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Sample records for acoustics speech communication

  1. Analog Acoustic Expression in Speech Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shintel, Hadas; Nusbaum, Howard C.; Okrent, Arika

    2006-01-01

    We present the first experimental evidence of a phenomenon in speech communication we call "analog acoustic expression." Speech is generally thought of as conveying information in two distinct ways: discrete linguistic-symbolic units such as words and sentences represent linguistic meaning, and continuous prosodic forms convey information about…

  2. Speech Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, William D.

    Presented in this book is a view of speech communication which enables an individual to become fully aware of his or her role as both initiator and recipient of messages. Communication is treated broadly with emphasis on the understanding and skills relating to various types of speech communication across the broad spectrum of human communication.…

  3. A Statistical Model-Based Speech Enhancement Using Acoustic Noise Classification for Robust Speech Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jae-Hun; Chang, Joon-Hyuk

    In this paper, we present a speech enhancement technique based on the ambient noise classification that incorporates the Gaussian mixture model (GMM). The principal parameters of the statistical model-based speech enhancement algorithm such as the weighting parameter in the decision-directed (DD) method and the long-term smoothing parameter of the noise estimation, are set according to the classified context to ensure best performance under each noise. For real-time context awareness, the noise classification is performed on a frame-by-frame basis using the GMM with the soft decision framework. The speech absence probability (SAP) is used in detecting the speech absence periods and updating the likelihood of the GMM.

  4. Speech acoustics: How much science?

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Manjul

    2012-01-01

    Human vocalizations are sounds made exclusively by a human vocal tract. Among other vocalizations, for example, laughs or screams, speech is the most important. Speech is the primary medium of that supremely human symbolic communication system called language. One of the functions of a voice, perhaps the main one, is to realize language, by conveying some of the speaker's thoughts in linguistic form. Speech is language made audible. Moreover, when phoneticians compare and describe voices, they usually do so with respect to linguistic units, especially speech sounds, like vowels or consonants. It is therefore necessary to understand the structure as well as nature of speech sounds and how they are described. In order to understand and evaluate the speech, it is important to have at least a basic understanding of science of speech acoustics: how the acoustics of speech are produced, how they are described, and how differences, both between speakers and within speakers, arise in an acoustic output. One of the aims of this article is try to facilitate this understanding.

  5. Speech communications in noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The physical characteristics of speech, the methods of speech masking measurement, and the effects of noise on speech communication are investigated. Topics include the speech signal and intelligibility, the effects of noise on intelligibility, the articulation index, and various devices for evaluating speech systems.

  6. Speech communications in noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-07-01

    The physical characteristics of speech, the methods of speech masking measurement, and the effects of noise on speech communication are investigated. Topics include the speech signal and intelligibility, the effects of noise on intelligibility, the articulation index, and various devices for evaluating speech systems.

  7. Acoustics in human communication: evolving ideas about the nature of speech.

    PubMed

    Cooper, F S

    1980-07-01

    This paper discusses changes in attitude toward the nature of speech during the past half century. After reviewing early views on the subject, it considers the role of speech spectrograms, speech articulation, speech perception, messages and computers, and the nature of fluent speech.

  8. SPEECH COMMUNICATION RESEARCH.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    studies of the dynamics of speech production through cineradiographic techniques and through acoustic analysis of formant motions in vowels in various...particular, the activity of the vocal cords and the dynamics of tongue motion. Research on speech perception has included experiments on vowel

  9. Speech and Communication Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... or understand speech. Causes include Hearing disorders and deafness Voice problems, such as dysphonia or those caused ... language therapy can help. NIH: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

  10. Forensics and Speech Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBath, James H.

    1975-01-01

    Focuses on the importance of integrating forensics programs into the speech communication curriculum. Maintains that debating and argumentation skills increase the probability of academic success. Published by the Association for Communication Administration Bulletin, Staff Coordinator, ACA 5205 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, VA 22041, $25.00 annual…

  11. Mapping acoustics to kinematics in speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bali, Rohan

    An accurate mapping from speech acoustics to speech articulator movements has many practical applications, as well as theoretical implications of speech planning and perception science. This work can be divided into two parts. In the first part, we show that a simple codebook can be used to map acoustics to speech articulator movements in natural, conversational speech. In the second part, we incorporate cost optimization principles that have been shown to be relevant in motor control tasks into the codebook approach. These cost optimizations are defined as minimization of integral of magnitude velocity, acceleration and jerk of the speech articulators, and are implemented using a dynamic programming technique. Results show that incorporating cost minimization of speech articulator movements can significantly improve mapping acoustics to speech articulator movements. This suggests underlying physiological or neural planning principles used by speech articulators during speech production.

  12. Research in speech communication.

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, J

    1995-01-01

    Advances in digital speech processing are now supporting application and deployment of a variety of speech technologies for human/machine communication. In fact, new businesses are rapidly forming about these technologies. But these capabilities are of little use unless society can afford them. Happily, explosive advances in microelectronics over the past two decades have assured affordable access to this sophistication as well as to the underlying computing technology. The research challenges in speech processing remain in the traditionally identified areas of recognition, synthesis, and coding. These three areas have typically been addressed individually, often with significant isolation among the efforts. But they are all facets of the same fundamental issue--how to represent and quantify the information in the speech signal. This implies deeper understanding of the physics of speech production, the constraints that the conventions of language impose, and the mechanism for information processing in the auditory system. In ongoing research, therefore, we seek more accurate models of speech generation, better computational formulations of language, and realistic perceptual guides for speech processing--along with ways to coalesce the fundamental issues of recognition, synthesis, and coding. Successful solution will yield the long-sought dictation machine, high-quality synthesis from text, and the ultimate in low bit-rate transmission of speech. It will also open the door to language-translating telephony, where the synthetic foreign translation can be in the voice of the originating talker. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 Fig. 8 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:7479806

  13. Acoustic Communications (ACOMMS) ATD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-14

    Acoustic Communications (ACOMMS) ATD Tam Nguyen 2531 Jefferson Davis Hwy Arlington, VA 22242 phone: (703) 604-6013 ext 520 fax: (703) 604-6056...email: NguyenTL@navsea.navy.mil Award # N0001499PD30007 LONG-TERM GOALS The goal of the recently completed Acoustic Communications Advanced...Technology Demonstration program (ACOMMS ATD) was to demonstrate long range and moderate data rate underwater acoustic communications between a submarine

  14. Sperry Univac speech communications technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medress, Mark F.

    1977-01-01

    Technology and systems for effective verbal communication with computers were developed. A continuous speech recognition system for verbal input, a word spotting system to locate key words in conversational speech, prosodic tools to aid speech analysis, and a prerecorded voice response system for speech output are described.

  15. Acoustic Differences between Humorous and Sincere Communicative Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoicka, Elena; Gattis, Merideth

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that the acoustic features of speech discriminate between positive and negative communicative intentions, such as approval and prohibition. Two studies investigated whether acoustic features of speech can discriminate between two positive communicative intentions: humour and sweet-sincerity, where sweet-sincerity involved…

  16. Acoustics of Clear Speech: Effect of Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Jennifer; Tjaden, Kris; Wilding, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated how different instructions for eliciting clear speech affected selected acoustic measures of speech. Method: Twelve speakers were audio-recorded reading 18 different sentences from the Assessment of Intelligibility of Dysarthric Speech (Yorkston & Beukelman, 1984). Sentences were produced in habitual, clear,…

  17. Acoustic Analysis of PD Speech

    PubMed Central

    Chenausky, Karen; MacAuslan, Joel; Goldhor, Richard

    2011-01-01

    According to the U.S. National Institutes of Health, approximately 500,000 Americans have Parkinson's disease (PD), with roughly another 50,000 receiving new diagnoses each year. 70%–90% of these people also have the hypokinetic dysarthria associated with PD. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) substantially relieves motor symptoms in advanced-stage patients for whom medication produces disabling dyskinesias. This study investigated speech changes as a result of DBS settings chosen to maximize motor performance. The speech of 10 PD patients and 12 normal controls was analyzed for syllable rate and variability, syllable length patterning, vowel fraction, voice-onset time variability, and spirantization. These were normalized by the controls' standard deviation to represent distance from normal and combined into a composite measure. Results show that DBS settings relieving motor symptoms can improve speech, making it up to three standard deviations closer to normal. However, the clinically motivated settings evaluated here show greater capacity to impair, rather than improve, speech. A feedback device developed from these findings could be useful to clinicians adjusting DBS parameters, as a means for ensuring they do not unwittingly choose DBS settings which impair patients' communication. PMID:21977333

  18. Speech Communication: A Radical Doctrine?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haiman, Franklyn S.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews connections between speech communication as a discipline and active commitments to First Amendment principles. Reflects on the influence of Professor James O'Neil, principal founder of the Speech Communication Association and offers his example as a role model. (PD)

  19. Speech coding, reconstruction and recognition using acoustics and electromagnetic waves

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    1998-01-01

    The use of EM radiation in conjunction with simultaneously recorded acoustic speech information enables a complete mathematical coding of acoustic speech. The methods include the forming of a feature vector for each pitch period of voiced speech and the forming of feature vectors for each time frame of unvoiced, as well as for combined voiced and unvoiced speech. The methods include how to deconvolve the speech excitation function from the acoustic speech output to describe the transfer function each time frame. The formation of feature vectors defining all acoustic speech units over well defined time frames can be used for purposes of speech coding, speech compression, speaker identification, language-of-speech identification, speech recognition, speech synthesis, speech translation, speech telephony, and speech teaching.

  20. Speech coding, reconstruction and recognition using acoustics and electromagnetic waves

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Ng, L.C.

    1998-03-17

    The use of EM radiation in conjunction with simultaneously recorded acoustic speech information enables a complete mathematical coding of acoustic speech. The methods include the forming of a feature vector for each pitch period of voiced speech and the forming of feature vectors for each time frame of unvoiced, as well as for combined voiced and unvoiced speech. The methods include how to deconvolve the speech excitation function from the acoustic speech output to describe the transfer function each time frame. The formation of feature vectors defining all acoustic speech units over well defined time frames can be used for purposes of speech coding, speech compression, speaker identification, language-of-speech identification, speech recognition, speech synthesis, speech translation, speech telephony, and speech teaching. 35 figs.

  1. Optimizing acoustical conditions for speech intelligibility in classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wonyoung

    High speech intelligibility is imperative in classrooms where verbal communication is critical. However, the optimal acoustical conditions to achieve a high degree of speech intelligibility have previously been investigated with inconsistent results, and practical room-acoustical solutions to optimize the acoustical conditions for speech intelligibility have not been developed. This experimental study validated auralization for speech-intelligibility testing, investigated the optimal reverberation for speech intelligibility for both normal and hearing-impaired listeners using more realistic room-acoustical models, and proposed an optimal sound-control design for speech intelligibility based on the findings. The auralization technique was used to perform subjective speech-intelligibility tests. The validation study, comparing auralization results with those of real classroom speech-intelligibility tests, found that if the room to be auralized is not very absorptive or noisy, speech-intelligibility tests using auralization are valid. The speech-intelligibility tests were done in two different auralized sound fields---approximately diffuse and non-diffuse---using the Modified Rhyme Test and both normal and hearing-impaired listeners. A hybrid room-acoustical prediction program was used throughout the work, and it and a 1/8 scale-model classroom were used to evaluate the effects of ceiling barriers and reflectors. For both subject groups, in approximately diffuse sound fields, when the speech source was closer to the listener than the noise source, the optimal reverberation time was zero. When the noise source was closer to the listener than the speech source, the optimal reverberation time was 0.4 s (with another peak at 0.0 s) with relative output power levels of the speech and noise sources SNS = 5 dB, and 0.8 s with SNS = 0 dB. In non-diffuse sound fields, when the noise source was between the speaker and the listener, the optimal reverberation time was 0.6 s with

  2. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2006-02-14

    The present invention is a system and method for characterizing human (or animate) speech voiced excitation functions and acoustic signals, for removing unwanted acoustic noise which often occurs when a speaker uses a microphone in common environments, and for synthesizing personalized or modified human (or other animate) speech upon command from a controller. A low power EM sensor is used to detect the motions of windpipe tissues in the glottal region of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech is produced by a user. From these tissue motion measurements, a voiced excitation function can be derived. Further, the excitation function provides speech production information to enhance noise removal from human speech and it enables accurate transfer functions of speech to be obtained. Previously stored excitation and transfer functions can be used for synthesizing personalized or modified human speech. Configurations of EM sensor and acoustic microphone systems are described to enhance noise cancellation and to enable multiple articulator measurements.

  3. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2004-03-23

    The present invention is a system and method for characterizing human (or animate) speech voiced excitation functions and acoustic signals, for removing unwanted acoustic noise which often occurs when a speaker uses a microphone in common environments, and for synthesizing personalized or modified human (or other animate) speech upon command from a controller. A low power EM sensor is used to detect the motions of windpipe tissues in the glottal region of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech is produced by a user. From these tissue motion measurements, a voiced excitation function can be derived. Further, the excitation function provides speech production information to enhance noise removal from human speech and it enables accurate transfer functions of speech to be obtained. Previously stored excitation and transfer functions can be used for synthesizing personalized or modified human speech. Configurations of EM sensor and acoustic microphone systems are described to enhance noise cancellation and to enable multiple articulator measurements.

  4. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2006-08-08

    The present invention is a system and method for characterizing human (or animate) speech voiced excitation functions and acoustic signals, for removing unwanted acoustic noise which often occurs when a speaker uses a microphone in common environments, and for synthesizing personalized or modified human (or other animate) speech upon command from a controller. A low power EM sensor is used to detect the motions of windpipe tissues in the glottal region of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech is produced by a user. From these tissue motion measurements, a voiced excitation function can be derived. Further, the excitation function provides speech production information to enhance noise removal from human speech and it enables accurate transfer functions of speech to be obtained. Previously stored excitation and transfer functions can be used for synthesizing personalized or modified human speech. Configurations of EM sensor and acoustic microphone systems are described to enhance noise cancellation and to enable multiple articulator measurements.

  5. Acoustic Communications for UUVs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    Acoustic Communications for UUVs Josko Catipovic Lee Freitag Naval Undersea Warfare Center Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Newport, RI 02841... Woods Hole, MA 02543 (401) 832-3259 (508) 289-3285 catipovicj@npt.nuwc.navy.mil lfreitag@whoi.edu Dan Nagle Sam Smith Naval Undersea Warfare Center...positioned within a streamlined flow shield which reduces drag and protects them from damage. While the HF transducers are placed on the structure and the

  6. Speech Intelligibility Advantages using an Acoustic Beamformer Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Sunder, Kaushik; Godfroy, Martine; Otto, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A speech intelligibility test conforming to the Modified Rhyme Test of ANSI S3.2 "Method for Measuring the Intelligibility of Speech Over Communication Systems" was conducted using a prototype 12-channel acoustic beamformer system. The target speech material (signal) was identified against speech babble (noise), with calculated signal-noise ratios of 0, 5 and 10 dB. The signal was delivered at a fixed beam orientation of 135 deg (re 90 deg as the frontal direction of the array) and the noise at 135 deg (co-located) and 0 deg (separated). A significant improvement in intelligibility from 57% to 73% was found for spatial separation for the same signal-noise ratio (0 dB). Significant effects for improved intelligibility due to spatial separation were also found for higher signal-noise ratios (5 and 10 dB).

  7. Acoustic Evidence for Phonologically Mismatched Speech Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gormley, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Speech errors are generally said to accommodate to their new phonological context. This accommodation has been validated by several transcription studies. The transcription methodology is not the best choice for detecting errors at this level, however, as this type of error can be difficult to perceive. This paper presents an acoustic analysis of…

  8. Speech Communication in Noise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-13

    external consultants for their testing purposes. Additionally, the capability of Nacre QUIETPROTM communications earplugs was investigated in preparation...exécutés par les consultants externes. De plus, on a analysé la capacité des bouchons d’oreilles pour communications Nacre QUIETPROMC en vue des essais en...calibration. 2.3 Nacre QUIETPROTM Communications Earplugs During this Call up two sets of Nacre Quietpro communications earplugs were purchased for

  9. Acoustic and Perceptual Characteristics of Vowels Produced during Simultaneous Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiavetti, Nicholas; Metz, Dale Evan; Whitehead, Robert L.; Brown, Shannon; Borges, Janie; Rivera, Sara; Schultz, Christine

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the acoustical and perceptual characteristics of vowels in speech produced during simultaneous communication (SC). Twelve normal hearing, experienced sign language users were recorded under SC and speech alone (SA) conditions speaking a set of sentences containing monosyllabic words designed for measurement of vowel…

  10. Perceptual centres in speech - an acoustic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Sophie Kerttu

    Perceptual centres, or P-centres, represent the perceptual moments of occurrence of acoustic signals - the 'beat' of a sound. P-centres underlie the perception and production of rhythm in perceptually regular speech sequences. P-centres have been modelled both in speech and non speech (music) domains. The three aims of this thesis were toatest out current P-centre models to determine which best accounted for the experimental data bto identify a candidate parameter to map P-centres onto (a local approach) as opposed to the previous global models which rely upon the whole signal to determine the P-centre the final aim was to develop a model of P-centre location which could be applied to speech and non speech signals. The first aim was investigated by a series of experiments in which a) speech from different speakers was investigated to determine whether different models could account for variation between speakers b) whether rendering the amplitude time plot of a speech signal affects the P-centre of the signal c) whether increasing the amplitude at the offset of a speech signal alters P-centres in the production and perception of speech. The second aim was carried out by a) manipulating the rise time of different speech signals to determine whether the P-centre was affected, and whether the type of speech sound ramped affected the P-centre shift b) manipulating the rise time and decay time of a synthetic vowel to determine whether the onset alteration was had more affect on P-centre than the offset manipulation c) and whether the duration of a vowel affected the P-centre, if other attributes (amplitude, spectral contents) were held constant. The third aim - modelling P-centres - was based on these results. The Frequency dependent Amplitude Increase Model of P-centre location (FAIM) was developed using a modelling protocol, the APU GammaTone Filterbank and the speech from different speakers. The P-centres of the stimuli corpus were highly predicted by attributes of

  11. Ultrasonic speech translator and communications system

    DOEpatents

    Akerman, M.A.; Ayers, C.W.; Haynes, H.D.

    1996-07-23

    A wireless communication system undetectable by radio frequency methods for converting audio signals, including human voice, to electronic signals in the ultrasonic frequency range, transmitting the ultrasonic signal by way of acoustical pressure waves across a carrier medium, including gases, liquids, or solids, and reconverting the ultrasonic acoustical pressure waves back to the original audio signal. The ultrasonic speech translator and communication system includes an ultrasonic transmitting device and an ultrasonic receiving device. The ultrasonic transmitting device accepts as input an audio signal such as human voice input from a microphone or tape deck. The ultrasonic transmitting device frequency modulates an ultrasonic carrier signal with the audio signal producing a frequency modulated ultrasonic carrier signal, which is transmitted via acoustical pressure waves across a carrier medium such as gases, liquids or solids. The ultrasonic receiving device converts the frequency modulated ultrasonic acoustical pressure waves to a frequency modulated electronic signal, demodulates the audio signal from the ultrasonic carrier signal, and conditions the demodulated audio signal to reproduce the original audio signal at its output. 7 figs.

  12. Ultrasonic speech translator and communications system

    DOEpatents

    Akerman, M. Alfred; Ayers, Curtis W.; Haynes, Howard D.

    1996-01-01

    A wireless communication system undetectable by radio frequency methods for converting audio signals, including human voice, to electronic signals in the ultrasonic frequency range, transmitting the ultrasonic signal by way of acoustical pressure waves across a carrier medium, including gases, liquids, or solids, and reconverting the ultrasonic acoustical pressure waves back to the original audio signal. The ultrasonic speech translator and communication system (20) includes an ultrasonic transmitting device (100) and an ultrasonic receiving device (200). The ultrasonic transmitting device (100) accepts as input (115) an audio signal such as human voice input from a microphone (114) or tape deck. The ultrasonic transmitting device (100) frequency modulates an ultrasonic carrier signal with the audio signal producing a frequency modulated ultrasonic carrier signal, which is transmitted via acoustical pressure waves across a carrier medium such as gases, liquids or solids. The ultrasonic receiving device (200) converts the frequency modulated ultrasonic acoustical pressure waves to a frequency modulated electronic signal, demodulates the audio signal from the ultrasonic carrier signal, and conditions the demodulated audio signal to reproduce the original audio signal at its output (250).

  13. The "Checkers" Speech and Televised Political Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaningam, Carl

    Richard Nixon's 1952 "Checkers" speech was an innovative use of television for political communication. Like television news itself, the campaign fund crisis behind the speech can be thought of in the same terms as other television melodrama, with the speech serving as its climactic episode. The speech adapted well to television because…

  14. Covert underwater acoustic communications.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jun; He, Hao; Li, Jian; Roberts, William; Stoica, Petre

    2010-11-01

    Low probability of detection (LPD) communications are conducted at a low received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to deter eavesdroppers to sense the presence of the transmitted signal. Successful detection at intended receiver heavily relies on the processing gain achieved by employing the direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DSSS) technique. For scenarios that lack a sufficiently low SNR to maintain LPD, another metric, referred to as low probability of interception (LPI), is of interest to protect the privacy of the transmitted information. If covert communications take place in underwater acoustic (UWA) environments, then additional challenges are present. The time-varying nature of the UWA channel prevents the employment of a long spreading waveform. Furthermore, UWA environments are frequency-selective channels with long memory, which imposes challenges to the design of the spreading waveform. In this paper, a covert UWA communication system that adopts the DSSS technique and a coherent RAKE receiver is investigated. Emphasis is placed on the design of a spreading waveform that not only accounts for the transceiver structure and frequency-selective nature of the UWA channel, but also possesses a superior LPI. The proposed techniques are evaluated using both simulated and SPACE'08 in-water experimental data.

  15. The Practical Philosophy of Communication Ethics and Free Speech as the Foundation for Speech Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Ronald C.

    1990-01-01

    Argues that communication ethics and free speech are the foundation for understanding the field of speech communication and its proper positioning in the larger array of academic disciplines. Argues that speech communication as a discipline can be traced back to a "practical philosophical" foundation detailed by Aristotle. (KEH)

  16. Communicating by Language: The Speech Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Arthur S., Ed.

    This document reports on a conference focused on speech problems. The main objective of these discussions was to facilitate a deeper understanding of human communication through interaction of conference participants with colleagues in other disciplines. Topics discussed included speech production, feedback, speech perception, and development of…

  17. Gender difference in speech intelligibility using speech intelligibility tests and acoustic analyses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to compare men with women in terms of speech intelligibility, to investigate the validity of objective acoustic parameters related with speech intelligibility, and to try to set up the standard data for the future study in various field in prosthodontics. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty men and women were served as subjects in the present study. After recording of sample sounds, speech intelligibility tests by three speech pathologists and acoustic analyses were performed. Comparison of the speech intelligibility test scores and acoustic parameters such as fundamental frequency, fundamental frequency range, formant frequency, formant ranges, vowel working space area, and vowel dispersion were done between men and women. In addition, the correlations between the speech intelligibility values and acoustic variables were analyzed. RESULTS Women showed significantly higher speech intelligibility scores than men and there were significant difference between men and women in most of acoustic parameters used in the present study. However, the correlations between the speech intelligibility scores and acoustic parameters were low. CONCLUSION Speech intelligibility test and acoustic parameters used in the present study were effective in differentiating male voice from female voice and their values might be used in the future studies related patients involved with maxillofacial prosthodontics. However, further studies are needed on the correlation between speech intelligibility tests and objective acoustic parameters. PMID:21165272

  18. Acoustic assessment of erygmophonic speech of Moroccan laryngectomized patients

    PubMed Central

    Ouattassi, Naouar; Benmansour, Najib; Ridal, Mohammed; Zaki, Zouheir; Bendahhou, Karima; Nejjari, Chakib; Cherkaoui, Abdeljabbar; El Alami, Mohammed Nouredine El Amine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Acoustic evaluation of alaryngeal voices is among the most prominent issues in speech analysis field. In fact, many methods have been developed to date to substitute the classic perceptual evaluation. The Aim of this study is to present our experience in erygmophonic speech objective assessment and to discuss the most widely used methods of acoustic speech appraisal. through a prospective case-control study we have measured acoustic parameters of speech quality during one year of erygmophonic rehabilitation therapy of Moroccan laryngectomized patients. Methods We have assessed acoustic parameters of erygmophonic speech samples of eleven laryngectomized patients through the speech rehabilitation therapy. Acoustic parameters were obtained by perturbation analysis method and linear predictive coding algorithms also through the broadband spectrogram. Results Using perturbation analysis methods, we have found erygmophonic voice to be significantly poorer than normal speech and it exhibits higher formant frequency values. However, erygmophonic voice shows also higher and extremely variable Error values that were greater than the acceptable level. And thus, live a doubt on the reliability of those analytic methods results. Conclusion Acoustic parameters for objective evaluation of alaryngeal voices should allow a reliable representation of the perceptual evaluation of the quality of speech. This requirement has not been fulfilled by the common methods used so far. Therefore, acoustical assessment of erygmophonic speech needs more investigations. PMID:26587121

  19. System And Method For Characterizing Voiced Excitations Of Speech And Acoustic Signals, Removing Acoustic Noise From Speech, And Synthesizi

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2006-04-25

    The present invention is a system and method for characterizing human (or animate) speech voiced excitation functions and acoustic signals, for removing unwanted acoustic noise which often occurs when a speaker uses a microphone in common environments, and for synthesizing personalized or modified human (or other animate) speech upon command from a controller. A low power EM sensor is used to detect the motions of windpipe tissues in the glottal region of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech is produced by a user. From these tissue motion measurements, a voiced excitation function can be derived. Further, the excitation function provides speech production information to enhance noise removal from human speech and it enables accurate transfer functions of speech to be obtained. Previously stored excitation and transfer functions can be used for synthesizing personalized or modified human speech. Configurations of EM sensor and acoustic microphone systems are described to enhance noise cancellation and to enable multiple articulator measurements.

  20. Acoustic Study of Acted Emotions in Speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rong

    An extensive set of carefully recorded utterances provided a speech database for investigating acoustic correlates among eight emotional states. Four professional actors and four professional actresses simulated the emotional states of joy, conversation, nervousness, anger, sadness, hate, fear, and depression. The values of 14 acoustic parameters were extracted from analyses of the simulated portrayals. Normalization of the parameters was made to reduce the talker-dependence. Correlates of emotion were investigated by means of principal components analysis. Sadness and depression were found to be "ambiguous" with respect to each other, but "unique" with respect to joy and anger in the principal components space. Joy, conversation, nervousness, anger, hate, and fear did not separate well in the space and so exhibited ambiguity with respect to one another. The different talkers expressed joy, anger, sadness, and depression more consistently than the other four emotions. The analysis results were compared with the results of a subjective study using the same speech database and considerable consistency between the two was found.

  1. Acoustics in Halls for Speech and Music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gade, Anders C.

    This chapter deals specifically with concepts, tools, and architectural variables of importance when designing auditoria for speech and music. The focus will be on cultivating the useful components of the sound in the room rather than on avoiding noise from outside or from installations, which is dealt with in Chap. 11. The chapter starts by presenting the subjective aspects of the room acoustic experience according to consensus at the time of writing. Then follows a description of their objective counterparts, the objective room acoustic parameters, among which the classical reverberation time measure is only one of many, but still of fundamental value. After explanations on how these parameters can be measured and predicted during the design phase, the remainder of the chapter deals with how the acoustic properties can be controlled by the architectural design of auditoria. This is done by presenting the influence of individual design elements as well as brief descriptions of halls designed for specific purposes, such as drama, opera, and symphonic concerts. Finally, some important aspects of loudspeaker installations in auditoria are briefly touched upon.

  2. The Effects of Simultaneous Communication on Production and Perception of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiavetti, Nicholas; Whitehead, Robert L.; Metz, Dale Evan

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews experiments completed over the past decade at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf and the State University of New York at Geneseo concerning speech produced during simultaneous communication (SC) and synthesizes the empirical evidence concerning the acoustical and perceptual characteristics of speech in SC.…

  3. Alternative Speech Communication System for Persons with Severe Speech Disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selouani, Sid-Ahmed; Sidi Yakoub, Mohammed; O'Shaughnessy, Douglas

    2009-12-01

    Assistive speech-enabled systems are proposed to help both French and English speaking persons with various speech disorders. The proposed assistive systems use automatic speech recognition (ASR) and speech synthesis in order to enhance the quality of communication. These systems aim at improving the intelligibility of pathologic speech making it as natural as possible and close to the original voice of the speaker. The resynthesized utterances use new basic units, a new concatenating algorithm and a grafting technique to correct the poorly pronounced phonemes. The ASR responses are uttered by the new speech synthesis system in order to convey an intelligible message to listeners. Experiments involving four American speakers with severe dysarthria and two Acadian French speakers with sound substitution disorders (SSDs) are carried out to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed methods. An improvement of the Perceptual Evaluation of the Speech Quality (PESQ) value of 5% and more than 20% is achieved by the speech synthesis systems that deal with SSD and dysarthria, respectively.

  4. Acoustic markers of prosodic boundaries in Spanish spontaneous alaryngeal speech.

    PubMed

    Cuenca, M H; Barrio, M M

    2010-11-01

    Prosodic information aids segmentation of the continuous speech signal and thereby facilitates auditory speech processing. Durational and pitch variations are prosodic cues especially necessary to convey prosodic boundaries, but alaryngeal speakers have inconsistent control over acoustic parameters such as F0 and duration, being as a result noisy and less intelligible than normal speech. This case study has investigated whether one Spanish alaryngeal speaker proficient in both oesophageal and tracheoesophageal speech modes used the same acoustic cues for prosodic boundaries in both types of voicing. Pre-boundary lengthening, F0-excursions and pausing (number of pauses and position) were measured in spontaneous speech samples, using Praat. The acoustic analysis has revealed that the subject has relied on a different combination of cues in each type of voicing to convey the presence of prosodic boundaries.

  5. Age-Related Changes in Acoustic Characteristics of Adult Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torre, Peter, III; Barlow, Jessica A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses effects of age and sex on certain acoustic properties of speech, given conflicting findings on such effects reported in prior research. The speech of 27 younger adults (15 women, 12 men; mean age 25.5 years) and 59 older adults (32 women, 27 men; mean age 75.2 years) was evaluated for identification of differences for sex and…

  6. Acoustic Markers of Prosodic Boundaries in Spanish Spontaneous Alaryngeal Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuenca, M. H.; Barrio, M. M.

    2010-01-01

    Prosodic information aids segmentation of the continuous speech signal and thereby facilitates auditory speech processing. Durational and pitch variations are prosodic cues especially necessary to convey prosodic boundaries, but alaryngeal speakers have inconsistent control over acoustic parameters such as F0 and duration, being as a result noisy…

  7. Clear Speech Variants: An Acoustic Study in Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Jennifer; Tjaden, Kris

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The authors investigated how different variants of clear speech affect segmental and suprasegmental acoustic measures of speech in speakers with Parkinson's disease and a healthy control group. Method: A total of 14 participants with Parkinson's disease and 14 control participants served as speakers. Each speaker produced 18 different…

  8. Detecting suspicious behaviour using speech: acoustic correlates of deceptive speech -- an exploratory investigation.

    PubMed

    Kirchhübel, Christin; Howard, David M

    2013-09-01

    The current work intended to enhance our knowledge of changes or lack of changes in the speech signal when people were being deceptive. In particular, the study attempted to investigate the appropriateness of using speech cues in detecting deception. Truthful, deceptive and control speech were elicited from ten speakers in an interview setting. The data were subjected to acoustic analysis and results are presented on a range of speech parameters including fundamental frequency (f0), overall amplitude and mean vowel formants F1, F2 and F3. A significant correlation could not be established between deceptiveness/truthfulness and any of the acoustic features examined. Directions for future work are highlighted.

  9. Acoustic differences between humorous and sincere communicative intentions.

    PubMed

    Hoicka, Elena; Gattis, Merideth

    2012-11-01

    Previous studies indicate that the acoustic features of speech discriminate between positive and negative communicative intentions, such as approval and prohibition. Two studies investigated whether acoustic features of speech can discriminate between two positive communicative intentions: humour and sweet-sincerity, where sweet-sincerity involved being sincere in a positive, warm-hearted way. In Study 1, 22 mothers read a book containing humorous, sweet-sincere, and neutral-sincere images to their 19- to 24-month-olds. In Study 2, 41 mothers read a book containing humorous or sweet-sincere sentences and images to their 18- to 24-month-olds. Mothers used a higher mean F0 to communicate visual humour as compared to visual sincerity. Mothers used greater F0 mean, range, and standard deviation; greater intensity mean, range, and standard deviation; and a slower speech rate to communicate verbal humour as compared to verbal sweet-sincerity. Mothers used a rising linear contour to communicate verbal humour, but used no specific contour to express verbal sweet-sincerity. We conclude that speakers provide acoustic cues enabling listeners to distinguish between positive communicative intentions.

  10. SPEECH--MAN'S NATURAL COMMUNICATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DUDLEY, HOMER; AND OTHERS

    SESSION 63 OF THE 1967 INSTITUTE OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERS INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION BROUGHT TOGETHER SEVEN DISTINGUISHED MEN WORKING IN FIELDS RELEVANT TO LANGUAGE. THEIR TOPICS INCLUDED ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF SPEECH AND LANGUAGE, LANGUAGE AND CULTURE, MAN'S PHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS FOR SPEECH, LINGUISTICS, AND TECHNOLOGY AND…

  11. Acoustic richness modulates the neural networks supporting intelligible speech processing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yune-Sang; Min, Nam Eun; Wingfield, Arthur; Grossman, Murray; Peelle, Jonathan E

    2016-03-01

    The information contained in a sensory signal plays a critical role in determining what neural processes are engaged. Here we used interleaved silent steady-state (ISSS) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore how human listeners cope with different degrees of acoustic richness during auditory sentence comprehension. Twenty-six healthy young adults underwent scanning while hearing sentences that varied in acoustic richness (high vs. low spectral detail) and syntactic complexity (subject-relative vs. object-relative center-embedded clause structures). We manipulated acoustic richness by presenting the stimuli as unprocessed full-spectrum speech, or noise-vocoded with 24 channels. Importantly, although the vocoded sentences were spectrally impoverished, all sentences were highly intelligible. These manipulations allowed us to test how intelligible speech processing was affected by orthogonal linguistic and acoustic demands. Acoustically rich speech showed stronger activation than acoustically less-detailed speech in a bilateral temporoparietal network with more pronounced activity in the right hemisphere. By contrast, listening to sentences with greater syntactic complexity resulted in increased activation of a left-lateralized network including left posterior lateral temporal cortex, left inferior frontal gyrus, and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Significant interactions between acoustic richness and syntactic complexity occurred in left supramarginal gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, and right inferior frontal gyrus, indicating that the regions recruited for syntactic challenge differed as a function of acoustic properties of the speech. Our findings suggest that the neural systems involved in speech perception are finely tuned to the type of information available, and that reducing the richness of the acoustic signal dramatically alters the brain's response to spoken language, even when intelligibility is high.

  12. Evaluation of disfluent speech by means of automatic acoustic measurements.

    PubMed

    Lustyk, Tomas; Bergl, Petr; Cmejla, Roman

    2014-03-01

    An experiment was carried out to determine whether the level of the speech fluency disorder can be estimated by means of automatic acoustic measurements. These measures analyze, for example, the amount of silence in a recording or the number of abrupt spectral changes in a speech signal. All the measures were designed to take into account symptoms of stuttering. In the experiment, 118 audio recordings of read speech by Czech native speakers were employed. The results indicate that the human-made rating of the speech fluency disorder in read speech can be predicted on the basis of automatic measurements. The number of abrupt spectral changes in the speech segments turns out to be the most appropriate measure to describe the overall speech performance. The results also imply that there are measures with good results describing partial symptoms (especially fixed postures without audible airflow).

  13. Study of acoustic correlates associate with emotional speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildirim, Serdar; Lee, Sungbok; Lee, Chul Min; Bulut, Murtaza; Busso, Carlos; Kazemzadeh, Ebrahim; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2004-10-01

    This study investigates the acoustic characteristics of four different emotions expressed in speech. The aim is to obtain detailed acoustic knowledge on how a speech signal is modulated by changes from neutral to a certain emotional state. Such knowledge is necessary for automatic emotion recognition and classification and emotional speech synthesis. Speech data obtained from two semi-professional actresses are analyzed and compared. Each subject produces 211 sentences with four different emotions; neutral, sad, angry, happy. We analyze changes in temporal and acoustic parameters such as magnitude and variability of segmental duration, fundamental frequency and the first three formant frequencies as a function of emotion. Acoustic differences among the emotions are also explored with mutual information computation, multidimensional scaling and acoustic likelihood comparison with normal speech. Results indicate that speech associated with anger and happiness is characterized by longer duration, shorter interword silence, higher pitch and rms energy with wider ranges. Sadness is distinguished from other emotions by lower rms energy and longer interword silence. Interestingly, the difference in formant pattern between [happiness/anger] and [neutral/sadness] are better reflected in back vowels such as /a/(/father/) than in front vowels. Detailed results on intra- and interspeaker variability will be reported.

  14. Acoustic assessment of speech privacy curtains in two nursing units.

    PubMed

    Pope, Diana S; Miller-Klein, Erik T

    2016-01-01

    Hospitals have complex soundscapes that create challenges to patient care. Extraneous noise and high reverberation rates impair speech intelligibility, which leads to raised voices. In an unintended spiral, the increasing noise may result in diminished speech privacy, as people speak loudly to be heard over the din. The products available to improve hospital soundscapes include construction materials that absorb sound (acoustic ceiling tiles, carpet, wall insulation) and reduce reverberation rates. Enhanced privacy curtains are now available and offer potential for a relatively simple way to improve speech privacy and speech intelligibility by absorbing sound at the hospital patient's bedside. Acoustic assessments were performed over 2 days on two nursing units with a similar design in the same hospital. One unit was built with the 1970s' standard hospital construction and the other was newly refurbished (2013) with sound-absorbing features. In addition, we determined the effect of an enhanced privacy curtain versus standard privacy curtains using acoustic measures of speech privacy and speech intelligibility indexes. Privacy curtains provided auditory protection for the patients. In general, that protection was increased by the use of enhanced privacy curtains. On an average, the enhanced curtain improved sound absorption from 20% to 30%; however, there was considerable variability, depending on the configuration of the rooms tested. Enhanced privacy curtains provide measureable improvement to the acoustics of patient rooms but cannot overcome larger acoustic design issues. To shorten reverberation time, additional absorption, and compact and more fragmented nursing unit floor plate shapes should be considered.

  15. Acoustic assessment of speech privacy curtains in two nursing units

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Diana S.; Miller-Klein, Erik T.

    2016-01-01

    Hospitals have complex soundscapes that create challenges to patient care. Extraneous noise and high reverberation rates impair speech intelligibility, which leads to raised voices. In an unintended spiral, the increasing noise may result in diminished speech privacy, as people speak loudly to be heard over the din. The products available to improve hospital soundscapes include construction materials that absorb sound (acoustic ceiling tiles, carpet, wall insulation) and reduce reverberation rates. Enhanced privacy curtains are now available and offer potential for a relatively simple way to improve speech privacy and speech intelligibility by absorbing sound at the hospital patient's bedside. Acoustic assessments were performed over 2 days on two nursing units with a similar design in the same hospital. One unit was built with the 1970s’ standard hospital construction and the other was newly refurbished (2013) with sound-absorbing features. In addition, we determined the effect of an enhanced privacy curtain versus standard privacy curtains using acoustic measures of speech privacy and speech intelligibility indexes. Privacy curtains provided auditory protection for the patients. In general, that protection was increased by the use of enhanced privacy curtains. On an average, the enhanced curtain improved sound absorption from 20% to 30%; however, there was considerable variability, depending on the configuration of the rooms tested. Enhanced privacy curtains provide measureable improvement to the acoustics of patient rooms but cannot overcome larger acoustic design issues. To shorten reverberation time, additional absorption, and compact and more fragmented nursing unit floor plate shapes should be considered. PMID:26780959

  16. Acoustic communication in plant-animal interactions.

    PubMed

    Schöner, Michael G; Simon, Ralph; Schöner, Caroline R

    2016-08-01

    Acoustic communication is widespread and well-studied in animals but has been neglected in other organisms such as plants. However, there is growing evidence for acoustic communication in plant-animal interactions. While knowledge about active acoustic signalling in plants (i.e. active sound production) is still in its infancy, research on passive acoustic signalling (i.e. reflection of animal sounds) revealed that bat-dependent plants have adapted to the bats' echolocation systems by providing acoustic reflectors to attract their animal partners. Understanding the proximate mechanisms and ultimate causes of acoustic communication will shed light on an underestimated dimension of information transfer between plants and animals.

  17. The Carolinas Speech Communication Annual, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Bruce C.

    1997-01-01

    This 1997 issue of "The Carolinas Speech Communication Annual" contains the following articles: "'Bridges of Understanding': UNESCO's Creation of a Fantasy for the American Public" (Michael H. Eaves and Charles F. Beadle, Jr.); "Developing a Communication Cooperative: A Student, Faculty, and Organizational Learning…

  18. The Carolinas Speech Communication Annual, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llewellyn, John T., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This 1995 issue of the "Carolinas Speech Communication Annual" contains the following articles: "Contrast and Complement in Presidential Campaign Communication: Adjusting the Vice Presidential Role in the Clinton-Gore Campaign" (Rob L. Wiley); "Film Critic as Rhetor: Crafting a Fitting Response to Racial Images in 'Places…

  19. Contract Grading in Speech Communication Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Book, Cassandra L.; And Others

    This document presents contract grading as a system of evaluation for speech communication courses at the high school or college level. Contract grading can provide the means to reduce the element of threat that impedes effective interpersonal communication between teacher and student. Contract grading is a business like arrangement whereby the…

  20. The effects of simultaneous communication on production and perception of speech.

    PubMed

    Schiavetti, Nicholas; Whitehead, Robert L; Metz, Dale Evan

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews experiments completed over the past decade at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf and the State University of New York at Geneseo concerning speech produced during simultaneous communication (SC) and synthesizes the empirical evidence concerning the acoustical and perceptual characteristics of speech in SC. Comparisons are drawn between SC and other modes of rate-altered speech that have been used successfully to enhance communication effectiveness. Of particular importance are conclusions regarding the appropriateness of speech produced during SC for communication between hearing and hearing-impaired speakers and listeners and the appropriateness of SC use by parents and teachers for speech development of children with hearing impairment. This program of systematic basic research adds value to the discussion about the use of SC by focusing on the specific implications of empirical results regarding speech production and perception.

  1. Dynamic Encoding of Acoustic Features in Neural Responses to Continuous Speech.

    PubMed

    Khalighinejad, Bahar; Cruzatto da Silva, Guilherme; Mesgarani, Nima

    2017-02-22

    Humans are unique in their ability to communicate using spoken language. However, it remains unclear how the speech signal is transformed and represented in the brain at different stages of the auditory pathway. In this study, we characterized electroencephalography responses to continuous speech by obtaining the time-locked responses to phoneme instances (phoneme-related potential). We showed that responses to different phoneme categories are organized by phonetic features. We found that each instance of a phoneme in continuous speech produces multiple distinguishable neural responses occurring as early as 50 ms and as late as 400 ms after the phoneme onset. Comparing the patterns of phoneme similarity in the neural responses and the acoustic signals confirms a repetitive appearance of acoustic distinctions of phonemes in the neural data. Analysis of the phonetic and speaker information in neural activations revealed that different time intervals jointly encode the acoustic similarity of both phonetic and speaker categories. These findings provide evidence for a dynamic neural transformation of low-level speech features as they propagate along the auditory pathway, and form an empirical framework to study the representational changes in learning, attention, and speech disorders.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We characterized the properties of evoked neural responses to phoneme instances in continuous speech. We show that each instance of a phoneme in continuous speech produces several observable neural responses at different times occurring as early as 50 ms and as late as 400 ms after the phoneme onset. Each temporal event explicitly encodes the acoustic similarity of phonemes, and linguistic and nonlinguistic information are best represented at different time intervals. Finally, we show a joint encoding of phonetic and speaker information, where the neural representation of speakers is dependent on phoneme category. These findings provide compelling new evidence for

  2. Dynamic Encoding of Acoustic Features in Neural Responses to Continuous Speech

    PubMed Central

    Khalighinejad, Bahar; Cruzatto da Silva, Guilherme

    2017-01-01

    Humans are unique in their ability to communicate using spoken language. However, it remains unclear how the speech signal is transformed and represented in the brain at different stages of the auditory pathway. In this study, we characterized electroencephalography responses to continuous speech by obtaining the time-locked responses to phoneme instances (phoneme-related potential). We showed that responses to different phoneme categories are organized by phonetic features. We found that each instance of a phoneme in continuous speech produces multiple distinguishable neural responses occurring as early as 50 ms and as late as 400 ms after the phoneme onset. Comparing the patterns of phoneme similarity in the neural responses and the acoustic signals confirms a repetitive appearance of acoustic distinctions of phonemes in the neural data. Analysis of the phonetic and speaker information in neural activations revealed that different time intervals jointly encode the acoustic similarity of both phonetic and speaker categories. These findings provide evidence for a dynamic neural transformation of low-level speech features as they propagate along the auditory pathway, and form an empirical framework to study the representational changes in learning, attention, and speech disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We characterized the properties of evoked neural responses to phoneme instances in continuous speech. We show that each instance of a phoneme in continuous speech produces several observable neural responses at different times occurring as early as 50 ms and as late as 400 ms after the phoneme onset. Each temporal event explicitly encodes the acoustic similarity of phonemes, and linguistic and nonlinguistic information are best represented at different time intervals. Finally, we show a joint encoding of phonetic and speaker information, where the neural representation of speakers is dependent on phoneme category. These findings provide compelling new evidence for

  3. The acoustic-modeling problem in automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Peter F.

    1987-12-01

    This thesis examines the acoustic-modeling problem in automatic speech recognition from an information-theoretic point of view. This problem is to design a speech-recognition system which can extract from the speech waveform as much information as possible about the corresponding word sequence. The information extraction process is broken down into two steps: a signal processing step which converts a speech waveform into a sequence of information bearing acoustic feature vectors, and a step which models such a sequence. This thesis is primarily concerned with the use of hidden Markov models to model sequences of feature vectors which lie in a continuous space such as R sub N. It explores the trade-off between packing a lot of information into such sequences and being able to model them accurately. The difficulty of developing accurate models of continuous parameter sequences is addressed by investigating a method of parameter estimation which is specifically designed to cope with inaccurate modeling assumptions.

  4. A Rating of Doctoral Programs in Speech Communication, 1976

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Renee; Barker, Larry

    1977-01-01

    Reviews a survey evaluation of speech communication doctoral programs existing in 1976. Available from: ACA Bulletin, Robert Hall, Editor, Speech Communication Association, 5205 Leesburg Pike, Suite 1001, Falls Church, VA 22041. (MH)

  5. Graduate Programs in Speech Communication: A Position Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Alvin A.

    1977-01-01

    Details a position paper concerning the major focus of graduate programs in speech communication. Available from: ACA Bulletin, Robert Hall, Editor, Speech Communication Association, 5205 Leesburg Pike, Suite 1001, Falls Church, VA 22041. (MH)

  6. Methods and apparatus for non-acoustic speech characterization and recognition

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, John F.

    1999-01-01

    By simultaneously recording EM wave reflections and acoustic speech information, the positions and velocities of the speech organs as speech is articulated can be defined for each acoustic speech unit. Well defined time frames and feature vectors describing the speech, to the degree required, can be formed. Such feature vectors can uniquely characterize the speech unit being articulated each time frame. The onset of speech, rejection of external noise, vocalized pitch periods, articulator conditions, accurate timing, the identification of the speaker, acoustic speech unit recognition, and organ mechanical parameters can be determined.

  7. Methods and apparatus for non-acoustic speech characterization and recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Holzrichter, J.F.

    1999-12-21

    By simultaneously recording EM wave reflections and acoustic speech information, the positions and velocities of the speech organs as speech is articulated can be defined for each acoustic speech unit. Well defined time frames and feature vectors describing the speech, to the degree required, can be formed. Such feature vectors can uniquely characterize the speech unit being articulated each time frame. The onset of speech, rejection of external noise, vocalized pitch periods, articulator conditions, accurate timing, the identification of the speaker, acoustic speech unit recognition, and organ mechanical parameters can be determined.

  8. Relationship between acoustic measures and speech naturalness ratings in Parkinson's disease: A within-speaker approach.

    PubMed

    Klopfenstein, Marie

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the acoustic basis of across-utterance, within-speaker variation in speech naturalness for four speakers with dysarthria secondary to Parkinson's disease (PD). Speakers read sentences and produced spontaneous speech. Acoustic measures of fundamental frequency, phrase-final syllable lengthening, intensity and speech rate were obtained. A group of listeners judged speech naturalness using a nine-point Likert scale. Relationships between judgements of speech naturalness and acoustic measures were determined for individual speakers with PD. Relationships among acoustic measures also were quantified. Despite variability between speakers, measures of mean F0, intensity range, articulation rate, average syllable duration, duration of final syllables, vocalic nucleus length of final unstressed syllables and pitch accent of final syllables emerged as possible acoustic variables contributing to within-speaker variations in speech naturalness. Results suggest that acoustic measures correlate with speech naturalness, but in dysarthric speech they depend on the speaker due to the within-speaker variation in speech impairment.

  9. Do 6-Month-Olds Understand That Speech Can Communicate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vouloumanos, Athena; Martin, Alia; Onishi, Kristine H.

