used to supplement the vapor compression cycle during heating or to supply other process loads, such as water heating. The use of the engine waste heat results in greater

  11. Research and Development on Heat Pumps for Space Conditioning Applications: Proceedings of the DOE/ORNL Heat Pump Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, V. A.; Powell, R. H., Jr.

    1985-08-01

    This conference was planned to provide information on current activities in the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Building Equipment Research (BER) Program. It was primarily for the benefit of HVAC equipment manufacturers and other interested parties, including utilities, independent research and development organizations, universities, other government groups, and research funding and management organizations. The technical presentations were grouped into two principal subject areas: electric systems and thermally activated systems. Electric-system topics included field performance studies, laboratory experiments on cycling performance, analytical estimates of the benefits of variable capacity and zone control, nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures, ground-coupled systems, and an analysis of Stirling-cycle heat pumps. In the area of thermally activated heat pumps, presentations centered on the development of absorption systems, Stirling-engine-driven systems, and a linear, free-piston IC-engine compressor. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 27 presentations for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  12. Environmental benefits of different types of heat pumps, available and expected

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, P.J.

    1993-11-01

    A brief overview of integrated resource planning (IRP) is provided, with emphasis on how stakeholders interact within the process and where the opportunities may lie for heat pump advocates in cold climates. Five heat pump options that represent various approaches for improving heat pump cold weather performance are included here in a comparative analysis: 2-speed electric air source heat pumps, variable-speed electric air source heat pumps, electric ground-source heat pumps, natural gas engine-driven heat pumps, and natural gas absorption heat pumps. The comparative analysis addresses seasonal performance, seasonal peak demand, air pollutant emissions, customer energy costs, and recognition of environmental externalities in IRP, all in the context of a residential application in the Great Lakes region of the US. Several actions that may be in the interest of heat pump stakeholders in cold climates were identified, including: development of improved software for utility planners, advocacy of a practical form of the Societal Test for use in IRP that credits heat pumps for the residential air pollutant emissions that they avoid, and development of practical methods to credit heat pumps with other environmental benefits for which they may be responsible.

  13. Some heat pump concepts for residual heat utilization. [Absorption-cycle and open-cycle systems

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Blanco, H.; Chen, F. C.

    1980-01-01

    Large quantities of low temperature heat in the industrial sector are rejected in the cooling water, condensate, and process water streams. While the energy rejected in these streams at temperatures between 40 and 80/sup 0/C amounts to 2.95 x 10/sup 9/ GJ/y, 2.42 x 10/sup 9/ GJ/y of process energy in the form of hot water and steam are needed in the United States. Industrial heat pumps, that recover the low temperature heat energy and upgrade it to a more usable temperature level, may improve the energy supply and demand situation. Two heat activated heat pump concepts - an absorption cycle system and an open cycle system are analyzed from the conceptual systems design and energy savings point of view. The results of the analysis and further research needs are presented.

  14. Performance analysis of reciprocating regenerative magnetic heat pumping. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.T.; Murphy, R.W.; Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.; Lue, J.W.; Lubell, M.S.

    1994-02-01

    Transient flow phenomena in the regenerator tube of reciprocating magnetic heat pumps have been studied numerically and experimentally. In the numerical study, two approaches were taken: (1) solving the energy balance equations for fluid through a porous bed directly and (2) solving the Navier-Stokes equations with a buoyancy force term in the momentum equation. A flow thermal mixing problem was found in both approaches because of the piston-like motion of the regenerator tube that hinders the development of the temperature. The numerical study results show that a 45 K temperature span can be reached in 10 minutes of charge time through the use of a 7-Tesla magnetic field. Using the second numerical approach, temperature stratification in the regenerator fluid column was clearly indicated through temperature rasters. The study also calculates regenerator efficiency and energy delivery rates when heating load and cooling load are applied. Piecewise variation of the regenerator tube moving speed has been used in the present numerical study to control the mass flow rate, reduce thermal mixing of the flow and thus the regenerative losses. The gadolinium`s adiabatic temperature has been measured under 6.5 Tesla of magnet field and different of operating temperatures ranging from 285 K to 320 K. Three regenerative heat pumping tests have also been conducted based on the Reynolds number of the regenerator tube flow, namely Re=300, Re=450, and Re=750 without loads. Maximum temperature span are 12 & 11 K and 9 K for the case of Re=300, Re=450 and Re=750, respectively. Experimental data are in good agreement with the numerical calculation results, and have been used to calibrate the numerical results and to develop a design database for reciprocating-type room-temperature magnetic heat pumps.

  15. Advanced Design Heat PumpRadiator for EVA Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Passow, Christian; Phillips, Scott; Trevino, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Absorption cooling using a LiCl/water heat pump can enable lightweight and effective thermal control for EVA suits without venting water to the environment. The key components in the system are an absorber/radiator that rejects heat to space and a flexible evaporation cooling garment that absorbs heat from the crew member. This paper describes progress in the design, development, and testing of the absorber/radiator and evaporation cooling garment. New design concepts and fabrication approaches will significantly reduce the mass of the absorber/radiator. We have also identified materials and demonstrated fabrication approaches for production of a flexible evaporation cooling garment. Data from tests of the absorber/radiator s modular components have validated the design models and allowed predictions of the size and weight of a complete system.

  16. Thermal and economic assessment of ground-coupled storage for residential solar heat pump systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, M. K.; Morehouse, J. H.

    1980-11-01

    This study performed an analysis of ground-coupled stand-alone and series configured solar-assisted liquid-to-air heat pump systems for residences. The year-round thermal performance of these systems for space heating, space cooling, and water heating were determined by simulation and compared against non-ground-coupled solar heat pump systems as well as conventional heating and cooling systems in three geographic locations: Washington, D.C., Fort Worth, Tex., and Madison, Wis. The results indicate that without tax credits a combined solar/ground-coupled heat pump system for space heating and cooling is not cost competitive with conventional systems. Its thermal performance is considerably better than non-ground-coupled solar heat pumps in Forth Worth. Though the ground-coupled stand-alone heat pump provides 51% of the heating and cooling load with non-purchased energy in Forth Worth, its thermal performance in Washington and Madison is poor.

  17. Comparative evaluation of the impacts of domestic gas and electric heat pump heating on air pollution in California

    SciTech Connect

    Ganji, A. . Div. of Engineering)

    1992-07-01

    Residential space and water heating accounts for approximately 12% of California's and 15% of the United States, energy consumption. most Of the residential heating is by direct use of natural gas. combustion of natural gas is a contributor to the overall air pollution,, especially CO and NO{sub x} in the urban areas. Another efficient method for domestic water and space heating is use of electric heat pumps, the most popular category of which uses air as its heat source. Electric heat pumps do not emit air pollutants at the point of use, but use electric power, which is a major contributor to air pollution at its point of generation from fossil fuels. It is the specific objective of this report to evaluate and compare the energy efficiency and source air pollutants of natural gas heaters and electric heat pumps used for domestic heating. Effect of replacing natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps on air pollutant emissions due to domestic heating in two urban areas and in California as a whole has also been evaluated. The analysis shows that with the present state of technology, electric heat pumps have higher heating efficiencies than natural gas heaters. Considering the current electricity generation mix in the US, electric heat pumps produce two to four times more NO{sub x}, much less CO, and comparable amount of CO{sub 2} per unit of useful heating energy compared to natural gas heaters. With California mix, electric heat pumps produce comparable NO{sub x} and much less CO and approximately 30% less CO{sub 2} per unit heat output. Replacement of natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps will slightly increase the overall NO{sub x}, and reduce CO and CO{sub 2} emissions in California. The effect of advanced technology power generation and heat pump heating has also been analyzed.

  18. Comparative evaluation of the impacts of domestic gas and electric heat pump heating on air pollution in California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ganji, A.

    1992-07-01

    Residential space and water heating accounts for approximately 12% of California`s and 15% of the United States, energy consumption. most Of the residential heating is by direct use of natural gas. combustion of natural gas is a contributor to the overall air pollution,, especially CO and NO{sub x} in the urban areas. Another efficient method for domestic water and space heating is use of electric heat pumps, the most popular category of which uses air as its heat source. Electric heat pumps do not emit air pollutants at the point of use, but use electric power, which is a major contributor to air pollution at its point of generation from fossil fuels. It is the specific objective of this report to evaluate and compare the energy efficiency and source air pollutants of natural gas heaters and electric heat pumps used for domestic heating. Effect of replacing natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps on air pollutant emissions due to domestic heating in two urban areas and in California as a whole has also been evaluated. The analysis shows that with the present state of technology, electric heat pumps have higher heating efficiencies than natural gas heaters. Considering the current electricity generation mix in the US, electric heat pumps produce two to four times more NO{sub x}, much less CO, and comparable amount of CO{sub 2} per unit of useful heating energy compared to natural gas heaters. With California mix, electric heat pumps produce comparable NO{sub x} and much less CO and approximately 30% less CO{sub 2} per unit heat output. Replacement of natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps will slightly increase the overall NO{sub x}, and reduce CO and CO{sub 2} emissions in California. The effect of advanced technology power generation and heat pump heating has also been analyzed.

  19. Recovery Act: Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumps and Ground Source Water Loops

    SciTech Connect

    Jarrell, Mark

    2013-09-30

    Cedarville School District retrofitted the heating and cooling systems in three campus areas (High School, Middle School, and Upper Elementary School) with geothermal heat pumps and ground source water loops, as a demonstration project for the effective implementation of geothermal heat pump systems and other energy efficiency and air quality improvements.

  20. Heat recovery from waste water by energy-saving heat pump systems in connection with water treatment plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedmann, U.; Flohrschuetz, R.

    1980-04-01

    The advantages of waste water recovery as an energy source were investigated. It was found that heat pump systems reach the highest performance coefficients and their primary energy ratios are competitive with conventional heating systems. It is concluded that the utilization of waste water treatment plants by large heat pump systems provides a considerable annual energy saving of light oil.

  1. Microfluidic pumping through miniaturized channels driven by ultra-high frequency surface acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Shilton, Richie J.; Travagliati, Marco; Beltram, Fabio; Cecchini, Marco

    2014-08-18

    Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) are an effective means to pump fluids through microchannel arrays within fully portable systems. The SAW-driven acoustic counterflow pumping process relies on a cascade phenomenon consisting of SAW transmission through the microchannel, SAW-driven fluid atomization, and subsequent coalescence. Here, we investigate miniaturization of device design, and study both SAW transmission through microchannels and the onset of SAW-driven atomization up to the ultra-high-frequency regime. Within the frequency range from 47.8 MHz to 754 MHz, we show that the acoustic power required to initiate SAW atomization remains constant, while transmission through microchannels is most effective when the channel widths w ≳ 10 λ, where λ is the SAW wavelength. By exploiting the enhanced SAW transmission through narrower channels at ultra-high frequencies, we discuss the relevant frequency-dependent length scales and demonstrate the scaling down of internal flow patterns and discuss their impact on device miniaturization strategies.

  2. Uncooled two-stroke gas engine for heat pump drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badgley, Patrick; McNulty, Dave; Woods, Melvin

    This paper describes the design and analysis of a family of natural gas fueled, uncooled, two-stroke, lean burn, thermal-ignition engines. The engines were designed specifically to meet the requirements dictated by the commercial heat pump application. The engines have a power output ranging from 15 to 100 kW; a thermal efficiency of 36 percent; a mean time between failure greater than 3 years; and a life expectancy of 45,000 hours. To meet these specifications a family of very simple, uncooled, two-stroke cycle engines were designed which have no belts, gears or pumps. The engines utilize crankcase scavenging, lubrication, stratified fuel introduction to prevent raw fuel from escaping with the exhaust gas, and use of ceramic rolling contact bearings. The Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) is used for ignition to enable the engines to operate with a lean mixture and eliminate spark plug erosion.

  3. Uncooled two-stroke gas engine for heat pump drive

    SciTech Connect

    Badgley, P.; McNulty, D.; Woods, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the design and analysis of a family of natural gas fueled, uncooled, two-stroke, lean burn, thermal-ignition engines. The engines were designed specifically to meet the requirements dictated by the commercial heat pump application. The engines have a power output ranging from 15 to 100 kW; a thermal efficiency of 36 percent; a mean time between failure greater than 3 years; and a life expectancy of 45,000 hours. To meet these specifications a family of very simple, uncooled, two-stroke cycle engines were designed which have no belts, gears or pumps. The engines utilize crankcase scavenging, lubrication, stratified fuel introduction to prevent raw fuel from escaping with the exhaust gas, use of and ceramic rolling contact bearings. The Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) is used for ignition to enable the engines to operate with a lean mixture and eliminate spark plug erosion. 4 refs., 16 figs.

  4. Impact of Installation Faults on Heat Pump Performance

    DOE PAGES

    Hourahan, Glenn; Baxter, Van D.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies and surveys indicate that typically-installed HVAC equipment operate inefficiently and waste considerable energy due to varied installation errors (faults) such as improper refrigerant charge, incorrect airflow, oversized equipment, and leaky ducts. This article summarizes the results of a large United States (U.S.) experimental/analytical study (U.S. contribution to IEA HPP Annex 36) of the impact that different faults have on the performance of an air-source heat pump (ASHP) in a typical U.S. single-family house. It combines building effects, equipment effects, and climate effects in an evaluation of the faults impact on seasonal energy consumption through simulations of the house/ASHPmore » pump system.« less

  5. Impact of Installation Faults on Heat Pump Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Hourahan, Glenn; Baxter, Van D.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies and surveys indicate that typically-installed HVAC equipment operate inefficiently and waste considerable energy due to varied installation errors (faults) such as improper refrigerant charge, incorrect airflow, oversized equipment, and leaky ducts. This article summarizes the results of a large United States (U.S.) experimental/analytical study (U.S. contribution to IEA HPP Annex 36) of the impact that different faults have on the performance of an air-source heat pump (ASHP) in a typical U.S. single-family house. It combines building effects, equipment effects, and climate effects in an evaluation of the faults impact on seasonal energy consumption through simulations of the house/ASHP pump system.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH PERFORMANCE COLD CLIMATE HEAT PUMP

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, W. Travis; Groll, Eckhard A.; Braun, James E.

    2014-06-01

    The primary goals of the proposed project were to develop, test, and evaluate a high performance and cost-effective vapor compression air-source heat pump for use in cold climate regions. Vapor compression heat pumps are a proven technology, and have been used for many years to meet heating requirements for buildings in residential, commercial, and industrial applications. However, in climate regions that experience very low outdoor ambient temperatures both the heating capacity and coefficient of performance (COP) of traditional air-source vapor compression heat pumps drops dramatically with a decrease in the outdoor air temperature. The efficiency of heat pumping equipment has improved substantially over the past 20 years; however, the efficiencies of the highest rated equipment on the market are approaching practical limits that cannot be surpassed without modifications to the basic cycle and possibly the use of additional hardware. In this report, three technologies to improve the efficiency of vapor compression systems are described. These are a) vapor injected compression, b) oil flooded compression and c) hybrid flow control of the evaporator. Compressor prototypes for both, oil flooded and vapor injected compression were developed by Emerson Climate Technologies. For the oil flooded compressor, the oil injection port location was optimized and an internal oil separator was added using several design iterations. After initial testing at Emerson Climate Technologies, further testing was done at Purdue University, and compressor models were developed. These models were then integrated into a system model to determine the achievable improvement of seasonal energy efficiency (SEER) for Minneapolis (Minnesota) climate. For the oil flooded compression, a 34% improvement in seasonal energy efficiency was found while a 21% improvement in seasonal energy efficiency ratio was found for the vapor injected compression. It was found that one benefit of both tested

  7. National Certification Standard for Ground Source Heat Pump Personnel

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, John

    2013-07-31

    The National Certification Standard for the Geothermal Heat Pump Industry adds to the understanding of the barriers to rapid growth of the geothermal heat pump (GHP) industry by bringing together for the first time an analysis of the roles and responsibilities of each of the individual job tasks involved in the design and installation of GHP systems. The standard addresses applicable qualifications for all primary personnel involved in the design, installation, commissioning, operation and maintenance of GHP systems, including their knowledge, skills and abilities. The resulting standard serves as a foundation for subsequent development of curriculum, training and certification programs, which are not included in the scope of this project, but are briefly addressed in the standard to describe ways in which the standard developed in this project may form a foundation to support further progress in accomplishing those other efforts. Follow-on efforts may use the standard developed in this project to improve the technical effectiveness and economic feasibility of curriculum development and training programs for GHP industry personnel, by providing a more complete and objective assessment of the individual job tasks necessary for successful implementation of GHP systems. When incorporated into future certification programs for GHP personnel, the standard will facilitate increased consumer confidence in GHP technology, reduce the potential for improperly installed GHP systems, and assure GHP system quality and performance, all of which benefit the public through improved energy efficiency and mitigated environmental impacts of the heating and cooling of homes and businesses.

  8. Demand Response Performance of GE Hybrid Heat Pump Water Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-07-01

    This report describes a project to evaluate and document the DR performance of HPWH as compared to ERWH for two primary types of DR events: peak curtailments and balancing reserves. The experiments were conducted with GE second-generation “Brillion”-enabled GeoSpring hybrid water heaters in the PNNL Lab Homes, with one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Standard” electric resistance mode to represent the baseline and one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Heat Pump” mode to provide the comparison to heat pump-only demand response. It is expected that “Hybrid” DR performance, which would engage both the heat pump and electric elements, could be interpolated from these two experimental extremes. Signals were sent simultaneously to the two water heaters in the side-by-side PNNL Lab Homes under highly controlled, simulated occupancy conditions. This report presents the results of the evaluation, which documents the demand-response capability of the GE GeoSpring HPWH for peak load reduction and regulation services. The sections describe the experimental protocol and test apparatus used to collect data, present the baselining procedure, discuss the results of the simulated DR events for the HPWH and ERWH, and synthesize key conclusions based on the collected data.

  9. Human Health Science Building Geothermal Heat Pump Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Leidel, James

    2014-12-22

    The grant objectives of the DOE grant funded project have been successfully completed. The Human Health Building (HHB) was constructed and opened for occupancy for the Fall 2012 semester of Oakland University. As with any large construction project, some issues arose which all were overcome to deliver the project on budget and on time. The facility design is a geothermal / solar-thermal hybrid building utilizing both desiccant dehumidification and variable refrigerant flow heat pumps. It is a cooling dominant building with a 400 ton cooling design day load, and 150 ton heating load on a design day. A 256 vertical borehole (320 ft depth) ground source heat pump array is located south of the building under the existing parking lot. The temperature swing and performance over 2013 through 2015 shows the ground loop is well sized, and may even have excess capacity for a future building to the north (planned lab facility). The HHB achieve a US Green Building Counsel LEED Platinum rating by collecting 52 of the total 69 available LEED points for the New Construction v.2 scoring checklist. Being Oakland's first geothermal project, we were very pleased with the building outcome and performance with the energy consumption approximately 1/2 of the campus average facility, on a square foot basis.

  10. Exergetic and economic optimization of a heat pump cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Benelmir, R.; Lallemand, M.; Lallemand, A.; Spakovsky, M. von

    1997-09-01

    A decentralized optimization method for the thermoeconomic design of vapor-compression cycles has been developed, where a primary component costing equation has been introduced. This method called Engineering Functional Analysis (EFA) facilitates the optimum design of large engineering systems in particular but also works well with smaller systems, allowing the optimization of each component by itself without significantly sacrificing the overall system optimum. In this paper, it is shown how EFA can be used in the thermoeconomic design of a vapor mechanical compression heat pump.

  11. Exergetic and economic optimization of a heat pump cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Benelmir, R.; Lallemand, M.; Lallemand, A.; Spakovsky, M. von

    1996-12-31

    A decentralized optimization method for the thermoeconomic design of vapor-compression cycles has been developed, where a primary component costing equation has been introduced. This method called Engineering Functional Analysis (EFA) facilitates the optimum design of large engineering systems in particular, but also works well with smaller systems, allowing the optimization of each component by itself without significantly sacrificing the overall system optimum. In this paper it is shown how EFA can be used in the thermoeconomic design of a vapor mechanical compression heat pump.

  12. North Village Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Redderson, Jeff

    2015-08-03

    This project demonstrated the feasibility of converting from a traditional direct exchange system to a ground source heat pump system on a large scale, multiple building apartment complex on a university campus. A total of ten apartment buildings were converted using vertical well fields and a ground source loop that connected the 24 apartments in each building into a common system. The system has yielded significant operational savings in both energy and maintenance and transformed the living environments of these residential buildings for our students.

  13. Outdoor unit construction for an electric heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Draper, Robert; Lackey, Robert S.

    1984-01-01

    The outdoor unit for an electric heat pump is provided with an upper portion 10 containing propeller fan means 14 for drawing air through the lower portion 12 containing refrigerant coil means 16 in the form of four discrete coils connected together in a subassembly forming a W shape, the unit being provided with four adjustable legs 64 which are retracted in shipment, and are adjusted on site to elevate the unit to a particular height suitable for the particular location in which the unit is installed.

  14. Outdoor unit construction for an electric heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Draper, R.; Lackey, R.S.

    1984-09-11

    The outdoor unit for an electric heat pump is provided with an upper portion containing propeller fan means for drawing air through the lower portion containing refrigerant coil means in the form of four discrete coils connected together in a subassembly forming a W shape, the unit being provided with four adjustable legs which are retracted in shipment, and are adjusted on site to elevate the unit to a particular height suitable for the particular location in which the unit is installed. 4 figs.

  15. Design and evaluation of a primary/secondary pumping system for a heat pump assisted solar thermal loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krockenberger, Kyle G.

    A heat pump assisted solar thermal system was designed, commissioned, tested and analyzed over a period of two years. The unique system uses solar energy whenever it is available, but switches to heat pump mode at night or whenever there is a lack of solar energy. The solar thermal energy is added by a variety of flat plat solar collectors and an evacuated tube heat pipe solar collector. The working medium in the entire system is a 50% mixture of propylene glycol and water for freeze protection. During the design and evaluation the primary / secondary pumping system was the focus of the evaluation. Testing within this research focused on the operation modes, pump stability, and system efficiency. It was found that the system was in full operation, the pumps were stable and that the efficiency factor of the system was 1.95.

  16. Geodesic acoustic mode in anisotropic plasma with heat flux

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Haijun

    2015-10-15

    Geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) in an anisotropic tokamak plasma is investigated in fluid approximation. The collisionless anisotropic plasma is described within the 16-momentum magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluid closure model, which takes into account not only the pressure anisotropy but also the anisotropic heat flux. It is shown that the GAM frequency agrees better with the kinetic result than the standard Chew-Goldberger-Low (CGL) MHD model. When zeroing the anisotropy, the 16-momentum result is identical with the kinetic one to the order of 1/q{sup 2}, while the CGL result agrees with the kinetic result only on the leading order. The discrepancies between the results of the CGL fluid model and the kinetic theory are well removed by considering the heat flux effect in the fluid approximation.

