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Sample records for acoustics speech communication

  1. Speech Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Betty

    The communications approach to teaching speech to high school students views speech as the study of the communication process in order to develop an awareness of and a sensitivity to the variables that affect human interaction. In using this approach the student is encouraged to try out as many types of messages using as many techniques and…

  2. Disordered speech disrupts conversational entrainment: a study of acoustic-prosodic entrainment and communicative success in populations with communication challenges.

    PubMed

    Borrie, Stephanie A; Lubold, Nichola; Pon-Barry, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Conversational entrainment, a pervasive communication phenomenon in which dialogue partners adapt their behaviors to align more closely with one another, is considered essential for successful spoken interaction. While well-established in other disciplines, this phenomenon has received limited attention in the field of speech pathology and the study of communication breakdowns in clinical populations. The current study examined acoustic-prosodic entrainment, as well as a measure of communicative success, in three distinctly different dialogue groups: (i) healthy native vs. healthy native speakers (Control), (ii) healthy native vs. foreign-accented speakers (Accented), and (iii) healthy native vs. dysarthric speakers (Disordered). Dialogue group comparisons revealed significant differences in how the groups entrain on particular acoustic-prosodic features, including pitch, intensity, and jitter. Most notably, the Disordered dialogues were characterized by significantly less acoustic-prosodic entrainment than the Control dialogues. Further, a positive relationship between entrainment indices and communicative success was identified. These results suggest that the study of conversational entrainment in speech pathology will have essential implications for both scientific theory and clinical application in this domain. PMID:26321996

  3. Disordered speech disrupts conversational entrainment: a study of acoustic-prosodic entrainment and communicative success in populations with communication challenges

    PubMed Central

    Borrie, Stephanie A.; Lubold, Nichola; Pon-Barry, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Conversational entrainment, a pervasive communication phenomenon in which dialogue partners adapt their behaviors to align more closely with one another, is considered essential for successful spoken interaction. While well-established in other disciplines, this phenomenon has received limited attention in the field of speech pathology and the study of communication breakdowns in clinical populations. The current study examined acoustic-prosodic entrainment, as well as a measure of communicative success, in three distinctly different dialogue groups: (i) healthy native vs. healthy native speakers (Control), (ii) healthy native vs. foreign-accented speakers (Accented), and (iii) healthy native vs. dysarthric speakers (Disordered). Dialogue group comparisons revealed significant differences in how the groups entrain on particular acoustic–prosodic features, including pitch, intensity, and jitter. Most notably, the Disordered dialogues were characterized by significantly less acoustic-prosodic entrainment than the Control dialogues. Further, a positive relationship between entrainment indices and communicative success was identified. These results suggest that the study of conversational entrainment in speech pathology will have essential implications for both scientific theory and clinical application in this domain. PMID:26321996

  4. Speech communications in noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The physical characteristics of speech, the methods of speech masking measurement, and the effects of noise on speech communication are investigated. Topics include the speech signal and intelligibility, the effects of noise on intelligibility, the articulation index, and various devices for evaluating speech systems.

  5. Careers in Speech Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speech Communication Association, New York, NY.

    Brief discussions in this pamphlet suggest educational and career opportunities in the following fields of speech communication: rhetoric, public address, and communication; theatre, drama, and oral interpretation; radio, television, and film; speech pathology and audiology; speech science, phonetics, and linguistics; and speech education.…

  6. Acoustic characteristics of listener-constrained speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashby, Simone; Cummins, Fred

    2003-04-01

    Relatively little is known about the acoustical modifications speakers employ to meet the various constraints-auditory, linguistic and otherwise-of their listeners. Similarly, the manner by which perceived listener constraints interact with speakers' adoption of specialized speech registers is poorly Hypo (H&H) theory offers a framework for examining the relationship between speech production and output-oriented goals for communication, suggesting that under certain circumstances speakers may attempt to minimize phonetic ambiguity by employing a ``hyperarticulated'' speaking style (Lindblom, 1990). It remains unclear, however, what the acoustic correlates of hyperarticulated speech are, and how, if at all, we might expect phonetic properties to change respective to different listener-constrained conditions. This paper is part of a preliminary investigation concerned with comparing the prosodic characteristics of speech produced across a range of listener constraints. Analyses are drawn from a corpus of read hyperarticulated speech data comprising eight adult, female speakers of English. Specialized registers include speech to foreigners, infant-directed speech, speech produced under noisy conditions, and human-machine interaction. The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support of the Irish Higher Education Authority, allocated to Fred Cummins for collaborative work with Media Lab Europe.

  7. Research in speech communication.

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, J

    1995-01-01

    Advances in digital speech processing are now supporting application and deployment of a variety of speech technologies for human/machine communication. In fact, new businesses are rapidly forming about these technologies. But these capabilities are of little use unless society can afford them. Happily, explosive advances in microelectronics over the past two decades have assured affordable access to this sophistication as well as to the underlying computing technology. The research challenges in speech processing remain in the traditionally identified areas of recognition, synthesis, and coding. These three areas have typically been addressed individually, often with significant isolation among the efforts. But they are all facets of the same fundamental issue--how to represent and quantify the information in the speech signal. This implies deeper understanding of the physics of speech production, the constraints that the conventions of language impose, and the mechanism for information processing in the auditory system. In ongoing research, therefore, we seek more accurate models of speech generation, better computational formulations of language, and realistic perceptual guides for speech processing--along with ways to coalesce the fundamental issues of recognition, synthesis, and coding. Successful solution will yield the long-sought dictation machine, high-quality synthesis from text, and the ultimate in low bit-rate transmission of speech. It will also open the door to language-translating telephony, where the synthetic foreign translation can be in the voice of the originating talker. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 Fig. 8 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:7479806

  8. Sperry Univac speech communications technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medress, Mark F.

    1977-01-01

    Technology and systems for effective verbal communication with computers were developed. A continuous speech recognition system for verbal input, a word spotting system to locate key words in conversational speech, prosodic tools to aid speech analysis, and a prerecorded voice response system for speech output are described.

  9. Acoustic Differences between Humorous and Sincere Communicative Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoicka, Elena; Gattis, Merideth

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that the acoustic features of speech discriminate between positive and negative communicative intentions, such as approval and prohibition. Two studies investigated whether acoustic features of speech can discriminate between two positive communicative intentions: humour and sweet-sincerity, where sweet-sincerity involved…

  10. Acoustics of Clear Speech: Effect of Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Jennifer; Tjaden, Kris; Wilding, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated how different instructions for eliciting clear speech affected selected acoustic measures of speech. Method: Twelve speakers were audio-recorded reading 18 different sentences from the Assessment of Intelligibility of Dysarthric Speech (Yorkston & Beukelman, 1984). Sentences were produced in habitual, clear,…

  11. Speech and Communication Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... or understand speech. Causes include Hearing disorders and deafness Voice problems, such as dysphonia or those caused by cleft lip or palate Speech problems like stuttering Developmental disabilities Learning disorders Autism spectrum disorder Brain injury Stroke Some speech and ...

  12. Brain-Computer Interfaces for Speech Communication

    PubMed Central

    Brumberg, Jonathan S.; Nieto-Castanon, Alfonso; Kennedy, Philip R.; Guenther, Frank H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews current silent speech methodologies for normal and disabled individuals. Current techniques utilizing electromyographic (EMG) recordings of vocal tract movements are useful for physically healthy individuals but fail for tetraplegic individuals who do not have accurate voluntary control over the speech articulators. Alternative methods utilizing EMG from other body parts (e.g., hand, arm, or facial muscles) or electroencephalography (EEG) can provide capable silent communication to severely paralyzed users, though current interfaces are extremely slow relative to normal conversation rates and require constant attention to a computer screen that provides visual feedback and/or cueing. We present a novel approach to the problem of silent speech via an intracortical microelectrode brain computer interface (BCI) to predict intended speech information directly from the activity of neurons involved in speech production. The predicted speech is synthesized and acoustically fed back to the user with a delay under 50 ms. We demonstrate that the Neurotrophic Electrode used in the BCI is capable of providing useful neural recordings for over 4 years, a necessary property for BCIs that need to remain viable over the lifespan of the user. Other design considerations include neural decoding techniques based on previous research involving BCIs for computer cursor or robotic arm control via prediction of intended movement kinematics from motor cortical signals in monkeys and humans. Initial results from a study of continuous speech production with instantaneous acoustic feedback show the BCI user was able to improve his control over an artificial speech synthesizer both within and across recording sessions. The success of this initial trial validates the potential of the intracortical microelectrode-based approach for providing a speech prosthesis that can allow much more rapid communication rates. PMID:20204164

  13. Acoustic communication by ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickling, Robert

    2002-05-01

    Many ant species communicate acoustically by stridulating, i.e., running a scraper over a washboard-like set of ridges. Ants appear to be insensitive to airborne sound. Consequently, myrmecologists have concluded that the stridulatory signals are transmitted through the substrate. This has tended to diminish the importance of acoustic communication, and it is currently believed that ant communication is based almost exclusively on pheromones, with acoustic communication assigned an almost nonexistent role. However, it can be shown that acoustic communication between ants is effective only if the medium is air and not the substrate. How, then, is it possible for ants to appear deaf to airborne sound and yet communicate through the air? An explanation is provided in a paper [R. Hickling and R. L. Brown, ``Analysis of acoustic communication by ants,'' J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 1920-1929 (2000)]. Ants are small relative to the wavelengths they generate. Hence, they create a near field, which is characterized by a major increase in sound velocity (particle velocity of sound) in the vicinity of the source. Hair sensilla on the ants' antennae respond to sound velocity. Thus, ants are able to detect near-field sound from other ants and to exclude extraneous airborne sound.

  14. Speech and Communication Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... speech. Causes include Hearing disorders and deafness Voice problems, such as dysphonia or those caused by cleft lip or palate Speech problems like stuttering Developmental disabilities Learning disorders Autism spectrum ...

  15. Speech coding, reconstruction and recognition using acoustics and electromagnetic waves

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Ng, L.C.

    1998-03-17

    The use of EM radiation in conjunction with simultaneously recorded acoustic speech information enables a complete mathematical coding of acoustic speech. The methods include the forming of a feature vector for each pitch period of voiced speech and the forming of feature vectors for each time frame of unvoiced, as well as for combined voiced and unvoiced speech. The methods include how to deconvolve the speech excitation function from the acoustic speech output to describe the transfer function each time frame. The formation of feature vectors defining all acoustic speech units over well defined time frames can be used for purposes of speech coding, speech compression, speaker identification, language-of-speech identification, speech recognition, speech synthesis, speech translation, speech telephony, and speech teaching. 35 figs.

  16. Speech coding, reconstruction and recognition using acoustics and electromagnetic waves

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    1998-01-01

    The use of EM radiation in conjunction with simultaneously recorded acoustic speech information enables a complete mathematical coding of acoustic speech. The methods include the forming of a feature vector for each pitch period of voiced speech and the forming of feature vectors for each time frame of unvoiced, as well as for combined voiced and unvoiced speech. The methods include how to deconvolve the speech excitation function from the acoustic speech output to describe the transfer function each time frame. The formation of feature vectors defining all acoustic speech units over well defined time frames can be used for purposes of speech coding, speech compression, speaker identification, language-of-speech identification, speech recognition, speech synthesis, speech translation, speech telephony, and speech teaching.

  17. Optimizing acoustical conditions for speech intelligibility in classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wonyoung

    High speech intelligibility is imperative in classrooms where verbal communication is critical. However, the optimal acoustical conditions to achieve a high degree of speech intelligibility have previously been investigated with inconsistent results, and practical room-acoustical solutions to optimize the acoustical conditions for speech intelligibility have not been developed. This experimental study validated auralization for speech-intelligibility testing, investigated the optimal reverberation for speech intelligibility for both normal and hearing-impaired listeners using more realistic room-acoustical models, and proposed an optimal sound-control design for speech intelligibility based on the findings. The auralization technique was used to perform subjective speech-intelligibility tests. The validation study, comparing auralization results with those of real classroom speech-intelligibility tests, found that if the room to be auralized is not very absorptive or noisy, speech-intelligibility tests using auralization are valid. The speech-intelligibility tests were done in two different auralized sound fields---approximately diffuse and non-diffuse---using the Modified Rhyme Test and both normal and hearing-impaired listeners. A hybrid room-acoustical prediction program was used throughout the work, and it and a 1/8 scale-model classroom were used to evaluate the effects of ceiling barriers and reflectors. For both subject groups, in approximately diffuse sound fields, when the speech source was closer to the listener than the noise source, the optimal reverberation time was zero. When the noise source was closer to the listener than the speech source, the optimal reverberation time was 0.4 s (with another peak at 0.0 s) with relative output power levels of the speech and noise sources SNS = 5 dB, and 0.8 s with SNS = 0 dB. In non-diffuse sound fields, when the noise source was between the speaker and the listener, the optimal reverberation time was 0.6 s with

  18. Acoustic modeling of the speech organ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacprowski, J.

    The state of research on acoustic modeling of phonational and articulatory speech producing elements is reviewed. Consistent with the physical interpretation of the speech production process, the acoustic theory of speech production is expressed as the product of three factors: laryngeal involvement, sound transmission, and emanations from the mouth and/or nose. Each of these factors is presented in the form of a simplified mathematical description which provides the theoretical basis for the formation of physical models of the appropriate functional members of this complex bicybernetic system. Vocal tract wall impedance, vocal tract synthesizers, laryngeal dysfunction, vowel nasalization, resonance circuits, and sound wave propagation are discussed.

  19. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2004-03-23

    The present invention is a system and method for characterizing human (or animate) speech voiced excitation functions and acoustic signals, for removing unwanted acoustic noise which often occurs when a speaker uses a microphone in common environments, and for synthesizing personalized or modified human (or other animate) speech upon command from a controller. A low power EM sensor is used to detect the motions of windpipe tissues in the glottal region of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech is produced by a user. From these tissue motion measurements, a voiced excitation function can be derived. Further, the excitation function provides speech production information to enhance noise removal from human speech and it enables accurate transfer functions of speech to be obtained. Previously stored excitation and transfer functions can be used for synthesizing personalized or modified human speech. Configurations of EM sensor and acoustic microphone systems are described to enhance noise cancellation and to enable multiple articulator measurements.

  20. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2006-02-14

    The present invention is a system and method for characterizing human (or animate) speech voiced excitation functions and acoustic signals, for removing unwanted acoustic noise which often occurs when a speaker uses a microphone in common environments, and for synthesizing personalized or modified human (or other animate) speech upon command from a controller. A low power EM sensor is used to detect the motions of windpipe tissues in the glottal region of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech is produced by a user. From these tissue motion measurements, a voiced excitation function can be derived. Further, the excitation function provides speech production information to enhance noise removal from human speech and it enables accurate transfer functions of speech to be obtained. Previously stored excitation and transfer functions can be used for synthesizing personalized or modified human speech. Configurations of EM sensor and acoustic microphone systems are described to enhance noise cancellation and to enable multiple articulator measurements.

  1. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2006-08-08

    The present invention is a system and method for characterizing human (or animate) speech voiced excitation functions and acoustic signals, for removing unwanted acoustic noise which often occurs when a speaker uses a microphone in common environments, and for synthesizing personalized or modified human (or other animate) speech upon command from a controller. A low power EM sensor is used to detect the motions of windpipe tissues in the glottal region of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech is produced by a user. From these tissue motion measurements, a voiced excitation function can be derived. Further, the excitation function provides speech production information to enhance noise removal from human speech and it enables accurate transfer functions of speech to be obtained. Previously stored excitation and transfer functions can be used for synthesizing personalized or modified human speech. Configurations of EM sensor and acoustic microphone systems are described to enhance noise cancellation and to enable multiple articulator measurements.

  2. Speech Intelligibility Advantages using an Acoustic Beamformer Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Sunder, Kaushik; Godfroy, Martine; Otto, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A speech intelligibility test conforming to the Modified Rhyme Test of ANSI S3.2 "Method for Measuring the Intelligibility of Speech Over Communication Systems" was conducted using a prototype 12-channel acoustic beamformer system. The target speech material (signal) was identified against speech babble (noise), with calculated signal-noise ratios of 0, 5 and 10 dB. The signal was delivered at a fixed beam orientation of 135 deg (re 90 deg as the frontal direction of the array) and the noise at 135 deg (co-located) and 0 deg (separated). A significant improvement in intelligibility from 57% to 73% was found for spatial separation for the same signal-noise ratio (0 dB). Significant effects for improved intelligibility due to spatial separation were also found for higher signal-noise ratios (5 and 10 dB).

  3. Acoustic Evidence for Phonologically Mismatched Speech Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gormley, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Speech errors are generally said to accommodate to their new phonological context. This accommodation has been validated by several transcription studies. The transcription methodology is not the best choice for detecting errors at this level, however, as this type of error can be difficult to perceive. This paper presents an acoustic analysis of…

  4. Speech recognition: Acoustic, phonetic and lexical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zue, V. W.

    1985-10-01

    Our long-term research goal is the development and implementation of speaker-independent continuous speech recognition systems. It is our conviction that proper utilization of speech-specific knowledge is essential for advanced speech recognition systems. With this in mind, we have continued to make progress on the acquisition of acoustic-phonetic and lexical knowledge. We have completed the development of a continuous digit recognition system. The system was constructed to investigate the utilization of acoustic phonetic knowledge in a speech recognition system. Some of the significant development of this study includes a soft-failure procedure for lexical access, and the discovery of a set of acoustic-phonetic features for verification. We have completed a study of the constraints provided by lexical stress on word recognition. We found that lexical stress information alone can, on the average, reduce the number of word candidates from a large dictionary by more than 80%. In conjunction with this study, we successfully developed a system that automatically determines the stress pattern of a word from the acoustic signal.

  5. Speech recognition: Acoustic, phonetic and lexical knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zue, V. W.

    1985-08-01

    During this reporting period we continued to make progress on the acquisition of acoustic-phonetic and lexical knowledge. We completed development of a continuous digit recognition system. The system was constructed to investigate the use of acoustic-phonetic knowledge in a speech recognition system. The significant achievements of this study include the development of a soft-failure procedure for lexical access and the discovery of a set of acoustic-phonetic features for verification. We completed a study of the constraints that lexical stress imposes on word recognition. We found that lexical stress information alone can, on the average, reduce the number of word candidates from a large dictionary by more than 80 percent. In conjunction with this study, we successfully developed a system that automatically determines the stress pattern of a word from the acoustic signal. We performed an acoustic study on the characteristics of nasal consonants and nasalized vowels. We have also developed recognition algorithms for nasal murmurs and nasalized vowels in continuous speech. We finished the preliminary development of a system that aligns a speech waveform with the corresponding phonetic transcription.

  6. Models for Teaching Speech Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deethardt, John F., II

    Intended for use by educators of preservice speech communications teachers, this description of a methods course is geared towards high school and college level pedagogy. The philosophy of the guide rejects the typical textbook style, in which generalizations are given to students as unqualified positive statements rather than made objects of…

  7. Perceptual centres in speech - an acoustic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Sophie Kerttu

    Perceptual centres, or P-centres, represent the perceptual moments of occurrence of acoustic signals - the 'beat' of a sound. P-centres underlie the perception and production of rhythm in perceptually regular speech sequences. P-centres have been modelled both in speech and non speech (music) domains. The three aims of this thesis were toatest out current P-centre models to determine which best accounted for the experimental data bto identify a candidate parameter to map P-centres onto (a local approach) as opposed to the previous global models which rely upon the whole signal to determine the P-centre the final aim was to develop a model of P-centre location which could be applied to speech and non speech signals. The first aim was investigated by a series of experiments in which a) speech from different speakers was investigated to determine whether different models could account for variation between speakers b) whether rendering the amplitude time plot of a speech signal affects the P-centre of the signal c) whether increasing the amplitude at the offset of a speech signal alters P-centres in the production and perception of speech. The second aim was carried out by a) manipulating the rise time of different speech signals to determine whether the P-centre was affected, and whether the type of speech sound ramped affected the P-centre shift b) manipulating the rise time and decay time of a synthetic vowel to determine whether the onset alteration was had more affect on P-centre than the offset manipulation c) and whether the duration of a vowel affected the P-centre, if other attributes (amplitude, spectral contents) were held constant. The third aim - modelling P-centres - was based on these results. The Frequency dependent Amplitude Increase Model of P-centre location (FAIM) was developed using a modelling protocol, the APU GammaTone Filterbank and the speech from different speakers. The P-centres of the stimuli corpus were highly predicted by attributes of

  8. Unvoiced Speech Recognition Using Tissue-Conductive Acoustic Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heracleous, Panikos; Kaino, Tomomi; Saruwatari, Hiroshi; Shikano, Kiyohiro

    2006-12-01

    We present the use of stethoscope and silicon NAM (nonaudible murmur) microphones in automatic speech recognition. NAM microphones are special acoustic sensors, which are attached behind the talker's ear and can capture not only normal (audible) speech, but also very quietly uttered speech (nonaudible murmur). As a result, NAM microphones can be applied in automatic speech recognition systems when privacy is desired in human-machine communication. Moreover, NAM microphones show robustness against noise and they might be used in special systems (speech recognition, speech transform, etc.) for sound-impaired people. Using adaptation techniques and a small amount of training data, we achieved for a 20 k dictation task a[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] word accuracy for nonaudible murmur recognition in a clean environment. In this paper, we also investigate nonaudible murmur recognition in noisy environments and the effect of the Lombard reflex on nonaudible murmur recognition. We also propose three methods to integrate audible speech and nonaudible murmur recognition using a stethoscope NAM microphone with very promising results.

  9. Acoustic and Perceptual Characteristics of Vowels Produced during Simultaneous Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiavetti, Nicholas; Metz, Dale Evan; Whitehead, Robert L.; Brown, Shannon; Borges, Janie; Rivera, Sara; Schultz, Christine

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the acoustical and perceptual characteristics of vowels in speech produced during simultaneous communication (SC). Twelve normal hearing, experienced sign language users were recorded under SC and speech alone (SA) conditions speaking a set of sentences containing monosyllabic words designed for measurement of vowel…

  10. Ultrasonic speech translator and communications system

    DOEpatents

    Akerman, M. Alfred; Ayers, Curtis W.; Haynes, Howard D.

    1996-01-01

    A wireless communication system undetectable by radio frequency methods for converting audio signals, including human voice, to electronic signals in the ultrasonic frequency range, transmitting the ultrasonic signal by way of acoustical pressure waves across a carrier medium, including gases, liquids, or solids, and reconverting the ultrasonic acoustical pressure waves back to the original audio signal. The ultrasonic speech translator and communication system (20) includes an ultrasonic transmitting device (100) and an ultrasonic receiving device (200). The ultrasonic transmitting device (100) accepts as input (115) an audio signal such as human voice input from a microphone (114) or tape deck. The ultrasonic transmitting device (100) frequency modulates an ultrasonic carrier signal with the audio signal producing a frequency modulated ultrasonic carrier signal, which is transmitted via acoustical pressure waves across a carrier medium such as gases, liquids or solids. The ultrasonic receiving device (200) converts the frequency modulated ultrasonic acoustical pressure waves to a frequency modulated electronic signal, demodulates the audio signal from the ultrasonic carrier signal, and conditions the demodulated audio signal to reproduce the original audio signal at its output (250).

  11. Ultrasonic speech translator and communications system

    DOEpatents

    Akerman, M.A.; Ayers, C.W.; Haynes, H.D.

    1996-07-23

    A wireless communication system undetectable by radio frequency methods for converting audio signals, including human voice, to electronic signals in the ultrasonic frequency range, transmitting the ultrasonic signal by way of acoustical pressure waves across a carrier medium, including gases, liquids, or solids, and reconverting the ultrasonic acoustical pressure waves back to the original audio signal. The ultrasonic speech translator and communication system includes an ultrasonic transmitting device and an ultrasonic receiving device. The ultrasonic transmitting device accepts as input an audio signal such as human voice input from a microphone or tape deck. The ultrasonic transmitting device frequency modulates an ultrasonic carrier signal with the audio signal producing a frequency modulated ultrasonic carrier signal, which is transmitted via acoustical pressure waves across a carrier medium such as gases, liquids or solids. The ultrasonic receiving device converts the frequency modulated ultrasonic acoustical pressure waves to a frequency modulated electronic signal, demodulates the audio signal from the ultrasonic carrier signal, and conditions the demodulated audio signal to reproduce the original audio signal at its output. 7 figs.

  12. Acoustic characterization of developmental speech disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunnell, H. Timothy; Polikoff, James; McNicholas, Jane; Walter, Rhonda; Winn, Matthew

    2001-05-01

    A novel approach to classifying children with developmental speech delays (DSD) involving /r/ was developed. The approach first derives an acoustic classification of /r/ tokens based on their forced Viterbi alignment to a five-state hidden Markov model (HMM) of normally articulated /r/. Children with DSD are then classified in terms of the proportion of their /r/ productions that fall into each broad acoustic class. This approach was evaluated using 953 examples of /r/ as produced by 18 DSD children and an approximately equal number of /r/ tokens produced by a much larger number of normally articulating children. The acoustic classification identified three broad categories of /r/ that differed substantially in how they aligned to the normal speech /r/ HMM. Additionally, these categories tended to partition tokens uttered by DSD children from those uttered by normally articulating children. Similarities among the DSD children and average normal child measured in terms of the proportion of their /r/ productions that fell into each of the three broad acoustic categories were used to perform a hierarchical clustering. This clustering revealed groupings of DSD children who tended to approach /r/ production in one of several acoustically distinct manners.

  13. Covert underwater acoustic communications.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jun; He, Hao; Li, Jian; Roberts, William; Stoica, Petre

    2010-11-01

    Low probability of detection (LPD) communications are conducted at a low received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to deter eavesdroppers to sense the presence of the transmitted signal. Successful detection at intended receiver heavily relies on the processing gain achieved by employing the direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DSSS) technique. For scenarios that lack a sufficiently low SNR to maintain LPD, another metric, referred to as low probability of interception (LPI), is of interest to protect the privacy of the transmitted information. If covert communications take place in underwater acoustic (UWA) environments, then additional challenges are present. The time-varying nature of the UWA channel prevents the employment of a long spreading waveform. Furthermore, UWA environments are frequency-selective channels with long memory, which imposes challenges to the design of the spreading waveform. In this paper, a covert UWA communication system that adopts the DSSS technique and a coherent RAKE receiver is investigated. Emphasis is placed on the design of a spreading waveform that not only accounts for the transceiver structure and frequency-selective nature of the UWA channel, but also possesses a superior LPI. The proposed techniques are evaluated using both simulated and SPACE'08 in-water experimental data. PMID:21110585

  14. Communicating by Language: The Speech Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Arthur S., Ed.

    This document reports on a conference focused on speech problems. The main objective of these discussions was to facilitate a deeper understanding of human communication through interaction of conference participants with colleagues in other disciplines. Topics discussed included speech production, feedback, speech perception, and development of…

  15. SPEECH DURATIONS OF ASTRONAUT AND GROUND COMMUNICATOR.

    PubMed

    MATARAZZO, J D; WIENS, A N; SASLOW, G; DUNHAM, R M; VOAS, R B

    1964-01-10

    Laboratory studies suggest that an interviewer can influence the speech duration of an interviewee by modifications in his own speech duration. What appears to be a related association between the speech duration of communicators on the ground and an astronaut in orbital flight was found. PMID:14075727

  16. The Practical Philosophy of Communication Ethics and Free Speech as the Foundation for Speech Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Ronald C.

    1990-01-01

    Argues that communication ethics and free speech are the foundation for understanding the field of speech communication and its proper positioning in the larger array of academic disciplines. Argues that speech communication as a discipline can be traced back to a "practical philosophical" foundation detailed by Aristotle. (KEH)

  17. Acoustic analysis of speech under stress.

    PubMed

    Sondhi, Savita; Khan, Munna; Vijay, Ritu; Salhan, Ashok K; Chouhan, Satish

    2015-01-01

    When a person is emotionally charged, stress could be discerned in his voice. This paper presents a simplified and a non-invasive approach to detect psycho-physiological stress by monitoring the acoustic modifications during a stressful conversation. Voice database consists of audio clips from eight different popular FM broadcasts wherein the host of the show vexes the subjects who are otherwise unaware of the charade. The audio clips are obtained from real-life stressful conversations (no simulated emotions). Analysis is done using PRAAT software to evaluate mean fundamental frequency (F0) and formant frequencies (F1, F2, F3, F4) both in neutral and stressed state. Results suggest that F0 increases with stress; however, formant frequency decreases with stress. Comparison of Fourier and chirp spectra of short vowel segment shows that for relaxed speech, the two spectra are similar; however, for stressed speech, they differ in the high frequency range due to increased pitch modulation. PMID:26558301

  18. System And Method For Characterizing Voiced Excitations Of Speech And Acoustic Signals, Removing Acoustic Noise From Speech, And Synthesizi

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2006-04-25

    The present invention is a system and method for characterizing human (or animate) speech voiced excitation functions and acoustic signals, for removing unwanted acoustic noise which often occurs when a speaker uses a microphone in common environments, and for synthesizing personalized or modified human (or other animate) speech upon command from a controller. A low power EM sensor is used to detect the motions of windpipe tissues in the glottal region of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech is produced by a user. From these tissue motion measurements, a voiced excitation function can be derived. Further, the excitation function provides speech production information to enhance noise removal from human speech and it enables accurate transfer functions of speech to be obtained. Previously stored excitation and transfer functions can be used for synthesizing personalized or modified human speech. Configurations of EM sensor and acoustic microphone systems are described to enhance noise cancellation and to enable multiple articulator measurements.

  19. Acoustic assessment of erygmophonic speech of Moroccan laryngectomized patients

    PubMed Central

    Ouattassi, Naouar; Benmansour, Najib; Ridal, Mohammed; Zaki, Zouheir; Bendahhou, Karima; Nejjari, Chakib; Cherkaoui, Abdeljabbar; El Alami, Mohammed Nouredine El Amine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Acoustic evaluation of alaryngeal voices is among the most prominent issues in speech analysis field. In fact, many methods have been developed to date to substitute the classic perceptual evaluation. The Aim of this study is to present our experience in erygmophonic speech objective assessment and to discuss the most widely used methods of acoustic speech appraisal. through a prospective case-control study we have measured acoustic parameters of speech quality during one year of erygmophonic rehabilitation therapy of Moroccan laryngectomized patients. Methods We have assessed acoustic parameters of erygmophonic speech samples of eleven laryngectomized patients through the speech rehabilitation therapy. Acoustic parameters were obtained by perturbation analysis method and linear predictive coding algorithms also through the broadband spectrogram. Results Using perturbation analysis methods, we have found erygmophonic voice to be significantly poorer than normal speech and it exhibits higher formant frequency values. However, erygmophonic voice shows also higher and extremely variable Error values that were greater than the acceptable level. And thus, live a doubt on the reliability of those analytic methods results. Conclusion Acoustic parameters for objective evaluation of alaryngeal voices should allow a reliable representation of the perceptual evaluation of the quality of speech. This requirement has not been fulfilled by the common methods used so far. Therefore, acoustical assessment of erygmophonic speech needs more investigations. PMID:26587121

  20. Building an Interdepartmental Major in Speech Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litterst, Judith K.

    This paper describes a popular and innovative major program of study in speech communication at St. Cloud University in Minnesota: the Speech Communication Interdepartmental Major. The paper provides background on the program, discusses overall program requirements, presents sample student options, identifies ingredients for program success,…

  1. Speech Communication in the Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, R. R.; Willmington, S. Clay

    This book is intended as the primary text for methods courses offered in the undergraduate preparation of speech-communication education majors and minors. The fourteen chapters contained in the book are grouped into four sections. Section one directs the reader's attention to a consideration of the field of speech communication. Chapter one…

  2. Acoustic Study of Acted Emotions in Speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rong

    An extensive set of carefully recorded utterances provided a speech database for investigating acoustic correlates among eight emotional states. Four professional actors and four professional actresses simulated the emotional states of joy, conversation, nervousness, anger, sadness, hate, fear, and depression. The values of 14 acoustic parameters were extracted from analyses of the simulated portrayals. Normalization of the parameters was made to reduce the talker-dependence. Correlates of emotion were investigated by means of principal components analysis. Sadness and depression were found to be "ambiguous" with respect to each other, but "unique" with respect to joy and anger in the principal components space. Joy, conversation, nervousness, anger, hate, and fear did not separate well in the space and so exhibited ambiguity with respect to one another. The different talkers expressed joy, anger, sadness, and depression more consistently than the other four emotions. The analysis results were compared with the results of a subjective study using the same speech database and considerable consistency between the two was found.

  3. Acoustic differences among casual, conversational, and read speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinnow, DeAnna

    Speech is a complex behavior that allows speakers to use many variations to satisfy the demands connected with multiple speaking environments. Speech research typically obtains speech samples in a controlled laboratory setting using read material, yet anecdotal observations of such speech, particularly from talkers with a speech and language impairment, have identified a "performance" effect in the produced speech which masks the characteristics of impaired speech outside of the lab (Goberman, Recker, & Parveen, 2010). The aim of the current study was to investigate acoustic differences among laboratory read, laboratory conversational, and casual speech through well-defined speech tasks in the laboratory and in talkers' natural environments. Eleven healthy research participants performed lab recording tasks (19 read sentences and a dialogue about their life) and collected natural-environment recordings of themselves over 3-day periods using portable recorders. Segments were analyzed for articulatory, voice, and prosodic acoustic characteristics using computer software and hand counting. The current study results indicate that lab-read speech was significantly different from casual speech: greater articulation range, improved voice quality measures, lower speech rate, and lower mean pitch. One implication of the results is that different laboratory techniques may be beneficial in obtaining speech samples that are more like casual speech, thus making it easier to correctly analyze abnormal speech characteristics with fewer errors.

  4. Acoustics in Halls for Speech and Music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gade, Anders C.

    This chapter deals specifically with concepts, tools, and architectural variables of importance when designing auditoria for speech and music. The focus will be on cultivating the useful components of the sound in the room rather than on avoiding noise from outside or from installations, which is dealt with in Chap. 11. The chapter starts by presenting the subjective aspects of the room acoustic experience according to consensus at the time of writing. Then follows a description of their objective counterparts, the objective room acoustic parameters, among which the classical reverberation time measure is only one of many, but still of fundamental value. After explanations on how these parameters can be measured and predicted during the design phase, the remainder of the chapter deals with how the acoustic properties can be controlled by the architectural design of auditoria. This is done by presenting the influence of individual design elements as well as brief descriptions of halls designed for specific purposes, such as drama, opera, and symphonic concerts. Finally, some important aspects of loudspeaker installations in auditoria are briefly touched upon.

  5. Alternative Speech Communication System for Persons with Severe Speech Disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selouani, Sid-Ahmed; Sidi Yakoub, Mohammed; O'Shaughnessy, Douglas

    2009-12-01

    Assistive speech-enabled systems are proposed to help both French and English speaking persons with various speech disorders. The proposed assistive systems use automatic speech recognition (ASR) and speech synthesis in order to enhance the quality of communication. These systems aim at improving the intelligibility of pathologic speech making it as natural as possible and close to the original voice of the speaker. The resynthesized utterances use new basic units, a new concatenating algorithm and a grafting technique to correct the poorly pronounced phonemes. The ASR responses are uttered by the new speech synthesis system in order to convey an intelligible message to listeners. Experiments involving four American speakers with severe dysarthria and two Acadian French speakers with sound substitution disorders (SSDs) are carried out to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed methods. An improvement of the Perceptual Evaluation of the Speech Quality (PESQ) value of 5% and more than 20% is achieved by the speech synthesis systems that deal with SSD and dysarthria, respectively.

  6. Age-Related Changes in Acoustic Characteristics of Adult Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torre, Peter, III; Barlow, Jessica A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses effects of age and sex on certain acoustic properties of speech, given conflicting findings on such effects reported in prior research. The speech of 27 younger adults (15 women, 12 men; mean age 25.5 years) and 59 older adults (32 women, 27 men; mean age 75.2 years) was evaluated for identification of differences for sex and…

  7. Acoustic Markers of Prosodic Boundaries in Spanish Spontaneous Alaryngeal Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuenca, M. H.; Barrio, M. M.

    2010-01-01

    Prosodic information aids segmentation of the continuous speech signal and thereby facilitates auditory speech processing. Durational and pitch variations are prosodic cues especially necessary to convey prosodic boundaries, but alaryngeal speakers have inconsistent control over acoustic parameters such as F0 and duration, being as a result noisy…

  8. SPEECH--MAN'S NATURAL COMMUNICATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DUDLEY, HOMER; AND OTHERS

    SESSION 63 OF THE 1967 INSTITUTE OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERS INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION BROUGHT TOGETHER SEVEN DISTINGUISHED MEN WORKING IN FIELDS RELEVANT TO LANGUAGE. THEIR TOPICS INCLUDED ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF SPEECH AND LANGUAGE, LANGUAGE AND CULTURE, MAN'S PHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS FOR SPEECH, LINGUISTICS, AND TECHNOLOGY AND…

  9. Communication acoustics in Bell Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanagan, J. L.

    2001-05-01

    Communication aoustics has been a central theme in Bell Labs research since its inception. Telecommunication serves human information exchange. And, humans favor spoken language as a principal mode. The atmospheric medium typically provides the link between articulation and hearing. Creation, control and detection of sound, and the human's facility for generation and perception are basic ingredients of telecommunication. Electronics technology of the 1920s ushered in great advances in communication at a distance, a strong economical impetus being to overcome bandwidth limitations of wireline and cable. Early research established criteria for speech transmission with high quality and intelligibility. These insights supported exploration of means for efficient transmission-obtaining the greatest amount of speech information over a given bandwidth. Transoceanic communication was initiated by undersea cables for telegraphy. But these long cables exhibited very limited bandwidth (order of few hundred Hz). The challenge of sending voice across the oceans spawned perhaps the best known speech compression technique of history-the Vocoder, which parametrized the signal for transmission in about 300 Hz bandwidth, one-tenth that required for the typical waveform channel. Quality and intelligibility were grave issues (and they still are). At the same time parametric representation offered possibilities for encryption and privacy inside a traditional voice bandwidth. Confidential conversations between Roosevelt and Churchill during World War II were carried over high-frequency radio by an encrypted vocoder system known as Sigsaly. Major engineering advances in the late 1940s and early 1950s moved telecommunications into a new regime-digital technology. These key advances were at least three: (i) new understanding of time-discrete (sampled) representation of signals, (ii) digital computation (especially binary based), and (iii) evolving capabilities in microelectronics that

  10. Study of acoustic correlates associate with emotional speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildirim, Serdar; Lee, Sungbok; Lee, Chul Min; Bulut, Murtaza; Busso, Carlos; Kazemzadeh, Ebrahim; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2004-10-01

    This study investigates the acoustic characteristics of four different emotions expressed in speech. The aim is to obtain detailed acoustic knowledge on how a speech signal is modulated by changes from neutral to a certain emotional state. Such knowledge is necessary for automatic emotion recognition and classification and emotional speech synthesis. Speech data obtained from two semi-professional actresses are analyzed and compared. Each subject produces 211 sentences with four different emotions; neutral, sad, angry, happy. We analyze changes in temporal and acoustic parameters such as magnitude and variability of segmental duration, fundamental frequency and the first three formant frequencies as a function of emotion. Acoustic differences among the emotions are also explored with mutual information computation, multidimensional scaling and acoustic likelihood comparison with normal speech. Results indicate that speech associated with anger and happiness is characterized by longer duration, shorter interword silence, higher pitch and rms energy with wider ranges. Sadness is distinguished from other emotions by lower rms energy and longer interword silence. Interestingly, the difference in formant pattern between [happiness/anger] and [neutral/sadness] are better reflected in back vowels such as /a/(/father/) than in front vowels. Detailed results on intra- and interspeaker variability will be reported.

  11. Acoustic assessment of speech privacy curtains in two nursing units.

    PubMed

    Pope, Diana S; Miller-Klein, Erik T

    2016-01-01

    Hospitals have complex soundscapes that create challenges to patient care. Extraneous noise and high reverberation rates impair speech intelligibility, which leads to raised voices. In an unintended spiral, the increasing noise may result in diminished speech privacy, as people speak loudly to be heard over the din. The products available to improve hospital soundscapes include construction materials that absorb sound (acoustic ceiling tiles, carpet, wall insulation) and reduce reverberation rates. Enhanced privacy curtains are now available and offer potential for a relatively simple way to improve speech privacy and speech intelligibility by absorbing sound at the hospital patient's bedside. Acoustic assessments were performed over 2 days on two nursing units with a similar design in the same hospital. One unit was built with the 1970s' standard hospital construction and the other was newly refurbished (2013) with sound-absorbing features. In addition, we determined the effect of an enhanced privacy curtain versus standard privacy curtains using acoustic measures of speech privacy and speech intelligibility indexes. Privacy curtains provided auditory protection for the patients. In general, that protection was increased by the use of enhanced privacy curtains. On an average, the enhanced curtain improved sound absorption from 20% to 30%; however, there was considerable variability, depending on the configuration of the rooms tested. Enhanced privacy curtains provide measureable improvement to the acoustics of patient rooms but cannot overcome larger acoustic design issues. To shorten reverberation time, additional absorption, and compact and more fragmented nursing unit floor plate shapes should be considered. PMID:26780959

  12. Acoustic assessment of speech privacy curtains in two nursing units

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Diana S.; Miller-Klein, Erik T.

    2016-01-01

    Hospitals have complex soundscapes that create challenges to patient care. Extraneous noise and high reverberation rates impair speech intelligibility, which leads to raised voices. In an unintended spiral, the increasing noise may result in diminished speech privacy, as people speak loudly to be heard over the din. The products available to improve hospital soundscapes include construction materials that absorb sound (acoustic ceiling tiles, carpet, wall insulation) and reduce reverberation rates. Enhanced privacy curtains are now available and offer potential for a relatively simple way to improve speech privacy and speech intelligibility by absorbing sound at the hospital patient's bedside. Acoustic assessments were performed over 2 days on two nursing units with a similar design in the same hospital. One unit was built with the 1970s’ standard hospital construction and the other was newly refurbished (2013) with sound-absorbing features. In addition, we determined the effect of an enhanced privacy curtain versus standard privacy curtains using acoustic measures of speech privacy and speech intelligibility indexes. Privacy curtains provided auditory protection for the patients. In general, that protection was increased by the use of enhanced privacy curtains. On an average, the enhanced curtain improved sound absorption from 20% to 30%; however, there was considerable variability, depending on the configuration of the rooms tested. Enhanced privacy curtains provide measureable improvement to the acoustics of patient rooms but cannot overcome larger acoustic design issues. To shorten reverberation time, additional absorption, and compact and more fragmented nursing unit floor plate shapes should be considered. PMID:26780959

  13. Speech recognition: Acoustic phonetic and lexical knowledge representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zue, V. W.

    1983-02-01

    The purpose of this program is to develop a speech data base facility under which the acoustic characteristics of speech sounds in various contexts can be studied conveniently; investigate the phonological properties of a large lexicon of, say 10,000 words, and determine to what extent the phontactic constraints can be utilized in speech recognition; study the acoustic cues that are used to mark work boundaries; develop a test bed in the form of a large-vocabulary, IWR system to study the interactions of acoustic, phonetic and lexical knowledge; and develop a limited continuous speech recognition system with the goal of recognizing any English word from its spelling in order to assess the interactions of higher-level knowledge sources.

  14. Speech recognition: Acoustic phonetic and lexical knowledge representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zue, V. W.

    1984-02-01

    The purpose of this program is to develop a speech data base facility under which the acoustic characteristics of speech sounds in various contexts can be studied conveniently; investigate the phonological properties of a large lexicon of, say 10,000 words and determine to what extent the phonotactic constraints can be utilized in speech recognition; study the acoustic cues that are used to mark work boundaries; develop a test bed in the form of a large-vocabulary, IWR system to study the interactions of acoustic, phonetic and lexical knowledge; and develop a limited continuous speech recognition system with the goal of recognizing any English word from its spelling in order to assess the interactions of higher-level knowledge sources.

  15. The Carolinas Speech Communication Annual, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Bruce C.

    1997-01-01

    This 1997 issue of "The Carolinas Speech Communication Annual" contains the following articles: "'Bridges of Understanding': UNESCO's Creation of a Fantasy for the American Public" (Michael H. Eaves and Charles F. Beadle, Jr.); "Developing a Communication Cooperative: A Student, Faculty, and Organizational Learning Experience" (Peter M. Kellett…

  16. Preserved Acoustic Hearing in Cochlear Implantation Improves Speech Perception

    PubMed Central

    Sheffield, Sterling W.; Jahn, Kelly; Gifford, René H.

    2015-01-01

    Background With improved surgical techniques and electrode design, an increasing number of cochlear implant (CI) recipients have preserved acoustic hearing in the implanted ear, thereby resulting in bilateral acoustic hearing. There are currently no guidelines, however, for clinicians with respect to audio-metric criteria and the recommendation of amplification in the implanted ear. The acoustic bandwidth necessary to obtain speech perception benefit from acoustic hearing in the implanted ear is unknown. Additionally, it is important to determine if, and in which listening environments, acoustic hearing in both ears provides more benefit than hearing in just one ear, even with limited residual hearing. Purpose The purposes of this study were to (1) determine whether acoustic hearing in an ear with a CI provides as much speech perception benefit as an equivalent bandwidth of acoustic hearing in the non-implanted ear, and (2) determine whether acoustic hearing in both ears provides more benefit than hearing in just one ear. Research Design A repeated-measures, within-participant design was used to compare performance across listening conditions. Study Sample Seven adults with CIs and bilateral residual acoustic hearing (hearing preservation) were recruited for the study. Data Collection and Analysis Consonant-nucleus-consonant word recognition was tested in four conditions: CI alone, CI + acoustic hearing in the nonimplanted ear, CI + acoustic hearing in the implanted ear, and CI + bilateral acoustic hearing. A series of low-pass filters were used to examine the effects of acoustic bandwidth through an insert earphone with amplification. Benefit was defined as the difference among conditions. The benefit of bilateral acoustic hearing was tested in both diffuse and single-source background noise. Results were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results Similar benefit was obtained for equivalent acoustic frequency bandwidth in either ear. Acoustic

  17. Acoustic communication in plant-animal interactions.

    PubMed

    Schöner, Michael G; Simon, Ralph; Schöner, Caroline R

    2016-08-01

    Acoustic communication is widespread and well-studied in animals but has been neglected in other organisms such as plants. However, there is growing evidence for acoustic communication in plant-animal interactions. While knowledge about active acoustic signalling in plants (i.e. active sound production) is still in its infancy, research on passive acoustic signalling (i.e. reflection of animal sounds) revealed that bat-dependent plants have adapted to the bats' echolocation systems by providing acoustic reflectors to attract their animal partners. Understanding the proximate mechanisms and ultimate causes of acoustic communication will shed light on an underestimated dimension of information transfer between plants and animals. PMID:27423052

  18. Evaluating a topographical mapping from speech acoustics to tongue positions

    SciTech Connect

    Hogden, J.; Heard, M.

    1995-05-01

    The {ital continuity} {ital mapping} algorithm---a procedure for learning to recover the relative positions of the articulators from speech signals---is evaluated using human speech data. The advantage of continuity mapping is that it is an unsupervised algorithm; that is, it can potentially be trained to make a mapping from speech acoustics to speech articulation without articulator measurements. The procedure starts by vector quantizing short windows of a speech signal so that each window is represented (encoded) by a single number. Next, multidimensional scaling is used to map quantization codes that were temporally close in the encoded speech to nearby points in a {ital continuity} {ital map}. Since speech sounds produced sufficiently close together in time must have been produced by similar articulator configurations, and speech sounds produced close together in time are close to each other in the continuity map, sounds produced by similar articulator positions should be mapped to similar positions in the continuity map. The data set used for evaluating the continuity mapping algorithm is comprised of simultaneously collected articulator and acoustic measurements made using an electromagnetic midsagittal articulometer on a human subject. Comparisons between measured articulator positions and those recovered using continuity mapping will be presented.

  19. A Rating of Doctoral Programs in Speech Communication, 1976

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Renee; Barker, Larry

    1977-01-01

    Reviews a survey evaluation of speech communication doctoral programs existing in 1976. Available from: ACA Bulletin, Robert Hall, Editor, Speech Communication Association, 5205 Leesburg Pike, Suite 1001, Falls Church, VA 22041. (MH)

  20. Graduate Programs in Speech Communication: A Position Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Alvin A.

    1977-01-01

    Details a position paper concerning the major focus of graduate programs in speech communication. Available from: ACA Bulletin, Robert Hall, Editor, Speech Communication Association, 5205 Leesburg Pike, Suite 1001, Falls Church, VA 22041. (MH)

  1. Acoustic Analysis of Speech of Cochlear Implantees and Its Implications

    PubMed Central

    Patadia, Rajesh; Govale, Prajakta; Rangasayee, R.; Kirtane, Milind

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Cochlear implantees have improved speech production skills compared with those using hearing aids, as reflected in their acoustic measures. When compared to normal hearing controls, implanted children had fronted vowel space and their /s/ and /∫/ noise frequencies overlapped. Acoustic analysis of speech provides an objective index of perceived differences in speech production which can be precursory in planning therapy. The objective of this study was to compare acoustic characteristics of speech in cochlear implantees with those of normal hearing age matched peers to understand implications. Methods Group 1 consisted of 15 children with prelingual bilateral severe-profound hearing loss (age, 5-11 years; implanted between 4-10 years). Prior to an implant behind the ear, hearing aids were used; prior & post implantation subjects received at least 1 year of aural intervention. Group 2 consisted of 15 normal hearing age matched peers. Sustained productions of vowels and words with selected consonants were recorded. Using Praat software for acoustic analysis, digitized speech tokens were measured for F1, F2, and F3 of vowels; centre frequency (Hz) and energy concentration (dB) in burst; voice onset time (VOT in ms) for stops; centre frequency (Hz) of noise in /s/; rise time (ms) for affricates. A t-test was used to find significant differences between groups. Results Significant differences were found in VOT for /b/, F1 and F2 of /e/, and F3 of /u/. No significant differences were found for centre frequency of burst, energy concentration for stops, centre frequency of noise in /s/, or rise time for affricates. These findings suggest that auditory feedback provided by cochlear implants enable subjects to monitor production of speech sounds. Conclusion Acoustic analysis of speech is an essential method for discerning characteristics which have or have not been improved by cochlear implantation and thus for planning intervention. PMID:22701768

  2. Methods and apparatus for non-acoustic speech characterization and recognition

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, John F.

    1999-01-01

    By simultaneously recording EM wave reflections and acoustic speech information, the positions and velocities of the speech organs as speech is articulated can be defined for each acoustic speech unit. Well defined time frames and feature vectors describing the speech, to the degree required, can be formed. Such feature vectors can uniquely characterize the speech unit being articulated each time frame. The onset of speech, rejection of external noise, vocalized pitch periods, articulator conditions, accurate timing, the identification of the speaker, acoustic speech unit recognition, and organ mechanical parameters can be determined.

  3. Methods and apparatus for non-acoustic speech characterization and recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Holzrichter, J.F.