    2014-01-01

    Adults and 12-month-old infants recognize that even unfamiliar speech can communicate information between third parties, suggesting that they can separate the communicative function of speech from its lexical content. But do infants recognize that speech can communicate due to their experience understanding and producing language, or do they…

  10. On the State of Speech Communication Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillars, Malcolm O.

    The discipline of speech communication was established early in the twentieth century. After its subject matter was defined and separated from the field of English by Herbert Wichelns's "The Literary Criticism of Oratory," departments were established and a separate organization--The National Association of Teachers of Public Speaking--was formed.…

  11. The Carolinas Speech Communication Annual, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Bruce C., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This 1996 issue of the "Carolinas Speech Communication Annual" contains the following articles: "Rhetoric in the Second Sophistic, Medieval, and Renaissance Periods: Implications for Pedagogy" (Omar J. Swartz and Chris Bachelder); "Thou Art Damned: Cursing as a Rhetorical Strategy of the Accusers in the Salem Witch…

  12. Spatial acoustic signal processing for immersive communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, Joshua

    Computing is rapidly becoming ubiquitous as users expect devices that can augment and interact naturally with the world around them. In these systems it is necessary to have an acoustic front-end that is able to capture and reproduce natural human communication. Whether the end point is a speech recognizer or another human listener, the reduction of noise, reverberation, and acoustic echoes are all necessary and complex challenges. The focus of this dissertation is to provide a general method for approaching these problems using spherical microphone and loudspeaker arrays.. In this work, a theory of capturing and reproducing three-dimensional acoustic fields is introduced from a signal processing perspective. In particular, the decomposition of the spatial part of the acoustic field into an orthogonal basis of spherical harmonics provides not only a general framework for analysis, but also many processing advantages. The spatial sampling error limits the upper frequency range with which a sound field can be accurately captured or reproduced. In broadband arrays, the cost and complexity of using multiple transducers is an issue. This work provides a flexible optimization method for determining the location of array elements to minimize the spatial aliasing error. The low frequency array processing ability is also limited by the SNR, mismatch, and placement error of transducers. To address this, a robust processing method is introduced and used to design a reproduction system for rendering over arbitrary loudspeaker arrays or binaurally over headphones. In addition to the beamforming problem, the multichannel acoustic echo cancellation (MCAEC) issue is also addressed. A MCAEC must adaptively estimate and track the constantly changing loudspeaker-room-microphone response to remove the sound field presented over the loudspeakers from that captured by the microphones. In the multichannel case, the system is overdetermined and many adaptive schemes fail to converge to

  13. Clear Speech Variants: An Acoustic Study in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tjaden, Kris

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The authors investigated how different variants of clear speech affect segmental and suprasegmental acoustic measures of speech in speakers with Parkinson's disease and a healthy control group. Method A total of 14 participants with Parkinson's disease and 14 control participants served as speakers. Each speaker produced 18 different sentences selected from the Sentence Intelligibility Test (Yorkston & Beukelman, 1996). All speakers produced stimuli in 4 speaking conditions (habitual, clear, overenunciate, and hearing impaired). Segmental acoustic measures included vowel space area and first moment (M1) coefficient difference measures for consonant pairs. Second formant slope of diphthongs and measures of vowel and fricative durations were also obtained. Suprasegmental measures included fundamental frequency, sound pressure level, and articulation rate. Results For the majority of adjustments, all variants of clear speech instruction differed from the habitual condition. The overenunciate condition elicited the greatest magnitude of change for segmental measures (vowel space area, vowel durations) and the slowest articulation rates. The hearing impaired condition elicited the greatest fricative durations and suprasegmental adjustments (fundamental frequency, sound pressure level). Conclusions Findings have implications for a model of speech production for healthy speakers as well as for speakers with dysarthria. Findings also suggest that particular clear speech instructions may target distinct speech subsystems. PMID:27355431

  14. An Acoustic Measure for Word Prominence in Spontaneous Speech

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dagen; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2010-01-01

    An algorithm for automatic speech prominence detection is reported in this paper. We describe a comparative analysis on various acoustic features for word prominence detection and report results using a spoken dialog corpus with manually assigned prominence labels. The focus is on features such as spectral intensity and speech rate that are directly extracted from speech based on a correlation-based approach without requiring explicit linguistic or phonetic knowledge. Additionally, various pitch-based measures are studied with respect to their discriminating ability for prominence detection. A parametric scheme for modeling pitch plateau is proposed and this feature alone is found to outperform the traditional local pitch statistics. Two sets of experiments are used to explore the usefulness of the acoustic score generated using these features. The first set focuses on a more traditional way of word prominence detection based on a manually-tagged corpus. A 76.8% classification accuracy was achieved on a corpus of role-playing spoken dialogs. Due to difficulties in manually tagging speech prominence into discrete levels (categories), the second set of experiments focuses on evaluating the score indirectly. Specifically, through experiments on the Switchboard corpus, it is shown that the proposed acoustic score can discriminate between content word and function words in a statistically significant way. The relation between speech prominence and content/function words is also explored. Since prominent words tend to be predominantly content words, and since content words can be automatically marked from text-derived part of speech (POS) information, it is shown that the proposed acoustic score can be indirectly cross-validated through POS information. PMID:20454538

  15. Multiexpert automatic speech recognition using acoustic and myoelectric signals.

    PubMed

    Chan, Adrian D C; Englehart, Kevin B; Hudgins, Bernard; Lovely, Dennis F

    2006-04-01

    Classification accuracy of conventional automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems can decrease dramatically under acoustically noisy conditions. To improve classification accuracy and increase system robustness a multiexpert ASR system is implemented. In this system, acoustic speech information is supplemented with information from facial myoelectric signals (MES). A new method of combining experts, known as the plausibility method, is employed to combine an acoustic ASR expert and a MES ASR expert. The plausibility method of combining multiple experts, which is based on the mathematical framework of evidence theory, is compared to the Borda count and score-based methods of combination. Acoustic and facial MES data were collected from 5 subjects, using a 10-word vocabulary across an 18-dB range of acoustic noise. As expected the performance of an acoustic expert decreases with increasing acoustic noise; classification accuracies of the acoustic ASR expert are as low as 11.5%. The effect of noise is significantly reduced with the addition of the MES ASR expert. Classification accuracies remain above 78.8% across the 18-dB range of acoustic noise, when the plausibility method is used to combine the opinions of multiple experts. In addition, the plausibility method produced classification accuracies higher than any individual expert at all noise levels, as well as the highest classification accuracies, except at the 9-dB noise level. Using the Borda count and score-based multiexpert systems, classification accuracies are improved relative to the acoustic ASR expert but are as low as 51.5% and 59.5%, respectively.

  16. Amplitude Modulations of Acoustic Communication Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turesson, Hjalmar K.

    2011-12-01

    In human speech, amplitude modulations at 3 -- 8 Hz are important for discrimination and detection. Two different neurophysiological theories have been proposed to explain this effect. The first theory proposes that, as a consequence of neocortical synaptic dynamics, signals that are amplitude modulated at 3 -- 8 Hz are propagated better than un-modulated signals, or signals modulated above 8 Hz. This suggests that neural activity elicited by vocalizations modulated at 3 -- 8 Hz is optimally transmitted, and the vocalizations better discriminated and detected. The second theory proposes that 3 -- 8 Hz amplitude modulations interact with spontaneous neocortical oscillations. Specifically, vocalizations modulated at 3 -- 8 Hz entrain local populations of neurons, which in turn, modulate the amplitude of high frequency gamma oscillations. This suggests that vocalizations modulated at 3 -- 8 Hz should induce stronger cross-frequency coupling. Similar to human speech, we found that macaque monkey vocalizations also are amplitude modulated between 3 and 8 Hz. Humans and macaque monkeys share similarities in vocal production, implying that the auditory systems subserving perception of acoustic communication signals also share similarities. Based on the similarities between human speech and macaque monkey vocalizations, we addressed how amplitude modulated vocalizations are processed in the auditory cortex of macaque monkeys, and what behavioral relevance modulations may have. Recording single neuron activity, as well as, the activity of local populations of neurons allowed us to test both of the neurophysiological theories presented above. We found that single neuron responses to vocalizations amplitude modulated at 3 -- 8 Hz resulted in better stimulus discrimination than vocalizations lacking 3 -- 8 Hz modulations, and that the effect most likely was mediated by synaptic dynamics. In contrast, we failed to find support for the oscillation-based model proposing a

  17. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2002-01-01

    Low power EM waves are used to detect motions of vocal tract tissues of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech. A voiced excitation function is derived. The excitation function provides speech production information to enhance speech characterization and to enable noise removal from human speech.

  18. Acoustic Characteristics of Ataxic Speech in Japanese Patients with Spinocerebellar Degeneration (SCD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikui, Yukiko; Tsukuda, Mamoru; Kuroiwa, Yoshiyuki; Koyano, Shigeru; Hirose, Hajime; Taguchi, Takahide

    2012-01-01

    Background: In English- and German-speaking countries, ataxic speech is often described as showing scanning based on acoustic impressions. Although the term "scanning" is generally considered to represent abnormal speech features including prosodic excess or insufficiency, any precise acoustic analysis of ataxic speech has not been…

  19. Emotional communication in speech and music: the role of melodic and rhythmic contrasts.

    PubMed

    Quinto, Lena; Thompson, William Forde; Keating, Felicity Louise

    2013-01-01

    Many acoustic features convey emotion similarly in speech and music. Researchers have established that acoustic features such as pitch height, tempo, and intensity carry important emotional information in both domains. In this investigation, we examined the emotional significance of melodic and rhythmic contrasts between successive syllables or tones in speech and music, referred to as Melodic Interval Variability (MIV) and the normalized Pairwise Variability Index (nPVI). The spoken stimuli were 96 tokens expressing the emotions of irritation, fear, happiness, sadness, tenderness, or no emotion. The music stimuli were 96 phrases, played with or without performance expression and composed with the intention of communicating the same emotions. Results showed that nPVI, but not MIV, operates similarly in music and speech. Spoken stimuli, but not musical stimuli, were characterized by changes in MIV as a function of intended emotion. The results suggest that these measures may signal emotional intentions differently in speech and music.

  20. Emotional Communication in Speech and Music: The Role of Melodic and Rhythmic Contrasts

    PubMed Central

    Quinto, Lena; Thompson, William Forde; Keating, Felicity Louise

    2013-01-01

    Many acoustic features convey emotion similarly in speech and music. Researchers have established that acoustic features such as pitch height, tempo, and intensity carry important emotional information in both domains. In this investigation, we examined the emotional significance of melodic and rhythmic contrasts between successive syllables or tones in speech and music, referred to as Melodic Interval Variability (MIV) and the normalized Pairwise Variability Index (nPVI). The spoken stimuli were 96 tokens expressing the emotions of irritation, fear, happiness, sadness, tenderness, or no emotion. The music stimuli were 96 phrases, played with or without performance expression and composed with the intention of communicating the same emotions. Results showed that nPVI, but not MIV, operates similarly in music and speech. Spoken stimuli, but not musical stimuli, were characterized by changes in MIV as a function of intended emotion. The results suggest that these measures may signal emotional intentions differently in speech and music. PMID:23630507

  1. A method for determining internal noise criteria based on practical speech communication applied to helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sternfeld, H., Jr.; Doyle, L. B.

    1978-01-01

    The relationship between the internal noise environment of helicopters and the ability of personnel to understand commands and instructions was studied. A test program was conducted to relate speech intelligibility to a standard measurement called Articulation Index. An acoustical simulator was used to provide noise environments typical of Army helicopters. Speech material (command sentences and phonetically balanced word lists) were presented at several voice levels in each helicopter environment. Recommended helicopter internal noise criteria, based on speech communication, were derived and the effectiveness of hearing protection devices were evaluated.

  2. Estimation of glottal source features from the spectral envelope of the acoustic speech signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Juan Felix

    Speech communication encompasses diverse types of information, including phonetics, affective state, voice quality, and speaker identity. From a speech production standpoint, the acoustic speech signal can be mainly divided into glottal source and vocal tract components, which play distinct roles in rendering the various types of information it contains. Most deployed speech analysis systems, however, do not explicitly represent these two components as distinct entities, as their joint estimation from the acoustic speech signal becomes an ill-defined blind deconvolution problem. Nevertheless, because of the desire to understand glottal behavior and how it relates to perceived voice quality, there has been continued interest in explicitly estimating the glottal component of the speech signal. To this end, several inverse filtering (IF) algorithms have been proposed, but they are unreliable in practice because of the blind formulation of the separation problem. In an effort to develop a method that can bypass the challenging IF process, this thesis proposes a new glottal source information extraction method that relies on supervised machine learning to transform smoothed spectral representations of speech, which are already used in some of the most widely deployed and successful speech analysis applications, into a set of glottal source features. A transformation method based on Gaussian mixture regression (GMR) is presented and compared to current IF methods in terms of feature similarity, reliability, and speaker discrimination capability on a large speech corpus, and potential representations of the spectral envelope of speech are investigated for their ability represent glottal source variation in a predictable manner. The proposed system was found to produce glottal source features that reasonably matched their IF counterparts in many cases, while being less susceptible to spurious errors. The development of the proposed method entailed a study into the aspects

  3. Speech intelligibility in complex acoustic environments in young children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litovsky, Ruth

    2003-04-01

    While the auditory system undergoes tremendous maturation during the first few years of life, it has become clear that in complex scenarios when multiple sounds occur and when echoes are present, children's performance is significantly worse than their adult counterparts. The ability of children (3-7 years of age) to understand speech in a simulated multi-talker environment and to benefit from spatial separation of the target and competing sounds was investigated. In these studies, competing sources vary in number, location, and content (speech, modulated or unmodulated speech-shaped noise and time-reversed speech). The acoustic spaces were also varied in size and amount of reverberation. Finally, children with chronic otitis media who received binaural training were tested pre- and post-training on a subset of conditions. Results indicated the following. (1) Children experienced significantly more masking than adults, even in the simplest conditions tested. (2) When the target and competing sounds were spatially separated speech intelligibility improved, but the amount varied with age, type of competing sound, and number of competitors. (3) In a large reverberant classroom there was no benefit of spatial separation. (4) Binaural training improved speech intelligibility performance in children with otitis media. Future work includes similar studies in children with unilateral and bilateral cochlear implants. [Work supported by NIDCD, DRF, and NOHR.

  4. Automatic speech segmentation using throat-acoustic correlation coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mussabayev, Rustam Rafikovich; Kalimoldayev, Maksat N.; Amirgaliyev, Yedilkhan N.; Mussabayev, Timur R.

    2016-11-01

    This work considers one of the approaches to the solution of the task of discrete speech signal automatic segmentation. The aim of this work is to construct such an algorithm which should meet the following requirements: segmentation of a signal into acoustically homogeneous segments, high accuracy and segmentation speed, unambiguity and reproducibility of segmentation results, lack of necessity of preliminary training with the use of a special set consisting of manually segmented signals. Development of the algorithm which corresponds to the given requirements was conditioned by the necessity of formation of automatically segmented speech databases that have a large volume. One of the new approaches to the solution of this task is viewed in this article. For this purpose we use the new type of informative features named TAC-coefficients (Throat-Acoustic Correlation coefficients) which provide sufficient segmentation accuracy and effi- ciency.

  5. Multichannel spatial auditory display for speech communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, D. R.; Erbe, T.; Wenzel, E. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    A spatial auditory display for multiple speech communications was developed at NASA/Ames Research Center. Input is spatialized by the use of simplified head-related transfer functions, adapted for FIR filtering on Motorola 56001 digital signal processors. Hardware and firmware design implementations are overviewed for the initial prototype developed for NASA-Kennedy Space Center. An adaptive staircase method was used to determine intelligibility levels of four-letter call signs used by launch personnel at NASA against diotic speech babble. Spatial positions at 30 degrees azimuth increments were evaluated. The results from eight subjects showed a maximum intelligibility improvement of about 6-7 dB when the signal was spatialized to 60 or 90 degrees azimuth positions.

  6. Tongue-Palate Contact Pressure, Oral Air Pressure, and Acoustics of Clear Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searl, Jeff; Evitts, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors compared articulatory contact pressure (ACP), oral air pressure (Po), and speech acoustics for conversational versus clear speech. They also assessed the relationship of these measures to listener perception. Method: Twelve adults with normal speech produced monosyllables in a phrase using conversational and clear speech.…

  7. Adding articulatory features to acoustic features for automatic speech recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Zlokarnik, I.

    1995-05-01

    A hidden-Markov-model (HMM) based speech recognition system was evaluated that makes use of simultaneously recorded acoustic and articulatory data. The articulatory measurements were gathered by means of electromagnetic articulography and describe the movement of small coils fixed to the speakers` tongue and jaw during the production of German V{sub 1}CV{sub 2} sequences [P. Hoole and S. Gfoerer, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Suppl. 1 {bold 87}, S123 (1990)]. Using the coordinates of the coil positions as an articulatory representation, acoustic and articulatory features were combined to make up an acoustic--articulatory feature vector. The discriminant power of this combined representation was evaluated for two subjects on a speaker-dependent isolated word recognition task. When the articulatory measurements were used both for training and testing the HMMs, the articulatory representation was capable of reducing the error rate of comparable acoustic-based HMMs by a relative percentage of more than 60%. In a separate experiment, the articulatory movements during the testing phase were estimated using a multilayer perceptron that performed an acoustic-to-articulatory mapping. Under these more realistic conditions, when articulatory measurements are only available during the training, the error rate could be reduced by a relative percentage of 18% to 25%.

  8. Acoustic communications and autonomous underwater vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitag, Lee; Grund, Matthew; Preisig, James; Stojanovic, Milica

    2004-05-01

    Acoustic communications systems used on autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) provide supervisory control, access to real-time data, and also allow multiple vehicles to cooperate in undertaking adaptive sampling missions. However, the use of acoustic systems on AUVs presents special challenges because of limited space for optimal placement of transducers, and potential conflicts with other acoustic systems such as side-scan sonars and transponders. In addition, radiated and structure-borne acoustic interference from thrusters and actuators reduces the sensitivity of on-board receivers. Recent work in acoustic communications and AUVs has included combining some navigation functions into communications equipment, development of operating modes that remove conflicts between different subsystems, design of vehicle components to avoid or remove interference, and other approaches to improving performance. While these efforts have been successful for specific installations, many challenges remain. This talk addresses problems and solutions for supervised and completely autonomous multi-vehicle communications to support complex AUV missions. Also presented are recent results which demonstrate that acoustic communications can be used successfully on a variety of AUV platforms for many different applications. [Work supported by ONR.

  9. Automatic speech recognition technology development at ITT Defense Communications Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, George M.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of the applications of automatic speech recognition to defense communication systems is presented. Future research efforts include investigations into the following areas: (1) dynamic programming; (2) recognition of speech degraded by noise; (3) speaker independent recognition; (4) large vocabulary recognition; (5) word spotting and continuous speech recognition; and (6) isolated word recognition.

  10. Effects and modeling of phonetic and acoustic confusions in accented speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Pascale; Liu, Yi

    2005-11-01

    Accented speech recognition is more challenging than standard speech recognition due to the effects of phonetic and acoustic confusions. Phonetic confusion in accented speech occurs when an expected phone is pronounced as a different one, which leads to erroneous recognition. Acoustic confusion occurs when the pronounced phone is found to lie acoustically between two baseform models and can be equally recognized as either one. We propose that it is necessary to analyze and model these confusions separately in order to improve accented speech recognition without degrading standard speech recognition. Since low phonetic confusion units in accented speech do not give rise to automatic speech recognition errors, we focus on analyzing and reducing phonetic and acoustic confusability under high phonetic confusion conditions. We propose using likelihood ratio test to measure phonetic confusion, and asymmetric acoustic distance to measure acoustic confusion. Only accent-specific phonetic units with low acoustic confusion are used in an augmented pronunciation dictionary, while phonetic units with high acoustic confusion are reconstructed using decision tree merging. Experimental results show that our approach is effective and superior to methods modeling phonetic confusion or acoustic confusion alone in accented speech, with a significant 5.7% absolute WER reduction, without degrading standard speech recognition.

  11. Multilevel Analysis in Analyzing Speech Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guddattu, Vasudeva; Krishna, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The speech produced by human vocal tract is a complex acoustic signal, with diverse applications in phonetics, speech synthesis, automatic speech recognition, speaker identification, communication aids, speech pathology, speech perception, machine translation, hearing research, rehabilitation and assessment of communication disorders and many…

  12. On Speech Communication; An Anthology of Contemporary Writings and Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Charles J.

    This anthology of contemporary messages is designed to offer the student a combination of varied readings related to the medium and subject matter of speech communication. The messages involve a variety of speakers and issues. The emphasis is on the contemporary, with special attention given to the relevance of speech communication to our society.…

  13. Acoustic Detail But Not Predictability of Task-Irrelevant Speech Disrupts Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Wöstmann, Malte; Obleser, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Attended speech is comprehended better not only if more acoustic detail is available, but also if it is semantically highly predictable. But can more acoustic detail or higher predictability turn into disadvantages and distract a listener if the speech signal is to be ignored? Also, does the degree of distraction increase for older listeners who typically show a decline in attentional control ability? Adopting the irrelevant-speech paradigm, we tested whether younger (age 23–33 years) and older (60–78 years) listeners’ working memory for the serial order of spoken digits would be disrupted by the presentation of task-irrelevant speech varying in its acoustic detail (using noise-vocoding) and its semantic predictability (of sentence endings). More acoustic detail, but not higher predictability, of task-irrelevant speech aggravated memory interference. This pattern of results did not differ between younger and older listeners, despite generally lower performance in older listeners. Our findings suggest that the focus of attention determines how acoustics and predictability affect the processing of speech: first, as more acoustic detail is known to enhance speech comprehension and memory for speech, we here demonstrate that more acoustic detail of ignored speech enhances the degree of distraction. Second, while higher predictability of attended speech is known to also enhance speech comprehension under acoustically adverse conditions, higher predictability of ignored speech is unable to exert any distracting effect upon working memory performance in younger or older listeners. These findings suggest that features that make attended speech easier to comprehend do not necessarily enhance distraction by ignored speech. PMID:27826235

  14. Influences of noise-interruption and information-bearing acoustic changes on understanding simulated electric-acoustic speech.

    PubMed

    Stilp, Christian; Donaldson, Gail; Oh, Soohee; Kong, Ying-Yee

    2016-11-01

    In simulations of electrical-acoustic stimulation (EAS), vocoded speech intelligibility is aided by preservation of low-frequency acoustic cues. However, the speech signal is often interrupted in everyday listening conditions, and effects of interruption on hybrid speech intelligibility are poorly understood. Additionally, listeners rely on information-bearing acoustic changes to understand full-spectrum speech (as measured by cochlea-scaled entropy [CSE]) and vocoded speech (CSECI), but how listeners utilize these informational changes to understand EAS speech is unclear. Here, normal-hearing participants heard noise-vocoded sentences with three to six spectral channels in two conditions: vocoder-only (80-8000 Hz) and simulated hybrid EAS (vocoded above 500 Hz; original acoustic signal below 500 Hz). In each sentence, four 80-ms intervals containing high-CSECI or low-CSECI acoustic changes were replaced with speech-shaped noise. As expected, performance improved with the preservation of low-frequency fine-structure cues (EAS). This improvement decreased for continuous EAS sentences as more spectral channels were added, but increased as more channels were added to noise-interrupted EAS sentences. Performance was impaired more when high-CSECI intervals were replaced by noise than when low-CSECI intervals were replaced, but this pattern did not differ across listening modes. Utilizing information-bearing acoustic changes to understand speech is predicted to generalize to cochlear implant users who receive EAS inputs.

  15. Long Range Acoustic Communication in Deep Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    Acoustic communication at long range in the ocean is challenging due to the substantial propagation loss, multipath delay spread , and channel...20 Hz in the upward refracting Arctic acoustic channel. However, the seafloor topography in the region of the Chukchi Plateau is very uneven over...which the depth was 600 m and thus the seafloor affected every mode of the ACOUS signal except for mode 1 which was confined to the upper 200 m. In April

  16. The energetic basis of acoustic communication.

    PubMed

    Gillooly, James F; Ophir, Alexander G

    2010-05-07

    Animals produce a tremendous diversity of sounds for communication to perform life's basic functions, from courtship and parental care to defence and foraging. Explaining this diversity in sound production is important for understanding the ecology, evolution and behaviour of species. Here, we present a theory of acoustic communication that shows that much of the heterogeneity in animal vocal signals can be explained based on the energetic constraints of sound production. The models presented here yield quantitative predictions on key features of acoustic signals, including the frequency, power and duration of signals. Predictions are supported with data from nearly 500 diverse species (e.g. insects, fishes, reptiles, amphibians, birds and mammals). These results indicate that, for all species, acoustic communication is primarily controlled by individual metabolism such that call features vary predictably with body size and temperature. These results also provide insights regarding the common energetic and neuromuscular constraints on sound production, and the ecological and evolutionary consequences of producing these sounds.

  17. Talker Differences in Clear and Conversational Speech: Acoustic Characteristics of Vowels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Sarah Hargus; Kewley-Port, Diane

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the specific acoustic changes that underlie improved vowel intelligibility in clear speech. Method: Seven acoustic metrics were measured for conversational and clear vowels produced by 12 talkers--6 who previously were found (S. H. Ferguson, 2004) to produce a large clear speech vowel intelligibility effect for listeners with…

  18. Virtual acoustics, aeronautics, and communications.

    PubMed

    Begault, D R

    1998-06-01

    An optimal approach to auditory display design for commercial aircraft would utilize both spatialized (3-D) audio techniques and active noise cancellation for safer operations. Results from several aircraft simulator studies conducted at NASA Ames Research Center are reviewed, including Traffic alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) warnings, spoken orientation "beacons" for gate identification and collision avoidance on the ground, and hardware for improved speech intelligibility. The implications of hearing loss among pilots is also considered.

  19. Virtual acoustics, aeronautics, and communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, D. R.; Wenzel, E. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    An optimal approach to auditory display design for commercial aircraft would utilize both spatialized (3-D) audio techniques and active noise cancellation for safer operations. Results from several aircraft simulator studies conducted at NASA Ames Research Center are reviewed, including Traffic alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) warnings, spoken orientation "beacons" for gate identification and collision avoidance on the ground, and hardware for improved speech intelligibility. The implications of hearing loss among pilots is also considered.

  20. Virtual Acoustics, Aeronautics and Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    An optimal approach to auditory display design for commercial aircraft would utilize both spatialized ("3-D") audio techniques and active noise cancellation for safer operations. Results from several aircraft simulator studies conducted at NASA Ames Research Center are reviewed, including Traffic alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) warnings, spoken orientation "beacons" for gate identification and collision avoidance on the ground, and hardware for improved speech intelligibility. The implications of hearing loss amongst pilots is also considered.

  1. Denoising of human speech using combined acoustic and em sensor signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, L C; Burnett, G C; Holzrichter, J F; Gable, T J

    1999-11-29

    Low Power EM radar-like sensors have made it possible to measure properties of the human speech production system in real-time, without acoustic interference. This greatly enhances the quality and quantify of information for many speech related applications. See Holzrichter, Burnett, Ng, and Lea, J. Acoustic. Soc. Am. 103 (1) 622 (1998). By using combined Glottal-EM- Sensor- and Acoustic-signals, segments of voiced, unvoiced, and no-speech can be reliably defined. Real-time Denoising filters can be constructed to remove noise from the user's corresponding speech signal.

  2. Speech acts, communication problems, and fighter pilot team performance.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Jonathan; Andersson, Jan

    Two aspects of team communication, speech acts and communication problems, and their relation to team performance in a team air combat simulator were studied. The purpose was to enhance the understanding of how team performance is related to team communication. Ten Swedish fighter pilots and four fighter controllers of varying experience participated. Data were collected during fighter simulator training involving four pilots and one fighter controller in each of two teams. Speech acts were collapsed over seven categories and communication problems over five categories. Communication was studied from two perspectives: critical situation outcome and mission outcome. Some problems were closely related to particular speech acts. Speech act frequency, especially meta-communications and tactics, was highest when winning. However, the timing of tactics in critical situations needs further research. Communication problem frequency was highest for runs which ended equally. The most common problem was simultaneous speech, possibly because of the simulator radio system. The number of speech acts was related to enhanced performance but in a complex manner. Thus in order to work efficiently team members need to communicate, but to communicate sufficiently and at appropriate times. This work has applications for fighter pilot and controller team training and the development of communication standards.

  3. Acoustic Analysis of the Voiced-Voiceless Distinction in Dutch Tracheoesophageal Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongmans, Petra; Wempe, Ton G.; van Tinteren, Harm; Hilgers, Frans J. M.; Pols, Louis C. W.; van As-Brooks, Corina J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Confusions between voiced and voiceless plosives and voiced and voiceless fricatives are common in Dutch tracheoesophageal (TE) speech. This study investigates (a) which acoustic measures are found to convey a correct voicing contrast in TE speech and (b) whether different measures are found in TE speech than in normal laryngeal (NL)…

  4. Perceptual and Acoustic Reliability Estimates for the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Fourakis, Marios; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Potter, Nancy L.; Scheer-Cohen, Alison R.; Strand, Edythe A.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2010-01-01

    A companion paper describes three extensions to a classification system for paediatric speech sound disorders termed the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS). The SDCS uses perceptual and acoustic data reduction methods to obtain information on a speaker's speech, prosody, and voice. The present paper provides reliability estimates for…

  5. Acoustic Predictors of Intelligibility for Segmentally Interrupted Speech: Temporal Envelope, Voicing, and Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogerty, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Temporal interruption limits the perception of speech to isolated temporal glimpses. An analysis was conducted to determine the acoustic parameter that best predicts speech recognition from temporal fragments that preserve different types of speech information--namely, consonants and vowels. Method: Young listeners with normal hearing…

  6. Acoustic communication in insect disease vectors

    PubMed Central

    Vigoder, Felipe de Mello; Ritchie, Michael Gordon; Gibson, Gabriella; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic signalling has been extensively studied in insect species, which has led to a better understanding of sexual communication, sexual selection and modes of speciation. The significance of acoustic signals for a blood-sucking insect was first reported in the XIX century by Christopher Johnston, studying the hearing organs of mosquitoes, but has received relatively little attention in other disease vectors until recently. Acoustic signals are often associated with mating behaviour and sexual selection and changes in signalling can lead to rapid evolutionary divergence and may ultimately contribute to the process of speciation. Songs can also have implications for the success of novel methods of disease control such as determining the mating competitiveness of modified insects used for mass-release control programs. Species-specific sound “signatures” may help identify incipient species within species complexes that may be of epidemiological significance, e.g. of higher vectorial capacity, thereby enabling the application of more focussed control measures to optimise the reduction of pathogen transmission. Although the study of acoustic communication in insect vectors has been relatively limited, this review of research demonstrates their value as models for understanding both the functional and evolutionary significance of acoustic communication in insects. PMID:24473800

  7. Acoustic communication in insect disease vectors.

    PubMed

    Vigoder, Felipe de Mello; Ritchie, Michael Gordon; Gibson, Gabriella; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic signalling has been extensively studied in insect species, which has led to a better understanding of sexual communication, sexual selection and modes of speciation. The significance of acoustic signals for a blood-sucking insect was first reported in the XIX century by Christopher Johnston, studying the hearing organs of mosquitoes, but has received relatively little attention in other disease vectors until recently. Acoustic signals are often associated with mating behaviour and sexual selection and changes in signalling can lead to rapid evolutionary divergence and may ultimately contribute to the process of speciation. Songs can also have implications for the success of novel methods of disease control such as determining the mating competitiveness of modified insects used for mass-release control programs. Species-specific sound "signatures" may help identify incipient species within species complexes that may be of epidemiological significance, e.g. of higher vectorial capacity, thereby enabling the application of more focussed control measures to optimise the reduction of pathogen transmission. Although the study of acoustic communication in insect vectors has been relatively limited, this review of research demonstrates their value as models for understanding both the functional and evolutionary significance of acoustic communication in insects.

  8. Natural Communication with Computers. Volume 1. Speech Understanding Research at BBN

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-01

    ACOUSTIC/PHONETIC RECOGNITION PROGRAM 42 (Schwartz, Makhoul) A. Introduction 42 B. Problems With Old Methods , 42 C. Research 45 D...distinct phoneme and also indicate its possible non-existence. During the second phase of these experiments, the researchers were able to employ...AD/A-003 315 NATURAL COMMUNICATION WITH COMPUTERS. VOLUME I. SPEECH UNDERSTANDING RESEARCH AT BBN William A. Woods, et al Bolt

  9. Frequency overlap between electric and acoustic stimulation and speech-perception benefit in patients with combined electric and acoustic stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ting; Spahr, Anthony J.; Dorman, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to assess, for patients with a cochlear implant in one ear and low-frequency acoustic hearing in the contralateral ear, whether reducing the overlap in frequencies conveyed in the acoustic signal and those analyzed by the cochlear implant speech processor would improve speech recognition. Design The recognition of monosyllabic words in quiet and sentences in noise was evaluated in three listening configurations: electric stimulation alone, acoustic stimulation alone, and combined electric and acoustic stimulation. The acoustic stimuli were either unfiltered or low-pass (LP) filtered at 250 Hz, 500 Hz, or 750 Hz. The electric stimuli were either unfiltered or high-pass (HP) filtered at 250 Hz, 500 Hz or 750 Hz. In the combined condition the unfiltered acoustic signal was paired with the unfiltered electric signal, the 250 LP acoustic signal was paired with the 250 Hz HP electric signal, the 500 Hz LP acoustic signal was paired with the 500 Hz HP electric signal and the 750 Hz LP acoustic signal was paired with the 750 Hz HP electric signal. Results For both acoustic and electric signals performance increased as the bandwith increased. The highest level of performance in the combined condition was observed in the unfiltered acoustic plus unfiltered electric condition. Conclusions Reducing the overlap in frequency representation between acoustic and electric stimulation does not increase speech understanding scores for patients who have residual hearing in the ear contralateral to the implant. We find that acoustic information below 250 Hz significantly improves performance for patients who combine electric and acoustic stimulation and accounts for the majority of the speech-perception benefit when acoustic stimulation is combined with electric stimulation. PMID:19915474

  10. Location and acoustic scale cues in concurrent speech recognition1

    PubMed Central

    Ives, D. Timothy; Vestergaard, Martin D.; Kistler, Doris J.; Patterson, Roy D.

    2010-01-01

    Location and acoustic scale cues have both been shown to have an effect on the recognition of speech in multi-speaker environments. This study examines the interaction of these variables. Subjects were presented with concurrent triplets of syllables from a target voice and a distracting voice, and asked to recognize a specific target syllable. The task was made more or less difficult by changing (a) the location of the distracting speaker, (b) the scale difference between the two speakers, and∕or (c) the relative level of the two speakers. Scale differences were produced by changing the vocal tract length and glottal pulse rate during syllable synthesis: 32 acoustic scale differences were used. Location cues were produced by convolving head-related transfer functions with the stimulus. The angle between the target speaker and the distracter was 0°, 4°, 8°, 16°, or 32° on the 0° horizontal plane. The relative level of the target to the distracter was 0 or −6 dB. The results show that location and scale difference interact, and the interaction is greatest when one of these cues is small. Increasing either the acoustic scale or the angle between target and distracter speakers quickly elevates performance to ceiling levels. PMID:20550271

  11. Graduate Degree Programs in Speech Communication: Description and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBan, Frank K.

    1977-01-01

    Contends that the current status of job opportunities in speech versus the number of graduate degrees awarded on a regular basis warrant a moratorium on new graduate M.A. and Ph.D. programs and a reduction in graduate admissions to existing programs. Available from: ACA Bulletin, Robert Hall, Editor, Speech Communication Association, 5205 Leesburg…

  12. Suprasegmental Characteristics of Spontaneous Speech Produced in Good and Challenging Communicative Conditions by Talkers Aged 9-14 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazan, Valerie; Tuomainen, Outi; Pettinato, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the acoustic characteristics of spontaneous speech by talkers aged 9-14 years and their ability to adapt these characteristics to maintain effective communication when intelligibility was artificially degraded for their interlocutor. Method: Recordings were made for 96 children (50 female participants, 46 male…

  13. Communication without Speech: A Guide for Parents and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomberg, Karen, Ed.; Johnson, Hilary, Ed.

    This guide addresses issues facing the parents, teachers and caregivers of children who are unable to use normal speech as a means of communication. It focuses on people who are intellectually disabled or children who are starting to use augmentative communication. The guide includes the following topics: the nature of communication; an overview…

  14. Speech Intelligibility of Two Voice Output Communication Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kannenberg, Patricia; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The intelligibility of two voice-output communication aids ("Personal Communicator" and "SpeechPAC'") was evaluated by presenting synthesized words and sentences to 20 listeners. Analysis of listener transcriptions revealed significantly higher intelligibility scores for the "Personal Communicator" compared to the…

  15. Speech Acts, Communicative Competence and the Paradox of Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, R. R.

    1977-01-01

    Attempts to resolve the paradox of authority through an expansion of the theory of speech acts by means of Habermas' theory of communicative competence. Cites the works of Robert Wolff and P.H. Nowell-Smith. (MH)

  16. The minor third communicates sadness in speech, mirroring its use in music.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Meagan E; Bharucha, Jamshed J

    2010-06-01

    There is a long history of attempts to explain why music is perceived as expressing emotion. The relationship between pitches serves as an important cue for conveying emotion in music. The musical interval referred to as the minor third is generally thought to convey sadness. We reveal that the minor third also occurs in the pitch contour of speech conveying sadness. Bisyllabic speech samples conveying four emotions were recorded by 9 actresses. Acoustic analyses revealed that the relationship between the 2 salient pitches of the sad speech samples tended to approximate a minor third. Participants rated the speech samples for perceived emotion, and the use of numerous acoustic parameters as cues for emotional identification was modeled using regression analysis. The minor third was the most reliable cue for identifying sadness. Additional participants rated musical intervals for emotion, and their ratings verified the historical association between the musical minor third and sadness. These findings support the theory that human vocal expressions and music share an acoustic code for communicating sadness.

  17. Mandarin Speech Perception in Combined Electric and Acoustic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongxin; Zhang, Guoping; Galvin, John J.; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2014-01-01

    For deaf individuals with residual low-frequency acoustic hearing, combined use of a cochlear implant (CI) and hearing aid (HA) typically provides better speech understanding than with either device alone. Because of coarse spectral resolution, CIs do not provide fundamental frequency (F0) information that contributes to understanding of tonal languages such as Mandarin Chinese. The HA can provide good representation of F0 and, depending on the range of aided acoustic hearing, first and second formant (F1 and F2) information. In this study, Mandarin tone, vowel, and consonant recognition in quiet and noise was measured in 12 adult Mandarin-speaking bimodal listeners with the CI-only and with the CI+HA. Tone recognition was significantly better with the CI+HA in noise, but not in quiet. Vowel recognition was significantly better with the CI+HA in quiet, but not in noise. There was no significant difference in consonant recognition between the CI-only and the CI+HA in quiet or in noise. There was a wide range in bimodal benefit, with improvements often greater than 20 percentage points in some tests and conditions. The bimodal benefit was compared to CI subjects’ HA-aided pure-tone average (PTA) thresholds between 250 and 2000 Hz; subjects were divided into two groups: “better” PTA (<50 dB HL) or “poorer” PTA (>50 dB HL). The bimodal benefit differed significantly between groups only for consonant recognition. The bimodal benefit for tone recognition in quiet was significantly correlated with CI experience, suggesting that bimodal CI users learn to better combine low-frequency spectro-temporal information from acoustic hearing with temporal envelope information from electric hearing. Given the small number of subjects in this study (n = 12), further research with Chinese bimodal listeners may provide more information regarding the contribution of acoustic and electric hearing to tonal language perception. PMID:25386962

  18. Acoustical Characteristics of Mastication Sounds: Application of Speech Analysis Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brochetti, Denise

    Food scientists have used acoustical methods to study characteristics of mastication sounds in relation to food texture. However, a model for analysis of the sounds has not been identified, and reliability of the methods has not been reported. Therefore, speech analysis techniques were applied to mastication sounds, and variation in measures of the sounds was examined. To meet these objectives, two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, a digital sound spectrograph generated waveforms and wideband spectrograms of sounds by 3 adult subjects (1 male, 2 females) for initial chews of food samples differing in hardness and fracturability. Acoustical characteristics were described and compared. For all sounds, formants appeared in the spectrograms, and energy occurred across a 0 to 8000-Hz range of frequencies. Bursts characterized waveforms for peanut, almond, raw carrot, ginger snap, and hard candy. Duration and amplitude of the sounds varied with the subjects. In the second experiment, the spectrograph was used to measure the duration, amplitude, and formants of sounds for the initial 2 chews of cylindrical food samples (raw carrot, teething toast) differing in diameter (1.27, 1.90, 2.54 cm). Six adult subjects (3 males, 3 females) having normal occlusions and temporomandibular joints chewed the samples between the molar teeth and with the mouth open. Ten repetitions per subject were examined for each food sample. Analysis of estimates of variation indicated an inconsistent intrasubject variation in the acoustical measures. Food type and sample diameter also affected the estimates, indicating the variable nature of mastication. Generally, intrasubject variation was greater than intersubject variation. Analysis of ranks of the data indicated that the effect of sample diameter on the acoustical measures was inconsistent and depended on the subject and type of food. If inferences are to be made concerning food texture from acoustical measures of mastication

  19. Automatic speech recognition using articulatory features from subject-independent acoustic-to-articulatory inversion.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Prasanta Kumar; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2011-10-01

    An automatic speech recognition approach is presented which uses articulatory features estimated by a subject-independent acoustic-to-articulatory inversion. The inversion allows estimation of articulatory features from any talker's speech acoustics using only an exemplary subject's articulatory-to-acoustic map. Results are reported on a broad class phonetic classification experiment on speech from English talkers using data from three distinct English talkers as exemplars for inversion. Results indicate that the inclusion of the articulatory information improves classification accuracy but the improvement is more significant when the speaking style of the exemplar and the talker are matched compared to when they are mismatched.

  20. Communicative Competence, Speech Acts and Discourse Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Terry; And Others

    Three papers intended as preliminary studies to bilingual professional curriculum development are included. "Speech Acts and Discourse Analysis," by Terry McCoy, represents an introduction to discourse analysis as a tool for the language teacher. The notion of a typology of speech acts is set forth, and models of discourse analysis by…

  1. Third International Conference on Acoustic Communication by Animals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    predominant aim of this conference is to consider acoustic communication, its mechanisms, and the detection of acoustic signals, particularly in noisy ...frogs (6). Topics covered included cognition/language; song and call classification; rule learning; acoustic ecology; communication in noisy ...at the Statler Hotel and Conference Center on the Cornell University campus. Evening programs included a networking dinner (“Bioacoustics and Pizza

  2. Analysis of acoustic communication by ants.

    PubMed

    Hickling, R; Brown, R L

    2000-10-01

    An analysis is presented of acoustic communication by ants, based on near-field theory and on data obtained from the black imported fire ant Solenopsis richteri and other sources. Generally ant stridulatory sounds are barely audible, but they occur continuously in ant colonies. Because ants appear unresponsive to airborne sound, myrmecologists have concluded that stridulatory signals are transmitted through the substrate. However, transmission through the substrate is unlikely, for reasons given in the paper. Apparently ants communicate mainly through the air, and the acoustic receptors are hairlike sensilla on the antennae that respond to particle sound velocity. This may seem inconsistent with the fact that ants are unresponsive to airborne sound (on a scale of meters), but the inconsistency can be resolved if acoustic communication occurs within the near field, on a scale of about 100 mm. In the near field, the particle sound velocity is significantly enhanced and has a steep gradient. These features can be used to exclude extraneous sound, and to determine the direction and distance of a near-field source. Additionally, we observed that the tracheal air sacs of S. richteri can expand within the gaster, possibly amplifying the radiation of stridulatory sound.

  3. Children's views of communication and speech-language pathology.

    PubMed

    Merrick, Rosalind; Roulstone, Sue

    2011-08-01

    Children have the right to express their views and influence decisions in matters that affect them. Yet decisions regarding speech-language pathology are often made on their behalf, and research into the perspectives of children who receive speech-language pathology intervention is currently limited. This paper reports a qualitative study which explored experiences of communication and of speech-language pathology from the perspectives of children with speech, language, and communication needs (SLCN). The aim was to explore their perspectives of communication, communication impairment, and assistance. Eleven school-children participated in the study, aged between 7-10 years. They were recruited through a speech-language pathology service in south west England, to include a range of ages and severity of difficulties. The study used open-ended interviews within which non-verbal activities such as drawing, taking photographs, and compiling a scrapbook were used to create a context for supported conversations. Findings were analysed according to the principles of grounded theory. Three ways of talking about communication emerged. These were in terms of impairment, learning, and behaviour. Findings offer insight into dialogue between children with SLCN and adults; the way communication is talked about has implications for children's view of themselves, their skills, and their participation.

  4. Acoustic properties of naturally produced clear speech at normal speaking rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Jean C.; Braida, Louis D.

    2004-01-01

    Sentences spoken ``clearly'' are significantly more intelligible than those spoken ``conversationally'' for hearing-impaired listeners in a variety of backgrounds [Picheny et al., J. Speech Hear. Res. 28, 96-103 (1985); Uchanski et al., ibid. 39, 494-509 (1996); Payton et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 95, 1581-1592 (1994)]. While producing clear speech, however, talkers often reduce their speaking rate significantly [Picheny et al., J. Speech Hear. Res. 29, 434-446 (1986); Uchanski et al., ibid. 39, 494-509 (1996)]. Yet speaking slowly is not solely responsible for the intelligibility benefit of clear speech (over conversational speech), since a recent study [Krause and Braida, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 2165-2172 (2002)] showed that talkers can produce clear speech at normal rates with training. This finding suggests that clear speech has inherent acoustic properties, independent of rate, that contribute to improved intelligibility. Identifying these acoustic properties could lead to improved signal processing schemes for hearing aids. To gain insight into these acoustical properties, conversational and clear speech produced at normal speaking rates were analyzed at three levels of detail (global, phonological, and phonetic). Although results suggest that talkers may have employed different strategies to achieve clear speech at normal rates, two global-level properties were identified that appear likely to be linked to the improvements in intelligibility provided by clear/normal speech: increased energy in the 1000-3000-Hz range of long-term spectra and increased modulation depth of low frequency modulations of the intensity envelope. Other phonological and phonetic differences associated with clear/normal speech include changes in (1) frequency of stop burst releases, (2) VOT of word-initial voiceless stop consonants, and (3) short-term vowel spectra.

  5. Bibliographic Annual in Speech Communication: 1974. Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennicott, Patrick C., Ed.

    This annotated bibliography is an annual volume devoted to maintaining a record of graduate work in speech communication, providing abstracts of doctoral dissertations, and making subject area bibliographies available. The contents of this volume include "Studies in Mass Communication: A Selected Bibliography, 1973" by Roland C. Johnson and…

  6. DACUM: A National Database Justifying the Study of Speech Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engleberg, Isa N.; Wynn, Dianna R.

    1995-01-01

    Introduces DACUM (a process designed to help colleges develop, update, or evaluate a curriculum or training program) and its resulting national database. Describes how DACUM can be used to justify the study of communication in most academic curricula, to guide speech communication curriculum planning and defining of the basic course, and to…

  7. Effect of Reflective Practice on Student Recall of Acoustics for Speech Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walden, Patrick R.; Bell-Berti, Fredericka

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have developed models of learning through experience; however, these models are rarely named as a conceptual frame for educational research in the sciences. This study examined the effect of reflective learning responses on student recall of speech acoustics concepts. Two groups of undergraduate students enrolled in a speech science…

  8. Formant Centralization Ratio: A Proposal for a New Acoustic Measure of Dysarthric Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapir, Shimon; Ramig, Lorraine O.; Spielman, Jennifer L.; Fox, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The vowel space area (VSA) has been used as an acoustic metric of dysarthric speech, but with varying degrees of success. In this study, the authors aimed to test an alternative metric to the VSA--the "formant centralization ratio" (FCR), which is hypothesized to more effectively differentiate dysarthric from healthy speech and register…

  9. Existence detection and embedding rate estimation of blended speech in covert speech communications.

    PubMed

    Li, Lijuan; Gao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Covert speech communications may be used by terrorists to commit crimes through Internet. Steganalysis aims to detect secret information in covert communications to prevent crimes. Herein, based on the average zero crossing rate of the odd-even difference (AZCR-OED), a steganalysis algorithm for blended speech is proposed; it can detect the existence and estimate the embedding rate of blended speech. First, the odd-even difference (OED) of the speech signal is calculated and divided into frames. The average zero crossing rate (ZCR) is calculated for each OED frame, and the minimum average ZCR and AZCR-OED of the entire speech signal are extracted as features. Then, a support vector machine classifier is used to determine whether the speech signal is blended. Finally, a voice activity detection algorithm is applied to determine the hidden location of the secret speech and estimate the embedding rate. The results demonstrate that without attack, the detection accuracy can reach 80 % or more when the embedding rate is greater than 10 %, and the estimated embedding rate is similar to the real value. And when some attacks occur, it can also reach relatively high detection accuracy. The algorithm has high performance in terms of accuracy, effectiveness and robustness.

  10. The Use of Artificial Neural Networks to Estimate Speech Intelligibility from Acoustic Variables: A Preliminary Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, Dale Evan; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A preliminary scheme for estimating the speech intelligibility of hearing-impaired speakers from acoustic parameters, using a computerized artificial neural network to process mathematically the acoustic input variables, is outlined. Tests with 60 hearing-impaired speakers found the scheme to be highly accurate in identifying speakers separated by…

  11. School cafeteria noise-The impact of room acoustics and speech intelligibility on children's voice levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridger, Joseph F.

    2002-05-01

    The impact of room acoustics and speech intelligibility conditions of different school cafeterias on the voice levels of children is examined. Methods of evaluating cafeteria designs and predicting noise levels are discussed. Children are shown to modify their voice levels with changes in speech intelligibility like adults. Reverberation and signal to noise ratio are the important acoustical factors affecting speech intelligibility. Children have much more difficulty than adults in conditions where noise and reverberation are present. To evaluate the relationship of voice level and speech intelligibility, a database of real sound levels and room acoustics data was generated from measurements and data recorded during visits to a variety of existing cafeterias under different occupancy conditions. The effects of speech intelligibility and room acoustics on childrens voice levels are demonstrated. A new method is presented for predicting speech intelligibility conditions and resulting noise levels for the design of new cafeterias and renovation of existing facilities. Measurements are provided for an existing school cafeteria before and after new room acoustics treatments were added. This will be helpful for acousticians, architects, school systems, regulatory agencies, and Parent Teacher Associations to create less noisy cafeteria environments.

  12. A maximum likelihood approach to estimating articulator positions from speech acoustics

    SciTech Connect

    Hogden, J.