  17. Characterization of a mini-channel heat exchanger for a heat pump system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arteconi, A.; Giuliani, G.; Tartuferi, M.; Polonara, F.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper a mini-channel aluminum heat exchanger used in a reversible heat pump is presented. Mini-channel finned heat exchangers are getting more and more interest for refrigeration systems, especially when compactness and low refrigerant charge are desired. Purpose of this paper was to characterize the mini-channel heat exchanger used as evaporator in terms of heat transfer performance and to study the refrigerant distribution in the manifold. The heat exchanger characterization was performed experimentally by means of a test rig built up for this purpose. It is composed of an air-to-air heat pump, air channels for the external and internal air circulation arranged in a closed loop, measurement sensors and an acquisition system. The overall heat transfer capacity was assessed. Moreover, in order to characterize the flow field of the refrigerant in the manifold of the heat exchanger, a numerical investigation of the fluid flow by means of CFD was performed. It was meant to evaluate the goodness of the present design and to identify possible solutions for the future improvement of the manifold design.

  18. Development of an Air-Source Heat Pump Integrated with a Water Heating / Dehumidification Module

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, C Keith; Uselton, Robert B.; Shen, Bo; Baxter, Van D; Shrestha, Som S

    2014-01-01

    A residential-sized dual air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) concept is under development in partnership between ORNL and a manufacturer. The concept design consists of a two-stage air-source heat pump (ASHP) coupled on the air distribution side with a separate novel water heating/dehumidification (WH/DH) module. The motivation for this unusual equipment combination is the forecast trend for home sensible loads to be reduced more than latent loads. Integration of water heating with a space dehumidification cycle addresses humidity control while performing double-duty. This approach can be applied to retrofit/upgrade applications as well as new construction. A WH/DH module capable of ~1.47 L/h water removal and ~2 kW water heating capacity was assembled by the manufacturer. A heat pump system model was used to guide the controls design; lab testing was conducted and used to calibrate the models. Performance maps were generated and used in a TRNSYS sub-hourly simulation to predict annual performance in a well-insulated house. Annual HVAC/WH energy savings of ~35% are predicted in cold and hot-humid U.S. climates compared to a minimum efficiency baseline.

  19. Microfluidic pumps employing surface acoustic waves generated in ZnO thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Du, X. Y.; Flewitt, A. J.; Milne, W. I.; Fu, Y. Q.; Luo, J. K.

    2009-01-15

    ZnO thin film based surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices have been utilized to fabricate microfluidic pumps. The SAW devices were fabricated on nanocrystalline ZnO piezoelectric thin films deposited on Si substrates using rf magnetron sputtering and use a Sezawa wave mode for effective droplet motion. The as-deposited ZnO surface is hydrophilic, with a water contact angle of {approx}75 deg., which prevents droplet pumping. Therefore, the ZnO surface was coated using a self-assembled monolayer of octadecyltrichlorosilane which forms a hydrophobic surface with a water contact angle of {approx}110 deg. Liquid droplets between 0.5 and 1 {mu}l in volume were successfully pumped on the hydrophobic ZnO surface at velocities up to 1 cm s{sup -1}. Under acoustic pressure, the water droplet on an hydrophilic surface becomes deformed, and the asymmetry in the contact angle at the trailing and leading edges allow the force acting upon the droplet to be calculated. These forces, which increase with input voltage above a threshold level, are found to be in the range of {approx}100 {mu}N. A pulsed rf signal has also been used to demonstrate precision manipulation of the liquid droplets. Furthermore, a SAW device structure is demonstrated in which the ZnO piezoelectric only exists under the input and output transducers. This structure still permits pumping, while avoiding direct contact between the piezoelectric material and the fluid. This is of particular importance for biological laboratory-on-a-chip applications.

  20. Dynamic Performance of a Residential Air-to-Air Heat Pump.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, George E.; Bean, John

    This publication is a study of the dynamic performance of a 5-ton air-to-air heat pump in a residence in Washington, D.C. The effect of part-load operation on the heat pump's cooling and heating coefficients of performance was determined. Discrepancies between measured performance and manufacturer-supplied performance data were found when the unit…

  1. Geothermal heat pump system assisted by geothermal hot spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, M.; Koizumi, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The authors propose a hybrid geothermal heat pump system that could cool buildings in summer and melt snow on the pedestrian sidewalks in winter, utilizing cold mine water and hot spring water. In the proposed system, mine water would be used as cold thermal energy storage, and the heat from the hot spring after its commercial use would be used to melt snow for a certain section of sidewalks. Neither of these sources is viable for direct use application of geothermal resources, however, they become contributing energy factors without producing any greenhouse gases. To assess the feasibility of the proposed system, a series of temperature measurements in the Edgar Mine (Colorado School of Mines' experimental mine) in Idaho Springs, Colorado, were first conducted, and heat/mass transfer analyses of geothermal hot spring water was carried out. The result of the temperature measurements proved that the temperature of Edgar Mine would be low enough to store cold groundwater for use in summer. The heat loss of the hot spring water during its transportation was also calculated, and the heat requirement for snow melt was compared with the heat available from the hot spring water. It was concluded that the heat supply in the proposed usage of hot spring water was insufficient to melt the snow for the entire area that was initially proposed. This feasibility study should serve as an example of "local consumption of locally available energy". If communities start harnessing economically viable local energy in a responsible manner, there will be a foundation upon which to build a sustainable community.

  2. COMPARATIVE STUDY AMONG HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM, COMPLETE GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP AND CONVENTIONAL HVAC SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Zhu; Yong X. Tao

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, a hotel with hybrid geothermal heat pump system (HyGSHP) in the Pensacola is selected and simulated by the transient simulation software package TRNSYS [1]. To verify the simulation results, the validations are conducted by using the monthly average entering water temperature, monthly facility consumption data, and etc. And three types of HVAC systems are compared based on the same building model and HVAC system capacity. The results are presented to show the advantages and disadvantages of HyGSHP compared with the other two systems in terms of energy consumptions, life cycle cost analysis.

  3. Utilization of Heat Pump Water Heaters for Load Management

    SciTech Connect

    Boudreaux, Philip R; Jackson, Roderick K; Munk, Jeffrey D; Gehl, Anthony C; Lyne, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    The Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters require residential electric storage water heaters with volumes larger than 55 gallons to have an energy factor greater than 2.0 after April 2015. While this standard will significantly increase the energy efficiency of water heaters, large electric storage water heaters that do not use heat pump technologies may no longer be available. Since utilities utilize conventional large-volume electric storage water heaters for thermal storage in demand response programs, there is a concern that the amended standard will significantly limit demand response capacity. To this end, Oak Ridge National Laboratory partnered with the Tennessee Valley Authority to investigate the load management capability of heat pump water heaters that meet or exceed the forthcoming water heater standard. Energy consumption reduction during peak periods was successfully demonstrated, while still meeting other performance criteria. However, to minimize energy consumption, it is important to design load management strategies that consider the home s hourly hot water demand so that the homeowner has sufficient hot water.

  4. The ORNL Modulating Heat Pump Design Tool -- Mark IV User's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, C.K.

    2001-09-27

    The ORNL Modulating Heat Pump Design Tool consists of a Modulating HPDM (Heat Pump Design Model) and a parametric-analysis (contour-data generating) front-end. Collectively the program is also referred to as MODCON which is in reference to the modulating and the contour data generating capabilities. The program was developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Department of Energy to provide a publicly-available system design tool for variable- and single-speed heat pumps.

  5. Solar heating and cooling with the CaCl2-CH3OH chemical heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offenhartz, P. O.

    1982-03-01

    A chemical heat pump based on the reaction of calcium chloride and methanol is being designed and optimized for solar heating and air conditioning, primarily for the residential and light commercial market. The performance requirements for this application are quite stringent. For example, to minimize maintenance, a cooling tower should not be used, and the solar collectors should be fixed rooftop flat plates or evacuated tubes. The chiller should be capable of reaching 45 F on a 95 F day in order to provide effective dehumidification. Energy storage for late afternoon and early evening cooling, as well as night time winter heating, must be provided.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF COLD CLIMATE HEAT PUMP USING TWO-STAGE COMPRESSION

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo; Rice, C Keith; Abdelaziz, Omar; Shrestha, Som S

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses a well-regarded, hardware based heat pump system model to investigate a two-stage economizing cycle for cold climate heat pump applications. The two-stage compression cycle has two variable-speed compressors. The high stage compressor was modelled using a compressor map, and the low stage compressor was experimentally studied using calorimeter testing. A single-stage heat pump system was modelled as the baseline. The system performance predictions are compared between the two-stage and single-stage systems. Special considerations for designing a cold climate heat pump are addressed at both the system and component levels.

  7. Heat exchanger sizing for vertical closed-loop ground-source heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Cane, R.L.D.; Clemes, S.B.; Morrison, A.; Hughes, P.J.

    1995-12-31

    A building energy simulation program has been used in conjunction with a ground heat exchanger sizing algorithm to develop general guidelines on how to size vertical ground heat exchangers for closed-loop ground-source heat pump systems in large buildings. The analysis considered three commercial building types of varying size with different internal loads and heat pump efficiencies. Each building variation was simulated in seven cities, three in the US and four in Canada. The ground heat exchanger sizing algorithm has been previously validated against actual system data. The analysis results showed a strong correlation between heat exchanger length required and annual energy rejected to the ground, if the building was cooling-dominated, or annual energy extracted from the ground, if the building was heating-dominated. The resulting sizing guidelines recommend hour-by-hour energy analysis to determine the energy extracted from and rejected to the building water loop. Using this information the designer will have available easy-to-use, accurate sizing guidelines that should result in more economical installations than those based on previous ``rule of thumb`` guidelines.

  8. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.

    2013-08-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring(tm), A.O. Smith Voltex(r), and Stiebel Eltron Accelera(r)300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  9. Metal hydride heat pump engineering demonstration and evaluation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, Franklin E.

    1993-01-01

    Future generations of portable life support systems (PLSS's) for space suites (extravehicular mobility units or EMU's) may require regenerable nonventing thermal sinks (RNTS's). For purposes of mobility, a PLSS must be as light and compact as possible. Previous venting PLSS's have employed water sublimators to reject metabolic and equipment heat from EMU's. It is desirable for long-duration future space missions to minimize the use of water and other consumables that need to be periodically resupplied. The emission of water vapor also interferes with some types of instrumentation that might be used in future space exploration. The test article is a type of RNTS based on a metal hydride heat pump (MHHP). The task of reservicing EMU's after use must be made less demanding in terms of time, procedures, and equipment. The capability for quick turnaround post-EVA servicing (30 minutes) is a challenging requirement for many of the RNTS options. The MHHP is a very simple option that can be regenerated in the airlock within the 30 minute limit by the application of a heating source and a cooling sink. In addition, advanced PLSS's must provide a greater degree of automatic control, relieving astronauts of the need to manually adjust temperatures in their liquid cooled ventilation garments (LCVG's). The MHHP includes automatic coolant controls with the ability to follow thermal load swings from minimum to maximum in seconds. The MHHP includes a coolant loop subsystem with pump and controls, regeneration equipment for post-EVA servicing, and a PC-based data acquisition and control system (DACS).

  10. A Liquid-Liquid Thermoelectric Heat Exchanger as a Heat Pump for Testing Phase Change Material Heat Exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheth, Rubik B.; Makinen, Janice; Le, Hung V.

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective of the Phase Change HX payload on the International Space Station (ISS) is to test and demonstrate the viability and performance of Phase Change Material Heat Exchangers (PCM HX). The system was required to pump a working fluid through a PCM HX to promote the phase change material to freeze and thaw as expected on Orion's Multipurpose Crew Vehicle. Due to limitations on ISS's Internal Thermal Control System, a heat pump was needed on the Phase Change HX payload to help with reducing the working fluid's temperature to below 0degC (32degF). This paper will review the design and development of a TEC based liquid-liquid heat exchanger as a way to vary to fluid temperature for the freeze and thaw phase of the PCM HX. Specifically, the paper will review the design of custom coldplates and sizing for the required heat removal of the HX.

  11. Ground Source Heat Pump Sub-Slab Heat Exchange Loop Performance in a Cold Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Mittereder, Nick; Poerschke, Andrew

    2013-11-01

    This report presents a cold-climate project that examines an alternative approach to ground source heat pump (GSHP) ground loop design. The innovative ground loop design is an attempt to reduce the installed cost of the ground loop heat exchange portion of the system by containing the entire ground loop within the excavated location beneath the basement slab. Prior to the installation and operation of the sub-slab heat exchanger, energy modeling using TRNSYS software and concurrent design efforts were performed to determine the size and orientation of the system. One key parameter in the design is the installation of the GSHP in a low-load home, which considerably reduces the needed capacity of the ground loop heat exchanger. This report analyzes data from two cooling seasons and one heating season.

  12. Ground Source Integrated Heat Pump (GS-IHP) Development

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, V. D.; Rice, K.; Murphy, R.; Munk, J.; Ally, Moonis; Shen, Bo; Craddick, William; Hearn, Shawn A.

    2013-05-24

    Between October 2008 and May 2013 ORNL and ClimateMaster, Inc. (CM) engaged in a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop a groundsource integrated heat pump (GS-IHP) system for the US residential market. A initial prototype was designed and fabricated, lab-tested, and modeled in TRNSYS (SOLAR Energy Laboratory, et al, 2010) to predict annual performance relative to 1) a baseline suite of equipment meeting minimum efficiency standards in effect in 2006 (combination of air-source heat pump (ASHP) and resistance water heater) and 2) a state-of-the-art (SOA) two-capacity ground-source heat pump with desuperheater water heater (WH) option (GSHPwDS). Predicted total annual energy savings, while providing space conditioning and water heating for a 2600 ft{sup 2} (242 m{sup 2}) house at 5 U.S. locations, ranged from 52 to 59%, averaging 55%, relative to the minimum efficiency suite. Predicted energy use for water heating was reduced 68 to 78% relative to resistance WH. Predicted total annual savings for the GSHPwDS relative to the same baseline averaged 22.6% with water heating energy use reduced by 10 to 30% from desuperheater contributions. The 1st generation (or alpha) prototype design for the GS-IHP was finalized in 2010 and field test samples were fabricated for testing by CM and by ORNL. Two of the alpha units were installed in 3700 ft{sup 2} (345 m{sup 2}) houses at the ZEBRAlliance site in Oak Ridge and field tested during 2011. Based on the steady-state performance demonstrated by the GS-IHPs it was projected that it would achieve >52% energy savings relative to the minimum efficiency suite at this specific site. A number of operational issues with the alpha units were identified indicating design changes needed to the system before market introduction could be accomplished. These were communicated to CM throughout the field test period. Based on the alpha unit test results and the diagnostic information coming from the field test

  13. Development of an Ionic-Liquid Absorption Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Don

    2011-03-29

    Solar Fueled Products (SFP) is developing an innovative ionic-liquid absorption heat pump (ILAHP). The development of an ILAHP is extremely significant, as it could result in annual savings of more than 190 billion kW h of electrical energy and $19 billion. This absorption cooler uses about 75 percent less electricity than conventional cooling and heating units. The ILAHP also has significant environmental sustainability benefits, due to reduced CO2 emissions. Phase I established the feasibility and showed the economic viability of an ILAHP with these key accomplishments: • Used the breakthrough capabilities provided by ionic liquids which overcome the key difficulties of the common absorption coolers. • Showed that the theoretical thermodynamic performance of an ILAHP is similar to existing absorption-cooling systems. • Established that the half-effect absorption cycle reduces the peak generator temperature, improving collector efficiency and reducing collector area. • Component testing demonstrated that the most critical components, absorber and generator, operate well with conventional heat exchangers. • Showed the economic viability of an ILAHP. The significant energy savings, sustainability benefits, and economic viability are compelling reasons to continue the ILAHP development.

  14. Numerical analysis of heat exchange processes for the ground source heat pump system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, H.; Muto, H.; Moritani, S.; Kohgo, Y.; Hamamoto, S.; Takemura, T.; Ohnishi, J.; Komatsu, T.

    2012-12-01

    Ground source heat pump systems (GSHP) use ground or groundwater as a heat source. They can achieve much higher coefficient of performance (COP) than conventional air source heat pump systems because the temperature of the ground is much more stable than that of the air. Heat energy in the ground is then viewed as one of the renewable energy sources. GSHP has been receiving great interests among countries in North America and Western Europe, as well as some developed countries in Asia because it can potentially reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission. While GSHP can inject heat from the buildings to the ground for cooling during the summer, it can pump heat stored in the ground for heating during the winter. As some physical, chemical, and biological properties of the ground and groundwater are temperature dependent, running GSHP can eventually affect groundwater quality. The main objective of this project was to develop a model that allows predicting not only ground and groundwater temperatures but also changes in physical, chemical, and biological properties of ground and groundwater with GSHP under operations. This particular study aims at simulating heat exchange and transfer processes in the ground for a vertical-loop closed GSHP system. In the closed GSHP system, an anti-freezing solution is circulated inside the closed-loop tube, called U-tube, that is buried in the ground. Heat is then transferred to the anti-freezing solution in the U-tube by a heat exchanger. In this study we used HYDRUS to predict temperature of the anti-freezing solution, as well as that of the ground. HYDRUS allows one to simulate variably-saturated water flow and solute and heat transport in porous media numerically in two- and three-dimensional domains with great flexibility in defining boundary conditions. At first changes in anti-freezing solution temperatures measured were predicted in response to Thermal Response Test (TRT) conducted at our study site. Then, heat

  15. Possibilities of Heat Pump Integration for the Renovation of Dwelling Houses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinaitis, Vytautas; Siupsinskas, Giedrius

    2011-01-01

    The technical solutions for the installation of heat pumps in individual houses are well known, but its integration in the existing systems in dwelling houses is not common. Heat pump technology is referred to as renewable but would have technical, economic and environmental impact on the whole existing heat supply system in a dwelling house. The aim of this article is to investigate the possibility of using heat pumps for supplying heat to the existing residential buildings. This article examines the possibilities to supplement the engineering systems with additional heat pumps. The smallest heat pump end-user group is the dwelling stairwell. The possibility to use heat pumps in a separate apartment has not been analysed. This article analyses the integration of heat pumps for residential heat supply in the building. The primary heat source is the exhaust air or wastewater. All calculations have been made for several real existing dwelling houses in Birštonas town (Lithuania) within the framework of the CONCERTO Eco-Life project. The analysis also provides economic and environmental assessment of the alternatives. This research was supported by EC FP7 CONCERTO program ("Sustainable Zero Carbon ECO-Town Developments Improving Quality of Life across EU - ECO-Life" (ECO-Life Project) Contract No. TREN/FP7EN/239497/"ECOLIFE").

  16. Heat Pump Drying of Fruits and Vegetables: Principles and Potentials for Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Fayose, Folasayo; Huan, Zhongjie

    2016-01-01

    Heat pump technology has been used for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning in domestic and industrial sectors in most developed countries of the world including South Africa. However, heat pump drying (HPD) of fruits and vegetables has been largely unexploited in South Africa and by extension to the sub-Saharan African region. Although studies on heat pump drying started in South Africa several years ago, not much progress has been recorded to date. Many potential users view heat pump drying technology as fragile, slow, and high capital intensive when compared with conventional dryer. This paper tried to divulge the principles and potentials of heat pump drying technology and the conditions for its optimum use. Also, various methods of quantifying performances during heat pump drying as well as the quality of the dried products are highlighted. Necessary factors for maximizing the capacity and efficiency of a heat pump dryer were identified. Finally, the erroneous view that heat pump drying is not feasible economically in sub-Saharan Africa was clarified.

  17. Heat Pump Drying of Fruits and Vegetables: Principles and Potentials for Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Fayose, Folasayo; Huan, Zhongjie

    2016-01-01

    Heat pump technology has been used for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning in domestic and industrial sectors in most developed countries of the world including South Africa. However, heat pump drying (HPD) of fruits and vegetables has been largely unexploited in South Africa and by extension to the sub-Saharan African region. Although studies on heat pump drying started in South Africa several years ago, not much progress has been recorded to date. Many potential users view heat pump drying technology as fragile, slow, and high capital intensive when compared with conventional dryer. This paper tried to divulge the principles and potentials of heat pump drying technology and the conditions for its optimum use. Also, various methods of quantifying performances during heat pump drying as well as the quality of the dried products are highlighted. Necessary factors for maximizing the capacity and efficiency of a heat pump dryer were identified. Finally, the erroneous view that heat pump drying is not feasible economically in sub-Saharan Africa was clarified. PMID:26904668

  18. Heat Pump Drying of Fruits and Vegetables: Principles and Potentials for Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Fayose, Folasayo; Huan, Zhongjie

    2016-01-01

    Heat pump technology has been used for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning in domestic and industrial sectors in most developed countries of the world including South Africa. However, heat pump drying (HPD) of fruits and vegetables has been largely unexploited in South Africa and by extension to the sub-Saharan African region. Although studies on heat pump drying started in South Africa several years ago, not much progress has been recorded to date. Many potential users view heat pump drying technology as fragile, slow, and high capital intensive when compared with conventional dryer. This paper tried to divulge the principles and potentials of heat pump drying technology and the conditions for its optimum use. Also, various methods of quantifying performances during heat pump drying as well as the quality of the dried products are highlighted. Necessary factors for maximizing the capacity and efficiency of a heat pump dryer were identified. Finally, the erroneous view that heat pump drying is not feasible economically in sub-Saharan Africa was clarified. PMID:26904668

  19. Performance monitoring of an adsorption heat pump; Model development and simulation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Meunier, F.; Zanife, T. )

    1990-01-01

    Performance monitoring of an adsorption heat pump has been studied in a case of hot water delivery to a slaughterhouse when heat demand is a very irregular function of time. As the heat delivered by an adsorption heat pump is discontinuous, a heat storage tank has been used. The influence of the heat transfer fluid mass flow rate in the heat pump is very important because: a low mass flow rate yields a high temperature lift but a low efficiency; a high mass flow rate produces instabilities on the condensater and yields a low efficiency, and; an intermediate mass flow rate yields a reasonable efficiency and a correct temperature lift. Nevertheless, after a very large peak demand, the temperature requirement is not satisfied and a 7% dissatisfaction of the needs if obtained. To get 100% satisfaction of the needs, it would probably be necessary to overdesign the heat pump and the boiler.