    1999-12-21

    By simultaneously recording EM wave reflections and acoustic speech information, the positions and velocities of the speech organs as speech is articulated can be defined for each acoustic speech unit. Well defined time frames and feature vectors describing the speech, to the degree required, can be formed. Such feature vectors can uniquely characterize the speech unit being articulated each time frame. The onset of speech, rejection of external noise, vocalized pitch periods, articulator conditions, accurate timing, the identification of the speaker, acoustic speech unit recognition, and organ mechanical parameters can be determined.

  4. Speech recognition: Acoustic-phonetic knowledge acquisition and representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zue, Victor W.

    1987-09-01

    A long-term research goal is the development and implementation of speaker-independent continuous speech recognition systems. It is believed that the proper utilization of speech-specific knowledge is essential for such advanced systems. Research is thus directed toward the acquisition of acoustic-phonetic and lexical knowledge, and the application of this knowledge to speech recognition algorithms. Investigation into the contextual variations of speech sounds has continued, emphasizing the role of the syllable in these variations. Analysis revealed that the acoustic realization of a stop depends greatly on its position within a syllable. In order to represent and utilize this information in speech recognition, a hierarchical syllable description has been adopted that enables us to specify the constraints in terms of an immediate constituent grammar. We will continue to quantify the effect of context on the acoustic realization of phonemes using larger constituent units such as syllables. In addition, a grammar will be developed to describe the relationship between phonemes and acoustic segments, and a parser that will make use of this grammar for phonetic recognition and lexical access.

  5. Implications of Empathy Research for Speech Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Dale Myers

    In this inductive study, a body of empathy-related research is reviewed for the purpose of identifying theoretical and pedagogical implications for a college-level, introductory course in speech communication. The results of studies conducted primarily in the fields of psychotherapy and counseling are summarized. Evidence which places empathy at…

  6. The Carolinas Speech Communication Annual, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Bruce C., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This 1996 issue of the "Carolinas Speech Communication Annual" contains the following articles: "Rhetoric in the Second Sophistic, Medieval, and Renaissance Periods: Implications for Pedagogy" (Omar J. Swartz and Chris Bachelder); "Thou Art Damned: Cursing as a Rhetorical Strategy of the Accusers in the Salem Witch Trials" (Colleen E. Kelley);…

  7. On the State of Speech Communication Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillars, Malcolm O.

    The discipline of speech communication was established early in the twentieth century. After its subject matter was defined and separated from the field of English by Herbert Wichelns's "The Literary Criticism of Oratory," departments were established and a separate organization--The National Association of Teachers of Public Speaking--was formed.…

  8. Do 6-Month-Olds Understand That Speech Can Communicate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vouloumanos, Athena; Martin, Alia; Onishi, Kristine H.

    2014-01-01

    Adults and 12-month-old infants recognize that even unfamiliar speech can communicate information between third parties, suggesting that they can separate the communicative function of speech from its lexical content. But do infants recognize that speech can communicate due to their experience understanding and producing language, or do they…

  9. Investigation of the optimum acoustical conditions for speech using auralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wonyoung; Hodgson, Murray

    2001-05-01

    Speech intelligibility is mainly affected by reverberation and by signal-to-noise level difference, the difference between the speech-signal and background-noise levels at a receiver. An important question for the design of rooms for speech (e.g., classrooms) is, what are the optimal values of these factors? This question has been studied experimentally and theoretically. Experimental studies found zero optimal reverberation time, but theoretical predictions found nonzero reverberation times. These contradictory results are partly caused by the different ways of accounting for background noise. Background noise sources and their locations inside the room are the most detrimental factors in speech intelligibility. However, noise levels also interact with reverberation in rooms. In this project, two major room-acoustical factors for speech intelligibility were controlled using speech and noise sources of known relative output levels located in a virtual room with known reverberation. Speech intelligibility test signals were played in the virtual room and auralized for listeners. The Modified Rhyme Test (MRT) and babble noise were used to measure subjective speech intelligibility quality. Optimal reverberation times, and the optimal values of other speech intelligibility metrics, for normal-hearing people and for hard-of-hearing people, were identified and compared.

  10. Acoustic Speech Analysis Of Wayang Golek Puppeteer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakim, Faisal Abdul; Mandasari, Miranti Indar; Sarwono, Joko

    2010-12-01

    Active disguising speech is one problem to be taken into account in forensic speaker verification or identification processes. The verification processes are usually carried out by comparison between unknown samples and known samples. Active disguising can be occurred on both samples. To simulate the condition of speech disguising, voices of Wayang Golek Puppeteer were used. It is assumed that wayang golek puppeteer is a master of disguise. He can manipulate his voice into many different types of character's voices. This paper discusses the speech characteristics of 2 puppeteers. Comparison was made between the voices of puppeteer's habitual voice with his manipulated voice.

  11. Masking Property Based Residual Acoustic Echo Cancellation for Hands-Free Communication in Automobile Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yoonjae; Jeong, Seokyeong; Ko, Hanseok

    A residual acoustic echo cancellation method that employs the masking property is proposed to enhance the speech quality of hands-free communication devices in an automobile environment. The conventional masking property is employed for speech enhancement using the masking threshold of the desired clean speech signal. In this Letter, either the near-end speech or residual noise is selected as the desired signal according to the double-talk detector. Then, the residual echo signal is masked by the desired signal (masker). Experiments confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method by deriving the echo return loss enhancement and by examining speech waveforms and spectrograms.

  12. Speech Rate Acceptance Ranges as a Function of Evaluative Domain, Listener Speech Rate, and Communication Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Street, Richard L., Jr.; Brady, Robert M.

    1982-01-01

    Speech rate appears to be an important communicative dimension upon which people evaluate the speech of others. Findings of this study indicate that speech rates at moderate through fast levels generated more favorable impressions of competence and social attractiveness than did slow speech. (PD)

  13. An Acoustic Measure for Word Prominence in Spontaneous Speech

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dagen; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2010-01-01

    An algorithm for automatic speech prominence detection is reported in this paper. We describe a comparative analysis on various acoustic features for word prominence detection and report results using a spoken dialog corpus with manually assigned prominence labels. The focus is on features such as spectral intensity and speech rate that are directly extracted from speech based on a correlation-based approach without requiring explicit linguistic or phonetic knowledge. Additionally, various pitch-based measures are studied with respect to their discriminating ability for prominence detection. A parametric scheme for modeling pitch plateau is proposed and this feature alone is found to outperform the traditional local pitch statistics. Two sets of experiments are used to explore the usefulness of the acoustic score generated using these features. The first set focuses on a more traditional way of word prominence detection based on a manually-tagged corpus. A 76.8% classification accuracy was achieved on a corpus of role-playing spoken dialogs. Due to difficulties in manually tagging speech prominence into discrete levels (categories), the second set of experiments focuses on evaluating the score indirectly. Specifically, through experiments on the Switchboard corpus, it is shown that the proposed acoustic score can discriminate between content word and function words in a statistically significant way. The relation between speech prominence and content/function words is also explored. Since prominent words tend to be predominantly content words, and since content words can be automatically marked from text-derived part of speech (POS) information, it is shown that the proposed acoustic score can be indirectly cross-validated through POS information. PMID:20454538

  14. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2002-01-01

    Low power EM waves are used to detect motions of vocal tract tissues of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech. A voiced excitation function is derived. The excitation function provides speech production information to enhance speech characterization and to enable noise removal from human speech.

  15. Spatial acoustic signal processing for immersive communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, Joshua

    Computing is rapidly becoming ubiquitous as users expect devices that can augment and interact naturally with the world around them. In these systems it is necessary to have an acoustic front-end that is able to capture and reproduce natural human communication. Whether the end point is a speech recognizer or another human listener, the reduction of noise, reverberation, and acoustic echoes are all necessary and complex challenges. The focus of this dissertation is to provide a general method for approaching these problems using spherical microphone and loudspeaker arrays.. In this work, a theory of capturing and reproducing three-dimensional acoustic fields is introduced from a signal processing perspective. In particular, the decomposition of the spatial part of the acoustic field into an orthogonal basis of spherical harmonics provides not only a general framework for analysis, but also many processing advantages. The spatial sampling error limits the upper frequency range with which a sound field can be accurately captured or reproduced. In broadband arrays, the cost and complexity of using multiple transducers is an issue. This work provides a flexible optimization method for determining the location of array elements to minimize the spatial aliasing error. The low frequency array processing ability is also limited by the SNR, mismatch, and placement error of transducers. To address this, a robust processing method is introduced and used to design a reproduction system for rendering over arbitrary loudspeaker arrays or binaurally over headphones. In addition to the beamforming problem, the multichannel acoustic echo cancellation (MCAEC) issue is also addressed. A MCAEC must adaptively estimate and track the constantly changing loudspeaker-room-microphone response to remove the sound field presented over the loudspeakers from that captured by the microphones. In the multichannel case, the system is overdetermined and many adaptive schemes fail to converge to

  16. Speech recognition: Acoustic-phonetic knowledge acquisition and representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zue, Victor W.

    1988-09-01

    The long-term research goal is to develop and implement speaker-independent continuous speech recognition systems. It is believed that the proper utilization of speech-specific knowledge is essential for such advanced systems. This research is thus directed toward the acquisition, quantification, and representation, of acoustic-phonetic and lexical knowledge, and the application of this knowledge to speech recognition algorithms. In addition, we are exploring new speech recognition alternatives based on artificial intelligence and connectionist techniques. We developed a statistical model for predicting the acoustic realization of stop consonants in various positions in the syllable template. A unification-based grammatical formalism was developed for incorporating this model into the lexical access algorithm. We provided an information-theoretic justification for the hierarchical structure of the syllable template. We analyzed segmented duration for vowels and fricatives in continuous speech. Based on contextual information, we developed durational models for vowels and fricatives that account for over 70 percent of the variance, using data from multiple, unknown speakers. We rigorously evaluated the ability of human spectrogram readers to identify stop consonants spoken by many talkers and in a variety of phonetic contexts. Incorporating the declarative knowledge used by the readers, we developed a knowledge-based system for stop identification. We achieved comparable system performance to that to the readers.

  17. Acoustic Characteristics of Ataxic Speech in Japanese Patients with Spinocerebellar Degeneration (SCD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikui, Yukiko; Tsukuda, Mamoru; Kuroiwa, Yoshiyuki; Koyano, Shigeru; Hirose, Hajime; Taguchi, Takahide

    2012-01-01

    Background: In English- and German-speaking countries, ataxic speech is often described as showing scanning based on acoustic impressions. Although the term "scanning" is generally considered to represent abnormal speech features including prosodic excess or insufficiency, any precise acoustic analysis of ataxic speech has not been performed in…

  18. A method for determining internal noise criteria based on practical speech communication applied to helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sternfeld, H., Jr.; Doyle, L. B.

    1978-01-01

    The relationship between the internal noise environment of helicopters and the ability of personnel to understand commands and instructions was studied. A test program was conducted to relate speech intelligibility to a standard measurement called Articulation Index. An acoustical simulator was used to provide noise environments typical of Army helicopters. Speech material (command sentences and phonetically balanced word lists) were presented at several voice levels in each helicopter environment. Recommended helicopter internal noise criteria, based on speech communication, were derived and the effectiveness of hearing protection devices were evaluated.

  19. Emotional Communication in Speech and Music: The Role of Melodic and Rhythmic Contrasts

    PubMed Central

    Quinto, Lena; Thompson, William Forde; Keating, Felicity Louise

    2013-01-01

    Many acoustic features convey emotion similarly in speech and music. Researchers have established that acoustic features such as pitch height, tempo, and intensity carry important emotional information in both domains. In this investigation, we examined the emotional significance of melodic and rhythmic contrasts between successive syllables or tones in speech and music, referred to as Melodic Interval Variability (MIV) and the normalized Pairwise Variability Index (nPVI). The spoken stimuli were 96 tokens expressing the emotions of irritation, fear, happiness, sadness, tenderness, or no emotion. The music stimuli were 96 phrases, played with or without performance expression and composed with the intention of communicating the same emotions. Results showed that nPVI, but not MIV, operates similarly in music and speech. Spoken stimuli, but not musical stimuli, were characterized by changes in MIV as a function of intended emotion. The results suggest that these measures may signal emotional intentions differently in speech and music. PMID:23630507

  20. Estimation of glottal source features from the spectral envelope of the acoustic speech signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Juan Felix

    Speech communication encompasses diverse types of information, including phonetics, affective state, voice quality, and speaker identity. From a speech production standpoint, the acoustic speech signal can be mainly divided into glottal source and vocal tract components, which play distinct roles in rendering the various types of information it contains. Most deployed speech analysis systems, however, do not explicitly represent these two components as distinct entities, as their joint estimation from the acoustic speech signal becomes an ill-defined blind deconvolution problem. Nevertheless, because of the desire to understand glottal behavior and how it relates to perceived voice quality, there has been continued interest in explicitly estimating the glottal component of the speech signal. To this end, several inverse filtering (IF) algorithms have been proposed, but they are unreliable in practice because of the blind formulation of the separation problem. In an effort to develop a method that can bypass the challenging IF process, this thesis proposes a new glottal source information extraction method that relies on supervised machine learning to transform smoothed spectral representations of speech, which are already used in some of the most widely deployed and successful speech analysis applications, into a set of glottal source features. A transformation method based on Gaussian mixture regression (GMR) is presented and compared to current IF methods in terms of feature similarity, reliability, and speaker discrimination capability on a large speech corpus, and potential representations of the spectral envelope of speech are investigated for their ability represent glottal source variation in a predictable manner. The proposed system was found to produce glottal source features that reasonably matched their IF counterparts in many cases, while being less susceptible to spurious errors. The development of the proposed method entailed a study into the aspects

  1. Multichannel spatial auditory display for speech communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, D. R.; Erbe, T.; Wenzel, E. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    A spatial auditory display for multiple speech communications was developed at NASA/Ames Research Center. Input is spatialized by the use of simplified head-related transfer functions, adapted for FIR filtering on Motorola 56001 digital signal processors. Hardware and firmware design implementations are overviewed for the initial prototype developed for NASA-Kennedy Space Center. An adaptive staircase method was used to determine intelligibility levels of four-letter call signs used by launch personnel at NASA against diotic speech babble. Spatial positions at 30 degrees azimuth increments were evaluated. The results from eight subjects showed a maximum intelligibility improvement of about 6-7 dB when the signal was spatialized to 60 or 90 degrees azimuth positions.

  2. Multisensory vocal communication in primates and the evolution of rhythmic speech

    PubMed Central

    Ghazanfar, Asif A.

    2013-01-01

    The integration of the visual and auditory modalities during human speech perception is the default mode of speech processing. That is, visual speech perception is not a capacity that is “piggybacked” on to auditory-only speech perception. Visual information from the mouth and other parts of the face is used by all perceivers to enhance auditory speech. This integration is ubiquitous and automatic and is similar across all individuals across all cultures. The two modalities seem to be integrated even at the earliest stages of human cognitive development. If multisensory speech is the default mode of perception, then this should be reflected in the evolution of vocal communication. The purpose of this review is to describe the data that reveal that human speech is not uniquely multisensory. In fact, the default mode of communication is multisensory in nonhuman primates as well but perhaps emerging with a different developmental trajectory. Speech production, however, exhibits a unique bimodal rhythmic structure in that both the acoustic output and the movements of the mouth are rhythmic and tightly correlated. This structure is absent in most monkey vocalizations. One hypothesis is that the bimodal speech rhythm may have evolved through the rhythmic facial expressions of ancestral primates, as indicated by mounting comparative evidence focusing on the lip-smacking gesture. PMID:24222931

  3. How Speech Communication Training Interfaces with Public Relations Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosley, Phyllis B.

    Speech communication training is a valuable asset for those entering the public relations (PR) field. This notion is reinforced by the 1987 "Design for Undergraduate Public Relations Education," a guide for implementing speech communication courses within a public relations curriculum, and also in the incorporation of oral communication training…

  4. Predicting the intelligibility of deaf children's speech from acoustic measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchanski, Rosalie M.; Geers, Ann E.; Brenner, Christine M.; Tobey, Emily A.

    2001-05-01

    A weighted combination of speech-acoustic measures may provide an objective assessment of speech intelligibility in deaf children that could be used to evaluate the benefits of sensory aids and rehabilitation programs. This investigation compared the accuracy of two different approaches, multiple linear regression and a simple neural net. These two methods were applied to identical sets of acoustic measures, including both segmental (e.g., voice-onset times of plosives, spectral moments of fricatives, second formant frequencies of vowels) and suprasegmental measures (e.g., sentence duration, number and frequency of intersentence pauses). These independent variables were obtained from digitized recordings of deaf children's imitations of 11 simple sentences. The dependent measure was the percentage of spoken words from the 36 McGarr Sentences understood by groups of naive listeners. The two predictive methods were trained on speech measures obtained from 123 out of 164 8- and 9-year-old deaf children who used cochlear implants. Then, predictions were obtained using speech measures from the remaining 41 children. Preliminary results indicate that multiple linear regression is a better predictor of intelligibility than the neural net, accounting for 79% as opposed to 65% of the variance in the data. [Work supported by NIH.

  5. Prolonged Speech and Modification of Stuttering: Perceptual, Acoustic, and Electroglottographic Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packman, Ann; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study investigated changes in the speech patterns of young adult male subjects when stuttering was modified by deliberately prolonging speech. Three subjects showed clinically significant stuttering reductions when using prolonged speech to reduce their stuttering. Resulting speech was perceptually stutter free. Acoustic and…

  6. Tongue-Palate Contact Pressure, Oral Air Pressure, and Acoustics of Clear Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searl, Jeff; Evitts, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors compared articulatory contact pressure (ACP), oral air pressure (Po), and speech acoustics for conversational versus clear speech. They also assessed the relationship of these measures to listener perception. Method: Twelve adults with normal speech produced monosyllables in a phrase using conversational and clear speech.…

  7. Private and Inner Speech and the Regulation of Social Speech Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Martin Martinez, Conchi; Boada i Calbet, Humbert; Feigenbaum, Peter

    2011-01-01

    To further investigate the possible regulatory role of private and inner speech in the context of referential social speech communications, a set of clear and systematically applied measures is needed. This study addresses this need by introducing a rigorous method for identifying private speech and certain sharply defined instances of inaudible…

  8. Automatic speech recognition technology development at ITT Defense Communications Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, George M.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of the applications of automatic speech recognition to defense communication systems is presented. Future research efforts include investigations into the following areas: (1) dynamic programming; (2) recognition of speech degraded by noise; (3) speaker independent recognition; (4) large vocabulary recognition; (5) word spotting and continuous speech recognition; and (6) isolated word recognition.

  9. Do 6-month-olds understand that speech can communicate?

    PubMed

    Vouloumanos, Athena; Martin, Alia; Onishi, Kristine H

    2014-11-01

    Adults and 12-month-old infants recognize that even unfamiliar speech can communicate information between third parties, suggesting that they can separate the communicative function of speech from its lexical content. But do infants recognize that speech can communicate due to their experience understanding and producing language, or do they appreciate that speech is communicative earlier, with little such experience? We examined whether 6-month-olds recognize that speech can communicate information about an object. Infants watched a Communicator selectively grasp one of two objects (target). During test, the Communicator could no longer reach the objects; she turned to a Recipient and produced speech (a nonsense word) or non-speech (coughing). Infants looked longer when the Recipient selected the non-target than the target object when the Communicator spoke but not when she coughed - unless the Recipient had previously witnessed the Communicator's selective grasping of the target object. Our results suggest that at 6 months, with a receptive vocabulary of no more than a handful of commonly used words, infants possess some abstract understanding of the communicative function of speech. This understanding may provide an early mechanism for language and knowledge acquisition. PMID:24835877

  10. Adding articulatory features to acoustic features for automatic speech recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Zlokarnik, I.

    1995-05-01

    A hidden-Markov-model (HMM) based speech recognition system was evaluated that makes use of simultaneously recorded acoustic and articulatory data. The articulatory measurements were gathered by means of electromagnetic articulography and describe the movement of small coils fixed to the speakers` tongue and jaw during the production of German V{sub 1}CV{sub 2} sequences [P. Hoole and S. Gfoerer, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Suppl. 1 {bold 87}, S123 (1990)]. Using the coordinates of the coil positions as an articulatory representation, acoustic and articulatory features were combined to make up an acoustic--articulatory feature vector. The discriminant power of this combined representation was evaluated for two subjects on a speaker-dependent isolated word recognition task. When the articulatory measurements were used both for training and testing the HMMs, the articulatory representation was capable of reducing the error rate of comparable acoustic-based HMMs by a relative percentage of more than 60%. In a separate experiment, the articulatory movements during the testing phase were estimated using a multilayer perceptron that performed an acoustic-to-articulatory mapping. Under these more realistic conditions, when articulatory measurements are only available during the training, the error rate could be reduced by a relative percentage of 18% to 25%.

  11. Multilevel Analysis in Analyzing Speech Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guddattu, Vasudeva; Krishna, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The speech produced by human vocal tract is a complex acoustic signal, with diverse applications in phonetics, speech synthesis, automatic speech recognition, speaker identification, communication aids, speech pathology, speech perception, machine translation, hearing research, rehabilitation and assessment of communication disorders and many…

  12. Acoustic and Perceptual Consequences of Clear and Loud Speech

    PubMed Central

    Tjaden, Kris; Richards, Emily; Kuo, Christina; Wilding, Greg; Sussman, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Several issues concerning F2 slope in dysarthria were addressed by obtaining speech acoustic measures and judgments of intelligibility for sentences produced in Habitual, Clear and Loud conditions by speakers with Parkinson's disease (PD) and healthy controls. Patients and Methods Acoustic measures of average and maximum F2 slope for diphthongs, duration and intensity were obtained. Listeners judged intelligibility using a visual analog scale. Differences in measures among groups and conditions as well as relationships among measures were examined. Results Average and maximum F2 slope metrics were strongly correlated, but only average F2 slope consistently differed among groups and conditions, with shallower slopes for the PD group and steeper slopes for Clear speech versus Habitual and Loud. Clear and Loud speech were also characterized by lengthened durations, increased intensity and improved intelligibility versus Habitual. F2 slope and intensity were unrelated, and F2 slope was a significant predictor of intelligibility. Conclusion Average diphthong F2 slope was more sensitive than maximum F2 slope to articulatory mechanism involvement in mild dysarthria in PD. F2 slope holds promise as an objective measure of treatment-related changes in the articulatory mechanism for therapeutic techniques that focus on articulation. PMID:24504015

  13. Communicative Functions of Speech in a Monolingual Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCarlo, Mary Jean Tecce

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the communicative function of language in a monolingual public school kindergarten. The study was based on observations of classroom communication and interviews with the teacher. The paper describes the speech of students and the teacher during different segments of the school day, and presents an analysis of 290 speech acts…

  14. Learning Speech Variability in Discriminative Acoustic Model Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Shoei; Oku, Takahiro; Homma, Shinichi; Kobayashi, Akio; Imai, Toru

    We present a new discriminative method of acoustic model adaptation that deals with a task-dependent speech variability. We have focused on differences of expressions or speaking styles between tasks and set the objective of this method as improving the recognition accuracy of indistinctly pronounced phrases dependent on a speaking style.The adaptation appends subword models for frequently observable variants of subwords in the task. To find the task-dependent variants, low-confidence words are statistically selected from words with higher frequency in the task's adaptation data by using their word lattices. HMM parameters of subword models dependent on the words are discriminatively trained by using linear transforms with a minimum phoneme error (MPE) criterion. For the MPE training, subword accuracy discriminating between the variants and the originals is also investigated. In speech recognition experiments, the proposed adaptation with the subword variants reduced the word error rate by 12.0% relative in a Japanese conversational broadcast task.

  15. Speech acts, communication problems, and fighter pilot team performance.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Jonathan; Andersson, Jan

    Two aspects of team communication, speech acts and communication problems, and their relation to team performance in a team air combat simulator were studied. The purpose was to enhance the understanding of how team performance is related to team communication. Ten Swedish fighter pilots and four fighter controllers of varying experience participated. Data were collected during fighter simulator training involving four pilots and one fighter controller in each of two teams. Speech acts were collapsed over seven categories and communication problems over five categories. Communication was studied from two perspectives: critical situation outcome and mission outcome. Some problems were closely related to particular speech acts. Speech act frequency, especially meta-communications and tactics, was highest when winning. However, the timing of tactics in critical situations needs further research. Communication problem frequency was highest for runs which ended equally. The most common problem was simultaneous speech, possibly because of the simulator radio system. The number of speech acts was related to enhanced performance but in a complex manner. Thus in order to work efficiently team members need to communicate, but to communicate sufficiently and at appropriate times. This work has applications for fighter pilot and controller team training and the development of communication standards. PMID:17008254

  16. Denoising of human speech using combined acoustic and em sensor signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, L C; Burnett, G C; Holzrichter, J F; Gable, T J

    1999-11-29

    Low Power EM radar-like sensors have made it possible to measure properties of the human speech production system in real-time, without acoustic interference. This greatly enhances the quality and quantify of information for many speech related applications. See Holzrichter, Burnett, Ng, and Lea, J. Acoustic. Soc. Am. 103 (1) 622 (1998). By using combined Glottal-EM- Sensor- and Acoustic-signals, segments of voiced, unvoiced, and no-speech can be reliably defined. Real-time Denoising filters can be constructed to remove noise from the user's corresponding speech signal.

  17. Effect of acoustic fine structure cues on the recognition of auditory-only and audiovisual speech.

    PubMed

    Meister, Hartmut; Fuersen, Katrin; Schreitmueller, Stefan; Walger, Martin

    2016-06-01

    This study addressed the hypothesis that an improvement in speech recognition due to combined envelope and fine structure cues is greater in the audiovisual than the auditory modality. Normal hearing listeners were presented with envelope vocoded speech in combination with low-pass filtered speech. The benefit of adding acoustic low-frequency fine structure to acoustic envelope cues was significantly greater for audiovisual than for auditory-only speech. It is suggested that this is due to complementary information of the different acoustic and visual cues. The results have potential implications for the assessment of bimodal cochlear implant fittings or electroacoustic stimulation. PMID:27369134

  18. Teaching Speech Communication from a Critical Thinking Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Daniel J.

    Teaching speech communication from a critical thinking perspective involves specific instructional approaches and strategies. And the perspective can be applied to "survey courses" such as communication theory, rhetorical theory, nonverbal communication, and organizational communication theory. When a student engages in an internal or…

  19. Acoustic Predictors of Intelligibility for Segmentally Interrupted Speech: Temporal Envelope, Voicing, and Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogerty, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Temporal interruption limits the perception of speech to isolated temporal glimpses. An analysis was conducted to determine the acoustic parameter that best predicts speech recognition from temporal fragments that preserve different types of speech information--namely, consonants and vowels. Method: Young listeners with normal hearing…

  20. Perceptual and Acoustic Reliability Estimates for the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Fourakis, Marios; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Potter, Nancy L.; Scheer-Cohen, Alison R.; Strand, Edythe A.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2010-01-01

    A companion paper describes three extensions to a classification system for paediatric speech sound disorders termed the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS). The SDCS uses perceptual and acoustic data reduction methods to obtain information on a speaker's speech, prosody, and voice. The present paper provides reliability estimates for…

  1. Emotional speech acoustic model for Malay: iterative versus isolated unit training.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Mumtaz Begum; Ainon, Raja Noor

    2013-10-01

    The ability of speech synthesis system to synthesize emotional speech enhances the user's experience when using this kind of system and its related applications. However, the development of an emotional speech synthesis system is a daunting task in view of the complexity of human emotional speech. The more recent state-of-the-art speech synthesis systems, such as the one based on hidden Markov models, can synthesize emotional speech with acceptable naturalness with the use of a good emotional speech acoustic model. However, building an emotional speech acoustic model requires adequate resources including segment-phonetic labels of emotional speech, which is a problem for many under-resourced languages, including Malay. This research shows how it is possible to build an emotional speech acoustic model for Malay with minimal resources. To achieve this objective, two forms of initialization methods were considered: iterative training using the deterministic annealing expectation maximization algorithm and the isolated unit training. The seed model for the automatic segmentation is a neutral speech acoustic model, which was transformed to target emotion using two transformation techniques: model adaptation and context-dependent boundary refinement. Two forms of evaluation have been performed: an objective evaluation measuring the prosody error and a listening evaluation to measure the naturalness of the synthesized emotional speech. PMID:24116440

  2. Acoustic Analysis of the Voiced-Voiceless Distinction in Dutch Tracheoesophageal Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongmans, Petra; Wempe, Ton G.; van Tinteren, Harm; Hilgers, Frans J. M.; Pols, Louis C. W.; van As-Brooks, Corina J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Confusions between voiced and voiceless plosives and voiced and voiceless fricatives are common in Dutch tracheoesophageal (TE) speech. This study investigates (a) which acoustic measures are found to convey a correct voicing contrast in TE speech and (b) whether different measures are found in TE speech than in normal laryngeal (NL)…

  3. Virtual acoustics, aeronautics, and communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, D. R.; Wenzel, E. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    An optimal approach to auditory display design for commercial aircraft would utilize both spatialized (3-D) audio techniques and active noise cancellation for safer operations. Results from several aircraft simulator studies conducted at NASA Ames Research Center are reviewed, including Traffic alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) warnings, spoken orientation "beacons" for gate identification and collision avoidance on the ground, and hardware for improved speech intelligibility. The implications of hearing loss among pilots is also considered.

  4. Graduate Degree Programs in Speech Communication: Description and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBan, Frank K.

    1977-01-01

    Contends that the current status of job opportunities in speech versus the number of graduate degrees awarded on a regular basis warrant a moratorium on new graduate M.A. and Ph.D. programs and a reduction in graduate admissions to existing programs. Available from: ACA Bulletin, Robert Hall, Editor, Speech Communication Association, 5205 Leesburg…

  5. Hate Speech and Its Harms: A Communication Theory Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Clay

    1997-01-01

    Uses J.W. Carey's transmission and ritual communication models to illustrate harms caused by hate speech. Examines legal precedent for the ritual model, but suggests that courts more often adopt the transmission model. Argues that, although the ritual model points to a different, long-term harm caused by hate speech, its adoption raises troubling…

  6. Acoustic communication in insect disease vectors

    PubMed Central

    Vigoder, Felipe de Mello; Ritchie, Michael Gordon; Gibson, Gabriella; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic signalling has been extensively studied in insect species, which has led to a better understanding of sexual communication, sexual selection and modes of speciation. The significance of acoustic signals for a blood-sucking insect was first reported in the XIX century by Christopher Johnston, studying the hearing organs of mosquitoes, but has received relatively little attention in other disease vectors until recently. Acoustic signals are often associated with mating behaviour and sexual selection and changes in signalling can lead to rapid evolutionary divergence and may ultimately contribute to the process of speciation. Songs can also have implications for the success of novel methods of disease control such as determining the mating competitiveness of modified insects used for mass-release control programs. Species-specific sound “signatures” may help identify incipient species within species complexes that may be of epidemiological significance, e.g. of higher vectorial capacity, thereby enabling the application of more focussed control measures to optimise the reduction of pathogen transmission. Although the study of acoustic communication in insect vectors has been relatively limited, this review of research demonstrates their value as models for understanding both the functional and evolutionary significance of acoustic communication in insects. PMID:24473800

  7. Moving to the Speed of Sound: Context Modulation of the Effect of Acoustic Properties of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shintel, Hadas; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2008-01-01

    Suprasegmental acoustic patterns in speech can convey meaningful information and affect listeners' interpretation in various ways, including through systematic analog mapping of message-relevant information onto prosody. We examined whether the effect of analog acoustic variation is governed by the acoustic properties themselves. For example, fast…

  8. Communication without Speech: A Guide for Parents and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomberg, Karen, Ed.; Johnson, Hilary, Ed.

    This guide addresses issues facing the parents, teachers and caregivers of children who are unable to use normal speech as a means of communication. It focuses on people who are intellectually disabled or children who are starting to use augmentative communication. The guide includes the following topics: the nature of communication; an overview…

  9. Lest We Forget: The Role of Internships in Speech Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Sharon B.

    Two observations point to the need for improvement of teacher internship programs in speech communication: (1) the supply of education graduates is far greater than the demand, and (2) in many universities and colleges, communication departments are struggling for survival. Scholars of communication must provide the most competent leadership…

  10. Fluid-acoustic interactions and their impact on pathological voiced speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erath, Byron D.; Zanartu, Matias; Peterson, Sean D.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2011-11-01

    Voiced speech is produced by vibration of the vocal fold structures. Vocal fold dynamics arise from aerodynamic pressure loadings, tissue properties, and acoustic modulation of the driving pressures. Recent speech science advancements have produced a physiologically-realistic fluid flow solver (BLEAP) capable of prescribing asymmetric intraglottal flow attachment that can be easily assimilated into reduced order models of speech. The BLEAP flow solver is extended to incorporate acoustic loading and sound propagation in the vocal tract by implementing a wave reflection analog approach for sound propagation based on the governing BLEAP equations. This enhanced physiological description of the physics of voiced speech is implemented into a two-mass model of speech. The impact of fluid-acoustic interactions on vocal fold dynamics is elucidated for both normal and pathological speech through linear and nonlinear analysis techniques. Supported by NSF Grant CBET-1036280.

  11. The minor third communicates sadness in speech, mirroring its use in music.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Meagan E; Bharucha, Jamshed J

    2010-06-01

    There is a long history of attempts to explain why music is perceived as expressing emotion. The relationship between pitches serves as an important cue for conveying emotion in music. The musical interval referred to as the minor third is generally thought to convey sadness. We reveal that the minor third also occurs in the pitch contour of speech conveying sadness. Bisyllabic speech samples conveying four emotions were recorded by 9 actresses. Acoustic analyses revealed that the relationship between the 2 salient pitches of the sad speech samples tended to approximate a minor third. Participants rated the speech samples for perceived emotion, and the use of numerous acoustic parameters as cues for emotional identification was modeled using regression analysis. The minor third was the most reliable cue for identifying sadness. Additional participants rated musical intervals for emotion, and their ratings verified the historical association between the musical minor third and sadness. These findings support the theory that human vocal expressions and music share an acoustic code for communicating sadness. PMID:20515223

  12. Time reversal acoustic communication for multiband transmission.

    PubMed

    Song, Aijun; Badiey, Mohsen

    2012-04-01

    In this letter, multiband acoustic communication is proposed to access a relatively wide frequency band. The entire frequency band is divided into multiple separated sub-bands, each of which is several kilohertz in width. Time reversal decision feedback equalizers are used to compensate for inter-symbol interference at each sub-band. The communication scheme was demonstrated in a shallow water acoustic experiment conducted in Kauai, Hawaii during the summer of 2011. Using quadrature phase-shift keying signaling at four sub-bands over the frequency band of 10-32 kHz, a data rate of 32 k bits/s was achieved over a 3 km communication range. PMID:22502482

  13. Acoustical Characteristics of Mastication Sounds: Application of Speech Analysis Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brochetti, Denise

    Food scientists have used acoustical methods to study characteristics of mastication sounds in relation to food texture. However, a model for analysis of the sounds has not been identified, and reliability of the methods has not been reported. Therefore, speech analysis techniques were applied to mastication sounds, and variation in measures of the sounds was examined. To meet these objectives, two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, a digital sound spectrograph generated waveforms and wideband spectrograms of sounds by 3 adult subjects (1 male, 2 females) for initial chews of food samples differing in hardness and fracturability. Acoustical characteristics were described and compared. For all sounds, formants appeared in the spectrograms, and energy occurred across a 0 to 8000-Hz range of frequencies. Bursts characterized waveforms for peanut, almond, raw carrot, ginger snap, and hard candy. Duration and amplitude of the sounds varied with the subjects. In the second experiment, the spectrograph was used to measure the duration, amplitude, and formants of sounds for the initial 2 chews of cylindrical food samples (raw carrot, teething toast) differing in diameter (1.27, 1.90, 2.54 cm). Six adult subjects (3 males, 3 females) having normal occlusions and temporomandibular joints chewed the samples between the molar teeth and with the mouth open. Ten repetitions per subject were examined for each food sample. Analysis of estimates of variation indicated an inconsistent intrasubject variation in the acoustical measures. Food type and sample diameter also affected the estimates, indicating the variable nature of mastication. Generally, intrasubject variation was greater than intersubject variation. Analysis of ranks of the data indicated that the effect of sample diameter on the acoustical measures was inconsistent and depended on the subject and type of food. If inferences are to be made concerning food texture from acoustical measures of mastication

  14. How stable are acoustic metrics of contrastive speech rhythm?

    PubMed

    Wiget, Lukas; White, Laurence; Schuppler, Barbara; Grenon, Izabelle; Rauch, Olesya; Mattys, Sven L

    2010-03-01

    Acoustic metrics of contrastive speech rhythm, based on vocalic and intervocalic interval durations, are intended to capture stable typological differences between languages. They should consequently be robust to variation between speakers, sentence materials, and measurers. This paper assesses the impact of these sources of variation on the metrics %V (proportion of utterance comprised of vocalic intervals), VarcoV (rate-normalized standard deviation of vocalic interval duration), and nPVI-V (a measure of the durational variability between successive pairs of vocalic intervals). Five measurers analyzed the same corpus of speech: five sentences read by six speakers of Standard Southern British English. Differences between sentences were responsible for the greatest variation in rhythm scores. Inter-speaker differences were also a source of significant variability. However, there was relatively little variation due to segmentation differences between measurers following an agreed protocol. An automated phone alignment process was also used: Rhythm scores thus derived showed good agreement with the human measurers. A number of recommendations for researchers wishing to exploit contrastive rhythm metrics are offered in conclusion. PMID:20329856

  15. Speech Communication Skills for College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Elizabeth A.; Melander, Lynn

    This paper defines communication assessment in terms of the four characteristics of communication identified by John Daly, which propose that: (1) communication is interactive and dialogic; (2) communication occurs in real time; (3) communication is inherently contextual; and (4) communication is personal as well as social. The paper then examines…

  16. General Education Standards for Speech Communication in Maryland Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engleberg, Isa N.

    On September 26, 1998, the Maryland Communication Association unanimously approved the "Standards for General Education Speech Communication Courses in Maryland Higher Education Institutions." On February 10, 1999, the state's intersegmental Chief Academic Officers (CAO) group endorsed the standards for inclusion in their "Guiding Principles for…

  17. Bibliographic Annual in Speech Communication: 1974. Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennicott, Patrick C., Ed.

    This annotated bibliography is an annual volume devoted to maintaining a record of graduate work in speech communication, providing abstracts of doctoral dissertations, and making subject area bibliographies available. The contents of this volume include "Studies in Mass Communication: A Selected Bibliography, 1973" by Roland C. Johnson and…

  18. Public Relations: A Speech Communication Map of the Territory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piland, Richard N.

    The speech communication discipline is an excellent base for public relations education. Public relations is the communication of information or persuasive messages designed to integrate or adapt social institutions to the needs of people. Common functional categories of public relations activity run through virtually all public relations efforts.…

  19. DARPA TIMIT acoustic-phonetic continous speech corpus CD-ROM. NIST speech disc 1-1.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garofolo, J. S.; Lamel, L. F.; Fisher, W. M.; Fiscus, J. G.; Pallett, D. S.

    1993-02-01

    The Texas Instruments/Massachusetts Institute of Technology (TIMIT) corpus of read speech has been designed to provide speech data for the acquisition of acoustic-phonetic knowledge and for the development and evaluation of automatic speech recognition systems. TIMIT contains speech from 630 speakers representing 8 major dialect divisions of American English, each speaking 10 phonetically-rich sentences. The TIMIT corpus includes time-aligned orthographic, phonetic, and word transcriptions, as well as speech waveform data for each spoken sentence. The release of TIMIT contains several improvements over the Prototype CD-ROM released in December, 1988: (1) full 630-speaker corpus, (2) checked and corrected transcriptions, (3) word-alignment transcriptions, (4) NIST SPHERE-headered waveform files and header manipulation software, (5) phonemic dictionary, (6) new test and training subsets balanced for dialectal and phonetic coverage, and (7) more extensive documentation.

  20. Acoustic properties of naturally produced clear speech at normal speaking rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Jean C.; Braida, Louis D.

    2004-01-01

    Sentences spoken ``clearly'' are significantly more intelligible than those spoken ``conversationally'' for hearing-impaired listeners in a variety of backgrounds [Picheny et al., J. Speech Hear. Res. 28, 96-103 (1985); Uchanski et al., ibid. 39, 494-509 (1996); Payton et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 95, 1581-1592 (1994)]. While producing clear speech, however, talkers often reduce their speaking rate significantly [Picheny et al., J. Speech Hear. Res. 29, 434-446 (1986); Uchanski et al., ibid. 39, 494-509 (1996)]. Yet speaking slowly is not solely responsible for the intelligibility benefit of clear speech (over conversational speech), since a recent study [Krause and Braida, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 2165-2172 (2002)] showed that talkers can produce clear speech at normal rates with training. This finding suggests that clear speech has inherent acoustic properties, independent of rate, that contribute to improved intelligibility. Identifying these acoustic properties could lead to improved signal processing schemes for hearing aids. To gain insight into these acoustical properties, conversational and clear speech produced at normal speaking rates were analyzed at three levels of detail (global, phonological, and phonetic). Although results suggest that talkers may have employed different strategies to achieve clear speech at normal rates, two global-level properties were identified that appear likely to be linked to the improvements in intelligibility provided by clear/normal speech: increased energy in the 1000-3000-Hz range of long-term spectra and increased modulation depth of low frequency modulations of the intensity envelope. Other phonological and phonetic differences associated with clear/normal speech include changes in (1) frequency of stop burst releases, (2) VOT of word-initial voiceless stop consonants, and (3) short-term vowel spectra.

  1. The energetic basis of acoustic communication

    PubMed Central

    Gillooly, James F.; Ophir, Alexander G.

    2010-01-01

    Animals produce a tremendous diversity of sounds for communication to perform life's basic functions, from courtship and parental care to defence and foraging. Explaining this diversity in sound production is important for understanding the ecology, evolution and behaviour of species. Here, we present a theory of acoustic communication that shows that much of the heterogeneity in animal vocal signals can be explained based on the energetic constraints of sound production. The models presented here yield quantitative predictions on key features of acoustic signals, including the frequency, power and duration of signals. Predictions are supported with data from nearly 500 diverse species (e.g. insects, fishes, reptiles, amphibians, birds and mammals). These results indicate that, for all species, acoustic communication is primarily controlled by individual metabolism such that call features vary predictably with body size and temperature. These results also provide insights regarding the common energetic and neuromuscular constraints on sound production, and the ecological and evolutionary consequences of producing these sounds. PMID:20053641

  2. The energetic basis of acoustic communication.

    PubMed

    Gillooly, James F; Ophir, Alexander G

    2010-05-01

    Animals produce a tremendous diversity of sounds for communication to perform life's basic functions, from courtship and parental care to defence and foraging. Explaining this diversity in sound production is important for understanding the ecology, evolution and behaviour of species. Here, we present a theory of acoustic communication that shows that much of the heterogeneity in animal vocal signals can be explained based on the energetic constraints of sound production. The models presented here yield quantitative predictions on key features of acoustic signals, including the frequency, power and duration of signals. Predictions are supported with data from nearly 500 diverse species (e.g. insects, fishes, reptiles, amphibians, birds and mammals). These results indicate that, for all species, acoustic communication is primarily controlled by individual metabolism such that call features vary predictably with body size and temperature. These results also provide insights regarding the common energetic and neuromuscular constraints on sound production, and the ecological and evolutionary consequences of producing these sounds. PMID:20053641

  3. On the physics of underwater acoustic communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, T. C.

    2012-11-01

    Digital communications have been traditionally treated using signal processing approaches. Algorithm and performance is system-model dependent. For underwater acoustic communications, the system model is very complex due to the different channel environmental conditions which can vary rapidly with time, and are location dependent. Performance modeling is difficult without a profound channel model. Work over the last decades have shown that robust performance can be achieved by exploiting the channel physics allowing at the same time an initial estimation of the communication performance. This paper will review the basic signal processing approaches using languages familiar to the physicists/acousticians, point out the communication related physics issues, and discuss how channel physics can be exploited to improve the performance.

  4. Formant Centralization Ratio: A Proposal for a New Acoustic Measure of Dysarthric Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapir, Shimon; Ramig, Lorraine O.; Spielman, Jennifer L.; Fox, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The vowel space area (VSA) has been used as an acoustic metric of dysarthric speech, but with varying degrees of success. In this study, the authors aimed to test an alternative metric to the VSA--the "formant centralization ratio" (FCR), which is hypothesized to more effectively differentiate dysarthric from healthy speech and register…

  5. Existence detection and embedding rate estimation of blended speech in covert speech communications.

    PubMed

    Li, Lijuan; Gao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Covert speech communications may be used by terrorists to commit crimes through Internet. Steganalysis aims to detect secret information in covert communications to prevent crimes. Herein, based on the average zero crossing rate of the odd-even difference (AZCR-OED), a steganalysis algorithm for blended speech is proposed; it can detect the existence and estimate the embedding rate of blended speech. First, the odd-even difference (OED) of the speech signal is calculated and divided into frames. The average zero crossing rate (ZCR) is calculated for each OED frame, and the minimum average ZCR and AZCR-OED of the entire speech signal are extracted as features. Then, a support vector machine classifier is used to determine whether the speech signal is blended. Finally, a voice activity detection algorithm is applied to determine the hidden location of the secret speech and estimate the embedding rate. The results demonstrate that without attack, the detection accuracy can reach 80 % or more when the embedding rate is greater than 10 %, and the estimated embedding rate is similar to the real value. And when some attacks occur, it can also reach relatively high detection accuracy. The algorithm has high performance in terms of accuracy, effectiveness and robustness. PMID:27462497

  6. The Use of Artificial Neural Networks to Estimate Speech Intelligibility from Acoustic Variables: A Preliminary Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, Dale Evan; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A preliminary scheme for estimating the speech intelligibility of hearing-impaired speakers from acoustic parameters, using a computerized artificial neural network to process mathematically the acoustic input variables, is outlined. Tests with 60 hearing-impaired speakers found the scheme to be highly accurate in identifying speakers separated by…

  7. W-Disjoint Orthogonality Based Residual Acoustic Echo Cancellation for Hands-Free Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yoonjae; Kim, Kihyeon; Yoon, Jongsung; Ko, Hanseok

    A simple and novel residual acoustic echo cancellation method that employs binary masking is proposed to enhance the speech quality of hands-free communication in an automobile environment. In general, the W-disjoint orthogonality assumption is used for blind source separation using multi-microphones. However, in this Letter, it is utilized to mask the residual echo component in the time-frequency domain using a single microphone. The experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method in terms of the echo return loss enhancement and speech enhancement.

  8. Costing Children's Speech, Language and Communication Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beecham, Jennifer; Law, James; Zeng, Biao; Lindsay, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    Background: There are few economic evaluations of speech and language interventions. Such work requires underpinning by an accurate estimate of the costs of the intervention. This study seeks to address some of the complexities of this task by applying existing approaches of cost estimation to interventions described in published effectiveness…

  9. A maximum likelihood approach to estimating articulator positions from speech acoustics

    SciTech Connect

    Hogden, J.

    1996-09-23

    This proposal presents an algorithm called maximum likelihood continuity mapping (MALCOM) which recovers the positions of the tongue, jaw, lips, and other speech articulators from measurements of the sound-pressure waveform of speech. MALCOM differs from other techniques for recovering articulator positions from speech in three critical respects: it does not require training on measured or modeled articulator positions, it does not rely on any particular model of sound propagation through the vocal tract, and it recovers a mapping from acoustics to articulator positions that is linearly, not topographically, related to the actual mapping from acoustics to articulation. The approach categorizes short-time windows of speech into a finite number of sound types, and assumes the probability of using any articulator position to produce a given sound type can be described by a parameterized probability density function. MALCOM then uses maximum likelihood estimation techniques to: (1) find the most likely smooth articulator path given a speech sample and a set of distribution functions (one distribution function for each sound type), and (2) change the parameters of the distribution functions to better account for the data. Using this technique improves the accuracy of articulator position estimates compared to continuity mapping -- the only other technique that learns the relationship between acoustics and articulation solely from acoustics. The technique has potential application to computer speech recognition, speech synthesis and coding, teaching the hearing impaired to speak, improving foreign language instruction, and teaching dyslexics to read. 34 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Language Comprehension in Language-Learning Impaired Children Improved with Acoustically Modified Speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallal, Paula; Miller, Steve L.; Bedi, Gail; Byma, Gary; Wang, Xiaoqin; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.; Schreiner, Christoph; Jenkins, William M.; Merzenich, Michael M.

    1996-01-01

    A speech processing algorithm was developed to create more salient versions of the rapidly changing elements in the acoustic waveform of speech that have been shown to be deficiently processed by language-learning impaired (LLI) children. LLI children received extensive daily training, over a 4-week period, with listening exercises in which all speech was translated into this synthetic form. They also received daily training with computer "games" designed to adaptively drive improvements in temporal processing thresholds. Significant improvements in speech discrimination and language comprehension abilities were demonstrated in two independent groups of LLI children.

  11. SPEECH-COMMUNICATION LEARNING SYSTEM. VOLUME TWO, SCRIPTS OF ALL AUDIO PROGRAMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HEINBERG, PAUL; AND OTHERS

    THIS VOLUME CONTAINS THE SCRIPTS OF THE TAPED MATERIALS TO BE USED WITH THE "LEARNER'S HANDBOOK" IN THE "SPEECH-COMMUNICATION LEARNING SYSTEM" AT THE SPEECH COMMUNICATION CENTER AT THE UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII. SEE RELATED DOCUMENT AL 001 314. (AMM)

  12. Researches of the Electrotechnical Laboratory. No. 955: Speech recognition by description of acoustic characteristic variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayamizu, Satoru

    1993-09-01

    A new speech recognition technique is proposed. This technique systematically describes acoustic characteristic variations using a large scale speech database, thereby, obtaining high recognition accuracy. Rules are extracted to represent knowledge concerning acoustic characteristic variations by observing the actual speech database. A general framework based on maps of the sets of variation factors to the acoustic feature spaces is proposed. A single recognition model is not used for each element of descriptive units regardless of the states of the variation factors. Large-scaled and systematic different recognition models are used for different states. A technique to structurize the representation of acoustic characteristic variations by clustering recognition models depending on variation factors is proposed. To investigate acoustic characteristic variations for phonetic contexts efficiently, word sets for reading texts of speech database are selected so that the maximum number of three phoneme sequences are covered in small number of words as possible. A selection algorithm, in which the first criterion is to maximize the number of different three phoneme sequences in the word set and the second criterion is to maximize the entropy of the three phonemes, is proposed. Read speed data of the word sets are collected and labelled as acoustic-phonetic segments. Experiments of speaker-independent word recognition using this speech database were conducted to show the description effectiveness of the acoustic characteristic variations using networks of acoustic-phonetic segments. The experiment shows the recognition errors are reduced. Basic framework for estimating the acoustic characteristics in unknown phonetic contexts using decision trees is proposed.