    1996-09-23

    This proposal presents an algorithm called maximum likelihood continuity mapping (MALCOM) which recovers the positions of the tongue, jaw, lips, and other speech articulators from measurements of the sound-pressure waveform of speech. MALCOM differs from other techniques for recovering articulator positions from speech in three critical respects: it does not require training on measured or modeled articulator positions, it does not rely on any particular model of sound propagation through the vocal tract, and it recovers a mapping from acoustics to articulator positions that is linearly, not topographically, related to the actual mapping from acoustics to articulation. The approach categorizes short-time windows of speech into a finite number of sound types, and assumes the probability of using any articulator position to produce a given sound type can be described by a parameterized probability density function. MALCOM then uses maximum likelihood estimation techniques to: (1) find the most likely smooth articulator path given a speech sample and a set of distribution functions (one distribution function for each sound type), and (2) change the parameters of the distribution functions to better account for the data. Using this technique improves the accuracy of articulator position estimates compared to continuity mapping -- the only other technique that learns the relationship between acoustics and articulation solely from acoustics. The technique has potential application to computer speech recognition, speech synthesis and coding, teaching the hearing impaired to speak, improving foreign language instruction, and teaching dyslexics to read. 34 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Language-specific developmental differences in speech production: A cross-language acoustic study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fangfang

    2013-01-01

    Speech productions of 40 English- and 40 Japanese-speaking children (aged 2 to 5) were examined and compared with the speech produced by 20 adult speakers (10 speakers per language). Participants were recorded while repeating words that began with “s” and “sh” sounds. Clear language-specific patterns in adults’ speech were found, with English speakers differentiating “s” and “sh” in one acoustic dimension (i.e., spectral mean) and Japanese speakers differentiating the two categories in three acoustic dimensions (i.e., spectral mean, standard deviation, and onset F2 frequency). For both language groups, children’s speech exhibited a gradual change from an early undifferentiated form to later differentiated categories. The separation processes, however, only occur in those acoustic dimensions used by adults in the corresponding languages. PMID:22540834

  14. Costing Children's Speech, Language and Communication Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beecham, Jennifer; Law, James; Zeng, Biao; Lindsay, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    Background: There are few economic evaluations of speech and language interventions. Such work requires underpinning by an accurate estimate of the costs of the intervention. This study seeks to address some of the complexities of this task by applying existing approaches of cost estimation to interventions described in published effectiveness…

  15. Intelligibility and acoustic characteristics of clear and conversational speech in telugu (a South Indian dravidian language).

    PubMed

    Durisala, Naresh; Prakash, S G R; Nambi, Arivudai; Batra, Ridhima

    2011-04-01

    The overall goal of this study is to examine the intelligibility differences of clear and conversational speech and also to objectively analyze the acoustic properties contributing to these differences. Seventeen post-lingual stable sensory-neural hearing impaired listeners with an age range of 17-40 years were recruited for the study. Forty Telugu sentences spoken by a female Telugu speaker in both clear and conversational speech styles were used as stimuli for the subjects. Results revealed that mean scores of clear speech were higher (mean = 84.5) when compared to conversational speech (mean = 61.4) with an advantage of 23.1% points. Acoustic properties revealed greater fundamental frequency (f0) and intensity, longer duration, higher consonant-vowel ratio (CVR) and greater temporal energy in clear speech.

  16. A Hybrid Acoustic and Pronunciation Model Adaptation Approach for Non-native Speech Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Yoo Rhee; Kim, Hong Kook

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid model adaptation approach in which pronunciation and acoustic models are adapted by incorporating the pronunciation and acoustic variabilities of non-native speech in order to improve the performance of non-native automatic speech recognition (ASR). Specifically, the proposed hybrid model adaptation can be performed at either the state-tying or triphone-modeling level, depending at which acoustic model adaptation is performed. In both methods, we first analyze the pronunciation variant rules of non-native speakers and then classify each rule as either a pronunciation variant or an acoustic variant. The state-tying level hybrid method then adapts pronunciation models and acoustic models by accommodating the pronunciation variants in the pronunciation dictionary and by clustering the states of triphone acoustic models using the acoustic variants, respectively. On the other hand, the triphone-modeling level hybrid method initially adapts pronunciation models in the same way as in the state-tying level hybrid method; however, for the acoustic model adaptation, the triphone acoustic models are then re-estimated based on the adapted pronunciation models and the states of the re-estimated triphone acoustic models are clustered using the acoustic variants. From the Korean-spoken English speech recognition experiments, it is shown that ASR systems employing the state-tying and triphone-modeling level adaptation methods can relatively reduce the average word error rates (WERs) by 17.1% and 22.1% for non-native speech, respectively, when compared to a baseline ASR system.

  17. Communication in a noisy environment: Perception of one's own voice and speech enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Cocq, Cecile

    Workers in noisy industrial environments are often confronted to communication problems. Lost of workers complain about not being able to communicate easily with their coworkers when they wear hearing protectors. In consequence, they tend to remove their protectors, which expose them to the risk of hearing loss. In fact this communication problem is a double one: first the hearing protectors modify one's own voice perception; second they interfere with understanding speech from others. This double problem is examined in this thesis. When wearing hearing protectors, the modification of one's own voice perception is partly due to the occlusion effect which is produced when an earplug is inserted in the car canal. This occlusion effect has two main consequences: first the physiological noises in low frequencies are better perceived, second the perception of one's own voice is modified. In order to have a better understanding of this phenomenon, the literature results are analyzed systematically, and a new method to quantify the occlusion effect is developed. Instead of stimulating the skull with a bone vibrator or asking the subject to speak as is usually done in the literature, it has been decided to excite the buccal cavity with an acoustic wave. The experiment has been designed in such a way that the acoustic wave which excites the buccal cavity does not excite the external car or the rest of the body directly. The measurement of the hearing threshold in open and occluded car has been used to quantify the subjective occlusion effect for an acoustic wave in the buccal cavity. These experimental results as well as those reported in the literature have lead to a better understanding of the occlusion effect and an evaluation of the role of each internal path from the acoustic source to the internal car. The speech intelligibility from others is altered by both the high sound levels of noisy industrial environments and the speech signal attenuation due to hearing

  18. Business Communication Students Learn to Hear a Bad Speech Habit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Reginald L.; Liang-Bell, Lei Paula; Deselle, Bettye

    2006-01-01

    Students were trained to perceive filled pauses (FP) as a bad speech habit. In a series of classroom sensitivity training activities, followed by students being rewarded to observe twenty minutes of live television from the public media, no differences between male and female Business Communication students was revealed. The practice of teaching…

  19. Adapting to the Job Market: Graduate Programs in Speech Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, David M.

    The percentage of speech communication doctoral graduates employed full time and the percentage working in academic institutions have declined considerably since 1968. The glut of humanities doctorates appears to present three courses of action: increase undergraduate enrollments, decrease graduate enrollments, or increase nonacademic employment…

  20. Telephone Communication for the Deaf: Speech Indicator Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ray L.

    The instructional manual is designed to accompany the Speech Indicator, a small, portable, economical ($15) device for deaf persons for telephone communication (available from Leadership Training Program in the Area of the Deaf, San Fernando State College). The device indicates when the other party speaks, not what he says. A topic outline and…

  1. Teaching Speech Communication with a Foreign Accent: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Guo-Ming; Chung, Jensen

    A pilot study examined problems encountered by foreign instructors teaching in American colleges. Fourteen Chinese-born instructors teaching in Speech Communication answered a questionnaire containing 12 open-ended questions. Recurring themes were coded from the answers, and then organized into three categories: cultural differences; linguistic…

  2. DACUM: A National Database Justifying the Study of Speech Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engleberg, Isa N.; Wynn, Dianna R.

    DACUM, an acronym for Developing A Curriculum, is a standardized curriculum development process used primarily in community colleges across the United States. DACUM results provide a valid national database that can: (1) further justify the study of speech communication in most academic curricula; and (2) help define the nature of the basic speech…

  3. The acoustics for speech of eight auditoriums in the city of Sao Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bistafa, Sylvio R.

    2002-11-01

    Eight auditoriums with a proscenium type of stage, which usually operate as dramatic theaters in the city of Sao Paulo, were acoustically surveyed in terms of their adequacy to unassisted speech. Reverberation times, early decay times, and speech levels were measured in different positions, together with objective measures of speech intelligibility. The measurements revealed reverberation time values rather uniform throughout the rooms, whereas significant variations were found in the values of the other acoustical measures with position. The early decay time was found to be better correlated with the objective measures of speech intelligibility than the reverberation time. The results from the objective measurements of speech intelligibility revealed that the speech transmission index STI, and its simplified version RaSTI, are strongly correlated with the early-to-late sound ratio C50 (1 kHz). However, it was found that the criterion value of acceptability of the latter is more easily met than the former. The results from these measurements enable to understand how the characteristics of the architectural design determine the acoustical quality for speech. Measurements of ST1-Gade were made as an attempt to validate it as an objective measure of ''support'' for the actor. The preliminary diagnosing results with ray tracing simulations will also be presented.

  4. A magnetic resonance imaging study on the articulatory and acoustic speech parameters of Malay vowels.

    PubMed

    Zourmand, Alireza; Mirhassani, Seyed Mostafa; Ting, Hua-Nong; Bux, Shaik Ismail; Ng, Kwan Hoong; Bilgen, Mehmet; Jalaludin, Mohd Amin

    2014-07-25

    The phonetic properties of six Malay vowels are investigated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize the vocal tract in order to obtain dynamic articulatory parameters during speech production. To resolve image blurring due to the tongue movement during the scanning process, a method based on active contour extraction is used to track tongue contours. The proposed method efficiently tracks tongue contours despite the partial blurring of MRI images. Consequently, the articulatory parameters that are effectively measured as tongue movement is observed, and the specific shape of the tongue and its position for all six uttered Malay vowels are determined.Speech rehabilitation procedure demands some kind of visual perceivable prototype of speech articulation. To investigate the validity of the measured articulatory parameters based on acoustic theory of speech production, an acoustic analysis based on the uttered vowels by subjects has been performed. As the acoustic speech and articulatory parameters of uttered speech were examined, a correlation between formant frequencies and articulatory parameters was observed. The experiments reported a positive correlation between the constriction location of the tongue body and the first formant frequency, as well as a negative correlation between the constriction location of the tongue tip and the second formant frequency. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is an effective tool for the dynamic study of speech production.

  5. Speech and melody recognition in binaurally combined acoustic and electric hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Ying-Yee; Stickney, Ginger S.; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2005-03-01

    Speech recognition in noise and music perception is especially challenging for current cochlear implant users. The present study utilizes the residual acoustic hearing in the nonimplanted ear in five cochlear implant users to elucidate the role of temporal fine structure at low frequencies in auditory perception and to test the hypothesis that combined acoustic and electric hearing produces better performance than either mode alone. The first experiment measured speech recognition in the presence of competing noise. It was found that, although the residual low-frequency (<1000 Hz) acoustic hearing produced essentially no recognition for speech recognition in noise, it significantly enhanced performance when combined with the electric hearing. The second experiment measured melody recognition in the same group of subjects and found that, contrary to the speech recognition result, the low-frequency acoustic hearing produced significantly better performance than the electric hearing. It is hypothesized that listeners with combined acoustic and electric hearing might use the correlation between the salient pitch in low-frequency acoustic hearing and the weak pitch in the envelope to enhance segregation between signal and noise. The present study suggests the importance and urgency of accurately encoding the fine-structure cue in cochlear implants. .

  6. Changes in speech production in a child with a cochlear implant: acoustic and kinematic evidence.

    PubMed

    Goffman, Lisa; Ertmer, David J; Erdle, Christa

    2002-10-01

    A method is presented for examining change in motor patterns used to produce linguistic contrasts. In this case study, the method is applied to a child receiving new auditory input following cochlear implantation. This child experienced hearing loss at age 3 years and received a multichannel cochlear implant at age 7 years. Data collection points occurred both pre- and postimplant and included acoustic and kinematic analyses. Overall, this child's speech output was transcribed as accurate across the pre- and postimplant periods. Postimplant, with the onset of new auditory experience, acoustic durations showed a predictable maturational change, usually decreasing in duration. Conversely, the spatiotemporal stability of speech movements initially became more variable postimplantation. The auditory perturbations experienced by this child during development led to changes in the physiological underpinnings of speech production, even when speech output was perceived as accurate.

  7. Collaboration between Teachers and Speech and Language Therapists: Services for Primary School Children with Speech, Language and Communication Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Anna; McCormack, Jane; Smith-Tamaray, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Speech, language and communication needs (SLCN) are prevalent among primary school-aged children. Collaboration between speech and language therapists (SLTs) and teachers is beneficial for supporting children's communication skills. The aim of this study was to investigate the needs of both professional groups and their preferences for service…

  8. Augmentative and Alternative Communication in Autism: A Comparison of the Picture Exchange Communication System and Speech-Output Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boesch, Miriam Chacon

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this comparative efficacy study was to investigate the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and a speech-generating device (SGD) in developing requesting skills, social-communicative behavior, and speech for three elementary-age children with severe autism and little to no functional speech. Requesting was selected as the…

  9. Mathematical model of acoustic speech production with mobile walls of the vocal tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubimov, N. A.; Zakharov, E. V.

    2016-03-01

    A mathematical speech production model is considered that describes acoustic oscillation propagation in a vocal tract with mobile walls. The wave field function satisfies the Helmholtz equation with boundary conditions of the third kind (impedance type). The impedance mode corresponds to a threeparameter pendulum oscillation model. The experimental research demonstrates the nonlinear character of how the mobility of the vocal tract walls influence the spectral envelope of a speech signal.

  10. Improving Robustness of Deep Neural Network Acoustic Models via Speech Separation and Joint Adaptive Training

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Arun; Wang, DeLiang

    2015-01-01

    Although deep neural network (DNN) acoustic models are known to be inherently noise robust, especially with matched training and testing data, the use of speech separation as a frontend and for deriving alternative feature representations has been shown to improve performance in challenging environments. We first present a supervised speech separation system that significantly improves automatic speech recognition (ASR) performance in realistic noise conditions. The system performs separation via ratio time-frequency masking; the ideal ratio mask (IRM) is estimated using DNNs. We then propose a framework that unifies separation and acoustic modeling via joint adaptive training. Since the modules for acoustic modeling and speech separation are implemented using DNNs, unification is done by introducing additional hidden layers with fixed weights and appropriate network architecture. On the CHiME-2 medium-large vocabulary ASR task, and with log mel spectral features as input to the acoustic model, an independently trained ratio masking frontend improves word error rates by 10.9% (relative) compared to the noisy baseline. In comparison, the jointly trained system improves performance by 14.4%. We also experiment with alternative feature representations to augment the standard log mel features, like the noise and speech estimates obtained from the separation module, and the standard feature set used for IRM estimation. Our best system obtains a word error rate of 15.4% (absolute), an improvement of 4.6 percentage points over the next best result on this corpus. PMID:26973851

  11. Speech privacy and annoyance considerations in the acoustic environment of passenger cars of high-speed trains.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jin Yong; Hong, Joo Young; Jang, Hyung Suk; Kim, Jae Hyeon

    2015-12-01

    It is necessary to consider not only annoyance of interior noises but also speech privacy to achieve acoustic comfort in a passenger car of a high-speed train because speech from other passengers can be annoying. This study aimed to explore an optimal acoustic environment to satisfy speech privacy and reduce annoyance in a passenger car. Two experiments were conducted using speech sources and compartment noise of a high speed train with varying speech-to-noise ratios (SNRA) and background noise levels (BNL). Speech intelligibility was tested in experiment I, and in experiment II, perceived speech privacy, annoyance, and acoustic comfort of combined sounds with speech and background noise were assessed. The results show that speech privacy and annoyance were significantly influenced by the SNRA. In particular, the acoustic comfort was evaluated as acceptable when the SNRA was less than -6 dB for both speech privacy and noise annoyance. In addition, annoyance increased significantly as the BNL exceeded 63 dBA, whereas the effect of the background-noise level on the speech privacy was not significant. These findings suggest that an optimal level of interior noise in a passenger car might exist between 59 and 63 dBA, taking normal speech levels into account.

  12. Prosodic influences on speech production in children with specific language impairment and speech deficits: kinematic, acoustic, and transcription evidence.

    PubMed

    Goffman, L

    1999-12-01

    It is often hypothesized that young children's difficulties with producing weak-strong (iambic) prosodic forms arise from perceptual or linguistically based production factors. A third possible contributor to errors in the iambic form may be biological constraints, or biases, of the motor system. In the present study, 7 children with specific language impairment (SLI) and speech deficits were matched to same age peers. Multiple levels of analysis, including kinematic (modulation and stability of movement), acoustic, and transcription, were applied to children's productions of iambic (weak-strong) and trochaic (strong-weak) prosodic forms. Findings suggest that a motor bias toward producing unmodulated rhythmic articulatory movements, similar to that observed in canonical babbling, contribute to children's acquisition of metrical forms. Children with SLI and speech deficits show less mature segmental and speech motor systems, as well as decreased modulation of movement in later developing iambic forms. Further, components of prosodic and segmental acquisition develop independently and at different rates.

  13. Precategorical Acoustic Storage and the Perception of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankish, Clive

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical accounts of both speech perception and of short term memory must consider the extent to which perceptual representations of speech sounds might survive in relatively unprocessed form. This paper describes a novel version of the serial recall task that can be used to explore this area of shared interest. In immediate recall of digit…

  14. Vowel Acoustics in Adults with Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacks, Adam; Mathes, Katey A.; Marquardt, Thomas P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the hypothesis that vowel production is more variable in adults with acquired apraxia of speech (AOS) relative to healthy individuals with unimpaired speech. Vowel formant frequency measures were selected as the specific target of focus. Method: Seven adults with AOS and aphasia produced 15 repetitions of 6 American English…

  15. Speech coding at 4800 bps for mobile satellite communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gersho, Allen; Chan, Wai-Yip; Davidson, Grant; Chen, Juin-Hwey; Yong, Mei

    1988-05-01

    A speech compression project has recently been completed to develop a speech coding algorithm suitable for operation in a mobile satellite environment aimed at providing telephone quality natural speech at 4.8 kbps. The work has resulted in two alternative techniques which achieve reasonably good communications quality at 4.8 kbps while tolerating vehicle noise and rather severe channel impairments. The algorithms are embodied in a compact self-contained prototype consisting of two AT and T 32-bit floating-point DSP32 digital signal processors (DSP). A Motorola 68HC11 microcomputer chip serves as the board controller and interface handler. On a wirewrapped card, the prototype's circuit footprint amounts to only 200 sq cm, and consumes about 9 watts of power.

  16. Towards personalized speech synthesis for augmentative and alternative communication.

    PubMed

    Mills, Timothy; Bunnell, H Timothy; Patel, Rupal

    2014-09-01

    Text-to-speech options on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices are limited. Often, several individuals in a group setting use the same synthetic voice. This lack of customization may limit technology adoption and social integration. This paper describes our efforts to generate personalized synthesis for users with profoundly limited speech motor control. Existing voice banking and voice conversion techniques rely on recordings of clearly articulated speech from the target talker, which cannot be obtained from this population. Our VocaliD approach extracts prosodic properties from the target talker's source function and applies these features to a surrogate talker's database, generating a synthetic voice with the vocal identity of the target talker and the clarity of the surrogate talker. Promising intelligibility results suggest areas of further development for improved personalization.

  17. Speech coding at 4800 bps for mobile satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gersho, Allen; Chan, Wai-Yip; Davidson, Grant; Chen, Juin-Hwey; Yong, Mei

    1988-01-01

    A speech compression project has recently been completed to develop a speech coding algorithm suitable for operation in a mobile satellite environment aimed at providing telephone quality natural speech at 4.8 kbps. The work has resulted in two alternative techniques which achieve reasonably good communications quality at 4.8 kbps while tolerating vehicle noise and rather severe channel impairments. The algorithms are embodied in a compact self-contained prototype consisting of two AT and T 32-bit floating-point DSP32 digital signal processors (DSP). A Motorola 68HC11 microcomputer chip serves as the board controller and interface handler. On a wirewrapped card, the prototype's circuit footprint amounts to only 200 sq cm, and consumes about 9 watts of power.

  18. Speech Acts across Cultures: Challenges to Communication in a Second Language. Studies on Language Acquisition, 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Neu, Joyce, Ed.

    Articles on speech acts and intercultural communication include: "Investigating the Production of Speech Act Sets" (Andrew Cohen); "Non-Native Refusals: A Methodological Perspective" (Noel Houck, Susan M. Gass); "Natural Speech Act Data versus Written Questionnaire Data: How Data Collection Method Affects Speech Act…

  19. Hello World, It's Me: Bringing the Basic Speech Communication Course into the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood, Jessica; Gutgold, Nichola D.; Manley, Destiny

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade, instructors of speech communication have been adapting the introductory speech course to keep up with the television age. Learning units in speech textbooks now teach how to speak well on television, as well as how to interpret speeches in the media. This article argues that the computer age invites adaptation of the…

  20. Speech Communication Via Radio and Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starlin, Glenn; Sherriffs, Ronald

    Designed to serve as a practical introduction to the functions of the broadcast media and as a guide to adjustment to demands imposed by the media on speakers, this book attempts to deal with special problems of the ordinary citizen in preparation for broadcast talks. A first part focuses on the media--changing patterns of communication,…

  1. Acoustic environment challenges for the unique communication conditions in group learning classes in elementary school classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Louis; Lubman, David; Pearsons, Karl

    2005-04-01

    Unlike the traditional ``sage-on-the-stage'' configuration of many K-12 classrooms, the group learning or ``guide-on-the-side'' configuration does not involve communication between a teacher in front of a seated class of 20 to 30 students. Instead, it can involve, most of the time, communication between the teacher and each of several small groups of students interacting, aurally, with each other. To maintain the desired 15 dB signal-to-noise ratio intended as the rationale for the ANSI standard, S12.60-2002 on classroom acoustics, the ``noise'' heard by participants in one of the groups is likely to include the speech levels generated by the participants in the other groups as well as the background noise in the unoccupied classroom. Thus, specification of the speech level within (i.e. the ``signal''), and between (i.e. part of the ``noise'') the learning groups, must be considered. Data available to evaluate these speech levels are reviewed and possible models considered to account for the Lombard effect for voice levels of both the teacher and the students. Some of the gaps in these data are suggested as a challenge to stimulate further studies on speech levels of teachers and students in a wide range of communication conditions.

  2. Perceiving speech in context: Compensation for contextual variability during acoustic cue encoding and categorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toscano, Joseph Christopher

    Several fundamental questions about speech perception concern how listeners understand spoken language despite considerable variability in speech sounds across different contexts (the problem of lack of invariance in speech). This contextual variability is caused by several factors, including differences between individual talkers' voices, variation in speaking rate, and effects of coarticulatory context. A number of models have been proposed to describe how the speech system handles differences across contexts. Critically, these models make different predictions about (1) whether contextual variability is handled at the level of acoustic cue encoding or categorization, (2) whether it is driven by feedback from category-level processes or interactions between cues, and (3) whether listeners discard fine-grained acoustic information to compensate for contextual variability. Separating the effects of cue- and category-level processing has been difficult because behavioral measures tap processes that occur well after initial cue encoding and are influenced by task demands and linguistic information. Recently, we have used the event-related brain potential (ERP) technique to examine cue encoding and online categorization. Specifically, we have looked at differences in the auditory N1 as a measure of acoustic cue encoding and the P3 as a measure of categorization. This allows us to examine multiple levels of processing during speech perception and can provide a useful tool for studying effects of contextual variability. Here, I apply this approach to determine the point in processing at which context has an effect on speech perception and to examine whether acoustic cues are encoded continuously. Several types of contextual variability (talker gender, speaking rate, and coarticulation), as well as several acoustic cues (voice onset time, formant frequencies, and bandwidths), are examined in a series of experiments. The results suggest that (1) at early stages of speech

  3. Aging Affects Neural Synchronization to Speech-Related Acoustic Modulations

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, Tine; Vercammen, Charlotte; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    As people age, speech perception problems become highly prevalent, especially in noisy situations. In addition to peripheral hearing and cognition, temporal processing plays a key role in speech perception. Temporal processing of speech features is mediated by synchronized activity of neural oscillations in the central auditory system. Previous studies indicate that both the degree and hemispheric lateralization of synchronized neural activity relate to speech perception performance. Based on these results, we hypothesize that impaired speech perception in older persons may, in part, originate from deviances in neural synchronization. In this study, auditory steady-state responses that reflect synchronized activity of theta, beta, low and high gamma oscillations (i.e., 4, 20, 40, and 80 Hz ASSR, respectively) were recorded in young, middle-aged, and older persons. As all participants had normal audiometric thresholds and were screened for (mild) cognitive impairment, differences in synchronized neural activity across the three age groups were likely to be attributed to age. Our data yield novel findings regarding theta and high gamma oscillations in the aging auditory system. At an older age, synchronized activity of theta oscillations is increased, whereas high gamma synchronization is decreased. In contrast to young persons who exhibit a right hemispheric dominance for processing of high gamma range modulations, older adults show a symmetrical processing pattern. These age-related changes in neural synchronization may very well underlie the speech perception problems in aging persons. PMID:27378906

  4. Acoustic Markers of Prominence Influence Infants' and Adults' Segmentation of Speech Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bion, Ricardo A. H.; Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Nespor, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the way acoustic markers of prominence influence the grouping of speech sequences by adults and 7-month-old infants. In the first experiment, adults were familiarized with and asked to memorize sequences of adjacent syllables that alternated in either pitch or duration. During the test phase, participants heard pairs…

  5. Acoustic and Articulatory Features of Diphthong Production: A Speech Clarity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasko, Stephen M.; Greilick, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate how speaking clearly influences selected acoustic and orofacial kinematic measures associated with diphthong production. Method: Forty-nine speakers, drawn from the University of Wisconsin X-Ray Microbeam Speech Production Database (J. R. Westbury, 1994), served as participants. Samples of clear…

  6. Acoustic sleepiness detection: framework and validation of a speech-adapted pattern recognition approach.

    PubMed

    Krajewski, Jarek; Batliner, Anton; Golz, Martin

    2009-08-01

    This article describes a general framework for detecting sleepiness states on the basis of prosody, articulation, and speech-quality-related speech characteristics. The advantages of this automatic real-time approach are that obtaining speech data is nonobstrusive and is free from sensor application and calibration efforts. Different types of acoustic features derived from speech, speaker, and emotion recognition were employed (frame-level-based speech features). Combing these features with high-level contour descriptors, which capture the temporal information of frame-level descriptor contours, results in 45,088 features per speech sample. In general, the measurement process follows the speech-adapted steps of pattern recognition: (1) recording speech, (2) preprocessing, (3) feature computation (using perceptual and signal-processing-related features such as, e.g., fundamental frequency, intensity, pause patterns, formants, and cepstral coefficients), (4) dimensionality reduction, (5) classification, and (6) evaluation. After a correlation-filter-based feature subset selection employed on the feature space in order to find most relevant features, different classification models were trained. The best model-namely, the support-vector machine-achieved 86.1% classification accuracy in predicting sleepiness in a sleep deprivation study (two-class problem, N=12; 01.00-08.00 a.m.).

  7. Effective Communication for Academic Chairs. SUNY Series in Speech Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickson, Mark, III, Ed.; Stacks, Don W.

    This book presents 11 contributed papers which examine communication aspects of the department chair position in academia. It is noted that most academic department chairs are not trained in management skills, including communication strategies. After an introductory chapter by Christopher H. Spicer and Ann Q. Staton, the following papers are…

  8. Effects of contextual cues on speech recognition in simulated electric-acoustic stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Ying-Yee; Donaldson, Gail; Somarowthu, Ala

    2015-01-01

    Low-frequency acoustic cues have shown to improve speech perception in cochlear-implant listeners. However, the mechanisms underlying this benefit are still not well understood. This study investigated the extent to which low-frequency cues can facilitate listeners' use of linguistic knowledge in simulated electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS). Experiment 1 examined differences in the magnitude of EAS benefit at the phoneme, word, and sentence levels. Speech materials were processed via noise-channel vocoding and lowpass (LP) filtering. The amount of spectral degradation in the vocoder speech was varied by applying different numbers of vocoder channels. Normal-hearing listeners were tested on vocoder-alone, LP-alone, and vocoder + LP conditions. Experiment 2 further examined factors that underlie the context effect on EAS benefit at the sentence level by limiting the low-frequency cues to temporal envelope and periodicity (AM + FM). Results showed that EAS benefit was greater for higher-context than for lower-context speech materials even when the LP ear received only low-frequency AM + FM cues. Possible explanations for the greater EAS benefit observed with higher-context materials may lie in the interplay between perceptual and expectation-driven processes for EAS speech recognition, and/or the band-importance functions for different types of speech materials. PMID:25994712

  9. Effects of contextual cues on speech recognition in simulated electric-acoustic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ying-Yee; Donaldson, Gail; Somarowthu, Ala

    2015-05-01

    Low-frequency acoustic cues have shown to improve speech perception in cochlear-implant listeners. However, the mechanisms underlying this benefit are still not well understood. This study investigated the extent to which low-frequency cues can facilitate listeners' use of linguistic knowledge in simulated electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS). Experiment 1 examined differences in the magnitude of EAS benefit at the phoneme, word, and sentence levels. Speech materials were processed via noise-channel vocoding and lowpass (LP) filtering. The amount of spectral degradation in the vocoder speech was varied by applying different numbers of vocoder channels. Normal-hearing listeners were tested on vocoder-alone, LP-alone, and vocoder + LP conditions. Experiment 2 further examined factors that underlie the context effect on EAS benefit at the sentence level by limiting the low-frequency cues to temporal envelope and periodicity (AM + FM). Results showed that EAS benefit was greater for higher-context than for lower-context speech materials even when the LP ear received only low-frequency AM + FM cues. Possible explanations for the greater EAS benefit observed with higher-context materials may lie in the interplay between perceptual and expectation-driven processes for EAS speech recognition, and/or the band-importance functions for different types of speech materials.

  10. Contributions of electric and acoustic hearing to bimodal speech and music perception.

    PubMed

    Crew, Joseph D; Galvin, John J; Landsberger, David M; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) users have difficulty understanding speech in noisy listening conditions and perceiving music. Aided residual acoustic hearing in the contralateral ear can mitigate these limitations. The present study examined contributions of electric and acoustic hearing to speech understanding in noise and melodic pitch perception. Data was collected with the CI only, the hearing aid (HA) only, and both devices together (CI+HA). Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) were adaptively measured for simple sentences in speech babble. Melodic contour identification (MCI) was measured with and without a masker instrument; the fundamental frequency of the masker was varied to be overlapping or non-overlapping with the target contour. Results showed that the CI contributes primarily to bimodal speech perception and that the HA contributes primarily to bimodal melodic pitch perception. In general, CI+HA performance was slightly improved relative to the better ear alone (CI-only) for SRTs but not for MCI, with some subjects experiencing a decrease in bimodal MCI performance relative to the better ear alone (HA-only). Individual performance was highly variable, and the contribution of either device to bimodal perception was both subject- and task-dependent. The results suggest that individualized mapping of CIs and HAs may further improve bimodal speech and music perception.

  11. Contributions of Electric and Acoustic Hearing to Bimodal Speech and Music Perception

    PubMed Central

    Crew, Joseph D.; Galvin III, John J.; Landsberger, David M.; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) users have difficulty understanding speech in noisy listening conditions and perceiving music. Aided residual acoustic hearing in the contralateral ear can mitigate these limitations. The present study examined contributions of electric and acoustic hearing to speech understanding in noise and melodic pitch perception. Data was collected with the CI only, the hearing aid (HA) only, and both devices together (CI+HA). Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) were adaptively measured for simple sentences in speech babble. Melodic contour identification (MCI) was measured with and without a masker instrument; the fundamental frequency of the masker was varied to be overlapping or non-overlapping with the target contour. Results showed that the CI contributes primarily to bimodal speech perception and that the HA contributes primarily to bimodal melodic pitch perception. In general, CI+HA performance was slightly improved relative to the better ear alone (CI-only) for SRTs but not for MCI, with some subjects experiencing a decrease in bimodal MCI performance relative to the better ear alone (HA-only). Individual performance was highly variable, and the contribution of either device to bimodal perception was both subject- and task-dependent. The results suggest that individualized mapping of CIs and HAs may further improve bimodal speech and music perception. PMID:25790349

  12. Primary Progressive Apraxia of Speech: Clinical Features and Acoustic and Neurologic Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Strand, Edythe A.; Clark, Heather; Machulda, Mary; Whitwell, Jennifer L.; Josephs, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study summarizes 2 illustrative cases of a neurodegenerative speech disorder, primary progressive apraxia of speech (AOS), as a vehicle for providing an overview of the disorder and an approach to describing and quantifying its perceptual features and some of its temporal acoustic attributes. Method Two individuals with primary progressive AOS underwent speech-language and neurologic evaluations on 2 occasions, ranging from 2.0 to 7.5 years postonset. Performance on several tests, tasks, and rating scales, as well as several acoustic measures, were compared over time within and between cases. Acoustic measures were compared with performance of control speakers. Results Both patients initially presented with AOS as the only or predominant sign of disease and without aphasia or dysarthria. The presenting features and temporal progression were captured in an AOS Rating Scale, an Articulation Error Score, and temporal acoustic measures of utterance duration, syllable rates per second, rates of speechlike alternating motion and sequential motion, and a pairwise variability index measure. Conclusions AOS can be the predominant manifestation of neurodegenerative disease. Clinical ratings of its attributes and acoustic measures of some of its temporal characteristics can support its diagnosis and help quantify its salient characteristics and progression over time. PMID:25654422

  13. PSpice simulation of an electro-acoustic communications channel.

    PubMed

    Wild, Graham; Hinckley, Steven

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we present results from a circuit simulation of a proposed electro-acoustic communications channel. The communications channel was modeled in PSpice using Redwood's version of Mason's equivalent circuit. The simulations used binary phase shift keyed communications signals with a carrier frequency of 1.12 MHz. Results obtained from the model are comparable with the results obtained experimentally. The frequency response of the model matched the measured frequency response, predicting lower frequency resonances obtained in the experimental data. The transient response of the model compares almost identically with the transient response observed experimentally. This is a significant characteristic as the acoustic communications are transient limited, which suggests that the model can be used with good confidence in the optimization of the transducers and algorithms used for acoustic communications.

  14. Measurements of speech intelligibility in common rooms for older adults as a first step towards acoustical guidelines.

    PubMed

    Reinten, Jikke; van Hout, Nicole; Hak, Constant; Kort, Helianthe

    2015-01-01

    Adapting the built environment to the needs of nursing- or care-home residents has become common practice. Even though hearing loss due to ageing is a normal occurring biological process, little research has been performed on the effects of room acoustic parameters on the speech intelligibility for older adults. This article presents the results of room acoustic measurements in common rooms for older adults and the effect on speech intelligibility. Perceived speech intelligibility amongst the users of the rooms was also investigated. The results have led to ongoing research at Utrecht University of Applied Sciences and Eindhoven University of Technology, aimed at the development of acoustical guidelines for elderly care facilities.

  15. The advantages of sound localization and speech perception of bilateral electric acoustic stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Moteki, Hideaki; Kitoh, Ryosuke; Tsukada, Keita; Iwasaki, Satoshi; Nishio, Shin-Ya

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Bilateral electric acoustic stimulation (EAS) effectively improved speech perception in noise and sound localization in patients with high-frequency hearing loss. Objective: To evaluate bilateral EAS efficacy of sound localization detection and speech perception in noise in two cases of high-frequency hearing loss. Methods: Two female patients, aged 38 and 45 years, respectively, received bilateral EAS sequentially. Pure-tone audiometry was performed preoperatively and postoperatively to evaluate the hearing preservation in the lower frequencies. Speech perception outcomes in quiet and noise and sound localization were assessed with unilateral and bilateral EAS. Results: Residual hearing in the lower frequencies was well preserved after insertion of a FLEX24 electrode (24 mm) using the round window approach. After bilateral EAS, speech perception improved in quiet and even more so in noise. In addition, the sound localization ability of both cases with bilateral EAS improved remarkably. PMID:25423260

  16. An acoustic feature-based similarity scoring system for speech rehabilitation assistance.

    PubMed

    Syauqy, Dahnial; Wu, Chao-Min; Setyawati, Onny

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a tool to assist speech therapy and rehabilitation, which focused on automatic scoring based on the comparison of the patient's speech with another normal speech on several aspects including pitch, vowel, voiced-unvoiced segments, strident fricative and sound intensity. The pitch estimation employed the use of cepstrum-based algorithm for its robustness; the vowel classification used multilayer perceptron (MLP) to classify vowel from pitch and formants; and the strident fricative detection was based on the major peak spectral intensity, location and the pitch existence in the segment. In order to evaluate the performance of the system, this study analyzed eight patient's speech recordings (four males, four females; 4-58-years-old), which had been recorded in previous study in cooperation with Taipei Veterans General Hospital and Taoyuan General Hospital. The experiment result on pitch algorithm showed that the cepstrum method had 5.3% of gross pitch error from a total of 2086 frames. On the vowel classification algorithm, MLP method provided 93% accuracy (men), 87% (women) and 84% (children). In total, the overall results showed that 156 tool's grading results (81%) were consistent compared to 192 audio and visual observations done by four experienced respondents. Implication for Rehabilitation Difficulties in communication may limit the ability of a person to transfer and exchange information. The fact that speech is one of the primary means of communication has encouraged the needs of speech diagnosis and rehabilitation. The advances of technology in computer-assisted speech therapy (CAST) improve the quality, time efficiency of the diagnosis and treatment of the disorders. The present study attempted to develop tool to assist speech therapy and rehabilitation, which provided simple interface to let the assessment be done even by the patient himself without the need of particular knowledge of speech processing while at the

  17. Multi-channel spatial auditory display for speech communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand; Erbe, Tom

    1993-01-01

    A spatial auditory display for multiple speech communications was developed at NASA-Ames Research Center. Input is spatialized by use of simplified head-related transfer functions, adapted for FIR filtering on Motorola 56001 digital signal processors. Hardware and firmware design implementations are overviewed for the initial prototype developed for NASA-Kennedy Space Center. An adaptive staircase method was used to determine intelligibility levels of four letter call signs used by launch personnel at NASA, against diotic speech babble. Spatial positions at 30 deg azimuth increments were evaluated. The results from eight subjects showed a maximal intelligibility improvement of about 6 to 7 dB when the signal was spatialized to 60 deg or 90 deg azimuth positions.

  18. Reestablishing Speech Communication as a Legitimate Academic Program in a Liberal Arts College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Brenda DeVore

    In the spring of 1987, the decision was made to discontinue the degree in speech communication (but retain the course offerings) within the department of communications at Linfield College, McMinnville, Oregon. A recently hired faculty member adopted nine strategies in an attempt to reestablish the degree program in speech communication. Actions…

  19. Speech Communication and Theater Arts: A Classified Bibliography of Theses and Dissertations 1973-1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merenda, Merilyn D.; Polichak, James W.

    The titles of more than 3,000 theses and dissertations appearing between 1973 and 1978 were collected for this bibliography on speech communication and the theatre arts. They are presented within major classifications for the two main subject areas. Speech communication entries are classified as education, forensics, interpersonal communication,…

  20. Vowel Acoustics in Dysarthria: Speech Disorder Diagnosis and Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansford, Kaitlin L.; Liss, Julie M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which vowel metrics are capable of distinguishing healthy from dysarthric speech and among different forms of dysarthria. Method: A variety of vowel metrics were derived from spectral and temporal measurements of vowel tokens embedded in phrases produced by 45 speakers with…

  1. Acoustical properties of speech as indicators of depression and suicidal risk.

    PubMed

    France, D J; Shiavi, R G; Silverman, S; Silverman, M; Wilkes, D M

    2000-07-01

    Acoustic properties of speech have previously been identified as possible cues to depression, and there is evidence that certain vocal parameters may be used further to objectively discriminate between depressed and suicidal speech. Studies were performed to analyze and compare the speech acoustics of separate male and female samples comprised of normal individuals and individuals carrying diagnoses of depression and high-risk, near-term suicidality. The female sample consisted of ten control subjects, 17 dysthymic patients, and 21 major depressed patients. The male sample contained 24 control subjects, 21 major depressed patients, and 22 high-risk suicidal patients. Acoustic analyses of voice fundamental frequency (Fo), amplitude modulation (AM), formants, and power distribution were performed on speech samples extracted from audio recordings collected from the sample members. Multivariate feature and discriminant analyses were performed on feature vectors representing the members of the control and disordered classes. Features derived from the formant and power spectral density measurements were found to be the best discriminators of class membership in both the male and female studies. AM features emerged as strong class discriminators of the male classes. Features describing Fo were generally ineffective discriminators in both studies. The results support theories that identify psychomotor disturbances as central elements in depression and suicidality.

  2. Language Specific Speech Perception and the Onset of Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnham, Denis

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the degree to which native speech perception is superior to non-native speech perception. Shows that language specific speech perception is a linguistic rather than an acoustic phenomenon. Discusses results in terms of early speech perception abilities, experience with oral communication, cognitive ability, alphabetic versus…

  3. Effects of cognitive workload on speech production: acoustic analyses and perceptual consequences.

    PubMed

    Lively, S E; Pisoni, D B; Van Summers, W; Bernacki, R H

    1993-05-01

    The present investigation examined the effects of cognitive workload on speech production. Workload was manipulated by having talkers perform a compensatory visual tracking task while speaking test sentences of the form "Say hVd again." Acoustic measurements were made to compare utterances produced under workload with the same utterances produced in a control condition. In the workload condition, some talkers produced utterances with increased amplitude and amplitude variability, decreased spectral tilt and F0 variability and increased speaking rate. No changes in F1, F2, or F3 were observed across conditions for any of the talkers. These findings indicate both laryngeal and sublaryngeal adjustments in articulation, as well as modifications in the absolute timing of articulatory gestures. The results of a perceptual identification experiment paralleled the acoustic measurements. Small but significant advantages in intelligibility were observed for utterances produced under workload for talkers who showed robust changes in speech production. Changes in amplitude and amplitude variability for utterances produced under workload appeared to be the major factor controlling intelligibility. The results of the present investigation support the assumptions of Lindblom's ["Explaining phonetic variation: A sketch of the H&H theory," in Speech Production and Speech Modeling (Klewer Academic, The Netherlands, 1990)] H&H model: Talkers adapt their speech to suit the demands of the environment and these modifications are designed to maximize intelligibility.

  4. Increased pain intensity is associated with greater verbal communication difficulty and increased production of speech and co-speech gestures.

    PubMed

    Rowbotham, Samantha; Wardy, April J; Lloyd, Donna M; Wearden, Alison; Holler, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Effective pain communication is essential if adequate treatment and support are to be provided. Pain communication is often multimodal, with sufferers utilising speech, nonverbal behaviours (such as facial expressions), and co-speech gestures (bodily movements, primarily of the hands and arms that accompany speech and can convey semantic information) to communicate their experience. Research suggests that the production of nonverbal pain behaviours is positively associated with pain intensity, but it is not known whether this is also the case for speech and co-speech gestures. The present study explored whether increased pain intensity is associated with greater speech and gesture production during face-to-face communication about acute, experimental pain. Participants (N = 26) were exposed to experimentally elicited pressure pain to the fingernail bed at high and low intensities and took part in video-recorded semi-structured interviews. Despite rating more intense pain as more difficult to communicate (t(25)  = 2.21, p =  .037), participants produced significantly longer verbal pain descriptions and more co-speech gestures in the high intensity pain condition (Words: t(25)  = 3.57, p  = .001; Gestures: t(25)  = 3.66, p =  .001). This suggests that spoken and gestural communication about pain is enhanced when pain is more intense. Thus, in addition to conveying detailed semantic information about pain, speech and co-speech gestures may provide a cue to pain intensity, with implications for the treatment and support received by pain sufferers. Future work should consider whether these findings are applicable within the context of clinical interactions about pain.

  5. Effects of age, acoustic challenge, and verbal working memory on recall of narrative speech

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Caitlin M.; Rogers, Chad S.; Van Engen, Kristin J.; Peelle, Jonathan E.

    2016-01-01

    Background A common goal during speech comprehension is to remember what we have heard. Encoding speech into long-term memory frequently requires processes such as verbal working memory that may also be involved in processing degraded speech. Here we tested whether young and older adult listeners’ memory for short stories was worse when the stories were acoustically degraded, or whether the additional contextual support provided by a narrative would protect against these effects. Methods We tested 30 young adults (aged 18–28 years) and 30 older adults (aged 65–79 years) with good self-reported hearing. Participants heard short stories that were presented as normal (unprocessed) speech, or acoustically degraded using a noise vocoding algorithm with 24 or 16 channels. The degraded stories were still fully intelligible. Following each story, participants were asked to repeat the story in as much detail as possible. Recall was scored using a modified idea unit scoring approach, which included separately scoring hierarchical levels of narrative detail. Results Memory for acoustically degraded stories was significantly worse than for normal stories at some levels of narrative detail. Older adults’ memory for the stories was significantly worse overall, but there was no interaction between age and acoustic clarity or level of narrative detail. Verbal working memory (assessed by reading span) significantly correlated with recall accuracy for both young and older adults, whereas hearing ability (better ear pure-tone average) did not. Conclusion Our findings are consistent with a framework in which the additional cognitive demands caused by a degraded acoustic signal use resources that would otherwise be available for memory encoding for both young and older adults. Verbal working memory is a likely candidate for supporting both of these processes. PMID:26683044

  6. Effect of Digital Frequency Compression (DFC) on Speech Recognition in Candidates for Combined Electric and Acoustic Stimulation (EAS)

    PubMed Central

    Gifford, René H.; Dorman, Michael F.; Spahr, Anthony J.; McKarns, Sharon A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effects of conventional amplification (CA) and digital frequency compression (DFC) amplification on the speech recognition abilities of candidates for a partial-insertion cochlear implant, that is, candidates for combined electric and acoustic stimulation (EAS). Method The participants were 6 patients whose audiometric thresholds at 500 Hz and below were ≤60 dB HL and whose thresholds at 2000 Hz and above were ≥80 dB HL. Six tests of speech understanding were administered with CA and DFC. The Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB) was also administered following use of CA and DFC. Results Group mean scores were not statistically different in the CA and DFC conditions. However, 2 patients received substantial benefit in DFC conditions. APHAB scores suggested increased ease of communication, but also increased aversive sound quality. Conclusion Results suggest that a relatively small proportion of individuals who meet EAS candidacy will receive substantial benefit from a DFC hearing aid and that a larger proportion will receive at least a small benefit when speech is presented against a background of noise. This benefit, however, comes at a cost—aversive sound quality. PMID:17905905

  7. Acoustic and auditory phonetics: the adaptive design of speech sound systems.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Randy L

    2008-03-12

    Speech perception is remarkably robust. This paper examines how acoustic and auditory properties of vowels and consonants help to ensure intelligibility. First, the source-filter theory of speech production is briefly described, and the relationship between vocal-tract properties and formant patterns is demonstrated for some commonly occurring vowels. Next, two accounts of the structure of preferred sound inventories, quantal theory and dispersion theory, are described and some of their limitations are noted. Finally, it is suggested that certain aspects of quantal and dispersion theories can be unified in a principled way so as to achieve reasonable predictive accuracy.

  8. Subphonetic Acoustic Modeling for Speaker-Independent Continuous Speech Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-17

    concept of senone sharing across all hidden Markov models, such as triphones, multi-phones, words, or even phrase models ................. 50 3.15 The...For instance, training the 50 phone HMMs for English usually requires only 1-2 hours of training data, while to sufficiently train syllable models may...require 50 hours of speech. Faced with a limited amount of training data, the advantage of the improved structure of the stochastic model may not be

  9. A Model for Providing Comprehensive Speech Services within a Total Communication Program for the Deaf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Margery Silberman

    1981-01-01

    The paper offers a model for providing comprehensive speech services within a total communication program for deaf students so that this type of educational approach will be more than manual education with adjunct speech services. Contributions of each member of an interdisciplinary, comprehensive, speech team are described. (Author)

  10. From prosodic structure to acoustic saliency: A fMRI investigation of speech rate, clarity, and emphasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golfinopoulos, Elisa

    Acoustic variability in fluent speech can arise at many stages in speech production planning and execution. For example, at the phonological encoding stage, the grouping of phonemes into syllables determines which segments are coarticulated and, by consequence, segment-level acoustic variation. Likewise phonetic encoding, which determines the spatiotemporal extent of articulatory gestures, will affect the acoustic detail of segments. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure brain activity of fluent adult speakers in four speaking conditions: fast, normal, clear, and emphatic (or stressed) speech. These speech manner changes typically result in acoustic variations that do not change the lexical or semantic identity of productions but do affect the acoustic saliency of phonemes, syllables and/or words. Acoustic responses recorded inside the scanner were assessed quantitatively using eight acoustic measures and sentence duration was used as a covariate of non-interest in the neuroimaging analysis. Compared to normal speech, emphatic speech was characterized acoustically by a greater difference between stressed and unstressed vowels in intensity, duration, and fundamental frequency, and neurally by increased activity in right middle premotor cortex and supplementary motor area, and bilateral primary sensorimotor cortex. These findings are consistent with right-lateralized motor planning of prosodic variation in emphatic speech. Clear speech involved an increase in average vowel and sentence durations and average vowel spacing, along with increased activity in left middle premotor cortex and bilateral primary sensorimotor cortex. These findings are consistent with an increased reliance on feedforward control, resulting in hyper-articulation, under clear as compared to normal speech. Fast speech was characterized acoustically by reduced sentence duration and average vowel spacing, and neurally by increased activity in left anterior frontal

  11. Speech Recognition and Acoustic Features in Combined Electric and Acoustic Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Yang-soo; Li, Yongxin; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to identify speech information processed by a hearing aid (HA) that is additive to information processed by a cochlear implant (CI) as a function of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Method: Speech recognition was measured with CI alone, HA alone, and CI + HA. Ten participants were separated into 2 groups; good…

  12. Accuracy of perceptual and acoustic methods for the detection of inspiratory loci in spontaneous speech.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Tsai; Nip, Ignatius S B; Green, Jordan R; Kent, Ray D; Kent, Jane Finley; Ullman, Cara

    2012-12-01

    The present study investigates the accuracy of perceptually and acoustically determined inspiratory loci in spontaneous speech for the purpose of identifying breath groups. Sixteen participants were asked to talk about simple topics in daily life at a comfortable speaking rate and loudness while connected to a pneumotach and audio microphone. The locations of inspiratory loci were determined on the basis of the aerodynamic signal, which served as a reference for loci identified perceptually and acoustically. Signal detection theory was used to evaluate the accuracy of the methods. The results showed that the greatest accuracy in pause detection was achieved (1) perceptually, on the basis of agreement between at least two of three judges, and (2) acoustically, using a pause duration threshold of 300 ms. In general, the perceptually based method was more accurate than was the acoustically based method. Inconsistencies among perceptually determined, acoustically determined, and aerodynamically determined inspiratory loci for spontaneous speech should be weighed in selecting a method of breath group determination.