  20. Assessment of solar-assisted gas-fired heat pump systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    As a possible application for the Goldstone Energy Project, the performance of a 10 ton heat pump unit using a hybrid solar gas energy source was evaluated in an effort to optimize the solar collector size. The heat pump system is designed to provide all the cooling and/or heating requirements of a selected office building. The system performance is to be augmented in the heating mode by utilizing the waste heat from the power cycle. A simplified system analysis is described to assess and compute interrrelationships of the engine, heat pump, and solar and building performance parameters, and to optimize the solar concentrator/building area ratio for a minimum total system cost. In addition, four alternative heating cooling systems, commonly used for building comfort, are described; their costs are compared, and are found to be less competitive with the gas solar heat pump system at the projected solar equipment costs.

  1. Program listing for heat-pump seasonal-performance model (SPM). [CNHSPM

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-30

    The computer program CNHSPM is listed which predicts heat pump seasonal energy consumption (including defrost, cyclic degradation, and supplementary heat) using steady state rating point performance and binned weather data. (LEW)

  2. Transient analysis of a capillary pumped loop heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiper, A. M.; Feric, G.; Anjum, M. I.; Swanson, T. D.

    1990-01-01

    A bench-top Capillary Pumped Loop (CPL) test system has been developed and tested to investigate the transient mode operation of this system by applying a step power input to the evaporators. Tests were conducted at several power input and evaporator inlet subcooling combinations. In addition, a lumped-heat-capacity model of the CPL test system has been presented which is used for predicting qualitatively the transient operation characteristics. Good agreement has been obtained between the predicted and the measured temperature variations. A simple evaporator inlet subcooler model has also been developed to study effects of inlet subcooling on the steady-state evaporator wall temperature. Results were compared with the test data collected.

  3. Low-power communication with a photonic heat pump.

    PubMed

    Huang, Duanni; Santhanam, Parthiban; Ram, Rajeev J

    2014-12-15

    An optical communication channel is constructed using a heated thermo-electrically pumped, high efficiency infrared light-emitting diode (LED). In these devices, electro-luminescent cooling is observed, resulting in greater than unity (> 100%) efficiency in converting electrical power to optical power. The average amount of electrical energy required to generate a photon (4.3 meV) is much less than the optical energy in that photon (520 meV). Such a light source can serve as a test-bed for fundamental studies of energy-efficient bosonic communication channels. In this low energy consumption mode, we demonstrate data transmission at 3 kilobits per second (kbps) with only 120 picowatts of input electric power. Although the channel employs a mid-infrared source with limited quantum efficiency, a binary digit can be communicated using 40 femtojoules with a bit error rate of 3 x 10-3.

  4. Low-power communication with a photonic heat pump.

    PubMed

    Huang, Duanni; Santhanam, Parthiban; Ram, Rajeev J

    2014-12-15

    An optical communication channel is constructed using a heated thermo-electrically pumped, high efficiency infrared light-emitting diode (LED). In these devices, electro-luminescent cooling is observed, resulting in greater than unity (> 100%) efficiency in converting electrical power to optical power. The average amount of electrical energy required to generate a photon (4.3 meV) is much less than the optical energy in that photon (520 meV). Such a light source can serve as a test-bed for fundamental studies of energy-efficient bosonic communication channels. In this low energy consumption mode, we demonstrate data transmission at 3 kilobits per second (kbps) with only 120 picowatts of input electric power. Although the channel employs a mid-infrared source with limited quantum efficiency, a binary digit can be communicated using 40 femtojoules with a bit error rate of 3 x 10-3. PMID:25607478

  5. Energy Savings and Peak Demand Reduction of a SEER 21 Heat Pump vs. a SEER 13 Heat Pump with Attic and Indoor Duct Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, J.

    2014-03-01

    This report describes results of experiments that were conducted in an unoccupied 1600 square foot house--the Manufactured Housing (MH Lab) at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC)--to evaluate the delivered performance as well as the relative performance of a SEER 21 variable capacity heat pump versus a SEER 13 heat pump. The performance was evaluated with two different duct systems: a standard attic duct system and an indoor duct system located in a dropped-ceiling space.

  6. Ground Source Heat Pump Sub-Slab Heat Exchange Loop Performance in a Cold Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Mittereder, N.; Poerschke, A.

    2013-11-01

    This report presents a cold-climate project that examines an alternative approach to ground source heat pump (GSHP) ground loop design. The innovative ground loop design is an attempt to reduce the installed cost of the ground loop heat exchange portion of the system by containing the entire ground loop within the excavated location beneath the basement slab. Prior to the installation and operation of the sub-slab heat exchanger, energy modeling using TRNSYS software and concurrent design efforts were performed to determine the size and orientation of the system. One key parameter in the design is the installation of the GSHP in a low-load home, which considerably reduces the needed capacity of the ground loop heat exchanger. This report analyzes data from two cooling seasons and one heating season. Upon completion of the monitoring phase, measurements revealed that the initial TRNSYS simulated horizontal sub-slab ground loop heat exchanger fluid temperatures and heat transfer rates differed from the measured values. To determine the cause of this discrepancy, an updated model was developed utilizing a new TRNSYS subroutine for simulating sub-slab heat exchangers. Measurements of fluid temperature, soil temperature, and heat transfer were used to validate the updated model.

  7. Heat exchanger selection and design analyses for metal hydride heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Voskuilen, Tyler G.; Waters, Essene L.; Pourpoint, Timothee L.; Rokni, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a design analysis for the development of highly efficient heat exchangers within stationary metal hydride heat pumps. The design constraints and selected performance criteria are applied to three representative heat exchangers. The proposed thermal model can be applied to select the most efficient heat exchanger design and provides outcomes generally valid in a pre-design stage. Heat transfer effectiveness is the principal performance parameter guiding the selection analysis, the results of which appear to be mildly (up to 13%) affected by the specific Nusselt correlation used. The thermo-physical properties of the heat transfer medium and geometrical parameters are varied in the sensitivity analysis, suggesting that the length of independent tubes is the physical parameter that influences the performance of the heat exchangers the most. The practical operative regions for each heat exchanger are identified by finding the conditions over which the heat removal from the solid bed enables a complete and continuous hydriding reaction. The most efficient solution is a design example that achieves the target effectiveness of 95%.

  8. Heat exchanger selection and design analyses for metal hydride heat pump systems

    DOE PAGES

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Voskuilen, Tyler G.; Waters, Essene L.; Pourpoint, Timothee L.; Rokni, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a design analysis for the development of highly efficient heat exchangers within stationary metal hydride heat pumps. The design constraints and selected performance criteria are applied to three representative heat exchangers. The proposed thermal model can be applied to select the most efficient heat exchanger design and provides outcomes generally valid in a pre-design stage. Heat transfer effectiveness is the principal performance parameter guiding the selection analysis, the results of which appear to be mildly (up to 13%) affected by the specific Nusselt correlation used. The thermo-physical properties of the heat transfer medium and geometrical parameters aremore » varied in the sensitivity analysis, suggesting that the length of independent tubes is the physical parameter that influences the performance of the heat exchangers the most. The practical operative regions for each heat exchanger are identified by finding the conditions over which the heat removal from the solid bed enables a complete and continuous hydriding reaction. The most efficient solution is a design example that achieves the target effectiveness of 95%.« less

  9. The Oak Ridge Heat Pump Models: I. A Steady-State Computer Design Model of Air-to-Air Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, S.K. Rice, C.K.

    1999-12-10

    The ORNL Heat Pump Design Model is a FORTRAN-IV computer program to predict the steady-state performance of conventional, vapor compression, electrically-driven, air-to-air heat pumps in both heating and cooling modes. This model is intended to serve as an analytical design tool for use by heat pump manufacturers, consulting engineers, research institutions, and universities in studies directed toward the improvement of heat pump performance. The Heat Pump Design Model allows the user to specify: system operating conditions, compressor characteristics, refrigerant flow control devices, fin-and-tube heat exchanger parameters, fan and indoor duct characteristics, and any of ten refrigerants. The model will compute: system capacity and COP (or EER), compressor and fan motor power consumptions, coil outlet air dry- and wet-bulb temperatures, air- and refrigerant-side pressure drops, a summary of the refrigerant-side states throughout the cycle, and overall compressor efficiencies and heat exchanger effectiveness. This report provides thorough documentation of how to use and/or modify the model. This is a revision of an earlier report containing miscellaneous corrections and information on availability and distribution of the model--including an interactive version.

  10. Heat Pump Water Heater Durabliltiy Testing - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, VAND.

    2004-05-29

    Ten heat pump water heaters (HPWH) were placed in an environmentally controlled test facility and run through a durability test program of approximately 7300 duty cycles (actual cycles accumulated ranged from 6640 to 8324 for the ten units). Five of the units were upgraded integral types (HPWH mounted on storage tank, no pump) from the same manufacturer as those tested in our first durability program in 2001 (Baxter and Linkous, 2002). The other five were ''add-on'' type units (HPWH with circulation pump plumbed to a separate storage tank) from another manufacturer. This durability test was designed to represent approximately 7-10 years of normal operation to meet the hot water needs of a residence. The integral units operated without incident apart from two control board failures. Both of these were caused by inadvertent exposure to very hot and humid (>135 F dry bulb and >120 F dew point) conditions that occurred due to a test loop failure. It is not likely that any residential water heater would be installed where such conditions were expected so these failures are not considered a long-term reliability concern. Two of the integral HPWHs featured a condensate management system (CMS) option that effectively eliminated any need for an evaporator condensate drain, but imposed significant efficiency penalties when operating in high humidity ambient conditions. The add-on units experienced no operational failures (breakdowns with loss of hot water production) during the course of the testing. However, their control systems exhibited some performance degradation under the high temperature, high humidity test conditions--HPWHs would shut off with tank water temperatures 15-20 F lower than when operating under moderate ambient conditions. One unit developed a refrigerant leak during the test program and lost about 50% of its charge resulting in reduced efficiency. Efficiency measurements on all the integral units and four of the add-on units showed significantly higher

  11. Effects of a Ground Source Heat Pump in Discontinuous Permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, R.; Garber-Slaght, R.; Daanen, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    A ground source heat pump (GSHP) was installed in a discontinuous permafrost region of Fairbanks Alaska in 2013 with the primary aim of determining the effect of different ground cover options on the long-term subterranean temperature regime. Three different surface treatments were applied to separate loops of the GSHP; grass, sand, and gravel, and temperature monitoring was established at several depths above and below the heat sink loops. The GSHP has been actively utilized to supplement the heat in a hydronic heating system of a neighboring 5000 ft2 research facility. The ground immediately surrounding the GSHP was not permafrost when initially installed. Numerical modeling simulations were used to predict the long-term ground temperature regime surrounding the GSHP loops, and results indicate that permafrost would begin to form after the first year. A pseudo-steady state temperature regime would establish in approximately 8 years with a yearly fluctuation of -14°C to -2°C. Simulations also indicate that permafrost could be prevented with a 15 W/m recharge during the summer, such as from a solar thermal system. The ground surface treatments have negligible effect on the ground temperature below 1 meter and therefore have no long-term effect on the active region the GSHP. Data collected from thermistors in the two years since installation indicate that permafrost has not yet been established, although the ground is now becoming seasonally frozen due to the GSHP energy removal. Yearly average temperatures are declining, and extrapolation indicates that permafrost will establish in future years. The GSHP coefficient of performance (COP) was initially 3.6 and is declining with the decreasing ground temperatures. Economic modeling indicates that the system may become uneconomical in future years, although volatile energy costs have a substantial effect of the prediction.

  12. High Performance Operation Control for Heat Driven Heat Pump System using Metal Hydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Hideyuki; Masuda, Masao; Kozawa, Yoshiyuki

    lt is recognized that COP of heat driven heat pump system using metal hydride is 0.3-0.4 in general. In order to rise COP, we have proposed two kinds of specific operation control; the control of cycle change time according to cold heat load and the control of cooling water temperature according to outside air wet-bulb temperature. The characteristics of the heat pump system using metal hydride have grasped by various experiments and simulations. The validity of the simulation model has been confirmed by comparing with experimental results. As results of the simulations programmed for the actual operation control month by month, yearly COP has risen till 0.5-0.6 for practical scale air-conditioning system without regard for the building use. By the operation control hour by hour, yearly COP has risen till 0.6-0.65. Moreover, in the office building case added 40% sensible heat recovery, yearly COP has risen more than 0.8.

  13. Foundation heat exchangers for residential ground source heat pump systems Numerical modeling and experimental validation

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Lu; Cullin, James; Spitler, Jeffery; Im, Piljae; Fisher, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    A new type of ground heat exchanger that utilizes the excavation often made for basements or foundations has been proposed as an alternative to conventional ground heat exchangers. This article describes a numerical model that can be used to size these foundation heat exchanger (FHX) systems. The numerical model is a two-dimensional finite-volume model that considers a wide variety of factors, such as soil freezing and evapotranspiration. The FHX numerical model is validated with one year of experimental data collected at an experimental house located near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The model shows good agreement with the experimental data-heat pump entering fluid temperatures typically within 1 C (1.8 F) - with minor discrepancies due to approximations, such as constant moisture content throughout the year, uniform evapotranspiration over the seasons, and lack of ground shading in the model.

  14. 16 CFR Appendix D5 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Heat Pump

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water Heaters-Heat Pump D5 Appendix D5 to... CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER... Appendix D5 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Heat Pump Range Information CAPACITY FIRST HOUR RATING Range...

  15. Temperature and Humidity Independent Control Research on Ground Source Heat Pump Air Conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Wang, L. L.

    Taking green demonstration center building air conditioning system as an example, this paper presents the temperature and humidity independent control system combined with ground source heat pump system, emphasis on the design of dry terminal device system, fresh air system and ground source heat pump system.

  16. 10 CFR 429.16 - Central air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... more than one indoor unit, a “tested combination” as defined in 10 CFR 430.2 shall be used for tests... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Central air conditioners and heat pumps. 429.16 Section... and heat pumps. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The general requirements...

  17. 10 CFR 431.92 - Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... applications; rated for sensible coefficient of performance (SCOP) and tested in accordance with 10 CFR 431.96... heat pumps. 431.92 Section 431.92 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps §...

  18. 10 CFR 429.16 - Central air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... more than one indoor unit, a “tested combination” as defined in 10 CFR 430.2 shall be used for tests... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Central air conditioners and heat pumps. 429.16 Section... and heat pumps. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The general requirements...

  19. 16 CFR Appendix D5 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Heat Pump

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water Heaters-Heat Pump D5 Appendix D5 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS... LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. D5 Appendix D5 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Heat Pump Range Information...

  20. 10 CFR 429.16 - Central air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... more than one indoor unit, a “tested combination” as defined in 10 CFR 430.2 shall be used for tests... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Central air conditioners and heat pumps. 429.16 Section... and heat pumps. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The general requirements...

  1. ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA644. FLOOR PLAN AND SECTIONS. PUMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA-644. FLOOR PLAN AND SECTIONS. PUMP CUBICLES WITH PUMP MOTORS OUTSIDE CUBICLES. HEAT EXCHANGER EQUIPMENT. COOLANT PIPE TUNNEL ENTERS FROM REACTOR BUILDING. KAISER ETR-5582-MTR-644-A-3, 2/1956. INL INDEX NO. 532-0644-00-486-101294, REV. 6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. 16 CFR Appendix D5 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Heat Pump

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water Heaters-Heat Pump D5 Appendix D5 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE... Appendix D5 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Heat Pump Range Information CAPACITY FIRST HOUR RATING Range...

  3. 16 CFR Appendix D5 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Heat Pump

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water Heaters-Heat Pump D5 Appendix D5 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE... Appendix D5 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Heat Pump Range Information CAPACITY FIRST HOUR RATING Range...

  4. D0 HVAC System Heat Pump Controller Programming, Networking, and Operating Information

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, B.; /Fermilab

    1999-12-02

    The purpose of this engineering note is to provide the necessary information to setup, program, and network the Electronic Systems USA Heat Pump Controller with the LON network card and Intellution Fix32 to operate properly within the HVAC system at D-Zero. The heat pump controllers are used for local temperature control of the office environments on the fifth and six floors of D-Zero. Heat pump units 1-6 are located in the ceiling of the sixth floor. Heat pump units 7-12 are found in the fifth floor ceiling. Heat pump unit 13 is in the Southeast corner of the fifth floor. Prior to installation the heat pump controller must be properly prepared to operate correctly in the HVAC system. Each heat pump unit must contain firmware (software) version 1.31 to operate properly on the network. Controllers with version 1.30 will not be able to communicate over the LON network. The manufacturer can only update the firmware version. Before installation a series of heat pump setpoints must be manually set using the Intelligent Stat. Connect the Intelligent Stat via the serial cable or wired connection.

  5. 16 CFR Appendix D5 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Heat Pump

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water Heaters-Heat Pump D5 Appendix D5 to... CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER... Appendix D5 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Heat Pump Range Information CAPACITY FIRST HOUR RATING Range...

  6. 16 CFR 305.12 - Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... (ii) Each heat pump label, except as noted in paragraph (g)(4)(iii) of this section, shall contain two... only heat pump label shall contain a range of comparability consisting of the lowest and highest... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling for central air conditioners,...

  7. Acoustic Streaming and Heat and Mass Transfer Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E. H.; Gopinath, A.

    1996-01-01

    A second order effect associated with high intensity sound field, acoustic streaming has been historically investigated to gain a fundamental understanding of its controlling mechanisms and to apply it to practical aspects of heat and mass transfer enhancement. The objectives of this new research project are to utilize a unique experimental technique implementing ultrasonic standing waves in closed cavities to study the details of the generation of the steady-state convective streaming flows and of their interaction with the boundary of ultrasonically levitated near-spherical solid objects. The goals are to further extend the existing theoretical studies of streaming flows and sample interactions to higher streaming Reynolds number values, for larger sample size relative to the wavelength, and for a Prandtl and Nusselt numbers parameter range characteristic of both gaseous and liquid host media. Experimental studies will be conducted in support to the theoretical developments, and the crucial impact of microgravity will be to allow the neglect of natural thermal buoyancy. The direct application to heat and mass transfer in the absence of gravity will be emphasized in order to investigate a space-based experiment, but both existing and novel ground-based scientific and technological relevance will also be pursued.

  8. Systems study of drilling for installation of geothermal heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.; Sullivan, W.N.; Jacobson, R.D.; Pierce, K.G.

    1997-09-01

    Geothermal, or ground-source, heat pumps (GHP) are much more efficient than air-source units such as conventional air conditioners. A major obstacle to their use is the relatively high initial cost of installing the heat-exchange loops into the ground. In an effort to identify drivers which influence installation cost, a number of site visits were made during 1996 to assess the state-of-the-art in drilling for GHP loop installation. As an aid to quantifying the effect of various drilling-process improvements, we constructed a spread-sheet based on estimated time and material costs for all the activities required in a typical loop-field installation. By substituting different (improved) values into specific activity costs, the effect on total project costs can be easily seen. This report contains brief descriptions of the site visits, key points learned during the visits, copies of the spread-sheet, recommendations for further work, and sample results from sensitivity analysis using the spread-sheet.

  9. Analysis of heat pumps installed in family housing at Hunter Army Air Field

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, S.A.

    1994-08-01

    The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) tasked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to conduct a postconstruction evaluation of the air-source heat pumps installed in family housing at Hunter Army Air Field (AAF). The objective of this project was to investigate and resolve concerns about an increase in energy costs at Hunter AAF following the installation of heat pumps in November 1992. After completing several analyses and a field inspection of the heat pumps in family housing at Hunter AAF, the following conclusions were made: the installation of air-source heat pumps reduced the annual energy cost in family housing by $46,672 in 1993; the heat pump thermostat controls in Hunter AAF family housing appear to be incorrectly installed; and the Hunter AAF electric utility bill increased 10% during the first 6 months of 1993 compared to the first 6 months of 1992.

  10. Recovery Act - Geothermal Technologies Program: Ground Source Heat Pumps Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Rosenberry, Harris Companies

    2012-05-04

    A large centralized geothermal heat pump system was installed to provide ice making, space cooling, space heating, process water heating, and domestic hot water heating for an ice arena in Eagan Minnesota. This paper provides information related to the design and construction of the project. Additionally, operating conditions for 12 months after start-up are provided.

  11. Hybrid space heating/cooling system with Trombe wall, underground venting, and assisted heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirley, J. W.; James, L. C.; Stevens, S.; Autry, A. N.; Nussbaum, M.; McQueen, S. V.

    1983-06-01

    A hybrid solar system/ground loop which automatically assists the standard, thermostatically controlled home heating/cooling system was designed and monitored. The input from the homeowner was limited to normal thermostat operations. During the course of the project it was determined that to effectively gather data and control the various component interactions, a microcomputer based control system would also allow the HVAC system to be optimized by simple changes to software. This flexibility in an untested concept helped us to achieve optimum system performance. Control ranged from direct solar heating and direct ground loop cooling modes, to assistance of the heat pump by both solar space and ground loop. Sensors were strategically placed to provide data on response of the Trombe wall (surface, 4 in. deep, 8 in. deep), and the ground loop (inlet, 3/4 length, outlet). Microcomputer hardware and computer programs were developed to make cost effective decisions between the various modes of operation.

  12. A Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pump Computer Model in EnergyPlus

    SciTech Connect

    Raustad, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the variable refrigerant flow heat pump computer model included with the Department of Energy's EnergyPlusTM whole-building energy simulation software. The mathematical model for a variable refrigerant flow heat pump operating in cooling or heating mode, and a detailed model for the variable refrigerant flow direct-expansion (DX) cooling coil are described in detail.

  13. GEO3D - Three-Dimensional Computer Model of a Ground Source Heat Pump System

    SciTech Connect

    James Menart

    2013-06-07

    This file is the setup file for the computer program GEO3D. GEO3D is a computer program written by Jim Menart to simulate vertical wells in conjunction with a heat pump for ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems. This is a very detailed three-dimensional computer model. This program produces detailed heat transfer and temperature field information for a vertical GSHP system.

  14. Current status of the problem of heat pumps and refrigerating devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, L. L.

    2010-09-01

    In connection with the limited energy reserves in the Republic of Belarus, it is expedient to use sorption heat pumps and refrigerators in heating and refrigeration supply systems. Such heat engines possess a unique capability of utilizing the heat of low-temperature energy sources: water ponds, groundwater, and waste water and steam in combination with traditional heaters of rooms (boilers, furnaces, etc.). Adsorption reversible heat pumps developed at the A. V. Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus make it possible to obtain 20 to 30 kW/m3 of thermal energy and up to 5 kW/m3 of cold. Such heat pumps save up to 15-20% of primary energy (fuel) for production of electricity, heat, and cold.