  13. Business Communication Students Learn to Hear a Bad Speech Habit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Reginald L.; Liang-Bell, Lei Paula; Deselle, Bettye

    2006-01-01

    Students were trained to perceive filled pauses (FP) as a bad speech habit. In a series of classroom sensitivity training activities, followed by students being rewarded to observe twenty minutes of live television from the public media, no differences between male and female Business Communication students was revealed. The practice of teaching…

  14. Alternatives to the Doctoral Dissertation in Speech Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Corwin P.

    The need to train speech communication students for new, nonacademic forms of employment has raised questions about whether the doctoral dissertation is of any significant value anymore and whether doctoral degree requirements should be modified. Ideally, the dissertation is supposed to contribute to the fund of scholarly knowledge in a student's…

  15. Telephone Communication for the Deaf: Speech Indicator Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ray L.

    The instructional manual is designed to accompany the Speech Indicator, a small, portable, economical ($15) device for deaf persons for telephone communication (available from Leadership Training Program in the Area of the Deaf, San Fernando State College). The device indicates when the other party speaks, not what he says. A topic outline and…

  16. A magnetic resonance imaging study on the articulatory and acoustic speech parameters of Malay vowels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The phonetic properties of six Malay vowels are investigated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize the vocal tract in order to obtain dynamic articulatory parameters during speech production. To resolve image blurring due to the tongue movement during the scanning process, a method based on active contour extraction is used to track tongue contours. The proposed method efficiently tracks tongue contours despite the partial blurring of MRI images. Consequently, the articulatory parameters that are effectively measured as tongue movement is observed, and the specific shape of the tongue and its position for all six uttered Malay vowels are determined. Speech rehabilitation procedure demands some kind of visual perceivable prototype of speech articulation. To investigate the validity of the measured articulatory parameters based on acoustic theory of speech production, an acoustic analysis based on the uttered vowels by subjects has been performed. As the acoustic speech and articulatory parameters of uttered speech were examined, a correlation between formant frequencies and articulatory parameters was observed. The experiments reported a positive correlation between the constriction location of the tongue body and the first formant frequency, as well as a negative correlation between the constriction location of the tongue tip and the second formant frequency. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is an effective tool for the dynamic study of speech production. PMID:25060583

  17. The acoustics for speech of eight auditoriums in the city of Sao Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bistafa, Sylvio R.

    2002-11-01

    Eight auditoriums with a proscenium type of stage, which usually operate as dramatic theaters in the city of Sao Paulo, were acoustically surveyed in terms of their adequacy to unassisted speech. Reverberation times, early decay times, and speech levels were measured in different positions, together with objective measures of speech intelligibility. The measurements revealed reverberation time values rather uniform throughout the rooms, whereas significant variations were found in the values of the other acoustical measures with position. The early decay time was found to be better correlated with the objective measures of speech intelligibility than the reverberation time. The results from the objective measurements of speech intelligibility revealed that the speech transmission index STI, and its simplified version RaSTI, are strongly correlated with the early-to-late sound ratio C50 (1 kHz). However, it was found that the criterion value of acceptability of the latter is more easily met than the former. The results from these measurements enable to understand how the characteristics of the architectural design determine the acoustical quality for speech. Measurements of ST1-Gade were made as an attempt to validate it as an objective measure of ''support'' for the actor. The preliminary diagnosing results with ray tracing simulations will also be presented.

  18. Is Birdsong More Like Speech or Music?

    PubMed

    Shannon, Robert V

    2016-04-01

    Music and speech share many acoustic cues but not all are equally important. For example, harmonic pitch is essential for music but not for speech. When birds communicate is their song more like speech or music? A new study contrasting pitch and spectral patterns shows that birds perceive their song more like humans perceive speech. PMID:26944220

  19. Speech and melody recognition in binaurally combined acoustic and electric hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Ying-Yee; Stickney, Ginger S.; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2005-03-01

    Speech recognition in noise and music perception is especially challenging for current cochlear implant users. The present study utilizes the residual acoustic hearing in the nonimplanted ear in five cochlear implant users to elucidate the role of temporal fine structure at low frequencies in auditory perception and to test the hypothesis that combined acoustic and electric hearing produces better performance than either mode alone. The first experiment measured speech recognition in the presence of competing noise. It was found that, although the residual low-frequency (<1000 Hz) acoustic hearing produced essentially no recognition for speech recognition in noise, it significantly enhanced performance when combined with the electric hearing. The second experiment measured melody recognition in the same group of subjects and found that, contrary to the speech recognition result, the low-frequency acoustic hearing produced significantly better performance than the electric hearing. It is hypothesized that listeners with combined acoustic and electric hearing might use the correlation between the salient pitch in low-frequency acoustic hearing and the weak pitch in the envelope to enhance segregation between signal and noise. The present study suggests the importance and urgency of accurately encoding the fine-structure cue in cochlear implants. .

  20. Collaboration between Teachers and Speech and Language Therapists: Services for Primary School Children with Speech, Language and Communication Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Anna; McCormack, Jane; Smith-Tamaray, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Speech, language and communication needs (SLCN) are prevalent among primary school-aged children. Collaboration between speech and language therapists (SLTs) and teachers is beneficial for supporting children's communication skills. The aim of this study was to investigate the needs of both professional groups and their preferences for service…

  1. Augmentative and Alternative Communication in Autism: A Comparison of the Picture Exchange Communication System and Speech-Output Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boesch, Miriam Chacon

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this comparative efficacy study was to investigate the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and a speech-generating device (SGD) in developing requesting skills, social-communicative behavior, and speech for three elementary-age children with severe autism and little to no functional speech. Requesting was selected as the…

  2. Mathematical model of acoustic speech production with mobile walls of the vocal tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubimov, N. A.; Zakharov, E. V.

    2016-03-01

    A mathematical speech production model is considered that describes acoustic oscillation propagation in a vocal tract with mobile walls. The wave field function satisfies the Helmholtz equation with boundary conditions of the third kind (impedance type). The impedance mode corresponds to a threeparameter pendulum oscillation model. The experimental research demonstrates the nonlinear character of how the mobility of the vocal tract walls influence the spectral envelope of a speech signal.

  3. Speech Acts across Cultures: Challenges to Communication in a Second Language. Studies on Language Acquisition, 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Neu, Joyce, Ed.

    Articles on speech acts and intercultural communication include: "Investigating the Production of Speech Act Sets" (Andrew Cohen); "Non-Native Refusals: A Methodological Perspective" (Noel Houck, Susan M. Gass); "Natural Speech Act Data versus Written Questionnaire Data: How Data Collection Method Affects Speech Act Performance" (Leslie M. Beebe,…

  4. Hello World, It's Me: Bringing the Basic Speech Communication Course into the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood, Jessica; Gutgold, Nichola D.; Manley, Destiny

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade, instructors of speech communication have been adapting the introductory speech course to keep up with the television age. Learning units in speech textbooks now teach how to speak well on television, as well as how to interpret speeches in the media. This article argues that the computer age invites adaptation of the…

  5. Speech coding at 4800 bps for mobile satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gersho, Allen; Chan, Wai-Yip; Davidson, Grant; Chen, Juin-Hwey; Yong, Mei

    1988-01-01

    A speech compression project has recently been completed to develop a speech coding algorithm suitable for operation in a mobile satellite environment aimed at providing telephone quality natural speech at 4.8 kbps. The work has resulted in two alternative techniques which achieve reasonably good communications quality at 4.8 kbps while tolerating vehicle noise and rather severe channel impairments. The algorithms are embodied in a compact self-contained prototype consisting of two AT and T 32-bit floating-point DSP32 digital signal processors (DSP). A Motorola 68HC11 microcomputer chip serves as the board controller and interface handler. On a wirewrapped card, the prototype's circuit footprint amounts to only 200 sq cm, and consumes about 9 watts of power.

  6. Towards personalized speech synthesis for augmentative and alternative communication.

    PubMed

    Mills, Timothy; Bunnell, H Timothy; Patel, Rupal

    2014-09-01

    Text-to-speech options on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices are limited. Often, several individuals in a group setting use the same synthetic voice. This lack of customization may limit technology adoption and social integration. This paper describes our efforts to generate personalized synthesis for users with profoundly limited speech motor control. Existing voice banking and voice conversion techniques rely on recordings of clearly articulated speech from the target talker, which cannot be obtained from this population. Our VocaliD approach extracts prosodic properties from the target talker's source function and applies these features to a surrogate talker's database, generating a synthetic voice with the vocal identity of the target talker and the clarity of the surrogate talker. Promising intelligibility results suggest areas of further development for improved personalization. PMID:25025818

  7. Precategorical Acoustic Storage and the Perception of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankish, Clive

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical accounts of both speech perception and of short term memory must consider the extent to which perceptual representations of speech sounds might survive in relatively unprocessed form. This paper describes a novel version of the serial recall task that can be used to explore this area of shared interest. In immediate recall of digit…

  8. Vowel Acoustics in Adults with Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacks, Adam; Mathes, Katey A.; Marquardt, Thomas P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the hypothesis that vowel production is more variable in adults with acquired apraxia of speech (AOS) relative to healthy individuals with unimpaired speech. Vowel formant frequency measures were selected as the specific target of focus. Method: Seven adults with AOS and aphasia produced 15 repetitions of 6 American English…

  9. Improving Robustness of Deep Neural Network Acoustic Models via Speech Separation and Joint Adaptive Training

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Arun; Wang, DeLiang

    2015-01-01

    Although deep neural network (DNN) acoustic models are known to be inherently noise robust, especially with matched training and testing data, the use of speech separation as a frontend and for deriving alternative feature representations has been shown to improve performance in challenging environments. We first present a supervised speech separation system that significantly improves automatic speech recognition (ASR) performance in realistic noise conditions. The system performs separation via ratio time-frequency masking; the ideal ratio mask (IRM) is estimated using DNNs. We then propose a framework that unifies separation and acoustic modeling via joint adaptive training. Since the modules for acoustic modeling and speech separation are implemented using DNNs, unification is done by introducing additional hidden layers with fixed weights and appropriate network architecture. On the CHiME-2 medium-large vocabulary ASR task, and with log mel spectral features as input to the acoustic model, an independently trained ratio masking frontend improves word error rates by 10.9% (relative) compared to the noisy baseline. In comparison, the jointly trained system improves performance by 14.4%. We also experiment with alternative feature representations to augment the standard log mel features, like the noise and speech estimates obtained from the separation module, and the standard feature set used for IRM estimation. Our best system obtains a word error rate of 15.4% (absolute), an improvement of 4.6 percentage points over the next best result on this corpus. PMID:26973851

  10. Acoustic properties of vowels in clear and conversational speech by female non-native English speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chi-Nin; So, Connie K.

    2005-04-01

    Studies have shown that talkers can improve the intelligibility of their speech when instructed to speak as if talking to a hearing-impaired person. The improvement of speech intelligibility is associated with specific acoustic-phonetic changes: increases in vowel duration and fundamental frequency (F0), a wider pitch range, and a shift in formant frequencies for F1 and F2. Most previous studies of clear speech production have been conducted with native speakers; research with second language speakers is much less common. The present study examined the acoustic properties of non-native English vowels produced in a clear speaking style. Five female Cantonese speakers and a comparison group of English speakers were recorded producing four vowels (/i u ae a/) in /bVt/ context in conversational and clear speech. Vowel durations, F0, pitch range, and the first two formants for each of the four vowels were measured. Analyses revealed that for both groups of speakers, vowel durations, F0, pitch range, and F1 spoken clearly were greater than those produced conversationally. However, F2 was higher in conversational speech than in clear speech. The findings suggest that female non-native English speakers exhibit acoustic-phonetic patterns similar to those of native speakers when asked to produce English vowels clearly.

  11. Speech privacy and annoyance considerations in the acoustic environment of passenger cars of high-speed trains.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jin Yong; Hong, Joo Young; Jang, Hyung Suk; Kim, Jae Hyeon

    2015-12-01

    It is necessary to consider not only annoyance of interior noises but also speech privacy to achieve acoustic comfort in a passenger car of a high-speed train because speech from other passengers can be annoying. This study aimed to explore an optimal acoustic environment to satisfy speech privacy and reduce annoyance in a passenger car. Two experiments were conducted using speech sources and compartment noise of a high speed train with varying speech-to-noise ratios (SNRA) and background noise levels (BNL). Speech intelligibility was tested in experiment I, and in experiment II, perceived speech privacy, annoyance, and acoustic comfort of combined sounds with speech and background noise were assessed. The results show that speech privacy and annoyance were significantly influenced by the SNRA. In particular, the acoustic comfort was evaluated as acceptable when the SNRA was less than -6 dB for both speech privacy and noise annoyance. In addition, annoyance increased significantly as the BNL exceeded 63 dBA, whereas the effect of the background-noise level on the speech privacy was not significant. These findings suggest that an optimal level of interior noise in a passenger car might exist between 59 and 63 dBA, taking normal speech levels into account. PMID:26723351

  12. Perceiving speech in context: Compensation for contextual variability during acoustic cue encoding and categorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toscano, Joseph Christopher

    Several fundamental questions about speech perception concern how listeners understand spoken language despite considerable variability in speech sounds across different contexts (the problem of lack of invariance in speech). This contextual variability is caused by several factors, including differences between individual talkers' voices, variation in speaking rate, and effects of coarticulatory context. A number of models have been proposed to describe how the speech system handles differences across contexts. Critically, these models make different predictions about (1) whether contextual variability is handled at the level of acoustic cue encoding or categorization, (2) whether it is driven by feedback from category-level processes or interactions between cues, and (3) whether listeners discard fine-grained acoustic information to compensate for contextual variability. Separating the effects of cue- and category-level processing has been difficult because behavioral measures tap processes that occur well after initial cue encoding and are influenced by task demands and linguistic information. Recently, we have used the event-related brain potential (ERP) technique to examine cue encoding and online categorization. Specifically, we have looked at differences in the auditory N1 as a measure of acoustic cue encoding and the P3 as a measure of categorization. This allows us to examine multiple levels of processing during speech perception and can provide a useful tool for studying effects of contextual variability. Here, I apply this approach to determine the point in processing at which context has an effect on speech perception and to examine whether acoustic cues are encoded continuously. Several types of contextual variability (talker gender, speaking rate, and coarticulation), as well as several acoustic cues (voice onset time, formant frequencies, and bandwidths), are examined in a series of experiments. The results suggest that (1) at early stages of speech

  13. Aging Affects Neural Synchronization to Speech-Related Acoustic Modulations

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, Tine; Vercammen, Charlotte; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    As people age, speech perception problems become highly prevalent, especially in noisy situations. In addition to peripheral hearing and cognition, temporal processing plays a key role in speech perception. Temporal processing of speech features is mediated by synchronized activity of neural oscillations in the central auditory system. Previous studies indicate that both the degree and hemispheric lateralization of synchronized neural activity relate to speech perception performance. Based on these results, we hypothesize that impaired speech perception in older persons may, in part, originate from deviances in neural synchronization. In this study, auditory steady-state responses that reflect synchronized activity of theta, beta, low and high gamma oscillations (i.e., 4, 20, 40, and 80 Hz ASSR, respectively) were recorded in young, middle-aged, and older persons. As all participants had normal audiometric thresholds and were screened for (mild) cognitive impairment, differences in synchronized neural activity across the three age groups were likely to be attributed to age. Our data yield novel findings regarding theta and high gamma oscillations in the aging auditory system. At an older age, synchronized activity of theta oscillations is increased, whereas high gamma synchronization is decreased. In contrast to young persons who exhibit a right hemispheric dominance for processing of high gamma range modulations, older adults show a symmetrical processing pattern. These age-related changes in neural synchronization may very well underlie the speech perception problems in aging persons. PMID:27378906

  14. Speech in ALS: Longitudinal Changes in Lips and Jaw Movements and Vowel Acoustics

    PubMed Central

    Yunusova, Yana; Green, Jordan R.; Lindstrom, Mary J.; Pattee, Gary L.; Zinman, Lorne

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this exploratory study was to investigate longitudinally the changes in facial kinematics, vowel formant frequencies, and speech intelligibility in individuals diagnosed with bulbar amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). This study was motivated by the need to understand articulatory and acoustic changes with disease progression and their subsequent effect on deterioration of speech in ALS. Method Lip and jaw movements and vowel acoustics were obtained for four individuals with bulbar ALS during four consecutive recording sessions with an average interval of three months between recordings. Participants read target words embedded into sentences at a comfortable speaking rate. Maximum vertical and horizontal mouth opening and maximum jaw displacements were obtained during corner vowels. First and second formant frequencies were measured for each vowel. Speech intelligibility and speaking rate score were obtained for each session as well. Results Transient, non-vowel-specific changes in kinematics of the jaw and lips were observed. Kinematic changes often preceded changes in vowel acoustics and speech intelligibility. Conclusions Nonlinear changes in speech kinematics should be considered in evaluation of the disease effects on jaw and lip musculature. Kinematic measures might be most suitable for early detection of changes associated with bulbar ALS.

  15. Acoustic and Articulatory Features of Diphthong Production: A Speech Clarity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasko, Stephen M.; Greilick, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate how speaking clearly influences selected acoustic and orofacial kinematic measures associated with diphthong production. Method: Forty-nine speakers, drawn from the University of Wisconsin X-Ray Microbeam Speech Production Database (J. R. Westbury, 1994), served as participants. Samples of clear…

  16. Effective Communication for Academic Chairs. SUNY Series in Speech Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickson, Mark, III, Ed.; Stacks, Don W.

    This book presents 11 contributed papers which examine communication aspects of the department chair position in academia. It is noted that most academic department chairs are not trained in management skills, including communication strategies. After an introductory chapter by Christopher H. Spicer and Ann Q. Staton, the following papers are…

  17. The Professional Communicator: Developing the Speech Communication Core.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Reta A.; Cornelius, David L.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the process of revising the Bachelor of Arts and Science degrees in the Department of Communication Studies at Eastern Washington University. Examines the conceptual base of a communication curriculum. Presents the sequence of a core curriculum and the core course contents. (MS)

  18. Effects of contextual cues on speech recognition in simulated electric-acoustic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ying-Yee; Donaldson, Gail; Somarowthu, Ala

    2015-05-01

    Low-frequency acoustic cues have shown to improve speech perception in cochlear-implant listeners. However, the mechanisms underlying this benefit are still not well understood. This study investigated the extent to which low-frequency cues can facilitate listeners' use of linguistic knowledge in simulated electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS). Experiment 1 examined differences in the magnitude of EAS benefit at the phoneme, word, and sentence levels. Speech materials were processed via noise-channel vocoding and lowpass (LP) filtering. The amount of spectral degradation in the vocoder speech was varied by applying different numbers of vocoder channels. Normal-hearing listeners were tested on vocoder-alone, LP-alone, and vocoder + LP conditions. Experiment 2 further examined factors that underlie the context effect on EAS benefit at the sentence level by limiting the low-frequency cues to temporal envelope and periodicity (AM + FM). Results showed that EAS benefit was greater for higher-context than for lower-context speech materials even when the LP ear received only low-frequency AM + FM cues. Possible explanations for the greater EAS benefit observed with higher-context materials may lie in the interplay between perceptual and expectation-driven processes for EAS speech recognition, and/or the band-importance functions for different types of speech materials. PMID:25994712

  19. Contributions of electric and acoustic hearing to bimodal speech and music perception.

    PubMed

    Crew, Joseph D; Galvin, John J; Landsberger, David M; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) users have difficulty understanding speech in noisy listening conditions and perceiving music. Aided residual acoustic hearing in the contralateral ear can mitigate these limitations. The present study examined contributions of electric and acoustic hearing to speech understanding in noise and melodic pitch perception. Data was collected with the CI only, the hearing aid (HA) only, and both devices together (CI+HA). Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) were adaptively measured for simple sentences in speech babble. Melodic contour identification (MCI) was measured with and without a masker instrument; the fundamental frequency of the masker was varied to be overlapping or non-overlapping with the target contour. Results showed that the CI contributes primarily to bimodal speech perception and that the HA contributes primarily to bimodal melodic pitch perception. In general, CI+HA performance was slightly improved relative to the better ear alone (CI-only) for SRTs but not for MCI, with some subjects experiencing a decrease in bimodal MCI performance relative to the better ear alone (HA-only). Individual performance was highly variable, and the contribution of either device to bimodal perception was both subject- and task-dependent. The results suggest that individualized mapping of CIs and HAs may further improve bimodal speech and music perception. PMID:25790349

  20. Contributions of Electric and Acoustic Hearing to Bimodal Speech and Music Perception

    PubMed Central

    Crew, Joseph D.; Galvin III, John J.; Landsberger, David M.; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) users have difficulty understanding speech in noisy listening conditions and perceiving music. Aided residual acoustic hearing in the contralateral ear can mitigate these limitations. The present study examined contributions of electric and acoustic hearing to speech understanding in noise and melodic pitch perception. Data was collected with the CI only, the hearing aid (HA) only, and both devices together (CI+HA). Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) were adaptively measured for simple sentences in speech babble. Melodic contour identification (MCI) was measured with and without a masker instrument; the fundamental frequency of the masker was varied to be overlapping or non-overlapping with the target contour. Results showed that the CI contributes primarily to bimodal speech perception and that the HA contributes primarily to bimodal melodic pitch perception. In general, CI+HA performance was slightly improved relative to the better ear alone (CI-only) for SRTs but not for MCI, with some subjects experiencing a decrease in bimodal MCI performance relative to the better ear alone (HA-only). Individual performance was highly variable, and the contribution of either device to bimodal perception was both subject- and task-dependent. The results suggest that individualized mapping of CIs and HAs may further improve bimodal speech and music perception. PMID:25790349

  1. Effects of contextual cues on speech recognition in simulated electric-acoustic stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Ying-Yee; Donaldson, Gail; Somarowthu, Ala

    2015-01-01

    Low-frequency acoustic cues have shown to improve speech perception in cochlear-implant listeners. However, the mechanisms underlying this benefit are still not well understood. This study investigated the extent to which low-frequency cues can facilitate listeners' use of linguistic knowledge in simulated electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS). Experiment 1 examined differences in the magnitude of EAS benefit at the phoneme, word, and sentence levels. Speech materials were processed via noise-channel vocoding and lowpass (LP) filtering. The amount of spectral degradation in the vocoder speech was varied by applying different numbers of vocoder channels. Normal-hearing listeners were tested on vocoder-alone, LP-alone, and vocoder + LP conditions. Experiment 2 further examined factors that underlie the context effect on EAS benefit at the sentence level by limiting the low-frequency cues to temporal envelope and periodicity (AM + FM). Results showed that EAS benefit was greater for higher-context than for lower-context speech materials even when the LP ear received only low-frequency AM + FM cues. Possible explanations for the greater EAS benefit observed with higher-context materials may lie in the interplay between perceptual and expectation-driven processes for EAS speech recognition, and/or the band-importance functions for different types of speech materials. PMID:25994712

  2. Primary Progressive Apraxia of Speech: Clinical Features and Acoustic and Neurologic Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Strand, Edythe A.; Clark, Heather; Machulda, Mary; Whitwell, Jennifer L.; Josephs, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study summarizes 2 illustrative cases of a neurodegenerative speech disorder, primary progressive apraxia of speech (AOS), as a vehicle for providing an overview of the disorder and an approach to describing and quantifying its perceptual features and some of its temporal acoustic attributes. Method Two individuals with primary progressive AOS underwent speech-language and neurologic evaluations on 2 occasions, ranging from 2.0 to 7.5 years postonset. Performance on several tests, tasks, and rating scales, as well as several acoustic measures, were compared over time within and between cases. Acoustic measures were compared with performance of control speakers. Results Both patients initially presented with AOS as the only or predominant sign of disease and without aphasia or dysarthria. The presenting features and temporal progression were captured in an AOS Rating Scale, an Articulation Error Score, and temporal acoustic measures of utterance duration, syllable rates per second, rates of speechlike alternating motion and sequential motion, and a pairwise variability index measure. Conclusions AOS can be the predominant manifestation of neurodegenerative disease. Clinical ratings of its attributes and acoustic measures of some of its temporal characteristics can support its diagnosis and help quantify its salient characteristics and progression over time. PMID:25654422

  3. A Systematic Analysis of American Speech Communication Education: Mission and Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deethardt, John

    Six levels of communication may be defined as the information processing system for speech communication: within one (intrapersonal communication); one to one (interpersonal communication); one to few (small group communication); one to many (public communication); one mediated to many (mass communication); and one mediated over time to many…

  4. Classification of stop place in consonant-vowel contexts using feature extrapolation of acoustic-phonetic features in telephone speech.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Won; Choi, Jeung-Yoon; Kang, Hong-Goo

    2012-02-01

    Knowledge-based speech recognition systems extract acoustic cues from the signal to identify speech characteristics. For channel-deteriorated telephone speech, acoustic cues, especially those for stop consonant place, are expected to be degraded or absent. To investigate the use of knowledge-based methods in degraded environments, feature extrapolation of acoustic-phonetic features based on Gaussian mixture models is examined. This process is applied to a stop place detection module that uses burst release and vowel onset cues for consonant-vowel tokens of English. Results show that classification performance is enhanced in telephone channel-degraded speech, with extrapolated acoustic-phonetic features reaching or exceeding performance using estimated Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs). Results also show acoustic-phonetic features may be combined with MFCCs for best performance, suggesting these features provide information complementary to MFCCs. PMID:22352523

  5. [Influence of human personal features on acoustic correlates of speech emotional intonation characteristics].

    PubMed

    Dmitrieva, E S; Gel'man, V Ia; Zaĭtseva, K A; Orlov, A M

    2009-01-01

    Comparative study of acoustic correlates of emotional intonation was conducted on two types of speech material: sensible speech utterances and short meaningless words. The corpus of speech signals of different emotional intonations (happy, angry, frightened, sad and neutral) was created using the actor's method of simulation of emotions. Native Russian 20-70-year-old speakers (both professional actors and non-actors) participated in the study. In the corpus, the following characteristics were analyzed: mean values and standard deviations of the power, fundamental frequency, frequencies of the first and second formants, and utterance duration. Comparison of each emotional intonation with "neutral" utterances showed the greatest deviations of the fundamental frequency and frequencies of the first formant. The direction of these deviations was independent of the semantic content of speech utterance and its duration, age, gender, and being actor or non-actor, though the personal features of the speakers affected the absolute values of these frequencies. PMID:19947529

  6. An acoustic feature-based similarity scoring system for speech rehabilitation assistance.

    PubMed

    Syauqy, Dahnial; Wu, Chao-Min; Setyawati, Onny

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a tool to assist speech therapy and rehabilitation, which focused on automatic scoring based on the comparison of the patient's speech with another normal speech on several aspects including pitch, vowel, voiced-unvoiced segments, strident fricative and sound intensity. The pitch estimation employed the use of cepstrum-based algorithm for its robustness; the vowel classification used multilayer perceptron (MLP) to classify vowel from pitch and formants; and the strident fricative detection was based on the major peak spectral intensity, location and the pitch existence in the segment. In order to evaluate the performance of the system, this study analyzed eight patient's speech recordings (four males, four females; 4-58-years-old), which had been recorded in previous study in cooperation with Taipei Veterans General Hospital and Taoyuan General Hospital. The experiment result on pitch algorithm showed that the cepstrum method had 5.3% of gross pitch error from a total of 2086 frames. On the vowel classification algorithm, MLP method provided 93% accuracy (men), 87% (women) and 84% (children). In total, the overall results showed that 156 tool's grading results (81%) were consistent compared to 192 audio and visual observations done by four experienced respondents. Implication for Rehabilitation Difficulties in communication may limit the ability of a person to transfer and exchange information. The fact that speech is one of the primary means of communication has encouraged the needs of speech diagnosis and rehabilitation. The advances of technology in computer-assisted speech therapy (CAST) improve the quality, time efficiency of the diagnosis and treatment of the disorders. The present study attempted to develop tool to assist speech therapy and rehabilitation, which provided simple interface to let the assessment be done even by the patient himself without the need of particular knowledge of speech processing while at the

  7. Multi-channel spatial auditory display for speech communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand; Erbe, Tom

    1993-01-01

    A spatial auditory display for multiple speech communications was developed at NASA-Ames Research Center. Input is spatialized by use of simplified head-related transfer functions, adapted for FIR filtering on Motorola 56001 digital signal processors. Hardware and firmware design implementations are overviewed for the initial prototype developed for NASA-Kennedy Space Center. An adaptive staircase method was used to determine intelligibility levels of four letter call signs used by launch personnel at NASA, against diotic speech babble. Spatial positions at 30 deg azimuth increments were evaluated. The results from eight subjects showed a maximal intelligibility improvement of about 6 to 7 dB when the signal was spatialized to 60 deg or 90 deg azimuth positions.

  8. Vowel Acoustics in Dysarthria: Speech Disorder Diagnosis and Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansford, Kaitlin L.; Liss, Julie M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which vowel metrics are capable of distinguishing healthy from dysarthric speech and among different forms of dysarthria. Method: A variety of vowel metrics were derived from spectral and temporal measurements of vowel tokens embedded in phrases produced by 45 speakers with…

  9. Understanding the Abstract Role of Speech in Communication at 12 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Alia; Onishi, Kristine H.; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2012-01-01

    Adult humans recognize that even unfamiliar speech can communicate information between third parties, demonstrating an ability to separate communicative function from linguistic content. We examined whether 12-month-old infants understand that speech can communicate before they understand the meanings of specific words. Specifically, we test the…

  10. Increased pain intensity is associated with greater verbal communication difficulty and increased production of speech and co-speech gestures.

    PubMed

    Rowbotham, Samantha; Wardy, April J; Lloyd, Donna M; Wearden, Alison; Holler, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Effective pain communication is essential if adequate treatment and support are to be provided. Pain communication is often multimodal, with sufferers utilising speech, nonverbal behaviours (such as facial expressions), and co-speech gestures (bodily movements, primarily of the hands and arms that accompany speech and can convey semantic information) to communicate their experience. Research suggests that the production of nonverbal pain behaviours is positively associated with pain intensity, but it is not known whether this is also the case for speech and co-speech gestures. The present study explored whether increased pain intensity is associated with greater speech and gesture production during face-to-face communication about acute, experimental pain. Participants (N = 26) were exposed to experimentally elicited pressure pain to the fingernail bed at high and low intensities and took part in video-recorded semi-structured interviews. Despite rating more intense pain as more difficult to communicate (t(25)  = 2.21, p =  .037), participants produced significantly longer verbal pain descriptions and more co-speech gestures in the high intensity pain condition (Words: t(25)  = 3.57, p  = .001; Gestures: t(25)  = 3.66, p =  .001). This suggests that spoken and gestural communication about pain is enhanced when pain is more intense. Thus, in addition to conveying detailed semantic information about pain, speech and co-speech gestures may provide a cue to pain intensity, with implications for the treatment and support received by pain sufferers. Future work should consider whether these findings are applicable within the context of clinical interactions about pain. PMID:25343486

  11. Fundamental frequency is critical to speech perception in noise in combined acoustic and electric hearinga

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Jeff; Tiaden, Stephanie; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2011-01-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) users have been shown to benefit from residual low-frequency hearing, specifically in pitch related tasks. It remains unclear whether this benefit is dependent on fundamental frequency (F0) or other acoustic cues. Three experiments were conducted to determine the role of F0, as well as its frequency modulated (FM) and amplitude modulated (AM) components, in speech recognition with a competing voice. In simulated CI listeners, the signal-to-noise ratio was varied to estimate the 50% correct response. Simulation results showed that the F0 cue contributes to a significant proportion of the benefit seen with combined acoustic and electric hearing, and additionally that this benefit is due to the FM rather than the AM component. In actual CI users, sentence recognition scores were collected with either the full F0 cue containing both the FM and AM components or the 500-Hz low-pass speech cue containing the F0 and additional harmonics. The F0 cue provided a benefit similar to the low-pass cue for speech in noise, but not in quiet. Poorer CI users benefited more from the F0 cue than better users. These findings suggest that F0 is critical to improving speech perception in noise in combined acoustic and electric hearing. PMID:21973360

  12. A Chimpanzee Recognizes Synthetic Speech With Significantly Reduced Acoustic Cues to Phonetic Content

    PubMed Central

    Heimbauer, Lisa A.; Beran, Michael J.; Owren, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary A long-standing debate concerns whether humans are specialized for speech perception [1–7], which some researchers argue is demonstrated by the ability to understand synthetic speech with significantly reduced acoustic cues to phonetic content [2–4,7]. We tested a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) that recognizes 128 spoken words [8,9], asking whether she could understand such speech. Three experiments presented 48 individual words, with the animal selecting a corresponding visuo-graphic symbol from among four alternatives. Experiment 1 tested spectrally reduced, noise-vocoded (NV) synthesis, originally developed to simulate input received by human cochlear-implant users [10]. Experiment 2 tested “impossibly unspeechlike” [3] sine-wave (SW) synthesis, which reduces speech to just three moving tones [11]. Although receiving only intermittent and non-contingent reward, the chimpanzee performed well above chance level, including when hearing synthetic versions for the first time. Recognition of SW words was least accurate, but improved in Experiment 3 when natural words in the same session were rewarded. The chimpanzee was more accurate with NV than SW versions, as were 32 human participants hearing these items. The chimpanzee's ability to spontaneously recognize acoustically reduced synthetic words suggests that experience rather than specialization is critical for speech-perception capabilities that some have suggested are uniquely human [12–14]. PMID:21723125

  13. Nonintellective Predictors of Academic Success in the Introductory College-Level Speech Communication Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Daniel T.; Morganstern, Barry F.

    Data from 212 students were collected as part of a study of factors that contribute to academic success in introductory college-level speech communication courses. Nine noncognitive predictor variables were included: speech experience, absence of speech anxiety, four indicators of aspiration/performance consistency, and three demographic…

  14. Effect of Digital Frequency Compression (DFC) on Speech Recognition in Candidates for Combined Electric and Acoustic Stimulation (EAS)

    PubMed Central

    Gifford, René H.; Dorman, Michael F.; Spahr, Anthony J.; McKarns, Sharon A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effects of conventional amplification (CA) and digital frequency compression (DFC) amplification on the speech recognition abilities of candidates for a partial-insertion cochlear implant, that is, candidates for combined electric and acoustic stimulation (EAS). Method The participants were 6 patients whose audiometric thresholds at 500 Hz and below were ≤60 dB HL and whose thresholds at 2000 Hz and above were ≥80 dB HL. Six tests of speech understanding were administered with CA and DFC. The Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB) was also administered following use of CA and DFC. Results Group mean scores were not statistically different in the CA and DFC conditions. However, 2 patients received substantial benefit in DFC conditions. APHAB scores suggested increased ease of communication, but also increased aversive sound quality. Conclusion Results suggest that a relatively small proportion of individuals who meet EAS candidacy will receive substantial benefit from a DFC hearing aid and that a larger proportion will receive at least a small benefit when speech is presented against a background of noise. This benefit, however, comes at a cost—aversive sound quality. PMID:17905905

  15. Imaging for understanding speech communication: Advances and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2005-04-01

    Research in speech communication has relied on a variety of instrumentation methods to illuminate details of speech production and perception. One longstanding challenge has been the ability to examine real-time changes in the shaping of the vocal tract; a goal that has been furthered by imaging techniques such as ultrasound, movement tracking, and magnetic resonance imaging. The spatial and temporal resolution afforded by these techniques, however, has limited the scope of the investigations that could be carried out. In this talk, we focus on some recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging that allow us to perform near real-time investigations on the dynamics of vocal tract shaping during speech. Examples include Demolin et al. (2000) (4-5 images/second, ultra-fast turbo spin echo) and Mady et al. (2001,2002) (8 images/second, T1 fast gradient echo). A recent study by Narayanan et al. (2004) that used a spiral readout scheme to accelerate image acquisition has allowed for image reconstruction rates of 24 images/second. While these developments offer exciting prospects, a number of challenges lie ahead, including: (1) improving image acquisition protocols, hardware for enhancing signal-to-noise ratio, and optimizing spatial sampling; (2) acquiring quality synchronized audio; and (3) analyzing and modeling image data including cross-modality registration. [Work supported by NIH and NSF.

  16. Speech Recognition and Acoustic Features in Combined Electric and Acoustic Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Yang-soo; Li, Yongxin; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to identify speech information processed by a hearing aid (HA) that is additive to information processed by a cochlear implant (CI) as a function of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Method: Speech recognition was measured with CI alone, HA alone, and CI + HA. Ten participants were separated into 2 groups; good…

  17. From prosodic structure to acoustic saliency: A fMRI investigation of speech rate, clarity, and emphasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golfinopoulos, Elisa

    Acoustic variability in fluent speech can arise at many stages in speech production planning and execution. For example, at the phonological encoding stage, the grouping of phonemes into syllables determines which segments are coarticulated and, by consequence, segment-level acoustic variation. Likewise phonetic encoding, which determines the spatiotemporal extent of articulatory gestures, will affect the acoustic detail of segments. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure brain activity of fluent adult speakers in four speaking conditions: fast, normal, clear, and emphatic (or stressed) speech. These speech manner changes typically result in acoustic variations that do not change the lexical or semantic identity of productions but do affect the acoustic saliency of phonemes, syllables and/or words. Acoustic responses recorded inside the scanner were assessed quantitatively using eight acoustic measures and sentence duration was used as a covariate of non-interest in the neuroimaging analysis. Compared to normal speech, emphatic speech was characterized acoustically by a greater difference between stressed and unstressed vowels in intensity, duration, and fundamental frequency, and neurally by increased activity in right middle premotor cortex and supplementary motor area, and bilateral primary sensorimotor cortex. These findings are consistent with right-lateralized motor planning of prosodic variation in emphatic speech. Clear speech involved an increase in average vowel and sentence durations and average vowel spacing, along with increased activity in left middle premotor cortex and bilateral primary sensorimotor cortex. These findings are consistent with an increased reliance on feedforward control, resulting in hyper-articulation, under clear as compared to normal speech. Fast speech was characterized acoustically by reduced sentence duration and average vowel spacing, and neurally by increased activity in left anterior frontal

  18. A Study to Relate the Theories of John Dewey to College Level Speech-Communication Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, Mary

    This report presents a synthesis of John Dewey's concepts of man-to-man speech-communication located in numerous speeches and in other relevant Dewey writings. The communication theories are formulated in a verbal model and related to college level speech-communication education. Dewey's views of communication as cooperative, communal phenomena…

  19. Acoustic MIMO communications in a very shallow water channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yuehai; Cao, Xiuling; Tong, Feng

    2015-12-01

    Underwater acoustic channels pose significant difficulty for the development of high speed communication due to highly limited band-width as well as hostile multipath interference. Enlightened by rapid progress of multiple input multiple output (MIMO) technologies in wireless communication scenarios, MIMO systems offer a potential solution by enabling multiple spatially parallel communication channels to improve communication performance as well as capacity. For MIMO acoustic communications, deep sea channels offer substantial spatial diversity among multiple channels that can be exploited to address simultaneous multipath and co-channel interference. At the same time, there are increasing requirements for high speed underwater communication in very shallow water area (for example, a depth less than 10 m). In this paper, a space-time multichannel adaptive receiver consisting of multiple decision feedback equalizers (DFE) is adopted as the receiver for a very shallow water MIMO acoustic communication system. The performance of multichannel DFE receivers with relatively small number of receiving elements are analyzed and compared with that of the multichannel time reversal receiver to evaluate the impact of limited spatial diversity on multi-channel equalization and time reversal processing. The results of sea trials in a very shallow water channel are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of very shallow water MIMO acoustic communication.

  20. Normal Aspects of Speech, Hearing, and Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minifie, Fred. D., Ed.; And Others

    This book is written as a guide to the understanding of the processes involved in human speech communication. Ten authorities contributed material to provide an introduction to the physiological aspects of speech production and reception, the acoustical aspects of speech production and transmission, the psychophysics of sound reception, the nature…

  1. Acoustic-Phonetic Differences between Infant- and Adult-Directed Speech: The Role of Stress and Utterance Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Seidl, Amanda; Cristia, Alejandrina

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that infant-directed speech (IDS) differs from adult-directed speech (ADS) on a variety of dimensions. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether acoustic differences between IDS and ADS in English are modulated by prosodic structure. We compared vowels across the two registers (IDS, ADS) in both stressed…

  2. Speech after Radial Forearm Free Flap Reconstruction of the Tongue: A Longitudinal Acoustic Study of Vowel and Diphthong Sounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laaksonen, Juha-Pertti; Rieger, Jana; Happonen, Risto-Pekka; Harris, Jeffrey; Seikaly, Hadi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use acoustic analyses to describe speech outcomes over the course of 1 year after radial forearm free flap (RFFF) reconstruction of the tongue. Eighteen Canadian English-speaking females and males with reconstruction for oral cancer had speech samples recorded (pre-operative, and 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year…

  3. Using others' words: conversational use of reported speech by individuals with aphasia and their communication partners.

    PubMed

    Hengst, Julie A; Frame, Simone R; Neuman-Stritzel, Tiffany; Gannaway, Rachel

    2005-02-01

    Reported speech, wherein one quotes or paraphrases the speech of another, has been studied extensively as a set of linguistic and discourse practices. Researchers agree that reported speech is pervasive, found across languages, and used in diverse contexts. However, to date, there have been no studies of the use of reported speech among individuals with aphasia. Grounded in an interactional sociolinguistic perspective, the study presented here documents and analyzes the use of reported speech by 7 adults with mild to moderately severe aphasia and their routine communication partners. Each of the 7 pairs was videotaped in 4 everyday activities at home or around the community, yielding over 27 hr of conversational interaction for analysis. A coding scheme was developed that identified 5 types of explicitly marked reported speech: direct, indirect, projected, indexed, and undecided. Analysis of the data documented reported speech as a common discourse practice used successfully by the individuals with aphasia and their communication partners. All participants produced reported speech at least once, and across all observations the target pairs produced 400 reported speech episodes (RSEs), 149 by individuals with aphasia and 251 by their communication partners. For all participants, direct and indirect forms were the most prevalent (70% of RSEs). Situated discourse analysis of specific episodes of reported speech used by 3 of the pairs provides detailed portraits of the diverse interactional, referential, social, and discourse functions of reported speech and explores ways that the pairs used reported speech to successfully frame talk despite their ongoing management of aphasia. PMID:15934449

  4. An eighth-scale speech source for subjective assessments in acoustic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlowski, R. J.

    1981-08-01

    The design of a source is described which is suitable for making speech recordings in eighth-scale acoustic models of auditoria. An attempt was made to match the directionality of the source with the directionality of the human voice using data reported in the literature. A narrow aperture was required for the design which was provided by mounting an inverted conical horn over the diaphragm of a high frequency loudspeaker. Resonance problems were encountered with the use of a horn and a description is given of the electronic techniques adopted to minimize the effect of these resonances. Subjective and objective assessments on the completed speech source have proved satisfactory. It has been used in a modelling exercise concerned with the acoustic design of a theatre with a thrust-type stage.

  5. Are you a good mimic? Neuro-acoustic signatures for speech imitation ability

    PubMed Central

    Reiterer, Susanne M.; Hu, Xiaochen; Sumathi, T. A.; Singh, Nandini C.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated individual differences in speech imitation ability in late bilinguals using a neuro-acoustic approach. One hundred and thirty-eight German-English bilinguals matched on various behavioral measures were tested for “speech imitation ability” in a foreign language, Hindi, and categorized into “high” and “low ability” groups. Brain activations and speech recordings were obtained from 26 participants from the two extreme groups as they performed a functional neuroimaging experiment which required them to “imitate” sentences in three conditions: (A) German, (B) English, and (C) German with fake English accent. We used recently developed novel acoustic analysis, namely the “articulation space” as a metric to compare speech imitation abilities of the two groups. Across all three conditions, direct comparisons between the two groups, revealed brain activations (FWE corrected, p < 0.05) that were more widespread with significantly higher peak activity in the left supramarginal gyrus and postcentral areas for the low ability group. The high ability group, on the other hand showed significantly larger articulation space in all three conditions. In addition, articulation space also correlated positively with imitation ability (Pearson's r = 0.7, p < 0.01). Our results suggest that an expanded articulation space for high ability individuals allows access to a larger repertoire of sounds, thereby providing skilled imitators greater flexibility in pronunciation and language learning. PMID:24155739

  6. What a Strong Speech Communication Curricular Offering Should Be at a Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Jo-Ann

    1977-01-01

    Suggests methods of curriculum development in the speech communication discipline that would offer students opportunities to acquire information and master skills that will enhance academic success and career development. Available from: ACA Bulletin, Robert Hall, Editor, Speech Communication Association, 5205 Leesburg Pike, Suite 1001, Falls…

  7. Speech Communication in the Community-Junior College: Proposals for Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Robert H., Jr.

    The recommendations of a group of 18 persons on the needs of speech-communication instructors in two-year colleges are presented in this paper. The recommendations of the group fall into two categories: problems which need solving to improve the ability of speech-communication teachers in community-junior colleges to better meet the needs of the…

  8. Restoring "Speech" and "Time" to Communication Theory: Contributions of Franz Rosenzweig and Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Eugene D.; McConnell, Kathleen

    It has been said that the contribution of Franz Rosenzweig and Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy to the social sciences is their understanding of speech and time. Rosenstock-Huessy criticized modern communication theory because it assumes that one communicates to express thought, claiming instead that because speech necessitates the presence of a listener,…

  9. Acoustic-Emergent Phonology in the Amplitude Envelope of Child-Directed Speech

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Victoria; Goswami, Usha

    2015-01-01

    When acquiring language, young children may use acoustic spectro-temporal patterns in speech to derive phonological units in spoken language (e.g., prosodic stress patterns, syllables, phonemes). Children appear to learn acoustic-phonological mappings rapidly, without direct instruction, yet the underlying developmental mechanisms remain unclear. Across different languages, a relationship between amplitude envelope sensitivity and phonological development has been found, suggesting that children may make use of amplitude modulation (AM) patterns within the envelope to develop a phonological system. Here we present the Spectral Amplitude Modulation Phase Hierarchy (S-AMPH) model, a set of algorithms for deriving the dominant AM patterns in child-directed speech (CDS). Using Principal Components Analysis, we show that rhythmic CDS contains an AM hierarchy comprising 3 core modulation timescales. These timescales correspond to key phonological units: prosodic stress (Stress AM, ~2 Hz), syllables (Syllable AM, ~5 Hz) and onset-rime units (Phoneme AM, ~20 Hz). We argue that these AM patterns could in principle be used by naïve listeners to compute acoustic-phonological mappings without lexical knowledge. We then demonstrate that the modulation statistics within this AM hierarchy indeed parse the speech signal into a primitive hierarchically-organised phonological system comprising stress feet (proto-words), syllables and onset-rime units. We apply the S-AMPH model to two other CDS corpora, one spontaneous and one deliberately-timed. The model accurately identified 72–82% (freely-read CDS) and 90–98% (rhythmically-regular CDS) stress patterns, syllables and onset-rime units. This in-principle demonstration that primitive phonology can be extracted from speech AMs is termed Acoustic-Emergent Phonology (AEP) theory. AEP theory provides a set of methods for examining how early phonological development is shaped by the temporal modulation structure of speech across

  10. An Acoustic Communication Technique of Nanorobot Swarms for Nanomedicine Applications.

    PubMed

    Loscrí, Valeria; Vegni, Anna Maria

    2015-09-01

    In this contribution, we present a communication paradigm among nanodevices, based on acoustic vibrations for medical applications. We consider a swarm of nanorobots able to communicate in a distributed and decentralized fashion, propelled in a biological environment (i.e., the human brain). Each nanorobot is intended to i) recognize a cancer cell, ii) destroy it, and then iii) forward information about the presence of cancer formation to other nanorobots, through acoustic signals. The choice of acoustic waves as communication mean is related to the application context, where it is not advisable either to use indiscriminate chemical substances or electromagnetic waves. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is assessed in terms of achievement of the objective (i.e., to destroy the majority of tumor cells), and the velocity of detection and destruction of cancer cells, through a comparison with other related techniques. PMID:25898028

  11. Suppressed alpha oscillations predict intelligibility of speech and its acoustic details.

    PubMed

    Obleser, Jonas; Weisz, Nathan

    2012-11-01

    Modulations of human alpha oscillations (8-13 Hz) accompany many cognitive processes, but their functional role in auditory perception has proven elusive: Do oscillatory dynamics of alpha reflect acoustic details of the speech signal and are they indicative of comprehension success? Acoustically presented words were degraded in acoustic envelope and spectrum in an orthogonal design, and electroencephalogram responses in the frequency domain were analyzed in 24 participants, who rated word comprehensibility after each trial. First, the alpha power suppression during and after a degraded word depended monotonically on spectral and, to a lesser extent, envelope detail. The magnitude of this alpha suppression exhibited an additional and independent influence on later comprehension ratings. Second, source localization of alpha suppression yielded superior parietal, prefrontal, as well as anterior temporal brain areas. Third, multivariate classification of the time-frequency pattern across participants showed that patterns of late posterior alpha power allowed best for above-chance classification of word intelligibility. Results suggest that both magnitude and topography of late alpha suppression in response to single words can indicate a listener's sensitivity to acoustic features and the ability to comprehend speech under adverse listening conditions. PMID:22100354

  12. Suppressed Alpha Oscillations Predict Intelligibility of Speech and its Acoustic Details

    PubMed Central

    Weisz, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Modulations of human alpha oscillations (8–13 Hz) accompany many cognitive processes, but their functional role in auditory perception has proven elusive: Do oscillatory dynamics of alpha reflect acoustic details of the speech signal and are they indicative of comprehension success? Acoustically presented words were degraded in acoustic envelope and spectrum in an orthogonal design, and electroencephalogram responses in the frequency domain were analyzed in 24 participants, who rated word comprehensibility after each trial. First, the alpha power suppression during and after a degraded word depended monotonically on spectral and, to a lesser extent, envelope detail. The magnitude of this alpha suppression exhibited an additional and independent influence on later comprehension ratings. Second, source localization of alpha suppression yielded superior parietal, prefrontal, as well as anterior temporal brain areas. Third, multivariate classification of the time–frequency pattern across participants showed that patterns of late posterior alpha power allowed best for above-chance classification of word intelligibility. Results suggest that both magnitude and topography of late alpha suppression in response to single words can indicate a listener's sensitivity to acoustic features and the ability to comprehend speech under adverse listening conditions. PMID:22100354

  13. A Secure Communication Suite for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Dini, Gianluca; Duca, Angelica Lo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe a security suite for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks comprising both fixed and mobile nodes. The security suite is composed of a secure routing protocol and a set of cryptographic primitives aimed at protecting the confidentiality and the integrity of underwater communication while taking into account the unique characteristics and constraints of the acoustic channel. By means of experiments and simulations based on real data, we show that the suite is suitable for an underwater networking environment as it introduces limited, and sometimes negligible, communication and power consumption overhead. PMID:23202204

  14. Impact of Aberrant Acoustic Properties on the Perception of Sound Quality in Electrolarynx Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzner, Geoffrey S.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    A large percentage of patients who have undergone laryngectomy to treat advanced laryngeal cancer rely on an electrolarynx (EL) to communicate verbally. Although serviceable, EL speech is plagued by shortcomings in both sound quality and intelligibility. This study sought to better quantify the relative contributions of previously identified…

  15. Segment-based acoustic models for continuous speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostendorf, Mari; Rohlicek, J. R.