  13. Speech after Radial Forearm Free Flap Reconstruction of the Tongue: A Longitudinal Acoustic Study of Vowel and Diphthong Sounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laaksonen, Juha-Pertti; Rieger, Jana; Happonen, Risto-Pekka; Harris, Jeffrey; Seikaly, Hadi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use acoustic analyses to describe speech outcomes over the course of 1 year after radial forearm free flap (RFFF) reconstruction of the tongue. Eighteen Canadian English-speaking females and males with reconstruction for oral cancer had speech samples recorded (pre-operative, and 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year…

  14. Acoustic-Phonetic Differences between Infant- and Adult-Directed Speech: The Role of Stress and Utterance Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Seidl, Amanda; Cristia, Alejandrina

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that infant-directed speech (IDS) differs from adult-directed speech (ADS) on a variety of dimensions. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether acoustic differences between IDS and ADS in English are modulated by prosodic structure. We compared vowels across the two registers (IDS, ADS) in both stressed…

  15. [The acoustic aspect of the speech development in children during the third year of life].

    PubMed

    Liakso, E E; Gromova, A D; Frolova, O V; Romanova, O D

    2004-01-01

    The current part of a Russian language acquisition longitudinal study based on auditory, phonetic and instrumental analysis is devoted to the third year of child's life. We examined the development of supplementary acoustic and phonetic features of the child's speech providing for the possibility for the speech to be recognized. The instrumental analysis and statistical processing of vowel formant dynamics as well as stress, palatalization and VOT development, has been performed for the first time in Russian children. We showed that the high probability of children words recognition by auditors was due to establishment of a system of acoustically stable features which, in combination with each other, provide for the informative sufficiency of a message.

  16. An eighth-scale speech source for subjective assessments in acoustic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlowski, R. J.

    1981-08-01

    The design of a source is described which is suitable for making speech recordings in eighth-scale acoustic models of auditoria. An attempt was made to match the directionality of the source with the directionality of the human voice using data reported in the literature. A narrow aperture was required for the design which was provided by mounting an inverted conical horn over the diaphragm of a high frequency loudspeaker. Resonance problems were encountered with the use of a horn and a description is given of the electronic techniques adopted to minimize the effect of these resonances. Subjective and objective assessments on the completed speech source have proved satisfactory. It has been used in a modelling exercise concerned with the acoustic design of a theatre with a thrust-type stage.

  17. An Acoustic Communication Technique of Nanorobot Swarms for Nanomedicine Applications.

    PubMed

    Loscrí, Valeria; Vegni, Anna Maria

    2015-09-01

    In this contribution, we present a communication paradigm among nanodevices, based on acoustic vibrations for medical applications. We consider a swarm of nanorobots able to communicate in a distributed and decentralized fashion, propelled in a biological environment (i.e., the human brain). Each nanorobot is intended to i) recognize a cancer cell, ii) destroy it, and then iii) forward information about the presence of cancer formation to other nanorobots, through acoustic signals. The choice of acoustic waves as communication mean is related to the application context, where it is not advisable either to use indiscriminate chemical substances or electromagnetic waves. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is assessed in terms of achievement of the objective (i.e., to destroy the majority of tumor cells), and the velocity of detection and destruction of cancer cells, through a comparison with other related techniques.

  18. The Acoustic-Modeling Problem in Automatic Speech Recognition.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    systems that use an artificial grammar do so in order to set this uncertainty by fiat, thereby ensuring that their task, will not be too difficult...an artificial grammar , the Pr (W = w)’s are known and Hm (W) can, in fact, achieve its lower bound if the system simply uses these probabilities. In a...finite-state grammar represented by that chain. As Jim Baker points out, the modeling of speech by a hidden Markov model should not be regarded as a

  19. Three Dimensions of the Cognitive Function of Speech: Papers Presented at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Speech Communication Association. Working Paper No. 83.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Larry

    These papers were presented at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Speech Communication Association in San Francisco, December 27-30, 1971. "Perspectives on Research in Speech and Cognitive Processes" was presented to a panel session on "Speech Communication Research of the '70s: Six Priority Areas," sponsored by the Research Board of SCA. It reviews…

  20. Are you a good mimic? Neuro-acoustic signatures for speech imitation ability.

    PubMed

    Reiterer, Susanne M; Hu, Xiaochen; Sumathi, T A; Singh, Nandini C

    2013-01-01

    We investigated individual differences in speech imitation ability in late bilinguals using a neuro-acoustic approach. One hundred and thirty-eight German-English bilinguals matched on various behavioral measures were tested for "speech imitation ability" in a foreign language, Hindi, and categorized into "high" and "low ability" groups. Brain activations and speech recordings were obtained from 26 participants from the two extreme groups as they performed a functional neuroimaging experiment which required them to "imitate" sentences in three conditions: (A) German, (B) English, and (C) German with fake English accent. We used recently developed novel acoustic analysis, namely the "articulation space" as a metric to compare speech imitation abilities of the two groups. Across all three conditions, direct comparisons between the two groups, revealed brain activations (FWE corrected, p < 0.05) that were more widespread with significantly higher peak activity in the left supramarginal gyrus and postcentral areas for the low ability group. The high ability group, on the other hand showed significantly larger articulation space in all three conditions. In addition, articulation space also correlated positively with imitation ability (Pearson's r = 0.7, p < 0.01). Our results suggest that an expanded articulation space for high ability individuals allows access to a larger repertoire of sounds, thereby providing skilled imitators greater flexibility in pronunciation and language learning.

  1. Are you a good mimic? Neuro-acoustic signatures for speech imitation ability

    PubMed Central

    Reiterer, Susanne M.; Hu, Xiaochen; Sumathi, T. A.; Singh, Nandini C.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated individual differences in speech imitation ability in late bilinguals using a neuro-acoustic approach. One hundred and thirty-eight German-English bilinguals matched on various behavioral measures were tested for “speech imitation ability” in a foreign language, Hindi, and categorized into “high” and “low ability” groups. Brain activations and speech recordings were obtained from 26 participants from the two extreme groups as they performed a functional neuroimaging experiment which required them to “imitate” sentences in three conditions: (A) German, (B) English, and (C) German with fake English accent. We used recently developed novel acoustic analysis, namely the “articulation space” as a metric to compare speech imitation abilities of the two groups. Across all three conditions, direct comparisons between the two groups, revealed brain activations (FWE corrected, p < 0.05) that were more widespread with significantly higher peak activity in the left supramarginal gyrus and postcentral areas for the low ability group. The high ability group, on the other hand showed significantly larger articulation space in all three conditions. In addition, articulation space also correlated positively with imitation ability (Pearson's r = 0.7, p < 0.01). Our results suggest that an expanded articulation space for high ability individuals allows access to a larger repertoire of sounds, thereby providing skilled imitators greater flexibility in pronunciation and language learning. PMID:24155739

  2. A Secure Communication Suite for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Dini, Gianluca; Duca, Angelica Lo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe a security suite for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks comprising both fixed and mobile nodes. The security suite is composed of a secure routing protocol and a set of cryptographic primitives aimed at protecting the confidentiality and the integrity of underwater communication while taking into account the unique characteristics and constraints of the acoustic channel. By means of experiments and simulations based on real data, we show that the suite is suitable for an underwater networking environment as it introduces limited, and sometimes negligible, communication and power consumption overhead. PMID:23202204

  3. Quantifying the effect of compression hearing aid release time on speech acoustics and intelligibility.

    PubMed

    Jenstad, Lorienne M; Souza, Pamela E

    2005-06-01

    Compression hearing aids have the inherent, and often adjustable, feature of release time from compression. Research to date does not provide a consensus on how to choose or set release time. The current study had 2 purposes: (a) a comprehensive evaluation of the acoustic effects of release time for a single-channel compression system in quiet and (b) an evaluation of the relation between the acoustic changes and speech recognition. The release times under study were 12, 100, and 800 ms. All of the stimuli were VC syllables from the Nonsense Syllable Task spoken by a female talker. The stimuli were processed through a hearing aid simulator at 3 input levels. Two acoustic measures were made on individual syllables: the envelope-difference index and CV ratio. These measurements allowed for quantification of the short-term amplitude characteristics of the speech signal and the changes to these amplitude characteristics caused by compression. The acoustic analyses revealed statistically significant effects among the 3 release times. The size of the effect was dependent on characteristics of the phoneme. Twelve listeners with moderate sensorineural hearing loss were tested for their speech recognition for the same stimuli. Although release time for this single-channel, 3:1 compression ratio system did not directly predict overall intelligibility for these nonsense syllables in quiet, the acoustic measurements reflecting the changes due to release time were significant predictors of phoneme recognition. Increased temporal-envelope distortion was predictive of reduced recognition for some individual phonemes, which is consistent with previous research on the importance of relative amplitude as a cue to syllable recognition for some phonemes.

  4. What a Strong Speech Communication Curricular Offering Should Be at a Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Jo-Ann

    1977-01-01

    Suggests methods of curriculum development in the speech communication discipline that would offer students opportunities to acquire information and master skills that will enhance academic success and career development. Available from: ACA Bulletin, Robert Hall, Editor, Speech Communication Association, 5205 Leesburg Pike, Suite 1001, Falls…

  5. New Orleans Revisited and Revised: Recommendations for the Field of Speech Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roever, James E.; And Others

    This collection of four papers is the result of an action caucus held in association with the Speech Communication Association's 1972 convention, focusing on developments in the speech communication field since the 1968 USOE/SAA New Orleans conference (ED 028 164). In the first paper, "New Orleans Revisited but Briefly," James E. Roever summarizes…

  6. Relationship between Grades in Speech Communication 100 and Eligibility for Various English Writing Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isonio, Steven; Cooperman, Carol

    In 1992, a study was conducted at Golden West College (GWC) in California to determine whether an English prerequisite should be required for a speech communication course and, if so, what level of English course was necessary. Fourteen sections of Speech Communication 100 were randomly chosen from the spring, summer, and fall semesters during the…

  7. Suppressed Alpha Oscillations Predict Intelligibility of Speech and its Acoustic Details

    PubMed Central

    Weisz, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Modulations of human alpha oscillations (8–13 Hz) accompany many cognitive processes, but their functional role in auditory perception has proven elusive: Do oscillatory dynamics of alpha reflect acoustic details of the speech signal and are they indicative of comprehension success? Acoustically presented words were degraded in acoustic envelope and spectrum in an orthogonal design, and electroencephalogram responses in the frequency domain were analyzed in 24 participants, who rated word comprehensibility after each trial. First, the alpha power suppression during and after a degraded word depended monotonically on spectral and, to a lesser extent, envelope detail. The magnitude of this alpha suppression exhibited an additional and independent influence on later comprehension ratings. Second, source localization of alpha suppression yielded superior parietal, prefrontal, as well as anterior temporal brain areas. Third, multivariate classification of the time–frequency pattern across participants showed that patterns of late posterior alpha power allowed best for above-chance classification of word intelligibility. Results suggest that both magnitude and topography of late alpha suppression in response to single words can indicate a listener's sensitivity to acoustic features and the ability to comprehend speech under adverse listening conditions. PMID:22100354

  8. Acoustic-Emergent Phonology in the Amplitude Envelope of Child-Directed Speech

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Victoria; Goswami, Usha

    2015-01-01

    When acquiring language, young children may use acoustic spectro-temporal patterns in speech to derive phonological units in spoken language (e.g., prosodic stress patterns, syllables, phonemes). Children appear to learn acoustic-phonological mappings rapidly, without direct instruction, yet the underlying developmental mechanisms remain unclear. Across different languages, a relationship between amplitude envelope sensitivity and phonological development has been found, suggesting that children may make use of amplitude modulation (AM) patterns within the envelope to develop a phonological system. Here we present the Spectral Amplitude Modulation Phase Hierarchy (S-AMPH) model, a set of algorithms for deriving the dominant AM patterns in child-directed speech (CDS). Using Principal Components Analysis, we show that rhythmic CDS contains an AM hierarchy comprising 3 core modulation timescales. These timescales correspond to key phonological units: prosodic stress (Stress AM, ~2 Hz), syllables (Syllable AM, ~5 Hz) and onset-rime units (Phoneme AM, ~20 Hz). We argue that these AM patterns could in principle be used by naïve listeners to compute acoustic-phonological mappings without lexical knowledge. We then demonstrate that the modulation statistics within this AM hierarchy indeed parse the speech signal into a primitive hierarchically-organised phonological system comprising stress feet (proto-words), syllables and onset-rime units. We apply the S-AMPH model to two other CDS corpora, one spontaneous and one deliberately-timed. The model accurately identified 72–82% (freely-read CDS) and 90–98% (rhythmically-regular CDS) stress patterns, syllables and onset-rime units. This in-principle demonstration that primitive phonology can be extracted from speech AMs is termed Acoustic-Emergent Phonology (AEP) theory. AEP theory provides a set of methods for examining how early phonological development is shaped by the temporal modulation structure of speech across

  9. Understanding, identifying and supporting speech, language and communication needs in children.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Shona

    2013-12-01

    Communication is a fundamental life skill and acts as the foundation on which many other areas of development are based. Any child who is not developing their speech, language and communication skills in the expected way is considered to have speech, language and communication needs (SLCN). These range from children with delayed speech and language development, whose difficulties will resolve with the correct intervention, to children with long term, persistent difficulties in one or more areas of their speech, language and communication development. Speech, language and communication is a skill central to other areas of development, meaning the impacts of SLCN can be significant. These impacts can be minimised by ensuring early identification and support for those children and young people who are presenting with SLCN.

  10. Combining acoustic and electric stimulation in the service of speech recognition

    PubMed Central

    Dorman, Michael F.; Gifford, Rene H.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of recently implanted, cochlear implant patients can potentially benefit from a hearing aid in the ear contralateral to the implant. When patients combine electric and acoustic stimulation, word recognition in quiet and sentence recognition in noise increase significantly. Several studies suggest that the acoustic information that leads to the increased level of performance resides mostly in the frequency region of the voice fundamental, e.g. 125 Hz for a male voice. Recent studies suggest that this information aids speech recognition in noise by improving the recognition of lexical boundaries or word onsets. In some noise environments, patients with bilateral implants can achieve similar levels of performance as patients who combine electric and acoustic stimulation. Patients who have undergone hearing preservation surgery, and who have electric stimulation from a cochlear implant and who have low-frequency hearing in both the implanted and not-implanted ears, achieve the best performance in a high noise environment. PMID:20874053

  11. Coupled Research in Ocean Acoustics and Signal Processing for the Next Generation of Underwater Acoustic Communication Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-09

    Coupled Research in Ocean Acoustics and Signal Processing for the Next Generation of Underwater Acoustic Communication Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...Processing for the Next Generation of Underwater Acoustic Communication Systems Principal Investigator’s Name: Dr. James Preisig Period Covered By...correlation structure of received communications signals after they have been converted to the frequency domain via Fourier Transforms as de- scribed in

  12. Coupled Research in Ocean Acoustics and Signal Processing for the Next Generation of Underwater Acoustic Communication Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-05

    JPAnalytics LLC CC: DCMA Boston DTIC Director, NRL Progress Report #9 Coupled Research in Ocean Acoustics and Signal Processing for the Next Generation...of Underwater Acoustic Communication Systems Principal Investigator’s Name: Dr. James Preisig Period Covered By Report: 4/20/2016 to 7/19/2016 Report...lower dimensional structures in acoustic communications data, specifically fre- quency domain transformations of received communications signals, to

  13. Long Range Acoustic Communication in Deep Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    ocean is challenging due to the substantial propagation loss, multipath delay spread , and channel variability. Analysis of deep-water data collected...were exploited. In addition, a robust algorithm (double differentially coded spread spectrum) was demonstrated recently using the LRAC10 data [10...Spray gliders with a commercial acoustic modem for data retrieval from subsurface moorings and seafloor systems installed with a similar modem in deep

  14. Communication in Pipes Using Acoustic Modems that Provide Minimal Obstruction to Fluid Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Archer, Eric D. (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A plurality of phased array acoustic communication devices are used to communicate data along a tubulation, such as a well. The phased array acoustic communication devices employ phased arrays of acoustic transducers, such as piezoelectric transducers, to direct acoustic energy in desired directions along the tubulation. The system is controlled by a computer-based controller. Information, including data and commands, is communicated using digital signaling.

  15. Speech Recognition and Acoustic Features in Combined Electric and Acoustic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Yang-soo; Li, Yongxin; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to identify speech information processed by a hearing aid (HA) that is additive to information processed by a cochlear implant (CI) as a function of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Method Speech recognition was measured with CI alone, HA alone, and CI+HA. Ten participants were separated into two groups; good (aided pure-tone average (PTA) < 55 dB) and poor (aided PTA ≥ 55 dB) at audiometric frequencies ≤ 1 kHz in HA. Results Results showed that the good aided PTA group derived a clear bimodal benefit (performance difference between CI+HA and CI alone) for vowel and sentence recognition in noise while the poor aided PTA group received little benefit across speech tests and SNRs. Results also showed that a better aided PTA helped in processing cues embedded in both low and high frequencies; none of these cues were significantly perceived by the poor aided PTA group. Conclusions The aided PTA is an important indicator for bimodal advantage in speech perception. The lack of bimodal benefits in the poor group may be attributed to the non-optimal HA fitting. Bimodal listening provides a synergistic effect for cues in both low and high frequency components in speech. PMID:22199183

  16. Impact of Aberrant Acoustic Properties on the Perception of Sound Quality in Electrolarynx Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzner, Geoffrey S.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    A large percentage of patients who have undergone laryngectomy to treat advanced laryngeal cancer rely on an electrolarynx (EL) to communicate verbally. Although serviceable, EL speech is plagued by shortcomings in both sound quality and intelligibility. This study sought to better quantify the relative contributions of previously identified…

  17. 30. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. OPERATORS' CHAIR AND COMMUNICATIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. OPERATORS' CHAIR AND COMMUNICATIONS CONSOLE IN FOREGROUND. ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT RACK AT LEFT; LAUNCH CONTROL CONSOLE WITH CAPTAIN JAMES L. KING, JR. IN CENTER. LIEUTENANT KEVIN R. MCCLUNEY IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  18. 27. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. COMMUNICATIONS CONSOLE AT LEFT; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. COMMUNICATIONS CONSOLE AT LEFT; LAUNCH CONTROL CONSOLE AT RIGHT. PADLOCKED PANEL AT TOP CENTER CONTAINS MISSILE LAUNCH KEYS. SHOCK ISOLATOR AT FAR LEFT. VIEW TO EAST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  19. On the Acoustics of Emotion in Audio: What Speech, Music, and Sound have in Common

    PubMed Central

    Weninger, Felix; Eyben, Florian; Schuller, Björn W.; Mortillaro, Marcello; Scherer, Klaus R.

    2013-01-01

    Without doubt, there is emotional information in almost any kind of sound received by humans every day: be it the affective state of a person transmitted by means of speech; the emotion intended by a composer while writing a musical piece, or conveyed by a musician while performing it; or the affective state connected to an acoustic event occurring in the environment, in the soundtrack of a movie, or in a radio play. In the field of affective computing, there is currently some loosely connected research concerning either of these phenomena, but a holistic computational model of affect in sound is still lacking. In turn, for tomorrow’s pervasive technical systems, including affective companions and robots, it is expected to be highly beneficial to understand the affective dimensions of “the sound that something makes,” in order to evaluate the system’s auditory environment and its own audio output. This article aims at a first step toward a holistic computational model: starting from standard acoustic feature extraction schemes in the domains of speech, music, and sound analysis, we interpret the worth of individual features across these three domains, considering four audio databases with observer annotations in the arousal and valence dimensions. In the results, we find that by selection of appropriate descriptors, cross-domain arousal, and valence regression is feasible achieving significant correlations with the observer annotations of up to 0.78 for arousal (training on sound and testing on enacted speech) and 0.60 for valence (training on enacted speech and testing on music). The high degree of cross-domain consistency in encoding the two main dimensions of affect may be attributable to the co-evolution of speech and music from multimodal affect bursts, including the integration of nature sounds for expressive effects. PMID:23750144

  20. Segment-based acoustic models for continuous speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostendorf, Mari; Rohlicek, J. R.

    1993-07-01

    This research aims to develop new and more accurate stochastic models for speaker-independent continuous speech recognition, by extending previous work in segment-based modeling and by introducing a new hierarchical approach to representing intra-utterance statistical dependencies. These techniques, which are more costly than traditional approaches because of the large search space associated with higher order models, are made feasible through rescoring a set of HMM-generated N-best sentence hypotheses. We expect these different modeling techniques to result in improved recognition performance over that achieved by current systems, which handle only frame-based observations and assume that these observations are independent given an underlying state sequence. In the fourth quarter of the project, we have completed the following: (1) ported our recognition system to the Wall Street Journal task, a standard task in the ARPA community; (2) developed an initial dependency-tree model of intra-utterance observation correlation; and (3) implemented baseline language model estimation software. Our initial results on the Wall Street Journal task are quite good and represent significantly improved performance over most HMM systems reporting on the Nov. 1992 5k vocabulary test set.

  1. Multi-carrier Communications over Time-varying Acoustic Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aval, Yashar M.

    Acoustic communication is an enabling technology for many autonomous undersea systems, such as those used for ocean monitoring, offshore oil and gas industry, aquaculture, or port security. There are three main challenges in achieving reliable high-rate underwater communication: the bandwidth of acoustic channels is extremely limited, the propagation delays are long, and the Doppler distortions are more pronounced than those found in wireless radio channels. In this dissertation we focus on assessing the fundamental limitations of acoustic communication, and designing efficient signal processing methods that cam overcome these limitations. We address the fundamental question of acoustic channel capacity (achievable rate) for single-input-multi-output (SIMO) acoustic channels using a per-path Rician fading model, and focusing on two scenarios: narrowband channels where the channel statistics can be approximated as frequency- independent, and wideband channels where the nominal path loss is frequency-dependent. In each scenario, we compare several candidate power allocation techniques, and show that assigning uniform power across all frequencies for the first scenario, and assigning uniform power across a selected frequency-band for the second scenario, are the best practical choices in most cases, because the long propagation delay renders the feedback information outdated for power allocation based on the estimated channel response. We quantify our results using the channel information extracted form the 2010 Mobile Acoustic Communications Experiment (MACE'10). Next, we focus on achieving reliable high-rate communication over underwater acoustic channels. Specifically, we investigate orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) as the state-of-the-art technique for dealing with frequency-selective multipath channels, and propose a class of methods that compensate for the time-variation of the underwater acoustic channel. These methods are based on multiple

  2. Acoustic landmarks drive delta-theta oscillations to enable speech comprehension by facilitating perceptual parsing.

    PubMed

    Doelling, Keith B; Arnal, Luc H; Ghitza, Oded; Poeppel, David

    2014-01-15

    A growing body of research suggests that intrinsic neuronal slow (<10 Hz) oscillations in auditory cortex appear to track incoming speech and other spectro-temporally complex auditory signals. Within this framework, several recent studies have identified critical-band temporal envelopes as the specific acoustic feature being reflected by the phase of these oscillations. However, how this alignment between speech acoustics and neural oscillations might underpin intelligibility is unclear. Here we test the hypothesis that the 'sharpness' of temporal fluctuations in the critical band envelope acts as a temporal cue to speech syllabic rate, driving delta-theta rhythms to track the stimulus and facilitate intelligibility. We interpret our findings as evidence that sharp events in the stimulus cause cortical rhythms to re-align and parse the stimulus into syllable-sized chunks for further decoding. Using magnetoencephalographic recordings, we show that by removing temporal fluctuations that occur at the syllabic rate, envelope-tracking activity is reduced. By artificially reinstating these temporal fluctuations, envelope-tracking activity is regained. These changes in tracking correlate with intelligibility of the stimulus. Together, the results suggest that the sharpness of fluctuations in the stimulus, as reflected in the cochlear output, drive oscillatory activity to track and entrain to the stimulus, at its syllabic rate. This process likely facilitates parsing of the stimulus into meaningful chunks appropriate for subsequent decoding, enhancing perception and intelligibility.

  3. Control of Spoken Vowel Acoustics and the Influence of Phonetic Context in Human Speech Sensorimotor Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Kristofer E.

    2014-01-01

    Speech production requires the precise control of vocal tract movements to generate individual speech sounds (phonemes) which, in turn, are rapidly organized into complex sequences. Multiple productions of the same phoneme can exhibit substantial variability, some of which is inherent to control of the vocal tract and its biomechanics, and some of which reflects the contextual effects of surrounding phonemes (“coarticulation”). The role of the CNS in these aspects of speech motor control is not well understood. To address these issues, we recorded multielectrode cortical activity directly from human ventral sensory-motor cortex (vSMC) during the production of consonant-vowel syllables. We analyzed the relationship between the acoustic parameters of vowels (pitch and formants) and cortical activity on a single-trial level. We found that vSMC activity robustly predicted acoustic parameters across vowel categories (up to 80% of variance), as well as different renditions of the same vowel (up to 25% of variance). Furthermore, we observed significant contextual effects on vSMC representations of produced phonemes that suggest active control of coarticulation: vSMC representations for vowels were biased toward the representations of the preceding consonant, and conversely, representations for consonants were biased toward upcoming vowels. These results reveal that vSMC activity for phonemes are not invariant and provide insight into the cortical mechanisms of coarticulation. PMID:25232105

  4. Teachers and Teaching: Speech Production Accommodations Due to Changes in the Acoustic Environment

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Eric J.; Bottalico, Pasquale; Graetzer, Simone; Leishman, Timothy W.; Berardi, Mark L.; Eyring, Nathan G.; Jensen, Zachary R.; Rolins, Michael K.; Whiting, Jennifer K.

    2016-01-01

    School teachers have an elevated risk of voice problems due to the vocal demands in the workplace. This manuscript presents the results of three studies investigating teachers’ voice use at work. In the first study, 57 teachers were observed for 2 weeks (waking hours) to compare how they used their voice in the school environment and in non-school environments. In a second study, 45 participants performed a short vocal task in two different rooms: a variable acoustic room and an anechoic chamber. Subjects were taken back and forth between the two rooms. Each time they entered the variable acoustics room, the reverberation time and/or the background noise condition had been modified. In this latter study, subjects responded to questions about their vocal comfort and their perception of changes in the acoustic environment. In a third study, 20 untrained vocalists performed a simple vocal task in the following conditions: with and without background babble and with and without transparent plexiglass shields to increase the first reflection. Relationships were examined between [1] the results for the room acoustic parameters; [2] the subjects’ perception of the room; and [3] the recorded speech acoustic. Several differences between male and female subjects were found; some of those differences held for each room condition (at school vs. not at school, reverberation level, noise level, and early reflection). PMID:26949426

  5. Effective Acoustic Modeling for Pronunciation Quality Scoring of Strongly Accented Mandarin Speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Fengpei; Liu, Changliang; Shao, Jian; Pan, Fuping; Dong, Bin; Yan, Yonghong

    In this paper we present our investigation into improving the performance of our computer-assisted language learning (CALL) system through exploiting the acoustic model and features within the speech recognition framework. First, to alleviate channel distortion, speaker-dependent cepstrum mean normalization (CMN) is adopted and the average correlation coefficient (average CC) between machine and expert scores is improved from 78.00% to 84.14%. Second, heteroscedastic linear discriminant analysis (HLDA) is adopted to enhance the discriminability of the acoustic model, which successfully increases the average CC from 84.14% to 84.62%. Additionally, HLDA causes the scoring accuracy to be more stable at various pronunciation proficiency levels, and thus leads to an increase in the speaker correct-rank rate from 85.59% to 90.99%. Finally, we use maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation to tune the acoustic model to fit strongly accented test speech. As a result, the average CC is improved from 84.62% to 86.57%. These three novel techniques improve the accuracy of evaluating pronunciation quality.

  6. Time Reversal Acoustic Communication Using Filtered Multitone Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lin; Chen, Baowei; Li, Haisen; Zhou, Tian; Li, Ruo

    2015-01-01

    The multipath spread in underwater acoustic channels is severe and, therefore, when the symbol rate of the time reversal (TR) acoustic communication using single-carrier (SC) modulation is high, the large intersymbol interference (ISI) span caused by multipath reduces the performance of the TR process and needs to be removed using the long adaptive equalizer as the post-processor. In this paper, a TR acoustic communication method using filtered multitone (FMT) modulation is proposed in order to reduce the residual ISI in the processed signal using TR. In the proposed method, FMT modulation is exploited to modulate information symbols onto separate subcarriers with high spectral containment and TR technique, as well as adaptive equalization is adopted at the receiver to suppress ISI and noise. The performance of the proposed method is assessed through simulation and real data from a trial in an experimental pool. The proposed method was compared with the TR acoustic communication using SC modulation with the same spectral efficiency. Results demonstrate that the proposed method can improve the performance of the TR process and reduce the computational complexity of adaptive equalization for post-process. PMID:26393586

  7. Logopenic and Nonfluent Variants of Primary Progressive Aphasia Are Differentiated by Acoustic Measures of Speech Production

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Kirrie J.; Savage, Sharon; Leyton, Cristian E.; Vogel, Adam P.; Hornberger, Michael; Hodges, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Differentiation of logopenic (lvPPA) and nonfluent/agrammatic (nfvPPA) variants of Primary Progressive Aphasia is important yet remains challenging since it hinges on expert based evaluation of speech and language production. In this study acoustic measures of speech in conjunction with voxel-based morphometry were used to determine the success of the measures as an adjunct to diagnosis and to explore the neural basis of apraxia of speech in nfvPPA. Forty-one patients (21 lvPPA, 20 nfvPPA) were recruited from a consecutive sample with suspected frontotemporal dementia. Patients were diagnosed using the current gold-standard of expert perceptual judgment, based on presence/absence of particular speech features during speaking tasks. Seventeen healthy age-matched adults served as controls. MRI scans were available for 11 control and 37 PPA cases; 23 of the PPA cases underwent amyloid ligand PET imaging. Measures, corresponding to perceptual features of apraxia of speech, were periods of silence during reading and relative vowel duration and intensity in polysyllable word repetition. Discriminant function analyses revealed that a measure of relative vowel duration differentiated nfvPPA cases from both control and lvPPA cases (r2 = 0.47) with 88% agreement with expert judgment of presence of apraxia of speech in nfvPPA cases. VBM analysis showed that relative vowel duration covaried with grey matter intensity in areas critical for speech motor planning and programming: precentral gyrus, supplementary motor area and inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally, only affected in the nfvPPA group. This bilateral involvement of frontal speech networks in nfvPPA potentially affects access to compensatory mechanisms involving right hemisphere homologues. Measures of silences during reading also discriminated the PPA and control groups, but did not increase predictive accuracy. Findings suggest that a measure of relative vowel duration from of a polysyllable word repetition task

  8. Logopenic and nonfluent variants of primary progressive aphasia are differentiated by acoustic measures of speech production.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Kirrie J; Savage, Sharon; Leyton, Cristian E; Vogel, Adam P; Hornberger, Michael; Hodges, John R

    2014-01-01

    Differentiation of logopenic (lvPPA) and nonfluent/agrammatic (nfvPPA) variants of Primary Progressive Aphasia is important yet remains challenging since it hinges on expert based evaluation of speech and language production. In this study acoustic measures of speech in conjunction with voxel-based morphometry were used to determine the success of the measures as an adjunct to diagnosis and to explore the neural basis of apraxia of speech in nfvPPA. Forty-one patients (21 lvPPA, 20 nfvPPA) were recruited from a consecutive sample with suspected frontotemporal dementia. Patients were diagnosed using the current gold-standard of expert perceptual judgment, based on presence/absence of particular speech features during speaking tasks. Seventeen healthy age-matched adults served as controls. MRI scans were available for 11 control and 37 PPA cases; 23 of the PPA cases underwent amyloid ligand PET imaging. Measures, corresponding to perceptual features of apraxia of speech, were periods of silence during reading and relative vowel duration and intensity in polysyllable word repetition. Discriminant function analyses revealed that a measure of relative vowel duration differentiated nfvPPA cases from both control and lvPPA cases (r(2) = 0.47) with 88% agreement with expert judgment of presence of apraxia of speech in nfvPPA cases. VBM analysis showed that relative vowel duration covaried with grey matter intensity in areas critical for speech motor planning and programming: precentral gyrus, supplementary motor area and inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally, only affected in the nfvPPA group. This bilateral involvement of frontal speech networks in nfvPPA potentially affects access to compensatory mechanisms involving right hemisphere homologues. Measures of silences during reading also discriminated the PPA and control groups, but did not increase predictive accuracy. Findings suggest that a measure of relative vowel duration from of a polysyllable word repetition task

  9. Acoustic temporal modulation detection and speech perception in cochlear implant listeners.

    PubMed

    Won, Jong Ho; Drennan, Ward R; Nie, Kaibao; Jameyson, Elyse M; Rubinstein, Jay T

    2011-07-01

    The goals of the present study were to measure acoustic temporal modulation transfer functions (TMTFs) in cochlear implant listeners and examine the relationship between modulation detection and speech recognition abilities. The effects of automatic gain control, presentation level and number of channels on modulation detection thresholds (MDTs) were examined using the listeners' clinical sound processor. The general form of the TMTF was low-pass, consistent with previous studies. The operation of automatic gain control had no effect on MDTs when the stimuli were presented at 65 dBA. MDTs were not dependent on the presentation levels (ranging from 50 to 75 dBA) nor on the number of channels. Significant correlations were found between MDTs and speech recognition scores. The rates of decay of the TMTFs were predictive of speech recognition abilities. Spectral-ripple discrimination was evaluated to examine the relationship between temporal and spectral envelope sensitivities. No correlations were found between the two measures, and 56% of the variance in speech recognition was predicted jointly by the two tasks. The present study suggests that temporal modulation detection measured with the sound processor can serve as a useful measure of the ability of clinical sound processing strategies to deliver clinically pertinent temporal information.

  10. The role of metrical information in apraxia of speech. Perceptual and acoustic analyses of word stress.

    PubMed

    Aichert, Ingrid; Späth, Mona; Ziegler, Wolfram

    2016-02-01

    Several factors are known to influence speech accuracy in patients with apraxia of speech (AOS), e.g., syllable structure or word length. However, the impact of word stress has largely been neglected so far. More generally, the role of prosodic information at the phonetic encoding stage of speech production often remains unconsidered in models of speech production. This study aimed to investigate the influence of word stress on error production in AOS. Two-syllabic words with stress on the first (trochees) vs. the second syllable (iambs) were compared in 14 patients with AOS, three of them exhibiting pure AOS, and in a control group of six normal speakers. The patients produced significantly more errors on iambic than on trochaic words. A most prominent metrical effect was obtained for segmental errors. Acoustic analyses of word durations revealed a disproportionate advantage of the trochaic meter in the patients relative to the healthy controls. The results indicate that German apraxic speakers are sensitive to metrical information. It is assumed that metrical patterns function as prosodic frames for articulation planning, and that the regular metrical pattern in German, the trochaic form, has a facilitating effect on word production in patients with AOS.

  11. A Bayesian view on acoustic model-based techniques for robust speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maas, Roland; Huemmer, Christian; Sehr, Armin; Kellermann, Walter

    2015-12-01

    This article provides a unifying Bayesian view on various approaches for acoustic model adaptation, missing feature, and uncertainty decoding that are well-known in the literature of robust automatic speech recognition. The representatives of these classes can often be deduced from a Bayesian network that extends the conventional hidden Markov models used in speech recognition. These extensions, in turn, can in many cases be motivated from an underlying observation model that relates clean and distorted feature vectors. By identifying and converting the observation models into a Bayesian network representation, we formulate the corresponding compensation rules. We thus summarize the various approaches as approximations or modifications of the same Bayesian decoding rule leading to a unified view on known derivations as well as to new formulations for certain approaches.

  12. The effects of selective attention and speech acoustics on neural speech-tracking in a multi-talker scene.

    PubMed

    Rimmele, Johanna M; Zion Golumbic, Elana; Schröger, Erich; Poeppel, David

    2015-07-01

    Attending to one speaker in multi-speaker situations is challenging. One neural mechanism proposed to underlie the ability to attend to a particular speaker is phase-locking of low-frequency activity in auditory cortex to speech's temporal envelope ("speech-tracking"), which is more precise for attended speech. However, it is not known what brings about this attentional effect, and specifically if it reflects enhanced processing of the fine structure of attended speech. To investigate this question we compared attentional effects on speech-tracking of natural versus vocoded speech which preserves the temporal envelope but removes the fine structure of speech. Pairs of natural and vocoded speech stimuli were presented concurrently and participants attended to one stimulus and performed a detection task while ignoring the other stimulus. We recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG) and compared attentional effects on the speech-tracking response in auditory cortex. Speech-tracking of natural, but not vocoded, speech was enhanced by attention, whereas neural tracking of ignored speech was similar for natural and vocoded speech. These findings suggest that the more precise speech-tracking of attended natural speech is related to processing its fine structure, possibly reflecting the application of higher-order linguistic processes. In contrast, when speech is unattended its fine structure is not processed to the same degree and thus elicits less precise speech-tracking more similar to vocoded speech.

  13. Acoustic measurements through analysis of binaural recordings of speech and music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griesinger, David

    2004-10-01

    This paper will present and demonstrate some recent work on the measurement of acoustic properties from binaural recordings of live performances. It is found that models of the process of stream formation can be used to measure intelligibility, and, when combined with band-limited running cross-correlation, can be used to measure spaciousness and envelopment. Analysis of the running cross correlation during sound onsets can be used to measure the accuracy of azimuth perception. It is additionally found that the ease of detecting fundamental pitch from the upper partials of speech and music can be used as a measure of sound quality, particularly for solo instruments and singers.

  14. Acoustic signals of Chinese alligators (Alligator sinensis): social communication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianyan; Wang, Ding; Wu, Xiaobing; Wang, Renping; Wang, Chaolin

    2007-05-01

    This paper reports the first systematic study of acoustic signals during social interactions of the Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis). Sound pressure level (SPL) measurements revealed that Chinese alligators have an elaborate acoustic communication system with both long-distance signal-bellowing-and short-distance signals that include tooting, bubble blowing, hissing, mooing, head slapping and whining. Bellows have high SPL and appear to play an important role in the alligator's long range intercommunion. Sounds characterized by low SPL are short-distance signals used when alligators are in close spatial proximity to one another. The signal spectrographic analysis showed that the acoustic signals of Chinese alligators have a very low dominant frequency, less than 500 Hz. These frequencies are consistent with adaptation to a habitat with high density vegetation. Low dominant frequency sound attenuates less and could therefore cover a larger spatial range by diffraction in a densely vegetated environment relative to a higher dominant frequency sound.

  15. Temporal acoustic measures distinguish primary progressive apraxia of speech from primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Joseph R; Hanley, Holly; Utianski, Rene; Clark, Heather; Strand, Edythe; Josephs, Keith A; Whitwell, Jennifer L

    2017-02-07

    The purpose of this study was to determine if acoustic measures of duration and syllable rate during word and sentence repetition, and a measure of within-word lexical stress, distinguish speakers with primary progressive apraxia of speech (PPAOS) from nonapraxic speakers with the agrammatic or logopenic variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA), and control speakers. Results revealed that the PPAOS group had longer durations and reduced rate of syllable production for most words and sentences, and the measure of lexical stress. Sensitivity and specificity indices for the PPAOS versus the other groups were highest for longer multisyllabic words and sentences. For the PPAOS group, correlations between acoustic measures and perceptual ratings of AOS were moderately high to high. Several temporal measures used in this study may aid differential diagnosis and help quantify features of PPAOS that are distinct from those associated with PPA in which AOS is not present.

  16. Enhancing the Speech and Language Development of Communicatively Disordered Children through Music and Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Katherine

    The paper examines the suprasegmental aspects of speech and focuses on the benefits of music and movement to facilitate language development in handicapped children. The paper discusses the current thinking of suprasegmental functions of intonation, stress, and rhythm as the foundation for the organization of speech communication. Strategies for…

  17. Developing Students' Literacy Skills Using High-Tech Speech-Generating Augmentative and Alternative Communication Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Julia; Ratajczak, Amy

    2009-01-01

    This article outlines practical techniques for developing literacy skills in users of high-tech speech-generating augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices. The recommended strategies are intended for general classroom teachers who teach literacy skills to students with typical speech. Many students who use high-tech AAC devices…

  18. Marshall McLuhan: His Significance for the Field of Speech Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehninger, Douglas

    1969-01-01

    Speech as a mode of communication and speech education as a means of training for proficiency in the use of this mode are assuming increased importance in light of McLuhan's assertion that electronic media is replacing print as the main source of information and entertainment. Emphasis upon the uniqueness and independence of the oral mode, a…

  19. Suprasegmental Characteristics of Speech Produced during Simultaneous Communication by Inexperienced Signers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Robert L.; Metz, Dale E.; Girardi, Erin; Irwin, Jacqueline; Krigsman, Amanda; Swanson, Christina; Mackenzie, Douglas; Schiavetti, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated suprasegmental variables of syllable stress and intonation contours in contextual speech produced during simultaneous communication (SC) by inexperienced signers. Ten hearing inexperienced sign language users were recorded under SC and speech-alone (SA) conditions speaking a set of sentences containing stressed versus…

  20. The effects of selective attention and speech acoustics on neural speech-tracking in a multi-talker scene

    PubMed Central

    Rimmele, Johanna M.; Golumbic, Elana Zion; Schröger, Erich; Poeppel, David

    2015-01-01

    Attending to one speaker in multi-speaker situations is challenging. One neural mechanism proposed to underlie the ability to attend to a particular speaker is phase-locking of low-frequency activity in auditory cortex to speech’s temporal envelope (“speech-tracking”), which is more precise for attended speech. However, it is not known what brings about this attentional effect, and specifically if it reflects enhanced processing of the fine structure of attended speech. To investigate this question we compared attentional effects on speech-tracking of natural vs. vocoded speech which preserves the temporal envelope but removes the fine-structure of speech. Pairs of natural and vocoded speech stimuli were presented concurrently and participants attended to one stimulus and performed a detection task while ignoring the other stimulus. We recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG) and compared attentional effects on the speech-tracking response in auditory cortex. Speech-tracking of natural, but not vocoded, speech was enhanced by attention, whereas neural tracking of ignored speech was similar for natural and vocoded speech. These findings suggest that the more precise speech tracking of attended natural speech is related to processing its fine structure, possibly reflecting the application of higher-order linguistic processes. In contrast, when speech is unattended its fine structure is not processed to the same degree and thus elicits less precise speech tracking more similar to vocoded speech. PMID:25650107

  1. A physiologically-inspired model reproducing the speech intelligibility benefit in cochlear implant listeners with residual acoustic hearing.

    PubMed

    Zamaninezhad, Ladan; Hohmann, Volker; Büchner, Andreas; Schädler, Marc René; Jürgens, Tim

    2017-02-01

    This study introduces a speech intelligibility model for cochlear implant users with ipsilateral preserved acoustic hearing that aims at simulating the observed speech-in-noise intelligibility benefit when receiving simultaneous electric and acoustic stimulation (EA-benefit). The model simulates the auditory nerve spiking in response to electric and/or acoustic stimulation. The temporally and spatially integrated spiking patterns were used as the final internal representation of noisy speech. Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) in stationary noise were predicted for a sentence test using an automatic speech recognition framework. The model was employed to systematically investigate the effect of three physiologically relevant model factors on simulated SRTs: (1) the spatial spread of the electric field which co-varies with the number of electrically stimulated auditory nerves, (2) the "internal" noise simulating the deprivation of auditory system, and (3) the upper bound frequency limit of acoustic hearing. The model results show that the simulated SRTs increase monotonically with increasing spatial spread for fixed internal noise, and also increase with increasing the internal noise strength for a fixed spatial spread. The predicted EA-benefit does not follow such a systematic trend and depends on the specific combination of the model parameters. Beyond 300 Hz, the upper bound limit for preserved acoustic hearing is less influential on speech intelligibility of EA-listeners in stationary noise. The proposed model-predicted EA-benefits are within the range of EA-benefits shown by 18 out of 21 actual cochlear implant listeners with preserved acoustic hearing.

  2. Acoustic system for communication in pipelines

    DOEpatents

    Martin, II, Louis Peter; Cooper, John F.

    2008-09-09

    A system for communication in a pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes containing a fluid. The system includes an encoding and transmitting sub-system connected to the pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes that transmits a signal in the frequency range of 3-100 kHz into the pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes containing a fluid, and a receiver and processor sub-system connected to the pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes containing a fluid that receives said signal and uses said signal for a desired application.

  3. Ocean Variability Effects on Underwater Acoustic Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    302) 831-6521/email: badiey@udel.edu Award Number: N00014- 10 -1-0345 http://www.ceoe.udel.edu/people/ajsong LONG-TERM GOALS This proposed...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10 . SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT... 10 -32 kHz was utilized by ITC-1001 transducers. The transducers of a ship-tethered source array transmitted communication signals at four sub-bands

  4. Acoustic Context Alters Vowel Categorization in Perception of Noise-Vocoded Speech.

    PubMed

    Stilp, Christian E

    2017-03-09

    Normal-hearing listeners' speech perception is widely influenced by spectral contrast effects (SCEs), where perception of a given sound is biased away from stable spectral properties of preceding sounds. Despite this influence, it is not clear how these contrast effects affect speech perception for cochlear implant (CI) users whose spectral resolution is notoriously poor. This knowledge is important for understanding how CIs might better encode key spectral properties of the listening environment. Here, SCEs were measured in normal-hearing listeners using noise-vocoded speech to simulate poor spectral resolution. Listeners heard a noise-vocoded sentence where low-F1 (100-400 Hz) or high-F1 (550-850 Hz) frequency regions were amplified to encourage "eh" (/ɛ/) or "ih" (/ɪ/) responses to the following target vowel, respectively. This was done by filtering with +20 dB (experiment 1a) or +5 dB gain (experiment 1b) or filtering using 100 % of the difference between spectral envelopes of /ɛ/ and /ɪ/ endpoint vowels (experiment 2a) or only 25 % of this difference (experiment 2b). SCEs influenced identification of noise-vocoded vowels in each experiment at every level of spectral resolution. In every case but one, SCE magnitudes exceeded those reported for full-spectrum speech, particularly when spectral peaks in the preceding sentence were large (+20 dB gain, 100 % of the spectral envelope difference). Even when spectral resolution was insufficient for accurate vowel recognition, SCEs were still evident. Results are suggestive of SCEs influencing CI users' speech perception as well, encouraging further investigation of CI users' sensitivity to acoustic context.

  5. Comparison of Channel Equalization Filtering Techniques in Underwater Acoustic Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    Navigation Aid Demonstration Broad Area Anouncement (BAA) Informational Paper. The threshold bit error rate criteria is 10-2, and the objective bit error...Computational Ocean Acoustics. New York: American Institute of Physics Press , 1994. [7] L. Freitag, M. Johnson, and M. Stojanovic, "Efficient Equalizer Update...Halsted Press , 1989. [28] B. Sklar, Digital Communications, 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall PTR, 2001. [29] H. L. Van

  6. Prosodic Influences on Speech Production in Children with Specific Language Impairment and Speech Deficits: Kinematic, Acoustic, and Transcription Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goffman, Lisa

    1999-01-01

    In this study, seven children with specific language impairment (SLI) and speech deficits were matched with same age peers and evaluated for iambic (weak-strong) and trochaic (strong-weak) prosodic speech forms. Findings indicated that children with SLI and speech deficits show less mature segmental and speech motor systems, as well as decreased…

  7. A supervisory control policy over an acoustic communication network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhadi, Alireza; Dumon, Jonathan; Canudas-de-Wit, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a supervisory multi-agent control policy over an acoustic communication network subject to imperfections (packet dropout and transmission delay) for localisation of an underwater flow source (e.g., source of chemical pollution, fresh water, etc.) with an unknown location at the bottom of the ocean. A two-loop control policy combined with a coding strategy for reliable communication is presented to perform the above task. A simulator is developed and used to evaluate the trade-offs between quality of communication, transmission delay and control for a fleet of autonomous underwater vehicles supervised over a noisy acoustic communication network by an autonomous surface vessel. It is illustrated that without compensation of the effects of severe random packet dropout, localisation of an unknown underwater flow source is not possible for the condition simulated just by implementing a two-loop control policy. But a two-loop control policy combined with a strategy for reliable communication locates the unknown location of flow source.

  8. Brain mechanisms of acoustic communication in humans and nonhuman primates: an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Hermann; Hage, Steffen R; Ziegler, Wolfram

    2014-12-01

    Any account of "what is special about the human brain" (Passingham 2008) must specify the neural basis of our unique ability to produce speech and delineate how these remarkable motor capabilities could have emerged in our hominin ancestors. Clinical data suggest that the basal ganglia provide a platform for the integration of primate-general mechanisms of acoustic communication with the faculty of articulate speech in humans. Furthermore, neurobiological and paleoanthropological data point at a two-stage model of the phylogenetic evolution of this crucial prerequisite of spoken language: (i) monosynaptic refinement of the projections of motor cortex to the brainstem nuclei that steer laryngeal muscles, presumably, as part of a "phylogenetic trend" associated with increasing brain size during hominin evolution; (ii) subsequent vocal-laryngeal elaboration of cortico-basal ganglia circuitries, driven by human-specific FOXP2 mutations.;>This concept implies vocal continuity of spoken language evolution at the motor level, elucidating the deep entrenchment of articulate speech into a "nonverbal matrix" (Ingold 1994), which is not accounted for by gestural-origin theories. Moreover, it provides a solution to the question for the adaptive value of the "first word" (Bickerton 2009) since even the earliest and most simple verbal utterances must have increased the versatility of vocal displays afforded by the preceding elaboration of monosynaptic corticobulbar tracts, giving rise to enhanced social cooperation and prestige. At the ontogenetic level, the proposed model assumes age-dependent interactions between the basal ganglia and their cortical targets, similar to vocal learning in some songbirds. In this view, the emergence of articulate speech builds on the "renaissance" of an ancient organizational principle and, hence, may represent an example of "evolutionary tinkering" (Jacob 1977).