  15. Experimental investigation on the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system on water-heating mode

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Guiyin; Hu, Hainan; Liu, Xu

    2010-09-15

    An experimental study on operation performance of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was conducted in this paper. The experimental system of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure, the condensation pressure and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump air-conditioning system, the water temperature and receiving heat capacity in water heater, the photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and the photovoltaic efficiency were investigated. The experimental results show that the mean photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar heat pump air-conditioning system reaches 10.4%, and can improve 23.8% in comparison with that of the conventional photovoltaic module, the mean COP of heat pump air-conditioning system may attain 2.88 and the water temperature in water heater can increase to 42 C. These results indicate that the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system has better performances and can stably work. (author)

  16. Designing, selecting and installing a residential ground-source heat pump system

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Patrick; Liu, Xiaobing; Munk, Jeffrey D

    2010-01-01

    It's a compelling proposition: Use the near-constant-temperature heat underground to heat and cool your home and heat domestic water, slashing your energy bills. Yet despite studies demonstrating significant energy savings from ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems, their adoption has been hindered by high upfront costs. Fewer than 1% of US homes use a GSHP system. However, compared to a minimum-code-compliant conventional space-conditioning system, when properly designed and installed, a GSHP retrofit at current market prices offers simple payback of 4.3 years on national average, considering existing federal tax credits. Most people understand how air-source heat pumps work: they move heat from indoor air to outdoor air when cooling and from outdoor air to indoor air when heating. The ground-source heat pump operates on the same principle, except that it moves heat to or from the ground source instead of outdoor air. The ground source is usually a vertical or horiontal ground heat exchanger. Because the ground usually has a more favorable temperature than ambient air for the heating and cooling operation of the vapor-compression refrigeration cycle, GSHP sysems can operate with much higher energy efficiencies than air-source heat pump systems when properly designed and installed. A GSHP system used in a residual building typically provides space conditioning and hot water and comprises three major components: a water-source heat pump unit designed to operate at a wider range of entering fluid temperatures (typically from 30 F to 110 F, or 1 C to 43 C) than a conventional water-source heat pump unit; a ground heat exchanger (GHX); and distribution systems to deliver hot water to the storage tank and heating or cooling to the conditioned rooms. In most residual GSHP systems, the circulation pumps and associated valves are integrated with the heat pump to circulate the heat-carrier fluid (water or aqueous antifreeze solution) through the heat pump and the GHX. A

  17. Compressor performance at high suction temperatures with application to solar heat pump

    SciTech Connect

    Kush, E A

    1980-01-01

    As part of the study of Solar Assisted Heat Pump (SAHP) Systems, the performance of the heat pump itself and its components under conditions attendant to series solar input to the evaporator is being investigated at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Particular emphasis has been placed on the details of the compressor performance, since in order to properly exploit the thermodynamic potential of high solar input temperatures (40 to 100/sup 0/F), the compressor must operate efficiently over a wide range of (saturated) suction temperatures most of which are well above those for which present compressors are designed. A systematic series of experiments is being conducted at evaporating temperatures in the range from 45 to 100/sup 0/F using a Solar Heat Pump Simulator and a specially designed Laboratory Model Heat Pump assembled from off-the-shelf components. Two reciprocating compressors have been tested thus far - an open type driven by a 2-speed motor and a hermetic 2-speed, the multi-speed feature providing capacity control, which is a virtual necessity for effective use of solar source. Thorough and highly accurate instrumentation is used in the simulator and in the heat pump refrigeration loop. The results to date of the compressor aspects of the solar heat pump experiments at BNL are described, and the general application of heat pumps and their compressors to use with solar input are discussed.

  18. Stirling engine or heat pump having an improved seal

    DOEpatents

    White, Maurice A.; Riggle, Peter; Emigh, Stuart G.

    1985-01-01

    A Stirling Engine or Heat Pump having two relatively movable machine elements for power transmission purposes includes a hermetic seal bellows interposed between the elements for separating a working gas from a pressure compensating liquid that balances pressure across the bellows to reduce bellows stress and to assure long bellows life. The volume of pressure compensating liquid displaced due to relative movement between the machine elements is minimized by enclosing the compensating liquid within a region exposed to portions of both machine elements at one axial end of a slidable interface presented between them by a clearance seal having an effective diameter of the seal bellows. Pressure equalization across the bellows is achieved by a separate hermetically sealed compensator including a movable enclosed bellows. The interior of the compensator bellows is in communication with one side of the seal bellows, and its exterior is in communication with the remaining side of the seal bellows. A buffer gas or additional liquid region can be provided at the remaining axial end of the clearnace seal, along with valved arrangements for makeup of liquid leakage through the clearance seal.

  19. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Steve; Letschert, Virginie

    2010-05-14

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are over twice as energy-efficient as conventional electric resistance water heaters, with the potential to save substantial amounts of electricity. Drawing on analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's recently-concluded rulemaking on amended standards for water heaters, this paper evaluates key issues that will determine how well, and to what extent, this technology will fit in American homes. The key issues include: 1) equipment cost of HPWHs; 2) cooling of the indoor environment by HPWHs; 3) size and air flow requirements of HPWHs; 4) performance of HPWH under different climate conditions and varying hot water use patterns; and 5) operating cost savings under different electricity prices and hot water use. The paper presents the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of the adoption of HPWHs in a representative sample of American homes, as well as national impact analysis for different market share scenarios. Assuming equipment costs that would result from high production volume, the results show that HPWHs can be cost effective in all regions for most single family homes, especially when the water heater is not installed in a conditioned space. HPWHs are not cost effective for most manufactured home and multi-family installations, due to lower average hot water use and the water heater in the majority of cases being installed in conditioned space, where cooling of the indoor environment and size and air flow requirements of HPWHs increase installation costs.

  20. Characterization of acoustic streaming and heating using synchronized infrared thermography and particle image velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Layman, Christopher N; Sou, In Mei; Bartak, Rico; Ray, Chittaranjan; Allen, John S

    2011-09-01

    Real-time measurements of acoustic streaming velocities and surface temperature fields using synchronized particle image velocimetry and infrared thermography are reported. Measurements were conducted using a 20 kHz Langevin type acoustic horn mounted vertically in a model sonochemical reactor of either degassed water or a glycerin-water mixture. These dissipative phenomena are found to be sensitive to small variations in the medium viscosity, and a correlation between the heat flux and vorticity was determined for unsteady convective heat transfer.

  1. Phase 1-A development kinematic Sterling/Rankine commercial gas-fired heat pump research program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, L.; Agno, J. G.; Houtman, W. H.

    1984-07-01

    Heat pumps driven by electric motors are successfully sold as energy saving systems in the space conditioning marketplace. By utilizing an on-site natural gas fueled Stirling cycle engine to drive a refrigerating compressor, energy consumption of such a heat pump can be reduced in both heating and cooling modes of operation. The achievements reached in Phase 1-A indicate that the goal of developing a technically and economically feasible commercial heat pump, using the V-160 Stirling engine, is practical and can be accomplished within a reasonable period of time. This initial investigation also indicates that the potential heat pump system can be responsive to a large market segment as well as providing a technological base for expanding into other gas market segments.

  2. User's manual for heat-pump seasonal-performance model (SPM) with selected parametric examples

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-30

    The Seasonal Performance Model (SPM) was developed to provide an accurate source of seasonal energy consumption and cost predictions for the evaluation of heat pump design options. The program uses steady state heat pump performance data obtained from manufacturers' or Computer Simulation Model runs. The SPM was originally developed in two forms - a cooling model for central air conditioners and heat pumps and a heating model for heat pumps. The original models have undergone many modifications, which are described, to improve the accuracy of predictions and to increase flexibility for use in parametric evaluations. Insights are provided into the theory and construction of the major options, and into the use of the available options and output variables. Specific investigations provide examples of the possible applications of the model. (LEW)

  3. New industrial heat pump applications to a synthetic rubber plant. Final report, Phase IIA

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This report summarizes the results of the Phase IIA of the DOE sponsored study titled, Advanced Industrial Heat Pump Application and Evaluation. The scope of this phase of the study was to finalize the process design of the heat pump scheme, develop a process and instrumentation diagram, and a detailed cost estimate for the project. This information is essential for the site management to evaluate the economic viability and operability of the proposed heat pump design, prior to the next phase of installation and testing.

  4. Federal Technology Alert: Ground-Source Heat Pumps Applied to Federal Facilities--Second Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Donald L.

    2001-03-01

    This Federal Technology Alert, which was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Federal Energy Management Programs, provides the detailed information and procedures that a Federal energy manager needs to evaluate most ground-source heat pump applications. This report updates an earlier report on ground-source heat pumps that was published in September 1995. In the current report, general benefits of this technology to the Federal sector are described, as are ground-source heat pump operation, system types, design variations, energy savings, and other benefits. In addition, information on current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are provided.

  5. Simulation of a High Efficiency Multi-bed Adsorption Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Humble, Paul H.; Sweeney, J. B.

    2012-05-01

    Attaining high energy efficiency with adsorption heat pumps is challenging due to thermodynamic losses that occur when the sorbent beds are thermally cycled without effective heat recuperation. The multi-bed concept described here effectively transfers heat from beds being cooled to beds being heated, which enables high efficiency in thermally driven heat pumps. A simplified lumped-parameter model and detailed finite element analysis are used to simulate the performance of an ammonia-carbon sorption compressor, which is used to project the overall heat pump coefficient of performance. The effects of bed geometry and number of beds on system performance are explored, and the majority of the performance benefit is obtained with four beds. Results indicate that a COP of 1.24 based on heat input is feasible at AHRI standard test conditions for residential HVAC equipment. When compared on a basis of primary energy input, performance equivalent to SEER 13 or 14 are theoretically attainable with this system.

  6. Performance comparison of air- and ground-coupled heat pump systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.D.; Kavanaugh, S.; Ramanathan, R.

    1984-01-01

    Research initiated in 1979 to compare the performance of air-coupled and ground-coupled heat pumps is described. Three heat pump systems were installed in small, neighboring all-electric residences served by the Oklahoma Gas and Electric Company in Perkins, Oklahoma. An air-coupled heat pump and two ground-coupled heat pumps - one with solar assistance - were field tested. However, equipment and instrumentation problems precluded gathering meaningful data for the solar-assisted ground-coupled system. Generally, the unassisted ground-coupled heat pump system proved superior to the air-coupled system, both in reducing peak demand and in consuming less energy on an annual basis. The unassisted ground-coupled system reduced summer and winter peak demand, and experienced no performance degradation due to buildup of rejected waste heat in the ground well. A polyethylene U-tube ground heat exchanger was installed in both ground-coupled systems midway through the project, replacing a five-inch annular PVC pipe arrangement that had functioned poorly. The U-tube performed well throughout the remainder of research. Differing lifestyles and thermostat changes by building occupants during the monitoring period produced quite different demands and loads in the test houses, but when results were normalized through simulation, the superior performance of the unassisted ground-coupled heat pump was confirmed.

  7. Experimental investigation on water quality standard of Yangtze River water source heat pump.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zenghu; Tong, Mingwei; Kun, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Due to the surface water in the upper reaches of Yangtze River in China containing large amounts of silt and algae, high content of microorganisms and suspended solids, the water in Yangtze River cannot be used for cooling a heat pump directly. In this paper, the possibility of using Yangtze River, which goes through Chongqing, a city in southwest China, as a heat source-sink was investigated. Water temperature and quality of the Yangtze River in the Chongqing area were analyzed and the performance of water source heat pump units in different sediment concentrations, turbidity and algae material conditions were tested experimentally, and the water quality standards, in particular surface water conditions, in the Yangtze River region that adapt to energy-efficient heat pumps were also proposed. The experimental results show that the coefficient of performance heat pump falls by 3.73% to the greatest extent, and the fouling resistance of cooling water in the heat exchanger increases up to 25.6% in different water conditions. When the sediment concentration and the turbidity in the river water are no more than 100 g/m3 and 50 NTU respectively, the performance of the heat pump is better, which can be used as a suitable river water quality standard for river water source heat pumps.

  8. Experimental investigation on water quality standard of Yangtze River water source heat pump.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zenghu; Tong, Mingwei; Kun, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Due to the surface water in the upper reaches of Yangtze River in China containing large amounts of silt and algae, high content of microorganisms and suspended solids, the water in Yangtze River cannot be used for cooling a heat pump directly. In this paper, the possibility of using Yangtze River, which goes through Chongqing, a city in southwest China, as a heat source-sink was investigated. Water temperature and quality of the Yangtze River in the Chongqing area were analyzed and the performance of water source heat pump units in different sediment concentrations, turbidity and algae material conditions were tested experimentally, and the water quality standards, in particular surface water conditions, in the Yangtze River region that adapt to energy-efficient heat pumps were also proposed. The experimental results show that the coefficient of performance heat pump falls by 3.73% to the greatest extent, and the fouling resistance of cooling water in the heat exchanger increases up to 25.6% in different water conditions. When the sediment concentration and the turbidity in the river water are no more than 100 g/m3 and 50 NTU respectively, the performance of the heat pump is better, which can be used as a suitable river water quality standard for river water source heat pumps. PMID:22797241

  9. Solar Assisted Ground Source Heat Pump Performance in Nearly Zero Energy Building in Baltic Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Januševičius, Karolis; Streckienė, Giedrė

    2013-12-01

    In near zero energy buildings (NZEB) built in Baltic countries, heat production systems meet the challenge of large share domestic hot water demand and high required heating capacity. Due to passive solar design, cooling demand in residential buildings also needs an assessment and solution. Heat pump systems are a widespread solution to reduce energy use. A combination of heat pump and solar thermal collectors helps to meet standard requirements and increases the share of renewable energy use in total energy balance of country. The presented paper describes a simulation study of solar assisted heat pump systems carried out in TRNSYS. The purpose of this simulation was to investigate how the performance of a solar assisted heat pump combination varies in near zero energy building. Results of three systems were compared to autonomous (independent) systems simulated performance. Different solar assisted heat pump design solutions with serial and parallel solar thermal collector connections to the heat pump loop were modelled and a passive cooling possibility was assessed. Simulations were performed for three Baltic countries: Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.

  10. Vapor Compression and Thermoelectric Heat Pumps for a Cascade Distillation Subsystem: Design and Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Lisa R.; Ungar, Eugene K.

    2012-01-01

    Humans on a spacecraft require significant amounts of water for drinking, food, hydration, and hygiene. Maximizing the reuse of wastewater while minimizing the use of consumables is critical for long duration space exploration. One of the more promising consumable-free methods of reclaiming wastewater is the distillation/condensation process used in the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS). The CDS heats wastewater to the point of vaporization then condenses and cools the resulting water vapor. The CDS wastewater flow requires heating for evaporation and the product water flow requires cooling for condensation. Performing the heating and cooling processes separately would require two separate units, each of which would demand large amounts of electrical power. Mass, volume, and power efficiencies can be obtained by heating the wastewater and cooling the condensate in a single heat pump unit. The present work describes and compares two competing heat pump methodologies that meet the needs of the CDS: 1) a series of mini compressor vapor compression cycles and 2) a thermoelectric heat exchanger. In the paper, the CDS system level requirements are outlined, the designs of the two heat pumps are described in detail, and the results of heat pump analysis and performance tests are provided. The mass, volume, and power requirement for each heat pump option is compared and the advantages and disadvantages of each system are listed.

  11. CO2 heat pumps for commercial building applications with simultaneous heating and cooling demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharkar, Supriya

    Many commercial buildings, including data centers, hotels and hospitals, have a simultaneous heating and cooling demand depending on the season, occupation and auxiliary equipment. A data center on the Purdue University, West Lafayette campus is used as a case study. The electrical equipment in data centers produce heat, which must be removed to prevent the equipment temperature from rising to a certain level. With proper integration, this heat has the potential to be used as a cost-effective energy source for heating the building in which the data center resides or the near-by buildings. The proposed heat pump system utilizes carbon dioxide with global warming potential of 1, as the refrigerant. System simulations are carried out to determine the feasibility of the system for a 12-month period. In addition, energy, environmental and economic analyses are carried out to show the benefits of this alternative technology when compared to the conventional system currently installed in the facility. Primary energy savings of ~28% to ~61%, a payback period of 3 to 4.5 years and a decrease in the environmental impact value by ~36% makes this system an attractive option. The results are then extended to other commercial buildings.

  12. Municipal water-based heat pump heating and/or cooling systems: Findings and recommendations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Wegman, S.

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of the present work was to determine if existing heat pump systems based on municipal water systems meet existing water quality standards, to analyze water that has passed through a heat pump or heat exchanger to determine if corrosion products can be detected, to determine residual chlorine levels in municipal waters on the inlet as well as the outlet side of such installations, to analyses for bacterial contaminants and/or regrowth due to the presence of a heat pump or heat exchanger, to develop and suggest criteria for system design and construction, to provide recommendations and specifications for material and fluid selection, and to develop model rules and regulations for the installation, operation, and monitoring of new and existing systems. In addition, the Washington State University (WSU) has evaluated availability of computer models that would allow for water system mapping, water quality modeling and system operation.

  13. An analytical approach to multi-cylinder regenerative machines with application to 3-cylinder heat-aided Stirling heat pump

    SciTech Connect

    Yagyu, Sumio; Fujishima, Ichiro; Corey, J.; Isshiki, Naotsugu

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes a method for analysis and optimization of multi-cylinder regenerative machines. The authors have devised this method in a project at KUBOTA to develop an improved gas engine-driven heat pump using both shaft power and exhaust heat sources. Based on combinations of included Stirling cycles, this analytical approach allows use of well-established and validated Stirling simulation models to optimize partial systems. The technique further provides a method of integrating such optimal partial-system Stirling cycles into a complex combination system. It is shown that this remains an optimum solution for the three-cylinder heat-assisted heat pump case. Results from hardware tests of the main Stirling heat pump cycle (2-cylinders) are given and compared with analytical expectations using Sage simulation code. This is extended to validate Sage modeling of 3-cylinder machines.

  14. Development of a High Performance Air Source Heat Pump for the US Market

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Shen, Bo; Gao, Zhiming; Baxter, Van D; Iu, Ipseng

    2011-01-01

    Heat pumps present a significant advantage over conventional residential heating technologies due to higher energy efficiencies and less dependence on imported oil. The US development of heat pumps dates back to the 1930 s with pilot units being commercially available in the 1950 s. Reliable and cost competitive units were available in the US market by the 1960 s. The 1973 oil embargo led to increased interest in heat pumps prompting significant research to improve performance, particularly for cold climate locations. Recent increasing concerns on building energy efficiency and environmental emissions have prompted a new wave of research in heat pump technology with special emphasis on reducing performance degradation at colder outdoor air temperatures. A summary of the advantages and limitations of several performance improvement options sought for the development of high performance air source heat pump systems for cold climate applications is the primary focus of this paper. Some recommendations for a high performance cold climate heat pump system design most suitable for the US market are presented.

  15. Test of an improved gas engine-driven heat pump

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, F.C.; Mei, V.C.; Domitrovic, R.

    1998-01-01

    A new generation of natural gas engine-driven heat pump (GEHP) was introduced to the marketplace recently. While the units installed have performed exceptionally well and earned rave reviews for comfort and savings on utility bills, the higher initial cost and relatively long payback time have affected the wide commercialization of this advanced technology. According to a study done for the southeastern US in the Atlanta metropolitan area, the annual operating cost of the GEHP is less than that of a baseline system consisting of a 92% efficiency gas furnace and a SEER 12 air conditioner. The estimated payback time is around 10 years to cover the difference in initial equipment price between the new and the baseline system. It has been projected that a liquid overfeed (LOF) recuperative cycle concept can simplify the hardware design of a GEHP, resulting in reduced cost and improved performance. Laboratory tests have shown that LOF would improve the energy efficiency of a vapor compression unit by 10%. In addition, LOF will reduce the compressor pressure ratio and thereby improve equipment reliability. Based on the assumed performance improvements and cost reduction, a simple payback calculation indicates LOF can reduce the payback time for an improved GEHP considerably in the Atlanta metropolitan area. Laboratory testing of an improved GEHP has been carried out at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This paper reports on the equipment design modifications required to implement LOF and the results of performance tests at steady-state conditions. The preliminary cooling test results have indicated that the LOF in conjunction with orifice-type expander can be applied to GEHP for cost and performance enhancements. The improvements in energy efficiency will be dependent upon several controlling parameters including the proper refrigeration charge, the selected ambient temperature, and the system operating condition.

  16. The mechanical design of a vapor compressor for a heat pump to be used in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berner, F.; Oesch, H.; Goetz, K.; Savage, C. J.

    1982-01-01

    A heat pump developed for use in Spacelab as a stand-alone refrigeration unit as well as within a fluid loop system is discussed. It will provide an active thermal control for payloads. Specifications for the heat pump were established: (1) heat removal rates at the source; (2) heat source temperatures from room temperature; (3) heat-sink fluid temperatures at condenser inlet; and (4) minimum power consumption. A reversed Carnot cycle heat pump using Freon 12 as working fluid incorporating a one-cylinder reciprocating compressor was selected. The maximum crankshaft speed was fixed relatively high at 100 rpm. The specified cooling rates then made it necessary to select a cylinder volume of 10 cu cm, which was obtained with a bore of 40 mm and a stroke of 8 mm.

  17. Nano-porous-water Absorbents for Solid-absorbebt Heat Pump System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizota, Tadato; Nakayama, Noriaki

    Zeolite-water heat-pump system has been developed in these 25 years. Recently, an instant beer-cooling system has appeared by using the zeolite heat pump system as a commercial product. It takes so long time for the development since the first proposal. The most serious problem through the development has been of the ability of absorbents. Themaximum heat exchange capacity to date exceeds 1MJ•kg-1 for Mg89-A, which is comparable to the energy storage capacity of modern alkaline-ion batteries in weight-bases. But it needs high temperature heat sources more than 200°C for the activation. Absorbents useful at lower temperatures are thus desirable for effective use of various kinds of lower temperature heat sources Various nano-porous materials as well as zeolites now under investigation as candidates of heat-pump absorbents, such as silica-gels, allophane, imogolite, hydrotalcite, etc.

  18. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.; Brendemuehl, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  19. Gas engine heat pump system and component efficiency and reliability improvement, phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1987-01-01

    The Gas Research Institute is directing several research projects to develop gas fired heat pumps for residential and light commercial use. The project work discussed in the report identifies and evaluates potential improvements in the cycle and key components of these heat pumps and provides short- and long-term inputs for the heat pump product development efforts. Principal results of Phase I studies under the project are: test procedures for gas fired heat pumps (GFHP), a cycle analysis model for GFHP's, an assessment of appropriate compressor technology for GFHP's, specification of fan operating strategies, a review of emission standards for GFHP's, identification of low-temperature capacity enhancement issues, a guide on the sizing of field tests, current assessments of foreign technology valuable to GFHP's, and an assessment of the health and safety attributes of methylene chloride.

  20. Development of the Geothermal Heat Pump Market in China; Renewable Energy in China

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-03-01

    This case study is one in a series of Success Stories on developing renewable energy technologies in China for a business audience. It focuses on the development of the geothermal heat pump market in China.