    1993-07-01

    This research aims to develop new and more accurate stochastic models for speaker-independent continuous speech recognition, by extending previous work in segment-based modeling and by introducing a new hierarchical approach to representing intra-utterance statistical dependencies. These techniques, which are more costly than traditional approaches because of the large search space associated with higher order models, are made feasible through rescoring a set of HMM-generated N-best sentence hypotheses. We expect these different modeling techniques to result in improved recognition performance over that achieved by current systems, which handle only frame-based observations and assume that these observations are independent given an underlying state sequence. In the fourth quarter of the project, we have completed the following: (1) ported our recognition system to the Wall Street Journal task, a standard task in the ARPA community; (2) developed an initial dependency-tree model of intra-utterance observation correlation; and (3) implemented baseline language model estimation software. Our initial results on the Wall Street Journal task are quite good and represent significantly improved performance over most HMM systems reporting on the Nov. 1992 5k vocabulary test set.

  16. On the Acoustics of Emotion in Audio: What Speech, Music, and Sound have in Common

    PubMed Central

    Weninger, Felix; Eyben, Florian; Schuller, Björn W.; Mortillaro, Marcello; Scherer, Klaus R.

    2013-01-01

    Without doubt, there is emotional information in almost any kind of sound received by humans every day: be it the affective state of a person transmitted by means of speech; the emotion intended by a composer while writing a musical piece, or conveyed by a musician while performing it; or the affective state connected to an acoustic event occurring in the environment, in the soundtrack of a movie, or in a radio play. In the field of affective computing, there is currently some loosely connected research concerning either of these phenomena, but a holistic computational model of affect in sound is still lacking. In turn, for tomorrow’s pervasive technical systems, including affective companions and robots, it is expected to be highly beneficial to understand the affective dimensions of “the sound that something makes,” in order to evaluate the system’s auditory environment and its own audio output. This article aims at a first step toward a holistic computational model: starting from standard acoustic feature extraction schemes in the domains of speech, music, and sound analysis, we interpret the worth of individual features across these three domains, considering four audio databases with observer annotations in the arousal and valence dimensions. In the results, we find that by selection of appropriate descriptors, cross-domain arousal, and valence regression is feasible achieving significant correlations with the observer annotations of up to 0.78 for arousal (training on sound and testing on enacted speech) and 0.60 for valence (training on enacted speech and testing on music). The high degree of cross-domain consistency in encoding the two main dimensions of affect may be attributable to the co-evolution of speech and music from multimodal affect bursts, including the integration of nature sounds for expressive effects. PMID:23750144

  17. Acoustic landmarks drive delta-theta oscillations to enable speech comprehension by facilitating perceptual parsing

    PubMed Central

    Doelling, Keith; Arnal, Luc; Ghitza, Oded; Poeppel, David

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that intrinsic neuronal slow (< 10 Hz) oscillations in auditory cortex appear to track incoming speech and other spectro-temporally complex auditory signals. Within this framework, several recent studies have identified critical-band temporal envelopes as the specific acoustic feature being reflected by the phase of these oscillations. However, how this alignment between speech acoustics and neural oscillations might underpin intelligibility is unclear. Here we test the hypothesis that the ‘sharpness’ of temporal fluctuations in the critical band envelope acts as a temporal cue to speech syllabic rate, driving delta-theta rhythms to track the stimulus and facilitate intelligibility. We interpret our findings as evidence that sharp events in the stimulus cause cortical rhythms to re-align and parse the stimulus into syllable-sized chunks for further decoding. Using magnetoencephalographic recordings, we show that by removing temporal fluctuations that occur at the syllabic rate, envelope-tracking activity is reduced. By artificially reinstating these temporal fluctuations, envelope-tracking activity is regained. These changes in tracking correlate with intelligibility of the stimulus. Together, the results suggest that the sharpness of fluctuations in the stimulus, as reflected in the cochlear output, drive oscillatory activity to track and entrain to the stimulus, at its syllabic rate. This process likely facilitates parsing of the stimulus into meaningful chunks appropriate for subsequent decoding, enhancing perception and intelligibility. PMID:23791839

  18. Compensating Acoustic Mismatch Using Class-Based Histogram Equalization for Robust Speech Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Youngjoo; Kim, Sungtak; Kim, Hoirin

    2007-12-01

    A new class-based histogram equalization method is proposed for robust speech recognition. The proposed method aims at not only compensating for an acoustic mismatch between training and test environments but also reducing the two fundamental limitations of the conventional histogram equalization method, the discrepancy between the phonetic distributions of training and test speech data, and the nonmonotonic transformation caused by the acoustic mismatch. The algorithm employs multiple class-specific reference and test cumulative distribution functions, classifies noisy test features into their corresponding classes, and equalizes the features by using their corresponding class reference and test distributions. The minimum mean-square error log-spectral amplitude (MMSE-LSA)-based speech enhancement is added just prior to the baseline feature extraction to reduce the corruption by additive noise. The experiments on the Aurora2 database proved the effectiveness of the proposed method by reducing relative errors by[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] over the mel-cepstral-based features and by[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] over the conventional histogram equalization method, respectively.

  19. Logopenic and nonfluent variants of primary progressive aphasia are differentiated by acoustic measures of speech production.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Kirrie J; Savage, Sharon; Leyton, Cristian E; Vogel, Adam P; Hornberger, Michael; Hodges, John R

    2014-01-01

    Differentiation of logopenic (lvPPA) and nonfluent/agrammatic (nfvPPA) variants of Primary Progressive Aphasia is important yet remains challenging since it hinges on expert based evaluation of speech and language production. In this study acoustic measures of speech in conjunction with voxel-based morphometry were used to determine the success of the measures as an adjunct to diagnosis and to explore the neural basis of apraxia of speech in nfvPPA. Forty-one patients (21 lvPPA, 20 nfvPPA) were recruited from a consecutive sample with suspected frontotemporal dementia. Patients were diagnosed using the current gold-standard of expert perceptual judgment, based on presence/absence of particular speech features during speaking tasks. Seventeen healthy age-matched adults served as controls. MRI scans were available for 11 control and 37 PPA cases; 23 of the PPA cases underwent amyloid ligand PET imaging. Measures, corresponding to perceptual features of apraxia of speech, were periods of silence during reading and relative vowel duration and intensity in polysyllable word repetition. Discriminant function analyses revealed that a measure of relative vowel duration differentiated nfvPPA cases from both control and lvPPA cases (r(2) = 0.47) with 88% agreement with expert judgment of presence of apraxia of speech in nfvPPA cases. VBM analysis showed that relative vowel duration covaried with grey matter intensity in areas critical for speech motor planning and programming: precentral gyrus, supplementary motor area and inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally, only affected in the nfvPPA group. This bilateral involvement of frontal speech networks in nfvPPA potentially affects access to compensatory mechanisms involving right hemisphere homologues. Measures of silences during reading also discriminated the PPA and control groups, but did not increase predictive accuracy. Findings suggest that a measure of relative vowel duration from of a polysyllable word repetition task

  20. Logopenic and Nonfluent Variants of Primary Progressive Aphasia Are Differentiated by Acoustic Measures of Speech Production

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Kirrie J.; Savage, Sharon; Leyton, Cristian E.; Vogel, Adam P.; Hornberger, Michael; Hodges, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Differentiation of logopenic (lvPPA) and nonfluent/agrammatic (nfvPPA) variants of Primary Progressive Aphasia is important yet remains challenging since it hinges on expert based evaluation of speech and language production. In this study acoustic measures of speech in conjunction with voxel-based morphometry were used to determine the success of the measures as an adjunct to diagnosis and to explore the neural basis of apraxia of speech in nfvPPA. Forty-one patients (21 lvPPA, 20 nfvPPA) were recruited from a consecutive sample with suspected frontotemporal dementia. Patients were diagnosed using the current gold-standard of expert perceptual judgment, based on presence/absence of particular speech features during speaking tasks. Seventeen healthy age-matched adults served as controls. MRI scans were available for 11 control and 37 PPA cases; 23 of the PPA cases underwent amyloid ligand PET imaging. Measures, corresponding to perceptual features of apraxia of speech, were periods of silence during reading and relative vowel duration and intensity in polysyllable word repetition. Discriminant function analyses revealed that a measure of relative vowel duration differentiated nfvPPA cases from both control and lvPPA cases (r2 = 0.47) with 88% agreement with expert judgment of presence of apraxia of speech in nfvPPA cases. VBM analysis showed that relative vowel duration covaried with grey matter intensity in areas critical for speech motor planning and programming: precentral gyrus, supplementary motor area and inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally, only affected in the nfvPPA group. This bilateral involvement of frontal speech networks in nfvPPA potentially affects access to compensatory mechanisms involving right hemisphere homologues. Measures of silences during reading also discriminated the PPA and control groups, but did not increase predictive accuracy. Findings suggest that a measure of relative vowel duration from of a polysyllable word repetition task

  1. Overview of requirements and networks for voice communications and speech processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ince, A. Nejat

    1990-05-01

    The use of voice for military and civil communications are discussed. The military operational requirements are outlined in relation to air operations, including the effects of propagational factors and electronic warfare. Structures of the existing NATO communications network and the evolving Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN) are reviewed to show how they meet the requirements. It is concluded that speech coding at low-bit rates is a growing need for transmitting speech messages with a high level of security and reliability over low data-rate channels and for memory-efficient systems for voice storage, voice response, and voice mail. Furthermore, it is pointed out that the low-bit rate voice coding can ease the transition to shared channels for voice and data and can readily adopt voice messages for packet switching. The speech processing techniques and systems are then outlined as an introduction to the lectures of this series in terms of: the character of the speech signal, its generation and perception; speech coding which is mainly concerned with man-to-man voice communication; speech synthesis which deals with machine-to-man communication; speech recognition which is related to man-to-machine communication; and quality assessment of speech system and standards.

  2. Oral motor functions, speech and communication before a definitive diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Makkonen, Tanja; Korpijaakko-Huuhka, Anna-Maija; Ruottinen, Hanna; Puhto, Riitta; Hollo, Kirsi; Ylinen, Aarne; Palmio, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the cranial nerve symptoms, speech disorders and communicative effectiveness of Finnish patients with diagnosed or possible amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) at their first assessment by a speech-language pathologist. The group studied consisted of 30 participants who had clinical signs of bulbar deterioration at the beginning of the study. They underwent a thorough clinical speech and communication examination. The cranial nerve symptoms and ability to communicate were compared in 14 participants with probable or definitive ALS and in 16 participants with suspected or possible ALS. The initial type of ALS was also assessed. More deterioration in soft palate function was found in participants with possible ALS than with diagnosed ALS. Likewise, a slower speech rate combined with more severe dysarthria was observed in possible ALS. In both groups, there was some deterioration in communicative effectiveness. In the possible ALS group the diagnostic delay was longer and speech therapy intervention actualized later. The participants with ALS showed multidimensional decline in communication at their first visit to the speech-language pathologist, but impairments and activity limitations were more severe in suspected or possible ALS. The majority of persons with bulbar-onset ALS in this study were in the latter diagnostic group. This suggests that they are more susceptible to delayed diagnosis and delayed speech therapy assessment. It is important to start speech therapy intervention during the diagnostic processes particularly if the person already shows bulbar symptoms. PMID:27110704

  3. 27. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. COMMUNICATIONS CONSOLE AT LEFT; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. COMMUNICATIONS CONSOLE AT LEFT; LAUNCH CONTROL CONSOLE AT RIGHT. PADLOCKED PANEL AT TOP CENTER CONTAINS MISSILE LAUNCH KEYS. SHOCK ISOLATOR AT FAR LEFT. VIEW TO EAST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  4. 30. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. OPERATORS' CHAIR AND COMMUNICATIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. OPERATORS' CHAIR AND COMMUNICATIONS CONSOLE IN FOREGROUND. ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT RACK AT LEFT; LAUNCH CONTROL CONSOLE WITH CAPTAIN JAMES L. KING, JR. IN CENTER. LIEUTENANT KEVIN R. MCCLUNEY IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  5. Effective Acoustic Modeling for Pronunciation Quality Scoring of Strongly Accented Mandarin Speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Fengpei; Liu, Changliang; Shao, Jian; Pan, Fuping; Dong, Bin; Yan, Yonghong

    In this paper we present our investigation into improving the performance of our computer-assisted language learning (CALL) system through exploiting the acoustic model and features within the speech recognition framework. First, to alleviate channel distortion, speaker-dependent cepstrum mean normalization (CMN) is adopted and the average correlation coefficient (average CC) between machine and expert scores is improved from 78.00% to 84.14%. Second, heteroscedastic linear discriminant analysis (HLDA) is adopted to enhance the discriminability of the acoustic model, which successfully increases the average CC from 84.14% to 84.62%. Additionally, HLDA causes the scoring accuracy to be more stable at various pronunciation proficiency levels, and thus leads to an increase in the speaker correct-rank rate from 85.59% to 90.99%. Finally, we use maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation to tune the acoustic model to fit strongly accented test speech. As a result, the average CC is improved from 84.62% to 86.57%. These three novel techniques improve the accuracy of evaluating pronunciation quality.

  6. Effect of several acoustic cues on perceiving Mandarin retroflex affricates and fricatives in continuous speech.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jian; Chen, Yaping

    2016-07-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to the perception of the three-way contrast between unaspirated affricates, aspirated affricates and fricatives in Mandarin Chinese. This study reports two experiments that explore the acoustic cues relevant to the contrast between the Mandarin retroflex series /tʂ/, /tʂ(h)/ and /ʂ/ in continuous speech. Twenty participants performed two three-alternative forced-choice tasks, in which acoustic cues including closure, frication duration (FD), aspiration, and vocalic contexts (VCs) were systematically manipulated and presented in a carrier phrase. A subsequent classification tree analysis shows that FD distinguishes /tʂ/ from /tʂ(h)/ and /ʂ/, and that closure cues the affricate manner. Interactions between VC and individual cues are also found. The FD threshold for separating /ʂ/ and /tʂ/ is susceptible to the influence of the following vocalic segments, shifting to lower values if frication is followed by the low vowel /a/. On the other hand, while aspiration cues /tʂ(h)/ before /a/ and //, this acoustic cue is obscured by gesture continuation when /tʂ(h)/ precedes its homorganic approximant /ɻ/ in natural speech, which might cause potential confusion between /tʂ(h)/ and /ʂ/. PMID:27475170

  7. The role of metrical information in apraxia of speech. Perceptual and acoustic analyses of word stress.

    PubMed

    Aichert, Ingrid; Späth, Mona; Ziegler, Wolfram

    2016-02-01

    Several factors are known to influence speech accuracy in patients with apraxia of speech (AOS), e.g., syllable structure or word length. However, the impact of word stress has largely been neglected so far. More generally, the role of prosodic information at the phonetic encoding stage of speech production often remains unconsidered in models of speech production. This study aimed to investigate the influence of word stress on error production in AOS. Two-syllabic words with stress on the first (trochees) vs. the second syllable (iambs) were compared in 14 patients with AOS, three of them exhibiting pure AOS, and in a control group of six normal speakers. The patients produced significantly more errors on iambic than on trochaic words. A most prominent metrical effect was obtained for segmental errors. Acoustic analyses of word durations revealed a disproportionate advantage of the trochaic meter in the patients relative to the healthy controls. The results indicate that German apraxic speakers are sensitive to metrical information. It is assumed that metrical patterns function as prosodic frames for articulation planning, and that the regular metrical pattern in German, the trochaic form, has a facilitating effect on word production in patients with AOS. PMID:26792367

  8. Emphasis of short-duration acoustic speech cues for cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Vandali, A E

    2001-05-01

    A new speech-coding strategy for cochlear implant users, called the transient emphasis spectral maxima (TESM), was developed to aid perception of short-duration transient cues in speech. Speech-perception scores using the TESM strategy were compared to scores using the spectral maxima sound processor (SMSP) strategy in a group of eight adult users of the Nucleus 22 cochlear implant system. Significant improvements in mean speech-perception scores for the group were obtained on CNC open-set monosyllabic word tests in quiet (SMSP: 53.6% TESM: 61.3%, p<0.001), and on MUSL open-set sentence tests in multitalker noise (SMSP: 64.9% TESM: 70.6%, p<0.001). Significant increases were also shown for consonant scores in the word test (SMSP: 75.1% TESM: 80.6%, p<0.001) and for vowel scores in the word test (SMSP: 83.1% TESM: 85.7%, p<0.05). Analysis of consonant perception results from the CNC word tests showed that perception of nasal, stop, and fricative consonant discrimination was most improved. Information transmission analysis indicated that place of articulation was most improved, although improvements were also evident for manner of articulation. The increases in discrimination were shown to be related to improved coding of short-duration acoustic cues, particularly those of low intensity. PMID:11386557

  9. Commercially-Available Games for Speech Communication Courses; Interpersonal Communication Instruction--Theory and Practice: A Symposium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherly, Michael

    1974-01-01

    An index of appropriate games for nine areas of speech communication and information given on sources, cost, time required to play, grade level, number of players involved, and a brief description of each game. (CH)

  10. SISCOM '75, Women's (And Men's) Communication; Proceedings of the Speech Communication Association's Summer Conference (10th, Austin, Texas).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakins, Barbara, Ed.; And Others

    The papers collected in this volume document the research and opinions of speakers at the summer 1975 conference of the Speech Communication Association concerning sex-related aspects of communication. Part 1 of the volume consists of discussion of contemporary research and resources on communication and includes specific treatment of the…

  11. A Bayesian view on acoustic model-based techniques for robust speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maas, Roland; Huemmer, Christian; Sehr, Armin; Kellermann, Walter

    2015-12-01

    This article provides a unifying Bayesian view on various approaches for acoustic model adaptation, missing feature, and uncertainty decoding that are well-known in the literature of robust automatic speech recognition. The representatives of these classes can often be deduced from a Bayesian network that extends the conventional hidden Markov models used in speech recognition. These extensions, in turn, can in many cases be motivated from an underlying observation model that relates clean and distorted feature vectors. By identifying and converting the observation models into a Bayesian network representation, we formulate the corresponding compensation rules. We thus summarize the various approaches as approximations or modifications of the same Bayesian decoding rule leading to a unified view on known derivations as well as to new formulations for certain approaches.

  12. Multi-carrier Communications over Time-varying Acoustic Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aval, Yashar M.

    Acoustic communication is an enabling technology for many autonomous undersea systems, such as those used for ocean monitoring, offshore oil and gas industry, aquaculture, or port security. There are three main challenges in achieving reliable high-rate underwater communication: the bandwidth of acoustic channels is extremely limited, the propagation delays are long, and the Doppler distortions are more pronounced than those found in wireless radio channels. In this dissertation we focus on assessing the fundamental limitations of acoustic communication, and designing efficient signal processing methods that cam overcome these limitations. We address the fundamental question of acoustic channel capacity (achievable rate) for single-input-multi-output (SIMO) acoustic channels using a per-path Rician fading model, and focusing on two scenarios: narrowband channels where the channel statistics can be approximated as frequency- independent, and wideband channels where the nominal path loss is frequency-dependent. In each scenario, we compare several candidate power allocation techniques, and show that assigning uniform power across all frequencies for the first scenario, and assigning uniform power across a selected frequency-band for the second scenario, are the best practical choices in most cases, because the long propagation delay renders the feedback information outdated for power allocation based on the estimated channel response. We quantify our results using the channel information extracted form the 2010 Mobile Acoustic Communications Experiment (MACE'10). Next, we focus on achieving reliable high-rate communication over underwater acoustic channels. Specifically, we investigate orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) as the state-of-the-art technique for dealing with frequency-selective multipath channels, and propose a class of methods that compensate for the time-variation of the underwater acoustic channel. These methods are based on multiple

  13. Twelve-month-old infants recognize that speech can communicate unobservable intentions

    PubMed Central

    Vouloumanos, Athena; Onishi, Kristine H.; Pogue, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Much of our knowledge is acquired not from direct experience but through the speech of others. Speech allows rapid and efficient transfer of information that is otherwise not directly observable. Do infants recognize that speech, even if unfamiliar, can communicate about an important aspect of the world that cannot be directly observed: a person’s intentions? Twelve-month-olds saw a person (the Communicator) attempt but fail to achieve a target action (stacking a ring on a funnel). The Communicator subsequently directed either speech or a nonspeech vocalization to another person (the Recipient) who had not observed the attempts. The Recipient either successfully stacked the ring (Intended outcome), attempted but failed to stack the ring (Observable outcome), or performed a different stacking action (Related outcome). Infants recognized that speech could communicate about unobservable intentions, looking longer at Observable and Related outcomes than the Intended outcome when the Communicator used speech. However, when the Communicator used nonspeech, infants looked equally at the three outcomes. Thus, for 12-month-olds, speech can transfer information about unobservable aspects of the world such as internal mental states, which provides preverbal infants with a tool for acquiring information beyond their immediate experience. PMID:22826217

  14. The effects of selective attention and speech acoustics on neural speech-tracking in a multi-talker scene

    PubMed Central

    Rimmele, Johanna M.; Golumbic, Elana Zion; Schröger, Erich; Poeppel, David

    2015-01-01

    Attending to one speaker in multi-speaker situations is challenging. One neural mechanism proposed to underlie the ability to attend to a particular speaker is phase-locking of low-frequency activity in auditory cortex to speech’s temporal envelope (“speech-tracking”), which is more precise for attended speech. However, it is not known what brings about this attentional effect, and specifically if it reflects enhanced processing of the fine structure of attended speech. To investigate this question we compared attentional effects on speech-tracking of natural vs. vocoded speech which preserves the temporal envelope but removes the fine-structure of speech. Pairs of natural and vocoded speech stimuli were presented concurrently and participants attended to one stimulus and performed a detection task while ignoring the other stimulus. We recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG) and compared attentional effects on the speech-tracking response in auditory cortex. Speech-tracking of natural, but not vocoded, speech was enhanced by attention, whereas neural tracking of ignored speech was similar for natural and vocoded speech. These findings suggest that the more precise speech tracking of attended natural speech is related to processing its fine structure, possibly reflecting the application of higher-order linguistic processes. In contrast, when speech is unattended its fine structure is not processed to the same degree and thus elicits less precise speech tracking more similar to vocoded speech. PMID:25650107

  15. Enhancing the Speech and Language Development of Communicatively Disordered Children through Music and Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Katherine

    The paper examines the suprasegmental aspects of speech and focuses on the benefits of music and movement to facilitate language development in handicapped children. The paper discusses the current thinking of suprasegmental functions of intonation, stress, and rhythm as the foundation for the organization of speech communication. Strategies for…

  16. Information Sources in Hearing, Speech, and Communication Disorders. Part I, Publications, Developmental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunin, Lois F., Ed.

    This guide to recent sources of published information in hearing, speech, and communication disorders lists 759 references. The items are arranged in nine major sections and are annotated except when reasons of processing prevent. The section on reviews covers hearing, language, speech, and additional reviews; the section on special serials…

  17. Self-Initiated Speech Repairs: A Reflection of Communicative Monitoring in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Mary Ann

    1985-01-01

    Demonstrates frequent occurrence of self-initiated repairs in speech of kindergarten and second grade children. Speech during "Show and Tell" sessions was scored for spontaneous occurrence of repetitions; corrections of word choice reference and syntax; postponements; and abandonments. Findings indicate most frequent communicative monitoring in…

  18. Perception of the Voicing Distinction in Speech Produced during Simultaneous Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Douglas J.; Schiavetti, Nicholas; Whitehead, Robert L.; Metz, Dale Evan

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the perception of voice onset time (VOT) in speech produced during simultaneous communication (SC). Four normally hearing, experienced sign language users were recorded under SC and speech alone (SA) conditions speaking stimulus words with voiced and voiceless initial consonants embedded in a sentence. Twelve…

  19. Developing Students' Literacy Skills Using High-Tech Speech-Generating Augmentative and Alternative Communication Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Julia; Ratajczak, Amy

    2009-01-01

    This article outlines practical techniques for developing literacy skills in users of high-tech speech-generating augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices. The recommended strategies are intended for general classroom teachers who teach literacy skills to students with typical speech. Many students who use high-tech AAC devices…

  20. Suprasegmental Characteristics of Speech Produced during Simultaneous Communication by Inexperienced Signers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Robert L.; Metz, Dale E.; Girardi, Erin; Irwin, Jacqueline; Krigsman, Amanda; Swanson, Christina; Mackenzie, Douglas; Schiavetti, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated suprasegmental variables of syllable stress and intonation contours in contextual speech produced during simultaneous communication (SC) by inexperienced signers. Ten hearing inexperienced sign language users were recorded under SC and speech-alone (SA) conditions speaking a set of sentences containing stressed versus…

  1. Selected Speeches on Obscenity by Federal Communications Commission Chairman Dean Burch, 1969-74.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartenberger, Karen Schmidt

    This study is a descriptive/historical account focusing on the obscenity issue and the selected manuscript speeches of Dean Burch while he served as chairman of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) from October 1969 to March 1974. Research centers on the speaker and the specific manuscript speeches, considering the timeliness and…

  2. Advances in speech processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ince, A. Nejat

    1992-10-01

    The field of speech processing is undergoing a rapid growth in terms of both performance and applications and this is fueled by the advances being made in the areas of microelectronics, computation, and algorithm design. The use of voice for civil and military communications is discussed considering advantages and disadvantages including the effects of environmental factors such as acoustic and electrical noise and interference and propagation. The structure of the existing NATO communications network and the evolving Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) concept are briefly reviewed to show how they meet the present and future requirements. The paper then deals with the fundamental subject of speech coding and compression. Recent advances in techniques and algorithms for speech coding now permit high quality voice reproduction at remarkably low bit rates. The subject of speech synthesis is next treated where the principle objective is to produce natural quality synthetic speech from unrestricted text input. Speech recognition where the ultimate objective is to produce a machine which would understand conversational speech with unrestricted vocabulary, from essentially any talker, is discussed. Algorithms for speech recognition can be characterized broadly as pattern recognition approaches and acoustic phonetic approaches. To date, the greatest degree of success in speech recognition has been obtained using pattern recognition paradigms. It is for this reason that the paper is concerned primarily with this technique.

  3. Time Reversal Acoustic Communication Using Filtered Multitone Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lin; Chen, Baowei; Li, Haisen; Zhou, Tian; Li, Ruo

    2015-01-01

    The multipath spread in underwater acoustic channels is severe and, therefore, when the symbol rate of the time reversal (TR) acoustic communication using single-carrier (SC) modulation is high, the large intersymbol interference (ISI) span caused by multipath reduces the performance of the TR process and needs to be removed using the long adaptive equalizer as the post-processor. In this paper, a TR acoustic communication method using filtered multitone (FMT) modulation is proposed in order to reduce the residual ISI in the processed signal using TR. In the proposed method, FMT modulation is exploited to modulate information symbols onto separate subcarriers with high spectral containment and TR technique, as well as adaptive equalization is adopted at the receiver to suppress ISI and noise. The performance of the proposed method is assessed through simulation and real data from a trial in an experimental pool. The proposed method was compared with the TR acoustic communication using SC modulation with the same spectral efficiency. Results demonstrate that the proposed method can improve the performance of the TR process and reduce the computational complexity of adaptive equalization for post-process. PMID:26393586

  4. Advantages from bilateral hearing in speech perception in noise with simulated cochlear implants and residual acoustic hearing.

    PubMed

    Schoof, Tim; Green, Tim; Faulkner, Andrew; Rosen, Stuart

    2013-02-01

    Acoustic simulations were used to study the contributions of spatial hearing that may arise from combining a cochlear implant with either a second implant or contralateral residual low-frequency acoustic hearing. Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) were measured in twenty-talker babble. Spatial separation of speech and noise was simulated using a spherical head model. While low-frequency acoustic information contralateral to the implant simulation produced substantially better SRTs there was no effect of spatial cues on SRT, even when interaural differences were artificially enhanced. Simulated bilateral implants showed a significant head shadow effect, but no binaural unmasking based on interaural time differences, and weak, inconsistent overall spatial release from masking. There was also a small but significant non-spatial summation effect. It appears that typical cochlear implant speech processing strategies may substantially reduce the utility of spatial cues, even in the absence of degraded neural processing arising from auditory deprivation. PMID:23363118

  5. Assessing acoustic communication active space in the Lusitanian toadfish.

    PubMed

    Alves, Daniel; Amorim, M Clara P; Fonseca, Paulo J

    2016-04-15

    The active space of a signal is an important concept in acoustic communication as it has implications for the function and evolution of acoustic signals. However, it remains mostly unknown for fish as it has been measured in only a restricted number of species. We combined physiological and sound propagation approaches to estimate the communication range of the Lusitanian toadfish's ( ITALIC! Halobatrachus didactylus) advertisement sound, the boatwhistle (BW). We recorded BWs at different distances from vocalizing fish in a natural nesting site at ca. 2-3 m depth. We measured the representation of these increasingly attenuated BWs in the auditory pathway through the auditory evoked potential (AEP) technique. These measurements point to a communication range of between 6 and 13 m, depending on the spectral characteristics of the BW. A similar communication range (ca. 8 m) was derived from comparing sound attenuation at selected frequencies with auditory sensitivity. This is one of the few studies to combine auditory measurements with sound propagation to estimate the active space of acoustic signals in fish. We emphasize the need in future studies for estimates of active space to take informational masking into account. PMID:26896547

  6. Acoustic system for communication in pipelines

    DOEpatents

    Martin, II, Louis Peter; Cooper, John F.

    2008-09-09

    A system for communication in a pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes containing a fluid. The system includes an encoding and transmitting sub-system connected to the pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes that transmits a signal in the frequency range of 3-100 kHz into the pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes containing a fluid, and a receiver and processor sub-system connected to the pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes containing a fluid that receives said signal and uses said signal for a desired application.

  7. Improved perception of speech in noise and Mandarin tones with acoustic simulations of harmonic coding for cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Li, Xing; Nie, Kaibao; Imennov, Nikita S; Won, Jong Ho; Drennan, Ward R; Rubinstein, Jay T; Atlas, Les E

    2012-11-01

    Harmonic and temporal fine structure (TFS) information are important cues for speech perception in noise and music perception. However, due to the inherently coarse spectral and temporal resolution in electric hearing, the question of how to deliver harmonic and TFS information to cochlear implant (CI) users remains unresolved. A harmonic-single-sideband-encoder [(HSSE); Nie et al. (2008). Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing; Lie et al., (2010). Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing] strategy has been proposed that explicitly tracks the harmonics in speech and transforms them into modulators conveying both amplitude modulation and fundamental frequency information. For unvoiced speech, HSSE transforms the TFS into a slowly varying yet still noise-like signal. To investigate its potential, four- and eight-channel vocoder simulations of HSSE and the continuous-interleaved-sampling (CIS) strategy were implemented, respectively. Using these vocoders, five normal-hearing subjects' speech recognition performance was evaluated under different masking conditions; another five normal-hearing subjects' Mandarin tone identification performance was also evaluated. Additionally, the neural discharge patterns evoked by HSSE- and CIS-encoded Mandarin tone stimuli were simulated using an auditory nerve model. All subjects scored significantly higher with HSSE than with CIS vocoders. The modeling analysis demonstrated that HSSE can convey temporal pitch cues better than CIS. Overall, the results suggest that HSSE is a promising strategy to enhance speech perception with CIs. PMID:23145619

  8. The development of co-speech gesture in the communication of children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Sowden, Hannah; Clegg, Judy; Perkins, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Co-speech gestures have a close semantic relationship to speech in adult conversation. In typically developing children co-speech gestures which give additional information to speech facilitate the emergence of multi-word speech. A difficulty with integrating audio-visual information is known to exist for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), which may affect development of the speech-gesture system. A longitudinal observational study was conducted with four children with ASD, aged 2;4 to 3;5 years. Participants were video-recorded for 20 min every 2 weeks during their attendance on an intervention programme. Recording continued for up to 8 months, thus affording a rich analysis of gestural practices from pre-verbal to multi-word speech across the group. All participants combined gesture with either speech or vocalisations. Co-speech gestures providing additional information to speech were observed to be either absent or rare. Findings suggest that children with ASD do not make use of the facilitating communicative effects of gesture in the same way as typically developing children. PMID:23944149

  9. Analysis of Acoustic Features in Speakers with Cognitive Disorders and Speech Impairments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saz, Oscar; Simón, Javier; Rodríguez, W. Ricardo; Lleida, Eduardo; Vaquero, Carlos

    2009-12-01

    This work presents the results in the analysis of the acoustic features (formants and the three suprasegmental features: tone, intensity and duration) of the vowel production in a group of 14 young speakers suffering different kinds of speech impairments due to physical and cognitive disorders. A corpus with unimpaired children's speech is used to determine the reference values for these features in speakers without any kind of speech impairment within the same domain of the impaired speakers; this is 57 isolated words. The signal processing to extract the formant and pitch values is based on a Linear Prediction Coefficients (LPCs) analysis of the segments considered as vowels in a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) based Viterbi forced alignment. Intensity and duration are also based in the outcome of the automated segmentation. As main conclusion of the work, it is shown that intelligibility of the vowel production is lowered in impaired speakers even when the vowel is perceived as correct by human labelers. The decrease in intelligibility is due to a 30% of increase in confusability in the formants map, a reduction of 50% in the discriminative power in energy between stressed and unstressed vowels and to a 50% increase of the standard deviation in the length of the vowels. On the other hand, impaired speakers keep good control of tone in the production of stressed and unstressed vowels.

  10. A Frame-Based Context-Dependent Acoustic Modeling for Speech Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terashima, Ryuta; Zen, Heiga; Nankaku, Yoshihiko; Tokuda, Keiichi

    We propose a novel acoustic model for speech recognition, named FCD (Frame-based Context Dependent) model. It can obtain a probability distribution by using a top-down clustering technique to simultaneously consider the local frame position in phoneme, phoneme duration, and phoneme context. The model topology is derived from connecting left-to-right HMM models without self-loop transition for each phoneme duration. Because the FCD model can change the probability distribution into a sequence corresponding with one phoneme duration, it can has the ability to generate a smooth trajectory of speech feature vector. We also performed an experiment to evaluate the performance of speech recognition for the model. In the experiment, 132 questions for frame position, 66 questions for phoneme duration and 134 questions for phoneme context were used to train the sub-phoneme FCD model. In order to compare the performance, left-to-right HMM and two types of HSMM models with almost same number of states were also trained. As a result, 18% of relative improvement of tri-phone accuracy was achieved by the FCD model.

  11. Speech intelligibility in rooms: Effect of prior listening exposure interacts with room acoustics.

    PubMed

    Zahorik, Pavel; Brandewie, Eugene J

    2016-07-01

    There is now converging evidence that a brief period of prior listening exposure to a reverberant room can influence speech understanding in that environment. Although the effect appears to depend critically on the amplitude modulation characteristic of the speech signal reaching the ear, the extent to which the effect may be influenced by room acoustics has not been thoroughly evaluated. This study seeks to fill this gap in knowledge by testing the effect of prior listening exposure or listening context on speech understanding in five different simulated sound fields, ranging from anechoic space to a room with broadband reverberation time (T60) of approximately 3 s. Although substantial individual variability in the effect was observed and quantified, the context effect was, on average, strongly room dependent. At threshold, the effect was minimal in anechoic space, increased to a maximum of 3 dB on average in moderate reverberation (T60 = 1 s), and returned to minimal levels again in high reverberation. This interaction suggests that the functional effects of prior listening exposure may be limited to sound fields with moderate reverberation (0.4 ≤ T60 ≤ 1 s). PMID:27475133

  12. Communications performance of an undersea acoustic large-area network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriewaldt, Hannah A.; Rice, Joseph A.

    2005-04-01

    The U.S. Navy is developing Seaweb acoustic networking capability for integrating undersea systems. Seaweb architectures generally involve a wide-area network of fixed nodes consistent with future distributed autonomous sensors on the seafloor. Mobile nodes including autonomous undersea vehicles (AUVs) and submarines operate in the context of the grid by using the fixed nodes as both navigation reference points and communication access points. In October and November 2004, Theater Anti-Submarine Warfare Exercise (TASWEX04) showcased Seaweb in its first fleet appearance. This paper evaluates the TASWEX04 Seaweb performance in support of networked communications between a submarine and a surface ship. Considerations include physical-layer dependencies on the 9-14 kHz acoustic channel, such as refraction, wind-induced ambient noise, and submarine aspect angle. [Work supported by SSC San Diego.

  13. Discrimination of Speech Stimuli Based on Neuronal Response Phase Patterns Depends on Acoustics But Not Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Poeppel, David

    2010-01-01

    Speech stimuli give rise to neural activity in the listener that can be observed as waveforms using magnetoencephalography. Although waveforms vary greatly from trial to trial due to activity unrelated to the stimulus, it has been demonstrated that spoken sentences can be discriminated based on theta-band (3–7 Hz) phase patterns in single-trial response waveforms. Furthermore, manipulations of the speech signal envelope and fine structure that reduced intelligibility were found to produce correlated reductions in discrimination performance, suggesting a relationship between theta-band phase patterns and speech comprehension. This study investigates the nature of this relationship, hypothesizing that theta-band phase patterns primarily reflect cortical processing of low-frequency (<40 Hz) modulations present in the acoustic signal and required for intelligibility, rather than processing exclusively related to comprehension (e.g., lexical, syntactic, semantic). Using stimuli that are quite similar to normal spoken sentences in terms of low-frequency modulation characteristics but are unintelligible (i.e., their time-inverted counterparts), we find that discrimination performance based on theta-band phase patterns is equal for both types of stimuli. Consistent with earlier findings, we also observe that whereas theta-band phase patterns differ across stimuli, power patterns do not. We use a simulation model of the single-trial response to spoken sentence stimuli to demonstrate that phase-locked responses to low-frequency modulations of the acoustic signal can account not only for the phase but also for the power results. The simulation offers insight into the interpretation of the empirical results with respect to phase-resetting and power-enhancement models of the evoked response. PMID:20484530

  14. Communication and cooperation in underwater acoustic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerramalli, Srinivas

    In this thesis, we present a study of several problems related to underwater point to point communications and network formation. We explore techniques to improve the achievable data rate on a point to point link using better physical layer techniques and then study sensor cooperation which improves the throughput and reliability in an underwater network. Robust point-to-point communications in underwater networks has become increasingly critical in several military and civilian applications related to underwater communications. We present several physical layer signaling and detection techniques tailored to the underwater channel model to improve the reliability of data detection. First, a simplified underwater channel model in which the time scale distortion on each path is assumed to be the same (single scale channel model in contrast to a more general multi scale model). A novel technique, which exploits the nature of OFDM signaling and the time scale distortion, called Partial FFT Demodulation is derived. It is observed that this new technique has some unique interference suppression properties and performs better than traditional equalizers in several scenarios of interest. Next, we consider the multi scale model for the underwater channel and assume that single scale processing is performed at the receiver. We then derive optimized front end pre-processing techniques to reduce the interference caused during single scale processing of signals transmitted on a multi-scale channel. We then propose an improvised channel estimation technique using dictionary optimization methods for compressive sensing and show that significant performance gains can be obtained using this technique. In the next part of this thesis, we consider the problem of sensor node cooperation among rational nodes whose objective is to improve their individual data rates. We first consider the problem of transmitter cooperation in a multiple access channel and investigate the stability of

  15. Brain mechanisms of acoustic communication in humans and nonhuman primates: an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Hermann; Hage, Steffen R; Ziegler, Wolfram

    2014-12-01

    Any account of "what is special about the human brain" (Passingham 2008) must specify the neural basis of our unique ability to produce speech and delineate how these remarkable motor capabilities could have emerged in our hominin ancestors. Clinical data suggest that the basal ganglia provide a platform for the integration of primate-general mechanisms of acoustic communication with the faculty of articulate speech in humans. Furthermore, neurobiological and paleoanthropological data point at a two-stage model of the phylogenetic evolution of this crucial prerequisite of spoken language: (i) monosynaptic refinement of the projections of motor cortex to the brainstem nuclei that steer laryngeal muscles, presumably, as part of a "phylogenetic trend" associated with increasing brain size during hominin evolution; (ii) subsequent vocal-laryngeal elaboration of cortico-basal ganglia circuitries, driven by human-specific FOXP2 mutations.;>This concept implies vocal continuity of spoken language evolution at the motor level, elucidating the deep entrenchment of articulate speech into a "nonverbal matrix" (Ingold 1994), which is not accounted for by gestural-origin theories. Moreover, it provides a solution to the question for the adaptive value of the "first word" (Bickerton 2009) since even the earliest and most simple verbal utterances must have increased the versatility of vocal displays afforded by the preceding elaboration of monosynaptic corticobulbar tracts, giving rise to enhanced social cooperation and prestige. At the ontogenetic level, the proposed model assumes age-dependent interactions between the basal ganglia and their cortical targets, similar to vocal learning in some songbirds. In this view, the emergence of articulate speech builds on the "renaissance" of an ancient organizational principle and, hence, may represent an example of "evolutionary tinkering" (Jacob 1977). PMID:24827156

  16. An acoustical assessment of pitch-matching accuracy in relation to speech frequency, speech frequency range, age and gender in preschool children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trollinger, Valerie L.

    This study investigated the relationship between acoustical measurement of singing accuracy in relationship to speech fundamental frequency, speech fundamental frequency range, age and gender in preschool-aged children. Seventy subjects from Southeastern Pennsylvania; the San Francisco Bay Area, California; and Terre Haute, Indiana, participated in the study. Speech frequency was measured by having the subjects participate in spontaneous and guided speech activities with the researcher, with 18 diverse samples extracted from each subject's recording for acoustical analysis for fundamental frequency in Hz with the CSpeech computer program. The fundamental frequencies were averaged together to derive a mean speech frequency score for each subject. Speech range was calculated by subtracting the lowest fundamental frequency produced from the highest fundamental frequency produced, resulting in a speech range measured in increments of Hz. Singing accuracy was measured by having the subjects each echo-sing six randomized patterns using the pitches Middle C, D, E, F♯, G and A (440), using the solfege syllables of Do and Re, which were recorded by a 5-year-old female model. For each subject, 18 samples of singing were recorded. All samples were analyzed by the CSpeech for fundamental frequency. For each subject, deviation scores in Hz were derived by calculating the difference between what the model sang in Hz and what the subject sang in response in Hz. Individual scores for each child consisted of an overall mean total deviation frequency, mean frequency deviations for each pattern, and mean frequency deviation for each pitch. Pearson correlations, MANOVA and ANOVA analyses, Multiple Regressions and Discriminant Analysis revealed the following findings: (1) moderate but significant (p < .001) relationships emerged between mean speech frequency and the ability to sing the pitches E, F♯, G and A in the study; (2) mean speech frequency also emerged as the strongest

  17. A supervisory control policy over an acoustic communication network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhadi, Alireza; Dumon, Jonathan; Canudas-de-Wit, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a supervisory multi-agent control policy over an acoustic communication network subject to imperfections (packet dropout and transmission delay) for localisation of an underwater flow source (e.g., source of chemical pollution, fresh water, etc.) with an unknown location at the bottom of the ocean. A two-loop control policy combined with a coding strategy for reliable communication is presented to perform the above task. A simulator is developed and used to evaluate the trade-offs between quality of communication, transmission delay and control for a fleet of autonomous underwater vehicles supervised over a noisy acoustic communication network by an autonomous surface vessel. It is illustrated that without compensation of the effects of severe random packet dropout, localisation of an unknown underwater flow source is not possible for the condition simulated just by implementing a two-loop control policy. But a two-loop control policy combined with a strategy for reliable communication locates the unknown location of flow source.

  18. Acoustic diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension: automated speech- recognition-inspired classification algorithm outperforms physicians.

    PubMed

    Kaddoura, Tarek; Vadlamudi, Karunakar; Kumar, Shine; Bobhate, Prashant; Guo, Long; Jain, Shreepal; Elgendi, Mohamed; Coe, James Y; Kim, Daniel; Taylor, Dylan; Tymchak, Wayne; Schuurmans, Dale; Zemp, Roger J; Adatia, Ian

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that an automated speech- recognition-inspired classification algorithm could differentiate between the heart sounds in subjects with and without pulmonary hypertension (PH) and outperform physicians. Heart sounds, electrocardiograms, and mean pulmonary artery pressures (mPAp) were recorded simultaneously. Heart sound recordings were digitized to train and test speech-recognition-inspired classification algorithms. We used mel-frequency cepstral coefficients to extract features from the heart sounds. Gaussian-mixture models classified the features as PH (mPAp ≥ 25 mmHg) or normal (mPAp < 25 mmHg). Physicians blinded to patient data listened to the same heart sound recordings and attempted a diagnosis. We studied 164 subjects: 86 with mPAp ≥ 25 mmHg (mPAp 41 ± 12 mmHg) and 78 with mPAp < 25 mmHg (mPAp 17 ± 5 mmHg) (p  < 0.005). The correct diagnostic rate of the automated speech-recognition-inspired algorithm was 74% compared to 56% by physicians (p = 0.005). The false positive rate for the algorithm was 34% versus 50% (p = 0.04) for clinicians. The false negative rate for the algorithm was 23% and 68% (p = 0.0002) for physicians. We developed an automated speech-recognition-inspired classification algorithm for the acoustic diagnosis of PH that outperforms physicians that could be used to screen for PH and encourage earlier specialist referral. PMID:27609672

  19. Acoustic diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension: automated speech- recognition-inspired classification algorithm outperforms physicians

    PubMed Central

    Kaddoura, Tarek; Vadlamudi, Karunakar; Kumar, Shine; Bobhate, Prashant; Guo, Long; Jain, Shreepal; Elgendi, Mohamed; Coe, James Y; Kim, Daniel; Taylor, Dylan; Tymchak, Wayne; Schuurmans, Dale; Zemp, Roger J.; Adatia, Ian

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that an automated speech- recognition-inspired classification algorithm could differentiate between the heart sounds in subjects with and without pulmonary hypertension (PH) and outperform physicians. Heart sounds, electrocardiograms, and mean pulmonary artery pressures (mPAp) were recorded simultaneously. Heart sound recordings were digitized to train and test speech-recognition-inspired classification algorithms. We used mel-frequency cepstral coefficients to extract features from the heart sounds. Gaussian-mixture models classified the features as PH (mPAp ≥ 25 mmHg) or normal (mPAp < 25 mmHg). Physicians blinded to patient data listened to the same heart sound recordings and attempted a diagnosis. We studied 164 subjects: 86 with mPAp ≥ 25 mmHg (mPAp 41 ± 12 mmHg) and 78 with mPAp < 25 mmHg (mPAp 17 ± 5 mmHg) (p  < 0.005). The correct diagnostic rate of the automated speech-recognition-inspired algorithm was 74% compared to 56% by physicians (p = 0.005). The false positive rate for the algorithm was 34% versus 50% (p = 0.04) for clinicians. The false negative rate for the algorithm was 23% and 68% (p = 0.0002) for physicians. We developed an automated speech-recognition-inspired classification algorithm for the acoustic diagnosis of PH that outperforms physicians that could be used to screen for PH and encourage earlier specialist referral. PMID:27609672

  20. Implications of Recent Research for Speech Communication Education; Proceedings of the Speech Communication Association Summer Conference (6th, Chicago, July 9-11, 1970).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillars, Malcolm O., Ed.

    This publication contains the proceedings of the 1970 Summer Conference of the Speech Communication Association which explored the practical implications of recent research in the field for classroom teachers. Included are (1) four papers by Barbara Wood, Frederick Williams, Gerald R. Miller, and Lawrence Rosenfield, who were commissioned to write…

  1. Acoustical and Intelligibility Test of the Vocera(Copyright) B3000 Communication Badge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archer, Ronald; Litaker, Harry; Chu, Shao-Sheng R.; Simon, Cory; Romero, Andy; Moses, Haifa

    2012-01-01

    To communicate with each other or ground support, crew members on board the International Space Station (ISS) currently use the Audio Terminal Units (ATU), which are located in each ISS module. However, to use the ATU, crew members must stop their current activity, travel to a panel, and speak into a wall-mounted microphone, or use either a handheld microphone or a Crew Communication Headset that is connected to a panel. These actions unnecessarily may increase task times, lower productivity, create cable management issues, and thus increase crew frustration. Therefore, the Habitability and Human Factors and Human Interface Branches at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) are currently investigating a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) wireless communication system, Vocera(C), as a near-term solution for ISS communication. The objectives of the acoustics and intelligibility testing of this system were to answer the following questions: 1. How intelligibly can a human hear the transmitted message from a Vocera(c) badge in three different noise environments (Baseline = 20 dB, US Lab Module = 58 dB, Russian Module = 70.6 dB)? 2. How accurate is the Vocera(C) badge at recognizing voice commands in three different noise environments? 3. What body location (chest, upper arm, or shoulder) is optimal for speech intelligibility and voice recognition accuracy of the Vocera(C) badge on a human in three different noise environments?

  2. Discrimination and Comprehension of Synthetic Speech by Students with Visual Impairments: The Case of Similar Acoustic Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Argyropoulos, Vassilios S.; Kouroupetroglou, Georgios

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions held by sighted students and students with visual impairments of the intelligibility and comprehensibility of similar acoustic patterns produced by synthetic speech. It determined the types of errors the students made and compared the performance of the two groups on auditory discrimination and comprehension.

  3. Transient Auditory Storage of Acoustic Details Is Associated with Release of Speech from Informational Masking in Reverberant Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Ying; Huang, Qiang; Chen, Xun; Wu, Xihong; Li, Liang

    2009-01-01

    Perceptual integration of the sound directly emanating from the source with reflections needs both temporal storage and correlation computation of acoustic details. We examined whether the temporal storage is frequency dependent and associated with speech unmasking. In Experiment 1, a break in correlation (BIC) between interaurally correlated…

  4. Comments on "Effects of Noise on Speech Production: Acoustic and Perceptual Analyses" [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 84, 917-928 (1988)].

    PubMed

    Fitch, H

    1989-11-01

    The effect of background noise on speech production is an important issue, both from the practical standpoint of developing speech recognition algorithms and from the theoretical standpoint of understanding how speech is tuned to the environment in which it is spoken. Summers et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 84, 917-928 (1988]) address this issue by experimentally manipulating the level of noise delivered through headphones to two talkers and making several kinds of acoustic measurements on the resulting speech. They indicate that they have replicated effects on amplitude, duration, and pitch and have found effects on spectral tilt and first-formant frequency (F1). The authors regard these acoustic changes as effects in themselves rather than as consequences of a change in vocal effort, and thus treat equally the change in spectral tilt and the change in F1. In fact, the change in spectral tilt is a well-documented and understood consequence of the change in the glottal waveform, which is known to occur with increased effort. The situation with F1 is less clear and is made difficult by measurement problems. The bias in linear predictive coding (LPC) techniques related to two of the other changes-fundamental frequency and spectral tilt-is discussed. PMID:2808931

  5. Comparing the effects of reverberation and of noise on speech recognition in simulated electric-acoustic listening

    PubMed Central

    Helms Tillery, Kate; Brown, Christopher A.; Bacon, Sid P.