  9. Acoustic evaluation of short-term effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on motor aspects of speech in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Eliasova, I; Mekyska, J; Kostalova, M; Marecek, R; Smekal, Z; Rektorova, I

    2013-04-01

    Hypokinetic dysarthria in Parkinson's disease (PD) can be characterized by monotony of pitch and loudness, reduced stress, variable rate, imprecise consonants, and a breathy and harsh voice. Using acoustic analysis, we studied the effects of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied over the primary orofacial sensorimotor area (SM1) and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on motor aspects of voiced speech in PD. Twelve non-depressed and non-demented men with PD (mean age 64.58 ± 8.04 years, mean PD duration 10.75 ± 7.48 years) and 21 healthy age-matched men (a control group, mean age 64 ± 8.55 years) participated in the speech study. The PD patients underwent two sessions of 10 Hz rTMS over the dominant hemisphere with 2,250 stimuli/day in a random order: (1) over the SM1; (2) over the left DLPFC in the "on" motor state. Speech examination comprised the perceptual rating of global speech performance and an acoustic analysis based upon a standardized speech task. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare acoustic speech variables between controls and PD patients. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare data prior to and after each stimulation in the PD group. rTMS applied over the left SM1 was associated with a significant increase in harmonic-to-noise ratio and net speech rate in the sentence tasks. With respect to the vowel task results, increased median values and range of Teager-Kaiser energy operator, increased vowel space area, and significant jitter decrease were observed after the left SM1 stimulation. rTMS over the left DLPFC did not induce any significant effects. The positive results of acoustic analysis were not reflected in a subjective rating of speech performance quality as assessed by a speech therapist. Our pilot results indicate that one session of rTMS applied over the SM1 may lead to measurable improvement in voice quality and intensity and an increase in speech rate and tongue movements

  10. Improving Multitalker Speech Communication with Advanced Audio Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    that use either dichotic or binaural processing to spatially separate the apparent locations of multiple simultaneous channels of speech. Finally, we...all obvious that spatialized displays will provide a compelling benefit over dichotic speech displays that provide the listener with the option of... dichotic , and spatialized speech displays in a seven-talker CRM listening task where each talker was 50% likely to be active on any given trial and

  11. Department of Cybernetic Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The development of the theory, instrumentation and applications of methods and systems for the measurement, analysis, processing and synthesis of acoustic signals within the audio frequency range, particularly of the speech signal and the vibro-acoustic signal emitted by technical and industrial equipments treated as noise and vibration sources was discussed. The research work, both theoretical and experimental, aims at applications in various branches of science, and medicine, such as: acoustical diagnostics and phoniatric rehabilitation of pathological and postoperative states of the speech organ; bilateral ""man-machine'' speech communication based on the analysis, recognition and synthesis of the speech signal; vibro-acoustical diagnostics and continuous monitoring of the state of machines, technical equipments and technological processes.

  12. A Frame-Based Context-Dependent Acoustic Modeling for Speech Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terashima, Ryuta; Zen, Heiga; Nankaku, Yoshihiko; Tokuda, Keiichi

    We propose a novel acoustic model for speech recognition, named FCD (Frame-based Context Dependent) model. It can obtain a probability distribution by using a top-down clustering technique to simultaneously consider the local frame position in phoneme, phoneme duration, and phoneme context. The model topology is derived from connecting left-to-right HMM models without self-loop transition for each phoneme duration. Because the FCD model can change the probability distribution into a sequence corresponding with one phoneme duration, it can has the ability to generate a smooth trajectory of speech feature vector. We also performed an experiment to evaluate the performance of speech recognition for the model. In the experiment, 132 questions for frame position, 66 questions for phoneme duration and 134 questions for phoneme context were used to train the sub-phoneme FCD model. In order to compare the performance, left-to-right HMM and two types of HSMM models with almost same number of states were also trained. As a result, 18% of relative improvement of tri-phone accuracy was achieved by the FCD model.

  13. The effect of intertalker speech rate variation on acoustic vowel space.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Ying-Chiao; Weismer, Gary; Iqbal, Kamran

    2006-02-01

    The present study aimed to examine the size of the acoustic vowel space in talkers who had previously been identified as having slow and fast habitual speaking rates [Tsao, Y.-C. and Weismer, G. (1997) J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. 40, 858-866]. Within talkers, it is fairly well known that faster speaking rates result in a compression of the vowel space relative to that measured for slower rates, so the current study was completed to determine if the same differences in the size of the vowel space occur across talkers who differ significantly in their habitual speaking rates. Results indicated that there was no difference in the average size of the vowel space for slow vs fast talkers, and no relationship across talkers between vowel duration and formant frequencies. One difference between the slow and fast talkers was in intertalker variability of the vowel spaces, which was clearly greater for the slow talkers, for both speaker sexes. Results are discussed relative to theories of speech production and vowel normalization in speech perception.

  14. Discrimination of speech stimuli based on neuronal response phase patterns depends on acoustics but not comprehension.

    PubMed

    Howard, Mary F; Poeppel, David

    2010-11-01

    Speech stimuli give rise to neural activity in the listener that can be observed as waveforms using magnetoencephalography. Although waveforms vary greatly from trial to trial due to activity unrelated to the stimulus, it has been demonstrated that spoken sentences can be discriminated based on theta-band (3-7 Hz) phase patterns in single-trial response waveforms. Furthermore, manipulations of the speech signal envelope and fine structure that reduced intelligibility were found to produce correlated reductions in discrimination performance, suggesting a relationship between theta-band phase patterns and speech comprehension. This study investigates the nature of this relationship, hypothesizing that theta-band phase patterns primarily reflect cortical processing of low-frequency (<40 Hz) modulations present in the acoustic signal and required for intelligibility, rather than processing exclusively related to comprehension (e.g., lexical, syntactic, semantic). Using stimuli that are quite similar to normal spoken sentences in terms of low-frequency modulation characteristics but are unintelligible (i.e., their time-inverted counterparts), we find that discrimination performance based on theta-band phase patterns is equal for both types of stimuli. Consistent with earlier findings, we also observe that whereas theta-band phase patterns differ across stimuli, power patterns do not. We use a simulation model of the single-trial response to spoken sentence stimuli to demonstrate that phase-locked responses to low-frequency modulations of the acoustic signal can account not only for the phase but also for the power results. The simulation offers insight into the interpretation of the empirical results with respect to phase-resetting and power-enhancement models of the evoked response.

  15. Discrimination of Speech Stimuli Based on Neuronal Response Phase Patterns Depends on Acoustics But Not Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Poeppel, David

    2010-01-01

    Speech stimuli give rise to neural activity in the listener that can be observed as waveforms using magnetoencephalography. Although waveforms vary greatly from trial to trial due to activity unrelated to the stimulus, it has been demonstrated that spoken sentences can be discriminated based on theta-band (3–7 Hz) phase patterns in single-trial response waveforms. Furthermore, manipulations of the speech signal envelope and fine structure that reduced intelligibility were found to produce correlated reductions in discrimination performance, suggesting a relationship between theta-band phase patterns and speech comprehension. This study investigates the nature of this relationship, hypothesizing that theta-band phase patterns primarily reflect cortical processing of low-frequency (<40 Hz) modulations present in the acoustic signal and required for intelligibility, rather than processing exclusively related to comprehension (e.g., lexical, syntactic, semantic). Using stimuli that are quite similar to normal spoken sentences in terms of low-frequency modulation characteristics but are unintelligible (i.e., their time-inverted counterparts), we find that discrimination performance based on theta-band phase patterns is equal for both types of stimuli. Consistent with earlier findings, we also observe that whereas theta-band phase patterns differ across stimuli, power patterns do not. We use a simulation model of the single-trial response to spoken sentence stimuli to demonstrate that phase-locked responses to low-frequency modulations of the acoustic signal can account not only for the phase but also for the power results. The simulation offers insight into the interpretation of the empirical results with respect to phase-resetting and power-enhancement models of the evoked response. PMID:20484530

  16. Acoustical and Intelligibility Test of the Vocera(Copyright) B3000 Communication Badge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archer, Ronald; Litaker, Harry; Chu, Shao-Sheng R.; Simon, Cory; Romero, Andy; Moses, Haifa

    2012-01-01

    To communicate with each other or ground support, crew members on board the International Space Station (ISS) currently use the Audio Terminal Units (ATU), which are located in each ISS module. However, to use the ATU, crew members must stop their current activity, travel to a panel, and speak into a wall-mounted microphone, or use either a handheld microphone or a Crew Communication Headset that is connected to a panel. These actions unnecessarily may increase task times, lower productivity, create cable management issues, and thus increase crew frustration. Therefore, the Habitability and Human Factors and Human Interface Branches at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) are currently investigating a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) wireless communication system, Vocera(C), as a near-term solution for ISS communication. The objectives of the acoustics and intelligibility testing of this system were to answer the following questions: 1. How intelligibly can a human hear the transmitted message from a Vocera(c) badge in three different noise environments (Baseline = 20 dB, US Lab Module = 58 dB, Russian Module = 70.6 dB)? 2. How accurate is the Vocera(C) badge at recognizing voice commands in three different noise environments? 3. What body location (chest, upper arm, or shoulder) is optimal for speech intelligibility and voice recognition accuracy of the Vocera(C) badge on a human in three different noise environments?

  17. The Communication Game: Perspectives on the Devevelopment of Speech, Language and Non-Verbal Communication Skills. Pediatric Round Table: 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Abigail Peterson

    The conferencee discussions and papers presented in this volume reflect the opinions and research of 20 authorities in the field of communication development. These authorities offer new perspectives on nonverbal communication, speech reception and production, and the development of language and thought. To provide a better understanding of…

  18. Ocean Basin Impact of Ambient Noise on Marine Mammal Detectability, Distribution, and Acoustic Communication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-06

    Technical Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ocean Basin Impact of Ambient Noise on Marine Mammal Distribution, and Acoustic Communication 3. DATES...ultimate goal of this research is to enhance the understanding of global ocean noise and how variability in sound level impacts marine mammal acoustic...it relates to marine mammal active acoustic space and acoustic communication. This work increases the spatial range and time scale of prior

  19. An acoustic key to eight languages/dialects: Factor analyses of critical-band-filtered speech

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Kazuo; Nakajima, Yoshitaka

    2017-01-01

    The peripheral auditory system functions like a frequency analyser, often modelled as a bank of non-overlapping band-pass filters called critical bands; 20 bands are necessary for simulating frequency resolution of the ear within an ordinary frequency range of speech (up to 7,000 Hz). A far smaller number of filters seemed sufficient, however, to re-synthesise intelligible speech sentences with power fluctuations of the speech signals passing through them; nevertheless, the number and frequency ranges of the frequency bands for efficient speech communication are yet unknown. We derived four common frequency bands—covering approximately 50–540, 540–1,700, 1,700–3,300, and above 3,300 Hz—from factor analyses of spectral fluctuations in eight different spoken languages/dialects. The analyses robustly led to three factors common to all languages investigated—the low & mid-high factor related to the two separate frequency ranges of 50–540 and 1,700–3,300 Hz, the mid-low factor the range of 540–1,700 Hz, and the high factor the range above 3,300 Hz—in these different languages/dialects, suggesting a language universal. PMID:28198405

  20. An acoustic key to eight languages/dialects: Factor analyses of critical-band-filtered speech.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Kazuo; Nakajima, Yoshitaka

    2017-02-15

    The peripheral auditory system functions like a frequency analyser, often modelled as a bank of non-overlapping band-pass filters called critical bands; 20 bands are necessary for simulating frequency resolution of the ear within an ordinary frequency range of speech (up to 7,000 Hz). A far smaller number of filters seemed sufficient, however, to re-synthesise intelligible speech sentences with power fluctuations of the speech signals passing through them; nevertheless, the number and frequency ranges of the frequency bands for efficient speech communication are yet unknown. We derived four common frequency bands-covering approximately 50-540, 540-1,700, 1,700-3,300, and above 3,300 Hz-from factor analyses of spectral fluctuations in eight different spoken languages/dialects. The analyses robustly led to three factors common to all languages investigated-the low &mid-high factor related to the two separate frequency ranges of 50-540 and 1,700-3,300 Hz, the mid-low factor the range of 540-1,700 Hz, and the high factor the range above 3,300 Hz-in these different languages/dialects, suggesting a language universal.

  1. Communication calls of Japanese pipistrelle bats: Examination by acoustic characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osawa, Yoshiki; Kondo, Yoko; Nagato, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Riquimaroux, Hiroshi

    2005-09-01

    We classified communication calls of Japanese pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus abramus) by acoustic characteristics D. The Japanese pipistrelles emitted communication calls that were completely different from FM echolocation calls. Data showed that in general duration of communication calls was longer than that of echolocation calls (e.g., echolocation call, 1 ms; long CF communication call, 50 ms) and that frequency of commu-nication calls were lower than that of echolocation calls (e.g., echolocation call, 80-40 kHz; long CF communication call, about 14 kHz). Typical classified communication calls were as follows: slightly short CF call (20 ms, 14 kHz), short CF call (5 ms, 14 kHz), slightly long CF call (30 ms, 14 kHz), long CF call (50 ms, 14 kHz), slightly long FM call (15 ms, 30-15 kHz), long FM call (20 ms, 25-15 kHz), complicated FM call (10-50 ms, 25-15 kHz), short intermittent CF call (1 ms, 14 kHz) and noise call (20-100 ms, below 60 kHz). Details will be discussed more specifically. [Research supported by a grant to RCAST at Doshisha Univ. from MEXT and by the Innovative Cluster Creation Project promoted by MEXT.

  2. Acoustic diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension: automated speech- recognition-inspired classification algorithm outperforms physicians

    PubMed Central

    Kaddoura, Tarek; Vadlamudi, Karunakar; Kumar, Shine; Bobhate, Prashant; Guo, Long; Jain, Shreepal; Elgendi, Mohamed; Coe, James Y; Kim, Daniel; Taylor, Dylan; Tymchak, Wayne; Schuurmans, Dale; Zemp, Roger J.; Adatia, Ian

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that an automated speech- recognition-inspired classification algorithm could differentiate between the heart sounds in subjects with and without pulmonary hypertension (PH) and outperform physicians. Heart sounds, electrocardiograms, and mean pulmonary artery pressures (mPAp) were recorded simultaneously. Heart sound recordings were digitized to train and test speech-recognition-inspired classification algorithms. We used mel-frequency cepstral coefficients to extract features from the heart sounds. Gaussian-mixture models classified the features as PH (mPAp ≥ 25 mmHg) or normal (mPAp < 25 mmHg). Physicians blinded to patient data listened to the same heart sound recordings and attempted a diagnosis. We studied 164 subjects: 86 with mPAp ≥ 25 mmHg (mPAp 41 ± 12 mmHg) and 78 with mPAp < 25 mmHg (mPAp 17 ± 5 mmHg) (p  < 0.005). The correct diagnostic rate of the automated speech-recognition-inspired algorithm was 74% compared to 56% by physicians (p = 0.005). The false positive rate for the algorithm was 34% versus 50% (p = 0.04) for clinicians. The false negative rate for the algorithm was 23% and 68% (p = 0.0002) for physicians. We developed an automated speech-recognition-inspired classification algorithm for the acoustic diagnosis of PH that outperforms physicians that could be used to screen for PH and encourage earlier specialist referral. PMID:27609672

  3. Acoustic diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension: automated speech- recognition-inspired classification algorithm outperforms physicians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaddoura, Tarek; Vadlamudi, Karunakar; Kumar, Shine; Bobhate, Prashant; Guo, Long; Jain, Shreepal; Elgendi, Mohamed; Coe, James Y.; Kim, Daniel; Taylor, Dylan; Tymchak, Wayne; Schuurmans, Dale; Zemp, Roger J.; Adatia, Ian

    2016-09-01

    We hypothesized that an automated speech- recognition-inspired classification algorithm could differentiate between the heart sounds in subjects with and without pulmonary hypertension (PH) and outperform physicians. Heart sounds, electrocardiograms, and mean pulmonary artery pressures (mPAp) were recorded simultaneously. Heart sound recordings were digitized to train and test speech-recognition-inspired classification algorithms. We used mel-frequency cepstral coefficients to extract features from the heart sounds. Gaussian-mixture models classified the features as PH (mPAp ≥ 25 mmHg) or normal (mPAp < 25 mmHg). Physicians blinded to patient data listened to the same heart sound recordings and attempted a diagnosis. We studied 164 subjects: 86 with mPAp ≥ 25 mmHg (mPAp 41 ± 12 mmHg) and 78 with mPAp < 25 mmHg (mPAp 17 ± 5 mmHg) (p  < 0.005). The correct diagnostic rate of the automated speech-recognition-inspired algorithm was 74% compared to 56% by physicians (p = 0.005). The false positive rate for the algorithm was 34% versus 50% (p = 0.04) for clinicians. The false negative rate for the algorithm was 23% and 68% (p = 0.0002) for physicians. We developed an automated speech-recognition-inspired classification algorithm for the acoustic diagnosis of PH that outperforms physicians that could be used to screen for PH and encourage earlier specialist referral.

  4. Transient Auditory Storage of Acoustic Details Is Associated with Release of Speech from Informational Masking in Reverberant Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Ying; Huang, Qiang; Chen, Xun; Wu, Xihong; Li, Liang

    2009-01-01

    Perceptual integration of the sound directly emanating from the source with reflections needs both temporal storage and correlation computation of acoustic details. We examined whether the temporal storage is frequency dependent and associated with speech unmasking. In Experiment 1, a break in correlation (BIC) between interaurally correlated…

  5. Effect of Digital Frequency Compression (DFC) on Speech Recognition in Candidates for Combined Electric and Acoustic Stimulation (EAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gifford, Rene H.; Dorman, Michael F.; Spahr, Anthony J.; McKarns, Sharon A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the effects of conventional amplification (CA) and digital frequency compression (DFC) amplification on the speech recognition abilities of candidates for a partial-insertion cochlear implant, that is, candidates for combined electric and acoustic stimulation (EAS). Method: The participants were 6 patients whose audiometric…

  6. Exposure to seismic survey alters blue whale acoustic communication.

    PubMed

    Di Iorio, Lucia; Clark, Christopher W

    2010-02-23

    The ability to perceive biologically important sounds is critical to marine mammals, and acoustic disturbance through human-generated noise can interfere with their natural functions. Sounds from seismic surveys are intense and have peak frequency bands overlapping those used by baleen whales, but evidence of interference with baleen whale acoustic communication is sparse. Here we investigated whether blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) changed their vocal behaviour during a seismic survey that deployed a low-medium power technology (sparker). We found that blue whales called consistently more on seismic exploration days than on non-exploration days as well as during periods within a seismic survey day when the sparker was operating. This increase was observed for the discrete, audible calls that are emitted during social encounters and feeding. This response presumably represents a compensatory behaviour to the elevated ambient noise from seismic survey operations.

  7. Impact of source depth on coherent underwater acoustic communications.

    PubMed

    Song, Aijun; Badiey, Mohsen; Song, H C; Hodgkiss, W S

    2010-08-01

    A recent paper [Song et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 123, 856-865 (2008)] investigated ocean variability impact on coherent underwater acoustic communications (8-16 kHz) for a single near-seafloor transmitter in shallow water during an extended period (27 h). This letter extends that investigation to various source depths and receiver subarrays. Specifically, the middle water column source, which is either in or out of the thermocline, experiences performance variability of 6-7 dB in terms of output signal-to-noise ratio. Further, the source below the thermocline consistently outperforms the source above the thermocline when the receiver subarray is located below the thermocline.

  8. Comments on "Effects of Noise on Speech Production: Acoustic and Perceptual Analyses" [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 84, 917-928 (1988)].

    PubMed

    Fitch, H

    1989-11-01

    The effect of background noise on speech production is an important issue, both from the practical standpoint of developing speech recognition algorithms and from the theoretical standpoint of understanding how speech is tuned to the environment in which it is spoken. Summers et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 84, 917-928 (1988]) address this issue by experimentally manipulating the level of noise delivered through headphones to two talkers and making several kinds of acoustic measurements on the resulting speech. They indicate that they have replicated effects on amplitude, duration, and pitch and have found effects on spectral tilt and first-formant frequency (F1). The authors regard these acoustic changes as effects in themselves rather than as consequences of a change in vocal effort, and thus treat equally the change in spectral tilt and the change in F1. In fact, the change in spectral tilt is a well-documented and understood consequence of the change in the glottal waveform, which is known to occur with increased effort. The situation with F1 is less clear and is made difficult by measurement problems. The bias in linear predictive coding (LPC) techniques related to two of the other changes-fundamental frequency and spectral tilt-is discussed.

  9. Children with Speech, Language and Communication Needs: Their Perceptions of Their Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markham, Chris; van Laar, Darren; Gibbard, Deborah; Dean, Taraneh

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study is part of a programme of research aiming to develop a quantitative measure of quality of life for children with communication needs. It builds on the preliminary findings of Markham and Dean (2006), which described some of the perception's parents and carers of children with speech language and communication needs had…

  10. Performance on a Test of Categorical Perception of Speech in Normal and Communication Disordered Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibodeau, Linda M.; Sussman, Harvey M.

    1979-01-01

    Assesses the relationship between production deficits and speech perception abilities. A categorical perception paradigm was administered to a group of communication disordered children and to a matched control group. Group results are tentatively interpreted as showing a moderate perceptual deficit in the communication disordered children of this…

  11. Design of an Iconic Communication Aid for Individuals in India with Speech and Motion Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharya, Samit; Basu, Anupam

    2009-01-01

    India is home to a large number of individuals with significant speech and motion impairments. Many of these individuals are children and neo-literates who have little proficiency in their language of communication. In order to cater to such individuals in India, we have developed Sanyog, an icon-based communication aid. Sanyog accepts a sequence…

  12. Repetition and Emotive Communication in Music Versus Speech

    PubMed Central

    Margulis, Elizabeth Hellmuth

    2013-01-01

    Music and speech are often placed alongside one another as comparative cases. Their relative overlaps and disassociations have been well explored (e.g., Patel, 2008). But one key attribute distinguishing these two domains has often been overlooked: the greater preponderance of repetition in music in comparison to speech. Recent fMRI studies have shown that familiarity – achieved through repetition – is a critical component of emotional engagement with music (Pereira et al., 2011). If repetition is fundamental to emotional responses to music, and repetition is a key distinguisher between the domains of music and speech, then close examination of the phenomenon of repetition might help clarify the ways that music elicits emotion differently than speech. PMID:23576998

  13. The sound of motion in spoken language: visual information conveyed by acoustic properties of speech.

    PubMed

    Shintel, Hadas; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2007-12-01

    Language is generally viewed as conveying information through symbols whose form is arbitrarily related to their meaning. This arbitrary relation is often assumed to also characterize the mental representations underlying language comprehension. We explore the idea that visuo-spatial information can be analogically conveyed through acoustic properties of speech and that such information is integrated into an analog perceptual representation as a natural part of comprehension. Listeners heard sentences describing objects, spoken at varying speaking rates. After each sentence, participants saw a picture of an object and judged whether it had been mentioned in the sentence. Participants were faster to recognize the object when motion implied by speaking rate matched the motion implied by the picture. Results suggest that visuo-spatial referential information can be analogically conveyed and represented.

  14. Recognition of Emotions in Mexican Spanish Speech: An Approach Based on Acoustic Modelling of Emotion-Specific Vowels

    PubMed Central

    Caballero-Morales, Santiago-Omar

    2013-01-01

    An approach for the recognition of emotions in speech is presented. The target language is Mexican Spanish, and for this purpose a speech database was created. The approach consists in the phoneme acoustic modelling of emotion-specific vowels. For this, a standard phoneme-based Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) system was built with Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), where different phoneme HMMs were built for the consonants and emotion-specific vowels associated with four emotional states (anger, happiness, neutral, sadness). Then, estimation of the emotional state from a spoken sentence is performed by counting the number of emotion-specific vowels found in the ASR's output for the sentence. With this approach, accuracy of 87–100% was achieved for the recognition of emotional state of Mexican Spanish speech. PMID:23935410

  15. Recognition of emotions in Mexican Spanish speech: an approach based on acoustic modelling of emotion-specific vowels.

    PubMed

    Caballero-Morales, Santiago-Omar

    2013-01-01

    An approach for the recognition of emotions in speech is presented. The target language is Mexican Spanish, and for this purpose a speech database was created. The approach consists in the phoneme acoustic modelling of emotion-specific vowels. For this, a standard phoneme-based Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) system was built with Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), where different phoneme HMMs were built for the consonants and emotion-specific vowels associated with four emotional states (anger, happiness, neutral, sadness). Then, estimation of the emotional state from a spoken sentence is performed by counting the number of emotion-specific vowels found in the ASR's output for the sentence. With this approach, accuracy of 87-100% was achieved for the recognition of emotional state of Mexican Spanish speech.

  16. Statistical evidence that musical universals derive from the acoustic characteristics of human speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, David; Howe, Catharine; Purves, Dale

    2003-04-01

    Listeners of all ages and societies produce a similar consonance ordering of chromatic scale tone combinations. Despite intense interest in this perceptual phenomenon over several millennia, it has no generally accepted explanation in physical, psychological, or physiological terms. Here we show that the musical universal of consonance ordering can be understood in terms of the statistical relationship between a pattern of sound pressure at the ear and the possible generative sources of the acoustic energy pattern. Since human speech is the principal naturally occurring source of tone-evoking (i.e., periodic) sound energy for human listeners, we obtained normalized spectra from more than 100000 recorded speech segments. The probability distribution of amplitude/frequency combinations derived from these spectra predicts both the fundamental frequency ratios that define the chromatic scale intervals and the consonance ordering of chromatic scale tone combinations. We suggest that these observations reveal the statistical character of the perceptual process by which the auditory system guides biologically successful behavior in response to inherently ambiguous sound stimuli.

  17. Correlation of orofacial speeds with voice acoustic measures in the fluent speech of persons who stutter.

    PubMed

    McClean, Michael D; Tasko, Stephen M

    2004-12-01

    Stuttering is often viewed as a problem in coordinating the movements of different muscle systems involved in speech production. From this perspective, it is logical that efforts be made to quantify and compare the strength of neural coupling between muscle systems in persons who stutter (PS) and those who do not stutter (NS). This problem was addressed by correlating the speeds of different orofacial structures with vowel fundamental frequency (F0) and intensity as subjects produced fluent repetitions of a simple nonsense phrase at habitual, high, and low intensity levels. It is assumed that resulting correlations indirectly reflect the strength of neural coupling between particular orofacial structures and the respiratory-laryngeal system. An electromagnetic system was employed to record movements of the upper lip, lower lip, tongue, and jaw in 43 NS and 39 PS. The acoustic speech signal was recorded and used to obtain measures of vowel F0 and intensity. For each subject, correlation measures were obtained relating peak orofacial speeds to F0 and intensity. Correlations were significantly reduced in PS compared to NS for the lower lip and tongue, although the magnitude of these group differences covaried with the correlation levels relating F0 and intensity. It is suggested that the group difference in correlation pattern reflects a reduced strength of neural coupling of the lower lip and tongue systems to the respiratory-laryngeal system in PS. Consideration is given to how this may contribute to temporal discoordination and stuttering.

  18. Objective assessment of tracheoesophageal and esophageal speech using acoustic analysis of voice.

    PubMed

    Sirić, Ljiljana; Sos, Dario; Rosso, Marinela; Stevanović, Sinisa

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the voice quality of alaryngeal tracheoesophageal and esophageal speech, and to determine which of them is more similar to laryngeal voice production, and thus more acceptable as a rehabilitation method of laryngectomized persons. Objective voice evaluation was performed on a sample of 20 totally laryngectomized subjects of both sexes, average age 61.3 years. Subjects were divided into two groups: 10 (50%) respondents with built tracheoesophageal prosthesis and 10 (50%) who acquired esophageal speech. Testing included 6 variables: 5 parameters of acoustic analysis of voice and one parameter of aerodynamic measurements. The obtained data was statistically analyzed by analysis of variance. Analysis of the data showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups in the terms of intensity, fundamental frequency and maximum phonation time of vowel at a significance level of 5% and confidence interval of 95%. A statistically significant difference was not found between the values of jitter, shimmer, and harmonic-to-noise ratio between tracheoesophageal and esophageal voice. There is no ideal method of rehabilitation and every one of them requires an individual approach to the patient, but the results shows the advantages of rehabilitation by means of installing voice prosthesis.

  19. Creating communicatively accessible healthcare environments: perceptions of speech-language pathologists.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Robyn; Lee, Yan Shan; Rose, Miranda; Liamputtong, Pranee

    2014-12-01

    There is a growing body of research that indicates that a person with a communication disability communicates and participates more effectively given a communicatively accessible environment. If this research is to be translated into practice then one needs to determine who will take on the role of creating communicatively accessible environments. This research adopted a qualitative methodology to explore the perceptions of speech-language pathologists about working to create communicatively accessible healthcare settings. Fifteen speech-language pathologists in three focus groups participated in this research. The focus group discussions were transcribed and analysed thematically. Thematic analysis indicated that speech-language pathologists believe there are four main benefits in creating communicatively accessible healthcare environments. These are Benefits for all people: Access for all, Benefits for healthcare administrators, Benefits for those wanting to improve communication with patients, and Benefits to the capacity to provide communicatively accessible environments. However, they believe these benefits can only be achieved if; The communication resources are available, Skilled, knowledgeable and supportive healthcare providers are available; and Systems are in place to support a whole-of-hospital approach. This research supports the development of a new role to improve the communicative accessibility of healthcare settings.

  20. Performance of a low data rate speech codec for land-mobile satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gersho, Allen; Jedrey, Thomas C.

    1990-01-01

    In an effort to foster the development of new technologies for the emerging land mobile satellite communications services, JPL funded two development contracts in 1984: one to the Univ. of Calif., Santa Barbara and the other to the Georgia Inst. of Technology, to develop algorithms and real time hardware for near toll quality speech compression at 4800 bits per second. Both universities have developed and delivered speech codecs to JPL, and the UCSB codec was extensively tested by JPL in a variety of experimental setups. The basic UCSB speech codec algorithms and the test results of the various experiments performed with this codec are presented.

  1. Elicitation of the Acoustic Change Complex to Long-Duration Speech Stimuli in Four-Month-Old Infants

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ke Heng; Small, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    The acoustic change complex (ACC) is an auditory-evoked potential elicited to changes within an ongoing stimulus that indicates discrimination at the level of the auditory cortex. Only a few studies to date have attempted to record ACCs in young infants. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the elicitation of ACCs to long-duration speech stimuli in English-learning 4-month-old infants. ACCs were elicited to consonant contrasts made up of two concatenated speech tokens. The stimuli included native dental-dental /dada/ and dental-labial /daba/ contrasts and a nonnative Hindi dental-retroflex /daDa/ contrast. Each consonant-vowel speech token was 410 ms in duration. Slow cortical responses were recorded to the onset of the stimulus and to the acoustic change from /da/ to either /ba/ or /Da/ within the stimulus with significantly prolonged latencies compared with adults. ACCs were reliably elicited for all stimulus conditions with more robust morphology compared with our previous findings using stimuli that were shorter in duration. The P1 amplitudes elicited to the acoustic change in /daba/ and /daDa/ were significantly larger compared to /dada/ supporting that the brain discriminated between the speech tokens. These findings provide further evidence for the use of ACCs as an index of discrimination ability. PMID:26798343

  2. Elicitation of the Acoustic Change Complex to Long-Duration Speech Stimuli in Four-Month-Old Infants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke Heng; Small, Susan A

    2015-01-01

    The acoustic change complex (ACC) is an auditory-evoked potential elicited to changes within an ongoing stimulus that indicates discrimination at the level of the auditory cortex. Only a few studies to date have attempted to record ACCs in young infants. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the elicitation of ACCs to long-duration speech stimuli in English-learning 4-month-old infants. ACCs were elicited to consonant contrasts made up of two concatenated speech tokens. The stimuli included native dental-dental /dada/ and dental-labial /daba/ contrasts and a nonnative Hindi dental-retroflex /daDa/ contrast. Each consonant-vowel speech token was 410 ms in duration. Slow cortical responses were recorded to the onset of the stimulus and to the acoustic change from /da/ to either /ba/ or /Da/ within the stimulus with significantly prolonged latencies compared with adults. ACCs were reliably elicited for all stimulus conditions with more robust morphology compared with our previous findings using stimuli that were shorter in duration. The P1 amplitudes elicited to the acoustic change in /daba/ and /daDa/ were significantly larger compared to /dada/ supporting that the brain discriminated between the speech tokens. These findings provide further evidence for the use of ACCs as an index of discrimination ability.

  3. Impact of thermocline and seabed variability on underwater acoustic communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siderius, Martin; Porter, Michael; Jensen, Finn

    2004-05-01

    Shallow water acoustic communications experiments were conducted near Kauai in July 2003 and near Capraia and Elba Islands in October 2003. All experiments took place in approximately 100-m water depth but the oceanography and seabed types differed significantly. The Kauai site had a reflective seabed that was combined with highly variable oceanographic conditions that led to performance closely tied to source/receiver geometry. The Capraia site also has a reflective seabed but the winter conditions produced a more mixed water column with a weaker and less variable thermocline than Kauai. The Elba site had nearly the same oceanographic conditions as Capraia but the seabed is a highly lossy. In each of these experiments, signals were transmitted over many hours from fixed and moving platforms and were received at multiple ranges and depths using vertical arrays and single hydrophones. Extensive environmental measurements were made simultaneous to the acoustic transmissions (e.g., measurements of the water column temperature structure and surface wave heights). In this paper, the correlation between environmental factors and communications performance will be presented along with the predictions from modeling. The performance of both multi-frequency shift keying (MFSK) and direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) signals will be discussed.

  4. Speaker height estimation from speech: Fusing spectral regression and statistical acoustic models.

    PubMed

    Hansen, John H L; Williams, Keri; Bořil, Hynek

    2015-08-01

    Estimating speaker height can assist in voice forensic analysis and provide additional side knowledge to benefit automatic speaker identification or acoustic model selection for automatic speech recognition. In this study, a statistical approach to height estimation that incorporates acoustic models within a non-uniform height bin width Gaussian mixture model structure as well as a formant analysis approach that employs linear regression on selected phones are presented. The accuracy and trade-offs of these systems are explored by examining the consistency of the results, location, and causes of error as well a combined fusion of the two systems using data from the TIMIT corpus. Open set testing is also presented using the Multi-session Audio Research Project corpus and publicly available YouTube audio to examine the effect of channel mismatch between training and testing data and provide a realistic open domain testing scenario. The proposed algorithms achieve a highly competitive performance to previously published literature. Although the different data partitioning in the literature and this study may prevent performance comparisons in absolute terms, the mean average error of 4.89 cm for males and 4.55 cm for females provided by the proposed algorithm on TIMIT utterances containing selected phones suggest a considerable estimation error decrease compared to past efforts.

  5. Speech timing and linguistic rhythm: on the acoustic bases of rhythm typologies.

    PubMed

    Rathcke, Tamara V; Smith, Rachel H

    2015-05-01

    Research into linguistic rhythm has been dominated by the idea that languages can be classified according to rhythmic templates, amenable to assessment by acoustic measures of vowel and consonant durations. This study tested predictions of two proposals explaining the bases of rhythmic typologies: the Rhythm Class Hypothesis which assumes that the templates arise from an extensive vs a limited use of durational contrasts, and the Control and Compensation Hypothesis which proposes that the templates are rooted in more vs less flexible speech production strategies. Temporal properties of segments, syllables and rhythmic feet were examined in two accents of British English, a "stress-timed" variety from Leeds, and a "syllable-timed" variety spoken by Panjabi-English bilinguals from Bradford. Rhythm metrics were calculated. A perception study confirmed that the speakers of the two varieties differed in their perceived rhythm. The results revealed that both typologies were informative in that to a certain degree, they predicted temporal patterns of the two varieties. None of the metrics tested was capable of adequately reflecting the temporal complexity found in the durational data. These findings contribute to the critical evaluation of the explanatory adequacy of rhythm metrics. Acoustic bases and limitations of the traditional rhythmic typologies are discussed.

  6. Can acoustic vowel space predict the habitual speech rate of the speaker?

    PubMed

    Tsao, Y-C; Iqbal, K

    2005-01-01

    This study aims to find whether the acoustic vowel space reflect the habitual speaking rate of the speaker. The vowel space is defined as the area of the quadrilateral formed by the four corner vowels (i.e.,/i/,/æ/,/u/,/α) in the F1F2- 2 plane. The study compares the acoustic vowel space in the speech of habitually slow and fast talkers and further analyzes them by gender. In addition to the measurement of vowel duration and midpoint frequencies of F1 and F2, the F1/F2 vowel space areas were measured and compared across speakers. The results indicate substantial overlap in vowel space area functions between slow and fast talkers, though the slow speakers were found to have larger vowel spaces. Furthermore, large variability in vowel space area functions was noted among interspeakers in each group. Both F1 and F2 formant frequencies were found to be gender sensitive in consistence with the existing data. No predictive relation between vowel duration and formant frequencies was observed among speakers.

  7. Intelligibility of normal speech I: Global and fine-grained acoustic-phonetic talker characteristics1,2

    PubMed Central

    Bradlow, Ann R.; Torretta, Gina M.; Pisoni, David B.

    2011-01-01

    This study used a multi-talker database containing intelligibility scores for 2000 sentences (20 talkers, 100 sentences), to identify talker-related correlates of speech intelligibility. We first investigated “global” talker characteristics (e.g., gender, F0 and speaking rate). Findings showed female talkers to be more intelligible as a group than male talkers. Additionally, we found a tendency for F0 range to correlate positively with higher speech intelligibility scores. However, F0 mean and speaking rate did not correlate with intelligibility. We then examined several fine-grained acoustic-phonetic talker-characteristics as correlates of overall intelligibility. We found that talkers with larger vowel spaces were generally more intelligible than talkers with reduced spaces. In investigating two cases of consistent listener errors (segment deletion and syllable affiliation), we found that these perceptual errors could be traced directly to detailed timing characteristics in the speech signal. Results suggest that a substantial portion of variability in normal speech intelligibility is traceable to specific acoustic-phonetic characteristics of the talker. Knowledge about these factors may be valuable for improving speech synthesis and recognition strategies, and for special populations (e.g., the hearing-impaired and second-language learners) who are particularly sensitive to intelligibility differences among talkers. PMID:21461127

  8. A Robust Approach For Acoustic Noise Suppression In Speech Using ANFIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinek, Radek; Kelnar, Michal; Vanus, Jan; Bilik, Petr; Zidek, Jan

    2015-11-01

    The authors of this article deals with the implementation of a combination of techniques of the fuzzy system and artificial intelligence in the application area of non-linear noise and interference suppression. This structure used is called an Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). This system finds practical use mainly in audio telephone (mobile) communication in a noisy environment (transport, production halls, sports matches, etc). Experimental methods based on the two-input adaptive noise cancellation concept was clearly outlined. Within the experiments carried out, the authors created, based on the ANFIS structure, a comprehensive system for adaptive suppression of unwanted background interference that occurs in audio communication and degrades the audio signal. The system designed has been tested on real voice signals. This article presents the investigation and comparison amongst three distinct approaches to noise cancellation in speech; they are LMS (least mean squares) and RLS (recursive least squares) adaptive filtering and ANFIS. A careful review of literatures indicated the importance of non-linear adaptive algorithms over linear ones in noise cancellation. It was concluded that the ANFIS approach had the overall best performance as it efficiently cancelled noise even in highly noise-degraded speech. Results were drawn from the successful experimentation, subjective-based tests were used to analyse their comparative performance while objective tests were used to validate them. Implementation of algorithms was experimentally carried out in Matlab to justify the claims and determine their relative performances.

  9. Pauses and Communication Strategies in Second Language Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cenoz, Jasone

    A study of silent and filled pauses in second language speech analyzes (1) which types of pause are produced, (2) which are the functions of non-juncture pauses, (3) whether pauses co-occur with other hesitation phenomena, and (4) whether the occurrence of pauses is associated with second language proficiency. Subjects were 15 intermediate and…

  10. Implementing the Speech Showcase To Encourage and Display Diversity in a Speech Communication Department.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Danford A.

    A "Speech Showcase," such as the one instituted over the past 5 years at Del Mar College (Texas), gives students enrolled in basic public speaking courses the opportunity to perform before a large audience and thereby gain experience and recognition. The faculty facilitator sets up the event logistically and advertises the event. Student…

  11. Suprasegmental characteristics of speech produced during simultaneous communication by inexperienced signers.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Robert L; Metz, Dale E; Girardi, Erin; Irwin, Jacqueline; Krigsman, Amanda; Swanson, Christina; MacKenzie, Douglas; Schiavetti, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated suprasegmental variables of syllable stress and intonation contours in contextual speech produced during simultaneous communication (SC) by inexperienced signers. Ten hearing inexperienced sign language users were recorded under SC and speech-alone (SA) conditions speaking a set of sentences containing stressed versus unstressed versions of the same syllables and a set of sentences containing interrogative versus declarative versions of the same words. Results indicated longer sentence durations for SC than SA for all speech materials. Vowel duration and fundamental frequency differences between stressed and unstressed syllables as well as intonation contour differences between declarative and interrogative sentences were essentially the same in both SC and SA conditions. The conclusion that prosodic rules were not violated by inexperienced signers in SC is consistent with previous research indicating that temporal alterations produced during SC do not involve degradation of other temporal or spectral characteristics of English speech.

  12. Acoustics and sociolinguistics: Patterns of communication in hearing impairing classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKellin, William; Shahin, Kimary; Jamieson, Janet; Hodgson, Murray; Pichora-Fuller, Kathleen

    2005-04-01

    In elementary school classes, noise during student led activities is often taken as evidence of successful interaction and learning. In this complex social environment of elementary school classrooms, acquisition of complex language and social skills-the focus of activities in early education-is expected to take place in hearing-hostile environments. Communication and language processing in these contexts requires interactive strategies, discourse forms, and syntactic structures different from the educationally desired forms used in acoustically advantageous environments. Recordings were made of the interaction of groups of students in grades 1-3, 5, and 7 during collaborative group work in their regular classrooms. Each student wore microphones at the ear level and head-mounted video cameras. Each group as a whole was also audio- and videotaped and noise level readings were recorded. Analysis of the acoustical and phonological properties of language heard by each student has demonstrated that the language variety used in these noisy and reverberant settings is similar to that of individuals with hearing impairments. This paper reports similarities between the syntactic structures and pragmatic strategies used by hearing impaired children and normally hearing children in noisy contexts. [Work supported by Peter Wall Institute for Advanced Studies, University of British Columbia.

  13. Evidence for acoustic communication among bottom foraging humpback whales.

    PubMed

    Parks, Susan E; Cusano, Dana A; Stimpert, Alison K; Weinrich, Mason T; Friedlaender, Ari S; Wiley, David N

    2014-12-16

    Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), a mysticete with a cosmopolitan distribution, demonstrate marked behavioural plasticity. Recent studies show evidence of social learning in the transmission of specific population level traits ranging from complex singing to stereotyped prey capturing behaviour. Humpback whales have been observed to employ group foraging techniques, however details on how individuals coordinate behaviour in these groups is challenging to obtain. This study investigates the role of a novel broadband patterned pulsed sound produced by humpback whales engaged in bottom-feeding behaviours, referred to here as a 'paired burst' sound. Data collected from 56 archival acoustic tag deployments were investigated to determine the functional significance of these signals. Paired burst sound production was associated exclusively with bottom feeding under low-light conditions, predominantly with evidence of associated conspecifics nearby suggesting that the sound likely serves either as a communicative signal to conspecifics, a signal to affect prey behaviour, or possibly both. This study provides additional evidence for individual variation and phenotypic plasticity of foraging behaviours in humpback whales and provides important evidence for the use of acoustic signals among foraging individuals in this species.

  14. Production and perception of clear speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradlow, Ann R.

    2003-04-01

    When a talker believes that the listener is likely to have speech perception difficulties due to a hearing loss, background noise, or a different native language, she or he will typically adopt a clear speaking style. Previous research has established that, with a simple set of instructions to the talker, ``clear speech'' can be produced by most talkers under laboratory recording conditions. Furthermore, there is reliable evidence that adult listeners with either impaired or normal hearing typically find clear speech more intelligible than conversational speech. Since clear speech production involves listener-oriented articulatory adjustments, a careful examination of the acoustic-phonetic and perceptual consequences of the conversational-to-clear speech transformation can serve as an effective window into talker- and listener-related forces in speech communication. Furthermore, clear speech research has considerable potential for the development of speech enhancement techniques. After reviewing previous and current work on the acoustic properties of clear versus conversational speech, this talk will present recent data from a cross-linguistic study of vowel production in clear speech and a cross-population study of clear speech perception. Findings from these studies contribute to an evolving view of clear speech production and perception as reflecting both universal, auditory and language-specific, phonological contrast enhancement features.

  15. Acoustic Source Characteristics, Across-Formant Integration, and Speech Intelligibility Under Competitive Conditions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    An important aspect of speech perception is the ability to group or select formants using cues in the acoustic source characteristics—for example, fundamental frequency (F0) differences between formants promote their segregation. This study explored the role of more radical differences in source characteristics. Three-formant (F1+F2+F3) synthetic speech analogues were derived from natural sentences. In Experiment 1, F1+F3 were generated by passing a harmonic glottal source (F0 = 140 Hz) through second-order resonators (H1+H3); in Experiment 2, F1+F3 were tonal (sine-wave) analogues (T1+T3). F2 could take either form (H2 or T2). In some conditions, the target formants were presented alone, either monaurally or dichotically (left ear = F1+F3; right ear = F2). In others, they were accompanied by a competitor for F2 (F1+F2C+F3; F2), which listeners must reject to optimize recognition. Competitors (H2C or T2C) were created using the time-reversed frequency and amplitude contours of F2. Dichotic presentation of F2 and F2C ensured that the impact of the competitor arose primarily through informational masking. In the absence of F2C, the effect of a source mismatch between F1+F3 and F2 was relatively modest. When F2C was present, intelligibility was lowest when F2 was tonal and F2C was harmonic, irrespective of which type matched F1+F3. This finding suggests that source type and context, rather than similarity, govern the phonetic contribution of a formant. It is proposed that wideband harmonic analogues are more effective informational maskers than narrowband tonal analogues, and so become dominant in across-frequency integration of phonetic information when placed in competition. PMID:25751040

  16. Differential Effects of Visual-Acoustic Biofeedback Intervention for Residual Speech Errors

    PubMed Central

    McAllister Byun, Tara; Campbell, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the incorporation of visual biofeedback technologies may enhance response to treatment in individuals with residual speech errors. However, there is a need for controlled research systematically comparing biofeedback versus non-biofeedback intervention approaches. This study implemented a single-subject experimental design with a crossover component to investigate the relative efficacy of visual-acoustic biofeedback and traditional articulatory treatment for residual rhotic errors. Eleven child/adolescent participants received ten sessions of visual-acoustic biofeedback and 10 sessions of traditional treatment, with the order of biofeedback and traditional phases counterbalanced across participants. Probe measures eliciting untreated rhotic words were administered in at least three sessions prior to the start of treatment (baseline), between the two treatment phases (midpoint), and after treatment ended (maintenance), as well as before and after each treatment session. Perceptual accuracy of rhotic production was assessed by outside listeners in a blinded, randomized fashion. Results were analyzed using a combination of visual inspection of treatment trajectories, individual effect sizes, and logistic mixed-effects regression. Effect sizes and visual inspection revealed that participants could be divided into categories of strong responders (n = 4), mixed/moderate responders (n = 3), and non-responders (n = 4). Individual results did not reveal a reliable pattern of stronger performance in biofeedback versus traditional blocks, or vice versa. Moreover, biofeedback versus traditional treatment was not a significant predictor of accuracy in the logistic mixed-effects model examining all within-treatment word probes. However, the interaction between treatment condition and treatment order was significant: biofeedback was more effective than traditional treatment in the first phase of treatment, and traditional treatment was more effective

  17. Psychoacoustic Assessment of Speech Communication Systems. The Diagnostic Discrimination Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grether, Craig Blaine

    The present report traces the rationale, development and experimental evaluation of the Diagnostic Discrimination Test (DDT). The DDT is a three-choice test of consonant discriminability of the perceptual/acoustic dimensions of consonant phonemes within specific vowel contexts. The DDT was created and developed in an attempt to provide a…

  18. Are Our Basic Speech Communication Courses Targeting Today's Diverse Student Audience? Teacher Perceptions of Course Rigidity and Its Effect on Student Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandeville, Mary Y.

    As student diversity grows, it is important to make the basic speech communication course relevant for the students enrolled. Textbooks for the basic speech communication course provide the basic information on the subject; the responsibility for teaching the basic course in speech communication is often assigned to graduate teaching assistants.…

  19. Altered Gesture and Speech Production in ASD Detract from In-Person Communicative Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morett, Laura M.; O'Hearn, Kirsten; Luna, Beatriz; Ghuman, Avniel Singh

    2016-01-01

    This study disentangled the influences of language and social processing on communication in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by examining whether gesture and speech production differs as a function of social context. The results indicate that, unlike other adolescents, adolescents with ASD did not increase their coherency and engagement in the…

  20. Speech Intelligibility and Marital Communication in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joubert, Karin; Bornman, Juan; Alant, Erna

    2011-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a rapidly progressive neuromuscular disease, has a devastating impact not only on individuals diagnosed with ALS but also their spouses. Speech intelligibility, often compromised as a result of dysarthria, affects the couple's ability to maintain effective, intimate communication. The purpose of this…

  1. Communicating Epistemic Stance: How Speech and Gesture Patterns Reflect Epistemicity and Evidentiality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseano, Paolo; González, Montserrat; Borràs-Comes, Joan; Prieto, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how epistemic stance is encoded and perceived in face-to-face communication when language is regarded as comprised by speech and gesture. Two studies were conducted with this goal in mind. The first study consisted of a production task in which participants performed opinion reports. Results showed that speakers communicate…

  2. Report on a Pilot Project Which Combined Speech Communication and English Composition Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friday, Robert A.; Beranek, Bernard F.