  1. Preliminary Market Assessment for Cold Climate Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Sikes, Karen; Khowailed, Gannate; Abdelaziz, Omar

    2011-09-01

    Cold climate heat pump (HP) technology is relevant to a substantial portion of the U.S. population, especially with more than one-third of U.S. housing stock concentrated in colder regions of the country and another 31% in the mixed-humid climate region. Specifically, it is estimated that in 2010 almost 1.37 million heating equipment units were shipped to the cold/very cold climate regions and that 1.41 million were shipped to the nation s mixed-humid region. On a national level, the trend in the last decade has indicated that shipments of gas furnaces have grown at a slower rate than HPs. This indicates a potential opportunity for the cold climate HP, a technology that may be initially slow to penetrate its potential market because of the less expensive operating and first costs of gas furnaces. Anticipated implementation of regional standards could also negatively affect gas furnace shipments, especially with the higher initial cost for more efficient gas furnaces. However, as of 2011, the fact that there are more than 500 gas furnace product models that already achieve the expected efficiency standard indicates that satisfying the regional standard will be a challenge but not an obstacle. A look at the heating fuel and equipment currently being used in the housing stock provides an insight into the competing equipment that cold climate HPs hope to replace. The primary target market for the cold climate HP is the 2.6 million U.S. homes using electric furnaces and HPs in the cold/very cold region. It is estimated that 4.75% of these homeowners either replace or buy new heating equipment in a given year. Accordingly, the project team could infer that the cold climate HP primary market is composed of 123,500 replacements of electric furnaces and conventional air-to-air HPs annually. A secondary housing market for the cold climate HP comprises homes in the mixed-humid region of the country that are using electric furnaces. Homes using gas furnaces across both the

  2. Acoustic cooling engine

    DOEpatents

    Hofler, Thomas J.; Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1988-01-01

    An acoustic cooling engine with improved thermal performance and reduced internal losses comprises a compressible fluid contained in a resonant pressure vessel. The fluid has a substantial thermal expansion coefficient and is capable of supporting an acoustic standing wave. A thermodynamic element has first and second ends and is located in the resonant pressure vessel in thermal communication with the fluid. The thermal response of the thermodynamic element to the acoustic standing wave pumps heat from the second end to the first end. The thermodynamic element permits substantial flow of the fluid through the thermodynamic element. An acoustic driver cyclically drives the fluid with an acoustic standing wave. The driver is at a location of maximum acoustic impedance in the resonant pressure vessel and proximate the first end of the thermodynamic element. A hot heat exchanger is adjacent to and in thermal communication with the first end of the thermodynamic element. The hot heat exchanger conducts heat from the first end to portions of the resonant pressure vessel proximate the hot heat exchanger. The hot heat exchanger permits substantial flow of the fluid through the hot heat exchanger. The resonant pressure vessel can include a housing less than one quarter wavelength in length coupled to a reservoir. The housing can include a reduced diameter portion communicating with the reservoir. The frequency of the acoustic driver can be continuously controlled so as to maintain resonance.

  3. New industrial heat pump applications to an integrated thermomechanical pulp and paper mill

    SciTech Connect

    1991-01-01

    Application of pinch technology US industries in an early screening study done by TENSA Services (DOE/ID/12583-1) identified potential for heat pumps in several industrial sectors. Among these, processes with large evaporation units were found to be some of the most promising sectors for advanced heat pump placement. This report summarizes the results of a study for Bowater Incorporated, Carolina Division. The units selected for this study are the thermo-mechanical pulper (TMP), kraft digester, evaporators, boiler feed water (BFW) train and pulp dryer. Based on the present level of operation, the following recommendations are made: 1. Install a mechanical vapor compression (MVR) heat pump between the TMP mill and {number sign}3 evaporator. This heat pump will compress the 22 psig steam from the TMP heat recovery system and use it to replace about 70% of the 60 psig steam required in {number sign} evaporator. The boiler feed water heat losses (in the low pressure deaerator) will be supplied by heat available in the TMR's zero psig vent steam. 2. Study the digester to verify the practicality of installing an MVR heat pump which will compress the dirty weapons from the cyclone separator. The compressed vapors can be directly injected into the digester and thus reduce the 135 psig steam consumption. 31 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Engineering: Economic analysis of improved heat pump performance for minimum standards development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, S. R.; Barnes, K. A.; Kelly, G. E.

    1981-07-01

    A methodology and seasonal performance data are given that could be used in the development of a reference basis for minimum efficiency standards for heat pumps that are economically justified on a life cycle basis. Criteria for economic optimization are outlined. The methodology used to computer seasonal heating and cooling performance ratings and the annual energy savings resulting from efficiency improvements, by climate region, is detailed. The interdependence between efficiency ratings in the heating and cooling modes is explored using statistical analysis. An example of the procedure for determining maximum cost effective efficiency levels is demonstrated for a 36,000 Btu/h heat pump.

  5. A capital cost comparison of commercial ground-source heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rafferty, K.

    1995-02-01

    In the March 1994 issue of the Quarterly Bulletin, a Geo-Heat Center Research Project involving ground-source heat pumps (GSHP) systems for commercial buildings was introduced. This project which evaluated the capital costs associated with three different ground-source designs was completed in June 1994. As a result of this work, a final report {open_quotes}A Capital Cost Comparison of Commercial Ground-Source Heat Pump Systems{close_quotes} was issued. This article is a summary of that report. The full report is available from the Geo-Heat Center.

  6. Minority participation in new energy technologies: A case example of electric heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Teotia, A.P.S.; Raju, P.S.; Karvelas, D.; Anderson, J.

    1987-01-01

    Primarily because of technological improvements and sharp increases in energy prices after the energy crises of the 1970s, the sale of residential electric heat pumps rose ninefold from 1970 to 1983. However, growth has been uneven with respect to black, Hispanic, and white households, even after one controls for income and geography. This paper analyzes the growth in heat pump sales; estimates heat pump market share by key segments; and compares patterns of heat pump ownership by black, Hispanic, and white households. A discrete choice model was used to project the demand for heat pumps by black, Hispanic, and white households for new single-family and multifamily homes, which account for a major share of heat pump shipments to the residential sector. The study is based on several data sources, including the 1980 Census, the 1980 Annual Housing Survey, and the 1980 to 1981 Residential Energy Consumption Survey. Given the availability of consumer survey data, this model can easily be adapted to analyze the participation of different ethnic households in the growth of other new energy technologies.

  7. New Configurations of Micro Plate-Fin Heat Sink to Reduce Coolant Pumping Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezania, A.; Rosendahl, L. A.

    2012-06-01

    The thermal resistance of heat exchangers has a strong influence on the electric power produced by a thermoelectric generator (TEG). In this work, a real TEG device is applied to three configurations of micro plate-fin heat sink. The distance between certain microchannels is varied to find the optimum heat sink configuration. The particular focus of this study is to reduce the coolant mass flow rate by considering the thermal resistances of the heat sinks and, thereby, to reduce the coolant pumping power in the system. The three-dimensional governing equations for the fluid flow and the heat transfer are solved using the finite-volume method for a wide range of pressure drop laminar flows along the heat sink. The temperature and the mass flow rate distribution in the heat sink are discussed. The results, which are in good agreement with previous computational studies, show that using suggested heat sink configurations reduces the coolant pumping power in the system.

  8. An acoustic/thermal model for self-heating in PMN sonar projectors

    PubMed

    Shankar; Hom

    2000-11-01

    Dielectric hysteresis and a strong material temperature dependence uniquely couple the acoustic output and temperature of a sonar projector driven by electrostrictive Pb(Mg1/3, Nb2/3)O3 (PMN). Both the source level and the source of self-heating, i.e., dielectric hysteresis, dramatically decrease as the PMN driver heats. The final temperature delineates outstanding PMN transducers from mediocre PMN transducers, so accurate acoustic performance prediction requires accurate transducer temperature prediction. This study examined this self-heating phenomenon by combining an electro-acoustics model for a PMN flextensional transducer with a thermal finite element model. The sonar model calculated the source level and heat generation rate for the PMN driver as a function of temperature. This computed source level varied 12 dB over a 75 degrees C temperature range solely due to the temperature dependent ceramic. The heat transfer model used the computed heat rate to predict the transducer's transient thermal response. The results clearly demonstrate that the transducer reached a steady-state equilibrium temperature, where the heat generated by the PMN driver balanced the heat dissipated. While the transducer model predicted a significant temperature rise, the corresponding acoustic output still surpassed the output of an equivalent Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) transducer by 8 dB. Good agreement with experiments made on a PMN flextensional transducer validated the model.

  9. Acoustic sensor for real-time control for the inductive heating process

    DOEpatents

    Kelley, John Bruce; Lu, Wei-Yang; Zutavern, Fred J.

    2003-09-30

    Disclosed is a system and method for providing closed-loop control of the heating of a workpiece by an induction heating machine, including generating an acoustic wave in the workpiece with a pulsed laser; optically measuring displacements of the surface of the workpiece in response to the acoustic wave; calculating a sub-surface material property by analyzing the measured surface displacements; creating an error signal by comparing an attribute of the calculated sub-surface material properties with a desired attribute; and reducing the error signal below an acceptable limit by adjusting, in real-time, as often as necessary, the operation of the inductive heating machine.

  10. Performance evaluation of a selected three-ton air-to-air heat pump in the heating mode

    SciTech Connect

    Domingorena, A.A.; Ball, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    An air-to-air split system residential heat pump of nominal three-ton capacity was instrumented and tested in the heating mode under laboratory conditions. This was the second of a planned series of experiments to obtain a data base of system and component performance for heat pumps. The system was evaluated under both steady-state and frosting-defrosting conditions; sensitivity of the system performance to variations in the refrigerant charge was measured. From the steady-state tests, the heating capacity and coefficient of performance were computed, and evaluations were made of the performance parameters of the fan and fan motor units, the heat exchangers and refrigerant metering device, and the compressor. System heat losses were analyzed. The frosting-defrosting tests allowed the observation of system and component performance under dynamic conditions, and measurement of performance degradation under frosting conditions.

  11. Heat pump employing optimal refrigerant compressor for low pressure ratio applications

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1982-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; two refrigerant heat exchangers; one for effecting the heat exchange with the fluid and a second refrigerant-heat exchange fluid heat exchanger for effecting a low pressure ratio of compression of the refrigerant; a rotary compressor for compressing the refrigerant with low power consumption at the low pressure ratio; at least one throttling valve connecting at the inlet side of heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit serially connecting the above elements; refrigerant in the circuit; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant.

  12. Super energy saver heat pump with dynamic hybrid phase change material

    DOEpatents

    Ally, Moonis Raza [Oak Ridge, TN; Tomlinson, John Jager [Knoxville, TN; Rice, Clifford Keith [Clinton, TN

    2010-07-20

    A heat pump has a refrigerant loop, a compressor in fluid communication with the refrigerant loop, at least one indoor heat exchanger in fluid communication with the refrigerant loop, and at least one outdoor heat exchanger in fluid communication with the refrigerant loop. The at least one outdoor heat exchanger has a phase change material in thermal communication with the refrigerant loop and in fluid communication with an outdoor environment. Other systems, devices, and methods are described.

  13. The DOE Heat-Pump-Centered Integrated Community Energy Systems Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calm, J. M.

    1982-03-01

    The Heat-Pump-Centered Integrated Community Energy Systems Project seeks to conserve energy by developing heat pump systems for district heating and cooling. Seven contractor teams were involved in concept development and subsequent application feasibility studies. A technical and economic assessment of the systems developed was performed based on the results of these and two related studies. The assessment concludes that district heating and cooling with heat pumps can conserve energy resources, and particularly nonrenewable fuels, in an environmentally and economically attractive way. The application potential is believed to be broad, and the energy savings of widespread implementation would be substantial. No one system is universally applicable, but many options exists. Market forces are already promoting many of the required technologies, but further research, development, and demonstration could accelerate implementation.

  14. Monitoring of Building Heating and Cooling Systems Based on Geothermal Heat Pump in Galicia (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, M.; Rodriguez, J.; Franco, D.

    2012-10-01

    In November 2009 was signed an agreement between Galicia's Government and EnergyLab to develop a project related with the geothermal heatpumps (hereafter, GSHP) technology. That project consisted in replacing the existing thermal equipment generators (diesel boilers and air-water heat pumps) by GSHP systems in representative public buildings: two nursery schools, a university library, a health centre and a residential building. This new systems will reach the demands of existing heating, cooling and domestic hot water (hereafter, DHW). These buildings can serve as examples of energy and economic savings that can offer this technology. We will show detailed analysis of the GSHP facilities monitored, since the starting-up of them. Which includes: COP's, EER's, energy consumption, operating costs, operation hours of the system, economic and emissions comparative, geothermal exchange evolution graphs, environmental conditions evolution graphs (temperature and demands), etc. The results presented show an example of the important benefits of the GSHP technology and the significant savings that can offer its implementation for heating, cooling and DHW production. Note to the reader: The article number has been corrected on web pages on November 22, 2013.

  15. Hybrid space heating/cooling system with Trombe wall, underground venting, and assisted heat pump

    SciTech Connect

    Shirley, J.W.; James, L.C.; Stevens, S.; Autry, A.N.; Nussbaum, M.; MacQueen, S.V.

    1983-06-22

    Our goal was to design and monitor a hybrid solar system/ground loop which automatically assists the standard, thermostatically controlled home heating/cooling system. The input from the homeowner was limited to normal thermostat operations. During the course of the project it was determined that to effectively gather data and control the various component interactions, a micro-computer based control system would also allow the HVAC system to be optimized by simple changes to software. This flexibility in an untested concept helped us to achieve optimum system performance. Control ranged from direct solar heating and direct ground loop cooling modes, to assistance of the heat pump by both solar space and ground loop. Sensors were strategically placed to provide data on response of the Trombe wall (surface, 4 in. deep, 8 in. deep), and the ground loop (inlet, 3/4 length, outlet). Micro-computer hardware and computer programs were developed to make cost effective decisions between the various modes of operation. Although recent advances in micro-computer hardware make similar control systems more readily achievable utilizing standard components, attention to the decision making criteria will always be required.

  16. Analysis of thermodynamic losses in ground source heat pumps and their influence on overall system performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casarosa, C.; Conti, P.; Franco, A.; Grassi, W.; Testi, D.

    2014-11-01

    The present work aims at identifying the relative influence of GSHP subsystems (viz. ground source, earth heat exchangers, heat pump unit, pumping devices) on the overall efficiency and the limits to which technological improvements should be pushed (because, beyond these limits, only minor benefits may be achieved). To this end, an analysis of thermodynamic losses is conducted for a case study, followed by a sensitivity analysis on the heat pump unit thermal performance. Primary energy consumptions of nine configurations with different combinations of ideal and real subsystems are compared. The completely ideal system is used as the reference to normalize energy consumptions and obtain a dimensionless efficiency parameter. The results show that - when a proper design methodology is employed - the performance of the borehole heat exchangers slightly affects the overall efficiency. On the contrary, the thermal response of the ground and the thermal and hydraulic performances of the heat pump unit are key factors. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is conducted by increasing the heating and cooling efficiencies of the heat pump device.

  17. Generic Guide Specification for Geothermal Heat Pump Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, WKT

    2000-04-12

    The attached Geothermal (Ground-Source) Heat Pump (GHP) Guide Specifications have been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with the intent to assist federal agency sites and engineers in the preparation of construction specifications for GHP projects. These specifications have been developed in the industry-standard Construction Specification Institute (CSI) format and cover several of the most popular members of the family of GHP systems. These guide specifications are applicable to projects whether the financing is with conventional appropriations, arranged by GHP specialty ESCOs under the U.S. Department of Energy's Technology-Specific GHP Super ESPCs, arranged by utilities under Utility Energy Service Contracts (UESCs) or arranged by generalist ESCOs under the various regional ESPCs. These specifications can provide several benefits to the end user that will help ensure successful GHP system installations. GHP guide specifications will help to streamline the specification development, review, and approval process because the architecture and engineering (AE) firm will be working from the familiar CSI format instead of developing the specifications from other sources. The guide specifications help to provide uniformity, standardization, and consistency in both the construction specifications and system installations across multiple federal sites. This standardization can provide future benefits to the federal sites in respect to both maintenance and operations. GHP guide specifications can help to ensure that the agency is getting its money's worth from the GHP system by preventing the use of marginal or inferior components and equipment. The agency and its AE do not have to start from scratch when developing specifications and can use the specification as a template and/or a checklist in developing both the design and the contract documents. The guide specifications can save project costs by reducing the engineering effort required during the

  18. System Modeling and Building Energy Simulations of Gas Engine Driven Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect

    Mahderekal, Isaac; Vineyard, Edward

    2013-01-01

    To improve the system performance of a gas engine driven heat pump (GHP) system, an analytical modeling and experimental study has been made by using desiccant system in cooling operation (particularly in high humidity operations) and suction line waste heat recovery to augment heating capacity and efficiency. The performance of overall GHP system has been simulated with a detailed vapor compression heat pump system design model. The modeling includes: (1) GHP cycle without any performance improvements (suction liquid heat exchange and heat recovery) as a baseline (both in cooling and heating mode), (2) the GHP cycle in cooling mode with desiccant system regenerated by waste heat from engine incorporated, (3) GHP cycle in heating mode with heat recovery (recovered heat from engine). According to the system modeling results, by using the desiccant system the sensible heat ratio (SHR- sensible heat ratio) can be lowered to 40%. The waste heat of the gas engine can boost the space heating efficiency by 25% at rated operating conditions. In addtion,using EnergyPlus, building energy simulations have been conducted to assess annual energy consumptions of GHP in sixteen US cities, and the performances are compared to a baseline unit, which has a electrically-driven air conditioner with the seasonal COP of 4.1 for space cooling and a gas funace with 90% fuel efficiency for space heating.

  19. Pumped, Two-Phase Heat-Transfer Loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelstein, F.

    1986-01-01

    Two-phase heat-transfer system delivers coolant to equipment as liquid and removes it as vapor. Alternatively, system heats equipment by delivering vapor and removing condensed liquid. Two-phase scheme effective for heat transfer over long distances. Heat-transfer plates remove heat from or supply heat to equipment. If temperature of plate is high, valve opens liquid-supply line to plate, and cooling results. If plate temperature is low, valve opens liquid-suction line to plate, and heating ensues.

  20. Results of heating mode performance tests of a solar-assisted heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C. B.; Smetana, F. O.

    1979-01-01

    The performance of a heat pump, utilizing 8.16 square meters of low-cost solar collectors as the evaporator in a Freon-114 refrigeration cycle, was determined under actual insolation conditions during the summer and fall of 1976. C.O.P.'s (coefficient of performance) greater than 3 were obtained with condensing temperatures around 78 C and evaporating temperatures around 27 C. Ambient temperatures were about 3 C above evaporating temperatures. Similar performance levels were obtained at other insolation and temperature conditions. Experience with the system has identified some component and system changes which should increase the obtainable C.O.P. to about 4.0. These are described along with the system's design rationale. The accumulated data are presented as an appendix.

  1. Evaluation of water source heat pumps for the Juneau, Alaska Area

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, J.J.; King, J.C.; Eisenhauer, J.L.; Gibson, C.I.

    1980-07-01

    The purposes of this project were to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of water source heat pumps (WSHP) for use in Juneau, Alaska and to identify potential demonstration projects to verify their feasibility. Information is included on the design, cost, and availability of heat pumps, possible use of seawater as a heat source, heating costs with WSHP and conventional space heating systems, and life cycle costs for WSHP-based heating systems. The results showed that WSHP's are technically viable in the Juneau area, proper installation and maintenance is imperative to prevent equipment failures, use of WSHP would save fuel oil but increase electric power consumption. Life cycle costs for WSHP's are about 8% above that for electric resistance heating systems, and a field demonstration program to verify these results should be conducted. (LCL)

  2. Experimental Performance of a Thermoelectric Heat-Pump Drying System for Drying Herbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wongsim, K.; Jamradloedluk, J.; Lertsatitthanakorn, C.; Siriamornpun, S.; Rungsiyopas, M.; Soponronnarit, S.

    2015-06-01

    In this study we investigated thermoelectric (TE) heat-pump drying of laurel clock vine leaves, and the effect of drying-air temperature on the characteristics of the leaves. The TE drying system comprised four TE modules each with its own rectangular fin heat sink. The hot side of each TE module was fixed to its own heat sink; the cold sides were fixed to heat-pipe heat sinks and a drying chamber. The drying time depended on drying-air temperature. The heating capacity and coefficient of performance (COP) increased as the current supplied to the TE modules was increased. Calculated COP for the entire TE heat-pump drying system were 1.28 and 0.81 for drying-air temperatures of 50 and 40°C, respectively.

  3. Performance Analysis of a CO2 Heat Pump Water Heating System Under a Daily Change in a Simulated Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Ryohei; Kohno, Yasuhiro; Wakui, Tetsuya; Takemura, Kazuhisa

    Air-to-water heat pumps using CO2 as a refrigerant have been developed. In addition, water heating systems each of which combines a CO2 heat pump with a hot water storage tank have been commercialized and widespread. They are expected to contribute to energy saving in residential hot water supply. It has become more and more important to enhance the system performance. In this paper, the performance of a CO2 heat pump water heating system is analyzed under a daily change in a simulated hot water demand by numerical simulation. A static model of a CO2 heat pump and a dynamic model of a storage tank result in a set of differential algebraic equations, and it is solved numerically by a hierarchical combination of Runge-Kutta and Newton-Raphson methods. Daily changes in the temperature distributions in the storage tank and the system performance criteria such as volumes of stored and unused hot water, coefficient of performance, and storage and system efficiencies are clarified under a series of daily hot water demands during a month.

  4. New industrial heat pump applications to a synthetic rubber production, Louisville, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The site selected for this study is the American Synthetic Rubber Corporation's polybutadiene plant in Louisville, Kentucky. The objective of this study is to further identify the energy savings potential through advanced heat pumps and other energy conservation methods developed in the context of pinch technology. The process studied involves a solution polymerization of butadiene monomer in the presence of toluene, which acts as a solvent. The results indicate that there is an excellent prospect for heat integration and heat pump application. The heat integration option requires an investment of about 8900 sq. ft. in additional area, to save about one third of the present steam consumption. Two process streams were identified for potential heat pump application. One of them is the combined overhead vapor stream from the stripping section, composed of steam and toluene mixture. The other stream is the overhead vapor from the concentration section, composed mainly of toluene. Economic analysis were performed, both for closed cycle and semi open cycle heat pumps. The potential for semi-open cycle (MVR) hear pumps looks extremely good. 15 figs., 11 tabs.