    2012-01-01

    Cochlear implant users report difficulty understanding speech in both noisy and reverberant environments. Electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS) is known to improve speech intelligibility in noise. However, little is known about the potential benefits of EAS in reverberation, or about how such benefits relate to those observed in noise. The present study used EAS simulations to examine these questions. Sentences were convolved with impulse responses from a model of a room whose estimated reverberation times were varied from 0 to 1 sec. These reverberated stimuli were then vocoded to simulate electric stimulation, or presented as a combination of vocoder plus low-pass filtered speech to simulate EAS. Monaural sentence recognition scores were measured in two conditions: reverberated speech and speech in a reverberated noise. The long-term spectrum and amplitude modulations of the noise were equated to the reverberant energy, allowing a comparison of the effects of the interferer (speech vs noise). Results indicate that, at least in simulation, (1) EAS provides significant benefit in reverberation; (2) the benefits of EAS in reverberation may be underestimated by those in a comparable noise; and (3) the EAS benefit in reverberation likely arises from partially preserved cues in this background accessible via the low-frequency acoustic component. PMID:22280603

  6. Repetition and Emotive Communication in Music Versus Speech

    PubMed Central

    Margulis, Elizabeth Hellmuth

    2013-01-01

    Music and speech are often placed alongside one another as comparative cases. Their relative overlaps and disassociations have been well explored (e.g., Patel, 2008). But one key attribute distinguishing these two domains has often been overlooked: the greater preponderance of repetition in music in comparison to speech. Recent fMRI studies have shown that familiarity – achieved through repetition – is a critical component of emotional engagement with music (Pereira et al., 2011). If repetition is fundamental to emotional responses to music, and repetition is a key distinguisher between the domains of music and speech, then close examination of the phenomenon of repetition might help clarify the ways that music elicits emotion differently than speech. PMID:23576998

  7. Communication calls of Japanese pipistrelle bats: Examination by acoustic characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osawa, Yoshiki; Kondo, Yoko; Nagato, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Riquimaroux, Hiroshi

    2005-09-01

    We classified communication calls of Japanese pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus abramus) by acoustic characteristics D. The Japanese pipistrelles emitted communication calls that were completely different from FM echolocation calls. Data showed that in general duration of communication calls was longer than that of echolocation calls (e.g., echolocation call, 1 ms; long CF communication call, 50 ms) and that frequency of commu-nication calls were lower than that of echolocation calls (e.g., echolocation call, 80-40 kHz; long CF communication call, about 14 kHz). Typical classified communication calls were as follows: slightly short CF call (20 ms, 14 kHz), short CF call (5 ms, 14 kHz), slightly long CF call (30 ms, 14 kHz), long CF call (50 ms, 14 kHz), slightly long FM call (15 ms, 30-15 kHz), long FM call (20 ms, 25-15 kHz), complicated FM call (10-50 ms, 25-15 kHz), short intermittent CF call (1 ms, 14 kHz) and noise call (20-100 ms, below 60 kHz). Details will be discussed more specifically. [Research supported by a grant to RCAST at Doshisha Univ. from MEXT and by the Innovative Cluster Creation Project promoted by MEXT.

  8. The Status of Ethics Scholarship in Speech Communication Journals from 1915 to 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Ronald C.

    To examine the theoretical status of ethics scholarship and to explore the historical and present directions of ethics in human communication research, this paper reviews more than 100 articles drawn from the speech communication literature. Following a brief introduction that sets forth the criteria for article selection, the paper discusses…

  9. Design of an Iconic Communication Aid for Individuals in India with Speech and Motion Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharya, Samit; Basu, Anupam

    2009-01-01

    India is home to a large number of individuals with significant speech and motion impairments. Many of these individuals are children and neo-literates who have little proficiency in their language of communication. In order to cater to such individuals in India, we have developed Sanyog, an icon-based communication aid. Sanyog accepts a sequence…

  10. Children with Speech, Language and Communication Needs: Their Perceptions of Their Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markham, Chris; van Laar, Darren; Gibbard, Deborah; Dean, Taraneh

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study is part of a programme of research aiming to develop a quantitative measure of quality of life for children with communication needs. It builds on the preliminary findings of Markham and Dean (2006), which described some of the perception's parents and carers of children with speech language and communication needs had…

  11. The Experimental Social Scientific Model in Speech Communication Research: Influences and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Sharmila Pixy

    A substantial number of published articles in speech communication research today is experimental/social scientific in nature. It is only in the past decade that scholars have begun to put the history of communication under the lens. Early advocates of the adoption of the method of social scientific inquiry were J. A. Winans, J. M. O'Neill, and C.…

  12. Measuring Communicative Participation: A Review of Self-Report Instruments in Speech-Language Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eadie, Tanya L.; Yorkston, Kathryn M.; Klasner, Estelle R.; Dudgeon, Brian J.; Deitz, Jean C.; Baylor, Carolyn R.; Miller, Robert M.; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the adequacy of self-report instruments in speech-language pathology for measuring a construct called communicative participation. Method: Six instruments were evaluated relative to (a) the construct measured, (b) the relevance of individual items to communicative participation, and (c) their psychometric properties. Results: No…

  13. Continuous perception and graded categorization: Electrophysiological evidence for a linear relationship between the acoustic signal and perceptual encoding of speech

    PubMed Central

    Toscano, Joseph C.; McMurray, Bob; Dennhardt, Joel; Luck, Steven. J.

    2012-01-01

    Speech sounds are highly variable, yet listeners readily extract information from them and transform continuous acoustic signals into meaningful categories during language comprehension. A central question is whether perceptual encoding captures continuous acoustic detail in a one-to-one fashion or whether it is affected by categories. We addressed this in an event-related potential (ERP) experiment in which listeners categorized spoken words that varied along a continuous acoustic dimension (voice onset time; VOT) in an auditory oddball task. We found that VOT effects were present through a late stage of perceptual processing (N1 component, ca. 100 ms poststimulus) and were independent of categories. In addition, effects of within-category differences in VOT were present at a post-perceptual categorization stage (P3 component, ca. 450 ms poststimulus). Thus, at perceptual levels, acoustic information is encoded continuously, independent of phonological information. Further, at phonological levels, fine-grained acoustic differences are preserved along with category information. PMID:20935168

  14. Recognition of Emotions in Mexican Spanish Speech: An Approach Based on Acoustic Modelling of Emotion-Specific Vowels

    PubMed Central

    Caballero-Morales, Santiago-Omar

    2013-01-01

    An approach for the recognition of emotions in speech is presented. The target language is Mexican Spanish, and for this purpose a speech database was created. The approach consists in the phoneme acoustic modelling of emotion-specific vowels. For this, a standard phoneme-based Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) system was built with Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), where different phoneme HMMs were built for the consonants and emotion-specific vowels associated with four emotional states (anger, happiness, neutral, sadness). Then, estimation of the emotional state from a spoken sentence is performed by counting the number of emotion-specific vowels found in the ASR's output for the sentence. With this approach, accuracy of 87–100% was achieved for the recognition of emotional state of Mexican Spanish speech. PMID:23935410

  15. Exposure to seismic survey alters blue whale acoustic communication.

    PubMed

    Di Iorio, Lucia; Clark, Christopher W

    2010-02-23

    The ability to perceive biologically important sounds is critical to marine mammals, and acoustic disturbance through human-generated noise can interfere with their natural functions. Sounds from seismic surveys are intense and have peak frequency bands overlapping those used by baleen whales, but evidence of interference with baleen whale acoustic communication is sparse. Here we investigated whether blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) changed their vocal behaviour during a seismic survey that deployed a low-medium power technology (sparker). We found that blue whales called consistently more on seismic exploration days than on non-exploration days as well as during periods within a seismic survey day when the sparker was operating. This increase was observed for the discrete, audible calls that are emitted during social encounters and feeding. This response presumably represents a compensatory behaviour to the elevated ambient noise from seismic survey operations. PMID:19776059

  16. Exposure to seismic survey alters blue whale acoustic communication

    PubMed Central

    Di Iorio, Lucia; Clark, Christopher W.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to perceive biologically important sounds is critical to marine mammals, and acoustic disturbance through human-generated noise can interfere with their natural functions. Sounds from seismic surveys are intense and have peak frequency bands overlapping those used by baleen whales, but evidence of interference with baleen whale acoustic communication is sparse. Here we investigated whether blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) changed their vocal behaviour during a seismic survey that deployed a low-medium power technology (sparker). We found that blue whales called consistently more on seismic exploration days than on non-exploration days as well as during periods within a seismic survey day when the sparker was operating. This increase was observed for the discrete, audible calls that are emitted during social encounters and feeding. This response presumably represents a compensatory behaviour to the elevated ambient noise from seismic survey operations. PMID:19776059

  17. A Dual Communication and Imaging Underwater Acoustic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Tricia C.

    A dual communication and imaging underwater acoustic system is proposed and developed throughout this dissertation. Due to the wide variation in underwater channel characteristics, the research here focuses more on robustness to multipath in the shallow underwater acoustic environment, rather than high bit-rate applications and signaling schemes. Lower bit-rate (in the hundreds of bits per second (bps) to low kbps), applications such as the transfer of ecological telemetry data, e.g. conductivity or temperature data, are the primary focus of this dissertation. The parallels between direct sequence spread spectrum in digital communication and pulse-echo with pulse compression in imaging, and channel estimation in communication and range profile estimation in imaging are drawn, leading to a unified communications and imaging platform. A digital communication algorithm for channel order and channel coefficient estimation and symbol demodulation using Matching Pursuit (MP) with Generalized Multiple Hypothesis Testing (GMHT) is implemented in programmable DSP in real time with field experiment results in varying underwater environments for the single receiver (Rx), single transmitter (Tx) case. The custom and off-the-shelf hardware used in the single receiver, single transmitter set of experiments are detailed as well. This work is then extended to the single-input multiple-output (SIMO) case, and then to the full multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) case. The results of channel estimation are used for simple range profile imaging reconstructions. Successful simulated and experimental results for both transducer array configurations are presented and analyzed. Non-real-time symbol demodulation and channel estimation is performed using experimental data from a scaled testing environment. New hardware based on cost-effective fish-finder transducers for a 6 Rx--1 Tx and 6 Rx--4 Tx transducer array is detailed. Lastly, in an application that is neither communication nor

  18. A voice-input voice-output communication aid for people with severe speech impairment.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Mark S; Cunningham, Stuart P; Green, Phil D; Enderby, Pam; Palmer, Rebecca; Sehgal, Siddharth; O'Neill, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A new form of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) device for people with severe speech impairment-the voice-input voice-output communication aid (VIVOCA)-is described. The VIVOCA recognizes the disordered speech of the user and builds messages, which are converted into synthetic speech. System development was carried out employing user-centered design and development methods, which identified and refined key requirements for the device. A novel methodology for building small vocabulary, speaker-dependent automatic speech recognizers with reduced amounts of training data, was applied. Experiments showed that this method is successful in generating good recognition performance (mean accuracy 96%) on highly disordered speech, even when recognition perplexity is increased. The selected message-building technique traded off various factors including speed of message construction and range of available message outputs. The VIVOCA was evaluated in a field trial by individuals with moderate to severe dysarthria and confirmed that they can make use of the device to produce intelligible speech output from disordered speech input. The trial highlighted some issues which limit the performance and usability of the device when applied in real usage situations, with mean recognition accuracy of 67% in these circumstances. These limitations will be addressed in future work. PMID:22875259

  19. Performance of a low data rate speech codec for land-mobile satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gersho, Allen; Jedrey, Thomas C.

    1990-01-01

    In an effort to foster the development of new technologies for the emerging land mobile satellite communications services, JPL funded two development contracts in 1984: one to the Univ. of Calif., Santa Barbara and the other to the Georgia Inst. of Technology, to develop algorithms and real time hardware for near toll quality speech compression at 4800 bits per second. Both universities have developed and delivered speech codecs to JPL, and the UCSB codec was extensively tested by JPL in a variety of experimental setups. The basic UCSB speech codec algorithms and the test results of the various experiments performed with this codec are presented.

  20. The influence of phonemic awareness development on acoustic cue weighting strategies in children's speech perception.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Catherine; Scobbie, James M; Hewlett, Nigel; Waters, Daphne

    2003-10-01

    In speech perception, children give particular patterns of weight to different acoustic cues (their cue weighting). These patterns appear to change with increased linguistic experience. Previous speech perception research has found a positive correlation between more analytical cue weighting strategies and the ability to consciously think about and manipulate segment-sized units (phonemic awareness). That research did not, however, aim to address whether the relation is in any way causal or, if so, then in which direction possible causality might move. Causality in this relation could move in 1 of 2 ways: Either phonemic awareness development could impact on cue weighting strategies or changes in cue weighting could allow for the later development of phonemic awareness. The aim of this study was to follow the development of these 2 processes longitudinally to determine which of the above 2 possibilities was more likely. Five-year-old children were tested 3 times in 7 months on their cue weighting strategies for a /so/-/[symbol in text]o/ contrast, in which the 2 cues manipulated were the frequency of fricative spectrum and the frequency of vowel-onset formant transitions. The children were also tested at the same time on their phoneme segmentation and phoneme blending skills. Results showed that phonemic awareness skills tended to improve before cue weighting changed and that early phonemic awareness ability predicted later cue weighting strategies. These results suggest that the development of metaphonemic awareness may play some role in changes in cue weighting. PMID:14575351

  1. Acoustic markers of prominence influence infants' and adults' segmentation of speech sequences.

    PubMed

    Bion, Ricardo A H; Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Nespor, Marina

    2011-03-01

    Two experiments investigated the way acoustic markers of prominence influence the grouping of speech sequences by adults and 7-month-old infants. In the first experiment, adults were familiarized with and asked to memorize sequences of adjacent syllables that alternated in either pitch or duration. During the test phase, participants heard pairs of syllables with constant pitch and duration and were asked whether the syllables had appeared adjacently during familiarization. Adults were better at remembering pairs of syllables that during familiarization had short syllables preceding long syllables, or high-pitched syllables preceding low-pitched syllables. In the second experiment, infants were familiarized and tested with similar stimuli as in the first experiment, and their preference for pairs of syllables was accessed using the head-turn preference paradigm.When familiarized with syllables alternating in pitch, infants showed a preference to listen to pairs of syllables that had high pitch in the first syllable. However, no preference was found when the familiarization stream alternated in duration. It is proposed that these perceptual biases help infants and adults find linguistic units in the continuous speech stream.While the bias for grouping based on pitch appears early in development, biases for durational grouping might rely on more extensive linguistic experience. PMID:21524015

  2. Statistical evidence that musical universals derive from the acoustic characteristics of human speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, David; Howe, Catharine; Purves, Dale

    2003-04-01

    Listeners of all ages and societies produce a similar consonance ordering of chromatic scale tone combinations. Despite intense interest in this perceptual phenomenon over several millennia, it has no generally accepted explanation in physical, psychological, or physiological terms. Here we show that the musical universal of consonance ordering can be understood in terms of the statistical relationship between a pattern of sound pressure at the ear and the possible generative sources of the acoustic energy pattern. Since human speech is the principal naturally occurring source of tone-evoking (i.e., periodic) sound energy for human listeners, we obtained normalized spectra from more than 100000 recorded speech segments. The probability distribution of amplitude/frequency combinations derived from these spectra predicts both the fundamental frequency ratios that define the chromatic scale intervals and the consonance ordering of chromatic scale tone combinations. We suggest that these observations reveal the statistical character of the perceptual process by which the auditory system guides biologically successful behavior in response to inherently ambiguous sound stimuli.

  3. Elicitation of the Acoustic Change Complex to Long-Duration Speech Stimuli in Four-Month-Old Infants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke Heng; Small, Susan A

    2015-01-01

    The acoustic change complex (ACC) is an auditory-evoked potential elicited to changes within an ongoing stimulus that indicates discrimination at the level of the auditory cortex. Only a few studies to date have attempted to record ACCs in young infants. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the elicitation of ACCs to long-duration speech stimuli in English-learning 4-month-old infants. ACCs were elicited to consonant contrasts made up of two concatenated speech tokens. The stimuli included native dental-dental /dada/ and dental-labial /daba/ contrasts and a nonnative Hindi dental-retroflex /daDa/ contrast. Each consonant-vowel speech token was 410 ms in duration. Slow cortical responses were recorded to the onset of the stimulus and to the acoustic change from /da/ to either /ba/ or /Da/ within the stimulus with significantly prolonged latencies compared with adults. ACCs were reliably elicited for all stimulus conditions with more robust morphology compared with our previous findings using stimuli that were shorter in duration. The P1 amplitudes elicited to the acoustic change in /daba/ and /daDa/ were significantly larger compared to /dada/ supporting that the brain discriminated between the speech tokens. These findings provide further evidence for the use of ACCs as an index of discrimination ability. PMID:26798343

  4. Elicitation of the Acoustic Change Complex to Long-Duration Speech Stimuli in Four-Month-Old Infants

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ke Heng; Small, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    The acoustic change complex (ACC) is an auditory-evoked potential elicited to changes within an ongoing stimulus that indicates discrimination at the level of the auditory cortex. Only a few studies to date have attempted to record ACCs in young infants. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the elicitation of ACCs to long-duration speech stimuli in English-learning 4-month-old infants. ACCs were elicited to consonant contrasts made up of two concatenated speech tokens. The stimuli included native dental-dental /dada/ and dental-labial /daba/ contrasts and a nonnative Hindi dental-retroflex /daDa/ contrast. Each consonant-vowel speech token was 410 ms in duration. Slow cortical responses were recorded to the onset of the stimulus and to the acoustic change from /da/ to either /ba/ or /Da/ within the stimulus with significantly prolonged latencies compared with adults. ACCs were reliably elicited for all stimulus conditions with more robust morphology compared with our previous findings using stimuli that were shorter in duration. The P1 amplitudes elicited to the acoustic change in /daba/ and /daDa/ were significantly larger compared to /dada/ supporting that the brain discriminated between the speech tokens. These findings provide further evidence for the use of ACCs as an index of discrimination ability. PMID:26798343

  5. The effect of different open plan and enclosed classroom acoustic conditions on speech perception in Kindergarten children.

    PubMed

    Mealings, Kiri T; Demuth, Katherine; Buchholz, Jörg M; Dillon, Harvey

    2015-10-01

    Open plan classrooms, where several classes are in the same room, have recently re-emerged in Australian primary schools. This paper explores how the acoustics of four Kindergarten classrooms [an enclosed classroom (25 children), double classroom (44 children), fully open plan triple classroom (91 children), and a semi-open plan K-6 "21st century learning space" (205 children)] affect speech perception. Twenty-two to 23 5-6-year-old children in each classroom participated in an online four-picture choice speech perception test while adjacent classes engaged in quiet versus noisy activities. The noise levels recorded during the test were higher the larger the classroom, except in the noisy condition for the K-6 classroom, possibly due to acoustic treatments. Linear mixed effects models revealed children's performance accuracy and speed decreased as noise level increased. Additionally, children's speech perception abilities decreased the further away they were seated from the loudspeaker in noise levels above 50 dBA. These results suggest that fully open plan classrooms are not appropriate learning environments for critical listening activities with young children due to their high intrusive noise levels which negatively affect speech perception. If open plan classrooms are desired, they need to be acoustically designed to be appropriate for critical listening activities. PMID:26520328

  6. Can acoustic vowel space predict the habitual speech rate of the speaker?

    PubMed

    Tsao, Y-C; Iqbal, K

    2005-01-01

    This study aims to find whether the acoustic vowel space reflect the habitual speaking rate of the speaker. The vowel space is defined as the area of the quadrilateral formed by the four corner vowels (i.e.,/i/,/æ/,/u/,/α) in the F1F2- 2 plane. The study compares the acoustic vowel space in the speech of habitually slow and fast talkers and further analyzes them by gender. In addition to the measurement of vowel duration and midpoint frequencies of F1 and F2, the F1/F2 vowel space areas were measured and compared across speakers. The results indicate substantial overlap in vowel space area functions between slow and fast talkers, though the slow speakers were found to have larger vowel spaces. Furthermore, large variability in vowel space area functions was noted among interspeakers in each group. Both F1 and F2 formant frequencies were found to be gender sensitive in consistence with the existing data. No predictive relation between vowel duration and formant frequencies was observed among speakers. PMID:17282413

  7. Speaker height estimation from speech: Fusing spectral regression and statistical acoustic models.

    PubMed

    Hansen, John H L; Williams, Keri; Bořil, Hynek

    2015-08-01

    Estimating speaker height can assist in voice forensic analysis and provide additional side knowledge to benefit automatic speaker identification or acoustic model selection for automatic speech recognition. In this study, a statistical approach to height estimation that incorporates acoustic models within a non-uniform height bin width Gaussian mixture model structure as well as a formant analysis approach that employs linear regression on selected phones are presented. The accuracy and trade-offs of these systems are explored by examining the consistency of the results, location, and causes of error as well a combined fusion of the two systems using data from the TIMIT corpus. Open set testing is also presented using the Multi-session Audio Research Project corpus and publicly available YouTube audio to examine the effect of channel mismatch between training and testing data and provide a realistic open domain testing scenario. The proposed algorithms achieve a highly competitive performance to previously published literature. Although the different data partitioning in the literature and this study may prevent performance comparisons in absolute terms, the mean average error of 4.89 cm for males and 4.55 cm for females provided by the proposed algorithm on TIMIT utterances containing selected phones suggest a considerable estimation error decrease compared to past efforts. PMID:26328721

  8. Effects of acoustic variability in the perceptual learning of non-native-accented speech sounds.

    PubMed

    Wade, Travis; Jongman, Allard; Sereno, Joan

    2007-01-01

    This study addressed whether acoustic variability and category overlap in non-native speech contribute to difficulty in its recognition, and more generally whether the benefits of exposure to acoustic variability during categorization training are stable across differences in category confusability. Three experiments considered a set of Spanish-accented English productions. The set was seen to pose learning and recognition difficulty (experiment 1) and was more variable and confusable than a parallel set of native productions (experiment 2). A training study (experiment 3) probed the relative contributions of category central tendency and variability to difficulty in vowel identification using derived inventories in which these dimensions were manipulated based on the results of experiments 1 and 2. Training and test difficulty related straightforwardly to category confusability but not to location in the vowel space. Benefits of high-variability exposure also varied across vowel categories, and seemed to be diminished for highly confusable vowels. Overall, variability was implicated in perception and learning difficulty in ways that warrant further investigation. PMID:17914280

  9. Comparison study of time reversal OFDM acoustic communication with vector and scalar sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhongkang; Zhang, Hongtao; Xie, Zhe

    2012-11-01

    To compare the performance of time reversal orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) acoustic communication on vector and scalar sensors, the vector and scalar acoustic fields were modeled. Time reversal OFDM acoustic communication was then simulated for each sensor type. These results are compared with data from the CAPEx'09 experiment. The abilityof particle velocity channels to achieve reliable acoustic communication, as predicted by the model, is confirmed with the experiment data. Experimental results show that vector receivers can reduce the required array size, in comparisonto hydrophone arrays, whileproviding comparable communication performance.

  10. A Fibre Bragg Grating Sensor as a Receiver for Acoustic Communications Signals

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Graham; Hinckley, Steven

    2011-01-01

    A Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) acoustic sensor is used as a receiver for acoustic communications signals. Acoustic transmissions were generated in aluminium and Carbon Fibre Composite (CFC) panels. The FBG receiver was coupled to the bottom surface opposite a piezoelectric transmitter. For the CFC, a second FBG was embedded within the layup for comparison. We show the transfer function, frequency response, and transient response of the acoustic communications channels. In addition, the FBG receiver was used to detect Phase Shift Keying (PSK) communications signals, which was shown to be the most robust method in a highly resonant communications channel. PMID:22346585

  11. Management of communication and swallowing in intensive care: the role of the speech pathologist.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Christina A; Bewyer, Emily; Bruner, Diane

    2008-01-01

    Patients in adult, pediatric, and neonatal intensive care settings often require the services of a speech-language pathologist. It is common practice to consult a speech pathologist to determine whether a patient is ready to initiate oral intake or help a patient with an artificial airway communicate. Assessments for dysphagia are initially clinical and conducted at bedside. Results from the clinical evaluation help determine if and when an instrumental examination should be completed. Patients who are tracheostomized, or had been, and those who were intubated for a prolonged period are at risk for aspiration. Speaking valves allow patients to communicate orally. Some studies have shown that speaking valves might also reduce the risk of aspiration with oral intake. Collaboration between speech-language pathologists and critical care nurses is a vital component for ensuring patient safety and success in both communication and eating. PMID:18981745

  12. A Robust Approach For Acoustic Noise Suppression In Speech Using ANFIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinek, Radek; Kelnar, Michal; Vanus, Jan; Bilik, Petr; Zidek, Jan

    2015-11-01

    The authors of this article deals with the implementation of a combination of techniques of the fuzzy system and artificial intelligence in the application area of non-linear noise and interference suppression. This structure used is called an Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). This system finds practical use mainly in audio telephone (mobile) communication in a noisy environment (transport, production halls, sports matches, etc). Experimental methods based on the two-input adaptive noise cancellation concept was clearly outlined. Within the experiments carried out, the authors created, based on the ANFIS structure, a comprehensive system for adaptive suppression of unwanted background interference that occurs in audio communication and degrades the audio signal. The system designed has been tested on real voice signals. This article presents the investigation and comparison amongst three distinct approaches to noise cancellation in speech; they are LMS (least mean squares) and RLS (recursive least squares) adaptive filtering and ANFIS. A careful review of literatures indicated the importance of non-linear adaptive algorithms over linear ones in noise cancellation. It was concluded that the ANFIS approach had the overall best performance as it efficiently cancelled noise even in highly noise-degraded speech. Results were drawn from the successful experimentation, subjective-based tests were used to analyse their comparative performance while objective tests were used to validate them. Implementation of algorithms was experimentally carried out in Matlab to justify the claims and determine their relative performances.

  13. Implementing the Speech Showcase To Encourage and Display Diversity in a Speech Communication Department.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Danford A.

    A "Speech Showcase," such as the one instituted over the past 5 years at Del Mar College (Texas), gives students enrolled in basic public speaking courses the opportunity to perform before a large audience and thereby gain experience and recognition. The faculty facilitator sets up the event logistically and advertises the event. Student speakers…

  14. Assessing Communication Skills of Children with Speech and Language Deficits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickert, Sarah M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Eleven preschool children with speech and language deficits spoke approximately twice as often during teacher-directed discussions as in child-directed discussions. Utterances classified as report, label, and mimic were used most often in the teacher-directed settings. (CL)

  15. Impact of thermocline and seabed variability on underwater acoustic communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siderius, Martin; Porter, Michael; Jensen, Finn

    2001-05-01

    Shallow water acoustic communications experiments were conducted near Kauai in July 2003 and near Capraia and Elba Islands in October 2003. All experiments took place in approximately 100-m water depth but the oceanography and seabed types differed significantly. The Kauai site had a reflective seabed that was combined with highly variable oceanographic conditions that led to performance closely tied to source/receiver geometry. The Capraia site also has a reflective seabed but the winter conditions produced a more mixed water column with a weaker and less variable thermocline than Kauai. The Elba site had nearly the same oceanographic conditions as Capraia but the seabed is a highly lossy. In each of these experiments, signals were transmitted over many hours from fixed and moving platforms and were received at multiple ranges and depths using vertical arrays and single hydrophones. Extensive environmental measurements were made simultaneous to the acoustic transmissions (e.g., measurements of the water column temperature structure and surface wave heights). In this paper, the correlation between environmental factors and communications performance will be presented along with the predictions from modeling. The performance of both multi-frequency shift keying (MFSK) and direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) signals will be discussed.

  16. Understanding speech when wearing communication headsets and hearing protectors with subband processing.

    PubMed

    Brammer, Anthony J; Yu, Gongqiang; Bernstein, Eric R; Cherniack, Martin G; Peterson, Donald R; Tufts, Jennifer B

    2014-08-01

    An adaptive, delayless, subband feed-forward control structure is employed to improve the speech signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the communication channel of a circumaural headset/hearing protector (HPD) from 90 Hz to 11.3 kHz, and to provide active noise control (ANC) from 50 to 800 Hz to complement the passive attenuation of the HPD. The task involves optimizing the speech SNR for each communication channel subband, subject to limiting the maximum sound level at the ear, maintaining a speech SNR preferred by users, and reducing large inter-band gain differences to improve speech quality. The performance of a proof-of-concept device has been evaluated in a pseudo-diffuse sound field when worn by human subjects under conditions of environmental noise and speech that do not pose a risk to hearing, and by simulation for other conditions. For the environmental noises employed in this study, subband speech SNR control combined with subband ANC produced greater improvement in word scores than subband ANC alone, and improved the consistency of word scores across subjects. The simulation employed a subject-specific linear model, and predicted that word scores are maintained in excess of 90% for sound levels outside the HPD of up to ∼115 dBA. PMID:25096102

  17. Production and perception of clear speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradlow, Ann R.

    2003-04-01

    When a talker believes that the listener is likely to have speech perception difficulties due to a hearing loss, background noise, or a different native language, she or he will typically adopt a clear speaking style. Previous research has established that, with a simple set of instructions to the talker, ``clear speech'' can be produced by most talkers under laboratory recording conditions. Furthermore, there is reliable evidence that adult listeners with either impaired or normal hearing typically find clear speech more intelligible than conversational speech. Since clear speech production involves listener-oriented articulatory adjustments, a careful examination of the acoustic-phonetic and perceptual consequences of the conversational-to-clear speech transformation can serve as an effective window into talker- and listener-related forces in speech communication. Furthermore, clear speech research has considerable potential for the development of speech enhancement techniques. After reviewing previous and current work on the acoustic properties of clear versus conversational speech, this talk will present recent data from a cross-linguistic study of vowel production in clear speech and a cross-population study of clear speech perception. Findings from these studies contribute to an evolving view of clear speech production and perception as reflecting both universal, auditory and language-specific, phonological contrast enhancement features.

  18. Talking across time: Using reported speech as a communicative resource in amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Duff, Melissa C.; Hengst, Julie A.; Tranel, Daniel; Cohen, Neal J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Patients with amnesia may have more than pure memory deficits, as evidenced by reports of subtle linguistic impairments on formal laboratory tasks in the amnesic patient HM. However, little attention has been given to the impact of memory impairments on language use in regular, colloquial interactions. We analysed reported speech use by individuals with amnesia. Reported speech (RS), in which speakers represent thoughts/words from another time and/or place, requires management of two temporal frames, making it an interesting discourse practice in which to explore the impact of memory deficits on interactional aspects of communication. Aims This study: (1) documents frequency, type, and temporal contexts of reported speech used in discourse samples; (2) compares reported speech use by amnesic and comparison participants; (3) examines the interactional character of reported speech use in these discourse samples. Methods and Procedures Derived from a broader study of the discourse practices of individuals with amnesia, this study uses quantitative group comparisons and close discourse analysis to analyse reported speech episodes (RSEs) in interactional discourse samples between a clinician and each of 18 participants, 9 individuals with amnesia and 9 comparison participants (NC). Outcomes and Results Reported speech was used by all participants. However, significantly fewer RSEs were produced in amnesia sessions (273) than in NC sessions (554). No significant group differences were observed for type or temporal domain. In addition, for the participants with amnesia, post-amnesia past RSEs differed qualitatively from the other RSEs in the data. Conclusions These findings have important implications for understanding the interdependent relationship of memory and language, point to the value of examining interactional aspects of communication in the empirical study of brain–behaviour relationships, and reconceptualise interaction as a target in the

  19. Acoustic Source Characteristics, Across-Formant Integration, and Speech Intelligibility Under Competitive Conditions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    An important aspect of speech perception is the ability to group or select formants using cues in the acoustic source characteristics—for example, fundamental frequency (F0) differences between formants promote their segregation. This study explored the role of more radical differences in source characteristics. Three-formant (F1+F2+F3) synthetic speech analogues were derived from natural sentences. In Experiment 1, F1+F3 were generated by passing a harmonic glottal source (F0 = 140 Hz) through second-order resonators (H1+H3); in Experiment 2, F1+F3 were tonal (sine-wave) analogues (T1+T3). F2 could take either form (H2 or T2). In some conditions, the target formants were presented alone, either monaurally or dichotically (left ear = F1+F3; right ear = F2). In others, they were accompanied by a competitor for F2 (F1+F2C+F3; F2), which listeners must reject to optimize recognition. Competitors (H2C or T2C) were created using the time-reversed frequency and amplitude contours of F2. Dichotic presentation of F2 and F2C ensured that the impact of the competitor arose primarily through informational masking. In the absence of F2C, the effect of a source mismatch between F1+F3 and F2 was relatively modest. When F2C was present, intelligibility was lowest when F2 was tonal and F2C was harmonic, irrespective of which type matched F1+F3. This finding suggests that source type and context, rather than similarity, govern the phonetic contribution of a formant. It is proposed that wideband harmonic analogues are more effective informational maskers than narrowband tonal analogues, and so become dominant in across-frequency integration of phonetic information when placed in competition. PMID:25751040

  20. Acoustic source characteristics, across-formant integration, and speech intelligibility under competitive conditions.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Brian; Summers, Robert J; Bailey, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    An important aspect of speech perception is the ability to group or select formants using cues in the acoustic source characteristics--for example, fundamental frequency (F0) differences between formants promote their segregation. This study explored the role of more radical differences in source characteristics. Three-formant (F1+F2+F3) synthetic speech analogues were derived from natural sentences. In Experiment 1, F1+F3 were generated by passing a harmonic glottal source (F0 = 140 Hz) through second-order resonators (H1+H3); in Experiment 2, F1+F3 were tonal (sine-wave) analogues (T1+T3). F2 could take either form (H2 or T2). In some conditions, the target formants were presented alone, either monaurally or dichotically (left ear = F1+F3; right ear = F2). In others, they were accompanied by a competitor for F2 (F1+F2C+F3; F2), which listeners must reject to optimize recognition. Competitors (H2C or T2C) were created using the time-reversed frequency and amplitude contours of F2. Dichotic presentation of F2 and F2C ensured that the impact of the competitor arose primarily through informational masking. In the absence of F2C, the effect of a source mismatch between F1+F3 and F2 was relatively modest. When F2C was present, intelligibility was lowest when F2 was tonal and F2C was harmonic, irrespective of which type matched F1+F3. This finding suggests that source type and context, rather than similarity, govern the phonetic contribution of a formant. It is proposed that wideband harmonic analogues are more effective informational maskers than narrowband tonal analogues, and so become dominant in across-frequency integration of phonetic information when placed in competition. PMID:25751040

  1. Externalizing the private experience of pain: a role for co-speech gestures in pain communication?

    PubMed

    Rowbotham, Samantha; Lloyd, Donna M; Holler, Judith; Wearden, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of effective pain communication, talking about pain represents a major challenge for patients and clinicians because pain is a private and subjective experience. Focusing primarily on acute pain, this article considers the limitations of current methods of obtaining information about the sensory characteristics of pain and suggests that spontaneously produced "co-speech hand gestures" may constitute an important source of information here. Although this is a relatively new area of research, we present recent empirical evidence that reveals that co-speech gestures contain important information about pain that can both add to and clarify speech. Following this, we discuss how these findings might eventually lead to a greater understanding of the sensory characteristics of pain, and to improvements in treatment and support for pain sufferers. We hope that this article will stimulate further research and discussion of this previously overlooked dimension of pain communication. PMID:24483213

  2. Psychoacoustic Assessment of Speech Communication Systems. The Diagnostic Discrimination Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grether, Craig Blaine

    The present report traces the rationale, development and experimental evaluation of the Diagnostic Discrimination Test (DDT). The DDT is a three-choice test of consonant discriminability of the perceptual/acoustic dimensions of consonant phonemes within specific vowel contexts. The DDT was created and developed in an attempt to provide a…

  3. Sine-wave and noise-vocoded sine-wave speech in a tone language: Acoustic details matter.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Stuart; Hui, Sze Ngar Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Sine-wave speech (SWS) is a highly simplified version of speech consisting only of frequency- and amplitude-modulated sinusoids representing the formants. That listeners can successfully understand SWS has led to claims that speech perception must be based on abstract properties of the stimuli far removed from their specific acoustic form. Here it is shown, in bilingual Cantonese/English listeners, that performance with Cantonese SWS is improved by noise vocoding, with no effect on English SWS utterances. This manipulation preserves the abstract informational structure in the signals but changes its surface form. The differential effects of noise vocoding likely arise from the fact that Cantonese is a tonal language and hence more reliant on fundamental frequency (F0) contours for its intelligibility. SWS does not preserve tonal information from the original speech but does have false tonal information signalled by the lowest frequency sinusoid. Noise vocoding SWS appears to minimise the tonal percept, which thus interferes less in the perception of Cantonese. It has no effect in English, which is minimally reliant on F0 variations for intelligibility. Therefore it is not only the informational structure of a sound that is important but also how its acoustic detail interacts with the phonological structure of a given language. PMID:26723325

  4. Effects of a music therapy voice protocol on speech intelligibility, vocal acoustic measures, and mood of individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Haneishi, E

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a Music Therapy Voice Protocol (MTVP) on speech intelligibility, vocal intensity, maximum vocal range, maximum duration of sustained vowel phonation, vocal fundamental frequency, vocal fundamental frequency variability, and mood of individuals with Parkinson's disease. Four female patients, who demonstrated voice and speech problems, served as their own controls and participated in baseline assessment (study pretest), a series of MTVP sessions involving vocal and singing exercises, and final evaluation (study posttest). In study pre and posttests, data for speech intelligibility and all acoustic variables were collected. Statistically significant increases were found in speech intelligibility, as rated by caregivers, and in vocal intensity from study pretest to posttest as the results of paired samples t-tests. In addition, before and after each MTVP session (session pre and posttests), self-rated mood scores and selected acoustic variables were collected. No significant differences were found in any of the variables from the session pretests to posttests, across the entire treatment period, or their interactions as the results of two-way ANOVAs with repeated measures. Although not significant, the mean of mood scores in session posttests (M = 8.69) was higher than that in session pretests (M = 7.93). PMID:11796078

  5. Acoustic communication in crocodilians: from behaviour to brain.

    PubMed

    Vergne, A L; Pritz, M B; Mathevon, N

    2009-08-01

    Crocodilians and birds are the modern representatives of Phylum Archosauria. Although there have been recent advances in our understanding of the phylogeny and ecology of ancient archosaurs like dinosaurs, it still remains a challenge to obtain reliable information about their behaviour. The comparative study of birds and crocodiles represents one approach to this interesting problem. One of their shared behavioural features is the use of acoustic communication, especially in the context of parental care. Although considerable data are available for birds, information concerning crocodilians is limited. The aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge about acoustic communication in crocodilians, from sound production to hearing processes, and to stimulate research in this field. Juvenile crocodilians utter a variety of communication sounds that can be classified into various functional categories: (1) "hatching calls", solicit the parents at hatching and fine-tune hatching synchrony among siblings; (2) "contact calls", thought to maintain cohesion among juveniles; (3) "distress calls", induce parental protection; and (4) "threat and disturbance calls", which perhaps function in defence. Adult calls can likewise be classified as follows: (1) "bellows", emitted by both sexes and believed to function during courtship and territorial defence; (2) "maternal growls", might maintain cohesion among offspring; and (3) "hisses", may function in defence. However, further experiments are needed to identify the role of each call more accurately as well as systematic studies concerning the acoustic structure of vocalizations. The mechanism of sound production and its control are also poorly understood. No specialized vocal apparatus has been described in detail and the motor neural circuitry remains to be elucidated. The hearing capabilities of crocodilians appear to be adapted to sound detection in both air and water. The ear functional anatomy and the auditory

  6. Practical Considerations When Supporting Transitions for Pupils with Speech, Language and Communication Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perfitt, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the impact of transitions upon pupils aged 11-14 with speech, language and communication needs, including specific language impairment and autism. The aim is to identify stress factors, examine whether these affect any subgroups in particular and suggest practical strategies to support pupils through transitions. Stress…

  7. Meeting the Needs of Children and Young People with Speech, Language and Communication Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Geoff; Dockrell, Julie; Desforges, Martin; Law, James; Peacey, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Background: The UK government set up a review of provision for children and young people with the full range of speech, language and communication needs led by a Member of Parliament, John Bercow. A research study was commissioned to provide empirical evidence to inform the Bercow Review. Aims: To examine the efficiency and effectiveness of…

  8. Communicating Epistemic Stance: How Speech and Gesture Patterns Reflect Epistemicity and Evidentiality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseano, Paolo; González, Montserrat; Borràs-Comes, Joan; Prieto, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how epistemic stance is encoded and perceived in face-to-face communication when language is regarded as comprised by speech and gesture. Two studies were conducted with this goal in mind. The first study consisted of a production task in which participants performed opinion reports. Results showed that speakers communicate…

  9. Creative Speech Communication for South Dakota. K-12 Curriculum Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota Speech Association.

    Intended for regular elementary and secondary teachers, the South Dakota curriculum guide presents motivating activities to stimulate speech development of under-communicating, gifted, experientially different, or average students. Suggested situations are reported to be coordinated with South Dakota literature, the best of children's literature,…

  10. Directory of Graduate Programs in the Speech Communication Arts and Sciences, 1977-1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Robert N., Ed.

    The primary function of this directory is to serve prospective graduate students, teachers, administrators, and counselors who desire current information about graduate programs in speech communication. The 288 departmental listings, which are arranged by state, have been edited to achieve uniformity in the information presented. Information is…

  11. Altered Gesture and Speech Production in ASD Detract from In-Person Communicative Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morett, Laura M.; O'Hearn, Kirsten; Luna, Beatriz; Ghuman, Avniel Singh

    2016-01-01

    This study disentangled the influences of language and social processing on communication in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by examining whether gesture and speech production differs as a function of social context. The results indicate that, unlike other adolescents, adolescents with ASD did not increase their coherency and engagement in the…

  12. Interventions for Children with Speech, Language and Communication Needs: An Exploration of Current Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roulstone, Sue; Wren, Yvonne; Bakopoulou, Ioanna; Lindsay, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    This article reports a series of interviews with education and health practitioners. The aims were to identify interventions used in practice with children with speech, language and communication needs, to explore explanations for the choice of intervention and to identify the ways that outcomes were measured. Participants (n = 61) included…

  13. Native Speakers' Perception of the Nature of the OPI Communicative Speech Event.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marysia

    A study investigated the Educational Testing Service's claim about the conversational nature of the Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI) from the perspective of native speakers of the target second language. Eight subjects listened to 16 randomly-selected OPI communicative speech events, and their perceptions were measured using a semantic…

  14. Interview Stories: Early Years Practitioners' Experiences with Children with Speech, Language and Communication Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mroz, Maria; Letts, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with 50 early years practitioners, exploring their experiences with children with speech, language and communication needs (SLCN). A narrative approach was taken to elicit information on the children they were working with who had these needs. This included characteristics of the children's behaviour, how they were…

  15. Teaching Speech Communication in a Black College: Does Technology Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwadike, Fellina O.; Ekeanyanwu, Nnamdi T.

    2011-01-01

    Teaching a speech communication course in typical HBCUs (historically black colleges and universities) comes with many issues, because the application of technology in some minority institutions differs. The levels of acceptability as well as affordability are also core issues that affect application. Using technology in the classroom means many…

  16. Preschool Children's Performance on Profiling Elements of Prosody in Speech-Communication (PEPS-C)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbon, Fiona E.; Smyth, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Profiling Elements of Prosody in Speech-Communication (PEPS-C) has not been used widely to assess prosodic abilities of preschool children. This study was therefore aimed at investigating typically developing 4-year-olds' performance on PEPS-C. PEPS-C was presented to 30 typically developing 4-year-olds recruited in southern Ireland. Children were…

  17. Speech Intelligibility and Marital Communication in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joubert, Karin; Bornman, Juan; Alant, Erna

    2011-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a rapidly progressive neuromuscular disease, has a devastating impact not only on individuals diagnosed with ALS but also their spouses. Speech intelligibility, often compromised as a result of dysarthria, affects the couple's ability to maintain effective, intimate communication. The purpose of this…

  18. Doing Research with Children and Young People Who Do Not Use Speech for Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabiee, Parvaneh; Sloper, Patricia; Beresford, Bryony

    2005-01-01

    Despite emphasis in policy on participation of disabled children, we still know relatively little about how to obtain the views of disabled children with significant communication impairment and their views are often overlooked in planning and service provision. This article describes how the views of children who do not use speech were accessed…

  19. Computer-Based Compensatory Augmentative Communications Technology for Physically Disabled, Visually Impaired, and Speech Impaired Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shell, Duane F.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The paper addresses computer-based augmentative writing systems for physically disabled and visually impaired students and augmentative communication systems for nonverbal speech-impaired students. Among the components described are keyboard support systems, switch systems, alternate interface systems, support software, voice output systems, and…

  20. An Activities Supplement to the Curriculum Guide for Speech Communication--Grades 8-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieb-Brilhart, Barbara, Comp.

    This curriculum activities supplement is the result of a graduate seminar at the University of Nebraska (Omaha), held in 1972. It is an addition to "A Curriculum Guide for Speech Communication--Grades 8-12," developed in 1971 (ED 066 776). The activities are structured according to the contract system, whereby each student selects his own projects…

  1. Criterion Referenced Measurement in Speech-Communication Classrooms: Panacea for Mediocrity. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buley, Jerry L.

    The philosophical underpinnings of the typical testing practices of speech communication teachers in regard to norm-referenced measurement contain several assumptions which teachers may find untenable on closer inspection. Some of the consequences of these assumptions are a waste of human potential, inefficient use of instructional expertise,…

  2. DIAGNOSIS AND APPRAISAL OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS. PRENTICE-HALL FOUNDATIONS OF SPEECH PATHOLOGY SERIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DARLEY, FREDERIC L.

    THIS TEXT GIVES THE STUDENT AN OUTLINE OF THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC METHODOLOGY WHICH UNDERLIE EVALUATIVE WORK IN SPEECH DISORDERS. RATIONALE AND ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUES ARE GIVEN FOR EXAMINATION OF THE BASIC COMMUNICATION PROCESSES OF SYMBOLIZATION, RESPIRATION, PHONATION, ARTICULATION-RESONANCE, PROSODY, ASSOCIATED SENSORY AND PERCEPTUAL…

  3. Communication and Behavior: Collaboration between Speech-Language Pathologists and Behavioral Psychologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ylvisaker, Mark; Feeney, Timothy J.

    1994-01-01

    This article presents an intervention framework in which speech-language pathologists and behavioral psychologists view the challenging behaviors of individuals with traumatic brain injury from a communication perspective and address these problems in a way that is positive, integrated, functional, collaborative, and environmental. (Author/JDD)

  4. Developing Instruction in Oral History: A New Avenue for Speech Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, E. Culpepper; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes a program of advanced instruction which attempts to merge the theory of speech communication and the practice of oral history. Is concerned with how meaning is constructed through conversation between interviewer and interviewee. Includes theoretical and methodological problems inherent in producing oral histories, field research, and…

  5. Report on a Pilot Project Which Combined Speech Communication and English Composition Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friday, Robert A.; Beranek, Bernard F.

    In reorganizing its core curriculum, Duquesne University (Pennsylvania) created a course that combined the required freshman composition and speech communication courses. A two-term pilot course offered eight hours of credit, meeting for one hour three times a week and for a two hour lab once a week. Oral readings were assigned in order to help…

  6. Evidence for acoustic communication among bottom foraging humpback whales

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Susan E.; Cusano, Dana A.; Stimpert, Alison K.; Weinrich, Mason T.; Friedlaender, Ari S.; Wiley, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), a mysticete with a cosmopolitan distribution, demonstrate marked behavioural plasticity. Recent studies show evidence of social learning in the transmission of specific population level traits ranging from complex singing to stereotyped prey capturing behaviour. Humpback whales have been observed to employ group foraging techniques, however details on how individuals coordinate behaviour in these groups is challenging to obtain. This study investigates the role of a novel broadband patterned pulsed sound produced by humpback whales engaged in bottom-feeding behaviours, referred to here as a ‘paired burst' sound. Data collected from 56 archival acoustic tag deployments were investigated to determine the functional significance of these signals. Paired burst sound production was associated exclusively with bottom feeding under low-light conditions, predominantly with evidence of associated conspecifics nearby suggesting that the sound likely serves either as a communicative signal to conspecifics, a signal to affect prey behaviour, or possibly both. This study provides additional evidence for individual variation and phenotypic plasticity of foraging behaviours in humpback whales and provides important evidence for the use of acoustic signals among foraging individuals in this species. PMID:25512188

  7. Evidence for acoustic communication among bottom foraging humpback whales.

    PubMed

    Parks, Susan E; Cusano, Dana A; Stimpert, Alison K; Weinrich, Mason T; Friedlaender, Ari S; Wiley, David N

    2014-01-01

    Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), a mysticete with a cosmopolitan distribution, demonstrate marked behavioural plasticity. Recent studies show evidence of social learning in the transmission of specific population level traits ranging from complex singing to stereotyped prey capturing behaviour. Humpback whales have been observed to employ group foraging techniques, however details on how individuals coordinate behaviour in these groups is challenging to obtain. This study investigates the role of a novel broadband patterned pulsed sound produced by humpback whales engaged in bottom-feeding behaviours, referred to here as a 'paired burst' sound. Data collected from 56 archival acoustic tag deployments were investigated to determine the functional significance of these signals. Paired burst sound production was associated exclusively with bottom feeding under low-light conditions, predominantly with evidence of associated conspecifics nearby suggesting that the sound likely serves either as a communicative signal to conspecifics, a signal to affect prey behaviour, or possibly both. This study provides additional evidence for individual variation and phenotypic plasticity of foraging behaviours in humpback whales and provides important evidence for the use of acoustic signals among foraging individuals in this species. PMID:25512188

  8. Acoustics and sociolinguistics: Patterns of communication in hearing impairing classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKellin, William; Shahin, Kimary; Jamieson, Janet; Hodgson, Murray; Pichora-Fuller, Kathleen

    2005-04-01

    In elementary school classes, noise during student led activities is often taken as evidence of successful interaction and learning. In this complex social environment of elementary school classrooms, acquisition of complex language and social skills-the focus of activities in early education-is expected to take place in hearing-hostile environments. Communication and language processing in these contexts requires interactive strategies, discourse forms, and syntactic structures different from the educationally desired forms used in acoustically advantageous environments. Recordings were made of the interaction of groups of students in grades 1-3, 5, and 7 during collaborative group work in their regular classrooms. Each student wore microphones at the ear level and head-mounted video cameras. Each group as a whole was also audio- and videotaped and noise level readings were recorded. Analysis of the acoustical and phonological properties of language heard by each student has demonstrated that the language variety used in these noisy and reverberant settings is similar to that of individuals with hearing impairments. This paper reports similarities between the syntactic structures and pragmatic strategies used by hearing impaired children and normally hearing children in noisy contexts. [Work supported by Peter Wall Institute for Advanced Studies, University of British Columbia.

  9. [Communication and noise. Speech intelligibility of airplane pilots with and without active noise compensation].