    In reorganizing its core curriculum, Duquesne University (Pennsylvania) created a course that combined the required freshman composition and speech communication courses. A two-term pilot course offered eight hours of credit, meeting for one hour three times a week and for a two hour lab once a week. Oral readings were assigned in order to help…

  3. Selected Print and Nonprint Resources in Speech Communication: An Annotated Bibliography, K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feezel, Jerry D., Comp.; And Others

    This annotated guide to resources in speech communication will be valuable for K-12 teachers seeking resources for both required and elective units. Entries are organized by grade level within the various content areas and are grouped under the following section headings: print, nonprint, multimedia, and major sources. Within each of these four…

  4. Meeting the Needs of Children and Young People with Speech, Language and Communication Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Geoff; Dockrell, Julie; Desforges, Martin; Law, James; Peacey, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Background: The UK government set up a review of provision for children and young people with the full range of speech, language and communication needs led by a Member of Parliament, John Bercow. A research study was commissioned to provide empirical evidence to inform the Bercow Review. Aims: To examine the efficiency and effectiveness of…

  5. Preschool Children's Performance on Profiling Elements of Prosody in Speech-Communication (PEPS-C)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbon, Fiona E.; Smyth, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Profiling Elements of Prosody in Speech-Communication (PEPS-C) has not been used widely to assess prosodic abilities of preschool children. This study was therefore aimed at investigating typically developing 4-year-olds' performance on PEPS-C. PEPS-C was presented to 30 typically developing 4-year-olds recruited in southern Ireland. Children were…

  6. A Special Section of the Basic Speech Communication Course for Students with Public Speaking Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandeville, Mary Y.

    Oklahoma State University offered a special section of the basic speech communication course for students with public speaking anxiety. Students enrolled by permission of the instructor, and enrollment was limited to 30 students. The class rapidly filled to its 30-student limit, and a waiting list was maintained. The basic course is hybrid in…

  7. Study on Gender-Related Speech Communication in Classical Chinese Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tian, Xinhe; Qin, Dandan

    2016-01-01

    Gender, formed in men and women's growth which is constrained by social context, is tightly tied to the distinction which is presented in the process of men and women's language use. Hence, it's a new breakthrough for studies on gender and difference by analyzing gender-related speech communication on the background of ancient Chinese culture.

  8. Interpersonal Communication Competencies and Peer Tutor-Evaluators in the Speech Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliffe, Sharon A.

    Focusing on the interpersonal communication course offered at Golden West College in California, this paper describes the competency-based approach of the course, the involvement of peer tutor/evaluators, and the use of the speech laboratory, where students demonstrate six specific skill competencies an average of two times during the course. The…

  9. Practical Considerations When Supporting Transitions for Pupils with Speech, Language and Communication Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perfitt, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the impact of transitions upon pupils aged 11-14 with speech, language and communication needs, including specific language impairment and autism. The aim is to identify stress factors, examine whether these affect any subgroups in particular and suggest practical strategies to support pupils through transitions. Stress…

  10. Low complexity adaptive equalizers for underwater acoustic communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soflaei, Masoumeh; Azmi, Paeiz

    2014-08-01

    Interference signals due to scattering from surface and reflecting from bottom is one of the most important problems of reliable communications in shallow water channels. To solve this problem, one of the best suggested ways is to use adaptive equalizers. Convergence rate and misadjustment error in adaptive algorithms play important roles in adaptive equalizer performance. In this paper, affine projection algorithm (APA), selective regressor APA(SR-APA), family of selective partial update (SPU) algorithms, family of set-membership (SM) algorithms and selective partial update selective regressor APA (SPU-SR-APA) are compared with conventional algorithms such as the least mean square (LMS) in underwater acoustic communications. We apply experimental data from the Strait of Hormuz for demonstrating the efficiency of the proposed methods over shallow water channel. We observe that the values of the steady-state mean square error (MSE) of SR-APA, SPU-APA, SPU-normalized least mean square (SPU-NLMS), SPU-SR-APA, SM-APA and SM-NLMS algorithms decrease in comparison with the LMS algorithm. Also these algorithms have better convergence rates than LMS type algorithm.

  11. Adopting public health approaches to communication disability: challenges for the education of speech-language pathologists.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Karen; McAllister, Lindy; Davidson, Bronwyn; Marshall, Julie; Law, James

    2014-01-01

    Public health approaches to communication disability challenge the profession of speech-language pathology (SLP) to reconsider both frames of reference for practice and models of education. This paper reviews the impetus for public health approaches to communication disability and considers how public health is, and could be, incorporated into SLP education, both now and in the future. The paper describes tensions between clinical services, which have become increasingly specialized, and public health approaches that offer a broader view of communication disability and communication disability prevention. It presents a discussion of these tensions and asserts that public health approaches to communication are themselves a specialist field, requiring specific knowledge and skills. The authors suggest the use of the term 'communication disability public health' to refer to this type of work and offer a preliminary definition in order to advance discussion. Examples from three countries are provided of how some SLP degree programmes are integrating public health into the SLP curriculum. Alternative models of training for communication disability public health that may be relevant in the future in different contexts and countries are presented, prompting the SLP profession to consider whether communication disability public health is a field of practice for speech-language pathologists or whether it has broader workforce implications. The paper concludes with some suggestions for the future which may advance thinking, research and practice in communication disability public health.

  12. Primate vocal communication: a useful tool for understanding human speech and language evolution?

    PubMed

    Fedurek, Pawel; Slocombe, Katie E

    2011-04-01

    Language is a uniquely human trait, and questions of how and why it evolved have been intriguing scientists for years. Nonhuman primates (primates) are our closest living relatives, and their behavior can be used to estimate the capacities of our extinct ancestors. As humans and many primate species rely on vocalizations as their primary mode of communication, the vocal behavior of primates has been an obvious target for studies investigating the evolutionary roots of human speech and language. By studying the similarities and differences between human and primate vocalizations, comparative research has the potential to clarify the evolutionary processes that shaped human speech and language. This review examines some of the seminal and recent studies that contribute to our knowledge regarding the link between primate calls and human language and speech. We focus on three main aspects of primate vocal behavior: functional reference, call combinations, and vocal learning. Studies in these areas indicate that despite important differences, primate vocal communication exhibits some key features characterizing human language. They also indicate, however, that some critical aspects of speech, such as vocal plasticity, are not shared with our primate cousins. We conclude that comparative research on primate vocal behavior is a very promising tool for deepening our understanding of the evolution of human speech and language, but much is still to be done as many aspects of monkey and ape vocalizations remain largely unexplored.

  13. Children Communicating: Media and Development of Thought, Speech, Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wartella, Ellen, Ed.

    Investigations of the growth of children's communicative behavior and ability, in terms of their interactions with media and their communication with other people, are described in this book. The first chapter presents an overview of the studies, explains the developmental perspective that characterizes them, and identifies some issues fundamental…

  14. Singing whales generate high levels of particle motion: implications for acoustic communication and hearing?

    PubMed

    Mooney, T Aran; Kaplan, Maxwell B; Lammers, Marc O

    2016-11-01

    Acoustic signals are fundamental to animal communication, and cetaceans are often considered bioacoustic specialists. Nearly all studies of their acoustic communication focus on sound pressure measurements, overlooking the particle motion components of their communication signals. Here we characterized the levels of acoustic particle velocity (and pressure) of song produced by humpback whales. We demonstrate that whales generate acoustic fields that include significant particle velocity components that are detectable over relatively long distances sufficient to play a role in acoustic communication. We show that these signals attenuate predictably in a manner similar to pressure and that direct particle velocity measurements can provide bearings to singing whales. Whales could potentially use such information to determine the distance of signalling animals. Additionally, the vibratory nature of particle velocity may stimulate bone conduction, a hearing modality found in other low-frequency specialized mammals, offering a parsimonious mechanism of acoustic energy transduction into the massive ossicles of whale ears. With substantial concerns regarding the effects of increasing anthropogenic ocean noise and major uncertainties surrounding mysticete hearing, these results highlight both an unexplored pathway that may be available for whale acoustic communication and the need to better understand the biological role of acoustic particle motion.

  15. Altered Gesture and Speech Production in ASD Detract from In-Person Communicative Quality

    PubMed Central

    O’Hearn, Kirsten; Luna, Beatriz; Ghuman, Avniel Singh

    2016-01-01

    This study disentangled the influences of language and social processing on communication in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by examining whether gesture and speech production differs as a function of social context. The results indicate that, unlike other adolescents, adolescents with ASD did not increase their coherency and engagement in the presence of a visible listener, and that greater coherency and engagement were related to lesser social and communicative impairments. Additionally, the results indicated that adolescents with ASD produced sparser speech and fewer gestures conveying supplementary information, and that both of these effects increased in the presence of a visible listener. Together, these findings suggest that interpersonal communication deficits in ASD are driven more strongly by social processing than language processing. PMID:26520147

  16. Resonant acoustic transducer and driver system for a well drilling string communication system

    DOEpatents

    Chanson, Gary J.; Nicolson, Alexander M.

    1981-01-01

    The acoustic data communication system includes an acoustic transmitter and receiver wherein low frequency acoustic waves, propagating in relatively loss free manner in well drilling string piping, are efficiently coupled to the drill string and propagate at levels competitive with the levels of noise generated by drilling machinery also present in the drill string. The transmitting transducer incorporates a mass-spring piezoelectric transmitter and amplifier combination that permits self-oscillating resonant operation in the desired low frequency range.

  17. Language-Specific Developmental Differences in Speech Production: A Cross-Language Acoustic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Fangfang

    2012-01-01

    Speech productions of 40 English- and 40 Japanese-speaking children (aged 2-5) were examined and compared with the speech produced by 20 adult speakers (10 speakers per language). Participants were recorded while repeating words that began with "s" and "sh" sounds. Clear language-specific patterns in adults' speech were found,…

  18. Children with autistic spectrum disorders and speech-generating devices: communication in different activities at home.

    PubMed

    Thunberg, Gunilla; Ahlsén, Elisabeth; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren

    2007-06-01

    The communication of four children with autistic spectrum disorder was investigated when they were supplied with a speech-generating device (SGD) in three different activities in their home environment: mealtime, story reading and "sharing experiences of the preschool day". An activity based communication analysis, in which collective and individual background factors for the activities were outlined, was used as a basis for the discussion of linguistic coding data derived from video-recordings made before and during SGD intervention. The coded communicative behaviours were engagement in activity, role in turn-taking, communicative form, function and effectiveness. An increase in communicative effectiveness was more noticeable when the SGDs could be used to fulfil goals and roles within the activity. The instruction to the parents to use the SGDs in their communication with the child had an important influence on the activities.

  19. Speech Analysis and Synthesis and Man-Machine Speech Communications for Air Operations. (Synthese et Analyse de la Parole et Liaisons Vocales Homme- Machine dans les Operations Aeriennes)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    fact that the spoken word plays and will continue to play a significant role in man-man, man-machine and machine-man communications for air operation...quality speech at 32 kb/s. In fact, a highly complex version cah provide high-quality speech at the lower bit rate. similarly’lower-complexity...precis on speech coding which is given here because of tho central role of the subject in the whole !poeoh processing field will be elaborated on and

  20. Applications for Subvocal Speech

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Charles; Betts, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    A research and development effort now underway is directed toward the use of subvocal speech for communication in settings in which (1) acoustic noise could interfere excessively with ordinary vocal communication and/or (2) acoustic silence or secrecy of communication is required. By "subvocal speech" is meant sub-audible electromyographic (EMG) signals, associated with speech, that are acquired from the surface of the larynx and lingual areas of the throat. Topics addressed in this effort include recognition of the sub-vocal EMG signals that represent specific original words or phrases; transformation (including encoding and/or enciphering) of the signals into forms that are less vulnerable to distortion, degradation, and/or interception; and reconstruction of the original words or phrases at the receiving end of a communication link. Potential applications include ordinary verbal communications among hazardous- material-cleanup workers in protective suits, workers in noisy environments, divers, and firefighters, and secret communications among law-enforcement officers and military personnel in combat and other confrontational situations.

  1. Convergent Aspects of Acoustic Communication in Darters, Sculpins, and Gobies.

    PubMed

    Zeyl, Jeffrey N; Malavasi, Stefano; Holt, Daniel E; Noel, Patricia; Lugli, Marco; Johnston, Carol E

    2016-01-01

    Darters (Perciformes, Percidae), sculpins (Perciformes, Cottidae), and gobioids (Gobiiformes, Gobioidei) exhibit convergent life history traits, including a benthic lifestyle and a cavity nesting spawning mode. Soniferous species within these taxa produce pulsed and/or tonal sounds with peak frequencies below 200 Hz (with some exceptions), primarily in agonistic and/or reproductive contexts. The reduced or absent swim bladders found in these taxa limit or prevent both hearing enhancement via pressure sensitivity and acoustic amplification of the contracting sonic muscles, which are associated with the skull and pectoral girdle. While such anatomies constrain communication to low frequency channels, optimization of the S/N (signal-to-noise) ratio in low frequency channels is evident for some gobies, as measured by habitat soundscape frequency windows, nest cavity sound amplification, and audiograms. Similar S/N considerations are applicable to many darter and sculpin systems. This chapter reviews the currently documented diversity of sound production in darters, sculpins, and gobioids within a phylogenetic context, examines the efficacy of signal transmission from senders to receivers (sound production mechanisms, audiograms, and masking challenges), and evaluates the potential functional significance of sound attributes in relation to territorial and reproductive behaviours.

  2. Identifying the Challenges and Opportunities to Meet the Needs of Children with Speech, Language and Communication Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockrell, Julie E.; Howell, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The views of experienced educational practitioners were examined with respect to the terminology used to describe children with speech, language and communication needs (SLCN), associated problems and the impact of speech and language difficulties in the classroom. Results showed that education staff continue to experience challenges with the…

  3. Increasing Communication between Parents and Student Clinicians in a Preschool Speech Program through Implementation of Parent Meetings and Newsletters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Susan Anderson

    Student speech clinicians adhered to very rigid schedules in order to service a wide variety of clients and gain a range of experiences in many settings. As a result, it was often difficult for adequate communication to take place between the student diagnostic speech clinician and the parents of the 10 preschool children enrolled in the speech…

  4. A Pilot Study on the Efficacy of Melodic Based Communication Therapy for Eliciting Speech in Nonverbal Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandiford, Givona A.; Mainess, Karen J.; Daher, Noha S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of Melodic Based Communication Therapy (MBCT) to traditional speech and language therapy for eliciting speech in nonverbal children with autism. Participants were 12 nonverbal children with autism ages 5 through 7 randomly assigned to either treatment group. Both groups made significant…

  5. Comparative Efficacy of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) versus a Speech-Generating Device: Effects on Requesting Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boesch, Miriam C.; Wendt, Oliver; Subramanian, Anu; Hsu, Ning

    2013-01-01

    An experimental, single-subject research study investigated the comparative efficacy of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) versus a speech-generating device (SGD) in developing requesting skills for three elementary-age children with severe autism and little to no functional speech. Results demonstrated increases in requesting…

  6. An Exploration of the Potential of Automatic Speech Recognition to Assist and Enable Receptive Communication in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wald, Mike

    2006-01-01

    The potential use of Automatic Speech Recognition to assist receptive communication is explored. The opportunities and challenges that this technology presents students and staff to provide captioning of speech online or in classrooms for deaf or hard of hearing students and assist blind, visually impaired or dyslexic learners to read and search…

  7. The Impact of Augmentative and Alternative Communication Intervention on the Speech Production of Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: A Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Diane C.; Light, Janice C.; Schlosser, Ralf W.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This article presents the results of a meta-analysis to determine the effect of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) on the speech production of individuals with developmental disabilities. Method: A comprehensive search of the literature published between 1975 and 2003, which included data on speech production before, during,…

  8. Profiling Early Socio-Communicative Development in Five Young Girls with the Preserved Speech Variant of Rett Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marschik, Peter B.; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Einspieler, Christa; Bartl-Pokorny, Katrin D.; Wolin, Thomas; Pini, Giorgio; Budimirovic, Dejan B.; Zappella, Michele; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a developmental disorder characterized by regression of purposeful hand skills and spoken language, although some affected children retain some ability to speech. We assessed the communicative abilities of five young girls, who were later diagnosed with the preserved speech variant of RTT, during the pre-regression period…

  9. An international perspective: supporting adolescents with speech, language, and communication needs in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Joffe, Victoria

    2015-02-01

    This article provides an overview of the education system in the United Kingdom, with a particular focus on the secondary school context and supporting older children and young people with speech, language, and communication needs (SLCNs). Despite the pervasive nature of speech, language, and communication difficulties and their long-term impact on academic performance, mental health, and well-being, evidence suggests that there is limited support to older children and young people with SLCNs in the United Kingdom, relative to what is available in the early years. Focus in secondary schools is predominantly on literacy, with little attention to supporting oral language. The article provides a synopsis of the working practices of pediatric speech and language therapists working with adolescents in the United Kingdom and the type and level of speech and language therapy support provided for older children and young people with SLCNs in secondary and further education. Implications for the nature and type of specialist support to adolescents and adults with SLCNs are discussed.

  10. Fast multi-feature paradigm for recording several mismatch negativities (MMNs) to phonetic and acoustic changes in speech sounds.

    PubMed

    Pakarinen, Satu; Lovio, Riikka; Huotilainen, Minna; Alku, Paavo; Näätänen, Risto; Kujala, Teija

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we addressed whether a new fast multi-feature mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm can be used for determining the central auditory discrimination accuracy for several acoustic and phonetic changes in speech sounds. We recorded the MMNs in the multi-feature paradigm to changes in syllable intensity, frequency, and vowel length, as well as for consonant and vowel change, and compared these MMNs to those obtained with the traditional oddball paradigm. In addition, we examined the reliability of the multi-feature paradigm by repeating the recordings with the same subjects 1-7 days after the first recordings. The MMNs recorded with the multi-feature paradigm were similar to those obtained with the oddball paradigm. Furthermore, only minor differences were observed in the MMN amplitudes across the two recording sessions. Thus, this new multi-feature paradigm with speech stimuli provides similar results as the oddball paradigm, and the MMNs recorded with the new paradigm were reproducible.

  11. Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Jerry R.; Grosveld, Ferdinand

    2007-01-01

    The acoustics environment in space operations is important to maintain at manageable levels so that the crewperson can remain safe, functional, effective, and reasonably comfortable. High acoustic levels can produce temporary or permanent hearing loss, or cause other physiological symptoms such as auditory pain, headaches, discomfort, strain in the vocal cords, or fatigue. Noise is defined as undesirable sound. Excessive noise may result in psychological effects such as irritability, inability to concentrate, decrease in productivity, annoyance, errors in judgment, and distraction. A noisy environment can also result in the inability to sleep, or sleep well. Elevated noise levels can affect the ability to communicate, understand what is being said, hear what is going on in the environment, degrade crew performance and operations, and create habitability concerns. Superfluous noise emissions can also create the inability to hear alarms or other important auditory cues such as an equipment malfunctioning. Recent space flight experience, evaluations of the requirements in crew habitable areas, and lessons learned (Goodman 2003; Allen and Goodman 2003; Pilkinton 2003; Grosveld et al. 2003) show the importance of maintaining an acceptable acoustics environment. This is best accomplished by having a high-quality set of limits/requirements early in the program, the "designing in" of acoustics in the development of hardware and systems, and by monitoring, testing and verifying the levels to ensure that they are acceptable.

  12. The Effects of Home-Based Literacy Activities on the Communication of Students with Severe Speech and Motor Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Amy Swartz; Clark, Denise M.; Skoning, Stacey N.; Wegner, Theresa M.; Muwana, Florence C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of using sensory, augmentative, and alternative communication (AAC), and supportive communication strategies on the rate and type of communication used by three students with severe speech and motor impairments (SSMI). Using a multiple baseline across behaviour design with sensory and AAC intervention phases,…

  13. The Perception of Telephone-Processed Speech by Combined Electric and Acoustic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Tahmina, Qudsia; Runge, Christina; Friedland, David R.

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the effects of adding low- or high-frequency information to the band-limited telephone-processed speech on bimodal listeners’ telephone speech perception in quiet environments. In the proposed experiments, bimodal users were presented under quiet listening conditions with wideband speech (WB), bandpass-filtered telephone speech (300–3,400 Hz, BP), high-pass filtered speech (f > 300 Hz, HP, i.e., distorted frequency components above 3,400 Hz in telephone speech were restored), and low-pass filtered speech (f < 3,400 Hz, LP, i.e., distorted frequency components below 300 Hz in telephone speech were restored). Results indicated that in quiet environments, for all four types of stimuli, listening with both hearing aid (HA) and cochlear implant (CI) was significantly better than listening with CI alone. For both bimodal and CI-alone modes, there were no statistically significant differences between the LP and BP scores and between the WB and HP scores. However, the HP scores were significantly better than the BP scores. In quiet conditions, both CI alone and bimodal listening achieved the largest benefits when telephone speech was augmented with high rather than low-frequency information. These findings provide support for the design of algorithms that would extend higher frequency information, at least in quiet environments. PMID:24265213

  14. Intelligibility of ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) spelling alphabet words and digits using severely degraded speech communication systems. Part 1: Narrowband digital speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Nielsen, Astrid

    1987-03-01

    The Diagnostic Rhyme Test (DRT) is widely used to evaluate digital voice systems. Would-be users often have no reference frame of interpreting DRT scores in terms of performance measures that they can understand, e.g., how many operational words are correctly understood. This research was aimed at providing a better understanding of the effects of very poor quality speech on human communication performance. It is especially important to determine how successful communications are likely to be when the speech quality is severely degraded. This report compares the recognition of ICAO spelling alphabet words (ALFA, BRAVO, CHARLIE, etc) with DRT scores for the same conditions. Confusions among the spelling alphabet words are also given. Two types of speech degradation were selected for investigation: narrowband digital speech (the DoD standard linear predictive coding algorithm operating at 2400 bits/s) with varying bit-error rates and analog jamming. The report will be in two parts. Part 1 covers the narrowband digital speech research, and Part 2 will cover the analog speech research.

  15. Designing acoustics for linguistically diverse classrooms: Effects of background noise, reverberation and talker foreign accent on speech comprehension by native and non-native English-speaking listeners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhao Ellen

    The current classroom acoustics standard (ANSI S12.60-2010) recommends core learning spaces not to exceed background noise level (BNL) of 35 dBA and reverberation time (RT) of 0.6 second, based on speech intelligibility performance mainly by the native English-speaking population. Existing literature has not correlated these recommended values well with student learning outcomes. With a growing population of non-native English speakers in American classrooms, the special needs for perceiving degraded speech among non-native listeners, either due to realistic room acoustics or talker foreign accent, have not been addressed in the current standard. This research seeks to investigate the effects of BNL and RT on the comprehension of English speech from native English and native Mandarin Chinese talkers as perceived by native and non-native English listeners, and to provide acoustic design guidelines to supplement the existing standard. This dissertation presents two studies on the effects of RT and BNL on more realistic classroom learning experiences. How do native and non-native English-speaking listeners perform on speech comprehension tasks under adverse acoustic conditions, if the English speech is produced by talkers of native English (Study 1) versus native Mandarin Chinese (Study 2)? Speech comprehension materials were played back in a listening chamber to individual listeners: native and non-native English-speaking in Study 1; native English, native Mandarin Chinese, and other non-native English-speaking in Study 2. Each listener was screened for baseline English proficiency level, and completed dual tasks simultaneously involving speech comprehension and adaptive dot-tracing under 15 acoustic conditions, comprised of three BNL conditions (RC-30, 40, and 50) and five RT scenarios (0.4 to 1.2 seconds). The results show that BNL and RT negatively affect both objective performance and subjective perception of speech comprehension, more severely for non

  16. A Computational Model of Word Segmentation from Continuous Speech Using Transitional Probabilities of Atomic Acoustic Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasanen, Okko

    2011-01-01

    Word segmentation from continuous speech is a difficult task that is faced by human infants when they start to learn their native language. Several studies indicate that infants might use several different cues to solve this problem, including intonation, linguistic stress, and transitional probabilities between subsequent speech sounds. In this…

  17. Acoustic Analysis of Clear Versus Conversational Speech in Individuals with Parkinson Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goberman, A.M.; Elmer, L.W.

    2005-01-01

    A number of studies have been devoted to the examination of clear versus conversational speech in non-impaired speakers. The purpose of these previous studies has been primarily to help increase speech intelligibility for the benefit of hearing-impaired listeners. The goal of the present study was to examine differences between conversational and…

  18. The Effect of Noise on Relationships Between Speech Intelligibility and Self-Reported Communication Measures in Tracheoesophageal Speakers

    PubMed Central

    Otero, Devon Sawin; Bolt, Susan; Kapsner-Smith, Mara; Sullivan, Jessica R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine how sentence intelligibility relates to self-reported communication in tracheoesophageal speakers when speech intelligibility is measured in quiet and noise. Method Twenty-four tracheoesophageal speakers who were at least 1 year postlaryngectomy provided audio recordings of 5 sentences from the Sentence Intelligibility Test. Speakers also completed self-reported measures of communication—the Voice Handicap Index-10 and the Communicative Participation Item Bank short form. Speech recordings were presented to 2 groups of inexperienced listeners who heard sentences in quiet or noise. Listeners transcribed the sentences to yield speech intelligibility scores. Results Very weak relationships were found between intelligibility in quiet and measures of voice handicap and communicative participation. Slightly stronger, but still weak and nonsignificant, relationships were observed between measures of intelligibility in noise and both self-reported measures. However, 12 speakers who were more than 65% intelligible in noise showed strong and statistically significant relationships with both self-reported measures (R 2 = .76–.79). Conclusions Speech intelligibility in quiet is a weak predictor of self-reported communication measures in tracheoesophageal speakers. Speech intelligibility in noise may be a better metric of self-reported communicative function for speakers who demonstrate higher speech intelligibility in noise. PMID:27379754

  19. Professional Roles and Responsibilities in Meeting the Needs of Children with Speech, Language and Communication Needs: Joint Working between Educational Psychologists and Speech and Language Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnellogue, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    There is a large population of children with speech, language and communication needs who have additional special educational needs (SEN). Whilst professional collaboration between education and health professionals is recommended to ensure an integrated delivery of statutory services for this population of children, formal frameworks should be…

  20. Animal models of speech and vocal communication deficits associated with psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Genevieve; Roberts, Todd F.

    2015-01-01

    Disruptions in speech, language and vocal communication are hallmarks of several neuropsychiatric disorders, most notably autism spectrum disorders. Historically, the use of animal models to dissect molecular pathways and connect them to behavioral endophenotypes in cognitive disorders has proven to be an effective approach for developing and testing disease-relevant therapeutics. The unique aspects of human language when compared to vocal behaviors in other animals make such an approach potentially more challenging. However, the study of vocal learning in species with analogous brain circuits to humans may provide entry points for understanding this human-specific phenotype and diseases. Here, we review animal models of vocal learning and vocal communication, and specifically link phenotypes of psychiatric disorders to relevant model systems. Evolutionary constraints in the organization of neural circuits and synaptic plasticity result in similarities in the brain mechanisms for vocal learning and vocal communication. Comparative approaches and careful consideration of the behavioral limitations among different animal models can provide critical avenues for dissecting the molecular pathways underlying cognitive disorders that disrupt speech, language and vocal communication. PMID:26232298

  1. Animal Models of Speech and Vocal Communication Deficits Associated With Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Konopka, Genevieve; Roberts, Todd F

    2016-01-01

    Disruptions in speech, language, and vocal communication are hallmarks of several neuropsychiatric disorders, most notably autism spectrum disorders. Historically, the use of animal models to dissect molecular pathways and connect them to behavioral endophenotypes in cognitive disorders has proven to be an effective approach for developing and testing disease-relevant therapeutics. The unique aspects of human language compared with vocal behaviors in other animals make such an approach potentially more challenging. However, the study of vocal learning in species with analogous brain circuits to humans may provide entry points for understanding this human-specific phenotype and diseases. We review animal models of vocal learning and vocal communication and specifically link phenotypes of psychiatric disorders to relevant model systems. Evolutionary constraints in the organization of neural circuits and synaptic plasticity result in similarities in the brain mechanisms for vocal learning and vocal communication. Comparative approaches and careful consideration of the behavioral limitations among different animal models can provide critical avenues for dissecting the molecular pathways underlying cognitive disorders that disrupt speech, language, and vocal communication.

  2. Coupled Research in Ocean Acoustics and Signal Processing for the Next Generation of Underwater Acoustic Communication Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-20

    environments. The second area of work is that of characterizing the performance of adaptive equalizers in order to evaluate di↵erent system configuration trade...the optimal partition- ing of a large-N array of hydrophones into subarrays for coherent processing by adaptive equalizers before combining the...Underwater Acoustic Communications. (Pajovic and Preisig) and lends new insights into the roles of subarrays and feedback filters play in adaptive

  3. The intelligibility of tracheoesophageal speech, with an emphasis on the voiced-voiceless distinction.

    PubMed

    Jongmans, P; Hilgers, F J M; Pols, L C W; van As-Brooks, C J

    2006-01-01

    Total laryngectomy has far-reaching effects on vocal tract anatomy and physiology. The preferred method for restoring postlaryngectomy oral communication is prosthetic tracheoesophageal (TE) speech, which like laryngeal speech is pulmonary driven. TE speech quality is better than esophageal or electrolarynx speech quality, but still very deviant from laryngeal speech. For a better understanding of neoglottis physiology and for improving rehabilitation results, study of TE speech intelligibility remains important. Methods used were perceptual evaluation, acoustic analyses, and digital high-speed imaging. First results show large variations between speakers and especially difficulty in producing voiced-voiceless distinction. This paper discusses first results of our experiment.

  4. Free Speech Yearbook: 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedford, Thomas L., Ed.

    This book is a collection of essays on free speech issues and attitudes, compiled by the Commission on Freedom of Speech of the Speech Communication Association. Four articles focus on freedom of speech in classroom situations as follows: a philosophic view of teaching free speech, effects of a course on free speech on student attitudes,…

  5. "The Communication Needs and Rights of Mankind", Group 1 Report of the Futuristic Priorities Division of the Speech Communication Association. "Future Communication Technologies; Hardware and Software"; Group 2 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dance, Frank E. X.; And Others

    This paper reports on the Futuristic Priorities Division members' recommendations and priorities concerning the impact of the future on communication and on the speech communication discipline. The recommendations and priorities are listed for two subgroups: The Communication Needs and Rights of Mankind; and Future Communication Technologies:…

  6. Experimental investigation of the effects of the acoustical conditions in a simulated classroom on speech recognition and learning in children.

    PubMed

    Valente, Daniel L; Plevinsky, Hallie M; Franco, John M; Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth C; Lewis, Dawna E

    2012-01-01

    The potential effects of acoustical environment on speech understanding are especially important as children enter school where students' ability to hear and understand complex verbal information is critical to learning. However, this ability is compromised because of widely varied and unfavorable classroom acoustics. The extent to which unfavorable classroom acoustics affect children's performance on longer learning tasks is largely unknown as most research has focused on testing children using words, syllables, or sentences as stimuli. In the current study, a simulated classroom environment was used to measure comprehension performance of two classroom learning activities: a discussion and lecture. Comprehension performance was measured for groups of elementary-aged students in one of four environments with varied reverberation times and background noise levels. The reverberation time was either 0.6 or 1.5 s, and the signal-to-noise level was either +10 or +7 dB. Performance is compared to adult subjects as well as to sentence-recognition in the same condition. Significant differences were seen in comprehension scores as a function of age and condition; both increasing background noise and reverberation degraded performance in comprehension tasks compared to minimal differences in measures of sentence-recognition.

  7. A Bioecological Framework to Evaluate Communicative Participation Outcomes for Preschoolers Receiving Speech-Language Therapy Interventions in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Barbara J.; Rosenbaum, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Preschool Speech and Language Program (PSLP) in Ontario, Canada, is a publicly funded intervention service for children from birth to 5 years with communication disorders. It has begun a population-level programme evaluation of children's communicative participation outcomes following therapy. Data are currently being collected for…

  8. Coordination of Gaze and Speech in Communication between Children with Hearing Impairment and Normal-Hearing Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandgren, Olof; Andersson, Richard; van de Weijer, Joost; Hansson, Kristina; Sahlén, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate gaze behavior during communication between children with hearing impairment (HI) and normal-hearing (NH) peers. Method: Ten HI-NH and 10 NH-NH dyads performed a referential communication task requiring description of faces. During task performance, eye movements and speech were tracked. Using verbal event (questions,…

  9. Speech and Language Therapists' Approaches to Communication Intervention with Children and Adults with Profound and Multiple Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldbart, Juliet; Chadwick, Darren; Buell, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Background: People with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PMLD) have communication impairments as one defining characteristic. Aims: To explore speech and language therapists' (SLTs) decision making in communication interventions for people with PMLD, in terms of the intervention approaches used, the factors informing the decisions…

  10. Speech Communication and Communication Processes: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," April and May 1978 (Vol. 38 Nos. 10 and 11).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 25 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: the nature of creativity in advertising communication; speech communication difficulties of international professors; rhetorical arguments regarding the…

  11. Acoustic Variations in Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia as a Function of Speech Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapienza, Christine M.; Walton, Suzanne; Murry, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Acoustic phonatory events were identified in 14 women diagnosed with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD), a focal laryngeal dystonia that disturbs phonatory function, and compared with those of 14 age-matched women with no vocal dysfunction. Findings indicated ADSD subjects produced more aberrant acoustic events than controls during tasks of…

  12. Emotion in speech: the acoustic attributes of fear, anger, sadness, and joy.

    PubMed

    Sobin, C; Alpert, M

    1999-07-01

    Decoders can detect emotion in voice with much greater accuracy than can be achieved by objective acoustic analysis. Studies that have established this advantage, however, used methods that may have favored decoders and disadvantaged acoustic analysis. In this study, we applied several methodologic modifications for the analysis of the acoustic differentiation of fear, anger, sadness, and joy. Thirty-one female subjects between the ages of 18 and 35 (encoders) were audio-recorded during an emotion-induction procedure and produced a total of 620 emotion-laden sentences. Twelve female judges (decoders), three for each of the four emotions, were assigned to rate the intensity of one emotion each. Their combined ratings were used to select 38 prototype samples per emotion. Past acoustic findings were replicated, and increased acoustic differentiation among the emotions was achieved. Multiple regression analysis suggested that some, although not all, of the acoustic variables were associated with decoders' ratings. Signal detection analysis gave some insight into this disparity. However, the analysis of the classic constellation of acoustic variables may not completely capture the acoustic features that influence decoders' ratings. Future analyses would likely benefit from the parallel assessment of respiration, phonation, and articulation.

  13. The Body That Speaks: Recombining Bodies and Speech Sources in Unscripted Face-to-Face Communication

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Alex; Corti, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    This article examines advances in research methods that enable experimental substitution of the speaking body in unscripted face-to-face communication. A taxonomy of six hybrid social agents is presented by combining three types of bodies (mechanical, virtual, and human) with either an artificial or human speech source. Our contribution is to introduce and explore the significance of two particular hybrids: (1) the cyranoid method that enables humans to converse face-to-face through the medium of another person's body, and (2) the echoborg method that enables artificial intelligence to converse face-to-face through the medium of a human body. These two methods are distinct in being able to parse the unique influence of the human body when combined with various speech sources. We also introduce a new framework for conceptualizing the body's role in communication, distinguishing three levels: self's perspective on the body, other's perspective on the body, and self's perspective of other's perspective on the body. Within each level the cyranoid and echoborg methodologies make important research questions tractable. By conceptualizing and synthesizing these methods, we outline a novel paradigm of research on the role of the body in unscripted face-to-face communication. PMID:27660616

  14. The Body That Speaks: Recombining Bodies and Speech Sources in Unscripted Face-to-Face Communication.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Alex; Corti, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    This article examines advances in research methods that enable experimental substitution of the speaking body in unscripted face-to-face communication. A taxonomy of six hybrid social agents is presented by combining three types of bodies (mechanical, virtual, and human) with either an artificial or human speech source. Our contribution is to introduce and explore the significance of two particular hybrids: (1) the cyranoid method that enables humans to converse face-to-face through the medium of another person's body, and (2) the echoborg method that enables artificial intelligence to converse face-to-face through the medium of a human body. These two methods are distinct in being able to parse the unique influence of the human body when combined with various speech sources. We also introduce a new framework for conceptualizing the body's role in communication, distinguishing three levels: self's perspective on the body, other's perspective on the body, and self's perspective of other's perspective on the body. Within each level the cyranoid and echoborg methodologies make important research questions tractable. By conceptualizing and synthesizing these methods, we outline a novel paradigm of research on the role of the body in unscripted face-to-face communication.

  15. Beyond ideal speech situations: adapting to communication asymmetries in health care.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Alex; Reader, Tom; Cornish, Flora; Campbell, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Inclusive, unconstrained and honest communication is widely advocated as beneficial and ethical. We critically explore this assumption by reflecting upon our research in acute care, informal care and public health. Using Habermas' ideals of dialogue to conceptualise ideal speech, we concur with observations that health care is often characterised by intractable exclusions and constraints. Rather than advocating implementing the ideals of dialogue, however, we examine how people adapt to these difficult and intransigent contexts. Non-ideal contexts, we find, sometimes call for non-ideal responses. Deception and furthering personal interests, and thus departing from the ideals of dialogue, can be adaptive responses.

  16. A human vocal utterance corpus for perceptual and acoustic analysis of speech, singing, and intermediate vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhard, David

    2002-11-01

    In this paper we present the collection and annotation process of a corpus of human utterance vocalizations used for speech and song research. The corpus was collected to fill a void in current research tools, since no corpus currently exists which is useful for the classification of intermediate utterances between speech and monophonic singing. Much work has been done in the domain of speech versus music discrimination, and several corpora exist which can be used for this research. A specific example is the work done by Eric Scheirer and Malcom Slaney [IEEE ICASSP, 1997, pp. 1331-1334]. The collection of the corpus is described including questionnaire design and intended and actual response characteristics, as well as the collection and annotation of pre-existing samples. The annotation of the corpus consisted of a survey tool for a subset of the corpus samples, including ratings of the clips based on a speech-song continuum, and questions on the perceptual qualities of speech and song, both generally and corresponding to particular clips in the corpus.

  17. Spectrally Efficient Underwater Acoustic Communications: Channel Characterization and Design Aspects for OFDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radosevic, Andreja

    In this dissertation, we consider design aspects of spectrally efficient underwater acoustic (UWA) communications. In particular, we first focus on statistical characterization and capacity evaluation of shallow water acoustic communications channels. Wideband single-carrier and multi-carrier probe signals are employed during the Kauai Acoustic Communications MURI 2008 (KAM08) and 2011 (KAM11) experiments, to measure the time-varying channel response, and to estimate its statistical properties and capacity that play an important role in the design of spectrally efficient communication systems. Besides the capacity analysis for unconstrained inputs, we determine new bounds on the achievable information rate for discrete-time Gaussian channels with inter-symbol interference and independent and uniformly distributed channel input symbols drawn from finite-order modulation alphabets. Specifically, we derived new bounds on the achievable rates for sparse channels with long memory. Furthermore, we explore design aspects of adaptive modulation based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) for UWA communications, and study its performance using real-time at-sea experiments. Lastly, we investigate a channel estimation (CE) method for improving the spectral efficiency of UWA communications. Specifically, we determine the performance of a selective decision directed (DD) CE method for UWA OFDM-based communications.

  18. Interrelations between communicative behaviors at the outset of speech: parents as observers.

    PubMed

    Dromi, Esther; Zaidman-Zait, Anat

    2011-01-01

    The Hebrew Parent Questionnaire for Communication and Early Language (HPQ-CEL) was administered by 154 parents of Hebrew-speaking toddlers aged 1 ; 0 to 1 ; 3 (77 boys, 77 girls). The Questionnaire guided parents in observing and rating their toddlers in six contexts at home. The study aimed to identify inter-correlations between toddlers' non-linguistic behaviors that co-occur during the transition to speech. Seven communicative behaviors were extracted from the questionnaire data: Crying, Vocalizations, Collaboration with Adults, Pointing, Words, Joint Engagement in a Peek-a-Boo Game, and Triadic Interaction in Book Reading. Collaboration with Adults and Triadic Interaction in Book Reading yielded more significant correlations than other prelinguistic behaviors. Participation in social games and book-reading activities was associated with the toddlers' number of words at the period studied.

  19. Channel coding for underwater acoustic single-carrier CDMA communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lanjun; Zhang, Yonglei; Zhang, Pengcheng; Zhou, Lin; Niu, Jiong

    2017-01-01

    CDMA is an effective multiple access protocol for underwater acoustic networks, and channel coding can effectively reduce the bit error rate (BER) of the underwater acoustic communication system. For the requirements of underwater acoustic mobile networks based on CDMA, an underwater acoustic single-carrier CDMA communication system (UWA/SCCDMA) based on the direct-sequence spread spectrum is proposed, and its channel coding scheme is studied based on convolution, RA, Turbo and LDPC coding respectively. The implementation steps of the Viterbi algorithm of convolutional coding, BP and minimum sum algorithms of RA coding, Log-MAP and SOVA algorithms of Turbo coding, and sum-product algorithm of LDPC coding are given. An UWA/SCCDMA simulation system based on Matlab is designed. Simulation results show that the UWA/SCCDMA based on RA, Turbo and LDPC coding have good performance such that the communication BER is all less than 10-6 in the underwater acoustic channel with low signal to noise ratio (SNR) from -12 dB to -10dB, which is about 2 orders of magnitude lower than that of the convolutional coding. The system based on Turbo coding with Log-MAP algorithm has the best performance.

  20. Speech therapy and communication device: impact on quality of life and mood in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Körner, Sonja; Sieniawski, Michael; Siniawski, Michael; Kollewe, Katja; Rath, Klaus Jan; Krampfl, Klaus; Zapf, Antonia; Dengler, Reinhard; Petri, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Dysarthria has a drastic impact on the quality of life of ALS patients. Most patients suffering from dysarthria are offered speech therapy. Communication devices are prescribed less frequently. In the present study we investigated the impact of these therapeutic arrangements on quality of life in ALS patients. Thirty-eight ALS patients with dysarthria or anarthria, who underwent speech therapy and/or used communication devices answered three standardized questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory - II (BDI), SF-36 Health Survey questionnaire (SF-36) and ALS Functional Rating Scale-revised (ALSFRS-R)) and were further interviewed about their experience with and benefit of speech therapy and communication devices. Most of the patients described a high impact of the communication device on their quality of life while the influence of speech therapy was rated less. By multiple regression analysis we confirmed an independent positive effect of communication device use on depression and psychological distress. In conclusion, communication systems improve or at least stabilize quality of life and mood in dysarthric ALS patients, and should be provided early in the disease course.

  1. Revisiting Neil Armstrongs Moon-Landing Quote: Implications for Speech Perception, Function Word Reduction, and Acoustic Ambiguity

    PubMed Central

    Baese-Berk, Melissa M.; Dilley, Laura C.; Schmidt, Stephanie; Morrill, Tuuli H.; Pitt, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Neil Armstrong insisted that his quote upon landing on the moon was misheard, and that he had said one small step for a man, instead of one small step for man. What he said is unclear in part because function words like a can be reduced and spectrally indistinguishable from the preceding context. Therefore, their presence can be ambiguous, and they may disappear perceptually depending on the rate of surrounding speech. Two experiments are presented examining production and perception of reduced tokens of for and for a in spontaneous speech. Experiment 1 investigates the distributions of several acoustic features of for and for a. The results suggest that the distributions of for and for a overlap substantially, both in terms of temporal and spectral characteristics. Experiment 2 examines perception of these same tokens when the context speaking rate differs. The perceptibility of the function word a varies as a function of this context speaking rate. These results demonstrate that substantial ambiguity exists in the original quote from Armstrong, and that this ambiguity may be understood through context speaking rate. PMID:27603209

  2. Revisiting Neil Armstrongs Moon-Landing Quote: Implications for Speech Perception, Function Word Reduction, and Acoustic Ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Baese-Berk, Melissa M; Dilley, Laura C; Schmidt, Stephanie; Morrill, Tuuli H; Pitt, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Neil Armstrong insisted that his quote upon landing on the moon was misheard, and that he had said one small step for a man, instead of one small step for man. What he said is unclear in part because function words like a can be reduced and spectrally indistinguishable from the preceding context. Therefore, their presence can be ambiguous, and they may disappear perceptually depending on the rate of surrounding speech. Two experiments are presented examining production and perception of reduced tokens of for and for a in spontaneous speech. Experiment 1 investigates the distributions of several acoustic features of for and for a. The results suggest that the distributions of for and for a overlap substantially, both in terms of temporal and spectral characteristics. Experiment 2 examines perception of these same tokens when the context speaking rate differs. The perceptibility of the function word a varies as a function of this context speaking rate. These results demonstrate that substantial ambiguity exists in the original quote from Armstrong, and that this ambiguity may be understood through context speaking rate.

  3. The Exploitation of Subphonemic Acoustic Detail in L2 Speech Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Ellenor

    2014-01-01

    The current study addresses an aspect of second language (L2) phonological acquisition that has received little attention to date--namely, the acquisition of allophonic variation as a word boundary cue. The role of subphonemic variation in the segmentation of speech by native speakers has been indisputably demonstrated; however, the acquisition of…

  4. Comparison of Acoustic and Kinematic Approaches to Measuring Utterance-Level Speech Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Peter; Anderson, Andrew J.; Bartrip, Jon; Bailey, Eleanor

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The spatiotemporal index (STI) is one measure of variability. As currently implemented, kinematic data are used, requiring equipment that cannot be used with some patient groups or in scanners. An experiment is reported that addressed whether STI can be extended to an audio measure of sound pressure of the speech envelope over time that…

  5. 78 FR 49717 - Speech-to-Speech and Internet Protocol (IP) Speech-to-Speech Telecommunications Relay Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 64 Speech-to-Speech and Internet Protocol (IP) Speech-to-Speech Telecommunications Relay Services; Telecommunications Relay Services and Speech-to-Speech Services for Individuals With Hearing and Speech Disabilities AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule....

  6. Acoustic correlates of inflectional morphology in the speech of children with specific language impairment and their typically developing peers.

    PubMed

    Owen, Amanda J; Goffman, Lisa

    2007-07-01

    The development of the use of the third-person singular -s in open syllable verbs in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and their typically developing peers was examined. Verbs that included overt productions of the third-person singular -s morpheme (e.g. Bobby plays ball everyday; Bear laughs when mommy buys popcorn) were contrasted with clearly bare stem contexts (e.g. Mommy, buy popcorn; I saw Bobby play ball) on both global and local measures of acoustic duration. A durational signature for verbs inflected with -s was identified separately from factors related to sentence length. These duration measures were also used to identify acoustic changes related to the omission of the -s morpheme. The omitted productions from the children with SLI were significantly longer than their correct third-person singular and bare stem productions. This result was unexpected given that the omitted productions have fewer phonemes than correctly inflected productions. Typically developing children did not show the same pattern, instead producing omitted productions that patterned most closely with bare stem forms. These results are discussed in relation to current theoretical approaches to SLI, with an emphasis on performance and speech-motor accounts.

  7. The effect of different cochlear implant microphones on acoustic hearing individuals’ binaural benefits for speech perception in noise

    PubMed Central

    Aronoff, Justin M.; Freed, Daniel J.; Fisher, Laurel M.; Pal, Ivan; Soli, Sigfrid D.

    2011-01-01

    directional microphone when the speech and masker were spatially separated, emphasizing the importance of measuring binaural benefits separately for each HRTF. Evaluation of binaural benefits indicated that binaural squelch and spatial release from masking were found for all HRTFs and binaural summation was found for all but one HRTF, although binaural summation was less robust than the other types of binaural benefits. Additionally, the results indicated that neither interaural time nor level cues dominated binaural benefits for the normal hearing participants. Conclusions This study provides a means to measure the degree to which cochlear implant microphones affect acoustic hearing with respect to speech perception in noise. It also provides measures that can be used to evaluate the independent contributions of interaural time and level cues. These measures provide tools that can aid researchers in understanding and improving binaural benefits in acoustic hearing individuals listening via cochlear implant microphones. PMID:21412155

  8. Speech Communication Education and Classroom Interaction: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1979 (Vol. 40 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 13 titles deal with the following topics: the development of strategies and materials for teaching speech communication to students in a remedial pilot program; the treatment of ethics in selected speech communication textbooks;…

  9. Integrating Music Therapy Services and Speech-Language Therapy Services for Children with Severe Communication Impairments: A Co-Treatment Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geist, Kamile; McCarthy, John; Rodgers-Smith, Amy; Porter, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Documenting how music therapy can be integrated with speech-language therapy services for children with communication delay is not evident in the literature. In this article, a collaborative model with procedures, experiences, and communication outcomes of integrating music therapy with the existing speech-language services is given. Using…

  10. Using the Team Building Approach as a Management Tool for the Training of Graduate Teaching Assistants in the Basic Speech Communication Course Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandeville, Mary Y.; Blakemore, Scott A.