  5. Performance optimization of total momentum filtering double-resonance energy selective electron heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Ze-Min; Chen, Lin-Gen; Ge, Yan-Lin; Sun, Feng-Rui

    2016-04-01

    A theoretical model for energy selective electron (ESE) heat pumps operating with two-dimensional electron reservoirs is established in this study. In this model, a double-resonance energy filter operating with a total momentum filtering mechanism is considered for the transmission of electrons. The optimal thermodynamic performance of the ESE heat pump devices is also investigated. Numerical calculations show that the heating load of the device with two resonances is larger, whereas the coefficient of performance (COP) is lower than the ESE heat pump when considering a single-resonance filter. The performance characteristics of the ESE heat pumps in the total momentum filtering condition are generally superior to those with a conventional filtering mechanism. In particular, the performance characteristics of the ESE heat pumps considering a conventional filtering mechanism are vastly different from those of a device with total momentum filtering, which is induced by extra electron momentum in addition to the horizontal direction. Parameters such as resonance width and energy spacing are found to be associated with the performance of the electron system.

  6. GEO2D - Two-Dimensional Computer Model of a Ground Source Heat Pump System

    DOE Data Explorer

    James Menart

    2013-06-07

    This file contains a zipped file that contains many files required to run GEO2D. GEO2D is a computer code for simulating ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems in two-dimensions. GEO2D performs a detailed finite difference simulation of the heat transfer occurring within the working fluid, the tube wall, the grout, and the ground. Both horizontal and vertical wells can be simulated with this program, but it should be noted that the vertical wall is modeled as a single tube. This program also models the heat pump in conjunction with the heat transfer occurring. GEO2D simulates the heat pump and ground loop as a system. Many results are produced by GEO2D as a function of time and position, such as heat transfer rates, temperatures and heat pump performance. On top of this information from an economic comparison between the geothermal system simulated and a comparable air heat pump systems or a comparable gas, oil or propane heating systems with a vapor compression air conditioner. The version of GEO2D in the attached file has been coupled to the DOE heating and cooling load software called ENERGYPLUS. This is a great convenience for the user because heating and cooling loads are an input to GEO2D. GEO2D is a user friendly program that uses a graphical user interface for inputs and outputs. These make entering data simple and they produce many plotted results that are easy to understand. In order to run GEO2D access to MATLAB is required. If this program is not available on your computer you can download the program MCRInstaller.exe, the 64 bit version, from the MATLAB website or from this geothermal depository. This is a free download which will enable you to run GEO2D..

  7. Technology Solutions Case Study: Ground Source Heat Pump Research, TaC Studios Residence, Atlanta, Georigia

    SciTech Connect

    2014-09-01

    This case study describes the construction of a new test home that demonstrates current best practices for the mixed-humid climate, including a high performance ground source heat pump for heating and cooling, a building envelope featuring advanced air sealing details and low-density spray foam insulation, and glazing that exceeds ENERGY STAR requirements.

  8. A chemical heat pump based on the reaction of calcium chloride and methanol for solar heating, cooling and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offenhartz, P. O.

    1981-03-01

    An engineering development test prototype of the CaCl2-CheOH chemical heat pump was tested. The unit, which has storage capacity in excess of 100,000 BTU, completed over 100 full charge-discharge cycles. Cycling data show that the rate of heat pumping depends strongly on the absorber-evaporator temperature difference. These rates are more than adequate for solar heating or for solar cooling using dry ambient air heat rejection. Performance degradation after 100 cycles, expressed as a contact resistance, was less than 2 C. The heat exchangers showed some warpage due to plastic flow of the salt, producing the contact resistance. The experimental COP for cooling was 0.52, close to the theoretically predicted value.

  9. Efficiencies and coefficients of performance of heat engines, refrigerators, and heat pumps with friction: a universal limiting behavior.

    PubMed

    Bizarro, João P S; Rodrigues, Paulo

    2012-11-01

    For work-producing heat engines, or work-consuming refrigerators and heat pumps, the percentage decrease caused by friction in their efficiencies, or coefficients of performance (COP's), is approximately given by the ratio W(fric)/W between the work spent against friction forces and the work performed by, or delivered to, the working fluid. This universal scaling, which applies in the limit of small friction (W(fric)/W heat-engine efficiencies), allows a simple and quick estimate of the impact that friction losses can have on the FOM's of thermal engines and plants, or of the level of those losses from the observed and predicted FOM's. In the case of refrigerators and heat pumps, if W(fric)/W heat engines), the COP percentage decrease due to friction approaches asymptotically (W(fric)/W)/(1+W(fric)/W) instead of W(fric)/W. Estimates for the level of frictional losses using the Carnot (or, for heat engines and power plants only, the Curzon-Ahlborn) predictions and observed FOM's of real power plants, heat engines, refrigerators, and heat pumps show that they usually operate in domains where these behaviors are valid. PMID:23214740

  10. Efficiencies and coefficients of performance of heat engines, refrigerators, and heat pumps with friction: a universal limiting behavior.

    PubMed

    Bizarro, João P S; Rodrigues, Paulo

    2012-11-01

    For work-producing heat engines, or work-consuming refrigerators and heat pumps, the percentage decrease caused by friction in their efficiencies, or coefficients of performance (COP's), is approximately given by the ratio W(fric)/W between the work spent against friction forces and the work performed by, or delivered to, the working fluid. This universal scaling, which applies in the limit of small friction (W(fric)/W heat-engine efficiencies), allows a simple and quick estimate of the impact that friction losses can have on the FOM's of thermal engines and plants, or of the level of those losses from the observed and predicted FOM's. In the case of refrigerators and heat pumps, if W(fric)/W heat engines), the COP percentage decrease due to friction approaches asymptotically (W(fric)/W)/(1+W(fric)/W) instead of W(fric)/W. Estimates for the level of frictional losses using the Carnot (or, for heat engines and power plants only, the Curzon-Ahlborn) predictions and observed FOM's of real power plants, heat engines, refrigerators, and heat pumps show that they usually operate in domains where these behaviors are valid.

  11. The heat transfer characteristic of the reactor coolant pump canned motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, X. Y.; Xu, R.; Tao, G.; Yang, Y. L.; Wang, D. Z.

    2016-05-01

    This paper deals with the heat transfer characteristic of the reactor coolant pump canned motor. The cooling of the canned motor is an important issue for the design of the pump. In order to analyze the heat transfer characteristic of the canned motor, firstly the electromagnetic field of the canned motor is calculated with finite element method, and the magnetic resistance loss is gotten, then the heat distribution of the canned motor is obtained based on the electromagnetic field, finally the flow field and temperature field of the canned motor is calculated with CFD methods. The calculation indicates that the highest temperature and highest temperature rising are both occurred at the end winding.

  12. Experimental performance evaluation of heat pump-based steam supply system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaida, T.; Sakuraba, I.; Hashimoto, K.; Hasegawa, H.

    2015-08-01

    Heat pumps have become increasingly important as a technology to reduce primary energy consumption and greenhouse effect gas emission. They are presently used mainly on residential air-conditioning and domestic hot water and are expected to spread to industrial heating processes. In 2011, Kobe Steel, Ltd. developed and commercialized two heat pump- based steam supply systems; the high efficiency steam supply system with a steam temperature of 120°C (SGH120) and the system which enables a steam temperature of 165°C (sGh165). For promoting the spread of these industrial heat pumps and enhancing the reliability of them, we investigate experimentally steam generation rate, energy efficiency and controlled performance of the SGH165 under various operating conditions on the assumption of actual different industrial processes, and evaluate technical possibilities for better performance.

  13. Cold Climate and Retrofit Applications for Air-to-Air Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, Van D

    2015-01-01

    Air source heat pumps (ASHP) including air-to-air ASHPs are easily applied to buildings almost anywhere for new construction as well as retrofits or renovations. They are widespread in milder climate regions but their use in cold regions is hampered due to low heating efficiency and capacity at cold outdoor temperatures. Retrofitting air-to-air ASHPs to existing buildings is relatively easy if the building already has an air distribution system. For buildings without such systems alternative approaches are necessary. Examples are ductless, minisplit heat pumps or central heat pumps coupled to small diameter, high velocity (SDHV) air distribution systems. This article presents two subjects: 1) a summary of R&D investigations aimed at improving the cold weather performance of ASHPs, and 2) a brief discussion of building retrofit options using air-to-air ASHP systems.

  14. New industrial heat pump applications to a petrochemical plant, Phase IIA: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the energy conservation potential of a heat pump in an industrial site. The proper placement of the heat pump was based on the principles of Pinch Technology. Chevron`s refinery at Port Arthur, Texas, was selected as the industrial site for this study. Two energy conservation options were identified for this site with a combined total savings of $570,000 per year. This represents over 10% reduction in current thermal energy consumption of the process units, which were part of this study. The details of each option are described. The first option was a passive heat integration scheme. The second option involves a semi-open cycle mechanical vapor recompression heat pump that compresses the steam generated from the reactor exhaust streams of the cyclohexane unit to provide part of the reboiling duty of the benzene column.

  15. Coupling of an acoustic wave to shear motion due to viscous heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Goree, J.

    2016-07-01

    Viscous heating due to shear motion in a plasma can result in the excitation of a longitudinal acoustic wave, if the shear motion is modulated in time. The coupling mechanism is a thermal effect: time-dependent shear motion causes viscous heating, which leads to a rarefaction that can couple into a longitudinal wave, such as an acoustic wave. This coupling mechanism is demonstrated in an electrostatic three-dimensional (3D) simulation of a dusty plasma, in which a localized shear flow is initiated as a pulse, resulting in a delayed outward propagation of a longitudinal acoustic wave. This coupling effect can be profound in plasmas that exhibit localized viscous heating, such as the dusty plasma we simulated using parameters typical of the PK-4 experiment. We expect that a similar phenomenon can occur with other kinds of plasma waves.

  16. Technology assessment of external heat systems for Stirling heat pumps. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vasilakis, A.D.

    1993-12-01

    A technology assessment and design improvement effort was undertaken for the Stirling engine heat pump external heat system (EHS) in order to reduce costs. It was found that only two applicable EHS design approaches have been developed to any extent: a relatively undeveloped design featuring a premixed fuel and air transpiration burner, and a turbulent diffusion type burner system developed by Mechanical Technology, Inc. To evaluate and optimize the design concepts, an analytical model was developed that examined design and performance variables. The model calculated key temperatures, allowing the specification of materials requirements. Adherence to American National Standards Institute appliance furnace code material specifications was assumed. Concepts for EHS control systems were evaluated, and a cost-effective control system design was developed for the turbulent diffusion burner EHS. The study reveals that optimizing the diffusion burner EHS design can result in significant cost savings. No clear choice between the diffusion burner and transpiration burner systems could be determined from this study, but the designs of both were further developed and improved. Estimates show the EHS based on a transpiration burner to have a manufactured cost that is roughly 70% of the turbulent diffusion burner EHS cost, but fuel efficiency is lower by about 18%.

  17. Performance of multiple mini-tube heat exchangers as an internal heat exchanger of a vapor-injection cycle heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Jin Yong; Jeong, Ji Hwan

    2016-04-01

    A multiple mini-tube (MMT) heat exchanger was considered as an internal heat exchanger of vapor-injection cycle heat pump. Heat transfer and pressure drop in multiple mini-tube heat exchangers were numerically and experimentally investigated. Results show that the best performance of the MMT heat exchanger can be obtained when the intermediate-pressure two-phase refrigerant is supplied to the shell-side and this refrigerant reaches a saturated vapor state at the exit of the heat exchanger.

  18. Performance evaluation of the hydronic heat pump system: Volume 2, Cooling season. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S.; Stoltz, S.; Hagen, E.

    1995-04-01

    A hydronic heat pump system has been developed under EPRI sponsorship as a potential substitute for conventional residential forced-air heat pumps. The use of a hydronic thermal distribution system of circulating water to distribute the output of a residential heat pump compares favorably with other methods of distribution. To evaluate the performance of a hydronic heat pump compared to a conventional forced-air system, EPRI retained GEOMET Technologies, Inc., to test a prototype hydronic system in the controlled environment of an unoccupied research house. A prototype multizone hydronic system, developed and assembled by the Tecogen Division of Thermal Power Corporation, was tested in one of GEOMET`s two research houses during the 1992--1993 heating season and in the 1993 cooling season. This report describes the cooling-season tests of the hydronic heat pump system. The prototype hydronic system was tested to examine its efficiency and reliability. It was tested under several scenarios having different combinations of setpoints while the internal doors were either open or closed. The test data were analyzed to compare the hydronic system`s energy consumption, comfort, and efficiency to those of a conventional forced-air heat pump system. The hydronic system ran smoothly, and there were no operational problems in the cooling mode, though the hydronic system required more energy than the conventional system under comparable test conditions. However, the hydronic system provided a level of thermal comfort equivalent to that of the conventional system. Overall energy efficiency of the hydronic system might be improved with minor modifications in the operating/control scheme to increase low speed compressor operation, reduce compressor cycling and by circulating the water through the system only when heating or cooling is required in any of the zones.

  19. Development and Validation of a Gas-Fired Residential Heat Pump Water Heater - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Garrabrant; Roger Stout; Paul Glanville; Janice Fitzgerald; Chris Keinath

    2013-01-21

    For gas-fired residential water heating, the U.S. and Canada is predominantly supplied by minimum efficiency storage water heaters with Energy Factors (EF) in the range of 0.59 to 0.62. Higher efficiency and higher cost ($700 - $2,000) options serve about 15% of the market, but still have EFs below 1.0, ranging from 0.65 to 0.95. To develop a new class of water heating products that exceeds the traditional limit of thermal efficiency, the project team designed and demonstrated a packaged water heater driven by a gas-fired ammonia-water absorption heat pump. This gas-fired heat pump water heater can achieve EFs of 1.3 or higher, at a consumer cost of $2,000 or less. Led by Stone Mountain Technologies Inc. (SMTI), with support from A.O. Smith, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), and Georgia Tech, the cross-functional team completed research and development tasks including cycle modeling, breadboard evaluation of two cycles and two heat exchanger classes, heat pump/storage tank integration, compact solution pump development, combustion system specification, and evaluation of packaged prototype GHPWHs. The heat pump system extracts low grade heat from the ambient air and produces high grade heat suitable for heating water in a storage tank for domestic use. Product features that include conventional installation practices, standard footprint and reasonable economic payback, position the technology to gain significant market penetration, resulting in a large reduction of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from domestic hot water production.

  20. Reducing Pumping Power in Hydronic Heating and Cooling Systems with Microencapsulated Phase Change Material Slurries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karas, Kristoffer Jason

    Phase change materials (PCMs) are being used increasingly in a variety of thermal transfer and thermal storage applications. This thesis presents the results of a laboratory study into the feasibility of improving the performance of hydronic heating and cooling systems by adding microcapsules filled with a PCM to the water used as heat transport media in these systems. Microencapsulated PCMs (MPCMs) increase the heat carrying capacity of heat transport liquids by absorbing or releasing heat at a constant temperature through a change of phase. Three sequences of tests and their results are presented: 1) Thermal cycling tests conducted to determine the melting temperatures and extent of supercooling associated with the MPCMs tested. 2) Hydronic performance tests in which MPCM slurries were pumped through a fin-and-tube, air-to-liquid heat exchanger and their thermal transfer performance compared against that of ordinary water. 3) Mechanical stability tests in which MPCM slurries were pumped in a continuous loop in order to gauge the extent of rupture due to pumping. It is shown that slurries consisting of water and MPCMs ˜ 14-24 mum in diameter improve thermal performance and offer the potential for power savings in the form of reduced pumping requirements. In addition, it is shown that while slurries of MPCMs 2-5 mum in diameter appear to exhibit better mechanical stability than slurries of larger diameter MPCMs, the smaller MPCMs appear to reduce the thermal performance of air-to-liquid heat exchangers.

  1. Performance Analysis of a Hot Water Supply System with a CO2 Heat Pump by Numerical Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Ryohei; Shimizu, Takeshi; Takemura, Kazuhisa; Ito, Koichi

    Heat pumps using CO2 as a natural refrigerant have been developed and are expected to contribute to energy saving in hot water supply. In residential applications, CO2 heat pumps are used in combination with hot water storage tanks. The objective of this series of papers is to analyze the overall performance of a hot water supply system composed of a CO2 heat pump and a hot water storage tank by numerical simulation. In the 1st report, a simulation model of a CO2 heat pump is created based on thermodynamic equations and measured data for an existing CO2 heat pump. In addition, the performance of a CO2 heat pump is clarified in relation to the air temperature as well as the inlet and outlet water temperatures.

  2. A Comparison Study of Heat-Transfer Simulations in a Closed-Loop Geothermal Heat- Pump System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Seol, Y.; Bae, G.; Lee, K.

    2006-12-01

    Calculating heat transfer, particularly at the boundary between two different materials with varying heat conductivities, often involves weighting the heat conductivities of the two materials. However, the validity of the weighting scheme would be weak for a system in which heat conductivities vary considerably. We implemented the concept of a heat-transfer coefficient into heat transfer simulations to replace the weighting schemes. The heat-transfer coefficient can be experimentally measured to capture heat transfer between two materials whose heat conductivities significantly differ. A numerical code incorporating the heat-transfer coefficient was developed for simulations of heat transfer in a geothermal heat pump system (GHP) that consists of heat pipes, enclosing grouting material, surrounding porous media, and ambient groundwater flow. The code was applied to a simplified closed-loop GHP system with a single U-shaped heat pipe, and temperature changes in the system with circulating water through the pipe were monitored. The simulated temperature distribution results from this code were compared with results using the conventional weighting schemes of TOUGH2, a widely accepted simulator for heat and water flow in geothermal systems. Detailed discussion on the comparison analysis will be presented.

  3. Performance analysis of solar-assisted chemical heat-pump dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Fadhel, M.I.; Sopian, K.; Daud, W.R.W.

    2010-11-15

    A solar-assisted chemical heat-pump dryer has been designed, fabricated and tested. The performance of the system has been studied under the meteorological conditions of Malaysia. The system consists of four main components: solar collector (evacuated tubes type), storage tank, solid-gas chemical heat pump unit and dryer chamber. A solid-gas chemical heat pump unit consists of reactor, condenser and evaporator. The reaction used in this study (CaCl2-NH{sub 3}). A simulation has been developed, and the predicted results are compared with those obtained from experiments. The maximum efficiency for evacuated tubes solar collector of 80% has been predicted against the maximum experiment of 74%. The maximum values of solar fraction from the simulation and experiment are 0.795 and 0.713, respectively, whereas the coefficient of performance of chemical heat pump (COP{sup h}) maximum values 2.2 and 2 are obtained from simulation and experiments, respectively. The results show that any reduction of energy at condenser as a result of the decrease in solar radiation will decrease the coefficient of performance of chemical heat pump as well as decrease the efficiency of drying. (author)

  4. Factors affecting the optimization of the Stirling cycle for use as a heat pump

    SciTech Connect

    Scaringe, R.P.

    1983-11-01

    This report discusses the effects of variations of the phase-angle, cylinder volumes, dead space, cylinder heat transfer, working fluid, and temperature on capacity and performance of a Stirling cycle heat pump through the use of a relatively simple computer model. Shortcomings in predicting the coefficient of performance for heating (COP /SUB H/ ) via ideal analysis are identified. A comparison of the simulated COP /SUB H/ with experimental data is presented for one particular nonoptimum machine.

  5. Heat generation and thermo-mechanical effect modeling in longitudinally diode-pumped solid state lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakhdari, Fouad; Osmani, Ismahen; Tabet, Saida

    2015-09-01

    Thermal management in solid state laser is a challenge to the high power laser industry's ability to provide continued improvements in device and system performance. In this work an investigation of heat generation and thermo-mechanical effect in a high-power Nd:YAG and Yb:YAG cylindrical-type solid state laser pumped longitudinally with different power by fibre coupled laser diode is carried out by numerical simulation based on the finite element method (FEM). Impact of the dopant concentration on the power conversion efficiency is included in the simulation. The distribution of the temperature inside the lasing material is resolute according to the thermal conductivity. The thermo-mechanical effect is explored as a function of pump power in order to determine the maximum pumping power allowed to prevent the crystal's fracture. The presented simulations are in broad agreement with analytical solutions; provided that the boundary condition of the pump induced heat generation is accurately modelled.

  6. Increasing interest in the gas engine heat pump

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Increasing primary-energy prices and the availability of untapped heat sources have sparked interest in using a high-efficiency natural gas-driven engine as the power source in a heatpump system. This approach is being studied using a 37-kW Waukesha gas engine; one recently completed installation at Schiedam, Netherlands, extracts heat from a nearby waterway and utilizes the gas engine's waste heat as well.

  7. Optimal operation of a concurrent-flow corn dryer with a drying heat pump using superheated steam

    SciTech Connect

    Moraitis, C.S.; Akritidis, C.B.

    1998-07-01

    A numerical model of a concurrent-flow dryer of corn using superheated steam as drying medium is solved applying a shooting technique, so as to satisfy boundary conditions imposed by the optimal design of a drying heat pump. The drying heat pump is based on the theory of minimum energy cycles. The solution of the model proves the applicability of the heat pump to a concurrent-flow dryer, achieving a Specific Energy Consumption as low as 1080 kJ/kg.

  8. Analysis of the performance and space-conditioning impacts of dedicated heat-pump water heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, L.; Swisher, J.

    1980-12-01

    A description is given of the development and testing of the newly-marketed dedicated heat pump water heater (HPWH), and an analysis is presented of its performance and space conditioning impacts. This system utilizes an air-to-water heat pump, costs about $1000 installed, and obtains a coefficient of performance (COP) of about 2.0 in laboratory and field tests. Since a HPWH is usually installed indoors and extracts heat from the air, its operation is a space conditioning benefit if an air conditioning load exists and a penalty if a space heating load exists. To investigate HPWH performance and a space conditioning impacts, a simulation has been developed to model the thermal performance of a residence with resistance baseboard heat, air conditioning, and either heat pump or resistance water heating. The building characteristics are adapted for three US geographical areas (Madison, Wisconsin; Washington, DC; and Ft. Worth, Texas), and the system is simulated for a year with typical weather data. For each city, HPWH COPs are calculated monthly and yearly. In addition, the water heating and space conditioning energy requirements of HPWH operation are compared with those of resistance water heater operation to determine the relative performance ratio (RPR) of the HPWH. The annual simulated RPRs range from 1.5 to 1.7, which indicate a substantial space heating penalty of HPWH operation in these cities.

  9. Verifying energy savings with minimal metered data: The Hunter heat pump analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, S.A.