    PubMed

    Matschke, R G

    1994-08-01

    Noise exposure measurements were performed with pilots of the German Federal Navy during flight situations. The ambient noise levels during regular flight were maintained at levels above a 90 dB A-weighted level. This noise intensity requires wearing ear protection to avoid sound-induced hearing loss. To be able to understand radio communication (ATC) in spite of a noisy environment, headphone volume must be raised above the noise of the engines. The use of ear plugs in addition to the headsets and flight helmets is only of limited value because personal ear protection affects the intelligibility of ATC. Whereas speech intelligibility of pilots with normal hearing is affected to only a smaller degree, pilots with pre-existing high-frequency hearing losses show substantial impairments of speech intelligibility that vary in proportion to the hearing deficit present. Communication abilities can be reduced drastically, which in turn can affect air traffic security. The development of active noise compensation devices (ANC) that make use of the "anti-noise" principle may be a solution to this dilemma. To evaluate the effectiveness of an ANC-system and its influence on speech intelligibility, speech audiometry was performed with a German standardized test during simulated flight conditions with helicopter pilots. Results demonstrate the helpful effect on speech understanding especially for pilots with noise-induced hearing losses. This may help to avoid pre-retirement professional disability. PMID:7960953

  10. Acoustic changes in the production of lexical stress during Lombard speech.

    PubMed

    Arciuli, Joanne; Simpson, Briony S; Vogel, Adam P; Ballard, Kirrie J

    2014-06-01

    The Lombard effect describes the phenomenon of individuals increasing their vocal intensity when speaking in the presence of background noise. Here, we conducted an investigation of the production of lexical stress during Lombard speech. Participants (N = 27) produced the same sentences in three conditions: one quiet condition and two noise conditions at 70 dB (white noise; multi-talker babble). Manual acoustic analyses (syllable duration, vowel intensity, and vowel fundamental frequency) were completed for repeated productions of two trisyllabic words with opposing patterns of lexical stress (weak-strong; strong-weak) in each of the three conditions. In total, 324 productions were analysed (12 utterances per participant). Results revealed that, rather than increasing vocal intensity equally across syllables, participants alter the degree of stress contrastivity when speaking in noise. This was especially evident in the production of strong-weak lexical stress where there was an increase in contrastivity across syllables in terms of intensity and fundamental frequency. This preliminary study paves the way for further research that is needed to establish these findings using a larger set of multisyllabic stimuli. PMID:25102603

  11. Altered Gesture and Speech Production in ASD Detract from In-Person Communicative Quality.

    PubMed

    Morett, Laura M; O'Hearn, Kirsten; Luna, Beatriz; Ghuman, Avniel Singh

    2016-03-01

    This study disentangled the influences of language and social processing on communication in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by examining whether gesture and speech production differs as a function of social context. The results indicate that, unlike other adolescents, adolescents with ASD did not increase their coherency and engagement in the presence of a visible listener, and that greater coherency and engagement were related to lesser social and communicative impairments. Additionally, the results indicated that adolescents with ASD produced sparser speech and fewer gestures conveying supplementary information, and that both of these effects increased in the presence of a visible listener. Together, these findings suggest that interpersonal communication deficits in ASD are driven more strongly by social processing than language processing. PMID:26520147

  12. Design and evaluation of speech coders for mobile satellite communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copperi, M.; Perosino, F.; Biglieri, E.; Albertengo, G.

    The authors deal with the design and performance analysis of two real-time speech coder algorithms implemented on an array processor, i.e., a linear predictive coder (LPC) operating at 2.4 kb/s, and a baseband residual coder (BBC) operating at 7.2/9.6 kb/s. The effects of channel impairments typical of mobile satellite systems, such as multipath fading and shadowing, on the subjective quality is evaluated by means of the diagnostic rhyme test (DRT) and the diagnostic acceptability measure (DAM). The subjective scores have been examined to pinpoint the fidelity with which distinctive phonetic features are transmitted, and important quality attributes are preserved. Results show that a BBC at 9.6 kb/s, incorporating a suitable error correcting scheme, provides a moderately good quality, while the LPC at 2.4 kb/s yields a quality that is not felt to be commercially acceptable.

  13. Language-Specific Developmental Differences in Speech Production: A Cross-Language Acoustic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Fangfang

    2012-01-01

    Speech productions of 40 English- and 40 Japanese-speaking children (aged 2-5) were examined and compared with the speech produced by 20 adult speakers (10 speakers per language). Participants were recorded while repeating words that began with "s" and "sh" sounds. Clear language-specific patterns in adults' speech were found, with English…

  14. Low complexity adaptive equalizers for underwater acoustic communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soflaei, Masoumeh; Azmi, Paeiz

    2014-08-01

    Interference signals due to scattering from surface and reflecting from bottom is one of the most important problems of reliable communications in shallow water channels. To solve this problem, one of the best suggested ways is to use adaptive equalizers. Convergence rate and misadjustment error in adaptive algorithms play important roles in adaptive equalizer performance. In this paper, affine projection algorithm (APA), selective regressor APA(SR-APA), family of selective partial update (SPU) algorithms, family of set-membership (SM) algorithms and selective partial update selective regressor APA (SPU-SR-APA) are compared with conventional algorithms such as the least mean square (LMS) in underwater acoustic communications. We apply experimental data from the Strait of Hormuz for demonstrating the efficiency of the proposed methods over shallow water channel. We observe that the values of the steady-state mean square error (MSE) of SR-APA, SPU-APA, SPU-normalized least mean square (SPU-NLMS), SPU-SR-APA, SM-APA and SM-NLMS algorithms decrease in comparison with the LMS algorithm. Also these algorithms have better convergence rates than LMS type algorithm.

  15. Comparative Efficacy of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) versus a Speech-Generating Device: Effects on Requesting Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boesch, Miriam C.; Wendt, Oliver; Subramanian, Anu; Hsu, Ning

    2013-01-01

    An experimental, single-subject research study investigated the comparative efficacy of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) versus a speech-generating device (SGD) in developing requesting skills for three elementary-age children with severe autism and little to no functional speech. Results demonstrated increases in requesting…

  16. A Pilot Study on the Efficacy of Melodic Based Communication Therapy for Eliciting Speech in Nonverbal Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandiford, Givona A.; Mainess, Karen J.; Daher, Noha S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of Melodic Based Communication Therapy (MBCT) to traditional speech and language therapy for eliciting speech in nonverbal children with autism. Participants were 12 nonverbal children with autism ages 5 through 7 randomly assigned to either treatment group. Both groups made significant…

  17. Culturally/Linguistically Different Children: Report Writing Guidelines for Speech-Language Pathologists [and] Summary of Project Communicate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schloff, Rose-Laurie; Martinez, Silvia

    Guidelines for writing assessments of the English language skills of minority, bilingual, preschool and elementary school children are presented for monolingual speech-language pathologists. In addition, a project (Project Communicate) providing direct client services and training of speech-language pathologists is briefly described. With regard…

  18. Dual Perspectives on Theory in Clinical Practice: Practice Makes Perfect: The Incompatibility of Practicing Speech and Meaningful Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamhi, Alan G.

    2000-01-01

    This article uses a case study to suggest that some children view speech-language therapy as a separate situation for learning practicing new sounds and language forms whereas the purpose of talking outside of therapy is meaningful communication. Clinical implications of this potential incompatibility between practicing speech and communicating…

  19. Identifying the Challenges and Opportunities to Meet the Needs of Children with Speech, Language and Communication Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockrell, Julie E.; Howell, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The views of experienced educational practitioners were examined with respect to the terminology used to describe children with speech, language and communication needs (SLCN), associated problems and the impact of speech and language difficulties in the classroom. Results showed that education staff continue to experience challenges with the…

  20. Audio-Visual Speech Reading; A Manual for Training the Hard-of-Hearing in Voice Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, J.C.

    Designed for persons involved in teaching the deaf and hard of hearing, the booklet provides training in the fundamentals of speech reading, a bisensory (eye plus ear) approach to communication. Basic principles in teaching speech reading are defined, including the advantages of recognition of sounds as opposed to description, use of audible and…

  1. An Exploration of the Potential of Automatic Speech Recognition to Assist and Enable Receptive Communication in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wald, Mike

    2006-01-01

    The potential use of Automatic Speech Recognition to assist receptive communication is explored. The opportunities and challenges that this technology presents students and staff to provide captioning of speech online or in classrooms for deaf or hard of hearing students and assist blind, visually impaired or dyslexic learners to read and search…

  2. Profiling Early Socio-Communicative Development in Five Young Girls with the Preserved Speech Variant of Rett Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marschik, Peter B.; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Einspieler, Christa; Bartl-Pokorny, Katrin D.; Wolin, Thomas; Pini, Giorgio; Budimirovic, Dejan B.; Zappella, Michele; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a developmental disorder characterized by regression of purposeful hand skills and spoken language, although some affected children retain some ability to speech. We assessed the communicative abilities of five young girls, who were later diagnosed with the preserved speech variant of RTT, during the pre-regression period…

  3. Applications for Subvocal Speech

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Charles; Betts, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    A research and development effort now underway is directed toward the use of subvocal speech for communication in settings in which (1) acoustic noise could interfere excessively with ordinary vocal communication and/or (2) acoustic silence or secrecy of communication is required. By "subvocal speech" is meant sub-audible electromyographic (EMG) signals, associated with speech, that are acquired from the surface of the larynx and lingual areas of the throat. Topics addressed in this effort include recognition of the sub-vocal EMG signals that represent specific original words or phrases; transformation (including encoding and/or enciphering) of the signals into forms that are less vulnerable to distortion, degradation, and/or interception; and reconstruction of the original words or phrases at the receiving end of a communication link. Potential applications include ordinary verbal communications among hazardous- material-cleanup workers in protective suits, workers in noisy environments, divers, and firefighters, and secret communications among law-enforcement officers and military personnel in combat and other confrontational situations.

  4. Simultaneous Communication: An Alternative to Speech Training with Autistic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantareas, M. Mary

    1977-01-01

    A similtaneous verbal and gestural approach to communication was used with 11 autistic children (5 to 10 years old). Available from: Journal of Practical Approaches to Developmental Handicap, 3304-33rd Street N.W., Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2L 2A6. (SBH)

  5. Communicatively Developing Technology of Speech Activation of Tatar Schools' Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khairova, Irina V.; Egamberdieva, Nodira M.

    2016-01-01

    The timeliness of the problem under study is that in conditions of the renewal of the content and system of education the interest to the communicative and development potentials of education in the system of course retraining of teachers who work in national (Tatar) schools is growing. However, actual academic complexes for teachers do not always…

  6. Gesture as Communication I: Its Coordination with Gaze and Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streeck, Jurgen

    1993-01-01

    Uses methods of microanalysis and naturalistic description to illuminate the forms, uses, meanings, and functions of hand gestures. Describes speakers' methods for making hand gestures relevant to the moment of symbolic communication. Finds that gestures are "exposed" by means of indexical uses of gaze and language. (SR)

  7. Acoustic and perceptual correlates of faster-than-habitual speech produced by speakers with Parkinson's disease and Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Christina; Tjaden, Kris; Sussman, Joan E.

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic-perceptual characteristics of a faster-than-habitual rate (Fast condition) were examined for speakers with Parkinson's disease (PD) and Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Judgments of intelligibility for sentences produced at a habitual rate (Habitual condition) and at a faster-than-habitual rate (Fast condition) by 46 speakers with PD or MS as well as a group of 32 healthy speakers revealed that the Fast condition was, on average, associated with decreased intelligibility. However, some speakers' intelligibility did not decline. To further understand the acoustic characteristics of varied intelligibility in the Fast condition for speakers with dysarthria, a subgroup of speakers with PD or MS whose intelligibility did not decline in the Fast condition (No Decline group, n = 8) and a subgroup of speakers with significantly declined intelligibility (Decline group, n = 8) were compared. Acoustic measures of global speech timing, suprasegmental characteristics, and utterance-level segmental characteristics for vocalics were examined for the two subgroups. Results suggest acoustic contributions to intelligibility under rate modulation are complex. Potential clinical relevance and implications for the acoustic bases of intelligibility are discussed. PMID:25287378

  8. Acoustic and perceptual evaluation of category goodness of /t/ and /k/ in typical and misarticulated children's speech.

    PubMed

    Strömbergsson, Sofia; Salvi, Giampiero; House, David

    2015-06-01

    This investigation explores perceptual and acoustic characteristics of children's successful and unsuccessful productions of /t/ and /k/, with a specific aim of exploring perceptual sensitivity to phonetic detail, and the extent to which this sensitivity is reflected in the acoustic domain. Recordings were collected from 4- to 8-year-old children with a speech sound disorder (SSD) who misarticulated one of the target plosives, and compared to productions recorded from peers with typical speech development (TD). Perceptual responses were registered with regards to a visual-analog scale, ranging from "clear [t]" to "clear [k]." Statistical models of prototypical productions were built, based on spectral moments and discrete cosine transform features, and used in the scoring of SSD productions. In the perceptual evaluation, "clear substitutions" were rated as less prototypical than correct productions. Moreover, target-appropriate productions of /t/ and /k/ produced by children with SSD were rated as less prototypical than those produced by TD peers. The acoustical modeling could to a large extent discriminate between the gross categories /t/ and /k/, and scored the SSD utterances on a continuous scale that was largely consistent with the category of production. However, none of the methods exhibited the same sensitivity to phonetic detail as the human listeners. PMID:26093431

  9. Acoustic Communication at the Water's Edge: Evolutionary Insights from a Mudskipper

    PubMed Central

    Polgar, Gianluca; Malavasi, Stefano; Cipolato, Giacomo; Georgalas, Vyron; Clack, Jennifer A.; Torricelli, Patrizia

    2011-01-01

    Coupled behavioural observations and acoustical recordings of aggressive dyadic contests showed that the mudskipper Periophthalmodon septemradiatus communicates acoustically while out of water. An analysis of intraspecific variability showed that specific acoustic components may act as tags for individual recognition, further supporting the sounds' communicative value. A correlative analysis amongst acoustical properties and video-acoustical recordings in slow-motion supported first hypotheses on the emission mechanism. Acoustic transmission through the wet exposed substrate was also discussed. These observations were used to support an “exaptation hypothesis”, i.e. the maintenance of key adaptations during the first stages of water-to-land vertebrate eco-evolutionary transitions (based on eco-evolutionary and palaeontological considerations), through a comparative bioacoustic analysis of aquatic and semiterrestrial gobiid taxa. In fact, a remarkable similarity was found between mudskipper vocalisations and those emitted by gobioids and other soniferous benthonic fishes. PMID:21738663

  10. Semantic and acoustic analysis of speech by functional networks with distinct time scales.

    PubMed

    Deng, Siyi; Srinivasan, Ramesh

    2010-07-30

    Speech perception requires the successful interpretation of both phonetic and syllabic information in the auditory signal. It has been suggested by Poeppel (2003) that phonetic processing requires an optimal time scale of 25 ms while the time scale of syllabic processing is much slower (150-250 ms). To better understand the operation of brain networks at these characteristic time scales during speech perception, we studied the spatial and dynamic properties of EEG responses to five different stimuli: (1) amplitude modulated (AM) speech, (2) AM speech with added broadband noise, (3) AM reversed speech, (4) AM broadband noise, and (5) AM pure tone. Amplitude modulation at gamma band frequencies (40 Hz) elicited steady-state auditory evoked responses (SSAERs) bilaterally over primary auditory cortices. Reduced SSAERs were observed over the left auditory cortex only for stimuli containing speech. In addition, we found over the left hemisphere, anterior to primary auditory cortex, a network whose instantaneous frequencies in the theta to alpha band (4-16 Hz) are correlated with the amplitude envelope of the speech signal. This correlation was not observed for reversed speech. The presence of speech in the sound input activates a 4-16 Hz envelope tracking network and suppresses the 40-Hz gamma band network which generates the steady-state responses over the left auditory cortex. We believe these findings to be consistent with the idea that processing of the speech signals involves preferentially processing at syllabic time scales rather than phonetic time scales. PMID:20580635

  11. Semantic and acoustic analysis of speech by functional networks with distinct time scales

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Siyi; Srinivasan, Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Speech perception requires the successful interpretation of both phonetic and syllabic information in the auditory signal. It has been suggested by Poeppel (2003) that phonetic processing requires an optimal time scale of 25 ms while the time scale of syllabic processing is much slower (150–250ms). To better understand the operation of brain networks at these characteristic time scales during speech perception, we studied the spatial and dynamic properties of EEG responses to five different stimuli: (1) amplitude modulated (AM) speech, (2) AM speech with added broadband noise, (3) AM reversed speech, (4) AM broadband noise, and (5) AM pure tone. Amplitude modulation at gamma band frequencies (40 Hz) elicited steady-state auditory evoked responses (SSAERs) bilaterally over primary auditory cortices. Reduced SSAERs were observed over the left auditory cortex only for stimuli containing speech. In addition, we found over the left hemisphere, anterior to primary auditory cortex, a network whose instantaneous frequencies in the theta to alpha band (4–16 Hz) are correlated with the amplitude envelope of the speech signal. This correlation was not observed for reversed speech. The presence of speech in the sound input activates a 4–16 Hz envelope tracking network and suppresses the 40-Hz gamma band network which generates the steady-state responses over the left auditory cortex. We believe these findings to be consistent with the idea that processing of the speech signals involves preferentially processing at syllabic time scales rather than phonetic time scales. PMID:20580635

  12. Resonant acoustic transducer and driver system for a well drilling string communication system

    DOEpatents

    Chanson, Gary J.; Nicolson, Alexander M.

    1981-01-01

    The acoustic data communication system includes an acoustic transmitter and receiver wherein low frequency acoustic waves, propagating in relatively loss free manner in well drilling string piping, are efficiently coupled to the drill string and propagate at levels competitive with the levels of noise generated by drilling machinery also present in the drill string. The transmitting transducer incorporates a mass-spring piezoelectric transmitter and amplifier combination that permits self-oscillating resonant operation in the desired low frequency range.

  13. Speech-clarity judgments of hearing-aid-processed speech in noise: differing polar patterns and acoustic environments.

    PubMed

    Amlani, Amyn M; Rakerd, Brad; Punch, Jerry L

    2006-06-01

    This investigation assessed the extent to which listeners' preferences for hearing aid microphone polar patterns vary across listening environments, and whether normal-hearing and inexperienced and experienced hearing-impaired listeners differ in such preferences. Paired-comparison judgments of speech clarity (i.e. subjective speech intelligibility) were made monaurally for recordings of speech in noise processed by a commercially available hearing aid programmed with an omnidirectional and two directional polar patterns (cardioid and hypercardioid). Testing environments included a sound-treated room, a living room, and a classroom. Polar-pattern preferences were highly reliable and agreed closely across all three groups of listeners. All groups preferred listening in the sound-treated room over listening in the living room, and preferred listening in the living room over listening in the classroom. Each group preferred the directional patterns to the omnidirectional pattern in all room conditions. We observed no differences in preference judgments between the two directional patterns or between hearing-impaired listeners' extent of amplification experience. Overall, findings indicate that listeners perceived qualitative benefits from microphones having directional polar patterns. PMID:16777778

  14. The Effects of Home-Based Literacy Activities on the Communication of Students with Severe Speech and Motor Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Amy Swartz; Clark, Denise M.; Skoning, Stacey N.; Wegner, Theresa M.; Muwana, Florence C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of using sensory, augmentative, and alternative communication (AAC), and supportive communication strategies on the rate and type of communication used by three students with severe speech and motor impairments (SSMI). Using a multiple baseline across behaviour design with sensory and AAC intervention phases,…

  15. Speech Communication and Communication Processes: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through March 1978 (Vol. 38 Nos. 7 through 9).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 18 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: the relationship of speech communication variables to perceived communication competence; interpersonal communication in a simulation game of intercultural…

  16. Effectiveness of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) on Communication and Speech for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flippin, Michelle; Reszka, Stephanie; Watson, Linda R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a popular communication-training program for young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This meta-analysis reviews the current empirical evidence for PECS in affecting communication and speech outcomes for children with ASD. Method: A systematic review of the literature on PECS…

  17. Convergent Aspects of Acoustic Communication in Darters, Sculpins, and Gobies.

    PubMed

    Zeyl, Jeffrey N; Malavasi, Stefano; Holt, Daniel E; Noel, Patricia; Lugli, Marco; Johnston, Carol E

    2016-01-01

    Darters (Perciformes, Percidae), sculpins (Perciformes, Cottidae), and gobioids (Gobiiformes, Gobioidei) exhibit convergent life history traits, including a benthic lifestyle and a cavity nesting spawning mode. Soniferous species within these taxa produce pulsed and/or tonal sounds with peak frequencies below 200 Hz (with some exceptions), primarily in agonistic and/or reproductive contexts. The reduced or absent swim bladders found in these taxa limit or prevent both hearing enhancement via pressure sensitivity and acoustic amplification of the contracting sonic muscles, which are associated with the skull and pectoral girdle. While such anatomies constrain communication to low frequency channels, optimization of the S/N (signal-to-noise) ratio in low frequency channels is evident for some gobies, as measured by habitat soundscape frequency windows, nest cavity sound amplification, and audiograms. Similar S/N considerations are applicable to many darter and sculpin systems. This chapter reviews the currently documented diversity of sound production in darters, sculpins, and gobioids within a phylogenetic context, examines the efficacy of signal transmission from senders to receivers (sound production mechanisms, audiograms, and masking challenges), and evaluates the potential functional significance of sound attributes in relation to territorial and reproductive behaviours. PMID:26515312

  18. Intelligibility of ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) spelling alphabet words and digits using severely degraded speech communication systems. Part 1: Narrowband digital speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Nielsen, Astrid

    1987-03-01

    The Diagnostic Rhyme Test (DRT) is widely used to evaluate digital voice systems. Would-be users often have no reference frame of interpreting DRT scores in terms of performance measures that they can understand, e.g., how many operational words are correctly understood. This research was aimed at providing a better understanding of the effects of very poor quality speech on human communication performance. It is especially important to determine how successful communications are likely to be when the speech quality is severely degraded. This report compares the recognition of ICAO spelling alphabet words (ALFA, BRAVO, CHARLIE, etc) with DRT scores for the same conditions. Confusions among the spelling alphabet words are also given. Two types of speech degradation were selected for investigation: narrowband digital speech (the DoD standard linear predictive coding algorithm operating at 2400 bits/s) with varying bit-error rates and analog jamming. The report will be in two parts. Part 1 covers the narrowband digital speech research, and Part 2 will cover the analog speech research.

  19. Fifty years of progress in acoustic phonetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Kenneth N.

    2004-10-01

    Three events that occurred 50 or 60 years ago shaped the study of acoustic phonetics, and in the following few decades these events influenced research and applications in speech disorders, speech development, speech synthesis, speech recognition, and other subareas in speech communication. These events were: (1) the source-filter theory of speech production (Chiba and Kajiyama; Fant); (2) the development of the sound spectrograph and its interpretation (Potter, Kopp, and Green; Joos); and (3) the birth of research that related distinctive features to acoustic patterns (Jakobson, Fant, and Halle). Following these events there has been systematic exploration of the articulatory, acoustic, and perceptual bases of phonological categories, and some quantification of the sources of variability in the transformation of this phonological representation of speech into its acoustic manifestations. This effort has been enhanced by studies of how children acquire language in spite of this variability and by research on speech disorders. Gaps in our knowledge of this inherent variability in speech have limited the directions of applications such as synthesis and recognition of speech, and have led to the implementation of data-driven techniques rather than theoretical principles. Some examples of advances in our knowledge, and limitations of this knowledge, are reviewed.

  20. Acoustic communication in Okanagana rimosa (Say) (Homoptera: Cicadidae).

    PubMed

    Stölting, Heiko; Moore, Thomas E; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2004-01-01

    The cicada Okanagana rimosa (Say) has an acoustic communication system with three types of loud timbal sounds: (i) A calling song lasting several seconds to about 1 min which consists of a sequence of chirps at a repetition rate of 83 chirps per second. Each chirp of about 6 ms duration contains 4-5 pulses. The sound level of the calling song is 87-90 dB SPL at a distance of 15 cm. (ii) An amplitude modulated courtship song with increasing amplitude and repetition rate of chirps and pulses. (iii) A protest squawk with irregular chirp and pulse structure. The spectra of all three types are similar and show main energy peaks at 8-10 kHz. Only males sing, and calling song production is influenced by the songs of other males, resulting in an almost continuous sound in dense populations. In such populations, the calling songs overlap and the temporal structure of individual songs is obscured within the habitat. The calling song of the broadly sympatric, closely related species O. canadensis (Provander) is similar in frequency content, but distinct in the temporal pattern (24 chirps per second, 24 ms chirp duration, eight pulses per chirp) which is likely important for species separation in sympatric populations. The hearing threshold of the auditory nerve is similar for females and males of O. rimosa and most sensitive at 4-5 kHz. Experiments in the field show that female phonotaxis of O. rimosa depends on parameters of the calling song. Most females are attracted to calling song models with a 9 kHz carrier frequency (peak frequency of the calling song), but not to models with a 5 kHz carrier frequency (minimum hearing threshold). Phonotaxis depends on temporal parameters of the conspecific song, especially chirp repetition rate. Calling song production is influenced by environmental factors, and likelihood to sing increases with temperature and brightness of the sky. Correspondingly, females perform phonotaxis most often during sunny conditions with temperatures above

  1. Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Jerry R.; Grosveld, Ferdinand

    2007-01-01

    The acoustics environment in space operations is important to maintain at manageable levels so that the crewperson can remain safe, functional, effective, and reasonably comfortable. High acoustic levels can produce temporary or permanent hearing loss, or cause other physiological symptoms such as auditory pain, headaches, discomfort, strain in the vocal cords, or fatigue. Noise is defined as undesirable sound. Excessive noise may result in psychological effects such as irritability, inability to concentrate, decrease in productivity, annoyance, errors in judgment, and distraction. A noisy environment can also result in the inability to sleep, or sleep well. Elevated noise levels can affect the ability to communicate, understand what is being said, hear what is going on in the environment, degrade crew performance and operations, and create habitability concerns. Superfluous noise emissions can also create the inability to hear alarms or other important auditory cues such as an equipment malfunctioning. Recent space flight experience, evaluations of the requirements in crew habitable areas, and lessons learned (Goodman 2003; Allen and Goodman 2003; Pilkinton 2003; Grosveld et al. 2003) show the importance of maintaining an acceptable acoustics environment. This is best accomplished by having a high-quality set of limits/requirements early in the program, the "designing in" of acoustics in the development of hardware and systems, and by monitoring, testing and verifying the levels to ensure that they are acceptable.

  2. Acoustic Analysis of Clear Versus Conversational Speech in Individuals with Parkinson Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goberman, A.M.; Elmer, L.W.

    2005-01-01

    A number of studies have been devoted to the examination of clear versus conversational speech in non-impaired speakers. The purpose of these previous studies has been primarily to help increase speech intelligibility for the benefit of hearing-impaired listeners. The goal of the present study was to examine differences between conversational and…

  3. A Computational Model of Word Segmentation from Continuous Speech Using Transitional Probabilities of Atomic Acoustic Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasanen, Okko

    2011-01-01

    Word segmentation from continuous speech is a difficult task that is faced by human infants when they start to learn their native language. Several studies indicate that infants might use several different cues to solve this problem, including intonation, linguistic stress, and transitional probabilities between subsequent speech sounds. In this…

  4. Acoustic Analysis of the Speech of Children with Cochlear Implants: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liker, Marko; Mildner, Vesna; Sindija, Branka

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the speech of the children with cochlear implants, and compare it with the speech of hearing controls. We focused on three categories of Croatian sounds: vowels (F1 and F2 frequencies), fricatives (noise frequencies of /s/ and /[esh]/ ), and affricates (total duration and the pattern of stop-fricative components…

  5. Designing acoustics for linguistically diverse classrooms: Effects of background noise, reverberation and talker foreign accent on speech comprehension by native and non-native English-speaking listeners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhao Ellen

    The current classroom acoustics standard (ANSI S12.60-2010) recommends core learning spaces not to exceed background noise level (BNL) of 35 dBA and reverberation time (RT) of 0.6 second, based on speech intelligibility performance mainly by the native English-speaking population. Existing literature has not correlated these recommended values well with student learning outcomes. With a growing population of non-native English speakers in American classrooms, the special needs for perceiving degraded speech among non-native listeners, either due to realistic room acoustics or talker foreign accent, have not been addressed in the current standard. This research seeks to investigate the effects of BNL and RT on the comprehension of English speech from native English and native Mandarin Chinese talkers as perceived by native and non-native English listeners, and to provide acoustic design guidelines to supplement the existing standard. This dissertation presents two studies on the effects of RT and BNL on more realistic classroom learning experiences. How do native and non-native English-speaking listeners perform on speech comprehension tasks under adverse acoustic conditions, if the English speech is produced by talkers of native English (Study 1) versus native Mandarin Chinese (Study 2)? Speech comprehension materials were played back in a listening chamber to individual listeners: native and non-native English-speaking in Study 1; native English, native Mandarin Chinese, and other non-native English-speaking in Study 2. Each listener was screened for baseline English proficiency level, and completed dual tasks simultaneously involving speech comprehension and adaptive dot-tracing under 15 acoustic conditions, comprised of three BNL conditions (RC-30, 40, and 50) and five RT scenarios (0.4 to 1.2 seconds). The results show that BNL and RT negatively affect both objective performance and subjective perception of speech comprehension, more severely for non

  6. Using listening difficulty ratings of conditions for speech communication in rooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Bradley, John S.; Morimoto, Masayuki

    2005-03-01

    The use of listening difficulty ratings of speech communication in rooms is explored because, in common situations, word recognition scores do not discriminate well among conditions that are near to acceptable. In particular, the benefits of early reflections of speech sounds on listening difficulty were investigated and compared to the known benefits to word intelligibility scores. Listening tests were used to assess word intelligibility and perceived listening difficulty of speech in simulated sound fields. The experiments were conducted in three types of sound fields with constant levels of ambient noise: only direct sound, direct sound with early reflections, and direct sound with early reflections and reverberation. The results demonstrate that (1) listening difficulty can better discriminate among these conditions than can word recognition scores; (2) added early reflections increase the effective signal-to-noise ratio equivalent to the added energy in the conditions without reverberation; (3) the benefit of early reflections on difficulty scores is greater than expected from the simple increase in early arriving speech energy with reverberation; (4) word intelligibility tests are most appropriate for conditions with signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios less than 0 dBA, and where S/N is between 0 and 15-dBA S/N, listening difficulty is a more appropriate evaluation tool. .

  7. The Status of Communication Ethics Scholarship in Speech Communication Journals from 1915 to 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Ronald

    1987-01-01

    Reviews 128 articles related to ethics of communication published in the disciplinary journals from l915 to l985 within the framework of (1) a communication ethics definition; (2) descriptions of five categories of communication ethics; and (3) discussion of a conceptual center that ties the diverse research on communication ethics together.…

  8. Animal Models of Speech and Vocal Communication Deficits Associated With Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Konopka, Genevieve; Roberts, Todd F

    2016-01-01

    Disruptions in speech, language, and vocal communication are hallmarks of several neuropsychiatric disorders, most notably autism spectrum disorders. Historically, the use of animal models to dissect molecular pathways and connect them to behavioral endophenotypes in cognitive disorders has proven to be an effective approach for developing and testing disease-relevant therapeutics. The unique aspects of human language compared with vocal behaviors in other animals make such an approach potentially more challenging. However, the study of vocal learning in species with analogous brain circuits to humans may provide entry points for understanding this human-specific phenotype and diseases. We review animal models of vocal learning and vocal communication and specifically link phenotypes of psychiatric disorders to relevant model systems. Evolutionary constraints in the organization of neural circuits and synaptic plasticity result in similarities in the brain mechanisms for vocal learning and vocal communication. Comparative approaches and careful consideration of the behavioral limitations among different animal models can provide critical avenues for dissecting the molecular pathways underlying cognitive disorders that disrupt speech, language, and vocal communication. PMID:26232298

  9. Free Speech Yearbook: 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedford, Thomas L., Ed.

    This book is a collection of essays on free speech issues and attitudes, compiled by the Commission on Freedom of Speech of the Speech Communication Association. Four articles focus on freedom of speech in classroom situations as follows: a philosophic view of teaching free speech, effects of a course on free speech on student attitudes,…

  10. A pause-in-speech deletion technique of delay-allowable communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, T.; Ueda, J.

    1983-07-01

    The technique outlined here makes it possible, after the detection of a voice segment, to go backward some tens of milliseconds before the voice segment and turn on a voice switch. In a delay-allowable communication system, this allows efficient compression of the pause in speech while maintaining minimum quality degradation; it can be an effective method of reducing costs. Consideration is given to the possibility of a backward hangover process with pause deletion and to the rewriting of voice segments in pause segments in the buffering process using addressing control. Experimental results show that the backward hangover process (hangover time, approximately 32-64 ms) requires less voice deletion than the ordinary hangover process; this is especially true at word fronts, which are essential to quality reproduction. It is shown that the cost of the system can be reduced without speech quality degradation by applying the backward hangover process and addressing control at buffering.

  11. Speech and Language Therapists' Approaches to Communication Intervention with Children and Adults with Profound and Multiple Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldbart, Juliet; Chadwick, Darren; Buell, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Background: People with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PMLD) have communication impairments as one defining characteristic. Aims: To explore speech and language therapists' (SLTs) decision making in communication interventions for people with PMLD, in terms of the intervention approaches used, the factors informing the…

  12. A Bioecological Framework to Evaluate Communicative Participation Outcomes for Preschoolers Receiving Speech-Language Therapy Interventions in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Barbara J.; Rosenbaum, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Preschool Speech and Language Program (PSLP) in Ontario, Canada, is a publicly funded intervention service for children from birth to 5 years with communication disorders. It has begun a population-level programme evaluation of children's communicative participation outcomes following therapy. Data are currently being collected for…

  13. Methods for Dealing with Communication Apprehension in Higher Education Speech Instruction via Use of Small Group Modalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crump, Charla A.; Dudley, Jack A.

    Noting that many university speech students suffer from communication apprehension (CA) and must face the fear and anxiety of performance in front of the class, a study examined the effectiveness of group discussion, interpersonal communication, public speaking, and small group activities and interactions in reducing CA. Subjects, 57 students,…

  14. Coordination of Gaze and Speech in Communication between Children with Hearing Impairment and Normal-Hearing Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandgren, Olof; Andersson, Richard; van de Weijer, Joost; Hansson, Kristina; Sahlén, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate gaze behavior during communication between children with hearing impairment (HI) and normal-hearing (NH) peers. Method: Ten HI-NH and 10 NH-NH dyads performed a referential communication task requiring description of faces. During task performance, eye movements and speech were tracked. Using verbal event (questions,…

  15. An Analysis of Prolific Scholarship in Speech Communication, 1915-1985: Toward a Yardstick for Measuring Research Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickson, Mark, III; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes the publication patterns of prolific authors in speech communication between 1915 and 1985, using the journals listed in the most recent "Index to Journals in Communication Studies." Reports that publication early in a scholar's career is very important, as is flexibility in selecting journals in which to publish. (MM)

  16. "The Communication Needs and Rights of Mankind", Group 1 Report of the Futuristic Priorities Division of the Speech Communication Association. "Future Communication Technologies; Hardware and Software"; Group 2 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dance, Frank E. X.; And Others

    This paper reports on the Futuristic Priorities Division members' recommendations and priorities concerning the impact of the future on communication and on the speech communication discipline. The recommendations and priorities are listed for two subgroups: The Communication Needs and Rights of Mankind; and Future Communication Technologies:…

  17. Speech Communication and Communication Processes: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," April and May 1978 (Vol. 38 Nos. 10 and 11).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 25 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: the nature of creativity in advertising communication; speech communication difficulties of international professors; rhetorical arguments regarding the…

  18. Acoustic Variations in Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia as a Function of Speech Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapienza, Christine M.; Walton, Suzanne; Murry, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Acoustic phonatory events were identified in 14 women diagnosed with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD), a focal laryngeal dystonia that disturbs phonatory function, and compared with those of 14 age-matched women with no vocal dysfunction. Findings indicated ADSD subjects produced more aberrant acoustic events than controls during tasks of…

  19. Beyond ideal speech situations: adapting to communication asymmetries in health care.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Alex; Reader, Tom; Cornish, Flora; Campbell, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Inclusive, unconstrained and honest communication is widely advocated as beneficial and ethical. We critically explore this assumption by reflecting upon our research in acute care, informal care and public health. Using Habermas' ideals of dialogue to conceptualise ideal speech, we concur with observations that health care is often characterised by intractable exclusions and constraints. Rather than advocating implementing the ideals of dialogue, however, we examine how people adapt to these difficult and intransigent contexts. Non-ideal contexts, we find, sometimes call for non-ideal responses. Deception and furthering personal interests, and thus departing from the ideals of dialogue, can be adaptive responses. PMID:24058108

  20. Prelinguistic communication development in children with childhood apraxia of speech: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Highman, Chantelle; Leitão, Suze; Hennessey, Neville; Piek, Jan

    2012-02-01

    In a retrospective study of prelinguistic communication development, clinically referred preschool children (n = 9) aged 3-4 years, who as infants had failed a community-based screening program, were evaluated for features of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Four children showed no features and either delayed or normal language, five had from three-to-seven CAS features and all exhibited delayed language. These children were matched by age with 21 children with typically-developing (TD) speech and language skills. Case-control comparisons of retrospective data from 9 months of age for two participants with more severe features of CAS at preschool age showed a dissociated pattern with low expressive quotients on the Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Assessment-Second Edition (REEL-2) and records of infrequent babbling, but normal receptive quotients. However, other profiles were observed. Two children with milder CAS features showed poor receptive and expressive development similar to other clinically referred children with no CAS features, and one child with severe CAS features showed poor receptive but normal expressive developmental milestones at 9 months and records of frequent babbling. Results suggest some but not all children with features of suspected CAS have a selective deficit originating within speech motor development. PMID:22257070

  1. Acoustic Feature Optimization Based on F-Ratio for Robust Speech Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yanqing; Zhou, Yu; Zhao, Qingwei; Yan, Yonghong

    This paper focuses on the problem of performance degradation in mismatched speech recognition. The F-Ratio analysis method is utilized to analyze the significance of different frequency bands for speech unit classification, and we find that frequencies around 1kHz and 3kHz, which are the upper bounds of the first and the second formants for most of the vowels, should be emphasized in comparison to the Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC). The analysis result is further observed to be stable in several typical mismatched situations. Similar to the Mel-Frequency scale, another frequency scale called the F-Ratio-scale is thus proposed to optimize the filter bank design for the MFCC features, and make each subband contains equal significance for speech unit classification. Under comparable conditions, with the modified features we get a relative 43.20% decrease compared with the MFCC in sentence error rate for the emotion affected speech recognition, 35.54%, 23.03% for the noisy speech recognition at 15dB and 0dB SNR (signal to noise ratio) respectively, and 64.50% for the three years' 863 test data. The application of the F-Ratio analysis on the clean training set of the Aurora2 database demonstrates its robustness over languages, texts and sampling rates.

  2. A human vocal utterance corpus for perceptual and acoustic analysis of speech, singing, and intermediate vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhard, David

    2002-11-01

    In this paper we present the collection and annotation process of a corpus of human utterance vocalizations used for speech and song research. The corpus was collected to fill a void in current research tools, since no corpus currently exists which is useful for the classification of intermediate utterances between speech and monophonic singing. Much work has been done in the domain of speech versus music discrimination, and several corpora exist which can be used for this research. A specific example is the work done by Eric Scheirer and Malcom Slaney [IEEE ICASSP, 1997, pp. 1331-1334]. The collection of the corpus is described including questionnaire design and intended and actual response characteristics, as well as the collection and annotation of pre-existing samples. The annotation of the corpus consisted of a survey tool for a subset of the corpus samples, including ratings of the clips based on a speech-song continuum, and questions on the perceptual qualities of speech and song, both generally and corresponding to particular clips in the corpus.

  3. Acoustic cloak with duplex communication ability constructed by multilayered homogeneous isotropic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Qi; Cheng, Ying; Liu, Xiaojun

    2012-12-01

    Based on the effective medium theory, we propose a practical implementation of a cylindrical acoustic cloak with a concentric alternating multilayered structure of homogeneous isotropic materials, which can perfectly mimic the ideal radius-dependent and anisotropic ordinary lens cloak. The proposal exhibits near-ideal cloaking performance such as low-scattering and shadow-reducing in a wide frequency range, thus it can hide an object from the detection of acoustic waves. The acoustic wave can pass through the cloaking shell with an unchanged wavefront shape, which endues the cloaked object with duplex communication ability. More simulations on the acoustic far-field scattering patterns and the total scattering cross-section are performed to investigate the layer number and the frequency dependence of the cloaking effect, and the results show that the thinner layers exhibit a better cloaking effect. The proposal may significantly facilitate the experimental demonstration of the acoustic cloak.

  4. Measures to Evaluate the Effects of DBS on Speech Production

    PubMed Central

    Weismer, Gary; Yunusova, Yana; Bunton, Kate

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate measures of speech production that could be used to document effects of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) on speech performance, especially in persons with Parkinson disease (PD). A small set of evaluative criteria for these measures is presented first, followed by consideration of several speech physiology and speech acoustic measures that have been studied frequently and reported on in the literature on normal speech production, and speech production affected by neuromotor disorders (dysarthria). Each measure is reviewed and evaluated against the evaluative criteria. Embedded within this review and evaluation is a presentation of new data relating speech motions to speech intelligibility measures in speakers with PD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and control speakers (CS). These data are used to support the conclusion that at the present time the slope of second formant transitions (F2 slope), an acoustic measure, is well suited to make inferences to speech motion and to predict speech intelligibility. The use of other measures should not be ruled out, however, and we encourage further development of evaluative criteria for speech measures designed to probe the effects of DBS or any treatment with potential effects on speech production and communication skills. PMID:24932066

  5. Experimental studies of applications of time-reversal acoustics to noncoherent underwater communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinemann, M.; Larraza, A.; Smith, K. B.

    2003-06-01

    The most difficult problem in shallow underwater acoustic communications is considered to be the time-varying multipath propagation because it impacts negatively on data rates. At high data rates the intersymbol interference requires adaptive algorithms on the receiver side that lead to computationally intensive and complex signal processing. A novel technique called time-reversal acoustics (TRA) can environmentally adapt the acoustic propagation effects of a complex medium in order to focus energy at a particular target range and depth. Using TRA, the multipath structure is reduced because all the propagation paths add coherently at the intended target location. This property of time-reversal acoustics suggests a potential application in the field of noncoherent acoustic communications. This work presents results of a tank scale experiment using an algorithm for rapid transmission of binary data in a complex underwater environment with the TRA approach. A simple 15-symbol code provides an example of the simplicity and feasibility of the approach. Covert coding due to the inherent scrambling induced by the environment at points other than the intended receiver is also investigated. The experiments described suggest a high potential in data rate for the time-reversal approach in underwater acoustic communications while keeping the computational complexity low.

  6. Revisiting Neil Armstrongs Moon-Landing Quote: Implications for Speech Perception, Function Word Reduction, and Acoustic Ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Baese-Berk, Melissa M; Dilley, Laura C; Schmidt, Stephanie; Morrill, Tuuli H; Pitt, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Neil Armstrong insisted that his quote upon landing on the moon was misheard, and that he had said one small step for a man, instead of one small step for man. What he said is unclear in part because function words like a can be reduced and spectrally indistinguishable from the preceding context. Therefore, their presence can be ambiguous, and they may disappear perceptually depending on the rate of surrounding speech. Two experiments are presented examining production and perception of reduced tokens of for and for a in spontaneous speech. Experiment 1 investigates the distributions of several acoustic features of for and for a. The results suggest that the distributions of for and for a overlap substantially, both in terms of temporal and spectral characteristics. Experiment 2 examines perception of these same tokens when the context speaking rate differs. The perceptibility of the function word a varies as a function of this context speaking rate. These results demonstrate that substantial ambiguity exists in the original quote from Armstrong, and that this ambiguity may be understood through context speaking rate. PMID:27603209

  7. Comparison of Acoustic and Kinematic Approaches to Measuring Utterance-Level Speech Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Peter; Anderson, Andrew J.; Bartrip, Jon; Bailey, Eleanor

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The spatiotemporal index (STI) is one measure of variability. As currently implemented, kinematic data are used, requiring equipment that cannot be used with some patient groups or in scanners. An experiment is reported that addressed whether STI can be extended to an audio measure of sound pressure of the speech envelope over time that…

  8. The Exploitation of Subphonemic Acoustic Detail in L2 Speech Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Ellenor

    2014-01-01

    The current study addresses an aspect of second language (L2) phonological acquisition that has received little attention to date--namely, the acquisition of allophonic variation as a word boundary cue. The role of subphonemic variation in the segmentation of speech by native speakers has been indisputably demonstrated; however, the acquisition of…

  9. Study of Harmonics-to-Noise Ratio and Critical-Band Energy Spectrum of Speech as Acoustic Indicators of Laryngeal and Voice Pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shama, Kumara; krishna, Anantha; Cholayya, Niranjan U.

    2006-12-01

    Acoustic analysis of speech signals is a noninvasive technique that has been proved to be an effective tool for the objective support of vocal and voice disease screening. In the present study acoustic analysis of sustained vowels is considered. A simple[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]-means nearest neighbor classifier is designed to test the efficacy of a harmonics-to-noise ratio (HNR) measure and the critical-band energy spectrum of the voiced speech signal as tools for the detection of laryngeal pathologies. It groups the given voice signal sample into pathologic and normal. The voiced speech signal is decomposed into harmonic and noise components using an iterative signal extrapolation algorithm. The HNRs at four different frequency bands are estimated and used as features. Voiced speech is also filtered with 21 critical-bandpass filters that mimic the human auditory neurons. Normalized energies of these filter outputs are used as another set of features. The results obtained have shown that the HNR and the critical-band energy spectrum can be used to correlate laryngeal pathology and voice alteration, using previously classified voice samples. This method could be an additional acoustic indicator that supplements the clinical diagnostic features for voice evaluation.

  10. The Impact of Interrupted Use of a Speech Generating Device on the Communication Acts of a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neeley, Richard A.; Pulliam, Mary Hannah; Catt, Merrill; McDaniel, D. Mike

    2015-01-01

    This case study examined the initial and renewed impact of speech generating devices on the expressive communication behaviors of a child with autism spectrum disorder. The study spanned six years of interrupted use of two speech generating devices. The child's communication behaviors were analyzed from video recordings and included communication…

  11. Integrating Music Therapy Services and Speech-Language Therapy Services for Children with Severe Communication Impairments: A Co-Treatment Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geist, Kamile; McCarthy, John; Rodgers-Smith, Amy; Porter, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Documenting how music therapy can be integrated with speech-language therapy services for children with communication delay is not evident in the literature. In this article, a collaborative model with procedures, experiences, and communication outcomes of integrating music therapy with the existing speech-language services is given. Using…

  12. Using the Team Building Approach as a Management Tool for the Training of Graduate Teaching Assistants in the Basic Speech Communication Course Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandeville, Mary Y.; Blakemore, Scott A.

    A study examined the effectiveness of a team building model that was designed and used in the training of graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) in the Fall of 1994 in a speech communication department at a large midwestern university. The department employed 12 GTAs to teach 28 sections of the basic speech communication course. A team building…

  13. Speech Communication Education and Classroom Interaction: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1979 (Vol. 40 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 13 titles deal with the following topics: the development of strategies and materials for teaching speech communication to students in a remedial pilot program; the treatment of ethics in selected speech communication textbooks;…

  14. Spectrally Efficient Underwater Acoustic Communications: Channel Characterization and Design Aspects for OFDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radosevic, Andreja

    In this dissertation, we consider design aspects of spectrally efficient underwater acoustic (UWA) communications. In particular, we first focus on statistical characterization and capacity evaluation of shallow water acoustic communications channels. Wideband single-carrier and multi-carrier probe signals are employed during the Kauai Acoustic Communications MURI 2008 (KAM08) and 2011 (KAM11) experiments, to measure the time-varying channel response, and to estimate its statistical properties and capacity that play an important role in the design of spectrally efficient communication systems. Besides the capacity analysis for unconstrained inputs, we determine new bounds on the achievable information rate for discrete-time Gaussian channels with inter-symbol interference and independent and uniformly distributed channel input symbols drawn from finite-order modulation alphabets. Specifically, we derived new bounds on the achievable rates for sparse channels with long memory. Furthermore, we explore design aspects of adaptive modulation based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) for UWA communications, and study its performance using real-time at-sea experiments. Lastly, we investigate a channel estimation (CE) method for improving the spectral efficiency of UWA communications. Specifically, we determine the performance of a selective decision directed (DD) CE method for UWA OFDM-based communications.