    A study examined the effectiveness of a team building model that was designed and used in the training of graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) in the Fall of 1994 in a speech communication department at a large midwestern university. The department employed 12 GTAs to teach 28 sections of the basic speech communication course. A team building…

  11. The Impact of Interrupted Use of a Speech Generating Device on the Communication Acts of a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neeley, Richard A.; Pulliam, Mary Hannah; Catt, Merrill; McDaniel, D. Mike

    2015-01-01

    This case study examined the initial and renewed impact of speech generating devices on the expressive communication behaviors of a child with autism spectrum disorder. The study spanned six years of interrupted use of two speech generating devices. The child's communication behaviors were analyzed from video recordings and included communication…

  12. Communications Performance of an Undersea Acoustic Wide-Area Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Seaweb technology . PEO IWS sponsored the Seaweb 2004 experiment analyzed in my thesis. The SSC San Diego Fellowship Program sponsored my research...layer protocol requiring the undersea vehicle to initiate all communications. As Seaweb advances technologically , the ability to maintain network-layer...racom buoys used in the Seaweb 2004 experiment incorporate FreeWave radio technology as well as Iridium satellite communication technology . The

  13. Digital, One Way, Acoustic Communication in the Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    Figures ICapter I 1.1 Attenuation of electromagnetic radiation in clear water ............................. 3 1.2 Low freque.ncy acoustic attenuation...any two places on earth . Great success has been achieved in transmitting and receiving high quality video pictures from the moon and even from farther...the following: 3 a) Operating frequency 10 - 20 kHz. b) Operating range 2 - 5 km I c) Bit rate of 1 kbit/sec 3 d) Source level 170 dB/lpPa e) Water

  14. Improving the speech intelligibility in classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Choi Ling Coriolanus

    One of the major acoustical concerns in classrooms is the establishment of effective verbal communication between teachers and students. Non-optimal acoustical conditions, resulting in reduced verbal communication, can cause two main problems. First, they can lead to reduce learning efficiency. Second, they can also cause fatigue, stress, vocal strain and health problems, such as headaches and sore throats, among teachers who are forced to compensate for poor acoustical conditions by raising their voices. Besides, inadequate acoustical conditions can induce the usage of public address system. Improper usage of such amplifiers or loudspeakers can lead to impairment of students' hearing systems. The social costs of poor classroom acoustics will be large to impair the learning of children. This invisible problem has far reaching implications for learning, but is easily solved. Many researches have been carried out that they have accurately and concisely summarized the research findings on classrooms acoustics. Though, there is still a number of challenging questions remaining unanswered. Most objective indices for speech intelligibility are essentially based on studies of western languages. Even several studies of tonal languages as Mandarin have been conducted, there is much less on Cantonese. In this research, measurements have been done in unoccupied rooms to investigate the acoustical parameters and characteristics of the classrooms. The speech intelligibility tests, which based on English, Mandarin and Cantonese, and the survey were carried out on students aged from 5 years old to 22 years old. It aims to investigate the differences in intelligibility between English, Mandarin and Cantonese of the classrooms in Hong Kong. The significance on speech transmission index (STI) related to Phonetically Balanced (PB) word scores will further be developed. Together with developed empirical relationship between the speech intelligibility in classrooms with the variations

  15. Speech production knowledge in automatic speech recognition.

    PubMed

    King, Simon; Frankel, Joe; Livescu, Karen; McDermott, Erik; Richmond, Korin; Wester, Mirjam

    2007-02-01

    Although much is known about how speech is produced, and research into speech production has resulted in measured articulatory data, feature systems of different kinds, and numerous models, speech production knowledge is almost totally ignored in current mainstream approaches to automatic speech recognition. Representations of speech production allow simple explanations for many phenomena observed in speech which cannot be easily analyzed from either acoustic signal or phonetic transcription alone. In this article, a survey of a growing body of work in which such representations are used to improve automatic speech recognition is provided.

  16. Bubbles and Acoustic Communications Experiment (SPACE08): Acoustical and Physical Characteristics of Diffuse Bubble Plumes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    very dynamic environments (e.g., surface scattered environments in rough weather, communications at depth and speed for submarines) or at low SNRs as...low SNRs as required for covert communications are areas where progress is still needed. To bridge the gap between current capabilities and future

  17. Acoustic communication in Panthera tigris: A study of tiger vocalization and auditory receptivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Edward J.; Wang, Lily M.; Armstrong, Douglas L.; Curro, Thomas; Simmons, Lee G.; McGee, Joann

    2003-04-01

    Acoustic communication represents a primary mode of interaction within the sub-species of Panthera tigris and it is commonly known that their vocal repertoire consists of a relatively wide range of utterances that include roars, growls, grunts, hisses and chuffling, vocalizations that are in some cases produced with extraordinary power. P. tigris vocalizations are known to contain significant amounts of acoustic energy over a wide spectral range, with peak output occurring in a low frequency bandwidth in the case of roars. von Muggenthaler (2000) has also shown that roars and other vocal productions uttered by P. tigris contain energy in the infrasonic range. While it is reasonable to assume that low and infrasonic acoustic cues are used as communication signals among conspecifics in the wild, it is clearly necessary to demonstrate that members of the P. tigris sub-species are responsive to low and infrasonic acoustic signals. The auditory brainstem response has proven to be an effective tool in the characterization of auditory performance among tigers and the results of an ongoing study of both the acoustical properties of P. tigris vocalizations and their auditory receptivity support the supposition that tigers are not only responsive to low frequency stimulation, but exquisitely so.

  18. KauaiEx: Environmental effects on HF acoustic propagation with application to communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Michael B.; Hursky, Paul; Siderius, Martin; Badiey, Mohsen; Caruthers, Jerald; Hodgkiss, William S.; Raghukumar, Kaustubha; Rouseff, Dan; Fox, Warren; de Moustier, Christian; Calder, Brian; Kraft, Barbara J.; McDonald, Keyko; Stein, Peter; Lewis, James K.; Rajan, Subramaniam

    2004-05-01

    The Kauai Experiment (22 June-9 July 2003) was designed to study high-frequency (8-50 kHz) acoustics in a shallow-water waveguide. In contrast to much of the previous literature, emphasis was placed on multipath arising from multiple boundary interactions. Various participants were interested in different applications; however, a core theme was the role of the environment on acoustic communications. A great deal of effort was made to characterize the environment including the surface wave spectrum, 2D temperature structure along the propagation path, salinity, currents, and bottom properties. Most of these parameters were measured continuously over the 2 weeks of the experiment, providing information on the diurnal cycles. At the same time, extensive acoustic measurements were made using a variety of vertical line arrays, some of which spanned the entire water column. The acoustic measurements included channel probes to characterize the variation of the impulse response. These probes were interleaved with a variety of modulation schemes for communications including noncoherent methods such as MFSK (multifrequency shift keying), and DPSK (differential phase-shift keying), as well as coherent schemes such as QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation), OFDM (orthogonal frequency division modulation), and PPC (passive-phase conjugation) methods. Thus, the experiment provides a vast amount of information relating environment to acoustic propagation to modem performance. This talk will present an overview of key lessons learned to date.

  19. Classifying acoustic signals into phoneme categories: average and dyslexic readers make use of complex dynamical patterns and multifractal scaling properties of the speech signal

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Several competing aetiologies of developmental dyslexia suggest that the problems with acquiring literacy skills are causally entailed by low-level auditory and/or speech perception processes. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diverging claims about the specific deficient peceptual processes under conditions of strong inference. Theoretically relevant acoustic features were extracted from a set of artificial speech stimuli that lie on a /bAk/-/dAk/ continuum. The features were tested on their ability to enable a simple classifier (Quadratic Discriminant Analysis) to reproduce the observed classification performance of average and dyslexic readers in a speech perception experiment. The ‘classical’ features examined were based on component process accounts of developmental dyslexia such as the supposed deficit in Envelope Rise Time detection and the deficit in the detection of rapid changes in the distribution of energy in the frequency spectrum (formant transitions). Studies examining these temporal processing deficit hypotheses do not employ measures that quantify the temporal dynamics of stimuli. It is shown that measures based on quantification of the dynamics of complex, interaction-dominant systems (Recurrence Quantification Analysis and the multifractal spectrum) enable QDA to classify the stimuli almost identically as observed in dyslexic and average reading participants. It seems unlikely that participants used any of the features that are traditionally associated with accounts of (impaired) speech perception. The nature of the variables quantifying the temporal dynamics of the speech stimuli imply that the classification of speech stimuli cannot be regarded as a linear aggregate of component processes that each parse the acoustic signal independent of one another, as is assumed by the ‘classical’ aetiologies of developmental dyslexia. It is suggested that the results imply that the differences in speech perception performance between

  20. Using Others' Words: Conversational Use of Reported Speech by Individuals with Aphasia and Their Communication Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hengst, Julie A.; Frame, Simone R.; Neuman-Stritzel, Tiffany; Gannaway, Rachel

    2005-01-01

    Reported speech, wherein one quotes or paraphrases the speech of another, has been studied extensively as a set of linguistic and discourse practices. Researchers agree that reported speech is pervasive, found across languages, and used in diverse contexts. However, to date, there have been no studies of the use of reported speech among…

  1. Impact of Thermocline Variability on Underwater Acoustic Communications: Results from KauaiEx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siderius, Martin; Porter, Michael

    2004-11-01

    In July 2003, the KauaiEx, high-frequency acoustic experiments were conducted off the coast of Kauai, Hawaii. Both acoustic communications signals and probe signals (to measure the channel impulse response) were transmitted in the 8-50 kHz band. These signals were transmitted over several days from fixed and moving platforms and were received at multiple ranges and depths using vertical arrays and single hydrophones. Extensive environmental measurements were made simultaneous to the acoustic transmissions (e.g. measurements of the water column temperature structure, wind speed and surface wave heights). The experimental site has a relatively reflective seabed made up of sand that was combined with highly variable oceanographic conditions which led to communications performance closely tied to source/receiver geometry. In this paper, the correlation between environmental factors and communications performance will be discussed. The focus is on communications signals in the 8-13 and 14-19 kHz frequency bands at source receiver range of 3 km. Results show the performance in the higher band was approximately the same as for the lower band. Results also show a strong dependence on receiver depth with the deeper hydrophones having fewer bit errors. The ocean sound speed structure at this site appears to have a large impact on the communications performance and the time variability.

  2. Quantifying the Effect of Compression Hearing Aid Release Time on Speech Acoustics and Intelligibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenstad, Lorienne M.; Souza, Pamela E.

    2005-01-01

    Compression hearing aids have the inherent, and often adjustable, feature of release time from compression. Research to date does not provide a consensus on how to choose or set release time. The current study had 2 purposes: (a) a comprehensive evaluation of the acoustic effects of release time for a single-channel compression system in quiet and…

  3. Exploration of Acoustic Features for Automatic Vowel Discrimination in Spontaneous Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, Na'im R.

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to understand what acoustic/auditory feature sets motivated transcribers towards certain labeling decisions, I built machine learning models that were capable of discriminating between canonical and non-canonical vowels excised from the Buckeye Corpus. Specifically, I wanted to model when the dictionary form and the transcribed-form…

  4. Depression Diagnoses and Fundamental Frequency-Based Acoustic Cues in Maternal Infant-Directed Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porritt, Laura L.; Zinser, Michael C.; Bachorowski, Jo-Anne; Kaplan, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    F[subscript 0]-based acoustic measures were extracted from a brief, sentence-final target word spoken during structured play interactions between mothers and their 3- to 14-month-old infants and were analyzed based on demographic variables and DSM-IV Axis-I clinical diagnoses and their common modifiers. F[subscript 0] range (?F[subscript 0]) was…

  5. Changes in Speech Production in a Child with a Cochlear Implant: Acoustic and Kinematic Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goffman, Lisa; Ertmer, David J.; Erdle, Christa

    2002-01-01

    A method is presented for examining change in motor patterns used to produce linguistic contrasts. In this case study, the method is applied to a child who experienced hearing loss at age 3 and received a multi-channel cochlear implant at 7. Post-implant, acoustic durations showed a maturational change. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  6. Acoustic Communication in Butterflyfishes: Anatomical Novelties, Physiology, Evolution, and Behavioral Ecology.

    PubMed

    Tricas, Timothy C; Webb, Jacqueline F

    2016-01-01

    Coral reef fishes live in noisy environments that may challenge their capacity for acoustic communication. Butterflyfishes (Family Chaetodontidae) are prominent and ecologically diverse members of coral reef communities worldwide. The discovery of a novel association of anterior swim bladder horns with the lateral line canal system in the genus Chaetodon (the laterophysic connection) revealed a putative adaptation for enhancement of sound reception by the lateral line system and/or the ear. Behavioral studies show that acoustic communication is an important component of butterflyfish social behavior. All bannerfish (Forcipiger, Heniochus, and Hemitaurichthys) and Chaetodon species studied thus far produce several sound types at frequencies of <1 to >1000 Hz. Ancestral character state analyses predict the existence of both shared (head bob) and divergent (tail slap) acoustic behaviors in these two clades. Experimental auditory physiology shows that butterflyfishes are primarily sensitive to stimuli associated with hydrodynamic particle accelerations of ≤500 Hz. In addition, the gas-filled swim bladder horns in Chaetodon are stimulated by sound pressure, which enhances and extends their auditory sensitivity to 1700-2000 Hz. The broadband spectrum of ambient noise present on coral reefs overlaps with the frequency characteristics of their sounds, thus both the close social affiliations common among butterflyfishes and the evolution of the swim bladder horns in Chaetodon facilitate their short-range acoustic communication. Butterflyfishes provide a unique and unexpected opportunity to carry out studies of fish bioacoustics in the lab and the field that integrate the study of sensory anatomy, physiology, evolution, and behavioral ecology.

  7. Increasing Early Childhood Educators' Use of Communication-Facilitating and Language-Modelling Strategies: Brief Speech and Language Therapy Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, David; Proctor, Penny; Gill, Wendy; Heaven, Sue; Marr, Jane; Young, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Intensive Speech and Language Therapy (SLT) training courses for Early Childhood Educators (ECEs) can have a positive effect on their use of interaction strategies that support children's communication skills. The impact of brief SLT training courses is not yet clearly understood. The aims of these two studies were to assess the impact of a brief…

  8. Mexican Immigrant Mothers' Perceptions of Their Children's Communication Disabilities, Emergent Literacy Development, and Speech-Language Therapy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kummerer, Sharon E.; Lopez-Reyna, Norma A.; Hughes, Marie Tejero

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This qualitative study explored mothers' perceptions of their children's communication disabilities, emergent literacy development, and speech-language therapy programs. Method: Participants were 14 Mexican immigrant mothers and their children (age 17-47 months) who were receiving center-based services from an early childhood intervention…

  9. The Challenges of Evaluation: Assessing Early Talk's Impact on Speech Language and Communication Practice in Children's Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jopling, Michael; Whitmarsh, Judy; Hadfield, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the findings of a qualitative evaluation of an early years' intervention, I Can's Early Talk (ET) programme. ET was designed to improve speech, language and communication outcomes for children aged 0-5 by focusing on enhancing practitioners' knowledge and skills. The research focused on children aged 3-4 years and was…

  10. Understanding Why Speech-Language Pathologists Rarely Pursue a PhD in Communication Sciences and Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myotte, Theodore; Hutchins, Tiffany L.; Cannizzaro, Michael S.; Belin, Gayle

    2011-01-01

    Masters-level speech-language pathologists in communication sciences and disorders (n = 122) completed a survey soliciting their reasons for not pursuing doctoral study. Factor analysis revealed a four-factor solution including one reflecting a lack of interest in doctoral study (Factor 2) and one reflecting practical financial concerns (Factor…

  11. "Tramites" and "Transportes": The Acquisition of Second Language Communicative Competence for One Speech Event in Puno, Peru.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornberger, Nancy H.

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes ethnographic data regarding one prolonged speech event, the negotiation of a driver's license at the Ministry of Transportation in Puno, Peru, from the perspective of Hymes' redefinition of linguistic competence. Implications for the acquisition of second language communicative competence are also discussed. (Author/CB)

  12. Communication, Listening, Cognitive and Speech Perception Skills in Children with Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) or Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Melanie A.; Hall, Rebecca L.; Riley, Alison; Moore, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Parental reports of communication, listening, and behavior in children receiving a clinical diagnosis of specific language impairment (SLI) or auditory processing disorder (APD) were compared with direct tests of intelligence, memory, language, phonology, literacy, and speech intelligibility. The primary aim was to identify whether there…

  13. Behavioral and Physiological Responses to Child-Directed Speech as Predictors of Communication Outcomes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Linda R.; Baranek, Grace T.; Roberts, Jane E.; David, Fabian J.; Perryman, Twyla Y.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the extent to which behavioral and physiological responses during child-directed speech (CDS) correlate concurrently and predictively with communication skills in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Method: Twenty-two boys with ASD (initial mean age: 35 months) participated in a longitudinal study. At entry,…

  14. The Picture Exchange Communication System: Effects on Manding and Speech Development for School-Aged Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tincani, Matt; Crozier, Shannon; Alazett, Shannon

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effects of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS; Frost & Bondy, 2002) on the manding (requesting) and speech development of school-aged children with autism. In study 1, two participants, Damian and Bob, were taught PECS within a delayed multiple baseline design. Both participants demonstrated increased levels of manding…

  15. Effects of Shared Active Surface Technology on the Communication and Speech of Two Preschool Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travers, Jason C.; Fefer, Sarah A.

    2017-01-01

    Shared active surface (SAS) technology can be described as a supersized tablet computer for multiple simultaneous users. SAS technology has the potential to resolve issues historically associated with learning via single-user computer technology. This study reports findings of a SAS on the social communication and nonsocial speech of two preschool…

  16. Effects of Augmentative and Alternative Communication Intervention on Speech Production in Children with Autism: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlosser, Ralf W.; Wendt, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This systematic review aimed to determine the effects of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) intervention on speech production in children with autism or pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified. Method: A systematic review methodology was utilized to limit bias in searching, selecting, coding, and…

  17. Towards Text-Based Augmentative Communication in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities and Difficult-to-Understand Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Anna C.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals who have difficult-to-understand speech and minimal reading skills are often limited to icon or picture-based augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) strategies. However, basic phonemic awareness skills could make strategies such as alphabet supplementation, in which the speaker selects the first letter of words they are…

  18. Principals' Opinions on the Role of Speech-Language Pathologists Serving Students with Communication Disorders Involved in Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritzman, Mitzi J.; Sanger, Dixie

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to survey the opinions of principals concerning the role of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) serving students with communication disorders who have been involved in violence. Method: A mixed methods design involving 678 questionnaires was mailed to elementary, middle, and high school principals in a…

  19. Speech Communication and Communication Processes: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," March through June 1977 (Vol. 37 Nos. 9 through 12). Part Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 18 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: some effects of nonstandard English in counseling; the status of speech instruction in Iowa high schools; communications analyses of a university and a public…

  20. Acoustic Communications Considerations for Collaborative Simultaneous Localization and Mapping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    collaborative SLAM framework in Section IV. A. INTRODUCTION 1. Position Uncertainty in Robotics Smith, Self, and Cheeseman [22] first postulated...COMMUNICATIONS CONSIDERATIONS FOR COLLABORATIVE SIMULTANEOUS LOCALIZATION AND MAPPING by Ryan Peter Hilger December 2014 Thesis Advisor... COLLABORATIVE SIMULTANEOUS LOCALIZATION AND MAPPING 6. AUTHOR(S) Ryan Peter Hilger 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NA:i\\IIE(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate

  1. Multimodal human communication--targeting facial expressions, speech content and prosody.

    PubMed

    Regenbogen, Christina; Schneider, Daniel A; Gur, Raquel E; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute; Kellermann, Thilo

    2012-05-01

    Human communication is based on a dynamic information exchange of the communication channels facial expressions, prosody, and speech content. This fMRI study elucidated the impact of multimodal emotion processing and the specific contribution of each channel on behavioral empathy and its prerequisites. Ninety-six video clips displaying actors who told self-related stories were presented to 27 healthy participants. In two conditions, all channels uniformly transported only emotional or neutral information. Three conditions selectively presented two emotional channels and one neutral channel. Subjects indicated the actors' emotional valence and their own while fMRI was recorded. Activation patterns of tri-channel emotional communication reflected multimodal processing and facilitative effects for empathy. Accordingly, subjects' behavioral empathy rates significantly deteriorated once one source was neutral. However, emotionality expressed via two of three channels yielded activation in a network associated with theory-of-mind-processes. This suggested participants' effort to infer mental states of their counterparts and was accompanied by a decline of behavioral empathy, driven by the participants' emotional responses. Channel-specific emotional contributions were present in modality-specific areas. The identification of different network-nodes associated with human interactions constitutes a prerequisite for understanding dynamics that underlie multimodal integration and explain the observed decline in empathy rates. This task might also shed light on behavioral deficits and neural changes that accompany psychiatric diseases.

  2. Predicting Speech Intelligibility with a Multiple Speech Subsystems Approach in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jimin; Hustad, Katherine C.; Weismer, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Speech acoustic characteristics of children with cerebral palsy (CP) were examined with a multiple speech subsystems approach; speech intelligibility was evaluated using a prediction model in which acoustic measures were selected to represent three speech subsystems. Method: Nine acoustic variables reflecting different subsystems, and…

  3. Acoustic Communications and Navigation for Mobile Under-Ice Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    urethane-filled hose with spiral conductors for the through- ice transition where a cable would be vulnerable. The buoy is designed to float after melting ...project is that it allows a drifting, ice -tethered navigation and communications system to be employed in the Arctic during times when it is not possible...performing tactical missions under Arctic ice . Potential programs for transition include LD-UUV if an Arctic version is fielded in the future. RELATED

  4. Behaviours Associated with Acoustic Communication in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    PubMed Central

    Longrie, Nicolas; Poncin, Pascal; Denoël, Mathieu; Gennotte, Vincent; Delcourt, Johann; Parmentier, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Background Sound production is widespread among fishes and accompanies many social interactions. The literature reports twenty-nine cichlid species known to produce sounds during aggressive and courtship displays, but the precise range in behavioural contexts is unclear. This study aims to describe the various Oreochromis niloticus behaviours that are associated with sound production in order to delimit the role of sound during different activities, including agonistic behaviours, pit activities, and reproduction and parental care by males and females of the species. Methodology/Principal Findings Sounds mostly occur during the day. The sounds recorded during this study accompany previously known behaviours, and no particular behaviour is systematically associated with sound production. Males and females make sounds during territorial defence but not during courtship and mating. Sounds support visual behaviours but are not used alone. During agonistic interactions, a calling Oreochromis niloticus does not bite after producing sounds, and more sounds are produced in defence of territory than for dominating individuals. Females produce sounds to defend eggs but not larvae. Conclusion/Significance Sounds are produced to reinforce visual behaviours. Moreover, comparisons with O. mossambicus indicate two sister species can differ in their use of sound, their acoustic characteristics, and the function of sound production. These findings support the role of sounds in differentiating species and promoting speciation. They also make clear that the association of sounds with specific life-cycle roles cannot be generalized to the entire taxa. PMID:23620756

  5. A new multichannel spatial diversity technique for long-range acoustic communications in shallow water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaujean, Pierre-Philippe J.; Bernault, Emmanuel P.

    2002-11-01

    A new multichannel spatial diversity technique has been developed for underwater acoustic communications in very shallow waters. This technique combines a novel synchronization method with maximum-likelihood symbol estimation. It was tested with a multichannel Mills-Cross receiver using various numbers of elements. The FAU general purpose acoustic modem source transmitted messages using four types of frequency-hopped multiple-frequency-chirp-keying (FH-MFSK) modulation: 4 hops at 221 coded bits per second (cps), 2 hops at 442 cps, or no hopping at 1172 cps. These types of modulation allowed for robust data transmission in adverse environment. The modem operated between 16 and 32 kHz at 192-dB source level, at ranges from 1 to 5 km in 40 ft of water. Using only four channels of the Mills-Cross receiver array, messages coded at 1172 cps were received with a frame error rate (FER) of 0% at a range of 3 km. In the same four-channel configuration, messages coded at 221 cps were received with no frame error at 5 km. The experimental results matched the performance predictions from the Crepeaus model. This reliable and computation-efficient method can be implemented on new generations of embedded acoustic modems, such as the four-channel FAU acoustic modem, and can provide significant improvements in communication performance.

  6. Analysis of and Techniques for Adaptive Equalization for Underwater Acoustic Communication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Keyed QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keyed 19 continued from last page. . . Acronym Definition RF Radio Frequency...rate was 2400 samples per second and the data packet was 60000 4- QAM modulated symbols. The results again confirm that the proposed method outperforms...communication is quickly becoming a necessity for applications in ocean science, defense, and homeland security. Acoustics remains the only prac- tical means

  7. Award 1 Title: Acoustic Communications 2011 Experiment: Deployment Support and Post Experiment Data Handling and Analysis. Award 2 Title: Exploiting Structured Dependencies in the Design of Adaptive Algorithms for Underwater Communication Award. 3 Title: Coupled Research in Ocean Acoustics and Signal Processing for the Next Generation of Underwater Acoustic Communication Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    Exploiting Structured Dependencies in the Design of Adaptive Algorithms for Underwater Communication Award #3 Title Coupled Research in Ocean Acoustics...depend on the physical oceanography and pushing the state of the art in our understanding of adaptive signal processing algorithms relevant to...deployable VHF acoustic data transmission and acquisition system. 3. Develop signal models and processing algorithms that reduce to the extent

  8. Communicate!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Stuart

    This ten chapter book is designed to provide high school students with an understanding of basic communication processes. The first five chapters include discussions of language development, function, and acquisition in relation to both human and non-human communication. The sixth chapter contains specimen linguistic analyses of speech and…

  9. Evaluation of psycho-social training for speech therapists in oncology. Impact on general communication skills and empathy. A qualitative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Peter; Wollbrück, Dorit; Danker, Helge; Singer, Susanne

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a psychosocial training programme for speech therapists on their performance skills in patient-therapist communication in general and empathy in particular. Twenty-three speech therapists were interviewed in a pseudo-randomised controlled trial. Communication skills were tested using questionnaires with open questions. Respondents were asked to find adequate replies to clinical vignettes. The vignettes briefly described a patient's physical state and contained a statement from the patient expressing some distress. Answers were coded with qualitative content analysis. Communication skills improved considerably in terms of frequency of conducive communication (especially empathy) and width of conducive communicative repertoire. Negative communication preferences were reduced. Psychosocial training for speech therapists can improve communication skills manifestly and is therefore recommended for further use.

  10. Proximate and ultimate aspects of acoustic and multimodal communication in butterflyfishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, Kelly S.

    Communication in social animals is shaped by natural selection on both sender and receiver. Diurnal butterflyfishes use a combination of visual cues like bright color patterns and motor pattern driven displays, acoustic communication, and olfactory cues that may advertise territorial behavior, facilitate recognition of individuals, and provide cues for courtship. This dissertation examines proximate and multimodal communication in several butterflyfishes, with an emphasis on acoustic communication which has recently garnered attention within the Chaetodontidae. Sound production in the genus Forcipiger involves a novel mechanism with synchronous contractions of opposing head muscles at the onset of sound emission and rapid cranial rotation that lags behind sound emission. Acoustic signals in F. flavissimus provide an accurate indicator of body size, and to a lesser extent cranial rotation velocity and acceleration. The closely related Hemitaurichthys polylepis produces rapid pulse trains of similar duration and spectral content to F. flavissimus, but with a dramatically different mechanism which involves contractions of hypaxial musculature at the anterior end of the swim bladder that occur with synchronous muscle action potentials. Both H. polylepis sonic and hypaxial trunk muscle fibers have triads at the z-line, but sonic fibers have smaller cross-sectional areas, more developed sarcoplasmic reticula, longer sarcomere lengths, and wider t-tubules. Sonic motor neurons are located along a long motor column entirely within the spinal cord and are composed of large and small types. Forcipiger flavissimus and F. longirostris are site attached and territorial, with F. flavissimus engaged in harem polygyny and F. longirostris in social monogamy. Both produce similar pulse sounds to conspecifics during territoriality that vary little with respect to communicative context. Chaetodon multicinctus can discriminate between mates and non-mate intruders, but require combined

  11. Wideband Multichannel Time-Reversal Processing for Acoustic Communications in a Tunnel-like Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J V; Chambers, D H; Robbins, C L; Guidry, B L; Poggio, A J; Dowla, F; Hertzog, C A

    2006-01-12

    The development of multichannel time-reversal (T/R) processing techniques continues to progress rapidly especially when the need to communicate in a highly reverberative environment becomes critical. The underlying T/R concept is based on time-reversing the Green's function characterizing the uncertain communications channel investigating the deleterious dispersion and multipath effects. In this paper, attention is focused on two major objectives: (1) wideband communications leading to a time reference modulation technique; and (2) multichannel acoustic communications in a tunnel (or cave or pipe) with many obstructions, multipath returns, severe background noise, disturbances, long propagation paths ({approx}180) with disruptions (bends). For this extremely hostile environment, it is shown that multichannel T/R receivers can easily be extended to the wideband designs while demonstrating their performance in both the ''canonical'' stairwell of our previous work as well as a tunnel-like structure. Acoustic information signals are transmitted with an 8-element host or base station array to two client receivers with a significant loss in signal levels due to the propagation environment. In this paper, the results of the new wideband T/R processor and modulation scheme are discussed to demonstrate the overall performance for both high (24-bit) and low (1-bit) bit level analog-to-digital (A/D) converter designs. These results are validated by performing proof-of-principle acoustic communications experiments in air. It is shown that the resulting T/R receivers are capable of extracting the transmitted coded sequence from noisy microphone array measurements with zero-bit error.

  12. Symbolic Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podgor, Ellen S.

    1976-01-01

    The concept of symbolic speech emanates from the 1967 case of United States v. O'Brien. These discussions of flag desecration, grooming and dress codes, nude entertainment, buttons and badges, and musical expression show that the courts place symbolic speech in different strata from verbal communication. (LBH)

  13. Depression Diagnoses and Fundamental Frequency-Based Acoustic Cues in Maternal Infant-Directed Speech

    PubMed Central

    Porritt, Laura L.; Zinser, Michael C.; Bachorowski, Jo-Anne; Kaplan, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    F0-based acoustic measures were extracted from a brief, sentence-final target word spoken during structured play interactions between mothers and their 3- to 14-month-old infants, and were analyzed based on demographic variables and DSM-IV Axis-I clinical diagnoses and their common modifiers. F0 range (ΔF0) was negatively correlated with infant age and number of children. ΔF0 was significantly smaller in clinically depressed mothers and mothers diagnosed with depression in partial remission, relative to non-depressed mothers, mothers diagnosed with depression in full remission, and those diagnosed with depressive disorder not otherwise specified. ΔF0 was significantly lower in mothers experiencing their first major depressive episode relative to mothers with recurrent depression. Deficits in ΔF0 were specific to diagnosed clinical depression, and were not well predicted by elevated self-report scores only, or by diagnosed anxiety disorders. Mothers with higher ΔF0 had infants with reportedly larger productive vocabularies, but depression was unrelated to vocabulary development. Implications for cognitive-linguistic development are discussed. PMID:24489521

  14. Brain estrogen signaling and acute modulation of acoustic communication behaviors: a working hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Remage-Healey, Luke

    2013-01-01

    Summary Although estrogens are widely considered circulating ‘sex steroid hormones’ typically associated with female reproduction, recent evidence suggests that estrogens can act as local modulators of brain circuits in both males and females. Functional implications of this newly-characterized estrogen signaling system have begun to emerge. This essay summarizes evidence in support of the hypothesis that the rapid production of estrogens in brain circuits can drive acute changes in both the production and perception of acoustic communication behaviors. These studies reveal two fundamental neurobiological concepts: 1) estrogens can be produced locally in brain circuits independent of levels in nearby circuits and in the circulation, and 2) estrogens can have very rapid effects within these brain circuits to modulate social vocalizations, acoustic processing, and sensorimotor integration. This research relies on a vertebrate-wide span of investigations, including vocalizing fishes, amphibians and birds, emphasizing the importance of comparative model systems in understanding principles of neurobiology. PMID:23065844

  15. Hidden Markov models in automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrzoskowicz, Adam

    1993-11-01

    This article describes a method for constructing an automatic speech recognition system based on hidden Markov models (HMMs). The author discusses the basic concepts of HMM theory and the application of these models to the analysis and recognition of speech signals. The author provides algorithms which make it possible to train the ASR system and recognize signals on the basis of distinct stochastic models of selected speech sound classes. The author describes the specific components of the system and the procedures used to model and recognize speech. The author discusses problems associated with the choice of optimal signal detection and parameterization characteristics and their effect on the performance of the system. The author presents different options for the choice of speech signal segments and their consequences for the ASR process. The author gives special attention to the use of lexical, syntactic, and semantic information for the purpose of improving the quality and efficiency of the system. The author also describes an ASR system developed by the Speech Acoustics Laboratory of the IBPT PAS. The author discusses the results of experiments on the effect of noise on the performance of the ASR system and describes methods of constructing HMM's designed to operate in a noisy environment. The author also describes a language for human-robot communications which was defined as a complex multilevel network from an HMM model of speech sounds geared towards Polish inflections. The author also added mandatory lexical and syntactic rules to the system for its communications vocabulary.

  16. Multichannel time-reversal processing for acoustic communications in a highly reverberant environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candy, James V.; Poggio, Andrew J.; Chambers, David H.; Guidry, Brian L.; Robbins, Christopher L.; Kent, Claudia A.

    2005-10-01

    The development of time-reversal (T/R) communication systems is a recent signal processing research area dominated by applying T/R techniques to communicate in hostile environments. The fundamental concept is based on time-reversing the impulse response or Green's function characterizing the uncertain communications channel to mitigate deleterious dispersion and multipath effects. In this paper, we extend point-to-point to array-to-point communications by first establishing the basic theory to define and solve the underlying multichannel communications problem and then developing various realizations of the resulting T/R receivers. We show that not only do these receivers perform well in a hostile environment, but they also can be implemented with a ``1 bit'' analog-to-digital converter design structure. We validate these results by performing proof-of-principle acoustic communications experiments in air. It is shown that the resulting T/R receivers are capable of extracting the transmitted coded sequence from noisy microphone array measurements with zero-bit error.

  17. A Group Intervention Model for Speech and Communication Skills in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Initial Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manor, Yael; Posen, Jennie; Amir, Ofer; Dori, Nechama; Giladi, Nir

    2005-01-01

    Various speech and voice disorders affect 70% to 85% of individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Speech treatment is generally conducted on an individual basis, with family member involvement. Clinical experience indicates that many patients do not practice treatments at home or apply the learned techniques in everyday situations. An…

  18. Prompting Students to Contemplate Effective Communication with a Visible Speech Chart from the 1870s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2014-01-01

    In this article, director of Educational Outreach at the Library of Congress Lee Ann Potter describes a classroom activity that focuses on an 1876 single-page circular published in Salem, Massachusetts about Alexander Melville Bell's Visible Speech. A. M. Bell's son, Alexander Graham Bell described "Visible Speech" as "a…

  19. Exploring the Speech-Language Connection. Communication and Language Intervention Series, Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Rhea, Ed.

    This edited volume investigates the connections between the earliest human sounds and subsequent language development. With special attention to tracheostomies, Downs syndrome, deafness, and speech-motor impairments, the interaction between speech and language is examined in typical development as well as the effect that the interaction has on…

  20. Speech Communication Anxiety: An Impediment to Academic Achievement in the University Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boohar, Richard K.; Seiler, William J.

    1982-01-01

    The achievement levels of college students taking a bioethics course who demonstrated high and low degrees of speech anxiety were studied. Students with high speech anxiety interacted less with instructors and did not achieve as well as other students. Strategies instructors can use to help students are suggested. (Authors/PP)

  1. Multilingual Aspects of Speech Sound Disorders in Children. Communication Disorders across Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Sharynne; Goldstein, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Multilingual Aspects of Speech Sound Disorders in Children explores both multilingual and multicultural aspects of children with speech sound disorders. The 30 chapters have been written by 44 authors from 16 different countries about 112 languages and dialects. The book is designed to translate research into clinical practice. It is divided into…

  2. Speech masking and cancelling and voice obscuration

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, John F.

    2013-09-10

    A non-acoustic sensor is used to measure a user's speech and then broadcasts an obscuring acoustic signal diminishing the user's vocal acoustic output intensity and/or distorting the voice sounds making them unintelligible to persons nearby. The non-acoustic sensor is positioned proximate or contacting a user's neck or head skin tissue for sensing speech production information.

  3. Early recognition of speech

    PubMed Central

    Remez, Robert E; Thomas, Emily F

    2013-01-01

    Classic research on the perception of speech sought to identify minimal acoustic correlates of each consonant and vowel. In explaining perception, this view designated momentary components of an acoustic spectrum as cues to the recognition of elementary phonemes. This conceptualization of speech perception is untenable given the findings of phonetic sensitivity to modulation independent of the acoustic and auditory form of the carrier. The empirical key is provided by studies of the perceptual organization of speech, a low-level integrative function that finds and follows the sensory effects of speech amid concurrent events. These projects have shown that the perceptual organization of speech is keyed to modulation; fast; unlearned; nonsymbolic; indifferent to short-term auditory properties; and organization requires attention. The ineluctably multisensory nature of speech perception also imposes conditions that distinguish language among cognitive systems. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:213–223. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1213 PMID:23926454

  4. Speech, vocabulary, and the education of children using cochlear implants: oral or total communication?

    PubMed

    Connor, C M; Hieber, S; Arts, H A; Zwolan, T A

    2000-10-01

    This study examines the relationship between the teaching method, oral or total communication, used at children's schools and children's consonant-production accuracy and vocabulary development over time. Children who participated in the study (N = 147) demonstrated profound sensorineural hearing loss and had used cochlear implants for between 6 months and 10 years. Educational programs that used an oral communication (OC) approach focused on the development of spoken language, whereas educational programs that used a total communication (TC) approach focused on the development of language using both signed and spoken language. Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) we compared the consonant-production accuracy, receptive spoken vocabulary, and expressive spoken and/or signed vocabulary skills, over time, of children who were enrolled in schools that used either OC or TC approaches, while controlling for a number of variables. These variables included age at implantation, preoperative aided speech detection thresholds, type of cochlear implant device used, and whether a complete or incomplete active electrode array was implanted. The results of this study indicated that as they used their implants the children demonstrated improved consonant-production accuracy and expressive and receptive vocabulary over time, regardless of whether their school employed a TC or OC teaching method. Furthermore, there appeared to be a complex relationship among children's performance with the cochlear implant, age at implantation, and communication/teaching strategy employed by the school. Controlling for all variables, children in OC programs demonstrated, on average, superior consonant-production accuracy, with significantly greater rates of improvement in consonant-production accuracy scores over time compared to children in TC programs. However, there was no significant difference between OC and TC groups in performance or rate of growth in consonant-production accuracy when

  5. Comparison of two underwater acoustic communications techniques for multi-user access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hursky, Paul; Siderius, T. Martin; Kauaiex Group

    2004-05-01

    Frequency hopped frequency shift keying (FHFSK) and code division multiple access (CDMA) are two different modulation techniques for multiple users to communicate with a single receiver simultaneously. In July 2003, these two techniques were tested alongside each other in a shallow water coastal environment off the coast of Kauai. A variety of instruments were used to measure the prevailing oceanography, enabling detailed modeling of the channel. The channel was acoustically probed using LFM waveforms and m-sequences as well. We will present the results of demodulating the FHFSK and CDMA waveforms and discuss modeling the channel for the purpose of predicting multi-user communications performance. a)Michael B. Porter, Paul Hursky, Martin Siderius (SAIC), Mohsen Badiey (UD), Jerald Caruthers (USM), William S. Hodgkiss, Kaustubha Raghukumar (SIO), Dan Rouseff, Warren Fox (APL-UW), Christian de Moustier, Brian Calder, Barbara J. Kraft (UNH), Keyko McDonald (SPAWARSSC), Peter Stein, James K. Lewis, and Subramaniam Rajan (SSI).

  6. Comparison of two underwater acoustic communications techniques for multi-user access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hursky, Paul; Siderius, T. Martin; Kauaiex Group

    2001-05-01

    Frequency hopped frequency shift keying (FHFSK) and code division multiple access (CDMA) are two different modulation techniques for multiple users to communicate with a single receiver simultaneously. In July 2003, these two techniques were tested alongside each other in a shallow water coastal environment off the coast of Kauai. A variety of instruments were used to measure the prevailing oceanography, enabling detailed modeling of the channel. The channel was acoustically probed using LFM waveforms and m-sequences as well. We will present the results of demodulating the FHFSK and CDMA waveforms and discuss modeling the channel for the purpose of predicting multi-user communications performance. a)Michael B. Porter, Paul Hursky, Martin Siderius (SAIC), Mohsen Badiey (UD), Jerald Caruthers (USM), William S. Hodgkiss, Kaustubha Raghukumar (SIO), Dan Rouseff, Warren Fox (APL-UW), Christian de Moustier, Brian Calder, Barbara J. Kraft (UNH), Keyko McDonald (SPAWARSSC), Peter Stein, James K. Lewis, and Subramaniam Rajan (SSI).

  7. An Acoustic OFDM System with Symbol-by-Symbol Doppler Compensation for Underwater Communication

    PubMed Central

    MinhHai, Tran; Rie, Saotome; Suzuki, Taisaku; Wada, Tomohisa

    2016-01-01

    We propose an acoustic OFDM system for underwater communication, specifically for vertical link communications such as between a robot in the sea bottom and a mother ship in the surface. The main contributions are (1) estimation of time varying Doppler shift using continual pilots in conjunction with monitoring the drift of Power Delay Profile and (2) symbol-by-symbol Doppler compensation in frequency domain by an ICI matrix representing nonuniform Doppler. In addition, we compare our proposal against a resampling method. Simulation and experimental results confirm that our system outperforms the resampling method when the velocity changes roughly over OFDM symbols. Overall, experimental results taken in Shizuoka, Japan, show our system using 16QAM, and 64QAM achieved a data throughput of 7.5 Kbit/sec with a transmitter moving at maximum 2 m/s, in a complicated trajectory, over 30 m vertically. PMID:27057558

  8. A pilot study on the efficacy of melodic based communication therapy for eliciting speech in nonverbal children with autism.

    PubMed

    Sandiford, Givona A; Mainess, Karen J; Daher, Noha S

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of melodic based communication therapy (MBCT) to traditional speech and language therapy for eliciting speech in nonverbal children with autism. Participants were 12 nonverbal children with autism ages 5 through 7 randomly assigned to either treatment group. Both groups made significant progress after treatment. The MBCT group progressed significantly in number of verbal attempts after weeks 1 through 4 and number of correct words after weeks 1 and 3, while the traditional group progressed significantly after weeks 4 and 5. No significant differences in number of verbal attempts or number of correct words were noted between groups following treatment. A significant number of new words were heard in the home environment for the MBCT group (p = .04). Participants in the MBCT group had more imitative attempts (p = .03). MBCT appears to be a valid form of intervention for children with autism.

  9. Coherent acoustic communication in a tidal estuary with busy shipping traffic.

    PubMed

    van Walree, Paul A; Neasham, Jeffrey A; Schrijver, Marco C

    2007-12-01

    High-rate acoustic communication experiments were conducted in a dynamic estuarine environment. Two current profilers deployed in a shipping lane were interfaced with acoustic modems, which modulated and transmitted the sensor readings every 200 s over a period of four days. QPSK modulation was employed at a raw data rate of 8 kbits on a 12-kHz carrier. Two 16-element hydrophone arrays, one horizontal and one vertical, were deployed near the shore. A multichannel decision-feedback equalizer was used to demodulate the modem signals received on both arrays. Long-term statistical analysis reveals the effects of the tidal cycle, subsea unit location, attenuation by the wake of passing vessels, and high levels of ship-generated noise on the fidelity of the communication links. The use of receiver arrays enables vast improvement in the overall reliability of data delivery compared with a single-receiver system, with performance depending strongly on array orientation. The vertical array offers the best performance overall, although the horizontal array proves more robust against shipping noise. Spatial coherence estimates, variation of array aperture, and inspection of array angular responses point to adaptive beamforming and coherent combining as the chief mechanisms of array gain.

  10. Effect of temperature on acoustic communication: sound production in the croaking gourami (labyrinth fishes).

    PubMed

    Ladich, Friedrich; Schleinzer, Günter

    2015-04-01

    Sound communication comprising the production and detection of acoustic signals is affected by ambient temperature in ectothermic animals. In the present study we investigated the effects of temperature on sound production and characteristics in the croaking gourami Trichopsis vittata, a freshwater fish from Southeast Asia possessing a highly specialized sound-generating mechanism found only in a single genus. The croaking gourami produces pulsed sounds by stretching and plucking two enhanced pectoral fin tendons during rapid pectoral fin beating. Croaking sounds typically consist of a series of double-pulsed bursts with main energies between 1 and 1.5 kHz. Sounds were recorded during dyadic contests between two males at three different temperatures (25°, 30° and 35°C). The mean dominant frequency increased with rising temperature from 1.18 to 1.33 kHz, whereas temporal characteristics decreased. The sound interval dropped from 492 to 259 ms, the burst period from 51 to 35 ms and the pulse period from 5.8 to 5.1 ms. In contrast, the number of sounds and number of bursts within a sound were not affected by temperature. The current study shows that spectral and temporal characteristics of sounds are affected in different ways by temperature in the croaking gourami, whereas the numbers of sounds and bursts remain unaffected. We conclude that acoustic communication in gouramis is affected by changes in ambient temperature.

  11. Seabird acoustic communication at sea: a new perspective using bio-logging devices

    PubMed Central

    Thiebault, Andréa; Pistorius, Pierre; Mullers, Ralf; Tremblay, Yann

    2016-01-01

    Most seabirds are very noisy at their breeding colonies, when aggregated in high densities. Calls are used for individual recognition and also emitted during agonistic interactions. When at sea, many seabirds aggregate over patchily distributed resources and may benefit from foraging in groups. Because these aggregations are so common, it raises the question of whether seabirds use acoustic communication when foraging at sea? We deployed video-cameras with built in microphones on 36 Cape gannets (Morus capensis) during the breeding season of 2010–2011 at Bird Island (Algoa Bay, South Africa) to study their foraging behaviour and vocal activity at sea. Group formation was derived from the camera footage. During ~42 h, calls were recorded on 72 occasions from 16 birds. Vocalization exclusively took place in the presence of conspecifics, and mostly in feeding aggregations (81% of the vocalizations). From the observation of the behaviours of birds associated with the emission of calls, we suggest that the calls were emitted to avoid collisions between birds. Our observations show that at least some seabirds use acoustic communication when foraging at sea. These findings open up new perspectives for research on seabirds foraging ecology and their interactions at sea. PMID:27492779

  12. Seabird acoustic communication at sea: a new perspective using bio-logging devices.

    PubMed

    Thiebault, Andréa; Pistorius, Pierre; Mullers, Ralf; Tremblay, Yann

    2016-08-05

    Most seabirds are very noisy at their breeding colonies, when aggregated in high densities. Calls are used for individual recognition and also emitted during agonistic interactions. When at sea, many seabirds aggregate over patchily distributed resources and may benefit from foraging in groups. Because these aggregations are so common, it raises the question of whether seabirds use acoustic communication when foraging at sea? We deployed video-cameras with built in microphones on 36 Cape gannets (Morus capensis) during the breeding season of 2010-2011 at Bird Island (Algoa Bay, South Africa) to study their foraging behaviour and vocal activity at sea. Group formation was derived from the camera footage. During ~42 h, calls were recorded on 72 occasions from 16 birds. Vocalization exclusively took place in the presence of conspecifics, and mostly in feeding aggregations (81% of the vocalizations). From the observation of the behaviours of birds associated with the emission of calls, we suggest that the calls were emitted to avoid collisions between birds. Our observations show that at least some seabirds use acoustic communication when foraging at sea. These findings open up new perspectives for research on seabirds foraging ecology and their interactions at sea.

  13. Seabird acoustic communication at sea: a new perspective using bio-logging devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiebault, Andréa; Pistorius, Pierre; Mullers, Ralf; Tremblay, Yann

    2016-08-01

    Most seabirds are very noisy at their breeding colonies, when aggregated in high densities. Calls are used for individual recognition and also emitted during agonistic interactions. When at sea, many seabirds aggregate over patchily distributed resources and may benefit from foraging in groups. Because these aggregations are so common, it raises the question of whether seabirds use acoustic communication when foraging at sea? We deployed video-cameras with built in microphones on 36 Cape gannets (Morus capensis) during the breeding season of 2010–2011 at Bird Island (Algoa Bay, South Africa) to study their foraging behaviour and vocal activity at sea. Group formation was derived from the camera footage. During ~42 h, calls were recorded on 72 occasions from 16 birds. Vocalization exclusively took place in the presence of conspecifics, and mostly in feeding aggregations (81% of the vocalizations). From the observation of the behaviours of birds associated with the emission of calls, we suggest that the calls were emitted to avoid collisions between birds. Our observations show that at least some seabirds use acoustic communication when foraging at sea. These findings open up new perspectives for research on seabirds foraging ecology and their interactions at sea.

  14. Motor representations of articulators contribute to categorical perception of speech sounds.

    PubMed

    Möttönen, Riikka; Watkins, Kate E

    2009-08-05

    Listening to speech modulates activity in human motor cortex. It is unclear, however, whether the motor cortex has an essential role in speech perception. Here, we aimed to determine whether the motor representations of articulators contribute to categorical perception of speech sounds. Categorization of continuously variable acoustic signals into discrete phonemes is a fundamental feature of speech communication. We used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to temporarily disrupt the lip representation in the left primary motor cortex. This disruption impaired categorical perception of artificial acoustic continua ranging between two speech sounds that differed in place of articulation, in that the vocal tract is opened and closed rapidly either with the lips or the tip of the tongue (/ba/-/da/ and /pa/-/ta/). In contrast, it did not impair categorical perception of continua ranging between speech sounds that do not involve the lips in their articulation (/ka/-/ga/ and /da/-/ga/). Furthermore, an rTMS-induced disruption of the hand representation had no effect on categorical perception of either of the tested continua (/ba/-da/ and /ka/-/ga/). These findings indicate that motor circuits controlling production of speech sounds also contribute to their perception. Mapping acoustically highly variable speech sounds onto less variable motor representations may facilitate their phonemic categorization and be important for robust speech perception.

  15. Design Foundations for Content-Rich Acoustic Interfaces: Investigating Audemes as Referential Non-Speech Audio Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferati, Mexhid Adem

    2012-01-01

    To access interactive systems, blind and visually impaired users can leverage their auditory senses by using non-speech sounds. The current structure of non-speech sounds, however, is geared toward conveying user interface operations (e.g., opening a file) rather than large theme-based information (e.g., a history passage) and, thus, is ill-suited…

  16. A Review of Preservice Training in Augmentative and Alternative Communication for Speech-Language Pathologists, Special Education Teachers, and Occupational Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costigan, F. Aileen; Light, Janice

    2010-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists, special education teachers, and occupational therapists are all likely to encounter individuals with complex communication needs who require augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) in clinical and educational practice. The research on preservice AAC training for these professionals was thus reviewed to…

  17. A self-organizing neural network architecture for auditory and speech perception with applications to acoustic and other temporal prediction problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Michael; Grossberg, Stephen

    1994-09-01

    This project is developing autonomous neural network models for the real-time perception and production of acoustic and speech signals. Our SPINET pitch model was developed to take realtime acoustic input and to simulate the key pitch data. SPINET was embedded into a model for auditory scene analysis, or how the auditory system separates sound sources in environments with multiple sources. The model groups frequency components based on pitch and spatial location cues and resonantly binds them within different streams. The model simulates psychophysical grouping data, such as how an ascending, tone groups with a descending tone even if noise exists at the intersection point, and how a tone before and after a noise burst is perceived to continue through the noise. These resonant streams input to working memories, wherein phonetic percepts adapt to global speech rate. Computer simulations quantitatively generate the experimentally observed category boundary shifts for voiced stop pairs that have the same or different place of articulation, including why the interval to hear a double (geminate) stop is twice as long as that to hear two different stops. This model also uses resonant feedback, here between list categories and working memory.