    1995-03-01

    In November 1992, Hunter Army Air Field (AAF) completed the installation of 489 air-source heat pumps -- a new heat pump and air-handling unit for each residence. The air-source heat pumps replaced older, less efficient, air-conditioning systems, fuel oil-fired furnaces, and fan coil units. Hunter AAF originally contacted to upgrade the old family housing heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems with high efficiency air-conditioning systems and natural gas furnaces, but an alternative proposal and following energy studies indicated that heat pumps were a more life-cycle cost-effective alternative. Six months after the heat pumps were installed, Hunter`s energy bills appeared to be increasing, not decreasing as expected. In early 1994, Pacific Northwest Laboratory` (PNL) began an analysis to determine if there were any energy savings resulting from the heat pump installation as predicted by previous energy studies. The problem is that the HVAC systems are not specifically submetered to support verifying the resulting energy savings and, as is the case with most federal facilities, even the homes are not individually metered. Savings verification needed to be accomplished with die existing and available metered data. This data consisted primarily of monthly electric submeter readings from the two housing subdivision meters, historical fuel oil delivery records for family housing, and monthly base-wide electric bills. The objective of the study is to verify the change in energy consumption in family housing and, to the extent possible, identify how much of the change in consumption is attributable to the new HVAC system and how much is probably attributable to other factors, such as the weather.

  10. Acoustic Streaming in Microgravity: Flow Stability and Heat Transfer Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E. H.

    1999-01-01

    Experimental results are presented for drops and bubbles levitated in a liquid host, with particular attention given to the effect of shape oscillations and capillary waves on the local flow fields. Some preliminary results are also presented on the use of streaming flows for the control of evaporation rate and rotation of electrostatically levitated droplets in 1 g. The results demonstrate the potential for the technological application of acoustic methods to active control of forced convection in microgravity.

  11. Comparison of acoustic and conventional flow measurement techniques at the Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plant: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    March, P.A.; Missimer, J.R.; Voss, A.; Pearson, H.S.

    1987-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) initiated a research project to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of using the acoustic method of flow measurement in hydroelectric power plant efficiency tests. As a portion of this program, the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plant was chosen as one of the sites to be tested. The primary objective of the TVA test was to compare the measurements of the Ocean Research Engineering (ORE), acoustic flowmeter installed on Unit 1 to the Volumetric and Winter-Kennedy Techniques for flow measurement. The Winter-Kennedy Technique is the standard flow measurement technique used in the plant. The Volumetric Technique consisted of accurate measurement of the upper reservoir volume over specified time increments. For calibration, the upper reservoir was initially drained and as it was being filled, aerial photographs were taken to obtain contour lines which were correlated with simultaneous stage measurements. The photographs were used to compute the differential volume of the reservoir associated with a change in stage. Six performance tests were conducted on Unit 1. During the tests no other units were operated. Five tests were conducted in the generating mode and one test was conducted in the pumping mode. The uncertainty in the measurements using the Volumetric Technique is of the order of 0.5 percent for changes of stage elevation in excess of two feet. The flowrate measured by the ORE acoustic flowmeter was consistently of the order of 1.5 percent lower than the flowrate determined from the Volumetric Technique in both the generating and pumping modes. 3 refs., 32 figs., 14 tabs.

  12. Application analysis of ground source heat pumps in building space conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Hua; Wang, Yungang

    2013-07-01

    The adoption of geothermal energy in space conditioning of buildings through utilizing ground source heat pump (GSHP, also known as geothermal heat pump) has increased rapidly during the past several decades. However, the impacts of the GSHP utilization on the efficiency of heat pumps and soil temperature distribution remained unclear and needs further investigation. This paper presents a novel model to calculate the soil temperature distribution and the coefficient of performance (COP) of GSHP. Different scenarios were simulated to quantify the impact of different factors on the GSHP performance, including heat balance, daily running mode, and spacing between boreholes. Our results show that GSHP is suitable for buildings with balanced cooling and heating loads. It can keep soil temperature at a relatively constant level for more than 10 years. Long boreholes, additional space between boreholes, intermittent running mode will improve the performance of GSHP, but large initial investment is required. The improper design will make the COP of GSHP even lower than traditional heat pumps. Professional design and maintenance technologies are greatly needed in order to promote this promising technology in the developing world.

  13. Design and development of a split-evaporator heat-pump system

    SciTech Connect

    Somerville, M.H.; Penoncello, S.G.

    1981-12-01

    The designs and experimental results of three types of multiple source heat pumps are presented. The three designs are the parallel evaporator, the series evaporator, and the parallel evaporator with active subcooling, with the parallel evaporator with the active subcooling showing the most promise for solving the problem of defrosting of air evaporators. Three design procedures for multiple source heat pumps were developed. One of these is a hand calculational procedure, the others are computer based. The models are based upon the refrigerant flow rate, rather than the refrigeration effect of the evaporator. The technical results of a detailed analytical and experimental model of the heat transfer rates on a flat plate ice maker are presented. It is shown, both analytically and experimentally, that the temperature of the air surrounding the flat plate ice maker can play a dominant role in the rate of ice formation. A detailed weather analysis for forty cities located throughout the nation was completed. These data were processed to allow easy computation of thermal storage requirements for full, partial, or minimum ACES systems, or upon other design requirements, such as off-peak air conditioning. The results of an innovative ice storage system that is thermally coupled to the earth are described. This system has the potential for meeting both the off-peak air conditioning needs and the thermal storage requirements for the heating cycle. An economic and energy comparison of multiple source heat pumps with ACES, and air-to-air heat pump systems is presented.

  14. Performance predictions for a room temperature, Ericsson cycle, magnetic heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purnell, J. G.

    1982-05-01

    The performance potential of a room temperature magnetic heat pump utilizing Gadolinium and operating on an Ericsson Cycle was investigated at magnetic flux densities of 2 and 7-Tesla which represent the upper limits of conventional and superconducting electromagnetics, respectively. At a coefficient of performance of 5, a 7-Tesla system would provide a cooling capacity of at best 1200 BTU per hour per pound of Gadolinium while a 2-Tesla system would operate at approximately 130 BTU per hour per pound of Gadolinium. Magnetic circuit efficiency was not determined but must be high (95-percent or better) in order for the magnetic heat pump performance to compete with conventional cooling systems. It is unlikely the magnetic heat pump investigated could approach the performance and compactness of the conventional cooling systems unless field strengths much greater than 7-Tesla are possible.

  15. Evaluation of a large capacity heat pump concept for active cooling of hypersonic aircraft structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagel, L. L.; Herring, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Results of engineering analyses assessing the conceptual feasibility of a large capacity heat pump for enhancing active cooling of hypersonic aircraft structure are presented. A unique heat pump arrangement which permits cooling the structure of a Mach 6 transport to aluminum temperatures without the aid of thermal shielding is described. The selected concept is compatible with the use of conventional refrigerants, with Freon R-11 selected as the preferred refrigerant. Condenser temperatures were limited to levels compatible with the use of conventional refrigerants by incorporating a unique multipass condenser design, which extracts mechanical energy from the hydrogen fuel, prior to each subsequent pass through the condenser. Results show that it is technically feasible to use a large capacity heat pump in lieu of external shielding. Additional analyses are required to optimally apply this concept.

  16. Analytical solution of the heat equation in a longitudinally pumped cubic solid-state laser.

    PubMed

    Sabaeian, Mohammad; Nadgaran, Hamid; Mousave, Laleh

    2008-05-01

    Knowledge about the temperature distribution inside solid-state laser crystals is essential for calculation of thermal phase shift, thermal lensing, thermally induced birefringence, and heat-induced crystal bending. Solutions for the temperature distribution for the case of steady-state heat loading have appeared in the literature only for simple cylindrical crystal shapes and are usually based on numerical techniques. For the first time, to our knowledge, a full analytical solution of the heat equation for an anisotropic cubic cross-section solid-state crystal is presented. The crystal is assumed to be longitudinally pumped by a Gaussian pump profile. The pump power attenuation along the crystal and the real cooling mechanisms, such as convection, are considered in detail. A comparison between our analytical solutions and its numerical counterparts shows excellent agreement when just a few terms are employed in the series solutions.

  17. Analytical solution of the heat equation in a longitudinally pumped cubic solid-state laser

    SciTech Connect

    Sabaeian, Mohammad; Nadgaran, Hamid; Mousave, Laleh

    2008-05-01

    Knowledge about the temperature distribution inside solid-state laser crystals is essential for calculation of thermal phase shift, thermal lensing, thermally induced birefringence, and heat-induced crystal bending. Solutions for the temperature distribution for the case of steady-state heat loading have appeared in the literature only for simple cylindrical crystal shapes and are usually based on numerical techniques. For the first time, to our knowledge, a full analytical solution of the heat equation for an anisotropic cubic cross-section solid-state crystal is presented. The crystal is assumed to be longitudinally pumped by a Gaussian pump profile. The pump power attenuation along the crystal and the real cooling mechanisms, such as convection, are considered in detail. A comparison between our analytical solutions and its numerical counterparts shows excellent agreement when just a few terms are employed in the series solutions.

  18. The earth-coupled heat pump: Utilizing innovative technology in single family rehabilitation strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    The study examines the feasibility of incorporating the use of earth-coupled heat pump technology in single-family housing rehabilitation projects, based on energy conservation attributes and financial considerations. Following evaluation of a theoretical model which indicated that installations of the heat pumps were feasible, the heat pumps were tested under actual conditions in five single family housing units which were part of the Urban Homesteading Program, and were matched with comparable units which did not receive special treatment. Energy consumption information was collected for all units for twelve months. Variables were identified, and the data was analyzed for individual housing units and compared with the results predicted by the theoretical model to determine the practicality of incorporating such technology in large scale rehabilitation projects. 14 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Impact factors on the long-term sustainability of Borehole Heat Exchanger coupled Ground Source Heat Pump System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Haibing; Hein, Philipp; Görke, Uwe-Jens; Bucher, Anke; Kolditz, Olaf

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, Ground Source Heat Pump System (GSHPS) has been recognized as an efficient technology to utilize shallow geothermal energy. Along with its wide application, some GSHPS are experiencing a gradual decrease in Borehole Heat Exchanger (BHE) outflow temperatures and thus have to be turned off after couple of years' operation. A comprehensive numerical investigation was then performed to model the flow and heat transport processes in and around the BHE, together with the dynamic change of heat pump efficiency. The model parameters were based on the soil temperature and surface weather condition in the Leipzig area. Different scenarios were modelled for a service life of 30 years, to reveal the evolution of BHE outflow and surrounding soil temperatures. It is found that lateral groundwater flow and using BHE for cooling will be beneficial to the energy recovery, along with the efficiency improvement of the heat pump. In comparison to other factors, the soil heat capacity and thermal conductivity are considered to have minor impact on the long-term sustainability of the system. Furthermore, the application of thermally enhanced grout material will improve the sustainability and efficiency. In contrast, it is very likely that undersized systems and improper grouting are the causes of strong system degradation.

  20. Design, development and test of a capillary pump loop heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroliczek, E. J.; Ku, J.; Ollendorf, S.

    1984-01-01

    The development of a capillary pump loop (CPL) heat pipe, including computer modeling and breadboard testing, is presented. The computer model is a SINDA-type thermal analyzer, combined with a pressure analyzer, which predicts the transients of the CPL heat pipe during operation. The breadboard is an aluminum/ammonia transport system which contains multiple parallel evaporator and condenser zones within a single loop. Test results have demonstrated the practicality and reliability of such a design, including heat load sharing among evaporators, liquid inventory/temperature control feature, and priming under load. Transport capability for this system is 65 KW-M with individual evaporator pumps managing up to 1.7 KW at a heat flux of 15 W/sq cm. The prediction of the computer model for heat transport capabilities is in good agreement with experimental results.

  1. A pumped, two-phase flow heat transport system for orbiting instrument payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowle, A. A.

    1981-01-01

    A pumped two-phase (heat absorption/heat rejection) thermal transport system for orbiting instrument payloads is investigated. The thermofluid characteristics necessary for the system design are discussed. A preliminary design with a series arrangement of four instrument heat stations and six radiators in a single loop is described in detail, and the total mass is estimated to be 134 kg, with the radiators, instrument heat stations, and fluid reservoir accounting for approximately 86, 24, and 12 kg, respectively. The evaluation of preliminary test results shows that the system has potential advantages; however, further research is necessary in the areas of one-g and zero-g heat transfer coefficients/fluid regimes, fluid by-pass temperature control, and reliability of small pumps.

  2. Development of marketable solar assisted heat pumps. Phase II. Summary report, technical results

    SciTech Connect

    Hundt, R.; Heard, S.

    1981-02-20

    A water source heat pump has been designed that is capable of operating over the range from 40 to 110/sup 0/F entering water temperature and has a heating coefficient of performance greater than six in the upper portion of this range. A computerized heat pump balance program was written to allow the performance of either a water-to-water or a water-to-air heat pump to be predicted in either the heating or cooling mode. A detailed program description, flow charts, and sample outputs are appended. The balance program was used to specify components for a high efficiency water-to-water and a high efficiency water-to-air heat pump. Performance predictions for both units in heating and in cooling are included. The water-to-water and water-to-air performance predictions were compared. The water-to-air approach was clearly superior. A detailed design and layout was done for the three solar-assisted water-to-air heat pump. A horizontal configuration was chosen for marketability reasons. The design was made consistent with high quantity production equipment available in our factories and should result in the lowest possible manufacturing cost. A key question to be answered in this project is whether a reciprocating compressor can operate without damage at the high suction pressures characteristic to the inline SAHP. Reciprocating compressors are normally applied in applications with maximum suction pressures equal to a 55/sup 0/F saturated suction temperature. An accelerated life test was performed on low speed at 85/sup 0/F saturated suction temperature and 100/sup 0/F saturated condensing temperature. After 465 hours at these severe conditions no performance degradation or physical damage was noted. Tests on high speed at 70/sup 0/F saturated suction temperature are in progress and should define the limits where the compressor may be safely operated.

  3. Performance and Economic Modeling of Horizontally Drilled Ground-Source Heat Pumps in Select California Climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiryadinata, Steven

    Service life modeling was performed to gage the viability of unitary 3.5 kWt, ground-source terminal heat pumps (GTHP) employing horizontal directionally drilled geothermal heat exchangers (GHX) over air-source terminal heat pumps (PTHP) in hotels and motels and residential apartment building sectors in California's coastal and inland climates. Results suggest the GTHP can reduce hourly peak demand for the utility by 7%-25% compared to PTHP, depending on the climate and building type. The annual energy savings, which range from -1% to 5%, are highly dependent on the GTHP pump energy use relative to the energy savings attributed to the difference in ground and air temperatures (DeltaT). In mild climates with small ?T, the pump energy use may overcome any advantage to utilizing a GHX. The majority of total levelized cost savings - ranging from 0.18/ft2 to 0.3/ft 2 - are due to reduced maintenance and lifetime capital cost normally associated with geothermal heat pump systems. Without these reductions (not validated for the GTHP system studied), the GTHP technology does not appear to offer significant advantages over PTHP in the climate zones studied here. The GTHP levelized cost was most sensitive to variations in installed cost and in some cases, energy use (influenced by climate zone choice), which together highlights the importance of climate selection for installation, and the need for larger market penetration of ground-source systems in order to bring down installed costs as the technology matures.

  4. DOE/ORNL heat pump design model, overview and application to R-22 alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, C.K.

    1997-12-01

    This computer program is a public-domain system design tool for application to air-to-air heat pumps. The main aspects of the program are reviewed with emphasis on the newest features of the current fifth-generation version (Mark V) and an upcoming more fully HFC-capable release (Mark VI). Current model predictions are compared to test data for a leading HFC alternative to HCFC-22 in heat pumps. Examples are shown of some user interfaces that have been recently developed for the program. To demonstrate the design capabilities of the model for R-22 alternatives, a refrigerant-side optimization was conducted to find the best balance of heat transfer versus pressure drop for HCFC R-22, HFCs R-134a and R-410A, and the natural refrigerant propane. COP was maximized while refrigerant charge and tube size were minimized. Independent design parameters were fraction of total area in the outdoor coil, tube diameter and number of circuits for each heat exchanger, and condenser subcooling. Heat exchanger design tradeoffs are discussed for a heat pump relative to air conditioners and heating-only units. A design optimized for heating-only operation is presented.

  5. Development of Environmentally Benign Heat Pump Water Heaters for the US Market

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Wang, Kai; Vineyard, Edward Allan; Roetker, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Improving energy efficiency in water heating applications is important to the nation's energy strategies. Water heating in residential and commercial buildings accounts for about 10% of U.S. buildings energy consumption. Heat pump water heating (HPWH) technology is a significant breakthrough in energy efficiency, as an alternative to electric resistance water heating. Heat pump technology has shown acceptable payback period with proper incentives and successful market penetration is emerging. However, current HPWH require the use of refrigerants with high Global Warming Potential (GWP). Furthermore, current system designs depend greatly on the backup resistance heaters when the ambient temperature is below freezing or when hot water demand increases. Finally, the performance of current HPWH technology degrades greatly as the water set point temperature exceeds 330 K. This paper presents the potential for carbon dioxide, CO2, as a natural, environmentally benign alternative refrigerant for HPWH technology. In this paper, we first describe the system design, implications and opportunities of operating a transcritical cycle. Next, a prototype CO2 HPWH design featuring flexible component evaluation capability is described. The experimental setup and results are then illustrated followed by a brief discussion on the measured system performance. The paper ends with conclusions and recommendations for the development of CO2 heat pump water heating technology suitable for the U.S. market.

  6. Hydrodynamic, Heat and Acoustic Processes Modelling in Tranport of Rheologically Complex Viscous Media Technology in Pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharlamov, Sergey N.; Kudelin, Nikita S.; Dedeyev, Pavel O.

    2014-08-01

    The paper describes the results of mathematical modelling of acoustic processes, hydrodynamics and heat exchange in case of oil products transportation in pipelines with constant and variable cross-section. The turbulence model features of RANS approach and intensification of heat exchange in substances with anomalous rheology are reviewed. It is shown that statistic second order models are appropriate to use for forecasting details of the pulsating flows. The paper states the numerical integration features of determining equations. The properties of vibratory effect influence are determined. Vortex and heat perturbations, rheological changes impact on resistance regularities and intensity of heat exchange are analyzed.

  7. High-frequency acoustic waves are not sufficient to heat the solar chromosphere.

    PubMed

    Fossum, Astrid; Carlsson, Mats

    2005-06-16

    One of the main unanswered questions in solar physics is why the Sun's outer atmosphere is hotter than its surface. Theory predicts abundant production of high-frequency (10-50 mHz) acoustic waves in subsurface layers of the Sun, and such waves are believed by many to constitute the dominant heating mechanism of the chromosphere (the lower part of the outer solar atmosphere) in non-magnetic regions. Such high-frequency waves are difficult to detect because of high-frequency disturbances in Earth's atmosphere (seeing) and other factors. Here we report the detection of high-frequency waves, and we use numerical simulations to show that the acoustic energy flux of these waves is too low, by a factor of at least ten, to balance the radiative losses in the solar chromosphere. Acoustic waves therefore cannot constitute the dominant heating mechanism of the solar chromosphere. PMID:15959510

  8. Available energy method for evaluating thermodynamic performance of heat pump systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliem, C. J., Jr.; Demuth, O. J.; Richlen, S. L.

    1983-11-01

    An available-energy-efficiency method, based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics, is developed for the evaluation and comparison of the thermodynamic performance of different types of heat pump systems. Defficiencies and limitations of the more commonly used performance indicators, coefficient of performance and fraction of Carnot cycle coefficient of performance, are discussed. Finally, several heat pumps of different types and in various stages of development are evaluated and compared in terms of available-energy efficiency as examples of the application of the method.

  9. Optimization of solar assisted heat pump systems via a simple analytic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J W

    1980-01-01

    An analytic method for calculating the optimum operating temperature of the collector/storage subsystem in a solar assisted heat pump is presented. A tradeoff exists between rising heat pump coefficient of performance and falling collector efficiency as this temperature is increased, resulting in an optimum temperature whose value increases with increasing efficiency of the auxiliary energy source. Electric resistance is shown to be a poor backup to such systems. A number of options for thermally coupling the system to the ground are analyzed and compared.

  10. Proof of concept of a magnetically coupled Stirling engine-driven heat pump

    SciTech Connect

    Shonder, J.A. ); Chen, Gong; McEntee, J. )

    1992-01-01

    A prototype magnetically-coupled Stirling engine-driven heat pump module has been designed and fabricated by Sunpower, Inc. under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Preliminary testing indicates that the magnetic coupling is an effective means for transmitting power from a free-piston Stirling engine to a refrigerant compressor. Compared with other power transmission concepts, the magnetic coupling has relatively low cost, and will help make commercial development of Stirling-driven heat pumps more likely in the future.

  11. Proof of concept of a magnetically coupled Stirling engine-driven heat pump

    SciTech Connect

    Shonder, J.A.; Chen, Gong; McEntee, J.

    1992-08-01

    A prototype magnetically-coupled Stirling engine-driven heat pump module has been designed and fabricated by Sunpower, Inc. under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Preliminary testing indicates that the magnetic coupling is an effective means for transmitting power from a free-piston Stirling engine to a refrigerant compressor. Compared with other power transmission concepts, the magnetic coupling has relatively low cost, and will help make commercial development of Stirling-driven heat pumps more likely in the future.

  12. Noninvasive determination of in situ heating rate using KHz acoustic emissions and focused ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Ajay; Kaczkowski, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    For High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) to be widely applicable in the clinic, robust methods of treatment planning, guidance and delivery need to be developed. These technologies would greatly benefit if patient specific tissue parameters could be provided as inputs so that the treatment planning and monitoring schemes are customized and tailored on a case by case basis. A noninvasive method of estimating the local in situ acoustic heating rate using the Heat Transfer Equation (HTE) and applying novel signal processing techniques is presented in this paper. The heating rate is obtained by experimentally measuring the time required to raise the temperature of the therapeutic focus from a baseline temperature to boiling (here assumed to be 100ºC for aqueous media) and then solving the heat transfer equation iteratively to find the heating rate that results in the onset of boiling. The onset of boiling is noninvasively detected by measuring the time instant of onset of acoustic emissions in the audible frequency range due to violent collapse of bubbles. In vitro experiments performed in a tissue mimicking alginate phantom and excised turkey breast muscle tissue demonstrate that the noninvasive estimates of heating rate are in good agreement with those obtained independently using established methods. The results show potential for the applicability of these techniques in therapy planning and monitoring for therapeutic dose optimization using real-time acoustic feedback. PMID:19699575

  13. Development of High Efficiency Carbon Dioxide Commercial Heat Pump Water Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Michael PETERSEN; Chad D. BOWERS; Stefan ELBEL; Pega HRNJAK

    2012-07-01

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in both Japan and Europe, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such products in the US has been limited. While this trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but acceptance remains low in the commercial sector. The objective of the presented work is the development of a high efficiency R744 heat pump water heater for commercial applications with effective utilization of the cooling capability for air conditioning and/or refrigeration. The ultimate goal is to achieve total system COP of up to 8. This unit will be targeted at commercial use where some cooling load is typically needed year round, such as restaurants, hotels, nursing homes, and hospitals. This paper presents the performance results from the development of four R744 commercial heat pump water heater packages of approximately 35 kW and comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, the influences of an internal heat exchanger and an enhanced evaporator on the system performance are described and recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system.