  15. Using Others' Words: Conversational Use of Reported Speech by Individuals with Aphasia and Their Communication Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hengst, Julie A.; Frame, Simone R.; Neuman-Stritzel, Tiffany; Gannaway, Rachel

    2005-01-01

    Reported speech, wherein one quotes or paraphrases the speech of another, has been studied extensively as a set of linguistic and discourse practices. Researchers agree that reported speech is pervasive, found across languages, and used in diverse contexts. However, to date, there have been no studies of the use of reported speech among…

  16. Acoustic Analyses of Speech Sounds and Rhythms in Japanese- and English-Learning Infants

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Yuko; Nakajima, Yoshitaka; Ueda, Kazuo; Shimada, Yohko; Hirsh, David; Seno, Takeharu; Smith, Benjamin Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore developmental changes, in terms of spectral fluctuations and temporal periodicity with Japanese- and English-learning infants. Three age groups (15, 20, and 24 months) were selected, because infants diversify phonetic inventories with age. Natural speech of the infants was recorded. We utilized a critical-band-filter bank, which simulated the frequency resolution in adults’ auditory periphery. First, the correlations between the power fluctuations of the critical-band outputs represented by factor analysis were observed in order to see how the critical bands should be connected to each other, if a listener is to differentiate sounds in infants’ speech. In the following analysis, we analyzed the temporal fluctuations of factor scores by calculating autocorrelations. The present analysis identified three factors as had been observed in adult speech at 24 months of age in both linguistic environments. These three factors were shifted to a higher frequency range corresponding to the smaller vocal tract size of the infants. The results suggest that the vocal tract structures of the infants had developed to become adult-like configuration by 24 months of age in both language environments. The amount of utterances with periodic nature of shorter time increased with age in both environments. This trend was clearer in the Japanese environment. PMID:23450824

  17. MOOD STATE PREDICTION FROM SPEECH OF VARYING ACOUSTIC QUALITY FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH BIPOLAR DISORDER

    PubMed Central

    Gideon, John; Provost, Emily Mower; McInnis, Melvin

    2016-01-01

    Speech contains patterns that can be altered by the mood of an individual. There is an increasing focus on automated and distributed methods to collect and monitor speech from large groups of patients suffering from mental health disorders. However, as the scope of these collections increases, the variability in the data also increases. This variability is due in part to the range in the quality of the devices, which in turn affects the quality of the recorded data, negatively impacting the accuracy of automatic assessment. It is necessary to mitigate variability effects in order to expand the impact of these technologies. This paper explores speech collected from phone recordings for analysis of mood in individuals with bipolar disorder. Two different phones with varying amounts of clipping, loudness, and noise are employed. We describe methodologies for use during preprocessing, feature extraction, and data modeling to correct these differences and make the devices more comparable. The results demonstrate that these pipeline modifications result in statistically significantly higher performance, which highlights the potential of distributed mental health systems. PMID:27570493

  18. Improving the speech intelligibility in classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Choi Ling Coriolanus

    One of the major acoustical concerns in classrooms is the establishment of effective verbal communication between teachers and students. Non-optimal acoustical conditions, resulting in reduced verbal communication, can cause two main problems. First, they can lead to reduce learning efficiency. Second, they can also cause fatigue, stress, vocal strain and health problems, such as headaches and sore throats, among teachers who are forced to compensate for poor acoustical conditions by raising their voices. Besides, inadequate acoustical conditions can induce the usage of public address system. Improper usage of such amplifiers or loudspeakers can lead to impairment of students' hearing systems. The social costs of poor classroom acoustics will be large to impair the learning of children. This invisible problem has far reaching implications for learning, but is easily solved. Many researches have been carried out that they have accurately and concisely summarized the research findings on classrooms acoustics. Though, there is still a number of challenging questions remaining unanswered. Most objective indices for speech intelligibility are essentially based on studies of western languages. Even several studies of tonal languages as Mandarin have been conducted, there is much less on Cantonese. In this research, measurements have been done in unoccupied rooms to investigate the acoustical parameters and characteristics of the classrooms. The speech intelligibility tests, which based on English, Mandarin and Cantonese, and the survey were carried out on students aged from 5 years old to 22 years old. It aims to investigate the differences in intelligibility between English, Mandarin and Cantonese of the classrooms in Hong Kong. The significance on speech transmission index (STI) related to Phonetically Balanced (PB) word scores will further be developed. Together with developed empirical relationship between the speech intelligibility in classrooms with the variations

  19. Classifying acoustic signals into phoneme categories: average and dyslexic readers make use of complex dynamical patterns and multifractal scaling properties of the speech signal

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Several competing aetiologies of developmental dyslexia suggest that the problems with acquiring literacy skills are causally entailed by low-level auditory and/or speech perception processes. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diverging claims about the specific deficient peceptual processes under conditions of strong inference. Theoretically relevant acoustic features were extracted from a set of artificial speech stimuli that lie on a /bAk/-/dAk/ continuum. The features were tested on their ability to enable a simple classifier (Quadratic Discriminant Analysis) to reproduce the observed classification performance of average and dyslexic readers in a speech perception experiment. The ‘classical’ features examined were based on component process accounts of developmental dyslexia such as the supposed deficit in Envelope Rise Time detection and the deficit in the detection of rapid changes in the distribution of energy in the frequency spectrum (formant transitions). Studies examining these temporal processing deficit hypotheses do not employ measures that quantify the temporal dynamics of stimuli. It is shown that measures based on quantification of the dynamics of complex, interaction-dominant systems (Recurrence Quantification Analysis and the multifractal spectrum) enable QDA to classify the stimuli almost identically as observed in dyslexic and average reading participants. It seems unlikely that participants used any of the features that are traditionally associated with accounts of (impaired) speech perception. The nature of the variables quantifying the temporal dynamics of the speech stimuli imply that the classification of speech stimuli cannot be regarded as a linear aggregate of component processes that each parse the acoustic signal independent of one another, as is assumed by the ‘classical’ aetiologies of developmental dyslexia. It is suggested that the results imply that the differences in speech perception performance between

  20. Classifying acoustic signals into phoneme categories: average and dyslexic readers make use of complex dynamical patterns and multifractal scaling properties of the speech signal.

    PubMed

    Hasselman, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Several competing aetiologies of developmental dyslexia suggest that the problems with acquiring literacy skills are causally entailed by low-level auditory and/or speech perception processes. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diverging claims about the specific deficient peceptual processes under conditions of strong inference. Theoretically relevant acoustic features were extracted from a set of artificial speech stimuli that lie on a /bAk/-/dAk/ continuum. The features were tested on their ability to enable a simple classifier (Quadratic Discriminant Analysis) to reproduce the observed classification performance of average and dyslexic readers in a speech perception experiment. The 'classical' features examined were based on component process accounts of developmental dyslexia such as the supposed deficit in Envelope Rise Time detection and the deficit in the detection of rapid changes in the distribution of energy in the frequency spectrum (formant transitions). Studies examining these temporal processing deficit hypotheses do not employ measures that quantify the temporal dynamics of stimuli. It is shown that measures based on quantification of the dynamics of complex, interaction-dominant systems (Recurrence Quantification Analysis and the multifractal spectrum) enable QDA to classify the stimuli almost identically as observed in dyslexic and average reading participants. It seems unlikely that participants used any of the features that are traditionally associated with accounts of (impaired) speech perception. The nature of the variables quantifying the temporal dynamics of the speech stimuli imply that the classification of speech stimuli cannot be regarded as a linear aggregate of component processes that each parse the acoustic signal independent of one another, as is assumed by the 'classical' aetiologies of developmental dyslexia. It is suggested that the results imply that the differences in speech perception performance between average and

  1. Changes in Speech Production in a Child with a Cochlear Implant: Acoustic and Kinematic Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goffman, Lisa; Ertmer, David J.; Erdle, Christa

    2002-01-01

    A method is presented for examining change in motor patterns used to produce linguistic contrasts. In this case study, the method is applied to a child who experienced hearing loss at age 3 and received a multi-channel cochlear implant at 7. Post-implant, acoustic durations showed a maturational change. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  2. Intelligibility of Telephone Speech for the Hearing Impaired When Various Microphones Are Used for Acoustic Coupling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janota, Claus P.; Janota, Jeanette Olach

    1991-01-01

    Various candidate microphones were evaluated for acoustic coupling of hearing aids to a telephone receiver. Results from testing by 9 hearing-impaired adults found comparable listening performance with a pressure gradient microphone at a 10 decibel higher level of interfering noise than with a normal pressure-sensitive microphone. (Author/PB)

  3. Exploration of Acoustic Features for Automatic Vowel Discrimination in Spontaneous Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, Na'im R.

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to understand what acoustic/auditory feature sets motivated transcribers towards certain labeling decisions, I built machine learning models that were capable of discriminating between canonical and non-canonical vowels excised from the Buckeye Corpus. Specifically, I wanted to model when the dictionary form and the transcribed-form…

  4. Depression Diagnoses and Fundamental Frequency-Based Acoustic Cues in Maternal Infant-Directed Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porritt, Laura L.; Zinser, Michael C.; Bachorowski, Jo-Anne; Kaplan, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    F[subscript 0]-based acoustic measures were extracted from a brief, sentence-final target word spoken during structured play interactions between mothers and their 3- to 14-month-old infants and were analyzed based on demographic variables and DSM-IV Axis-I clinical diagnoses and their common modifiers. F[subscript 0] range (?F[subscript 0]) was…

  5. Using the picture exchange communication system (PECS) with children with autism: assessment of PECS acquisition, speech, social-communicative behavior, and problem behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Charlop-Christy, Marjorie H; Carpenter, Michael; Le, Loc; LeBlanc, Linda A; Kellet, Kristen

    2002-01-01

    The picture exchange communication system (PECS) is an augmentative communication system frequently used with children with autism (Bondy & Frost, 1994; Siegel, 2000; Yamall, 2000). Despite its common clinical use, no well-controlled empirical investigations have been conducted to test the effectiveness of PECS. Using a multiple baseline design, the present study examined the acquisition of PECS with 3 children with autism. In addition, the study examined the effects of PECS training on the emergence of speech in play and academic settings. Ancillary measures of social-communicative behaviors and problem behaviors were recorded. Results indicated that all 3 children met the learning criterion for PECS and showed concomitant increases in verbal speech. Ancillary gains were associated with increases in social-communicative behaviors and decreases in problem behaviors. The results are discussed in terms of the provision of empirical support for PECS as well as the concomitant positive side effects of its use. PMID:12365736

  6. Mexican Immigrant Mothers' Perceptions of Their Children's Communication Disabilities, Emergent Literacy Development, and Speech-Language Therapy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kummerer, Sharon E.; Lopez-Reyna, Norma A.; Hughes, Marie Tejero

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This qualitative study explored mothers' perceptions of their children's communication disabilities, emergent literacy development, and speech-language therapy programs. Method: Participants were 14 Mexican immigrant mothers and their children (age 17-47 months) who were receiving center-based services from an early childhood intervention…

  7. Increasing Early Childhood Educators' Use of Communication-Facilitating and Language-Modelling Strategies: Brief Speech and Language Therapy Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, David; Proctor, Penny; Gill, Wendy; Heaven, Sue; Marr, Jane; Young, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Intensive Speech and Language Therapy (SLT) training courses for Early Childhood Educators (ECEs) can have a positive effect on their use of interaction strategies that support children's communication skills. The impact of brief SLT training courses is not yet clearly understood. The aims of these two studies were to assess the impact of a brief…

  8. The Challenges of Evaluation: Assessing Early Talk's Impact on Speech Language and Communication Practice in Children's Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jopling, Michael; Whitmarsh, Judy; Hadfield, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the findings of a qualitative evaluation of an early years' intervention, I Can's Early Talk (ET) programme. ET was designed to improve speech, language and communication outcomes for children aged 0-5 by focusing on enhancing practitioners' knowledge and skills. The research focused on children aged 3-4 years and was…

  9. Teaching on the Foam of Discourse: Genealogical Perspectives on the Emergence of Speech and Communication as Academic Disciplines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macke, Frank J.

    This essay examines and explicates the nature and pattern of epistemic transformations undergone by the United States academic discipline known as "speech communication." The system of examination and explication employed in the paper follows Michel Foucault's genealogical method of inquiry and, as such, offers a postmodern critical "history" of…

  10. "Tramites" and "Transportes": The Acquisition of Second Language Communicative Competence for One Speech Event in Puno, Peru.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornberger, Nancy H.

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes ethnographic data regarding one prolonged speech event, the negotiation of a driver's license at the Ministry of Transportation in Puno, Peru, from the perspective of Hymes' redefinition of linguistic competence. Implications for the acquisition of second language communicative competence are also discussed. (Author/CB)

  11. The Picture Exchange Communication System: Effects on Manding and Speech Development for School-Aged Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tincani, Matt; Crozier, Shannon; Alazett, Shannon

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effects of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS; Frost & Bondy, 2002) on the manding (requesting) and speech development of school-aged children with autism. In study 1, two participants, Damian and Bob, were taught PECS within a delayed multiple baseline design. Both participants demonstrated increased levels of manding…

  12. Principals' Opinions on the Role of Speech-Language Pathologists Serving Students with Communication Disorders Involved in Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritzman, Mitzi J.; Sanger, Dixie

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to survey the opinions of principals concerning the role of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) serving students with communication disorders who have been involved in violence. Method: A mixed methods design involving 678 questionnaires was mailed to elementary, middle, and high school principals in a…

  13. Communication, Listening, Cognitive and Speech Perception Skills in Children with Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) or Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Melanie A.; Hall, Rebecca L.; Riley, Alison; Moore, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Parental reports of communication, listening, and behavior in children receiving a clinical diagnosis of specific language impairment (SLI) or auditory processing disorder (APD) were compared with direct tests of intelligence, memory, language, phonology, literacy, and speech intelligibility. The primary aim was to identify whether there…

  14. Understanding Why Speech-Language Pathologists Rarely Pursue a PhD in Communication Sciences and Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myotte, Theodore; Hutchins, Tiffany L.; Cannizzaro, Michael S.; Belin, Gayle

    2011-01-01

    Masters-level speech-language pathologists in communication sciences and disorders (n = 122) completed a survey soliciting their reasons for not pursuing doctoral study. Factor analysis revealed a four-factor solution including one reflecting a lack of interest in doctoral study (Factor 2) and one reflecting practical financial concerns (Factor…

  15. Towards Text-Based Augmentative Communication in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities and Difficult-to-Understand Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Anna C.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals who have difficult-to-understand speech and minimal reading skills are often limited to icon or picture-based augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) strategies. However, basic phonemic awareness skills could make strategies such as alphabet supplementation, in which the speaker selects the first letter of words they are…

  16. Acoustic Communication in Fishes and Potential Effects of Noise.

    PubMed

    Mann, David A

    2016-01-01

    Many soniferous fishes such as cods and groupers are commercially important. Sounds are produced during courtship and spawning, and there is the potential for aquatic noise to interfere with critical behaviors and affect populations. There are few data on the response of wild populations of sound-producing fishes to acoustic noise. New motion and sound exposure fish tags could be used to assess the behavioral responses of large numbers of fish to noise exposure. Many factors, such as fishing mortality and environmental variability in prey supply, could also affect populations and potentially interact with the behavioral responses to noise. PMID:26611018

  17. Speech Communication and Communication Processes: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," March through June 1977 (Vol. 37 Nos. 9 through 12). Part Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 18 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: some effects of nonstandard English in counseling; the status of speech instruction in Iowa high schools; communications analyses of a university and a public…

  18. Multimodal human communication--targeting facial expressions, speech content and prosody.

    PubMed

    Regenbogen, Christina; Schneider, Daniel A; Gur, Raquel E; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute; Kellermann, Thilo

    2012-05-01

    Human communication is based on a dynamic information exchange of the communication channels facial expressions, prosody, and speech content. This fMRI study elucidated the impact of multimodal emotion processing and the specific contribution of each channel on behavioral empathy and its prerequisites. Ninety-six video clips displaying actors who told self-related stories were presented to 27 healthy participants. In two conditions, all channels uniformly transported only emotional or neutral information. Three conditions selectively presented two emotional channels and one neutral channel. Subjects indicated the actors' emotional valence and their own while fMRI was recorded. Activation patterns of tri-channel emotional communication reflected multimodal processing and facilitative effects for empathy. Accordingly, subjects' behavioral empathy rates significantly deteriorated once one source was neutral. However, emotionality expressed via two of three channels yielded activation in a network associated with theory-of-mind-processes. This suggested participants' effort to infer mental states of their counterparts and was accompanied by a decline of behavioral empathy, driven by the participants' emotional responses. Channel-specific emotional contributions were present in modality-specific areas. The identification of different network-nodes associated with human interactions constitutes a prerequisite for understanding dynamics that underlie multimodal integration and explain the observed decline in empathy rates. This task might also shed light on behavioral deficits and neural changes that accompany psychiatric diseases. PMID:22487549

  19. Effects of ocean thermocline variability on noncoherent underwater acoustic communications.

    PubMed

    Siderius, Martin; Porter, Michael B; Hursky, Paul; McDonald, Vincent

    2007-04-01

    The performance of acoustic modems in the ocean is strongly affected by the ocean environment. A storm can drive up the ambient noise levels, eliminate a thermocline by wind mixing, and whip up violent waves and thereby break up the acoustic mirror formed by the ocean surface. The combined effects of these and other processes on modem performance are not well understood. The authors have been conducting experiments to study these environmental effects on various modulation schemes. Here the focus is on the role of the thermocline on a widely used modulation scheme (frequency-shift keying). Using data from a recent experiment conducted in 100-m-deep water off the coast of Kauai, HI, frequency-shift-key modulation performance is shown to be strongly affected by diurnal cycles in the thermocline. There is dramatic variation in performance (measured by bit error rates) between receivers in the surface duct and receivers in the thermocline. To interpret the performance variations in a quantitative way, a precise metric is introduced based on a signal-to-interference-noise ratio that encompasses both the ambient noise and intersymbol interference. Further, it will be shown that differences in the fading statistics for receivers in and out of the thermocline explain the differences in modem performance. PMID:17471705

  20. Impact of Thermocline Variability on Underwater Acoustic Communications: Results from KauaiEx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siderius, Martin; Porter, Michael

    2004-11-01

    In July 2003, the KauaiEx, high-frequency acoustic experiments were conducted off the coast of Kauai, Hawaii. Both acoustic communications signals and probe signals (to measure the channel impulse response) were transmitted in the 8-50 kHz band. These signals were transmitted over several days from fixed and moving platforms and were received at multiple ranges and depths using vertical arrays and single hydrophones. Extensive environmental measurements were made simultaneous to the acoustic transmissions (e.g. measurements of the water column temperature structure, wind speed and surface wave heights). The experimental site has a relatively reflective seabed made up of sand that was combined with highly variable oceanographic conditions which led to communications performance closely tied to source/receiver geometry. In this paper, the correlation between environmental factors and communications performance will be discussed. The focus is on communications signals in the 8-13 and 14-19 kHz frequency bands at source receiver range of 3 km. Results show the performance in the higher band was approximately the same as for the lower band. Results also show a strong dependence on receiver depth with the deeper hydrophones having fewer bit errors. The ocean sound speed structure at this site appears to have a large impact on the communications performance and the time variability.

  1. Piezoelectric Vibrational and Acoustic Alert for a Personal Communication Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Hellbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); Daugherty, Robert H. (Inventor); Scholz, Raymond C. (Inventor); Little, Bruce D. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Denhardt, Gerald A. (Inventor); Jang, SeGon (Inventor); Balein, Rizza (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An alert apparatus for a personal communication device includes a mechanically prestressed piezoelectric wafer positioned within the personal communication device and an alternating voltage input line coupled at two points of the wafer where polarity is recognized. The alert apparatus also includes a variable frequency device coupled to the alternating voltage input line, operative to switch the alternating voltage on the alternating voltage input line at least between an alternating voltage having a first frequency and an alternating voltage having a second frequency. The first frequency is preferably sufficiently high so as to cause the wafer to vibrate at a resulting frequency that produces a sound perceptible by a human ear, and the second frequency is preferably sufficiently low so as to cause the wafer to vibrate at a resulting frequency that produces a vibration readily felt by a holder of the personal communication device.

  2. Singing on the fly: sensorimotor integration and acoustic communication in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Coen, Philip; Murthy, Mala

    2016-06-01

    The capacity to communicate via acoustic signals is prevalent across the animal kingdom, from insects to humans. What are the neural circuit mechanisms that underlie this ability? New methods for behavioral analysis along with an unparalleled genetic toolkit have recently opened up studies of acoustic communication in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Its nervous system comprises roughly 100,000 neurons, yet flies are able to both produce and process time-varying sounds during courtship. Just as with more complex animals, sensory feedback plays an important role in shaping communication between the sexes. Here, we review recent work in Drosophila that has laid the foundation for solving the mechanisms by which sensory information dynamically modulates behavior. PMID:26874218

  3. Design of Low-power Wake-up Circuits in Underwater Acoustic Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuixia, Zhang; Jiaxin, Wu; Yuanxuan, Li

    In underwater acoustic communication, the power consumption of the underwater communication equipments at harsh conditions of marine environment is an important problem. Under that scenario, we propose a design of low-power wake-up circuits based on SCM C8051F020 system. Compare to traditional wake-up circuits which directly judge the energy of received signals, our approach can greatly reduce the misjudgment caused by the environmental disturbance, and the performance of energy conservation is effective. The low-power wake-up circuits possess a promising application prospect in the long-distance wireless underwater communication.

  4. Predicting Speech Intelligibility with a Multiple Speech Subsystems Approach in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jimin; Hustad, Katherine C.; Weismer, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Speech acoustic characteristics of children with cerebral palsy (CP) were examined with a multiple speech subsystems approach; speech intelligibility was evaluated using a prediction model in which acoustic measures were selected to represent three speech subsystems. Method: Nine acoustic variables reflecting different subsystems, and…

  5. Intelligibility Assessment of Ideal Binary-Masked Noisy Speech with Acceptance of Room Acoustic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimír, Sedlak; Daniela, Durackova; Roman, Zalusky; Tomas, Kovacik

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the intelligibility of ideal binary-masked noisy signal is evaluated for different signal to noise ratio (SNR), mask error, masker types, distance between source and receiver, reverberation time and local criteria for forming the binary mask. The ideal binary mask is computed from time-frequency decompositions of target and masker signals by thresholding the local SNR within time-frequency units. The intelligibility of separated signal is measured using different objective measures computed in frequency and perceptual domain. The present study replicates and extends the findings which were already presented but mainly shows impact of room acoustic on the intelligibility performance of IBM technique.

  6. Behaviours Associated with Acoustic Communication in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    PubMed Central

    Longrie, Nicolas; Poncin, Pascal; Denoël, Mathieu; Gennotte, Vincent; Delcourt, Johann; Parmentier, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Background Sound production is widespread among fishes and accompanies many social interactions. The literature reports twenty-nine cichlid species known to produce sounds during aggressive and courtship displays, but the precise range in behavioural contexts is unclear. This study aims to describe the various Oreochromis niloticus behaviours that are associated with sound production in order to delimit the role of sound during different activities, including agonistic behaviours, pit activities, and reproduction and parental care by males and females of the species. Methodology/Principal Findings Sounds mostly occur during the day. The sounds recorded during this study accompany previously known behaviours, and no particular behaviour is systematically associated with sound production. Males and females make sounds during territorial defence but not during courtship and mating. Sounds support visual behaviours but are not used alone. During agonistic interactions, a calling Oreochromis niloticus does not bite after producing sounds, and more sounds are produced in defence of territory than for dominating individuals. Females produce sounds to defend eggs but not larvae. Conclusion/Significance Sounds are produced to reinforce visual behaviours. Moreover, comparisons with O. mossambicus indicate two sister species can differ in their use of sound, their acoustic characteristics, and the function of sound production. These findings support the role of sounds in differentiating species and promoting speciation. They also make clear that the association of sounds with specific life-cycle roles cannot be generalized to the entire taxa. PMID:23620756

  7. Channel Equalization for Single Carrier MIMO Underwater Acoustic Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Jun; Zheng, Yahong Rosa; Xiao, Chengshan; Yang, T. C.; Yang, Wen-Bin

    2010-12-01

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) underwater acoustic (UWA) channels introduce both space-time interference (STI) and time-varying phase distortion for transmitted signals. In such cases, the equalized symbols produced by conventional equalizer aiming for STI cancelation suffer phase rotation and thus cannot be reliably detected. In this paper, we propose a new equalization scheme for high data rate single carrier MIMO UWA channels. Different from existing methods employing joint equalization and symbolwise phase tracking technology, the proposed scheme decouples the interference cancelation (IC) operation and the phase compensation operation, leading to a generalized equalizer structure combining an IC equalizer with a phase compensator. The decoupling of the two functionalities leads to robust signal detection, which is most desirable in practical UWA applications. MIMO linear equalizer (LE) is adopted to remove space-time interference, and a groupwise phase estimation and correction method is used to compensate the phase rotation. In addition, the layered space-time processing technology is adopted to enhance the equalization performance. The proposed equalization scheme is tested to be very robust with extensive experimental data collected at Kauai, Hawaii, in September 2005, and Saint Margaret's Bay, Nova Scotia, Canada, in May 2006.

  8. Effects of speech style, room acoustics, and vocal fatigue on vocal effort.

    PubMed

    Bottalico, Pasquale; Graetzer, Simone; Hunter, Eric J

    2016-05-01

    Vocal effort is a physiological measure that accounts for changes in voice production as vocal loading increases. It has been quantified in terms of sound pressure level (SPL). This study investigates how vocal effort is affected by speaking style, room acoustics, and short-term vocal fatigue. Twenty subjects were recorded while reading a text at normal and loud volumes in anechoic, semi-reverberant, and reverberant rooms in the presence of classroom babble noise. The acoustics in each environment were modified by creating a strong first reflection in the talker position. After each task, the subjects answered questions addressing their perception of the vocal effort, comfort, control, and clarity of their own voice. Variation in SPL for each subject was measured per task. It was found that SPL and self-reported effort increased in the loud style and decreased when the reflective panels were present and when reverberation time increased. Self-reported comfort and control decreased in the loud style, while self-reported clarity increased when panels were present. The lowest magnitude of vocal fatigue was experienced in the semi-reverberant room. The results indicate that early reflections may be used to reduce vocal effort without modifying reverberation time. PMID:27250179

  9. Acoustic evidence for the development of gestural coordination in the speech of 2-year-olds: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Goodell, E W; Studdert-Kennedy, M

    1993-08-01

    Studies of child phonology have often assumed that young children first master a repertoire of phonemes and then build their lexicon by forming combinations of these abstract, contrastive units. However, evidence from children's systematic errors suggests that children first build a repertoire of words as integral sequences of gestures and then gradually differentiate these sequences into their gestural and segmental components. Recently, experimental support for this position has been found in the acoustic records of the speech of 3-, 5-, and 7-year-old children, suggesting that even in older children some phonemes have not yet fully segregated as units of gestural organization and control. The present longitudinal study extends this work to younger children (22- and 32-month-olds). Results demonstrate clear differences in the duration and coordination of gestures between children and adults, and a clear shift toward the patterns of adult speakers during roughly the third year of life. Details of the child-adult differences and developmental changes vary from one aspect of an utterance to another. PMID:8377484

  10. Symbolic Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podgor, Ellen S.

    1976-01-01

    The concept of symbolic speech emanates from the 1967 case of United States v. O'Brien. These discussions of flag desecration, grooming and dress codes, nude entertainment, buttons and badges, and musical expression show that the courts place symbolic speech in different strata from verbal communication. (LBH)

  11. Subjective evaluation of speech and noise in learning environments in the realm of classroom acoustics: Results from laboratory and field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meis, Markus; Nocke, Christian; Hofmann, Simone; Becker, Bernhard

    2005-04-01

    The impact of different acoustical conditions in learning environments on noise annoyance and the evaluation of speech quality were tested in a series of three experiments. In Experiment 1 (n=79) the auralization of seven classrooms with reverberation times from 0.55 to 3.21 s [average between 250 Hz to 2 kHz] served to develop a Semantic Differential, evaluating a simulated teacher's voice. Four factors were found: acoustical comfort, roughness, sharpness, and loudness. In Experiment 2, the effects of two classroom renovations were examined from a holistic perspective. The rooms were treated acoustically with acoustic ceilings (RT=0.5 s [250 Hz-2 kHz]) and muffling floor materials as well as non-acoustically with a new lighting system and color design. The results indicate that pupils (n=61) in renovated classrooms judged the simulated voice more positively, were less annoyed from the noise in classrooms, and were more motivated to participate in the lessons. In Experiment 3 the sound environments from six different lecture rooms (RT=0.8 to 1.39 s [250 Hz-2 kHz]) in two Universities of Oldenburg were evaluated by 321 students during the lectures. Evidence found supports the assumption that acoustical comfort in rooms is dependent on frequency for rooms with higher reverberation times.

  12. Diversity-based acoustic communication with a glider in deep water.

    PubMed

    Song, H C; Howe, Bruce M; Brown, Michael G; Andrew, Rex K

    2014-03-01

    The primary use of underwater gliders is to collect oceanographic data within the water column and periodically relay the data at the surface via a satellite connection. In summer 2006, a Seaglider equipped with an acoustic recording system received transmissions from a broadband acoustic source centered at 75 Hz deployed on the bottom off Kauai, Hawaii, while moving away from the source at ranges up to ∼200 km in deep water and diving up to 1000-m depth. The transmitted signal was an m-sequence that can be treated as a binary-phase shift-keying communication signal. In this letter multiple receptions are exploited (i.e., diversity combining) to demonstrate the feasibility of using the glider as a mobile communication gateway. PMID:24606244

  13. Speech input and output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Class, F.; Mangold, H.; Stall, D.; Zelinski, R.

    1981-12-01

    Possibilities for acoustical dialogs with electronic data processing equipment were investigated. Speech recognition is posed as recognizing word groups. An economical, multistage classifier for word string segmentation is presented and its reliability in dealing with continuous speech (problems of temporal normalization and context) is discussed. Speech synthesis is considered in terms of German linguistics and phonetics. Preprocessing algorithms for total synthesis of written texts were developed. A macrolanguage, MUSTER, is used to implement this processing in an acoustic data information system (ADES).

  14. Acoustic communication in crocodilians: information encoding and species specificity of juvenile calls.

    PubMed

    Vergne, Amélie L; Aubin, Thierry; Martin, Samuel; Mathevon, Nicolas

    2012-11-01

    In the Crocodylia order, all species are known for their ability to produce sounds in several communication contexts. Though recent experimental studies have brought evidence of the important biological role of young crocodilian calls, especially at hatching time, the juvenile vocal repertoire still needs to be clarified in order to describe thoroughly the crocodilian acoustic communication channel. The goal of this study is to investigate the acoustic features (structure and information coding) in the contact call of juveniles from three different species (Nile crocodile Crocodylus niloticus, Black caiman, Melanosuchus niger and Spectacled caiman, Caiman crocodilus). We have shown that even though substantial structural differences exist between the calls of different species, they do not seem relevant for crocodilians. Indeed, juveniles and adults from the species studied use a similar and non-species-specific way of encoding information, which relies on frequency modulation parameters. Interestingly, using conditioning experiments, we demonstrated that this tolerance in responses to signals of different acoustic structures was unlikely to be related to a lack of discriminatory abilities. This result reinforced the idea that crocodilians have developed adaptations to use sounds efficiently for communication needs. PMID:22820991

  15. Speech Communication Education and Classroom Interaction: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1984 (Vol. 44 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 10 titles deal with the following topics: (1) communication training for adolescents and their teachers; (2) faculty career paths in speech communication; (3) student self-concept modification in communication courses; (4)…

  16. Underwater acoustic communication using orthogonal signal division multiplexing scheme with time diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebihara, Tadashi; Ogasawara, Hanako; Mizutani, Koichi

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, an underwater acoustic (UWA) communication scheme for mobile platforms is proposed. The proposed scheme is based on the orthogonal signal division multiplexing (OSDM) scheme, which offers highly reliable UWA communication. However, OSDM is not suitable for mobile platforms as it is — it requires a receiver array and a large calculation cost for equalization. To establish a reliable link with small communication platforms, we design OSDM that can perform reliable communication without the need for an array and can reduce receiver complexity using the time-diversity technique (TD), and evaluate its performance in experiments. The experimental results suggest that OSDM-TD can simultaneously achieve power-efficient communications and receiver complexity reduction, and can realize small-scale communication platforms. In detail, OSDM-TD achieved almost the same communication quality as conventional OSDM, in exchange for an effective data rate. Moreover, the power efficiency of OSDM-TD was almost the same as that of conventional OSDM with two receiver array elements, although the calculation cost of OSDM-TD was far below that of conventional OSDM. As a result, it was found that OSDM-TD is suitable for UWA communication for mobile nodes whose capacity and computational resources are severely limited.

  17. Opportunities in Speech Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Parley W.

    The importance of speech is discussed and speech pathology is described. Types of communication disorders considered are articulation disorders, aphasia, facial deformity, hearing loss, stuttering, delayed speech, voice disorders, and cerebral palsy; examples of five disorders are given. Speech pathology is investigated from these aspects: the…

  18. Proximate and ultimate aspects of acoustic and multimodal communication in butterflyfishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, Kelly S.

    Communication in social animals is shaped by natural selection on both sender and receiver. Diurnal butterflyfishes use a combination of visual cues like bright color patterns and motor pattern driven displays, acoustic communication, and olfactory cues that may advertise territorial behavior, facilitate recognition of individuals, and provide cues for courtship. This dissertation examines proximate and multimodal communication in several butterflyfishes, with an emphasis on acoustic communication which has recently garnered attention within the Chaetodontidae. Sound production in the genus Forcipiger involves a novel mechanism with synchronous contractions of opposing head muscles at the onset of sound emission and rapid cranial rotation that lags behind sound emission. Acoustic signals in F. flavissimus provide an accurate indicator of body size, and to a lesser extent cranial rotation velocity and acceleration. The closely related Hemitaurichthys polylepis produces rapid pulse trains of similar duration and spectral content to F. flavissimus, but with a dramatically different mechanism which involves contractions of hypaxial musculature at the anterior end of the swim bladder that occur with synchronous muscle action potentials. Both H. polylepis sonic and hypaxial trunk muscle fibers have triads at the z-line, but sonic fibers have smaller cross-sectional areas, more developed sarcoplasmic reticula, longer sarcomere lengths, and wider t-tubules. Sonic motor neurons are located along a long motor column entirely within the spinal cord and are composed of large and small types. Forcipiger flavissimus and F. longirostris are site attached and territorial, with F. flavissimus engaged in harem polygyny and F. longirostris in social monogamy. Both produce similar pulse sounds to conspecifics during territoriality that vary little with respect to communicative context. Chaetodon multicinctus can discriminate between mates and non-mate intruders, but require combined

  19. Wideband Multichannel Time-Reversal Processing for Acoustic Communications in a Tunnel-like Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J V; Chambers, D H; Robbins, C L; Guidry, B L; Poggio, A J; Dowla, F; Hertzog, C A

    2006-01-12

    The development of multichannel time-reversal (T/R) processing techniques continues to progress rapidly especially when the need to communicate in a highly reverberative environment becomes critical. The underlying T/R concept is based on time-reversing the Green's function characterizing the uncertain communications channel investigating the deleterious dispersion and multipath effects. In this paper, attention is focused on two major objectives: (1) wideband communications leading to a time reference modulation technique; and (2) multichannel acoustic communications in a tunnel (or cave or pipe) with many obstructions, multipath returns, severe background noise, disturbances, long propagation paths ({approx}180) with disruptions (bends). For this extremely hostile environment, it is shown that multichannel T/R receivers can easily be extended to the wideband designs while demonstrating their performance in both the ''canonical'' stairwell of our previous work as well as a tunnel-like structure. Acoustic information signals are transmitted with an 8-element host or base station array to two client receivers with a significant loss in signal levels due to the propagation environment. In this paper, the results of the new wideband T/R processor and modulation scheme are discussed to demonstrate the overall performance for both high (24-bit) and low (1-bit) bit level analog-to-digital (A/D) converter designs. These results are validated by performing proof-of-principle acoustic communications experiments in air. It is shown that the resulting T/R receivers are capable of extracting the transmitted coded sequence from noisy microphone array measurements with zero-bit error.

  20. Feeling addressed! The role of body orientation and co-speech gesture in social communication.

    PubMed

    Nagels, Arne; Kircher, Tilo; Steines, Miriam; Straube, Benjamin

    2015-05-01

    During face-to-face communication, body orientation and coverbal gestures influence how information is conveyed. The neural pathways underpinning the comprehension of such nonverbal social cues in everyday interaction are to some part still unknown. During fMRI data acquisition, 37 participants were presented with video clips showing an actor speaking short sentences. The actor produced speech-associated iconic gestures (IC) or no gestures (NG) while he was visible either from an egocentric (ego) or from an allocentric (allo) position. Participants were asked to indicate via button press whether they felt addressed or not. We found a significant interaction of body orientation and gesture in addressment evaluations, indicating that participants evaluated IC-ego conditions as most addressing. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and left fusiform gyrus were stronger activated for egocentric versus allocentric actor position in gesture context. Activation increase in the ACC for IC-ego>IC-allo further correlated positively with increased addressment ratings in the egocentric gesture condition. Gesture-related activation increase in the supplementary motor area, left inferior frontal gyrus and right insula correlated positively with gesture-related increase of addressment evaluations in the egocentric context. Results indicate that gesture use and body-orientation contribute to the feeling of being addressed and together influence neural processing in brain regions involved in motor simulation, empathy and mentalizing. PMID:25640962

  1. Time-Frequency Feature Representation Using Multi-Resolution Texture Analysis and Acoustic Activity Detector for Real-Life Speech Emotion Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kun-Ching

    2015-01-01

    The classification of emotional speech is mostly considered in speech-related research on human-computer interaction (HCI). In this paper, the purpose is to present a novel feature extraction based on multi-resolutions texture image information (MRTII). The MRTII feature set is derived from multi-resolution texture analysis for characterization and classification of different emotions in a speech signal. The motivation is that we have to consider emotions have different intensity values in different frequency bands. In terms of human visual perceptual, the texture property on multi-resolution of emotional speech spectrogram should be a good feature set for emotion classification in speech. Furthermore, the multi-resolution analysis on texture can give a clearer discrimination between each emotion than uniform-resolution analysis on texture. In order to provide high accuracy of emotional discrimination especially in real-life, an acoustic activity detection (AAD) algorithm must be applied into the MRTII-based feature extraction. Considering the presence of many blended emotions in real life, in this paper make use of two corpora of naturally-occurring dialogs recorded in real-life call centers. Compared with the traditional Mel-scale Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) and the state-of-the-art features, the MRTII features also can improve the correct classification rates of proposed systems among different language databases. Experimental results show that the proposed MRTII-based feature information inspired by human visual perception of the spectrogram image can provide significant classification for real-life emotional recognition in speech. PMID:25594590

  2. Developments in Acoustic Navigation and Communication for High-Latitude Ocean Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobat, J.; Lee, C.

    2006-12-01

    Developments in autonomous platforms (profiling floats, drifters, long-range gliders and propeller-driven vehicles) offer the possibility of unprecedented access to logistically difficult polar regions that challenge conventional techniques. Currently, however, navigation and telemetry for these platforms rely on satellite positioning and communications poorly suited for high-latitude applications where ice cover restricts access to the sea surface. A similar infrastructure offering basin-wide acoustic geolocation and telemetry would allow the community to employ autonomous platforms to address previously intractable problems in Arctic oceanography. Two recent efforts toward the development of such an infrastructure are reported here. As part of an observational array monitoring fluxes through Davis Strait, development of real-time RAFOS acoustic navigation for gliders has been ongoing since autumn 2004. To date, test deployments have been conducted in a 260 Hz field in the Pacific and 780 Hz fields off Norway and in Davis Strait. Real-time navigation accuracy of ~1~km is achievable. Autonomously navigating gliders will operate under ice cover beginning in autumn 2006. In addition to glider navigation development, the Davis Strait array moorings carry fixed RAFOS recorders to study propagation over a range of distances under seasonally varying ice cover. Results from the under-ice propagation and glider navigation experiments are presented. Motivated by the need to coordinate these types of development efforts, an international group of acousticians, autonomous platform developers, high-latitude oceanographers and marine mammal researchers gathered in Seattle, U.S.A. from 27 February -- 1 March 2006 for an NSF Office of Polar Programs sponsored Acoustic Navigation and Communication for High-latitude Ocean Research (ANCHOR) workshop. Workshop participants focused on summarizing the current state of knowledge concerning Arctic acoustics, navigation and communications

  3. Acoustic Communication in Butterflyfishes: Anatomical Novelties, Physiology, Evolution, and Behavioral Ecology.

    PubMed

    Tricas, Timothy C; Webb, Jacqueline F

    2016-01-01

    Coral reef fishes live in noisy environments that may challenge their capacity for acoustic communication. Butterflyfishes (Family Chaetodontidae) are prominent and ecologically diverse members of coral reef communities worldwide. The discovery of a novel association of anterior swim bladder horns with the lateral line canal system in the genus Chaetodon (the laterophysic connection) revealed a putative adaptation for enhancement of sound reception by the lateral line system and/or the ear. Behavioral studies show that acoustic communication is an important component of butterflyfish social behavior. All bannerfish (Forcipiger, Heniochus, and Hemitaurichthys) and Chaetodon species studied thus far produce several sound types at frequencies of <1 to >1000 Hz. Ancestral character state analyses predict the existence of both shared (head bob) and divergent (tail slap) acoustic behaviors in these two clades. Experimental auditory physiology shows that butterflyfishes are primarily sensitive to stimuli associated with hydrodynamic particle accelerations of ≤500 Hz. In addition, the gas-filled swim bladder horns in Chaetodon are stimulated by sound pressure, which enhances and extends their auditory sensitivity to 1700-2000 Hz. The broadband spectrum of ambient noise present on coral reefs overlaps with the frequency characteristics of their sounds, thus both the close social affiliations common among butterflyfishes and the evolution of the swim bladder horns in Chaetodon facilitate their short-range acoustic communication. Butterflyfishes provide a unique and unexpected opportunity to carry out studies of fish bioacoustics in the lab and the field that integrate the study of sensory anatomy, physiology, evolution, and behavioral ecology. PMID:26515311

  4. Speech Communication Anxiety: An Impediment to Academic Achievement in the University Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boohar, Richard K.; Seiler, William J.

    1982-01-01

    The achievement levels of college students taking a bioethics course who demonstrated high and low degrees of speech anxiety were studied. Students with high speech anxiety interacted less with instructors and did not achieve as well as other students. Strategies instructors can use to help students are suggested. (Authors/PP)

  5. A Group Intervention Model for Speech and Communication Skills in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Initial Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manor, Yael; Posen, Jennie; Amir, Ofer; Dori, Nechama; Giladi, Nir

    2005-01-01

    Various speech and voice disorders affect 70% to 85% of individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Speech treatment is generally conducted on an individual basis, with family member involvement. Clinical experience indicates that many patients do not practice treatments at home or apply the learned techniques in everyday situations. An…

  6. Exploring the Speech-Language Connection. Communication and Language Intervention Series, Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Rhea, Ed.

    This edited volume investigates the connections between the earliest human sounds and subsequent language development. With special attention to tracheostomies, Downs syndrome, deafness, and speech-motor impairments, the interaction between speech and language is examined in typical development as well as the effect that the interaction has on…

  7. Multilingual Aspects of Speech Sound Disorders in Children. Communication Disorders across Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Sharynne; Goldstein, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Multilingual Aspects of Speech Sound Disorders in Children explores both multilingual and multicultural aspects of children with speech sound disorders. The 30 chapters have been written by 44 authors from 16 different countries about 112 languages and dialects. The book is designed to translate research into clinical practice. It is divided into…

  8. Prompting Students to Contemplate Effective Communication with a Visible Speech Chart from the 1870s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2014-01-01

    In this article, director of Educational Outreach at the Library of Congress Lee Ann Potter describes a classroom activity that focuses on an 1876 single-page circular published in Salem, Massachusetts about Alexander Melville Bell's Visible Speech. A. M. Bell's son, Alexander Graham Bell described "Visible Speech" as "a…

  9. Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The acoustics research activities of the DLR fluid-mechanics department (Forschungsbereich Stroemungsmechanik) during 1988 are surveyed and illustrated with extensive diagrams, drawings, graphs, and photographs. Particular attention is given to studies of helicopter rotor noise (high-speed impulsive noise, blade/vortex interaction noise, and main/tail-rotor interaction noise), propeller noise (temperature, angle-of-attack, and nonuniform-flow effects), noise certification, and industrial acoustics (road-vehicle flow noise and airport noise-control installations).

  10. Early recognition of speech

    PubMed Central

    Remez, Robert E; Thomas, Emily F

    2013-01-01

    Classic research on the perception of speech sought to identify minimal acoustic correlates of each consonant and vowel. In explaining perception, this view designated momentary components of an acoustic spectrum as cues to the recognition of elementary phonemes. This conceptualization of speech perception is untenable given the findings of phonetic sensitivity to modulation independent of the acoustic and auditory form of the carrier. The empirical key is provided by studies of the perceptual organization of speech, a low-level integrative function that finds and follows the sensory effects of speech amid concurrent events. These projects have shown that the perceptual organization of speech is keyed to modulation; fast; unlearned; nonsymbolic; indifferent to short-term auditory properties; and organization requires attention. The ineluctably multisensory nature of speech perception also imposes conditions that distinguish language among cognitive systems. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:213–223. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1213 PMID:23926454

  11. Preliminary investigation of acoustic bar codes for short-range underwater communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Dennis F.

    2005-09-01

    In March 2005, underwater acoustic communications experiments were carried out from the DRDC Atlantic research vessel CFAV QUEST. A battery-operated BATS20 transmitter and a broadband barrel-stave flextensional transducer were used to broadcast noise containing acoustic bar code (ABC) information. The ABCs are silent frequency bands of fixed duration that resemble retail bar codes when viewed in a spectrogram. Two sites were selected for the experiments. The first was a shallow-water area west of the Berry Islands in the Bahamas, and the second was a deep-water site south of the Western Bank on the Scotian Shelf. Two receiver systems were deployed; autonomous, variable-buoyancy Stealth Buoys resting on the bottom at the shallow site, and drifting AN/SSQ-53F sonobuoys fitted with GPS at the deep site. Results from these experiments will be presented and future work will be discussed.

  12. Multi-input multi-output underwater communications over sparse and frequency modulated acoustic channels.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jun; Zhao, Kexin; Li, Jian; Nordenvaad, Magnus Lundberg

    2011-07-01

    This paper addresses multi-input multi-output (MIMO) communications over sparse acoustic channels suffering from frequency modulations. An extension of the recently introduced SLIM algorithm, which stands for sparse learning via iterative minimization, is presented to estimate the sparse and frequency modulated acoustic channels. The extended algorithm is referred to as generalization of SLIM (GoSLIM). The sparseness is exploited through a hierarchical Bayesian model, and because GoSLIM is user parameter free, it is easy to use in practical applications. Moreover this paper considers channel equalization and symbol detection for various MIMO transmission schemes, including both space-time block coding and spatial multiplexing, under the challenging channel conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed approaches is demonstrated using in-water experimental measurements recently acquired during WHOI09 and ACOMM10 experiments. PMID:21786895

  13. Formant-Frequency Variation and Informational Masking of Speech by Extraneous Formants: Evidence Against Dynamic and Speech-Specific Acoustical Constraints

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    How speech is separated perceptually from other speech remains poorly understood. Recent research indicates that the ability of an extraneous formant to impair intelligibility depends on the variation of its frequency contour. This study explored the effects of manipulating the depth and pattern of that variation. Three formants (F1+F2+F3) constituting synthetic analogues of natural sentences were distributed across the 2 ears, together with a competitor for F2 (F2C) that listeners must reject to optimize recognition (left = F1+F2C; right = F2+F3). The frequency contours of F1 − F3 were each scaled to 50% of their natural depth, with little effect on intelligibility. Competitors were created either by inverting the frequency contour of F2 about its geometric mean (a plausibly speech-like pattern) or using a regular and arbitrary frequency contour (triangle wave, not plausibly speech-like) matched to the average rate and depth of variation for the inverted F2C. Adding a competitor typically reduced intelligibility; this reduction depended on the depth of F2C variation, being greatest for 100%-depth, intermediate for 50%-depth, and least for 0%-depth (constant) F2Cs. This suggests that competitor impact depends on overall depth of frequency variation, not depth relative to that for the target formants. The absence of tuning (i.e., no minimum in intelligibility for the 50% case) suggests that the ability to reject an extraneous formant does not depend on similarity in the depth of formant-frequency variation. Furthermore, triangle-wave competitors were as effective as their more speech-like counterparts, suggesting that the selection of formants from the ensemble also does not depend on speech-specific constraints. PMID:24842068

  14. Formant-frequency variation and informational masking of speech by extraneous formants: evidence against dynamic and speech-specific acoustical constraints.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Brian; Summers, Robert J; Bailey, Peter J

    2014-08-01

    How speech is separated perceptually from other speech remains poorly understood. Recent research indicates that the ability of an extraneous formant to impair intelligibility depends on the variation of its frequency contour. This study explored the effects of manipulating the depth and pattern of that variation. Three formants (F1+F2+F3) constituting synthetic analogues of natural sentences were distributed across the 2 ears, together with a competitor for F2 (F2C) that listeners must reject to optimize recognition (left = F1+F2C; right = F2+F3). The frequency contours of F1 - F3 were each scaled to 50% of their natural depth, with little effect on intelligibility. Competitors were created either by inverting the frequency contour of F2 about its geometric mean (a plausibly speech-like pattern) or using a regular and arbitrary frequency contour (triangle wave, not plausibly speech-like) matched to the average rate and depth of variation for the inverted F2C. Adding a competitor typically reduced intelligibility; this reduction depended on the depth of F2C variation, being greatest for 100%-depth, intermediate for 50%-depth, and least for 0%-depth (constant) F2Cs. This suggests that competitor impact depends on overall depth of frequency variation, not depth relative to that for the target formants. The absence of tuning (i.e., no minimum in intelligibility for the 50% case) suggests that the ability to reject an extraneous formant does not depend on similarity in the depth of formant-frequency variation. Furthermore, triangle-wave competitors were as effective as their more speech-like counterparts, suggesting that the selection of formants from the ensemble also does not depend on speech-specific constraints. PMID:24842068

  15. Template based low data rate speech encoder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fransen, Lawrence

    1993-09-01

    The 2400-b/s linear predictive coder (LPC) is currently being widely deployed to support tactical voice communication over narrowband channels. However, there is a need for lower-data-rate voice encoders for special applications: improved performance in high bit-error conditions, low-probability-of-intercept (LPI) voice communication, and narrowband integrated voice/data systems. An 800-b/s voice encoding algorithm is presented which is an extension of the 2400-b/s LPC. To construct template tables, speech samples of 420 speakers uttering 8 sentences each were excerpted from the Texas Instrument - Massachusetts Institute of Technology (TIMIT) Acoustic-Phonetic Speech Data Base. Speech intelligibility of the 800-b/s voice encoding algorithm measured by the diagnostic rhyme test (DRT) is 91.5 for three male speakers. This score compares favorably with the 2400-b/s LPC of a few years ago.

  16. Speech masking and cancelling and voice obscuration

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, John F.

    2013-09-10

    A non-acoustic sensor is used to measure a user's speech and then broadcasts an obscuring acoustic signal diminishing the user's vocal acoustic output intensity and/or distorting the voice sounds making them unintelligible to persons nearby. The non-acoustic sensor is positioned proximate or contacting a user's neck or head skin tissue for sensing speech production information.

  17. Speech disorders - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... deficiency; Voice disorders; Vocal disorders; Disfluency; Communication disorder - speech disorder ... The following tests can help diagnose speech disorders: Denver ... Peabody Picture Test Revised A hearing test may also be done.

  18. Speech disorders - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... person has problems creating or forming the speech sounds needed to communicate with others. Three common speech ... are disorders in which a person repeats a sound, word, or phrase. Stuttering may be the most ...

  19. A pilot study on the efficacy of melodic based communication therapy for eliciting speech in nonverbal children with autism.

    PubMed

    Sandiford, Givona A; Mainess, Karen J; Daher, Noha S

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of melodic based communication therapy (MBCT) to traditional speech and language therapy for eliciting speech in nonverbal children with autism. Participants were 12 nonverbal children with autism ages 5 through 7 randomly assigned to either treatment group. Both groups made significant progress after treatment. The MBCT group progressed significantly in number of verbal attempts after weeks 1 through 4 and number of correct words after weeks 1 and 3, while the traditional group progressed significantly after weeks 4 and 5. No significant differences in number of verbal attempts or number of correct words were noted between groups following treatment. A significant number of new words were heard in the home environment for the MBCT group (p = .04). Participants in the MBCT group had more imitative attempts (p = .03). MBCT appears to be a valid form of intervention for children with autism. PMID:23065117

  20. Design Foundations for Content-Rich Acoustic Interfaces: Investigating Audemes as Referential Non-Speech Audio Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferati, Mexhid Adem

    2012-01-01

    To access interactive systems, blind and visually impaired users can leverage their auditory senses by using non-speech sounds. The current structure of non-speech sounds, however, is geared toward conveying user interface operations (e.g., opening a file) rather than large theme-based information (e.g., a history passage) and, thus, is ill-suited…

  1. Speech Enhancement Using Microphone Arrays.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adugna, Eneyew

    Arrays of sensors have been employed effectively in communication systems for the directional transmission and reception of electromagnetic waves. Among the numerous benefits, this helps improve the signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) of the signal at the receiver. Arrays have since been used in related areas that employ propagating waves for the transmission of information. Several investigators have successfully adopted array principles to acoustics, sonar, seismic, and medical imaging. In speech applications the microphone is used as the sensor for acoustic data acquisition. The performance of subsequent speech processing algorithms--such as speech recognition or speaker recognition--relies heavily on the level of interference within the transduced or recorded speech signal. The normal practice is to use a single, hand-held or head-mounted, microphone. Under most environmental conditions, i.e., environments where other acoustic sources are also active, the speech signal from a single microphone is a superposition of acoustic signals present in the environment. Such cases represent a lower SIR value. To alleviate this problem an array of microphones--linear array, planar array, and 3-dimensional arrays--have been suggested and implemented. This work focuses on microphone arrays in room environments where reverberation is the main source of interference. The acoustic wave incident on the array from a point source is sampled and recorded by a linear array of sensors along with reflected waves. Array signal processing algorithms are developed and used to remove reverberations from the signal received by the array. Signals from other positions are considered as interference. Unlike most studies that deal with plane waves, we base our algorithm on spherical waves originating at a source point. This is especially true for room environments. The algorithm consists of two stages--a first stage to locate the source and a second stage to focus on the source. The first part

  2. The Performance Appraisal Interview and Evaluation of Student Performances in Speech Communication Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erhart, Joseph F.