  18. Dog-directed speech: why do we use it and do dogs pay attention to it?

    PubMed

    Ben-Aderet, Tobey; Gallego-Abenza, Mario; Reby, David; Mathevon, Nicolas

    2017-01-11

    Pet-directed speech is strikingly similar to infant-directed speech, a peculiar speaking pattern with higher pitch and slower tempo known to engage infants' attention and promote language learning. Here, we report the first investigation of potential factors modulating the use of dog-directed speech, as well as its immediate impact on dogs' behaviour. We recorded adult participants speaking in front of pictures of puppies, adult and old dogs, and analysed the quality of their speech. We then performed playback experiments to assess dogs' reaction to dog-directed speech compared with normal speech. We found that human speakers used dog-directed speech with dogs of all ages and that the acoustic structure of dog-directed speech was mostly independent of dog age, except for sound pitch which was relatively higher when communicating with puppies. Playback demonstrated that, in the absence of other non-auditory cues, puppies were highly reactive to dog-directed speech, and that the pitch was a key factor modulating their behaviour, suggesting that this specific speech register has a functional value in young dogs. Conversely, older dogs did not react differentially to dog-directed speech compared with normal speech. The fact that speakers continue to use dog-directed with older dogs therefore suggests that this speech pattern may mainly be a spontaneous attempt to facilitate interactions with non-verbal listeners.

  19. Evolving homogeneous neurocontrollers for a group of heterogeneous robots: coordinated motion, cooperation, and acoustic communication.

    PubMed

    Tuci, Elio; Ampatzis, Christos; Vicentini, Federico; Dorigo, Marco

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a simulation model in which artificial evolution is used to design homogeneous control structures and adaptive communication protocols for a group of three autonomous simulated robots. The agents are required to cooperate in order to approach a light source while avoiding collisions. The robots are morphologically different: Two of them are equipped with infrared sensors, one with light sensors. Thus, the two morphologically identical robots should take care of obstacle avoidance; the other one should take care of phototaxis. Since all of the agents can emit and perceive sound, the group's coordination of actions is based on acoustic communication. The results of this study are a proof of concept: They show that dynamic artificial neural networks can be successfully synthesized by artificial evolution to design the neural mechanisms required to underpin the behavioral strategies and adaptive communication capabilities demanded by this task. Postevaluation analyses unveil operational aspects of the best evolved behavior. Our results suggest that the building blocks and the evolutionary machinery detailed in the article should be considered in future research work dealing with the design of homogeneous controllers for groups of heterogeneous cooperating and communicating robots.

  20. Correlation of subjective and objective measures of speech intelligibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, Erica E.; Wang, Lily M.; Palahanska, Milena S.

    2003-10-01

    Currently there are a number of objective evaluation methods used to quantify the speech intelligibility in a built environment, including the Speech Transmission Index (STI), Rapid Speech Transmission Index (RASTI), Articulation Index (AI), and the Percentage Articulation Loss of Consonants (%ALcons). Many of these have been used for years; however, questions remain about their accuracy in predicting the acoustics of a space. Current widely used software programs can quickly evaluate STI, RASTI, and %ALcons from a measured impulse response. This project compares subjective human performance on modified rhyme and phonetically balanced word tests with objective results calculated from impulse response measurements in four different spaces. The results of these tests aid in understanding performance of various methods of speech intelligibility evaluation. [Work supported by the Univ. of Nebraska Center for Building Integration.] For Speech Communication Best Student Paper Award.

  1. Psychoacoustic cues to emotion in speech prosody and music.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Eduardo; Dibben, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    There is strong evidence of shared acoustic profiles common to the expression of emotions in music and speech, yet relatively limited understanding of the specific psychoacoustic features involved. This study combined a controlled experiment and computational modelling to investigate the perceptual codes associated with the expression of emotion in the acoustic domain. The empirical stage of the study provided continuous human ratings of emotions perceived in excerpts of film music and natural speech samples. The computational stage created a computer model that retrieves the relevant information from the acoustic stimuli and makes predictions about the emotional expressiveness of speech and music close to the responses of human subjects. We show that a significant part of the listeners' second-by-second reported emotions to music and speech prosody can be predicted from a set of seven psychoacoustic features: loudness, tempo/speech rate, melody/prosody contour, spectral centroid, spectral flux, sharpness, and roughness. The implications of these results are discussed in the context of cross-modal similarities in the communication of emotion in the acoustic domain.

  2. "Perception of the speech code" revisited: Speech is alphabetic after all.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Carol A; Shankweiler, Donald; Studdert-Kennedy, Michael

    2016-03-01

    We revisit an article, "Perception of the Speech Code" (PSC), published in this journal 50 years ago (Liberman, Cooper, Shankweiler, & Studdert-Kennedy, 1967) and address one of its legacies concerning the status of phonetic segments, which persists in theories of speech today. In the perspective of PSC, segments both exist (in language as known) and do not exist (in articulation or the acoustic speech signal). Findings interpreted as showing that speech is not a sound alphabet, but, rather, phonemes are encoded in the signal, coupled with findings that listeners perceive articulation, led to the motor theory of speech perception, a highly controversial legacy of PSC. However, a second legacy, the paradoxical perspective on segments has been mostly unquestioned. We remove the paradox by offering an alternative supported by converging evidence that segments exist in language both as known and as used. We support the existence of segments in both language knowledge and in production by showing that phonetic segments are articulatory and dynamic and that coarticulation does not eliminate them. We show that segments leave an acoustic signature that listeners can track. This suggests that speech is well-adapted to public communication in facilitating, not creating a barrier to, exchange of language forms.

  3. Acoustic communication in the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) an examination into vocal sacs, sound propagation, and signal directionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dantzker, Marc Steven

    The thesis is an inquiry into the acoustic communication of a very unusual avian species, the Greater Sage-Grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus. One of the most outstanding features of this animal's dynamic mating display is its use of paired air sacs that emerge explosively from an esophageal pouch. My first line of inquiry into this system is a review of the form and function of similar vocal apparatuses, collectively called vocal sacs, in birds. Next, with a combination of mathematical models and field measurements, My collaborator and I investigate the acoustic environment where the Greater Sage-Grouse display. The complexities of this acoustic environment are relevant both to the birds and to the subsequent examinations of the display's properties. Finally, my collaborators and I examine a cryptic component of the acoustic display --- directionality --- which we measured simultaneously from multiple locations around free moving grouse on their mating grounds.

  4. Experimental investigation of the effects of the acoustical conditions in a simulated classroom on speech recognition and learning in children a

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Daniel L.; Plevinsky, Hallie M.; Franco, John M.; Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth C.; Lewis, Dawna E.

    2012-01-01

    The potential effects of acoustical environment on speech understanding are especially important as children enter school where students’ ability to hear and understand complex verbal information is critical to learning. However, this ability is compromised because of widely varied and unfavorable classroom acoustics. The extent to which unfavorable classroom acoustics affect children’s performance on longer learning tasks is largely unknown as most research has focused on testing children using words, syllables, or sentences as stimuli. In the current study, a simulated classroom environment was used to measure comprehension performance of two classroom learning activities: a discussion and lecture. Comprehension performance was measured for groups of elementary-aged students in one of four environments with varied reverberation times and background noise levels. The reverberation time was either 0.6 or 1.5 s, and the signal-to-noise level was either +10 or +7 dB. Performance is compared to adult subjects as well as to sentence-recognition in the same condition. Significant differences were seen in comprehension scores as a function of age and condition; both increasing background noise and reverberation degraded performance in comprehension tasks compared to minimal differences in measures of sentence-recognition. PMID:22280587

  5. Effects on Communicative Requesting and Speech Development of the Picture Exchange Communication System in Children with Characteristics of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganz, Jennifer B.; Simpson, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    Few studies on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems have addressed the potential for such systems to impact word utterances in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an AAC system designed specifically to minimize difficulties with communication skills experienced by…

  6. Design of a robust underwater acoustic communication system over multipath fading channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jangeun; Shim, Taebo

    2012-11-01

    Due to the surface and bottom constraints of the underwater acoustic channel (UAC) in shallow waters, multipath fading occurs and causes degradation of the signal for the UAC system. To overcome these problems, a robust underwater acoustic communication system was designed over multipath fading channels by employing both decision feedback equalization with the RLS algorithm and convolutional coding with interleaving+shuffling block data sequence. The dual use of these two methods simultaneously can reduce the intersymbol interference (ISI) and the adjacent bit and burst errors. The system will retransmit the same signal if the system fails to estimate the channel due to severe multipath fading. To verify the performance of the system, the transmission of an image was tested using a 524,288bit gray-scaled image through the multipath fading channel. The test results showed that the number of bit errors was reduced from 86,824 to 5,106 when the reference SNR was 12 dB.

  7. Coupled Research in Ocean Acoustics and Signal Processing for the Next Generation of Underwater Acoustic Communication Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-18

    explicitly model the time vari- ability of acoustic channels and using this to predict underwater acoustic com- munications systems performance. Prior...methods have accommodated time variability by assuming that the channel is time invariant over an appropri- ately short interval of time. By explicitly...with the rate of channel fluctuations, the number and configuration of hydrophone array elements, the size of fil- ters in subsequent equalizers, and

  8. Application of surface-acoustic-wave technology to burst-format spread-spectrum communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowatsch, M.

    1984-12-01

    A hybrid direct-sequence/frequency-hopping spread-spectrum communication modem for burst-format transmission of digital data has been developed. A burst consists of a short synchronisation preamble and the data packet. Data modulation is accomplished by assignment of pairs of pseudonoise sequences with low crosscorrelation for message ones and zeros. The spreading code chip pattern is changed from bit to bit in both the preamble and the message portion of a burst. Receiver signal processing is based on the application of surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) elastic convolvers to programmable matched filtering. The performance of the system in an additive white Gaussian noise channel is analysed, measures of performance being the probability of burst loss and the bit error probability in the case of ideal synchronisation. Evaluations for a particular design are presented, and some experimental results obtained with a test system are shown for comparison.

  9. A highly directional transducer for multipath mitigation in high-frequency underwater acoustic communications.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Simon E; Emokpae, Lloyd; Nicholas, Michael; Edelmann, Geoffrey F

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a transducer design of the hollow cylinder type designed to minimize transmission multipath and the need for channel equalization over short acoustic communication distances in shallow water. Operating at 750 kHz, the half-maximum envelope of the main lobe is approximately 3°. The transducer was incorporated into a low-complexity modem system in which it acted as both transmitter and receiver. At-sea testing indicated that the system is capable of operating over horizontal distances of 5 m without evidence of multipath distortion. The system was also found to be effective as an omnidirectional transmitter/receiver in the 10-60 kHz band.

  10. Towards a Sign Language Synthesizer: a Bridge to Communication Gap of the Hearing/Speech Impaired Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maarif, H. A.; Akmeliawati, R.; Gunawan, T. S.; Shafie, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Sign language synthesizer is a method to visualize the sign language movement from the spoken language. The sign language (SL) is one of means used by HSI people to communicate to normal people. But, unfortunately the number of people, including the HSI people, who are familiar with sign language is very limited. These cause difficulties in the communication between the normal people and the HSI people. The sign language is not only hand movement but also the face expression. Those two elements have complimentary aspect each other. The hand movement will show the meaning of each signing and the face expression will show the emotion of a person. Generally, Sign language synthesizer will recognize the spoken language by using speech recognition, the grammatical process will involve context free grammar, and 3D synthesizer will take part by involving recorded avatar. This paper will analyze and compare the existing techniques of developing a sign language synthesizer, which leads to IIUM Sign Language Synthesizer.

  11. Under-Ice Acoustic Communications and Navigation for Gliders and AUVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitag, L. E.; Morozov, A.

    2009-12-01

    Exploration and mapping of the Arctic Ocean by gliders and propelled autonomous underwater vehicles is hampered by ice cover and the lack of satellite navigation and communication. While acoustics offers a solution, there are many challenges to overcome. The goal of our recently-started program is to develop a system that is light enough to fit on the existing class of small gliders and able to provide navigation for areas on the order of 1000 square kilometers. The approach is based on resonant tubes to make compact sources which operate at 900 Hz, and application of error-correction coding and signal processing to enable reception of very low-level input signals that have experienced significant scatter off of the ice. The initial approach for navigation is to use 1-way travel time from sources with GPS time and position. The location of the source will be transmitted in the data stream and updated as it drifts. The communication capability on the glider would be used sparingly because of the cost in power, but the status of the glider can be sent at least occasionally, for example once per day. That transmission can also be used to triangulate on the glider to check its position (which could also then be sent back to it). It should be noted that there are limits to the accuracy of acoustic methods for navigation due to the scatter from under-ice features. These create long reverberation times and may make it difficult to determine a precise time of arrival. A portion of the on-going work is to analyze the impact of the scatter on localization accuracy, and to determine ways of minimizing the resulting location error. Work to date has included fabrication and initial testing of a tube source with 50 Hz of bandwidth, design of different types of signals for use with the source, and initial open-water tests at short range (10 km) to evaluate their performance.

  12. The involvement of people with lifelong disability and communication impairment in lecturing to speech-language pathology students.

    PubMed

    Balandin, Susan; Hines, Monique

    2011-10-01

    In order to provide appropriate service and support to people with lifelong disability, including those who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), speech-language pathologists need to develop positive attitudes to people with disability and a holistic approach. The aim of this paper was to explore final year students' and new graduates' perceptions of the impact of lectures by people with lifelong disability on their attitudes and learning. Fourteen final year speech-language pathology students and nine graduates who had been practising for a year participated in four focus groups to discuss their perceptions of four 50-minute lectures by people with lifelong disability and communication impairment. A content analysis of the focus group transcripts revealed five themes; understanding the perspectives of people with disability, seeing the person as a whole, attitudes, working in the field, and gaps in the lectures. Overall there were few differences between the groups that were not accounted for by clinical experience. Participants agreed that the lectures were interesting and informative and provided new insights into lifelong disability, but were an adjunct to a learning process that also required theoretical lectures or clinical practice.

  13. The Effect of Residual Acoustic Hearing and Adaptation to Uncertainty on Speech Perception in Cochlear Implant Users: Evidence from Eye-Tracking

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, Bob; Farris-Trimble, Ashley; Seedorff, Michael; Rigler, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives While outcomes with cochlear implants (CIs) are generally good, performance can be fragile. The authors examined two factors that are crucial for good CI performance. First, while there is a clear benefit for adding residual acoustic hearing to CI stimulation (typically in low frequencies), it is unclear whether this contributes directly to phonetic categorization. Thus, the authors examined perception of voicing (which uses low-frequency acoustic cues) and fricative place of articulation (s/ʃ, which does not) in CI users with and without residual acoustic hearing. Second, in speech categorization experiments, CI users typically show shallower identification functions. These are typically interpreted as deriving from noisy encoding of the signal. However, psycholinguistic work suggests shallow slopes may also be a useful way to adapt to uncertainty. The authors thus employed an eye-tracking paradigm to examine this in CI users. Design Participants were 30 CI users (with a variety of configurations) and 22 age-matched normal hearing (NH) controls. Participants heard tokens from six b/p and six s/ʃ continua (eight steps) spanning real words (e.g., beach/peach, sip/ship). Participants selected the picture corresponding to the word they heard from a screen containing four items (a b-, p-, s- and ʃ-initial item). Eye movements to each object were monitored as a measure of how strongly they were considering each interpretation in the moments leading up to their final percept. Results Mouse-click results (analogous to phoneme identification) for voicing showed a shallower slope for CI users than NH listeners, but no differences between CI users with and without residual acoustic hearing. For fricatives, CI users also showed a shallower slope, but unexpectedly, acoustic + electric listeners showed an even shallower slope. Eye movements showed a gradient response to fine-grained acoustic differences for all listeners. Even considering only trials in which a

  14. Differential Diagnosis of Severe Speech Disorders Using Speech Gestures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Ruth Huntley

    2005-01-01

    The differentiation of childhood apraxia of speech from severe phonological disorder is a common clinical problem. This article reports on an attempt to describe speech errors in children with childhood apraxia of speech on the basis of gesture use and acoustic analyses of articulatory gestures. The focus was on the movement of articulators and…

  15. Influence of Speech Anxiety on Oral Communication Skills among ESL/EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Said Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The realization of speech anxiety among ESL/EFL learners is important. Once understood, these feelings of fear or nervousness may be relieved and the desired objectives of learning the target language may be achieved. The study has attempted to measure the level of anxiety among ESL/EFL learners at HITEC University, Taxila, Pakistan. The current…

  16. Exploring School Life from the Lens of a Child Who Does Not Use Speech to Communicate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajodhia-Andrews, Amanda; Berman, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    The "new sociology of childhood" emphasizes listening to the voices of children when conducting research about their lives. In keeping with this framework, the following case study highlights the use of inclusive strategies and the importance of the researcher's orientation in exploring the perspectives of a child who does not use speech to…

  17. Acoustic Seaglider

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-07

    a national naval responsibility. Acoustic sensors on mobile, autonomous platforms will enable basic research topics on temporal and spatial...problem and acoustic navigation and communications within the context of distributed autonomous persistent undersea surveillance sensor networks...Acoustic sensors on mobile, autonomous platforms will enable basic research topics on temporal and spatial coherence and the description of ambient

  18. Speech coding

    SciTech Connect

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  19. A Multisensory Cortical Network for Understanding Speech in Noise

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Christopher W.; Miller, Lee M.

    2010-01-01

    In noisy environments, listeners tend to hear a speaker’s voice yet struggle to understand what is said. The most effective way to improve intelligibility in such conditions is to watch the speaker’s mouth movements. Here we identify the neural networks that distinguish understanding from merely hearing speech, and determine how the brain applies visual information to improve intelligibility. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that understanding speech-in-noise is supported by a network of brain areas including the left superior parietal lobule, the motor/premotor cortex, and the left anterior superior temporal sulcus (STS), a likely apex of the acoustic processing hierarchy. Multisensory integration likely improves comprehension through improved communication between the left temporal–occipital boundary, the left medial-temporal lobe, and the left STS. This demonstrates how the brain uses information from multiple modalities to improve speech comprehension in naturalistic, acoustically adverse conditions. PMID:18823249

  20. Free Speech Yearbook: 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedford, Thomas L., Ed.

    This book is a collection of syllabi, attitude surveys, and essays relating to free-speech issues, compiled by the Committee on Freedom of Seech of the Speech Communication Association. The collection begins with a rationale for the inclusion of a course on free speech in the college curriculum. Three syllabi with bibliographies present guides for…

  1. Acoustic communication in two freshwater gobies: ambient noise and short-range propagation in shallow streams.

    PubMed

    Lugli, M; Fine, M L

    2003-07-01

    Noise is an important theoretical constraint on the evolution of signal form and sensory performance. In order to determine environmental constraints on the communication of two freshwater gobies Padogobius martensii and Gobius nigricans, numerous noise spectra were measured from quiet areas and ones adjacent to waterfalls and rapids in two shallow stony streams. Propagation of goby sounds and waterfall noise was also measured. A quiet window around 100 Hz is present in many noise spectra from noisy locations. The window lies between two noise sources, a low-frequency one attributed to turbulence, and a high-frequency one (200-500 Hz) attributed to bubble noise from water breaking the surface. Ambient noise from a waterfall (frequencies below 1 kHz) attenuates as much as 30 dB between 1 and 2 m, after which values are variable without further attenuation (i.e., buried in the noise floor). Similarly, courtship sounds of P. martensii attenuate as much as 30 dB between 5 and 50 cm. Since gobies are known to court in noisy as well as quiet locations in these streams, their acoustic communication system (sounds and auditory system) must be able to cope with short-range propagation dictated by shallow depths and ambient noise in noisy locations.

  2. Time reversal multiple-input/multiple-output acoustic communication enhanced by parallel interference cancellation.

    PubMed

    Song, Aijun; Badiey, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    Multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO) techniques can lead to significant improvements of underwater acoustic communication capabilities. In this paper, receivers based on time reversal processing are developed for high frequency underwater MIMO channels. Time reversal followed by a single channel decision feedback equalizer, aided by frequent channel updates, is used to compensate for the time-varying inter-symbol interference. A parallel interference cancellation method is incorporated to suppress the co-channel interference in the MIMO system. The receiver performance is demonstrated by a 2008 shallow water experiment in Kauai, Hawaii. In the experiment, high frequency MIMO signals centered at 16 kHz were transmitted every hour during a 35 h period from an 8-element source array to a wide aperture 16-element vertical receiving array at 4 km range. The interference cancellation method is shown to generate significant performance enhancement, on average 2-4 dB in the output signal-to-noise ratio per data stream, throughout the 35 h MIMO transmissions. Further, communication performance and achieved data rates exhibit significant changes over the 35 h period as a result of stratification of the water column.

  3. Interference suppression for code-division multiple-access communications in an underwater acoustic channel.

    PubMed

    Yang, T C; Yang, Wen-Bin

    2009-07-01

    In a code-division multiple-access communications network, the signal from a nearby user often creates a strong interference for the signal from a distant user. This is known as the near-far problem. Power control of source levels is ineffective in an underwater acoustic channel due to the slow sound speed. Interference rejection based on code orthogonality is ineffective using matched-filter processing due to the fact that multipath arrivals effectively destroy the code orthogonality and that the signal arrival times between different users are not synchronized. An algorithm, called hyperspace cancellation by coordinate zeroing, is used in this paper to remove/suppress interference. Using a fast Walsh-Hadamard transform (FWHT) based on the interferer's code sequence, the interference signal is enhanced and removed by coordinate zeroing. The residual signal is transformed back using an inverse FWHT. The filtered data, with the interference signal largely removed, are processed using the desired signal code sequence. Two methods previously developed for direct-sequence spread-spectrum communications in an underwater channel are used to extract the transmitted symbols. Low bit error rate (<10(-2)) is found with the at-sea data for signal-to-interference ratio as low as -8 to -11 dB.

  4. AMTC: Assessing Motivation To Communicate in the Ninth Grade Speech Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Ray

    A study examined the results of the use of the "Assessing Motivation To Communicate" (AMTC) computerized program with high school students in Anchorage, Alaska, during the 1995-96 school year. The AMTC consists of two self-assessment instruments: the Personal Report of Communication (PRCA-24) and the Willingness to Communicate (WTC).…

  5. Effects of computer-based intervention through acoustically modified speech (Fast ForWord) in severe mixed receptive-expressive language impairment: outcomes from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Wendy; Hodson, Ann; O'Hare, Anne; Boyle, James; Durrani, Tariq; McCartney, Elspeth; Mattey, Mike; Naftalin, Lionel; Watson, Jocelynne

    2005-06-01

    Seventy-seven children between the ages of 6 and 10 years, with severe mixed receptive-expressive specific language impairment (SLI), participated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of Fast ForWord (FFW; Scientific Learning Corporation, 1997, 2001). FFW is a computer-based intervention for treating SLI using acoustically enhanced speech stimuli. These stimuli are modified to exaggerate their time and intensity properties as part of an adaptive training process. All children who participated in the RCT maintained their regular speech and language therapy and school regime throughout the trial. Standardized measures of receptive and expressive language were used to assess performance at baseline and to measure outcome from treatment at 9 weeks and 6 months. Children were allocated to 1 of 3 groups. Group A (n = 23) received the FFW intervention as a home-based therapy for 6 weeks. Group B (n = 27) received commercially available computer-based activities designed to promote language as a control for computer games exposure. Group C (n = 27) received no additional study intervention. Each group made significant gains in language scores, but there was no additional effect for either computer intervention. Thus, the findings from this RCT do not support the efficacy of FFW as an intervention for children with severe mixed receptive-expressive SLI.

  6. Rate-constrained source separation for speech enhancement in wireless-communicated binaural hearing aids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayllón, David; Gil-Pita, Roberto; Rosa-Zurera, Manuel

    2013-12-01

    A recent trend in hearing aids is the connection of the left and right devices to collaborate between them. Binaural systems can provide natural binaural hearing and support the improvement of speech intelligibility in noise, but they require data transmission between both devices, which increases the power consumption. This paper presents a novel sound source separation algorithm for binaural speech enhancement based on supervised machine learning and time-frequency masking. The system is designed considering the power restrictions in hearing aids, constraining both the computational cost of the algorithm and the transmission bit rate. The transmission schema is optimized using a tailored evolutionary algorithm that assigns a different number of bits to each frequency band. The proposed algorithm requires less than 10% of the available computational resources for signal processing and obtains good separation performance using bit rates lower than 64 kbps.

  7. Room Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuttruff, Heinrich; Mommertz, Eckard

    The traditional task of room acoustics is to create or formulate conditions which ensure the best possible propagation of sound in a room from a sound source to a listener. Thus, objects of room acoustics are in particular assembly halls of all kinds, such as auditoria and lecture halls, conference rooms, theaters, concert halls or churches. Already at this point, it has to be pointed out that these conditions essentially depend on the question if speech or music should be transmitted; in the first case, the criterion for transmission quality is good speech intelligibility, in the other case, however, the success of room-acoustical efforts depends on other factors that cannot be quantified that easily, not least it also depends on the hearing habits of the listeners. In any case, absolutely "good acoustics" of a room do not exist.

  8. A study of acoustic-to-articulatory inversion of speech by analysis-by-synthesis using chain matrices and the Maeda articulatory model.

    PubMed

    Panchapagesan, Sankaran; Alwan, Abeer

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, a quantitative study of acoustic-to-articulatory inversion for vowel speech sounds by analysis-by-synthesis using the Maeda articulatory model is performed. For chain matrix calculation of vocal tract (VT) acoustics, the chain matrix derivatives with respect to area function are calculated and used in a quasi-Newton method for optimizing articulatory trajectories. The cost function includes a distance measure between natural and synthesized first three formants, and parameter regularization and continuity terms. Calibration of the Maeda model to two speakers, one male and one female, from the University of Wisconsin x-ray microbeam (XRMB) database, using a cost function, is discussed. Model adaptation includes scaling the overall VT and the pharyngeal region and modifying the outer VT outline using measured palate and pharyngeal traces. The inversion optimization is initialized by a fast search of an articulatory codebook, which was pruned using XRMB data to improve inversion results. Good agreement between estimated midsagittal VT outlines and measured XRMB tongue pellet positions was achieved for several vowels and diphthongs for the male speaker, with average pellet-VT outline distances around 0.15 cm, smooth articulatory trajectories, and less than 1% average error in the first three formants.

  9. Speech Intelligibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Thomas

    Speech intelligibility (SI) is important for different fields of research, engineering and diagnostics in order to quantify very different phenomena like the quality of recordings, communication and playback devices, the reverberation of auditoria, characteristics of hearing impairment, benefit using hearing aids or combinations of these things.

  10. ON THE NATURE OF SPEECH SCIENCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PETERSON, GORDON E.

    IN THIS ARTICLE THE NATURE OF THE DISCIPLINE OF SPEECH SCIENCE IS CONSIDERED AND THE VARIOUS BASIC AND APPLIED AREAS OF THE DISCIPLINE ARE DISCUSSED. THE BASIC AREAS ENCOMPASS THE VARIOUS PROCESSES OF THE PHYSIOLOGY OF SPEECH PRODUCTION, THE ACOUSTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SPEECH, INCLUDING THE SPEECH WAVE TYPES AND THE INFORMATION-BEARING ACOUSTIC…

  11. Analysis of False Starts in Spontaneous Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shaughnessy, Douglas

    A primary difference between spontaneous speech and read speech concerns the use of false starts, where a speaker interrupts the flow of speech to restart his or her utterance. A study examined the acoustic aspects of such restarts in a widely-used speech database, examining approximately 1000 utterances, about 10% of which contained a restart.…

  12. Speech, Language, and Communication Disorders. Papers Presented at the Annual International Convention of the Council for Exceptional Children (48th, Chicago, Illinois, April 19-25, 1970).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Exceptional Children, Arlington, VA.

    Speech, language, and communication disorders were among the topics of papers presented at the convention of the Council for Exceptional Children in Chicago, 1970. Discussions include evaluation theory and caseload selection by Lear Ashmore, differential diagnosis in a rural school by William L. Shinder, the practical application of differential…

  13. A Further Comparison of Manual Signing, Picture Exchange, and Speech-Generating Devices as Communication Modes for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Meer, Larah; Sutherland, Dean; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    We compared acquisition of, and preference for, manual signing (MS), picture exchange (PE), and speech-generating devices (SGDs) in four children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Intervention was introduced across participants in a non-concurrent multiple-baseline design and acquisition of the three communication modes was compared in an…

  14. "Off the Radar:" The Framing of Speech, Language and Communication in the Description of Children with Special Educational Needs in Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mroz, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers how pre-service primary teachers in England (trainees) are supported to work with children with special educational needs (SEN) using a personalized learning task. The focus, in particular, considers how speech, language and communication skills are foregrounded in the reports describing children with moderate learning…

  15. "Do We Make Ourselves Clear?" Developing a Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties (SEBD) Support Service's Effectiveness in Detecting and Supporting Children Experiencing Speech, Language and Communication Difficulties (SLCD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiles, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Research has identified a significant relationship between social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBD) and speech, language and communication difficulties (SLCD). However, little has been published regarding the levels of knowledge and skill that practitioners working with pupils experiencing SEBD have in this important area, nor how…

  16. Communicative Intentions of Child-Directed Speech in Three Different Learning Environments: Observations from the Netherlands, and Rural and Urban Mozambique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Paul; Mastin, J. Douglas; Schots, Diede M. A.

    2015-01-01

    This article compares the communicative intentions observed in the speech addressed to children of 1;1 and 1;6 years old from three cultural communities: the Netherlands, rural Mozambique, and urban Mozambique. These communities represent two prototypical learning environments and a third hybrid: Western, urban, middle-class families; non-Western,…

  17. Technology to help persons with extensive neuro-motor impairment and lack of speech with their leisure occupation and communication.

    PubMed

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; D'Amico, Fiora; Addante, Luigi M; Ferlisi, Gabriele; Zullo, Valeria; Oliva, Doretta; Megna, Marisa

    2014-03-01

    These two studies were aimed at extending the assessment of technology-aided programs to enhance leisure occupation or communication with persons with extensive neuro-motor impairment and lack of speech. Specifically, Study I implemented the program for leisure occupation with two post-stroke patients. Study II implemented the program for communication with two persons affected by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In Study I, a computer system presented the participants with a variety of stimuli. The participants could select/access those stimuli by microswitch activation or could bypass them by abstaining from microswitch responses. In Study II, the participants used a computer-aided telephone system that allowed them to choose via microswitch activation the persons to call. On the computer screen, they also had words and phrases that they could activate during the calls to influence the conversation with the persons called. Data from both studies were largely positive. The post-stroke patients showed high levels of stimulus selection (access) and extended engagement. The patients with ALS were able to make phone calls and to select the words/phrases to influence the conversations. The relevance of technology-aided programs for leisure occupation and communication of persons with extensive multiple disabilities was discussed.

  18. Sfery ustnoyazichnoro obshcheniya i obucheniye rechi (Varied Types of Verbal Communication and Speech Instruction)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skalkin, V. L.

    1973-01-01

    The author differentiates eight types of verbal communication: (1) Socioeconomic, (2) Domestic, (3) Professional, (4) Sociocultural, (5) Public, (6) Legal-Administrative, (7) Recreational, (8) Entertaining. (HK)

  19. A Scoping Review of Interventions to Supplement Spoken Communication for Children with Limited Speech or Language Skills

    PubMed Central

    Costantino, Maria Antonella; Bonati, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Background Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) is used for treating children with severe disorders of speech-language production and/or comprehension. Various strategies are used, but research and debate on their efficacy have remained limited to a specific area and have rarely reached the general medical community. Objective To systematically evaluate outcomes of AAC interventions in children with limited speech or language skills. Methods Searches were conducted (up to December 2012) in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, DARE, and Cochrane Library databases. Furthermore, relevant journals were searched by hand. References from identified studies were examined. Only RCTs were considered. Trial quality was assessed according to a standardized and validated set of criteria. Results Fourteen of 1661 retrieved papers met inclusion criteria. A total of 666 children were included in the review and 7 papers involved only children <5 years old. Papers were of average quality and all but one had been published during the previous 10 years by one of 8 research groups, 5 of which from the United States. Seven studies directly addressed AAC use by children with different disabilities. Seven studies enrolled typically developing children: 5 evaluated the use of AAC technologies by children without disabilities in order to obtain results that could be used to improve interventions in peers with disabilities, and 2 evaluated peers’ attitudes towards children who used AAC. Both interventions and outcome measures varied widely between studies. Overall findings demonstrate the effectiveness of the AAC interventions considered, but the focus on RCTs alone appears too restrictive. Conclusions Solid evidence of the positive effects of AAC interventions in children with severe communication disorders must be generated, and different methods are needed besides RCTs. Moreover, it is important that knowledge, research, and debate extend to the medical community in order

  20. Tutorial on architectural acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Neil; Talaske, Rick; Bistafa, Sylvio

    2002-11-01

    This tutorial is intended to provide an overview of current knowledge and practice in architectural acoustics. Topics covered will include basic concepts and history, acoustics of small rooms (small rooms for speech such as classrooms and meeting rooms, music studios, small critical listening spaces such as home theatres) and the acoustics of large rooms (larger assembly halls, auditoria, and performance halls).

  1. Supporting culturally and linguistically diverse children with speech, language and communication needs: Overarching principles, individual approaches.

    PubMed

    Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne; Wong, Sandie

    2015-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are working with an increasing number of families from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds as the world's population continues to become more internationally mobile. The heterogeneity of these diverse populations makes it impossible to identify and document a one size fits all strategy for working with culturally and linguistically diverse families. This paper explores approaches to practice by SLPs identified as specialising in multilingual and multicultural practice in culturally and linguistically diverse contexts from around the world. Data were obtained from ethnographic observation of 14 sites in 5 countries on 4 continents. The sites included hospital settings, university clinics, school-based settings, private practices and Indigenous community-based services. There were 652 individual artefacts collected from the sites which included interview transcripts, photographs, videos, narrative reflections, informal and formal field notes. The data were analysed using Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (Engeström, 1987). From the analysis six overarching Principles of Culturally Competent Practice (PCCP) were identified. These were: (1) identification of culturally appropriate and mutually motivating therapy goals, (2) knowledge of languages and culture, (3) use of culturally appropriate resources, (4) consideration of the cultural, social and political context, (5) consultation with families and communities, and (6) collaboration between professionals. These overarching principles align with the six position statements developed by the International Expert Panel on Multilingual Children's Speech (2012) which aim to enhance the cultural competence of speech pathologists and their practice. The international examples provided in the current study demonstrate the individualised ways that these overarching principles are enacted in a range of different organisational, social, cultural and political contexts

  2. [Factorial structure of discriminating speech perception in binaural electro-acoustic correction in patients with imparied hearing of various etiology].

    PubMed

    Tokarev, O P; Bagriantseva, M N

    1990-01-01

    These authors examined 260 patients with hypoacusis of various etiology who needed hearing aids. When measuring their hearing, the authors identified the basic factors that may influence speech intelligibility in the case of binaural correction and optimal type of hearing aids. For every group of patients with hypoacusis of various etiology regression curves of integrated parameters were plotted which helped predict the effectiveness of hearing aids on an individual basis.

  3. Effects on communicative requesting and speech development of the Picture Exchange Communication System in children with characteristics of autism.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Jennifer B; Simpson, Richard L

    2004-08-01

    Few studies on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems have addressed the potential for such systems to impact word utterances in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an AAC system designed specifically to minimize difficulties with communication skills experienced by individuals with ASD. The current study examined the role of PECS in improving the number of words spoken, increasing the complexity and length of phrases, and decreasing the non-word vocalizations of three young children with ASD and developmental delays (DD) with related characteristics. Participants were taught Phases 1-4 of PECS (i.e., picture exchange, increased distance, picture discrimination, and sentence construction). The results indicated that PECS was mastered rapidly by the participants and word utterances increased in number of words and complexity of grammar.

  4. Sign Language, Speech, and Communication Repair Abilities by Children with Congenital Deafblindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cascella, Paul W.; Bruce, Susan M.; Trief, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    There are many reports that identify the communication of persons with deafblindness. These reports are descriptive in nature, highlighting comprehension, gesture development, communication actions (that is, forms) and purposes (that is, functions), and the collection of verbal skills. This report extends the literature with an in-depth…

  5. Two-microphone spatial filtering provides speech reception benefits for cochlear implant users in difficult acoustic environments

    PubMed Central

    Goldsworthy, Raymond L.; Delhorne, Lorraine A.; Desloge, Joseph G.; Braida, Louis D.

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces and provides an assessment of a spatial-filtering algorithm based on two closely-spaced (∼1 cm) microphones in a behind-the-ear shell. The evaluated spatial-filtering algorithm used fast (∼10 ms) temporal-spectral analysis to determine the location of incoming sounds and to enhance sounds arriving from straight ahead of the listener. Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) were measured for eight cochlear implant (CI) users using consonant and vowel materials under three processing conditions: An omni-directional response, a dipole-directional response, and the spatial-filtering algorithm. The background noise condition used three simultaneous time-reversed speech signals as interferers located at 90°, 180°, and 270°. Results indicated that the spatial-filtering algorithm can provide speech reception benefits of 5.8 to 10.7 dB SRT compared to an omni-directional response in a reverberant room with multiple noise sources. Given the observed SRT benefits, coupled with an efficient design, the proposed algorithm is promising as a CI noise-reduction solution. PMID:25096120

  6. The African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni uses acoustic communication for reproduction: sound production, hearing, and behavioral significance.

    PubMed

    Maruska, Karen P; Ung, Uyhun S; Fernald, Russell D

    2012-01-01

    Sexual reproduction in all animals depends on effective communication between signalers and receivers. Many fish species, especially the African cichlids, are well known for their bright coloration and the importance of visual signaling during courtship and mate choice, but little is known about what role acoustic communication plays during mating and how it contributes to sexual selection in this phenotypically diverse group of vertebrates. Here we examined acoustic communication during reproduction in the social cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni. We characterized the sounds and associated behaviors produced by dominant males during courtship, tested for differences in hearing ability associated with female reproductive state and male social status, and then tested the hypothesis that female mate preference is influenced by male sound production. We show that dominant males produce intentional courtship sounds in close proximity to females, and that sounds are spectrally similar to their hearing abilities. Females were 2-5-fold more sensitive to low frequency sounds in the spectral range of male courtship sounds when they were sexually-receptive compared to during the mouthbrooding parental phase. Hearing thresholds were also negatively correlated with circulating sex-steroid levels in females but positively correlated in males, suggesting a potential role for steroids in reproductive-state auditory plasticity. Behavioral experiments showed that receptive females preferred to affiliate with males that were associated with playback of courtship sounds compared to noise controls, indicating that acoustic information is likely important for female mate choice. These data show for the first time in a Tanganyikan cichlid that acoustic communication is important during reproduction as part of a multimodal signaling repertoire, and that perception of auditory information changes depending on the animal's internal physiological state. Our results highlight the

  7. Acoustic communication in two freshwater gobies: the relationship between ambient noise, hearing thresholds and sound spectrum.

    PubMed

    Lugli, M; Yan, H Y; Fine, M L

    2003-04-01

    Two freshwater gobies Padogobius martensii and Gobius nigricans live in shallow (5-70 cm) stony streams, and males of both species produce courtship sounds. A previous study demonstrated high noise levels near waterfalls, a quiet window in the noise around 100 Hz at noisy locations, and extremely short-range propagation of noise and goby signals. To investigate the relationship of this acoustic environment to communication, we determined audiograms for both species and measured parameters of courtship sounds produced in the streams. We also deflated the swimbladder in P. martensii to determine its effect on frequency utilization in sound production and hearing. Both species are maximally sensitive at 100 Hz and produce low-frequency sounds with main energy from 70 to 100-150 Hz. Swimbladder deflation does not affect auditory threshold or dominant frequency of courtship sounds and has no or minor effects on sound amplitude. Therefore, both species utilize frequencies for hearing and sound production that fall within the low-frequency quiet region, and the equivalent relationship between auditory sensitivity and maximum ambient noise levels in both species further suggests that ambient noise shapes hearing sensitivity.

  8. Performance comparisons between passive-phase conjugation and decision-feedback equalizer for underwater acoustic communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, T. C.

    2004-05-01

    Passive-phase conjugation (PPC) uses passive time reversal to remove intersymbol interferences (ISI) for acoustic communications in a multipath environment. It is based on the theory of signal propagation in a waveguide, which says that the Green function (or the impulse response function) convolved with its time-reversed conjugate, summed over a large aperture vertical array of receivers is a delta function in space and time. A decision feedback equalizer (DFE) uses a nonlinear filter to remove ISI based on the minimum mean square errors (MSE) between the estimated and the true (or decision) symbols. These two approaches are motivated by different principles. In this paper, we analyze both using a common framework, illustrating the commonality and differences, pro and con between the two methods, and compare their performances in realistic ocean environments. The performance measures are MSE, output signal-to-noise ratio and bit error rate (BER) as a function of the number of receivers. For a small number of receivers, DFE outperforms PPC in all measures. As the number of receivers increases the BER for both processors approaches zero, but at a different rate. The results are supported by both simulated and real data. [Work supported by ONR.

  9. Speech Communication Instruction Based on Employers' Perceptions of the Importance of Selected Communication Skills for Employees on the Job.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocker, Jim

    To determine which communication skills employers in business and industry perceive as important for employees, a questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of personnel directors in business and industry in the Greater Cincinnati metropolitan area. Of the questionnaires mailed, 89 were returned (29.3% response rate). Analysis of the responses…

  10. Segmenting Words from Natural Speech: Subsegmental Variation in Segmental Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rytting, C. Anton; Brew, Chris; Fosler-Lussier, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Most computational models of word segmentation are trained and tested on transcripts of speech, rather than the speech itself, and assume that speech is converted into a sequence of symbols prior to word segmentation. We present a way of representing speech corpora that avoids this assumption, and preserves acoustic variation present in speech. We…

  11. Australian speech-language pathologists' perceptions and experiences of augmentative and alternative communication in early childhood intervention.

    PubMed

    Iacono, Teresa; Cameron, Marnie

    2009-12-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) working in early childhood intervention are expected to have knowledge and skills across a number of areas and to engage in evidence-based practice. We explored the knowledge and perceptions of SLPs working with young children within Australian early childhood settings about augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), evidence-based practice, and barriers to such practice. Fourteen clinicians participated in group or individual interviews. Thematic analysis of the transcripts of these discussions revealed that they had a broad view of AAC and its benefits. Their reported assessment and intervention approaches reflected best practice as documented in the literature. The exception was in the implementation of family-centred practice. Although the participants involved families in their children's intervention, many appeared to use a directive approach. There was also evidence of struggling with families' negative attitudes about the use of AAC. A major barrier for these clinicians in implementing AAC and best practice was limited time in light of the many demands and expectations. Despite some frustration, these participants were passionate about their work and belief in the benefits of AAC for young children with varied communication difficulties. The results suggest that many expectations placed on clinicians within early childhood intervention settings may fail to take into account the everyday demands on their time, in a context of varied resources and support.

  12. TEACHER'S GUIDE TO HIGH SCHOOL SPEECH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JENKINSON, EDWARD B., ED.

    THIS GUIDE TO HIGH SCHOOL SPEECH FOCUSES ON SPEECH AS ORAL COMPOSITION, STRESSING THE IMPORTANCE OF CLEAR THINKING AND COMMUNICATION. THE PROPOSED 1-SEMESTER BASIC COURSE IN SPEECH ATTEMPTS TO IMPROVE THE STUDENT'S ABILITY TO COMPOSE AND DELIVER SPEECHES, TO THINK AND LISTEN CRITICALLY, AND TO UNDERSTAND THE SOCIAL FUNCTION OF SPEECH. IN ADDITION…

  13. Words from spontaneous conversational speech can be recognized with human-like accuracy by an error-driven learning algorithm that discriminates between meanings straight from smart acoustic features, bypassing the phoneme as recognition unit.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Denis; Tomaschek, Fabian; Sering, Konstantin; Lopez, Florence; Baayen, R Harald

    2017-01-01

    Sound units play a pivotal role in cognitive models of auditory comprehension. The general consensus is that during perception listeners break down speech into auditory words and subsequently phones. Indeed, cognitive speech recognition is typically taken to be computationally intractable without phones. Here we present a computational model trained on 20 hours of conversational speech that recognizes word meanings within the range of human performance (model 25%, native speakers 20-44%), without making use of phone or word form representations. Our model also generates successfully predictions about the speed and accuracy of human auditory comprehension. At the heart of the model is a 'wide' yet sparse two-layer artificial neural network with some hundred thousand input units representing summaries of changes in acoustic frequency bands, and proxies for lexical meanings as output units. We believe that our model holds promise for resolving longstanding theoretical problems surrounding the notion of the phone in linguistic theory.

  14. Classroom Acoustics. IssueTrak: A CEFPI Brief on Educational Facility Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdreich, John

    This report examines the problem of acoustic inadequacy in the classroom, how it affects students and teachers, and possible solutions. It explains how to predict classroom adequacy for communication by assessing the level of speech in competition with other noise, and the level of that competing noise itself in terms of reverberation that allows…

  15. Feature analysis of pathological speech signals using local discriminant bases technique.

    PubMed

    Umapathy, K; Krishnan, S

    2005-07-01

    Speech is an integral part of the human communication system. Various pathological conditions affect the vocal functions, inducing speech disorders. Acoustic parameters of speech are commonly used for the assessment of speech disorders and for monitoring the progress of the patient over the course of therapy. In the last two decades, signal-processing techniques have been successfully applied in screening speech disorders. In the paper, a novel approach is proposed to classify pathological speech signals using a local discriminant bases (LDB) algorithm and wavelet packet decompositions. The focus of the paper was to demonstrate the significance of identifying the signal subspaces that contribute to the discriminatory characteristics of normal and pathological speech signals in a computationally efficient way. Features were extracted from target subspaces for classification, and time-frequency decomposition was used to eliminate the need for segmentation of the speech signals. The technique was tested with a database of 212 speech signals (51 normal and 161 pathological) using the Daubechies wavelet (db4). Classification accuracies up to 96% were achieved for a two-group classification as normal and pathological speech signals, and 74% was achieved for a four-group classification as male normal, female normal, male pathological and female pathological signals.

  16. Freedom of Speech Newsletter, February 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Winfred G., Jr., Ed.

    The "Freedom of Speech Newsletter" is the communication medium, published four times each academic year, of the Freedom of Speech Interest Group, Western Speech Communication Association. Articles included in this issue are "What Is Academic Freedom For?" by Ralph Ross, "A Sociology of Free Speech" by Ray Heidt,…

  17. Advancing Underwater Acoustic Communication for Autonomous Distributed Networks via Sparse Channel Sensing, Coding, and Navigation Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    channel interference mitigation for underwater acoustic MIMO-OFDM. 3) Turbo equalization for OFDM modulated physical layer network coding. 4) Blind CFO...Localization and tracking of underwater physical systems. 7) NAMS: A networked acoustic modem system for underwater applications . 8) OFDM receiver design in...3) Turbo Equalization for OFDM Modulated Physical Layer Network Coding. We have investigated a practical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing

  18. Maintaining acoustic communication at a cocktail party: heterospecific masking noise improves signal detection through frequency separation

    PubMed Central

    Siegert, M. E.; Römer, H.; Hartbauer, M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY We examined acoustic masking in a chirping katydid species of the Mecopoda elongata complex due to interference with a sympatric Mecopoda species where males produce continuous trills at high amplitudes. Frequency spectra of both calling songs range from 1 to 80 kHz; the chirper species has more energy in a narrow frequency band at 2 kHz and above 40 kHz. Behaviourally, chirper males successfully phase-locked their chirps to playbacks of conspecific chirps under masking conditions at signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of −8 dB. After the 2 kHz band in the chirp had been equalised to the level in the masking trill, the breakdown of phase-locked synchrony occurred at a SNR of +7 dB. The remarkable receiver performance is partially mirrored in the selective response of a first-order auditory interneuron (TN1) to conspecific chirps under these masking conditions. However, the selective response is only maintained for a stimulus including the 2 kHz component, although this frequency band has no influence on the unmasked TN1 response. Remarkably, the addition of masking noise at 65 dB sound pressure level (SPL) to threshold response levels of TN1 for pure tones of 2 kHz enhanced the sensitivity of the response by 10 dB. Thus, the spectral dissimilarity between masker and signal at a rather low frequency appears to be of crucial importance for the ability of the chirping species to communicate under strong masking by the trilling species. We discuss the possible properties underlying the cellular/synaptic mechanisms of the ‘novelty detector’. PMID:24307713

  19. Auditory perception bias in speech imitation.

    PubMed

    Postma-Nilsenová, Marie; Postma, Eric

    2013-01-01

    In an experimental study, we explored the role of auditory perception bias in vocal pitch imitation. Psychoacoustic tasks involving a missing fundamental indicate that some listeners are attuned to the relationship between all the higher harmonics present in the signal, which supports their perception of the fundamental frequency (the primary acoustic correlate of pitch). Other listeners focus on the lowest harmonic constituents of the complex sound signal which may hamper the perception of the fundamental. These two listener types are referred to as fundamental and spectral listeners, respectively. We hypothesized that the individual differences in speakers' capacity to imitate F 0 found in earlier studies, may at least partly be due to the capacity to extract information about F 0 from the speech signal. Participants' auditory perception bias was determined with a standard missing fundamental perceptual test. Subsequently, speech data were collected in a shadowing task with two conditions, one with a full speech signal and one with high-pass filtered speech above 300 Hz. The results showed that perception bias toward fundamental frequency was related to the degree of F 0 imitation. The effect was stronger in the condition with high-pass filtered speech. The experimental outcomes suggest advantages for fundamental listeners in communicative situations where F 0 imitation is used as a behavioral cue. Future research needs to determine to what extent auditory perception bias may be related to other individual properties known to improve imitation, such as phonetic talent.

  20. Butterflies in Formation: Predicting How Speech Order in College Public Speaking Affects Student Communication Apprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osmond, Erica R.

    2013-01-01

    This study addressed pedagogical practices in the public speaking classroom in an attempt to help control communication apprehension (CA) levels and improve retention rates among college students in the basic public speaking course. Guided by the theoretical frameworks of Berger and Calabrese's uncertainty reduction theory and Weiner's attribution…