  14. Heat-pump-centered integrated community energy systems: system development summary

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, J.M.

    1980-02-01

    An introduction to district heating systems employing heat pumps to enable use of low-temperature energy sources is presented. These systems operate as thermal utilities to provide space heating and may also supply space cooling, service-water heating, and other thermal services. Otherwise-wasted heat from industrial and commercial processes, natural sources including solar and geothermal heat, and heat stored on an annual cycle from summer cooling may be effectively utilized by the systems described. These sources are abundant, and their use would conserve scarce resources and reduce adverse environmental impacts. More than one-quarter of the energy consumed in the United States is used to heat and cool buildings and to heat service water. Natural gas and oil provide approximately 83% of this energy. The systems described show potential to reduce net energy consumption for these services by 20 to 50% and to allow fuel substitution with less-scarce resources not practical in smaller, individual-building systems. Seven studies performed for the system development phase of the Department of Energy's Heat-Pump-Centered Integrated Community Energy Systems Project and to related studies are summarized. A concluding chapter tabulates data from these separately published studies.

  15. Pumped Fluid Loop Heat Rejection and Recovery Systems for Thermal Control of the Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhandari, Pradeep; Birur, Gajanana; Prina, Mauro; Ramirez, Brenda; Paris, Anthony; Novak, Keith; Pauken, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the heat rejection and heat recovery system for thermal control of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). The MSL mission will use mechanically pumped fluid loop based architecture for thermal control of the spacecraft and rover. The architecture is designed to harness waste heat from an Multi Mission Radioisotope Thermo-electric Generator (MMRTG) during Mars surface operations for thermal control during cold conditions and also reject heat during the cruise aspect of the mission. There are several test that are being conducted that will insure the safety of this concept. This architecture can be used during any future interplanetary missions utilizing radioisotope power systems for power generation.

  16. Field Performance of Inverter-Driven Heat Pumps in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, James; Aldrich, Robb

    2015-08-01

    CARB observed a wide range of operating efficiencies and outputs from site to site. Maximum capacities were found to be generally in line with manufacturer's claims as outdoor temperatures fell to -10°F. The reasons for the wide range in heating performance likely include: low indoor air flow rates, poor placement of outdoor units, relatively high return air temperatures, thermostat set back, integration with existing heating systems, and occupants limiting indoor fan speed. Even with lower efficiencies than published in other studies, most of the heat pumps here still provide heat at lower cost than oil, propane, or certainly electric resistance systems.

  17. Solar-assisted heat pumps and alternative-energy-awareness demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, O.K. Jr.

    1981-09-11

    The water to air solar assisted heat pump installation is added to an existing service/training center in Dallas, Texas. The design uses three separate water systems. The first consists of the solar collectors, circulating pump, draindown tank, heat exchanger, attendant piping and controls. The second is a closed loop system consisting of an insulated buried steel tank, an above ground expansion tank, the loop water circulating pump, the backup gas boiler, and the cooling tower. It serves six heat pumps. The third system is an open system for the cooling tower, consisting of a pump, spray heads in the cooling tower. The operation of each of the three systems is described. The system's thermodynamic efficiency is discussed, as well as a solar domestic hot water system. System performance is found to be much less than expected, with a solar fraction estimated at 30% as opposed to an expected 80%. A self-teaching solar awareness demonstration in the building is described. (LEW)

  18. Development of solar driven absorption air conditioners and heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dao, K.; Wahlig, M.; Wali, E.; Rasson, J.; Molishever, E.

    1980-03-01

    The development of absorption refrigeration systems for solar active heating and cooling applications is discussed. The approaches investigated are those using air-cooled condenser-absorber and those leading to coefficient of performances (COP) that increase continuously with heat source temperature. This is primarily an experimental project, with the emphasis on designing, fabricating and testing absorption chillers in operating regimes that are particularly suited for solar energy applications. Its demonstrated that the conventional single-effect ammonia-water absorption cycle can be used (with minor modifications) for solar cooling.

  19. Performance Analysis of Air-to-Water Heat Pump in Latvian Climate Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazjonovs, Janis; Sipkevics, Andrejs; Jakovics, Andris; Dancigs, Andris; Bajare, Diana; Dancigs, Leonards

    2014-12-01

    Strategy of the European Union in efficient energy usage demands to have a higher proportion of renewable energy in the energy market. Since heat pumps are considered to be one of the most efficient heating and cooling systems, they will play an important role in the energy consumption reduction in buildings aimed to meet the target of nearly zero energy buildings set out in the EU Directive 2010/31/EU. Unfortunately, the declared heat pump Coefficient of Performance (COP) corresponds to a certain outdoor temperature (+7 °C), therefore different climate conditions, building characteristics and settings result in different COP values during the year. The aim of this research is to investigate the Seasonal Performance factor (SPF) values of air-to-water heat pump which better characterize the effectiveness of heat pump in a longer selected period of time, especially during the winter season, in different types of residential buildings in Latvian climate conditions. Latvia has four pronounced seasons of near-equal length. Winter starts in mid-December and lasts until mid-March. Latvia is characterized by cold, maritime climate (duration of the average heating period being 203 days, the average outdoor air temperature during the heating period being 0.0 °C, the coldest five-day average temperature being -20.7 °C, the average annual air temperature being +6.2 °C, the daily average relative humidity being 79 %). The first part of this research consists of operational air-towater heat pump energy performance monitoring in different residential buildings during the winter season. The second part of the research takes place under natural conditions in an experimental construction stand which is located in an urban environment in Riga, Latvia. The inner area of this test stand, where air-to-water heat pump performance is analyzed, is 9 m2. The ceiling height is 3 m, all external wall constructions (U = 0.16 W/(m2K)) have ventilated facades. To calculate SPF, the

  20. PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENTS IN COMMERCIAL HEAT PUMP WATER HEATERS USING CARBON DIOXIDE

    SciTech Connect

    BOWERS C.D.; ELBEL S.; PETERSEN M.; HRNJAK P.S.

    2011-07-01

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in Japan, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such a product in the U.S. has been slow. This trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but remains in the commercial sector. Barriers to heat pump water heater acceptance in the commercial market have historically been performance, reliability and first/operating costs. The use of carbon dioxide (R744) as the refrigerant in such a system can improve performance for relatively small increase in initial cost and make this technology more appealing. What makes R744 an excellent candidate for use in heat pump water heaters is not only the wide range of ambient temperatures within which it can operate, but also the excellent ability to match water to refrigerant temperatures on the high side, resulting in very high exit water temperatures of up to 82ºC (180ºF), as required by sanitary codes in the U.S.(Food Code, 2005), in a single pass, temperatures that are much more difficult to reach with other refrigerants. This can be especially attractive in applications where this water is used for the purpose of sanitation. While reliability has also been of concern historically, dramatic improvements have been made over the last several years through research done in the automotive industry and commercialization of R744 technology in residential water heating mainly in Japan. This paper presents the performance results from the development of an R744 commercial heat pump water heater of approximately 35kW and a comparison to a baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system which could result in possible energy savings of up to 20%.

  1. Sensitivity analysis on the performances of a closed-loop Ground Source Heat Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casasso, Alessandro; Sethi, Rajandrea

    2014-05-01

    Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHP) permit to achieve a significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and the margins for economic saving of this technology are strongly correlated to the long-term sustainability of the exploitation of the heat stored in the soil. The operation of a GSHP over its lifetime should be therefore modelled considering realistic conditions, and a thorough characterization of the physical properties of the soil is essential to avoid large errors of prediction. In this work, a BHE modelling procedure with the finite-element code FEFLOW is presented. Starting from the governing equations of the heat transport in the soil around a GSHP and inside the BHE, the most important parameters are individuated and the adopted program settings are explained. A sensitivity analysis is then carried on both the design parameters of the heat exchanger, in order to understand the margins of improvement of a careful design and installation, and the physical properties of the soil, with the aim of quantifying the uncertainty induced by their variability. The relative importance of each parameter is therefore assessed by comparing the statistical distributions of the fluid temperatures and estimating the energy consumption of the heat pump, and practical conclusions are from these results about the site characterization, the design and the installation of a BHE. References Casasso A., Sethi R., 2014 Efficiency of closed loop geothermal heat pumps: A sensitivity analysis, Renewable Energy 62 (2014), pp. 737-746 Chiasson A.C., Rees S.J., Spitler J.D., 2000, A preliminary assessment of the effects of groundwater flow on closed-loop ground-source heat pump systems, ASHRAE Transactions 106 (2000), pp. 380-393 Delaleux F., Py X., Olives R., Dominguez A., 2012, Enhancement of geothermal borehole heat exchangers performances by improvement of bentonite grouts conductivity, Applied Thermal Engineering 33-34, pp. 92-99 Diao N., Li Q., Fang Z., 2004, Heat transfer in

  2. Pumps, valves and piping for cogeneration and district heating

    SciTech Connect

    O'Keefe, W.

    1993-01-01

    The two concepts of cogeneration (cogen) and district heating (DH) have certain points of similarity. They are both quite old, fell into disuse some decades ago, have had a renaissance of late, and often are plagued by economics that are only marginal. At present, however, both cogeneration and district heating ride a wave of popular fancy and regulatory whim, all of which has had as one result the inducing of swarms of lawyers and financial soldiers of fortune to flock to the standards, for at least the time being. Although the finances of the two technologies frequently call for innovation, at least the fluid-handling engineering problems are not extraordinary. Pressures, temperatures, flow rates, and corrosion dangers are nearly always within readily mastered limits. The major difficulties arise generally either from the indifference and parsimony of the owners or from the ignorance of the plant management and operations personnel. This report intends to be only a general perspective which the reader must enlarge upon by such other aids as POWER special reports on narrower sectors. Retain in mind the basic definitions for the two technologies: Cogeneration is a simultaneous production of both useful thermal energy (as steam, hot water, or hot gas) and electric power from a fuel source. District heating is the supplying of thermal energy in steam or water to remote and usually noncontiguous locations which are often under separate ownership. District cooling, the increasingly popular supplement to district heating, supplies chilled water under similar circumstances.

  3. Process Integration Study of the Decatur HFCS Plant for American Fructose Company, Decatur, AL [Advanced Industrial Heat Pump Applications and Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Eastwood, A.

    1989-11-10

    This work has carried out in two phases: Phase 1, identification of opportunities for heat pumps in industrial applications and Phase 2; evaluation of heat pumps in industrial applications. In Phase 1, pinch analysis was applied to several industrial sites to identify the best opportunities for heat pumping and other forms of heat integration. In Phase 2, more detailed analyses were undertaken, including the evaluation of a heat pump installed as a recommendation of Phase 1.

  4. Heat Load Sharing in a Capillary Pumped Loop with Multiple Evaporators and Multiple Condensers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the heat load sharing function among multiple parallel evaporators in a capillary pumped loop (CPL). In the normal mode of operation, the evaporators cool the instruments by absorbing the waste heat. When an instruments is turned off, the attached evaporator can keep it warm by receiving heat from other evaporators serving the operating instruments. This is referred to as heat load sharing. A theoretical basis of heat load sharing is given first. The fact that the wicks in the powered evaporators will develop capillary pressure to force the generated vapor to flow to cold locations where the pressure is lower leads to the conclusion that heat load sharing is an inherent function of a CPL with multiple evaporators. Heat load sharing has been verified with many CPLs in ground tests. Experimental results of the Capillary Pumped Loop 3 (CAPL 3) Flight Experiment are presented in this paper. Factors that affect the amount of heat being shared are discussed. Some constraints of heat load sharing are also addressed.

  5. Characterization of Pump-Induced Acoustics in Space Launch System Main Propulsion System Liquid Hydrogen Feedline Using Airflow Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhart, C. J.; Snellgrove, L. M.; Zoladz, T. F.

    2015-01-01

    High intensity acoustic edgetones located upstream of the RS-25 Low Pressure Fuel Turbo Pump (LPFTP) were previously observed during Space Launch System (STS) airflow testing of a model Main Propulsion System (MPS) liquid hydrogen (LH2) feedline mated to a modified LPFTP. MPS hardware has been adapted to mitigate the problematic edgetones as part of the Space Launch System (SLS) program. A follow-on airflow test campaign has subjected the adapted hardware to tests mimicking STS-era airflow conditions, and this manuscript describes acoustic environment identification and characterization born from the latest test results. Fluid dynamics responsible for driving discrete excitations were well reproduced using legacy hardware. The modified design was found insensitive to high intensity edgetone-like discretes over the bandwidth of interest to SLS MPS unsteady environments. Rather, the natural acoustics of the test article were observed to respond in a narrowband-random/mixed discrete manner to broadband noise thought generated by the flow field. The intensity of these responses were several orders of magnitude reduced from those driven by edgetones.

  6. Review of Test Procedure for Determining HSPFs of Residential Variable-Speed Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, C. Keith; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Shrestha, Som S.

    2015-08-01

    This report reviews the suitability of the existing Heating Seasonal Performance Factor (HSPF) ratings and testing requirements for the current generation of variable-speed (VS) air-source heat pumps. Recent field test results indicate larger discrepancies between rated HSPF and field-observed HSPF for VS models than for single-speed models in the same houses. These findings suggest that the heating season test and ratings procedure should be revisited for VS heat pumps. The ratings and testing procedures are described in ANSI/AHRI 210/240 (2008) for single-speed, two-capacity, and variable-speed units. Analysis of manufacturer and independent test performance data on VS units reveals why the current VS testing/ratings procedure results in overly optimistic HSPF ratings for some VS units relative to other types of heat pumps. This is due to a combination of extrapolation of low speed test data beyond the originally anticipated ambient temperature operating range and the constraints of unit controls, which prevent low speed operation over the range of ambient temperatures assumed in the procedure for low speed. As a result, the HSPFs of such units are being overpredicted relative to those for single- and two-capacity designs. This overprediction has been found to be significantly reduced by use in the HSPF ratings procedure of an alternative higher-load heating load line, described in a companion report (Rice et al., 2015).

  7. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.; Brandemuehl, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost-effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  8. Measure Guideline. Heat Pump Water Heaters in New and Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, Carl; Puttagunta, Srikanth; Owens, Douglas

    2012-02-01

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs

  9. 75 FR 14368 - Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... and the national energy savings (NES) and net present value (NPV) at various standard levels. There is... the real consumer cost of capital and puts the LCC in present-value terms. The PBP represents the... conditioners and heat pumps. 66 FR 7170. The amended standards would have increased the minimum SEER to 13...

  10. THERMALLY CONDUCTIVE CEMENTITIOUS GROUTS FOR GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMPS. PROGRESS REPORT BY 1998

    SciTech Connect

    ALLAN,M.L.; PHILIPPACOPOULOS,A.J.

    1998-11-01

    Research commenced in FY 97 to determine the suitability of superplasticized cement-sand grouts for backfilling vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pump (GHP) systems. The overall objectives were to develop, evaluate and demonstrate cementitious grouts that could reduce the required bore length and improve the performance of GHPs. This report summarizes the accomplishments in FY 98.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF A LINEAR COMPRESSOR FOR AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the design, building, testing, and delivering to the Environmental Protection Agency of a linear compressor for operation in a 3.0- ton (10.5 kW) residential air-conditioning and heat pumping system. The compressor design evolved from a linear resonant piston...

  12. TRANSIENT AND STEADY STATE STUDY OF PURE AND MIXED REFRIGERANTS IN A RESIDENTIAL HEAT PUMP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an experimental and theoretical investigation of the transient and steady state performance of a residential air-conditioning/heat pump (AC/HP) operating with different refrigerants. (NOTE: The project was motivated by environmental concerns related to...

  13. 11. FIRST FLOOR BLDG. 28B: OVERVIEW SOLVENT PUMPS AND HEATING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. FIRST FLOOR BLDG. 28B: OVERVIEW SOLVENT PUMPS AND HEATING LOOKING WEST. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  14. Investigation of heat pump efficiencies using groundwater and/or ground coil in the Gulf Coast region. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, H.T.

    1982-08-01

    This project examines the energy efficiencies of five different water source heat pump systems. This is further supported by an experimental effort in which an existing residence is retrofitted with a heat pump and other energy sources: well water as a heat source/sink, vertical geothermal well as heat source/heat sink/storage, horizontal buried metal and plastic ground coils to use as heat source/heat sink, and a solar assist system. The energy elements are operated individually and in combination configurations to determine performance, and cost effectiveness of the energy alternatives are explored.

  15. Force on a heated sphere in a horizontal plane acoustic standing wave field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leung, E. W.; Wang, T. G.

    1985-01-01

    The force on a heated sphere in a horizontal plane acoustic standing wave field is the subject of this investigation. The heated sphere produces a thermal gradient in the resonance chamber. The force on the sphere in a direction perpendicular to that of gravity is measured. This force is enhanced in the region near the pressure node, and is weakened in the region near the pressure antinode. Measurements of the force on a heated sphere with sound pressure levels between 148 and 156 dB are presented.

  16. Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump System

    SciTech Connect

    Menart, James A.

    2013-02-22

    This report is a compilation of the work that has been done on the grant DE-EE0002805 entitled ?Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems.? The goal of this project was to develop a detailed computer simulation tool for GSHP (ground source heat pump) heating and cooling systems. Two such tools were developed as part of this DOE (Department of Energy) grant; the first is a two-dimensional computer program called GEO2D and the second is a three-dimensional computer program called GEO3D. Both of these simulation tools provide an extensive array of results to the user. A unique aspect of both these simulation tools is the complete temperature profile information calculated and presented. Complete temperature profiles throughout the ground, casing, tube wall, and fluid are provided as a function of time. The fluid temperatures from and to the heat pump, as a function of time, are also provided. In addition to temperature information, detailed heat rate information at several locations as a function of time is determined. Heat rates between the heat pump and the building indoor environment, between the working fluid and the heat pump, and between the working fluid and the ground are computed. The heat rates between the ground and the working fluid are calculated as a function time and position along the ground loop. The heating and cooling loads of the building being fitted with a GSHP are determined with the computer program developed by DOE called ENERGYPLUS. Lastly COP (coefficient of performance) results as a function of time are provided. Both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer programs developed as part of this work are based upon a detailed finite volume solution of the energy equation for the ground and ground loop. Real heat pump characteristics are entered into the program and used to model the heat pump performance. Thus these computer tools simulate the coupled performance of the ground loop and the heat pump

  17. Recovery Act: Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems

    SciTech Connect

    James A Menart, Professor

    2013-02-22

    This report is a compilation of the work that has been done on the grant DE-EE0002805 entitled Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems. The goal of this project was to develop a detailed computer simulation tool for GSHP (ground source heat pump) heating and cooling systems. Two such tools were developed as part of this DOE (Department of Energy) grant; the first is a two-dimensional computer program called GEO2D and the second is a three-dimensional computer program called GEO3D. Both of these simulation tools provide an extensive array of results to the user. A unique aspect of both these simulation tools is the complete temperature profile information calculated and presented. Complete temperature profiles throughout the ground, casing, tube wall, and fluid are provided as a function of time. The fluid temperatures from and to the heat pump, as a function of time, are also provided. In addition to temperature information, detailed heat rate information at several locations as a function of time is determined. Heat rates between the heat pump and the building indoor environment, between the working fluid and the heat pump, and between the working fluid and the ground are computed. The heat rates between the ground and the working fluid are calculated as a function time and position along the ground loop. The heating and cooling loads of the building being fitted with a GSHP are determined with the computer program developed by DOE called ENERGYPLUS. Lastly COP (coefficient of performance) results as a function of time are provided. Both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer programs developed as part of this work are based upon a detailed finite volume solution of the energy equation for the ground and ground loop. Real heat pump characteristics are entered into the program and used to model the heat pump performance. Thus these computer tools simulate the coupled performance of the ground loop and the heat pump. The

  18. Ceramic Wick For Capillary-Pumped Heat Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidenberg, Benjamin; Swanson, Theodore

    1989-01-01

    Fibrous ceramic wick allows choice of working fluid and high-temperature fabrication and/or operation. Wick material resists degradation at temperatures from -195 to +1,500 degrees C. Liquid refrigerant fills bore of silica/alumina wick. After flowing by capillary action through pores of wick, refrigerant evaporates from finned outer surface of wick and enters heat pipe, flowing toward condenser section.

  19. Numerical modeling of geothermal heat pump system: evaluation of site specific groundwater thermal impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedron, Roberto; Sottani, Andrea; Vettorello, Luca

    2014-05-01

    A pilot plant using a geothermal open-loop heat pump system has been realized in the city of Vicenza (Northern Italy), in order to meet the heating and cooling needs of the main monumental building in the historical center, the Palladian Basilica. The low enthalpy geothermal system consists of a pumping well and a reinjection well, both intercepting the same confined aquifer; three other monitoring wells have been drilled and then provided with water level and temperature dataloggers. After about 1 year and a half of activity, during a starting experimental period of three years, we have now the opportunity to analyze long term groundwater temperature data series and to evaluate the numerical modeling reliability about thermal impact prediction. The initial model, based on MODFLOW and SHEMAT finite difference codes, has been calibrated using pumping tests and other field investigations data, obtaining a valid and reliable groundwater flow simulation. But thermal parameters, such as thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity, didn't have a site specific direct estimation and therefore they have been assigned to model cells referring to bibliographic standards, usually derived from laboratory tests and barely representing real aquifer properties. Anyway preliminary heat transport results have been compared with observed temperature trends, showing an efficient representation of the thermal plume extension and shape. The ante operam simulation could not consider heat pump real utilization, that happened to be relevantly different from the expected project values; so the first numerical model could not properly simulate the groundwater temperature evolution. Consequently a second model has been implemented, in order to calibrate the mathematical simulation with monitored groundwater temperature datasets, trying to achieve higher levels of reliability in heat transport phenomena interpretation. This second step analysis focuses on aquifer thermal parameters

  20. Improvement of heat transfer in a packed-bed reactor for a chemical heat pump using sodium carbonate decahydrate dehydration

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumura, Yukihiko; Yoshida, Kunio

    1997-06-01

    To improve the heat transfer characteristics of a gas-solid packed-bed reactor, an inert solvent was added to the reactor. For sodium carbonate decahydrate dehydration, used in a chemical heat pump, n-pentanol was chosen as a solvent, and the dehydration rate in the solvent was measured. The dehydration rate was found to be proportional to the total surface area of the decahydrate particles, and the rate equation was determined. Particle size distribution (less than 400 {micro}m) remained unchanged for a three-time cyclic operation. The packed-bed of decahydrate with n-pentanol solvent showed considerable improvement in heat transfer characteristics compared with the case having no solvent, and cold heat generation was more than doubled. A simulation study showed that the addition of n-pentanol may make it possible to construct a high-performance heat pump with cold storage capability, attaining 280 K in less than 5 s and total heat release within 1,600 s.