    1976-01-01

    Suggests that the performance appraisal interview be used to evaluate student speeches and other performances and discusses three preferred methods for conducting the interview, the merits of the three methods, and suggestions for implementing these methods. (MH)

  3. A Graphic Symbol Tool for the Evaluation of Communication, Satisfaction and Priorities of Individuals with Intellectual Disability Who Use a Speech Generating Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiquette, Christine; Sutton, Ann; Ska, Bernadette

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the views of individuals with learning disability (LD) on their use of their speech generating devices (SGDs), their satisfaction about their communication, and their priorities. The development of an interview tool made of graphic symbols and entitled Communication, Satisfaction and Priorities of SGD Users (CSPU) is…

  4. Language, Speech, and Communication Skills Training: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1978 (Vol. 38 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 21 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: communications curricula for technical education programs; the recorded oral communication of business students; interactions between parents and speech-language…

  5. Communication-based Services for Persons with Severe Disabilities: A Survey of Speech-Language Pathologists Working in North Carolina Residential Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Billy T.; Sportsman, J. Scott; VanGiesen, Todd; Siegel, Ellin

    2000-01-01

    A study examined the opinions and practices of 28 speech-language pathologists specific to best practice communication-based service delivery for persons with severe disabilities. Pathologists reported to value highly and, to a lesser degree, to practice indicators of quality communication-based service delivery. Significant differences between…

  6. Speech articulator measurements using low power EM-wave sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Burnett, G.C.; Ng, L.C.; Lea, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    Very low power electromagnetic (EM) wave sensors are being used to measure speech articulator motions as speech is produced. Glottal tissue oscillations, jaw, tongue, soft palate, and other organs have been measured. Previously, microwave imaging (e.g., using radar sensors) appears not to have been considered for such monitoring. Glottal tissue movements detected by radar sensors correlate well with those obtained by established laboratory techniques, and have been used to estimate a voiced excitation function for speech processing applications. The noninvasive access, coupled with the small size, low power, and high resolution of these new sensors, permit promising research and development applications in speech production, communication disorders, speech recognition and related topics. {copyright} {ital 1998 Acoustical Society of America.}

  7. Correlation of subjective and objective measures of speech intelligibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, Erica E.; Wang, Lily M.; Palahanska, Milena S.

    2003-10-01

    Currently there are a number of objective evaluation methods used to quantify the speech intelligibility in a built environment, including the Speech Transmission Index (STI), Rapid Speech Transmission Index (RASTI), Articulation Index (AI), and the Percentage Articulation Loss of Consonants (%ALcons). Many of these have been used for years; however, questions remain about their accuracy in predicting the acoustics of a space. Current widely used software programs can quickly evaluate STI, RASTI, and %ALcons from a measured impulse response. This project compares subjective human performance on modified rhyme and phonetically balanced word tests with objective results calculated from impulse response measurements in four different spaces. The results of these tests aid in understanding performance of various methods of speech intelligibility evaluation. [Work supported by the Univ. of Nebraska Center for Building Integration.] For Speech Communication Best Student Paper Award.

  8. An Acoustic OFDM System with Symbol-by-Symbol Doppler Compensation for Underwater Communication.

    PubMed

    MinhHai, Tran; Rie, Saotome; Suzuki, Taisaku; Wada, Tomohisa

    2016-01-01

    We propose an acoustic OFDM system for underwater communication, specifically for vertical link communications such as between a robot in the sea bottom and a mother ship in the surface. The main contributions are (1) estimation of time varying Doppler shift using continual pilots in conjunction with monitoring the drift of Power Delay Profile and (2) symbol-by-symbol Doppler compensation in frequency domain by an ICI matrix representing nonuniform Doppler. In addition, we compare our proposal against a resampling method. Simulation and experimental results confirm that our system outperforms the resampling method when the velocity changes roughly over OFDM symbols. Overall, experimental results taken in Shizuoka, Japan, show our system using 16QAM, and 64QAM achieved a data throughput of 7.5 Kbit/sec with a transmitter moving at maximum 2 m/s, in a complicated trajectory, over 30 m vertically. PMID:27057558

  9. Comparison of two underwater acoustic communications techniques for multi-user access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hursky, Paul; Siderius, T. Martin; Kauaiex Group

    2001-05-01

    Frequency hopped frequency shift keying (FHFSK) and code division multiple access (CDMA) are two different modulation techniques for multiple users to communicate with a single receiver simultaneously. In July 2003, these two techniques were tested alongside each other in a shallow water coastal environment off the coast of Kauai. A variety of instruments were used to measure the prevailing oceanography, enabling detailed modeling of the channel. The channel was acoustically probed using LFM waveforms and m-sequences as well. We will present the results of demodulating the FHFSK and CDMA waveforms and discuss modeling the channel for the purpose of predicting multi-user communications performance. a)Michael B. Porter, Paul Hursky, Martin Siderius (SAIC), Mohsen Badiey (UD), Jerald Caruthers (USM), William S. Hodgkiss, Kaustubha Raghukumar (SIO), Dan Rouseff, Warren Fox (APL-UW), Christian de Moustier, Brian Calder, Barbara J. Kraft (UNH), Keyko McDonald (SPAWARSSC), Peter Stein, James K. Lewis, and Subramaniam Rajan (SSI).

  10. An Acoustic OFDM System with Symbol-by-Symbol Doppler Compensation for Underwater Communication

    PubMed Central

    MinhHai, Tran; Rie, Saotome; Suzuki, Taisaku; Wada, Tomohisa

    2016-01-01

    We propose an acoustic OFDM system for underwater communication, specifically for vertical link communications such as between a robot in the sea bottom and a mother ship in the surface. The main contributions are (1) estimation of time varying Doppler shift using continual pilots in conjunction with monitoring the drift of Power Delay Profile and (2) symbol-by-symbol Doppler compensation in frequency domain by an ICI matrix representing nonuniform Doppler. In addition, we compare our proposal against a resampling method. Simulation and experimental results confirm that our system outperforms the resampling method when the velocity changes roughly over OFDM symbols. Overall, experimental results taken in Shizuoka, Japan, show our system using 16QAM, and 64QAM achieved a data throughput of 7.5 Kbit/sec with a transmitter moving at maximum 2 m/s, in a complicated trajectory, over 30 m vertically. PMID:27057558

  11. Seabird acoustic communication at sea: a new perspective using bio-logging devices

    PubMed Central

    Thiebault, Andréa; Pistorius, Pierre; Mullers, Ralf; Tremblay, Yann

    2016-01-01

    Most seabirds are very noisy at their breeding colonies, when aggregated in high densities. Calls are used for individual recognition and also emitted during agonistic interactions. When at sea, many seabirds aggregate over patchily distributed resources and may benefit from foraging in groups. Because these aggregations are so common, it raises the question of whether seabirds use acoustic communication when foraging at sea? We deployed video-cameras with built in microphones on 36 Cape gannets (Morus capensis) during the breeding season of 2010–2011 at Bird Island (Algoa Bay, South Africa) to study their foraging behaviour and vocal activity at sea. Group formation was derived from the camera footage. During ~42 h, calls were recorded on 72 occasions from 16 birds. Vocalization exclusively took place in the presence of conspecifics, and mostly in feeding aggregations (81% of the vocalizations). From the observation of the behaviours of birds associated with the emission of calls, we suggest that the calls were emitted to avoid collisions between birds. Our observations show that at least some seabirds use acoustic communication when foraging at sea. These findings open up new perspectives for research on seabirds foraging ecology and their interactions at sea. PMID:27492779

  12. Frequency-selective fading statistics of shallow-water acoustic communication channel with a few multipaths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Minja; Park, Jihyun; Kim, Jongju; Xue, Dandan; Park, Kyu-Chil; Yoon, Jong Rak

    2016-07-01

    The bit error rate of an underwater acoustic communication system is related to multipath fading statistics, which determine the signal-to-noise ratio. The amplitude and delay of each path depend on sea surface roughness, propagation medium properties, and source-to-receiver range as a function of frequency. Therefore, received signals will show frequency-dependent fading. A shallow-water acoustic communication channel generally shows a few strong multipaths that interfere with each other and the resulting interference affects the fading statistics model. In this study, frequency-selective fading statistics are modeled on the basis of the phasor representation of the complex path amplitude. The fading statistics distribution is parameterized by the frequency-dependent constructive or destructive interference of multipaths. At a 16 m depth with a muddy bottom, a wave height of 0.2 m, and source-to-receiver ranges of 100 and 400 m, fading statistics tend to show a Rayleigh distribution at a destructive interference frequency, but a Rice distribution at a constructive interference frequency. The theoretical fading statistics well matched the experimental ones.

  13. Seabird acoustic communication at sea: a new perspective using bio-logging devices.

    PubMed

    Thiebault, Andréa; Pistorius, Pierre; Mullers, Ralf; Tremblay, Yann

    2016-01-01

    Most seabirds are very noisy at their breeding colonies, when aggregated in high densities. Calls are used for individual recognition and also emitted during agonistic interactions. When at sea, many seabirds aggregate over patchily distributed resources and may benefit from foraging in groups. Because these aggregations are so common, it raises the question of whether seabirds use acoustic communication when foraging at sea? We deployed video-cameras with built in microphones on 36 Cape gannets (Morus capensis) during the breeding season of 2010-2011 at Bird Island (Algoa Bay, South Africa) to study their foraging behaviour and vocal activity at sea. Group formation was derived from the camera footage. During ~42 h, calls were recorded on 72 occasions from 16 birds. Vocalization exclusively took place in the presence of conspecifics, and mostly in feeding aggregations (81% of the vocalizations). From the observation of the behaviours of birds associated with the emission of calls, we suggest that the calls were emitted to avoid collisions between birds. Our observations show that at least some seabirds use acoustic communication when foraging at sea. These findings open up new perspectives for research on seabirds foraging ecology and their interactions at sea. PMID:27492779

  14. Ant pupae employ acoustics to communicate social status in their colony's hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Casacci, Luca P; Thomas, Jeremy A; Sala, Marco; Treanor, David; Bonelli, Simona; Balletto, Emilio; Schönrogge, Karsten

    2013-02-18

    The possession of an efficient communication system and an ability to distinguish between young stages are essential attributes that enable eusocial insects to live in complex integrated societies. Although ants communicate primarily via chemicals, it is increasingly clear that acoustical signals also convey important information, including status, between adults in many species. However, all immature stages were believed to be mute. We confirm that larvae and recently formed pupae of Myrmica ants are mute, yet once they are sclerotized, the pupae possess a fully functioning stridulatory organ. The sounds generated by worker pupae were similar to those of workers but were emitted as single pulses rather than in the long sequences characteristic of adults; both induced the same range and intensity of benevolent behaviors when played back to unstressed workers. Both white and sclerotized pupae have a higher social status than larvae within Myrmica colonies, but the latter's status fell significantly after they were made mute. Our results suggest that acoustical signals supplant semiochemicals as a means of identification in sclerotized pupae, perhaps because their hardened integuments block the secretion of brood pheromones or because their developing adult secretions initially differ from overall colony odors. PMID:23394832

  15. Coherent acoustic communication in a tidal estuary with busy shipping traffic.

    PubMed

    van Walree, Paul A; Neasham, Jeffrey A; Schrijver, Marco C

    2007-12-01

    High-rate acoustic communication experiments were conducted in a dynamic estuarine environment. Two current profilers deployed in a shipping lane were interfaced with acoustic modems, which modulated and transmitted the sensor readings every 200 s over a period of four days. QPSK modulation was employed at a raw data rate of 8 kbits on a 12-kHz carrier. Two 16-element hydrophone arrays, one horizontal and one vertical, were deployed near the shore. A multichannel decision-feedback equalizer was used to demodulate the modem signals received on both arrays. Long-term statistical analysis reveals the effects of the tidal cycle, subsea unit location, attenuation by the wake of passing vessels, and high levels of ship-generated noise on the fidelity of the communication links. The use of receiver arrays enables vast improvement in the overall reliability of data delivery compared with a single-receiver system, with performance depending strongly on array orientation. The vertical array offers the best performance overall, although the horizontal array proves more robust against shipping noise. Spatial coherence estimates, variation of array aperture, and inspection of array angular responses point to adaptive beamforming and coherent combining as the chief mechanisms of array gain. PMID:18247758

  16. Effect of temperature on acoustic communication: sound production in the croaking gourami (labyrinth fishes).

    PubMed

    Ladich, Friedrich; Schleinzer, Günter

    2015-04-01

    Sound communication comprising the production and detection of acoustic signals is affected by ambient temperature in ectothermic animals. In the present study we investigated the effects of temperature on sound production and characteristics in the croaking gourami Trichopsis vittata, a freshwater fish from Southeast Asia possessing a highly specialized sound-generating mechanism found only in a single genus. The croaking gourami produces pulsed sounds by stretching and plucking two enhanced pectoral fin tendons during rapid pectoral fin beating. Croaking sounds typically consist of a series of double-pulsed bursts with main energies between 1 and 1.5 kHz. Sounds were recorded during dyadic contests between two males at three different temperatures (25°, 30° and 35°C). The mean dominant frequency increased with rising temperature from 1.18 to 1.33 kHz, whereas temporal characteristics decreased. The sound interval dropped from 492 to 259 ms, the burst period from 51 to 35 ms and the pulse period from 5.8 to 5.1 ms. In contrast, the number of sounds and number of bursts within a sound were not affected by temperature. The current study shows that spectral and temporal characteristics of sounds are affected in different ways by temperature in the croaking gourami, whereas the numbers of sounds and bursts remain unaffected. We conclude that acoustic communication in gouramis is affected by changes in ambient temperature. PMID:25433336

  17. Selective and Efficient Neural Coding of Communication Signals Depends on Early Acoustic and Social Environment

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Noopur; Gastpar, Michael; Theunissen, Frédéric E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that postnatal exposure to simple, synthetic sounds can affect the sound representation in the auditory cortex as reflected by changes in the tonotopic map or other relatively simple tuning properties, such as AM tuning. However, their functional implications for neural processing in the generation of ethologically-based perception remain unexplored. Here we examined the effects of noise-rearing and social isolation on the neural processing of communication sounds such as species-specific song, in the primary auditory cortex analog of adult zebra finches. Our electrophysiological recordings reveal that neural tuning to simple frequency-based synthetic sounds is initially established in all the laminae independent of patterned acoustic experience; however, we provide the first evidence that early exposure to patterned sound statistics, such as those found in native sounds, is required for the subsequent emergence of neural selectivity for complex vocalizations and for shaping neural spiking precision in superficial and deep cortical laminae, and for creating efficient neural representations of song and a less redundant ensemble code in all the laminae. Our study also provides the first causal evidence for ‘sparse coding’, such that when the statistics of the stimuli were changed during rearing, as in noise-rearing, that the sparse or optimal representation for species-specific vocalizations disappeared. Taken together, these results imply that a layer-specific differential development of the auditory cortex requires patterned acoustic input, and a specialized and robust sensory representation of complex communication sounds in the auditory cortex requires a rich acoustic and social environment. PMID:23630587

  18. "Perception of the speech code" revisited: Speech is alphabetic after all.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Carol A; Shankweiler, Donald; Studdert-Kennedy, Michael

    2016-03-01

    We revisit an article, "Perception of the Speech Code" (PSC), published in this journal 50 years ago (Liberman, Cooper, Shankweiler, & Studdert-Kennedy, 1967) and address one of its legacies concerning the status of phonetic segments, which persists in theories of speech today. In the perspective of PSC, segments both exist (in language as known) and do not exist (in articulation or the acoustic speech signal). Findings interpreted as showing that speech is not a sound alphabet, but, rather, phonemes are encoded in the signal, coupled with findings that listeners perceive articulation, led to the motor theory of speech perception, a highly controversial legacy of PSC. However, a second legacy, the paradoxical perspective on segments has been mostly unquestioned. We remove the paradox by offering an alternative supported by converging evidence that segments exist in language both as known and as used. We support the existence of segments in both language knowledge and in production by showing that phonetic segments are articulatory and dynamic and that coarticulation does not eliminate them. We show that segments leave an acoustic signature that listeners can track. This suggests that speech is well-adapted to public communication in facilitating, not creating a barrier to, exchange of language forms. PMID:26301536

  19. Psychoacoustic cues to emotion in speech prosody and music.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Eduardo; Dibben, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    There is strong evidence of shared acoustic profiles common to the expression of emotions in music and speech, yet relatively limited understanding of the specific psychoacoustic features involved. This study combined a controlled experiment and computational modelling to investigate the perceptual codes associated with the expression of emotion in the acoustic domain. The empirical stage of the study provided continuous human ratings of emotions perceived in excerpts of film music and natural speech samples. The computational stage created a computer model that retrieves the relevant information from the acoustic stimuli and makes predictions about the emotional expressiveness of speech and music close to the responses of human subjects. We show that a significant part of the listeners' second-by-second reported emotions to music and speech prosody can be predicted from a set of seven psychoacoustic features: loudness, tempo/speech rate, melody/prosody contour, spectral centroid, spectral flux, sharpness, and roughness. The implications of these results are discussed in the context of cross-modal similarities in the communication of emotion in the acoustic domain. PMID:23057507

  20. Evolving homogeneous neurocontrollers for a group of heterogeneous robots: coordinated motion, cooperation, and acoustic communication.

    PubMed

    Tuci, Elio; Ampatzis, Christos; Vicentini, Federico; Dorigo, Marco

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a simulation model in which artificial evolution is used to design homogeneous control structures and adaptive communication protocols for a group of three autonomous simulated robots. The agents are required to cooperate in order to approach a light source while avoiding collisions. The robots are morphologically different: Two of them are equipped with infrared sensors, one with light sensors. Thus, the two morphologically identical robots should take care of obstacle avoidance; the other one should take care of phototaxis. Since all of the agents can emit and perceive sound, the group's coordination of actions is based on acoustic communication. The results of this study are a proof of concept: They show that dynamic artificial neural networks can be successfully synthesized by artificial evolution to design the neural mechanisms required to underpin the behavioral strategies and adaptive communication capabilities demanded by this task. Postevaluation analyses unveil operational aspects of the best evolved behavior. Our results suggest that the building blocks and the evolutionary machinery detailed in the article should be considered in future research work dealing with the design of homogeneous controllers for groups of heterogeneous cooperating and communicating robots. PMID:18331188

  1. Time-expanded speech and speech recognition in older adults.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Nancy E; Furukawa, Izumi; Balasingam, Nirmala; Mortz, Margaret; Fausti, Stephen A

    2002-01-01

    Speech understanding deficits are common in older adults. In addition to hearing sensitivity, changes in certain cognitive functions may affect speech recognition. One such change that may impact the ability to follow a rapidly changing speech signal is processing speed. When speakers slow the rate of their speech naturally in order to speak clearly, speech recognition is improved. The acoustic characteristics of naturally slowed speech are of interest in developing time-expansion algorithms to improve speech recognition for older listeners. In this study, we tested younger normally hearing, older normally hearing, and older hearing-impaired listeners on time-expanded speech using increased duration and increased intensity of unvoiced consonants. Although all groups performed best on unprocessed speech, performance with processed speech was better with the consonant gain feature without time expansion in the noise condition and better at the slowest time-expanded rate in the quiet condition. The effects of signal processing on speech recognition are discussed. PMID:17642020

  2. Experimental investigation of the effects of the acoustical conditions in a simulated classroom on speech recognition and learning in children a

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Daniel L.; Plevinsky, Hallie M.; Franco, John M.; Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth C.; Lewis, Dawna E.

    2012-01-01

    The potential effects of acoustical environment on speech understanding are especially important as children enter school where students’ ability to hear and understand complex verbal information is critical to learning. However, this ability is compromised because of widely varied and unfavorable classroom acoustics. The extent to which unfavorable classroom acoustics affect children’s performance on longer learning tasks is largely unknown as most research has focused on testing children using words, syllables, or sentences as stimuli. In the current study, a simulated classroom environment was used to measure comprehension performance of two classroom learning activities: a discussion and lecture. Comprehension performance was measured for groups of elementary-aged students in one of four environments with varied reverberation times and background noise levels. The reverberation time was either 0.6 or 1.5 s, and the signal-to-noise level was either +10 or +7 dB. Performance is compared to adult subjects as well as to sentence-recognition in the same condition. Significant differences were seen in comprehension scores as a function of age and condition; both increasing background noise and reverberation degraded performance in comprehension tasks compared to minimal differences in measures of sentence-recognition. PMID:22280587

  3. Towards a Sign Language Synthesizer: a Bridge to Communication Gap of the Hearing/Speech Impaired Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maarif, H. A.; Akmeliawati, R.; Gunawan, T. S.; Shafie, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Sign language synthesizer is a method to visualize the sign language movement from the spoken language. The sign language (SL) is one of means used by HSI people to communicate to normal people. But, unfortunately the number of people, including the HSI people, who are familiar with sign language is very limited. These cause difficulties in the communication between the normal people and the HSI people. The sign language is not only hand movement but also the face expression. Those two elements have complimentary aspect each other. The hand movement will show the meaning of each signing and the face expression will show the emotion of a person. Generally, Sign language synthesizer will recognize the spoken language by using speech recognition, the grammatical process will involve context free grammar, and 3D synthesizer will take part by involving recorded avatar. This paper will analyze and compare the existing techniques of developing a sign language synthesizer, which leads to IIUM Sign Language Synthesizer.

  4. Speech coding

    SciTech Connect

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  5. Subjective analysis of a HMM-based visual speech synthesizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jay J.; Katsaggelos, Aggelos K.; Garstecki, Dean C.

    2001-06-01

    Emerging broadband communication systems promise a future of multimedia telephony. The addition of visual information, for example, during telephone conversions would be most beneficial to people with impaired hearing useful for speech reading, based on existing narrowband communications system used for speech signal. A Hidden Markov Model (HMM)-based visual speech synthesizer is designed to improve speech understanding. The key elements in the application of HMMs to this problem are: a) the decomposition of the overall modeling task into key stages; and, b) the judicious determination of the components of the observation vector for each stage. The main contribution of this paper is the development of a novel correlation HMM model that is able to integrate independently trained acoustic and visual HMMs for speech-to-visual synthesis. This model allows increased flexibility in choosing model topologies for the acoustic and visual HMMs. It also reduces the amount of required training data compared to early integration modeling techniques. Results form objective and subjective analysis show that an HMM correlating model can significantly decrease audio-visual synchronization errors and increase speech understanding.

  6. Differential Diagnosis of Severe Speech Disorders Using Speech Gestures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Ruth Huntley

    2005-01-01

    The differentiation of childhood apraxia of speech from severe phonological disorder is a common clinical problem. This article reports on an attempt to describe speech errors in children with childhood apraxia of speech on the basis of gesture use and acoustic analyses of articulatory gestures. The focus was on the movement of articulators and…

  7. Important and Unimportant Organizational Communication: Public Employee Freedom of Speech after "Connick v. Myers."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Wayne C.

    A review of 16 Federal Court of Appeals cases indicates the impact of the "Connick v. Myers" case on the nature of freedom of speech in public organizations. The case involved the firing of an assistant district attorney for circulating a job satisfaction survey after she was transferred to a less desirable section of the courts. Since the 1983…

  8. Exploring School Life from the Lens of a Child Who Does Not Use Speech to Communicate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajodhia-Andrews, Amanda; Berman, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    The "new sociology of childhood" emphasizes listening to the voices of children when conducting research about their lives. In keeping with this framework, the following case study highlights the use of inclusive strategies and the importance of the researcher's orientation in exploring the perspectives of a child who does not use speech to…

  9. Acoustic communication in the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) an examination into vocal sacs, sound propagation, and signal directionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dantzker, Marc Steven

    The thesis is an inquiry into the acoustic communication of a very unusual avian species, the Greater Sage-Grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus. One of the most outstanding features of this animal's dynamic mating display is its use of paired air sacs that emerge explosively from an esophageal pouch. My first line of inquiry into this system is a review of the form and function of similar vocal apparatuses, collectively called vocal sacs, in birds. Next, with a combination of mathematical models and field measurements, My collaborator and I investigate the acoustic environment where the Greater Sage-Grouse display. The complexities of this acoustic environment are relevant both to the birds and to the subsequent examinations of the display's properties. Finally, my collaborators and I examine a cryptic component of the acoustic display --- directionality --- which we measured simultaneously from multiple locations around free moving grouse on their mating grounds.

  10. Reverberation and frequency attenuation in forests-implications for acoustic communication in animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padgham, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Rates of reverberative decay and frequency attenuation are measured within two Australian forests. In particular, their dependence on the distance between a source and receiver, and the relative heights of both, is examined. Distance is always the most influential of these factors. The structurally denser of the forests exhibits much slower reverberative decay, although the frequency dependence of reverberation is qualitatively similar in the two forests. There exists a central range of frequencies between 1 and 3 kHz within which reverberation varies relatively little with distance. Attenuation is much greater within the structurally denser forest, and in both forests it generally increases with increasing frequency and distance, although patterns of variation differ between the two forests. Increasing the source height generally reduces reverberation, while increasing the receiver height generally reduces attenuation. These findings have considerable implications for acoustic communication between inhabitants of these forests, particularly for the perching behaviors of birds. Furthermore, this work indicates the ease with which the general acoustic properties of forests can be measured and compared.

  11. Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum Modulation for Utility Packet Transmission in Underwater Acoustic Communication Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Peter S.

    2002-09-01

    This thesis investigates the feasibility and performance of using Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum (DSSS) modulation for utility-packet transmission in Seaweb underwater wireless acoustic communications networks, Seaweb networks require robust channel-tolerant utility packets having a low probability of detection (LPD) and allowing for multi-user access, MATLAB code simulated the DSSS transmitter and receiver structures and a modeled channel impulse response represented the underwater environment, The specific modulation scheme implemented is direct-sequence, differentially encoded binary phase-shift keying (DS-DBPSK) with quadrature spreading, Performance is examined using Monte Carlo simulation Bit error rates and packet error rates for various signal-to-noise ratios and channel conditions are presented and the use of a RAKE receiver, forward error-correction coding and symbol interleaving are examined for improving system performance.

  12. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Traceability of acoustic emission measurements using energy calibration methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, T.; Jones, B. E.

    2000-11-01

    Passive acoustic emission (AE) methods are becoming useful tools for integrity assessment of structures, monitoring of industrial processes and machines, and materials characterization. Unfortunately, there are no measurement standards for estimating the absolute strength of the AE sources. The lack of standardization makes it very difficult to compare the results obtained in different laboratories or on different structures, and to obtain meaningful repeatability of measurements. Therefore, current methods only give a qualitative rather than quantitative indication of the change of state of structure or process. This communication outlines a way of calibrating AE transducer systems in situ using a pulsed-laser-generated thermoelastic AE energy source or a bouncing-ball-generated elastic impact AE energy source. The methods presented here should enable traceable measurement standards to be established for AE.

  13. Study of environmental sound source identification based on hidden Markov model for robust speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiura, Takanobu; Nakamura, Satoshi

    2003-10-01

    Humans communicate with each other through speech by focusing on the target speech among environmental sounds in real acoustic environments. We can easily identify the target sound from other environmental sounds. For hands-free speech recognition, the identification of the target speech from environmental sounds is imperative. This mechanism may also be important for a self-moving robot to sense the acoustic environments and communicate with humans. Therefore, this paper first proposes hidden Markov model (HMM)-based environmental sound source identification. Environmental sounds are modeled by three states of HMMs and evaluated using 92 kinds of environmental sounds. The identification accuracy was 95.4%. This paper also proposes a new HMM composition method that composes speech HMMs and an HMM of categorized environmental sounds for robust environmental sound-added speech recognition. As a result of the evaluation experiments, we confirmed that the proposed HMM composition outperforms the conventional HMM composition with speech HMMs and a noise (environmental sound) HMM trained using noise periods prior to the target speech in a captured signal. [Work supported by Ministry of Public Management, Home Affairs, Posts and Telecommunications of Japan.

  14. A Multisensory Cortical Network for Understanding Speech in Noise

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Christopher W.; Miller, Lee M.

    2010-01-01

    In noisy environments, listeners tend to hear a speaker’s voice yet struggle to understand what is said. The most effective way to improve intelligibility in such conditions is to watch the speaker’s mouth movements. Here we identify the neural networks that distinguish understanding from merely hearing speech, and determine how the brain applies visual information to improve intelligibility. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that understanding speech-in-noise is supported by a network of brain areas including the left superior parietal lobule, the motor/premotor cortex, and the left anterior superior temporal sulcus (STS), a likely apex of the acoustic processing hierarchy. Multisensory integration likely improves comprehension through improved communication between the left temporal–occipital boundary, the left medial-temporal lobe, and the left STS. This demonstrates how the brain uses information from multiple modalities to improve speech comprehension in naturalistic, acoustically adverse conditions. PMID:18823249

  15. Perceptions of Communication before and after a Speech Pathology Intervention for an Adult with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Sheridan; Iacono, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to explore, from the perspective of key communication partners, the meaning of a communication intervention and associated changes for an adult with severe intellectual disability (ID). Method: The parents and key support workers of Mark, a 22-year-old man with ID and complex communication needs, were…

  16. Rate-constrained source separation for speech enhancement in wireless-communicated binaural hearing aids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayllón, David; Gil-Pita, Roberto; Rosa-Zurera, Manuel

    2013-12-01

    A recent trend in hearing aids is the connection of the left and right devices to collaborate between them. Binaural systems can provide natural binaural hearing and support the improvement of speech intelligibility in noise, but they require data transmission between both devices, which increases the power consumption. This paper presents a novel sound source separation algorithm for binaural speech enhancement based on supervised machine learning and time-frequency masking. The system is designed considering the power restrictions in hearing aids, constraining both the computational cost of the algorithm and the transmission bit rate. The transmission schema is optimized using a tailored evolutionary algorithm that assigns a different number of bits to each frequency band. The proposed algorithm requires less than 10% of the available computational resources for signal processing and obtains good separation performance using bit rates lower than 64 kbps.

  17. Minke whale song, spacing, and acoustic communication on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedamke, Jason

    associated contextual data of recorded sounds were analyzed. Two categories of sound are described here: (1) patterned song, which was regularly repeated in one of three patterns: slow, fast, and rapid-clustered repetition, and (2) non-patterned "social" sounds recorded from gregarious assemblages of whales. These discrete acoustic signals may comprise a graded system of communication (Slow/fast song → Rapid-clustered song → Social sounds) that is related to the spacing between whales.

  18. The effects of hearing protectors on speech communication and the perception of warning signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suter, Alice H.

    1989-06-01

    Because hearing protectors attenuate the noise and signal by equal amounts within a given frequency range, reducing both to a level where there is less likelihood of distortion, they often provide improved listening conditions. The crossover level from disadvantage to advantage usually occurs between 80 and 90 dB. However, hearing protectors may adversely affect speech recognition under a variety of conditions. For hearing-impaired listeners, whose average hearing levels at 2000, 3000, and 4000 Hz exceed 30 dB, certain speech sounds will fall below the level of audibility. Visual cues may decrease the disadvantage imposed by hearing protectors. However, the Occlusion Effect, which decreases vocal output when the talker wears protection, adversely affects the listener's speech recognition. The poorest performance occurs when both talkers and listeners wear protectors. Hearing protectors affect warning signal perception in a similar manner. Again the crossover level seems to be between 80 and 90 dB, and there is greater degradation for individuals with impaired hearing. Earmuffs appear to pose greater problems than plugs, and this is especially true of difficulties in signal localization. Earplugs produce mainly front-back localization errors, while earmuffs produce left-right localization errors as well. Earmuffs also drastically impede localization in the vertical plane.

  19. Speech Intelligibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Thomas

    Speech intelligibility (SI) is important for different fields of research, engineering and diagnostics in order to quantify very different phenomena like the quality of recordings, communication and playback devices, the reverberation of auditoria, characteristics of hearing impairment, benefit using hearing aids or combinations of these things.

  20. Frequency band-importance functions for auditory and auditory-visual speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Ken W.

    2005-04-01

    In many everyday listening environments, speech communication involves the integration of both acoustic and visual speech cues. This is especially true in noisy and reverberant environments where the speech signal is highly degraded, or when the listener has a hearing impairment. Understanding the mechanisms involved in auditory-visual integration is a primary interest of this work. Of particular interest is whether listeners are able to allocate their attention to various frequency regions of the speech signal differently under auditory-visual conditions and auditory-alone conditions. For auditory speech recognition, the most important frequency regions tend to be around 1500-3000 Hz, corresponding roughly to important acoustic cues for place of articulation. The purpose of this study is to determine the most important frequency region under auditory-visual speech conditions. Frequency band-importance functions for auditory and auditory-visual conditions were obtained by having subjects identify speech tokens under conditions where the speech-to-noise ratio of different parts of the speech spectrum is independently and randomly varied on every trial. Point biserial correlations were computed for each separate spectral region and the normalized correlations are interpreted as weights indicating the importance of each region. Relations among frequency-importance functions for auditory and auditory-visual conditions will be discussed.

  1. Speech Pathology Assistant. Trainee Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Hearing and Speech Action, Silver Spring, MD.

    Part of an instructional set which includes an instructor's guide, this trainee manual is designed to provide speech pathology students with some basic and essential knowledge about the communication process. The manual contains nine modules: (1) speech pathology assistant, (2) the bases of speech (structure and function of the speech mechanism,…

  2. ON THE NATURE OF SPEECH SCIENCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PETERSON, GORDON E.

    IN THIS ARTICLE THE NATURE OF THE DISCIPLINE OF SPEECH SCIENCE IS CONSIDERED AND THE VARIOUS BASIC AND APPLIED AREAS OF THE DISCIPLINE ARE DISCUSSED. THE BASIC AREAS ENCOMPASS THE VARIOUS PROCESSES OF THE PHYSIOLOGY OF SPEECH PRODUCTION, THE ACOUSTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SPEECH, INCLUDING THE SPEECH WAVE TYPES AND THE INFORMATION-BEARING ACOUSTIC…

  3. Effect of reflected and refracted signals on coherent underwater acoustic communication: results from the Kauai experiment (KauaiEx 2003).

    PubMed

    Rouseff, Daniel; Badiey, Mohsen; Song, Aijun

    2009-11-01

    The performance of a communications equalizer is quantified in terms of the number of acoustic paths that are treated as usable signal. The analysis uses acoustical and oceanographic data collected off the Hawaiian Island of Kauai. Communication signals were measured on an eight-element vertical array at two different ranges, 1 and 2 km, and processed using an equalizer based on passive time-reversal signal processing. By estimating the Rayleigh parameter, it is shown that all paths reflected by the sea surface at both ranges undergo incoherent scattering. It is demonstrated that some of these incoherently scattered paths are still useful for coherent communications. At range of 1 km, optimal communications performance is achieved when six acoustic paths are retained and all paths with more than one reflection off the sea surface are rejected. Consistent with a model that ignores loss from near-surface bubbles, the performance improves by approximately 1.8 dB when increasing the number of retained paths from four to six. The four-path results though are more stable and require less frequent channel estimation. At range of 2 km, ray refraction is observed and communications performance is optimal when some paths with two sea-surface reflections are retained. PMID:19894819

  4. Low probability of detection underwater acoustic communications using direct-sequence spread spectrum.

    PubMed

    Yang, T C; Yang, Wen-Bin

    2008-12-01

    Direct-sequence spread spectrum is used for underwater acoustic communications between nodes, at least one of which is moving. At-sea data show that the phase change due to source motion is significant: The differential phase between two adjacent symbols is often larger than the phase difference between symbols. This poses a challenge to phase-detection based receiver algorithms when the source or receiver is moving. A pair of energy detectors that are insensitive to the phase fluctuations is proposed, whose outputs are used to determine the relationship between adjacent symbols. Good performance is achieved for a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as low as -10 dB based on at-sea data. While the method can be applied to signaling using short code sequences, the focus in this paper is on long code sequences for the purpose of achieving a high processing gain (at the expense of a low data rate), so that communications can be carried out at a low input SNR to minimize the probability of detection (P(D)) by an interceptor. P(D) is calculated for a typical shallow water environment as a function of range for several source levels assuming a broadband energy detector with a known signal bandwidth. PMID:19206792

  5. Acoustic communication in two freshwater gobies: ambient noise and short-range propagation in shallow streams.

    PubMed

    Lugli, M; Fine, M L

    2003-07-01

    Noise is an important theoretical constraint on the evolution of signal form and sensory performance. In order to determine environmental constraints on the communication of two freshwater gobies Padogobius martensii and Gobius nigricans, numerous noise spectra were measured from quiet areas and ones adjacent to waterfalls and rapids in two shallow stony streams. Propagation of goby sounds and waterfall noise was also measured. A quiet window around 100 Hz is present in many noise spectra from noisy locations. The window lies between two noise sources, a low-frequency one attributed to turbulence, and a high-frequency one (200-500 Hz) attributed to bubble noise from water breaking the surface. Ambient noise from a waterfall (frequencies below 1 kHz) attenuates as much as 30 dB between 1 and 2 m, after which values are variable without further attenuation (i.e., buried in the noise floor). Similarly, courtship sounds of P. martensii attenuate as much as 30 dB between 5 and 50 cm. Since gobies are known to court in noisy as well as quiet locations in these streams, their acoustic communication system (sounds and auditory system) must be able to cope with short-range propagation dictated by shallow depths and ambient noise in noisy locations. PMID:12880062

  6. Time reversal multiple-input/multiple-output acoustic communication enhanced by parallel interference cancellation.

    PubMed

    Song, Aijun; Badiey, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    Multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO) techniques can lead to significant improvements of underwater acoustic communication capabilities. In this paper, receivers based on time reversal processing are developed for high frequency underwater MIMO channels. Time reversal followed by a single channel decision feedback equalizer, aided by frequent channel updates, is used to compensate for the time-varying inter-symbol interference. A parallel interference cancellation method is incorporated to suppress the co-channel interference in the MIMO system. The receiver performance is demonstrated by a 2008 shallow water experiment in Kauai, Hawaii. In the experiment, high frequency MIMO signals centered at 16 kHz were transmitted every hour during a 35 h period from an 8-element source array to a wide aperture 16-element vertical receiving array at 4 km range. The interference cancellation method is shown to generate significant performance enhancement, on average 2-4 dB in the output signal-to-noise ratio per data stream, throughout the 35 h MIMO transmissions. Further, communication performance and achieved data rates exhibit significant changes over the 35 h period as a result of stratification of the water column. PMID:22280591

  7. Communicative Intentions of Child-Directed Speech in Three Different Learning Environments: Observations from the Netherlands, and Rural and Urban Mozambique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Paul; Mastin, J. Douglas; Schots, Diede M. A.

    2015-01-01

    This article compares the communicative intentions observed in the speech addressed to children of 1;1 and 1;6 years old from three cultural communities: the Netherlands, rural Mozambique, and urban Mozambique. These communities represent two prototypical learning environments and a third hybrid: Western, urban, middle-class families; non-Western,…

  8. "Off the Radar:" The Framing of Speech, Language and Communication in the Description of Children with Special Educational Needs in Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mroz, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers how pre-service primary teachers in England (trainees) are supported to work with children with special educational needs (SEN) using a personalized learning task. The focus, in particular, considers how speech, language and communication skills are foregrounded in the reports describing children with moderate learning…

  9. "Do We Make Ourselves Clear?" Developing a Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties (SEBD) Support Service's Effectiveness in Detecting and Supporting Children Experiencing Speech, Language and Communication Difficulties (SLCD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiles, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Research has identified a significant relationship between social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBD) and speech, language and communication difficulties (SLCD). However, little has been published regarding the levels of knowledge and skill that practitioners working with pupils experiencing SEBD have in this important area, nor how…

  10. The Impact of the Picture Exchange Communication System on Requesting and Speech Development in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Similar Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganz, Jennifer B.; Simpson, Richard L.; Corbin-Newsome, Jawanda

    2008-01-01

    By definition children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) experience difficulty understanding and using language. Accordingly, visual and picture-based strategies such as the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) show promise in ameliorating speech and language deficits. This study reports the results of a multiple baseline across…

  11. Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions for Children with Speech, Language and Communication Needs (SLCN): A Review Using the Drummond and Jefferson (1996) "Referee's Checklist"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, James; Zeng, Biao; Lindsay, Geoff; Beecham, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although economic evaluation has been widely recognized as a key feature of both health services and educational research, for many years there has been a paucity of such studies relevant to services for children with speech, language and communication needs (SLCN), making the application of economic arguments to the development of…

  12. Speech, Language, and Communication Disorders. Papers Presented at the Annual International Convention of the Council for Exceptional Children (48th, Chicago, Illinois, April 19-25, 1970).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Exceptional Children, Arlington, VA.

    Speech, language, and communication disorders were among the topics of papers presented at the convention of the Council for Exceptional Children in Chicago, 1970. Discussions include evaluation theory and caseload selection by Lear Ashmore, differential diagnosis in a rural school by William L. Shinder, the practical application of differential…

  13. A Further Comparison of Manual Signing, Picture Exchange, and Speech-Generating Devices as Communication Modes for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Meer, Larah; Sutherland, Dean; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    We compared acquisition of, and preference for, manual signing (MS), picture exchange (PE), and speech-generating devices (SGDs) in four children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Intervention was introduced across participants in a non-concurrent multiple-baseline design and acquisition of the three communication modes was compared in an…

  14. A study of acoustic-to-articulatory inversion of speech by analysis-by-synthesis using chain matrices and the Maeda articulatory model

    PubMed Central

    Panchapagesan, Sankaran; Alwan, Abeer

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a quantitative study of acoustic-to-articulatory inversion for vowel speech sounds by analysis-by-synthesis using the Maeda articulatory model is performed. For chain matrix calculation of vocal tract (VT) acoustics, the chain matrix derivatives with respect to area function are calculated and used in a quasi-Newton method for optimizing articulatory trajectories. The cost function includes a distance measure between natural and synthesized first three formants, and parameter regularization and continuity terms. Calibration of the Maeda model to two speakers, one male and one female, from the University of Wisconsin x-ray microbeam (XRMB) database, using a cost function, is discussed. Model adaptation includes scaling the overall VT and the pharyngeal region and modifying the outer VT outline using measured palate and pharyngeal traces. The inversion optimization is initialized by a fast search of an articulatory codebook, which was pruned using XRMB data to improve inversion results. Good agreement between estimated midsagittal VT outlines and measured XRMB tongue pellet positions was achieved for several vowels and diphthongs for the male speaker, with average pellet-VT outline distances around 0.15 cm, smooth articulatory trajectories, and less than 1% average error in the first three formants. PMID:21476670

  15. Toward a semantics for an agent communications language based on speech-acts

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, I.A.; Cohen, P.R.

    1996-12-31

    Systems based on distributed agent architectures require an agent communications language having a clearly defined semantics. This paper demonstrates that a semantics for an agent communications language can be founded on the premise that agents are building, maintaining, and disbanding teams through their performance of communicative acts. This view requires that definitions of basic communicative acts, such as requesting, be recast in terms of the formation of a joint intention - a mental state that has been suggested underlies team behavior. To illustrate these points, a semantics is developed for a number of communication actions that can form and dissolve teams. It is then demonstrated how much of the structure of popular finite-state dialogue models, such as Winograd and Flores` basic conversation for action, follows as a consequence of the logical relationships that are created by the redefined communicative actions.

  16. Maternal depression and the learning-promoting effects of infant-directed speech: Roles of maternal sensitivity, depression diagnosis, and speech acoustic cues.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Peter S; Danko, Christina M; Cejka, Anna M; Everhart, Kevin D

    2015-11-01

    The hypothesis that the associative learning-promoting effects of infant-directed speech (IDS) depend on infants' social experience was tested in a conditioned-attention paradigm with a cumulative sample of 4- to 14-month-old infants. Following six forward pairings of a brief IDS segment and a photographic slide of a smiling female face, infants of clinically depressed mothers exhibited evidence of having acquired significantly weaker voice-face associations than infants of non-depressed mothers. Regression analyses revealed that maternal depression was significantly related to infant learning even after demographic correlates of depression, antidepressant medication use, and extent of pitch modulation in maternal IDS had been taken into account. However, after maternal depression had been accounted for, maternal emotional availability, coded by blind raters from separate play interactions, accounted for significant further increments in the proportion of variance accounted for in infant learning scores. Both maternal depression and maternal insensitivity negatively, and additively, predicted poor learning. PMID:26311468

  17. Technology to help persons with extensive neuro-motor impairment and lack of speech with their leisure occupation and communication.

    PubMed

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; D'Amico, Fiora; Addante, Luigi M; Ferlisi, Gabriele; Zullo, Valeria; Oliva, Doretta; Megna, Marisa

    2014-03-01

    These two studies were aimed at extending the assessment of technology-aided programs to enhance leisure occupation or communication with persons with extensive neuro-motor impairment and lack of speech. Specifically, Study I implemented the program for leisure occupation with two post-stroke patients. Study II implemented the program for communication with two persons affected by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In Study I, a computer system presented the participants with a variety of stimuli. The participants could select/access those stimuli by microswitch activation or could bypass them by abstaining from microswitch responses. In Study II, the participants used a computer-aided telephone system that allowed them to choose via microswitch activation the persons to call. On the computer screen, they also had words and phrases that they could activate during the calls to influence the conversation with the persons called. Data from both studies were largely positive. The post-stroke patients showed high levels of stimulus selection (access) and extended engagement. The patients with ALS were able to make phone calls and to select the words/phrases to influence the conversations. The relevance of technology-aided programs for leisure occupation and communication of persons with extensive multiple disabilities was discussed. PMID:24472502

  18. A Scoping Review of Interventions to Supplement Spoken Communication for Children with Limited Speech or Language Skills

    PubMed Central

    Costantino, Maria Antonella; Bonati, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Background Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) is used for treating children with severe disorders of speech-language production and/or comprehension. Various strategies are used, but research and debate on their efficacy have remained limited to a specific area and have rarely reached the general medical community. Objective To systematically evaluate outcomes of AAC interventions in children with limited speech or language skills. Methods Searches were conducted (up to December 2012) in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, DARE, and Cochrane Library databases. Furthermore, relevant journals were searched by hand. References from identified studies were examined. Only RCTs were considered. Trial quality was assessed according to a standardized and validated set of criteria. Results Fourteen of 1661 retrieved papers met inclusion criteria. A total of 666 children were included in the review and 7 papers involved only children <5 years old. Papers were of average quality and all but one had been published during the previous 10 years by one of 8 research groups, 5 of which from the United States. Seven studies directly addressed AAC use by children with different disabilities. Seven studies enrolled typically developing children: 5 evaluated the use of AAC technologies by children without disabilities in order to obtain results that could be used to improve interventions in peers with disabilities, and 2 evaluated peers’ attitudes towards children who used AAC. Both interventions and outcome measures varied widely between studies. Overall findings demonstrate the effectiveness of the AAC interventions considered, but the focus on RCTs alone appears too restrictive. Conclusions Solid evidence of the positive effects of AAC interventions in children with severe communication disorders must be generated, and different methods are needed besides RCTs. Moreover, it is important that knowledge, research, and debate extend to the medical community in order

  19. Supporting culturally and linguistically diverse children with speech, language and communication needs: Overarching principles, individual approaches.

    PubMed

    Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne; Wong, Sandie

    2015-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are working with an increasing number of families from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds as the world's population continues to become more internationally mobile. The heterogeneity of these diverse populations makes it impossible to identify and document a one size fits all strategy for working with culturally and linguistically diverse families. This paper explores approaches to practice by SLPs identified as specialising in multilingual and multicultural practice in culturally and linguistically diverse contexts from around the world. Data were obtained from ethnographic observation of 14 sites in 5 countries on 4 continents. The sites included hospital settings, university clinics, school-based settings, private practices and Indigenous community-based services. There were 652 individual artefacts collected from the sites which included interview transcripts, photographs, videos, narrative reflections, informal and formal field notes. The data were analysed using Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (Engeström, 1987). From the analysis six overarching Principles of Culturally Competent Practice (PCCP) were identified. These were: (1) identification of culturally appropriate and mutually motivating therapy goals, (2) knowledge of languages and culture, (3) use of culturally appropriate resources, (4) consideration of the cultural, social and political context, (5) consultation with families and communities, and (6) collaboration between professionals. These overarching principles align with the six position statements developed by the International Expert Panel on Multilingual Children's Speech (2012) which aim to enhance the cultural competence of speech pathologists and their practice. The international examples provided in the current study demonstrate the individualised ways that these overarching principles are enacted in a range of different organisational, social, cultural and political contexts

  20. Wake-up-word speech recognition application for first responder communication enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Këpuska, Veton; Breitfeller, Jason

    2006-05-01

    Speech Recognition systems, historically, have proven to be cumbersome and insufficiently accurate for a range of applications. The ultimate goal of our proposed technology is to fundamentally change the way current Speech Recognition (SR) systems interact with humans and develop an application that is extremely hardware efficient. Accurate SR and reasonable hardware requirements will afford the average first responder officer, e.g., police officer, a true break-through technology that will change the way an officer performs his duties. The presented technology provides a cutting-edge solution for human-machine interaction through the utilization of a properly solved Wake-Up-Word (WUW) SR problem. This paradigm-shift provides the basis for development of SR systems with truly "Voice Activated" capabilities, impacting all SR based technologies and the way in which humans interact with computers. This shift is a radical departure from the current "push-to-talk" paradigm currently applied to all speech-to-text or speech-recognition applications. To be able to achieve this goal, a significantly more accurate pattern classification and scoring technique is required, which in turn provides SR systems enhanced performance for correct recognition (i.e., minimization of false rejection) as well as correct rejection (i.e., minimization of false acceptance). A revolutionary and innovative classification and scoring technique is used that is a significant enhancement over an earlier method presented in reference [1]. The solution in reference [1] has been demonstrated to meet the stringent requirements of the WUW-SR task. Advanced solution of [1] is a novel technique that is model and algorithm independent. Therefore, it could be used to significantly improve performance of existing recognition algorithms and systems. Reduction of error rates of over 40% are commonly observed for both false rejections and false acceptance. In this paper the architecture of the WUW-SR based